WorldWideScience

Sample records for rate jet impact

  1. Study on the Impact Characteristics of Coherent Supersonic Jet and Conventional Supersonic Jet in EAF Steelmaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guangsheng; Zhu, Rong; Cheng, Ting; Dong, Kai; Yang, Lingzhi; Wu, Xuetao

    2018-02-01

    Supersonic oxygen-supplying technologies, including the coherent supersonic jet and the conventional supersonic jet, are now widely applied in electric arc furnace steelmaking processes to increase the bath stirring, reaction rates, and energy efficiency. However, there has been limited research on the impact characteristics of the two supersonic jets. In the present study, by integrating theoretical modeling and numerical simulations, a hybrid model was developed and modified to calculate the penetration depth and impact zone volume of the coherent and conventional supersonic jets. The computational fluid dynamics results were validated against water model experiments. The results show that the lance height has significant influence on the jet penetration depth and jet impact zone volume. The penetration depth decreases with increasing lance height, whereas the jet impact zone volume initially increases and then decreases with increasing lance height. In addition, the penetration depth and impact zone volume of the coherent supersonic jet are larger than those of the conventional supersonic jet at the same lance height, which illustrates the advantages of the coherent supersonic jet in delivering great amounts of oxygen to liquid melt with a better stirring effect compared to the conventional supersonic jet. A newly defined parameter, the k value, reflects the velocity attenuation and the potential core length of the main supersonic jet. Finally, a hybrid model and its modifications can well predict the penetration depth and impact zone volume of the coherent and conventional supersonic jets.

  2. Analysis of multiplicities in e+e- interactions using 2-jet rates from different jet algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahiya, S.; Kaur, M.; Dhamija, S.

    2002-01-01

    The shoulder structure of charged particle multiplicity distribution measured in full phase space in e + e - interactions at various c.m. energies from 91 to 189 GeV has been analysed in terms of weighted superposition of two negative binomial distributions associated with 2-jet and multi-jet production. The 2-jet rates have been obtained from various jet algorithms. This phenomenological parametrization reproduces the shoulder structure behaviour quantitatively and improves the agreement with the experimental distributions than the conventional negative binomial distribution. The analysis at the higher energies where the shoulder structure appears more prominently, is important for the understanding of underlying structure. (author)

  3. Plasma impact on diagnostic mirrors in JET

    OpenAIRE

    A. Garcia-Carrasco; P. Petersson; M. Rubel; A. Widdowson; E. Fortuna-Zalesna; S. Jachmich; M. Brix; L. Marot

    2017-01-01

    Metallic mirrors will be essential components of all optical systems for plasma diagnosis in ITER. This contribution provides a comprehensive account on plasma impact on diagnostic mirrors in JET with the ITER-Like Wall. Specimens from the First Mirror Test and the lithium-beam diagnostic have been studied by spectrophotometry, ion beam analysis and electron microscopy. Test mirrors made of molybdenum were retrieved from the main chamber and the divertor after exposure to the 2013–2014 experi...

  4. Plasma impact on diagnostic mirrors in JET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Garcia-Carrasco

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Metallic mirrors will be essential components of all optical systems for plasma diagnosis in ITER. This contribution provides a comprehensive account on plasma impact on diagnostic mirrors in JET with the ITER-Like Wall. Specimens from the First Mirror Test and the lithium-beam diagnostic have been studied by spectrophotometry, ion beam analysis and electron microscopy. Test mirrors made of molybdenum were retrieved from the main chamber and the divertor after exposure to the 2013–2014 experimental campaign. In the main chamber, only mirrors located at the entrance of the carrier lost reflectivity (Be deposition, while those located deeper in the carrier were only slightly affected. The performance of mirrors in the JET divertor was strongly degraded by deposition of beryllium, tungsten and other species. Mirrors from the lithium-beam diagnostic have been studied for the first time. Gold coatings were severely damaged by intense arcing. As a consequence, material mixing of the gold layer with the stainless steel substrate occurred. Total reflectivity dropped from over 90% to less than 60%, i.e. to the level typical for stainless steel.

  5. Determination of vibration frequency depending on abrasive mass flow rate during abrasive water jet cutting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hreha, P.; Radvanská, A.; Hloch, Sergej; Peržel, V.; Krolczyk, G.; Monková, K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 77, 1-4 (2014), s. 763-774 ISSN 0268-3768 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Abrasive water jet * Abrasive mass flow rate * Vibration Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 1.458, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00170-014-6497-9#page-1

  6. Impact of jet veto resummation on slepton searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.; Nikhef, Amsterdam; Zeune, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    Several searches for new physics at the LHC require a fixed number of signal jets, vetoing events with additional jets from QCD radiation. As the probed scale of new physics gets much larger than the jet-veto scale, such jet vetoes strongly impact the QCD perturbative series, causing nontrivial theoretical uncertainties. We consider slepton pair production with 0 signal jets, for which we perform the resummation of jet-veto logarithms and study its impact. Currently, the experimental exclusion limits take the jet-veto cut into account by extrapolating to the inclusive cross section using parton shower Monte Carlos. Our results indicate that the associated theoretical uncertainties can be large, and when taken into account have a sizeable impact already on present exclusion limits. This is improved by performing the resummation to higher order, which allows us to obtain accurate predictions even for high slepton masses. For the interpretation of the experimental results to benefit from improved theory predictions, it would be useful for the experimental analyses to also provide limits on the unfolded visible 0-jet cross section.

  7. Effects of pulsating water jet impact on aluminium surface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Foldyna, Josef; Sitek, Libor; Ščučka, Jiří; Martinec, Petr; Valíček, Jan; Páleníková, K.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 2009, č. 20 (2009), s. 6174-6180 ISSN 0924-0136 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/07/1451; GA ČR GP101/07/P512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : pulsating water jet * jet impact * material erosion * surface characteristics Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 1.420, year: 2009 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science

  8. Jet stream wind power as a renewable energy resource: little power, big impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Miller

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Jet streams are regions of sustained high wind speeds in the upper atmosphere and are seen by some as a substantial renewable energy resource. However, jet streams are nearly geostrophic flow, that is, they result from the balance between the pressure gradient and Coriolis force in the near absence of friction. Therefore, jet stream motion is associated with very small generation rates of kinetic energy to maintain the high wind velocities, and it is this generation rate that will ultimately limit the potential use of jet streams as a renewable energy resource. Here we estimate the maximum limit of jet stream wind power by considering extraction of kinetic energy as a term in the free energy balance of kinetic energy that describes the generation, depletion, and extraction of kinetic energy. We use this balance as the basis to quantify the maximum limit of how much kinetic energy can be extracted sustainably from the jet streams of the global atmosphere as well as the potential climatic impacts of its use. We first use a simple thought experiment of geostrophic flow to demonstrate why the high wind velocities of the jet streams are not associated with a high potential for renewable energy generation. We then use an atmospheric general circulation model to estimate that the maximum sustainable extraction from jet streams of the global atmosphere is about 7.5 TW. This estimate is about 200-times less than previous estimates and is due to the fact that the common expression for instantaneous wind power 12 ρv3 merely characterizes the transport of kinetic energy by the flow, but not the generation rate of kinetic energy. We also find that when maximum wind power is extracted from the jet streams, it results in significant

  9. Droplet impaction on solid surfaces exposed to impinging jet fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazemi, Zia

    2005-12-15

    The thermal response of hot surfaces exposed to impinging jet fire and subsequent impacting water droplets is investigated. The research was done mainly experimentally by utilizing three different concepts. This included experiments on a laboratory scale steel plate and large outdoor fire tests with a quadratic steel channel and steel plates. Besides the horizontal jet flame itself was characterized in a comprehensive study. As a comparative study, the last three types of the experiment were additionally modeled by the CFD-code Kameleon FireEx for validation of results. The purpose of the experiments done on bench scale steel plate (L x W x T : 300 x 200 x 8 mm) was mainly to map data on wetting temperature, water droplet size, droplet impingement angle, and droplet velocity prior to large scale jet fire tests. The droplet release angle normal to hot surface gives best cooling effect, when the surface is oriented in upright position. The partial wetting begins at about 165 degrees C. When the surface is positioned in horizontal plane, the droplet of about 5 mm in diameter wets the hot surface partially at around 240-250 degrees C within an impaction distance of 20 cm. At about 150 degrees C, the droplet is entirely attached to the surface with almost zero contact angle, and cools down the solid at a critical heat flux equivalent to 1750 kW/m{sup 2}. The cooling effectiveness is about 8 % with a Weber number of 68. Although in the event of horizontal channel (L x W x T : 1000 x 200 x 8 mm) water droplets were not applied, however, the knowledge gained with jet fire tests gave valuable information about temperature progress in solids (steels and insulation) and their response to impinging jet fire during long duration experiments. The temperature of the insulated area of the channel keeps 200 degrees C below that of the exposed surface, as long as the insulation material remained intact. Upon long test fire durations, the insulation either burns or degrades despite

  10. A new analysis of the momentum and mass-loss rates of stellar jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raga, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    A very important question in the theory of bipolar outflows from young stars is posed by the still not understood relation between molecular outflows and optical outflows (i.e., stellar jets and Herbig-Haro objects). In some past studies, estimates of mass and momentum rates associated with these outflows indicated that stellar jets have approximately 2 orders of magnitude smaller values for these parameters than the molecular outflows associated with the same sources. However, a reanalysis of observations of stellar jets in the light of new theoretical jet models yields values of mass and momentum rates comparable to the ones of molecular outflows. From this result it can be tentatively speculated that stellar jets (or Herbig-Haro objects) and molecular outflows might be different manifestations of basically the same flow. 21 refs

  11. Jetting from impact of a spherical drop with a deep layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Toole, Jameson; Fazzaa, Kamel; Deegan, Robert; Deegan Group Team; X-Ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source Collaboration

    2011-11-01

    We performed an experimental study of jets during the impact of a spherical drop with a deep layer of same liquid. Using high speed optical and X-ray imaging, we observe two types of jets: the so-called ejecta sheet which emerges almost immediately after impact and the lamella which emerges later. For high Reynolds number the two jets are distinct, while for low Reynolds number the two jets combine into a single continuous jet. We also measured the emergence time, speed, and position of the ejecta sheet and found simple scaling relations for these quantities.

  12. Jet rates in photoproduction on proton and nuclei at the LHeC

    CERN Document Server

    Armesto, N

    2010-01-01

    I compute the inclusive jet rates in photoproduction for $e$p and $e$Pb collisions at the LHeC, within QCD at NLO. The results show that rates around $10^3$ jets per GeV are expected with $E_{Tjet}\\sim 95$ (80) GeV in $e$p ($e$Pb), for $|\\eta_{jet}|<3.1$ and an integrated luminosity of 2 fb$^{-1}$ per nucleon. The effect of the nuclear modification of parton densities and their uncertainties - the only ones considered in this exploratory study - are smaller than 10 \\%.

  13. Cavitation induced by high speed impact of a solid surface on a liquid jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Mohamed; Tinguely, Marc; Rouvinez, Mathieu

    2009-11-01

    A solid surface may suffer from severe erosion if it impacts a liquid jet at high speed. The physics behind the erosion process remains unclear. In the present study, we have investigated the impact of a gun bullet on a laminar water jet with the help of a high speed camera. The bullet has a flat front and 11 mm diameter, which is half of jet diameter. The impact speed was varied between 200 and 500 ms-1. Immediately after the impact, a systematic shock wave and high speed jetting were observed. As the compression waves reflect on the jet boundary, a spectacular number of vapour cavities are generated within the jet. Depending on the bullet velocity, these cavities may grow and collapse violently on the bullet surface with a risk of cavitation erosion. We strongly believe that this transient cavitation is the main cause of erosion observed in many industrial applications such as Pelton turbines.

  14. Measurement of αs from jet rates in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.

    1995-10-01

    Jet production in deep inelastic scattering for 120 2 2 has been studied using data from an integrated luminosity of 3.2 pb -1 collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA. Jets are identified with the JADE algorithm. A cut on the angular distribution of parton emission in the γ-parton centre-of-mass system minimises the experimental and theoretical uncertainties in the determination of the jet rates. The jet rates, when compared to OMIKRON (α s 2 ) perturbative QCD calculations, allow a precise determination of α s (Q) in three Q 2 -intervals. The values are consistent with a running of α s (Q), as expected from QCD. Extrapolating to Q=M (Z 0 ) yields α s (M Z 0 )=0.117±0.005(stat) -0.005 +0.004 (syst exp )±0. 007(syst theory ). (orig.)

  15. Dose Rate Experiment at JET for Benchmarking the Calculation Direct One Step Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelone, M.; Petrizzi, L.; Pillon, M.; Villari, R.; Popovichev, S.

    2006-01-01

    , experimental background data and dose rate, the latter collected during some operation free days in the early phase of the 2006 JET campaign, are compared with the same quantities calculated using the D1S approach. The impact of key parameters (geometrical model, materials impurities, different sets of cross sections) to the calculated dose rates is discussed as well. (author)

  16. Determination of $\\alpha_{s}$ using Jet Rates at LEP with the OPAL detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barillari, T.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, D.G.; Ciocca, C.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harel, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Horvath, D.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kramer, T.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lellouch, D.; Lettso, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, A.; Ludwig, J.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McKenna, J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, Niels T.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Nanjo, H.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Roney, J.M.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schorner-Sadenius, T.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Vertesi, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija

    2006-01-01

    Hadronic events produced in e+e- collisions by the LEP collider and recorded by the OPAL detector were used to form distributions based on the number of reconstructed jets. The data were collected between 1995 and 2000 and correspond to energies of 91 GeV, 130-136 GeV and 161-209 GeV. The jet rates were determined using four different jet-finding algorithms (Cone, JADE, Durham and Cambridge). The differential two-jet rate and the average jet rate with the Durham and Cambridge algorithms were used to measure alpha(s) in the LEP energy range by fitting an expression in which order alpah_2s calculations were matched to a NLLA prediction and fitted to the data. Combining the measurements at different centre-of-mass energies, the value of alpha_s (Mz) was determined to be alpha(s)(Mz)=0.1177+-0.0006(stat.)+-0.0012$(expt.)+-0.0010(had.)+-0.0032

  17. Crust behavior and erosion rate prediction of EPR sacrificial material impinged by core melt jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Gen; Liu, Ming, E-mail: ming.liu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Wang, Jinshi; Chong, Daotong; Yan, Junjie

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • A numerical code was developed to analyze melt jet-concrete interaction in the frame of MPS method. • Crust and ablated concrete layer at UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} melt and concrete interface periodically developed and collapsed. • Concrete surface temperature fluctuated around a low temperature and ablation temperature. • Concrete erosion by Fe-Zr melt jet was significantly faster than that by UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} melt jet. - Abstract: Sacrificial material is a special ferro-siliceous concrete, designed in the ex-vessel core melt stabilization system of European Pressurized water Reactor (EPR). Given a localized break of RPV lower head, the melt directly impinges onto the dry concrete in form of compact jet. The concrete erosion behavior influences the failure of melt plug, and further affects melt spreading. In this study, a numerical code was developed in the frame of Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method, to analyze the crust behavior and erosion rate of sacrificial concrete, impinged by prototypic melt jet. In validation of numerical modeling, the time-dependent erosion depth and erosion configuration matched well with the experimental data. Sensitivity study of sacrificial concrete erosion indicates that the crust and ablated concrete layer presented at UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} melt and concrete interface, whereas no crust could be found in the interaction of Fe-Zr melt with concrete. The crust went through stabilization-fracture-reformation periodic process, accompanied with accumulating and collapsing of molten concrete layer. The concrete surface temperature fluctuated around a low temperature and ablation temperature. It increased as the concrete surface layer was heated to melting, and dropped down when the cold concrete was revealed. The erosion progression was fast in the conditions of small jet diameter and large concrete inclination angle, and it was significantly faster in the erosion by metallic melt jet than by oxidic melt jet.

  18. A study of jet rates and measurement of αS at the Z0 resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauber, J.A.

