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Sample records for rates atr cycle

  1. Measured Thermal and Fast Neutron Fluence Rates for ATF-1 Holders During ATR Cycle 157D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Larry Don [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Miller, David Torbet [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report contains the thermal (2200 m/s) and fast (E>1MeV) neutron fluence rate data for the ATF-1 holders located in core for ATR Cycle 157D which were measured by the Radiation Measurements Laboratory (RML) as requested by the Power Reactor Programs (ATR Experiments) Radiation Measurements Work Order. This report contains measurements of the fluence rates corresponding to the particular elevations relative to the 80-ft. core elevation. The data in this report consist of (1) a table of the ATR power history and distribution, (2) a hard copy listing of all thermal and fast neutron fluence rates, and (3) plots of both the thermal and fast neutron fluence rates. The fluence rates reported are for the average power levels given in the table of power history and distribution.

  2. Measured thermal and fast neutron fluence rates for ATF-1 holders during ATR cycle 160A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, B. J.; Miller, D. T.

    2017-01-01

    This report contains the thermal (2200 m/s) and fast (E>1MeV) neutron fluence rate data for the ATF-1 holders located in core for ATR Cycle 160A which were measured by the Radiation Measurements Laboratory (RML).

  3. Measured thermal and fast neutron fluence rates for ATF-1 holders during ATR cycle 160A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, B. J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Miller, D. T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-06

    This report contains the thermal (2200 m/s) and fast (E>1MeV) neutron fluence rate data for the ATF-1 holders located in core for ATR Cycle 160A which were measured by the Radiation Measurements Laboratory (RML).

  4. Measured thermal and fast neutron fluence rates ATR Cycle 101-B, October 11, 1993--November 27, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.K.; Rogers, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains the thermal (2200 m/s) and fast (E>lMeV) neutron fluence rate data for ATR Cycle 101-B which were measured by the Radiation Measurements Laboratory (RML) as requested by the Power Reactor Programs (ATR Experiments) Radiation Measurements Work Order. This report contains fluence rate values corresponding to the particular elevations (relative to the 80 ft. core elevation) where the measurements were taken. The data in this report consists of (1) a table of the ATR power history and distribution, (2) a hard copy listing of all thermal and fast neutron fluence rates, (3) plots of both the thermal and fast neutron fluence rates, and (4) a magnetic record (3.5 inch diskette) containing a listing of only the fast neutron fluence rates, their assigned elevations proper header identification of all monitor positions contained herein

  5. Measured thermal and fast neutron fluence rates for ATF-1 holders during ATR cycle 158B/159A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Larry Don [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Miller, David Torbet [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Walker, Billy Justin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report contains the thermal (2200 m/s) and fast (E>1MeV) neutron fluence rate data for the ATF-1 holders located in core for ATR Cycle 158B/159A which were measured by the Radiation Measurements Laboratory (RML).

  6. Measured thermal and fast neutron fluence rates, ATR Cycle 102-A, 11/28/93 thru 1/16/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.K.; Rogers, J.W.

    1994-02-01

    This report contains the thermal (2,200 m/s) and fast (E > 1MeV) neutron fluence rate data for ATR Cycle 102-A which were measured by the Radiation Measurements Laboratory (RML) as requested by the Power Reactor Programs (ATR Experiments) Radiation Measurements Work Order. This report contains fluence rate values corresponding to the particular elevations (relative to the 80 ft. core elevation) where the measurements were taken. The data in this report consists of (1) a table of the ATR power history and distribution, (2) a hard copy listing of all thermal and fast neutron fluence rates, (3) plots of both the thermal and fast neutron fluence rates, and (4) a magnetic record (3.5 inch diskette) containing a listing of only the fast neutron fluence rates, their assigned elevations and proper header identification of all monitor positions contained herein. The fluence rates reported are for the average power levels given in the table of power history and distribution. All ''H'' holder monitoring wires for this cycle are 54 inches long. All ''SR'' holder monitor wires for this cycle are 55 inches long. This length allows measurement of the full core region and makes the first count elevation 24.73 inches above core midplane. Due to the safety rod problems in the west lobe, ''BR'' holders were used in the W-1, 2, 3, and 4 positions. All ''BR'' holder monitor wires for this cycle are 56.25 inches long. The distance from the end of the wires to the first count position was 4.25 inches for all wires counted from this cycle

  7. Measured thermal and fast neutron fluence rates ATR Cycle 99-A, November 23, 1992--January 23, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.K.; Rogers, J.W.

    1993-03-01

    This report contains the thermal (2200 m/s) and fast (E>me) neutron fluence rate data for ATR Cycle 99-A which were measured by the Radiation Measurements Laboratory (RML) as requested by the Power ReactorPrograms (ATR Experiments) Radiation Measurements Work Order. This report contains fluence rate values corresponding to the particular elevations (relative to the 80 ft. core elevation) where the measurements were taken. The data in this report consists of (1) a table of the ATR power history and distribution, (2) a hard copy listing of all thermal and fast neutron fluence rates, (3) plots of both the thermal and fast neutron fluence rates, and (4) a magnetic record (3.5 inch diskette) containing a listing of only the fast neutron fluence rates, their assigned elevations and proper header identification of all monitor positions contained herein. The fluence rates reported are for the average power levels given in the table of power history and distribution. All ''H'' holder monitor wires for this cycle are 54 inches long. All ''SR'' holder monitor wires for this cycle are 55 inches long. This length allows measurement of the full core region and makes the first count elevation 24.73 inches above core midplane. Due to the safety rod problems in the west lobe, ''BR'' holders were used in the W-1, 2, 3, and 4 positions. All ''BR'' holder monitor wires for this cycle are 56.25 inches long. The distance from the end of the wires to the first count position was 4.25 inches for all wires counted from this cycle

  8. Measured thermal and fast neutron fluence rates, ATR Cycle 100-BC, April 23, 1993--May 13, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.D.; Murray, R.K.; Rogers, J.W.

    1993-07-01

    This report contains the thermal (2200 m/s) and fast (E>1MeV) neutron fluence rate data for ATR Cycle 100-BC which were measured by the Radiation Measurements Laboratory (RML) as requested by the Power Reactor Programs (ATR Experiments) Radiation Measurements Work Order. This report contains fluence rate values corresponding to the particular elevations (relative to the 80 ft. core elevation) where the measurements were taken. The data in this report consists of (1) a table of the ATR power history and distribution, (2) a hard copy listing of all thermal and fast neutron fluence rates, (3) plots of both the thermal and fast neutron fluence rates, and (4) a magnetic record (3.5 inch diskette) containing a listing of only the fast neutron fluence rates, their assigned elevations and proper header identification of all monitor positions contained herein. The fluence rates reported are for the average power levels given in the table of power history and distribution. All open-quotes Hclose quotes holder monitor wires for this cycle are 54 inches long. All open-quotes SRclose quotes holder monitor wires for this cycle are 55 inches long. This length allows measurement of the full core region and makes the first count elevation 24.73 inches above core midplane. Due to the safety rod problems in the west lobe, open-quotes BRclose quotes holders were used in the W-1, 2, 3, and 4 positions. All open-quotes BRclose quotes holder monitor wires for this cycle are 56.25 inches long. The distance from the end of the wires to the first count position was 4.25 inches for all wires counted from this cycle. The results from the measurements in the W-1, 2, 3, 4 monitor positions indicate that the safety rod followers were rotated to a different azimuthal orientation relative to the normal orientation. The results indicate that the rotation was counterclockwise from their normal orientation. This is the same condition observed starting with Cycle 99-B

  9. AGR-3/4 Final Data Qualification Report for ATR Cycles 151A through 155B-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Binh T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Analysis System (NDMAS). The AGR 3/4 data streams addressed in this report include thermocouple (TC) temperatures, sweep gas data (flow rates, pressure, and moisture content), and Fission Product Monitoring System (FPMS) data (release rates, release to birth rate ratios [R/Bs], and particle failure counts) for each of the twelve capsules in the AGR 3/4 experiment. During Outage Cycle 155A, fourteen flow meters were installed downstream from fourteen FPMS monitors to measure flows from the monitors; qualification status of these data are also included in the report. The final data qualification status for these data streams is determined by a Data Review Committee (DRC) composed of AGR technical leads, Sitewide Quality Assurance (QA), and NDMAS analysts. For ATR Cycles 151A through 154B, the DRC convened on February 12, 2014, reviewed the data acquisition process, and considered whether the data met the requirements for data collection as specified in QA approved INL ART TDO data collection plans. The DRC also examined the results of NDMAS data testing and statistical analyses, and confirmed the qualification status of the data as given in this report. The qualification status of AGR-3/4 irradiation data during the first six cycles were previously reported in INL/EXT-14-31186 document. This report presents data qualification status for the entire AGR-3/4 irradiation.

  10. AGR-2 Final Data Qualification Report for U.S. Capsules - ATR Cycles 147A Through 154B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Binh T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Very High-Temperature Reactor Technology Development Office; Einerson, Jeffrey J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Very High-Temperature Reactor Technology Development Office

    2014-07-01

    This report provides the data qualification status of AGR-2 fuel irradiation experimental data in four U.S. capsules from all 15 Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycles 147A, 148A, 148B, 149A, 149B, 150A, 150B, 151A, 151B, 152A, 152B, 153A, 153B, 154A, and 154B, as recorded in the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). Thus, this report covers data qualification status for the entire AGR-2 irradiation and will replace four previously issued AGR-2 data qualification reports (e.g., INL/EXT-11-22798, INL/EXT-12-26184, INL/EXT-13-29701, and INL/EXT-13-30750). During AGR-2 irradiation, two cycles, 152A and 153A, occurred when the ATR core was briefly at low power, so AGR-2 irradiation data are not used for physics and thermal calculations. Also, two cycles, 150A and 153B, are Power Axial Locator Mechanism (PALM) cycles when the ATR power is higher than during normal cycles. During the first PALM cycle, 150A, the experiment was temporarily moved from the B-12 location to the ATR water canal and during the second PALM cycle, 153B, the experiment was temporarily moved from the B-12 location to the I-24 location to avoid being overheated. During the “Outage” cycle, 153A, seven flow meters were installed downstream from seven Fission Product Monitoring System (FPMS) monitors to measure flows from the monitors and these data are included in the NDMAS database.

  11. ATR- and ATM-Mediated DNA Damage Response Is Dependent on Excision Repair Assembly during G1 but Not in S Phase of Cell Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Alo; Blevins, Chessica; Wani, Gulzar; Wani, Altaf A

    2016-01-01

    Cell cycle checkpoint is mediated by ATR and ATM kinases, as a prompt early response to a variety of DNA insults, and culminates in a highly orchestrated signal transduction cascade. Previously, we defined the regulatory role of nucleotide excision repair (NER) factors, DDB2 and XPC, in checkpoint and ATR/ATM-dependent repair pathway via ATR and ATM phosphorylation and recruitment to ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced damage sites. Here, we have dissected the molecular mechanisms of DDB2- and XPC- mediated regulation of ATR and ATM recruitment and activation upon UVR exposures. We show that the ATR and ATM activation and accumulation to UVR-induced damage not only depends on DDB2 and XPC, but also on the NER protein XPA, suggesting that the assembly of an active NER complex is essential for ATR and ATM recruitment. ATR and ATM localization and H2AX phosphorylation at the lesion sites occur as early as ten minutes in asynchronous as well as G1 arrested cells, showing that repair and checkpoint-mediated by ATR and ATM starts early upon UV irradiation. Moreover, our results demonstrated that ATR and ATM recruitment and H2AX phosphorylation are dependent on NER proteins in G1 phase, but not in S phase. We reasoned that in G1 the UVR-induced ssDNA gaps or processed ssDNA, and the bound NER complex promote ATR and ATM recruitment. In S phase, when the UV lesions result in stalled replication forks with long single-stranded DNA, ATR and ATM recruitment to these sites is regulated by different sets of proteins. Taken together, these results provide evidence that UVR-induced ATR and ATM recruitment and activation differ in G1 and S phases due to the existence of distinct types of DNA lesions, which promote assembly of different proteins involved in the process of DNA repair and checkpoint activation.

  12. Galiellalactone induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through the ATM/ATR pathway in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Víctor; Lara-Chica, Maribel; Cantarero, Irene; Sterner, Olov; Calzado, Marco A; Muñoz, Eduardo

    2016-01-26

    Galiellalactone (GL) is a fungal metabolite that presents antitumor activities on prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo. In this study we show that GL induced cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase, caspase-dependent apoptosis and also affected the microtubule organization and migration ability in DU145 cells. GL did not induce double strand DNA break but activated the ATR and ATM-mediated DNA damage response (DDR) inducing CHK1, H2AX phosphorylation (fH2AX) and CDC25C downregulation. Inhibition of the ATM/ATR activation with caffeine reverted GL-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and DNA damage measured by fH2AX. In contrast, UCN-01, a CHK1 inhibitor, prevented GL-induced cell cycle arrest but enhanced apoptosis in DU145 cells. Furthermore, we found that GL did not increase the levels of intracellular ROS, but the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) completely prevented the effects of GL on fH2AX, G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In contrast to NAC, other antioxidants such as ambroxol and EGCG did not interfere with the activity of GL on cell cycle. GL significantly suppressed DU145 xenograft growth in vivo and induced the expression of fH2AX in the tumors. These findings identify for the first time that GL activates DDR in prostate cancer.

  13. Evaluation of Corrosion of the Dummy ''EE'' Plate 19 in YA Type ATR Fuel Element During Reactor PALM Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brower, Jeffrey Owen; Glazoff, Michael Vasily; Eiden, Thomas John; Rezvoi, Aleksey Victor

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 153B-1 was a 14-day, high-power, powered axial locator mechanism (PALM) operating cycle that completed on April 12, 2013. Cycle 153B-1 was a typical operating cycle for the ATR and did not result in any unusual plant transients. ATR was started up and shut down as scheduled. The PALM drive physically moves the selected experiments into and out of the core to simulate reactor startup and heat up, and shutdown and cooldown transients, while the reactor remains in steady state conditions. However, after the cycle was over, several thousand of the flow-assisted corrosion pits and ''horseshoeing'' defects were readily observable on the surface of the several YA-type fuel elements (these are ''dummy'' plates that contain no fuel). In order understand these corrosion phenomena a thermal-hydraulic model of coolant channel 20 on a YA-M fuel element was generated. The boundaries of the model were the aluminum EE plate of a YA-M fuel element and a beryllium reflector block with 13 horizontal saw cuts which represented regions of zero flow. The heat generated in fuel plates 1 through 18 was modeled to be passing through the aluminum EE plate. The coolant channel 20 width was set at 0.058 in. (58 mils). It was established that the horizontal saw cuts had a significant effect on the temperature of the coolant. The flow, which was expected to vary linearly with gradual heating of the coolant as it passed through the channel, was extremely turbulent. The temperature rise, which was expected to be a smooth ''S'' curve, was represented by a series temperature rise ''humps,'' which occurred at each horizontal saw cut in the beryllium reflector block. Each of the 13 saw cuts had a chamfered edge which resulted in the coolant flow being re-directed as a jet across the coolant channel into the surface of the EE plate, which explained the temperature rise and the observed sscalloping and possibly pitting degradation on the YA-M fuel elements. In the case

  14. Evaluation of Erosion of the Dummy ''EE'' Plate 19 in YA Type ATR Fuel Element During Reactor PALM Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brower, Jeffrey O.; Glazoff, Michael V.; Eiden, Thomas J.; Rezvoi, Aleksey V.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 153B-1 was a 14-day, high-power, powered axial locator mechanism (PALM) operating cycle that completed on April 12, 2013. Cycle 153B-1 was a typical operating cycle for the ATR, and did not result in any unusual plant transients. ATR was started up and shut down as scheduled. The PALM drive physically moves the selected experiments into and out of the core to simulate reactor startup and heat up, and shutdown and cooldown transients, while the reactor remains in steady-state conditions. However, after the cycle was over, when the fuel elements were removed from the core and inspected, several thousand flow-assisted erosion pits and ''horseshoeing'' defects were readily observed on the surface of the several YA-type fuel elements (these are aluminum ''dummy'' plates that contain no fuel). In order to understand these erosion phenomena, a thermal-hydraulic model of coolant channel 20 on a YA-M fuel element was generated. The boundaries of the model were the aluminum EE plate of a YA-M fuel element and a beryllium reflector block with 13 horizontal saw cuts which represented regions of zero flow. The heat generated in fuel plates 1 through 18 was modeled to be passing through the aluminum EE plate. The coolant channel 20 width was set at 0.058 in. (58 mils). It was established that the horizontal saw cuts had a significant effect on the temperature of the coolant. The flow, which was expected to vary linearly with gradual heating of the coolant as it passed through the channel, was extremely turbulent. The temperature rise, which was expected to be a smooth ''S'' curve, was represented by a series temperature rise ''humps,'' which occurred at each horizontal saw cut in the beryllium reflector block. Each of the 13 saw cuts had a chamfered edge which resulted in the coolant flow being re-directed as a jet across the coolant channel into the surface of the EE plate, which explained the temperature rise and the observed scalloping and

  15. AGR-2 Data Qualification Report for ATR Cycles 147A, 148A, 148B, and 149A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Abbott; Keith A. Daum

    2011-08-01

    This report presents the data qualification status of fuel irradiation data from the first four reactor cycles (147A, 148A, 148B, and 149A) of the on-going second Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR-2) experiment as recorded in the NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). This includes data received by NDMAS from the period June 22, 2010 through May 21, 2011. AGR-2 is the second in a series of eight planned irradiation experiments for the AGR Fuel Development and Qualification Program, which supports development of the very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. Irradiation of the AGR-2 test train is being performed at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and is planned for 600 effective full power days (approximately 2.75 calendar years) (PLN-3798). The experiment is intended to demonstrate the performance of UCO (uranium oxycarbide) and UO2 (uranium dioxide) fuel produced in a large coater. Data qualification status of the AGR-1 experiment was reported in INL/EXT-10-17943 (Abbott et al. 2010).

  16. AGR-2 Data Qualification Report for ATR Cycles 147A, 148A, 148B, and 149A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, Michael L.; Daum, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the data qualification status of fuel irradiation data from the first four reactor cycles (147A, 148A, 148B, and 149A) of the on-going second Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR-2) experiment as recorded in the NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). This includes data received by NDMAS from the period June 22, 2010 through May 21, 2011. AGR-2 is the second in a series of eight planned irradiation experiments for the AGR Fuel Development and Qualification Program, which supports development of the very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. Irradiation of the AGR-2 test train is being performed at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and is planned for 600 effective full power days (approximately 2.75 calendar years) (PLN-3798). The experiment is intended to demonstrate the performance of UCO (uranium oxycarbide) and UO2 (uranium dioxide) fuel produced in a large coater. Data qualification status of the AGR-1 experiment was reported in INL/EXT-10-17943 (Abbott et al. 2010).

  17. Parvovirus B19 NS1 protein induces cell cycle arrest at G2-phase by activating the ATR-CDC25C-CDK1 pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Human parvovirus B19 (B19V infection of primary human erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs arrests infected cells at both late S-phase and G2-phase, which contain 4N DNA. B19V infection induces a DNA damage response (DDR that facilitates viral DNA replication but is dispensable for cell cycle arrest at G2-phase; however, a putative C-terminal transactivation domain (TAD2 within NS1 is responsible for G2-phase arrest. To fully understand the mechanism underlying B19V NS1-induced G2-phase arrest, we established two doxycycline-inducible B19V-permissive UT7/Epo-S1 cell lines that express NS1 or NS1mTAD2, and examined the function of the TAD2 domain during G2-phase arrest. The results confirm that the NS1 TAD2 domain plays a pivotal role in NS1-induced G2-phase arrest. Mechanistically, NS1 transactivated cellular gene expression through the TAD2 domain, which was itself responsible for ATR (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related activation. Activated ATR phosphorylated CDC25C at serine 216, which in turn inactivated the cyclin B/CDK1 complex without affecting nuclear import of the complex. Importantly, we found that the ATR-CHK1-CDC25C-CDK1 pathway was activated during B19V infection of EPCs, and that ATR activation played an important role in B19V infection-induced G2-phase arrest.

  18. ATR neutron spectral characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.W.; Anderl, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at INEL provides intense neutron fields for irradiation-effects testing of reactor material samples, for production of radionuclides used in industrial and medical applications, and for scientific research. Characterization of the neutron environments in the irradiation locations of the ATR has been done by means of neutronics calculations and by means of neutron dosimetry based on the use of neutron activation monitors that are placed in the various irradiation locations. The primary purpose of this report is to present the results of an extensive characterization of several ATR irradiation locations based on neutron dosimetry measurements and on least-squares-adjustment analyses that utilize both neutron dosimetry measurements and neutronics calculations. This report builds upon the previous publications, especially the reference 4 paper. Section 2 provides a brief description of the ATR and it tabulates neutron spectral information for typical irradiation locations, as derived from the more historical neutron dosimetry measurements. Relevant details that pertain to the multigroup neutron spectral characterization are covered in section 3. This discussion includes a presentation on the dosimeter irradiation and analyses and a development of the least-squares adjustment methodology, along with a summary of the results of these analyses. Spectrum-averaged cross sections for neutron monitoring and for displacement-damage prediction in Fe, Cr, and Ni are given in section 4. In addition, section4 includes estimates of damage generation rates for these materials in selected ATR irradiation locations. In section 5, the authors present a brief discussion of the most significant conclusions of this work and comment on its relevance to the present ATR core configuration. Finally, detailed numerical and graphical results for the spectrum-characterization analyses in each irradiation location are provided in the Appendix.

  19. Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus latency associated nuclear antigen protein release the G2/M cell cycle blocks by modulating ATM/ATR mediated checkpoint pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    Full Text Available The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infects the human population and maintains latency stage of viral life cycle in a variety of cell types including cells of epithelial, mesenchymal and endothelial origin. The establishment of latent infection by KSHV requires the expression of an unique repertoire of genes among which latency associated nuclear antigen (LANA plays a critical role in the replication of the viral genome. LANA regulates the transcription of a number of viral and cellular genes essential for the survival of the virus in the host cell. The present study demonstrates the disruption of the host G2/M cell cycle checkpoint regulation as an associated function of LANA. DNA profile of LANA expressing human B-cells demonstrated the ability of this nuclear antigen in relieving the drug (Nocodazole induced G2/M checkpoint arrest. Caffeine suppressed nocodazole induced G2/M arrest indicating involvement of the ATM/ATR. Notably, we have also shown the direct interaction of LANA with Chk2, the ATM/ATR signalling effector and is responsible for the release of the G2/M cell cycle block.

  20. ATR confinement leakage determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuan, P.; Buescher, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    The air leakage rate from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) confinement is an important parameter in estimating hypothesized accidental releases of radiation to the environment. The leakage rate must be determined periodically to assure that the confinement has not degraded with time and such determination is one of the technical safety requirements of ATR operation. This paper reviews the methods of confinement leakage determination and presents an analysis of leakage determination under windy conditions, which can complicate the interpretation of the determined leakage rates. The paper also presents results of analyses of building air exchange under windy conditions. High wind can enhance air exchange and this could increase the release rates of radioisotopes following an accident

  1. SUV2, which encodes an ATR-related cell cycle checkpoint and putative plant ATRIP, is required for aluminium-dependent root growth inhibition in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogren, Caroline A; Larsen, Paul B

    2017-09-01

    A suppressor mutagenesis screen was conducted in order to identify second site mutations that could reverse the extreme hypersensitivity to aluminium (Al) seen for the Arabidopsis mutant, als3-1. From this screen, it was found that a loss-of-function mutation in the previously described SUV2 (SENSITIVE TO UV 2), which encodes a putative plant ATRIP homologue that is a component of the ATR-dependent cell checkpoint response, reversed the als3-1 phenotype. This included prevention of hallmarks associated with als3-1 including Al-dependent terminal differentiation of the root tip and transition to endoreduplication. From this analysis, SUV2 was determined to be required for halting cell cycle progression and triggering loss of the quiescent centre (QC) following exposure to Al. In conjunction with this, SUV2 was found to have a similar role as ATR, ALT2 and SOG1 in Al-dependent stoppage of root growth, all of which are required for promotion of expression of a suite of genes that likely are part of an Al-dependent DNA damage transcriptional response. This work argues that these Al response factors work together to detect Al-dependent damage and subsequently activate a DNA damage response pathway that halts the cell cycle and subsequently promotes QC differentiation and entrance into endocycling. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Evaluation of Corrosion of the Dummy “EE” Plate 19 in YA Type ATR Fuel Element During Reactor PALM Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, Jeffrey Owen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Glazoff, Michael Vasily [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Eiden, Thomas John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rezvoi, Aleksey Victor [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 153B-1 was a 14-day, high-power, powered axial locator mechanism (PALM) operating cycle that completed on April 12, 2013. Cycle 153B-1 was a typical operating cycle for the ATR and did not result in any unusual plant transients. ATR was started up and shut down as scheduled. The PALM drive physically moves the selected experiments into and out of the core to simulate reactor startup and heat up, and shutdown and cooldown transients, while the reactor remains in steady state conditions. However, after the cycle was over, several thousand of the flow-assisted corrosion pits and “horseshoeing” defects were readily observable on the surface of the several YA-type fuel elements (these are “dummy” plates that contain no fuel). In order understand these corrosion phenomena a thermal-hydraulic model of coolant channel 20 on a YA-M fuel element was generated. The boundaries of the model were the aluminum EE plate of a YA-M fuel element and a beryllium reflector block with 13 horizontal saw cuts which represented regions of zero flow. The heat generated in fuel plates 1 through 18 was modeled to be passing through the aluminum EE plate. The coolant channel 20 width was set at 0.058 in. (58 mils). It was established that the horizontal saw cuts had a significant effect on the temperature of the coolant. The flow, which was expected to vary linearly with gradual heating of the coolant as it passed through the channel, was extremely turbulent. The temperature rise, which was expected to be a smooth “S” curve, was represented by a series temperature rise “humps,” which occurred at each horizontal saw cut in the beryllium reflector block. Each of the 13 saw cuts had a chamfered edge which resulted in the coolant flow being re-directed as a jet across the coolant channel into the surface of the EE plate, which explained the temperature rise and the observed sscalloping and possibly pitting degradation on the YA-M fuel elements. In

  3. Evaluation of Erosion of the Dummy “EE” Plate 19 in YA Type ATR Fuel Element During Reactor PALM Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, Jeffrey O. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Advanced Test Reactor; Glazoff, Michael V. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Advanced Test Reactor; Eiden, Thomas J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Advanced Test Reactor; Rezvoi, Aleksey V. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Advanced Test Reactor

    2016-08-01

    Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 153B-1 was a 14-day, high-power, powered axial locator mechanism (PALM) operating cycle that completed on April 12, 2013. Cycle 153B-1 was a typical operating cycle for the ATR, and did not result in any unusual plant transients. ATR was started up and shut down as scheduled. The PALM drive physically moves the selected experiments into and out of the core to simulate reactor startup and heat up, and shutdown and cooldown transients, while the reactor remains in steady-state conditions. However, after the cycle was over, when the fuel elements were removed from the core and inspected, several thousand flow-assisted erosion pits and “horseshoeing” defects were readily observed on the surface of the several YA-type fuel elements (these are aluminum “dummy” plates that contain no fuel). In order to understand these erosion phenomena, a thermal-hydraulic model of coolant channel 20 on a YA-M fuel element was generated. The boundaries of the model were the aluminum EE plate of a YA-M fuel element and a beryllium reflector block with 13 horizontal saw cuts which represented regions of zero flow. The heat generated in fuel plates 1 through 18 was modeled to be passing through the aluminum EE plate. The coolant channel 20 width was set at 0.058 in. (58 mils). It was established that the horizontal saw cuts had a significant effect on the temperature of the coolant. The flow, which was expected to vary linearly with gradual heating of the coolant as it passed through the channel, was extremely turbulent. The temperature rise, which was expected to be a smooth “S” curve, was represented by a series temperature rise “humps,” which occurred at each horizontal saw cut in the beryllium reflector block. Each of the 13 saw cuts had a chamfered edge which resulted in the coolant flow being re-directed as a jet across the coolant channel into the surface of the EE plate, which explained the temperature rise and the observed

  4. ATR performance modeling concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Timothy D.; Baker, Hyatt B.; Nolan, Adam R.; McGinnis, Ryan E.; Paulson, Christopher R.

    2016-05-01

    Performance models are needed for automatic target recognition (ATR) development and use. ATRs consume sensor data and produce decisions about the scene observed. ATR performance models (APMs) on the other hand consume operating conditions (OCs) and produce probabilities about what the ATR will produce. APMs are needed for many modeling roles of many kinds of ATRs (each with different sensing modality and exploitation functionality combinations); moreover, there are different approaches to constructing the APMs. Therefore, although many APMs have been developed, there is rarely one that fits a particular need. Clarified APM concepts may allow us to recognize new uses of existing APMs and identify new APM technologies and components that better support coverage of the needed APMs. The concepts begin with thinking of ATRs as mapping OCs of the real scene (including the sensor data) to reports. An APM is then a mapping from explicit quantized OCs (represented with less resolution than the real OCs) and latent OC distributions to report distributions. The roles of APMs can be distinguished by the explicit OCs they consume. APMs used in simulations consume the true state that the ATR is attempting to report. APMs used online with the exploitation consume the sensor signal and derivatives, such as match scores. APMs used in sensor management consume neither of those, but estimate performance from other OCs. This paper will summarize the major building blocks for APMs, including knowledge sources, OC models, look-up tables, analytical and learned mappings, and tools for signal synthesis and exploitation.

  5. Life cycle costing with a discount rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, E. C.

    1978-01-01

    This article studies life cycle costing for a capability needed for the indefinite future, and specifically investigates the dependence of optimal policies on the discount rate chosen. The two costs considered are reprocurement cost and maintenance and operations (M and O) cost. The procurement price is assumed known, and the M and O costs are assumed to be a known function, in fact, a non-decreasing function, of the time since last reprocurement. The problem is to choose the optimum reprocurement time so as to minimize the quotient of the total cost over a reprocurement period divided by the period. Or one could assume a discount rate and try to minimize the total discounted costs into the indefinite future. It is shown that the optimum policy in the presence of a small discount rate hardly depends on the discount rate at all, and leads to essentially the same policy as in the case in which discounting is not considered.

  6. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  7. Nitrogen cycling process rates across urban ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Alexander J; Groffman, Peter M; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J

    2016-09-21

    Nitrogen (N) pollution of freshwater, estuarine, and marine ecosystems is widespread and has numerous environmental and economic impacts. A portion of this excess N comes from urban watersheds comprised of natural and engineered ecosystems which can alter downstream N export. Studies of urban N cycling have focused on either specific ecosystems or on watershed-scale mass balances. Comparisons of specific N transformations across ecosystems are required to contextualize rates from individual studies. Here we reviewed urban N cycling in terrestrial, aquatic, and engineered ecosystems, and compared N processing in these urban ecosystem types to native reference ecosystems. We found that net N mineralization and net nitrification rates were enhanced in urban forests and riparian zones relative to reference ecosystems. Denitrification was highly variable across urban ecosystem types, but no significant differences were found between urban and reference denitrification rates. When focusing on urban streams, ammonium uptake was more rapid than nitrate uptake in urban streams. Additionally, reduction of stormwater runoff coupled with potential decreases in N concentration suggests that green infrastructure may reduce downstream N export. Despite multiple environmental stressors in urban environments, ecosystems within urban watersheds can process and transform N at rates similar to or higher than reference ecosystems. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Cycling cadence affects heart rate variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunt, Heather C; Corbett, Jo; Barwood, Martin J; Tipton, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect different cycling cadences have on heart rate variability (HRV) when exercising at constant power outputs. Sixteen males had ECG and respiratory measurements recorded at rest and during 8, 10 min periods of cycling at four different cadences (40, 60, 80 and 100 revs min −1 ) and two power outputs (0 W (unloaded) and 100 W (loaded)). The cycling periods were performed following a Latin square design. Spectral analyses of R–R intervals by fast Fourier transforms were used to quantify absolute frequency domain HRV indices (ms 2 ) during the final 5 min of each bout, which were then log transformed using the natural logarithm (Ln). HRV indices of high frequency (HF) power were reduced when cadence was increased (during unloaded cycling (0 W) log transformed HF power decreased from a mean [SD] of 6.3 [1.4] Ln ms 2 at 40 revs min −1 to 3.9 [1.3] Ln ms 2 at 100 revs min −1 ). During loaded cycling (at 100 W), the low to high frequency (LF:HF) ratio formed a 'J' shaped curve as cadence increased from 40 revs min −1 (1.4 [0.4]) to 100 revs min −1 (1.9 [0.7]), but dipped below the 40 revs min −1 values during the 60 revs min −1 1.1 (0.3) and 80 revs min −1 1.2 (0.6) cadence conditions. Cardiac frequency (f C ) and ventilatory variables were strongly correlated with frequency domain HRV indices (r = −0.80 to −0.95). It is concluded that HRV indices are influenced by both cycling cadence and power output; this is mediated by the f C and ventilatory changes that occur as cadence or exercise intensity is increased. Consequently, if HRV is assessed during exercise, both power output/exercise intensity and cadence should be standardized

  9. Environmental factors affecting rates of nitrogen cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipschultz, F.

    1984-01-01

    The nitrogen cycle in the eutrophic Delaware river was studied in late summer, 1983 using 15 N tracer additions of NHG 4 + , NO 2 - , and NO 3 - . Rates for nine different transformations were calculated simultaneously with a least-squares minimization analysis. Light was found to stimulate ammonium uptake and to inhibit ammonium oxidation. Rates for nitrification, ammonium uptake by phytoplankton, and photosynthesis were integrated over 24 hours and river depth. High turbidity lifted the effect of light inhibition on nitrification and restricted phytoplankton uptake. Uptake of ammonium contributed over 95% of the inorganic nitrogen ration for phytoplankton, with dark uptake accounting for more than 50%. A mass-conservation, box model of river was used to calculate rate constants required to reproduce observed nutrient concentration changes. The calculated constants correlated well with the measured 15 N and oxygen integrated rates. Water-column nitrification was the major loss term for NH 4 + , while water column regeneration was the primary source. Loss of oxidized nitrogen was insignificant. Oxygen consumption and air-water exchange far exceeded net photosynthetic oxygen production. Nitrification contributed less than 1% to the oxygen demand near Philadelphia but up to 25% further downstream. Production of NO and N 2 O was measured under varying oxygen concentrations in batch cultures of the nitrifying bacteria Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosococcus oceanus. Production of both gases increased relative to nitrite production as oxygen levels decreased

  10. Contrasting the solar rotation rate of cycles 23 and 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antia, H M; Basu, Sarbani

    2013-01-01

    The minimum between solar cycles 23 and 24 was quite unusual compared with other minima for which detailed data are available and this pointed to the possibility that cycle 24 will be unusual. Cycle 24 is almost at its maximum now and we take this opportunity to compare and contrast the solar rotation rate and zonal flows between the two cycles. We find that the rotation rate during cycle 24 is slightly lower than that during cycle 23. Additionally we find that the poleward branch of the zonal flow that is believed to be the harbinger of the next solar cycle is very week in cycle 24.

  11. Measuring Heterogeneous Reaction Rates with ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy to Evaluate Chemical Fates in an Atmospheric Environment: A Physical Chemistry and Environmental Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jason E.; Zeng, Guang; Maron, Marta K.; Mach, Mindy; Dwebi, Iman; Liu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports an undergraduate laboratory experiment to measure heterogeneous liquid/gas reaction kinetics (ozone-oleic acid and ozone-phenothrin) using a flow reactor coupled to an attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrometer. The experiment is specially designed for an upper-level undergraduate Physical…

  12. PUREX new substation ATR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    This document is the acceptance test report (ATR) for the New PUREX Main and Minisubstations. It covers the factory and vendor acceptance and commissioning test reports. Reports are presented for the Main 5 kV substation building, the building fire system, switchgear, and vacuum breaker; the minisubstation control building and switch gear; commissioning test; electrical system and loads inspection; electrical utilities transformer and cable; and relay setting changes based on operational experience

  13. Function of the ATR N-terminal domain revealed by an ATM/ATR chimera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xinping; Zhao Runxiang; Glick, Gloria G.; Cortez, David

    2007-01-01

    The ATM and ATR kinases function at the apex of checkpoint signaling pathways. These kinases share significant sequence similarity, phosphorylate many of the same substrates, and have overlapping roles in initiating cell cycle checkpoints. However, they sense DNA damage through distinct mechanisms. ATR primarily senses single stranded DNA (ssDNA) through its interaction with ATRIP, and ATM senses double strand breaks through its interaction with Nbs1. We determined that the N-terminus of ATR contains a domain that binds ATRIP. Attaching this domain to ATM allowed the fusion protein (ATM*) to bind ATRIP and associate with RPA-coated ssDNA. ATM* also gained the ability to localize efficiently to stalled replication forks as well as double strand breaks. Despite having normal kinase activity when tested in vitro and being phosphorylated on S1981 in vivo, ATM* is defective in checkpoint signaling and does not complement cellular deficiencies in either ATM or ATR. These data indicate that the N-terminus of ATR is sufficient to bind ATRIP and to promote localization to sites of replication stress

  14. On techniques of ATR lattice computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    Lattice computation is to compute the average nuclear constants of unit fuel lattice which are required for computing core nuclear characteristics such as core power distribution and reactivity characteristics. The main nuclear constants are infinite multiplying rate, neutron movement area, cross section for diffusion computation, local power distribution and isotope composition. As for the lattice computation code, WIMS-ATR is used, which is based on the WIMS-D code developed in U.K., and for the purpose of heightening the accuracy of analysis, which was improved by adding heavy water scattering cross section considering the temperature dependence by Honeck model. For the computation of the neutron absorption by control rods, LOIEL BLUE code is used. The extrapolation distance of neutron flux on control rod surfaces is computed by using THERMOS and DTF codes, and the lattice constants of adjoining lattices are computed by using the WIMS-ATR code. As for the WIMS-ATR code, the computation flow and nuclear data library, and as for the LOIEL BLUE code, the computation flow are explained. The local power distribution in fuel assemblies determined by the WIMS-ATR code was verified with the measured data, and the results are reported. (K.I.)

  15. The Impact of the Rating Agencies' Through-the-cycle Methodology on Rating Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altman, E.I.; Rijken, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Surveys on the use of agency credit ratings reveal that some investors believe that credit-rating agencies are relatively slow in adjusting their ratings. A well-accepted explanation for this perception on rating timeliness is the through-the-cycle methodology that agencies use. Through-the-cycle

  16. An Adjusted Discount Rate Model for Fuel Cycle Cost Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. K.; Kang, G. B.; Ko, W. I. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Owing to the diverse nuclear fuel cycle options available, including direct disposal, it is necessary to select the optimum nuclear fuel cycles in consideration of the political and social environments as well as the technical stability and economic efficiency of each country. Economic efficiency is therefore one of the significant evaluation standards. In particular, because nuclear fuel cycle cost may vary in each country, and the estimated cost usually prevails over the real cost, when evaluating the economic efficiency, any existing uncertainty needs to be removed when possible to produce reliable cost information. Many countries still do not have reprocessing facilities, and no globally commercialized HLW (High-level waste) repository is available. A nuclear fuel cycle cost estimation model is therefore inevitably subject to uncertainty. This paper analyzes the uncertainty arising out of a nuclear fuel cycle cost evaluation from the viewpoint of a cost estimation model. Compared to the same discount rate model, the nuclear fuel cycle cost of a different discount rate model is reduced because the generation quantity as denominator in Equation has been discounted. Namely, if the discount rate reduces in the back-end process of the nuclear fuel cycle, the nuclear fuel cycle cost is also reduced. Further, it was found that the cost of the same discount rate model is overestimated compared with the different discount rate model as a whole.

  17. An Adjusted Discount Rate Model for Fuel Cycle Cost Estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. K.; Kang, G. B.; Ko, W. I.

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the diverse nuclear fuel cycle options available, including direct disposal, it is necessary to select the optimum nuclear fuel cycles in consideration of the political and social environments as well as the technical stability and economic efficiency of each country. Economic efficiency is therefore one of the significant evaluation standards. In particular, because nuclear fuel cycle cost may vary in each country, and the estimated cost usually prevails over the real cost, when evaluating the economic efficiency, any existing uncertainty needs to be removed when possible to produce reliable cost information. Many countries still do not have reprocessing facilities, and no globally commercialized HLW (High-level waste) repository is available. A nuclear fuel cycle cost estimation model is therefore inevitably subject to uncertainty. This paper analyzes the uncertainty arising out of a nuclear fuel cycle cost evaluation from the viewpoint of a cost estimation model. Compared to the same discount rate model, the nuclear fuel cycle cost of a different discount rate model is reduced because the generation quantity as denominator in Equation has been discounted. Namely, if the discount rate reduces in the back-end process of the nuclear fuel cycle, the nuclear fuel cycle cost is also reduced. Further, it was found that the cost of the same discount rate model is overestimated compared with the different discount rate model as a whole

  18. Homeostatic regulation of meiotic DSB formation by ATM/ATR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Tim J.; Wardell, Kayleigh; Garcia, Valerie; Neale, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Ataxia–telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and RAD3-related (ATR) are widely known as being central players in the mitotic DNA damage response (DDR), mounting responses to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) respectively. The DDR signalling cascade couples cell cycle control to damage-sensing and repair processes in order to prevent untimely cell cycle progression while damage still persists [1]. Both ATM/ATR are, however, also emerging as essential factors in the process of meiosis; a specialised cell cycle programme responsible for the formation of haploid gametes via two sequential nuclear divisions. Central to achieving accurate meiotic chromosome segregation is the introduction of numerous DSBs spread across the genome by the evolutionarily conserved enzyme, Spo11. This review seeks to explore and address how cells utilise ATM/ATR pathways to regulate Spo11-DSB formation, establish DSB homeostasis and ensure meiosis is completed unperturbed

  19. Homeostatic regulation of meiotic DSB formation by ATM/ATR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Tim J.; Wardell, Kayleigh; Garcia, Valerie; Neale, Matthew J., E-mail: m.neale@sussex.ac.uk

    2014-11-15

    Ataxia–telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and RAD3-related (ATR) are widely known as being central players in the mitotic DNA damage response (DDR), mounting responses to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) respectively. The DDR signalling cascade couples cell cycle control to damage-sensing and repair processes in order to prevent untimely cell cycle progression while damage still persists [1]. Both ATM/ATR are, however, also emerging as essential factors in the process of meiosis; a specialised cell cycle programme responsible for the formation of haploid gametes via two sequential nuclear divisions. Central to achieving accurate meiotic chromosome segregation is the introduction of numerous DSBs spread across the genome by the evolutionarily conserved enzyme, Spo11. This review seeks to explore and address how cells utilise ATM/ATR pathways to regulate Spo11-DSB formation, establish DSB homeostasis and ensure meiosis is completed unperturbed.

  20. The role of interest rates in the Brazilian business cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson F. Souza-Sobrinho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers additional insights on the relationship between interest rates and business cycles in Brazil. First, I document that Brazilian interest rates are very volatile, counter-cyclical and positively correlated with net exports, as observed in other emerging market economies. Next, I present a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model in which firms face working capital constraints and labor supply is independent of consumption. This parsimonious model, appropriately calibrated to the Brazilian economy, predicts that interest rate shocks can explain about one third of output fluctuations and delivers business cycle regularities consistent with the Brazilian data.

  1. Development of a methodology for life cycle building energy ratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Patxi; Kenny, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally the majority of building energy use has been linked to its operation (heating, cooling, lighting, etc.), and much attention has been directed to reduce this energy use through technical innovation, regulatory control and assessed through a wide range of rating methods. However buildings generally employ an increasing amount of materials and systems to reduce the energy use in operation, and energy embodied in these can constitute an important part of the building's life cycle energy use. For buildings with 'zero-energy' use in operation the embodied energy is indeed the only life cycle energy use. This is not addressed by current building energy assessment and rating methods. This paper proposes a methodology to extend building energy assessment and rating methods accounting for embodied energy of building components and systems. The methodology is applied to the EU Building Energy Rating method and, as an illustration, as implemented in Irish domestic buildings. A case study dwelling is used to illustrate the importance of embodied energy on life cycle energy performance, particularly relevant when energy use in operation tends to zero. The use of the Net Energy Ratio as an indicator to select appropriate building improvement measures is also presented and discussed. - Highlights: → The definitions for 'zero energy buildings' and current building energy ratings are examined. → There is a need to integrate a life cycle perspective within building energy ratings. → A life cycle building energy rating method (LC-BER), including embodied energy is presented. → Net Energy Ratio is proposed as an indicator to select building energy improvement options.

  2. ATR-dependent bystander effects in non-targeted cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdak-Rothkamm, S.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Radiation induced non-targeted bystander effects have been reported for a range of endpoints including the induction of γH2AX foci which serve as a marker for DNA double strand breaks. We have recently reported the induction of γH2AX foci in non-targeted bystander cells up to 48 hours after irradiation and the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and TGF-beta 1 in the induction of γH2AX foci (Oncogene (2007) 26:993-1002). Here, we wanted to determine the role of the PI3-like kinases ATM, ATR and DNA-PK in DNA damage signalling in bystander cells. Conditioned medium from T98G cells irradiated with 2 Gy of X-rays was transferred onto non-irradiated cells that were subsequently analysed for the induction of γH2AX, ATR and 53BP1 foci as well as clonogenic survival. Irradiated T98G glioma cells generated signals that induced γH2AX and 53BP1 foci in cells treated with the conditioned medium from irradiated cells. These foci co-localised with ATR foci. Inhibition of ATM and DNA-PK could not suppress the induction of bystander γH2AX foci whereas the mutation of ATR in Seckel cells abrogated bystander foci induction. A restriction of bystander foci to the S-phase of the cell cycle both in T98G cells and in ATR- proficient fibroblasts was observed. These results identify ATR as a central player within the bystander signalling cascade leading to γH2AX and 53BP1 foci formation, and suggest a mechanism of DNA damage induction in non-targeted cells. Further investigations have shown decreased clonogenic cell survival in bystander T98G and ATR wild-type fibroblasts. ATR mutated Seckel cells and also ATM-/- fibroblasts were resistant to this effect suggesting a role for both ATR and ATM in the bystander signalling cascade with regard to cell survival. Taken together, these observations support a hypothesis of DNA damage-induced accumulation of stalled replication forks in bystander cells which are subsequently processed by

  3. Biomass cycles, accumulation rates and nutritional characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annual biomass cycles, accumulation rates and nutritional characteristics of forage and non-forage species groups were determined in the canopied and open, uncanopied subhabitats of the herbaceous layer in Burkea africana savanna. The total amount of biomass of all species over the season was significantly greater in ...

  4. Pedalling rate affects endurance performance during high-intensity cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Steen; Hansen, Ernst Albin; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study into high-intensity cycling was to: (1) test the hypothesis that endurance time is longest at a freely chosen pedalling rate (FCPR), compared to pedalling rates 25% lower (FCPR-25) and higher (FCPR+25) than FCPR, and (2) investigate how physiological variables......, and endurance time at W90 with FCPR-25, FCPR, and FCPR+25. Power reserve was calculated as the difference between applied power output at a given pedalling rate and peak crank power at this same pedalling rate. W90 was 325 (47) W. FCPR at W90 was 78 (11) rpm, resulting in FCPR-25 being 59 (8) rpm and FCPR+25...... time was negatively related to VO(2max), W90 and % MHC I, while positively related to power reserve. In conclusion, at group level, endurance time was longer at FCPR and at a pedalling rate 25% lower compared to a pedalling rate 25% higher than FCPR. Further, inter-individual physiological variables...

  5. ATR Spent Fuel Options Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, Michael James; Bean, Thomas E.; Brower, Jeffrey O.; Luke, Dale E.; Patterson, M. W.; Robb, Alan K.; Sindelar, Robert; Smith, Rebecca E.; Tonc, Vincent F.; Tripp, Julia L.; Winston, Philip L.

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a materials and fuels test nuclear reactor that performs irradiation services for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Naval Reactors, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), and other research programs. ATR achieved initial criticality in 1967 and is expected to operate in support of needed missions until the year 2050 or beyond. It is anticipated that ATR will generate approximately 105 spent nuclear fuel (SNF) elements per year through the year 2050. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) currently stores 2,008 ATR SNF elements in dry storage, 976 in wet storage, and expects to have 1,000 elements in wet storage before January 2017. A capability gap exists at INL for long-term (greater than the year 2050) management, in compliance with the Idaho Settlement Agreement (ISA), of ATR SNF until a monitored retrievable geological repository is open. INL has significant wet and dry storage capabilities that are owned by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) and operated and managed by Fluor Idaho, which include the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center's (INTEC's) CPP-666, CPP-749, and CPP-603. In addition, INL has other capabilities owned by DOE-NE and operated and managed by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA), which are located at the Materials and Fuel Complex (MFC). Additional storage capabilities are located on the INL Site at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF). Current INL SNF management planning, as defined in the Fluor Idaho contract, shows INTEC dry fuel storage, which is currently used for ATR SNF, will be nearly full after transfer of an additional 1,000 ATR SNF from wet storage. DOE-NE tasked BEA with identifying and analyzing options that have the potential to fulfill this capability gap. BEA assembled a team comprised of SNF management experts from Fluor Idaho, Savannah River Site (SRS), INL/BEA, and the MITRE Corp with an objective of developing and analyzing

  6. ATR Spent Fuel Options Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Michael James [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bean, Thomas E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brower, Jeffrey O. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Luke, Dale E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Patterson, M. W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Robb, Alan K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sindelar, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Rebecca E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tonc, Vincent F. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tripp, Julia L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Winston, Philip L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a materials and fuels test nuclear reactor that performs irradiation services for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Naval Reactors, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), and other research programs. ATR achieved initial criticality in 1967 and is expected to operate in support of needed missions until the year 2050 or beyond. It is anticipated that ATR will generate approximately 105 spent nuclear fuel (SNF) elements per year through the year 2050. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) currently stores 2,008 ATR SNF elements in dry storage, 976 in wet storage, and expects to have 1,000 elements in wet storage before January 2017. A capability gap exists at INL for long-term (greater than the year 2050) management, in compliance with the Idaho Settlement Agreement (ISA), of ATR SNF until a monitored retrievable geological repository is open. INL has significant wet and dry storage capabilities that are owned by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) and operated and managed by Fluor Idaho, which include the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center’s (INTEC’s) CPP-666, CPP-749, and CPP-603. In addition, INL has other capabilities owned by DOE-NE and operated and managed by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA), which are located at the Materials and Fuel Complex (MFC). Additional storage capabilities are located on the INL Site at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF). Current INL SNF management planning, as defined in the Fluor Idaho contract, shows INTEC dry fuel storage, which is currently used for ATR SNF, will be nearly full after transfer of an additional 1,000 ATR SNF from wet storage. DOE-NE tasked BEA with identifying and analyzing options that have the potential to fulfill this capability gap. BEA assembled a team comprised of SNF management experts from Fluor Idaho, Savannah River Site (SRS), INL/BEA, and the MITRE Corp with an objective of developing and analyzing

  7. Vitreous flow rates through dual pneumatic cutters: effects of duty cycle and cut rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abulon DJK

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dina Joy K Abulon Medical Affairs, Alcon Research, Ltd, Lake Forest, CA, USA Purpose: We aimed to investigate effects of instrument settings on porcine vitreous flow rates through dual pneumatic high-speed vitrectomy probes. Methods: The CONSTELLATION® Vision System was tested with 250, 450, and 650 mmHg of vacuum using six ULTRAVIT® vitrectomy probes of each diameter (25+®, 25, 23, and 20 gauge operated from 500 cuts per minute (cpm up to 5,000 cpm. Duty cycle modes tested included biased open, 50/50, and biased closed. Flow rates were calculated by assessing the change in weight of porcine eyes during vitreous aspiration. Volumetric flow rate was measured with a computer-connected electronic scale. Results: At lower cut rates, the biased open mode produced higher flow than did the 50/50 mode, which produced higher flow than did the biased closed mode. In the biased closed and 50/50 modes, vitreous flow rates tended to increase with increasing cut rate. Vitreous flow rates in the biased open duty cycle mode remained relatively constant across cut rates. Conclusion: Vitreous flow rates through dual pneumatic vitrectomy probes could be manipulated by changing the duty cycle modes on the vitrectomy system. Differences in duty cycle behavior suggest that high-speed cut rates of 5,000 cpm may optimize vitreous aspiration. Keywords: enhanced 25-gauge vitrectomy, 25-gauge vitrectomy, 20-gauge vitrectomy, 23-gauge vitrectomy, aspiration, Constellation Vision System

  8. Relationship between lunar cycle and haemorrhagic complication rate in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposio, Edoardo; Caruana, Giorgia; Santi, Pierluigi; Cafiero, Ferdinando

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a possible relationship between lunar cycles and haemorrhagic complication rate in surgery. The possible relationship between moon phases and surgical outcome was tested by evaluating the haemorrhagic complication rate for 18,760 patients who underwent surgery between January 2001 and December 2008 at the National Institute for Cancer Research in Genoa. A total of 103 lunar phases were considered using Chi-square (χ 2 ) test analysis, and patients were allocated a surgery date. One hundred and sixty-seven haemorrhagic complications were observed. Three hundred and nine new moon phase days were analysed and 12 incidences of complications detected, with a 3.9% complication rate per day. In the waxing moon phase, 1184.5 d were analysed with 68 incidences of complications at a daily rate of 5.7%. In the full moon phase there was a 4.9% complication rate per day (15 incidences in 309 d), whereas in the waning moon phase, the 6% percentage rate per day resulted from 72 incidences in 1184.5 d. No statistically significant correlations were found between moon cycles and postoperative haemorrhagic complications (p = .50).

  9. FLUX SENSOR EVALUATIONS AT THE ATR CRITICAL FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unruh, Troy; Rempe, Joy; Nigg, David; Imel, George; Harris, Jason; Bonebrake, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and the ATR Critical (ATRC) facilities lack real-time methods for detecting thermal neutron flux and fission reaction rates for irradiation capsules. Direct measurements of the actual power deposited into a test are now possible without resorting to complicated correction factors. In addition, it is possible to directly measure minor actinide fission reaction rates and to provide time-dependent monitoring of the fission reaction rate or fast/thermal flux during transient testing. A joint Idaho State University/Idaho National Laboratory ATR National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project was recently initiated to evaluate new real-time state-of-the-art in-pile flux detection sensors. Initially, the project is comparing the accuracy, response time, and long duration performance of French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)-developed miniature fission chambers, specialized self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) by the Argentinean National Energy Commission (CNEA), specially developed commercial SPNDs, and back-to-back fission (BTB) chambers developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). As discussed in this paper, specialized fixturing and software was developed by INL to facilitate these joint ISU/INL evaluations. Calculations were performed by ISU to assess the performance of and reduce uncertainties in flux detection sensors and compare data obtained from these sensors with existing integral methods employed at the ATRC. Ultimately, project results will be used to select the detector that can provide the best online regional ATRC power measurement. It is anticipated that project results may offer the potential to increase the ATRC's current power limit and its ability to perform low-level irradiation experiments. In addition, results from this effort will provide insights about the viability of using these detectors in the ATR. Hence, this effort complements current activities to improve ATR software tools, computational protocols

  10. Pacing of Paleozoic macroevolutionary rates by Milankovitch grand cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, James S; Meyers, Stephen R; Cooper, Roger A; Sadler, Peter M; Foote, Michael; Harte, David

    2018-05-29

    Periodic fluctuations in past biodiversity, speciation, and extinction have been proposed, with extremely long periods ranging from 26 to 62 million years, although forcing mechanisms remain speculative. In contrast, well-understood periodic Milankovitch climate forcing represents a viable driver for macroevolutionary fluctuations, although little evidence for such fluctuation exists except during the Late Cenozoic. The reality, magnitude, and drivers of periodic fluctuations in macroevolutionary rates are of interest given long-standing debate surrounding the relative roles of intrinsic biotic interactions vs. extrinsic environmental factors as drivers of biodiversity change. Here, we show that, over a time span of 60 million years, between 9 and 16% of the variance in biological turnover (i.e., speciation probability plus species extinction probability) in a major Early Paleozoic zooplankton group, the graptoloids, can be explained by long-period astronomical cycles (Milankovitch "grand cycles") associated with Earth's orbital eccentricity (2.6 million years) and obliquity (1.3 million years). These grand cycles modulate climate variability, alternating times of relative stability in the environment with times of maximum volatility. We infer that these cycles influenced graptolite speciation and extinction through climate-driven changes to oceanic circulation and structure. Our results confirm the existence of Milankovitch grand cycles in the Early Paleozoic Era and show that known processes related to the mechanics of the Solar System were shaping marine macroevolutionary rates comparatively early in the history of complex life. We present an application of hidden Markov models to macroevolutionary time series and protocols for the evaluation of statistical significance in spectral analysis.

  11. Controlled rate cooling of fungi using a stirling cycle freezer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Matthew J; Kasulyte-Creasey, Daiva; Kermode, Anthony; San, Shwe Phue; Buddie, Alan G

    2014-01-01

    The use of a Stirling cycle freezer for cryopreservation is considered to have significant advantages over traditional methodologies including N2 free operation, application of low cooling rates, reduction of sample contamination risks and control of ice nucleation. The study assesses the suitability of an 'N2-free' Stirling Cycle controlled rate freezer for fungi cryopreservation. In total, 77 fungi representing a broad taxonomic coverage were cooled using the N2 free cooler following a cooling rate of -1 degrees C min(-1). Of these, 15 strains were also cryopreserved using a traditional 'N2 gas chamber' controlled rate cooler and a comparison of culture morphology and genomic stability against non-cryopreserved starter cultures was undertaken. In total of 75 fungi survived cryopreservation, only a recalcitrant Basidiomycete and filamentous Chromist failed to survive. No changes were detected in genomic profile after preservation, suggesting that genomic function is not adversely compromised as a result of using 'N2 free' cooling. The results demonstrate the potential of 'N2-free' cooling for the routine cryopreservation of fungi in Biological Resource Centres.

  12. Initial characterization of the ATR [Advanced Test Reactor] Large Gamma Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnitzler, B.G.; Rogers, J.W.

    1986-05-01

    Radiation fields in the ATR Large Gamma Facility test volume are characterized. The preliminary characterization efforts described in this report include total dose rate measurements in the facility, development of a simple methodology for calculating radiation fields from the ATR fuel element power histories, and a comparison of the measured and calculated values

  13. ATR Technical Specification Upgrade Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCracken, R.T.; Durney, J.L.; Freund, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a 250 MW, uranium-aluminum fueled test reactor which began full power operation in 1969. The initial operation was controlled by an Operating Limits document based on the original Safety Analysis Report. Additional safety bases were later developed to support Technical Specifications which were approved and implemented in 1977. The Technical Specifications which were initially developed with content and format specified in ANSI/ANS--15.1, ''The Development of Technical Specifications for Research Reactors.'' The safety basis documentation and the Technical Specifications have been updated as required to maintain them current with the ATR facility configuration. All revisions have been made with a content, format and style consistent with the original. A major, two-phase program to upgrade the content, format and style is in progress. This paper describes the first phase of this program

  14. Mox fuel utilization in ATR

    OpenAIRE

    下村 和生; 川太 徳夫

    1987-01-01

    ATR, a heavy-water moderated boiling-light-water cooled reactor developed in Japan, is a unique reactor with out-standing flexibility regarding nuclear fuel utilization, because it has superior properties concerning the utilization of plutonium, recovered uranium and depleted uranium. The development of this type of reactor is expected to contribute both to the stable supply of energy and to the establishment of plutonium utilization in Japan. Much effort has been and will be made on the deve...

  15. Slow growth rates of Amazonian trees: Consequences for carbon cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Simone; Trumbore, Susan; Camargo, Plinio B.; Selhorst, Diogo; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.; Higuchi, Niro; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Quantifying age structure and tree growth rate of Amazonian forests is essential for understanding their role in the carbon cycle. Here, we use radiocarbon dating and direct measurement of diameter increment to document unexpectedly slow growth rates for trees from three locations spanning the Brazilian Amazon basin. Central Amazon trees, averaging only ≈1mm/year diameter increment, grow half as fast as those from areas with more seasonal rainfall to the east and west. Slow growth rates mean that trees can attain great ages; across our sites we estimate 17-50% of trees with diameter >10 cm have ages exceeding 300 years. Whereas a few emergent trees that make up a large portion of the biomass grow faster, small trees that are more abundant grow slowly and attain ages of hundreds of years. The mean age of carbon in living trees (60-110 years) is within the range of or slightly longer than the mean residence time calculated from C inventory divided by annual C allocation to wood growth (40-100 years). Faster C turnover is observed in stands with overall higher rates of diameter increment and a larger fraction of the biomass in large, fast-growing trees. As a consequence, forests can recover biomass relatively quickly after disturbance, whereas recovering species composition may take many centuries. Carbon cycle models that apply a single turnover time for carbon in forest biomass do not account for variations in life strategy and therefore may overestimate the carbon sequestration potential of Amazon forests. PMID:16339903

  16. Relationship between efficiency and pedal rate in cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, E A; Sjøgaard, G

    2007-01-01

    Cycling was performed to test the following two hypotheses: (1) muscular efficiency is unrelated to pedal rate (61, 88, and 115 r.p.m.) for a group of subjects with a wide range of slow twitch (ST) fibers in spite of decreasing whole-body efficiency and (2) muscular efficiency correlates positively...... with % ST muscle fibers, and this correlation is more pronounced at low pedal rates than at high pedal rates. Whole-body gross efficiency decreased from 20-22% at 61 r.p.m. to 15-18% at 115 r.p.m. Mean muscular efficiency for all subjects (n=16) was approximately 26%, with delta efficiency being constant...... and muscular efficiency (taking internal power into account) slightly increasing with pedal rate. Muscular efficiency correlated positively (R(2)=0.25) with % ST fibers (21-97% ST in m. vastus lateralis) at 115 r.p.m. while not at 61 and 88 r.p.m. In conclusion, the decrease in whole-body gross efficiency...

  17. Closed cycle high-repetition-rate pulsed HF laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael R.; Morris, A. V.; Gorton, Eric K.

    1997-04-01

    The design and performance of a closed cycle high repetition rate HF laser is described. A short pulse, glow discharge is formed in a 10 SF6:1 H2 gas mixture at a total pressure of approximately 110 torr within a 15 by 0.5 by 0.5 cm3 volume. Transverse, recirculated gas flow adequate to enable repetitive operation up to 3 kHz is imposed by a centrifugal fan. The fan also forces the gas through a scrubber cell to eliminate ground state HF from the gas stream. An automated gas make-up system replenishes spent gas removed by the scrubber. Typical mean laser output powers up to 3 W can be maintained for extended periods of operation.

  18. Inhibition of DNA-PKcs enhances radiosensitivity and increases the levels of ATM and ATR in NSCLC cells exposed to carbon ion irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lina; Liu, Yuanyuan; Sun, Chao; Yang, Xinrui; Yang, Zhen; Ran, Juntao; Zhang, Qiuning; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Xiaohu

    2015-11-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) exhibits radioresistance to conventional rays, due to its DNA damage repair systems. NSCLC may potentially be sensitized to radiation treatment by reducing those factors that continuously enhance the repair of damaged DNA. In the present study, normal lung fibroblast MRC-5 and lung cancer A549 cells were treated with NU7026 and CGK733, which are inhibitors of the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (PKcs) and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR), respectively, followed by exposure to X-rays and carbon ion irradiation. The cytotoxic activity, cell survival rate, DNA damage repair ability, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis rate of the treated cells were analyzed with MTT assay, colony formation assay, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry, respectively. The transcription and translation levels of the ATM, ATR and DNA-PKcs genes were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. The results indicated that the radiosensitivity and DNA repair ability of A549 cells were reduced, and the percentages of apoptotic cells and those arrested at the G 2 /M phase of the cell cycle were significantly increased, following ionizing radiation with inhibitor-pretreatment. The expression levels of ATM, ATR, DNA-PKcs and phosphorylated histone H2AX, a biomarker for DNA double-strand breaks, were all upregulated at the transcriptional or translational level in A549 cells treated with carbon ion irradiation, compared with the control and X-rays-treated cells. In addition, the treatment with 5-50 µM NU7026 or CGK733 did not produce any obvious cytotoxicity in MRC-5 cells, and the effect of the DNA-PKcs-inhibitor on enhancing the radiosensitivity of A549 cells was stronger than that observed for the ATM and ATR-inhibitor. These findings demonstrated a minor role for ATM and ATR in radiation-induced cell death, since the upregulation of

  19. 77 FR 67557 - Special Conditions: ATR-GIE Avions de Transport Regional, Models ATR42-500 and ATR72-212A...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ..., Models ATR42-500 and ATR72-212A Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security Protection From... exploited by unauthorized access to airplane systems, data buses, and servers. Therefore, these special... ATR42-500 and ATR72-212A airplanes. 1. Airplane Electronic System Security Protection from Unauthorized...

  20. Cadmium depletion impacts on hardening neutron spectrum for advanced fuel testing in ATR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Gray S.

    2011-01-01

    For transmuting long-lived isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products effectively is in a fast neutron spectrum reactor. In the absence of a fast spectrum test reactor in the United States of America (USA), initial irradiation testing of candidate fuels can be performed in a thermal test reactor that has been modified to produce a test region with a hardened neutron spectrum. A test region is achieved with a Cadmium (Cd) filter which can harden the neutron spectrum to a spectrum similar (although still somewhat softer) to that of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). A fuel test loop with a Cd-filter has been installed within the East Flux Trap (EFT) of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A detailed comparison analyses between the cadmium (Cd) filter hardened neutron spectrum in the ATR and the LMFBR fast neutron spectrum have been performed using MCWO. MCWO is a set of scripting tools that are used to couple the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the isotope depletion and buildup code ORIGEN-2.2. The MCWO-calculated results indicate that the Cd-filter can effectively flatten the Rim-Effect and reduce the linear heat rate (LHGR) to meet the advanced fuel testing project requirements at the beginning of irradiation (BOI). However, the filtering characteristics of Cd as a strong absorber quickly depletes over time, and the Cd-filter must be replaced for every two typical operating cycles within the EFT of the ATR. The designed Cd-filter can effectively depress the LHGR in experimental fuels and harden the neutron spectrum enough to adequately flatten the Rim-Effect in the test region. (author)

  1. ATR Commissioning Software Task Force Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ottavio, Ted [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kewisch, Jorg [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Saltmarsh, Chris [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sathe, Smita [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Satogata, Todd [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Shea, Don [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tepikian, Steve [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trahern, Garry [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-12-16

    The Beam Injection Tests Software Task Force was charged with studying the software needed for the ATR tests, seen as a stepping stone or template for the larger scope of the full RHIC control system. This report outlines our avenues of exploration so far, presents the current analysis and implementation work in progress, and gives recommendations for the future on the ATR and longer time scales.

  2. The role of interest and inflation rates in life-cycle cost analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberger, I.; Remer, D. S.; Lorden, G.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of projected interest and inflation rates on life cycle cost calculations is discussed and a method is proposed for making such calculations which replaces these rates by a single parameter. Besides simplifying the analysis, the method clarifies the roles of these rates. An analysis of historical interest and inflation rates from 1950 to 1976 shows that the proposed method can be expected to yield very good projections of life cycle cost even if the rates themselves fluctuate considerably.

  3. ATR Mediates a Checkpoint at the Nuclear Envelope in Response to Mechanical Stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumar, A.; Mazzanti, M.; Mistrik, M.; Košař, Martin; Beznoussenko, G.V.; Mironov, A. A.; Garrè, M.; Parazolli, D.; Shivashankar, G. V.; Scita, G.; Bartek, Jiří; Foiani, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 158, č. 3 (2014), s. 633-646 ISSN 0092-8674 Grant - others:Marie Curie Intra-European(IT) 274093 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : ATR * Mechanical Stress * cell cycle Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 32.242, year: 2014

  4. Advance of core design method for ATR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Seiichirou; Ihara, Toshiteru; Iijima, Takashi; Seino, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Tetsurou; Takeuchi, Michio; Sugawara, Satoru; Matsumoto, Mitsuo.

    1995-01-01

    Core characteristics of ATR demonstration plant has been revised such as increasing the fuel burnup and the channel power, which is achieved by changing the number of fuel rod per fuel assembly from 28 to 36. The research and development concerning the core design method for ATR have been continued. The calculational errors of core analysis code have been evaluated using the operational data of FUGEN and the full scale simulated test results in DCA (Deuterium Critical Assembly) and HTL (Heat Transfer Loop) at O-arai engineering center. It is confirmed that the calculational error of power distribution is smaller than the design value of ATR demonstration plant. Critical heat flux correlation curve for 36 fuel rod cluster has been developed and the probability evaluation method based on its curve, which is more rational to evaluate the fuel dryout, has been adopted. (author)

  5. Circadian cycles in growth and feeding rates of heterotrophic protist plankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Strom, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Growth and feeding rates of four species of planktonic marine heterotrophic protists showed pronounced diel cycles. In most cases, rates were higher during the day and lower at night. However, for the ciliate Strobilidium sp., growth was highest at night. In another ciliate species, Balanion...... comatum, no day-night difference in growth and feeding rates was found. Maintenance of day-night rate differences during 24-h exposures to continuous darkness demonstrated that most of these protists had circadian cycles. The heterotrophic dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina exhibited a clear irradiance...... to culturing in a day: night light cycle in O. marina and found that resetting the circadian cycle in this dinoflagellate temporarily arrested growth and feeding. We suggest that protists use a time-integrated light threshold rather than an instantaneous irradiance to maintain the circadian cell cycle...