    1993-02-01

    This experiment was performed with the SLD detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Only charged tracks measured in the central drift chamber were used for the measurement of the jet production rates. The value of the strong coupling α s (M Z o ) is determined from the production rates of jets in hadronic Z 0 decays in e + e - annihilations. The relative jet rates are obtained using the JADE-type algorithms. The results are compared with the jet rates obtained from a new jet algorithm proposed by N. Brown et al. called the ''Durham'' algorithm. The data can be well described by O(α s 2 ) QCD calculations and by QCD shower model calculations. A fit of the theoretical predictions to the data taken with the SLD yields a value, α s (M Z o ) = 0.120 ± 0.002(stat.) ± 0.003(exp.) -0.009 +0.011 (theor.). The error is dominated by the theoretical uncertainties. The measurement is compared with results from other experiments and it is shown that the value obtained for α s agrees well with these results and furthermore supports the evidence for the running of the strong coupling, consistent with the non-Abelian nature of QCD. The Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) can deliver partially longitudinally polarized electrons to the interaction point. Jet production rates and values for α s are calculated both for right-handed and left-handed initial state electrons. All results are consistent with the unpolarized result, as predicted by the Standard Model

  19. Impact of a single drop on the same liquid: formation, growth and disintegration of jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbaglah, G. Gilou; Deegan, Robert

    2015-11-01

    One of the simplest splashing scenarios results from the impact of a single drop on on the same liquid. The traditional understanding of this process is that the impact generates a jet that later breaks up into secondary droplets. Recently it was shown that even this simplest of scenarios is more complicated than expected because multiple jets can be generated from a single impact event and there are bifurcations in the multiplicity of jets. First, we study the formation, growth and disintegration of jets following the impact of a drop on a thin film of the same liquid using a combination of numerical simulations and linear stability theory. We obtain scaling relations from our simulations and use these as inputs to our stability analysis. We also use experiments and numerical simulations of a single drop impacting on a deep pool to examine the bifurcation from a single jet into two jets. Using high speed X-ray imaging methods we show that vortex separation within the drop leads to the formation of a second jet long after the formation of the ejecta sheet.

  20. Newtonian liquid jet impaction on a high-speed moving surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keshavarz, B.; Green, S.I.; Davy, M.H.; Eadie, D.T.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied experimentally the interaction of a liquid jet with a moving surface. ► Decreasing the Reynolds number reduced the incidence of splash. ► The Weber number had a much smaller impact on splash than the Reynolds number. ► The jet impingement angle had only a small effect on the splash. ► Increasing the surface roughness substantially decreased the splash threshold. - Abstract: In the railroad industry a friction modifying agent may be applied to the rail or wheel in the form of a liquid jet. In this mode of application the interaction between the high-speed liquid jet and a fast moving surface is important. Seven different Newtonian liquids with widely varying shear viscosities were tested to isolate the effect of viscosity from other fluid properties. Tests were also done on five surfaces of different roughness heights to investigate the effects of surface roughness. High-speed video imaging was employed to scrutinize the interaction between the impacting jet and the moving surface. For all surfaces, decreasing the Reynolds number reduced the incidence of splash and consequently enhanced the transfer efficiency. At the elevated Weber numbers of the testing, the Weber number had a much smaller impact on splash than the Reynolds number. The ratio of the surface velocity to the jet velocity has only a small effect on the splash, whereas increasing the roughness-height-to-jet-diameter ratio substantially decreased the splash threshold.

  1. Drop impact into a deep pool: Vortex shedding and jet formation

    KAUST Repository

    Agbaglah, Gilou; Thoraval, Marie-Jean; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Zhang, Li V.; Fezzaa, Kamel; Deegan, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    One of the simplest splashing scenarios results from the impact of a single drop on a deep pool. The traditional understanding of this process is that the impact generates an axisymmetric sheet-like jet that later breaks up into secondary droplets. Recently it was shown that even this simplest of scenarios is more complicated than expected because multiple jets can be generated from a single impact event and there are transitions in the multiplicity of jets as the experimental parameters are varied. Here, we use experiments and numerical simulations of a single drop impacting on a deep pool to examine the transition from impacts that produce a single jet to those that produce two jets. Using high-speed X-ray imaging methods we show that vortex separation within the drop leads to the formation of a second jet long after the formation of the ejecta sheet. Using numerical simulations we develop a phase diagram for this transition and show that the capillary number is the most appropriate order parameter for the transition. © 2014 Cambridge University Press.

  2. Drop impact into a deep pool: Vortex shedding and jet formation

    KAUST Repository

    Agbaglah, Gilou

    2015-01-02

    One of the simplest splashing scenarios results from the impact of a single drop on a deep pool. The traditional understanding of this process is that the impact generates an axisymmetric sheet-like jet that later breaks up into secondary droplets. Recently it was shown that even this simplest of scenarios is more complicated than expected because multiple jets can be generated from a single impact event and there are transitions in the multiplicity of jets as the experimental parameters are varied. Here, we use experiments and numerical simulations of a single drop impacting on a deep pool to examine the transition from impacts that produce a single jet to those that produce two jets. Using high-speed X-ray imaging methods we show that vortex separation within the drop leads to the formation of a second jet long after the formation of the ejecta sheet. Using numerical simulations we develop a phase diagram for this transition and show that the capillary number is the most appropriate order parameter for the transition. © 2014 Cambridge University Press.

  3. Absolute production rate measurements of nitric oxide by an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipa, A V; Bindemann, T; Foest, R; Kindel, E; Roepcke, J; Weltmann, K-D

    2008-01-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) has been applied to measure the absolute production rate of NO molecules in the gas phase of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) operating at rf (13.56 MHz) in argon with small (up to 1%) admixtures of air. The resulting NO production rates were found to be in the range (0.1-80) x 10 -3 sccm or (0.05-35) x 10 18 molecules s -1 depending on the experimental conditions. Maximum rates were obtained at 0.2% air. For TDLAS measurements the APPJ was arranged inside an astigmatic multi-pass cell of Herriott type with 100 m absorption length. The insertion into a closed volume differs slightly from the normal, open operation with the jet propagating freely into air. Therefore, the measuring results are compared with optical emission of the open jet to verify equivalent experimental conditions. The dependence of the optical emission of NO (237 nm) on power and gas mixture has been measured. The similar shape of the dependence of absorption and emission signals gives evidence that the comparability of experimental conditions is sufficiently satisfied. It is concluded that the NO production rate of the APPJ in ambient air can be characterized using TDLAS and provides reliable results in spite of differing experimental conditions due to the set-up.

  4. Effects of the shear layer growth rate on the supersonic jet noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Yuta; Nonomura, Taku; Oyama, Akira; Mamori, Hiroya; Fukushima, Naoya; Yamamoto, Makoto

    2017-11-01

    Strong acoustic waves emitted from rocket plume might damage to rocket payloads because their payloads consist of fragile structure. Therefore, understanding and prediction of acoustic wave generation are of importance not only in science, but also in engineering. The present study makes experiments of a supersonic jet flow at the Mach number of 2.0 and investigates a relationship between growth rate of a shear layer and noise generation of the supersonic jet. We conducted particle image velocimetry (PIV) and acoustic measurements for three different shaped nozzles. These nozzles were employed to control the condition of a shear layer of the supersonic jet flow. We applied single-pixel ensemble correlation method (Westerweel et al., 2004) for the PIV images to obtain high-resolution averaged velocity profiles. This correlation method enabled us to obtain detailed data of the shear layer. For all cases, acoustic measurements clearly shows the noise source position at the end of a potential core of the jet. In the case where laminar to turbulent transition occurred in the shear layer, the sound pressure level increased by 4 dB at the maximum. This research is partially supported by Presto, JST (JPMJPR1678) and KAKENHI (25709009 and 17H03473).

  5. An experimental and theoretical investigation of spray characteristics of impinging jets in impact wave regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, N. S.; Kulkarni, V.; Gao, J.; Chen, J.; Sojka, P. E.

    2015-03-01

    The current study focuses on experimentally and theoretically improving the characterization of the drop size and drop velocity for like-on-like doublet impinging jets. The experimental measurements were made using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) at jet Weber numbers We j corresponding to the impact wave regime of impinging jet atomization. A more suitable dynamic range was used for PDA measurements compared to the literature, resulting in more accurate experimental measurements for drop diameters and velocities. There is some disagreement in the literature regarding the ability of linear stability analysis to accurately predict drop diameters in the impact wave regime. This work seeks to provide some clarity. It was discovered that the assumed uniform jet velocity profile was a contributing factor for deviation between diameter predictions based on models in the literature and experimental measurements. Analytical expressions that depend on parameters based on the assumed jet velocity profile are presented in this work. Predictions based on the parabolic and 1/7th power law turbulent profiles were considered and show better agreement with the experimental measurements compared to predictions based on the previous models. Experimental mean drop velocity measurements were compared with predictions from a force balance analysis, and it was observed that the assumed jet velocity profile also influences the predicted velocities, with the turbulent profile agreeing best with the experimental mean velocity. It is concluded that the assumed jet velocity profile has a predominant effect on drop diameter and velocity predictions.

  6. High - velocity water jet impact on concrete samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mádr, V.; Uhlář, R.; Hlaváč, L. M.; Sitek, Libor; Foldyna, Josef; Hela, R.; Bodnárová, L.; Kaličinský, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (2009), s. 43-48 ISSN 2067-3809 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : water jet * concrete * depth of penetration * disintegration volume Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering http://acta.fih.upt.ro/pdf/2009-4/ACTA-2009-4-08.pdf

  7. Determination of the Jet Neutron Rate and Fusion Power using the Magnetic Proton Recoil Neutron Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoestrand, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis a new independent method has been developed to enable precise measurements of neutron yields and rates from fusion plasmas and thereby determining the fusion power and fusion energy. The new method, together with the associated diagnostics, can provide information of great importance to present and future high fusion yield experiments, such as the Joint European Torus (JET) tokamak and the International Thermonuclear Experiment Reactor (ITER). The method has been applied to data from high fusion rate experiments from the tritium campaign at JET. By using the count-rate from the Magnetic Proton Recoil (MPR) neutron spectrometer the number of neutrons in the spectrometer's line of sight has been calculated. To be able to do this, all relevant factors between the plasma and the instrument have been evaluated. The number of neutrons in the MPR line of sight has been related to the total number of produced neutrons in the plasma by using information on the neutron emission profile. The achieved results have been compared with other JET neutron diagnostic data and the agreement is shown to be very good.

  8. Drop Impact Dynamics with Sessile Drops and Geometries: Spreading, Jetting, and Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilger, Christopher F.

    The tendency of surface tension to cause small parcels of fluid to form into drops allows convenient packaging, transport, dispersal of liquid phase matter. Liquid drop impacts with solids, liquids, and other drops have realized and additional future applications in biological, manufacturing, heat transfer, and combustion systems. Experiments were conducted to investigate the dynamics of multiple drop collisions, rather than the most-studied phenomenon of single drop impacts. Additional drop impacts were performed on rigid hemispheres representing sessile drops, angled substrates, and into the vertex of two tilted surfaces arranged into a vee shape. A qualitative inspection of drop-sessile drop impacts shows distinct post-impact shapes depending on the offset distance between the drops. At intermediate offset distances, distinct jets issue from the overlap region between the two drops projected areas. These jets are observed to reach their maximum extent at a critical offset distance ratio, epsilon epsilon ˜ 0.75-0.80, with substrate contact angle and W e having a lesser effect. Capillary waves that traverse the sessile drop after collision cause a lower aspect ratio liquid column to emanate from the sessile drop opposite the impact. In order to better understand the jetting phenomenon seen in the offset drop-sessile drop impacts, simpler solid geometries are investigated that elicit a similar behavior. Solid hemispheres do not show the singular jetting observed in the fluidic case, however, a simple vee formed by two intersection planar substrates do jet in a similar fashion to the fluidic case. A geometric model with partnered experiments is developed to describe the bisymmetric spread of an impacting drop on an angled substrate. This geometric model is used to guide a time of arrival based model for various features of the drop impact, which is used to predict jetting in various vee channel experiments.

  9. Effect of Stand-Off Distance on Impact Pressure of High Speed Water Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittiwong, Wuttichai; Seehanam, Wirapan; Pianthong, Kulachate; Matthujak, Anirut

    2010-06-01

    High speed liquid jets may be applied to jet cutting, drilling and cleaning. Recently, in the automotive industries, the spray injection pressure becomes higher and higher to enhance the fuel mixing for the improved combustion efficiency. However, the ultra high injection pressure may cause the damage to the nozzle and also the combustion chamber. In the medical application, the high speed liquid injection might be applied for the drug delivery through the skin where the needle is not required anymore. From the above mentioned application, the investigation on the impact pressure of the high speed liquid jet relative to the stand-off distant is significant. The high speed liquid jets are generated by the projectile impact driven method. The high speed projectile is launched by the horizontal single stage powder gun. The experimental study focuses on the stand-off between 1.5 cm to 6.0 cm, while the nozzle contains approximately 1.5cm3 of water in its cavity. The nozzle conical angles are 30° and 60° with the orifice diameter of 0.7 mm. The jet velocities are measured by laser beam interruptions method. The target material is the Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) which the impact pressure is measured by using a piezoelectric Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) film. From the experiments, the maximum water jet velocity of 2290 m/s can be obtained from the 30° conical angle nozzle. The maximum impact pressures of nozzle conical angle of 30° and 60° are 3.4 GPa and 2.6 GPa respectively, at stand-off distance 3 cm. However, at the stand-off distance more than 3 cm, the impact pressure significantly decreases, because of aerodynamic drag, jets core break-up, and atomization of the water.

  10. Studies of jet production rates and tests of QCD on the Z0 resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethke, S.

    1990-01-01

    Production rates of multijet hadronic final states of Z 0 boson decays are studied. They can be well described by analytic O(α s 2 ) QCD calculations with parameters as determined at lower energies. The data cannot be described by an abelian, QED-like vector gluon model. The QCD parameters Λsub(anti(MS)) and μ 2 are adjusted to describe the measured differential 2-jet invariant mass distribution. In second order QCD, including theoretical uncertainties due to the ambiguous choice of the renormalisation scale μ 2 , the result is Λ (5) sub(anti(MS)) = (80-450) MeV, which corresponds to α s (M Z 0 ) = 0.117 ± 0.015. Significant scaling violations are observed when the 3-jet fractions are compared to the corresponding results from smaller centre of mass energies, thus increasing, in good agreement with QCD, the evidence for a running coupling constant α s . (orig.)

  11. Drop impact into a deep pool: vortex shedding and jet formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agbaglah, G.; Thoraval, Marie-Jean; Thoroddsen, S.T.; Zhang, L.V.; Fezzaa, K.; Deegan, R.D.

    2015-01-01

    One of the simplest splashing scenarios results from the impact of a single drop on a deep pool. The traditional understanding of this process is that the impact generates an axisymmetric sheet-like jet that later breaks up into secondary droplets. Recently it was shown that even this simplest of

  12. A study of jet rates and measurement of [alpha][sub S] at the Z[sup 0] resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauber, J.A.

    1993-02-01

    This experiment was performed with the SLD detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Only charged tracks measured in the central drift chamber were used for the measurement of the jet production rates. The value of the strong coupling [alpha][sub s](M[sub Z][sup o]) is determined from the production rates of jets in hadronic Z[sup 0] decays in e[sup +] e[sup [minus

  13. High-repetition-rate laser-proton acceleration from a condensed hydrogen jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obst, Lieselotte; Zeil, Karl; Metzkes, Josefine; Schlenvoigt, Hans-Peter; Rehwald, Martin; Sommer, Philipp; Brack, Florian; Schramm, Ulrich [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Goede, Sebastian; Gauthier, Maxence; Roedel, Christian; MacDonald, Michael; Schumaker, William; Glenzer, Siegfried [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Applications of laser-accelerated protons demand a stable source of energetic particles at high repetition rates. We present the results of our experimental campaign in cooperation with MEC/SLAC at the 10Hz Ti:Sa laser Draco of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), employing a pure condensed hydrogen jet as a renewable target. Draco delivers pulses of 30 fs and 5 J at 800 nm, focused to a 3 μm spot by an F/2.5 off-axis parabolic mirror. The jet's nominal electron density is approximately 30 times the critical density and its thickness is 2 μm, 5 μm or 10 μm, depending on the applied aperture on the source. Ion diagnostics reveal mono-species proton acceleration in a solid angle of at least +/-45 with respect to the incoming laser beam, with maximum energies of around 5 MeV. The expanding jet could be monitored on-shot with a temporally synchronized probe beam perpendicular to the pump laser axis. Recorded probe images resemble those of z-pinch experiments with metal wires and indicate an m=0 instability in the plasma.

  14. Application of the constant rate of pressure change method to improve jet pump performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, X P; Yang, X L

    2012-01-01

    This paper adopts a new method named the constant rate of pressure change (CRPC) to improve the jet pump performance. The main contribution of this method is that the diffuser generates uniform pressure gradient. The performance of the jet pump with new diffusers designed by the CRPC method, obtained by CFD methods, was compared with that of the jet pump with traditional conical diffusers. It is found that the CRPC diffuser produces a linear pressure increase indeed. The higher friction loss and the separation decrease the CRPC diffuser efficiency and then lower the pump efficiency. The pump with shorter throats has higher efficiency at small flow ratio while its efficiency is lower than the original pump at lager flow ratio and the peak efficiency of the pumps with the throat length of 5-6 Dt is higher than that of the pumps with other throat length. When the throat length is less than 4 Dt, the CRPC diffuser efficiency is higher than the conical diffuser. The CRPC method could also be used to design the nozzle and other situations needing the pressure change gradually.

  15. Coefficient of restitution and plastic strain for impact of elements welded with micro-jet cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian HADRYŚ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of investigations is the qualification how post-accident repair of model car body parts influence on the value of coefficient of restitution. Evaluation of impact energy absorption by model car body parts repaired with MIG welding (with and without micro-jet cooling was carried out. The results of investigations present that the value of coefficient of restitution changes with speed of impact. Coefficient of restitution is bigger for elements welded with micro-jet cooling than for element welded with ordinary method. This could have influence on passive safety of vehicle.

  16. Theoretical analysis and design of hydro-hammer with a jet actuator: An engineering application to improve the penetration rate of directional well drilling in hard rock formations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiang-Fu; Liang, Yun-Pei; Li, Li-Jia; Luo, Yong-Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Rapid horizontal directional well drilling in hard or fractured formations requires efficient drilling technology. The penetration rate of conventional hard rock drilling technology in horizontal directional well excavations is relatively low, resulting in multiple overgrinding of drill cuttings in bottom boreholes. Conventional drilling techniques with reamer or diamond drill bit face difficulties due to the long construction periods, low penetration rates, and high engineering costs in the directional well drilling of hard rock. To improve the impact energy and penetration rate of directional well drilling in hard formations, a new drilling system with a percussive and rotary drilling technology has been proposed, and a hydro-hammer with a jet actuator has also been theoretically designed on the basis of the impulse hydro-turbine pressure model. In addition, the performance parameters of the hydro-hammer with a jet actuator have been numerically and experimentally analyzed, and the influence of impact stroke and pumped flow rate on the motion velocity and impact energy of the hydro-hammer has been obtained. Moreover, the designed hydro-hammer with a jet actuator has been applied to hard rock drilling in a trenchless drilling program. The motion velocity of the hydro-hammer ranges from 1.2 m/s to 3.19 m/s with diverse flow rates and impact strokes, and the motion frequency ranges from 10 Hz to 22 Hz. Moreover, the maximum impact energy of the hydro-hammer is 407 J, and the pumped flow rate is 2.3 m3/min. Thus, the average penetration rate of the optimized hydro-hammer improves by over 30% compared to conventional directional drilling in hard rock formations.

  17. A comparison of jet production rates on the Z0 resonance to perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, P.; Adam, W.; Adami, F.

    1990-01-01

    The production rates for 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-jet hardronic final states have been measured with the DELPHI detector at the e + e - storage ring LEP at centre of mass energies around 91.5 GeV. Fully corrected data are compared to O(α s 2 ) QCD matrix element calculations and the QCD scale parameter Λsub(anti Manti S) is determined for different parametrizations of the renormalization scale μ 2 . Including all uncertainties our result is α s (M Z 2 )=0.114±0.003[stat.]±0.004[syst.]±0.012[theor.]. (orig.)

  18. Bubble jet impact on a rigid wall of different stand-off parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, S; Wang, S P; Zhang, A M

    2015-01-01

    One of the key features of the dynamics of a bubble near a rigid wall is the development of a high liquid jet, generating highly localized pressure on the wall. In present study, the boundary integral method is employed to simulate this phenomenon, and the vortex ring model is introduced to handle the discontinued potential of the toroidal bubble. Meanwhile, the pressure induced in the whole process is calculated by an auxiliary function. The effect of the stand-off parameter on the bubble dynamics and the pressure on the wall is investigated, and a double-peaked structure occurs in the pressure profile after the jet impact in some cases, which is associated with the jet impact and the high internal pressure inside the bubble

  19. The quark induced Mueller-Tang jet impact factor at next-to-leading order

    CERN Document Server

    Hentschinski, M.; Murdaca, B.; Vera, A. Sabio

    2014-01-01

    We present the NLO corrections for the quark induced forward production of a jet with an associated rapidity gap. We make use of Lipatov's QCD high energy effective action to calculate the real emission contributions to the so-called Mueller-Tang impact factor. We combine them with the previously calculated virtual corrections and verify ultraviolet and collinear finiteness of the final result.

  20. The impact of LHC jet data on the MMHT PDF fit at NNLO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland-Lang, L. A.; Martin, A. D.; Thorne, R. S.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the impact of the high precision ATLAS and CMS 7 TeV measurements of inclusive jet production on the MMHT global PDF analysis at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO). This is made possible by the recent completion of the long-term project to calculate the NNLO corrections to the hard cross section. We find that a good description of the ATLAS data is not possible with the default treatment of experimental systematic errors, and propose a simplified solution that retains the dominant physical information of the data. We then investigate the fit quality and the impact on the gluon PDF central value and uncertainty when the ATLAS and CMS data are included in a MMHT fit. We consider both common choices for the factorization and renormalization scale, namely the inclusive jet transverse momentum, p_\\perp , and the leading jet p_\\perp , as well as the different jet radii for which the ATLAS and CMS data are made available. We find that the impact of these data on the gluon is relatively insensitive to these inputs, in particular the scale choice, while the inclusion of NNLO corrections tends to improve the data description somewhat and has a qualitatively similar though not identical impact on the gluon in comparison to NLO.

  1. Impact factor for high-energy two and three jets diffractive production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussarie, R.; Grabovsky, A.V.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2014-01-01

    We present the calculation of the impact factor for the γ (∗) →qq-barg transition within Balitsky’s high energy operator expansion. We also rederive the impact factor for the γ (∗) →qq-bar transition within the same framework. These results provide the necessary building blocks for further phenomenological studies of inclusive diffractive deep inelastic scattering, as well as, for two and three jets diffractive production, which go beyond approximations discussed in the literature.

  2. Impact factor for high-energy two and three jets diffractive production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussarie, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Bât. 210, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS,91405 Orsay (France); Grabovsky, A.V. [Physics Department, Novosibirsk State University,2 Pirogova street, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Theory division, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics,11 Lavrenteva avenue, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Szymanowski, L. [Theoretical Physics Division, National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ),Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Wallon, S. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Bât. 210, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS,91405 Orsay (France); UPMC Université Paris 06, Faculté de Physique,4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2014-09-02

    We present the calculation of the impact factor for the γ{sup (∗)}→qq-barg transition within Balitsky’s high energy operator expansion. We also rederive the impact factor for the γ{sup (∗)}→qq-bar transition within the same framework. These results provide the necessary building blocks for further phenomenological studies of inclusive diffractive deep inelastic scattering, as well as, for two and three jets diffractive production, which go beyond approximations discussed in the literature.

  3. Impact factor for high-energy two and three jets diffractive production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussarie, R.; Grabovsky, A.V.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2015-01-01

    We present the calculation of the impact factor for the photon to quark, antiquark and gluon transition within Balitsky’s shock-wave formalism. We also rederive the impact factor for photon to quark and antiquark transition. These results provide the necessary building blocks for further phenomenological studies of inclusive diffractive deep inelastic scattering as well as for two and three jets diffractive production which go beyond approximations discussed in the literature

  4. Impact factor for high-energy two and three jets diffractive production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussarie, R. [LPT, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS, 91405, Orsay (France); Grabovsky, A.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics and Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Szymanowski, L. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), Warsaw (Poland); Wallon, S. [UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Faculté de Physique, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); LPT, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS, 91405, Orsay (France)

    2015-04-10

    We present the calculation of the impact factor for the photon to quark, antiquark and gluon transition within Balitsky’s shock-wave formalism. We also rederive the impact factor for photon to quark and antiquark transition. These results provide the necessary building blocks for further phenomenological studies of inclusive diffractive deep inelastic scattering as well as for two and three jets diffractive production which go beyond approximations discussed in the literature.

  5. Surface Damage and Treatment by Impact of a Low Temperature Nitrogen Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laribou, Hicham; Fressengeas, Claude; Entemeyer, Denis; Jeanclaude, Véronique; Tazibt, Abdel

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen jets under high pressure and low temperature have been introduced recently. The process consists in projecting onto a surface a low temperature jet obtained from releasing the liquid nitrogen stored in a high pressure tank (e.g. 3000 bars) through a nozzle. It can be used in a range of industrial applications, including surface treatment or material removal through cutting, drilling, striping and cleaning. The process does not generate waste other than the removed matter, and it only releases neutral gas into the atmosphere. This work is aimed at understanding the mechanisms of the interaction between the jet and the material surface. Depending on the impacted material, the thermo-mechanical shock and blast effect induced by the jet can activate a wide range of damage mechanisms, including cleavage, crack nucleation and spalling, as well as void expansion and localized ductile failure. The test parameters (standoff distance, dwell time, operating pressure) play a role in selecting the dominant damage mechanism, but combinations of these various modes are usually present. Surface treatment through phase transformation or grain fragmentation in a layer below the surface can also be obtained by adequate tuning of the process parameters. In the current study, work is undertaken to map the damage mechanisms in metallic materials as well as the influence of the test parameters on damage, along with measurements of the thermo-mechanical conditions (impact force, temperature) in the impacted area.

  6. Liquid-metal-jet anode electron-impact x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemberg, O.; Otendal, M.; Hertz, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate an anode concept, based on a liquid-metal jet, for improved brightness in compact electron-impact x-ray sources. The source is demonstrated in a proof-of-principle experiment where a 50 keV, ∼100 W electron beam is focused on a 75 μm liquid-solder jet. The generated x-ray flux and brightness is quantitatively measured in the 7-50 keV spectral region and found to agree with theory. Compared to rotating-anode sources, whose brightness is limited by intrinsic thermal properties, the liquid-jet anode could potentially be scaled to achieve a brightness >100x higher than current state-of-the-art sources. Applications such as mammography, angiography, and diffraction would benefit from such a compact high-brightness source

  7. Probing the Jet Turnover Frequency Dependence on Mass and Mass Accretion Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstein, Erica; Gültekin, Kayhan; King, Ashley

    2018-01-01

    We have examined a sample of 15 sub-Eddington supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in a variety of galaxy classifications to further understand the proposed fundamental plane of black hole activity and scaling relations between black hole masses and their radio and X-ray luminosities. This plane describes black holes from stellar-mass to supermassive. The physics probed by these sub-Eddington systems is thought to be a radiatively inefficient, jet-dominated accretion flow. By studying black holes in this regime, we can learn important information on the disk-jet connection for accreting black holes.A key factor in studying the fundamental plane is the turnover frequency — the frequency at which emission transitions from optically thick at lower frequencies to optically thin at higher frequencies. This turnover point can be measured by observing the source in both radio and X-ray. Our project aims to test the dependence of the turnover frequency on mass and mass accretion rate.Radio observations of the sample were obtained using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) in the range of 5-40 GHz across four different frequency bands in A configuration to give the highest spatial resolution to focus on the core emission. Our carefully chosen sample of SMBHs with dynamically measured masses consists of two sub-samples: those with approximately constant mass accretion rate (LX/LEdd ~ 10‑7) and those with approximately constant mass (MBH ~ 108 Msun). X-ray data were obtained from archival Chandra observations. To find the turnover frequency, we used Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to fit two power laws to the radio data and the archival X-ray data. The intersection of the radio and X-ray fits is the turnover frequency.We present the results for both subsamples of SMBHs and their relationship between the turnover frequency and X-ray luminosity, which we take to scale with mass accretion rate, and jet power derived from both radio and X-ray properties.

  8. Exact Solution of the Two-Dimensional Problem on an Impact Ideal-Liquid Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belik, V. D.

    2018-05-01

    The two-dimensional problem on the collision of a potential ideal-liquid jet, outflowing from a reservoir through a nozzle, with an infinite plane obstacle was considered for the case where the distance between the nozzle exit section and the obstacle is finite. An exact solution of this problem has been found using methods of the complex-variable function theory. Simple analytical expressions for the complex velocity of the liquid, its flow rate, and the force of action of the jet on the obstacle have been obtained. The velocity distributions of the liquid at the nozzle exit section, in the region of spreading of the jet, and at the obstacle have been constructed for different distances between the nozzle exit section and the obstacle. Analytical expressions for the thickness of the boundary layer and the Nusselt number at the point of stagnation of the jet have been obtained. A number of distributions of the local friction coefficient and the Nusselt number of the indicated jet are presented.

  9. Mucosal deformation from an impinging transonic gas jet and the ballistic impact of microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, M P; Kendall, M A F

    2005-01-01

    By means of a transonic gas jet, gene guns ballistically deliver microparticle formulations of drugs and vaccines to the outer layers of the skin or mucosal tissue to induce unique physiological responses for the treatment of a range of conditions. Reported high-speed imaging experiments show that the mucosa deforms significantly while subjected to an impinging gas jet from a biolistic device. In this paper, the effect of this tissue surface deformation on microparticle impact conditions is simulated with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations. The microparticles are idealized as spheres of diameters 26.1, 39 and 99 μm and a density of 1050 kg m -3 . Deforming surface calculations of particle impact conditions are compared directly with an immobile surface case. The relative velocity and obliquity of the deforming surface decrease the normal component of particle impact velocity by up to 30% at the outer edge of the impinging gas jet. This is qualitatively consistent with reported particle penetration profiles in the tissue. It is recommended that these effects be considered in biolistic studies requiring quantified particle impact conditions

  10. A study of jet rates and measurement of {alpha}{sub S} at the Z{sup 0} resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauber, J.A.

    1993-02-01

    This experiment was performed with the SLD detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Only charged tracks measured in the central drift chamber were used for the measurement of the jet production rates. The value of the strong coupling {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub Z}{sup o}) is determined from the production rates of jets in hadronic Z{sup 0} decays in e{sup +} e{sup {minus}} annihilations. The relative jet rates are obtained using the JADE-type algorithms. The results are compared with the jet rates obtained from a new jet algorithm proposed by N. Brown et al. called the ``Durham`` algorithm. The data can be well described by O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}) QCD calculations and by QCD shower model calculations. A fit of the theoretical predictions to the data taken with the SLD yields a value, {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub Z}{sup o}) = 0.120 {plus_minus} 0.002(stat.) {plus_minus} 0.003(exp.){sub {minus}0.009}{sup +0.011}(theor.). The error is dominated by the theoretical uncertainties. The measurement is compared with results from other experiments and it is shown that the value obtained for {alpha}{sub s} agrees well with these results and furthermore supports the evidence for the running of the strong coupling, consistent with the non-Abelian nature of QCD. The Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) can deliver partially longitudinally polarized electrons to the interaction point. Jet production rates and values for {alpha}{sub s} are calculated both for right-handed and left-handed initial state electrons. All results are consistent with the unpolarized result, as predicted by the Standard Model.

  11. Etude aerodynamique d'un jet turbulent impactant une paroi concave

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Benoit

    Etant donne la demande croissante de temperatures elevees dans des chambres de combustion de systemes de propulsions en aerospatiale (turbomoteurs, moteur a reaction, etc.), l'interet dans le refroidissement par jets impactant s'est vu croitre. Le refroidissement des aubes de turbine permet une augmentation de temperature de combustion, ce qui se traduit en une augmentation de l'efficacite de combustion et donc une meilleure economie de carburant. Le transfert de chaleur dans les au bages est influence par les aspects aerodynamiques du refroidissement a jet, particulierement dans le cas d'ecoulements turbulents. Un manque de comprehension de l'aerodynamique a l'interieur de ces espaces confinees peut mener a des changements de transfert thermique qui sont inattendus, ce qui augmente le risque de fluage. Il est donc d'interet pour l'industrie aerospatiale et l'academie de poursuivre la recherche dans l'aerodynamique des jets turbulents impactant les parois courbes. Les jets impactant les surfaces courbes ont deja fait l'objet de nombreuses etudes. Par contre des conditions oscillatoires observees en laboratoire se sont averees difficiles a reproduire en numerique, puisque les structures d'ecoulements impactants des parois concaves sont fortement dependantes de la turbulence et des effets instationnaires. Une etude experimentale fut realisee a l'institut PPRIME a l'Universite de Poitiers afin d'observer le phenomene d'oscillation dans le jet. Une serie d'essais ont verifie les conditions d'ecoulement laminaires et turbulentes, toutefois le cout des essais experimentaux a seulement permis d'avoir un apercu du phenomene global. Une deuxieme serie d'essais fut realisee numeriquement a l'Universite de Moncton avec l'outil OpenFOAM pour des conditions d'ecoulement laminaire et bidimensionnel. Cette etude a donc comme but de poursuivre l'enquete de l'aerodynamique oscillatoire des jets impactant des parois courbes, mais pour un regime d'ecoulement transitoire, turbulent

  12. The Gluon-Induced Mueller-Tang Jet Impact Factor at Next-to-Leading Order

    CERN Document Server

    Hentschinski, Martin; Murdaca, Beatrice; Vera, Agustín Sabio

    2014-01-01

    We complete the computation of the Mueller-Tang jet impact factor at next-to-leading order (NLO) initiated in arXiv:1406.5625 and presented in arXiv:1404.2937 by computing the real corrections associated to gluons in the initial state making use of Lipatov's effective action. NLO corrections for this effective vertex are an important ingredient for a reliable description of large rapidity gap phenomenology within the BFKL approach.