  6. Conversion rate for PWR reactors in thorium cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelkorte, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    This work concerns to the determination of the conversion-rate for a PWR reactor with an enrichment of 7.47%, considering a cell, geometrically equal to Angra I, composed by Thorium and U-238 in a 1:1 relation. The study was performed considering neutrons of one and two groups of energy, according to the suggestion from other authors sup(1,2). It was also performed a study about the production and consumption of fissile material. (author)

  7. Rates of incorporation of radioactive molecules during the cell cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.W.; Pallavicini, M.G.; George, Y.S.; Groppi, V.; Look, M.; Dean, P.N.

    1981-01-01

    We report measurements of the incorporation of radioactive molecules during short labeling periods, as a function of cell-cycle stage, using a cell-sorter-based technique that does not require cell synchronization. We have determined: (1) tritiated thymidine ( 3 H-TdR) incorporation throughout S-phase in Lewis lung tumor cells in vitro both before and after treatment with cytosine arabinoside; (2) 3 H-TdR incorporation throughout S-phase in KHT tumor cells in vitro and in vivo; (3) 3 H-TdR incorporation throughout S-phase in Chinese hamster ovary cells and compared it with DNA synthesis throughout S-phase; (4) a mathematical expression describing 3 H-TdR incorporation throughout S-phase in Chinese hamster M3-1 cells; and (5) the simultaneous incorporation of 3 H-TdR and 35 S-methionine as they are related to cell size and DNA content in S49 mouse lymphoma cells. In asynchronously growing cells in vitro and in vivo, 3 H-TdR incorporation was generally low in early and late S-phase and highest in mid-S-phase. However, in Lewis lung tumor cells treated with cytosine arabinoside 3 H-TdR incorporation was highest in early and late S-phase and lowest in mid-S-phase. Incorporation of 35 S-methionine increased continuously with cell size and DNA content. Incorporation of 3 H-TdR in CHO cells was proportional to DNA synthesis

  8. Female labour participation rates in Norway - trends and cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Svendsen, Ingvild

    1999-01-01

    Norwegian female labour participation rates have increased steadily since the beginning of the seventies. This paper address several issues concerning female labour participation series for the period 1972-1997. The main purpose is to identify factors that explain the trend-like increase during the last 25 years and a possible cyclical component that is due to labour market conditions. The resulting relations for women in the age-groups 25-39 years and 40-59 years include long-run effects fro...

  9. Live-Birth Rate Associated With Repeat In Vitro Fertilization Treatment Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew D A C; Tilling, Kate; Nelson, Scott M; Lawlor, Debbie A

    The likelihood of achieving a live birth with repeat in vitro fertilization (IVF) is unclear, yet treatment is commonly limited to 3 or 4 embryo transfers. To determine the live-birth rate per initiated ovarian stimulation IVF cycle and with repeated cycles. Prospective study of 156,947 UK women who received 257,398 IVF ovarian stimulation cycles between 2003 and 2010 and were followed up until June 2012. In vitro fertilization, with a cycle defined as an episode of ovarian stimulation and all subsequent separate fresh and frozen embryo transfers. Live-birth rate per IVF cycle and the cumulative live-birth rates across all cycles in all women and by age and treatment type. Optimal, prognosis-adjusted, and conservative cumulative live-birth rates were estimated, reflecting 0%, 30%, and 100%, respectively, of women who discontinued due to poor prognosis and having a live-birth rate of 0 had they continued. Among the 156,947 women, the median age at start of treatment was 35 years (interquartile range, 32-38; range, 18-55), and the median duration of infertility for all 257,398 cycles was 4 years (interquartile range, 2-6; range, cycle was 29.5% (95% CI, 29.3%-29.7%). This remained above 20% up to and including the fourth cycle. The cumulative prognosis-adjusted live-birth rate across all cycles continued to increase up to the ninth cycle, with 65.3% (95% CI, 64.8%-65.8%) of women achieving a live birth by the sixth cycle. In women younger than 40 years using their own oocytes, the live-birth rate for the first cycle was 32.3% (95% CI, 32.0%-32.5%) and remained above 20% up to and including the fourth cycle. Six cycles achieved a cumulative prognosis-adjusted live-birth rate of 68.4% (95% CI, 67.8%-68.9%). For women aged 40 to 42 years, the live-birth rate for the first cycle was 12.3% (95% CI, 11.8%-12.8%), with 6 cycles achieving a cumulative prognosis-adjusted live-birth rate of 31.5% (95% CI, 29.7%-33.3%). For women older than 42 years, all rates within each cycle

  10. Focusing and matching properties of the ATR transfer line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoupas, N.; Fischer, W.; Kewisch, J.; MacKay, W.W.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Tepikian, S.; Wei, J.

    1997-01-01

    The AGS to RHIC (AtR) beam transfer line has been constructed and will be used to transfer beam bunches from the AGS machine into the RHIC machine which is presently under construction at BNL. The original design of the AtR line has been modified. This article will present the optics of the various sections of the existing AtR beam line, as well as the matching capabilities of the AtR line to the RHIC machine

  11. Some Further Evidence on the Rate of Return to Schooling and the Business Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Randall H.

    1980-01-01

    The business cycle has a strong impact on calculated rates of return to schooling. Cross-sectional rates of return are positively related to the unemployment rate in the year the cross-section is taken. The sensitivity of the relationship was not found to be substantially different among the races. (CT)

  12. The Rate of Return to Schooling and the Business Cycle: Additional Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniesner, Thomas J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Illustrates that the business cycle does indeed disturb relative Black/White rates of return to schooling. Blacks fare relatively poorly in times of high unemployment. Data tables and formulas are presented to support the argument. (CT)

  13. ATR prohibits replication catastrophe by preventing global exhaustion of RPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Luis Ignacio; Altmeyer, Matthias; Rask, Maj-Britt; Lukas, Claudia; Larsen, Dorthe Helena; Povlsen, Lou Klitgaard; Bekker-Jensen, Simon; Mailand, Niels; Bartek, Jiri; Lukas, Jiri

    2013-11-21

    ATR, activated by replication stress, protects replication forks locally and suppresses origin firing globally. Here, we show that these functions of ATR are mechanistically coupled. Although initially stable, stalled forks in ATR-deficient cells undergo nucleus-wide breakage after unscheduled origin firing generates an excess of single-stranded DNA that exhausts the nuclear pool of RPA. Partial reduction of RPA accelerated fork breakage, and forced elevation of RPA was sufficient to delay such "replication catastrophe" even in the absence of ATR activity. Conversely, unscheduled origin firing induced breakage of stalled forks even in cells with active ATR. Thus, ATR-mediated suppression of dormant origins shields active forks against irreversible breakage via preventing exhaustion of nuclear RPA. This study elucidates how replicating genomes avoid destabilizing DNA damage. Because cancer cells commonly feature intrinsically high replication stress, this study also provides a molecular rationale for their hypersensitivity to ATR inhibitors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Real Exchange Rate Fluctuations and the Business Cycle: Evidence from Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Bankim Chadha; Eswar Prasad

    1997-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between the real exchange rate and the business cycle in Japan during the floating rate period. A structural vector autoregression is used to identify different types of macroeconomic shocks that determine fluctuations in aggregate output and the real exchange rate. Relative nominal and real demand shocks are found to be the main determinants of variation in real exchange rate changes, whereas relative output growth is driven primarily by supply shocks. Hi...

  15. Small-molecule inhibitors of Ataxia Telangiectasia and Rad3 related kinase (ATR) sensitize lymphoma cells to UVA radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskup, Edyta; Naym, David Gram; Gniadecki, Robert

    2016-01-01

    inhibited by small molecule antagonists VE-821, VE-822 or Chir-124, or by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Cell cycle and viability were assessed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Small molecule inhibitors of ATR and Chk1 potently sensitized all cell lines to PUVA and, importantly, also to UVA, which by itself...... did not cause apoptotic response. VE-821/2 blocked ATR pathway activation and released the cells from the G2/M block caused by UVA and PUVA, but did not affect apoptosis caused by other chemotherapeutics (etoposide, gemcitabine, doxorubicine) or by hydrogen peroxide. Knockdown of ATR and Chk1 with si......RNA also blocked the ATR pathway and released the cells from G2/M block but did not sensitize the cells to UVA as observed with the small molecule inhibitors. The latter suggested that the synergism between VE-821/2 or Chir-124 and UVA was not solely caused by specific blocking of ATR kinase but also ATR...

  16. C.N. Cofrentes power up-rate up to 110 %. A challenge for cycle 14 core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Bernal, M.I.; Lopez Carbonell, M.T.; Garcia Delgado, L.

    2001-01-01

    C.N.Cofrentes is a GE design BWR reactor with 624 bundles in the core, a rated power of 2894 MWt and it is currently operating Cycle 13 at 104.2 % power. Commercial operation started in 1984 with 12-month cycles at rated power. Both cycle length and thermal power have been increased since then. Power has been up-rated in two steps, first at 102 % in Cycle 4 and later in Cycle 11 at 104.2%. Cycle length has been extended from the original 12-month to the currently 18-month cycles. Next cycle, Cycle 14, will be an 18-month cycle operating at 110 % power. This goal is a challenge for the in-house nuclear design team. Start up for Cycle 14 is planned for the first quarter of 2002. (author)

  17. MIR-ATR sensor for process monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geörg, Daniel; Schalk, Robert; Beuermann, Thomas; Methner, Frank-Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    A mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance (MIR-ATR) sensor has been developed for chemical reaction monitoring. The optical setup of the compact and low-priced sensor consists of an IR emitter as light source, a zinc selenide (ZnSe) ATR prism as boundary to the process, and four thermopile detectors, each equipped with an optical bandpass filter. The practical applicability was tested during esterification of ethanol and formic acid to ethyl formate and water as a model reaction with subsequent distillation. For reference analysis, a Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) spectrometer with diamond ATR module was applied. On-line measurements using the MIR-ATR sensor and the FT-MIR spectrometer were performed in a bypass loop. The sensor was calibrated by multiple linear regression in order to link the measured absorbance in the four optical channels to the analyte concentrations. The analytical potential of the MIR-ATR sensor was demonstrated by simultaneous real-time monitoring of all four chemical substances involved in the esterification and distillation process. The temporal courses of the sensor signals are in accordance with the concentration values achieved by the commercial FT-MIR spectrometer. The standard error of prediction for ethanol, formic acid, ethyl formate, and water were 0.38 mol L   −  1 , 0.48 mol L   −  1 , 0.38 mol L   −  1 , and 1.12 mol L   −  1 , respectively. A procedure based on MIR spectra is presented to simulate the response characteristics of the sensor if the transmission ranges of the filters are varied. Using this tool analyte specific bandpass filters for a particular chemical reaction can be identified. By exchanging the optical filters, the sensor can be adapted to a wide range of processes in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and beverage industries. (paper)

  18. Protein phosphatase 5 is necessary for ATR-mediated DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yoonsung; Cheong, Hyang-Min; Lee, Jung-Hee; Song, Peter I.; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Sang-Yong; Jun, Jae Yeoul; You, Ho Jin

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Serine/threonine protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) has been shown to participate in ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)- and ATR (ATM- and Rad3-related)-mediated checkpoint pathways, which plays an important role in the DNA damage response and maintenance of genomic stability. → However, it is not clear exactly how PP5 participates in this process. → Our results indicate that PP5 is more closely related with ATR-mediated pathway than ATM-mediated pathway in DNA damage repair. -- Abstract: Several recent studies have shown that protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) participates in cell cycle arrest after DNA damage, but its roles in DNA repair have not yet been fully characterized. We investigated the roles of PP5 in the repair of ultraviolet (UV)- and neocarzinostatin (NCS)-induced DNA damage. The results of comet assays revealed different repair patterns in UV- and NCS-exposed U2OS-PS cells. PP5 is only essential for Rad3-related (ATR)-mediated DNA repair. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of 53BP1 and BRCA1, important mediators of DNA damage repair, and substrates of ATR and ATM decreased in U2OS-PS cells exposed to UV radiation. In contrast, the cell cycle arrest proteins p53, CHK1, and CHK2 were normally phosphorylated in U2OS and U2OS-PS cells exposed to UV radiation or treated with NCS. In view of these results, we suggest that PP5 plays a crucial role in ATR-mediated repair of UV-induced DNA damage.

  19. Effect of endometrial cavity fluid on pregnancy rate of fresh versus frozen In Vitro fertilization cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitika Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to study the difference in etiology and outcome in terms of implantation rate and abortion rate in fresh (self-stimulated versus frozen (oocyte donation cycle in vitro fertilization (IVF and in transient versus persistent fluid. Material and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Reproductive Medicine of tertiary care center from January 2012 to November 2015. Data were collected retrospectively from the departmental files. Twenty-four patients from fresh IVF-stimulated cycles and 24 from frozen oocyte donation cycle with their endometrium prepared by hormone replacement treatment were included in the study. All patients selected in the study had grade-A embryo transfer of day 3–4 with maximum three embryo transferred. Pregnancy was defined by rising serum beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin levels performed after 14 days of embryo transfer and further confirmed by ultrasonographic visualization of gestational sac at 6 weeks. All biochemical pregnancies were included in implantation failure. All pregnant patients were followed till the termination of pregnancy and further noted as live birth or abortion. Results: Clinical pregnancy rate was seen more in self-stimulated cycle (62.5% with live birth rate of 50% than hormone replacement treatment cycle, in which clinical pregnancy rate was 45.83% with live birth rate of 33.33%. Clinical pregnancy rate was highest in group with very less fluid in cavity (1–2 mm 63% and with live birth of 52.63%. Clinical pregnancy was seen only in two patients of group B with anterior and posterior (AP diameter of fluid in cavity of 2–3 mm with live birth of only one, whereas in group C, with AP diameter of 3–5 mm, none of the patient conceived. This difference was statistically significant. Clinical pregnancy rate was 65.62% in transient fluid accumulation with live birth rate of 53.25%, which was significantly higher than persistent fluid accumulation

  20. DNA-PKcs, ATM, and ATR Interplay Maintains Genome Integrity during Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez-Rios, Vanessa; Dumitrache, Lavinia C; Downing, Susanna M; Li, Yang; Brown, Eric J; Russell, Helen R; McKinnon, Peter J

    2017-01-25

    The DNA damage response (DDR) orchestrates a network of cellular processes that integrates cell-cycle control and DNA repair or apoptosis, which serves to maintain genome stability. DNA-PKcs (the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent kinase, encoded by PRKDC), ATM (ataxia telangiectasia, mutated), and ATR (ATM and Rad3-related) are related PI3K-like protein kinases and central regulators of the DDR. Defects in these kinases have been linked to neurodegenerative or neurodevelopmental syndromes. In all cases, the key neuroprotective function of these kinases is uncertain. It also remains unclear how interactions between the three DNA damage-responsive kinases coordinate genome stability, particularly in a physiological context. Here, we used a genetic approach to identify the neural function of DNA-PKcs and the interplay between ATM and ATR during neurogenesis. We found that DNA-PKcs loss in the mouse sensitized neuronal progenitors to apoptosis after ionizing radiation because of excessive DNA damage. DNA-PKcs was also required to prevent endogenous DNA damage accumulation throughout the adult brain. In contrast, ATR coordinated the DDR during neurogenesis to direct apoptosis in cycling neural progenitors, whereas ATM regulated apoptosis in both proliferative and noncycling cells. We also found that ATR controls a DNA damage-induced G 2 /M checkpoint in cortical progenitors, independent of ATM and DNA-PKcs. These nonoverlapping roles were further confirmed via sustained murine embryonic or cortical development after all three kinases were simultaneously inactivated. Thus, our results illustrate how DNA-PKcs, ATM, and ATR have unique and essential roles during the DDR, collectively ensuring comprehensive genome maintenance in the nervous system. The DNA damage response (DDR) is essential for prevention of a broad spectrum of different human neurologic diseases. However, a detailed understanding of the DDR at a physiological level is lacking. In contrast to many in

  1. Cytoplasmic ATR Activation Promotes Vaccinia Virus Genome Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Postigo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to most DNA viruses, poxviruses replicate their genomes in the cytoplasm without host involvement. We find that vaccinia virus induces cytoplasmic activation of ATR early during infection, before genome uncoating, which is unexpected because ATR plays a fundamental nuclear role in maintaining host genome integrity. ATR, RPA, INTS7, and Chk1 are recruited to cytoplasmic DNA viral factories, suggesting canonical ATR pathway activation. Consistent with this, pharmacological and RNAi-mediated inhibition of canonical ATR signaling suppresses genome replication. RPA and the sliding clamp PCNA interact with the viral polymerase E9 and are required for DNA replication. Moreover, the ATR activator TOPBP1 promotes genome replication and associates with the viral replisome component H5. Our study suggests that, in contrast to long-held beliefs, vaccinia recruits conserved components of the eukaryote DNA replication and repair machinery to amplify its genome in the host cytoplasm.

  2. Effects of music on work-rate distribution during a cycling time trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G; Wilson, D; Eubank, M

    2004-11-01

    Previous research work on the ergogenic effects of music has mainly involved constant power tests to exhaustion as dependent variables. Time trials are more externally valid than constant power tests, may be more reliable and allow the distribution of self-selected work-rate to be explored. We examined whether music improved starting, finishing and/or overall power during a 10-km cycling time trial, and whether heart rate and subjective responses to this time trial were altered by music. Sixteen participants performed two 10-km time trials on a Cybex cycle ergometer with, and without, the presence of a form of dance music known as "trance" (tempo = 142 beats x min (-1), volume at ear = 87 dB). Participants also completed the Brunel music rating inventory (BMRI) after each time trial in the music condition. The mean +/- SD time to complete the time trial was 1030 +/- 79 s in the music condition compared to 1052 +/- 77 s without music (95 % CI of difference = 10 to 34 s, p = 0.001). Nevertheless, ratings of perceived exertion were consistently (0.8 units) higher throughout the time trial with music (p music-induced increases in cycling speed and heart rate were observed in the first 3 km of the time trial. After completion of the BMRI, participants rated the "tempo" and "rhythm" of the music as more motivating than the "harmony" and "melody" aspects. These results suggest that music improves cycling speed mostly in the first few minutes of a 10-km time trial. In contrast to the findings of previous research, which suggested that music lowers perceived exertion at a constant work-rate, the participants in our time trials selected higher work-rates with music, whilst at the same time perceived these work-rates as being harder than without music.

  3. Fission yeast shelterin regulates DNA polymerases and Rad3(ATR kinase to limit telomere extension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ting Chang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies in fission yeast have previously identified evolutionarily conserved shelterin and Stn1-Ten1 complexes, and established Rad3(ATR/Tel1(ATM-dependent phosphorylation of the shelterin subunit Ccq1 at Thr93 as the critical post-translational modification for telomerase recruitment to telomeres. Furthermore, shelterin subunits Poz1, Rap1 and Taz1 have been identified as negative regulators of Thr93 phosphorylation and telomerase recruitment. However, it remained unclear how telomere maintenance is dynamically regulated during the cell cycle. Thus, we investigated how loss of Poz1, Rap1 and Taz1 affects cell cycle regulation of Ccq1 Thr93 phosphorylation and telomere association of telomerase (Trt1(TERT, DNA polymerases, Replication Protein A (RPA complex, Rad3(ATR-Rad26(ATRIP checkpoint kinase complex, Tel1(ATM kinase, shelterin subunits (Tpz1, Ccq1 and Poz1 and Stn1. We further investigated how telomere shortening, caused by trt1Δ or catalytically dead Trt1-D743A, affects cell cycle-regulated telomere association of telomerase and DNA polymerases. These analyses established that fission yeast shelterin maintains telomere length homeostasis by coordinating the differential arrival of leading (Polε and lagging (Polα strand DNA polymerases at telomeres to modulate Rad3(ATR association, Ccq1 Thr93 phosphorylation and telomerase recruitment.

  4. Muon cycling rate in D/T mixture including doubly muonic molecule formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Eskandari

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available   In the present work, the fundamental behavior of four body molecule formations of pt μμ , pd μμ , dt μμ , tt μμ , and pp μμ in a D/T fusion are considered. Their higher fusion rate, specially the available data for dt μμ , encouraged us to study the muon cycling rate in D/T fusion in the temperature range of (100-1400 K, density and deuterium-tritium concentration ratio. For this purpose, various values for the doubly muonic molecule formation are chosen and with the comparison to the experimental results, the doubly muonic formation rate of 109 s-1 is predicted theoretically. Our calculated cycling rate has shown that having not considered the doubly muonic formation in previous calculations had made no serious changes in the previously calculated values.

  5. VE-821, an ATR inhibitor, causes radiosensitization in human tumor cells irradiated with high LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Nakako Izumi; Sunada, Shigeaki; Lee, Younghyun; Hirakawa, Hirokazu; Yajima, Hirohiko; Fujimori, Akira; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Okayasu, Ryuichi

    2015-01-01

    High linear energy transfer (LET) radiation such as carbon ion particles is successfully used for treatment of solid tumors. The reason why high LET radiation accomplishes greater tumor-killing than X-rays is still not completely understood. One factor would be the clustered or complex-type DNA damages. We previously reported that complex DNA double-strand breaks produced by high LET radiation enhanced DNA end resection, and this could lead to higher kinase activity of ATR protein recruited to RPA-coated single-stranded DNA. Although the effect of ATR inhibition on cells exposed to low LET gamma-rays has recently been reported, little is known regarding the effect of ATR inhibitor on cells treated with high LET radiation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the ATR inhibitor VE-821 in human tumor and normal cells irradiated with high LET carbon ions. HeLa, U2OS, and 1BR-hTERT (normal) cells were pre-treated with 1 μM VE-821 for 1 hour and irradiated with either high LET carbon ions or X-rays. Cell survival, cell cycle distribution, cell growth, and micronuclei formation were evaluated. VE-821 caused abrogation of G2/M checkpoint and forced irradiated cells to divide into daughter cells. We also found that carbon ions caused a higher number of multiple micronuclei than X-rays, leading to decreased cell survival in tumor cells when treated with VE-821, while the survival of irradiated normal cells were not significantly affected by this inhibitor. ATR inhibitor would be an effective tumor radiosensitizer with carbon ion irradiation. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13014-015-0464-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  6. Global water cycle amplifying at less than the Clausius-Clapeyron rate

    OpenAIRE

    Skliris, Nikolaos; Zika, Jan D.; Nurser, George; Josey, Simon A.; Marsh, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A change in the cycle of water from dry to wet regions of the globe would have far reaching impact on humanity. As air warms, its capacity to hold water increases at the Clausius-Clapeyron rate (CC, approximately 7%?°C?1). Surface ocean salinity observations have suggested the water cycle has amplified at close to CC following recent global warming, a result that was found to be at odds with state-of the art climate models. Here we employ a method based on water mass transformation theory for...

  7. Changes of heart rate variability and prefrontal oxygenation during Tai Chi practice versus arm ergometer cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xi; Hui-Chan, Christina Wan-Ying; Tsang, William Wai-Nam

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] Exercise has been shown to improve cardiovascular fitness and cognitive function. Whether the inclusion of mind over exercise would increase parasympathetic control of the heart and brain activities more than general exercise at a similar intensity is not known. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Tai Chi (mind-body exercise) versus arm ergometer cycling (body-focused exercise) on the heart rate variability and prefrontal oxygenation level. [Subjects and Methods] A Tai Chi master was invited to perform Tai Chi and arm ergometer cycling with similar exercise intensity on two separate days. Heart rate variability and prefrontal oxyhemoglobin levels were measured continuously by a RR recorder and near-infrared spectroscopy, respectively. [Results] During Tai Chi exercise, spectral analysis of heart rate variability demonstrated a higher high-frequency power as well as a lower low-frequency/high-frequency ratio than during ergometer cycling, suggesting increased parasympathetic and decreased sympathetic control of the heart. Also, prefrontal oxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin levels were higher than those during arm ergometer exercise. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that increased parasympathetic control of the heart and prefrontal activities may be associated with Tai Chi practice. Having a "mind" component in Tai Chi could be more beneficial for older adults' cardiac health and cognitive function than body-focused ergometer cycling.

  8. Relationship between heart rate and quiescent interval of the cardiac cycle in children using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei [Texas Children' s Hospital, E. B. Singleton Department of Pediatric Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Bogale, Saivivek [Baylor University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Golriz, Farahnaz [Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Krishnamurthy, Rajesh [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Imaging the heart in children comes with the challenge of constant cardiac motion. A prospective electrocardiography-triggered CT scan allows for scanning during a predetermined phase of the cardiac cycle with least motion. This technique requires knowing the optimal quiescent intervals of cardiac cycles in a pediatric population. To evaluate high-temporal-resolution cine MRI of the heart in children to determine the relationship of heart rate to the optimal quiescent interval within the cardiac cycle. We included a total of 225 consecutive patients ages 0-18 years who had high-temporal-resolution cine steady-state free-precession sequence performed as part of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or magnetic resonance angiography study of the heart. We determined the location and duration of the quiescent interval in systole and diastole for heart rates ranging 40-178 beats per minute (bpm). We performed the Wilcoxon signed rank test to compare the duration of quiescent interval in systole and diastole for each heart rate group. The duration of the quiescent interval at heart rates <80 bpm and >90 bpm was significantly longer in diastole and systole, respectively (P<.0001 for all ranges, except for 90-99 bpm [P=.02]). For heart rates 80-89 bpm, diastolic interval was longer than systolic interval, but the difference was not statistically significant (P=.06). We created a chart depicting optimal quiescent intervals across a range of heart rates that could be applied for prospective electrocardiography-triggered CT imaging of the heart. The optimal quiescent interval at heart rates <80 bpm is in diastole and at heart rates ≥90 bpm is in systole. The period of quiescence at heart rates 80-89 bpm is uniformly short in systole and diastole. (orig.)

  9. Assessing the Role of Dissolved Organic Phosphate on Rates of Microbial Phosphorus Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, A. C.; Popendorf, K. J.; Duhamel, S.

    2016-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an element crucial to life, and it is limiting in many parts of the ocean. In oligotrophic environments, the dissolved P pool is cycled rapidly through the activity of microbes, with turnover times of several hours or less. The overarching aim of this study was to assess the flux of P from picoplankton to the dissolved pool and the role this plays in fueling rapid P cycling. To determine if specific microbial groups are responsible for significant return of P to the dissolved pool during cell lifetime, we compared the rate of cellular P turnover (cell-Pτ, the rate of cellular P uptake divided by cellular P content) to the rate of cellular biomass turnover (cellτ). High rates of P return to the dissolved pool during cell lifetime (high cell-Pτ/cellτ) indicate significant P regeneration, fueling more rapid turnover of the dissolved P pool. We hypothesized that cell-Pτ/cellτ varies widely across picoplankton groups. One factor influencing this variation may be each microbial group's relative uptake of dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) versus dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP). As extracellular hydrolysis is necessary for P incorporation from DOP, this process may return more P to the dissolved pool than DIP incorporation. This leads to the question: does a picoplankton's relative uptake of DOP (versus DIP) affect the rate at which it returns phosphorus to the dissolved pool? To address this question, we compared the rate of cellular P turnover based on uptake of DOP and uptake DIP using cultured representatives of three environmentally significant picoplankton groups: Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, and heterotrophic bacteria. These different picoplankton groups are known to take up different ratios of DOP to DIP, and may in turn make significantly different contributions to the regeneration and cycling phosphorus. These findings have implications towards our understanding of the timeframes of biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus in the

  10. Dual-cycle dielectrophoretic collection rates for probing the dielectric properties of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakewell, David J; Holmes, David

    2013-04-01

    A new DEP spectroscopy method and supporting theoretical model is developed to systematically quantify the dielectric properties of nanoparticles using continuously pulsed DEP collection rates. Initial DEP collection rates, that are dependent on the nanoparticle dielectric properties, are an attractive alternative to the crossover frequency method for determining dielectric properties. The new method introduces dual-cycle amplitude modulated and frequency-switched DEP (dual-cycle DEP) where the first collection rate with a fixed frequency acts as a control, and the second collection rate frequency is switched to a chosen value, such that, it can effectively probe the dielectric properties of the nanoparticles. The application of the control means that measurement variation between DEP collection experiments is reduced so that the frequency-switched probe collection is more effective. A mathematical model of the dual-cycle method is developed that simulates the temporal dynamics of the dual-cycle DEP nanoparticle collection system. A new statistical method is also developed that enables systematic bivariate fitting of the multifrequency DEP collection rates to the Clausius-Mossotti function, and is instrumental for determining dielectric properties. A Monte-Carlo simulation validates that collection rates improve estimation of the dielectric properties, compared with the crossover method, by exploiting a larger number of independent samples. Experiments using 200 nm diameter latex nanospheres suspended in 0.2 mS/m KCl buffer yield a nanoparticle conductivity of 26 mS/m that lies within 8% of the expected value. The results show that the dual-frequency method has considerable promise particularly for automated DEP investigations and associated technologies. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Bank Credit Risk Management and Rating Migration Analysis on the Business Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Gavalas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Credit risk measurement remains a critical field of top priority in banking finance, directly implicated in the recent global financial crisis. This paper examines the dynamic linkages between credit risk migration due to rating shifts and prevailing macroeconomic conditions, reflected in alternative business cycle states. An innovative empirical methodology applies to bank internal rating data, under different economic scenarios and investigates the implications of credit risk quality shifts for risk rating transition matrices. The empirical findings are useful and critical for banks to align to Basel guidelines in relation to core capital requirements and risk-weighted assets in the underlying loan portfolio.

  12. Comparison of rapid-cycling and non-rapid-cycling bipolar disorder based on prospective mood ratings in 539 outpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupka, RW; Luckenbaugh, DA; Post, RM; Suppes, T; Altshuler, LL; Keck, PE; Frye, MA; Denicoff, KD; Grunze, H; Leverich, GS; McElroy, SL; Walden, J; Nolen, WA

    Objective: To detect risk factors for rapid cycling in bipolar disorder, the authors compared characteristics of rapid-cycling and non-rapid-cycling patients both from a categorical and a dimensional perspective. Method: Outpatients with bipolar I disorder (N = 419), bipolar II disorder (N = 104),

  13. ATR kinase regulates its attenuation via PPM1D phosphatase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In eukaryotes, in response to replication stress, DNA damage response kinase, ATR is activated, whose signalling abrogationleads to cell lethality due to aberrant fork remodelling and excessive origin firing. Here we report that inhibition ofATR kinase activity specifically during replication stress recovery results in persistent ...

  14. The influence of economic business cycles on United States suicide rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, I M

    1984-01-01

    A number of social science investigators have shown that a downturn in the economy leads to an increase in the suicide rate. However, the previous works on the subject are flawed by the fact that they employ years as their temporal unit of analysis. This time period is so large that it makes it difficult for investigators to precisely determine the length of the lag effect, while at the same time removing the autocorrelation effects. Also, although most works on suicide and the business cycle employ unemployment as a measure of a downturn in the business cycle, the average duration of unemployment represents a better measure for determining the social impact of an economic downturn. From 1947 to 1977 the average monthly duration of unemployment is statistically related to the suicide rate using multivariate time-series analysis. From 1910 to 1939 the Ayres business index, a surrogate measure for movement in the business cycle, is statistically related to the monthly suicide rate. An examination of the findings confirms that in most cases a downturn in the economy causes an increase in the suicide rate.

  15. The Role of Infertility Etiology in Success Rate of Intrauterine Insemination Cycles: An Evaluation of Predictive Factors for Pregnancy Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Rashidi, Mandana; Ghasemi, Afsaneh; Arabipoor, Arezoo; Daghighi, Sara; Pourasghari, Parisa; Zolfaghari, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to identify the prognostic factors that influence the outcome of ovarian stimulation with intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles in couples with different infertility etiology. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed in data of 1348 IUI cycles with ovarian stimulation by clomiphene citrate (CC) and/or gonadotropins in 632 women with five different infertility etiology subgroups at Akbarabbadi Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Results: The pregnancy rate (PR)/ cycle was highest (19.9%) among couples with unexplained infertility and lowest (10.6%) in couples with multiple factors infertility. In cases of unexplained infertility, the best PRs were seen after CC plus gonadotropins stimulation (26.3%) and with inseminated motile sperm count>30×106 (21.9%), but the tendency didn’t reach statistical significant. In the ovarian factor group, the best PRs were observed in women aged between 30 and 34 years (20.8%), with 2-3 preovulatory follicles (37.8%) and infertility duration between 1and 3 years (20.8%), while only infertility duration (p=0.03) and number of preovulatory follicles (p=0.01) were statistically significant. Multiple logistic regression analysis determined that number of preovulatory follicles (p=0.02), duration of infertility (p=0.015), age (p=0.019), infertility etiology (p=0.05) and stimulation regimen (p=0.01) were significant independent factors in order to predict overall clinical PR. Conclusion: The etiology of infertility is important to achieve remarkable IUI success. It is worth mentioning that within different etiologies of infertility, the demographic and cycles characteristics of couples did not show the same effect. Favorable variables for treatment success are as follows: age infertility ≤5 years and a cause of infertility except of multiple factors. PMID:24520471

  16. Numerical Exploration of Kaldorian Macrodynamics: Hopf-Neimark Bifurcations and Business Cycles with Fixed Exchange Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toichiro Asada

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore numerically a three-dimensional discrete-time Kaldorian macrodynamic model in an open economy with fixed exchange rates, focusing on the effects of variation of the model parameters, the speed of adjustment of the goods market α, and the degree of capital mobility β on the stability of equilibrium and on the existence of business cycles. We determine the stability region in the parameter space and find that increase of α destabilizes the equilibrium more quickly than increase of β. We determine the Hopf-Neimark bifurcation curve along which business cycles are generated, and discuss briefly the occurrence of Arnold tongues. Bifurcation and Lyapunov exponent diagrams are computed providing information on the emergence, persistence, and amplitude of the cycles and illustrating the complex dynamics involved. Examples of cycles and other attractors are presented. Finally, we discuss a two-dimensional variation of the model related to a “wealth effect,” called model 2, and show that in this case, α does not destabilize the equilibrium more quickly than β, and that a Hopf-Neimark bifurcation curve does not exist in the parameter space, therefore model 2 does not produce cycles.

  17. Evaluation of color and radon exhalation rate in granite rocks between accelerated aging cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Francisco Diones Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Data used for the assessment of the analyzes performed on three types of dimension stone (Juparana Bordeaux, Branco Nevasca and Golden Artico), in natural state and after several cycles of accelerated aging are presented, correlating them with the gas exhalation rate radon issued by the analyzed lithologies. In the samples were conducted permeability, porosity, colorimetry, image analysis, petrographic and exhalation rate of radon, accompanied by aging tests on climate simulation chamber which simulates change situations of materials by weathering agents, accelerating wear and tear samples. The measurements were performed on samples in natural state, with 50 and 100 cycles of aging acceleration, where each cycle corresponds to variations in temperature and humidity in climatic simulation chamber, with the addition of an internal atmosphere of SO_2 with 25 concentration ppm. The results obtained during the tests were related to better analysis of the changes observed on the samples and the variation rate of exhalation radon emitted. The rocks have radon concentration values above the limits suggested by relevant international agencies (200-400 Bq/m³), with average values in the natural state, in 6149, 1619 and 866 Bq/m³ for Juparana Bordeaux, Branco Nevasca and Golden Arctic, respectively. The other aging cycles (50 and 100 cycles) showed an average increase of 0.8% for Juparana Bordeaux, 6.9% for White Blizzard and -23.87% for the Golden Arctic, with 50 cycles. From 50 to 100 cycles, there was reduction of 3.43% for Juparana Bordeaux and 22.15% for Branco Nevasca and an increase of 13.82% in the Golden Artico. The porosity results in the natural state obtained values an average of 0.696% for Juparana Bordeaux, 0.919% for Branco Nevasca and 0.830% for Golden Artico, and after 50 cycles of accelerated aging, obtained 0.621% to Juparana Bordeaux, 0.910% for Branco Nevasca and 0.840% for Golden Artico. The permeability of the samples showed values in the natural

  18. Estimates of particle- and thorium-cycling rates in the northwest Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murnane, R.J.; Sarmiento, J.L.; Cochran, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    The authors provide least squares estimates of particle-cycling rate constants and their errors at 13 depths in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean using a compilation of published results and conservation equations for thorium and particle cycling. The predicted rates of particle aggregation and disaggregation vary through the water column. The means and standard deviations, based on lognormal probability distributions, for the lowest and highest rates of aggregation (β 2 ) and disaggregation (β -2 ) in the water column are 8±27 y -1 2 -1 , and 580±2000 y -1 -2 3 ±10 4 y -1 . Median values for these rates are 2.1 y -1 2 -1 , and 149 y -1 -2 -1 . Predicted rate constants for thorium adsorption (k 1 = 5.0±1.0x10 4 m 3 kg -1 y -1 ) and desorption (k -1 = 3.1±1.5 y -1 ) are consistent with previous estimates. Least squares estimates of the sum of the time dependence and transport terms from the particle and thorium conservation equations are on the same order as other terms in the conservation equations. Forcing this sum to equal zero would change the predicted rates. Better estimates of the time dependence of thorium activities and particle concentrations and of the concentration and flux of particulate organic matter would help to constrain estimates of β 2 and β -2 . 46 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Frequency-chirp rates of harmonics driven by a few-cycle pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, M.; Mauritsson, J.; Gaarde, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    We present numerical calculations of the time-frequency characteristics of cutoff harmonics generated by few-cycle laser pulses. We find that for driving pulses as short as three optical cycles, the adiabatic prediction for the harmonic chirp rate is very accurate. This negative chirp is so large that the resulting bandwidth causes substantial overlap between neighboring harmonics, and the harmonic phase therefore appears to not vary in time or frequency. By adding a compensating positive chirp to the driving pulse, which reduces the harmonic bandwidth and allows for the appearance of the negative chirp, we can measure the harmonic chirp rates. We also find that the positive chirp on the driving pulse causes the harmonics to shift down in frequency. We show that this counterintuitive result is caused by the change in the strong field continuum dynamics introduced by the variation of the driving frequency with time

  20. Changes of heart rate variability and prefrontal oxygenation during Tai Chi practice versus arm ergometer cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xi; Hui-Chan, Christina Wan-Ying; Tsang, William Wai-Nam

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Exercise has been shown to improve cardiovascular fitness and cognitive function. Whether the inclusion of mind over exercise would increase parasympathetic control of the heart and brain activities more than general exercise at a similar intensity is not known. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Tai Chi (mind-body exercise) versus arm ergometer cycling (body-focused exercise) on the heart rate variability and prefrontal oxygenation level. [Subjects and Methods] A T...

  1. Cycling before and after Exhaustion Differently Affects Cardiac Autonomic Control during Heart Rate Matched Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Weippert

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available During cycling before (PRE and after exhaustion (POST different modes of autonomic cardiac control might occur due to different interoceptive input and altered influences from higher brain centers. We hypothesized that heart rate variability (HRV is significantly affected by an interaction of the experimental period (PRE vs. POST and exercise intensity (HIGH vs. LOW; HIGH = HR > HR at the lactate threshold (HRLT, LOW = HR ≤ HRLT despite identical average HR.Methods: Fifty healthy volunteers completed an incremental cycling test until exhaustion. Workload started with 30 W at a constant pedaling rate (60 revolutions · min−1 and was gradually increased by 30 W · 5 min−1. Five adjacent 60 s inter-beat (R-R interval segments from the immediate recovery period (POST 1–5 at 30 W and 60 rpm were each matched with their HR-corresponding 60 s-segments during the cycle test (PRE 1–5. An analysis of covariance was carried out with one repeated-measures factor (PRE vs. POST exhaustion, one between-subject factor (HIGH vs. LOW intensity and respiration rate as covariate to test for significant effects (p < 0.050 on the natural log-transformed root mean square of successive differences between adjacent R-R intervals (lnRMSSD60s.Results: LnRMSSD60s was significantly affected by the interaction of experimental period × intensity [F(1, 242 = 30.233, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.111]. LnRMSSD60s was higher during PRE compared to POST at LOW intensity (1.6 ± 0.6 vs. 1.4 ± 0.6 ms; p < 0.001. In contrast, at HIGH intensity lnRMSSD60s was lower during PRE compared to POST (1.0 ± 0.4 vs. 1.2 ± 0.4 ms; p < 0.001.Conclusion: Identical net HR during cycling can result from distinct autonomic modulation patterns. Results suggest a pronounced sympathetic-parasympathetic coactivation immediately after the cessation of peak workload compared to HR-matched cycling before exhaustion at HIGH intensity. On the opposite, at LOW intensity cycling, a stronger coactivational

  2. The influence of cycling temperature and cycling rate on the phase specific degradation of a positive electrode in lithium ion batteries: A post mortem analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darma, Mariyam Susana Dewi; Lang, Michael; Kleiner, Karin; Mereacre, Liuda; Liebau, Verena; Fauth, Francois; Bergfeldt, Thomas; Ehrenberg, Helmut

    2016-09-01

    The influence of cycling temperatures and cycling rates on the cycling stability of the positive electrode (cathode) of commercial batteries are investigated. The cathode is a mixture of LiMn2O4 (LMO), LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM) and LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA). It is found that increasing the cycling temperature from 25 °C to 40 °C is detrimental to the long term cycling stability of the cathode. Contrastingly, the improved cycling stability is observed for the cathodes cycled at higher charge/discharge rate (2C/3C instead of 1C/2C). The microstructure analysis by X-ray powder diffraction reveals that a significant capacity fading and an increased overvoltage is observed for NCM and NCA in all the fatigued cathodes. After high number of cycling (above 1500 cycles), NCM becomes partially inactive. In contrast to NCM and NCA, LMO shows a good cycling stability at 25 °C. A pronounced degradation of LMO is only observed for the fatigued cathodes cycled at 40 °C. The huge capacity losses of NCM and NCA are most likely because the blended cathodes were cycled up to 4.12 V vs. the graphite anode during the cycle-life test (corresponds to 4.16 V vs. Li+/Li); which is beyond the stability limit of the layered oxides below 4.05 V vs. Li+/Li.

  3. A physiological counterpoint to mechanistic estimates of "internal power" during cycling at different pedal rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Albin; Jørgensen, Lars Vincents; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2004-01-01

    metabolic variables and to perform a physiological evaluation of five different kinematic models for calculating IP in cycling. Results showed that IP was statistically different between the kinematic models applied. IP based on metabolic variables (IP(met)) was 15, 41, and 91 W at 61, 88, and 115 rpm...... significantly with pedal rate - leg movements accounting for the largest fraction. Further, external power (EP) affected IP significantly such that IP was larger at moderate than at low EP at the majority of the pedal rates applied but on average this difference was only 8%....

  4. Safety significance of ATR passive safety response attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was designed with some passive safety response attributes which contribute to the safety of the facility. The three passive safety attributes being evaluated in the paper are: 1) In-core and in-vessel natural convection cooling, 2) a passive heat sink capability of the ATR primary coolant system (PCS) for the transfer of decay power from the uninsulated piping to the confinement, and 3) gravity feed of emergency coolant makeup. The safety significance of the ATR passive safety response attributes is that the reactor can passively respond to most transients, given a reactor scram, to provide adequate decay power removal and a significant time for operator action should the normal active heat removal systems and their backup systems both fail. The ATR Interim Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) models and results were used to evaluate the significance to ATR fuel damage frequency (or probability) of the above three passive response attributes. The results of the evaluation indicate that the first attribute is a major safety characteristic of the ATR. The second attribute has a noticeable but only minor safety significance. The third attribute has no significant influence on the ATR firewater injection system (emergency coolant system)

  5. Endo- and exocytic rate constants for spontaneous and protein kinase C-activated T cell receptor cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menné, Charlotte; Møller Sørensen, Tine; Siersma, Volkert

    2002-01-01

    To determine the rate constants of spontaneous and activated TCR cycling, we examined TCR endo- and exocytosis in the human T cell line Jurkat by three different methods. Using a simple kinetic model for TCR cycling and non-linear regression analyses, we found that the spontaneous endocytic rate...... constant of the TCR was low (approximately 0.012 min(-1)) whereas the spontaneous exocytic rate constant was similar to that of other cycling receptors (approximately 0.055 min(-1)). Following protein kinase C activation (PKC) the endocytic rate constant was increased tenfold (to approximately 0.128 min(-1......)) whereas the exocytic rate constant was unaffected. Thus, the TCR becomes a rapidly cycling receptor with kinetics similar to classical cycling receptors subsequent to PKC activation. This results in a reduction of the half-life of cell surface expressed TCR from approximately 58 to 6 min and allows rapid...

  6. Live birth rates are satisfactory following multiple IVF treatment cycles in poor prognosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Kamarul B; Keane, Kevin N; Walz, Nikita L; Mitrovic, Katarina I; Hinchliffe, Peter M; Yovich, John L

    2017-03-01

    This seven-year retrospective study analysed the live birth rate (LBR) for women undergoing IVF treatment with various antral follicle counts (AFC). The LBR decreased with lower AFC ratings, and in 290 treatment cycles for women in the poorest AFC category, ≤4 follicles (group E), the LBR was the lowest at 10.7%. The pregnancy loss rate (PLR) significantly increased with poorer AFC categories, from 21.8% in AFC group A (≥20 follicles), to 54.4% in AFC group E (p<0.0001). This trend was repeated with advancing age, from 21.6% for younger women (<35years), to 32.9, 48.5 and 100% for ages 35-39, 40-44 and ≥45 years, respectively (p<0.0001). However, LBR within the specific AFC group E cohort was also age-dependent and decreased significantly from 30.0% for <35 years old, to 13.3, 3.9 and 0% for patients aged 35-39, 40-44 and ≥45 years, respectively. Most, importantly, LBR rates within these age groups were not dependent on the number of IVF attempts (1st, 2nd, 3rd or ≥4 cycles), which indicated that cycle number should not be the primary deciding factor for cessation of IVF treatment in responding women <45years old. Copyright © 2016 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  7. Luteal phase of the menstrual cycle increases sweating rate during exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia A.M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated whether the luteal phase elevation of body temperature would be offset during exercise by increased sweating, when women are normally hydrated. Eleven women performed 60 min of cycling exercise at 60% of their maximal work load at 32ºC and 80% relative air humidity. Each subject participated in two identical experimental sessions: one during the follicular phase (between days 5 and 8 and the other during the luteal phase (between days 22 and 25. Women with serum progesterone >3 ng/mL, in the luteal phase were classified as group 1 (N = 4, whereas the others were classified as group 2 (N = 7. Post-exercise urine volume (213 ± 80 vs 309 ± 113 mL and specific urine gravity (1.008 ± 0.003 vs 1.006 ± 0.002 changed (P < 0.05 during the luteal phase compared to the follicular phase in group 1. No menstrual cycle dependence was observed for these parameters in group 2. Sweat rate was higher (P < 0.05 in the luteal (3.10 ± 0.81 g m-2 min-1 than in the follicular phase (2.80 ± 0.64 g m-2 min-1 only in group 1. During exercise, no differences related to menstrual cycle phases were seen in rectal temperature, heart rate, rate of perceived exertion, mean skin temperature, and pre- and post-exercise body weight. Women exercising in a warm and humid environment with water intake seem to be able to adapt to the luteal phase increase of basal body temperature through reduced urinary volume and increased sweating rate.

  8. Rate equations modeling for hydrogen inventory studies during a real tokamak material thermal cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnin, X., E-mail: xavier.bonnin@iter.org [LSPM-CNRS, Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 99 avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément, F-93430 Villetaneuse (France); Hodille, E. [IRFM, CEA-Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Ning, N. [LSPM-CNRS, Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 99 avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément, F-93430 Villetaneuse (France); Sang, C. [School of Physics and Optoelectronics Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Grisolia, Ch. [IRFM, CEA-Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2015-08-15

    Prediction and control of tritium inventory in plasma-facing components (PFCs) is a critical nuclear safety issue for ITER and future fusion devices. This goal can be achieved through rate equations models as presented here. We calibrate our models with thermal desorption spectrometry results to obtain a validated set of material parameters relevant to hydrogen inventory processes in bulk tungsten. The best fits are obtained with two intrinsic trap types, deep and shallow, and an extrinsic trap created by plasma irradiation and plastic deformation of the tungsten matrix associated with blister formation. We then consider a realistic cycle of plasma discharges consisting of 400 s of plasma exposure followed by a resting period of 1000 s, repeating for several hours. This cycle is then closed by a long “overnight” period, thus providing an estimate of the amount of tritium retained in the PFCs after a full day of standard operation.

  9. Cycle Time and Throughput Rate Modelling Study through the Simulation Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xiong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The shorter cycle time (CT and higher throughput rate (TH are primary goals of the industry, including sensors and transducer factory. The common way of cycle time reduction is to reduce WIP, but such action may also reduce throughput. This paper will show one practical healthy heuristic algorithm based on tool time modelling to balance both the CT and the TH. This algorithm considers the factors that exist in the work in process (WIP and its constrains in modules of the factory. One computer simulation platform based on a semiconductor factory is built to verify this algorithm. The result of computing simulation experiments suggests that the WIP level calculated by this algorithm can achieve the good balance of CT and TH.

  10. ATR Prohibits Replication Catastrophe by Preventing Global Exhaustion of RPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toledo Lazaro, Luis Ignacio; Altmeyer, Matthias; Rask, Maj-Britt

    2013-01-01

    origin firing generates an excess of single-stranded DNA that exhausts the nuclear pool of RPA. Partial reduction of RPA accelerated fork breakage, and forced elevation of RPA was sufficient to delay such "replication catastrophe" even in the absence of ATR activity. Conversely, unscheduled origin firing...... induced breakage of stalled forks even in cells with active ATR. Thus, ATR-mediated suppression of dormant origins shields active forks against irreversible breakage via preventing exhaustion of nuclear RPA. This study elucidates how replicating genomes avoid destabilizing DNA damage. Because cancer cells...

  11. Occupational safety data and casualty rates for the uranium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, F.R.; Hoy, H.C.

    1981-10-01

    Occupational casualty (injuries, illnesses, fatalities, and lost workdays) and production data are presented and used to calculate occupational casualty incidence rates for technologies that make up the uranium fuel cycle, including: mining, milling, conversion, and enrichment of uranium; fabrication of reactor fuel; transportation of uranium and fuel elements; generation of electric power; and transmission of electric power. Each technology is treated in a separate chapter. All data sources are referenced. All steps used to calculate normalized occupational casualty incidence rates from the data are presented. Rates given include fatalities, serious cases, and lost workdays per 100 man-years worked, per 10 12 Btu of energy output, and per other appropriate units of output

  12. Life cycle and population growth rate of Caenorhabditis elegans studied by a new method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschiol, Daniel; Schroeder, Fabian; Traunspurger, Walter

    2009-05-16

    The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is the predominant model organism in biological research, being used by a huge number of laboratories worldwide. Many researchers have evaluated life-history traits of C. elegans in investigations covering quite different aspects such as ecotoxicology, inbreeding depression and heterosis, dietary restriction/supplement, mutations, and ageing. Such traits include juvenile growth rates, age at sexual maturity, adult body size, age-specific fecundity/mortality, total reproduction, mean and maximum lifespan, and intrinsic population growth rates. However, we found that in life-cycle experiments care is needed regarding protocol design. Here, we test a recently developed method that overcomes some problems associated with traditional cultivation techniques. In this fast and yet precise approach, single individuals are maintained within hanging drops of semi-fluid culture medium, allowing the simultaneous investigation of various life-history traits at any desired degree of accuracy. Here, the life cycles of wild-type C. elegans strains N2 (Bristol, UK) and MY6 (Münster, Germany) were compared at 20 degrees C with 5 x 10(9) Escherichia coli ml-1 as food source. High-resolution life tables and fecundity schedules of the two strains are presented. Though isolated 700 km and 60 years apart from each other, the two strains barely differed in life-cycle parameters. For strain N2 (n = 69), the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m d(-1)), calculated according to the Lotka equation, was 1.375, the net reproductive rate (R 0) 291, the mean generation time (T) 90 h, and the minimum generation time (T min) 73.0 h. The corresponding values for strain MY6 (n = 72) were r m = 1.460, R0 = 289, T = 84 h, and T min = 67.3 h. Peak egg-laying rates in both strains exceeded 140 eggs d(-1). Juvenile and early adulthood mortality was negligible. Strain N2 lived, on average, for 16.7 d, while strain MY6 died 2 days earlier; however

  13. Life cycle and population growth rate of Caenorhabditis elegans studied by a new method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schroeder Fabian

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is the predominant model organism in biological research, being used by a huge number of laboratories worldwide. Many researchers have evaluated life-history traits of C. elegans in investigations covering quite different aspects such as ecotoxicology, inbreeding depression and heterosis, dietary restriction/supplement, mutations, and ageing. Such traits include juvenile growth rates, age at sexual maturity, adult body size, age-specific fecundity/mortality, total reproduction, mean and maximum lifespan, and intrinsic population growth rates. However, we found that in life-cycle experiments care is needed regarding protocol design. Here, we test a recently developed method that overcomes some problems associated with traditional cultivation techniques. In this fast and yet precise approach, single individuals are maintained within hanging drops of semi-fluid culture medium, allowing the simultaneous investigation of various life-history traits at any desired degree of accuracy. Here, the life cycles of wild-type C. elegans strains N2 (Bristol, UK and MY6 (Münster, Germany were compared at 20°C with 5 × 109 Escherichia coli ml-1 as food source. Results High-resolution life tables and fecundity schedules of the two strains are presented. Though isolated 700 km and 60 years apart from each other, the two strains barely differed in life-cycle parameters. For strain N2 (n = 69, the intrinsic rate of natural increase (rmd-1, calculated according to the Lotka equation, was 1.375, the net reproductive rate (R0 291, the mean generation time (T 90 h, and the minimum generation time (Tmin 73.0 h. The corresponding values for strain MY6 (n = 72 were rm = 1.460, R0 = 289, T = 84 h, and Tmin = 67.3 h. Peak egg-laying rates in both strains exceeded 140 eggs d-1. Juvenile and early adulthood mortality was negligible. Strain N2 lived, on average, for 16.7 d, while strain MY6 died 2 days

  14. Does screening for vaginal infection have an impact on pregnancy rates in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Eldivan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Assisted reproduction techniques have become widespread worldwide. Considering their costs, physicians endeavor to improve pregnancy rates. Infections are one of the disrupting problems in this arena. We aimed to investigate the effects of screening for vaginal infection on pregnancy rates in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles. Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty patients randomized into two groups for this study. Patients were screened for vaginal infections in group 1, and no screening was performed in group 2. The assisted reproduction outcomes were investigated and compared between the two groups. Results: There was no significant difference between ages, or durations and causes of infertility of patients who conceived and of those who did conceive. Forty-five patients in group 1, and 40 patients in group 2 reached the embryo transfer stage. The rates of conception were 23.5% (n=4 in culture-positive patients (n=17, and 42.9% (n=12 in culture-negative patients (n=28 in group 1. There was no significant difference among patients who were not screened, screen-positive, and screen-negative, in terms of pregnancy rates. None of the patients had Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Trichomonas vaginalis. Bacterial vaginosis was detected in 13 patients, and both bacterial vaginosis and Chlamydia trachomatis were detected in 4 patients. Three of 4 patients who conceived screen-positive and 8 of 12 patients who conceived screen-negative delivered healthily at term. Conclusion: No significant difference was found between patients who were sampled for culture and patients who were not sampled in terms of pregnancy rates. Also, no difference was found between the patients who were culture-negative and patients who were treated with antimicrobials after a culture positive result. Further larger studies are warranted to clarify this issue. PRECIS: No significant difference was found between patients who were sampled for culture and those who

  15. Cumulative live birth rates after one ART cycle including all subsequent frozen-thaw cycles in 1050 women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftager, M; Bogstad, J; Løssl, K

    2017-01-01

    birth increases. There are no previous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing CLBRs in GnRH-antagonist versus GnRH-agonist protocols. Previous studies on CLBR are either retrospective cohort studies including multiple fresh cycles or RCTs comparing single embryo transfer (SET) with double embryo...... transfer (DET). STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: CLBR was a secondary outcome in a Phase IV, dual-center, open-label, RCT including 1050 women allocated to a short GnRH-antagonist or a long GnRH-agonist protocol in a 1:1 ratio over a 5-year period using a web-based concealed randomization code. The minimum...... follow-up time from the first IVF cycle was 2 years. The aim was to compare CLBR between the two groups following utilization of all fresh and frozen embryos from the first ART cycle. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: All women referred for their first ART cycle at two public fertility clinics...

  16. Pedaling rate is an important determinant of human oxygen uptake during exercise on the cycle ergometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E; Borrani, Fabio

    2015-09-01

    Estimation of human oxygen uptake (V˙o2) during exercise is often used as an alternative when its direct measurement is not feasible. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) suggests estimating human V˙o2 during exercise on a cycle ergometer through an equation that considers individual's body mass and external work rate, but not pedaling rate (PR). We hypothesized that including PR in the ACSM equation would improve its V˙o2 prediction accuracy. Ten healthy male participants' (age 19-48 years) were recruited and their steady-state V˙o2 was recorded on a cycle ergometer for 16 combinations of external work rates (0, 50, 100, and 150 W) and PR (50, 70, 90, and 110 revolutions per minute). V˙o2 was calculated by means of a new equation, and by the ACSM equation for comparison. Kinematic data were collected by means of an infrared 3-D motion analysis system in order to explore the mechanical determinants of V˙o2. Including PR in the ACSM equation improved the accuracy for prediction of sub-maximal V˙o2 during exercise (mean bias 1.9 vs. 3.3 mL O2 kg(-1) min(-1)) but it did not affect the accuracy for prediction of maximal V˙o2 (P > 0.05). Confirming the validity of this new equation, the results were replicated for data reported in the literature in 51 participants. We conclude that PR is an important determinant of human V˙o2 during cycling exercise, and it should be considered when predicting oxygen consumption. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  17. Nitrogen inputs accelerate phosphorus cycling rates across a wide variety of terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklein, Alison R; Houlton, Benjamin Z

    2012-02-01

    • Biologically essential elements--especially nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)--constrain plant growth and microbial functioning; however, human activities are drastically altering the magnitude and pattern of such nutrient limitations on land. Here we examine interactions between N and P cycles of P mineralizing enzyme activities (phosphatase enzymes) across a wide variety of terrestrial biomes. • We synthesized results from 34 separate studies and used meta-analysis to evaluate phosphatase activity with N, P, or N×P fertilization. • Our results show that N fertilization enhances phosphatase activity, from the tropics to the extra-tropics, both on plant roots and in bulk soils. By contrast, P fertilization strongly suppresses rates of phosphatase activity. • These results imply that phosphatase enzymes are strongly responsive to changes in local nutrient cycle conditions. We also show that plant phosphatases respond more strongly to fertilization than soil phosphatases. The tight coupling between N and P provides a mechanism for recent observations of N and P co-limitation on land. Moreover, our results suggest that terrestrial plants and microbes can allocate excess N to phosphatase enzymes, thus delaying the onset of single P limitation to plant productivity as can occur via human modifications to the global N cycle. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Web-Enabled ATR/Fusion Development System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruda, Harald

    2001-01-01

    .... We have designed a Web-Enabled ATR/Fusion Development System (WEADS) that will allow distributed development and execution of AIR and fusion algorithms using currently available infrastructures...

  19. ATR kinase regulates its attenuation via PPM1D phosphatase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debadrita Bhattacharya

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... generated in response to ultraviolet and ionizing radiation (Lu et al. 2005a, b; Cha ... nocopy' each other's effects by uncovering persistent ATR signalling that in ...... been shown to indirectly stabilize PPM1D by mediating the.

  20. ATR National Scientific User Facility 2009 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd R. Allen; Mitchell K. Meyer; Frances Marshall; Mary Catherine Thelen; Jeff Benson

    2010-11-01

    This report describes activities of the ATR NSUF from FY-2008 through FY-2009 and includes information on partner facilities, calls for proposals, users week and education programs. The report also contains project information on university research projects that were awarded by ATR NSUF in the fiscal years 2008 & 2009. This research is university-proposed researcher under a user facility agreement. All intellectual property from these experiments belongs to the university per the user agreement.

  1. ATR National Scientific User Facility 2009 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Todd R.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Marshall, Frances; Thelen, Mary Catherine; Benson, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    This report describes activities of the ATR NSUF from FY-2008 through FY-2009 and includes information on partner facilities, calls for proposals, users week and education programs. The report also contains project information on university research projects that were awarded by ATR NSUF in the fiscal years 2008 and 2009. This research is university-proposed researcher under a user facility agreement. All intellectual property from these experiments belongs to the university per the user agreement.

  2. The Effect of Intercourse around Embryo Transfer on Pregnancy Rate in Assisted Reproductive Technology Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Tabibnejad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Implantation failure is the most important cause of recurrent in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI failure. Several reports suggest that intercourse during theperitransfer period might improve pregnancy rates. This study is designed to determine whetherintercourse during the peritransfer period will improve pregnancy and implantation rates in patientsundergoing IVF or ICSI.Materials and Methods: In a randomized control trial study, 390 women with at least five yearsinfertility were evaluated. In the study group, 195 patients had intercourse at least once 12 hours afterembryo transfer. Implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were compared with 195 patients in thecontrol group who had no intercourse for the entire assisted reproductive technology (ART cycle.Results: Implantation rate in the study group was 6.5% in comparison with 5.5% for the controlgroup. Clinical pregnancy rates were not significantly higher in study patients when compared tothe control group (14.2% and 11.7% respectively.Conclusion: The results showed that intercourse during the peritransfer period can not increasepregnancy outcome.

  3. Effective reaction rates in diffusion-limited phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska, Paulina; Kochańczyk, Marek; Miekisz, Jacek; Lipniacki, Tomasz

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the kinetics of the ubiquitous phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle on biological membranes by means of kinetic Monte Carlo simulations on the triangular lattice. We establish the dependence of effective macroscopic reaction rate coefficients as well as the steady-state phosphorylated substrate fraction on the diffusion coefficient and concentrations of opposing enzymes: kinases and phosphatases. In the limits of zero and infinite diffusion, the numerical results agree with analytical predictions; these two limits give the lower and the upper bound for the macroscopic rate coefficients, respectively. In the zero-diffusion limit, which is important in the analysis of dense systems, phosphorylation and dephosphorylation reactions can convert only these substrates which remain in contact with opposing enzymes. In the most studied regime of nonzero but small diffusion, a contribution linearly proportional to the diffusion coefficient appears in the reaction rate. In this regime, the presence of opposing enzymes creates inhomogeneities in the (de)phosphorylated substrate distributions: The spatial correlation function shows that enzymes are surrounded by clouds of converted substrates. This effect becomes important at low enzyme concentrations, substantially lowering effective reaction rates. Effective reaction rates decrease with decreasing diffusion and this dependence is more pronounced for the less-abundant enzyme. Consequently, the steady-state fraction of phosphorylated substrates can increase or decrease with diffusion, depending on relative concentrations of both enzymes. Additionally, steady states are controlled by molecular crowders which, mostly by lowering the effective diffusion of reactants, favor the more abundant enzyme.

  4. A Flow Rate Control Approach on Off-Design Analysis of an Organic Rankine Cycle System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Ran Fu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explored effects of off-design heat source temperature (TW,in or flow rate (mW on heat transfer characteristics and performance of an organic Rankine cycle system by controlling the flow rate of working fluid R245fa (i.e., the operation flow rate of R245fa was controlled to ensure that R245fa reached saturation liquid and vapor states at the outlets of the preheater and evaporator, respectively. The results showed that the operation flow rate of R245fa increased with TW,in or mW; higher TW,in or mW yielded better heat transfer performance of the designed preheater and required higher heat capacity of the evaporator; heat transfer characteristics of preheater and evaporator differed for off-design TW,in and mW; and net power output increased with TW,in or mW. The results further indicated that the control strategy should be different for various off-design conditions. Regarding maximum net power output, the flow rate control approach is optimal when TW,in or mW exceeds the design point, but the pressure control approach is better when TW,in or mW is lower than the design point.

  5. Role of meteorology in simulating methane seasonal cycle and growth rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A.; Patra, P. K.; Ishijima, K.; Morimoto, S.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.

    2012-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenically produced greenhouse gas whose radiative effect is comparable to that of carbon dioxide since the preindustrial time. Methane also contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone and water vapor in the stratosphere, further increasing its importance to the Earth's radiative balance. In the present study, model simulation of CH4 for three different emission scenarios has been conducted using the CCSR/NIES/FRCGC Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) based Chemistry Transport Model (ACTM) with and without nudging of meteorological parameters for the period of 1981-2011. The model simulations are compared with measurements at monthly timescale at surface monitoring stations. We show the overall trends in CH4 growth rate and seasonal cycle at most measurement sites can be fairly successfully modeled by using existing knowledge of CH4 flux trends and seasonality. Detailed analysis reveals the model simulation without nudging has greater seasonal cycle amplitude compared to observation as well as the model simulation with nudging. The growth rate is slightly overestimated for the model simulation without nudging. For better representation of regional/global flux distribution pattern and strength in the future, we are exploring various dynamical and chemical aspects in the forward model with and without nudging.

  6. Influence of the discount rate when comparing costs of different nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Dars, A.; Loaec, Ch.

    2007-01-01

    The article describes the methodology and technical economic results obtained by Cea in the DERECO project. This project was aimed at evaluating ground-breaking and intricate scenarios of the nuclear fuel cycle, and developed on the long term (150 years), in the context of France. All 5 scenarios studied assume that the reliance on nuclear energy will continue in order to satisfy the electricity demand. Despite uncertainties, the trends are breaking free from the analysis. It appears that the scenarios in which fourth generation fast reactors take part are globally more economical than the keeping to the present strategy of plutonium mono-recycling in PWR. The scenario in which fuel reprocessing is stopped has a total cost concerning the fuel cycle similar to that of the present strategy but the disposal cost is twice as high because of the necessity of disposing spent fuels directly in geological formations. The comparative costs of the different scenarios are set out and the influence of the discount rate is highlighted. One must keep in mind that the actualization theory entails a diminishing value for long term costs due to an unavoidable mechanical effect of the discount rate

  7. Sediment nitrogen cycling rates and microbial abundance along a submerged vegetation gradient in a eutrophic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lu; Chen, Chengrong; Liu, Guihua; Liu, Wenzhi

    2018-03-01

    Decline of submerged vegetation is one of the most serious ecological problems in eutrophic lakes worldwide. Although restoration of submerged vegetation is widely assumed to enhance ecological functions (e.g., nitrogen removal) and aquatic biodiversity, the evidence for this assumption is very limited. Here, we investigated the spatio-temporal patterns of sediment potential nitrification, unamended denitrification and N 2 O production rates along a vegetation gradient in the Lake Honghu, where submerged vegetation was largely restored by prohibiting net-pen aquaculture. We also used five functional genes as markers to quantify the abundance of sediment nitrifying and denitrifying microorganisms. Results showed that unvegetated sediments supported greater nitrification rates than rhizosphere sediments of perennial or seasonal vegetation. However, the absence of submerged vegetation had no significant effect on denitrification and N 2 O production rates. Additionally, the abundance of functional microorganisms in sediments was not significantly different among vegetation types. Season had a strong effect on both nitrogen cycling processes and microbial abundances. The highest nitrification rates were observed in September, while the highest denitrification rates occurred in December. The temporal variation of sediment nitrification, denitrification and N 2 O production rates could be due to changes in water quality and sediment properties rather than submerged vegetation and microbial abundances. Our findings highlight that vegetation restoration in eutrophic lakes improves water quality but does not enhance sediment nitrogen removal rates and microbial abundances. Therefore, for reducing the N level in eutrophic lakes, major efforts should be made to control nutrients export from terrestrial ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Low Duty-Cycling MAC Protocol for Low Data-Rate Medical Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongqing Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless body area networks (WBANs are severely energy constrained, and how to improve the energy efficiency so as to prolong the network lifetime as long as possible is one of the most important goals of WBAN research. Low data-rate WBANs are promising to cut down the energy consumption and extend the network lifetime. Considering the characteristics and demands of low data-rate WBANs, a low duty-cycling medium access control (MAC protocol is specially designed for this kind of WBAN in this paper. Longer superframes are exploited to cut down the energy consumed on the transmissions and receptions of redundant beacon frames. Insertion time slots are embedded into the inactive part of a superframe to deliver the frames and satisfy the quality of service (QoS requirements. The number of the data subsections in an insertion time slot can be adaptively adjusted so as to accommodate low data-rate WBANs with different traffic. Simulation results show that the proposed MAC protocol performs well under the condition of low data-rate monitoring traffic.

  9. Earthquake Cycle Simulations with Rate-and-State Friction and Linear and Nonlinear Viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, K. L.; Dunham, E. M.

    2016-12-01

    We have implemented a parallel code that simultaneously models both rate-and-state friction on a strike-slip fault and off-fault viscoelastic deformation throughout the earthquake cycle in 2D. Because we allow fault slip to evolve with a rate-and-state friction law and do not impose the depth of the brittle-to-ductile transition, we are able to address: the physical processes limiting the depth of large ruptures (with hazard implications); the degree of strain localization with depth; the relative partitioning of fault slip and viscous deformation in the brittle-to-ductile transition zone; and the relative contributions of afterslip and viscous flow to postseismic surface deformation. The method uses a discretization that accommodates variable off-fault material properties, depth-dependent frictional properties, and linear and nonlinear viscoelastic rheologies. All phases of the earthquake cycle are modeled, allowing the model to spontaneously generate earthquakes, and to capture afterslip and postseismic viscous flow. We compare the effects of a linear Maxwell rheology, often used in geodetic models, with those of a nonlinear power law rheology, which laboratory data indicates more accurately represents the lower crust and upper mantle. The viscosity of the Maxwell rheology is set by power law rheological parameters with an assumed a geotherm and strain rate, producing a viscosity that exponentially decays with depth and is constant in time. In contrast, the power law rheology will evolve an effective viscosity that is a function of the temperature profile and the stress state, and therefore varies both spatially and temporally. We will also integrate the energy equation for the thermomechanical problem, capturing frictional heat generation on the fault and off-fault viscous shear heating, and allowing these in turn to alter the effective viscosity.