  13. Experimental thermo-aerodynamic characterisation of a jet in crossflow, impacting or not, in channel turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fougairolle, P.

    2009-07-01

    This work consists in the experimental study of a jet in crossflow in a closed wind tunnel. Depending on the value of the velocity ratio (r U j /U∞), this confined rectangular jet can interact or impact with the opposite wall from the one it issues. The jet is slightly heated (∼10 C) in order to stay in the passive scalar case. An improvement of the experimental facility has been done to obtain thermal boundary conditions compatible with the measurements of slight differences of temperature, imposed by the passive scalar. Concerning the metrology, hot and cold wire anemometry and thermometry are used, and all the anemometric devices are developed and built in the lab. Probes made with Wollaston wire (Pt-Rh) of 0.35μm diameter are coupled with an anemometer and a thermometer optimized to maximize the signal to noise ratio. The results are obtained both thanks to visualizations by fast camera shots for several velocity ratios (r between 3 and 12), and thanks to local hot and cold wire measurements, in the particular case of two velocity ratios (r = 3.3 and 9.4). Mixing properties of the scalar are studied by the plot of statistical values of velocity and temperature in different plans, perpendicularly to the three axis. The analysis of spectral densities of the signals on several typical locations emphasizes some features of the dynamic behaviour of the jet. (author)

  14. One-dimensional numerical modeling of Blue Jet and its impact on stratospheric chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duruisseau, F.; Thiéblemont, R.; Huret, N.

    2011-12-01

    In the stratosphere the ozone layer is very sensitive to the NOx abundance. The ionisation of N2 and O2 molecules by TLE's (Transient Luminous Events) is a source of NOx which is currently not well quantified and could act as a loss of ozone. In this study a one dimensional explicit parameterization of a Blue-Jet propagation based on that proposed by Raizer et al. (2006 and 2007) has been developed. This parameterization considers Blue-Jet as a streamer initiated by a bidirectional leader discharge, emerging from the anvil and sustained by moderate cloud charge. The streamer growth varies with the electrical field induced by initial cloud charge and the initial altitude. This electrical parameterization and the chemical mechanisms associated with the discharge have been implemented into a detailed chemical model of stratospheric ozone including evolution of nitrogen, chlorine and bromine species. We will present several tests performed to validate the electrical code and evaluate the propagation velocity and the maximum altitude attains by the blue jet as a function of electrical parameters. The results obtained giving the spatiotemporal evolution of the electron density are then used to initiate the specific chemistry associated with the Blue Jet. Preliminary results on the impact of such discharge on the ozone content and the whole stratospheric system will be presented.

  15. Impacts of a jet's exit flow pattern on mixing and combustion performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathan, G.J.; Mi, J.; Newbold, G.J.R.; Nobes, D.S. [Turbulence, Energy and Combustion Group, School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Alwahabi, Z.T. [Turbulence, Energy and Combustion Group, Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia)

    2006-09-15

    The influence of modifying a jet's exit flow pattern on both the near and far-field turbulent mixing processes and on the resulting combustion performance, is explored. This reveals that, in contradiction to some common assumptions, increasing the coherence of large-scale motions can decrease molecular mixing rates, and yet can still be beneficial in some applications. Even relatively minor changes to the exit flow pattern of a non-reacting round jet, through changes to the nozzle profile are found to propagate downstream into the far field, apparently through the underlying turbulent structure. Importantly, while a jet from a smoothly contracting nozzle is found to have higher rates of entrainment, mean spread and mean decay of the scalar field than does a long pipe jet, it has a lower rate of molecular mixing. That is, increased large-scale mixing does not necessarily result in increased fine-scale mixing. A range of devices are reviewed which enhance, or stimulate the large-scale, coherent motions in an emerging jet using acoustic, mechanical or fluidic methods. The available evidence suggests that those methods which induce instantaneously asymmetric flow structure are more effective at increasing the near-field spreading than are those which induce instantaneously axisymmetric flow structure. Only limited data are available of the effects of such near-field changes on the far-field properties. Nevertheless, the available data reveal a clear trend that this near-field flow undergoes a transition to a far-field state whose spread and decay is comparable with that of a steady jet, albeit being indelibly altered by the near-field excitation. It also suggests that 'self-exciting' devices (i.e. that are not externally forced), cause a net reduction in the total entrainment relative to the unexcited jet, due to the losses induced by the device itself. Nevertheless, the changes which they can impart to the flow, such as redistributing the turbulent

  16. Impacts of a jet's exit flow pattern on mixing and combustion performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathan, G J; Mi, J; Newbold, G J.R.; Nobes, D S [Turbulence, Energy and Combustion Group, School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Alwahabi, Z T [Turbulence, Energy and Combustion Group, Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia)

    2006-09-15

    The influence of modifying a jet's exit flow pattern on both the near and far-field turbulent mixing processes and on the resulting combustion performance, is explored. This reveals that, in contradiction to some common assumptions, increasing the coherence of large-scale motions can decrease molecular mixing rates, and yet can still be beneficial in some applications. Even relatively minor changes to the exit flow pattern of a non-reacting round jet, through changes to the nozzle profile are found to propagate downstream into the far field, apparently through the underlying turbulent structure. Importantly, while a jet from a smoothly contracting nozzle is found to have higher rates of entrainment, mean spread and mean decay of the scalar field than does a long pipe jet, it has a lower rate of molecular mixing. That is, increased large-scale mixing does not necessarily result in increased fine-scale mixing. A range of devices are reviewed which enhance, or stimulate the large-scale, coherent motions in an emerging jet using acoustic, mechanical or fluidic methods. The available evidence suggests that those methods which induce instantaneously asymmetric flow structure are more effective at increasing the near-field spreading than are those which induce instantaneously axisymmetric flow structure. Only limited data are available of the effects of such near-field changes on the far-field properties. Nevertheless, the available data reveal a clear trend that this near-field flow undergoes a transition to a far-field state whose spread and decay is comparable with that of a steady jet, albeit being indelibly altered by the near-field excitation. It also suggests that 'self-exciting' devices (i.e. that are not externally forced), cause a net reduction in the total entrainment relative to the unexcited jet, due to the losses induced by the device itself. Nevertheless, the changes which they can impart to the flow, such as redistributing the turbulent energy from the

  17. Observational evidence for the impact of jet condensation trails upon the earths radiation budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinert, D [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik

    1998-12-31

    Jet condensation trails have been classified in AVHRR images from a couple of month. It was tried to estimate their impact upon the radiation budget from the observed radiances. This has been performed by direct comparison of contrail image points to neighboring image points, assuming a slowly varying background. The classification method, basing on an artificial neural network for pattern recognition is explained. The details of the estimation of the net impact of contrails upon the radiation budget are shown by one example. (author) 5 refs.

  18. Observational evidence for the impact of jet condensation trails upon the earths radiation budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinert, D. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik

    1997-12-31

    Jet condensation trails have been classified in AVHRR images from a couple of month. It was tried to estimate their impact upon the radiation budget from the observed radiances. This has been performed by direct comparison of contrail image points to neighboring image points, assuming a slowly varying background. The classification method, basing on an artificial neural network for pattern recognition is explained. The details of the estimation of the net impact of contrails upon the radiation budget are shown by one example. (author) 5 refs.

  19. Inkwells for on-demand deposition rate measurement in aerosol-jet based 3D printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Yuan; Das, Siddhartha; Gutierrez, David; Hines, D R

    2017-01-01

    Aerosol-jet printing (AJP) is an important direct-write printing technology based on additive manufacturing methods. Numerous research groups have utilized AJP for the fabrication of electronic circuits and devices. However, there has not been any real-time or even any on-demand method for quantitatively measuring and/or setting the deposition rate of an AJ ink stream. In this paper, we present a method for measuring the deposition rate of an AJ ink stream by printing into an array of inkwells that were fabricated using photolithography and were characterized using x-ray tomography and optical profilometry. These inkwell arrays were then used to establish a set of deposition rates namely 0.0011, 0.0024, 0.0035, 0.0046 and 0.0059 mm 3 s −1 that were subsequently compared with independently-measured deposition rates obtained by printing the ink stream into a weighing pan for a specified time and calculating the resulting deposition rate from the weight of the printed sample. From this comparison, it is observed that, for a human operator, the error in setting a specific deposition rate is less for inkwell fill times greater than 3 s and greater for fill times less than 3 s. This observation indicates that the average volume of an inkwell array should be at least three times the desired deposition rate ( V inkwell   >  3 R ). It was also observed that when the diameter of the inkwell was only slightly larger than the ink stream diameter, the ink uniformly wets the sidewall of the inkwell and results in a well filled inkwell for which the point at which it is just fully filled is easily observable. Finally, the interactions of the ink with both ‘philic’ and ‘phobic’ inkwells were studied illustrating the ability to use inkwells of various materials for setting the desired deposition rates for a variety of AJ printable inks. (technical note)

  20. Factors Impacting Online Ratings for Otolaryngologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto, Nathaniel E; Chiao, Whitney; Durr, Megan L; Jiang, Nancy

    2018-06-01

    To identify factors associated with online patient ratings and comments for a nationwide sample of otolaryngologists. Ratings, demographic information, and written comments were obtained for a random sample of otolaryngologists from HealthGrades.com and Vitals.com . Online Presence Score (OPS) was based on 10 criteria, including professional website and social media profiles. Regression analyses identified factors associated with increased rating. We evaluated for correlations between OPS and other attributes with star rating and used chi-square tests to evaluate content differences between positive and negative comments. On linear regression, increased OPS was associated with higher ratings on HealthGrades and Vitals; higher ratings were also associated with younger age on Vitals and less experience on HealthGrades. However, detailed correlation studies showed weak correlation between OPS and rating; age and graduation year also showed low correlation with ratings. Negative comments more likely focused on surgeon-independent factors or poor bedside manner. Though younger otolaryngologists with greater online presence tend to have higher ratings, weak correlations suggest that age and online presence have only a small impact on the content found on ratings websites. While most written comments are positive, deficiencies in bedside manner or other physician-independent factors tend to elicit negative comments.

  1. Retail Rate Impacts of Renewable Electricity: Some First Thoughts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-21

    This report summarizes select recent analyses of the retail rate impacts of renewable electricity, introduce core limitations of available literature, as rate impacts remain only partly assessed, and highlight a wide range of estimated historical and possible future rate impacts.

  2. Quality of jet measurements and impact on a search for new physics at CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, Matthias

    2012-10-01

    The search for new physics beyond the Standard Model is one of the primary enterprises in particle physics today. Many models predict the production of new, coloured particles at the LHC. These particles would eventually decay into quarks and gluons, which manifest as particle jets in the detector. Hence, a precise understanding of the properties of jets is essential to study the underlying hard interaction process of hadronic final-states in order to probe the Standard Model and enter the territory beyond. In this thesis, a measurement of the jet transverse-momentum (p T ) response function at the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC is presented, and its impact on a QCD-background estimation method in a search for new physics is described. The jet-p T response function is determined in two steps from dijet data collected in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of up to 4.90 fb -1 . The jets are clustered with the anti-kT algorithm from individually measured particles that are reconstructed with the Particle-Flow algorithm combining the information from all relevant subdetectors. Firstly, the relative jet-p T resolution σ/p T is measured using an unbinned maximum-likelihood approach that is based on the p T balance in QCD-dijet events and incorporates the jet-p T spectrum. In the central detector region, the relative resolution in data is approximately 10% at p T =100 GeV and improves to 5.5% at 600 GeV. It is approximately 5% larger on average than in the simulation. Secondly, the tails of the jet-p T response function are measured studying the dijet p T -asymmetry. The tails are caused by semileptonically decaying heavy-flavour quarks as well as instrumental effects and contribute at the percent level to the response function. Their relative size in data is larger than in the simulation by 20-60% in the central detector region at medium to high p T . Furthermore, a search for new physics in a

  3. Quality of jet measurements and impact on a search for new physics at CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Matthias

    2012-10-15

    The search for new physics beyond the Standard Model is one of the primary enterprises in particle physics today. Many models predict the production of new, coloured particles at the LHC. These particles would eventually decay into quarks and gluons, which manifest as particle jets in the detector. Hence, a precise understanding of the properties of jets is essential to study the underlying hard interaction process of hadronic final-states in order to probe the Standard Model and enter the territory beyond. In this thesis, a measurement of the jet transverse-momentum (p{sub T}) response function at the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC is presented, and its impact on a QCD-background estimation method in a search for new physics is described. The jet-p{sub T} response function is determined in two steps from dijet data collected in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of up to 4.90 fb{sup -1}. The jets are clustered with the anti-kT algorithm from individually measured particles that are reconstructed with the Particle-Flow algorithm combining the information from all relevant subdetectors. Firstly, the relative jet-p{sub T} resolution {sigma}/p{sub T} is measured using an unbinned maximum-likelihood approach that is based on the p{sub T} balance in QCD-dijet events and incorporates the jet-p{sub T} spectrum. In the central detector region, the relative resolution in data is approximately 10% at p{sub T}=100 GeV and improves to 5.5% at 600 GeV. It is approximately 5% larger on average than in the simulation. Secondly, the tails of the jet-p{sub T} response function are measured studying the dijet p{sub T}-asymmetry. The tails are caused by semileptonically decaying heavy-flavour quarks as well as instrumental effects and contribute at the percent level to the response function. Their relative size in data is larger than in the simulation by 20-60% in the central detector region at medium to high p

  4. Measurements of jet rates with the anti-$k_T$ and SiScone algorithms at LEP with the OPAL detector

    CERN Document Server

    Verbytskyi, A

    2016-01-01

    We study jet production in $e^+e^−$ annihilation to hadrons with data recorded by the OPAL experiment at LEP at centre-of-mass energies between 90 GeV and 207 GeV. The jet $e^+e^−$ production rates were measured for the first time with the anti-$k_T$ and SiScone jet clustering algorithms. We compare the data with predictions by modern Monte Carlo event generators.

  5. Ion target impact energy during Type I edge localized modes in JET ITER-like Wall

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guillemaut, C.; Jardin, A.; Horáček, Jan; Autrique, A.; Arnoux, G.; Boom, J.; Brezinsek, S.; Coenen, J.W.; De La Luna, E.; Devaux, S.; Eich, T.; Giroud, C.; Harting, D.; Kirschner, A.; Lipschutz, B.; Matthews, G.F.; Moulton, D.; O’Mullane, M.; Stamp, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 8 (2015), č. článku 085006. ISSN 0741-3335 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14002 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : magnetic confinement fusion * edge localized modes * JET ITER-like wall * plasma * tokamak Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.404, year: 2015 http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0741-3335/57/8/085006

  6. Determination of αs from jet production rates and energy-energy correlations on the Z0 resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain, R.

    1990-10-01

    This presentation uses data obtained from the DELPHI experiment at LEP. The strong coupling constant α s is determined in two different analyses of the Z 0 decay into multi-hadronic final states. The first uses the jet production rates and the second the asymmetry of energy-energy correlations. Both methods compare experimental data with second order of perturbative QCD predictions. The results are α s (M z ) = 0.114 ± 0.003 ± 0.004 ± 0.012 using the jet rates method and α s (M z ) = 0.106 ± 0.003 ± 0.003 ± 0.003 from the energy-energy correlations method

  7. Effects of wind on the dynamics of the central jet during drop impact onto a deep-water surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinan; Wang, An; Wang, Shuang; Dai, Dejun

    2018-05-01

    The cavity and central jet generated by the impact of a single water drop on a deep-water surface in a wind field are experimentally studied. Different experiments are performed by varying the impacting drop diameter and wind speed. The contour profile histories of the cavity (also called crater) and central jet (also called stalk) are measured in detail with a backlit cinematic shadowgraph technique. The results show that shortly after the drop hits the water surface an asymmetrical cavity appears along the wind direction, with a train of capillary waves on the cavity wall. This is followed by the formation of an inclined central jet at the location of the drop impact. It is found that the wind has little effect on the penetration depth of the cavity at the early stage of the cavity expansion, but markedly changes the capillary waves during the retraction of the cavity. The capillary waves in turn shift the position of the central jet formation leeward. The dynamics of the central jet are dominated by two mechanisms: (i) the oblique drop impact produced by the wind and (ii) the wind drag force directly acting on the jet. The maximum height of the central jet, called the stalk height, is drastically affected by the wind, and the nondimensional stalk height H /D decreases with increasing θ Re-1 , where D is the drop diameter, θ is the impingement angle of drop impact, and Re=ρaUwD /μa is the Reynolds number with air density ρa, wind speed Uw, and air viscosity μa.