  10. Winter Insulation By Snow Accumulation in a Subarctic Treeline Ecosystem Increases Summer Carbon Cycling Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, T.; Subke, J. A.; Wookey, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of snow accumulation on soil carbon and nutrient cycling is attracting substantial attention from researchers. We know that deeper snow accumulation caused by high stature vegetation increases winter microbial activity and therefore carbon and nitrogen flux rates. However, until now the effect of snow accumulation, by buffering winter soil temperature, on subsequent summer soil processes, has scarcely been considered. We carried out an experiment at an alpine treeline in subarctic Sweden in which soil monoliths, contained within PVC collars, were transplanted between forest (deep winter snow) and tundra heath (shallow winter snow). We measured soil CO2efflux over two growing seasons and quantified soil microbial biomass after the second winter. We showed that respiration rates of transplanted forest soil were significantly reduced compared with control collars (remaining in the forest) as a consequence of colder, but more variable, winter temperatures. We hypothesised that microbial biomass would be reduced in transplanted forests soils but found there was no difference compared to control. We therefore further hypothesised that the similarly sized microbial pool in the control is assembled differently to the transplant. We believe that the warmer winters in forests foster more active consortia of decomposer microbes as a result of different abiotic selection pressures. Using an ecosystem scale experimental approach, we have identified a mechanism that influences summer carbon cycling rates based solely on the amount of snow that accumulates the previous winter. We conclude that modification of snow depth as a consequence of changes in vegetation structure is an important mechanism influencing soil C stocks in ecosystems where snow persists for a major fraction of the year.

  11. Assessment of COTS IR image simulation tools for ATR development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Heiko; Stahl, Christoph; Bjerkeli, Frode; Skaaren-Fystro, Paal

    2005-05-01

    Following the tendency of increased use of imaging sensors in military aircraft, future fighter pilots will need onboard artificial intelligence e.g. ATR for aiding them in image interpretation and target designation. The European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS) in Germany has developed an advanced method for automatic target recognition (ATR) which is based on adaptive neural networks. This ATR method can assist the crew of military aircraft like the Eurofighter in sensor image monitoring and thereby reduce the workload in the cockpit and increase the mission efficiency. The EADS ATR approach can be adapted for imagery of visual, infrared and SAR sensors because of the training-based classifiers of the ATR method. For the optimal adaptation of these classifiers they have to be trained with appropriate and sufficient image data. The training images must show the target objects from different aspect angles, ranges, environmental conditions, etc. Incomplete training sets lead to a degradation of classifier performance. Additionally, ground truth information i.e. scenario conditions like class type and position of targets is necessary for the optimal adaptation of the ATR method. In Summer 2003, EADS started a cooperation with Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace (KDA) from Norway. The EADS/KDA approach is to provide additional image data sets for training-based ATR through IR image simulation. The joint study aims to investigate the benefits of enhancing incomplete training sets for classifier adaptation by simulated synthetic imagery. EADS/KDA identified the requirements of a commercial-off-the-shelf IR simulation tool capable of delivering appropriate synthetic imagery for ATR development. A market study of available IR simulation tools and suppliers was performed. After that the most promising tool was benchmarked according to several criteria e.g. thermal emission model, sensor model, targets model, non-radiometric image features etc., resulting in a

  12. Recurring coronal holes and their rotation rates during the solar cycles 22-24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, K.; Ravindra, B.; Hegde, Manjunath; Doddamani, Vijayakumar H.

    2018-05-01

    Coronal holes (CHs) play a significant role in making the Earth geo-magnetically active during the declining and minimum phases of the solar cycle. In this study, we analysed the evolutionary characteristics of the Recurring CHs from the year 1992 to 2016. The extended minimum of Solar Cycle 23 shows unusual characteristics in the number of persistent coronal holes in the mid- and low-latitude regions of the Sun. Carrington rotation maps of He 10830 Å and EUV 195 Å observations are used to identify the Coronal holes. The latitude distribution of the RCHs shows that most of them are appeared between ± 20° latitudes. In this period, more number of recurring coronal holes appeared in and around 100° and 200° Carrington longitudes. The large sized coronal holes lived for shorter period and they appeared close to the equator. From the area distribution over the latitude considered, it shows that more number of recurring coronal holes with area <10^{21} cm2 appeared in the southern latitude close to the equator. The rotation rates calculated from the RCHs appeared between ± 60° latitude shows rigid body characteristics. The derived rotational profiles of the coronal holes show that they have anchored to a depth well below the tachocline of the interior, and compares well with the helioseismology results.

  13. Replacing single frozen-thawed euploid embryos in a natural cycle in ovulatory women may increase live birth rates compared to medicated cycles in anovulatory women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Alexis P; Setton, Robert; Stone, Logan D; Pereira, Nigel; Xu, Kangpu; Rosenwaks, Zev; Spandorfer, Steven D

    2017-10-01

    The goal of this study was to compare pregnancy outcomes between natural frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles in ovulatory women and programmed FET cycles in anovulatory women after undergoing in vitro fertilization with preimplantation genetic screening (IVF-PGS). This was a retrospective cohort study performed at an academic medical center. Patients undergoing single FET IVF-PGS cycles between October 2011 and December 2014 were included. Patients were stratified by type of endometrial replacement: programmed cycles with estrogen/progesterone replacement and natural cycles. IVF-PGS with 24-chromosome screening was performed on all included patients. Those patients with euploid embryos had single embryo transfer in a subsequent FET. The primary study outcome was live birth/ongoing pregnancy rate. Secondary outcomes included implantation, biochemical pregnancy, and miscarriage rates. One hundred thirteen cycles met inclusion criteria: 65 natural cycles and 48 programmed cycles. The programmed FET group was younger (35.9 ± 4.5 vs. 37.5 ± 3.7, P = 0.03) and had a higher AMH (3.95 ± 4.2 vs. 2.37 ± 2.4, P = 0.045). The groups were similar for BMI, gravidity, parity, history of uterine surgery, and incidence of Asherman's syndrome. There was also no difference in embryo grade at biopsy or transfer, and proportion of day 5 and day 6 transfers. Implantation rates were higher in the natural FET group (0.66 ± 0.48 vs. 0.44 ± 0.50, P = 0.02). There was no difference in the rates of biochemical pregnancy or miscarriage. After controlling for age, live birth/ongoing pregnancy rate was higher in natural FETs with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.68 (95% CI 1.22-5.87). Natural FET in ovulatory women after IVF-PGS is associated with increased implantation and live birth rates compared to programmed FET in anovulatory women. Further investigation is needed to determine whether these findings hold true in other patient cohorts.

  14. Web-based automation of green building rating index and life cycle cost analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzaib Khan, Jam; Zakaria, Rozana; Aminuddin, Eeydzah; IzieAdiana Abidin, Nur; Sahamir, Shaza Rina; Ahmad, Rosli; Nafis Abas, Darul

    2018-04-01

    Sudden decline in financial markets and economic meltdown has slow down adaptation and lowered interest of investors towards green certified buildings due to their higher initial costs. Similarly, it is essential to fetch investor’s attention towards more development of green buildings through automated tools for the construction projects. Though, historical dearth is found on the automation of green building rating tools that brings up an essential gap to develop an automated analog computerized programming tool. This paper present a proposed research aim to develop an integrated web-based automated analog computerized programming that applies green building rating assessment tool, green technology and life cycle cost analysis. It also emphasizes to identify variables of MyCrest and LCC to be integrated and developed in a framework then transformed into automated analog computerized programming. A mix methodology of qualitative and quantitative survey and its development portray the planned to carry MyCrest-LCC integration to an automated level. In this study, the preliminary literature review enriches better understanding of Green Building Rating Tools (GBRT) integration to LCC. The outcome of this research is a pave way for future researchers to integrate other efficient tool and parameters that contributes towards green buildings and future agendas.

  15. Estimation of uranium resources by life-cycle or discovery-rate models: a critique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.P.

    1976-10-01

    This report was motivated primarily by M. A. Lieberman's ''United States Uranium Resources: An Analysis of Historical Data'' (Science, April 30). His conclusion that only 87,000 tons of U 3 O 8 resources recoverable at a forward cost of $8/lb remain to be discovered is criticized. It is shown that there is no theoretical basis for selecting the exponential or any other function for the discovery rate. Some of the economic (productivity, inflation) and data issues involved in the analysis of undiscovered, recoverable U 3 O 8 resources on discovery rates of $8 reserves are discussed. The problem of the ratio of undiscovered $30 resources to undiscovered $8 resources is considered. It is concluded that: all methods for the estimation of unknown resources must employ a model of some form of the endowment-exploration-production complex, but every model is a simplification of the real world, and every estimate is intrinsically uncertain. The life-cycle model is useless for the appraisal of undiscovered, recoverable U 3 O 8 , and the discovery rate model underestimates these resources

  16. The duration of gonadotropin stimulation does not alter the clinical pregnancy rate in IVF or ICSI cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purandare, N; Emerson, G; Kirkham, C; Harrity, C; Walsh, D; Mocanu, E

    2017-08-01

    Ovarian stimulation is an essential part of assisted reproduction treatments. Research on whether the duration of stimulation alters the success in assisted reproduction has not been conclusive. The purpose of the study was to establish whether the duration of ovarian stimulation alters the success in assisted reproduction treatments. All fresh (non-donor) stimulation cycles performed in an academic tertiary referral ART centre over a period of 18 years, between 1st January 1997 and 31st December 2014, were identified. Data were prospectively and electronically collected. IVF and ICSI cycles were analysed independently. Each category was then subdivided into assisted reproduction cycles where the antagonist, long (down regulation) and flare protocol were used. Clinical pregnancy was the main outcome measured. A total of 10,478 stimulation cycles (6011 fresh IVF and 4467 fresh ICSI) reaching egg collection were included. We showed no significant difference in CP rates in IVF cycles for the long (p = 0.082), antagonist (p = 0.217) or flare (p = 0.741) protocol cycles or in ICSI cycles with the long (p = 0.223), antagonist (p = 0.766) or the flare (p = 0.690) protocol with regards the duration of stimulation. The duration of stimulation does not alter the CP rate in ICSI or IVF cycles using the long, antagonist or flare stimulation protocol.

  17. The effect of air bubble position after blastocyst transfer on pregnancy rates in IVF cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Brooke E; Lathi, Ruth B; Henne, Melinda B; Fisher, Stephanie L; Milki, Amin A

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between air bubble position after blastocyst transfer (BT) and pregnancy rates (PRs). Retrospective cohort study. University-based infertility center. Three hundred fifteen consecutive nondonor BTs by a single provider. Catheters were loaded with 25 μL of culture media, 20 μL of air, 25 μL of media containing the blastocysts, 20 μL of air, and a small amount of additional media. The distance from the air bubble to the fundus, as seen on abdominal ultrasound examination, was measured at the time of transfer. Air bubble location was categorized as 20 mm from the fundus. Clinical pregnancy rate. After controlling for age, parity, FSH and frozen transfers, and accounting for repeated cycles per patient, the PRs for both the >20-mm (38.3%) and the 10-20-mm (42.0%) from the fundus group were significantly reduced compared with the group in which the bubble was Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Consecutive days of cold water immersion: effects on cycling performance and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jamie; Peake, Jonathan M; Buchheit, Martin

    2013-02-01

    We investigated performance and heart rate (HR) variability (HRV) over consecutive days of cycling with post-exercise cold water immersion (CWI) or passive recovery (PAS). In a crossover design, 11 cyclists completed two separate 3-day training blocks (120 min cycling per day, 66 maximal sprints, 9 min time trialling [TT]), followed by 2 days of recovery-based training. The cyclists recovered from each training session by standing in cold water (10 °C) or at room temperature (27 °C) for 5 min. Mean power for sprints, total TT work and HR were assessed during each session. Resting vagal-HRV (natural logarithm of square-root of mean squared differences of successive R-R intervals; ln rMSSD) was assessed after exercise, after the recovery intervention, during sleep and upon waking. CWI allowed better maintenance of mean sprint power (between-trial difference [90 % confidence limits] +12.4 % [5.9; 18.9]), cadence (+2.0 % [0.6; 3.5]), and mean HR during exercise (+1.6 % [0.0; 3.2]) compared with PAS. ln rMSSD immediately following CWI was higher (+144 % [92; 211]) compared with PAS. There was no difference between the trials in TT performance (-0.2 % [-3.5; 3.0]) or waking ln rMSSD (-1.2 % [-5.9; 3.4]). CWI helps to maintain sprint performance during consecutive days of training, whereas its effects on vagal-HRV vary over time and depend on prior exercise intensity.

  19. SOFIAS – Software for life-cycle assessment and environmental rating of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oregi Isasi, X.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development process of a new software tool, called SOFIAS (Software for a Sustainable Architecture, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitivenes. Following CEN/TC 350 standard on environmental assessment of buildings, the tool aims at assisting building professionals on reducing the life-cycle environmental impact through the design of new buildings and the refurbishment of existing ones. In addition, SOFIAS provides a rating system based on the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methodology. This paper explains the innovative aspects of this software, the working methodology and the different type of results that can be obtained using SOFIAS.Este artículo describe el proceso de desarrollo de la nueva herramienta informática SOFIAS (Software de Funciones Integradas para una Arquitectura Sostenible, financiado por el Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad del Gobierno de España. En base al estandar de la evaluación ambiental de los edificios definido por el CEN/TC 350, esta nueva herramienta tiene como objetivo ayudar a los técnicos de la construcción en reducir el impacto ambiental durante el ciclo de vida a través del diseño optimizado de nuevos edificios o edificios rehabilitados. De forma paralela, SOFIAS proporciona un nuevo sistema de calificación basado en la metodología del Análisis de Ciclo de Vida (ACV. Este artículo expone los aspectos innovadores de esta herramienta informática, la metodología de trabajo y los diferentes tipos de resultados que se pueden obtener tras su aplicación.

  20. Two-rate periodic protocol with dynamics driven through many cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Satyaki

    2017-02-01

    We study the long time dynamics in closed quantum systems periodically driven via time dependent parameters with two frequencies ω1 and ω2=r ω1 . Tuning of the ratio r there can unleash plenty of dynamical phenomena to occur. Our study includes integrable models like Ising and X Y models in d =1 and the Kitaev model in d =1 and 2 and can also be extended to Dirac fermions in graphene. We witness the wave-function overlap or dynamic freezing that occurs within some small/ intermediate frequency regimes in the (ω1,r ) plane (with r ≠0 ) when the ground state is evolved through a single cycle of driving. However, evolved states soon become steady with long driving, and the freezing scenario gets rarer. We extend the formalism of adiabatic-impulse approximation for many cycle driving within our two-rate protocol and show the near-exact comparisons at small frequencies. An extension of the rotating wave approximation is also developed to gather an analytical framework of the dynamics at high frequencies. Finally we compute the entanglement entropy in the stroboscopically evolved states within the gapped phases of the system and observe how it gets tuned with the ratio r in our protocol. The minimally entangled states are found to fall within the regime of dynamical freezing. In general, the results indicate that the entanglement entropy in our driven short-ranged integrable systems follow a genuine nonarea law of scaling and show a convergence (with a r dependent pace) towards volume scaling behavior as the driving is continued for a long time.

  1. In-column ATR-FTIR spectroscopy to monitor affinity chromatography purification of monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet-Audet, Maxime; Kazarian, Sergei G.; Byrne, Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    In recent years many monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have entered the biotherapeutics market, offering new treatments for chronic and life-threatening diseases. Protein A resin captures monoclonal antibody (mAb) effectively, but the binding capacity decays over repeated purification cycles. On an industrial scale, replacing fouled Protein A affinity chromatography resin accounts for a large proportion of the raw material cost. Cleaning-in-place (CIP) procedures were developed to extend Protein A resin lifespan, but chromatograms cannot reliably quantify any remaining contaminants over repeated cycles. To study resin fouling in situ, we coupled affinity chromatography and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for the first time, by embedding an attenuated total reflection (ATR) sensor inside a micro-scale column while measuring the UV 280 nm and conductivity. Our approach quantified the in-column protein concentration in the resin bed and determined protein conformation. Our results show that Protein A ligand leached during CIP. We also found that host cell proteins bound to the Protein A resin even more strongly than mAbs and that typical CIP conditions do not remove all fouling contaminants. The insights derived from in-column ATR-FTIR spectroscopic monitoring could contribute to mAb purification quality assurance as well as guide the development of more effective CIP conditions to optimise resin lifespan. PMID:27470880

  2. In-column ATR-FTIR spectroscopy to monitor affinity chromatography purification of monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet-Audet, Maxime; Kazarian, Sergei G.; Byrne, Bernadette

    2016-07-01

    In recent years many monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have entered the biotherapeutics market, offering new treatments for chronic and life-threatening diseases. Protein A resin captures monoclonal antibody (mAb) effectively, but the binding capacity decays over repeated purification cycles. On an industrial scale, replacing fouled Protein A affinity chromatography resin accounts for a large proportion of the raw material cost. Cleaning-in-place (CIP) procedures were developed to extend Protein A resin lifespan, but chromatograms cannot reliably quantify any remaining contaminants over repeated cycles. To study resin fouling in situ, we coupled affinity chromatography and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for the first time, by embedding an attenuated total reflection (ATR) sensor inside a micro-scale column while measuring the UV 280 nm and conductivity. Our approach quantified the in-column protein concentration in the resin bed and determined protein conformation. Our results show that Protein A ligand leached during CIP. We also found that host cell proteins bound to the Protein A resin even more strongly than mAbs and that typical CIP conditions do not remove all fouling contaminants. The insights derived from in-column ATR-FTIR spectroscopic monitoring could contribute to mAb purification quality assurance as well as guide the development of more effective CIP conditions to optimise resin lifespan.

  3. Grayscale optical correlator for real-time onboard ATR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Zhou, Hanying; Reyes, George F.

    2001-03-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been developing grayscale optical correlator (GOC) for a variety of automatic target recognition (ATR) applications. As reported in previous papers, a 128 X 128 camcorder-sized GOC has been demonstrated for real-time field ATR demos. In this paper, we will report the recent development of a prototype 512 X 512 GOC utilizing a new miniature ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator with a 7-micrometers pixel pitch. Experimental demonstration of ATR applications using this new GOC will be presented. The potential of developing a matchbox-sized GOC will also be discussed. A new application of synthesizing new complex-valued correlation filters using this real-axis 512 X 512 SLM will also be included.

  4. ATR, Radiation Transport Models in Atmosphere at Various Altitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: ATR is a user-oriented code for calculating quickly and simply radiation environment problems at all altitudes in the atmosphere. The code is based on parametric models of a comprehensive data base of air transport results which were generated using discrete ordinates transport techniques for infinite homogeneous air. The effects of air-ground interface and non-uniform air density are treated as perturbation corrections on homogeneous air results. ATR includes parametric models for neutrons and secondary gamma rays as a function of space, energy and source- target angle out to angles of 550 g/cm 2 of air. ATR contains parameterizations of infinite medium air transport of neutrons and secondary gamma rays and correction factors for the air-ground interface and high altitude exponential air. It responds to a series of user-oriented commands which specify the source, geometry and print options to output a variety of useful air transport information, including energy-angle dependent fluence, dose, current, and isodose ranges. 2 - Method of solution: The version 3 differs from earlier versions in that version 3 contains the parameterization of the new neutron and secondary gamma rays data base that was calculated using the latest DNA approved cross sections for air. Other improvements to the ATR code include: parameterization and inclusion into ATR of new air- over-ground correction factors, low energy x-rays calculations, new fission source, and new convenience options. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: ATR takes approximately 36,000 decimal words of storage. This can be lessened by overlaying different parts of the code

  5. Correlation between TCA cycle flux and glucose uptake rate during respiro-fermentative growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyland, Jan; Fu, Jianan; Blank, Lars M

    2009-12-01

    Glucose repression of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated under different environmental conditions using (13)C-tracer experiments. Real-time quantification of the volatile metabolites ethanol and CO(2) allowed accurate carbon balancing. In all experiments with the wild-type, a strong correlation between the rates of growth and glucose uptake was observed, indicating a constant yield of biomass. In contrast, glycerol and acetate production rates were less dependent on the rate of glucose uptake, but were affected by environmental conditions. The glycerol production rate was highest during growth in high-osmolarity medium (2.9 mmol g(-1) h(-1)), while the highest acetate production rate of 2.1 mmol g(-1) h(-1) was observed in alkaline medium of pH 6.9. Under standard growth conditions (25 g glucose l(-1) , pH 5.0, 30 degrees C) S. cerevisiae had low fluxes through the pentose phosphate pathway and the TCA cycle. A significant increase in TCA cycle activity from 0.03 mmol g(-1) h(-1) to about 1.7 mmol g(-1) h(-1) was observed when S. cerevisiae grew more slowly as a result of environmental perturbations, including unfavourable pH values and sodium chloride stress. Compared to experiments with high glucose uptake rates, the ratio of CO(2) to ethanol increased more than 50 %, indicating an increase in flux through the TCA cycle. Although glycolysis and the ethanol production pathway still exhibited the highest fluxes, the net flux through the TCA cycle increased significantly with decreasing glucose uptake rates. Results from experiments with single gene deletion mutants partially impaired in glucose repression (hxk2, grr1) indicated that the rate of glucose uptake correlates with this increase in TCA cycle flux. These findings are discussed in the context of regulation of glucose repression.

  6. Efficacy of ATR inhibitors as single agents in Ewing sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto-Soler, Maria; Morgado-Palacin, Isabel; Lafarga, Vanesa

    2016-01-01

    Ewing sarcomas (ES) are pediatric bone tumors that arise from a driver translocation, most frequently EWS/FLI1. Current ES treatment involves DNA damaging agents, yet the basis for the sensitivity to these therapies remains unknown. Oncogene-induced replication stress (RS) is a known source...... efficacy in ES xenografts as single agents. Expression of EWS/FLI1 or EWS/ERG oncogenic translocations sensitizes non-ES cells to ATR inhibitors. Our data shed light onto the sensitivity of ES to genotoxic agents, and identify ATR inhibitors as a potential therapy for Ewing Sarcomas....

  7. Thermoregulation and energetics in hibernating black bears: metabolic rate and the mystery of multi-day body temperature cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøien, Øivind; Blake, John; Barnes, Brian M

    2015-05-01

    Black bears overwintering in outdoor hibernacula in Alaska decrease metabolism to as low as 25 % basal rates, while core body temperature (T(b)) decreases from 37 to 38 °C to a mid-hibernation average of 33 °C. T b develops cycles of 1.6-7.3 days length within a 30-36 °C range, with no circadian component. We do not know the mechanism or function underlying behind the T(b) cycles, although bears avoid T(b) of bears with body mass (BM) from 35.5 to 116.5 kg while recording T(b), metabolic rate (M), and shivering. T b cycle length (0.8-11.2 days) shortened as T den decreased (partial R(2) = 0.490, p bears with low thermal conductance (TC) showed more variation in T b cycle length with changes in T(den) than did smaller bears with high TC. Minimum T b across cycles was not consistent. At low T(den) bears shivered both during rising and decreasing phases of T(b) cycles, with minimum shivering during the fastest drop in T(b). At higher T den the T b pattern was more irregular. Mean M through T(b) cycles was negatively correlated to T den below lower critical temperatures (1.4-10.4 °C). Minimum M (0.3509 W/kg ± 0.0121 SE) during mid-hibernation scaled to BM [M (W) = 1.217 × BM (kg)(0.6979), R(2) = 0.855, p bears with high TC had the same T(b) cycle length as bears with low TC except at high T(den), thus not supporting the hypothesis that cooling rate alone determines T(b) cycle length. We conclude that T(b) cycling is effected by control of thermoregulatory heat production, and T(b) cycling may not be present when hibernating bears use passive thermoregulation. More intense shivering in the rising phase of cycles may contribute to the prevention of muscle disuse atrophy. Bears hibernating in cold conditions use more energy during hibernation than in warmer conditions. At T den below lower critical temperature, no extra energy expenditure results from T b cycling compared to keeping a stable T(b.)

  8. Low doses of caffeine reduce heart rate during submaximal cycle ergometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wetter Thomas J

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the cardiovascular effects of two low-levels of caffeine ingestion in non habitual caffeine users at various submaximal and maximal exercise intensities. Methods Nine male subjects (19–25 yr; 83.3 ± 3.1 kg; 184 ± 2 cm, underwent three testing sessions administered in a randomized and double-blind fashion. During each session, subjects were provided 4 oz of water and a gelatin capsule containing a placebo, 1.5 mg/kg caffeine, or 3.0 mg/kg caffeine. After thirty minutes of rest, a warm-up (30 Watts for 2 min the pedal rate of 60 rpm was maintained at a steady-state output of 60 watts for five minutes; increased to 120 watts for five minutes and to 180 watts for five minutes. After a 2 min rest the workload was 180 watts for one minute and increased by 30 watts every minute until exhaustion. Heart rate (HR was measured during the last 15-seconds of each minute of submaximal exercise. Systolic blood pressure (BP was measured at rest and during each of the three sub-maximal steady state power outputs. Minute ventilation (VE, Tidal volume (VT, Breathing frequency (Bf, Rating of perceived exertion (RPE, Respiratory exchange ratio (RER, and Oxygen consumption (VO2 were measured at rest and during each minute of exercise. Results Caffeine at 1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg body weight significantly lowered (p E, VT, VO2, RPE, maximal power output or time to exhaustion. Conclusion In non habitual caffeine users it appears that consuming a caffeine pill (1.5 & 3.0 mg/kg at a dose comparable to 1–3 cups of coffee lowers heart rate during submaximal exercise but not at near maximal and maximal exercise. In addition, this caffeine dose also only appears to affect systolic blood pressure at rest but not during cycling exercise.

  9. Atmospheric cycles of nitrogen oxides and ammonia. [source strengths and destruction rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottger, A.; Ehhalt, D. H.; Gravenhorst, G.

    1981-01-01

    The atmospheric cycles of nitrogenous trace compounds for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres are discussed. Source strengths and destruction rates for the nitrogen oxides: NO, NO2 and HNO3 -(NOX) and ammonia (NH3) are given as a function of latitude over continents and oceans. The global amounts of NOX-N and NH3-N produced annually in the period 1950 to 1975 (34 + 5 x one trillion g NOx-N/yr and 29 + or - 6 x one trillion g NH3-N/yr) are much less than previously assumed. Globally, natural and anthropogenic emissions are of similar magnitude. The NOx emission from anthropogenic sources is 1.5 times that from natural processes in the Northern Hemisphere, whereas in the Southern Hemisphere, it is a factor of 3 or 4 less. More than 80% of atmospheric ammonia seems to be derived from excrements of domestic animals, mostly by bulk deposition: 24 + or - 9 x one trillion g NO3 -N/yr and 21 + or - 9 x one trillion g NH4+-N/yr. Another fraction may be removed by absorption on vegetation and soils.

  10. Earthquake cycle simulations with rate-and-state friction and power-law viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kali L.; Dunham, Eric M.

    2018-05-01

    We simulate earthquake cycles with rate-and-state fault friction and off-fault power-law viscoelasticity for the classic 2D antiplane shear problem of a vertical, strike-slip plate boundary fault. We investigate the interaction between fault slip and bulk viscous flow with experimentally-based flow laws for quartz-diorite and olivine for the crust and mantle, respectively. Simulations using three linear geotherms (dT/dz = 20, 25, and 30 K/km) produce different deformation styles at depth, ranging from significant interseismic fault creep to purely bulk viscous flow. However, they have almost identical earthquake recurrence interval, nucleation depth, and down-dip coseismic slip limit. Despite these similarities, variations in the predicted surface deformation might permit discrimination of the deformation mechanism using geodetic observations. Additionally, in the 25 and 30 K/km simulations, the crust drags the mantle; the 20 K/km simulation also predicts this, except within 10 km of the fault where the reverse occurs. However, basal tractions play a minor role in the overall force balance of the lithosphere, at least for the flow laws used in our study. Therefore, the depth-integrated stress on the fault is balanced primarily by shear stress on vertical, fault-parallel planes. Because strain rates are higher directly below the fault than far from it, stresses are also higher. Thus, the upper crust far from the fault bears a substantial part of the tectonic load, resulting in unrealistically high stresses. In the real Earth, this might lead to distributed plastic deformation or formation of subparallel faults. Alternatively, fault pore pressures in excess of hydrostatic and/or weakening mechanisms such as grain size reduction and thermo-mechanical coupling could lower the strength of the ductile fault root in the lower crust and, concomitantly, off-fault upper crustal stresses.

  11. Impact of The Endometrioma on Ovarian Response and Pregnancy Rate in In Vitro Fertilization Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Ashrafi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our objective was to evaluate the effect of ovarian endometrioma on ovarian stimulation outcomes in in vitro fertilization cycles (IVF. Materials and Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we followed 103 patients who underwent intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI procedures over a 24-months period. The study group consisted of 47 infertile women with either unilateral or bilateral ovarian endometrial cysts of less than 3 cm. The control group consisting of 57 patients with mild male factor infertility was candidate for ICSI treatment during the same time period as the study groups. Both groups were compared for number of oocytes retrieved, grades of oocytes, as well as embryo quantity and quality. Results: Our results showed similar follicle numbers, good embryo grades (A or B and pregnancy rates in the compared groups. However, patients with endometrioma had higher gonadotropin consumption than the control group. The mean number of retrieved oocytes in patients with endometrioma was significantly lower than control group (6.6 ± 3.74 vs. 10.4 ± 5.25 (p<0.001. In addition, patients with endometrioma had significantly lower numbers of metaphase II (MII oocytes (5 ± 3.21 than controls (8.2 ± 5.4 (p<0.001. In patients with unilateral endometrioma, there were no significant differences in main outcome measures between normal and involved ovaries in the patients with endometrioma. Conclusion: Patients with ovarian endometrioma had poor outcome. They showed poor ovarian response with lower total numbers of retrieved oocytes and lower MII oocytes during the stimulation phase; however, it does not affect the total number of embryos transferred per patient, quality of embryos, and pregnancy rate per patient.

  12. Randomized controlled trial of the effect of endometrial injury on implantation and clinical pregnancy rates during the first ICSI cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maged, Ahmed M; Rashwan, Hamsa; AbdelAziz, Suzy; Ramadan, Wafaa; Mostafa, Walaa A I; Metwally, Ahmed A; Katta, Maha

    2018-02-01

    To assess whether endometrial injury in the cycle preceding controlled ovarian hyperstimulation during intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) improves the implantation and pregnancy rates. Between January 1, 2016, and March 31, 2017, a randomized controlled trial was conducted at a center in Egypt among 300 women who met inclusion criteria (first ICSI cycle, aged endometrial scratch in the cycle preceding controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (n=150) or to a control group (n=150). Only data analysts were masked to group assignment. The primary outcomes were the implantation and clinical pregnancy rates at 14 days and 4 weeks after embryo transfer, respectively. Analyses were by intention to treat. The implantation rate was significantly higher in the endometrial scratch group (41.3% [90/218]) than in the control group (30.0% [63/210]; Pendometrial scratch group (44.2% [61/138]) than in the control group (30.4% [41/135]; PEndometrial injury in the cycle preceding the stimulation cycle improved implantation and pregnancy rates during ICSI. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT02660125. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  13. Preliminary Design and Simulation of a Turbo Expander for Small Rated Power Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Capata

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC system, which operates with organic fluids, is one of the leading technologies for “waste energy recovery”. It works as a conventional Rankine Cycle but, as mentioned, instead of steam/water, an organic fluid is used. This change allows it to convert low temperature heat into electric energy where required. Large numbers of studies have been carried out to identify the most suitable fluids, system parameters and the various configurations. In the present market, most ORC systems are designed and manufactured for the recovery of thermal energy from various sources operating at “large power rating” (exhaust gas turbines, internal combustion engines, geothermal sources, large melting furnaces, biomass, solar, etc.; from which it is possible to produce a large amount of electric energy (30 kW ÷ 300 kW. Such applications for small nominal power sources, as well as the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines (car sedan or town, ships, etc. or small heat exchangers, are very limited. The few systems that have been designed and built for small scale applications, have, on the other hand, different types of expander (screw, scroll, etc.. These devices are not adapted for placement in small and restricted places like the interior of a conventional car. The aim of this work is to perform the preliminary design of a turbo-expander that meets diverse system requirements such as low pressure, small size and low mass flow rates. The expander must be adaptable to a small ORC system utilizing gas of a diesel engine or small gas turbine as thermal source to produce 2–10 kW of electricity. The temperature and pressure of the exhaust gases, in this case study (400–600 °C and a pressure of 2 bar, imposes a limit on the use of an organic fluid and on the net power that can be produced. In addition to water, fluids such as CO2, R134a and R245fa have been considered. Once the operating fluids has been chosen

  14. Thermomechanical earthquake cycle simulations with rate-and-state friction and nonlinear viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, K. L.; Dunham, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    We simulate earthquake cycles on a 2D strike-slip fault, modeling both rate-and-state fault friction and an off-fault nonlinear power-law rheology. The power-law rheology involves an effective viscosity that is a function of temperature and stress, and therefore varies both spatially and temporally. All phases of the earthquake cycle are simulated, allowing the model to spontaneously generate earthquakes, and to capture frictional afterslip and postseismic and interseismic viscous flow. We investigate the interaction between fault slip and bulk viscous flow, using experimentally-based flow laws for quartz-diorite in the crust and olivine in the mantle, representative of the Mojave Desert region in Southern California. We first consider a suite of three linear geotherms which are constant in time, with dT/dz = 20, 25, and 30 K/km. Though the simulations produce very different deformation styles in the lower crust, ranging from significant interseismc fault creep to purely bulk viscous flow, they have almost identical earthquake recurrence interval, nucleation depth, and down-dip coseismic slip limit. This indicates that bulk viscous flow and interseismic fault creep load the brittle crust similarly. The simulations also predict unrealistically high stresses in the upper crust, resulting from the fact that the lower crust and upper mantle are relatively weak far from the fault, and from the relatively small role that basal tractions on the base of the crust play in the force balance of the lithosphere. We also find that for the warmest model, the effective viscosity varies by an order of magnitude in the interseismic period, whereas for the cooler models it remains roughly constant. Because the rheology is highly sensitive to changes in temperature, in addition to the simulations with constant temperature we also consider the effect of heat generation. We capture both frictional heat generation and off-fault viscous shear heating, allowing these in turn to alter the

  15. Synthesis of hierarchical porous honeycomb carbon for lithium-sulfur battery cathode with high rate capability and long cycling stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Yaohui; Zhang, Zhian; Zhang, Xiahui; Ren, Guodong; Wang, Xiwen; Lai, Yanqing; Liu, Yexiang; Li, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel HPHC was prepared by a simple template process. • The HPHC as matrix to load sulfur for Lithium-Sulfur battery cathodes. • S-HPHC cathode shows high rate capability and long cycling stability. • The sulfur-HPHC composite presents electrochemical stability up to 300 cycles at 1.5 C. - Abstract: Sulfur has a high specific capacity of 1675 mAh g −1 as lithium battery cathode, but its rapid capacity fading due to polysulfides dissolution presents a significant challenge for practical applications. Here we report a novel hierarchical porous honeycomb carbon (HPHC) for lithium-sulfur battery cathode with effective trapping of polysulfides. The HPHC was prepared by a simple template process, and a sulfur-carbon composite based on HPHC was synthesized for lithium-sulfur batteries by a melt-diffusion method. It is found that the elemental sulfur was dispersed inside the three-dimensionally hierarchical pores of HPHC based on the analyses. Electrochemical tests reveal that the sulfur-HPHC composite shows high rate capability and long cycling stability as cathode materials. The sulfur-HPHC composite with sulfur content of 66.3 wt% displays an initial discharge capacity of 923 mAh g −1 and a reversible discharge capacity of 564 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles at 2 C charge-discharge rate. In particular, the sulfur-HPHC composite presents a long term cycling stability up to 300 cycles at 1.5 C. The results illustrate that the electrochemical reaction constrained inside the interconnected macro/meso/micropores of HPHC would be the dominant factor for the excellent high rate capability and long cycling stability of the sulfur cathode, and the three-dimensionally honeycomb carbon network would be a promising carbon matrix structure for lithium-sulfur battery cathode

  16. Elevated serum estradiol levels in artificial autologous frozen embryo transfer cycles negatively impact ongoing pregnancy and live birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Rani; Jindal, Sangita; Feil, Heather; Buyuk, Erkan

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between serum estradiol (E 2 ) levels during artificial autologous frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles and ongoing pregnancy/live birth rates (OP/LB). A historical cohort study was conducted in an academic setting in order to correlate peak and average estradiol levels with ongoing pregnancy/live birth rates for all autologous artificial frozen embryo transfer cycles performed from 1/2011 to 12/2014. Average and peak E 2 levels from 110 autologous artificial FET cycles from 95 patients were analyzed. Average E 2 levels were significantly lower in cycles resulting in OP/LB compared to those that did not (234.1 ± 16.6 pg/ml vs. 315 ± 24.8 pg/ml, respectively, p = 0.04). Although peak E 2 levels were not significantly different between cycles resulting in OP/LB compared with those that did not (366.9 ± 27.7 pg/ml vs. 459.1 ± 32.3 pg/ml, respectively, p = 0.19), correlation analysis revealed a statistically significant (p = 0.02) downward trend in OP/LB rates with increasing peak E 2 levels. This study suggests that elevated E 2 levels in artificial autologous FET cycles are associated with lower OP/LB rates. Estradiol levels should be monitored during artificial FET cycles.

  17. Rate and selectivity modification in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over charcoal supported molybdenum by forced concentration cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dun, J.W.; Gulari, E.

    1985-01-01

    Forced concentration cycling of the feed between pure CO and pure H/sub 2/ was used to successfully change both the selectivities and reactivities of promoted and unpromoted charcoal supported molybdenum catalysts in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. It was found that with the unpromoted catalyst the rate enhancement increases with temperature and selectivity shifts towards methane. At the lower temperatures concentration cycling increases selectivity to ethane and higher hydrocarbons to levels only achievable with promised catalysts. Periodic operation with the potassium promoted catalyst results in small rate enhancements but the olefin to paraffin ratio is dramatically changed without changing the carbon number distribution

  18. Application of a high-repetition-rate laser diagnostic system for single-cycle-resolved imaging in internal combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, Johan; Richter, Mattias; Nygren, Jenny; Aldén, Marcus; Hultqvist, Anders; Christensen, Magnus; Johansson, Bengt

    2002-08-20

    High-repetition-rate laser-induced fluorescence measurements of fuel and OH concentrations in internal combustion engines are demonstrated. Series of as many as eight fluorescence images, with a temporal resolution ranging from 10 micros to 1 ms, are acquired within one engine cycle. A multiple-laser system in combination with a multiple-CCD camera is used for cycle-resolved imaging in spark-ignition, direct-injection stratified-charge, and homogeneous-charge compression-ignition engines. The recorded data reveal unique information on cycle-to-cycle variations in fuel transport and combustion. Moreover, the imaging system in combination with a scanning mirror is used to perform instantaneous three-dimensional fuel-concentration measurements.

  19. Mutation analysis and characterization of ATR sequence variants in breast cancer cases from high-risk French Canadian breast/ovarian cancer families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichette Roxane

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3-related (ATR is a member of the PIK-related family which plays, along with ATM, a central role in cell-cycle regulation. ATR has been shown to phosphorylate several tumor suppressors like BRCA1, CHEK1 and TP53. ATR appears as a good candidate breast cancer susceptibility gene and the current study was designed to screen for ATR germline mutations potentially involved in breast cancer predisposition. Methods ATR direct sequencing was performed using a fluorescent method while widely available programs were used for linkage disequilibrium (LD, haplotype analyses, and tagging SNP (tSNP identification. Expression analyses were carried out using real-time PCR. Results The complete sequence of all exons and flanking intronic sequences were analyzed in DNA samples from 54 individuals affected with breast cancer from non-BRCA1/2 high-risk French Canadian breast/ovarian families. Although no germline mutation has been identified in the coding region, we identified 41 sequence variants, including 16 coding variants, 3 of which are not reported in public databases. SNP haplotypes were established and tSNPs were identified in 73 healthy unrelated French Canadians, providing a valuable tool for further association studies involving the ATR gene, using large cohorts. Our analyses led to the identification of two novel alternative splice transcripts. In contrast to the transcript generated by an alternative splicing site in the intron 41, the one resulting from a deletion of 121 nucleotides in exon 33 is widely expressed, at significant but relatively low levels, in both normal and tumoral cells including normal breast and ovarian tissue. Conclusion Although no deleterious mutations were identified in the ATR gene, the current study provides an haplotype analysis of the ATR gene polymorphisms, which allowed the identification of a set of SNPs that could be used as tSNPs for large-scale association

  20. Hierarchical N-Rich Carbon Sponge with Excellent Cycling Performance for Lithium-Sulfur Battery at High Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Mengmeng; Wang, Juan; Wang, Xin; Wang, Cheng

    2018-04-17

    Lithium-sulfur batteries (LSBs) are receiving extensive attention because of their high theoretical energy density. However, practical applications of LSBs are still hindered by their rapid capacity decay and short cycle life, especially at high rates. Herein, a highly N-doped (≈13.42 at %) hierarchical carbon sponge (HNCS) with strong chemical adsorption for lithium polysulfide is fabricated through a simple sol-gel route followed by carbonization. Upon using the HNCS as the sulfur host material in the cathode and an HNCS-coated separator, the battery delivers an excellent cycling stability with high specific capacities of 424 and 326 mA h g -1 and low capacity fading rates of 0.033 % and 0.030 % per cycle after 1000 cycles under high rates of 5 and 10 C, respectively, which are superior to those of other reported carbonaceous materials. These impressive cycling performances indicate that such a battery could promote the practical application prospects of LSBs. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. An ATR architecture for algorithm development and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Gøril M.; Løkken, Kristin H.; Brattli, Alvin; Palm, Hans C.; Haavardsholm, Trym

    2013-05-01

    A research platform with four cameras in the infrared and visible spectral domains is under development at the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI). The platform will be mounted on a high-speed jet aircraft and will primarily be used for image acquisition and for development and test of automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms. The sensors on board produce large amounts of data, the algorithms can be computationally intensive and the data processing is complex. This puts great demands on the system architecture; it has to run in real-time and at the same time be suitable for algorithm development. In this paper we present an architecture for ATR systems that is designed to be exible, generic and efficient. The architecture is module based so that certain parts, e.g. specific ATR algorithms, can be exchanged without affecting the rest of the system. The modules are generic and can be used in various ATR system configurations. A software framework in C++ that handles large data ows in non-linear pipelines is used for implementation. The framework exploits several levels of parallelism and lets the hardware processing capacity be fully utilised. The ATR system is under development and has reached a first level that can be used for segmentation algorithm development and testing. The implemented system consists of several modules, and although their content is still limited, the segmentation module includes two different segmentation algorithms that can be easily exchanged. We demonstrate the system by applying the two segmentation algorithms to infrared images from sea trial recordings.

  2. High gonadotropin dosage does not affect euploidy and pregnancy rates in IVF PGS cycles with single embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barash, Oleksii O; Hinckley, Mary D; Rosenbluth, Evan M; Ivani, Kristen A; Weckstein, Louis N

    2017-11-01

    Does high gonadotropin dosage affect euploidy and pregnancy rates in PGS cycles with single embryo transfer? High gonadotropin dosage does NOT affect euploidy and pregnancy rates in PGS cycles with single embryo transfer. PGS has been proven to be the most effective and reliable method for embryo selection in IVF cycles. Euploidy and blastulation rates decrease significantly with advancing maternal age. In order to recruit an adequate number of follicles, the average dosage of gonadotropins administered during controlled ovarian stimulation in IVF cycles often increases significantly with advancing maternal age. A retrospective study of SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) PGS outcome data from blastocysts biopsied on day 5 or day 6 was conducted to identify differences in euploidy and clinical pregnancy rates. Seven hundred and ninety four cycles of IVF treatment with PGS between January 2013 and January 2017 followed by 651 frozen embryo transfers were included in the study (506 patients, maternal age (y.o.) - 37.2 ± 4.31). A total of 4034 embryos were analyzed (5.1 ± 3.76 per case) for euploidy status. All embryos were vitrified after biopsy, and selected embryos were subsequently thawed for a hormone replacement frozen embryo transfer cycle. All cycles were analyzed by total gonadotropin dosage (5000 IU), by number of eggs retrieved (1-5, 5-10, 10-15 and >15 eggs) and patient's age (cycles) euploidy rates ranged from 62.3% (cycle) to 67.5% (>5000 IU were used in the IVF cycle) (OR = 0.862, 95% CI 0.687-1.082, P = 0.2) and from 69.5% (1-5 eggs retrieved) to 60.0% (>15 eggs retrieved) (OR = 0.658, 95% CI 0.405-1.071, P = 0.09). Similar data were obtained in the oldest group of patients (≥41 y.o. - 189 IVF cycles): euploidy rates ranged from 30.7 to 26.4% (OR = 0.811, 95% CI 0.452-1.454, P = 0.481) when analyzed by total dosage of gonadotropins used in the IVF cycle and from 40.0 to 30.7% (OR = 0.531, 95% CI 0.204-1.384, P = 0.19), when assessed by the total

  3. Effect of chain wheel shape on crank torque, freely chosen pedal rate, and physiological responses during submaximal cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Albin; Jensen, Kurt; Hallen, Jostein

    2009-01-01

    at preset pedal rates as well as resulting in lower pedal rate and metabolic response at freely chosen pedal rate. Ten trained cyclists (mean+/-SD: 27+/-3 years of age, 182+/-4 cm tall, 77.5+/-7.0 kg of body mass, and peak oxygen uptake of 61.7+/-4.4 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) cycled with a Biopace and a circular...... chain wheel at 180 W at 65 and 90 rpm for recording of crank torque profiles, and at their freely chosen pedal rate for recording of pedal rate and metabolic response, including oxygen uptake and blood lactate concentration. Crank torque profiles were similar between the two chain wheels during cycling...... at preset pedal rates. During cycling at the freely chosen pedal rate (being 93+/-6 and 93+/-4 rpm for the Biopace and circular chain wheel, respectively), blood lactate concentration was significantly different between the two chain wheels, being on average 0.2 mmol l(-1) lower with the Biopace chain wheel...

  4. Time-dependent tritium inventories and flow rates in fuel cycle components of a tokamak fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuan, W.

    1995-01-01

    Time-dependent inventories and flow rates for several components of the fuel cycle are modeled and studied through the use of a new modular-type model for the dynamic simulation of the fuel cycle in a fusion reactor. The complex dynamic behavior in the modeled subsystems is analyzed using this new model. Preliminary results using fuel cycle design configurations similar to ITER are presented and analyzed. The inventories and flow rates inside the primary vacuum pumping, fuel cleanup unit and isotope separation system are studied. Ways to minimize the tritium inventory are also assessed. This was performed by looking at various design options that could be used to minimize tritium inventory for specific components. (orig.)

  5. Effects of menstrual cycle phase on ratings of implicitly erotic art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudski, Jeffrey M; Bernstein, Lauren R; Mitchell, Joy E

    2011-08-01

    Women's perceptions of and responses to explicitly erotic stimuli have been shown to vary across the menstrual cycle. The present study examined responses to implicit eroticism. A total of 83 women provided reactions to paintings by Georgia O'Keeffe in 6 day intervals over the course of 1 month. Among freely cycling women (n = 37), 31% of their descriptions included sexual themes during the first half of their cycle, dropping to 9% of descriptions in the second half. In women using oral contraceptives (n = 46), there was no significant difference in descriptions across the cycle (13% in the first half vs. 17% in the second half). Results were discussed in terms of evolutionary psychology and social-cognitive perspectives on the relationships between hormonal fluctuations and sexuality.

  6. Negative correlation between rates of molecular evolution and flowering cycles in temperate woody bamboos revealed by plastid phylogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Peng-Fei; Vorontsova, Maria S; Nanjarisoa, Olinirina Prisca; Razanatsoa, Jacqueline; Guo, Zhen-Hua; Haevermans, Thomas; Li, De-Zhu

    2017-12-21

    Heterogeneous rates of molecular evolution are universal across the tree of life, posing challenges for phylogenetic inference. The temperate woody bamboos (tribe Arundinarieae, Poaceae) are noted for their extremely slow molecular evolutionary rates, supposedly caused by their mysterious monocarpic reproduction. However, the correlation between substitution rates and flowering cycles has not been formally tested. Here we present 15 newly sequenced plastid genomes of temperate woody bamboos, including the first genomes ever sequenced from Madagascar representatives. A data matrix of 46 plastid genomes representing all 12 lineages of Arundinarieae was assembled for phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses. We conducted phylogenetic analyses using different sequences (e.g., coding and noncoding) combined with different data partitioning schemes, revealing conflicting relationships involving internodes among several lineages. A great difference in branch lengths were observed among the major lineages, and topological inconsistency could be attributed to long-branch attraction (LBA). Using clock model-fitting by maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches, we furthermore demonstrated extensive rate variation among these major lineages. Rate accelerations mainly occurred for the isolated lineages with limited species diversification, totaling 11 rate shifts during the tribe's evolution. Using linear regression analysis, we found a negative correlation between rates of molecular evolution and flowering cycles for Arundinarieae, notwithstanding that the correlation maybe insignificant when taking the phylogenetic structure into account. Using the temperate woody bamboos as an example, we found further evidence that rate heterogeneity is universal in plants, suggesting that this will pose a challenge for phylogenetic reconstruction of bamboos. The bamboos with longer flowering cycles tend to evolve more slowly than those with shorter flowering cycles, in accordance

  7. Differential Processing of Low and High LET Radiation Induced DNA Damage: Investigation of Switch from ATM to ATR Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Janapriya; Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    The members of the phosphatidylinositol kinase-like kinase family of proteins namely ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR) are directly responsible for the maintenance of genomic integrity by mounting DDR through signaling and facilitating the recruitment of repair factors at the sites of DNA damage along with coordinating the deployment of cell cycle checkpoints to permit repair by phosphorylating Checkpoint kinase Chk1, Chk2 and p53. High LET radiation from GCR (Galactic Cosmic Rays) consisting mainly of protons and high energy and charged (HZE) particles from SPE (Solar Particle Event) pose a major health risk for astronauts on their space flight missions. The determination of these risks and the design of potential safeguards require sound knowledge of the biological consequences of lesion induction and the capability of the cells to counter them. We here strive to determine the coordination of ATM and ATR kinases at the break sites directly affecting checkpoint signaling and DNA repair and whether differential processing of breaks induced by low and high LET radiation leads to possible augmentation of swap of these damage sensors at the sites of DNA damage. Exposure of cells to IR triggers rapid autophosphorylation of serine-1981 that causes dimer dissociation and initiates monomer formation of ATM. ATM kinase activity depends on the disruption of the dimer, which allows access and phosphorylation of downstream ATM substrates like Chk2. Evidence suggests that ATM is activated by the alterations in higher-order chromatin structure although direct binding of ATM to DSB ends may be a crucial step in its activation. On the other hand, in case of ATR, RPA (replication protein A)-coated ssDNA (single-stranded DNA) generated as a result of stalled DNA replication or during processing of chromosomal lesions is crucial for the localization of ATR to sites of DNA damage in association with ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP). Although the

  8. Activation of the ATR kinase by the RPA-binding protein ETAA1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Peter; Hoffmann, Saskia; Tollenaere, Maxim A X

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the ATR kinase following perturbations to DNA replication relies on a complex mechanism involving ATR recruitment to RPA-coated single-stranded DNA via its binding partner ATRIP and stimulation of ATR kinase activity by TopBP1. Here, we discovered an independent ATR activation pathway...... in vertebrates, mediated by the uncharacterized protein ETAA1 (Ewing's tumour-associated antigen 1). Human ETAA1 accumulates at DNA damage sites via dual RPA-binding motifs and promotes replication fork progression and integrity, ATR signalling and cell survival after genotoxic insults. Mechanistically...

  9. Numerical exploration of Kaldorian interregional macrodynamics: stability and the trade threshold for business cycles under fixed exchange rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Toichiro; Douskos, Christos; Markellos, Panagiotis

    2011-01-01

    The stability of equilibrium and the possibility of generation of business cycles in a discrete interregional Kaldorian macrodynamic model with fixed exchange rates are explored using numerical methods. One of the aims is to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the numerical approach for dynamical systems of moderately high dimensionality and several parameters. The model considered is five-dimensional with four parameters, the speeds of adjustment of the goods markets and the degrees of economic interactions between the regions through trade and capital movement. Using a grid search method for the determination of the region of stability of equilibrium in two-dimensional parameter subspaces, and coefficient criteria for the flip bifurcation - and Hopf bifurcation - curve, we determine the stability region in several parameter ranges and identify Hopf bifurcation curves when they exist. It is found that interregional cycles emerge only for sufficient interregional trade. The relevant threshold is predicted by the model at 14 - 16 % of trade transactions. By contrast, no minimum level of capital mobility exists in a global sense as a requirement for the emergence of interregional cycles; the main conclusion being, therefore, that cycles may occur for very low levels of capital mobility if trade is sufficient. Examples of bifurcation and Lyapunov exponent diagrams illustrating the occurrence of cycles or period doubling, and examples of the development of the occurring cycles, are given. Both supercritical and subcritical bifurcations are found to occur, the latter type indicating coexistence of a point and a cyclical attractor.

  10. Live birth rates in the first complete IVF cycle among 20 687 women using a freeze-all strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qianqian; Chen, Qiuju; Wang, Li; Lu, Xuefeng; Lyu, Qifeng; Wang, Yun; Kuang, Yanping

    2018-05-01

    What is the chance of having a child following one complete IVF cycle for patients using a freeze-all strategy? The chance of having a child after the first complete IVF cycle was 50.74% with the freeze-all strategy. Several studies have reported on live birth rates (LBRs) based on only the fresh embryo transfer cycle or fresh and frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles. However, the LBR using a freeze-all strategy in IVF is unknown. This retrospective cohort study included 20 687 women who started their first IVF cycles using a freeze-all strategy during the period from 1 January 2007, through 31 March 2016, in China. Data on 20 687 women undergoing their first complete cycles using a freeze-all strategy from 2007 to 2016 were analyzed to estimate LBRs. The LBR in a complete cycle was defined as the chance of a live birth from an ovarian stimulation cycle including all subsequent frozen embryo transfers from this stimulation. The relationship between LBR and number of oocyte was explored. The LBR for the first complete cycle was 50.74% for patients using a freeze-all strategy. By age group, the LBR declined from 63.81% for women under 31 years old to 4.71% for women over 40 years old after the first complete cycle. The LBRs improved as the number of oocytes retrieved increased up to 25 in the freeze-all strategy. This was a retrospective study without a control group. Data on BMI and smoking status were not collected in this database. Our results showed that 50.74% of patients could achieve a live birth after the first complete cycle via a freeze-all strategy. In addition, the LBRs were positively correlated with the number of oocytes retrieved via the freeze-all strategy. These findings are critical for patients and clinicians in making an informed decision to embark on IVF treatment. This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (31770989 to Y.W.) and the Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital Foundation of China (JYLJ030

  11. Analysis code for large rupture accidents in ATR. SENHOR/FLOOD/HEATUP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    In the evaluation of thermo-hydraulic transient change, the behavior of core reflooding and the transient change of fuel temperature in the events which are classified in large rupture accidents of reactor coolant loss, that is the safety evaluation event of the ATR, the analysis codes for thermo-hydraulic transient change at the time of large rupture SENHOR, for core reflooding characteristics FLOOD and for fuel temperature HEATUP are used, respectively. The analysis code system for loss of coolant accident comprises the analysis code for thermo-hydraulic transient change at the time of medium and small ruptures LOTRAC in addition to the above three codes. Based on the changes with time lapse of reactor thermal output and steam drum pressure obtained by the SENHOR, average reflooding rate is analyzed by the FLOOD, and the time of starting the turnaround of fuel cladding tube temperature and the heat transfer rate after the turnaround are determined. Based on these data, the detailed temperature change of fuel elements is analyzed by the HEATUP, and the highest temperature and the amount of oxidation of fuel cladding tubes are determined. The SENHOR code, the FLOOD code and the HEATUP code and various models for these codes are explained. The example of evaluation and the sensitivity analysis of the ATR plant are reported in the Appendix. (K.I.)

  12. Characterization and sintering of niobium-ATR alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibuya, N.H.; Iwasaki, H.; Suzuki, C.K.; Pinatti, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    In the niobium aluminothermy a slag is produced, composed mostly of alumina and other compounds such as niobium oxide and silica. The phase composition of this ATR alumina was characterized by X-ray powder diffractometry, and afterwards this alumina was subjected to leaching processes. It was noticed that the original content of 70% α-alumina in slag rose to 95% after the calcination. ATR alumina (leached and calcined, and without any treatment) was used to make pressed bodies which were fired in air at 1200 to 1400 0 C for 1 to 10,5 hours; and in vacuum at 1550 to 1800$0C for 2 hours. Characterization was done by density measurements, X-ray diffractometry and ultrasonic analysis. Ultrasonic analysis of some vacuum fired bodies showed londitudinal velocities close to the value found in literature. Correlation of several techniques measurements disclosed the niobium oxide interference in sintering. (Author) [pt

  13. Annual cycles of metabolic rate are genetically determined but can be shifted by phenotypic flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh, M. A.; Helm, B.; Gwinner, E.; Tieleman, B. I.

    2012-01-01

    Birds have adjusted their life history and physiological traits to the characteristics of the seasonally changing environments they inhabit. Annual cycles in physiology can result from phenotypic flexibility or from variation in its genetic basis. A key physiological trait that shows seasonal

  14. Use of ICSI in IVF cycles in women with tubal ligation does not improve pregnancy or live birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimstad, F W; Nangia, Ajay K; Luke, B; Stern, J E; Mak, W

    2016-12-01

    Does ICSI improve outcomes in ART cycles without male factor, specifically in couples with a history of tubal ligation as their infertility diagnosis? The use of ICSI showed no significant improvement in fertilization rate and resulted in lower pregnancy and live birth (LB) rates for women with the diagnosis of tubal ligation and no male factor. Prior studies have suggested that ICSI use does not improve fertilization, pregnancy or LB rates in couples with non-male factor infertility. However, it is unknown whether couples with tubal ligation only diagnosis and therefore iatrogenic infertility could benefit from the use of ICSI during their ART cycles. Longitudinal cohort of nationally reported cycles in the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcomes Reporting System (SART CORS) of ART cycles performed in the USA between 2004 and 2012. There was a total of 8102 first autologous fresh ART cycles from women with the diagnosis of tubal ligation only and no reported male factor in the SART database. Of these, 957 were canceled cycles and were excluded from the final analysis. The remaining cycles were categorized by the use of conventional IVF (IVF, n = 3956 cycles) or ICSI (n = 3189 cycles). The odds of fertilization, clinical intrauterine gestation (CIG) and LB were calculated by logistic regression modeling, and the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated by adjusting for the confounders of year of treatment, maternal age, race and ethnicity, gravidity, number of oocytes retrieved, day of embryo transfer and number of embryos transferred. The main outcome measures of the study were odds of fertilization (2PN/total oocytes), clinical intrauterine gestation (CIG/cycle) and live birth (LB/cycle). The fertilization rate was higher in the ICSI versus IVF group (57.5% vs 49.1%); however, after adjustment this trend was no longer significant (AOR 1.14, 0.97-1.35). Interestingly, both odds of CIG (AOR 0.78, 0

  15. Cumulative live birth rates after one or more complete cycles of IVF: a population-based study of linked cycle data from 178,898 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLernon, David J; Maheshwari, Abha; Lee, Amanda J; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2016-03-01

    What is the chance of a live birth following one or more linked complete cycles of IVF (including ICSI)? The chance of a live birth after three complete cycles of IVF was 42.3% for treatment commencing from 1999 to 2007. IVF success has generally been reported on the basis of live birth rates after a single episode of treatment resulting in the transfer of a fresh embryo. This fails to capture the real chance of having a baby after a number of complete cycles-each involving the replacement of fresh as well as frozen-thawed embryos. Population-based observational cohort study of 178 898 women between 1992 and 2007. Participants included all women who commenced IVF treatment at a licenced clinic in the UK as recorded in the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) national database. Exclusion criteria included women whose treatment involved donor insemination, egg donation, surrogacy and the transfer of more than three embryos. Cumulative rates of live birth, term (>37 weeks) singleton live birth, and multiple pregnancy were estimated for two time-periods, 1992-1998 and 1999-2007. Conservative estimates assumed that women who did not return for IVF would not have the outcome of interest while optimal estimates assumed that these women would have similar outcome rates to those who continued IVF. A total of 71 551 women commenced IVF treatment during 1992-1998 and an additional 107 347 during 1999-2007. After the third complete IVF cycle (defined as three fresh IVF treatments-including replacement of any surplus frozen-thawed embryos), the conservative CLBR in women who commenced IVF during 1992-1998 was 30.8% increasing to 42.3% during 1999-2007. The optimal CLBRs were 44.6 and 57.1%, respectively. After eight complete cycles the optimal CLBR was 82.4% in the latter time period. The conservative rate for multiple pregnancy per pregnant woman fell from 31.9% during the earlier time period to 26.2% during the latter. Linkage of all IVF treatments to

  16. Neutronics analysis of the DHCE experiment in ATR-ITV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.; Tsai, H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The preliminary analysis of the DHCE experiments in the ITV and ATR was performed and its was concluded that such a vehicle is suitable for this kind of experiment. It is recommended to place an extra filter material in the thermocouple sleeve (such as B-10), to improve the helium to dpa ratio profile during irradiation. Also, it was concluded that a preliminary estimation of period of time for replacement of the external filter would be around 5 dps`s.

  17. Controllable Electrochemical Synthesis of Copper Sulfides as Sodium-Ion Battery Anodes with Superior Rate Capability and Ultralong Cycle Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haomiao; Wang, Kangli; Cheng, Shijie; Jiang, Kai

    2018-03-07

    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are prospective alternative to lithium-ion batteries for large-scale energy-storage applications, owing to the abundant resources of sodium. Metal sulfides are deemed to be promising anode materials for SIBs due to their low-cost and eco-friendliness. Herein, for the first time, series of copper sulfides (Cu 2 S, Cu 7 S 4 , and Cu 7 KS 4 ) are controllably synthesized via a facile electrochemical route in KCl-NaCl-Na 2 S molten salts. The as-prepared Cu 2 S with micron-sized flakes structure is first investigated as anode of SIBs, which delivers a capacity of 430 mAh g -1 with a high initial Coulombic efficiency of 84.9% at a current density of 100 mA g -1 . Moreover, the Cu 2 S anode demonstrates superior capability (337 mAh g -1 at 20 A g -1 , corresponding to 50 C) and ultralong cycle performance (88.2% of capacity retention after 5000 cycles at 5 A g -1 , corresponding to 0.0024% of fade rate per cycle). Meanwhile, the pseudocapacitance contribution and robust porous structure in situ formed during cycling endow the Cu 2 S anodes with outstanding rate capability and enhanced cyclic performance, which are revealed by kinetics analysis and ex situ characterization.

  18. Measurement from sun-synchronous orbit of a reaction rate controlling the diurnal NOx cycle in the stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dudhia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A reaction rate associated with the nighttime formation of an important diurnally varying species, N2O5, is determined from MIPAS-ENVISAT. During the day, photolysis of N2O5 in the stratosphere contributes to nitrogen-catalysed ozone destruction. However, at night concentrations of N2O5 increase, temporarily sequestering reactive NOx NO and NO2 in a natural cycle which regulates the majority of stratospheric ozone. In this paper, the reaction rate controlling the formation of N2O5 is determined from this instrument for the first time. The observed reaction rate is compared to the currently accepted rate determined from laboratory measurements. Good agreement is obtained between the observed and accepted experimental reaction rates within the error bars.

  19. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: duration of its cell cycle and phases at growth rates affected by light intensity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vítová, Milada; Bišová, Kateřina; Umysová, Dáša; Hlavová, Monika; Kawano, S.; Zachleder, Vilém; Čížková, Mária

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 233, č. 1 (2011), s. 75-86 ISSN 0032-0935 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200614; GA ČR GA525/09/0102; GA ČR GA204/09/0111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Cell division timing * Cell cycle phases * Chlamydomonas Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.000, year: 2011

  20. Gluconeogenesis is associated with high rates of tricarboxylic acid and pyruvate cycling in fasting northern elephant seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Cory D; Houser, Dorian S; Fowler, Melinda A; Costa, Daniel P; Crocker, Daniel E

    2012-08-01

    Animals that endure prolonged periods of food deprivation preserve vital organ function by sparing protein from catabolism. Much of this protein sparing is achieved by reducing metabolic rate and suppressing gluconeogenesis while fasting. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) endure prolonged fasts of up to 3 mo at multiple life stages. During these fasts, elephant seals maintain high levels of activity and energy expenditure associated with breeding, reproduction, lactation, and development while maintaining rates of glucose production typical of a postabsorptive mammal. Therefore, we investigated how fasting elephant seals meet the requirements of glucose-dependent tissues while suppressing protein catabolism by measuring the contribution of glycogenolysis, glycerol, and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to endogenous glucose production (EGP) during their natural 2-mo postweaning fast. Additionally, pathway flux rates associated with the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were measured specifically, flux through phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and pyruvate cycling. The rate of glucose production decreased during the fast (F(1,13) = 5.7, P = 0.04) but remained similar to that of postabsorptive mammals. The fractional contributions of glycogen, glycerol, and PEP did not change with fasting; PEP was the primary gluconeogenic precursor and accounted for ∼95% of EGP. This large contribution of PEP to glucose production occurred without substantial protein loss. Fluxes through the TCA cycle, PEPCK, and pyruvate cycling were higher than reported in other species and were the most energetically costly component of hepatic carbohydrate metabolism. The active pyruvate recycling fluxes detected in elephant seals may serve to rectify gluconeogeneic PEP production during restricted anaplerotic inflow in these fasting-adapted animals.

  1. A mitosis-specific and R loop-driven ATR pathway promotes faithful chromosome segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabeche, Lilian; Nguyen, Hai Dang; Buisson, Rémi; Zou, Lee

    2018-01-05

    The ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) kinase is crucial for DNA damage and replication stress responses. Here, we describe an unexpected role of ATR in mitosis. Acute inhibition or degradation of ATR in mitosis induces whole-chromosome missegregation. The effect of ATR ablation is not due to altered cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) activity, DNA damage responses, or unscheduled DNA synthesis but to loss of an ATR function at centromeres. In mitosis, ATR localizes to centromeres through Aurora A-regulated association with centromere protein F (CENP-F), allowing ATR to engage replication protein A (RPA)-coated centromeric R loops. As ATR is activated at centromeres, it stimulates Aurora B through Chk1, preventing formation of lagging chromosomes. Thus, a mitosis-specific and R loop-driven ATR pathway acts at centromeres to promote faithful chromosome segregation, revealing functions of R loops and ATR in suppressing chromosome instability. Copyright © 2018, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Endometrial thickness significantly affects clinical pregnancy and live birth rates in frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Zhiqin; Wang, Keyan; Dai, Wei; Sun, Yingpu

    2016-07-01

    In order to explore the relationship between endometrial thickness on the day of embryo transfer and pregnancy outcomes in frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycles, we retrospectively analyzed data from 2997 patients undergoing their first FET cycles from January 2010 to December 2012. All patients were divided into three groups (Group A, ≤8 mm; Group B, 9-13 mm; Group C, ≥14 mm) according to the endometrial thickness on embryo transfer day. Compared with patients in the other two groups, patients with thin endometrial thickness in Group A had significantly lower clinical pregnancy rate (33.4%, 41.3% and 45.4%, p birth rate (23.8%, 32.2% and 34.0%, p confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.77, p birth rate (aOR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.16-1.95, p < 0.01) were significant. We conclude that for patients undergoing FET, endometrial thickness on the embryo transfer day significantly affects IVF outcomes in cleavage embryo transfer cycles independent of other factors.

  3. Revisiting the Brønsted acid catalysed hydrolysis kinetics of polymeric carbohydrates in ionic liquids by in situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunov-Kruse, Andreas Jonas; Riisager, Anders; Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan

    2013-01-01

    A new versatile method to measure rates and determine activation energies for the Brønsted acid catalysed hydrolysis of cellulose and cellobiose (and other polymeric carbohydrates) in ionic liquids is demonstrated by following the C–O stretching band of the glycoside bond with in situ ATR...

  4. Effect of temperature on the rate of fatigue crack propagation in some steels during low cycle fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taira, S.; Fujino, M.; Maruyama, S.

    Temperature dependence of the rate of fatigue crack propagation in steels was examined, and compared with the temperature dependence of tensile ductility. Microcracks initiate and affect the propagation behavior of the main crack at elevated temperatures. Factors found to be elucidated include initiation rate of microcracks, reduction of ductility of the material in the vicinity of the main crack tip, and relaxation of concentrated strain by multi-cracks. It was found that during a strain controlled low cycle fatigue test at 1 cpm, the rate of crack propagation is largest at the blue-brittleness temperature range (200 to 300 0 C) in a low carbon steel. On the other hand, it is largest at above 700 0 C in austenite stainless steels. The temperature dependence of the rate of fatigue crack propagation is opposite to that of tensile ductility. Microcracks formed in the vicinity of the main crack tip were calculated, by considering the strain concentration and strain cycles imposed. Then, the local fracture strain was evaluated. Good correlation was found between the rate of crack propagation and the local fracture strain. (U.S.)

  5. Optimization in the nuclear fuel cycle I: Temporal variation of dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, W.S.; Silva, A.X.; Lopes, J.M.; Carmo, A.S.; Fernandes, T.S.; Mello, C.R.; Kelecom, A.

    2017-01-01

    Radioprotection aims to protect man and the environment from the harmful effects of radiation. Radioprotection is based on three fundamental principles: justification, dose limitation and optimization. Optimization is a complementary principle to dose limitation and should be applied in all phases of development, and even in unregulated situations. The aim of this work is to use the exposure rate as a tool to optimize radioprotection. The exposure rate at a nuclear facility was monitored at 15 points for one year and statistical tools for data analysis were proposed as auxiliary tools for the process of optimizing the dose rates measured at the facility. A total of 9,125 exposure-rate measures were performed during 2014. The monthly averages were organized by sampling point and by month of the year. No statistical difference was observed in the monthly variation of the dose rate. Therefore, this variable can not be used in the optimization process in this nuclear installation

  6. Dose-rate effects on the cell cycle and survival of S3 HeLa and V79 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.B.; Bedford, J.S.; Bailey, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of continuous irradiation at different dose rates on the cell cycle and on cell survival were studied using synchronized S3 HeLa and V79 cells. The minimum dose rate necessary to stop cell division was found to be approximately 23 rad/hr for HeLa cells and 270 rad/hr for V79 cells. For dose rates that stop cell division, cells progress through G 1 and S, with a small delay in the S phase, and are blocked in G 2 . Appreciable mitotic accumulation was observed for HeLa cells at dose rates which stopped cell division. By comparison, much less mitotic accumulation was observed for V79 cells over a range of dose rates from 37 to 270 rad/hr. Minimum mitotic delays for a variety of dose rates were determined for both cell lines. S3 HeLa cells are much more sensitive in this respect than V79 cells; however, it appeared that for higher dose rates the minimum mitotic delay in HeLa cells asymptotically approached a value of about 35 hr. In addition to the qualitative differences observed for the two cell lines in regard to mitotic accumulation, HeLa cells accumulated for prolonged periods in the presence of colcemid while V79 cells were blocked for only a few hours, HeLa cells show a dramatic effect of redistribution of cells into sensitive phases of the cell cycle during exposure, which was reflected in the survival curves at low dose rate. More cell killing per unit dose was observed at 37 than at 74 rad/hr

  7. Duration of blastulation may be associated with ongoing pregnancy rate in single euploid blastocyst transfer cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumusoglu, Sezcan; Ozbek, Irem Y; Sokmensuer, Lale K; Polat, Mehtap; Bozdag, Gurkan; Papanikolaou, Evangelos; Yarali, Hakan

    2017-12-01

    Not all euploid embryos implant, necessitating additional tools to select viable blastocysts in preimplantation genetic screening cycles. In this retrospective cohort study, 129 consecutive patients who underwent 129 single euploid blastocyst transfers in cryopreserved embryo transfer cycles were included. All embryos were individually cultured in a time-lapse incubator from intracytoplasmic sperm injection up to trophoectoderm biopsy. Twenty-three time-lapse morphokinetic variables were tested among patients with (n = 68) or without (n = 61) ongoing pregnancy. All 23 time-lapse morphokinetic variables, apart from duration of blastulation (tB-tSB), were comparable between patients with or without ongoing pregnancy. Duration of blastulation was significantly shorter in patients with ongoing pregnancy (8.1 ± 3.2 versus 9.5 ± 3.4 h; P = 0.014); shorter duration of blastulation remained an independent predictor for ongoing pregnancy, when tested by logistic regression analysis (OR 0.81; 95% CI 0.70 to 0.93). One important limitation of this study, and a reason for caution, is the use of multiple comparisons, which can lead to differences at the 0.05 level simply by chance or random variation. Nonetheless, the study suggests that when more than one euploid blastocyst is available, priority might be given to those with a shorter duration of blastulation. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In Vivo and In Vitro Effects of ATM/ATR Signaling Pathway on Proliferation, Apoptosis, and Radiosensitivity of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Liu, Gang; Shan, Guo-Ping; Wang, Bing-Bing

    2017-08-01

    The study investigated the ability of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM)/Rad3-related (ATR) signaling pathway to influence the proliferation, apoptosis, and radiosensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells. NPC tissues and corresponding adjacent normal tissues were collected from 143 NPC patients. The NPC CNE2 cells were assigned into a control group, X-ray group, CGK-733 group, and X-ray+CGK-733 group. The mRNA levels of ATM and ATR were evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and the protein levels of ATM and ATR using western blotting. The positive expression of ATM and ATR in tissues and nude mouse tumor tissues was determined by immunohistochemistry. Cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis rates were analyzed by the 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1)-3,5-di- phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) assay, scratch test, transwell assay, and flow cytometry, respectively. A nude mouse model of NPC was established to observe tumor volume and growth. The mRNA levels of ATR and ATM and the expression of ATR and ATM protein in NPC tissues were significantly higher than those in adjacent normal tissues. The colony formation assay showed that the colony-forming rate decreased, showing radiation dose-dependent and CGK-733 concentration-dependent manners. Expression of ATM, ATR, Chk1, and Chk2 was evidently increased in the X-ray, CGK-733, and X-ray+CGK-733groups compared with the control group, and the aforementioned expression was highest in the X-ray+CGK-733 group among the four groups. The cell proliferation, invasion, and migration were decreased, tumor volume decreased and cell apoptosis increased in the X-ray, CGK-733, and X-ray+CGK-733 groups compared with the control group; the X-ray+CGK-733 group exhibited lowest cell proliferation, invasion and migration, smallest tumor volume, and highest cell apoptosis among the four groups. Inhibition of ATM/ATR signaling pathway reduces proliferation and enhances apoptosis and

  9. Patient and cycle characteristics predicting high pregnancy rates with single-embryo transfer: an analysis of the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology outcomes between 2004 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersereau, Jennifer; Stanhiser, Jamie; Coddington, Charles; Jones, Tiffany; Luke, Barbara; Brown, Morton B

    2017-11-01

    To analyze factors associated with high live birth rate and low multiple birth rate in fresh and frozen-thawed assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles. Retrospective cohort analysis. Not applicable. The study population included 181,523 women undergoing in vitro fertilization with autologous fresh first cycles, 27,033 with fresh first oocyte donor cycles, 37,658 with fresh second cycles, and 35,446 with frozen-thawed second cycles. None. Live birth rate and multiple birth rate after single-embryo transfer (SET) and double embryo transfer (DET) were measured, in addition to cycle characteristics. In patients with favorable prognostic factors, including younger maternal age, transfer of a blastocyst, and additional embryos cryopreserved, the gain in the live birth rate from SET to DET was approximately 10%-15%; however, the multiple birth rate increased from approximately 2% to greater than 49% in both autologous and donor fresh and frozen-thawed transfer cycles. This study reports a 10%-15% reduction in live birth rate and a 47% decrement in multiple birth rate with SET compared with DET in the setting of favorable patient prognostic factors. Our findings present an opportunity to increase the rate of SET across the United States and thereby reduce the multiple birth rate and its associated poor perinatal outcomes with assisted reproductive technology pregnancies. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A high-rate and long cycle life aqueous electrolyte battery for grid-scale energy storage

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D.; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    New types of energy storage are needed in conjunction with the deployment of solar, wind and other volatile renewable energy sources and their integration with the electric grid. No existing energy storage technology can economically provide the power, cycle life and energy efficiency needed to respond to the costly short-term transients that arise from renewables and other aspects of grid operation. Here we demonstrate a new type of safe, fast, inexpensive, long-life aqueous electrolyte battery, which relies on the insertion of potassium ions into a copper hexacyanoferrate cathode and a novel activated carbon/polypyrrole hybrid anode. The cathode reacts rapidly with very little hysteresis. The hybrid anode uses an electrochemically active additive to tune its potential. This high-rate, high-efficiency cell has a 95% round-trip energy efficiency when cycled at a 5C rate, and a 79% energy efficiency at 50C. It also has zero-capacity loss after 1,000 deep-discharge cycles. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  11. A high-rate and long cycle life aqueous electrolyte battery for grid-scale energy storage

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2012-10-23

    New types of energy storage are needed in conjunction with the deployment of solar, wind and other volatile renewable energy sources and their integration with the electric grid. No existing energy storage technology can economically provide the power, cycle life and energy efficiency needed to respond to the costly short-term transients that arise from renewables and other aspects of grid operation. Here we demonstrate a new type of safe, fast, inexpensive, long-life aqueous electrolyte battery, which relies on the insertion of potassium ions into a copper hexacyanoferrate cathode and a novel activated carbon/polypyrrole hybrid anode. The cathode reacts rapidly with very little hysteresis. The hybrid anode uses an electrochemically active additive to tune its potential. This high-rate, high-efficiency cell has a 95% round-trip energy efficiency when cycled at a 5C rate, and a 79% energy efficiency at 50C. It also has zero-capacity loss after 1,000 deep-discharge cycles. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel layered polyaniline-poly(hydroquinone)/graphene film as supercapacitor electrode with enhanced rate performance and cycling stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lijun; Zhang, Gaini; Lei, Ji; Wang, Yan; Hu, Dengwei

    2018-02-15

    It is a challenge to fabricate polyaniline (PANI) materials with high rate performance and excellent stability. Herein a new special supercapacitor electrode material of polyaniline-poly(hydroquinone)/graphene (PANI-PHQ/RGO) film with layered structure was prepared by chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline and hydroquinone (H 2 Q) in the presence of RGO hydrogel film. The synergistic effect and loose layered structure of the composite film facilitate fast diffusion and transportation of electrolyte ions through unimpeded channels during rapid charge-discharge process, resulting in high rate capability and stable cycling performance. As a result, the PANI-PHQ/RGO-61 film electrode exhibited 356 F g -1 at a current density of 0.5 A g -1 and high capacitance retention of 83% from 0.5 to 30 A g -1 . Moreover, it presented an excellent cycling stability with 94% of capacitance retention in comparison with 60% of pure PANI electrode and an outstanding Coulombic efficiency of 99% after 1000 cycles of galvanostatic charge-discharge. These superior electrocapacitive properties make it one of promising candidates for electrochemical energy storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. More than just numbers: Suicide rates and the economic cycle in Portugal (1910–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Pereira dos Santos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Suicides are a major concern for public health first and foremost because they are an avoidable cause of death. Moreover, they can be an indicator of self-reported emotional satisfaction and a good marker of overall well-being.In this study we examine how different economic and social aspects affected Portuguese suicide rates for more than one hundred years (1910–2013. We place this exercise in the specific historical context of the XX and early XXI century in Portugal, emphasizing the role of economic recessions and expansions. Controlling for aspects like wars, health care availability, political instability, and demographic changes, we find a strong association between a decline in the growth rate of real output and an increase in suicide rates for the whole population. In this regard, while male suicide rates are non-negligibly influenced by economic downturns, female suicide rates are in general more responsive to a more open political and economic environment. Our results are robust if we consider the mid-term cyclical relationship.Our findings advocate that, during recessions, public health responses should be seen as a crucial component of suicide prevention. Keywords: Suicide rates, Portugal, Mental health, Crisis, Austerity, Marriage

  14. Status report of the ATR SPING-3A and detailed calibration guideline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppen, L.D.; Rogers, J.W.

    1985-12-01

    The Radiation Measurements Laboratory (RML) onducted testing and an evaluation of the ATR SPING-3 after installation of the new ''A'' series software (firmware) and retrofit kit. The purpose of this report is to provide the ATR SPING-3A users with a document describing the present status of the unit, how the system was tested, a suggested calibration guideline, how the system should be operated for the ATR application, and why it should be used in this manner

  15. More than just numbers: Suicide rates and the economic cycle in Portugal (1910-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, João Pereira; Tavares, Mariana; Barros, Pedro Pita

    2016-12-01

    Suicides are a major concern for public health first and foremost because they are an avoidable cause of death. Moreover, they can be an indicator of self-reported emotional satisfaction and a good marker of overall well-being. In this study we examine how different economic and social aspects affected Portuguese suicide rates for more than one hundred years (1910-2013). We place this exercise in the specific historical context of the XX and early XXI century in Portugal, emphasizing the role of economic recessions and expansions. Controlling for aspects like wars, health care availability, political instability, and demographic changes, we find a strong association between a decline in the growth rate of real output and an increase in suicide rates for the whole population. In this regard, while male suicide rates are non-negligibly influenced by economic downturns, female suicide rates are in general more responsive to a more open political and economic environment. Our results are robust if we consider the mid-term cyclical relationship. Our findings advocate that, during recessions, public health responses should be seen as a crucial component of suicide prevention.

  16. Analysis of the ATR fuel element swaging process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richins, W.D.; Miller, G.K.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a detailed evaluation of the swaging process used to connect fuel plates to side plates in Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) fuel elements. The swaging is a mechanical process that begins with fitting a fuel plate into grooves in the side plates. Once a fuel plate is positioned, a lip on each of two side plate grooves is pressed into the fuel plate using swaging wheels to form the joints. Each connection must have a specified strength (measured in terms, of a pullout force capacity) to assure that these joints do not fail during reactor operation. The purpose of this study is to analyze the swaging process and associated procedural controls, and to provide recommendations to assure that the manufacturing process produces swaged connections that meet the minimum strength requirement. The current fuel element manufacturer, Babcock and Wilcox (B ampersand W) of Lynchburg, Virginia, follows established procedures that include quality inspections and process controls in swaging these connections. The procedures have been approved by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies and are designed to assure repeatability of the process and structural integrity of each joint. Prior to July 1994, ATR fuel elements were placed in the Hydraulic Test Facility (HTF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (AGNAIL), Test Reactor Area (TRA) for application of Boehmite (an aluminum oxide) film and for checking structural integrity before placement of the elements into the ATR. The results presented in this report demonstrate that the pullout strength of the swaged connections is assured by the current manufacturing process (with several recommended enhancements) without the need for- testing each element in the HTF

  17. Reconstitution of RPA-covered single-stranded DNA-activated ATR-Chk1 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Hyuk; Lindsey-Boltz, Laura A; Kemp, Michael; Mason, Aaron C; Wold, Marc S; Sancar, Aziz

    2010-08-03

    ATR kinase is a critical upstream regulator of the checkpoint response to various forms of DNA damage. Previous studies have shown that ATR is recruited via its binding partner ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP) to replication protein A (RPA)-covered single-stranded DNA (RPA-ssDNA) generated at sites of DNA damage where ATR is then activated by TopBP1 to phosphorylate downstream targets including the Chk1 signal transducing kinase. However, this critical feature of the human ATR-initiated DNA damage checkpoint signaling has not been demonstrated in a defined system. Here we describe an in vitro checkpoint system in which RPA-ssDNA and TopBP1 are essential for phosphorylation of Chk1 by the purified ATR-ATRIP complex. Checkpoint defective RPA mutants fail to activate ATR kinase in this system, supporting the conclusion that this system is a faithful representation of the in vivo reaction. Interestingly, we find that an alternative form of RPA (aRPA), which does not support DNA replication, can substitute for the checkpoint function of RPA in vitro, thus revealing a potential role for aRPA in the activation of ATR kinase. We also find that TopBP1 is recruited to RPA-ssDNA in a manner dependent on ATRIP and that the N terminus of TopBP1 is required for efficient recruitment and activation of ATR kinase.

  18. Requirement of ATR for maintenance of intestinal stem cells in aging Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joung-Sun; Na, Hyun-Jin; Pyo, Jung-Hoon; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Kim, Young-Shin; Yoo, Mi-Ae

    2015-05-01

    The stem cell genomic stability forms the basis for robust tissue homeostasis, particularly in high-turnover tissues. For the genomic stability, DNA damage response (DDR) is essential. This study was focused on the role of two major DDR-related factors, ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and ATM- and RAD3-related (ATR) kinases, in the maintenance of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in the adultDrosophila midgut. We explored the role of ATM and ATR, utilizing immunostaining with an anti-pS/TQ antibody as an indicator of ATM/ATR activation, γ-irradiation as a DNA damage inducer, and the UAS/GAL4 system for cell type-specific knockdown of ATM, ATR, or both during adulthood. The results showed that the pS/TQ signals got stronger with age and after oxidative stress. The pS/TQ signals were found to be more dependent on ATR rather than on ATM in ISCs/enteroblasts (EBs). Furthermore, an ISC/EB-specific knockdown of ATR, ATM, or both decreased the number of ISCs and oxidative stress-induced ISC proliferation. The phenotypic changes that were caused by the ATR knockdown were more pronounced than those caused by the ATM knockdown; however, our data indicate that ATR and ATM are both needed for ISC maintenance and proliferation; ATR seems to play a bigger role than does ATM.

  19. Mislocalization of the MRN complex prevents ATR signaling during adenovirus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carson, Christian T; Orazio, Nicole I; Lee, Darwin V

    2009-01-01

    The protein kinases ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM-Rad3 related (ATR) are activated in response to DNA damage, genotoxic stress and virus infections. Here we show that during infection with wild-type adenovirus, ATR and its cofactors RPA32, ATRIP and TopBP1 accumulate at viral...... during virus infection, which is independent of Mre11 nuclease activity and recruitment of RPA/ATR/ATRIP/TopBP1. Unlike other damage scenarios, we found that ATM and ATR signaling are not dependent on each other during infection. We identify a region of the viral E4orf3 protein responsible...

  20. Context and Quasi-Invariants in Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Imagery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binford, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    .... Experiments based on conventional recognition techniques were conducted for comparisons. Study of persistent scattering confirms the feasibility of implementing a SAR ATR system using physical image features...

  1. Monitoring of biofilm growth using ATR-leaky mode spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitz, M.; Franke, H.; Grattan, K.T.V.; Tamachkiarow, A.

    2002-01-01

    An approach to the in situ monitoring of biofilm formation using the technique of ATR-leaky mode spectroscopy is given as an example for the case of Cytophaga. The biofilm growth was studied on an aluminium layer and on a bilayer of the hydrogel agarose on aluminium. This metal was chosen because of its chemical stability in aqueous systems. The spectra obtained have been recorded using a flow cell to contain the suspension and nutrients over a period of several days. In the case considered using a prism surface coated with agarose, the experiments were performed by breeding in an incubator. (author)

  2. Nitrogen Balance During Sweet Sorghum Cropping Cycle as Affected by Irrigation and Fertilization Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Lovelli

    Full Text Available A two-year trial was carried out on sweet sorghum, grown in semi-arid environments of southern Europe. The trial was aimed to monitor the main components of the crop N-balance under different irrigation regimes and nitrogen fertilization rates, in factorial combination. A rainfed condition (only one watering soon after sowing was compared with a deficit irrigation regime and a full irrigation treatment (50 and 100% restoration of total crop water consumption, respectively. Crop nitrogen uptake always showed to be the highest N-balance components and was included in the range of 125-194 kg ha-1 during 1997-1998, with respect to the total shoot biomass, according to the nitrogen fertilization rate; consequently, it significantly reduced both nitrogen concentration in the soil solution and the total nitrogen loss due to drainage. Nitrogen concentration in the drainage water didn’t result to be strictly dependent on the rate of fertiliser applied but on the actual soil nitrogen content; the maximum registered value of total nitrogen lost by leaching was 1.9 kg ha-1. Differently, total nitrogen loss due to volatilisation was proportional to the amount of fertilizer applied; irrigation favourably reduced this kind of loss. The limited amount of Nvolatilisation loss was probably due to the neutral pH soil conditions; as an order of magnitude, referring to the highest fertilized but rainfed treatment, the utmost N-volatilisation loss was equal to 5.5 Kg ha-1, as an average over the three years, that is to say less than the 5% of the fertilization rate. A fertilisation rate of 120 Kg ha-1 of nitrogen, together with water application, generally produced a balance between crop N-uptake and total N-loss due to volatilisation and drainage (only the stalk biomass was considered in this calculation. Lower rates of fertilizing nitrogen, indeed, determined a depletion in the soil nitrogen content because of the high crop biomass and the strong N-uptake by the

  3. Nitrogen Balance During Sweet Sorghum Cropping Cycle as Affected by Irrigation and Fertilization Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Perniola

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A two-year trial was carried out on sweet sorghum, grown in semi-arid environments of southern Europe. The trial was aimed to monitor the main components of the crop N-balance under different irrigation regimes and nitrogen fertilization rates, in factorial combination. A rainfed condition (only one watering soon after sowing was compared with a deficit irrigation regime and a full irrigation treatment (50 and 100% restoration of total crop water consumption, respectively. Crop nitrogen uptake always showed to be the highest N-balance components and was included in the range of 125-194 kg ha-1 during 1997-1998, with respect to the total shoot biomass, according to the nitrogen fertilization rate; consequently, it significantly reduced both nitrogen concentration in the soil solution and the total nitrogen loss due to drainage. Nitrogen concentration in the drainage water didn’t result to be strictly dependent on the rate of fertiliser applied but on the actual soil nitrogen content; the maximum registered value of total nitrogen lost by leaching was 1.9 kg ha-1. Differently, total nitrogen loss due to volatilisation was proportional to the amount of fertilizer applied; irrigation favourably reduced this kind of loss. The limited amount of Nvolatilisation loss was probably due to the neutral pH soil conditions; as an order of magnitude, referring to the highest fertilized but rainfed treatment, the utmost N-volatilisation loss was equal to 5.5 Kg ha-1, as an average over the three years, that is to say less than the 5% of the fertilization rate. A fertilisation rate of 120 Kg ha-1 of nitrogen, together with water application, generally produced a balance between crop N-uptake and total N-loss due to volatilisation and drainage (only the stalk biomass was considered in this calculation. Lower rates of fertilizing nitrogen, indeed, determined a depletion in the soil nitrogen content because of the high crop biomass and the strong N-uptake by the

  4. The impact of spent fuel reprocessing facilities deployment rate on transuranics inventory in alternative fuel cycle strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquien, A.; Kazimi, M.; Hejzlar, P.

    2007-01-01

    The depletion rate of transuranic inventories from spent fuel depends on both the deployment of advanced reactors that can be loaded with recycled transuranics, and on the deployment of the facilities that separate and reprocess spent fuel. In addition to tracking the mass allocation of TRU in the system and calculating a system cost, the fuel cycle simulation tool CAFCA includes a flexible recycling plant deployment model. This study analyses the impact of different recycling deployment schemes for various fuel cycle strategies in the US over the next hundred years under the assumption of a demand for nuclear energy growing at a rate of 2,4%. Recycling strategies explored in this study fall under two categories: recycling in thermal light water reactors using combined non-fertile and UO 2 fuel (CONFU) and recycling in fast reactors (either fertile-free actinide burner reactors, or self-sustaining gas-cooled fast reactors). Preliminary results show that the earlier deployment of recycling in the thermal reactors will limit the stored levels of TRU below those of fast reactors. However, the avoided accumulation of spent fuel interim storage depends on the deployment rate of the recycling facilities. In addition, by the end of the mid century, the TRU in cooling storage will exceed that in interim storage. (authors)

  5. Operation of an organic Rankine cycle dependent on pumping flow rates and expander torques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xufei; Xu, Jinliang; Miao, Zheng; Zou, Jinghuang; Yu, Chao

    2015-01-01

    An ORC (organic Rankine cycle) was developed with R123 as the working fluid. The heat capacity is in ∼100 kW. The match between pump and expander is investigated. Lower pump frequencies (f 10 Hz) adapt low expander torques only, and cause unstable flow and pump cavitation for larger expander torques. Ultra-low expander torques generate sufficiently high vapor superheatings to decrease expander efficiencies. Ultra-high expander torques achieve saturation vapor at the expander inlet, causing liquid droplets induced shock wave to worsen expander performance. An optimal range of expander torques exists to have better expander performance. A liquid subcooling of 20 °C is necessary to avoid pump cavitation. Expander powers and efficiencies show parabola shapes versus expander torques, or vapor superheatings at the expander inlet. The optimal vapor superheating is 13 °C. The cavitation mechanisms and measures to avoid cavitation are analyzed. This paper notes the overestimation of ORC performance by equilibrium thermodynamic analysis. Assumptions should be dependent on experiments. Future studies are suggested on organic fluid flow, heat transfer and energy conversion in various components. - Highlights: • The match between pump and expander is investigated. • A liquid subcooling of 20 °C is needed at pump inlet. • A vapor superheating of 13 °C is necessary at expander inlet. • Cavitation in pumps and expanders are analyzed. • The equilibrium thermodynamics overestimate ORC performances.

  6. Non-apoptotic programmed cell death with paraptotic-like features in bleomycin-treated plant cells is suppressed by inhibition of ATM/ATR pathways or NtE2F overexpression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smetana, O.; Široký, Jiří; Houlné, G.; Opatrný, Z.; Chabouté, M.-E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 7 (2012), s. 2631-2644 ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : ATM /ATR pathways * cell cycle * double-strand break response Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.242, year: 2012

  7. Superior supercapacitors based on nitrogen and sulfur co-doped hierarchical porous carbon: Excellent rate capability and cycle stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Deyi; Han, Mei; Wang, Bing; Li, Yubing; Lei, Longyan; Wang, Kunjie; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Liang; Feng, Huixia

    2017-08-01

    Vastly improving the charge storage capability of supercapacitors without sacrificing their high power density and cycle performance would bring bright application prospect. Herein, we report a nitrogen and sulfur co-doped hierarchical porous carbon (NSHPC) with very superior capacitance performance fabricated by KOH activation of nitrogen and sulfur co-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (NSOMC). A high electrochemical double-layer (EDL) capacitance of 351 F g-1 was observed for the reported NSHPC electrodes, and the capacitance remains at 288 F g-1 even under a large current density of 20 A g-1. Besides the high specific capacitance and outstanding rate capability, symmetrical supercapacitor cell based on the NSHPC electrodes also exhibits an excellent cycling performance with 95.61% capacitance retention after 5000 times charge/discharge cycles. The large surface area caused by KOH activation (2056 m2 g-1) and high utilized surface area owing to the ideal micro/mesopores ratio (2.88), large micropores diameter (1.38 nm) and short opened micropores structure as well as the enhanced surface wettability induced by N and S heteroatoms doping and improved conductivity induced by KOH activation was found to be responsible for the very superior capacitance performance.

  8. HP-HMG versus rFSH in treatments combining fresh and frozen IVF cycles: success rates and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wex-Wechowski, Jaro; Abou-Setta, Ahmed M; Kildegaard Nielsen, Sandy; Kennedy, Richard

    2010-08-01

    The economic implications of the choice of gonadotrophin influence decision making but their cost-effectiveness in frozen-embryo transfer cycles has not been adequately studied. An economic evaluation was performed comparing highly purified human menopausal gonadotrophin (HP-HMG) and recombinant FSH (rFSH) using individual patient data (n=986) from two large randomized controlled trials using a long agonist IVF protocol. The simulation model incorporated live birth data and published UK costs of IVF-related medical resources. After treatment for up-to-three cycles (one fresh and up to two subsequent fresh or frozen cycles conditional on availability of cryopreserved embryos), the cumulative live birth rate was 53.7% (95% CI 49.3-58.1%) for HP-HMG and 44.6% (40.2-49.0%) for rFSH (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.12-1.85; Pcosts per IVF treatment for HP-HMG and rFSH were pound5393 ( pound5341-5449) and pound6269 ( pound6210-6324), respectively (number needed to treat to fund one additional treatment was seven; Pcosts applied, the median cost per IVF baby delivered with HP-HMG was pound11,157 ( pound11,089-11,129) and pound14,227 ( pound14,183-14,222) with rFSH (Pcost saving using HP-HMG remained after varying model parameters in a probabilistic sensitivity analysis. 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Economic comparison of long-term nuclear fuel cycle management scenarios: The influence of the discount rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Dars, Aude; Loaec, Christine

    2007-01-01

    This article presents some main economic results obtained by the CEA in the DERECO project, which aimed to evaluate the global cost of contrasted and long-term nuclear fuel cycle scenarios. The scenarios have been studied for the period 2000-2150 in the French context. They all assume a sustainable nuclear development. These scenarios must not be considered as forecasts and do not reflect any industrial strategy. The article focuses on the comparison of five scenarios including the Generation IV fast reactors and their associated fuel cycles. Common trends as well as specific features can be identified. The article describes the scenarios with the replacement of the nuclear power and the associated fuel cycle. It details the main technical and economic assumptions common to all the scenarios, and exposes some main key results, concerning the flows and inventories as well as concerning economic evaluation. Economic results are given in a comparative manner due to the level of uncertainties at this time horizon. The key economic elements described in the article deal with the sensitivity of the results to the choice of the discount rate

  10. Open source tools for ATR development and performance evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, James M.; Dilsavor, Ronald L.; Stubbles, James; Mossing, John C.

    2002-07-01

    Early in almost every engineering project, a decision must be made about tools; should I buy off-the-shelf tools or should I develop my own. Either choice can involve significant cost and risk. Off-the-shelf tools may be readily available, but they can be expensive to purchase and to maintain licenses, and may not be flexible enough to satisfy all project requirements. On the other hand, developing new tools permits great flexibility, but it can be time- (and budget-) consuming, and the end product still may not work as intended. Open source software has the advantages of both approaches without many of the pitfalls. This paper examines the concept of open source software, including its history, unique culture, and informal yet closely followed conventions. These characteristics influence the quality and quantity of software available, and ultimately its suitability for serious ATR development work. We give an example where Python, an open source scripting language, and OpenEV, a viewing and analysis tool for geospatial data, have been incorporated into ATR performance evaluation projects. While this case highlights the successful use of open source tools, we also offer important insight into risks associated with this approach.

  11. Influence of the menstrual cycle and of menopause on the gastric emptying rate of solids in female volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mones, J.; Carrio, I.; Calabuig, R.; Estorch, M.; Sainz, S.; Berna, L.; Vilardell, F.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the normal menstrual cycle and of menopause on the gastric emptying rate of solids. Gastric emptying was studied in 15 premenopausal and ten postmenopausal women with an isotopic technique after the ingestion of a radiolabelled test meal. Premenopausal women were studied twice: Within 1 week prior to menses and again 1 week after onset of menses. Postmenopausal women were studied only once. The emptying curves of the solid component of the meal fitted a linear model. The half-emptying time was 78±5 min during the follicular phase, 75±7 min during the luteal phase and 76±6 min in postmenopausal women (differences not statistically significant). The mean percentages of the meal retained in the stomach at different time intervals were also similar in the three groups. These results suggest that the menstrual cycle does not influence the gastric emptying rate of solids, which remains unchanged in relation to the follicular phase or after menopause. (orig.)

  12. Influence of the menstrual cycle and of menopause on the gastric emptying rate of solids in female volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mones, J. (Dept. of Gastroenterology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)); Carrio, I. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)); Calabuig, R. (Dept. of Gastroenterology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)); Estorch, M. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)); Sainz, S. (Dept. of Gastroenterology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)); Berna, L. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)); Vilardell, F. (Dept. of Gastroenterology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain))

    1993-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the normal menstrual cycle and of menopause on the gastric emptying rate of solids. Gastric emptying was studied in 15 premenopausal and ten postmenopausal women with an isotopic technique after the ingestion of a radiolabelled test meal. Premenopausal women were studied twice: Within 1 week prior to menses and again 1 week after onset of menses. Postmenopausal women were studied only once. The emptying curves of the solid component of the meal fitted a linear model. The half-emptying time was 78[+-]5 min during the follicular phase, 75[+-]7 min during the luteal phase and 76[+-]6 min in postmenopausal women (differences not statistically significant). The mean percentages of the meal retained in the stomach at different time intervals were also similar in the three groups. These results suggest that the menstrual cycle does not influence the gastric emptying rate of solids, which remains unchanged in relation to the follicular phase or after menopause. (orig.)

  13. High-Intensity Interval Exercises' Acute Impact on Heart Rate Variability: Comparison Between Whole-Body and Cycle Ergometer Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaun, Gustavo Z; Del Vecchio, Fabrício B

    2018-01-01

    Schaun, GZ and Del Vecchio, FB. High-intensity interval exercises' acute impact on heart rate variability: comparison between whole-body and cycle ergometer protocols. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 223-229, 2018-Study aimed to compare the effects of 2 high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols on heart rate variability. Twelve young adult males (23.3 ± 3.9 years, 177.8 ± 7.4 cm, 76.9 ± 12.9 kg) volunteered to participate. In a randomized cross-over design, subjects performed 2 HIIT protocols, 1 on a cycle ergometer (Tabata protocol [TBT]; eight 20-second bouts at 170% Pmax interspersed by 10-second rest) and another with whole-body calisthenic exercises (McRae protocol; eight 20-second all-out intervals interspersed by 10-second rest). Heart rate variability outcomes in the time, frequency, and nonlinear domains were assessed on 3 moments: (a) presession; (b) immediately postsession; and (c) 24 hours postsession. Results revealed that RRmean, Ln rMSSD, Ln high frequency (HF), and Ln low frequency (LF) were significantly reduced immediately postsession (p ≤ 0.001) and returned to baseline 24 h after both protocols. In addition, LF/HF ratio was reduced 24 h postsession (p ≤ 0.01) and SD2 was significantly lower immediately postsession only in TBT. Our main finding was that responses from heart rate autonomic control were similar in both protocols, despite different modes of exercise performed. Specifically, exercises resulted in a high parasympathetic inhibition immediately after session with subsequent recovery within 1 day. These results suggest that subjects were already recovered the day after and can help coaches to better program training sessions with such protocols.

  14. Heart rate regulation during cycle-ergometer exercise via bio-feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argha, Ahmadreza; Su, Steven W; Hung Nguyen; Celler, Branko G

    2015-08-01

    This paper explains our developed control system which regulates the heart rate (HR) to track a desired trajectory. The controller is indeed a non-conventional non-model-based proportional, integral and derivative (PID) controller. The controller commands are interpreted as biofeedback auditory commands. These commands can be heard and implemented by the exercising subject as a part of the control-loop. However, transmitting a feedback signal while the pedals are not in the appropriate position to efficiently exert force may lead to a cognitive disengagement of the user from the feedback controller. This note explains a novel form of control system regarding as "actuator-based event-driven control system", designed specifically for the purpose of this project. We conclude that the developed event-driven controller makes it possible to precisely regulate HR to a predetermined HR profile.

  15. Experimental validation of calculated capture rate for nucleus involved in fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benslimane-Bouland, A.

    1997-01-01

    This work has been realized in the framework of the estimation of actinides and fission products nuclear data for the today and future reactors. The first part presents the existing integral experiments for the calculated capture rate and the methods used in the design of reactor cores calculation formulary. The second part is devoted to the interpretation of three specific irradiation experiments which allow the evaluation of the today knowledge on studied data and their associated uncertainties. The last part presents a synthesis of results and the statistical methods used for the adjustment of data bases. This work shows that, in spite of the reactors Physics progresses on the knowledge of uranium and plutonium capture cross sections, uncertainties remain for minor actinides. (A.L.B.)

  16. Safety significance of ATR [Advanced Test Reactor] passive safety response attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was designed with some passive safety response attributes which contribute to the safety posture of the facility. The three passive safety attributes being evaluated in the paper are: (1) In-core and in-vessel natural convection cooling, (2) a passive heat sink capability of the ATR primary coolant system (PCS) for the transfer of decay power from the uninsulated piping to the confinement, and (3) gravity feed of emergency coolant makeup. The safety significance of the ATR passive safety response attributes is that the reactor can passively respond for most transients, given a reactor scram, to provide adequate decay power removal and a significant time for operator action should the normal active heat removal systems and their backup systems both fail. The ATR Interim Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) model ands results were used to evaluate the significance to ATR fuel damage frequency (or probability) of the above three passive response attributes. The results of the evaluation indicate that the first attribute is a major safety characteristic of the ATR. The second attribute has a noticeable but only minor safety significance. The third attribute has no significant influence on the ATR Level 1 PRA because of the diversity and redundancy of the ATR firewater injection system (emergency coolant system). 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. UV-induced nuclear import of XPA is mediated by importin-α4 in an ATR-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengke Li

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum Group A (XPA is a crucial factor in mammalian nucleotide excision repair (NER and nuclear import of XPA from the cytoplasm for NER is regulated in cellular DNA damage responses in S-phase. In this study, experiments were carried out to determine the transport mechanisms that are responsible for the UV (ultraviolet-induced nuclear import of XPA. We found that, in addition to the nuclear localization signal (NLS of XPA, importin-α4 or/and importin-α7 are required for the XPA nuclear import. Further investigation indicated that, importin-α4 and importin-α7 directly interacted with XPA in cells. Interestingly, the binding of importin-α4 to XPA was dependent on UV-irradiation, while the binding of importin-α7 was not, suggesting a role for importin-α7 in nuclear translocation of XPA in the absence of DNA damage, perhaps with specificity to certain non-S-phases of the cell-cycle. Consistent with the previous report of a dependence of UV-induced XPA nuclear import on ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR in S-phase, knockdown of ATR reduced the amount of XPA interacting with importin-α4. In contrast, the GTPase XPA binding protein 1 (XAB1, previously proposed to be required for XPA nuclear import, showed no effect on the nuclear import of XPA in our siRNA knockdown analysis. In conclusion, our results suggest that upon DNA damage transport adaptor importin-α4 imports XPA into the nucleus in an ATR-dependent manner, while XAB1 has no role in this process. In addition, these findings reveal a potential new therapeutic target for the sensitization of cancer cells to chemotherapy.

  18. Effects of transfer of embryos independently cultured in essential and sequential culture media on pregnancy rates in assisted reproduction cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Selmo; Bossi, Renata; Guimarães, Fernando; Valle, Marcello; Sampaio, Marcos

    2012-10-01

    Several culture media are available to be used in ART. However it is uncertain whether embryos would preferably benefit from one type of medium or the association of different media. We performed this study to evaluate the impact of simultaneous transfer of embryos independently cultured in two distinct culture media, on pregnancy outcome. A total of 722 couples who underwent infertility treatment were sequentially allocated into three groups: those who had half of the embryos individually cultured in MEM and the other half cultured in sequential media (MEM + Seq Group) (n = 243); those who had all embryos cultured only in sequential medium (Seq Group) (n = 239); and those who had all embryos cultured only in MEM (MEM Group) (n = 240). The pregnancy rate was higher in the MEM + Seq group (51.8 %) than the Seq group (36.7 %) (p < 0.001). However the pregnancy rate observed in the MEM group was similar to the others (44.2 %). When a logistic regression test was applied it demonstrated that the number of transferred embryos did not interfere in the pregnancy rates. Our results suggests that offering different culture conditions for sibling embryos with subsequent transfer of embryos that were kept in distinct culture media, might increase pregnancy rates in assisted reproduction cycles.

  19. Three-dimensional graphene foam supported Fe₃O₄ lithium battery anodes with long cycle life and high rate capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jingshan; Liu, Jilei; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Ng, Chi Fan; Ma, Lingjie; Zhang, Hua; Lin, Jianyi; Shen, Zexiang; Fan, Hong Jin

    2013-01-01

    Fe3O4 has long been regarded as a promising anode material for lithium ion battery due to its high theoretical capacity, earth abundance, low cost, and nontoxic properties. However, up to now no effective and scalable method has been realized to overcome the bottleneck of poor cyclability and low rate capability. In this article, we report a bottom-up strategy assisted by atomic layer deposition to graft bicontinuous mesoporous nanostructure Fe3O4 onto three-dimensional graphene foams and directly use the composite as the lithium ion battery anode. This electrode exhibits high reversible capacity and fast charging and discharging capability. A high capacity of 785 mAh/g is achieved at 1C rate and is maintained without decay up to 500 cycles. Moreover, the rate of up to 60C is also demonstrated, rendering a fast discharge potential. To our knowledge, this is the best reported rate performance for Fe3O4 in lithium ion battery to date.

  20. Experimental and numerical investigation of strain rate effect on low cycle fatigue behaviour of AA 5754 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Singh, A.

    2018-04-01

    The present study deals with evaluation of low cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior of aluminum alloy 5754 (AA 5754) at different strain rates. This alloy has magnesium (Mg) as main alloying element (Al-Mg alloy) which makes this alloy suitable for Marines and Cryogenics applications. The testing procedure and specimen preparation are guided by ASTM E606 standard. The tests are performed at 0.5% strain amplitude with three different strain rates i.e. 0.5×10-3 sec-1, 1×10-3 sec-1 and 2×10-3 sec-1 thus the frequency of tests vary accordingly. The experimental results show that there is significant decrease in the fatigue life with the increase in strain rate. LCF behavior of AA 5754 is also simulated at different strain rates by finite element method. Chaboche kinematic hardening cyclic plasticity model is used for simulating the hardening behavior of the material. Axisymmetric finite element model is created to reduce the computational cost of the simulation. The material coefficients used for “Chaboche Model” are determined by experimentally obtained stabilized hysteresis loop. The results obtained from finite element simulation are compared with those obtained through LCF experiments.

  1. Experimental validation of calculated capture rate for nucleus involved in fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benslimane-Bouland, A.

    1997-09-01

    The framework of this study was the evaluation of the nuclear data requirements for Actinides and Fission Products applied to current nuclear reactors as well as future applications. This last item includes extended irradiation campaigns, 100 % Mixed Oxide fuel, transmutation or even incineration. The first part of this study presents different types of integral measurements which are available for capture rate measurements, as well as the methods used for reactor core calculation route design and nuclear data library validation. The second section concerns the analysis of three specific irradiation experiments. The results have shown the extent of the current knowledge on nuclear data as well as the associated uncertainties. The third and last section shows both the coherency between all the results, and the statistical method applied for nuclear data library adjustment. A relevant application of this method has demonstrated that only specifically chosen integral experiments can be of use for the validation of nuclear data libraries. The conclusion is reached that even if co-ordinated efforts between reactor and nuclear physicists have made possible a huge improvement in the knowledge of capture cross sections of the main nuclei such as uranium and plutonium, some improvements are currently necessary for the minor actinides (Np, Am and Cm). Both integral and differential measurements are recommended to improve the knowledge of minor actinide cross sections. As far as integral experiments are concerned, a set of criteria to be followed during the experimental conception have been defined in order to both reduce the number of required calculation approximations, and to increase as much as possible the maximum amount of extracted information. (author)

  2. ARF and ATM/ATR cooperate in p53-mediated apoptosis upon oncogenic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauklin, Siim; Kristjuhan, Arnold; Maimets, Toivo; Jaks, Viljar

    2005-01-01

    Induction of apoptosis is pivotal for eliminating cells with damaged DNA or deregulated proliferation. We show that tumor suppressor ARF and ATM/ATR kinase pathways cooperate in the induction of apoptosis in response to elevated expression of c-myc, β-catenin or human papilloma virus E7 oncogenes. Overexpression of oncogenes leads to the formation of phosphorylated H2AX foci, induction of Rad51 protein levels and ATM/ATR-dependent phosphorylation of p53. Inhibition of ATM/ATR kinases abolishes both induction of Rad51 and phosphorylation of p53, and remarkably reduces the level of apoptosis induced by co-expression of oncogenes and ARF. However, the induction of apoptosis is downregulated in p53-/- cells and does not depend on activities of ATM/ATR kinases, indicating that efficient induction of apoptosis by oncogene activation depends on coordinated action of ARF and ATM/ATR pathways in the regulation of p53

  3. Modeling Microalgal Biosediment Formation Based on Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogburn, Zachary L; Vogt, Frank

    2018-03-01

    With increasing amounts of anthropogenic pollutants being released into ecosystems, it becomes ever more important to understand their fate and interactions with living organisms. Microalgae play an important ecological role as they are ubiquitous in marine environments and sequester inorganic pollutants which they transform into organic biomass. Of particular interest in this study is their role as a sink for atmospheric CO 2 , a greenhouse gas, and nitrate, one cause of harmful algal blooms. Novel chemometric hard-modeling methodologies have been developed for interpreting phytoplankton's chemical and physiological adaptations to changes in their growing environment. These methodologies will facilitate investigations of environmental impacts of anthropogenic pollutants on chemical and physiological properties of marine microalgae (here: Nannochloropsis oculata). It has been demonstrated that attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy can gain insights into both and this study only focuses on the latter. From time-series of spectra, the rate of microalgal biomass settling on top of a horizontal ATR element is derived which reflects several of phytoplankton's physiological parameters such as growth rate, cell concentrations, cell size, and buoyancy. In order to assess environmental impacts on such parameters, microalgae cultures were grown under 25 different chemical scenarios covering 200-600 ppm atmospheric CO 2 and 0.35-0.75 mM dissolved NO 3 - . After recording time-series of ATR FT-IR spectra, a multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) algorithm extracted spectroscopic and time profiles from each data set. From the time profiles, it was found that in the considered concentration ranges only NO 3 - has an impact on the cells' physiological properties. In particular, the cultures' growth rate has been influenced by the ambient chemical conditions. Thus, the presented spectroscopic

  4. Structural Analysis of Spiropyran Polimers using ATR Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado Macui, R; Rojas Lopez, M; Gayou, V L; Orduna Diaz, A [Centro de Investigacion en BiotecnologIa Aplicada del IPN, San Juan de los Molinos km. 1.5 Tepetitla de Lardizabal, A.P. 90700, Tlaxcala (Mexico)

    2006-01-01

    We have used infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection (ATR) mode to analyze the interactions between the polymeric base and solvent with a photochromic material (spyropiran). We used cellulose acetate as polymeric base and the spyropiran; 1,3,3 trimethyl indoline-5-nitro benzopyrane. Thin films with different weight concentrations of SP were deposited in the polymeric base. The infrared spectra show bands whose frequencies are associated to several molecular bondings. It was observed a decreasing in intensity of absorbance for C = O stretching mode of the acetate group at 1720 cm{sup -1} and for C = C stretching mode for the main chain at 823 and 982 cm{sup -1} both associated to the presence of SP in polymeric films.

  5. Characterization and sintering of ATR aluminia from niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, N.H.

    1987-01-01

    The characterization of resultante slag from Aluminothermic Reduction (ATR) process to obtain metallic niobium is presented. The slag was characterized for concentration and phases of aluminia by X-ray diffractometry. The results show that 70% of the slag is constituted by α aluminia. The lixiviation and calcination of the slag increased the α aluminia concentration to 95%, the slag was used for producing samples to be burning in three furnaces: electrical resistance furnace in the air, and two furnaces in the vacuum. The burned samples were characterized by microscopy, ultrasonic analysis, density measurements and X-ray diffractometry. The sintering in the vacuum is possible because the samples burned in vacuum presented major density. The formation of NbO 2 and mullite was observed, by X-ray diffractometry. The data from optical microscopy, density measurements and X-ray diffractometry show high porosity. (M.C.K.) [pt

  6. The Ferrocyanide/Stabilized Carbon System, a New Class of High Rate, Long Cycle Life, Aqueous Electrolyte Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Huggins, R. A.

    2013-02-21

    Transient energy sources, such as wind and solar systems are getting increased attention. Their integration with the energy distribution grid requires methods for energy storage. The required characteristics of this type of storage are quite different from those for energy storage in portable devices. Size and weight are not so important. Instead, matters such as power, cost, calendar life, cycle life, and safety become paramount. A new family of hexacyanoferrate materials with the same open framework crystal structure as Prussian Blue has been recently developed with characteristics ideally suited for this type of application. Several monovalent cations can be rapidly and reversibly inserted into these materials, with very little crystallographic distortion, leading to high rates and long cycle lives. In addition, a new type of composite negative electrode material has been developed that has the rapid kinetics typical of carbon electrodes, but with a potential that varies little with the state of charge. The result is the development of a new battery system, the ferrocyanide/stabilized carbon, MHCF-SC, system. © 2013 The Electrochemical Society.

  7. Biochar-based carbons with hierarchical micro-meso-macro porosity for high rate and long cycle life supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhipeng; Wang, Yesheng; Bi, Xu; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Jin; Zhao, Jinping; Miao, Zhichao; Yi, Weiming; Fu, Peng; Zhuo, Shuping

    2018-02-01

    The development of supercapacitors with high energy density and power density is an important research topic despite many challenging issues exist. In this work, porous carbon material was prepared from corn straw biochar and used as the active electrode material for electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs). During the KOH activation process, the ratio of KOH/biochar significantly affects the microstructure of the resultant carbon, which further influences the capacitive performance. The optimized carbon material possesses typical hierarchical porosity composed of multi-leveled pores with high surface area and pore volume up to 2790.4 m2 g-1 and 2.04 cm3 g-1, respectively. Such hierarchical micro-meso-macro porosity significantly improved the rate performance of the biochar-based carbons. The achieved maximum specific capacitance was 327 F g-1 and maintained a high value of 205 F g-1 at a ultrahigh current density of 100 A g-1. Meanwhile, the prepared EDLCs present excellent cycle stability in alkaline electrolytes for 120 000 cycles at 5 A g-1. Moreover, the biochar-based carbon could work at a high voltage of 1.6 V in neutral Na2SO4, and exhibit a high specific capacitance of 227 F g-1, thus giving an outstanding energy density of 20.2 Wh kg-1.

  8. Effect of pedal rate on primary and slow-component oxygen uptake responses during heavy-cycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Jamie S M; Doust, Jonathan H; Carter, Helen; Tolfrey, Keith; Jones, Andrew M

    2003-04-01

    We hypothesized that a higher pedal rate (assumed to result in a greater proportional contribution of type II motor units) would be associated with an increased amplitude of the O(2) uptake (Vo(2)) slow component during heavy-cycle exercise. Ten subjects (mean +/- SD, age 26 +/- 4 yr, body mass 71.5 +/- 7.9 kg) completed a series of square-wave transitions to heavy exercise at pedal rates of 35, 75, and 115 rpm. The exercise power output was set at 50% of the difference between the pedal rate-specific ventilatory threshold and peak Vo(2), and the baseline power output was adjusted to account for differences in the O(2) cost of unloaded pedaling. The gain of the Vo(2) primary component was significantly higher at 35 rpm compared with 75 and 115 rpm (mean +/- SE, 10.6 +/- 0.3, 9.5 +/- 0.2, and 8.9 +/- 0.4 ml. min(-1). W(-1), respectively; P exercise at the same relative intensity, presumably by altering motor unit recruitment patterns.

  9. Oocytes with a dark zona pellucida demonstrate lower fertilization, implantation and clinical pregnancy rates in IVF/ICSI cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shi

    Full Text Available The morphological assessment of oocytes is important for embryologists to identify and select MII oocytes in IVF/ICSI cycles. Dysmorphism of oocytes decreases viability and the developmental potential of oocytes as well as the clinical pregnancy rate. Several reports have suggested that oocytes with a dark zona pellucida (DZP correlate with the outcome of IVF treatment. However, the effect of DZP on oocyte quality, fertilization, implantation, and pregnancy outcome were not investigated in detail. In this study, a retrospective analysis was performed in 268 infertile patients with fallopian tube obstruction and/or male factor infertility. In 204 of these patients, all oocytes were surrounded by a normal zona pellucida (NZP, control group, whereas 46 patients were found to have part of their retrieved oocytes enclosed by NZP and the other by DZP (Group A. In addition, all oocytes enclosed by DZP were retrieved from 18 patients (Group B. No differences were detected between the control and group A. Compared to the control group, the rates of fertilization, good quality embryos, implantation and clinical pregnancy were significantly decreased in group B. Furthermore, mitochondria in oocytes with a DZP in both of the two study groups (A and B were severely damaged with several ultrastructural alterations, which were associated with an increased density of the zona pellucida and vacuolization. Briefly, oocytes with a DZP affected the clinical outcome in IVF/ICSI cycles and appeared to contain more ultrastructural alterations. Thus, DZP could be used as a potential selective marker for embryologists during daily laboratory work.

  10. Personalized Hydration Strategy Attenuates the Rise in Heart Rate and in Skin Temperature Without Altering Cycling Capacity in the Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Melo-Marins

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The optimal hydration plan [i.e., drink to thirst, ad libitum (ADL, or personalized plan] to be adopted during exercise in recreational athletes has recently been a matter of debate and, due to conflicting results, consensus does not exist. In the present investigation, we tested whether a personalized hydration strategy based on sweat rate would affect cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses and exercise capacity in the heat. Eleven recreational male cyclists underwent two familiarization cycling sessions in the heat (34°C, 40% RH where sweat rate was also determined. A fan was used to enhance sweat evaporation. Participants then performed three randomized time-to-exhaustion (TTE trials in the heat with different hydration strategies: personalized volume (PVO, where water was consumed, based on individual sweat rate, every 10 min; ADL, where free access to water was allowed; and a control (CON trial with no fluids. Blood osmolality and urine-specific gravity were measured before each trial. Heart rate (HR, rectal, and skin temperatures were monitored throughout trials. Time to exhaustion at 70% of maximal workload was used to define exercise capacity in the heat, which was similar in all trials (p = 0.801. Body mass decreased after ADL (p = 0.008 and CON (p < 0.001 and was maintained in PVO trials (p = 0.171. Participants consumed 0 ml in CON, 166 ± 167 ml in ADL, and 1,080 ± 166 ml in PVO trials. The increase in mean body temperature was similar among trials despite a lower increase in skin temperature during PVO trial in comparison with CON (2.1 ± 0.6 vs. 2.9 ± 0.5°C, p = 0.0038. HR was lower toward the end of TTE in PVO (162 ± 8 bpm in comparison with ADL (168 ± 12 bpm and CON (167 ± 10 bpm, p < 0.001. In conclusion, a personalized hydration strategy can reduce HR during a moderate to high intensity exercise session in the heat and halt the increase in skin

  11. Personalized Hydration Strategy Attenuates the Rise in Heart Rate and in Skin Temperature Without Altering Cycling Capacity in the Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo-Marins, Denise; Souza-Silva, Ana Angélica; da Silva-Santos, Gabriel Lucas Leite; Freire-Júnior, Francisco de Assis; Lee, Jason Kai Wei; Laitano, Orlando

    2018-01-01

    The optimal hydration plan [i.e., drink to thirst, ad libitum (ADL), or personalized plan] to be adopted during exercise in recreational athletes has recently been a matter of debate and, due to conflicting results, consensus does not exist. In the present investigation, we tested whether a personalized hydration strategy based on sweat rate would affect cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses and exercise capacity in the heat. Eleven recreational male cyclists underwent two familiarization cycling sessions in the heat (34°C, 40% RH) where sweat rate was also determined. A fan was used to enhance sweat evaporation. Participants then performed three randomized time-to-exhaustion (TTE) trials in the heat with different hydration strategies: personalized volume (PVO), where water was consumed, based on individual sweat rate, every 10 min; ADL, where free access to water was allowed; and a control (CON) trial with no fluids. Blood osmolality and urine-specific gravity were measured before each trial. Heart rate (HR), rectal, and skin temperatures were monitored throughout trials. Time to exhaustion at 70% of maximal workload was used to define exercise capacity in the heat, which was similar in all trials ( p  = 0.801). Body mass decreased after ADL ( p  = 0.008) and CON ( p  skin temperature during PVO trial in comparison with CON (2.1 ± 0.6 vs. 2.9 ± 0.5°C, p  = 0.0038). HR was lower toward the end of TTE in PVO (162 ± 8 bpm) in comparison with ADL (168 ± 12 bpm) and CON (167 ± 10 bpm), p  hydration strategy can reduce HR during a moderate to high intensity exercise session in the heat and halt the increase in skin temperature. Despite these advantages, cycling capacity in the heat remained unchanged.

  12. Mutation of serine 1333 in the ATR HEAT repeats creates a hyperactive kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica W Luzwick

    Full Text Available Subcellular localization, protein interactions, and post-translational modifications regulate the DNA damage response kinases ATR, ATM, and DNA-PK. During an analysis of putative ATR phosphorylation sites, we found that a single mutation at S1333 creates a hyperactive kinase. In vitro and in cells, mutation of S1333 to alanine (S1333A-ATR causes elevated levels of kinase activity with and without the addition of the protein activator TOPBP1. S1333 mutations to glycine, arginine, or lysine also create a hyperactive kinase, while mutation to aspartic acid decreases ATR activity. S1333A-ATR maintains the G2 checkpoint and promotes completion of DNA replication after transient exposure to replication stress but the less active kinase, S1333D-ATR, has modest defects in both of these functions. While we find no evidence that S1333 is phosphorylated in cultured cells, our data indicate that small changes in the HEAT repeats can have large effects on kinase activity. These mutants may serve as useful tools for future studies of the ATR pathway.

  13. ATM and ATR play complementary roles in the behavior of excitatory and inhibitory vesicle populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Aifang; Zhao, Teng; Tse, Kai-Hei; Chow, Hei-Man; Cui, Yong; Jiang, Liwen; Du, Shengwang; Loy, Michael M T; Herrup, Karl

    2018-01-09

    ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) and ATR (ATM and Rad3-related) are large PI3 kinases whose human mutations result in complex syndromes that include a compromised DNA damage response (DDR) and prominent nervous system phenotypes. Both proteins are nuclear-localized in keeping with their DDR functions, yet both are also found in cytoplasm, including on neuronal synaptic vesicles. In ATM- or ATR-deficient neurons, spontaneous vesicle release is reduced, but a drop in ATM or ATR level also slows FM4-64 dye uptake. In keeping with this, both proteins bind to AP-2 complex components as well as to clathrin, suggesting roles in endocytosis and vesicle recycling. The two proteins play complementary roles in the DDR; ATM is engaged in the repair of double-strand breaks, while ATR deals mainly with single-strand damage. Unexpectedly, this complementarity extends to these proteins' synaptic function as well. Superresolution microscopy and coimmunoprecipitation reveal that ATM associates exclusively with excitatory (VGLUT1 + ) vesicles, while ATR associates only with inhibitory (VGAT + ) vesicles. The levels of ATM and ATR respond to each other; when ATM is deficient, ATR levels rise, and vice versa. Finally, blocking NMDA, but not GABA, receptors causes ATM levels to rise while ATR levels respond to GABA, but not NMDA, receptor blockade. Taken together, our data suggest that ATM and ATR are part of the cellular "infrastructure" that maintains the excitatory/inhibitory balance of the nervous system. This idea has important implications for the human diseases resulting from their genetic deficiency.

  14. E2F1 transcription is induced by genotoxic stress through ATM/ATR activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcagno, Abel L; Ogara, María F; Sonzogni, Silvina V; Marazita, Mariela C; Sirkin, Pablo F; Ceruti, Julieta M; Cánepa, Eduardo T

    2009-05-01

    E2F1, a member of the E2F family of transcription factors, plays a critical role in controlling both cell cycle progression and apoptotic cell death in response to DNA damage and oncogene activation. Following genotoxic stresses, E2F1 protein is stabilized by phosphorylation and acetylation driven to its accumulation. The aim of the present work was to examine whether the increase in E2F1 protein levels observed after DNA damage is only a reflection of an increase in E2F1 protein stability or is also the consequence of enhanced transcription of the E2F1 gene. The data presented here demonstrates that UV light and other genotoxics induce the transcription of E2F1 gene in an ATM/ATR dependent manner, which results in increasing E2F1 mRNA and protein levels. After genotoxic stress, transcription of cyclin E, an E2F1 target gene, was significantly induced. This induction was the result of two well-differentiated effects, one of them dependent on de novo protein synthesis and the other on the protein stabilization. Our results strongly support a transcriptional effect of DNA damaging agents on E2F1 expression. The results presented herein uncover a new mechanism involving E2F1 in response to genotoxic stress.

  15. Organic acid formation in steam–water cycles: Influence of temperature, retention time, heating rate and O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moed, D.H.; Verliefde, A.R.D.; Heijman, S.G.J.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2014-01-01

    Organic carbon breaks down in boilers by hydrothermolysis, leading to the formation of organic acid anions, which are suspected to cause corrosion of steam–water cycle components. Prediction of the identity and quantity of these anions, based on feedwater organic carbon concentrations, has not been attempted, making it hard to establish a well-founded organic carbon guideline. By using a batch-reactor and flow reactor, the influence of temperature (276–352 °C), retention time (1–25 min), concentration (150–2400 ppb) and an oxygen scavenger (carbohydrazide) on organic acid anion formation from organic carbon was investigated. By comparing this to data gathered at a case-study site, the validity of setups was tested as well. The flow reactor provided results more representative for steam–water cycles than the batch reactor. It was found that lower heating rates give more organic acid anions as degradation products of organic carbon, both in quantity and species variety. The thermal stability of the organic acid anions is key. As boiler temperature increases, acetate becomes the dominant degradation product, due to its thermal stability. Shorter retention times lead to more variety and quantity of organic acid anions, due to a lack of time for the thermally less stable ones to degrade. Reducing conditions (or the absence of oxygen) increase the thermal stability of organic acid anions. As the feedwater organic carbon concentration decreases, there are relatively more organic acid anions formed. - Highlights: •Formation of organic acids from hydrothermolysis of organic carbon has been investigated. •The lower the temperature, the higher the variety of organic acid anions. •At the higher tested temperatures (331–352 °C) acetate is the dominant degradation product. •At longer retention times acetate is the dominant degradation product. •There is no linear relation between the organic carbon concentration and formed organic acids

  16. Dynamic dependence on ATR and ATM for double-strand break repair in human embryonic stem cells and neural descendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bret R; Golding, Sarah E; Rao, Raj R; Valerie, Kristoffer

    2010-04-02

    The DNA double-strand break (DSB) is the most toxic form of DNA damage. Studies aimed at characterizing DNA repair during development suggest that homologous recombination repair (HRR) is more critical in pluripotent cells compared to differentiated somatic cells in which nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is dominant. We have characterized the DNA damage response (DDR) and quality of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and in vitro-derived neural cells. Resolution of ionizing radiation-induced foci (IRIF) was used as a surrogate for DSB repair. The resolution of gamma-H2AX foci occurred at a slower rate in hESCs compared to neural progenitors (NPs) and astrocytes perhaps reflective of more complex DSB repair in hESCs. In addition, the resolution of RAD51 foci, indicative of active homologous recombination repair (HRR), showed that hESCs as well as NPs have high capacity for HRR, whereas astrocytes do not. Importantly, the ATM kinase was shown to be critical for foci formation in astrocytes, but not in hESCs, suggesting that the DDR is different in these cells. Blocking the ATM kinase in astrocytes not only prevented the formation but also completely disassembled preformed repair foci. The ability of hESCs to form IRIF was abrogated with caffeine and siRNAs targeted against ATR, implicating that hESCs rely on ATR, rather than ATM for regulating DSB repair. This relationship dynamically changed as cells differentiated. Interestingly, while the inhibition of the DNA-PKcs kinase (and presumably non-homologous endjoining [NHEJ]) in astrocytes slowed IRIF resolution it did not in hESCs, suggesting that repair in hESCs does not utilize DNA-PKcs. Altogether, our results show that hESCs have efficient DSB repair that is largely ATR-dependent HRR, whereas astrocytes critically depend on ATM for NHEJ, which, in part, is DNA-PKcs-independent.

  17. Evaluating the Role of First Polar Body Morphology on Rates of Fertilization and Embryo Development in ICSI Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Halvaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies have demonstrated that morphology of the first polar body (1st PBis related to oocyte viability, which can be used as a prognostic tool to predict oocyte performanceand pregnancy outcomes in an intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI program. According to somestudies, there is a correlation between oocyte performance and 1st PB morphology, while others havenot reported any correlation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the role of 1st PB morphologyon rates of fertilization and embryo development in ICSI cases.Materials and Methods: In this prospective study morphological characteristics of 470 metaphaseII (MII oocytes were assessed in 80 ICSI cycles. The women were ages 21-42 years (mean 32.6 ±0.2. Their oocytes were retrieved after a hyperstimulation protocol. After denudation, all oocyteswere evaluated for 1st PB morphology. The oocytes were divided into two groups of A (normal 1stPB and B (abnormal fragmented 1st PB. In addition, other abnormalities, such as refractile bodies(RF, wide previtelline space (wPVS, central and general granulation, bull’s eye, vacuole, smoothendoplasmic reticulum cluster (SERc, debris in PVS, shape and dark oocyte were checked. Forverifying of fertilization, about 18-19 hours post-ICSI, oocytes were checked for two-pronuclear.Assessments of embryo quality, development and embryo transfer were done at day two. Chisquare,Fisher’s exact and independent sample t tests were chosen for statistical analysis.Results: Twenty-seven percent of oocytes had fragmented 1st PB, while the remainder was associatedwith other morphological abnormalities. A total of 46.1% and 26.9% of oocytes showed double andmultiple defects, respectively. RF was the most common abnormality observed in group B. Nosignificant differences in women’s’ ages between groups A and B were noted (p=0.3. A total of 179and 107 oocytes (61.5% vs. 59.8% were fertilized in groups A and B, respectively (p=0.7. Therates of

  18. Human papillomavirus E6 and E7 oncoproteins alter cell cycle progression but not radiosensitivity of carcinoma cells treated with low-dose-rate radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWeese, Theodore L.; Walsh, Jonathan C.; Dillehay, Larry E.; Kessis, Theodore D.; Hedrick, Lora; Cho, Kathleen R.; Nelson, William G.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Low-dose-rate radiation therapy has been widely used in the treatment of urogenital malignancies. When continuously exposed to low-dose-rate ionizing radiation, target cancer cells typically exhibit abnormalities in replicative cell-cycle progression. Cancer cells that arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle when irradiated may become exquisitely sensitive to killing by further low-dose-rate radiation treatment. Oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs), which play a major role in the pathogenesis of uterine cervix cancers and other urogenital cancers, encode E6 and E7 transforming proteins known to abrogate a p53-dependent G1 cell-cycle checkpoint activated by conventional acute-dose radiation exposure. This study examined whether expression of HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins by cancer cells alters the cell-cycle redistribution patterns accompanying low-dose-rate radiation treatment, and whether such alterations in cell-cycle redistribution affect cancer cell killing. Methods and Materials: RKO carcinoma cells, which contain wild-type P53 alleles, and RKO cell sublines genetically engineered to express HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins, were treated with low-dose-rate (0.25-Gy/h) radiation and then assessed for p53 and p21WAF1/CIP1 polypeptide induction by immunoblot analysis, for cell-cycle redistribution by flow cytometry, and for cytotoxicity by clonogenic survival assay. Results: Low-dose-rate radiation of RKO carcinoma cells triggered p53 polypeptide elevations, p21WAF1/CIP1 induction, and arrest in the G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle. In contrast, RKO cells expressing E6 and E7 transforming proteins from high-risk oncogenic HPVs (HPV 16) arrested in G2, but failed to arrest in G1, when treated with low-dose-rate ionizing radiation. Abrogation of the G1 cell-cycle checkpoint activated by low-dose-rate radiation exposure appeared to be a characteristic feature of transforming proteins from high-risk oncogenic HPVs: RKO cells expressing E6 from a low

  19. RPA-Binding Protein ETAA1 Is an ATR Activator Involved in DNA Replication Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuan-Cho; Zhou, Qing; Chen, Junjie; Yuan, Jingsong

    2016-12-19

    ETAA1 (Ewing tumor-associated antigen 1), also known as ETAA16, was identified as a tumor-specific antigen in the Ewing family of tumors. However, the biological function of this protein remains unknown. Here, we report the identification of ETAA1 as a DNA replication stress response protein. ETAA1 specifically interacts with RPA (Replication protein A) via two conserved RPA-binding domains and is therefore recruited to stalled replication forks. Interestingly, further analysis of ETAA1 function revealed that ETAA1 participates in the activation of ATR signaling pathway via a conserved ATR-activating domain (AAD) located near its N terminus. Importantly, we demonstrate that both RPA binding and ATR activation are required for ETAA1 function at stalled replication forks to maintain genome stability. Therefore, our data suggest that ETAA1 is a new ATR activator involved in replication checkpoint control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Generation and assessment of turntable SAR data for the support of ATR development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marvin N.; Showman, Gregory A.; Sangston, K. James; Sylvester, Vincent B.; Gostin, Lamar; Scheer, C. Ruby

    1998-10-01

    Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging on a turntable-tower test range permits convenient generation of high resolution two-dimensional images of radar targets under controlled conditions for testing SAR image processing and for supporting automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithm development. However, turntable ISAR images are often obtained under near-field geometries and hence may suffer geometric distortions not present in airborne SAR images. In this paper, turntable data collected at Georgia Tech's Electromagnetic Test Facility are used to begin to assess the utility of two- dimensional ISAR imaging algorithms in forming images to support ATR development. The imaging algorithms considered include a simple 2D discrete Fourier transform (DFT), a 2-D DFT with geometric correction based on image domain resampling, and a computationally-intensive geometric matched filter solution. Images formed with the various algorithms are used to develop ATR templates, which are then compared with an eye toward utilization in an ATR algorithm.

  1. Process computer system for the prototype ATR 'Fugen'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oteru, Shigeru

    1979-01-01

    In recent nuclear power plants, computers are regarded as one of component equipments, and data processing, plant monitoring and performance calculation tend to be carried out with one on-line computer. As plants become large and complex, and the operational conditions become strict, the system having the function of performance calculation and reflecting the results immediately to operation is introduced. In the process computer for the prototype ATR ''Fugen'', the function of prediction to simulate the state after operation before the operation accompanied by the change of reactivity in a core, such as the operation of control rods and the control of liquid poison during operation, was given in addition to the functions of data processing, plant monitoring and detailed performance calculation. Core periodic monitoring program, core operational aid program, core any time data collecting program, and core periodic data collecting program, and their application programs are explained. Core performance calculation is the calculation of thermal output distribution in the core and the various accompanying characteristics and the monitoring of thermal limiting values. The computer used is a Hitachi control computer HIDIC-500, and typewriters, a process colored display, an operating console and other peripheral equipments are connected to it. (Kako, I.)