  8. The role and production of polar/subtropical jet superpositions in two high-impact weather events over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Andrew C.

    Careful observational work has demonstrated that the tropopause is typically characterized by a three-step pole-to-equator structure, with each break between steps in the tropopause height associated with a jet stream. While the two jet streams, the polar and subtropical jets, typically occupy different latitude bands, their separation can occasionally vanish, resulting in a vertical superposition of the two jets. A cursory examination of a number of historical and recent high-impact weather events over North America and the North Atlantic indicates that superposed jets can be an important component of their evolution. Consequently, this dissertation examines two recent jet superposition cases, the 18--20 December 2009 Mid-Atlantic Blizzard and the 1--3 May 2010 Nashville Flood, in an effort (1) to determine the specific influence that a superposed jet can have on the development of a high-impact weather event and (2) to illuminate the processes that facilitated the production of a superposition in each case. An examination of these cases from a basic-state variable and PV inversion perspective demonstrates that elements of both the remote and local synoptic environment are important to consider while diagnosing the development of a jet superposition. Specifically, the process of jet superposition begins with the remote production of a cyclonic (anticyclonic) tropopause disturbance at high (low) latitudes. The cyclonic circulation typically originates at polar latitudes, while organized tropical convection can encourage the development of an anticyclonic circulation anomaly within the tropical upper-troposphere. The concurrent advection of both anomalies towards middle latitudes subsequently allows their individual circulations to laterally displace the location of the individual tropopause breaks. Once the two circulation anomalies position the polar and subtropical tropopause breaks in close proximity to one another, elements within the local environment, such as

  9. Measurements of event properties and multi-differential jet cross sections and impact of CMS measurements on Proton Structure and QCD parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Anterpreet

    2017-01-01

    We present results on the measurements of characteristics of events with jets including jet-charge, investigations of shapes and jet mass distributions. The measurements are compared to theoretical predictions including those matched to parton shower and hadronization. Multi-differential jet cross sections are also presented over a wide range in transverse momenta from inclusive jets to multi-jet final states. These measurements have an impact on the determination of the strong coupling constant as well as on parton distribution functions (PDFs) and are helpful in the treatment of heavy flavours in QCD analyses. We also show angular correlations in multi-jet events at highest center-of-mass energies and compare the measurements to theoretical predictions including higher order parton radiation and coherence effects. Measurements of cross sections of jet and top-quark pair production are in particular sensitive to the gluon distribution in the proton, while the electroweak boson production - inclusive or asso...

  10. Studies of the impact and mitigation of pile-up on large-$R$ and groomed jets in ATLAS at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Large radius jets provide one avenue towards efficient reconstruction of massive boosted objects whose decay products are sufficiently collimated so as to make standard reconstruction techniques impractical. The potentially adverse impact of additional proton-proton interactions on such large jets is assessed for a variety of jet types and hadronic final state topologies. The mitigation of these effects via jet grooming algorithms such as trimming, pruning, and filtering is then studied for high transverse momentum jets at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV using an integrated luminosity of 4.7 fb$^{-1}$ collected with the ATLAS detector. A total of 29 jet algorithms and grooming configuration combinations are studied. The application of jet trimming and filtering significantly improves the robustness of large-$R$ jets and reduces their sensitivity to the intense environment of the high-luminosity LHC. The consequence is an overall improvement in the physics potential of searches for heavy boosted objects.

  11. Determination of deuterium concentrations in JET plasmas from fusion reaction rate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, O.N.; Balet, B.; Cordey, J.G.; Morgan, P.D.; Sadler, G.; Belle, P. van; Conroy, S.; Elevant, T.

    1989-01-01

    The concentration of deuterium in the central regions of JET plasmas, expressed as a fraction of the electron concentration (n d /n e ), has been determined using four different methods involving neutron detection. These measurements are found to be consistent and agree within experimental errors with values deduced from Z eff measurements using visible bremsstrahlung radiation. (author) 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  12. Next-to-next-leading order correction to 3-jet rate and event-shape ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The coupling constant, , was measured by two different methods: first by employing the three-jet observables. Combining all the data, the value of as at next-to-next leading order (NNLO) was determined to be 0.117 ± 0.004(hard) ± 0.006(theo). Secondly, from the event-shape distributions, the strong coupling constant, ...

  13. Study of the jet rates in the e+e- annihilation at the c.m. energies 14, 22, 35, and 44 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolik, L.

    1989-01-01

    The object of this thesis was the study of the hadronic final state in the e + e - -annihilation. By means of the Monte-Carlo simulation calculation could be detected that the effects of the parton fragmentation as well at the photon bremsstrahlung and the influence of the detector cause a not negligible change of the original parton kinematics. Especially the fragmentation effects together with the systematic uncertainty in the jet definition a strong c.m. dependent shift of the parton rates. Only the regardment of all these influences on the measured jet rates allowed a senseful analysis of the QCD parameters. For this a procedure was developed, which allows a direct comparison of the experimental jet rates with the theoretical parton rates and regards the correlations of the jet rates in a correct way. Under giving of a scale μ the corresponding Λ MS could be determined, by which the best agreement with data at the four studied c.m. energies could be simultaneously reached. This choice of the scale μ 2 =Q 2 leads only to an incomplete description of the jet rates. Especially the 4-jet rate of the 35- and 44-GeV data set exhibits a very distinct deviation in comparison to the theoretical prediction. The results of the analysis showed a unique trend; parton rates calculated with essentially smaller scales μ opt 2 , y.Q 2 , and x.Q 2 can reproduce the jet rates essentially better. The application of the scale x.Q 2 with x in the range 0.01 to 0.003 yielded the best fit. The experiment jet rates could be described between √s=14 and 44 GeV with a common QCD parameter Λ MS . The Lund string model was applied for the description of the fragmentation, the partons were recombined according to the KL' scheme. (orig./HSI) [de

  14. Activation of the JET vacuum vessel: a comparison of calculated with measured gamma-radiation fluxes and dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, O.N.; Sadler, G.; Avery, A.; Verschuur, K.A.

    1988-01-01

    The gamma-radiation dose-rates inside the JET vacuum vessel due to induced radioactivity were measured at intervals throughout the 1986 period of operation, and the decay gamma energy spectrum was measured during the subsequent lengthy shutdown. The dose-rates were found to be in good agreement with values calculated using the neutron yield records compiled from the time-resolved neutron yield monitor responses for individual discharges. This result provides strong support for the reliability of the neutron yield monitor calibration. (author)

  15. Two computational approaches for Monte Carlo based shutdown dose rate calculation with applications to the JET fusion machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrizzi, L.; Batistoni, P.; Migliori, S. [Associazione EURATOM ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Chen, Y.; Fischer, U.; Pereslavtsev, P. [Association FZK-EURATOM Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Loughlin, M. [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX (United Kingdom); Secco, A. [Nice Srl Via Serra 33 Camerano Casasco AT (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    In deuterium-deuterium (D-D) and deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion plasmas neutrons are produced causing activation of JET machine components. For safe operation and maintenance it is important to be able to predict the induced activation and the resulting shut down dose rates. This requires a suitable system of codes which is capable of simulating both the neutron induced material activation during operation and the decay gamma radiation transport after shut-down in the proper 3-D geometry. Two methodologies to calculate the dose rate in fusion devices have been developed recently and applied to fusion machines, both using the MCNP Monte Carlo code. FZK has developed a more classical approach, the rigorous 2-step (R2S) system in which MCNP is coupled to the FISPACT inventory code with an automated routing. ENEA, in collaboration with the ITER Team, has developed an alternative approach, the direct 1 step method (D1S). Neutron and decay gamma transport are handled in one single MCNP run, using an ad hoc cross section library. The intention was to tightly couple the neutron induced production of a radio-isotope and the emission of its decay gammas for an accurate spatial distribution and a reliable calculated statistical error. The two methods have been used by the two Associations to calculate the dose rate in five positions of JET machine, two inside the vacuum chamber and three outside, at cooling times between 1 second and 1 year after shutdown. The same MCNP model and irradiation conditions have been assumed. The exercise has been proposed and financed in the frame of the Fusion Technological Program of the JET machine. The scope is to supply the designers with the most reliable tool and data to calculate the dose rate on fusion machines. Results showed that there is a good agreement: the differences range between 5-35%. The next step to be considered in 2003 will be an exercise in which the comparison will be done with dose-rate data from JET taken during and

  16. Two computational approaches for Monte Carlo based shutdown dose rate calculation with applications to the JET fusion machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrizzi, L.; Batistoni, P.; Migliori, S.; Chen, Y.; Fischer, U.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Loughlin, M.; Secco, A.

    2003-01-01

    In deuterium-deuterium (D-D) and deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion plasmas neutrons are produced causing activation of JET machine components. For safe operation and maintenance it is important to be able to predict the induced activation and the resulting shut down dose rates. This requires a suitable system of codes which is capable of simulating both the neutron induced material activation during operation and the decay gamma radiation transport after shut-down in the proper 3-D geometry. Two methodologies to calculate the dose rate in fusion devices have been developed recently and applied to fusion machines, both using the MCNP Monte Carlo code. FZK has developed a more classical approach, the rigorous 2-step (R2S) system in which MCNP is coupled to the FISPACT inventory code with an automated routing. ENEA, in collaboration with the ITER Team, has developed an alternative approach, the direct 1 step method (D1S). Neutron and decay gamma transport are handled in one single MCNP run, using an ad hoc cross section library. The intention was to tightly couple the neutron induced production of a radio-isotope and the emission of its decay gammas for an accurate spatial distribution and a reliable calculated statistical error. The two methods have been used by the two Associations to calculate the dose rate in five positions of JET machine, two inside the vacuum chamber and three outside, at cooling times between 1 second and 1 year after shutdown. The same MCNP model and irradiation conditions have been assumed. The exercise has been proposed and financed in the frame of the Fusion Technological Program of the JET machine. The scope is to supply the designers with the most reliable tool and data to calculate the dose rate on fusion machines. Results showed that there is a good agreement: the differences range between 5-35%. The next step to be considered in 2003 will be an exercise in which the comparison will be done with dose-rate data from JET taken during and

  17. Impact of tropical cyclones on the intensity and phase propagation of fall Wyrtki jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivas, P.; Chowdary, J. S.; Gnanaseelan, C.

    2012-11-01

    Observations and model simulations are used to study the impact of tropical cyclones (TC) on the fall Wyrtki jets (WJ). These strong narrow equatorial currents peak during November and play a vital role in the energy and mass transport in the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO). Maximum number of TCs is observed over TIO during November with longer than normal life span (8-15 days). These TCs enhance equatorial westerly winds (surface) and amplify monthly mean WJs (both at surface and subsurface) by 0.4 ms-1 (anomalies exceed 0.7 ms-1 during TC), which is about half of the climatological amplitude. Intensified WJs increase the heat content of eastern TIO and modulate air-sea interaction. It is also shown that movement of TCs is mainly responsible for the westward phase propagation of WJs, a previously unexplored mechanism. These features are evident in ECCO2 simulations as well.

  18. Impact of red giant/AGB winds on active galactic nucleus jet propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perucho, M.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Barkov, M. V.

    2017-10-01

    Context. Dense stellar winds may mass-load the jets of active galactic nuclei, although it is unclear on what time and spatial scales the mixing takes place. Aims: Our aim is to study the first steps of the interaction between jets and stellar winds, and also the scales on which the stellar wind mixes with the jet and mass-loads it. Methods: We present a detailed 2D simulation - including thermal cooling - of a bubble formed by the wind of a star designed to study the initial stages of jet-star interaction. We also study the first interaction of the wind bubble with the jet using a 3D simulation in which the star enters the jet. Stability analysis is carried out for the shocked wind structure to evaluate the distances over which the jet-dragged wind, which forms a tail, can propagate without mixing with the jet flow. Results.The 2D simulations point to quick wind bubble expansion and fragmentation after about one bubble shock crossing time. Three-dimensional simulations and stability analysis point to local mixing in the case of strong perturbations and relatively low density ratios between the jet and the jet dragged-wind, and to a possibly more stable shocked wind structure at the phase of maximum tail mass flux. Analytical estimates also indicate that very early stages of the star jet-penetration time may be also relevant for mass-loading. The combination of these and previous results from the literature suggests highly unstable interaction structures and efficient wind-jet flow mixing on the scale of the jet interaction height. Conclusions: The winds of stars with strong mass loss can efficiently mix with jets from active galactic nuclei. In addition, the initial wind bubble shocked by the jet leads to a transient, large interaction surface. The interaction between jets and stars can produce strong inhomogeneities within the jet. As mixing is expected to be effective on large scales, even individual asymptotic giant branch stars can significantly contribute to

  19. Evaluation of the Impact of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) Contamination on the Thermal Stability of Jet A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    discernible negative impact on thermal stability due to FAME contamination. 15. SUBJECT TERMS FAME, biodiesel , Jet A, contamination, FAME...in diesel fuel as world governments mandate use of sustainable sources in transportation fuels to mitigate CO2 impact and reduce dependency on crude...components has been and will continue to be through trucks and pipelines – the same transportation methods used to transport other transportation

  20. Impact of Alternative Jet Fuels on Engine Exhaust Composition During the 2015 ECLIF Ground-Based Measurements Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schripp, Tobias; Anderson, Bruce; Crosbie, Ewan C; Moore, Richard H; Herrmann, Friederike; Oßwald, Patrick; Wahl, Claus; Kapernaum, Manfred; Köhler, Markus; Le Clercq, Patrick; Rauch, Bastian; Eichler, Philipp; Mikoviny, Tomas; Wisthaler, Armin

    2018-04-17

    The application of fuels from renewable sources ("alternative fuels") in aviation is important for the reduction of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, but may also attribute to reduced release of particles from jet engines. The present experiment describes ground-based measurements in the framework of the ECLIF (Emission and Climate Impact of Alternative Fuels) campaign using an Airbus A320 (V2527-A5 engines) burning six fuels of chemically different composition. Two reference Jet A-1 with slightly different chemical parameters were applied and further used in combination with a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic paraffinic kerosene (FT-SPK) to prepare three semi synthetic jet fuels (SSJF) of different aromatic content. In addition, one commercially available fully synthetic jet fuel (FSJF) featured the lowest aromatic content of the fuel selection. Neither the release of nitrogen oxide or carbon monoxide was significantly affected by the different fuel composition. The measured particle emission indices showed a reduction up to 50% (number) and 70% (mass) for two alternative jet fuels (FSJF, SSJF2) at low power settings in comparison to the reference fuels. The reduction is less pronounced at higher operating conditions but the release of particle number and particle mass is still significantly lower for the alternative fuels than for both reference fuels. The observed correlation between emitted particle mass and fuel aromatics is not strict. Here, the H/C ratio is a better indicator for soot emission.

  1. Ballistic Impact Response of Kevlar 49 and Zylon under Conditions Representing Jet Engine Fan Containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J. Michael; Revilock, Duane M.

    2007-01-01

    A ballistic impact test program was conducted to provide validation data for the development of numerical models of blade out events in fabric containment systems. The impact response of two different fiber materials - Kevlar 49 (E.I. DuPont Nemours and Company) and Zylon AS (Toyobo Co., Ltd.) was studied by firing metal projectiles into dry woven fabric specimens using a gas gun. The shape, mass, orientation and velocity of the projectile were varied and recorded. In most cases the tests were designed such that the projectile would perforate the specimen, allowing measurement of the energy absorbed by the fabric. The results for both Zylon and Kevlar presented here represent a useful set of data for the purposes of establishing and validating numerical models for predicting the response of fabrics under conditions simulating those of a jet engine blade release situation. In addition some useful empirical observations were made regarding the effects of projectile orientation and the relative performance of the different materials.