  2. Encefalomenigocele atrésico parietal Parietal atresic encephalomeningocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Rivera Oliva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El encefalocele es una anomalía congénita rara, en la que una porción del encéfalo protruye a través de un orificio craneal (evaginación, generalmente situado en la línea media. Clínicamente se caracteriza por una masa epicraneal, de consistencia blanda, muchas veces acompañada de trastornos psicomotores, convulsiones y trastornos de la visión. Se presenta el caso de un recién nacido con diagnóstico de encefalomeningocele atrésico parietal, intervenido quirúrgicamente y con evolución satisfactoria.The encephalocele is a uncommon congenital anomaly where a portion of encephalon protrudes through a cranial orifice (evagination, generally located in the middle line. Clinically, it is characterized by a soft epicranial mass often accompanied or psychomotor disorders, convulsions and vision disorders. This is the case of a newborn diagnosed with parietal atresic encephalomeningocele operated on with a satisfactory evolution.

  3. Effects of rates and time of zeolite application on controlling runoff generation and soil loss from a soil subjected to a freeze-thaw cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Behzadfar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many factors such as freeze-thaw (FT cycle influence soil behavior. Application of soil amendments can play an important role on runoff time commencement (RT, volume (RV and soil loss (SL on soils subjected to FT cycles. However, limited studies have been documented on this subject. The present study was therefore carried out under rainfall simulation circumstances to investigate the effect of different rates of zeolite application to control the effects of FT on basic hydrological variables such as runoff production and soil loss. Towards this attempt, the effect of application of different rates of 250, 500 and 750 g m−2 of zeolite applied before, during and after the occurrence of FT cycle on RT, RV and SL was assessed in a completely randomized design. Treatments were set up in two categories viz. control (without zeolite application, and three rates and times of zeolite application in small 0.25 m2-experimental plots in three replications. The results showed that application of zeolite had significant effects on hydrological behavior of soil induced by FT cycles. Application rate of 750 g m−2 prior to FT cycle increased RT and reduced RV and SL at rates of 644%, 68% and 91%, respectively. The results also verified that zeolite could successfully mitigate the impacts of FT cycle on the main soil hydrological variables of soil profile induced by FT cycle. It is accordingly recommended to employ zeolite as an effective amendment to control soil erosion in steep and degraded rangelands where surface soil is exposed to rainfall and runoff.

  4. Life-cycle evaluation of nitrogen-use in rice-farming systems: implications for economically-optimal nitrogen rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Xia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N fertilizer plays an important role in agricultural systems in terms of food yield. However, N application rates (NARs are often overestimated over the rice (Oryza sativa L. growing season in the Taihu Lake region of China. This is largely because negative externalities are not entirely included when evaluating economically-optimal nitrogen rate (EONR, such as only individual N losses are taken into account, or the inventory flows of reactive N have been limited solely to the farming process when evaluating environmental and economic effects of N fertilizer. This study integrates important material and energy flows resulting from N use into a rice agricultural inventory that constitutes the hub of the life-cycle assessment (LCA method. An economic evaluation is used to determine an environmental and economic NAR for the Taihu Lake region. The analysis reveals that production and exploitation processes consume the largest proportion of resources, accounting for 77.2 % and 22.3 % of total resources, respectively. Regarding environmental impact, global warming creates the highest cost with contributions stemming mostly from fertilizer production and farming processes. Farming process incurs the biggest environmental impact of the three environmental impact categories considered, whereas transportation has a much smaller effect. When taking account of resource consumption and environmental cost, the marginal benefit of 1 kg rice would decrease from 2.4 to only 1.05 yuan. Accordingly, our current EONR has been evaluated at 187 kg N ha−1 for a single rice-growing season. This could enhance profitability, as well as reduce the N losses associated with rice growing.

  5. Kinetic coupling of phosphate release, force generation and rate-limiting steps in the cross-bridge cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehle, Robert; Tesi, Chiara

    2017-08-01

    A basic goal in muscle research is to understand how the cyclic ATPase activity of cross-bridges is converted into mechanical force. A direct approach to study the chemo-mechanical coupling between P i release and the force-generating step is provided by the kinetics of force response induced by a rapid change in [P i ]. Classical studies on fibres using caged-P i discovered that rapid increases in [P i ] induce fast force decays dependent on final [P i ] whose kinetics were interpreted to probe a fast force-generating step prior to P i release. However, this hypothesis was called into question by studies on skeletal and cardiac myofibrils subjected to P i jumps in both directions (increases and decreases in [P i ]) which revealed that rapid decreases in [P i ] trigger force rises with slow kinetics, similar to those of calcium-induced force development and mechanically-induced force redevelopment at the same [P i ]. A possible explanation for this discrepancy came from imaging of individual sarcomeres in cardiac myofibrils, showing that the fast force decay upon increase in [P i ] results from so-called sarcomere 'give'. The slow force rise upon decrease in [P i ] was found to better reflect overall sarcomeres cross-bridge kinetics and its [P i ] dependence, suggesting that the force generation coupled to P i release cannot be separated from the rate-limiting transition. The reasons for the different conclusions achieved in fibre and myofibril studies are re-examined as the recent findings on cardiac myofibrils have fundamental consequences for the coupling between P i release, rate-limiting steps and force generation. The implications from P i -induced force kinetics of myofibrils are discussed in combination with historical and recent models of the cross-bridge cycle.

  6. Functional analyses of ATM, ATR and Fanconi anemia proteins in lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beumer, Jan H.; Fu, Katherine Y.; Anyang, Bean N.; Siegfried, Jill M.; Bakkenist, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    ATM and ATR are kinases implicated in a myriad of DNA-damage responses. ATM kinase inhibition radiosensitizes cells and selectively kills cells with Fanconi anemia (FA) gene mutations. ATR kinase inhibition sensitizes cells to agents that induce replication stress and selectively kills cells with ATM and TP53 mutations. ATM mutations and FANCF promoter-methylation are reported in lung carcinomas. We undertook functional analyses of ATM, ATR, Chk1 and FA proteins in lung cancer cell lines. We included Calu6 that is reported to be FANCL-deficient. In addition, the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) database was interrogated for alterations in: 1) ATM, MRE11A, RAD50 and NBN; 2) ATR, ATRIP and TOPBP1; and 3) 15 FA genes. No defects in ATM, ATR or Chk1 kinase activation, or FANCD2 monoubiquitination were identified in the lung cancer cell lines examined, including Calu6, and major alterations in these pathways were not identified in the TCGA database. Cell lines were radiosensitized by ATM kinase inhibitor KU60019, but no cell killing by ATM kinase inhibitor alone was observed. While no synergy between gemcitabine or carboplatin and ATR kinase inhibitor ETP-46464 was observed, synergy between gemcitabine and Chk1 kinase inhibitor UCN-01 was observed in 54 T, 201 T and H460, and synergy between carboplatin and Chk1 kinase inhibitor was identified in 201 T and 239 T. No interactions between ATM, ATR and FA activation were observed by either ATM or ATR kinase inhibition in the lung cancer cell lines. Analyses of ATM serine 1981 and Chk1 serine 345 phosphorylation, and FANCD2 monoubiquitination revealed that ATM and ATR kinase activation and FA pathway signaling are intact in the lung cancer cell lines examined. As such, these posttranslational modifications may have utility as biomarkers for the integrity of DNA damage signaling pathways in lung cancer. Different sensitization profiles between gemcitabine and carboplatin and ATR kinase inhibitor ETP-46464 and Chk1 kinase inhibitor

  7. Inability to match energy intake with energy expenditure at sustained near-maximal rates of energy expenditure in older men during a 14-d cycling expedition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde Larsen, Mads; Morville, Thomas; Riis Andersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The upper rates of energy expenditure (EE) and the corresponding regulation of energy intake (EI), as described in younger trained subjects, are not well elucidated in older subjects. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to investigate EE in older men during prolonged cycling and determine whether...... it is sufficiently matched by EI to maintain energy balance. In addition, we investigated appetite ratings and concentrations of appetite-regulating hormones. DESIGN: Six men (mean ± SE age: 61 ± 3 y) completed 2706 km of cycling, from Copenhagen to Nordkapp, in 14 d. EE was measured by using doubly labeled water......, and food and drink intake was recorded by the accompanying scientific staff. Energy balance was calculated as the discrepancy between EI and EE and from changes in body energy stores as derived from deuterium dilution. Fasting hormones were measured before and after cycling, and appetite ratings were...

  8. Phase space representation of neutron monitor count rate and atmospheric electric field in relation to solar activity in cycles 21 and 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, H G; Lopes, I

    Heliospheric modulation of galactic cosmic rays links solar cycle activity with neutron monitor count rate on earth. A less direct relation holds between neutron monitor count rate and atmospheric electric field because different atmospheric processes, including fluctuations in the ionosphere, are involved. Although a full quantitative model is still lacking, this link is supported by solid statistical evidence. Thus, a connection between the solar cycle activity and atmospheric electric field is expected. To gain a deeper insight into these relations, sunspot area (NOAA, USA), neutron monitor count rate (Climax, Colorado, USA), and atmospheric electric field (Lisbon, Portugal) are presented here in a phase space representation. The period considered covers two solar cycles (21, 22) and extends from 1978 to 1990. Two solar maxima were observed in this dataset, one in 1979 and another in 1989, as well as one solar minimum in 1986. Two main observations of the present study were: (1) similar short-term topological features of the phase space representations of the three variables, (2) a long-term phase space radius synchronization between the solar cycle activity, neutron monitor count rate, and potential gradient (confirmed by absolute correlation values above ~0.8). Finally, the methodology proposed here can be used for obtaining the relations between other atmospheric parameters (e.g., solar radiation) and solar cycle activity.

  9. Roles of ATR1 paralogs YMR279c and YOR378w in boron stress tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozdag, Gonensin Ozan; Uluisik, Irem; Gulculer, Gulce Sila; Karakaya, Huseyin C.; Koc, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → ATR1 paralog YMR279c plays role in boron detoxification. → YMR279c overexpression lowers cytoplasmic boron levels. → ATR1 paralog YOR378w has no roles in boron stress response. -- Abstract: Boron is a necessary nutrient for plants and animals, however excess of it causes toxicity. Previously, Atr1 and Arabidopsis Bor1 homolog were identified as the boron efflux pump in yeast, which lower the cytosolic boron concentration and help cells to survive in the presence of toxic amount of boron. In this study, we analyzed ATR1 paralogs, YMR279c and YOR378w, to understand whether they participate in boron stress tolerance in yeast. Even though these genes share homology with ATR1, neither their deletion rendered cells boron sensitive nor their expression was significantly upregulated by boron treatment. However, expression of YMR279, but not YOR378w, from the constitutive GAPDH promoter on a high copy plasmid provided remarkable boron resistance by decreasing intracellular boron levels. Thus our results suggest the presence of a third boron exporter, YMR279c, which functions similar to ATR1 and provides boron resistance in yeast.

  10. Studies on muon cycling rates in muon catalyzed D-T fusion system with possible four-body muonic molecules formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskandri, M.R.; Hosini Motlagh, N.; Hataf, A.

    2000-01-01

    In recent studies, it is shown that the fusion rate for four-body molecules of ppμμ, ddμμ, ptμμ, pdμμ, dtμμ, ttμμ, is considerably larger than that of similar three-body molecules of ppμμ, ddμμ, ptμμ, pdμμ, dtμμ, ttμμ. It is shown that for dtμμ, fusion rate is R f (dt) ≅ 3 * 10 13 - 6 * * 10 13 S -1 which is 40 times higher than fusion rate of dtμμ molecule. In this paper we have looked for the effect of these molecules formation in muon catalyzed D-T fusion. The required data for all possible branches do not exist, so the main dtμμ branch are considered here. By choosing a variable value for dtμμ molecule formation rate and comparing obtained cycling rates with existing experimental values, the order of this parameter is evaluated to be ≅ 10 9 S -1 . Using obtained data in different conditions of D-T muon cycling rate calculations have shown that considering of four-body molecule formations in existing muon injection intensities do not make considerable change in three-body muonic molecule cycling rate

  11. The Ferrocyanide/Stabilized Carbon System, a New Class of High Rate, Long Cycle Life, Aqueous Electrolyte Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Huggins, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    different from those for energy storage in portable devices. Size and weight are not so important. Instead, matters such as power, cost, calendar life, cycle life, and safety become paramount. A new family of hexacyanoferrate materials with the same open

  12. Texas-specific drive cycles and idle emissions rates for using with EPA's MOVES model : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys (EPA) newest emissions model, MOtor Vehicle : Emission Simulator (MOVES), uses a disaggregate approach that enables the users of the model to create : and use local drive schedules (drive cycles) in order ...

  13. An Exercise Model to Study Progressive Muscle Fatigue During Constant Work Rate Exercise on a Cycle Ergometer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fulco, Charles

    2003-01-01

    ... of the same muscles during the activity. However, conventional ergometric testing modes such as stationary cycling or treadmill exercise do not readily lend themselves to quantitating the progressive increase in muscle fatigue...

  14. Influence of refreshment/activation cycles and temperature rise on the reaction rate of sodium hypochlorite with bovine dentine during ultrasonic activated irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macedo, R.G.; Verhaagen, B.; Wesselink, P.R.; Versluis, Michel; van der Sluis, L.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effect of multiple refreshment/activation cycles and temperature on the reaction rate of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with bovine dentine during ultrasonic activated irrigation (UAI) under laboratory conditions. Methodology The root canal walls of 24 standardized root canals in

  15. Preferences of subfertile women regarding elective single embryo transfer: additional in vitro fertilization cycles are acceptable, lower pregnancy rates are not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, Moniek; van der Veen, Fulco; Repping, Sjoerd; Heineman, Maas-Jan; Korevaar, Johanna C.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.

    2007-01-01

    With identical pregnancy rates after elective single embryo transfer (ET) and double ET strategies consisting of three cycles of IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) plus transfers of thawed/frozen embryos if available, 46% of the women undergoing IVF/ICSI favor elective single ET. If

  16. Preferences of subfertile women regarding elective single embryo transfer : additional in vitro fertilization cycles are acceptable, lower pregnancy rates are not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, Moniek; van der Veen, Fulco; Repping, Sjoerd; Heineman, Maas-Jan; Korevaar, Johanna C.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.

    2007-01-01

    With identical pregnancy rates after elective single embryo transfer (ET) and double ET strategies consisting of three cycles of IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) plus transfers of thawed/frozen embryos if available, 46% of the women undergoing IVF/ICSI favor elective single ET. If

  17. [CHALLENGING THE OPTIMAL NUMBER OF RETRIEVED OOCYTES AND ITS IMPACT ON PREGNANCY AND LIVE BIRTH RATES IN IVF/ICSI CYCLES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Idit; Lahav-Baratz, Shirly; Koifman, Mara; Wiener-Megnazi, Zofnat; Auslender, Ron; Dirnfeld, Martha

    2015-06-01

    Large numbers of retrieved oocytes are associated with higher chances of having cryopreservation of embryos. However, the process entailed exposes women to increased risk for ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Furthermore, mild ovary stimulation protocols are more patient-friendly and with less adverse effects. Only limited reports exist on the significance of the number of retrieved oocytes achieved in a single stimulation cycle. To investigate the optimal number of retrieved oocytes to achieve pregnancy and live birth. This retrospective analysis included 1590 IVF cycles. Oocytes maturation, fertilization, cleavage, as well as pregnancy and live birth rates were analyzed according to the number of retrieved oocytes. Oocyte maturation, fertilization and cleavage rates were lower in cycles with more than 10 retrieved oocytes compared with other groups. Live birth rates were highest when the number of retrieved oocytes was 11-15. Retrieval of more than 15 oocytes was not associated with a significant increase in chances of conception and birth. The better oocyte quality with 10 or less oocytes retrieved could be the result of a possible interference with the natural selection, or the minimized exposure of growing follicles to the potentially negative effects of ovarian stimulation. Although the average number of available embryos was higher when more than 10 oocytes were retrieved, achievement of more than 15 oocytes did not improve IVF outcome in terms of pregnancy and delivery rates. Analysis of 1590 IVF cycles including the frozen-thawed transfers shows that the best outcomes were achieved with an optimal number of 11-15 oocytes.

  18. Being born under adverse economic conditions leads to a higher cardiovascular mortality rate later in life: evidence based on individuals born at different stages of the business cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Doblhammer-Reiter, Gabriele; Christensen, Kaare

    2011-01-01

    since the 1870s and including the cause of death. To capture exogenous variation of conditions early in life, we use the state of the business cycle around birth. We find significant negative effects of economic conditions around birth on the individual CV mortality rate at higher ages...

  19. Analysis code for medium and small rupture accidents in ATR. LOTRAC/HEATUP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    In the evaluation of thermo-hydraulic and fuel temperature transient changes in the events which are classified in medium and small rupture accidents of reactor coolant loss that is the safety evaluation event of the ATR, the analysis code for synthetic thermo-hydraulic transient change at the time of medium and small ruptures LOTRAC and the detailed analysis code for fuel temperature HEATUP are used, respectively. By using the LOTAC, the thermo-hydraulic behavior of reactor cooling facility and the temperature behavior of fuel at the time of blow-down are analyzed, and also the characteristics of changing reactor thermal output is analyzed, considering the functioning characteristics of emergency core cooling system. Based on the data of thermo-hydraulic behavior obtained by the LOTRAC, the time of beginning the turn-around of fuel cladding tube temperature obtained by the data of ECCS pouring characteristics, the heat transfer rate after the turn-around and so on, the detailed temperature change of fuel elements is analyzed by the HEATUP, and the highest temperature and the amount of oxidation of fuel cladding tubes are determined. The LOTRAC code, the HEATUP code, various analysis models, and rupture simulation experiment are reported. (K.I.)

  20. Nitrogen deficiency inhibits leaf blade growth in Lolium perenne by increasing cell cycle duration and decreasing mitotic and post-mitotic growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanová, Monika; Lattanzi, Fernando Alfredo; Schnyder, Hans

    2008-06-01

    Nitrogen deficiency severely inhibits leaf growth. This response was analysed at the cellular level by growing Lolium perenne L. under 7.5 mM (high) or 1 mM (low) nitrate supply, and performing a kinematic analysis to assess the effect of nitrogen status on cell proliferation and cell growth in the leaf blade epidermis. Low nitrogen supply reduced leaf elongation rate (LER) by 43% through a similar decrease in the cell production rate and final cell length. The former was entirely because of a decreased average cell division rate (0.023 versus 0.032 h(-1)) and thus longer cell cycle duration (30 versus 22 h). Nitrogen status did not affect the number of division cycles of the initial cell's progeny (5.7), and accordingly the meristematic cell number (53). Meristematic cell length was unaffected by nitrogen deficiency, implying that the division and mitotic growth rates were equally impaired. The shorter mature cell length arose from a considerably reduced post-mitotic growth rate (0.033 versus 0.049 h(-1)). But, nitrogen stress did not affect the position where elongation stopped, and increased cell elongation duration. In conclusion, nitrogen deficiency limited leaf growth by increasing the cell cycle duration and decreasing mitotic and post-mitotic elongation rates, delaying cell maturation.

  1. Three-dimensional graphene sheets with NiO nanobelt outgrowths for enhanced capacity and long term high rate cycling Li-ion battery anode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Waipeng; Zhang, Yingmeng; Key, Julian; Shen, Pei Kang

    2018-03-01

    An efficient synthesis method to grow well attached NiO nanobelts from 3D graphene sheets (3DGS) is reported herein. Ni-ion exchanged resin provides the initial Ni reactant portion, which serves both as a catalyst to form 3DGS and then as a seeding agent to grow the NiO nanobelts. The macroporous structure of 3DGS provides NiO containment to achieve a high cycling stability of up to 445 mAh g-1 after 360 cycles (and >112% capacity retention after 515 cycles) at a high current density of 2 A g-1. With a 26.8 wt.% content of NiO on 3DGS, increases in specific and volumetric capacity were 41.6 and 75.7% respectively over that of 3DGS at matching current densities. Therefore, the seeded growth of NiO nanobelts from 3DGS significantly boosts volumetric capacity, while 3DGS enables high rate long term cycling of the NiO. The high rate cycling stability of NiO on 3DGS can be attributed to (i) good attachment and contact to the large surface of 3DGS, (ii) high electron conductivity and rapid Li-ion transfer (via the interconnected, highly conductive graphitized walls of 3DGS) and (iii) buffering void space in 3DGS to contain volume expansion of NiO during charge/discharge.

  2. Elevated basal progesterone levels are associated with increased preovulatory progesterone rise but not with higher pregnancy rates in ICSI cycles with GnRH antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Mehmet Firat; Erdem, Mehmet; Mutlu, Ilknur; Bulut, Berk; Erdem, Ahmet

    2017-09-01

    To ascertain the association between basal progesterone (P) levels and the occurrence of preovulatory progesterone rise (PPR) and clinical pregnancy rates (CPRs) in ICSI cycles with GnRH antagonists. Serum P levels of 464 patients were measured on day 2 and day of hCG of cycles. Cycles with basal P levels>1.6ng/mL were cancelled. All embryos were cryopreserved in cycles with P levels≥2ng/mL on the day of hCG. The primary outcome measures were the incidence of PPR (P>1.5ng/mL) and CPR with regard to basal P. Basal P levels were significantly higher in cycles with PPR than in those without PPR (0.63±0.31 vs. 0.48±0.28ng/mL). Area under the curve for basal P according to ROC analysis to discriminate between elevated and normal P levels on the day of hCG was 0.65 (0.58-0.71 95% CI, pcycles with and without PPR was 0.65ng/mL. Cycles with basal P levels above 0.65ng/mL had a significantly higher incidence of PPR (30.9% vs. 13.5%) but similar clinical and cumulative pregnancy rates (38.8% vs. 31.1% and 41.7% vs. 32.6%, respectively) in comparison to cycles with basal P levels below 0.65ng/mL. In multivariate regression analysis, basal P levels, LH level on the first day of antagonist administration, and estradiol levels on the day of hCG trigger were the variables that predicted PPR. Basal P levels were associated with increased incidence of PPR but not with CPR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Shld1-controlled POT1a provides support for repression of ATR signaling at telomeres through RPA exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yi; de Lange, Titia

    2010-11-12

    We previously proposed that POT1 prevents ATR signaling at telomeres by excluding RPA from the single-stranded TTAGGG repeats. Here, we use a Shld1-stabilized degron-POT1a fusion (DD-POT1a) to study the telomeric ATR kinase response. In the absence of Shld1, DD-POT1a degradation resulted in rapid and reversible activation of the ATR pathway in G1 and S/G2. ATR signaling was abrogated by shRNAs to ATR and TopBP1, but shRNAs to the ATM kinase or DNA-PKcs did not affect the telomere damage response. Importantly, ATR signaling in G1 and S/G2 was reduced by shRNAs to RPA. In S/G2, RPA was readily detectable at dysfunctional telomeres, and both POT1a and POT1b were required to exclude RPA and prevent ATR activation. In G1, the accumulation of RPA at dysfunctional telomeres was strikingly less, and POT1a was sufficient to repress ATR signaling. These results support an RPA exclusion model for the repression of ATR signaling at telomeres. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Facility 10CFR830 Safety Basis Related to Facility Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomberlin, T.A.

    2002-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), a DOE Category A reactor, was designed to provide an irradiation test environment for conducting a variety of experiments. The ATR Safety Analysis Report, determined by DOE to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 830, Subpart B, provides versatility in types of experiments that may be conducted. This paper addresses two general types of experiments in the ATR facility and how safety analyses for experiments are related to the ATR safety basis. One type of experiment is more routine and generally represents greater risks; therefore this type of experiment is addressed with more detail in the safety basis. This allows individual safety analyses for these experiments to be more routine and repetitive. The second type of experiment is less defined and is permitted under more general controls. Therefore, individual safety analyses for the second type of experiment tend to be more unique from experiment to experiment. Experiments are also discussed relative to ''major modifications'' and DOE-STD-1027-92. Application of the USQ process to ATR experiments is also discussed

  5. In-situ ATR-FTIR for characterization of thin biorelated polymer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, M.; Torger, B.; Bittrich, E.; Kaul, E.; Ionov, L.; Uhlmann, P.; Stamm, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present and review in-situ-attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopic data from thin biorelated polymer films useful for the modification and functionalization of polymer and inorganic materials and discuss their applications related to life sciences. A special ATR mirror attachment operated by the single-beam-sample-reference (SBSR) concept and housing a homebuilt thermostatable flow cell was used, which allows for appropriate background compensation and signal to noise ratio. ATR-FTIR data on the reactive deposition of dopamine on inorganic model surfaces are shown. Information on the structure and deposition pathway for such bioinspired melanin-like films is provided. ATR-FTIR data on thermosensitive polymer brushes of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAM) is then presented. The thermotropic hydration and hydrogen bonding behavior of PNIPAAM brush films is described. Finally, ATR-FTIR data on biorelated polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) are given together with details on PEM growth and detection. Applications of these latter films for biopassivation/activation and local drug delivery are addressed

  6. Astrocytic and neuronal oxidative metabolism are coupled to the rate of glutamate-glutamine cycle in the tree shrew visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnay, Sarah; Poirot, Jordan; Just, Nathalie; Clerc, Anne-Catherine; Gruetter, Rolf; Rainer, Gregor; Duarte, João M N

    2018-03-01

    Astrocytes play an important role in glutamatergic neurotransmission, namely by clearing synaptic glutamate and converting it into glutamine that is transferred back to neurons. The rate of this glutamate-glutamine cycle (V NT ) has been proposed to couple to that of glucose utilization and of neuronal tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that glutamatergic neurotransmission is also coupled to the TCA cycle rate in astrocytes. For that we investigated energy metabolism by means of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in the primary visual cortex of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) under light isoflurane anesthesia at rest and during continuous visual stimulation. After identifying the activated cortical volume by blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging, 1 H MRS was performed to measure stimulation-induced variations in metabolite concentrations. Relative to baseline, stimulation of cortical activity for 20 min caused a reduction of glucose concentration by -0.34 ± 0.09 µmol/g (p glucose infusion was employed to measure fluxes of energy metabolism. Stimulation of glutamatergic activity, as indicated by a 20% increase of V NT , resulted in increased TCA cycle rates in neurons by 12% ( VTCAn, p glucose oxidation and to mitochondrial metabolism in both neurons and astrocytes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Use of specific radioimmunoassays to determine the renal clearance rates of estrone and 17. beta. -estradiol during the menstrual cycle. [Tritium tracer techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, K.; Collins, D.C.; Preedy, J.R.K.

    1978-11-01

    Specific RIAs requiring ether extraction only were established for estrone and 17..beta..-estradiol both in plasma and in urine from the nonpregnant female. These assays were used to measure the renal clearance rates of estrone and of 17..beta..-estradiol in eight ambulatory women in the follicular and in the luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. The mean (+-SE) for the renal clearance rate of estrone was 0.71 +- 0.058 ml/min in the follicular phase and 1.26 +- 0.35 ml/min in the luteal phase. The mean (+-SE) renal clearance rate of 17..beta..-estradiol was 0.44 +- 0.055 ml/min in the follicular phase and 0.29 +- 0.043 ml/min in the luteal phase. There was no significant difference in the renal clearance rates of either estrone or of 17..beta..-estradiol between the follicular and luteal phases of the cycle. The renal clearances of estrone and 17..beta..-estradiol were highly correlated (r = 0.84; P < 0.01). The renal clearance rate of estrone was significantly greater than that of 17..beta..-estradiol in both phases of the cycle (P < 0.01).

  8. The ovulation pattern during three consecutive menstrual cycles has a significant impact on pregnancy rate and sex of the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Tatsumi, Kenichi

    2011-01-01

    Identification of the ovary at the time of ovulation during three consecutive menstrual cycles results in one of eight ovulation patterns, left-left-right, right-left-right, left-right-right, and right-right-right of right-sided ovulation and right-right-left, left-right-left, right-left-left, an......Identification of the ovary at the time of ovulation during three consecutive menstrual cycles results in one of eight ovulation patterns, left-left-right, right-left-right, left-right-right, and right-right-right of right-sided ovulation and right-right-left, left-right-left, right...

  9. Dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photon and electron radiation from radionuclides occurring in routine releases from nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    Dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photon and electron radiation are calculated for 240 radionuclides of potential importance in routine releases from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Exposure modes considered are immersion in contaminated air, immersion in contaminated water, and irradiation from a contaminated ground surface. For each exposure mode, dose-rate conversion factors for photons and electrons are calculated for tissue-equivalent material at the body surface of an exposed individual. Dose-rate conversion factors for photons only are calculated for 22 body organs. (author)

  10. Cumulative pregnancy rates after sequential treatment with modified natural cycle IVF followed by IVF with controlled ovarian stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelinck, M. J.; Knol, H. M.; Vogel, N. E. A.; Arts, E. G. J. M.; Simons, A. H. M.; Heineman, M. J.; Hoek, A.

    BACKGROUND: In modified natural cycle IVF (MNC-IVF), treatment is aimed at using the one follicle that spontaneously develops to dominance, using a GnRH-antagonist together with gonadotrophins in the late follicular phase only. The MNC-IVF is of interest because of its low-risk and patient-friendly

  11. Cumulative pregnancy rates after sequential treatment with modified natural cycle IVF followed by IVF with controlled ovarian stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelinck, M. J.; Knol, H. M.; Vogel, N. E. A.; Arts, E. G. J. M.; Simons, A. H. M.; Heineman, M. J.; Hoek, A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In modified natural cycle IVF (MNC-IVF), treatment is aimed at using the one follicle that spontaneously develops to dominance, using a GnRH-antagonist together with gonadotrophins in the late follicular phase only. The MNC-IVF is of interest because of its low-risk and patient-friendly

  12. Die degradation effect on aging rate in accelerated cycling tests of SiC power MOSFET modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Haoze; Baker, Nick; Iannuzzo, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    In order to distinguish the die and bond wire degradations, in this paper both the die and bond wire resistances of SiC MOSFET modules are measured and tested during the accelerated cycling tests. It is proved that, since the die degradation under specific conditions increases the temperature swing...

  13. Rates of insulin secretion in INS-1 cells are enhanced by coupling to anaplerosis and Kreb’s cycle flux independent of ATP synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, Gary W.; Pongratz, Rebecca L.; Zhao, Xiaojian; Papas, Klearchos K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied media effects on mechanisms of insulin secretion of INS-1 cells. ► Insulin secretion was higher in DMEM than KRB despite identical ATP synthesis rates. ► Insulin secretion rates correlated with rates of anaplerosis and TCA cycle. ► Mitochondria metabolism and substrate cycles augment secretion signal of ATP. -- Abstract: Mechanistic models of glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) established in minimal media in vitro, may not accurately describe the complexity of coupling metabolism with insulin secretion that occurs in vivo. As a first approximation, we have evaluated metabolic pathways in a typical growth media, DMEM as a surrogate in vivo medium, for comparison to metabolic fluxes observed under the typical experimental conditions using the simple salt-buffer of KRB. Changes in metabolism in response to glucose and amino acids and coupling to insulin secretion were measured in INS-1 832/13 cells. Media effects on mitochondrial function and the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation were determined by fluorometrically measured oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) combined with 31 P NMR measured rates of ATP synthesis. Substrate preferences and pathways into the TCA cycle, and the synthesis of mitochondrial 2nd messengers by anaplerosis were determined by 13 C NMR isotopomer analysis of the fate of [U- 13 C] glucose metabolism. Despite similar incremental increases in insulin secretion, the changes of OCR in response to increasing glucose from 2.5 to 15 mM were blunted in DMEM relative to KRB. Basal and stimulated rates of insulin secretion rates were consistently higher in DMEM, while ATP synthesis rates were identical in both DMEM and KRB, suggesting greater mitochondrial uncoupling in DMEM. The relative rates of anaplerosis, and hence synthesis and export of 2nd messengers from the mitochondria were found to be similar in DMEM to those in KRB. And, the correlation of total PC flux with insulin secretion rates in DMEM

  14. Rates of insulin secretion in INS-1 cells are enhanced by coupling to anaplerosis and Kreb's cycle flux independent of ATP synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, Gary W., E-mail: gary.cline@yale.edu [The Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Pongratz, Rebecca L.; Zhao, Xiaojian [The Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Papas, Klearchos K. [Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied media effects on mechanisms of insulin secretion of INS-1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin secretion was higher in DMEM than KRB despite identical ATP synthesis rates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin secretion rates correlated with rates of anaplerosis and TCA cycle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitochondria metabolism and substrate cycles augment secretion signal of ATP. -- Abstract: Mechanistic models of glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) established in minimal media in vitro, may not accurately describe the complexity of coupling metabolism with insulin secretion that occurs in vivo. As a first approximation, we have evaluated metabolic pathways in a typical growth media, DMEM as a surrogate in vivo medium, for comparison to metabolic fluxes observed under the typical experimental conditions using the simple salt-buffer of KRB. Changes in metabolism in response to glucose and amino acids and coupling to insulin secretion were measured in INS-1 832/13 cells. Media effects on mitochondrial function and the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation were determined by fluorometrically measured oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) combined with {sup 31}P NMR measured rates of ATP synthesis. Substrate preferences and pathways into the TCA cycle, and the synthesis of mitochondrial 2nd messengers by anaplerosis were determined by {sup 13}C NMR isotopomer analysis of the fate of [U-{sup 13}C] glucose metabolism. Despite similar incremental increases in insulin secretion, the changes of OCR in response to increasing glucose from 2.5 to 15 mM were blunted in DMEM relative to KRB. Basal and stimulated rates of insulin secretion rates were consistently higher in DMEM, while ATP synthesis rates were identical in both DMEM and KRB, suggesting greater mitochondrial uncoupling in DMEM. The relative rates of anaplerosis, and hence synthesis and export of 2nd messengers from the mitochondria were found

  15. Seeded growth fabrication of Cu-on-Si electrodes for in situ ATR-SEIRAS applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hui-Feng [Shanghai Key Laboratory for Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials and Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yan, Yan-Gang [Shanghai Key Laboratory for Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials and Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huo, Sheng-Juan [Shanghai Key Laboratory for Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials and Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Cai, Wen-Bin [Shanghai Key Laboratory for Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials and Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Department of Enviromental Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); E-mail: wbcai@fudan.edu.cn; Xu, Qun-Jie [Department of Enviromental Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Osawa, Masatoshi [Catalysis Research Center, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan)

    2007-05-25

    A seeded-growth approach has been developed to fabricate a Cu nanoparticle film (simplified hereafter with nanofilm) on Si for electrochemical ATR surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (ATR-SEIRAS). The approach comprises an initial activation of the reflecting plane of hemicylindrical Si prism by introducing a Cu seed layer in a CuSO{sub 4}-HF solution and the subsequent electroless deposition of the Cu nanofilms from an electroless Cu plating bath. The as-deposited Cu nanofilm exhibited strong SEIRA effect for the CO probe and interfacial free H{sub 2}O. ATR-SEIRAS was also applied to characterize the adsorbed geometries of pyridine at the Cu/electrolyte interface. Only vibrational bands assignable to the A {sub 1} symmetry modes were detected in the entire potential window investigated, suggestive of an end-on adsorption via the ring N-atom on a Cu electrode.

  16. [Relationship between PMI and ATR-FTIR Spectral Changes in Swine Costal Cartilages and Ribs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Wang, Qi; Jing, Xiao-li; Li, Bing; Zhang, Yin-ming; Wang, Zhi-jun; Li, Cheng-zhi; Lin, Han-cheng; Zhang, Ji; Huang, Ping; Wang, Zhen-yuan

    2016-02-01

    To analyze postmortem chemical changes in Landrace costal cartilages and ribs using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, and to provide a novel technique for estimation of postmortem interval (PMI). The swines were sacrificed by hemorrhage and their costal cartilages and ribs were kept in 20 degrees C. The chemical analysis of the costal cartilages and ribs were performed using ATR-FTIR every 72 h. The correlation between the certain spectral parameters and PMI was also analyzed. The time-dependent changes of costal cartilages were more significant than ribs. There were no obvious changes for the main absorbance bands position, and some absorbance band ratios showed time-dependent changes and significant correlations with the PMI. ATR-FTIR has the ability to analyze postmortem chemical changes of the swine costal cartilages and ribs, and it can be a new method to estimate PMI based on spectroscopy.

  17. Volvulus and bowel obstruction in ATR-X syndrome-clinical report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horesh, Nir; Pery, Ron; Amiel, Imri; Shwaartz, Chaya; Speter, Chen; Guranda, Larisa; Gutman, Mordechai; Hoffman, Aviad

    2015-11-01

    Alpha thalassemia-mental retardation, X-linked (ATR-X) syndrome is a rare genetic disorder with a variety of clinical manifestations. Gastrointestinal symptoms described in this syndrome include difficulties in feeding, regurgitation and vomiting which may lead to aspiration pneumonia, abdominal pain, distention, and constipation. We present a 19-year-old male diagnosed with ATR-X syndrome, who suffered from recurrent colonic volvulus that ultimately led to bowel necrosis with severe septic shock requiring emergent surgical intervention. During 1 year, the patient was readmitted four times due to poor oral intake, dehydration and abdominal distention. Investigation revealed partial small bowel volvulus which resolved with non-operative treatment. Small and large bowel volvulus are uncommon and life-threatening gastrointestinal manifestations of ATR-X patients, which may contribute to the common phenomenon of prolonged food refusal in these patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Seeded growth fabrication of Cu-on-Si electrodes for in situ ATR-SEIRAS applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hui-Feng; Yan, Yan-Gang; Huo, Sheng-Juan; Cai, Wen-Bin; Xu, Qun-Jie; Osawa, Masatoshi

    2007-01-01

    A seeded-growth approach has been developed to fabricate a Cu nanoparticle film (simplified hereafter with nanofilm) on Si for electrochemical ATR surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (ATR-SEIRAS). The approach comprises an initial activation of the reflecting plane of hemicylindrical Si prism by introducing a Cu seed layer in a CuSO 4 -HF solution and the subsequent electroless deposition of the Cu nanofilms from an electroless Cu plating bath. The as-deposited Cu nanofilm exhibited strong SEIRA effect for the CO probe and interfacial free H 2 O. ATR-SEIRAS was also applied to characterize the adsorbed geometries of pyridine at the Cu/electrolyte interface. Only vibrational bands assignable to the A 1 symmetry modes were detected in the entire potential window investigated, suggestive of an end-on adsorption via the ring N-atom on a Cu electrode

  19. Analysis of cosmetic residues on a single human hair by ATR FT-IR microspectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienpinijtham, Prompong; Thammacharoen, Chuchaat; Naranitad, Suwimol; Ekgasit, Sanong

    2018-05-01

    In this work, ATR FT-IR spectra of single human hair and cosmetic residues on hair surface are successfully collected using a homemade dome-shaped Ge μIRE accessary installed on an infrared microscope. By collecting ATR spectra of hairs from the same person, the spectral patterns are identical and superimposed while different spectral features are observed from ATR spectra of hairs collected from different persons. The spectral differences depend on individual hair characteristics, chemical treatments, and cosmetics on hair surface. The "Contact-and-Collect" technique that transfers remarkable materials on the hair surface to the tip of the Ge μIRE enables an identification of cosmetics on a single hair. Moreover, the differences between un-split and split hairs are also studied in this report. These highly specific spectral features can be employed for unique identification or for differentiation of hairs based on the molecular structures of hairs and cosmetics on hairs.

  20. SAR image dataset of military ground targets with multiple poses for ATR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloni, Carole; Balleri, Alessio; Aouf, Nabil; Merlet, Thomas; Le Caillec, Jean-Marc

    2017-10-01

    Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) is the task of automatically detecting and classifying targets. Recognition using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images is interesting because SAR images can be acquired at night and under any weather conditions, whereas optical sensors operating in the visible band do not have this capability. Existing SAR ATR algorithms have mostly been evaluated using the MSTAR dataset.1 The problem with the MSTAR is that some of the proposed ATR methods have shown good classification performance even when targets were hidden,2 suggesting the presence of a bias in the dataset. Evaluations of SAR ATR techniques are currently challenging due to the lack of publicly available data in the SAR domain. In this paper, we present a high resolution SAR dataset consisting of images of a set of ground military target models taken at various aspect angles, The dataset can be used for a fair evaluation and comparison of SAR ATR algorithms. We applied the Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) technique to echoes from targets rotating on a turntable and illuminated with a stepped frequency waveform. The targets in the database consist of four variants of two 1.7m-long models of T-64 and T-72 tanks. The gun, the turret position and the depression angle are varied to form 26 different sequences of images. The emitted signal spanned the frequency range from 13 GHz to 18 GHz to achieve a bandwidth of 5 GHz sampled with 4001 frequency points. The resolution obtained with respect to the size of the model targets is comparable to typical values obtained using SAR airborne systems. Single polarized images (Horizontal-Horizontal) are generated using the backprojection algorithm.3 A total of 1480 images are produced using a 20° integration angle. The images in the dataset are organized in a suggested training and testing set to facilitate a standard evaluation of SAR ATR algorithms.

  1. ATR and transmission analysis of pigments by means of far infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendix, Elsebeth L; Prati, Silvia; Joseph, Edith; Sciutto, Giorgia; Mazzeo, Rocco

    2009-06-01

    In the field of FTIR spectroscopy, the far infrared (FIR) spectral region has been so far less investigated than the mid-infrared (MIR), even though it presents great advantages in the characterization of those inorganic compounds, which are inactive in the MIR, such as some art pigments, corrosion products, etc. Furthermore, FIR spectroscopy is complementary to Raman spectroscopy if the fluorescence effects caused by the latter analytical technique are considered. In this paper, ATR in the FIR region is proposed as an alternative method to transmission for the analyses of pigments. This methodology was selected in order to reduce the sample amount needed for analysis, which is a must when examining cultural heritage materials. A selection of pigments have been analyzed in both ATR and transmission mode, and the resulting spectra were compared with each other. To better perform this comparison, an evaluation of the possible effect induced by the thermal treatment needed for the preparation of the polyethylene pellets on the transmission spectra of the samples has been carried out. Therefore, pigments have been analyzed in ATR mode before and after heating them at the same temperature employed for the polyethylene pellet preparation. The results showed that while the heating treatment causes only small changes in the intensity of some bands, the ATR spectra were characterized by differences in both intensity and band shifts towards lower frequencies if compared with those recorded in transmission mode. All pigments' transmission and ATR spectra are presented and discussed, and the ATR method was validated on a real case study.

  2. Fast and calibration free determination of first order reaction kinetics in API synthesis using in-situ ATR-FTIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, Moritz C; Husmann, Sascha; Lechner, Christian; Kunick, Conrad; Scholl, Stephan

    2018-05-01

    In early stages of drug development only sparse amounts of the key substances are available, which is problematic for the determination of important process data like reaction kinetics. Therefore, it is important to perform experiments as economically as possible, especially in regards to limiting compounds. Here we demonstrate the use of a temperature step experiment enabling the determination of complete reaction kinetics in a single non-isothermal experiment. In contrast to the traditionally used HPLC, the method takes advantage of the high measuring rate and the low amount of labor involved in using in-situ ATR-FTIR to determine time-dependent concentration-equivalent data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Randomized Trial to Evaluate the Effect of Local Endometrial Injury on the Clinical Pregnancy Rate of Frozen Embryo Transfer Cycles in Patients With Repeated Implantation Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensieh Shahrokh-Tehraninejad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Repeated implantation failure (RIF is a condition in which the embryos implantation decreases in the endometrium. So, our aim was to evaluate the effect of local endometrial injury on embryo transfer results.Materials and methods: In this simple randomized clinical trial (RCT, a total of 120 patients were selected. The participants were less than 40 years old, and they are in their minimum two cycles of vitro fertilization (IVF. Patients were divided randomly into two groups of LEI (Local endometrial injury and a control group (n = 60 in each group. The first group had four small endometrial injuries from anterior, posterior, and lateral uterus walls which were obtained from people who were in 21th day of their previous IVF cycle. The second group was the patients who have not received any intervention.Results: The experimental and control patients were matched in the following factors. Regarding the clinical pregnancy rate, there was no significant difference noted between the experimental and the control group.Conclusion: Local endometrial injury in a preceding cycle does not increase the clinical pregnancy rate in the subsequent FET cycle of patients with repeated implantation failure.

  4. 10 CFR 830 Major Modification Determination for the ATR Diesel Bus (E-3) and Switchgear Replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckwitz, Noel

    2011-01-01

    Near term replacement of aging and obsolescent original ATR equipment has become important to ensure ATR capability in support of NE's long term national missions. To that end, a mission needs statement has been prepared for a non-major system acquisition which is comprised of three interdependent subprojects. The first project, subject of this determination, will replace the existent diesel-electrical bus (E-3) and associated switchgear. More specifically, INL proposes transitioning ATR to 100% commercial power with appropriate emergency backup to include: (1) Provide commercial power as the normal source of power to the ATR loads currently supplied by diesel-electric power. (2) Provide backup power to the critical ATR loads in the event of a loss of commercial power. (3) Replace obsolescent critical ATR power distribution equipment, e.g., switchgear, transformers, motor control centers, distribution panels. Completion of this and two other age-related projects (primary coolant pump and motor replacement and emergency firewater injection system replacement) will resolve major age related operational issues plus make a significant contribution in sustaining the ATR safety and reliability profile. The major modification criteria evaluation of the project pre-conceptual design identified several issues make the project a major modification: (1) Evaluation Criteria No.2 (Footprint change). The addition of a new PC-4 structure to the ATR Facility to house safety-related SSCs requires careful attention to maintaining adherence to applicable engineering and nuclear safety design criteria (e.g., structural qualification, fire suppression) to ensure no adverse impacts to the safety-related functions of the housed equipment. (2) Evaluation Criteria No.3 (Change of existing process). The change to the strategy for providing continuous reliable power to the safety-related emergency coolant pumps requires careful attention and analysis to ensure it meets a project primary

  5. ATM/ATR-mediated phosphorylation of PALB2 promotes RAD51 function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlskog, Johanna K; Larsen, Brian D; Achanta, Kavya

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage activates the ATM and ATR kinases that coordinate checkpoint and DNA repair pathways. An essential step in homology-directed repair (HDR) of DNA breaks is the formation of RAD51 nucleofilaments mediated by PALB2-BRCA2; however, roles of ATM and ATR in this critical step of HDR are poor...... function, as the PALB2-dependent checkpoint response is normal in cells expressing the phospho-deficient PALB2 mutant. Collectively, our findings highlight a critical importance of PALB2 phosphorylation as a novel regulatory step in genome maintenance after genotoxic stress....

  6. L'Atrésie colique:À propos de deux cas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... dans un tableau d'occlusion néonatale haute. L'atrésie colique était de découverte fortuite en per-opératoire, associée à une atrésie grêlique. Le patient a bénéficié d'une double stomie, mais les suites opératoires ont été marquées par le décès dans un tableau de choc septique. A la lumière des ces deux observations ...

  7. Experimental validation of calculated capture rate for nucleus involved in fuel cycle; Validation experimentale du calcul du taux de capture des noyaux intervenant dans le cycle du combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benslimane-Bouland, A

    1997-09-01

    The framework of this study was the evaluation of the nuclear data requirements for Actinides and Fission Products applied to current nuclear reactors as well as future applications. This last item includes extended irradiation campaigns, 100 % Mixed Oxide fuel, transmutation or even incineration. The first part of this study presents different types of integral measurements which are available for capture rate measurements, as well as the methods used for reactor core calculation route design and nuclear data library validation. The second section concerns the analysis of three specific irradiation experiments. The results have shown the extent of the current knowledge on nuclear data as well as the associated uncertainties. The third and last section shows both the coherency between all the results, and the statistical method applied for nuclear data library adjustment. A relevant application of this method has demonstrated that only specifically chosen integral experiments can be of use for the validation of nuclear data libraries. The conclusion is reached that even if co-ordinated efforts between reactor and nuclear physicists have made possible a huge improvement in the knowledge of capture cross sections of the main nuclei such as uranium and plutonium, some improvements are currently necessary for the minor actinides (Np, Am and Cm). Both integral and differential measurements are recommended to improve the knowledge of minor actinide cross sections. As far as integral experiments are concerned, a set of criteria to be followed during the experimental conception have been defined in order to both reduce the number of required calculation approximations, and to increase as much as possible the maximum amount of extracted information. (author)

  8. High-Cycle Fatigue Resistance of Si-Mo Ductile Cast Iron as Affected by Temperature and Strain Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteis, Paolo; Scavino, Giorgio; Castello, Alessandro; Firrao, Donato

    2015-09-01

    Silicon-molybdenum ductile cast irons are used to fabricate exhaust manifolds of internal combustion engines of large series cars, where the maximum pointwise temperature at full engine load may be higher than 973 K (700 °C). In this application, high-temperature oxidation and thermo-mechanical fatigue (the latter being caused by the engine start and stop and by the variation of its power output) have been the subject of several studies and are well known, whereas little attention has been devoted to the high-cycle fatigue, arising from the engine vibration. Therefore, the mechanical behavior of Si-Mo cast iron is studied here by means of stress-life fatigue tests up to 10 million cycles, at temperatures gradually increasing up to 973 K (700 °C). The mechanical characterization is completed by tensile and compressive tests and ensuing fractographic examinations; the mechanical test results are correlated with the cast iron microstructure and heat treatment.

  9. Conducting polyaniline-wrapped lithium vanadium phosphate nanocomposite as high-rate and cycling stability cathode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Haiyan; Chen, Weixing; Wu, Xinming; Li, Yongfei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /polyaniline has been firstly synthesized and investigated. • Conducting polyaniline can remarkably enhance the conductivity of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 . • Polyaniline-coated Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 exhibits superior rate capability and cyclability. - Abstract: This work introduces a facile strategy to improve the high-rate capability and cycling stability for carbon-free Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 by coating with conducting polymer polyaniline. Core-shell Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /polyaniline nanocomposite with typical sizes of 200 nm has been synthesized via a microwave heating assisted sol-gel method followed by a self-assembly process. The highly conductive and uniform polyaniline layer coated on the surface of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 nanoparticles significantly enhances the electrochemical performance of the electrode, which exhibits better rate capability and excellent cycling stability compared with the pristine Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 . The resultant nanocomposite exhibits a high initial discharge capacity of 130.7 mAhg −1 at 0.1 C within a voltage range of 3.0-4.3 V. When cycled at a rate of 10 C the capacity can reach up to 101.5 mAhg −1 , and the capacity retention is 87.3% after 500 cycles. The likely contributing factor to the excellent electrochemical performance of core-shell Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /polyaniline could be related to the uniform conducting polymer layer, which can improve the electrical conductivity of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3

  10. Dynamic dependence on ATR and ATM for double-strand break repair in human embryonic stem cells and neural descendants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bret R Adams

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The DNA double-strand break (DSB is the most toxic form of DNA damage. Studies aimed at characterizing DNA repair during development suggest that homologous recombination repair (HRR is more critical in pluripotent cells compared to differentiated somatic cells in which nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ is dominant. We have characterized the DNA damage response (DDR and quality of DNA double-strand break (DSB repair in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs, and in vitro-derived neural cells. Resolution of ionizing radiation-induced foci (IRIF was used as a surrogate for DSB repair. The resolution of gamma-H2AX foci occurred at a slower rate in hESCs compared to neural progenitors (NPs and astrocytes perhaps reflective of more complex DSB repair in hESCs. In addition, the resolution of RAD51 foci, indicative of active homologous recombination repair (HRR, showed that hESCs as well as NPs have high capacity for HRR, whereas astrocytes do not. Importantly, the ATM kinase was shown to be critical for foci formation in astrocytes, but not in hESCs, suggesting that the DDR is different in these cells. Blocking the ATM kinase in astrocytes not only prevented the formation but also completely disassembled preformed repair foci. The ability of hESCs to form IRIF was abrogated with caffeine and siRNAs targeted against ATR, implicating that hESCs rely on ATR, rather than ATM for regulating DSB repair. This relationship dynamically changed as cells differentiated. Interestingly, while the inhibition of the DNA-PKcs kinase (and presumably non-homologous endjoining [NHEJ] in astrocytes slowed IRIF resolution it did not in hESCs, suggesting that repair in hESCs does not utilize DNA-PKcs. Altogether, our results show that hESCs have efficient DSB repair that is largely ATR-dependent HRR, whereas astrocytes critically depend on ATM for NHEJ, which, in part, is DNA-PKcs-independent.

  11. High-average-power 2 μm few-cycle optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier at 100 kHz repetition rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Yariv; Rothhardt, Jan; Hädrich, Steffen; Demmler, Stefan; Tschernajew, Maxim; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Sources of long wavelengths few-cycle high repetition rate pulses are becoming increasingly important for a plethora of applications, e.g., in high-field physics. Here, we report on the realization of a tunable optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier at 100 kHz repetition rate. At a central wavelength of 2 μm, the system delivered 33 fs pulses and a 6 W average power corresponding to 60 μJ pulse energy with gigawatt-level peak powers. Idler absorption and its crystal heating is experimentally investigated for a BBO. Strategies for further power scaling to several tens of watts of average power are discussed.

  12. Repeated freeze-thaw cycles reduce the survival rate of osteocytes in bone-tendon constructs without affecting the mechanical properties of tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Kaori; Urabe, Ken; Naruse, Kouji; Uchida, Kentaro; Matsuura, Terumasa; Mikuni-Takagaki, Yuko; Suto, Mitsutoshi; Nemoto, Noriko; Kamiya, Kentaro; Itoman, Moritoshi

    2012-03-01

    Frozen bone-patellar tendon bone allografts are useful in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction as the freezing procedure kills tissue cells, thereby reducing immunogenicity of the grafts. However, a small portion of cells in human femoral heads treated by standard bone-bank freezing procedures survive, thus limiting the effectiveness of allografts. Here, we characterized the survival rates and mechanisms of cells isolated from rat bones and tendons that were subjected to freeze-thaw treatments, and evaluated the influence of these treatments on the mechanical properties of tendons. After a single freeze-thaw cycle, most cells isolated from frozen bone appeared morphologically as osteocytes and expressed both osteoblast- and osteocyte-related genes. Transmission electron microscopic observation of frozen cells using freeze-substitution revealed that a small number of osteocytes maintained large nuclei with intact double membranes, indicating that these osteocytes in bone matrix were resistant to ice crystal formation. We found that tendon cells were completely killed by a single freeze-thaw cycle, whereas bone cells exhibited a relatively high survival rate, although survival was significantly reduced after three freeze-thaw cycles. In patella tendons, the ultimate stress, Young's modulus, and strain at failure showed no significant differences between untreated tendons and those subjected to five freeze-thaw cycles. In conclusion, we identified that cells surviving after freeze-thaw treatment of rat bones were predominantly osteocytes. We propose that repeated freeze-thaw cycles could be applied for processing bone-tendon constructs prior to grafting as the treatment did not affect the mechanical property of tendons and drastically reduced surviving osteocytes, thereby potentially decreasing allograft immunogenecity.

  13. In vitro analysis of the role of replication protein A (RPA) and RPA phosphorylation in ATR-mediated checkpoint signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey-Boltz, Laura A; Reardon, Joyce T; Wold, Marc S; Sancar, Aziz

    2012-10-19

    Replication protein A (RPA) plays essential roles in DNA metabolism, including replication, checkpoint, and repair. Recently, we described an in vitro system in which the phosphorylation of human Chk1 kinase by ATR (ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related) is dependent on RPA bound to single-stranded DNA. Here, we report that phosphorylation of other ATR targets, p53 and Rad17, has the same requirements and that RPA is also phosphorylated in this system. At high p53 or Rad17 concentrations, RPA phosphorylation is inhibited and, in this system, RPA with phosphomimetic mutations cannot support ATR kinase function, whereas a non-phosphorylatable RPA mutant exhibits full activity. Phosphorylation of these ATR substrates depends on the recruitment of ATR and the substrates by RPA to the RPA-ssDNA complex. Finally, mutant RPAs lacking checkpoint function exhibit essentially normal activity in nucleotide excision repair, revealing RPA separation of function for checkpoint and excision repair.

  14. In Vitro Analysis of the Role of Replication Protein A (RPA) and RPA Phosphorylation in ATR-mediated Checkpoint Signaling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey-Boltz, Laura A.; Reardon, Joyce T.; Wold, Marc S.; Sancar, Aziz

    2012-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) plays essential roles in DNA metabolism, including replication, checkpoint, and repair. Recently, we described an in vitro system in which the phosphorylation of human Chk1 kinase by ATR (ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related) is dependent on RPA bound to single-stranded DNA. Here, we report that phosphorylation of other ATR targets, p53 and Rad17, has the same requirements and that RPA is also phosphorylated in this system. At high p53 or Rad17 concentrations, RPA phosphorylation is inhibited and, in this system, RPA with phosphomimetic mutations cannot support ATR kinase function, whereas a non-phosphorylatable RPA mutant exhibits full activity. Phosphorylation of these ATR substrates depends on the recruitment of ATR and the substrates by RPA to the RPA-ssDNA complex. Finally, mutant RPAs lacking checkpoint function exhibit essentially normal activity in nucleotide excision repair, revealing RPA separation of function for checkpoint and excision repair. PMID:22948311

  15. Day 4 good morula embryo transfer provided compatible live birth rate with day 5 blastocyst embryo in fresh IVF/ET cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ryh-Sheng; Hwu, Yuh-Ming; Lee, Robert Kuo-Kuang; Li, Sheng-Hsiang; Lin, Ming-Huei

    2018-02-01

    Embryo transfers during cleavage stage (day 2 or day 3) and blastocyst stages (day 5 or day 6) are common in current daily practice in fresh IVF/ET cycles. Data regarding transferring day 4 embryos, morula/compact stage, is still restricted and the grading system is also inconsistent, as between IVF clinics. This study provided a new detailed classification system for morula/compact stage embryos and compared successes rates between day 4 and day 5 ET. This was a retrospective study. A review of medical records from January 1st, 2013, to December 31st 2015, performed for all conventional insemination and ICSI cycles with a GnRH-antagonist protocol at the Infertility Division of MacKay Memorial Hospital in Taipei City, Taiwan. There were 427 cycles included in our study, 107 in study group (day 4 MET) and 320 in control group (day 5 BET). Pregnancy rates and live birth rate were compatible, as between morula embryo transfer (MET) and blastocyst embryo transfer (BET). The implantation rate (36.3% vs. 39.6%, respectively, p = 0.500), clinical pregnancy rate (49.5% vs. 51.9%, respectively, p = 0.737), and live birth rate (42.1% vs. 45.6%, respectively, p = 0.574) were statistically insignificant between groups. The term birth rate was statistically higher in the MET group than in the BET group (95.7% vs. 79.5%, respectively, p = 0.006). When the clinical outcomes between day 4 good MET and day 5 good BET were compared, the results were compatible. The implantation rate (48.8% vs. 41.1%, respectively, p = 0.335), clinical pregnancy rate (55.0% vs. 53.2%, respectively, p = 0.867), and live birth rate (47.5% vs. 47.1%, respectively, p = 1.000) showed no significant difference. The term birth rate was also higher in day 4 good MET group than in day 5 good BET group (100% vs. 78.3%, respectively, p = 0.025). In this study, we performed day 4 MET avoid BET on Sunday. The grading system we provided was more detailed for embryo selection and it was easier to

  16. Probing the effect of human normal sperm morphology rate on cycle outcomes and assisted reproductive methods selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    Full Text Available Sperm morphology is the best predictor of fertilization potential, and the critical predictive information for supporting assisted reproductive methods selection. Given its important predictive value and the declining reality of semen quality in recent years, the threshold of normal sperm morphology rate (NSMR is being constantly corrected and controversial, from the 4th edition (14% to the 5th version (4%. We retrospectively analyzed 4756 cases of infertility patients treated with conventional-IVF(c-IVF or ICSI, which were divided into three groups according to NSMR: ≥14%, 4%-14% and <4%. Here, we demonstrate that, with decrease in NSMR(≥14%, 4%-14%, <4%, in the c-IVF group, the rate of fertilization, normal fertilization, high-quality embryo, multi-pregnancy and birth weight of twins gradually decreased significantly (P<0.05, while the miscarriage rate was significantly increased (p<0.01 and implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, ectopic pregnancy rate, preterm birth rate, live birth rate, sex ratio, and birth weight(Singleton showed no significant change. In the ICSI group, with decrease in NSMR (≥14%, 4%-14%, <4%, high-quality embryo rate, multi-pregnancy rate and birth weight of twins were gradually decreased significantly (p<0.05, while other parameters had no significant difference. Considering the clinical assisted methods selection, in the NFMR ≥14% group, normal fertilization rate of c-IVF was significantly higher than the ICSI group (P<0.05, in the 4%-14% group, birth weight (twins of c-IVF were significantly higher than the ICSI group, in the <4% group, miscarriage of IVF was significantly higher than the ICSI group. Therefore, we conclude that NSMR is positively related to embryo reproductive potential, and when NSMR<4% (5th edition, ICSI should be considered first, while the NSMR≥4%, c-IVF assisted reproduction might be preferred.

  17. ECOHAB: Van Dolah_F- Karenia brevis Cell Cycle Analysis for Determination of In Situ Growth Rates (NODC Accession 0000538)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The reported growth rates of Karenia brevis vary from 0.2 to 0.5 divisions per day, both in laboratory and field populations observed. This growth rate alone is not...

  18. [Research on Rapid Discrimination of Edible Oil by ATR Infrared Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao; Yuan, Hong-fu; Song, Chun-feng; Hu, Ai-qin; Li, Xiao-yu; Zhao, Zhong; Li, Xiu-qin; Guo Zhen; Zhu, Zhi-qiang

    2015-07-01

    A rapid discrimination method of edible oils, KL-BP model, was proposed by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy. The model extracts the characteristic of classification from source data by KL and reduces data dimension at the same time. Then the neural network model is constructed by the new data which as the input of the model. 84 edible oil samples which include sesame oil, corn oil, canola oil, blend oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, olive oil, soybean oil and tea seed oil, were collected and their infrared spectra determined using an ATR FT-IR spectrometer. In order to compare the method performance, principal component analysis (PCA) direct-classification model, KL direct-classification model, PLS-DA model, PCA-BP model and KL-BP model are constructed in this paper. The results show that the recognition rates of PCA, PCA-BP, KL, PLS-DA and KL-BP are 59.1%, 68.2%, 77.3%, 77.3% and 90.9% for discriminating the 9 kinds of edible oils, respectively. KL extracts the eigenvector which make the distance between different class and distance of every class ratio is the largest. So the method can get much more classify information than PCA. BP neural network can effectively enhance the classification ability and accuracy. Taking full of the advantages of KL in extracting more category information in dimension reducing and the features of BP neural network in self-learning, adaptive, nonlinear, the KL-BP method has the best classification ability and recognition accuracy and great importance for rapidly recognizing edible oil in practice.

  19. A Comparison of Geodetic and Geologic Rates Prior to Large Strike-Slip Earthquakes: A Diversity of Earthquake-Cycle Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, James F.; Meade, Brendan J.

    2017-12-01

    Comparison of preevent geodetic and geologic rates in three large-magnitude (Mw = 7.6-7.9) strike-slip earthquakes reveals a wide range of behaviors. Specifically, geodetic rates of 26-28 mm/yr for the North Anatolian fault along the 1999 MW = 7.6 Izmit rupture are ˜40% faster than Holocene geologic rates. In contrast, geodetic rates of ˜6-8 mm/yr along the Denali fault prior to the 2002 MW = 7.9 Denali earthquake are only approximately half as fast as the latest Pleistocene-Holocene geologic rate of ˜12 mm/yr. In the third example where a sufficiently long pre-earthquake geodetic time series exists, the geodetic and geologic rates along the 2001 MW = 7.8 Kokoxili rupture on the Kunlun fault are approximately equal at ˜11 mm/yr. These results are not readily explicable with extant earthquake-cycle modeling, suggesting that they may instead be due to some combination of regional kinematic fault interactions, temporal variations in the strength of lithospheric-scale shear zones, and/or variations in local relative plate motion rate. Whatever the exact causes of these variable behaviors, these observations indicate that either the ratio of geodetic to geologic rates before an earthquake may not be diagnostic of the time to the next earthquake, as predicted by many rheologically based geodynamic models of earthquake-cycle behavior, or different behaviors characterize different fault systems in a manner that is not yet understood or predictable.

  20. Rates of insulin secretion in INS-1 cells are enhanced by coupling to anaplerosis and Kreb's cycle flux independent of ATP synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Gary W; Pongratz, Rebecca L; Zhao, Xiaojian; Papas, Klearchos K

    2011-11-11

    Mechanistic models of glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) established in minimal media in vitro, may not accurately describe the complexity of coupling metabolism with insulin secretion that occurs in vivo. As a first approximation, we have evaluated metabolic pathways in a typical growth media, DMEM as a surrogate in vivo medium, for comparison to metabolic fluxes observed under the typical experimental conditions using the simple salt-buffer of KRB. Changes in metabolism in response to glucose and amino acids and coupling to insulin secretion were measured in INS-1 832/13 cells. Media effects on mitochondrial function and the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation were determined by fluorometrically measured oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) combined with (31)P NMR measured rates of ATP synthesis. Substrate preferences and pathways into the TCA cycle, and the synthesis of mitochondrial 2nd messengers by anaplerosis were determined by (13)C NMR isotopomer analysis of the fate of [U-(13)C] glucose metabolism. Despite similar incremental increases in insulin secretion, the changes of OCR in response to increasing glucose from 2.5 to 15mM were blunted in DMEM relative to KRB. Basal and stimulated rates of insulin secretion rates were consistently higher in DMEM, while ATP synthesis rates were identical in both DMEM and KRB, suggesting greater mitochondrial uncoupling in DMEM. The relative rates of anaplerosis, and hence synthesis and export of 2nd messengers from the mitochondria were found to be similar in DMEM to those in KRB. And, the correlation of total PC flux with insulin secretion rates in DMEM was found to be congruous with the correlation in KRB. Together, these results suggest that signaling mechanisms associated with both TCA cycle flux and with anaplerotic flux, but not ATP production, may be responsible for the enhanced rates of insulin secretion in more complex, and physiologically-relevant media. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All

  1. Engineering 3D bicontinuous hierarchically macro-mesoporous LiFePO4/C nanocomposite for lithium storage with high rate capability and long cycle stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Huang, Shao-Zhuan; Jin, Jun; Liu, Jing; Li, Yu; Wang, Hong-En; Chen, Li-Hua; Wang, Bin-Jie; Su, Bao-Lian

    2016-05-16

    A highly crystalline three dimensional (3D) bicontinuous hierarchically macro-mesoporous LiFePO4/C nanocomposite constructed by nanoparticles in the range of 50~100 nm via a rapid microwave assisted solvothermal process followed by carbon coating have been synthesized as cathode material for high performance lithium-ion batteries. The abundant 3D macropores allow better penetration of electrolyte to promote Li(+) diffusion, the mesopores provide more electrochemical reaction sites and the carbon layers outside LiFePO4 nanoparticles increase the electrical conductivity, thus ultimately facilitating reverse reaction of Fe(3+) to Fe(2+) and alleviating electrode polarization. In addition, the particle size in nanoscale can provide short diffusion lengths for the Li(+) intercalation-deintercalation. As a result, the 3D macro-mesoporous nanosized LiFePO4/C electrode exhibits excellent rate capability (129.1 mA h/g at 2 C; 110.9 mA h/g at 10 C) and cycling stability (87.2% capacity retention at 2 C after 1000 cycles, 76.3% at 5 C after 500 cycles and 87.8% at 10 C after 500 cycles, respectively), which are much better than many reported LiFePO4/C structures. Our demonstration here offers the opportunity to develop nanoscaled hierarchically porous LiFePO4/C structures for high performance lithium-ion batteries through microwave assisted solvothermal method.

  2. Increased Rrm2 gene dosage reduces fragile site breakage and prolongs survival of ATR mutant mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Contreras, Andres J; Specks, Julia; Barlow, Jacqueline H

    2015-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, absence of the checkpoint kinase Mec1 (ATR) is viable upon mutations that increase the activity of the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) complex. Whether this pathway is conserved in mammals remains unknown. Here we show that cells from mice carrying extra alleles of the...

  3. Multivariate analysis of ATR-FTIR spectra for assessment of oil shale organic geochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Kathryn E.; Birdwell, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was coupled with partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis to relate spectral data to parameters from total organic carbon (TOC) analysis and programmed pyrolysis to assess the feasibility of developing predictive models to estimate important organic geochemical parameters. The advantage of ATR-FTIR over traditional analytical methods is that source rocks can be analyzed in the laboratory or field in seconds, facilitating more rapid and thorough screening than would be possible using other tools. ATR-FTIR spectra, TOC concentrations and Rock–Eval parameters were measured for a set of oil shales from deposits around the world and several pyrolyzed oil shale samples. PLSR models were developed to predict the measured geochemical parameters from infrared spectra. Application of the resulting models to a set of test spectra excluded from the training set generated accurate predictions of TOC and most Rock–Eval parameters. The critical region of the infrared spectrum for assessing S1, S2, Hydrogen Index and TOC consisted of aliphatic organic moieties (2800–3000 cm−1) and the models generated a better correlation with measured values of TOC and S2 than did integrated aliphatic peak areas. The results suggest that combining ATR-FTIR with PLSR is a reliable approach for estimating useful geochemical parameters of oil shales that is faster and requires less sample preparation than current screening methods.