  2. Structure and Dynamics of Fuel Jets Injected into a High-Temperature Subsonic Crossflow: High-Data-Rate Laser Diagnostic Investigation under Steady and Oscillatory Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucht, Robert [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Anderson, William [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2015-01-23

    An investigation of subsonic transverse jet injection into a subsonic vitiated crossflow is discussed. The reacting jet in crossflow (RJIC) system investigated as a means of secondary injection of fuel in a staged combustion system. The measurements were performed in test rigs featuring (a) a steady, swirling crossflow and (b) a crossflow with low swirl but significant oscillation in the pressure field and in the axial velocity. The rigs are referred to as the steady state rig and the instability rig. Rapid mixing and chemical reaction in the near field of the jet injection is desirable in this application. Temporally resolved velocity measurements within the wake of the reactive jets using 2D-PIV and OH-PLIF at a repetition rate of 5 kHz were performed on the RJIC flow field in a steady state water-cooled test rig. The reactive jets were injected through an extended nozzle into the crossflow which is located in the downstream of a low swirl burner (LSB) that produced the swirled, vitiated crossflow. Both H2/N2 and natural gas (NG)/air jets were investigated. OH-PLIF measurements along the jet trajectory show that the auto-ignition starts on the leeward side within the wake region of the jet flame. The measurements show that jet flame is stabilized in the wake of the jet and wake vortices play a significant role in this process. PIV and OH–PLIF measurements were performed at five measurement planes along the cross- section of the jet. The time resolved measurements provided significant information on the evolution of complex flow structures and highly transient features like, local extinction, re-ignition, vortex-flame interaction prevalent in a turbulent reacting flow. Nanosecond-laser-based, single-laser-shot coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements of temperature and H2 concentraiton were also performed. The structure and dynamics of a reacting transverse jet injected into a vitiated oscillatory crossflow presents a unique opportunity for

  3. Direct measurements of damping rates and stability limits for low frequency MHD modes and Alfven Eigenmodes in the JET tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasoli, A.F.; Testa, D.; Jaun, A.; Sharapov, S.; Gormezano, C.

    2001-01-01

    The linear stability properties of global modes that can be driven by resonant energetic particles or by the bulk plasma are studied using an external excitation method based on the JET saddle coil antennas. Low toroidal mode number, stable plasma modes are driven by the saddle coils and detected by magnetic probes to measure their structure, frequency and damping rate, both in the Alfven Eigenmode (AE) frequency range and in the low frequency Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) range. For AEs, the dominant damping mechanisms are identified for different plasma conditions of relevance for reactors. Spectra and damping rates of low frequency MHD modes that are localized at the foot of the internal transport barrier and can affect the plasma performance in advanced tokamak scenarios have been directly measured for the first time. This gives the possibility of monitoring in real time the approach to the instability boundary. (author)

  4. Impact of gluon polarization on Higgs boson plus jet production at the LHC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Daniel; Pisano, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider Higgs boson plus jet production as a process that is sensitive to the linear polarization of gluons inside the unpolarized protons of the LHC. The leading order expressions for the transverse momentum distribution of the Higgs boson plus jet pair are provided in terms of

  5. Jet production rates in association with W and Z bosons in pp collisions at $ \\sqrt {s} = 7 {\\text{TeV}} $

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; et al.

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of jet production rates in association with W and Z bosons for jet transverse momenta above 30 GeV are reported, using a sample of proton-proton collision events recorded by CMS at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 inverse picobarns. The study includes the measurement of the normalized inclusive rates of jets sigma(V + >= n jets)/sigma(V), where V represents either a W or a Z. In addition, the ratio of W to Z cross sections and the W charge asymmetry as a function of the number of associated jets are measured. A test of Berends--Giele scaling at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV is also presented. The measurements provide a stringent test of perturbative-QCD calculations and are sensitive to the possible presence of new physics. The results are in agreement with the predictions of a simulation that uses explicit matrix element calculations for final states with jets.

  6. Impact of Alternative Inputs and Grooming Methods on Large-R Jet Reconstruction in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    During Run 1 of the LHC, the optimal reconstruction algorithm for large-$R$ jets in ATLAS, characterized in terms of the ability to discriminate signal from background and robust reconstruction in the presence of pileup, was found to be anti-$k_{t}$ jets with a radius parameter of 1.0, formed from locally calibrated topological calorimeter cell clusters and groomed with the trimming algorithm to remove contributions from pileup and underlying event. Since that time, much theoretical, phenomenological, and experimental work has been performed to improve both the reconstruction of the jet inputs as well as the grooming techniques applied to reconstructed jets. In this work, an inclusive survey of both pileup mitigation algorithms applied to calorimeter cell clusters and grooming algorithms is done to study their pileup stability and ability to identify hadronically decaying W bosons within the ATLAS experiment. It is found that compared to the conventional reconstruction algorithm of large-$R$ trimmed jets form...

  7. Some Studies of Terrestrial Impact Cratering Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jetsu L.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1984, a 28.4 Myr periodicity was detected in the ages of terrestrial impact craters and a 26 Myr periodicity in the epochs of mass extinctions of species. Periodic comet showers from the Oort cloud seemed to cause catastrophic events linked to mass extinctions of species. Our first study revealed that the only significant detected periodicity is the “human signal” caused by the rounding of these data into integer numbers. The second study confirmed that the original 28.4 Myr periodicity detection was not significant. The third study revealed that the quality and the quantity of the currently available data would allow detection of real periodicity only if all impacts have been periodic, which cannot be the case. The detection of a periodic signal, if present, requires that more craters should be discovered and the accuracy of age estimates improved. If we sometimes will be able to find the difference between the craters caused by asteroid and comet impacts, the aperiodic component could be removed. The lunar impact craters may eventually provide the required supplementary data.

  8. Modeling and analysis of the impacts of jet lag on circadian rhythm and its role in tumor growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azka Hassan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms maintain a 24 h oscillation pattern in metabolic, physiological and behavioral processes in all living organisms. Circadian rhythms are organized as biochemical networks located in hypothalamus and peripheral tissues. Rhythmicity in the expression of circadian clock genes plays a vital role in regulating the process of cell division and DNA damage control. The oncogenic protein, MYC and the tumor suppressor, p53 are directly influenced by the circadian clock. Jet lag and altered sleep/wake schedules prominently affect the expression of molecular clock genes. This study is focused on developing a Petri net model to analyze the impacts of long term jet lag on the circadian clock and its probable role in tumor progression. The results depict that jet lag disrupts the normal rhythmic behavior and expression of the circadian clock proteins. This disruption leads to persistent expression of MYC and suppressed expression of p53. Thus, it is inferred that jet lag altered circadian clock negatively affects the expressions of cell cycle regulatory genes and contribute in uncontrolled proliferation of tumor cells.

  9. Fast-ignition heavy-ion fusion target by jet impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velarde, P.; Ogando, F.; Eliezer, S.; Martinez-Val, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    A new target design for HIF, based on the fast-ignition principles, is proposed. Unlike the previous designs proposed so far, in this case just one energy source is needed to drive the whole process to ignition. The ultra-fast deposition of energy onto the compressed core is produced in this case by hypervelocity jets generated during the process. The collision of jets converts their kinetic energy into thermal energy of the nuclear fuel, which is expected to produce ignition under proper design. The process is studied in this paper, describing its most relevant features like jet production and later collision

  10. Calibration of light-flavour jet $b$-tagging rates on ATLAS proton-proton collision data at $\\sqrt{s}=13$~TeV

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The identification of jets containing $b$-hadrons is important for the physics programme of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. Two evaluations of the misidentification rate of light-flavour jets for the $b$-tagging algorithm MV2c10, used in the LHC Run 2 ATLAS analyses, are described. The evaluations are performed in various ranges of jet transverse momenta and pseudorapidities with proton-proton collision data collected at a centre-of-mass energy of ${\\sqrt{s} = 13}$~TeV during the years 2015 and 2016. The first evaluation is based on a data sample enriched in light-flavour jets thanks to the application of a dedicated algorithm with much reduced capabilities in tagging $b$-jets and similar performance in mistagging light-flavour jets when compared to the standard $b$-tagging algorithm. The second evaluation is based on a bottom-up approach where the underlying tracking variables in the simulation are adjusted to match performance observed in data; the $b$-tagging algorithm is then re-evaluat...

  11. Effect of outer stagnation pressure on jet structure in supersonic coaxial jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myoung Jong; Woo, Sang Woo; Lee, Byeong Eun; Kwon, Soon Bum

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of dual coaxial jet which composed of inner supersonic nozzle of 26500 in constant expansion rate with 1.91 design Mach number and outer converging one with 40 .deg. C converging angle with the variation of outer nozzle stagnation pressure are experimentally investigated in this paper. In which the stagnation pressure for the inner supersonic nozzle is 750kPa thus, the inner jet leaving the nozzle is slightly underexpanded. The plenum pressure of outer nozzle are varied from 200 to 600kPa. Flow visualizations by shadowgraph method, impact pressure and centerline static pressure measurements of dual coaxial jet are presented. The results show that the presence of outer jet affects significantly the structures and pressure distributions of inner jet. And outer jet causes Mach disk which does not appear for the case of single jet stream. As the stagnation pressure of outer jet increases, impact pressure undulation is severe, but the average impact pressure keeps high far downstream

  12. ATLAS level-1 jet trigger rates and study of the ATLAS discovery potential of the neutral MSSM Higgs bosons in b-jet decay channels

    CERN Document Server

    Mahboubi, Kambiz

    2001-01-01

    The response of the ATLAS calorimeters to electrons, photons and hadrons, in terms of the longitudinal and lateral shower development, is parameterized using the GEANT package and a detailed detector description (DICE). The parameterizations are implemented in the ATLAS Level-1 (LVL1) Calorimeter Trigger fast simulation package which, based on an average detector geometry, simulates the complete chain of the LVL1 calorimeter trigger system. In addition, pile-up effects due to multiple primary interactions are implemented taking into account the shape and time history of the trigger signals. An interface to the fast physics simulation package (ATLFAST) is also developed in order to perform ATLAS physics analysis, including the LVL1 trigger effects, in a consistent way. The simulation tools, the details of the parameterization and the interface are described. The LVL1 jet trigger thresholds corresponding to the current trigger menus are determined within the framework of the fast simulation, and the LVL1 jet tr...

  13. Predictive modelling of the impact of argon injection on H-mode plasmas in JET with the RITM code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterberg, B; Kalupin, D; Tokar', M Z; Corrigan, G; Dumortier, P; Huber, A; Jachmich, S; Kempenaars, M; Kreter, A; Messiaen, A M; Monier-Garbet, P; Ongena, J; Puiatti, M E; Valisa, M; Hellermann, M von

    2004-01-01

    Self-consistent modelling of energy and particle transport of the plasma background and impurities has been performed with the code RITM for argon seeded high density H-mode plasmas in JET. The code can reproduce both the profiles in the plasma core and the structure of the edge pedestal. The impact of argon on core transport is found to be small; in particular, no significant change in confinement is observed in both experimental and modelling results. The same transport model, which has been used to reproduce density peaking in the radiative improved mode in TEXTOR, reveals a flat density profile in Ar seeded JET H-mode plasmas in agreement with the experimental observations. This behaviour is attributed to the rather flat profile of the safety factor in the bulk of H-mode discharges

  14. Visualization of high speed liquid jet impaction on a moving surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuchen; Green, Sheldon

    2015-04-17

    Two apparatuses for examining liquid jet impingement on a high-speed moving surface are described: an air cannon device (for examining surface speeds between 0 and 25 m/sec) and a spinning disk device (for examining surface speeds between 15 and 100 m/sec). The air cannon linear traverse is a pneumatic energy-powered system that is designed to accelerate a metal rail surface mounted on top of a wooden projectile. A pressurized cylinder fitted with a solenoid valve rapidly releases pressurized air into the barrel, forcing the projectile down the cannon barrel. The projectile travels beneath a spray nozzle, which impinges a liquid jet onto its metal upper surface, and the projectile then hits a stopping mechanism. A camera records the jet impingement, and a pressure transducer records the spray nozzle backpressure. The spinning disk set-up consists of a steel disk that reaches speeds of 500 to 3,000 rpm via a variable frequency drive (VFD) motor. A spray system similar to that of the air cannon generates a liquid jet that impinges onto the spinning disc, and cameras placed at several optical access points record the jet impingement. Video recordings of jet impingement processes are recorded and examined to determine whether the outcome of impingement is splash, splatter, or deposition. The apparatuses are the first that involve the high speed impingement of low-Reynolds-number liquid jets on high speed moving surfaces. In addition to its rail industry applications, the described technique may be used for technical and industrial purposes such as steelmaking and may be relevant to high-speed 3D printing.

  15. Modified Regression Rate Formula of PMMA Combustion by a Single Plane Impinging Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuneyoshi Matsuoka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified regression rate formula for the uppermost stage of CAMUI-type hybrid rocket motor is proposed in this study. Assuming a quasi-steady, one-dimensional, an energy balance against a control volume near the fuel surface is considered. Accordingly, the regression rate formula which can calculate the local regression rate by the quenching distance between the flame and the regression surface is derived. An experimental setup which simulates the combustion phenomenon involved in the uppermost stage of a CAMUI-type hybrid rocket motor was constructed and the burning tests with various flow velocities and impinging distances were performed. A PMMA slab of 20 mm height, 60 mm width, and 20 mm thickness was chosen as a sample specimen and pure oxygen and O2/N2 mixture (50/50 vol.% were employed as the oxidizers. The time-averaged regression rate along the fuel surface was measured by a laser displacement sensor. The quenching distance during the combustion event was also identified from the observation. The comparison between the purely experimental and calculated values showed good agreement, although a large systematic error was expected due to the difficulty in accurately identifying the quenching distance.

  16. Office design's impact on sick leave rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin Danielsson, Christina; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Wulff, Cornelia; Westerlund, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    The effect of office type on sickness absence among office employees was studied prospectively in 1852 employees working in (1) cell-offices; (2) shared-room offices; (3) small, (4) medium-sized and (5) large open-plan offices; (6) flex-offices and (7) combi-offices. Sick leaves were self-reported two years later as number of (a) short and (b) long (medically certified) sick leave spells as well as (c) total number of sick leave days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used, with adjustment for background factors. A significant excess risk for sickness absence was found only in terms of short sick leave spells in the three open-plan offices. In the gender separate analysis, this remained for women, whereas men had a significantly increased risk in flex-offices. For long sick leave spells, a significantly higher risk was found among women in large open-plan offices and for total number of sick days among men in flex-offices. A prospective study of the office environment's effect on employees is motivated by the high rates of sick leaves in the workforce. The results indicate differences between office types, depending on the number of people sharing workspace and the opportunity to exert personal control as influenced by the features that define the office types.

  17. The minimum or natural rate of flow and droplet size ejected by Taylor cone–jets: physical symmetries and scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gañán-Calvo, A M; Rebollo-Muñoz, N; Montanero, J M

    2013-01-01

    We aim to establish the scaling laws for both the minimum rate of flow attainable in the steady cone–jet mode of electrospray, and the size of the resulting droplets in that limit. Use is made of a small body of literature on Taylor cone–jets reporting precise measurements of the transported electric current and droplet size as a function of the liquid properties and flow rate. The projection of the data onto an appropriate non-dimensional parameter space maps a region bounded by the minimum rate of flow attainable in the steady state. To explain these experimental results, we propose a theoretical model based on the generalized concept of physical symmetry, stemming from the system time invariance (steadiness). A group of symmetries rising at the cone-to-jet geometrical transition determines the scaling for the minimum flow rate and related variables. If the flow rate is decreased below that minimum value, those symmetries break down, which leads to dripping. We find that the system exhibits two instability mechanisms depending on the nature of the forces arising against the flow: one dominated by viscosity and the other by the liquid polarity. In the former case, full charge relaxation is guaranteed down to the minimum flow rate, while in the latter the instability condition becomes equivalent to the symmetry breakdown by charge relaxation or separation. When cone–jets are formed without artificially imposing a flow rate, a microjet is issued quasi-steadily. The flow rate naturally ejected this way coincides with the minimum flow rate studied here. This natural flow rate determines the minimum droplet size that can be steadily produced by any electrohydrodynamic means for a given set of liquid properties. (paper)

  18. The minimum or natural rate of flow and droplet size ejected by Taylor cone-jets: physical symmetries and scaling laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gañán-Calvo, A. M.; Rebollo-Muñoz, N.; Montanero, J. M.