  4. Solid Acid-Catalyzed Cellulose Hydrolysis Monitored by In Situ ATR-IR Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakzeski, J.; Grisel, R.J.H.; Smit, A.T.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    The solid acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose was studied under elevated temperatures and autogenous pressures using in situ ATR-IR spectroscopy. Standards of cellulose and pure reaction products, which include glucose, fructose, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), levulinic acid (LA), formic acid, and

  5. Human papillomavirus detection using PCR and ATR-FTIR for cervical cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymsza, Taciana; Ribeiro, Eliane Aline; de Carvalho, Luis Felipe das Chagas e. Silva; Bhattacharjee, Tanmoy; de Azevedo Canevari, Renata

    2018-05-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) genital infection is considered one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases worldwide, and has been associated with cervical cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the diagnostic methods: polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) equipped with an ATR (Attenuated Total Reflectance) unit (Pike Tech) spectroscopy, to diagnose HPV infection in women undergoing gynecological examination. Seventeen patients (41.46%) of the 41 patients analyzed were diagnosed with exophytic/condyloma acuminate lesions by clinical analysis, 29 patients (70.7%) (G1 group) of the 41 patients, showed positive result for HPV cell injury by oncotic colpocitology and 12 patients (29.3%) (G2 group), presented negative result for cellular lesion and absence of clinical HPV lesion. Four samples were obtained per patient, which were submitted oncotic colpocitology analysis (Papanicolau staining, two samples), PCR (one sample) and ATR-FTIR analysis (one sample). L1 gene was amplified by PCR technique with specific GP5+/GP6+ and MY09/MY11 primers. PCR results were uniformly positive for presence of HPV in all analyzed samples. Multivariate analysis of ATR-FTIR spectra suggests no significant biochemical changes between groups and no clustering formed, concurring with results of PCR. This study suggests that PCR and ATR-FTIR are highly sensitive technique for HPV detection.

  6. 30 CFR 75.209 - Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of temporary support shall be used, as specified in the roof control plan, when— (1) Mining... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.209...

  7. Dose-rate effect of adaptive response of apoptosis and cell cycle progression induced by low-dose ionizing radiation in EL-4 lymphoma cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuchun; Lu Zhe; Li Yanbo; Kang Shunai; Gong Shouliang; Zhao Wenju

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To observe the dose-rate effect of adaptive response of apoptosis and cell cycle progression induced by low-dose ionizing radiation in EL-4 lymphoma cells in vitro in order to reveal the possible mechanism of biological effect and adaptive response induced by low dose radiation. Methods: The experiment was divided into D2 (challenging dose), D1 (inductive dose) + D2 and sham-irradiation groups. EL-4 lymphoma cells were irradiated with D1 (75 mGy, 6.25-200.00 mGy·mm -1 ) and D2(1.5 Gy, 287 mGy·min -1 ), the time interval between D1 and D2 was 6 h. The percentage of apoptosis and each cell cycle phase were measured with flow cytometry. Results: When the dose rates of D1 were 6.25-50.00 mGy·min -1 , the percentages of apoptosis in the D1 + D2 group were significantly lower than those in the D2 group (P 0 /G 1 phase cells decreased significantly (P -1 , D2 is 1.5 Gy (287 mGy·min -1 ), and the time interval between D1 and D2 is 6 h, the adaptive response of apoptosis and cell cycle progression in EL-4 lymphoma cells in vitro could be induced. (authors)

  8. Effect of pedaling rates and myosin heavy chain composition in the vastus lateralis muscle on the power generating capability during incremental cycling in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerczak, J; Szkutnik, Z; Duda, K; Komorowska, M; Kolodziejski, L; Karasinski, J; Zoladz, J A

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we have determined power output reached at maximal oxygen uptake during incremental cycling exercise (P(I, max)) performed at low and at high pedaling rates in nineteen untrained men with various myosin heavy chain composition (MyHC) in the vastus lateralis muscle. On separate days, subjects performed two incremental exercise tests until exhaustion at 60 rev min(-1) and at 120 rev min(-1). In the studied group of subjects P(I, max) reached during cycling at 60 rev min(-1) was significantly higher (p=0.0001) than that at 120 rev min(-1) (287+/-29 vs. 215+/-42 W, respectively for 60 and 120 rev min(-1)). For further comparisons, two groups of subjects (n=6, each) were selected according to MyHC composition in the vastus lateralis muscle: group H with higher MyHC II content (56.8+/-2.79 %) and group L with lower MyHC II content in this muscle (28.6+/-5.8 %). P(I, max) reached during cycling performed at 60 rev min(-1) in group H was significantly lower than in group L (p=0.03). However, during cycling at 120 rev min(-1), there was no significant difference in P(I, max) reached by both groups of subjects (p=0.38). Moreover, oxygen uptake (VO(2)), blood hydrogen ion [H(+)], plasma lactate [La(-)] and ammonia [NH(3)] concentrations determined at the four highest power outputs completed during the incremental cycling performed at 60 as well as 120 rev min(-1), in the group H were significantly higher than in group L. We have concluded that during an incremental exercise performed at low pedaling rates the subjects with lower content of MyHC II in the vastus lateralis muscle possess greater power generating capabilities than the subjects with higher content of MyHC II. Surprisingly, at high pedaling rate, power generating capabilities in the subjects with higher MyHC II content in the vastus lateralis muscle did not differ from those found in the subjects with lower content of MyHC II in this muscle, despite higher blood [H(+)], [La(-)] and [NH(3

  9. Estimating the net effect of progesterone elevation on the day of hCG on live birth rates after IVF: a cohort analysis of 3296 IVF cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetis, Christos A; Kolibianakis, Efstratios M; Bosdou, Julia K; Lainas, George T; Sfontouris, Ioannis A; Tarlatzis, Basil C; Lainas, Tryfon G

    2015-03-01

    What is the proper way of assessing the effect of progesterone elevation (PE) on the day of hCG on live birth in women undergoing fresh embryo transfer after in vitro fertilization (IVF) using GnRH analogues and gonadotrophins? This study indicates that a multivariable approach, where the effect of the most important confounders is controlled for, can lead to markedly different results regarding the association between PE on the day of hCG and live birth rates after IVF when compared with the bivariate analysis that has been typically used in the relevant literature up to date. PE on the day of hCG is associated with decreased pregnancy rates in fresh IVF cycles. Evidence for this comes from observational studies that mostly failed to control for potential confounders. This is a retrospective analysis of a cohort of fresh IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles (n = 3296) performed in a single IVF centre during the period 2001-2013. Patients in whom ovarian stimulation was performed with gonadotrophins and GnRH analogues. Natural cycles and cycles where stimulation involved the administration of clomiphene were excluded. In order to reflect routine clinical practice, no other exclusion criteria were imposed on this dataset. The primary outcome measure for this study was live birth defined as the delivery of a live infant after 24 weeks of gestation. We compared the association between PE on the day of hCG (defined as P > 1.5 ng/ml) and live birth rates calculated by simple bivariate analyses with that derived from multivariable logistic regression. The multivariable analysis controlled for female age, number of oocytes retrieved, number of embryos transferred, developmental stage of embryos at transfer (cleavage versus blastocyst), whether at least one good-quality embryo was transferred, the woman's body mass index, the total dose of FSH administered during ovarian stimulation and the type of GnRH analogues used (agonists versus antagonists) during ovarian

  10. In situ detection of cancerous kidney tissue by means of fiber ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablinskas, Valdas; Velicka, Martynas; Pucetaite, Milda; Urboniene, Vidita; Ceponkus, Justinas; Bandzeviciute, Rimante; Jankevicius, Feliksas; Sakharova, Tatiana; Bibikova, Olga; Steiner, Gerald

    2018-02-01

    The crucial goal of kidney-sparing surgical resection of a malignant tumor is complete removal of the cancerous tissue. The exact border between the cancerous and normal tissues is not always possible to identify by naked eye, therefore, a supplementary intraoperative diagnosis is needed. Unfortunately, intraoperative pathology methods used nowadays are time consuming and of inadequate quality rendering not definitive diagnosis. It has recently been shown that ATR-FTIR spectroscopy can be used for fast discrimination between cancerous and normal kidney tissues by analyzing the collected spectra of the tissue touch imprint smears. Most prominent differences are obtained in the wavenumber region from 950 cm-1 to 1250 cm-1, where the spectral bands due to the molecular vibrations of glycogen arise in the spectra of cancerous tissue smears. Such method of detection of cancerous tissue is limited by requirement to transfer the suspected tissue from the body to the FTIR instrument and stamp it on an ATR crystal of the spectrometer. We propose a spectroscopic tool which exploits the same principle of detection of cancerous cells as mentioned above, but does not require the tissue to be transferred from the body to the spectrometer. The portable spectrometer used in this design is equipped with fiber ATR probe and a sensitive liquid nitrogen cooled MCT detector. The design of the fiber probe allows the ATR tip to be changed easily in order to use only new sterilized tips for each measurement point of the tissue. It also enables sampling multiple areas of the suspected tissue with high lateral resolution which, in turn, increases accuracy with which the marginal regions between normal and cancerous tissues can be identified. Due to the loss of optical signal in the fiber probe the spectra have lower signal-to-noise ratio than in the case of standard ATR sampling setup. However, software for the spectral analysis used with the fiber probe design is still able to distinguish

  11. High energy density of Li3-xNaxV2(PO4)3/C cathode material with high rate cycling performance for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zong-Lin; Deng, Jian-Qiu; Pan, Jin; Luo, Wen-Bin; Yao, Qing-Rong; Wang, Zhong-Min; Zhou, Huai-Ying; Liu, Hua-Kun

    2017-07-01

    A serials of micro-sized Li3-xNaxV2(PO4)3/C composite has been synthesized by sol-gel method, comprised of numerous primary nanocrystals. This structure can efficiently facilitate lithium-ion transport in secondary aggregated individual particles due to the short diffusion distance among primary nanocrystals, along with a high tap density. With the increasing of Na doping content, the structure evolution occurs in Li3-xNaxV2(PO4)3 from a single-phase structure to a two-phase structure. The appearance of rhombohedral phase can provide a larger free volume of the interstitial space, fastening ionic movement to offer an excellent high rate capability. Furthermore, Na doping can stabilize the rhombohedral structure of the V2(PO4)3 framework, leading to the remarkable cycling stability. Among all the composites, Li2.6Na0.4V2(PO4)3/C presents the best electrochemical performance with a high energy density of 478.8 Wh kg-1, delivering high initial discharge capacities of 121.6, 113.8 and 109.7 mAh g-1 at the rate of 5 C, 10 C and 20 C in a voltage range of 3.0 - 4.3 V, respectively. It also exhibit an excellent high rate cycling performance, with capacity retention of 85.9 %, 81.7 % and 76.5 % after 1000 cycles at the rate of 5 C, 10 C and 20 C in a voltage range of 3.0 - 4.3 V.

  12. X-ray computed tomography comparison of individual and parallel assembled commercial lithium iron phosphate batteries at end of life after high rate cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rachel; Huhman, Brett; Love, Corey T.; Zenyuk, Iryna V.

    2018-03-01

    X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) across multiple length scales is utilized for the first time to investigate the physical abuse of high C-rate pulsed discharge on cells wired individually and in parallel.. Manufactured lithium iron phosphate cells boasting high rate capability were pulse power tested in both wiring conditions with high discharge currents of 10C for a high number of cycles (up to 1200) until end of life (health (SOH) monitoring methods, is diagnosed using CT by rendering the interior current collector without harm or alteration to the active materials. Correlation of CT observations to the electrochemical pulse data from the parallel-wired cells reveals the risk of parallel wiring during high C-rate pulse discharge.

  13. Being born under adverse economic conditions leads to a higher cardiovascular mortality rate later in life: evidence based on individuals born at different stages of the business cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Doblhammer-Reiter, Gabriele; Christensen, Kaare

    2011-05-01

    We connect the recent medical and economic literatures on the long-run effects of early-life conditions by analyzing the effects of economic conditions on the individual cardiovascular (CV) mortality rate later in life, using individual data records from the Danish Twin Registry covering births since the 1870s and including the cause of death. To capture exogenous variation of conditions early in life, we use the state of the business cycle around birth. We find significant negative effects of economic conditions around birth on the individual CV mortality rate at higher ages. There is no effect on the cancer-specific mortality rate. From variation within and between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs born under different conditions, we conclude that the fate of an individual is more strongly determined by genetic and household-environmental factors if early-life conditions are poor. Individual-specific qualities come more to fruition if the starting position in life is better.

  14. The rates of carbon cycling in several soils from AMS14C measurements of fractionated soil organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumbore, S.E.; Bonani, G.; Wolfli, W.

    1990-01-01

    14 C mean residence times (MRT) of fractionated organic matter are reported for three pre-bomb soil profiles. Comparisons of organic matter extracted with acid and base showed that the longest MRTs were associated with the non-acid-hydrolysable fraction. The MRT of organic matter in a soil layer represents a combination of the rates of several processes, including decay to CO 2 and transport out of the layer. In some instances (notably in the A horizon of the Podzol soil studied in this paper), the MRT is dominated by the rate of transport, rather than the rate of decay. Thus it is important to use the distribution and balance of carbon in the soil profile to assess the meaning of the MRT with respect to influencing atmospheric CO 2

  15. Accelerated Rates of Nitrogen Cycling and N2O Production in Salt Marsh Sediments due to Long-Term Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, X.; Ji, Q.; Angell, J.; Kearns, P.; Bowen, J. L.; Ward, B. B.

    2014-12-01

    Intensified sedimentary production of nitrous oxide (N2O), one of the most potent greenhouse gases, is one of the many possible environmental consequences of elevated nitrogen (N) loading into estuarine ecosystems. This study investigates the response to over 40 years of fertilization of nitrogen removal processes in the sediments of the Great Sippewissett Marsh in Falmouth, MA. Sediment slurries were incubated (1.5 hr) with trace amounts (fertilized sediments (0.89 nmol hr-1 g-1 wet weight) was 30-fold higher than in unfertilized sediments. The ratio of N2O to N2 production was also significantly higher in fertilized sediments (2.9%) than in unfertilized sediments (1.2%). This highlights the disproportionally large effect of long-term fertilization on N2O production in salt marsh sediments. The reduced oxygen level and higher ammonium concentrations in situ probably contributed to the significant rise in N2O production as a result of long-term fertilization. When detected, anammox and coupled nitrification-denitrification accounted for 10% and 14% of the total N2 production in fertilized sediments (30.5 nmol hr-1 g-1 wet weight), respectively, whereas neither was detected in unfertilized sediments. Thus these experiments indicate that N loading has important effects on multiple N cycle processes that result in N loss and N2O production.

  16. A Green Route to a Na2FePO4F-Based Cathode for Sodium Ion Batteries of High Rate and Long Cycling Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiang; Shi, Wenxiang; Sunarso, Jaka; Liu, Meilin; Shao, Zongping

    2017-05-17

    Sodium ion batteries (SIBs) are considered one of the most promising alternatives for large-scale energy storage due largely to the abundance and low cost of sodium. However, the lack of high-performance cathode materials at low cost represents a major obstacle toward broad commercialization of SIB technology. In this work, we report a green route strategy that allows cost-effective fabrication of carbon-coated Na 2 FePO 4 F cathode for SIBs. By using vitamin C as a green organic carbon source and environmentally friendly water-based polyacrylic latex as the binder, we have demonstrated that the Na 2 FePO 4 F phase in the as-derived Na 2 FePO 4 F/C electrode shows a high reversible capacity of 117 mAh g -1 at a cycling rate of 0.1 C. More attractively, excellent rate capability is achieved while retaining outstanding cycling stability (∼85% capacity retention after 1000 charge-discharge cycles at a rate of 4 C). Further, in operando X-ray diffraction has been used to probe the evolution of phase structures during the charge-discharge process, confirming the structural robustness of the Na 2 FePO 4 F/C cathode (even when charged to 4.5 V). Accordingly, the poor initial Coulombic efficiency of some anode materials may be compensated by extracting more sodium ions from Na 2 FePO 4 F/C cathode at higher potentials (up to 4.5 V).

  17. Observations of surface-mediated reduction of Pu(VI) to Pu(IV) on hematite nanoparticles by ATR FT-IR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emerson, Hilary P. [Florida International Univ., Applied Research Center, Miami, FL (United States); Powell, Brian A. [Clemson Univ., Dept. of Enviromental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Anderson, SC (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that mineral surfaces may facilitate the reduction of plutonium though the mechanisms of the reduction are still unknown. The objective of this study is to use batch sorption and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy experiments to observe the surface-mediated reduction of plutonium on hematite nanoparticles. These techniques allow for in situ measurement of reduction of plutonium with time and may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of surface mediated reduction of plutonium. For the first time, ATR FT-IR peaks for Pu(VI) sorbed to hematite are measured at ∝ 916 cm{sup -1}, respectively. The decrease in peak intensity with time provides a real-time, direct measurement of Pu(VI) reduction on the hematite surface. In this work pseudo first order rate constants estimated at the high loadings (22 mg{sub Pu}/g{sub hematite}, 1.34 x 10{sup -6} M{sub Pu}/m{sup 2}) for ATR FT-IR are approximately 10 x slower than at trace concentrations based on previous work. It is proposed that the reduced rate constant at higher Pu loadings occurs after the reduction capacity due to trace Fe(II) has been exhausted and is dependent on the oxidation of water and possibly electron shuttling based on the semiconducting nature of hematite. Therefore, the reduction rate at higher loadings is possibly due to the thermodynamic favorability of Pu(IV)-hydroxide complexes.

  18. Influence of refreshment/activation cycles and temperature rise on the reaction rate of sodium hypochlorite with bovine dentine during ultrasonic activated irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, R G; Verhaagen, B; Wesselink, P R; Versluis, M; van der Sluis, L W M

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of multiple refreshment/activation cycles and temperature on the reaction rate of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with bovine dentine during ultrasonic activated irrigation (UAI) under laboratory conditions. The root canal walls of 24 standardized root canals in bovine incisors were exposed to a standardized volume of NaOCl at different temperatures (24 °C and 38 °C) and exposure times (20, 60 and 180 s). The irrigant was refreshed and ultrasonically activated four times for 20 s followed by a 40 s rest interval, with no refreshment and no activation as the controls. The reaction rate was determined by measuring the amount of active chlorine in the NaOCl solution before and after being exposed to dentine during the specific experimental conditions. Calorimetry was used to measure the electrical-to-sonochemical conversion efficiency during ultrasonic activation. Refreshment, activation and exposure time all increased the reaction rate of NaOCl (P reaction rate of NaOCl (P > 0.125). The reaction rate of NaOCl with dentine is enhanced by refreshment, ultrasonic activation and exposure time. Temperature rise of irrigant during ultrasonic activation was not sufficient to alter the reaction rate. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Life cycle and population growth rate of Caenorhabditis elegans studied by a new method

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder Fabian; Muschiol Daniel; Traunspurger Walter

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is the predominant model organism in biological research, being used by a huge number of laboratories worldwide. Many researchers have evaluated life-history traits of C. elegans in investigations covering quite different aspects such as ecotoxicology, inbreeding depression and heterosis, dietary restriction/supplement, mutations, and ageing. Such traits include juvenile growth rates, age at sexual maturity, adult body size, ...

  20. Heart rate response and rating of perceived exertion in novice subjects during Indoor Cycling Session Respuesta de la frecuencia cardiaca y percepción subjetiva del esfuerzo en principiantes, durante la práctica de ciclismo Indoor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. López

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Indoor Cycling has become a popular cardio-vascular activity for group exercise classes in the fitness centers. The purposes of this study were to measure the heart rate response and rating of perceived exertion in novice subjects performing a 45-min indoor cycling session. Fifty-nine subjects volunteered ranged from 13 to 48 years (mean ± SD, age: 32.1 ± 10.2 years old were recruited from the clients of a private fitness club. They participated in a 45-min Spinning cycle indoor session. Heart rate was measured during the session and the overall rating of perceived exertion (overall-RPE was measured to finish the session. The indoor cycling session was comprised of a warm-up (10 min, followed by a 25 min trial (cardiovascular phase of flat, run, seated climb and standing climb activities, followed by a cool down (10 min. The mean values of percentage of heart rate reserve (%HRR and overall-RPE in the session were 62.1% ± 10.5% and 14.2 ± 1.8 point, respectively. The most time of the session was associated to moderate and hard intensities. The intensity during indoor cycling class in novice adults ranged from moderate to hard values. These data suggest that indoor cycling must be considered a high-intensity exercise mode of exercise for novice subjects.

    Key Words: indoor cycling; RPE; cardiovascular exercise; fitness.

    El Ciclismo Indoor es una actividad para practicar ejercicio físico de manera colectiva muy popular en los centros de fitness. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar la respuesta de la frecuencia cardiaca, las intensidades alcanzadas y la percepción de esfuerzo percibida en sujetos principiantes durante una sesión de ciclismo indoor. Cincuenta y nueve sujetos voluntarios, de un centro deportivo privado, con edades de 13 a 48 años (media ± desviación típica: 32,1 ± 10,2 años participaron en este estudio. La frecuencia cardiaca fue registrada durante toda la sesi

  1. RPA70 depletion induces hSSB1/2-INTS3 complex to initiate ATR signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Kar, Ananya; Kaur, Manpreet; Ghosh, Tanushree; Khan, Md. Muntaz; Sharma, Aparna; Shekhar, Ritu; Varshney, Akhil; Saxena, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    The primary eukaryotic single-stranded DNA-binding protein, Replication protein A (RPA), binds to single-stranded DNA at the sites of DNA damage and recruits the apical checkpoint kinase, ATR via its partner protein, ATRIP. It has been demonstrated that absence of RPA incapacitates the ATR-mediated checkpoint response. We report that in the absence of RPA, human single-stranded DNA-binding protein 1 (hSSB1) and its partner protein INTS3 form sub-nuclear foci, associate with the ATR-ATRIP comp...

  2. In-situ grown CNTs modified SiO2/C composites as anode with improved cycling stability and rate capability for lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siqi; Zhao, Naiqin; Shi, Chunsheng; Liu, Enzuo; He, Chunnian; He, Fang; Ma, Liying

    2018-03-01

    Silica (SiO2) is regarded as one of the most promising anode materials for lithium ion batteries owing to its high theoretical specific capacity, relatively low operation potentials, abundance, environmental benignity and low cost. However, the low intrinsic electrical conductivity and large volume change of SiO2 during the discharge/charge cycles usually results in poor electrochemical performance. In this work, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) modified SiO2/C composites have been fabricated through an in-situ chemical vapor deposition method. The results show that the electrical conductivity of the SiO2/C/CNTs is visibly enhanced through a robust connection between the CNTs and SiO2/C particles. Compared with the pristine SiO2 and SiO2/C composites, the SiO2/C/CNTs composites display a high initial capacity of 1267.2 mA h g-1. Besides, an excellent cycling stability with the capacity of 315.7 mA h g-1 is achieved after 1000th cycles at a rate of 1 A g-1. The significantly improved electrochemical properties of the SiO2/C/CNTs composites are mainly attributed to the formation of three dimensional CNT networks in the SiO2/C substrate, which can not only shorten the Li-ion diffusion path but also relieve the volume change during the lithium-ion insertion/extraction processes.

  3. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report November 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, Renae [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report November 2014 Highlights Rory Kennedy and Sarah Robertson attended the American Nuclear Society Winter Meeting and Nuclear Technology Expo in Anaheim, California, Nov. 10-13. ATR NSUF exhibited at the technology expo where hundreds of meeting participants had an opportunity to learn more about ATR NSUF. Dr. Kennedy briefed the Nuclear Engineering Department Heads Organization (NEDHO) on the workings of the ATR NSUF. • Rory Kennedy, James Cole and Dan Ogden participated in a reactor instrumentation discussion with Jean-Francois Villard and Christopher Destouches of CEA and several members of the INL staff. • ATR NSUF received approval from the NE-20 office to start planning the annual Users Meeting. The meeting will be held at INL, June 22-25. • Mike Worley, director of the Office of Innovative Nuclear Research (NE-42), visited INL Nov. 4-5. Milestones Completed • Recommendations for the Summer Rapid Turnaround Experiment awards were submitted to DOE-HQ Nov. 12 (Level 2 milestone due Nov. 30). Major Accomplishments/Activities • The University of California, Santa Barbara 2 experiment was unloaded from the GE-2000 at HFEF. The experiment specimen packs will be removed and shipped to ORNL for PIE. • The Terrani experiment, one of three FY 2014 new awards, was completed utilizing the Advanced Photon Source MRCAT beamline. The experiment investigated the chemical state of Ag and Pd in SiC shell of irradiated TRISO particles via X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Upcoming Meetings/Events • The ATR NSUF program review meeting will be held Dec. 9-10 at L’Enfant Plaza. In addition to NSUF staff and users, NE-4, NE-5 and NE-7 representatives will attend the meeting. Awarded Research Projects Boise State University Rapid Turnaround Experiments (14-485 and 14-486) Nanoindentation and TEM work on the T91, HT9, HCM12A and 9Cr ODS specimens has been completed at

  4. Myosin heavy chain composition in the vastus lateralis muscle in relation to oxygen uptake and heart rate during cycling in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerczak, J; Nieckarz, Z; Karasinski, J; Zoladz, J A

    2014-04-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between fast myosin heavy chain (MyHC2) content in the vastus lateralis and the rate of oxygen uptake (VO2) and heart rate (HR) increase during an incremental exercise in 38, young, healthy men. Prior to the exercise test, muscle biopsies were taken in order to evaluate the MyHC composition. It was found that during cycling performed below the lactate threshold (LT), a positive relationship between MyHC2 and the intercept of the oxygen uptake and power output (VO2-PO) relationship existed (r=0.49, P=0.002), despite no correlation between MyHC2 and the slope value of the VO2-PO relationship (r= -0.18, P=0.29). During cycling performed above the LT, MyHC2 correlated positively with the magnitude of the nonlinearity in the VO2-PO relationship; i.e. with the accumulated VO2'excess' (r=0.44, P=0.006) and peak VO2'excess' (r=0.44, P=0.006), as well as with the slope of the HR-PO relationship (r=0.49, P=0.002). We have concluded that a greater MyHC2 content in the vastus lateralis is accompanied by a higher oxygen cost of cycling during exercise performed below the LT. This seems to be related to the higher energy cost of the non-cross-bridge activities in the muscles possessing a greater proportion of MyHC2 content. In the case of heavy-intensity exercise, a higher MyHC2 content in the vastus lateralis is accompanied by greater non-linearity in the VO2-PO relationship, as well as a steeper increase in HR in the function of an increase of PO. This relationship can be explained by greater disturbances in metabolic stability in type II muscle fibres during exercise, resulting in a decrease of muscle mechanical efficiency and greater increase of heart rate at a given power output. Therefore, MyHC composition has an impact on the oxygen cost of cycling both below and above the LT.

  5. EFFECT OF POST-MATING GNRH TREATMET ON SERUM PROGESTERONE, LUTEINIZING HORMONE LEVELS, DURATION OF ESTROUS CYCLE AND PREGNANCY RATES IN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. YILDIZ, E. KAYGUSUZOĞLU, M. KAYA1 AND M. ÇENESIZ1

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy rate, estrous cycle lenght, serum progesterone and luteinizing hormone (LH concentrations were determined in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH; 10.5 μg synthetic gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist, receptal administered cows on day 12 post-mating (n=9 compared to control cows (n=8. Their oestrous cycles were synchronised by intramuscular administration of prostaglandin F2 alpha (its analog, cloprostenol twice at 11 days interval. Estrous exhibited cows were mated naturally. Blood samples were collected every two days from all animals. Serum progesterone and LH concentrations were measured by ELISA method. GnRH administration significantly increased serum LH concentration which reached peak levels 2-3 h after treatment. However, serum progesterone concentration was not affected. There were no differences in mean progesterone concentrations on days 12 to 24 post-mating between GnRH administrated and control pregnant cows. However, in non pregnant animals, progesterone concentrations on days 16 in the treated group were lower than control group (P<0.01. Pregnancy diagnosis in animals made by B-mode ultrasonography between the 30th and 35th day showed that 77.7% of treated cows were pregnant compared to 50% in control group. Duration of the estrous cycle in the non-pregnant animals was not affected by the treatment (control, 21.3 ± 0.8 days; treated, 22.5 ± 0.5 days. In conclusion, this study supports the use of GnRH on day 12 post-mating as a method for enhancing pregnancy rates in lactating dairy cattle.

  6. Electrostatic Induced Stretch Growth of Homogeneous β-Ni(OH)2 on Graphene with Enhanced High-Rate Cycling for Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhong; Huang, Xiao-Lei; Wang, Zhong-Li; Xu, Ji-Jing; Wang, Heng-Guo; Zhang, Xin-Bo

    2014-01-01

    Supercapacitors, as one of alternative energy devices, have been characterized by the rapid rate of charging and discharging, and high power density. But they are now challenged to achieve their potential energy density that is related to specific capacitance. Thus it is extremely important to make such materials with high specific capacitances. In this report, we have gained homogenous Ni(OH)2 on graphene by efficiently using of a facile and effective electrostatic induced stretch growth method. The electrostatic interaction triggers advantageous change in morphology and the ordered stacking of Ni(OH)2 nanosheets on graphene also enhances the crystallization of Ni(OH)2. When the as-prepared Ni(OH)2/graphene composite is applied to supercapacitors, they show superior electrochemical properties including high specific capacitance (1503 F g−1 at 2 mV s−1) and excellent cycling stability up to 6000 cycles even at a high scan rate of 50 mV s−1. PMID:24413283

  7. Improvement in high-voltage and high rate cycling performance of nickel-rich layered cathode materials via facile chemical vapor deposition with methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyuk Son, In; Park, Kwangjin; Hwan Park, Jong

    2017-01-01

    Nickel-rich layered-oxide materials are considered promising candidates for application as cathode material in high-energy lithium ion batteries. However, their cycling performance at high voltages and rate conditions require further improvement for the purpose of commercialization. Here, we report on the facile surface modification of nickel-rich layered oxide by chemical vapor deposition with methane which yields a conductive and protective artificial solid electrolyte interphase layer consisting of amorphous carbon, alkyl lithium carbonate, and lithium carbonate. We examine the mechanism of the protective layer formation and structural deformation of the nickel-rich layered oxide during chemical vapor deposition with methane. Via optimizing the reaction conditions, we improve the electrical conductivity as well as the interfacial stability of the nickel-rich layered oxide without inducing structural deformation. The surface-modified nickel-rich layered oxide exhibits an improved performance due to the resulting enhanced rate capability, high initial efficiency, and long cycle life at high voltage (>4.5 V).

  8. Experimental Investigation of the ^{19}Ne(p,γ)^{20}Na Reaction Rate and Implications for Breakout from the Hot CNO Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belarge, J; Kuvin, S A; Baby, L T; Baker, J; Wiedenhöver, I; Höflich, P; Volya, A; Blackmon, J C; Deibel, C M; Gardiner, H E; Lai, J; Linhardt, L E; Macon, K T; Need, E; Rasco, B C; Quails, N; Colbert, K; Gay, D L; Keeley, N

    2016-10-28

    The ^{19}Ne(p,γ)^{20}Na reaction is the second step of a reaction chain which breaks out from the hot CNO cycle, following the ^{15}O(α,γ)^{19}Ne reaction at the onset of x-ray burst events. We investigate the spectrum of the lowest proton-unbound states in ^{20}Na in an effort to resolve contradictions in spin-parity assignments and extract reliable information about the thermal reaction rate. The proton-transfer reaction ^{19}Ne(d,n)^{20}Na is measured with a beam of the radioactive isotope ^{19}Ne at an energy around the Coulomb barrier and in inverse kinematics. We observe three proton resonances with the ^{19}Ne ground state, at 0.44, 0.66, and 0.82 MeV c.m. energies, which are assigned 3^{+}, 1^{+}, and (0^{+}), respectively. In addition, we identify two resonances with the first excited state in ^{19}Ne, one at 0.20 MeV and one, tentatively, at 0.54 MeV. These observations allow us for the first time to experimentally quantify the astrophysical reaction rate on an excited nuclear state. Our experiment shows an efficient path for thermal proton capture in ^{19}Ne(p,γ)^{20}Na, which proceeds through ground state and excited-state capture in almost equal parts and eliminates the possibility for this reaction to create a bottleneck in the breakout from the hot CNO cycle.

  9. Operation characteristic of a R123-based organic Rankine cycle depending on working fluid mass flow rates and heat source temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Yong-Qiang; Hung, Tzu-Chen; Wu, Shang-Lun; Lin, Chih-Hung; Li, Bing-Xi; Huang, Kuo-Chen; Qin, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The operation characteristic of an Organic Rankine Cycle using R123 and a scroll expander have been investigated. • The behaviors and detailed discussion for those four major components are examined. • The expander isentropic efficiency presents a slight decrease first and then a sharp increase with mass flow rate. • The maximum electrical power and system generation efficiency are 2.01 kW and 3.25%, respectively. - Abstract: The test and operation characteristic of an organic Rankine cycle using R123 and a scroll expander have been investigated. The steady-state operation characteristic is addressed with the varying working fluid mass flow rates ranging of 0.124–0.222 kg/s and heat source temperatures ranging of 383.15–413.15 K. The behaviors and detailed discussion for those four major components (pump, evaporator, expander and condenser) are examined. The experimental results show that the environmental temperature presents a higher influence on the pump behaviors. The range of pump power consumption, isentropic efficiency and back work ratio are 0.21–0.32 kW, 26.76–53.96%, and 14–32%, respectively. The expander isentropic efficiency presents a slight decrease first and then a sharp increase with mass flow rate, while a degree of superheating more than 3 K is necessary to avoid expander cavitation. The expander isentropic and generator efficiencies are in range of 69.10–85.17% and 60–73%, respectively, while the respective heat transfer coefficients for evaporator and condenser are ranging of 200–400 and 450–2000 W/m"2 K. The maximum expander shaft power and electrical power are 2.78 kW and 2.01 kW, respectively, while the maximum system generating efficiency is 3.25%. Moreover, the tested thermal efficiency presents a slight decrease trend with mass flow rate.

  10. Designing adaptive integral sliding mode control for heart rate regulation during cycle-ergometer exercise using bio-feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argha, Ahmadreza; Su, Steven W; Nguyen, Hung; Celler, Branko G

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers our developed control system which aims to regulate the exercising subjects' heart rate (HR) to a predefined profile. The controller would be an adaptive integral sliding mode controller. Here it is assumed that the controller commands are interpreted as biofeedback auditory commands. These commands can be heard and implemented by the exercising subject as a part of the control-loop. However, transmitting a feedback signal while the pedals are not in the appropriate position to efficiently exert force may lead to a cognitive disengagement of the user from the feedback controller. To address this problem this paper will employ a different form of control system regarding as "actuator-based event-driven control system". This paper will claim that the developed event-driven controller makes it possible to effectively regulate HR to a predetermined HR profile.

  11. Proteomics Reveals Global Regulation of Protein SUMOylation by ATM and ATR Kinases during Replication Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Munk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms that protect eukaryotic DNA during the cumbersome task of replication depend on the precise coordination of several post-translational modification (PTM-based signaling networks. Phosphorylation is a well-known regulator of the replication stress response, and recently an essential role for SUMOs (small ubiquitin-like modifiers has also been established. Here, we investigate the global interplay between phosphorylation and SUMOylation in response to replication stress. Using SUMO and phosphoproteomic technologies, we identify thousands of regulated modification sites. We find co-regulation of central DNA damage and replication stress responders, of which the ATR-activating factor TOPBP1 is the most highly regulated. Using pharmacological inhibition of the DNA damage response kinases ATR and ATM, we find that these factors regulate global protein SUMOylation in the protein networks that protect DNA upon replication stress and fork breakage, pointing to integration between phosphorylation and SUMOylation in the cellular systems that protect DNA integrity.

  12. Achieving safety/risk goals for less ATR backup power upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor probabilistic risk assessment for internal fire and flood events defined a relatively high risk for a total loss of electric power possibly leading to core damage. Backup power sources were disabled due to fire and flooding in the diesel generator area with propagation of the flooding to a common switchgear room. The ATR risk assessment was employed to define options for relocation of backup power system components to achieve needed risk reduction while minimizing costs. The risk evaluations were performed using sensitivity studies and importance measures. The risk-based evaluations of relocation options for backup power systems saved over $3 million from what might have been otherwise considered open-quotes necessaryclose quotes for safety/risk improvement. The ATR experience shows that the advantages of a good risk assessment are to define risk significance, risk specifics, and risk solutions which enable risk goals to be achieved at the lowest cost

  13. Application of PSA level 1 for the Fugen prototype ATR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, H.; Iguchi, Y.; Sotsu, M.; Seki, O.; Satou, S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents application of PSA Level-1 for Prototype Advanced Thermal Reactor Plant ''Fugen'' in consideration of the design characteristics of such reactor and verify the safety aspect of Fugen using thus established procedure, ATR resembles the boiling water reactor (BWR) in a number of points, but there are also some differences between the ATR and the BWR. Therefore. PSA procedure have been established by taking such difference into consideration and by referring to experience of PSA in USA and Japan. Moreover, the core damage frequency was calculated on Fugen by using thus established procedure. As a result, it was verified that results including the maximum value of the uncertainty estimation were found to be quite satisfactory against the target value of reactor damage frequency defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (author)

  14. Radiation Measurements Laboratory (RML) calibration and assessment of the ATR SPING-3 stack effluent monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppen, L.D.; Rogers, J.W.; Simpson, O.D.

    1983-12-01

    An evaluation, calibration and assessment of the Eberline SPING-3 ATR stack effluent monitor was conducted. This unit which monitors particulate, iodine and noble gas effluents was producing abnormal results following the initial installation and operational testing. The purposes of this work were to find the causes of the abnormal results and correct them if possible; check the calibrations and adjust them if necessary; and to provide a better in-depth understanding of what the unit is monitoring and how well it performs under this application. Results have shown that there were some problems associated with the unit as initially installed and tested. These problems have been identified and suggested alternatives shown, the monitor was found to be applicable to some extent under the current conditions. The calibrations have been checked and adjustments made. More operation testing and evaluation is needed to assess how well this works under a variety of ATR operating conditions. 2 references, 10 figures, 3 tables

  15. Analysis of European honeybee (Apis mellifera) wings using ATR-FTIR and Raman spectroscopy: A pilot study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machovič, Vladimír; Lapčák, L.; Havelcová, Martina; Borecká, Lenka; Novotná, M.; Novotná, M.; Javůrková, I.; Langrová, I.; Hájková, Š.; Brožová, A.; Titěra, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2017), s. 22-29 ISSN 1211-3174 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : honeybee wings * ATR-FTIR * Raman spectroscopy * protein * lipid * chitin Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry

  16. Application of FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy for the quality control of wine spirits, brandies and grape marc spirits

    OpenAIRE

    Anjos, O.; Caldeira, I.

    2013-01-01

    This study attempted to apply a rapid method for the determination of methanol, acetaldehyde and ethyl acetate in wine spirits, brandies and grape marc spirits, using Fourier Transform Infrared – Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) Spectroscopy.

  17. Diamond-coated ATR prism for infrared absorption spectroscopy of surface-modified diamond nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Remeš, Zdeněk; Kozak, Halyna; Rezek, Bohuslav; Ukraintsev, Egor; Babchenko, Oleg; Kromka, Alexander; Girard, H.A.; Arnault, J.-C.; Bergonzo, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 270, APR (2013), s. 411-417 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0910; GA ČR GPP205/12/P331; GA MŠk LH12236; GA MŠk LH12186 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ATR FTIR * CVD * hydrogenation * microwave * nanocrystalline diamond * nanopowder Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.538, year: 2013

  18. Proteomics Reveals Global Regulation of Protein SUMOylation by ATM and ATR Kinases during Replication Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Stephanie; Sigurðsson, Jón Otti; Xiao, Zhenyu

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms that protect eukaryotic DNA during the cumbersome task of replication depend on the precise coordination of several post-translational modification (PTM)-based signaling networks. Phosphorylation is a well-known regulator of the replication stress response, and recently an essentia....... They analyze changes in the SUMO and phosphoproteome after MMC and hydroxyurea treatments and find that the DNA damage response kinases ATR and ATM globally regulate SUMOylation upon replication stress and fork breakage....

  19. Applications of diamond crystal ATR FTIR spectroscopy to the characterization of ambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiliano, Michel; Asia, Laurence; Onoratini, Gérard; Mille, Gilbert

    2007-08-01

    Diamond crystal ATR FTIR spectroscopy is a rapid technique with virtually no sample preparation which requires small sample amounts and showed potential in the study of ambers. FTIR spectra of ambers present discriminating patterns and can be used to distinguish amber from immature resins as copal, to determine local or Baltic origin of archaeological ambers and to detect most of the falsifications encountered in the amber commercialisation.

  20. Gauvain e il corpo smembrato: allegorie nell'«Atre périlleux»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Virdis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available L’Atre Périlleux è un romanzo anonimo francese del XIII secolo e fa parte della corrente letteraria che rimettere in questione il romanzo cortese di tradizione chrestieniana. Piú che all’ideologia o alle istanze della classe cavalleresca e della nobiltà minore, il nostro romanzo risponde alle prospettive e alle necessità intellettuali della clergie, che si fa gioco dei valori cavallereschi tradizionali. L’Atre Périlleux è condotto, con toni di humour e una trama complessa, su binari metaletterari e allegorici (di cui il corpo smembrato di Gauvain è il simbolo piú eminente, e si pone come critica della decadenza della società cortese, animato però dal proposito del rinnovamento morale di essa.L’Atre Périlleux is an anonymous French romance of the thirteenth century and it is part of the literary movement that calls into question the tradition of courtly romance dating back to Chrétien de Troyes. More than to the ideology and instances of the class of minor nobility and chivalry, our romance responds to the clergie’s needs and intellectual perspectives, and it mocks the traditional values of chivalry. L’Atre Périlleux is conducted, with a hint of humour and a complicated plot, on metaliterary and allegorical tracks (and Gauvain’s dismembered body is the most prominent symbol of this allegorical tone, so that our romance stands as a critique of courtly society decadence, nevertheless animated by the purpose of its moral renewal.

  1. ATR-FTIR for rapid detection and quantification of counterfeit medicines

    OpenAIRE

    Ogwu, John; Lawson, Graham; Tanna, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    From therapeutic to lifestyle medicines, the counterfeiting of medicines has been on the rise in recent times [1]. Estimates indicate that about 10% of medicines worldwide are counterfeits with much higher figures in developing countries [2]. Currently, the rapid screening of medicines is a challenge leaving many patients at risk [1]. This study considered the potential use of Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) for rapid quantitative analysis of ta...

  2. Trasmission and Reflection (ATR)Far-Infrared Spectroscopy Applied in the Analysis of Cultural Heritage Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Kendix, Elsebeth Langholz

    2009-01-01

    FIR spectroscopy is an alternative way of collecting spectra of many inorganic pigments and corrosion products found on art objects, which is not normally observed in the MIR region. Most FIR spectra are traditionally collected in transmission mode but as a real novelty it is now also possible to record FIR spectra in ATR (Attenuated Total Reflectance) mode. In FIR transmission we employ polyethylene (PE) for preparation of pellets by embedding the sample in PE. Unfortunately, ...

  3. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Volume 3 of the 2003 Air Transport Reserch Society (ATRS) World Conference includes papers on topics relevant to airline operations worldwide. Specific topics include: European Union and civil aviation regimens;simulating decision making in airline operations, passenger points of view on convenient airports; route monopolies and nonlinear pricing; cooperation among airports in Europe; fleet modernizaiton in Brazil;the effects of deregulation on the growth of air transportation in Europe and the United States.

  4. Rabi like angular splitting in Surface Plasmon Polariton - Exciton interaction in ATR configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Heba; Abdallah, T.; Negm, S.; Talaat, H.

    2018-05-01

    We have studied the coupling of propagating Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPP) on silver films and excitons in CdS quantum dots (QDs). We employed the Kretschmann-Raether configuration of the attenuated total reflection (ATR) to propagate the SPP on silver film of thickness 47.5 nm at three different wavelengths. The CdS QD have been chemically synthesized with particular size such that its exciton of energy would resonate with SPP. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scan tunneling microscopy (STM) were used to measure the corresponding QDs size and confirm its shape. Further confirmation of the size has been performed by the effective mass approximation (EMA) model utilizing the band gap of the prepared QDs. The band gaps have been measured through UV-vis absorption spectra as well as scan tunneling spectroscopy (STS). The coupling has been observed as two branching dips in the ATR spectra indicating Rabi like splitting. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that Rabi interaction is directly observed in an ATR angular spectra. This observation is attributed to the use a high resolution angular scan (±0.005°), in addition to the Doppler width of the laser line as well as the energy distribution of the excitons. The effect of three different linker molecules (TOPO, HDA), (Pyridine) and (Tri-butylamine) as surface ligands, on SPP-Exciton interaction has been examined.

  5. Inherited germline ATRX mutation in two brothers with ATR-X syndrome and osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jianling; Quindipan, Catherine; Parham, David; Shen, Lishuang; Ruble, David; Bootwalla, Moiz; Maglinte, Dennis T; Gai, Xiaowu; Saitta, Sulagna C; Biegel, Jaclyn A; Mascarenhas, Leo

    2017-05-01

    We report a family in which two brothers had an undiagnosed genetic disorder comprised of dysmorphic features, microcephaly, severe intellectual disability (non-verbal), mild anemia, and cryptorchidism. Both developed osteosarcoma. Trio exome sequencing (using blood samples from the younger brother and both parents) was performed and a nonsense NM_000489.4:c.7156C>T (p.Arg2386*) mutation in the ATRX gene was identified in the proband (hemizygous) and in the mother's peripheral blood DNA (heterozygous). The mother is healthy, does not exhibit any clinical manifestations of ATR-X syndrome and there was no family history of cancer. The same hemizygous pathogenic variant was confirmed in the affected older brother's skin tissue by subsequent Sanger sequencing. Chromosomal microarray studies of both brothers' osteosarcomas revealed complex copy number alterations consistent with the clinical diagnosis of osteosarcoma. Recently, somatic mutations in the ATRX gene have been observed as recurrent alterations in both osteosarcoma and brain tumors. However, it is unclear if there is any association between osteosarcoma and germline ATRX mutations, specifically in patients with constitutional ATR-X syndrome. This is the first report of osteosarcoma diagnosed in two males with ATR-X syndrome, suggesting a potential increased risk for cancer in patients with this disorder. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Diamond-coated ATR prism for infrared absorption spectroscopy of surface-modified diamond nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes, Z.; Kozak, H.; Rezek, B.; Ukraintsev, E.; Babchenko, O.; Kromka, A.; Girard, H. A.; Arnault, J.-C.; Bergonzo, P.

    2013-04-01

    Linear antenna microwave chemical vapor deposition process was used to homogeneously coat a 7 cm long silicon prism by 85 nm thin nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) layer. To show the advantages of the NCD-coated prism for attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) of nanoparticles, we apply diamond nanoparticles (DNPs) of 5 nm nominal size with various surface modifications by a drop-casting of their methanol dispersions. ATR-FTIR spectra of as-received, air-annealed, plasma-oxidized, and plasma-hydrogenated DNPs were measured in the 4000-1500 cm-1 spectral range. The spectra show high spectral resolution, high sensitivity to specific DNP surface moieties, and repeatability. The NCD coating provides mechanical protection against scratching and chemical stability of the surface. Moreover, unlike on bare Si surface, NCD hydrophilic properties enable optically homogeneous coverage by DNPs with some aggregation on submicron scale as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Compared to transmission FTIR regime with KBr pellets, direct and uniform deposition of DNPs on NCD-ATR prism significantly simplifies and speeds up the analysis (from days to minutes). We discuss prospects for in situ monitoring of surface modifications and molecular grafting.

  7. Diamond-coated ATR prism for infrared absorption spectroscopy of surface-modified diamond nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remes, Z., E-mail: remes@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i., Cukrovarnicka 10, Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Kozak, H.; Rezek, B.; Ukraintsev, E.; Babchenko, O.; Kromka, A. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i., Cukrovarnicka 10, Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Girard, H.A.; Arnault, J.-C.; Bergonzo, P. [CEA, LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-04-01

    Linear antenna microwave chemical vapor deposition process was used to homogeneously coat a 7 cm long silicon prism by 85 nm thin nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) layer. To show the advantages of the NCD-coated prism for attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) of nanoparticles, we apply diamond nanoparticles (DNPs) of 5 nm nominal size with various surface modifications by a drop-casting of their methanol dispersions. ATR-FTIR spectra of as-received, air-annealed, plasma-oxidized, and plasma-hydrogenated DNPs were measured in the 4000–1500 cm{sup −1} spectral range. The spectra show high spectral resolution, high sensitivity to specific DNP surface moieties, and repeatability. The NCD coating provides mechanical protection against scratching and chemical stability of the surface. Moreover, unlike on bare Si surface, NCD hydrophilic properties enable optically homogeneous coverage by DNPs with some aggregation on submicron scale as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Compared to transmission FTIR regime with KBr pellets, direct and uniform deposition of DNPs on NCD-ATR prism significantly simplifies and speeds up the analysis (from days to minutes). We discuss prospects for in situ monitoring of surface modifications and molecular grafting.

  8. Analysis of cosmetic residues on a single human hair by ATR FT-IR microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienpinijtham, Prompong; Thammacharoen, Chuchaat; Naranitad, Suwimol; Ekgasit, Sanong

    2018-05-15

    In this work, ATR FT-IR spectra of single human hair and cosmetic residues on hair surface are successfully collected using a homemade dome-shaped Ge μIRE accessary installed on an infrared microscope. By collecting ATR spectra of hairs from the same person, the spectral patterns are identical and superimposed while different spectral features are observed from ATR spectra of hairs collected from different persons. The spectral differences depend on individual hair characteristics, chemical treatments, and cosmetics on hair surface. The "Contact-and-Collect" technique that transfers remarkable materials on the hair surface to the tip of the Ge μIRE enables an identification of cosmetics on a single hair. Moreover, the differences between un-split and split hairs are also studied in this report. These highly specific spectral features can be employed for unique identification or for differentiation of hairs based on the molecular structures of hairs and cosmetics on hairs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Pressure-modulation dynamic attenuated-total-reflectance (ATR) FT-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcott, C.; Story, G. M.; Noda, I.; Bibby, A.; Manning, C. J.

    1998-06-01

    A single-reflectance attenuated-total-reflectance (ATR) accessory with a diamond internal-reflection element was modified by the addition of a piezoelectric transducer. Initial dynamic pressure-modulation experiments have been performed in the sample compartment of a step-scanning FT-IR spectrometer. A sinusoidal pressure modulation applied to samples of isotactic polypropylene and linear low density polyethylene resulted in dynamic responses which appear to be similar to those observed in previous dynamic 2D IR experiments. Preliminary pressure-modulation dynamic ATR results are also reported for a styrene-butadiene-styrene triblock copolymer. The new method has the advantages that a much wider variety of sample types and geometries can be studied and less sample preparation is required. Dynamic 2D IR experiments carried out by ATR no longer require thin films of large area and sufficient strength to withstand the dynamic strain applied by a rheometer. The ability to obtain dynamic IR spectroscopic information from a wider variety of sample types and thicknesses would greatly expand the amount of useful information that could be extracted from normally complicated, highly overlapped IR spectra.

  10. Very low dose and dose-rate X-ray induced adaptive response in human lymphocytes at various cell cycle stages against bleomycin induced chromatid aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossein Mozdarani; Moghadam, R.N.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: To study the adaptive response induced by very low doses of X-rays at very low dose rate in human lymphocytes at different cell cycle stages followed by a challenge dose of bleomycin sulphate at G2 phase. Materials and Methods: Human peripheral blood lymphocytes before (G0) and after PHA stimulation (G1 and G2) were exposed to 1 and 5 cGy X-rays generated by a fluoroscopy unit with a dose rate of 5.56 mGy/min and challenged with 5 μg/ml bleomycin sulphate (BLM) 48 hours after culture initiation. Mitotic cells were arrested at metaphase by addition of colcemid in cultures 1.5 h before harvesting. Harvesting and slide preparation was performed using standard method. 100 well spread metaphases were analyzed for the presence of chromatid type aberrations for each sample. Results: Results obtained indicate that there is a linear relationship between the dose of BLM and chromatid aberrations below 5 μg/ml (R=0.93, p<0.0001). The results also show that pretreatment of lymphocytes with low dose X-rays at G0, G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle significantly reduced the sensitivity of lymphocytes to the clastogenic effects of BLM in G2. Much lower frequencies of chromatid aberrations were observed in X-ray irradiated lymphocytes following BLM treatment (p<0.05). The magnitudes of adaptation induced at different phases of the cell cycle were not significantly different. Furthermore, there was no a significant difference in the magnitude of adaptive response induced by either 1 or 5 cGy X-rays. Conclusion: These observations might indicate that resistance of pre-exposure of lymphocytes to very low doses of X-rays protects them from clastogenic effects of BLM. This effect might be due to initial DNA damage induced in these cells leading to provocation of an active DNA repair mechanism independent of cell cycle stage.

  11. MRN- and 9-1-1-Independent Activation of the ATR-Chk1 Pathway during the Induction of the Virulence Program in the Phytopathogen Ustilago maydis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Tenorio-Gómez

    Full Text Available DNA damage response (DDR leads to DNA repair, and depending on the extent of the damage, to further events, including cell death. Evidence suggests that cell differentiation may also be a consequence of the DDR. During the formation of the infective hypha in the phytopathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis, two DDR kinases, Atr1 and Chk1, are required to induce a G2 cell cycle arrest, which in turn is essential to display the virulence program. However, the triggering factor of DDR in this process has remained elusive. In this report we provide data suggesting that no DNA damage is associated with the activation of the DDR during the formation of the infective filament in U. maydis. We have analyzed bulk DNA replication during the formation of the infective filament, and we found no signs of impaired DNA replication. Furthermore, using RPA-GFP fusion as a surrogate marker of the presence of DNA damage, we were unable to detect any sign of DNA damage at the cellular level. In addition, neither MRN nor 9-1-1 complexes, both instrumental to transmit the DNA damage signal, are required for the induction of the above mentioned cell cycle arrest, as well as for virulence. In contrast, we have found that the claspin-like protein Mrc1, which in other systems serves as scaffold for Atr1 and Chk1, was required for both processes. We discuss possible alternative ways to trigger the DDR, independent of DNA damage, in U. maydis during virulence program activation.

  12. Environmentally benign and scalable synthesis of LiFePO4 nanoplates with high capacity and excellent rate cycling performance for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Chunsong; Wang, Lu-Ning; Chen, Jitao; Gao, Min

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •LiFePO 4 precursors were successfully prepared in pure water phase under atmosphere. •LiFePO 4 nanostructures were also regenerated by recycling filtrate. •LiFePO 4 /C delivers high discharge capacity of 160 mAh g −1 at 0.2 C and high rate capacity of 107 mAh g −1 at 20C. •LiFePO 4 /C delivers a capacity retention rate closed to 97% after 240 cycles at 20C. -- Abstract: An economical and scalable synthesis route of LiFePO 4 nanoplate precursors is successfully prepared in pure water phase under atmosphere without employing environmentally toxic surfactants or high temperature and high pressure compared with traditional hydrothermal or solvothermal methods, which also involves recycling the filtrate to regenerate LiFePO 4 nanoplate precursors and collecting by-product Na 2 SO 4 . The LiFePO 4 precursors present a plate-like morphology with mean thickness and length of 50–100 and 100–300 nm, respectively. After carbon coating, the LiFePO 4 /C nanoparticles with particle size around 200 nm can be observed which exhibit a high discharge capacity of 160 mAh g −1 at 0.2 C and 107 mAh g −1 at 20 C. A high capacity retention closed to 91% can be reached after 500 cycles even at a high current rate of 20C with coulombic efficiency of 99.5%. This work suggests a simple, economic and environmentally benign method in preparation of LiFePO 4 /C cathode material for power batteries that would be feasible for large scale industrial production.

  13. IMPACT OF A REVISED {sup 25}Mg(p, {gamma}){sup 26}Al REACTION RATE ON THE OPERATION OF THE Mg-Al CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straniero, O.; Cristallo, S. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, Teramo (Italy); Imbriani, G.; DiLeva, A.; Limata, B. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Strieder, F. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Bemmerer, D. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstr. 400 (Germany); Broggini, C.; Caciolli, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Corvisiero, P.; Costantini, H.; Lemut, A. [Universita di Genova and INFN Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy); Formicola, A.; Gustavino, C.; Junker, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Elekes, Z.; Fueloep, Zs.; Gyuerky, Gy. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Gervino, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Torino and INFN Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Guglielmetti, A., E-mail: straniero@oa-teramo.inaf.it [Universita degli Studi di Milano and INFN, Sezione di Milano (Italy); and others

    2013-02-15

    Proton captures on Mg isotopes play an important role in the Mg-Al cycle active in stellar H-burning regions. In particular, low-energy nuclear resonances in the {sup 25}Mg(p, {gamma}){sup 26}Al reaction affect the production of radioactive {sup 26}Al{sup gs} as well as the resulting Mg/Al abundance ratio. Reliable estimations of these quantities require precise measurements of the strengths of low-energy resonances. Based on a new experimental study performed at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics, we provide revised rates of the {sup 25}Mg(p, {gamma}){sup 26}Al{sup gs} and the {sup 25}Mg(p, {gamma}){sup 26}Al {sup m} reactions with corresponding uncertainties. In the temperature range 50-150 MK, the new recommended rate of {sup 26}Al {sup m} production is up to five times higher than previously assumed. In addition, at T = 100 MK, the revised total reaction rate is a factor of two higher. Note that this is the range of temperature at which the Mg-Al cycle operates in a H-burning zone. The effects of this revision are discussed. Due to the significantly larger {sup 25}Mg(p, {gamma}){sup 26}Al {sup m} rate, the estimated production of {sup 26}Al{sup gs} in H-burning regions is less efficient than previously obtained. As a result, the new rates should imply a smaller contribution from Wolf-Rayet stars to the galactic {sup 26}Al budget. Similarly, we show that the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) extra-mixing scenario does not appear able to explain the most extreme values of {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al, i.e., >10{sup -2}, found in some O-rich presolar grains. Finally, the substantial increase of the total reaction rate makes the hypothesis of self-pollution by massive AGBs a more robust explanation for the Mg-Al anticorrelation observed in globular-cluster stars.

  14. Tunnel-Structured KxTiO2 Nanorods by in Situ Carbothermal Reduction as a Long Cycle and High Rate Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Wei, Yaqing; Yang, Haotian; Su, Dong; Ma, Ying; Li, Huiqiao; Zhai, Tianyou

    2017-03-01

    The low electronic conductivity and the sluggish sodium-ion diffusion in the compact crystal structure of Ti-based anodes seriously restrict their development in sodium-ion batteries. In this study, a new hollandite K x TiO 2 with large (2 × 2) tunnels is synthesized by a facile carbothermal reduction method, and its sodium storage performance is investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses illustrate the formation mechanism of the hollandite K x TiO 2 upon the carbothermal reduction process. Compared to the traditional layered or small (1 × 1) tunnel-type Ti-based materials, the hollandite K x TiO 2 with large (2 × 2) tunnels may accommodate more sodium ions and facilitate the Na + diffusion in the structure; thus, it is expected to get a large capacity and realize high rate capability. The synthesized K x TiO 2 with large (2 × 2) tunnels shows a stable reversible capacity of 131 mAh g -1 (nearly 3 times of (1 × 1) tunnel-structured Na 2 Ti 6 O 13 ) and superior cycling stability with no obvious capacity decay even after 1000 cycles, which is significantly better than the traditional layered Na 2 Ti 3 O 7 (only 40% of capacity retention in 20 cycles). Moreover, the carbothermal process can naturally introduce oxygen vacancy and low-valent titanium as well as the surface carbon coating layer to the structure, which would greatly enhance the electronic conductivity of K x TiO 2 and thus endow this material high rate capability. With a good rate capability and long cyclability, this hollandite K x TiO 2 can serve as a new promising anode material for room-temperature long-life sodium-ion batteries for large-scale energy storage systems, and the carbothermal reduction method is believed to be an effective and facile way to develop novel Ti-based anodes with simultaneous carbon coating and Ti(III) self-doping.

  15. Seafloor Age-Stacking Reveals No Evidence for Milankovitch Cycle Influence on Abyssal Hills at Intermediate, Fast and Super-Fast Spreading Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, J.; Zahirovic, S.; Müller, D.

    2017-12-01

    Recently published spectral analyses of seafloor bathymetry concluded that abyssal hills, highly linear ridges that are formed along seafloor spreading centers, exhibit periodicities that correspond to Milankovitch cycles - variations in Earth's orbit that affect climate on periods of 23, 41 and 100 thousand years. These studies argue that this correspondence could be explained by modulation of volcanic output at the mid-ocean ridge due to lithostatic pressure variations associated with rising and falling sea level. If true, then the implications are substantial: mapping the topography of the seafloor with sonar could be used as a way to investigate past climate change. This "Milankovitch cycle" hypothesis predicts that the rise and fall of abyssal hills will be correlated to crustal age, which can be tested by stacking, or averaging, bathymetry as a function of age; stacking will enhance any age-dependent signal while suppressing random components, such as fault-generated topography. We apply age-stacking to data flanking the Southeast Indian Ridge ( 3.6 cm/yr half rate), northern East Pacific Rise ( 5.4 cm/yr half rate) and southern East Pacific Rise ( 7.8 cm/yr half rate), where multibeam bathymetric coverage is extensive on the ridge flanks. At the greatest precision possible given magnetic anomaly data coverage, we have revised digital crustal age models in these regions with updated axis and magnetic anomaly traces. We also utilize known 2nd-order spatial statistical properties of abyssal hills to predict the variability of the age-stack under the null hypothesis that abyssal hills are entirely random with respect to crustal age; the age-stacked profile is significantly different from zero only if it exceeds this expected variability by a large margin. Our results indicate, however, that the null hypothesis satisfactorily explains the age-stacking results in all three regions of study, thus providing no support for the Milankovitch cycle hypothesis. The

  16. Strong Capillarity, Chemisorption, and Electrocatalytic Capability of Crisscrossed Nanostraws Enabled Flexible, High-Rate, and Long-Cycling Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lianbo; Zhang, Wenjun; Wang, Lei; Hu, Yi; Zhu, Guoyin; Wang, Yanrong; Chen, Renpeng; Chen, Tao; Tie, Zuoxiu; Liu, Jie; Jin, Zhong

    2018-05-22

    The development of flexible lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries with high energy density and long cycling life are very appealing for the emerging flexible, portable, and wearable electronics. However, the progress on flexible Li-S batteries was limited by the poor flexibility and serious performance decay of existing sulfur composite cathodes. Herein, we report a freestanding and highly flexible sulfur host that can simultaneously meet the flexibility, stability, and capacity requirements of flexible Li-S batteries. The host consists of a crisscrossed network of carbon nanotubes reinforced CoS nanostraws (CNTs/CoS-NSs). The CNTs/CoS-NSs with large inner space and high conductivity enable high loading and efficient utilization of sulfur. The strong capillarity effect and chemisorption of CNTs/CoS-NSs to sulfur species were verified, which can efficiently suppress the shuttle effect and promote the redox kinetics of polysulfides. The sulfur-encapsulated CNTs/CoS-NSs (S@CNTs/CoS-NSs) cathode in Li-S batteries exhibits superior performance, including high discharge capacity, rate capability (1045 mAh g -1 at 0.5 C and 573 mAh g -1 at 5.0 C), and cycling stability. Intriguingly, the soft-packed Li-S batteries based on S@CNTs/CoS-NSs cathode show good flexibility and stability upon bending.

  17. Synthesizing Porous NaTi2(PO4)3 Nanoparticles Embedded in 3D Graphene Networks for High-Rate and Long Cycle-Life Sodium Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chao; Kopold, Peter; Ding, Yuan-Li; van Aken, Peter A; Maier, Joachim; Yu, Yan

    2015-06-23

    Sodium ion batteries attract increasing attention for large-scale energy storage as a promising alternative to the lithium counterparts in view of low cost and abundant sodium source. However, the large ion radius of Na brings about a series of challenging thermodynamic and kinetic difficulties to the electrodes for sodium-storage, including low reversible capacity and low ion transport, as well as large volume change. To mitigate or even overcome the kinetic problems, we develop a self-assembly route to a novel architecture consisting of nanosized porous NASICON-type NaTi2(PO4)3 particles embedded in microsized 3D graphene network. Such architecture synergistically combines the advantages of a 3D graphene network and of 0D porous nanoparticles. It greatly increases the electron/ion transport kinetics and assures the electrode structure integrity, leading to attractive electrochemical performance as reflected by a high rate-capability (112 mAh g(-1) at 1C, 105 mAh g(-1) at 5C, 96 mAh g(-1) at 10C, 67 mAh g(-1) at 50C), a long cycle-life (capacity retention of 80% after 1000 cycles at 10C), and a high initial Coulombic efficiency (>79%). This nanostructure design provides a promising pathway for developing high performance NASICON-type materials for sodium storage.

  18. Sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes for high-rate and cycling-stable li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linjing; Li, Ning; Wu, Borong; Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Feng

    2015-01-14

    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li(1.2)Ni(0.13)Mn(0.54)Co(0.13)O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li(+) intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achieving around 70% (175 mAh g(-1)) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.

  19. High-rate and ultralong cycle-life LiFePO_4 nanocrystals coated by boron-doped carbon as positive electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jinpeng; Wang, Youlan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • B-doped carbon decorated LiFePO_4 has been fabricated for the first time. • The LiFePO_4@B-CdisplaysimprovedbatteryperformancecomparedtoLiFePO_4@C. • The LiFePO_4@B-C is good candidate for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: An evolutionary modification approach, boron-doped carbon coating, has been used to improve the electrochemical performances of positive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, and demonstrates apparent and significant modification effects. In this study, the boron-doped carbon coating is firstly adopted and used to decorate the performance of LiFePO_4. The obtained composite exhibits a unique core-shell structure with an average diameter of 140 nm and a 4 nm thick boron-doped carbon shell that uniformly encapsulates the core. Owing to the boron element which could induce high amount of defects in the carbon, the electronic conductivity of LiFePO_4 is greatly ameliorated. Thus, the boron-doped composite shows superior rate capability and cycle stability than the undoped sample. For instance, the reversible specific capacity of LiFePO_4@B_0_._4-C can reach 164.1 mAh g"−"1 at 0.1C, which is approximately 96.5% of the theoretical capacity (170 mAh g"−"1). Even at high rate of 10C, it still shows a high specific capacity of 126.8 mAh g"−"1 and can be maintained at 124.5 mAh g"−"1 after 100 cycles with capacity retention ratio of about 98.2%. This outstanding Li-storage property enable the present design strategy to open up the possibility of fabricating the LiFePO_4@B-C composite for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  20. Combined advanced parental age has an additive negative effect on live birth rates-data from 4057 first IVF/ICSI cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Nicole O; Zander-Fox, Deirdre; Vincent, Andrew D; Lane, Michelle

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if there is an additive effect of combined advanced maternal and paternal age on pregnancy and live birth rates. Retrospective data analysis of 4057 first cycles at a fertility centre between 2009 and 2013 was compiled. Donor, preimplantation genetic screening and double embryo transfer cycles were excluded. Main outcomes measured were clinical pregnancy, viable pregnancy, live birth and term birth. Logistic regression indicated strong negative associations for maternal ages exceeding 27 years with clinical pregnancies (p < 0.001), viable pregnancies (p < 0.001), live births (p < 0.001) and term births (p < 0.001). There was evidence of negative associations between paternal age and both viable pregnancies (p = 0.06) and live births (p = 0.04), such that the probability of pregnancy was 10% further reduced for women who were 35 years with a partner over 40 years vs. women aged 35 years with a partner under 30 years. There was evidence of an interaction between maternal age and the paternal age on term births (p = 0.02) such that advanced paternal age's effect on the probability of a term birth was only evident in couples where the maternal age ranged between ~27 and 35 years. There is an additive effect to pregnancy and live birth rates when both partners are of an advanced age, thus highlighting the need for pre-conception public health messaging and a combined approach to ART counselling assessing both parental ages in combination.

  1. High-rate and ultralong cycle-life LiFePO4 nanocrystals coated by boron-doped carbon as positive electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jinpeng; Wang, Youlan

    2016-12-01

    An evolutionary modification approach, boron-doped carbon coating, has been used to improve the electrochemical performances of positive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, and demonstrates apparent and significant modification effects. In this study, the boron-doped carbon coating is firstly adopted and used to decorate the performance of LiFePO4. The obtained composite exhibits a unique core-shell structure with an average diameter of 140 nm and a 4 nm thick boron-doped carbon shell that uniformly encapsulates the core. Owing to the boron element which could induce high amount of defects in the carbon, the electronic conductivity of LiFePO4 is greatly ameliorated. Thus, the boron-doped composite shows superior rate capability and cycle stability than the undoped sample. For instance, the reversible specific capacity of LiFePO4@B0.4-C can reach 164.1 mAh g-1 at 0.1C, which is approximately 96.5% of the theoretical capacity (170 mAh g-1). Even at high rate of 10C, it still shows a high specific capacity of 126.8 mAh g-1 and can be maintained at 124.5 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles with capacity retention ratio of about 98.2%. This outstanding Li-storage property enable the present design strategy to open up the possibility of fabricating the LiFePO4@B-C composite for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  2. Biotic and a-biotic Mn and Fe cycling in deep sediments across a gradient of sulfate reduction rates along the California margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider-Mor, A.; Steefel, C.; Maher, K.

    2011-12-01

    The coupling between the biological and a-biotic processes controlling trace metals in deep marine sediments are not well understood, although the fluxes of elements and trace metals across the sediment-water interface can be a major contribution to ocean water. Four marine sediment profiles (ODP leg 167 sites 1011, 1017, 1018 and 1020)were examined to evaluate and quantify the biotic and abiotic reaction networks and fluxes that occur in deep marine sediments. We compared biogeochemical processes across a gradient of sulfate reduction (SR) rates with the objective of studying the processes that control these rates and how they affect major elements as well as trace metal redistribution. The rates of sulfate reduction, methanogenesis and anaerobic methane oxidation (AMO) were constrained using a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow). Constraints for the model include: sediment and pore water concentrations, as well as %CaCO3, %biogenic silica, wt% carbon and δ13C of total organic carbon (TOC), particulate organic matter (POC) and mineral associated carbon (MAC). The sites are distinguished by the depth of AMO: a shallow zone is observed at sites 1018 (9 to 19 meters composite depth (mcd)) and 1017 (19 to 30 mcd), while deeper zones occur at sites 1011 (56 to 76 mcd) and 1020 (101 to 116 mcd). Sulfate reduction rates at the shallow AMO sites are on the order 1x10-16 mol/L/yr, much faster than rates in the deeper zone sulfate reduction (1-3x10-17 mol/L/yr), as expected. The dissolved metal ion concentrations varied between the sites, with Fe (0.01-7 μM) and Mn (0.01-57 μM) concentrations highest at Site 1020 and lowest at site 1017. The highest Fe and Mn concentrations occurred at various depths, and were not directly correlated with the rates of sulfate reduction and the maximum alkalinity values. The main processes that control cycling of Fe are the production of sulfide from sulfate reduction and the distribution of Fe-oxides. The Mn distribution

  3. The ATM and Rad3-Related (ATR) Protein Kinase Pathway Is Activated by Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and Required for Efficient Viral Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Terri G; Bloom, David C; Fisher, Chris

    2018-03-15

    The ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) protein kinase and its downstream effector Chk1 are key sensors and organizers of the DNA damage response (DDR) to a variety of insults. Previous studies of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) showed no evidence for activation of the ATR pathway. Here we demonstrate that both Chk1 and ATR were phosphorylated by 3 h postinfection (h.p.i.). Activation of ATR and Chk1 was observed using 4 different HSV-1 strains in multiple cell types, while a specific ATR inhibitor blocked activation. Mechanistic studies point to early viral gene expression as a key trigger for ATR activation. Both pATR and pChk1 localized to the nucleus within viral replication centers, or associated with their periphery, by 3 h.p.i. Significant levels of pATR and pChk1 were also detected in the cytoplasm, where they colocalized with ICP4 and ICP0. Proximity ligation assays confirmed that pATR and pChk1 were closely and specifically associated with ICP4 and ICP0 in both the nucleus and cytoplasm by 3 h.p.i., but not with ICP8 or ICP27, presumably in a multiprotein complex. Chemically distinct ATR and Chk1 inhibitors blocked HSV-1 replication and infectious virion production, while inhibitors of ATM, Chk2, and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) did not. Together our data show that HSV-1 activates the ATR pathway at early stages of infection and that ATR and Chk1 kinase activities play important roles in HSV-1 replication fitness. These findings indicate that the ATR pathway may provide insight for therapeutic approaches. IMPORTANCE Viruses have evolved complex associations with cellular DNA damage response (DDR) pathways, which sense troublesome DNA structures formed during infection. The first evidence for activation of the ATR pathway by HSV-1 is presented. ATR is activated, and its downstream target Chk1 is robustly phosphorylated, during early stages of infection. Both activated proteins are found in the nucleus associated with viral replication compartments and in

  4. Endometrial scratching in women with implantation failure after a first IVF/ICSI cycle; does it lead to a higher live birth rate? The SCRaTCH study: a randomized controlled trial (NTR 5342).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoogenhuijze, N E; Torrance, H L; Mol, F; Laven, J S E; Scheenjes, E; Traas, M A F; Janssen, C; Cohlen, B; Teklenburg, G; de Bruin, J P; van Oppenraaij, R; Maas, J W M; Moll, E; Fleischer, K; van Hooff, M H; de Koning, C; Cantineau, A; Lambalk, C B; Verberg, M; Nijs, M; Manger, A P; van Rumste, M; van der Voet, L F; Preys-Bosman, A; Visser, J; Brinkhuis, E; den Hartog, J E; Sluijmer, A; Jansen, F W; Hermes, W; Bandell, M L; Pelinck, M J; van Disseldorp, J; van Wely, M; Smeenk, J; Pieterse, Q D; Boxmeer, J C; Groenewoud, E R; Eijkemans, M J C; Kasius, J C; Broekmans, F J M

    2017-07-21

    Success rates of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are approximately 30%, with the most important limiting factor being embryo implantation. Mechanical endometrial injury, also called 'scratching', has been proposed to positively affect the chance of implantation after embryo transfer, but the currently available evidence is not yet conclusive. The primary aim of this study is to determine the effect of endometrial scratching prior to a second fresh in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycle on live birth rates in women with a failed first IVF/ICSI cycle. Multicenter randomized controlled trial in Dutch academic and non-academic hospitals. A total of 900 women will be included of whom half will undergo an endometrial scratch in the luteal phase of the cycle prior to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation using an endometrial biopsy catheter. The primary endpoint is the live birth rate after the 2 nd fresh IVF/ICSI cycle. Secondary endpoints are costs, cumulative live birth rate (after the full 2 nd IVF/ICSI cycle and over 12 months of follow-up); clinical and ongoing pregnancy rate; multiple pregnancy rate; miscarriage rate and endometrial tissue parameters associated with implantation failure. Multiple studies have been performed to investigate the effect of endometrial scratching on live birth rates in women undergoing IVF/ICSI cycles. Due to heterogeneity in both the method and population being scratched, it remains unclear which group of women will benefit from the procedure. The SCRaTCH trial proposed here aims to investigate the effect of endometrial scratching prior to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in a large group of women undergoing a second IVF/ICSI cycle. NTR 5342 , registered July 31 st , 2015. Version 4.10, January 4th, 2017.

  5. Neutron monitoring measurements for the CIT [Compact Ignition Tokamak] materials irradiations in the ATR I1 position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.W.; Anderl, R.A.

    1989-12-01

    Measurements were performed to help characterize the neutron environments in which the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) materials were irradiated. These materials were irradiated in a lead shield plug assembly at the ATR I1 position. Neutron monitor materials were placed in the capsules in proximity with the CIT specimens. The neutron monitors sensed the neutrons through reactions that have different neutron energy region responses. By measuring the radioactivity of the neutron monitors it was possible to determine the neutron fluence rates (n/cm 2 /sec) and fluences (n/cm 2 ) at the locations of the monitors. It was also possible to determine the axial and radial gradients of the neutron environments near the specimens. This report presents the results obtained from these measurements for both the CIT number-sign 1 (ORNL 64-2) and CIT number-sign 2 (ORNL 64-1) capsules. In general, ASTM methods and procedures were used in all neutron monitoring associated activities. 7 refs., 9 figs., 10 tabs

  6. ATR-IR spectroscopy for the detection of induced-phase transition in Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widayati, Suci

    1996-01-01

    The rate at which a solid substrate is transferred through the Air/Water interface in the Langmuir-Blodgett process of preparing monomolecular films influences the final structure of the transferred film. This phenomenon has been observed from the attenuated total reflectance infra-red (ATR-IR) spectra of fatty acid monolayer transferred onto germanium substrate. This transfer-induced effect is most evidence when the monolayer is transferred from an expanded region of the surface-pressure-molecular area isotherm, but has limited influence on the hydrocarbon chain conformation of film molecules transferred in the condensed phases at high surface pressure. Such a conformational ordering may due to a kinetically limited phase transition taking place in the meniscus formed between the solid substrate and aqueous sub phase. In addition, these results suggest that the structure of the amphiphilic molecules may modulate the extent and nature of the dipping-speed-induced structural changes taking place in the monomolecular L-B film. In order to use monomolecular L-B films to accurately characterize the structure, orientation and phase properties of monolayers at the Air/Water interface, the L-B transfer must be performed at transfer speeds that minimize this structural phase transition

  7. Influence of Sea Surface Temperature, Tropospheric Humidity and Lapse Rate on the Annual Cycle of the Clear-Sky Greenhouse Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H.; Liu, W.

    2000-01-01

    The implication of this work will provide modeling study a surrogate of annual cycle of the greenhouse effect. For example, the model should be able to simulate the annual cycle before it can be used for global change study.

  8. Quantitative determination of polyphosphate in sediments using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and partial least squares regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshmanesh, Aazam; Cook, Perran L M; Wood, Bayden R

    2012-08-21

    Phosphorus (P) is a major cause of eutrophication and subsequent loss of water quality in freshwater ecosystems. A major part of the flux of P to eutrophic lake sediments is organically bound or of biogenic origin. Despite the broad relevance of polyphosphate (Poly-P) in bioremediation and P release processes in the environment, its quantification is not yet well developed for sediment samples. Current methods possess significant disadvantages because of the difficulties associated with using a single extractant to extract a specific P compound without altering others. A fast and reliable method to estimate the quantitative contribution of microorganisms to sediment P release processes is needed, especially when an excessive P accumulation in the form of polyphosphate (Poly-P) occurs. Development of novel approaches for application of emerging spectroscopic techniques to complex environmental matrices such as sediments significantly contributes to the speciation models of P mobilization, biogeochemical nutrient cycling and development of nutrient models. In this study, for the first time Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy in combination with partial least squares (PLS) was used to quantify Poly-P in sediments. To reduce the high absorption matrix components in sediments such as silica, a physical extraction method was developed to separate sediment biological materials from abiotic particles. The aim was to achieve optimal separation of the biological materials from sediment abiotic particles with minimum chemical change in the sample matrix prior to ATR-FTIR analysis. Using a calibration set of 60 samples for the PLS prediction models in the Poly-P concentration range of 0-1 mg g(-1) d.w. (dry weight of sediment) (R(2) = 0.984 and root mean square error of prediction RMSEP = 0.041 at Factor-1) Poly-P could be detected at less than 50 μg g(-l) d.w. Using this technique, there is no solvent extraction or chemical

  9. Effect of cell cycle stage, dose rate and repair of sublethal damage of radiation-induced apoptosis in F9 teratocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langley, R.E.; Quartuccio, S.G.; Kennealey, P.T.

    1995-01-01

    There are at least two different models of cell death after treatment with ionizing radiation. The first is a failure to undergo sustained cell division despite metabolic survival, and we refer to this end point as open-quotes classical reproductive cell death.close quotes The second is a process that results in loss of cell integrity. This second category includes cellular necrosis as well as apoptosis. Earlier studies in our laboratory showed that the predominant mechanism of cell death for irradiated F9 cell is apoptosis, and there is no indication that these cells die by necrosis. We have therefore used cells of this cell line to reassess basic radiobiological principles with respect to apoptosis. Classical reproductive cell death was determined by staining colonies derived from irradiated cells and scoring colonies of less than 50 cells as reproductively dead and colonies of more than 50 cells as survivors. Cells that failed to produce either type of colony (detached from the plate or disintegrated) were scored as having undergone apoptosis. Using these criteria we found that the fraction of the radiation-killed F9 cells that died by apoptosis did not vary when cells were irradiated at different stages of the cell cycle despite large variations in overall survival. This suggests that the factors that influence radiation sensitivity throughout the cell cycle have an equal impact on apoptosis and classical reproductive cell death. There was no difference in cell survival between split doses and single doses of X rays, suggesting that sublethal damage repair is not a factor in radiation-induced apoptosis of F9 cells. Apoptosis was not affected by changes in dose rate in the range of 0.038-4.96 Gy/min. 48 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  10. Dose rate, mitotic cycle duration, and sensitivity of cell transitions from G1 → S and G2 → M to protracted gamma radiation in root meristems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, L.S.; Hof, J.V.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were designed to determine the relative radiosensitivity of the cell transition points of G1 → S and G2 → M in root meristems of several plant species. Label and mitotic indices and microspectrophotometry were used to measure the proportions of cells in each mitotic cycle stage in root meristems after protracted gamma radiation. The criterion of radiosensitivity was the dose rate needed to produce a tissue with less than 1 percent cells in S and none in M after 3 days of continuous exposure. The results show that DNA is the primary radiation target in proliferative root meristems and that the cycle duration stipulates the time interval of vulnerability. In each species, nonrandom reproducible cell proportions were established with 2C:4C:8C amounts of nuclear DNA after 3 days of exposure. Roots of Helianthus annuus, Crepis capillaris, and Tradescantia clone 02 had 80 percent cells with a 2C amount of DNA and 20 percent had a 4C amount of DNA. In these species the transition point of G1 → S was more radiosensitive than G2 → M. Roots of Pisum sativum and Triticum aestivum had cell proportions at 2C:4C:8C amounts of DNA in frequencies of 0.10 to 0.20:0.40 to 0.60:0.30 to 0.40. In these two species 0.30 to 0.40 cells underwent radiation-induced endoreduplication that resulted from a rapid inhibition of cell transit from G2 → M and a slower impairment of G1 → S. Cells increased from 2C to 4C and from 4C to 8C amounts of DNA during irradiation. The proportions of nuclei with 2C:4C:8C amounts of DNA were dependent in part upon the relative radiosensitivity of the G1 → S and G2 → M control points. The data show the relative radiosensitivity of the transition points from G1 → S and from G2 → M was species specific and unrelated to the cycle duration and mean nuclear DNA content of the plant species

  11. Correlation Study of PVDF Membrane Morphology with Protein Adsorption: Quantitative Analysis by FTIR/ATR Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideris, N.; Ahmad, A. L.; Ooi, B. S.; Low, S. C.

    2018-05-01

    Microporous PVDF membranes were used as protein capture matrices in immunoassays. Because the most common labels in immunoassays were detected based on the colour change, an understanding of how protein concentration varies on different PVDF surfaces was needed. Herein, the correlation between the membrane pore size and protein adsorption was systematically investigated. Five different PVDF membrane morphologies were prepared and FTIR/ATR was employed to accurately quantify the surface protein concentration on membranes with small pore sizes. SigmaPlot® was used to find a suitable curve fit for protein adsorption and membrane pore size, with a high correlation coefficient, R2, of 0.9971.

  12. Radar automatic target recognition (ATR) and non-cooperative target recognition (NCTR)

    CERN Document Server

    Blacknell, David

    2013-01-01

    The ability to detect and locate targets by day or night, over wide areas, regardless of weather conditions has long made radar a key sensor in many military and civil applications. However, the ability to automatically and reliably distinguish different targets represents a difficult challenge. Radar Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) and Non-Cooperative Target Recognition (NCTR) captures material presented in the NATO SET-172 lecture series to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art and continuing challenges of radar target recognition. Topics covered include the problem as applied to th

  13. Identification of herbarium whole-leaf samples of Epilobium species by ATR-IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strgulc Krajsek, Simona; Buh, Primoz; Zega, Anamarija; Kreft, Samo

    2008-02-01

    A simple, high-accuracy FT-IR method based on attenuated total reflection (ATR) was developed for the rapid determination of leaf samples of Epilobium species. The method is superior to other analytical techniques, since there is no need of laborious sample preparation such as grinding or extraction and solvent removal. A total of 70 herbarium specimens, belonging to all 13 Epilobium and to 2 Chamerion species growing in Slovenia, were analyzed. With the 100 most-informative wavenumbers in the range 700-1800 cm(-1), we obtained over 90% accuracy of species identification, with discriminant multivariate statistical analysis on the measurements made on whole dried leaves.

  14. Investigation on the adsorption characteristics of sodium benzoate and taurine on gold nanoparticle film by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naveen; Thomas, S.; Tokas, R. B.; Kshirsagar, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies of sodium benzoate and taurine adsorbed on gold nanoparticle (AuNp) film on silanised glass slides have been studied by attenuated total reflection technique (ATR). The surface morphology of the AuNp films has been measured by Atomic Force Microscopy. The ATR spectra of sodium benzoate and taurine deposited on AuNp film are compared with ATR spectra of their powdered bulk samples. A new red-shifted band appeared along with the symmetric and asymmetric stretches of carboxylate group of sodium benzoate leading to a broadening of the above peaks. Similar behavior is also seen in the case of symmetric and asymmetric stretches of sulphonate group of taurine. The results indicate presence of both chemisorbed and physisorbed layers of both sodium benzoate and taurine on the AuNp film with bottom layer chemically bound to AuNp through carboxylate and sulphonate groups respectively.

  15. Optical fingerprints of solid-liquid interfaces: a joint ATR-IR and first principles investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L.; Niu, F.; Tecklenburg, S.; Pander, M.; Nayak, S.; Erbe, A.; Wippermann, S.; Gygi, F.; Galli, G.

    Despite the importance of understanding the structural and bonding properties of solid-liquid interfaces for a wide range of (photo-)electrochemical applications, there are presently no experimental techniques available to directly probe the microscopic structure of solid-liquid interfaces. To develop robust strategies to interpret experiments and validate theory, we carried out attenuated total internal reflection (ATR-IR) spectroscopy measurements and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations of the vibrational properties of interfaces between liquid water and well-controlled prototypical semiconductor substrates. We show the Ge(100)/H2O interface to feature a reversible potential-dependent surface phase transition between Ge-H and Ge-OH termination. The Si(100)/H2O interface is proposed as a model system for corrosion and oxidation processes. We performed AIMD calculations under finite electric fields, revealing different pathways for initial oxidation. These pathways are predicted to exhibit unique spectral signatures. A significant increase in surface specificity can be achieved utilizing an angle-dependent ATR-IR experiment, which allows to detect such signatures at the interfacial layer and consequently changes in the hydrogen bond network. Funding from DOE-BES Grant No. DE-SS0008939 and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (RESOLV, EXC 1069) are gratefully acknowledged.

  16. New particle formation events measured on board the ATR-42 aircraft during the EUCAARI campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Crumeyrolle

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol properties were studied during an intensive airborne measurement campaign that took place at Rotterdam in Netherlands in May 2008 within the framework of the European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions project (EUCAARI. The objective of this study is to illustrate seven events of new particle formation (NPF observed with two Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs operated on board the ATR-42 research aircraft in airsectors around Rotterdam, and to provide information on the spatial extent of the new particle formation phenomenon based on 1-s resolution measurements of ultra-fine particle (in the size range 3–10 nm diameter, denoted N3-10 hereafter concentrations. The results show that particle production occurred under the influence of different air mass origins, at different day times and over the North Sea as well as over the continent. The number concentration of freshly nucleated particles (N3-10 varied between 5000 and 100 000 cm−3 within the boundary layer (BL. Furthermore the vertical extension for all nucleation events observed on the ATR-42 never exceeded the upper limit of the BL. The horizontal extent of N3-10 could not be delimited due to inflexible flight plans which could not be modified to accommodate real-time results. However, the NPF events were observed over geographically large areas; typically the horizontal extension was about 100 km and larger.

  17. Characterization of Printing Inks Using DART-Q-TOF-MS and Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) FTIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Rhett; Raeva, Anna; Almirall, Jose R

    2016-05-01

    The rise in improved and widely accessible printing technology has resulted in an interest to develop rapid and minimally destructive chemical analytical techniques that can characterize printing inks for forensic document analysis. Chemical characterization of printing inks allows for both discrimination of inks originating from different sources and the association of inks originating from the same source. Direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) were used in tandem to analyze four different classes of printing inks: inkjets, toners, offset, and intaglio. A total of 319 samples or ~ 80 samples from each class were analyzed directly on a paper substrate using the two methods. DART-MS was found to characterize the semi-volatile polymeric vehicle components, while ATR-FTIR provided chemical information associated with the bulk components of these inks. Complimentary data results in improved discrimination when both techniques are used in succession resulting in >96% discrimination for all toners, 95% for all inkjets, >92% for all offset, and >54% for all intaglio inks. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Centromeric DNA replication reconstitution reveals DNA loops and ATR checkpoint suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aze, Antoine; Sannino, Vincenzo; Soffientini, Paolo; Bachi, Angela; Costanzo, Vincenzo

    2016-06-01

    Half of the human genome is made up of repetitive DNA. However, mechanisms underlying replication of chromosome regions containing repetitive DNA are poorly understood. We reconstituted replication of defined human chromosome segments using bacterial artificial chromosomes in Xenopus laevis egg extract. Using this approach we characterized the chromatin assembly and replication dynamics of centromeric alpha-satellite DNA. Proteomic analysis of centromeric chromatin revealed replication-dependent enrichment of a network of DNA repair factors including the MSH2-6 complex, which was required for efficient centromeric DNA replication. However, contrary to expectations, the ATR-dependent checkpoint monitoring DNA replication fork arrest could not be activated on highly repetitive DNA due to the inability of the single-stranded DNA binding protein RPA to accumulate on chromatin. Electron microscopy of centromeric DNA and supercoil mapping revealed the presence of topoisomerase I-dependent DNA loops embedded in a protein matrix enriched for SMC2-4 proteins. This arrangement suppressed ATR signalling by preventing RPA hyper-loading, facilitating replication of centromeric DNA. These findings have important implications for our understanding of repetitive DNA metabolism and centromere organization under normal and stressful conditions.

  19. Analytical characterization of polymers used in conservation and restoration by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chércoles Asensio, Ruth; San Andrés Moya, Margarita; de la Roja, José Manuel; Gómez, Marisa

    2009-12-01

    In the last few decades many new polymers have been synthesized that are now being used in cultural heritage conservation. The physical and chemical properties and the long-term behaviors of these new polymers are determined by the chemical composition of the starting materials used in their synthesis along with the nature of the substances added to facilitate their production. The practical applications of these polymers depend on their composition and form (foam, film, sheets, pressure-sensitive adhesives, heat-seal adhesives, etc.). Some materials are used in restoration works and others for the exhibition, storage and transport of works of art. In all cases, it is absolutely necessary to know their compositions. Furthermore, many different materials that are manufactured for other objectives are also used for conservation and restoration. The technical information about the materials provided by the manufacturer is usually incomplete, so it is necessary to analytically characterize such materials. FTIR spectrometry is widely used for polymer identification, and, more recently, ATR-FTIR has been shown to give excellent results. This paper reports the ATR-FTIR analysis of samples of polymeric materials used in the conservation of artworks. These samples were examined directly in the solid material without sample preparation.

  20. ATR-IR study of skin components: Lipids, proteins and water. Part I: Temperature effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsztyńska-Janus, S.; Pietruszka, A.; Kiełbowicz, Z.; Czarnecki, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    In this work we report the studies of the effect of temperature on skin components, such as lipids, proteins and water. Modifications of lipids structure induced by increasing temperature (from 20 to 90 °C) have been studied using ATR-IR (Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared) spectroscopy, which is a powerful tool for characterization of the molecular structure and properties of tissues, such as skin. Due to the small depth of penetration (0.6-5.6 μm), ATR-IR spectroscopy probes only the outermost layer of the skin, i.e. the stratum corneum (SC). The assignment of main spectral features of skin components allows for the determination of phase transitions from the temperature dependencies of band intensities [e.g. νas(CH2) and νs(CH2)]. The phase transitions were determined by using two methods: the first one was based on the first derivative of the Boltzmann function and the second one employed tangent lines of sigmoidal, aforementioned dependencies. The phase transitions in lipids were correlated with modifications of the structure of water and proteins.

  1. Prediction of the oversulphated chondroitin sulphate contamination of unfractionated heparin by ATR-IR spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwig, J; Beyer, T; Brinz, D; Holzgrabe, U; Diller, M; Manns, D

    2009-03-01

    The detection of a contamination of heparin with oversulphated chondroitin sulphate (OSCS) was first analysed in an unfractionated heparin batch supplied to the US API-market in April 2006. OSCS is a semi-synthetic derivative of the natural occuring glycosaminoglycan chondroitin sulphate. Moreover some spectroscopic characteristics of the substance overlap with those of heparin, so that the infrared (IR) spectra are visually difficult to distinguish whereas (1)H-NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) spectroscopy or capillary electrophoresis (CE) provides identification by a simple visual inspection of either the spectrum or the electropherogram respectively. However, applying special tools of Multivariate Data Analysis (MVA) to the IR spectra an identification of the contaminated samples is possible. In detail a rapid Attenuation Total Reflectance-Infrared (ATR-IR) measurement was selected, which does not require any sample preparation. The result (contaminated or not contaminated) is predicted within a few minutes. A method transfer to mobile ATR-IR spectrometers seems to be possible. The analysis is based on the fact that the fingerprint of the OSCS IR spectrum (1st derivative) complies with a theoretically calculated principal component in the MVA.

  2. Study of Barley Grain Molecular Structure for Ruminants Using DRIFT, FTIR-ATR and Synchrotron Radiation Infrared Microspectroscopy (SR-IMS): A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Peiqiang

    2012-01-01

    Barley inherent structures are highly associated with nutrient utilization and availability in both humans and animals. Barley has different degradation kinetics compared with other cereal grains. It has a relatively higher degradation rate and extent, which often cause digestive disorder in the rumen. Therefore understanding barley inherent structure at cellular and molecular levels and processing-induced structure changes is important, because we can manipulate barley inherent structures and digestive behaviors. Several molecular spectroscopy techniques can be used to detect barley inherent structures at cellular and molecular levels. This article reviews several applications of the IR molecular spectral bioanalytical techniques - DRIFT, FT/IR-ATR and SR-IMS for barley chemistry, molecular structure and molecular nutrition research

  3. In situ observation on the dynamic process of evaporation and crystallization of sodium nitrate droplets on a ZnSe substrate by FTIR-ATR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Nuan; Zhang, Yun; Cai, Chen; Guo, Yu-Cong; Reid, Jonathan P; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2014-04-17

    Sodium nitrate is a main component of aging sea salt aerosol, and its phase behavior has been studied repeatedly with wide ranges observed in the efflorescence relative humidity (RH) in particular. Studies of the efflorescence dynamics of NaNO3 droplets deposited on a ZnSe substrate are reported, using an in situ Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) technique. The time-dependence of the infrared spectra of NaNO3 aerosols accompanying step changes in RH have been measured with high signal-to-noise ratio. From the IR difference spectra recorded, changes of the time-dependent absorption peak area of the O-H stretching band (ν-OH, ∼3400 cm(-1)) and the nitrate out-of-plane bending band (ν2-NO3(-), ∼836 cm(-1)) are obtained. From these measurements, changes in the IR signatures can be attributed to crystalline and solution phase nitrate ions, allowing the volume fraction of the solution droplets that have crystallized to be determined. Then, using these clear signatures of the volume fraction of droplets that have yet to crystallize, the homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation kinetics can be studied from conventional measurements using a steady decline in RH. The nucleation rate measurements confirm that the rate of crystallization in sodium nitrate droplets is considerably less than in ammonium sulfate droplets at any particular degree of solute supersaturation, explaining the wide range of efflorescence RHs observed for sodium nitrate in previous studies. We demonstrate that studying nucleation kinetics using the FTIR-ATR approach has many advantages over brightfield imaging studies on smaller numbers of larger droplets or measurements made on single levitated particles.

  4. Hybrid lithium-ion capacitor with LiFePO4/AC composite cathode - Long term cycle life study, rate effect and charge sharing analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellikeri, A.; Yturriaga, S.; Zheng, J. S.; Cao, W.; Hagen, M.; Read, J. A.; Jow, T. R.; Zheng, J. P.

    2018-07-01

    Energy storage devices, which can combine the advantages of lithium-ion battery with that of electric double layer capacitor, are of prime interest. Recently, composite cathodes, which combine a battery material with capacitor material, have shown promise in enhancing life cycle and energy/power performances. Lithium-ion capacitor (LIC), with unique charge storage mechanism of combining a pre-lithiated battery anode with a capacitor cathode, is one such device which has the potential to synergistically incorporate the composite cathode to enhance capacity and cycle life. We report here a hybrid LIC consisting of a lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4-LFP)/Activated Carbon composite cathode in combination with a hard carbon anode, by integrating the cycle life and capacity enhancing strategies of a dry method of electrode fabrication, anode pre-lithiation and a 3:1 anode to cathode capacity ratio, demonstrating a long cycle life, while elaborating on the charge sharing between the faradaic and non-faradaic mechanism in the battery and capacitor materials, respectively in the composite cathode. An excellent cell capacity retention of 94% (1000 cycles at 1C) and 92% (100,000 cycles at 60C) were demonstrated, while retaining 78% (over 6000 cycles at 2.7C) and 67% (over 70,000 cycles at 43C) of the LFP capacity in the composite cathode.

  5. An artificially induced follicle stimulating hormone surge at the time of human chorionic gonadotrophin administration in controlled ovarian stimulation cycles has no effect on cumulus expansion, fertilization rate, embryo quality and implantation rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeiden, J. P.; Roseboom, T. J.; Goverde, A. J.; Suchartwatnachai, C.; Schoute, E.; Braat, D. D.; Schats, R.

    1997-01-01

    In the spontaneous menstrual cycle, the mid-cycle gonadotrophin surge causes maturation of the cumulus-oocyte complex, mucification of cumulus cells and expansion of the cumulus oophorus, resumption of meiosis and maturation of the cytoplasm of the oocyte. Whether this is an effect purely of

  6. Kinetics study of heterogeneous reactions of ozone with erucic acid using an ATR-IR flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Chunbo; Hiltner, Joseph; Pham, Hai; Kelley, Judas; Mach, Mindy; Zhang, Yunhong; Liu, Yong

    2014-03-07

    The ozone initiated heterogeneous oxidation of erucic acid (EA) thin film was investigated using a flow system combined with attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) over wide ranges of ozone concentrations (0.25-60 ppm), thin film thickness (0.1-1.0 μm), temperatures (263-298 K), and relative humidities (0-80% RH) for the first time. Pseudo-first-order rate constants, kapp, and overall reactive uptake coefficients, γ, were obtained through changes in the absorbance of C[double bond, length as m-dash]O stretching bands at 1695 cm(-1), which is assigned to the carbonyl group in carboxylic acid. Results showed that the reaction followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism and kapp was largely dominated by surface reaction over bulk phase reaction. In addition, both the kapp and the γ values showed very strong temperature dependences (∼two orders of magnitude) over the temperature range; in contrast, they only slightly increased with increasing RH values from 0-80%. According to the kapp values as a function of temperature, the activation energy for the heterogeneous reaction was estimated to be 80.6 kJ mol(-1). Our results have suggested that heterogeneous reactions between ozone and unsaturated solid surfaces likely have a substantially greater temperature dependence than liquid ones. Moreover, the hygroscopic properties of EA thin films before and after exposure to ozone were also studied by measurement of water uptake. Based on the hygroscopicity data, the insignificant RH effect on reaction kinetics was probably due to the relatively weak water uptake by the unreacted and reacted EA thin films.

  7. Do Individuals Perceive Income Tax Rates Correctly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gideon, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This article uses data from survey questions fielded on the 2011 wave of the Cognitive Economics Study to uncover systematic errors in perceptions of income tax rates. First, when asked about the marginal tax rates (MTRs) for households in the top tax bracket, respondents underestimate the top MTR on wages and salary income, overestimate the MTR on dividend income, and therefore significantly underestimate the currently tax-advantaged status of dividend income. Second, when analyzing the relationship between respondents' self-reported average tax rates (ATRs) and MTRs, many people do not understand the progressive nature of the federal income tax system. Third, when comparing self-reported tax rates with those computed from self-reported income, respondents systematically overestimate their ATR while reported MTR are accurate at the mean, the responses are consistent with underestimation of tax schedule progressivity.

  8. ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy Highlights the Problem of Distinguishing Between Exophiala dermatitidis and E. phaeomuriformis Using MALDI-TOF MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ergin, C.; Gok, Y.; Baygu, Y.; Gumral, R.; Ozhak-Baysan, B.; Dogen, A.; Ogunc, D.; Ilkit, M.; Seyedmousavi, S.

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared two chemical-based methods, namely, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, to understand the misidentification of Exophiala

  9. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) in the discrimination of normal and oral cancer blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachaiappan, Rekha; Prakasarao, Aruna; Singaravelu, Ganesan

    2017-02-01

    Oral cancer is the most frequent type of cancer that occurs with 75000 to 80000 new cases reported every year in India. The carcinogens from tobacco and related products are the main cause for the oral cancer. ATR-FTIR method is label free, fast and cost-effective diagnostic method would allow for rapid diagnostic results in earlier stages by the minimal chemical changes occur in the biological metabolites available in the blood plasma. The present study reports the use of ATR-FTIR data with advanced statistical model (LDA-ANN) in the diagnosis of oral cancer from normal with better accuracy. The infrared spectra were acquired on ATR-FTIR Jasco spectrophotometer at 4 cm-1 resolution, 30 scans, in the 1800-900 cm-1 spectral range. Each sample had 5 spectra recorded from each blood plasma sample. The spectral data were routed through the multilayer perception of artificial neural network to evaluate for the statistical efficacy. Among the spectral data it was found that amide II (1486 cm-1) and lipid (1526 cm-1) affords about 90 % in the discrimination between groups using LDA. These preliminary results indicate that ATR-FTIR is useful to differentiate normal subject from oral cancer patients using blood plasma.

  10. ATR-IR spectroscopic cell for in situ studies at solid-liquid interface at elevated temperatures and pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koichumanova, Kamila; Visan, Aura; Geerdink, Bert; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Mojet, Barbara; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2017-01-01

    An in situ ATR-IR spectroscopic cell suitable for studies at solid-liquid interface is described including the design and experimental details in continuous flow mode at elevated temperatures (230 °C) and pressures (30 bar). The design parameters considered include the cell geometry, the procedure

  11. Small Molecules Targeting Ataxia Telangiectasia and Rad3-Related (ATR) Kinase: An Emerging way to Enhance Existing Cancer Therapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Andrs, M.; Korábečný, J.; Nepovimova, E.; Jun, D.; Hodný, Zdeněk; Kuca, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2016), s. 200-208 ISSN 1568-0096 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related kinase (ATR) * cancer * chemosensitization * DNA damage response * phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinases (PIKK) * radiosensitization * synthetic lethality Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.992, year: 2016

  12. Characterization of southern yellow pine bark layers by Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2009-01-01

    The outer bark (rhytidome) of the southern yellow pines is a complex structure comprised of alternating layers of obliterated phloem and periderm tissues, with the latter comprised of three layers, those being phellem, phellogen, and phelloderm. An attenuated total reflectance (ATR) sampling accessory, coupled with a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer,...

  13. Status Summary of FY16 Atom Probe Tomography Studies on UCSB ATR-2 Irradiated RPV Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Peter [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Odette, G. Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The University of California Santa Barbara-2 RPV Steel Irradiation experiment was awarded in 2010 by the Nuclear Science User Facility (formerly ATR NSUF) through a competitive peer review proposal process. The experiment involved irradiation of nearly 1300 samples distributed over 13 capsules. The major objective of this experiment was to better understand embrittlement behavior of reactor pressure steels at doses beyond which available data exists yet may be achieved if reactor operating licenses are extended beyond 60 years. The experiment was instrumented during irradiation and active temperature control was used to maintain the temperature at the design temperature. Six samples were selected from a large matrix of materials to perform atom probe tomography (APT) to look at formation of high dose phases. The nature and formation behavior of these phases is discussed.

  14. Sensing molecular properties by ATR-SPP Raman spectroscopy on electrochemically structured sensor chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerulla, D.; Isfort, G.; Koelbach, M.; Otto, A.; Schierbaum, K.

    2003-01-01

    The use of electrochemically structured Al surfaces as sensor arrays for combinatorial chemistry and its detection via microscopic laser techniques from very small volumes has been explored. The methodology is based on three different techniques which will be discussed separately: firstly, attenuated total reflection (ATR) is used in connection with surface-plasmon-polariton (SPP) excitation. A thin Al layer, evaporated on sapphire or quartz and covered with a naturally grown oxide layer, provides an optimum enhancement and confinement of the electrical field close to the surface. This is revealed by calculations and experimental data. Secondly, a Raman microscope is applied, enabling chemical spot analysis in the visible and UV range with a lateral resolution close to the diffraction limit. Finally, its application to investigate electrochemically structured Al films is discussed

  15. Usage of FTIR-ATR as Non-Destructive Analysis of Selected Toxic Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartošová Alica

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The degradation of the environment which is due to the discharge of polluting wastewater from industrial sources poses a real problem in several countries. Textile industries use large volumes of water in their operations, discharging thus large volume of wastewater into the environment, most of which is untreated. The wastewater contains a variety of chemicals from various stages of process operations, including desizing, scouring, bleaching and dyeing. The main purpose of this paper is to introduce Infrared Spectrometry with Fourier transformation as a non-destructive method for study, identifation and rapid determination of selected representatives of cationic (Methylene Blue, azo (Congo Red, Eriochrome Black T and nitroso (Naphthol Green B dyes. In conjunction with the ATR technique, FTIR offers a reliable detection method of dyes without extraction by other dangerous substances.

  16. Detection of creatinine enriched on a surface imprinted polystyrene film using FT-ATR-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, K

    2006-01-01

    The surface of polystyrene (PS) was chemically modified by coating a thin layer of polyaniline (PANI) by oxidizing aniline using ammonium persulfate. Affinity sites for creatinine, a clinically relevant molecule, were created in the coated layer by adding creatinine as print molecules during the oxidation. The imprinted layer adsorbed creatinine was compared to non-imprinted surface reflecting the creation of creatinine-specific sites on the surface. The equilibrium was attained rapidly, indicating that a material of this kind is suitable for sensing applications. The adsorbed creatinine on the surface was detected using the technique of Fourier transform attenuated total internal reflection infra red spectroscopy (FT-ATR-IR). The results show that molecularly imprinted surface can enrich molecules of interest and the enriched molecules can be detected using FT-IR.

  17. Characterisation of 17th-18th centuries damask and gilt leathers by ATR-FTIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Falcão

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is presented the characterisation of tannins used in the vegetable tanning of two types of European historic and decorative leathers from Portuguese collections, damask leathers and gilt leathers, dated from the 17th and 18th centuries. Extracts prepared from collected leather fibres were analysed by attenuated total reflectance – Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Results were compared with data collected from different reference vegetable tanning materials which, according to historic and technical literature, were used in Europe during the Modern Age. This study allowed, in most cases, the characterisation of the tannins used to produce the studied decorative vegetable tanned leathers and, at the same time, the detection of chemical deterioration of leathers, particularly collagen hydrolysis, which was not visually perceived.

  18. Usage of FTIR-ATR as Non-Destructive Analysis of Selected Toxic Dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartošová, Alica; Blinová, Lenka; Sirotiak, Maroš; Michalíková, Anna

    2017-06-01

    The degradation of the environment which is due to the discharge of polluting wastewater from industrial sources poses a real problem in several countries. Textile industries use large volumes of water in their operations, discharging thus large volume of wastewater into the environment, most of which is untreated. The wastewater contains a variety of chemicals from various stages of process operations, including desizing, scouring, bleaching and dyeing. The main purpose of this paper is to introduce Infrared Spectrometry with Fourier transformation as a non-destructive method for study, identifation and rapid determination of selected representatives of cationic (Methylene Blue), azo (Congo Red, Eriochrome Black T) and nitroso (Naphthol Green B) dyes. In conjunction with the ATR technique, FTIR offers a reliable detection method of dyes without extraction by other dangerous substances. Spectral interpretation of dye spectra revealed valuable information about the identification and characterization of each group of dyes.

  19. Convolutional neural network using generated data for SAR ATR with limited samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Longjian; Gao, Lei; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Peng

    2018-03-01

    Being able to adapt all weather at all times, it has been a hot research topic that using Synthetic Aperture Radar(SAR) for remote sensing. Despite all the well-known advantages of SAR, it is hard to extract features because of its unique imaging methodology, and this challenge attracts the research interest of traditional Automatic Target Recognition(ATR) methods. With the development of deep learning technologies, convolutional neural networks(CNNs) give us another way out to detect and recognize targets, when a huge number of samples are available, but this premise is often not hold, when it comes to monitoring a specific type of ships. In this paper, we propose a method to enhance the performance of Faster R-CNN with limited samples to detect and recognize ships in SAR images.

  20. Dose-rate effects in synchronous mammalian cells in culture. II. A comparison of the life cycle of HeLa cells during continuous irradiation or multiple-dose fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.B.; Bedford, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    The life cycle of synchronized S3 HeLa cells was examined during continuous irradiation at a dose rate of approximately 37 rad/hr and during multiple dose fractionation schedules of the same average dose rate (total dose / overall time = average dose rate). For all regimes given at this dose rate the effects on the life cyclee were similar. Cells progressed through G1 and S without appreciable delay and experienced a minimum G2 delay of about 10 hr. Cells eventually entered mitosis but virtually none were able to complete a successful division

  1. ATR-101, a selective ACAT1 inhibitor, decreases ACTH-stimulated cortisol concentrations in dogs with naturally occurring Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Daniel K; Fritz, Michele C; Schall, William D; Bari Olivier, N; Smedley, Rebecca C; Pearson, Paul G; Bailie, Marc B; Hunt, Stephen W

    2018-05-02

    Cushing's syndrome in humans shares many similarities with its counterpart in dogs in terms of etiology (pituitary versus adrenal causes), clinical signs, and pathophysiologic sequelae. In both species, treatment of pituitary- and adrenal-dependent disease is met with limitations. ATR-101, a selective inhibitor of ACAT1 (acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase 1), is a novel small molecule therapeutic currently in clinical development for the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and Cushing's syndrome in humans. Previous studies in healthy dogs have shown that ATR-101 treatment led to rapid, dose-dependent decreases in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulated cortisol levels. The purpose of this clinical study was to investigate the effects of ATR-101 in dogs with Cushing's syndrome. ATR-101 pharmacokinetics and activity were assessed in 10 dogs with naturally-occurring Cushing's syndrome, including 7 dogs with pituitary-dependent disease and 3 dogs with adrenal-dependent disease. ATR-101 was administered at 3 mg/kg PO once daily for one week, followed by 30 mg/kg PO once daily for one (n = 4) or three (n = 6) weeks. Clinical, biochemical, adrenal hormonal, and pharmacokinetic data were obtained weekly for study duration. ATR-101 exposure increased with increasing dose. ACTH-stimulated cortisol concentrations, the primary endpoint for the study, were significantly decreased with responders (9 of 10 dogs) experiencing a mean ± standard deviation reduction in cortisol levels of 50 ± 17% at study completion. Decreases in pre-ACTH-stimulated cortisol concentrations were observed in some dogs although overall changes in pre-ACTH cortisol concentrations were not significant. The compound was well-tolerated and no serious drug-related adverse effects were reported. This study highlights the potential utility of naturally occurring canine Cushing's syndrome as a model for human disease and provides proof of

  2. Analysis of H2O in silicate glass using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) micro-FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Pitcher, Bradley W.

    2013-01-01

    We present a calibration for attenuated total reflectance (ATR) micro-FTIR for analysis of H2O in hydrous glass. A Ge ATR accessory was used to measure evanescent wave absorption by H2O within hydrous rhyolite and other standards. Absorbance at 3450 cm−1 (representing total H2O or H2Ot) and 1630 cm−1 (molecular H2O or H2Om) showed high correlation with measured H2O in the glasses as determined by transmission FTIR spectroscopy and manometry. For rhyolite, wt%H2O=245(±9)×A3450-0.22(±0.03) and wt%H2Om=235(±11)×A1630-0.20(±0.03) where A3450 and A1630 represent the ATR absorption at the relevant infrared wavelengths. The calibration permits determination of volatiles in singly polished glass samples with spot size down to ~5 μm (for H2O-rich samples) and detection limits of ~0.1 wt% H2O. Basaltic, basaltic andesite and dacitic glasses of known H2O concentrations fall along a density-adjusted calibration, indicating that ATR is relatively insensitive to glass composition, at least for calc-alkaline glasses. The following equation allows quantification of H2O in silicate glasses that range in composition from basalt to rhyolite: wt%H2O=(ω×A3450/ρ)+b where ω = 550 ± 21, b = −0.19 ± 0.03, ρ = density, in g/cm3, and A3450 is the ATR absorbance at 3450 cm−1. The ATR micro-FTIR technique is less sensitive than transmission FTIR, but requires only a singly polished sample for quantitative results, thus minimizing time for sample preparation. Compared with specular reflectance, it is more sensitive and better suited for imaging of H2O variations in heterogeneous samples such as melt inclusions. One drawback is that the technique can damage fragile samples and we therefore recommend mounting of unknowns in epoxy prior to polishing. Our calibration should hold for any Ge ATR crystals with the same incident angle (31°). Use of a different crystal type or geometry would require measurement of several H2O-bearing standards to provide a crystal

  3. Study of consumer fireworks post-blast residues by ATR-FTIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Alberca, Carlos; Zapata, Félix; Carrascosa, Héctor; Ortega-Ojeda, Fernando E; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    Specific analytical procedures are requested for the forensic analysis of pre- and post-blast consumer firework samples, which present significant challenges. Up to date, vibrational spectroscopic techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have not been tested for the analysis of post-blast residues in spite of their interesting strengths for the forensic field. Therefore, this work proposes a simple and fast procedure for the sampling and analysis of consumer firework post-blast residues by a portable FTIR instrument with an Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) accessory. In addition, the post-blast residues spectra of several consumer fireworks were studied in order to achieve the identification of their original chemical compositions. Hence, this work analysed 22 standard reagents usually employed to make consumer fireworks, or because they are related to their combustion products. Then, 5 different consumer fireworks were exploded, and their residues were sampled with dry cotton swabs and directly analysed by ATR-FTIR. In addition, their pre-blast fuses and charges were also analysed in order to stablish a proper comparison. As a result, the identification of the original chemical compositions of the post-blast samples was obtained. Some of the compounds found were potassium chlorate, barium nitrate, potassium nitrate, potassium perchlorate or charcoal. An additional study involving chemometric tools found that the results might greatly depend on the swab head type used for the sampling, and its sampling efficiency. The proposed procedure could be used as a complementary technique for the analysis of consumer fireworks post-blast residues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cutaneous approach towards clinical and pathophysiological aspects of hyperglycemia by ATR FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikje, Natalja Skrebova; Sota, Takayuki; Aizawa, Katsuo

    2007-07-01

    Attempts were made to non-invasively detect glucose-specific spectral signals in the skin by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. In vivo spectra were collected from the inner wrists of healthy, prediabetes and diabetes subjects in the 750-4000 cm -1 region, with a closer assessment of the glucose-related region between 1000 and 1180 cm -1. Spectra in vivo showed glucose-specific peaks at 1030, 1080, 1118 and 1151 cm -1, as a variety of glucose solutions are found in vitro. Based on the differences of intensities at 1030 and 1118 cm -1 two spectral patterns were seen: I 1118 > I 1030 for a diabetes and I 1030> I 1118 for non-diabetes subjects. The peak at 1030 cm -1 was used to assess glucose concentrations in the skin due to its good correlation with glucose concentrations in vitro. Calculated mean values of the peak at 1030 cm -1 showed evidence of correlation with blood glucose levels when grouped as = 200 mg/dL, though there was no constant correlation between them when compared before/after OGTT or at the fasting/postprandial states. Absorbances at 1030 cm -1 were not only increased in a dose-dependent manner in a diabetes patient, but were also generally higher than in non-diabetes subjects at 30 min OGTT assessment. Also we could monitor absorbances at 1030 cm -1 and determine their changes in the skin tissue at different times of OGTT. We assume that our approach to in vivo measurement and monitoring of glucose concentrations at 1030 cm -1 may be one of the indicators to assess glucose activity level and its changes in the skin tissue, and has further implications in the study of clinical and pathophysiological aspects of hyperglycemia in diabetes and non-diabetes subjects by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

  5. Rapid detection of NBOME's and other NPS on blotter papers by direct ATR-FTIR spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho Neto, José

    2015-07-01

    Blotter paper is among the most common forms of consumption of new psychotropic substances (NPS), formerly referred as designer drugs. In many cases, users are misled to believe they are taking LSD when, in fact, they are taking newer and less known drugs like the NBOMEs or other substituted phenethylamines. We report our findings in quick testing of blotter papers for illicit substances like NBOMEs and other NPS by taking ATR-FTIR spectra directly from blotters seized on the streets, without any sample preparation. Both sides (front and back) of each blotter were tested. Collected data were analyzed by single- and multi-component spectral matching and submitted to chemometric discriminant analysis. Our results showed that, on 66.7% of the cases analyzed, seized blotters contained one or more types of NBOMEs, confirming the growing presence of this novel substances on the market. Matching IR signals were detected on both or just one side of the blotters and showed variable strength. Although no quantitative analysis was made, detection of these substances by the proposed approach serves as indication of variable and possibly higher dosages per blotter when compared to LSD, which showed to be below the detection limit of the applied method. Blotters containing a mescaline-like compound, later confirmed by GC-MS and LC-MS to be MAL (methallylescaline), a substance very similar to mescaline, were detected among the samples tested. Validity of direct ATR-FTIR testing was confirmed by checking the obtained results against independent GC-MS or LC-MS results for the same cases/samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid quantification of TBP and TBP degradation product ratios by FTIR-ATR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillens, A.R.; Powell, B.A.; Clemson University, Clemson, SC

    2013-01-01

    Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) is the key complexant within the plutonium and uranium reduction extraction process used to extract uranium and plutonium from used nuclear fuel. During reprocessing TBP degrades to dibutyl phosphate (DBP), butyl acid phosphate (MBP), butanol, and phosphoric acid over time. A method for rapidly monitoring TBP degradation is needed for the support of nuclear forensics. Therefore, a Fourier transform infrared spectrometry-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) technique was developed to determine approximate peak intensity ratios of TBP and its degradation products. The technique was developed by combining variable concentrations of TBP, DBP, and MBP to simulate TBP degradation. This method is achieved by analyzing selected peak positions and peak intensity ratios of TBP and DBP at different stages of degradation. The developed technique was tested on TBP samples degraded with nitric acid. In mock degradation samples, the 1,235 cm -1 peak position shifts to 1,220 cm -1 as the concentration of TBP decreases and DBP increases. Peak intensity ratios of TBP positions at 1,279 and 1,020 cm -1 relative to DBP positions at 909 and 1,003 cm -1 demonstrate an increasing trend as the concentration of DBP increases. The same peak intensity ratios were used to analyze DBP relative to MBP whereas a decreasing trend is seen with increasing DBP concentrations. The technique developed from this study may be used as a tool to determine TBP degradation in nuclear reprocessing via a rapid FTIR-ATR measurement without gas chromatography analysis. (author)

  7. ATR technique, an appropriate method for determining the degree of conversion in dental giomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prejmerean, Cristina; Prodan, Doina; Vlassa, Mihaela; Prejmerean, Vasile; Cuc, Stanca; Moldovan, Marioara; Streza, Mihaela; Buruiana, Tinca; Colceriu, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    Dental light-curing giomers were developed to combine the favourable properties of diacrylic resin composites (DRCs) and glass-ionomer cements (GICs) in a single material and to eliminate their inherent drawbacks. Giomers are characterized by their aesthetic appearance, high mechanical properties, adhesion to dental tissues as well as fluoride release and recharge abilities. The qualities of the giomers are greatly influenced by the level of conversion of the component resins. Infrared spectroscopy is one of the most largely used techniques for the determination of the degree of conversion in resin-based dental materials. However different results were obtained due to the performances of the used methods. The present work presents the determination of conversion degree in a series of dental copolymers and their corresponding giomers using transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and an attenuated total reflection technique (ATR) technique, respectively, the main aim being the study of the influence of the materials composition and of the light curing modes upon the achieved conversion in the cured giomers. Beautifil II commercial giomer was used as a control. A halogen lamp and a diode-blue LED lamp were used for the curing of the materials. The results showed that the composition of the resins greatly influenced the conversion. The highest conversions (up to 79%) were obtained in the case of the experimental giomers which contained the experimental Bis-GMA urethane analogue, followed by the Beautifil II giomer (61%) and experimental giomers based on commercial Bis-GMA (up to 50%), respectively. The resins light-cured by using the diode-blue LED lamp presented slightly higher conversions than the resins cured by halogen lamp. The study demonstrates the possibility to evaluate easily and reproducibly the conversion in light-curing composite materials with complex chemical composition and structure, particularly in the case of giomers by using the

  8. Effect of Tidal Cycling Rate on the Distribution and Abundance of Nitrogen-Oxidizing Bacteria in a Bench-Scale Fill-and-Drain Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Battistelli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Most domestic wastewater can be effectively treated for secondary uses by engineered biological systems. These systems rely on microbial activity to reduce nitrogen (N content of the reclaimed water. Such systems often employ a tidal-flow process to minimize space requirements for the coupling of aerobic and anaerobic metabolic processes. In this study, laboratory-scale tidal-flow treatment systems were studied to determine how the frequency and duration of tidal cycling may impact reactor performance. Fluorescent in situ hybridization and epifluorescence microscopy were used to enumerate the key functional groups of bacteria responsible for nitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox, and N-removal efficiency was calculated via a mass-balance approach. When water was cycled (i.e., reactors were filled and drained at high frequencies (16–24 cycles day−1, nitrate accumulated in the columns—presumably due to inadequate periods of anoxia that limited denitrification. At lower frequencies, such as 4 cycles day−1, nearly complete N removal was achieved (80–90%. These fill-and-drain systems enriched heavily for nitrifiers, with relatively few anammox-capable organisms. The microbial community produced was robust, surviving well through short (up to 3 h anaerobic periods and frequent system-wide perturbation.

  9. Universal cycle periods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert); Franses, P.H.P.H.

    2009-01-01

    We present a meta-analysis of cycles in historical economic data. The literature on stochastic and deterministic cycles in variables such as the consumer price index, employment, interest rates, commodity prices, and GDP is huge and scattered, but our meta-analysis reveals various communalities. Our

  10. Stability through cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. de Groot (Bert); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractEconomic variables like GDP growth, employment, interest rates and consumption show signs of cyclical behavior. Many variables display multiple cycles, with lengths ranging in between 5 to even up to 100 years. We argue that multiple cycles can be associated with long-run stability of

  11. Status Report on the Fabrication of Fuel Cladding Chemical Interaction Test Articles for ATR Irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howard, Richard H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-28

    FeCrAl alloys are a promising new class of alloys for light water reactor (LWR) applications due to their superior oxidation and corrosion resistance in high temperature environments. The current R&D efforts have focused on the alloy composition and processing routes to generate nuclear grade FeCrAl alloys with optimized properties for enhanced accident tolerance while maintaining properties needed for normal operation conditions. Therefore, the composition and processing routes must be optimized to maintain the high temperature steam oxidation (typically achieved by increasing the Cr and Al content) while still exhibiting properties conducive to normal operation in a LWR (such as radiation tolerance where reducing Cr content is favorable). Within this balancing act is the addition of understanding the influence on composition and processing routes on the FeCrAl alloys for fuel-cladding chemical interactions (FCCI). Currently, limited knowledge exists on FCCI for the FeCrAl-UO2 clad-fuel system. To overcome the knowledge gaps on the FCCI for the FeCrAl-UO2 clad-fuel system a series of fueled irradiation tests have been developed for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) housed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The first series of tests has already been reported. These tests used miniaturized 17x17 PWR fuel geometry rodlets of second-generation FeCrAl alloys fueled with industrial Westinghouse UO2 fuel. These rodlets were encapsulated within a stainless steel housing.To provide high fidelity experiments and more robust testing, a new series of rodlets have been developed deemed the Accident Tolerant Fuel Experiment #1 Oak Ridge National Laboratory FCCI test (ATF-1 ORNL FCCI). The main driving factor, which is discussed in detail, was to provide a radiation environment where prototypical fuel-clad interface temperatures are met while still maintaining constant contact between industrial fuel and the candidate cladding alloys

  12. Evaluation of color and radon exhalation rate in granite rocks between accelerated aging cycles; Avaliacao da cor e taxa de exalacao de radonio em rochas graniticas entre ciclos de envelhecimento acelerado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Francisco Diones Oliveira

    2016-07-01

    Data used for the assessment of the analyzes performed on three types of dimension stone (Juparana Bordeaux, Branco Nevasca and Golden Artico), in natural state and after several cycles of accelerated aging are presented, correlating them with the gas exhalation rate radon issued by the analyzed lithologies. In the samples were conducted permeability, porosity, colorimetry, image analysis, petrographic and exhalation rate of radon, accompanied by aging tests on climate simulation chamber which simulates change situations of materials by weathering agents, accelerating wear and tear samples. The measurements were performed on samples in natural state, with 50 and 100 cycles of aging acceleration, where each cycle corresponds to variations in temperature and humidity in climatic simulation chamber, with the addition of an internal atmosphere of SO{sub 2} with 25 concentration ppm. The results obtained during the tests were related to better analysis of the changes observed on the samples and the variation rate of exhalation radon emitted. The rocks have radon concentration values above the limits suggested by relevant international agencies (200-400 Bq/m³), with average values in the natural state, in 6149, 1619 and 866 Bq/m³ for Juparana Bordeaux, Branco Nevasca and Golden Arctic, respectively. The other aging cycles (50 and 100 cycles) showed an average increase of 0.8% for Juparana Bordeaux, 6.9% for White Blizzard and -23.87% for the Golden Arctic, with 50 cycles. From 50 to 100 cycles, there was reduction of 3.43% for Juparana Bordeaux and 22.15% for Branco Nevasca and an increase of 13.82% in the Golden Artico. The porosity results in the natural state obtained values an average of 0.696% for Juparana Bordeaux, 0.919% for Branco Nevasca and 0.830% for Golden Artico, and after 50 cycles of accelerated aging, obtained 0.621% to Juparana Bordeaux, 0.910% for Branco Nevasca and 0.840% for Golden Artico. The permeability of the samples showed values in the natural

  13. Protein-energy malnutrition halts hemopoietic progenitor cells in the G0/G1 cell cycle stage, thereby altering cell production rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Borelli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein energy malnutrition (PEM is a syndrome that often results in immunodeficiency coupled with pancytopenia. Hemopoietic tissue requires a high nutrient supply and the proliferation, differentiation and maturation of cells occur in a constant and balanced manner, sensitive to the demands of specific cell lineages and dependent on the stem cell population. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of PEM on some aspects of hemopoiesis, analyzing the cell cycle of bone marrow cells and the percentage of progenitor cells in the bone marrow. Two-month-old male Swiss mice (N = 7-9 per group were submitted to PEM with a low-protein diet (4% or were fed a control diet (20% protein ad libitum. When the experimental group had lost about 20% of their original body weight after 14 days, we collected blood and bone marrow cells to determine the percentage of progenitor cells and the number of cells in each phase of the cell cycle. Animals of both groups were stimulated with 5-fluorouracil. Blood analysis, bone marrow cell composition and cell cycle evaluation was performed after 10 days. Malnourished animals presented anemia, reticulocytopenia and leukopenia. Their bone marrow was hypocellular and depleted of progenitor cells. Malnourished animals also presented more cells than normal in phases G0 and G1 of the cell cycle. Thus, we conclude that PEM leads to the depletion of progenitor hemopoietic populations and changes in cellular development. We suggest that these changes are some of the primary causes of pancytopenia in cases of PEM.

  14. Front-End Light Source for aWaveform-Controlled High-Contrast Few-Cycle Laser System for High-Repetition Rate Relativistic Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Lopez-Martens

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the current development of an injector for a high-contrast, ultrashort laser system devoted to relativistic laser-plasma interaction in the few-cycle regime. The front-end is based on CEP-stabilized Ti:Sa CPA followed by XPW filter designed at the mJ level for temporal cleaning and shortening. Accurate characterization highlights the fidelity of the proposed injector. Measured CEP drift is 170 mrad rms.

  15. Electrooxidation of ethanol on Pt and PtRu surfaces investigated by ATR surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcio F.; Camara, Giuseppe A., E-mail: giuseppe.silva@ufms.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande-MS (Brazil); Batista, Bruno C.; Boscheto, Emerson [Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos-SP, (Brazil); Varela, Hamilton, E-mail: varela@iqsc.usp.br [Ertl Center for Electrochemistry and Catalysis, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Herein, it was investigated for the first time the electro-oxidation of ethanol on Pt and PtRu electrodeposits in acidic media by using in situ surface enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy with attenuated total reflection (ATR-SEIRAS). The experimental setup circumvents the weak absorbance signals related to adsorbed species, usually observed for rough, electrodeposited surfaces, and allows a full description of the CO coverage with the potential for both catalysts. The dynamics of adsorption-oxidation of CO was accessed by ATR-SEIRAS experiments (involving four ethanol concentrations) and correlated with expressions derived from a simple kinetic model. Kinetic analysis suggests that the growing of the CO adsorbed layer is nor influenced by the presence of Ru neither by the concentration of ethanol. The results suggest that the C-C scission is not related to the presence of Ru and probably happens at Pt sites. (author)

  16. ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy on intact dried leaves of sage (Salvia officinalis L. – chemotaxonomic discrimination and essential oil composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudi, Gennadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sage (Salvia officinalis L. is cultivated worldwide for its aromatic leaves which are used as herbal spice and for phytopharmaceutical applications. Fast analytical strategies for essential oil analysis, performed directly on plant material would reduce the delay between sampling and analytical results. This would enhance product quality by improving technical control of cultivation. The attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy method described here provides a reliable calibration model for quantification of essential oil components (EOC and its main constituents (e.g. -thujone and -thujone directly on dried, intact leaves of sage. Except for drying no further sample preparation is required for ATR-FTIR and the measurement time of less than 5 min per sample contrasts with the most common alternative of hydro-distillation followed by GC analysis which can take several hours per sample.

  17. Raman and IR-ATR spectroscopy studies of heteroepitaxial structures with a GaN:C top layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, M. F.; Vieira, L. G.; Alves, A.; Correia, R.; Huber, M.; Andreev, A.; Bonanni, A.; Vasilevskiy, M. I.

    2017-09-01

    This work, motivated by the technologically important task of determination of carbon dopant location in the GaN crystal lattice, employed Raman spectroscopy, with both resonant and non-resonant excitation, and infrared (IR) spectroscopy, in the attenuated total reflection (ATR) configuration, to study lattice vibration modes in a set of carbon-doped GaN (GaN:C) epilayers grown by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy. We analyse Raman and IR-ATR spectra from the point of view of possible effects of the carbon doping, namely: (i) local vibration mode of C atoms in the nitrogen sublattice (whose frequency we theoretically estimate as 768 cm-1 using an isotope defect model), and (ii) shift in the positions of longitudinal modes owing to the phonon-plasmon coupling. We find only indirect hints of the doping effect on the resonant Raman spectra. However, we show theoretically and confirm experimentally that the IR-ATR spectroscopy can be a much more sensitive tool for this purpose, at least for the considered structures. A weak perturbation of the dielectric function of GaN:C, caused by the substitutional carbon impurity, is shown to produce a measurable dip in the ATR reflectivity spectra at  ≈770 cm-1 for both p- and s-polarizations. Moreover, it influences a specific (guided-wave type) mode observed at  ≈737 cm-1, originating from the GaN layer, which appears in the narrow frequency window where the real parts of the two components of the dielectric tensor of the hexagonal crystal have opposite signs. This interpretation is supported by our modelling of the whole multilayer structure, using a transfer matrix formalism.

  18. Determination of drug content in semisolid formulations by non-invasive spectroscopic methods: FTIR - ATR, - PAS, - Raman and PDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotter, B; Hein, J; Neubert, R H H; Faubel, W; Heissler, St

    2010-01-01

    This study elucidates the potential use of photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS), FTIR photoacoustic (FTIR-PAS), FT Raman, and FTIR-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy as analytical tools for investigating the drug content in semisolid formulations. Regarding the analytical parameters, this study demonstrates the photothermal beam deflection to be definitely comparable to well established spectroscopic methods for this purpose. The correlation coefficients range from 0.990 to 0.999. Likewise, repeatability and limit of detection are comparable.

  19. Analysis code for pressure in reactor containment vessel of ATR. CONPOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    For the evaluation of the pressure and temperature in containment vessels in the events which are classified in the abnormal change of pressure, atmosphere and others in reactor containment vessels in accident among the safety evaluation events of the ATR, the analysis code for the pressure in reactor containment vessels CONPOL is used. In this report, the functions of the analysis code and the analysis model are shown. By using this analysis code, the rise of the pressure and temperature in a containment vessel is evaluated when loss of coolant accident occurs, and high temperature, high pressure coolant flows into it. This code possesses the functions of computing blow-down quantity and heat dissipation from reactor cooling facility, steam condensing heat transfer to containment vessel walls, and the cooling effect by containment vessel spray system. As for the analysis techniques, the models of reactor cooling system, containment vessel and steam discharge pool, and the computation models for the pressure and temperature in containment vessels, wall surface temperature, condensing heat transfer, spray condensation and blow-down are explained. The experimental analysis of the evaluation of the pressure and temperature in containment vessels at the time of loss of coolant accident is reported. (K.I.)

  20. On three-dimensional nuclear thermo-hydraulic computation techniques for ATR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    The three-dimensional computation code for nuclear thermo-hydraulic combination core LAYMON-2A is used for the calculation of the power distribution and the control rod reactivity value of the ATR. This code possesses various functions which are required for planning the core operation such as the search function for critical boric acid concentration, and can do various simulation calculations such as core burning calculation. Further, the three-dimensional analysis code for xenon dynamic characteristics in the core LAYMON-2C, in which the dynamic characteristic equation of xenon-samarium was incorporated into the LAYMON-2A code can take the change with time lapse of xenon-samarium concentration accompanying the change of power level and power distribution into account, and it is used for the analysis of the spatial vibration characteristics of power and the regional power control characteristics due to xenon in the core. As to the LAYMON-2A, the computation flow, power distribution and thermo-hydraulic computation models, and critical search function are explained. As to the LAYMON-2C, the computation flow is described. The comparison of the calculated values by using the LAYMON-2A code and the operation data of the Fugen is reported. (K.I.)

  1. Behavior of irradiated ATR/MOX fuel under reactivity initiated accident conditions (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasajima, Hideo; Fuketa, Toyoshi; Nakamura, Takehiko; Nakamura, Jinichi; Uetsuka, Hiroshi

    2000-03-01

    Pulse irradiation experiments with irradiated ATR/MOX fuel rods of 20 MWd/kgHM were conducted at the NSRR in JAERI to study the transient behavior of MOX fuel rod under reactivity initiated accident conditions. Four pulse irradiation experiments were performed with peak fuel enthalpy ranging from 335 J/g to 586 J/g, resulted in no failure of fuel rods. Deformation of the fuel rods due to PCMI occurred in the experiments with peak fuel enthalpy above 500 J/g. Significant fission gas release up to 20% was measured by rod puncture measurement. The generation of fine radial cracks in pellet periphery, micro-cracks and boundary separation over the entire region of pellet were observed. These microstructure changes might contribute to the swelling of fuel pellets during the pulse irradiation. This could cause the large radial deformation of fuel rod and high fission gas release when the pulse irradiation conducted at relatively high peak fuel enthalpy. In addition, fine grain structures around the plutonium spot and cauliflower structure in cavity of the plutonium spot were observed in the outer region of the fuel pellet. (author)

  2. Computer analysis of ATR-FTIR spectra of paint samples for forensic purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafarska, Małgorzata; Woźniakiewicz, Michał; Pilch, Mariusz; Zięba-Palus, Janina; Kościelniak, Paweł

    2009-04-01

    A method of subtraction and normalization of IR spectra (MSN-IR) was developed and successfully applied to extract mathematically the pure paint spectrum from the spectrum of paint coat on different bases, both acquired by the Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) technique. The method consists of several stages encompassing several normalization and subtraction processes. The similarity of the spectrum obtained with the reference spectrum was estimated by means of the normalized Manhattan distance. The utility and performance of the method proposed were tested by examination of five different paints sprayed on plastic (polyester) foil and on fabric materials (cotton). It was found that the numerical algorithm applied is able - in contrast to other mathematical approaches conventionally used for the same aim - to reconstruct a pure paint IR spectrum effectively without a loss of chemical information provided. The approach allows the physical separation of a paint from a base to be avoided, hence a time and work-load of analysis to be considerably reduced. The results obtained prove that the method can be considered as a useful tool which can be applied to forensic purposes.

  3. Effects of Near Infrared Radiation on DNA. DLS and ATR-FTIR Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymborska-Małek, Katarzyna; Komorowska, Małgorzata; Gąsior-Głogowska, Marlena

    2018-01-01

    We presume that the primary effect of Near Infrared (NIR) radiation on aqueous solutions of biological molecules concerns modification of hydrogen bonded structures mainly the global and the hydration shell water molecules. Since water has a significant influence on the DNA structure, we expect that the thermal stability of DNA could be modified by NIR radiation. The herring sperm DNA was exposed to NIR radiation (700-1100 nm) for 5, 10, and 20 min periods. The temperature dependent infrared measurements were done for the thin films formed on the diamond ATR crystal from evaporated DNA solutions exposed and unexposed to NIR radiation. For the NIR-treated samples (at room temperature) the B form was better conserved than in the control sample independently of the irradiation period. Above 50 °C a considerable increase in the A form was only observed for 10 min NIR exposed samples. The hydrodynamic radius, (Rh), studied by the dynamic light scattering, showed drastic decrease with the increasing irradiation time. Principal components analysis (PCA) allowed to detect the spectral features correlated with the NIR effect and thermal stability of the DNA films. Obtained results strongly support the idea that the photoionization of water by NIR radiation in presence of DNA molecules is the main factor influencing on its physicochemical properties.