    2013-03-01

    We aim to establish the scaling laws for both the minimum rate of flow attainable in the steady cone-jet mode of electrospray, and the size of the resulting droplets in that limit. Use is made of a small body of literature on Taylor cone-jets reporting precise measurements of the transported electric current and droplet size as a function of the liquid properties and flow rate. The projection of the data onto an appropriate non-dimensional parameter space maps a region bounded by the minimum rate of flow attainable in the steady state. To explain these experimental results, we propose a theoretical model based on the generalized concept of physical symmetry, stemming from the system time invariance (steadiness). A group of symmetries rising at the cone-to-jet geometrical transition determines the scaling for the minimum flow rate and related variables. If the flow rate is decreased below that minimum value, those symmetries break down, which leads to dripping. We find that the system exhibits two instability mechanisms depending on the nature of the forces arising against the flow: one dominated by viscosity and the other by the liquid polarity. In the former case, full charge relaxation is guaranteed down to the minimum flow rate, while in the latter the instability condition becomes equivalent to the symmetry breakdown by charge relaxation or separation. When cone-jets are formed without artificially imposing a flow rate, a microjet is issued quasi-steadily. The flow rate naturally ejected this way coincides with the minimum flow rate studied here. This natural flow rate determines the minimum droplet size that can be steadily produced by any electrohydrodynamic means for a given set of liquid properties.

  19. Jet angularity measurements for single inclusive jet production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Lee, Kyle; Ringer, Felix

    2018-04-01

    We study jet angularity measurements for single-inclusive jet production at the LHC. Jet angularities depend on a continuous parameter a allowing for a smooth interpolation between different traditional jet shape observables. We establish a factorization theorem within Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) where we consistently take into account in- and out-of-jet radiation by making use of semi-inclusive jet functions. For comparison, we elaborate on the differences to jet angularities measured on an exclusive jet sample. All the necessary ingredients for the resummation at next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL) accuracy are presented within the effective field theory framework. We expect semiinclusive jet angularity measurements to be feasible at the LHC and we present theoretical predictions for the relevant kinematic range. In addition, we investigate the potential impact of jet angularities for quark-gluon discrimination.

  20. Calibration of light-flavour jet $b$-tagging rates on ATLAS data at $\\sqrt{s}=$ 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Saimpert, Matthias; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A variety of algorithms have been developed to identify jets originating from $b$-quark hadronization within the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. We describe the measurement of the false positive rate of the algorithm most commonly used in the LHC Run~2 ATLAS analyses, i.e. the misidentification rate of jets containing no $b$- nor $c$-hadrons. The measurement is based on the full data sample collected at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV by the ATLAS detector during the year 2015 and 2016 and is performed in various ranges of jet transverse momenta and pseudorapidities. The final data sample used to extract the results is enriched in jets originating from light-flavour quark and gluon hadronization with the application of a dedicated algorithm reversing some of the criteria used in the nominal identification algorithm. The results are compared to the false positive rate predicted by the nominal ATLAS simulation in order to calibrate these.

  1. Flow Channel Influence of a Collision-Based Piezoelectric Jetting Dispenser on Jet Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Zhou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To improve the jet performance of a bi-piezoelectric jet dispenser, mathematical and simulation models were established according to the operating principle. In order to improve the accuracy and reliability of the simulation calculation, a viscosity model of the fluid was fitted to a fifth-order function with shear rate based on rheological test data, and the needle displacement model was fitted to a nine-order function with time based on real-time displacement test data. The results show that jet performance is related to the diameter of the nozzle outlet and the cone angle of the nozzle, and the impacts of the flow channel structure were confirmed. The approach of numerical simulation is confirmed by the testing results of droplet volume. It will provide a reliable simulation platform for mechanical collision-based jet dispensing and a theoretical basis for micro jet valve design and improvement.

  2. On the one loop γ{sup (∗)}→qq̄ impact factor and the exclusive diffractive cross sections for the production of two or three jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussarie, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, UMR 8627, CNRS, University Paris-Sud, CNRS,Université Paris-Saclay,91405, Orsay (France); Grabovsky, A.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics,11, Lavrenteva avenue, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University,630090, 2, Pirogova street, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Department of Physics, University of Minnesota,Duluth, Minnesota, 55812 (United States); Szymanowski, L. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ),Warsaw (Poland); Wallon, S. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, UMR 8627, CNRS, University Paris-Sud, CNRS,Université Paris-Saclay,91405, Orsay (France); UPMC University Paris 06, faculté de physique,4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2016-11-24

    We present the calculation of the impact factor for the γ{sup (∗)}→qq̄ transition with one loop accuracy in arbitrary kinematics. The calculation was done within Balitsky’s high energy operator expansion. Together with our previous result for the γ{sup (∗)}→qq̄g Born impact factor it allows one to derive cross sections for 2- (one loop) and 3-jet (Born) difractive electroproduction. We write such cross sections for the 2 and 3 jet exclusive diffractive electroproduction off a proton in terms of hadronic matrix elements of Wilson lines. For the 2-jet cross section we demonstrate the cancellation of infrared, collinear and rapidity singularities. Our result can be directly exploited to describe the recently analyzed data on exclusive dijet production at HERA and used for the study of jet photoproduction in ultraperipheral proton or nuclear scattering.

  3. On the one loop γ(∗)→qq̄ impact factor and the exclusive diffractive cross sections for the production of two or three jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussarie, R.; Grabovsky, A.V.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present the calculation of the impact factor for the γ (∗) →qq̄ transition with one loop accuracy in arbitrary kinematics. The calculation was done within Balitsky’s high energy operator expansion. Together with our previous result for the γ (∗) →qq̄g Born impact factor it allows one to derive cross sections for 2- (one loop) and 3-jet (Born) difractive electroproduction. We write such cross sections for the 2 and 3 jet exclusive diffractive electroproduction off a proton in terms of hadronic matrix elements of Wilson lines. For the 2-jet cross section we demonstrate the cancellation of infrared, collinear and rapidity singularities. Our result can be directly exploited to describe the recently analyzed data on exclusive dijet production at HERA and used for the study of jet photoproduction in ultraperipheral proton or nuclear scattering.

  4. Impact of pulsed jet actuators on aircraft mass and fuel consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertels, F.G.A.; van Dijk, R.E.C.; Elmendorp, R.J.M.; Vos, R.

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed jet actuators (PJAs) are one of the candidate technologies to be integrated in Fowler flaps to increase the maximum lift coefficient of transport aircraft in the landing configuration. The total system consists of the actuators plus sensors, a piping system to supply pressurized air and a

  5. A new system for rating impact sound insulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerretsen, E.

    1976-01-01

    The rating of impact sound insulation on the basis of tapping machine measurements with the ISO reference values has proved to be unsatisfactory in practice. This is mainly due to the differences in spectrum shape of tapping machine noise and real life impact noises, such as walking. The problem can

  6. Performance of a high repetition pulse rate laser system for in-gas-jet laser ionization studies with the Leuven laser ion source LISOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, R.; Sonnenschein, V.T.; Bastin, B.; Franchoo, S.; Huyse, M.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Kron, T.; Lecesne, N.; Moore, I.D.; Osmond, B.; Pauwels, D.; Radulov, D.; Raeder, S.; Rens, L.

    2012-01-01

    The laser ionization efficiency of the Leuven gas cell-based laser ion source was investigated under on- and off-line conditions using two distinctly different laser setups: a low-repetition rate dye laser system and a high-repetition rate Ti:sapphire laser system. A systematic study of the ion signal dependence on repetition rate and laser pulse energy was performed in off-line tests using stable cobalt and copper isotopes. These studies also included in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy measurements on the hyperfine structure of 63 Cu. A final run under on-line conditions in which the radioactive isotope 59 Cu (T 1/2 = 81.5 s) was produced, showed a comparable yield of the two laser systems for in-gas-cell ionization. However, a significantly improved time overlap by using the high-repetition rate laser system for in-gas-jet ionization was demonstrated by an increase of the overall duty cycle, and at the same time, pointed to the need for a better shaped atomic jet to reach higher ionization efficiencies.

  7. Rain erosion of wind turbine blade coatings using discrete water jets: Effects of water cushioning, substrate geometry, impact distance, and coating properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shizhong; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Bernad, Pablo L.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and reliable rain erosion screening of blade coatings for wind turbines is a strong need in the coatings industry. One possibility in this direction is the use of discrete water jets, where so-called jet slugs are impacted on a coating surface. Previous investigations have mapped...... the influence of water jet slug velocity and impact frequency. In the present work, the effects on coating erosion of water cushioning, substrate curvature, and water nozzle-coating distance were explored. The investigations showed that in some cases water cushioning (the presence of a liquid film...... on the coating surface prior to impact) influences the erosion. Contrary to this, substrate curvature and the water nozzle-coating distance (

  8. Jet observables without jet algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolini, Daniele; Chan, Tucker; Thaler, Jesse [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2014-04-02

    We introduce a new class of event shapes to characterize the jet-like structure of an event. Like traditional event shapes, our observables are infrared/collinear safe and involve a sum over all hadrons in an event, but like a jet clustering algorithm, they incorporate a jet radius parameter and a transverse momentum cut. Three of the ubiquitous jet-based observables — jet multiplicity, summed scalar transverse momentum, and missing transverse momentum — have event shape counterparts that are closely correlated with their jet-based cousins. Due to their “local” computational structure, these jet-like event shapes could potentially be used for trigger-level event selection at the LHC. Intriguingly, the jet multiplicity event shape typically takes on non-integer values, highlighting the inherent ambiguity in defining jets. By inverting jet multiplicity, we show how to characterize the transverse momentum of the n-th hardest jet without actually finding the constituents of that jet. Since many physics applications do require knowledge about the jet constituents, we also build a hybrid event shape that incorporates (local) jet clustering information. As a straightforward application of our general technique, we derive an event-shape version of jet trimming, allowing event-wide jet grooming without explicit jet identification. Finally, we briefly mention possible applications of our method for jet substructure studies.

  9. Phenomenology of jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, T.F.

    1980-05-01

    The basic idea of these lectures is very simple. Quarks and gluons - the elementary quanta of quantum chromodynamics or QCD - are produced with perturbarively calculable rates in short distance processes. This is because of asymptotic freedom. These quanta produced at short distances are, in a sense, 'visible' as jets of hadrons. (The jets do not contain the colored QCD quanta if - as we will assume - color is confined. The jets contain only colorless hadrons.) The distribution of these jets is the distribution of the original quanta, apart from fluctuations generated in the (long distance) jet formation process. The distribution of the jets can thus thest QCD in a particularly clear way at the parton level, at distance of order 5 x 10 -16 cm (PETRA/PEP energies). (orig.)

  10. The impact of inflation uncertainty on interest rates

    OpenAIRE

    Cheong, Chongcheul; Kim, Gi-Hong; Podivinsky, Jan M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the impact of inflation uncertainty on interest rates is investigated for the case of the U.S. three-month Treasury bill rate. We emphasize how consistentOLS estimation can be applied to an empirical equation which includes a proxy variable of inflation uncertainty measured by an ARCH-type model. A significant negative relationship between the two variables is provided. This evidence is contrasted with the view of the inflation risk premium in which inflation uncertainty positi...

  11. Impact Load of Welds After Micro-Jet Cooling / Dynamiczne Obciążenie Spoin Chłodzonych Mikrojetowo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadryś D.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro-jet cooling is an innovative method of forced cooling. It could be used to cooling after welding immediately. It allows to obtain welds with better properties in comparison to ordinary welding method. Favourable structure of weld metal deposit (WMD with higher content of acicular ferrite (AF could be obtained. These properties can be controlled by several variables (e. g. type of cooling gas, number of jets. Plastic properties are particularly important in case of impact load. This type of strength is very dangerous for the structure and for safety of users (ex. car body during car crash. This article presents the influence of the cooling gas and the number of jets on plastic properties of the weld joint for impact load. It is described by restitution coefficient and plastic strain.

  12. Youth unemployment rate and impact of financial crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choudhry, Misbah Tanveer; Marelli, Enrico; Signorelli, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of financial crises on the youth unemployment rate (YUR). The authors consider different types of financial crises (systemic banking crises, non-systemic banking crises, currency crises and debt crises) and different groups of countries,

  13. Estimates of rates and errors for measurements of direct-γ and direct-γ + jet production by polarized protons at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddo, M.E.; Spinka, H.; Underwood, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    Studies of inclusive direct-γ production by pp interactions at RHIC energies were performed. Rates and the associated uncertainties on spin-spin observables for this process were computed for the planned PHENIX and STAR detectors at energies between √s = 50 and 500 GeV. Also, rates were computed for direct-γ + jet production for the STAR detector. The goal was to study the gluon spin distribution functions with such measurements. Recommendations concerning the electromagnetic calorimeter design and the need for an endcap calorimeter for STAR are made

  14. Correlation of 0.67um scatter with local stress in Ge impacted with the modified Cambridge liquid jet device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael; Price, D.; Strohecker, Steve

    1994-09-01

    Germanium witness samples were impacted with the NAWCADWAR modified Cambridge liquid jet device introducing varying levels of damage about the center of each sample. Surface damage statistics were collected, scatter measurements were made at 0.67 micrometers and the samples were failed in tension using a bi-axial flexure test setup. The level and character of the damage was correlated with the reflected scatter measurements as a function of local stress and flaw size distribution. Bi-axial flexure data was analyzed to predict fracture stress and the probability of failure of the germanium samples. The mechanical data were then correlated with the scatter data in order to correlate the BRDF with the material failure. The BRDF measurements were taken in several different orientations in order to study the differences in scatter character for the in-plane and out-of-plane conditions.

  15. Determining long-term regional erosion rates using impact craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergarten, Stefan; Kenkmann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    More than 300,000 impact craters have been found on Mars, while the surface of Moon's highlands is even saturated with craters. In contrast, only 184 impact craters have been confirmed on Earth so far with only 125 of them exposed at the surface. The spatial distribution of these impact craters is highly inhomogeneous. Beside the large variation in the age of the crust, consumption of craters by erosion and burial by sediments are the main actors being responsible for the quite small and inhomogeneous crater record. In this study we present a novel approach to infer long-term average erosion rates at regional scales from the terrestrial crater inventory. The basic idea behind this approach is a dynamic equilibrium between the production of new craters and their consumption by erosion. It is assumed that each crater remains detectable until the total erosion after the impact exceeds a characteristic depth depending on the crater's diameter. Combining this model with the terrestrial crater production rate, i.e., the number of craters per unit area and time as a function of their diameter, allows for a prediction of the expected number of craters in a given region as a function of the erosion rate. Using the real crater inventory, this relationship can be inverted to determine the regional long-term erosion rate and its statistical uncertainty. A limitation by the finite age of the crust can also be taken into account. Applying the method to the Colorado Plateau and the Deccan Traps, both being regions with a distinct geological history, yields erosion rates in excellent agreement with those obtained by other, more laborious methods. However, these rates are formally exposed to large statistical uncertainties due to the small number of impact craters. As higher crater densities are related to lower erosion rates, smaller statistical errors can be expected when large regions in old parts of the crust are considered. Very low long-term erosion rates of less than 4

  16. Parallel SOL transport in MAST and JET: the impact of the mirror force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, A; Fundamenski, W; Ahn, J-W; Counsell, G

    2003-01-01

    Interpretative modelling of the SOL plasma in conventional (JET) and tight (MAST) aspect ratio devices has been performed using OSM2/EIRENE. A detailed comparison has been made of the solutions of the fluid equations and one key issue uncovered by this modelling is the significance of the mirror force for the spherical tokamak (ST) SOL. This force is proportional to ∇ parallel B/B, which is typically a factor 10 larger in an ST due to the low aspect ratio. This term leads to changes in the charged particle velocity distributions near regions with large V parallel B/B representing an effective, upstream particle and momentum source. The modelling performed in this paper indicates that exclusion of the ∇ parallel B term may lead to incorrect conclusions on, for example, the upstream density, especially in STs

  17. On jet substructure methods for signal jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Mrinal [Consortium for Fundamental Physics, School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Manchester,Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Powling, Alexander [School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Manchester,Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Siodmok, Andrzej [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences,ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); CERN, PH-TH,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2015-08-17

    We carry out simple analytical calculations and Monte Carlo studies to better understand the impact of QCD radiation on some well-known jet substructure methods for jets arising from the decay of boosted Higgs bosons. Understanding differences between taggers for these signal jets assumes particular significance in situations where they perform similarly on QCD background jets. As an explicit example of this we compare the Y-splitter method to the more recently proposed Y-pruning technique. We demonstrate how the insight we gain can be used to significantly improve the performance of Y-splitter by combining it with trimming and show that this combination outperforms the other taggers studied here, at high p{sub T}. We also make analytical estimates for optimal parameter values, for a range of methods and compare to results from Monte Carlo studies.