  4. Influence of DMPS on the water retention capacity of electroporated stratum corneum: ATR-FTIR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sckolnick, Maria; Hui, Sek-Wen; Sen, Arindam

    2008-02-28

    Anionic lipids like phosphatidylserine are known to significantly enhance electroporation mediated transepidermal transport of polar solutes of molecular weights up to 10kDa. The underlying mechanism of the effect of anionic lipids on transdermal transport is not fully understood. The main barrier to transdermal transport lies within the intercellular lipid matrix (ILM) of the stratum corneum (SC) and our previous studies indicate that dimyristoyl phosphatidylserine (DMPS) can perturb the packing of this lipid matrix. Here we report on our investigation on water retention in the SC following electroporation in the presence and the absence of DMPS. The water content in the outer most layers of the SC of full thickness porcine skin was determined using ATR-FTIR-spectroscopy. The results show that in the presence of DMPS, the SC remains in a state of enhanced hydration for longer periods after electroporation. This increase in water retention in the SC by DMPS is likely to play an important role in trans-epidermal transport, since improved hydration of the skin barrier can be expected to increase the partitioning of polar solutes and possibly the permeability.

  5. Thermal deterioration of virgin olive oil monitored by ATR-FTIR analysis of trans content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena, Noelia; Aparicio, Ramón; García-González, Diego L

    2009-11-11

    The monitoring of frying oils by an effective and rapid method is one of the demands of food companies and small food retailers. In this work, a method based on ATR-FTIR has been developed for monitoring the oil degradation in frying procedures. The IR bands changing during frying in sunflower, soybean, and virgin olive oils have been examined in their linear relationship with the content of total polar compounds, which is a preferred parameter for frying control. The bands assigned to conjugated and isolated trans double bonds that are commonly used for the determination of trans content provided the best relationships. Then, the area covering 978-960 cm(-1) was chosen to build a model for predicting polar material content for the particular case of virgin olive oil. A virgin olive oil was heated up to 94 h, and samples collected every 2 h constituted the training set. These samples were analyzed to obtain their FTIR spectra and to determine the composition of fatty acids and the content of total polar compounds. The excellent results predicting the polar material content (adjusted R(2) 0.997) was successfully validated with an external set of samples. The analysis of the fatty acid composition confirmed the relationship between the trans content and the content of total polar compounds.

  6. The degradation potential of PET bottles in the marine environment: An ATR-FTIR based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioakeimidis, C.; Fotopoulou, K. N.; Karapanagioti, H. K.; Geraga, M.; Zeri, C.; Papathanassiou, E.; Galgani, F.; Papatheodorou, G.

    2016-03-01

    The dominance and persistence of plastic debris in the marine environment are well documented. No information exists in respect to their lifespan in the marine environment. Nevertheless, the degradation potential of plastic litter items remains a critical issue for marine litter research. In the present study, polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PETs) collected from the submarine environment were characterized using ATR-FTIR in respect to their degradation potential attributed to environmental conditions. A temporal indication was used as indicative to the years of presence of the PETs in the environment as debris. PETs seem to remain robust for approximately fifteen years. Afterwards, a significant decrease of the native functional groups was recorded; some even disappear; or new-not typical for PETs-are created. At a later stage, using the PET time series collected from the Saronikos Gulf (Aegean Sea-E. Mediterranean), it was possible to date bottles that were collected from the bottom of the Ionian Sea (W. Greece). It is the first time that such a study has been conducted with samples that were actually degraded in the marine environment.

  7. Rapid and Simultaneous Prediction of Eight Diesel Quality Parameters through ATR-FTIR Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Rafael Rodrigues; Flumignan, Danilo Luiz; de Oliveira, José Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    Quality assessment of diesel fuel is highly necessary for society, but the costs and time spent are very high while using standard methods. Therefore, this study aimed to develop an analytical method capable of simultaneously determining eight diesel quality parameters (density; flash point; total sulfur content; distillation temperatures at 10% (T10), 50% (T50), and 85% (T85) recovery; cetane index; and biodiesel content) through attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and the multivariate regression method, partial least square (PLS). For this purpose, the quality parameters of 409 samples were determined using standard methods, and their spectra were acquired in ranges of 4000–650 cm−1. The use of the multivariate filters, generalized least squares weighting (GLSW) and orthogonal signal correction (OSC), was evaluated to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the models. Likewise, four variable selection approaches were tested: manual exclusion, forward interval PLS (FiPLS), backward interval PLS (BiPLS), and genetic algorithm (GA). The multivariate filters and variables selection algorithms generated more fitted and accurate PLS models. According to the validation, the FTIR/PLS models presented accuracy comparable to the reference methods and, therefore, the proposed method can be applied in the diesel routine monitoring to significantly reduce costs and analysis time. PMID:29629209

  8. Rapid and Simultaneous Prediction of Eight Diesel Quality Parameters through ATR-FTIR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurilio Gustavo Nespeca

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality assessment of diesel fuel is highly necessary for society, but the costs and time spent are very high while using standard methods. Therefore, this study aimed to develop an analytical method capable of simultaneously determining eight diesel quality parameters (density; flash point; total sulfur content; distillation temperatures at 10% (T10, 50% (T50, and 85% (T85 recovery; cetane index; and biodiesel content through attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and the multivariate regression method, partial least square (PLS. For this purpose, the quality parameters of 409 samples were determined using standard methods, and their spectra were acquired in ranges of 4000–650 cm−1. The use of the multivariate filters, generalized least squares weighting (GLSW and orthogonal signal correction (OSC, was evaluated to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the models. Likewise, four variable selection approaches were tested: manual exclusion, forward interval PLS (FiPLS, backward interval PLS (BiPLS, and genetic algorithm (GA. The multivariate filters and variables selection algorithms generated more fitted and accurate PLS models. According to the validation, the FTIR/PLS models presented accuracy comparable to the reference methods and, therefore, the proposed method can be applied in the diesel routine monitoring to significantly reduce costs and analysis time.

  9. Rapid and Simultaneous Prediction of Eight Diesel Quality Parameters through ATR-FTIR Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespeca, Maurilio Gustavo; Hatanaka, Rafael Rodrigues; Flumignan, Danilo Luiz; de Oliveira, José Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    Quality assessment of diesel fuel is highly necessary for society, but the costs and time spent are very high while using standard methods. Therefore, this study aimed to develop an analytical method capable of simultaneously determining eight diesel quality parameters (density; flash point; total sulfur content; distillation temperatures at 10% (T10), 50% (T50), and 85% (T85) recovery; cetane index; and biodiesel content) through attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and the multivariate regression method, partial least square (PLS). For this purpose, the quality parameters of 409 samples were determined using standard methods, and their spectra were acquired in ranges of 4000-650 cm -1 . The use of the multivariate filters, generalized least squares weighting (GLSW) and orthogonal signal correction (OSC), was evaluated to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the models. Likewise, four variable selection approaches were tested: manual exclusion, forward interval PLS (FiPLS), backward interval PLS (BiPLS), and genetic algorithm (GA). The multivariate filters and variables selection algorithms generated more fitted and accurate PLS models. According to the validation, the FTIR/PLS models presented accuracy comparable to the reference methods and, therefore, the proposed method can be applied in the diesel routine monitoring to significantly reduce costs and analysis time.

  10. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report October 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, Dan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report October 2014 Highlights • Rory Kennedy, Dan Ogden and Brenden Heidrich traveled to Germantown October 6-7, for a review of the Infrastructure Management mission with Shane Johnson, Mike Worley, Bradley Williams and Alison Hahn from NE-4 and Mary McCune from NE-3. Heidrich briefed the group on the project progress from July to October 2014 as well as the planned path forward for FY15. • Jim Cole gave two invited university seminars at Ohio State University and University of Florida, providing an overview of NSUF including available capabilities and the process for accessing facilities through the peer reviewed proposal process. • Jim Cole and Rory Kennedy co-chaired the NuMat meeting with Todd Allen. The meeting, sponsored by Elsevier publishing, was held in Clearwater, Florida, and is considered one of the premier nuclear fuels and materials conferences. Over 340 delegates attended with 160 oral and over 200 posters presented over 4 days. • Thirty-one pre-applications were submitted for NSUF access through the NE-4 Combined Innovative Nuclear Research Funding Opportunity Announcement. • Fourteen proposals were received for the NSUF Rapid Turnaround Experiment Summer 2014 call. Proposal evaluations are underway. • John Jackson and Rory Kennedy attended the Nuclear Fuels Industry Research meeting. Jackson presented an overview of ongoing NSUF industry research.

  11. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and quantitative multivariate analysis of paints and coating materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Philippa Alice; Vahur, Signe; Leito, Ivo

    2014-12-01

    The applicability of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy with partial least squares (PLS) data analysis was evaluated for quantifying the components of mixtures of paint binding media and pigments, and alkyd resins. PLS methods were created using a number of standard mixtures. Validation and measurement uncertainty estimation was carried out. Binary, ternary and quaternary mixtures of several common binding media and pigments were quantified, with standard measurement uncertainties in most cases below 3 g/100 g. Classes of components - aromatic anhydrides and alcohols - used in alkyd resin synthesis were also successfully quantified, with standard uncertainties in the range of 2-3 g/100 g. This is a more demanding application because in alkyd resins aromatic anhydrides and alcohols have reacted to form a polyester, and are not present in their original forms. Once a PLS method has been calibrated, analysis time and cost are significantly reduced from typical quantitative methods such as GC/MS. This is beneficial in the case of routine analysis where the components are known.

  12. A Neural Network Controller New Methodology for the ATR-42 Morphing Wing Actuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Ben MOSBAH

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A morphing wing model is used to improve aircraft performance. To obtain the desired airfoils, electrical actuators are used, which are installed inside of the wing to morph its upper surface in order to obtain its desired shape. In order to achieve this objective, a robust position controller is needed. In this research, a design and test validation of a controller based on neural networks is presented. This controller was composed by a position controller and a current controller to manage the current consumed by the electrical actuators to obtain its desired displacement. The model was tested and validated using simulation and experimental tests. The results obtained with the proposed controller were compared to the results given by the PID controller. Wind tunnel tests were conducted in the Price-Païdoussis Wind Tunnel at the LARCASE laboratory in order to calculate the pressure coefficient distribution on an ATR-42 morphing wing model for different flow conditions. The pressure coefficients obtained experimentally were compared with their numerical values given by XFoil software.

  13. Quantitative analysis of anti-inflammatory drugs using FTIR-ATR spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassib, Sonia T.; Hassan, Ghaneya S.; El-Zaher, Asmaa A.; Fouad, Marwa A.; Taha, Enas A.

    2017-11-01

    Four simple, accurate, sensitive and economic Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic (ATR-FTIR) methods have been developed for the quantitative estimation of some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The first method involves the determination of Etodolac by direct measurement of the absorbance at 1716 cm- 1. In the second method, the second derivative of the IR spectra of Tolfenamic acid and its reported degradation product (2-chlorobenzoic acid) was used and the amplitudes were measured at 1084.27 cm- 1 and 1056.02 cm- 1 for Tolfenamic acid and 2-chlorobenzoic acid, respectively. The third method used the first derivative of the IR spectra of Bumadizone and its reported degradation product, N,N-diphenylhydrazine and the amplitudes were measured at 2874.98 cm- 1 and 2160.32 cm- 1 for Bumadizone and N,N-diphenylhydrazine, respectively. The fourth method depends on measuring the amplitude of Diacerein at 1059.18 cm- 1 and of rhein, its reported degradation product, at 1079.32 cm- 1 in their first derivative spectra. The four methods were successfully applied on the pharmaceutical formulations by extracting the active constituent in chloroform and the extract was directly measured in liquid phase mode using a specific cell. Moreover, validation of these methods was carried out following International Conference of Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines.

  14. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities. The Conference proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) world conference, volume 5 is presented. The topics include: 1) The Temporal Configuration of Airline Networks in Europe; 2) Determination and Applications of Environmental Costs at Different Sized Airports-Aircraft Noise and Engine Emissions; 3) Cost Effective Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions in the Air Freight Sector; 4) An Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System: Quantification of Indicators; 5) Regulation, Competition and Network Evolution in Aviation; 6) Regulation in the Air: Price and Frequency Cap; 7) Industry Consolidation and Future Airline Network Structures in Europe; 8) Application of Core Theory to the U.S. Airline Industry; 9) Air Freight Transshipment Route Choice Analysis; 10) A Fuzzy Approach of the Competition on Air Transport Market; and 11) Developing Passenger Demand Models for International Aviation from/to Egypt: A Case Study of Cairo Airport and Egyptair.

  15. Forensic Hair Differentiation Using Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheim, Jeremy; Doty, Kyle C; McLaughlin, Gregory; Lednev, Igor K

    2016-07-01

    Hair and fibers are common forms of trace evidence found at crime scenes. The current methodology of microscopic examination of potential hair evidence is absent of statistical measures of performance, and examiner results for identification can be subjective. Here, attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to analyze synthetic fibers and natural hairs of human, cat, and dog origin. Chemometric analysis was used to differentiate hair spectra from the three different species, and to predict unknown hairs to their proper species class, with a high degree of certainty. A species-specific partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) model was constructed to discriminate human hair from cat and dog hairs. This model was successful in distinguishing between the three classes and, more importantly, all human samples were correctly predicted as human. An external validation resulted in zero false positive and false negative assignments for the human class. From a forensic perspective, this technique would be complementary to microscopic hair examination, and in no way replace it. As such, this methodology is able to provide a statistical measure of confidence to the identification of a sample of human, cat, and dog hair, which was called for in the 2009 National Academy of Sciences report. More importantly, this approach is non-destructive, rapid, can provide reliable results, and requires no sample preparation, making it of ample importance to the field of forensic science. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Sulfur cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Microbes, especially bacteria, play an important role in oxidative and reductive cycle of sulfur. The oxidative part of the cycle is mediated by photosynthetic bacteria in the presence of light energy and chemosynthetic forms in the absence of light...

  17. DNA-PK, ATM and ATR collaboratively regulate p53-RPA interaction to facilitate homologous recombination DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, M A; Li, Z; Dangeti, M; Musich, P R; Patrick, S; Roginskaya, M; Cartwright, B; Zou, Y

    2013-05-09

    Homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) are two distinct DNA double-stranded break (DSB) repair pathways. Here, we report that DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), the core component of NHEJ, partnering with DNA-damage checkpoint kinases ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR), regulates HR repair of DSBs. The regulation was accomplished through modulation of the p53 and replication protein A (RPA) interaction. We show that upon DNA damage, p53 and RPA were freed from a p53-RPA complex by simultaneous phosphorylations of RPA at the N-terminus of RPA32 subunit by DNA-PK and of p53 at Ser37 and Ser46 in a Chk1/Chk2-independent manner by ATR and ATM, respectively. Neither the phosphorylation of RPA nor of p53 alone could dissociate p53 and RPA. Furthermore, disruption of the release significantly compromised HR repair of DSBs. Our results reveal a mechanism for the crosstalk between HR repair and NHEJ through the co-regulation of p53-RPA interaction by DNA-PK, ATM and ATR.

  18. RNA-processing proteins regulate Mec1/ATR activation by promoting generation of RPA-coated ssDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfrini, Nicola; Trovesi, Camilla; Wery, Maxime; Martina, Marina; Cesena, Daniele; Descrimes, Marc; Morillon, Antonin; d'Adda di Fagagna, Fabrizio; Longhese, Maria Pia

    2015-02-01

    Eukaryotic cells respond to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by activating a checkpoint that depends on the protein kinases Tel1/ATM and Mec1/ATR. Mec1/ATR is activated by RPA-coated single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which arises upon nucleolytic degradation (resection) of the DSB. Emerging evidences indicate that RNA-processing factors play critical, yet poorly understood, roles in genomic stability. Here, we provide evidence that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA decay factors Xrn1, Rrp6 and Trf4 regulate Mec1/ATR activation by promoting generation of RPA-coated ssDNA. The lack of Xrn1 inhibits ssDNA generation at the DSB by preventing the loading of the MRX complex. By contrast, DSB resection is not affected in the absence of Rrp6 or Trf4, but their lack impairs the recruitment of RPA, and therefore of Mec1, to the DSB. Rrp6 and Trf4 inactivation affects neither Rad51/Rad52 association nor DSB repair by homologous recombination (HR), suggesting that full Mec1 activation requires higher amount of RPA-coated ssDNA than HR-mediated repair. Noteworthy, deep transcriptome analyses do not identify common misregulated gene expression that could explain the observed phenotypes. Our results provide a novel link between RNA processing and genome stability. © 2014 The Authors.

  19. Application of FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy to Determine the Extent of Lipid Peroxidation in Plasma during Haemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Oleszko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During a haemodialysis (HD, because of the contact of blood with the surface of the dialyser, the immune system becomes activated and reactive oxygen species (ROS are released into plasma. Particularly exposed to the ROS are lipids and proteins contained in plasma, which undergo peroxidation. The main breakdown product of oxidized lipids is the malondialdehyde (MDA. A common method for measuring the concentration of MDA is a thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS method. Despite the formation of MDA in plasma during HD, its concentration decreases because it is removed from the blood in the dialyser. Therefore, this research proposes the Fourier Transform Infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR spectroscopy, which enables determination of primary peroxidation products. We examined the influence of the amount of hydrogen peroxide added to lipid suspension that was earlier extracted from plasma specimen on lipid peroxidation with use of TBARS and FTIR-ATR methods. Linear correlation between these methods was shown. The proposed method was effective during the evaluation of changes in the extent of lipid peroxidation in plasma during a haemodialysis in sheep. A measurement using the FTIR-ATR showed an increase in plasma lipid peroxidation after 15 and 240 minutes of treatment, while the TBARS concentration was respectively lower.

  20. Validation of ATR FT-IR to identify polymers of plastic marine debris, including those ingested by marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Melissa R.; Horgen, F. David; Orski, Sara V.; Rodriguez, Viviana; Beers, Kathryn L.; Balazs, George H.; Jones, T. Todd; Work, Thierry M.; Brignac, Kayla C.; Royer, Sarah-Jeanne; Hyrenbach, David K.; Jensen, Brenda A.; Lynch, Jennifer M.

    2018-01-01

    Polymer identification of plastic marine debris can help identify its sources, degradation, and fate. We optimized and validated a fast, simple, and accessible technique, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR), to identify polymers contained in plastic ingested by sea turtles. Spectra of consumer good items with known resin identification codes #1–6 and several #7 plastics were compared to standard and raw manufactured polymers. High temperature size exclusion chromatography measurements confirmed ATR FT-IR could differentiate these polymers. High-density (HDPE) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) discrimination is challenging but a clear step-by-step guide is provided that identified 78% of ingested PE samples. The optimal cleaning methods consisted of wiping ingested pieces with water or cutting. Of 828 ingested plastics pieces from 50 Pacific sea turtles, 96% were identified by ATR FT-IR as HDPE, LDPE, unknown PE, polypropylene (PP), PE and PP mixtures, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, and nylon.

  1. Improving precursor adsorption characteristics in ATR-FTIR spectroscopy with a ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticle coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jaeseo [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Center for Vacuum Technology (Korea, Republic of); Mun, Jihun [University of Science and Technology, Department of Advanced Device Technology (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jae-Soo; Kim, Jongho; Park, Hee Jung [Daejeon University, Department of Advanced Materials Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sang-Woo, E-mail: swkang@kriss.re.kr [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Center for Vacuum Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Nanoparticles were applied to a crystal surface to increase its precursor adsorption efficiency in an attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrometer. Nanoparticles with varying dispersion stabilities were employed and the resulting precursor adsorption characteristics were assessed. The size of the nanoparticles was <100 nm (TEM). In order to vary the dispersion stability, ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles were dispersed in aqueous solutions of different pH. The ZrO{sub 2} dispersion solutions were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) while particle distribution measurements were analyzed using electrophoretic light scattering (ELS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles dispersed in solutions of pH 3 and 11 exhibited the most stable zeta potentials (≥+30 or ≤−30 mV); these observations were confirmed by SEM analysis and particle distribution measurements. Hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) was used as a precursor for ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Consequently, when ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticle solutions with the best dispersion stabilities (pH 3 and 11) were applied to the adsorption crystal surface, the measurement efficiency of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy improved by ∼200 and 300%, respectively.

  2. HMGA2 Inhibits Apoptosis through Interaction with ATR-CHK1 Signaling Complex in Human Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchitra Natarajan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The non-histone chromatin binding protein high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2 is expressed in stem cells and many cancer cells, including tumor initiating cells, but not translated in normal human somatic cells. The presence of HMGA2 is correlated with advanced neoplastic disease and poor prognosis for patients. We had previously demonstrated a role of HMGA2 in DNA repair pathways. In the present study, we employed different human tumor cell models with endogenous and exogenous expression of HMGA2 and show that upon DNA damage, the presence of HMGA2 caused an increased and sustained phosphorylation of the ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related kinase (ATR and its downstream target checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1. The presence of activated pCHK1Ser296 coincided with prolonged G2/M block and increased tumor cell survival, which was enhanced further in the presence of HMGA2. Our study, thus, identifies a novel relationship between the ATR-CHK1 DNA damage response pathway and HMGA2, which may support the DNA repair function of HMGA2 in cancer cells. Furthermore, our data provide a rationale for the use of inhibitors to ATR or CHK1 and HMGA2 in the treatment of HMGA2-positive human cancer cells.

  3. The ATM and ATR inhibitors CGK733 and caffeine suppress cyclin D1 levels and inhibit cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alao, John P; Sunnerhagen, Per

    2009-01-01

    The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and the ATM- related (ATR) kinases play a central role in facilitating the resistance of cancer cells to genotoxic treatment regimens. The components of the ATM and ATR regulated signaling pathways thus provide attractive pharmacological targets, since their inhibition enhances cellular sensitivity to chemo- and radiotherapy. Caffeine as well as more specific inhibitors of ATM (KU55933) or ATM and ATR (CGK733) have recently been shown to induce cell death in drug-induced senescent tumor cells. Addition of these agents to cancer cells previously rendered senescent by exposure to genotoxins suppressed the ATM mediated p21 expression required for the survival of these cells. The precise molecular pharmacology of these agents however, is not well characterized. Herein, we report that caffeine, CGK733, and to a lesser extent KU55933, inhibit the proliferation of otherwise untreated human cancer and non-transformed mouse fibroblast cell lines. Exposure of human cancer cell lines to caffeine and CGK733 was associated with a rapid decline in cyclin D1 protein levels and a reduction in the levels of both phosphorylated and total retinoblastoma protein (RB). Our studies suggest that observations based on the effects of these compounds on cell proliferation and survival must be interpreted with caution. The differential effects of caffeine/CGK733 and KU55933 on cyclin D1 protein levels suggest that these agents will exhibit dissimilar molecular pharmacological profiles

  4. Radioresistance of chordoma cells is associated with the ATM/ATR pathway, in which RAD51 serves as an important downstream effector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Wang, Bing; Li, Lei; Li, Yawei; Li, Pengzhi; Lv, Guohua

    2017-09-01

    Surgery followed by radiotherapy is the standard treatment for chordomas, which are a rare but low-grade type of bone cancer arising from remnants of the embryonic notochord. However, disease recurrence following radiotherapy is common, most likely due to endogenous DNA repair mechanisms that promote cell survival upon radiation strikes. The ataxia telangiectasia mutated/ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3 related (ATM/ATR)-mediated pathway has a critical role in DNA repair mechanisms; however, it has rarely been investigated in chordomas. In the present study, the expression of signal molecules related to the ATM/ATR pathway in chordoma tissues and adjacent normal tissues were initially examined using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Chordoma U-CH1 and U-CH2 cells were subsequently used to investigate cell responses to ionizing radiation and the potential protective actions mediated by the ATM/ATR pathway. Phosphorylated (p)-ATM, p-ATR, γ-H2A histone family, member X (H2AX) and RAD51 were significantly upregulated in chordoma tissues relative to adjacent normal tissues (PATM, γ-H2AX and RAD51 expression in U-CH1 cells (PATM, p-ATR and RAD51 levels in U-CH2 cells (PATM/ATR pathway, in which RAD51 serves as an important downstream effector. Thus, RAD51 presents a promising therapeutic target for improving the outcome of radiotherapy treatment in chordomas.

  5. Dual inhibition of ATR and ATM potentiates the activity of trabectedin and lurbinectedin by perturbing the DNA damage response and homologous recombination repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Michelle; Bouzid, Hana; Soares, Daniele G; Selle, Frédéric; Morel, Claire; Galmarini, Carlos M; Henriques, João A P; Larsen, Annette K; Escargueil, Alexandre E

    2016-05-03

    Trabectedin (Yondelis®, ecteinascidin-743, ET-743) is a marine-derived natural product approved for treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcoma and relapsed platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer. Lurbinectedin is a novel anticancer agent structurally related to trabectedin. Both ecteinascidins generate DNA double-strand breaks that are processed through homologous recombination repair (HRR), thereby rendering HRR-deficient cells particularly sensitive. We here characterize the DNA damage response (DDR) to trabectedin and lurbinectedin in HeLa cells. Our results show that both compounds activate the ATM/Chk2 (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated/checkpoint kinase 2) and ATR/Chk1 (ATM and RAD3-related/checkpoint kinase 1) pathways. Interestingly, pharmacological inhibition of Chk1/2, ATR or ATM is not accompanied by any significant improvement of the cytotoxic activity of the ecteinascidins while dual inhibition of ATM and ATR strongly potentiates it. Accordingly, concomitant inhibition of both ATR and ATM is an absolute requirement to efficiently block the formation of γ-H2AX, MDC1, BRCA1 and Rad51 foci following exposure to the ecteinascidins. These results are not restricted to HeLa cells, but are shared by cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant ovarian carcinoma cells. Together, our data identify ATR and ATM as central coordinators of the DDR to ecteinascidins and provide a mechanistic rationale for combining these compounds with ATR and ATM inhibitors.

  6. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) for Rapid Determination of Microbial Cell Lipid Content: Correlation with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan-Oropeza, Aaron; Rebois, Rolando; David, Michelle; Moussa, Fathi; Dazzi, Alexandre; Bleton, Jean; Virolle, Marie-Joelle; Deniset-Besseau, Ariane

    2017-10-01

    There is a growing interest worldwide for the production of renewable oil without mobilizing agriculture lands; fast and reliable methods are needed to identify highly oleaginous microorganisms of potential industrial interest. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relevance of attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy to achieve this goal. To do so, the total lipid content of lyophilized samples of five Streptomyces strains with varying lipid content was assessed with two classical quantitative but time-consuming methods, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ATR Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy in transmission mode with KBr pellets and the fast ATR method, often questioned for its lack of reliability. A linear correlation between these three methods was demonstrated allowing the establishment of equations to convert ATR values expressed as CO/amide I ratio, into micrograms of lipid per milligram of biomass. The ATR method proved to be as reliable and quantitative as the classical GC-MS and FT-IR in transmission mode methods but faster and more reproducible than the latter since it involves far less manipulation for sample preparation than the two others. Attenuated total reflection could be regarded as an efficient fast screening method to identify natural or genetically modified oleaginous microorganisms by the scientific community working in the field of bio-lipids.

  7. Kinetic Parameters during Bis-GMA and TEGDMA Monomer Polymerization by ATR-FTIR: The Influence of Photoinitiator and Light Curing Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline B. Denis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the kinetic parameters of two monomers using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR: 2,2-bis-[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropyl-1-oxy-phenyl] propane (Bis-GMA and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA. The following were calculated to evaluate the kinetic parameters: maximum conversion rate (Rpmax, time at the maximum polymerization rate (tmax, conversion at Rpmax, and total conversion recorded at the maximum conversion point after 300 s. Camphorquinone (CQ and phenyl propanedione (PPD were used in this study as photoinitiators, whereas N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMPT amine was used as a coinitiator. LED apparatus and halogen lamp were used in turn to evaluate the effect that light source had on the monomer kinetics. The mass concentration ratio for the three resin preparations was 0.7 : 0.3 for Bis-GMA and TEGDMA: R1 (CQ + DMPT, R2 (PPD + DMPT, and R3 (PPD + CQ + DMPT. The PPD association with the CQ photoinitiator altered the polymerization kinetics compared to a resin containing only the CQ photoinitiator. The light sources exhibited no significant differences for tmax of R1 and R3. Resins containing only the PPD initiator exhibited a higher tmax than those containing only CQ. However, the Rpmax decreased for resins containing the PPD photoinitiator.

  8. Credit cycles and macro fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, S.J.; Kraeussl, R.G.W.; Lucas, A.; Monteiro, A.

    2009-01-01

    We use an intensity-based framework to study the relation between macroeconomic fundamentals and cycles in defaults and rating activity. Using Standard and Poor's U.S. corporate rating transition and default data over the period 1980-2005, we directly estimate the default and rating cycle from micro

  9. Reproductive traits of Holsteins and Jerseys. Effects of age, milk yield, and clinical abnormalities on involution of cervix and uterus, ovulation, estrous cycles, detection of estrus, conception rate, and days open.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, F A; Britt, J H; McDaniel, B T; Wilk, J C; Rakes, A H

    1983-05-01

    Two hundred and twelve Holstein and Jersey cows were in a study to determine factors that affected reproductive traits. First ovulation occurred about 3 wk postpartum, and interval to first ovulation was greater in cows that had clinical abnormalities postpartum than in normal cows. Jerseys producing more milk ovulated sooner postpartum than lower producing herdmates. Involution of cervix and uterus occurred later postpartum in cows that had clinical problems postpartum. Involution of genital tract occurred later postpartum in older cows and sooner postpartum in cows that had higher milk yields. Duration of first postpartum estrous cycle was 4 days less than for second postpartum cycle. Percentages of estrous cycles detected by standing estrus were 43 and 73% for Holsteins and Jerseys. Estrous detection rates were highest for cows that produced slightly above the mean milk yield and did not differ between cows in highest and lowest milk production quartiles. First detected estrus and days to first insemination occurred later postpartum in Holsteins as milk yield deviation from herdmates increased, regardless of sign. In Jerseys, days to first insemination and days open increased linearly as milk yield increased. Days to first insemination and conception were greater in cows with postpartum clinical problems. Conception rate at first insemination postpartum increased in proportion to concentration of progesterone in blood samples collected during 12 days before first insemination. Overall, clinical problems at parturition and postpartum lowered reproductive performance in both breeds. There was a slight antagonism between milk yield and reproductive performance (days open) in Jerseys but not in Holsteins.

  10. Influence of the flux axial form on the conversion rate and duration of cycle between recharging for ThPu and U{sub nat} fuels in CANDU reactors; Influence de la forme axiale du flux sur le taux de conversion et la duree du cycle entre rechargements pour du combustible ThPu et U{sub nat} dans les reacteurs CANDU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambon, Richard [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier / CNRS-IN2P3, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble (France)

    2007-01-15

    To face the increasing world power demand the world nuclear sector must be continuously updated and developed as well. Thus reactors of new types are introduced and advanced fuel cycles are proposed. The technological and economic feasibility and the transition of the present power park to a renewed park require thorough studies and scenarios, which are highly dependent on the reactor performances. The conversion rate and cycle span between recharging are important parameters in the scenarios studies. In this frame, we have studied the utilisation of thorium in the CANDU type reactors and particularly the influence of axial form of the flux, i.e. of the recharging mode, on the conversion rate and duration of the cycle between recharging. The results show that up to a first approximation the axial form of the flux resulting from the neutron transport calculations for assessing the conversion rate is not necessary to be taken into account. However the time span between recharging differs up to several percents if the axial form of the flux is taken into consideration in transport calculations. Thus if the burnup or the recharging frequency are parameters which influence significantly the deployment scenarios of a nuclear park an approach more refined than a simple transport evolution in a typical cell/assembly is recommended. Finally, the results of this study are not more general than for the assumed conditions but they give a thorough calculation method valid for any recharging/fuel combination in a CANDU type reactor.

  11. Simultaneous determination of three surfactants and water in shampoo and liquid soap by ATR-FTIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolei, Luciano; Gutz, Ivano G R

    2005-03-31

    It is demonstrated for the first time that the principal constituents of a shampoo as well as of a liquid soap -three surfactants and water- can be determined directly, simultaneously and quickly in undiluted samples by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy in the middle infrared region, despite the broad absorption bands of the solvent. Two of the surfactants, sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) and cocoamidopropyl betaine (CAPB), are common to both formulations; alkylpolyglucoside (APG) is the third surfactant of the liquid soap and cocodiethanolamide (CDEA), the corresponding ingredient of the shampoo. Absorbance data of the undiluted samples and of the calibration standards was collected in the middle infrared region of the spectrum (800-1600 and 1900-3000cm(-1)). Two methods of multivariate quantification were compared: classical least squares (CLS), where absorbance data measured at 200 wavenumbers was processed, and inverse least squares (ILS), where data at 10 selected wavenumbers was analyzed. A spectra normalization procedure, based on a dominating water band, was examined. Twenty-seven standard mixtures were used for each application, consisting of all combinations at three concentration levels of each surfactant, respectively the lower limit, the expected value and the upper limit accepted in quality control. By favoring wavenumbers where absorption bands of the minor components (APG in the liquid soap and CDEA in the shampoo) are more intense, good results were obtained for 18 simulated samples of shampoo and 18 samples of liquid soap, no matter if calculations were made by CLS or ILS. The relative errors for water (major component, 84-88%) and SLES (7-10%) were always below 2%; for CAPB (2-4%), APG (<2%) and CDEA (<2%), they occasionally reached 5% of the component, an uncertainty of less than 0.07% in terms of the sample weight.

  12. Future fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archinoff, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    A fuel cycle must offer both financial and resource savings if it is to be considered for introduction into Ontario's nuclear system. The most promising alternative CANDU fuel cycles are examined in the context of both of these factors over a wide range of installed capacity growth rates and economic assumptions, in order to determine which fuel cycle, or cycles, should be introduced, and when. It is concluded that the optimum path for the long term begins with the prompt introduction of the low-enriched-uranium fuel cycle. For a wide range of conditions, this cycle remains the optimum throughout the very long term. Conditions of rapid nuclear growth and very high uranium price escalation rates warrant the supersedure of the low-enriched-uranium cycle by either a plutonium-topped thorium cycle or plutonium recycle, beginning between 2010 and 2025. It is also found that the uranium resource position is sound in terms of both known resources and production capability. Moreover, introduction of the low-enriched-uranium fuel cycle and 1250 MWe reactor units will assure the economic viability of nuclear power until at least 2020, even if uranium prices increase at a rate of 3.5% above inflation. The interrelationship between these two conclusions lies in the tremendous incentive for exploration which will occur if the real uranium price escalation rate is high. From a competitive viewpoint, nuclear power can withstand increases in the price of uranium. However, such increases will likely further expand the resource base, making nuclear an even more reliable energy source. (auth)

  13. Evaluation of [18F]-ATRi as PET tracer for in vivo imaging of ATR in mouse models of brain cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlucci, Giuseppe; Carney, Brandon; Sadique, Ahmad; Vansteene, Axel; Tang, Jun; Reiner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) threonine serine kinase is one of the key elements in orchestrating the DNA damage response (DDR). As such, inhibition of ATR can amplify the effects of chemo- and radiation-therapy, and several ATR inhibitors (ATRi) have already undergone clinical testing in cancer. For more accurate patient selection, monitoring and staging, real-time in vivo imaging of ATR could be invaluable; the development of appropriate imaging agents has remained a major challenge. Methods: 3-amino-N-(4-[ 18 F]phenyl)-6-(4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl) pyrazine-2-carboxamide ([ 18 F]-ATRi), a close analogue of Ve-821, (a clinical ATRi candidate), was readily accomplished similarly to already established synthetic procedures. Structurally, 18 F was introduced at the 4-position of the aromatic ring of Ve-821 for generating a labeled ATR inhibitor. In vitro experiments were conducted in U251 MG glioblastoma cell lines and ex vivo biodistribution were performed in subcutaneous U251 MG xenograft bearing athymic nude mice following microPET imaging. Results: [ 18 F]-ATRi has a similar pharmacokinetic profile to that of Ve-821. Using an U251 MG glioblastoma mouse model, we evaluated the in vivo binding efficiency of [ 18 F]-ATRi. Blood and tumor showed a statistically significant difference between mice injected with only the probe or following blocking experiment with Ve-821 (1.48 ± 0.40%ID/g vs. 0.46 ± 0.12%ID/g in tumor and 1.85 ± 0.47%ID/g vs. 0.84 ± 0.3%ID/g in blood respectively). Conclusions: [ 18 F]-ATRi represents the first 18 F positron emission tomography (PET) ATR imaging agent, and is designed on a low nanomolar and clinically relevant ATR inhibitor.

  14. The effects of esterified solvents on the diffusion of a model compound across human skin: an ATR-FTIR spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, W J; Chavda-Sitaram, S; Mader, K T; Tetteh, J; Lane, M E; Hadgraft, J

    2013-04-15

    Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy has been used to investigate the effects of three fatty acid esters on skin permeation. Propylene glycol diperlargonate (DPPG), isopropyl myristate (IPM) and isostearyl isostearate (ISIS) were selected as pharmaceutically relevant solvents with a range of lipophilicities and cyanophenol (CNP) was used as a model drug. The resultant data were compared with that obtained when water was used as the solvent. The diffusion of CNP, DPPG and IPM across epidermis was successfully described by a Fickian model. When ISIS was used as a solvent Fickian behaviour was only obtained across isolated stratum corneum suggesting that the hydrophilic layers of the epidermis interfere with the permeation of the hydrophobic ISIS. The diffusion coefficients of CNP across epidermis in the different solvents were not significantly different. Using chemometric data analysis diffusion profiles for the solvents were deconvoluted from that of the skin and modelled. Each of these solvents was found to diffuse at a faster rate across the skin than CNP. DPPG considerably increased the concentration of CNP in the stratum corneum in comparison with the other solvents indicating strong penetration enhancer potential. In contrast IPM produced a similar CNP concentration in the stratum corneum to water with ISIS resulting in a lower CNP concentration suggesting negligible enhancement and penetration retardation effects for these two solvents respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of Chemical Intermediates by Means of ATR-IR Spectroscopy and Hybrid Hard- and Soft-Modelling Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxiu Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 3,5-Diamino-1,2,4-triazole (DAT became a significant energetic materials intermediate, and the study of its reaction mechanism has fundamental significance in chemistry. The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of online attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR spectroscopy combined with the novel approach of hybrid hard- and soft-modelling multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (HS-MCR analysis to monitor and detect changes in structural properties of compound during 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole (DAT synthesis processes. The subspace comparison method (SCM was used to obtain the principal components number, and then the pure IR spectra of each substance were obtained by independent component analysis (ICA and HS-MCR. The extent of rotation ambiguity was estimated from the band boundaries of feasible solutions calculated using the MCR-BANDS procedure. There were five principal components including two intermediates in the process in the results. The reaction rate constants of DAT formation reaction were also obtained by HS-MCR. HS-MCR was used to analyze spectroscopy data in chemical synthesis process, which not only increase the information domain but also reduce the ambiguities of the obtained results. This study provides the theoretical basis for the optimization of synthesis process and technology of energetic materials and provides a strong technical support of research and development of energy material with extraordinary damage effects.

  16. Study of Chemical Intermediates by Means of ATR-IR Spectroscopy and Hybrid Hard- and Soft-Modelling Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junxiu; Qi, Juan; Gao, Xinyu; Yan, Chunhua; Zhang, Tianlong; Tang, Hongsheng; Li, Hua

    2017-01-01

    3,5-Diamino-1,2,4-triazole (DAT) became a significant energetic materials intermediate, and the study of its reaction mechanism has fundamental significance in chemistry. The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of online attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy combined with the novel approach of hybrid hard- and soft-modelling multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (HS-MCR) analysis to monitor and detect changes in structural properties of compound during 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole (DAT) synthesis processes. The subspace comparison method (SCM) was used to obtain the principal components number, and then the pure IR spectra of each substance were obtained by independent component analysis (ICA) and HS-MCR. The extent of rotation ambiguity was estimated from the band boundaries of feasible solutions calculated using the MCR-BANDS procedure. There were five principal components including two intermediates in the process in the results. The reaction rate constants of DAT formation reaction were also obtained by HS-MCR. HS-MCR was used to analyze spectroscopy data in chemical synthesis process, which not only increase the information domain but also reduce the ambiguities of the obtained results. This study provides the theoretical basis for the optimization of synthesis process and technology of energetic materials and provides a strong technical support of research and development of energy material with extraordinary damage effects.

  17. Carbon cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, J; Halbritter, G; Neumann-Hauf, G

    1982-05-01

    This report contains a review of literature on the subjects of the carbon cycle, the increase of the atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration and the possible impacts of an increased CO/sub 2/ concentration on the climate. In addition to this survey, the report discusses the questions that are still open and the resulting research needs. During the last twenty years a continual increase of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration by about 1-2 ppm per years has been observed. In 1958 the concentration was 315 ppm and this increased to 336 ppm in 1978. A rough estimate shows that the increase of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is about half of the amount of carbon dioxide added to the atmosphere by the combustion of fossil fuels. Two possible sinks for the CO/sub 2/ released into the atmosphere are known: the ocean and the biota. The role of the biota is, however, unclear, since it can act both as a sink and as a source. Most models of the carbon cycle are one-dimensional and cannot be used for accurate predictions. Calculations with climate models have shown that an increased atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration leads to a warming of the earth's surface and lower atmosphere. Calculations show that a doubling of the atmospheric CO/sub 2/-concentration would lead to a net heating of the lower atmosphere and earth's surface by a global average of about 4 W m/sup -2/. Greater uncertainties arise in estimating the change in surface temperature resulting from this change in heating rate. It is estimated that the global average annual surface temperature would change between 1.5 and 4.5 K. There are, however, latitudinal and seasonal variations of the impact of increased CO/sub 2/ concentration. Other meteorological variables (e.g. precipitation, wind speed etc.) would also be changed. It appears that the impacts of the other products of fossil fuel combustion are unlikely to counteract the impacts of CO/sub 2/ on the climate.

  18. Cumulative live-birth rates per total number of embryos needed to reach newborn in consecutive in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles: a new approach to measuring the likelihood of IVF success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Nicolás; Bellver, José; Remohí, José; Simón, Carlos; Pellicer, Antonio

    2011-07-01

    To report the use of cumulative live-birth rates (CLBRs) per ovarian stimulation cycle to measure the success of IVF is proving to be the most accurate method for advising couples who failed to conceive, although the accuracy yielded is relatively low, and cycle outcome is highly dependent on the number of embryos replaced. Our aim with this work is to report the CLBRs of IVF as a function of the number of embryos required to reach a live birth (EmbR), considering age, day of ET, and infertility etiology. Survival curves and Kaplan-Meier methods to analyze CLBR in a retrospective cohort with respect to the number of EmbR. University-affiliated infertility center. Infertile couples undergoing IVF using own oocytes. None. CLBR per embryo transferred. CLBRs increase rapidly between 1 and 5 EmbR, moderately between 5 and 15, and slowly thereafter. Live-birth rates rise more slowly when embryos are transferred on days 2-3 rather than on days 5-6, with comparable long-term results. Women's age is a negative factor from 35 to 37 years old, with a dramatic decrease in live-birth rates beyond age 40 years. In addition, there are significant worse results in endometriosis patients. The relationship between CLBR and number of EmbR provides realistic and precise information regarding IVF success and can be used to guide couples and practitioners. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Finite time exergy analysis and multi-objective ecological optimization of a regenerative Brayton cycle considering the impact of flow rate variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naserian, Mohammad Mahdi; Farahat, Said; Sarhaddi, Faramarz

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Defining a dimensionless parameter includes the finite-time and size concepts. • Inserting the concept of exergy of fluid streams into finite-time thermodynamics. • Defining, drawing and modifying of maximum ecological function curve. • Suggesting the appropriate performance zone, according to maximum ecological curve. - Abstract: In this study, the optimal performance of a regenerative Brayton cycle is sought through power and then ecological function maximization using finite-time thermodynamic concept and finite-size components. Multi-objective optimization is used for maximizing the ecological function. Optimizations are performed using genetic algorithm. In order to take into account the finite-time and finite-size concepts in current problem, a dimensionless mass-flow parameter is introduced deploying time variations. The variations of output power, total exergy destruction of the system, and decision variables for the optimum state (maximum ecological function state) are compared to the maximum power state using the dimensionless parameter. The modified ecological function in optimum state is obtained and plotted relating to the dimensionless mass-flow parameter. One can see that the modified ecological function study results in a better performance than that obtained with the maximum power state. Finally, the appropriate performance zone of the heat engine will be obtained

  20. Exposure of ELF-EMF and RF-EMF Increase the Rate of Glucose Transport and TCA Cycle in Budding Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kang-Wei; Yang, Chuan-Jun; Lian, Hui-Yong; Cai, Peng

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the transcriptional response to 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) and 2.0 GHz radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure by Illumina sequencing technology using budding yeast as the model organism. The transcription levels of 28 genes were upregulated and those of four genes were downregulated under ELF-EMF exposure, while the transcription levels of 29 genes were upregulated and those of 24 genes were downregulated under RF-EMF exposure. After validation by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), a concordant direction of change both in differential gene expression (DGE) and RT-qPCR was demonstrated for nine genes under ELF-EMF exposure and for 10 genes under RF-EMF exposure. The RT-qPCR results revealed that ELF-EMF and RF-EMF exposure can upregulate the expression of genes involved in glucose transportation and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, but not the glycolysis pathway. Energy metabolism is closely related with the cell response to environmental stress including EMF exposure. Our findings may throw light on the mechanism underlying the biological effects of EMF.

  1. Distribution patterns of nitrogen micro-cycle functional genes and their quantitative coupling relationships with nitrogen transformation rates in a biotrickling filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honglei; Ji, Guodong; Bai, Xueyuan

    2016-06-01

    The present study explored the distribution patterns of nitrogen micro-cycle genes and the underlying mechanisms responsible for nitrogen transformation at the molecular level (genes) in a biotrickling filter (biofilter). The biofilter achieved high removal efficiencies for ammonium (NH4(+)-N) (80-94%), whereas nitrate accumulated at different levels under a progressive NH4(+)-N load. Combined analyses revealed the anammox, nas, napA, narG, nirS, and nxrA genes were the dominant enriched genes in different treatment layers. The presence of simultaneous nitrification, ammonium oxidation (anammox), and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) were the primary factors accounted for the robust NH4(+)-N treatment performance. The presence of DNRA, nitrification, and denitrification was determined to be a pivotal pathway that contributed to the nitrate accumulation in the biofilter. The enrichment of functional genes at different depth gradients and the multi-path coupled cooperation at the functional gene level are conducive to achieving complete nitrogen removal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The global carbon cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier-Reimer, E.

    1991-01-01

    Basic concepts of the global carbon cycle on earth are described; by careful analyses of isotopic ratios, emission history and oceanic ventilation rates are derived, which provide crucial tests for constraining and calibrating models. Effects of deforestation, fertilizing, fossil fuel burning, soil erosion, etc. are quantified and compared, and the oceanic carbon process is evaluated. Oceanic and terrestrial biosphere modifications are discussed and a carbon cycle model is proposed

  3. 'Benefits cycle' replacing premium cycle as consumerism takes hold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    The traditional premium cycle of ups and downs in rates is giving way to a new phenomenon--driven by the advent of consumerism in health care--termed the "benefits cycle" by one consultant. Rather than shifts in rates, he argues, the future will see shifts in benefits packages.

  4. The application of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis to study drug crystallisation in the stratum corneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Choon Fu; Craig, Duncan Q M; Hadgraft, Jonathan; Lane, Majella E

    2017-02-01

    Drug permeation through the intercellular lipids, which pack around and between corneocytes, may be enhanced by increasing the thermodynamic activity of the active in a formulation. However, this may also result in unwanted drug crystallisation on and in the skin. In this work, we explore the combination of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis to study drug crystallisation in the skin. Ex vivo permeation studies of saturated solutions of diclofenac sodium (DF Na) in two vehicles, propylene glycol (PG) and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), were carried out in porcine ear skin. Tape stripping and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy were conducted simultaneously to collect spectral data as a function of skin depth. Multivariate data analysis was applied to visualise and categorise the spectral data in the region of interest (1700-1500cm -1 ) containing the carboxylate (COO - ) asymmetric stretching vibrations of DF Na. Spectral data showed the redshifts of the COO - asymmetric stretching vibrations for DF Na in the solution compared with solid drug. Similar shifts were evident following application of saturated solutions of DF Na to porcine skin samples. Multivariate data analysis categorised the spectral data based on the spectral differences and drug crystallisation was found to be confined to the upper layers of the skin. This proof-of-concept study highlights the utility of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analysis as a simple and rapid approach in the investigation of drug deposition in the skin. The approach described here will be extended to the study of other actives for topical application to the skin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. amoA Gene abundances and nitrification potential rates suggest that benthic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and not Archaea dominate N cycling in the Colne Estuary, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jialin; Nedwell, David B; Beddow, Jessica; Dumbrell, Alex J; McKew, Boyd A; Thorpe, Emma L; Whitby, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Nitrification, mediated by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), is important in global nitrogen cycling. In estuaries where gradients of salinity and ammonia concentrations occur, there may be differential selections for ammonia-oxidizer populations. The aim of this study was to examine the activity, abundance, and diversity of AOA and AOB in surface oxic sediments of a highly nutrified estuary that exhibits gradients of salinity and ammonium. AOB and AOA communities were investigated by measuring ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene abundance and nitrification potentials both spatially and temporally. Nitrification potentials differed along the estuary and over time, with the greatest nitrification potentials occurring mid-estuary (8.2 μmol N grams dry weight [gdw](-1) day(-1) in June, increasing to 37.4 μmol N gdw(-1) day(-1) in January). At the estuary head, the nitrification potential was 4.3 μmol N gdw(-1) day(-1) in June, increasing to 11.7 μmol N gdw(-1) day(-1) in January. At the estuary head and mouth, nitrification potentials fluctuated throughout the year. AOB amoA gene abundances were significantly greater (by 100-fold) than those of AOA both spatially and temporally. Nitrosomonas spp. were detected along the estuary by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) band sequence analysis. In conclusion, AOB dominated over AOA in the estuarine sediments, with the ratio of AOB/AOA amoA gene abundance increasing from the upper (freshwater) to lower (marine) regions of the Colne estuary. These findings suggest that in this nutrified estuary, AOB (possibly Nitrosomonas spp.) were of major significance in nitrification. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. The Mismatch-Binding Factor MutSβ Can Mediate ATR Activation in Response to DNA Double-Strand Breaks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burdová, Kamila; Mihaljevic, B.; Sturzenegger, A.; Chappidi, N.; Janščák, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 4 (2015), s. 603-614 ISSN 1097-2765 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/10/0281; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05743S Grant - others:Oncosuisse(CH) KLS-02344-02-2009; Swiss National Science Foundation(CH) 31003A_146206; Novartis Foundation for Medical and Biological Research(CH) 11A16 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) protein kinase * DNA-damage response * DNA Double-Strand Breaks Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 13.958, year: 2015

  7. Direct Binding to Replication Protein A (RPA)-coated Single-stranded DNA Allows Recruitment of the ATR Activator TopBP1 to Sites of DNA Damage*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Julyana; Yan, Shan; Michael, W. Matthew

    2016-01-01

    A critical event for the ability of cells to tolerate DNA damage and replication stress is activation of the ATR kinase. ATR activation is dependent on the BRCT (BRCA1 C terminus) repeat-containing protein TopBP1. Previous work has shown that recruitment of TopBP1 to sites of DNA damage and stalled replication forks is necessary for downstream events in ATR activation; however, the mechanism for this recruitment was not known. Here, we use protein binding assays and functional studies in Xenopus egg extracts to show that TopBP1 makes a direct interaction, via its BRCT2 domain, with RPA-coated single-stranded DNA. We identify a point mutant that abrogates this interaction and show that this mutant fails to accumulate at sites of DNA damage and that the mutant cannot activate ATR. These data thus supply a mechanism for how the critical ATR activator, TopBP1, senses DNA damage and stalled replication forks to initiate assembly of checkpoint signaling complexes. PMID:27129245

  8. ON-LINE MONITORING OF I&C TRANSMITTERS AND SENSORS FOR CALIBRATION VERIFICATION AND RESPONSE TIME TESTING WAS SUCCESSFULLY IMPLEMENTED AT ATR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Phillip A.; O' Hagan, Ryan; Shumaker, Brent; Hashemian, H. M.

    2017-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) has always had a comprehensive procedure to verify the performance of its critical transmitters and sensors, including RTDs, and pressure, level, and flow transmitters. These transmitters and sensors have been periodically tested for response time and calibration verification to ensure accuracy. With implementation of online monitoring techniques at ATR, the calibration verification and response time testing of these transmitters and sensors are verified remotely, automatically, hands off, include more portions of the system, and can be performed at almost any time during process operations. The work was done under a DOE funded SBIR project carried out by AMS. As a result, ATR is now able to save the manpower that has been spent over the years on manual calibration verification and response time testing of its temperature and pressure sensors and refocus those resources towards more equipment reliability needs. More importantly, implementation of OLM will help enhance the overall availability, safety, and efficiency. Together with equipment reliability programs of ATR, the integration of OLM will also help with I&C aging management goals of the Department of Energy and long-time operation of ATR.

  9. Enhanced rate capability and cycling stability of core/shell structured CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/onion-like C nanocapsules for lithium-ion battery anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xianguo, E-mail: liuxianguohugh@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002 (China); Wu, Niandu; Cui, Caiyun; Zhou, Pingping [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002 (China); Sun, Yuping [Center for Engineering Practice and Innovation Education, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243032 (China)

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • Core/shell-structured CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/onion-like carbon nanocapsules have been prepared. • CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/C nanocapsules possess good reversibility even when the current density is up to 4C. • CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/C nanocapsules obtain a discharge capacity of 914.2 mA h g{sup −1} after 500 cycles at 0.1C. - Abstract: In this work, core/shell structured CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/onion-like C nanocapsules have been successfully fabricated by the arc discharge method and air-annealing process and confirmed by X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The core/shell structure effectively withstands the volume change of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles during the cycling process. Moreover, the onion-like C shells reduce the charge transfer resistance and facilitate electron and ion transport throughout the electrode. As a result, CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/onion-like C nanocapsules exhibit excellent performance as a potential anode material for lithium ion batteries and deliver a reversible capacity of 914.2 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1C, even after 500 cycles and recover its original capacity when the rate returns from 4C to the initial 0.1C after 120 cycles.

  10. A Self-consistent Model for a Full Cycle of Recurrent Novae—Wind Mass-loss Rate and X-Ray Luminosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Mariko [Department of Astronomy, Keio University, Hiyoshi, Yokohama 223-8521 (Japan); Saio, Hideyuki [Astronomical Institute, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8578 (Japan); Hachisu, Izumi, E-mail: mariko.kato@hc.st.keio.ac.jp [Department of Earth Science and Astronomy, College of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)

    2017-04-01

    An unexpectedly slow evolution in the pre-optical-maximum phase was suggested in the very short recurrence period of nova M31N 2008-12a. To obtain reasonable nova light curves we have improved our calculation method by consistently combining optically thick wind solutions of hydrogen-rich envelopes with white dwarf (WD) structures calculated by a Henyey-type evolution code. The wind mass-loss rate is properly determined with high accuracy. We have calculated light curve models for 1.2 M {sub ⊙} and 1.38 M {sub ⊙} WDs with mass accretion rates corresponding to recurrence periods of 10 yr and 1 yr, respectively. The outburst lasts 590/29 days, in which the pre-optical-maximum phase is 82/16 days, for 1.2/1.38 M {sub ⊙}, respectively. Optically thick winds start at the end of the X-ray flash and cease at the beginning of the supersoft X-ray phase. We also present supersoft X-ray light curves including a prompt X-ray flash and later supersoft X-ray phase.

  11. Sobre el iuspositivismo que hemos de dejar atrás. Una crítica iusnaturalista a "Dejemos atrás el positivismo jurídico" de Atienza y de Ruiz Manero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ CHÁVEZ-FERNÁNDEZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A través de la confrontación de las tesis más relevantes que Atienza y Ruiz Manero proponen en su artículo "Dejemos atrás el positivismo jurídico", el autor pretende mostrar-a partir de la respuesta a las preguntas "¿qué iuspositivismo hemos de dejar atrás?", "¿por qué?" y "¿cómo?"- que existen en el iuspositivismo debilidades explicativas graves respecto de la realidad jurídica, y que estas están vinculadas tanto al escepticismo ético como a la negación de la existencia de un Derecho natural en sentido propio, es decir, de raigambre antropológico-metafísica. Por otro lado, se tratará de evidenciar que dichas debilidades explicativas le son comunes también a los intentos pragmático-constructivistas de superación del iuspositivismo por lo que, en última instancia, ninguno de dichos esquemas conceptuales puede dar cuenta cabal de una realidad como los derechos humanos que se presentan como deudas ético-jurídicas inexcusables fundamentadas en la dignidad ontológica de todos los seres humanos.

  12. Facile synthesis of LiAl0.1Mn1.9O4 as cathode material for lithium ion batteries: towards rate and cycling capabilities at an elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Donglei; Li, Bao; Chang, Zhaorong; Tang, Hongwei; Xu, Xinhong; Chang, Kun; Shangguan, Enbao; Yuan, Xiao-Zi; Wang, Haijiang

    2014-01-01

    To improve the cycling performance of spinel LiMn 2 O 4 , Al-doped LiMn 2 O 4 , LiAl 0.1 Mn 1.9 O 4 , is synthesized using Mn 1.9 Al 0.1 O 3 precursor and LiOH·H 2 O via a low temperature solid-phase reaction. The Mn 1.9 Al 0.1 O 3 precursor, prepared from the electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) and Al(OH) 3 , is composed of spherical particles with an average diameter of 300 nm, and has a large interspace. Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) indicates the Al element is well distributed in Mn 1.9 Al 0.1 O 3 and LiAl 0.1 Mn 1.9 O 4 . The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images show that the LiAl 0.1 Mn 1.9 O 4 sample has a high crystallinity with sizes ranging from 300 to 500 nm. Electrochemical properties of LiAl 0.1 Mn 1.9 O 4 are studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge. The results show that LiAl 0.1 Mn 1.9 O 4 possesses better rate and cycling capabilities than LiMn 2 O 4 at both 25 °C and 55 °C. At a rate of 5 C, the capacity retention ratio of the LiMn 1.9 Al 0.1 O 4 electrode after 100 cycles is about 95% at 25 °C and about 90% at 55 °C

  13. Assessing Cycling Participation in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Rissel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Planning and evaluating cycling programs at a national or state level requires accurate measures of cycling participation. However, recent reports of cycling participation have produced very different estimates. This paper examines the reported rates of cycling in five recent population surveys of cycling. Three surveys (one national and two from Sydney asking respondents when they last rode a bicycle generated cycling participation (cycled in the past year estimates of 29.7%, 34.1% and 28.9%. Two other national surveys which asked participants to recall (unprompted any physical activity done for exercise, recreation or sport in the previous 12 months, estimated cycling in the past year as 11.1% and 6.5%. While unprompted recall of cycling as a type of physical activity generates lower estimates of cycling participation than specific recall questions, both assessment approaches produced similar patterns of cycling by age and sex with both approaches indicating fewer women and older adults cycling. The different question styles most likely explain the substantial discrepancies between the estimates of cycling participation. Some differences are to be expected due to sampling variability, question differences, and regional variation in cycling.

  14. Female age, serum antimüllerian hormone level, and number of oocytes affect the rate and number of euploid blastocysts in in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Antonio; Minasi, Maria Giulia; Sighinolfi, Giovanna; Greco, Pierfrancesco; Argento, Cindy; Grisendi, Valentina; Fiorentino, Francesco; Greco, Ermanno

    2017-11-01

    To study the relative role of female age and ovarian reserve, measured through serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) in determining the rate and number of euploid blastocysts in in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Retrospective analysis of cycles performed in 2014-2015. Tertiary referral IVF center. A total of 578 infertile couples undergoing IVF/ICSI and preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) analysis. All embryos were cultured and biopsied at the blastocyst stage. The method involved whole-genome amplification followed by array comparative genome hybridization. Serum AMH was measured by means of the modified Beckman Coulter AMH Gen II assay. The rate and number of euploid blastocysts and their correlation with ovarian reserve and response to stimulation. The mean (±SD) age of patients was 37.6 ± 4.1 years, and the mean number of blastocysts per patient was 3.1 ± 2. The total number of blastocysts available to the analysis was 1,814, and 36% of them were euploid after PGS. Age and serum AMH were significantly and independently related to the rate of euploid blastocysts available for patients. As an effect of the cohort size, the number of mature oocytes positively affected the total number of euploid blastocysts per patient. A strong positive age-independent relationship between AMH level and the rate of euploid blastocysts was found. This confirms that the measurement of ovarian reserve by means of AMH has high relevance when counseling infertile patients. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A multi-nuclide approach to quantify long-term erosion rates and exposure history through multiple glacial-interglacial cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strunk, Astrid; Larsen, Nicolaj Krog; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou

    Cosmogenic nuclides are traditionally used to either determine the glaciation history or the denudation history of the most recent exposure period. A few studies use the cosmogenic nuclides to determine the cumulative exposure and burial durations of a sample. However, until now it has not been...... possible to resolve the complex pattern of exposure history under a fluctuating ice sheet. In this study, we quantify long-term erosion rates along with durations of multiple exposure periods in West Greenland by applying a novel Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) inversion approach to existing 10Be and 26Al....... The new MCMC approach allows us to constrain the most likely landscape history based on comparisons between simulated and measured cosmogenic nuclide concentrations. It is a fundamental assumption of the model that the exposure history at the site/location can be divided into two distinct regimes: i...

  16. Glacial cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufmann, R. K.; Juselius, Katarina

    We use a statistical model, the cointegrated vector autoregressive model, to assess the degree to which variations in Earth's orbit and endogenous climate dynamics can be used to simulate glacial cycles during the late Quaternary (390 kyr-present). To do so, we estimate models of varying complexity...... and compare the accuracy of their in-sample simulations. Results indicate that strong statistical associations between endogenous climate variables are not enough for statistical models to reproduce glacial cycles. Rather, changes in solar insolation associated with changes in Earth's orbit are needed...... to simulate glacial cycles accurately. Also, results suggest that non-linear 10 dynamics, threshold effects, and/or free oscillations may not play an overriding role in glacial cycles....

  17. Fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1983-05-01

    AECL publications, from the open literature, on fuels and fuel cycles used in CANDU reactors are listed in this bibliography. The accompanying index is by subject. The bibliography will be brought up to date periodically

  18. In-situ monitoring of blood glucose level for dialysis machine by AAA-battery-size ATR Fourier spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Satsuki; Sato, Shun; Ishida, Akane; Suzuki, Yo; Inohara, Daichi; Nogo, Kosuke; Abeygunawardhana, Pradeep K.; Suzuki, Satoru; Nishiyama, Akira; Wada, Kenji; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2015-07-01

    For blood glucose level measurement of dialysis machines, we proposed AAA-battery-size ATR (Attenuated total reflection) Fourier spectroscopy in middle infrared light region. The proposed one-shot Fourier spectroscopic imaging is a near-common path and spatial phase-shift interferometer with high time resolution. Because numerous number of spectral data that is 60 (= camera frame rare e.g. 60[Hz]) multiplied by pixel number could be obtained in 1[sec.], statistical-averaging improvement realize high-accurate spectral measurement. We evaluated the quantitative accuracy of our proposed method for measuring glucose concentration in near-infrared light region with liquid cells. We confirmed that absorbance at 1600[nm] had high correlations with glucose concentrations (correlation coefficient: 0.92). But to measure whole-blood, complex light phenomenon caused from red blood cells, that is scattering and multiple reflection or so, deteriorate spectral data. Thus, we also proposed the ultrasound-assisted spectroscopic imaging that traps particles at standing-wave node. Thus, if ATR prism is oscillated mechanically, anti-node area is generated around evanescent light field on prism surface. By elimination complex light phenomenon of red blood cells, glucose concentration in whole-blood will be quantify with high accuracy. In this report, we successfully trapped red blood cells in normal saline solution with ultrasonic standing wave (frequency: 2[MHz]).

  19. An ATR-dependent function for the Ddx19 RNA helicase in nuclear R-loop metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodroj, Dana; Recolin, Bénédicte; Serhal, Kamar; Martinez, Susan; Tsanov, Nikolay; Abou Merhi, Raghida; Maiorano, Domenico

    2017-05-02

    Coordination between transcription and replication is crucial in the maintenance of genome integrity. Disturbance of these processes leads to accumulation of aberrant DNA:RNA hybrids (R-loops) that, if unresolved, generate DNA damage and genomic instability. Here we report a novel, unexpected role for the nucleopore-associated mRNA export factor Ddx19 in removing nuclear R-loops formed upon replication stress or DNA damage. We show, in live cells, that Ddx19 transiently relocalizes from the nucleopore to the nucleus upon DNA damage, in an ATR/Chk1-dependent manner, and that Ddx19 nuclear relocalization is required to clear R-loops. Ddx19 depletion induces R-loop accumulation, proliferation-dependent DNA damage and defects in replication fork progression. Further, we show that Ddx19 resolves R-loops in vitro via its helicase activity. Furthermore, mutation of a residue phosphorylated by Chk1 in Ddx19 disrupts its interaction with Nup214 and allows its nuclear relocalization. Finally, we show that Ddx19 operates in resolving R-loops independently of the RNA helicase senataxin. Altogether these observations put forward a novel, ATR-dependent function for Ddx19 in R-loop metabolism to preserve genome integrity in mammalian cells. © 2017 The Authors.

  20. Major Roles for Pyrimidine Dimers, Nucleotide Excision Repair, and ATR in the Alternative Splicing Response to UV Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel J. Muñoz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We have previously found that UV irradiation promotes RNA polymerase II (RNAPII hyperphosphorylation and subsequent changes in alternative splicing (AS. We show now that UV-induced DNA damage is not only necessary but sufficient to trigger the AS response and that photolyase-mediated removal of the most abundant class of pyrimidine dimers (PDs abrogates the global response to UV. We demonstrate that, in keratinocytes, RNAPII is the target, but not a sensor, of the signaling cascade initiated by PDs. The UV effect is enhanced by inhibition of gap-filling DNA synthesis, the last step in the nucleotide excision repair pathway (NER, and reduced by the absence of XPE, the main NER sensor of PDs. The mechanism involves activation of the protein kinase ATR that mediates the UV-induced RNAPII hyperphosphorylation. Our results define the sequence UV-PDs-NER-ATR-RNAPII-AS as a pathway linking DNA damage repair to the control of both RNAPII phosphorylation and AS regulation.

  1. Department of Energy's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), July 14--18, 1980: An independent on-site safety review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    The intent of this review was not to conduct a detailed in-depth audit, but rather to make a broad management assessment of ATR operations. The results of the review should only be considered as having identified trends or indications. The Team's observations and recommendations for the most part are based upon standards used for licensed reactor facility practices. These standards form the basis for many of the comments in this report. The Team believes that a uniform minimum standard of performance should be achieved in the operation of DOE reactors. In order to assure that this is accomplished, clear standards are necessary. Consistent with the past AEC and ERDA policy, the Team has used the standards of the commercial nuclear power industry. It is recognized that this approach is conservative, in that the ATR reactor has a significantly greater degree of inherent safety (lower pressure, temperature, power, etc.) than a licensed reactor. Although the Review Team found no indications or evidence that the plant is being operated in an unsafe manner, various areas were identified where improvements are either needed or should be considered to increase the safety of reactor operations

  2. A new integrated TLC/MU-ATR/SERS advanced approach for the identification of trace amounts of dyes in mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciutto, Giorgia; Prati, Silvia; Bonacini, Irene; Litti, Lucio; Meneghetti, Moreno; Mazzeo, Rocco

    2017-10-23

    The present research is focused on the setting up of an advanced analytical system for the detection of synthetic dyes. The system is based on the combination of an innovative thin layer chromatography (TLC) plate coupled with enhanced infrared (MU-ATR, metal underlayer attenuated total reflection) and Surface Enhanced Raman (SERS) spectroscopy. In particular, a TLC plate made of silver iodide (AgI) applied onto a gold coated glass slide (AgI@Au) is proposed as an efficient stationary phase for the separation of dyes mixtures. The separated dyes are then identified by means of both enhanced FTIR and SERS, performed directly on the same eluted spots. The use of a mid-IR transparent inorganic salt as stationary phase coupled with the underneath gold layer avoids spectral interferences, enhancing the signal obtained from ATR analyses. At the same time, SERS spectra can be recorded as the TLC plate may act as a SERS active substrate due to the photoreduction of AgI to metallic Ag caused by the exposure to the laser during the Raman analysis. Different mixtures of synthetic dyes of known composition, widely used in dyeing processes, have been tested and the method resulted to be effective in identifying trace amounts in the order of tens nanograms. Moreover, the method has been further evaluated on a real case study represented by dyes extracted from dyed wool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. ATR FT-IR spectroscopy on Vmh2 hydrophobin self-assembled layers for Teflon membrane bio-functionalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portaccio, M.; Gravagnuolo, A.M.; Longobardi, S.; Giardina, P.; Rea, I.; De Stefano, L.; Cammarota, M.; Lepore, M.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Hydrophobin self-assembled layers on Teflon in different preparation conditions were investigated. • ATR collection data geometry allowed samples examination without any particular preparation. • Amide content, lipid/amide and carbohy