  18. Study of jet production in ALICE experiment at LHC collider

    CERN Document Server

    Jangal, Swensy

    The jet is one of the probes allowing testing strong interaction theory predictions, QCD, and to extract physical properties from a particular state of nuclear matter : Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). This PhD work is aimed to show ALICE capacities to measure jets coming from collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The detection of particles constituting jets, their association with reconstruction algorithms and the construction of observables such as jet pT spectrum of Hump-Backed Plateau is a hard work. We detail these different steps from simulation allowing to estimate jet rates we could expect for our analysis and to evaluate the impact of experimental measure on final observables. We finally present pT spectrum and Hump-Backed Plateau from first p+p collisions at LHC to whom mean corrections have been applied.

  19. Mass acceleration in a multi-module plasma jet for impact fusion. Final report, 21 May 1984-21 May 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, R.L.; Goldstein, S.A.; Tidman, D.A.; Massey, D.W.; Winsor, N.K.; Witherspoon, F.D.

    1985-07-01

    GT-Devices began work on multi-module mass accelerators for impact fusion in 1981. The technique employs sequentially switched high pressure plasma jets to accelerate a lightweight projectile in a circular barrel. The purpose of the work of the past 12 months was to improve the understanding of the plasma jet acceleration process, and to translate that understanding into verifiable results. Both goals have been accomplished. During the past year we conceived, designed, built and fired 325 shots on the Module Test Facility (MTF). This facility provided sufficient diagnostics to investigate a wide variety of geometries, plasmas and current pulses, so that rapid progress was made

  20. Deformations of free jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paruchuri, Srinivas

    This thesis studies three different problems. First we demonstrate that a flowing liquid jet can be controllably split into two separate subfilaments through the applications of a sufficiently strong tangential stress to the surface of the jet. In contrast, normal stresses can never split a liquid jet. We apply these results to observations of uncontrolled splitting of jets in electric fields. The experimental realization of controllable jet splitting would provide an entirely novel route for producing small polymeric fibers. In the second chapter we present an analytical model for the bending of liquid jets and sheets from temperature gradients, as recently observed by Chwalek et al. [Phys. Fluids, 14, L37 (2002)]. The bending arises from a local couple caused by Marangoni forces. The dependence of the bending angle on experimental parameters is presented, in qualitative agreement with reported experiments. The methodology gives a simple framework for understanding the mechanisms for jet and sheet bending. In chapter 4 we address the discrepancy between hydrodynamic theory of liquid jets, and the snap-off of narrow liquid jets observed in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations [23]. This has been previously attributed to the significant role of thermal fluctuations in nanofluidic systems. We argue that hydrodynamic description of such systems should include corrections to the Laplace pressure which result from the failure of the sharp interface assumption when the jet diameter becomes small enough. We show that this effect can in principle give rise to jet shapes similar to those observed in MD simulations, even when thermal fluctuations are completely neglected. Finally we summarize an algorithm developed to simulate droplet impact on a smooth surface.

  1. Transmission line undergrounding : rate impact investigation and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In response to concerns expressed by the residents of Markham, Ontario regarding the possible environmental and health impacts of a proposed 230 kV overhead transmission line, Hydro One Networks Inc. (HONI) has proposed to place the line underground as an alternative. This analysis was prepared to evaluate the potential impacts on transmission rates and consumer prices related to changes in the level of underground construction of transmission lines by HONI, as opposed to overhead construction. The report presents the approach to data collection; cost estimates and projections; the modeling and projecting of HONI's regulated rate base and revenue requirement on a basis that reflects the manner in which its future transmission rates are expected to be established; estimates of the incremental cost of undergrounding reflecting a range of reasonable assumptions; and a comparison of the resulting transmission costs and total customer bill. To address the issue of potential demand in other municipalities for additional undergrounding, the study also examined the cumulative effects of ten years' incremental undergrounding costs (i.e. effects on 2014 rates). It was concluded that if HONI were to implement an undergrounding program beginning in 2005, resulting in the installation of 80 km of underground lines by 2014, and shared costs by all users of HONI's system through the network transmission charges, the 2014 transmission rates would be higher. 5 tabs

  2. Impact of Constant Rate Factor on Objective Video Quality Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Bienik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the impact of constant rate factor value on the objective video quality assessment using PSNR and SSIM metrics. Compression efficiency of H.264 and H.265 codecs defined by different Constant rate factor (CRF values was tested. The assessment was done for eight types of video sequences depending on content for High Definition (HD, Full HD (FHD and Ultra HD (UHD resolution. Finally, performance of both mentioned codecs with emphasis on compression ratio and efficiency of coding was compared.

  3. IMPACT OF STRAIN RATE ON MICROALLOYED STEEL SHEET BREAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Mihaliková

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Strain rate is a significant external factor and its influence on material behavior in forming process is a function of its internal structure. The contribution is analysis of the impact of loading rate from 1.6 x 10-4 ms-1 to 24 ms-1 to changes in the fracture of steel sheet used for bodywork components in cars. Experiments were performed on samples taken from HC420LA grade strips produced by cold rolling and hot dip galvanizing. Material strength properties were compared based on measured values, and changes to fracture surface character were observed.

  4. Impact ionisation rate calculations in wide band gap semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, D.

    1998-09-01

    Calculations of band-to-band impact ionisation rates performed in the semi-classical Fermi's Golden Rule approximation are presented here for the semiconductors GaAs, In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As and Si 0.5 Ge 0.5 at 300K. The crystal band structure is calculated using the empirical pseudopotential method. To increase the speed with which band structure data at arbitrary k-vectors can be obtained, an interpolation scheme has been developed. Energies are quadratically interpolated on adapted meshes designed to ensure accuracy is uniform throughout the Brillouin zone, and pseudowavefunctions are quadratically interpolated on a regular mesh. Matrix elements are calculated from the pseudowavefunctions, and include the terms commonly neglected in calculations for narrow band gap materials and an isotropic approximation to the full wavevector and frequency dependent dielectric function. The numerical integration of the rate over all distinct energy and wavevector conserving transitions is performed using two different algorithms. Results from each are compared and found to be in good agreement, indicating that the algorithms are reliable. The rates for electrons and holes in each material are calculated as functions of the k-vector of the impacting carriers, and found to be highly anisotropic. Average rates for impacting carriers at a given energy are calculated and fitted to Keldysh-type expressions with higher than quadratic dependence of the rate on energy above threshold being obtained in all cases. The average rates calculated here are compared to results obtained by other workers, with reasonable agreement being obtained for GaAs, and poorer agreement obtained for InGaAs and SiGe. Possible reasons for the disagreement are investigated. The impact ionisation thresholds are examined and k-space and energy distributions of generated carriers are determined. The role of threshold anisotropy, variation in the matrix elements and the shape of the bands in determining

  5. Survey of disruption causes at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, P.C.; Johnson, M.F.; Alper, B.; Hender, T.C.; Riccardo, V.; Buratti, P.; Koslowski, H.R.

    2011-01-01

    A survey has been carried out into the causes of all 2309 disruptions over the last decade of JET operations. The aim of this survey was to obtain a complete picture of all possible disruption causes, in order to devise better strategies to prevent or mitigate their impact. The analysis allows the effort to avoid or prevent JET disruptions to be more efficient and effective. As expected, a highly complex pattern of chain of events that led to disruptions emerged. It was found that the majority of disruptions had a technical root cause, for example due to control errors, or operator mistakes. These bring a random, non-physics, factor into the occurrence of disruptions and the disruption rate or disruptivity of a scenario may depend more on technical performance than on physics stability issues. The main root cause of JET disruptions was nevertheless due to neo-classical tearing modes that locked, closely followed in second place by disruptions due to human error. The development of more robust operational scenarios has reduced the JET disruption rate over the last decade from about 15% to below 4%. A fraction of all disruptions was caused by very fast, precursorless unpredictable events. The occurrence of these disruptions may set a lower limit of 0.4% to the disruption rate of JET. If one considers on top of that human error and all unforeseen failures of heating or control systems this lower limit may rise to 1.0% or 1.6%, respectively.

  6. The Impact of Real Exchange Rate on Employment in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmira Cakrani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is a big economical and social issue for each country, in particular for Albania, which is a country that comes from a centralized system where the state ensured full employment. In the struggle of applying the transition to market economy, each government had to face the two-digit levels of unemployment. Because of this, the application of the right policies in order to decrease the level of unemployment has been in the centre of the program of each government in Albania. The objective of this paper is to show if the undervaluation or overvaluation of the real exchange rate can affect in a significant way the level of employment in Albania and that to answer the question, if the real exchange rate can be used as a political instrument for the reduction of the level of unemployment. There are relatively few works that study the impact of real exchange rate on the Albanian economy and in my knowledge there is not a previous work on employment and real exchange rate relationship in Albania, so this can be considered as the first study that attempt to assess this relationship. To evaluate the link between the real exchange rate and the level of employment the Johansen procedure and Vector Error Correction Term method is used. The result of the study demonstrates not statistically significant impact of real exchange rate on level of employment, suggesting that the increase of competition of the country through the real exchange rate doesn’t improve the condition of the employment in Albania, so the Albanian government should implement other strategies to increase the level of employment in the country.

  7. Jet physics in ALICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loizides, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The ALICE experiment is one of the experiments currently prepared for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Geneva, starting operation end of 2007. ALICE is dedicated to the research on nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultra-relativistic energies, which addresses the properties of strongly interacting matter under varying conditions of high density and temperature. The conditions provided at the LHC allow significant qualitative improvement with respect to previous studies. In particular, energetic probes, light quarks and gluons, will be abundantly produced. These probes might be identified by their fragmentation into correlated particles, so called jets, of high enough energy to allow full reconstruction of jet properties; even in the underlying heavy-ion environment. Understanding the dependence of high-energy jet production and fragmentation influenced by the dense medium created in the collision region is an open field of active research. Generally, one expects energy loss of the probes due to medium-induced gluon radiation. It is suggested that hadronization products of these, rather soft gluons may be contained within the jet emission cone, resulting in a modification of the characteristic jet fragmentation, as observed via longitudinal and transverse momentum distributions with respect to the direction of the initial parton, as well as of the multiplicity distributions arising from the jet fragmentation. Particle momenta parallel to the jet axis are softened (jet quenching), while transverse to it increased (transverse heating). The present thesis studies the capabilities of the ALICE detectors to measure these jets and quantifies obtainable rates and the quality of jet reconstruction, in both proton-proton and lead-lead collisions at the LHC. In particular, it is addressed whether modification of the jet fragmentation can be detected within the high-particle-multiplicity environment of central lead-lead collisions. (orig.)

  8. Jet fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxon, D.H.

    1985-10-01

    The paper reviews studies on jet fragmentation. The subject is discussed under the topic headings: fragmentation models, charged particle multiplicity, bose-einstein correlations, identified hadrons in jets, heavy quark fragmentation, baryon production, gluon and quark jets compared, the string effect, and two successful models. (U.K.)

  9. Jets and QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Kramer, G.

    2010-12-01

    The observation of quark and gluon jets has played a crucial role in establishing Quantum Chromodynamics [QCD] as the theory of the strong interactions within the Standard Model of particle physics. The jets, narrowly collimated bundles of hadrons, reflect configurations of quarks and gluons at short distances. Thus, by analysing energy and angular distributions of the jets experimentally, the properties of the basic constituents of matter and the strong forces acting between them can be explored. In this review we summarise the properties of quark and gluon jets and the impact of their observation on Quantum Chromodynamics, primarily the discovery of the gluons as the carriers of the strong force. Focusing on these basic points, jets in e + e - collisions will be in the foreground of the discussion. In addition we will delineate the role of jets as tools for exploring other particle aspects in ep and pp/p anti p collisions - quark and gluon densities in protons, measurements of the QCD coupling, fundamental 2-2 quark/gluon scattering processes, but also the impact of jet decays of top quarks, and W ± ,Z bosons on the electroweak sector. The presentation to a large extent is formulated in a non-technical language with the intent to recall the significant steps historically and convey the significance of this field also to communities beyond high energy physics. (orig.)

  10. Jets and QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kramer, G. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2010-12-15

    The observation of quark and gluon jets has played a crucial role in establishing Quantum Chromodynamics [QCD] as the theory of the strong interactions within the Standard Model of particle physics. The jets, narrowly collimated bundles of hadrons, reflect configurations of quarks and gluons at short distances. Thus, by analysing energy and angular distributions of the jets experimentally, the properties of the basic constituents of matter and the strong forces acting between them can be explored. In this review we summarise the properties of quark and gluon jets and the impact of their observation on Quantum Chromodynamics, primarily the discovery of the gluons as the carriers of the strong force. Focusing on these basic points, jets in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions will be in the foreground of the discussion. In addition we will delineate the role of jets as tools for exploring other particle aspects in ep and pp/p anti p collisions - quark and gluon densities in protons, measurements of the QCD coupling, fundamental 2-2 quark/gluon scattering processes, but also the impact of jet decays of top quarks, and W{sup {+-}},Z bosons on the electroweak sector. The presentation to a large extent is formulated in a non-technical language with the intent to recall the significant steps historically and convey the significance of this field also to communities beyond high energy physics. (orig.)

  11. Cyclic strength of metals at impact strain rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleiche, A.M.; El-Kady, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    Rigorous understanding of the effects of impact loading on the mechanical response of materials and structures is essential for the optimum design and safe operation of many sophisticated engineering systems and components, such as industrial high-energy-rate fabrication processes and nuclear reactor containments. Extensive data are available at present on the dynamic behaviour of most metals in uniaxial tension, compression, torsion and pure shear, when they are subjected to diversified loading conditions, ranging from those characterised by monotonic constant rates, to those involving forward or reverse strain-rate jumps of several orders of magnitude. What appears to be missing in the current material data banks, however, is detailed information concerning the mechanical response under cyclic loading at impact strain rates. Such data are needed for engineering design purposes on one hand, and for the formulation of proper constitutive equations and the accurate modeling of deformation processes on the other. In the present paper, typical stress-strain characteristics at ambient temperature for copper, mild steel and titanium are first exhibited. The application of the unified Bodner-Partom constitutive theory to these data is then presented and discussed. (orig./GL)

  12. Impact of residential PV adoption on Retail Electricity Rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Desmond W.H.; Adlakha, Sachin; Low, Steven H.; De Martini, Paul; Mani Chandy, K.

    2013-01-01

    The price of electricity supplied from home rooftop photo voltaic (PV) solar cells has fallen below the retail price of grid electricity in some areas. A number of residential households have an economic incentive to install rooftop PV systems and reduce their purchases of electricity from the grid. A significant portion of the costs incurred by utility companies are fixed costs which must be recovered even as consumption falls. Electricity rates must increase in order for utility companies to recover fixed costs from shrinking sales bases. Increasing rates will, in turn, result in even more economic incentives for customers to adopt rooftop PV. In this paper, we model this feedback between PV adoption and electricity rates and study its impact on future PV penetration and net-metering costs. We find that the most important parameter that determines whether this feedback has an effect is the fraction of customers who adopt PV in any year based solely on the money saved by doing so in that year, independent of the uncertainties of future years. These uncertainties include possible changes in rate structures such as the introduction of connection charges, the possibility of PV prices dropping significantly in the future, possible changes in tax incentives, and confidence in the reliability and maintainability of PV. -- Highlights: •Households who install PV reduce their electricity consumption from the grid. •Electricity rates must increase for utility companies to recover its fixed costs. •However, higher electricity rates give households more incentives to adopt PV. •We find that this feedback has significant impact on PV uptake only in later years. •Utility companies could lose a significant fraction of high consumption customers

  13. Literacy Rates and its Impact on Birth Rates in Nadia District, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadeb Ghosh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Equality in socio-economic component is essential for human development and social change. Educational inequality reduces economic growth and women's empowerment on the one hand and increases birth rate on the other. In population studies, it has been established that educational level is collinearly related with demographic behaviour. This study aims to investigate inequalities in literacy rates and its impact on birth rates in Nowpara-I Gram Panchayat (GP located in the Krishnagar II C.D. Block, Nadia District of West Bengal using a household survey conducted in 356 households among women aged 49 and above in triangulation with secondary data. The aim of this study is to explore the causes of the spatial inequalities in education and its effect on spatial variations in birth rates. The key finding suggest that in Nowpara-I, negative relationships exist between female education and birth rate because education has a positive impact on empowerment, late marriage, use of contraceptives and family size.

  14. Quark and gluon jet properties in symmetric three-jet events

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Alemany, R; Bazarko, A O; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Moneta, L; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Wäänänen, A; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Abbaneo, D; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Konstantinidis, N P; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Chambers, J T; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Greening, T C; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    Quark and gluon jets with the same energy, 24GeV, are compared in symmetric three-jet configurations from hadronic Z decays observed by the ALEPH detector. Jets are defined using the Durham algorithm. Gluon jets are identified using an anti-tag on b jets, based on either a track impact parameter method or a high transverse momentum lepton tag. The comparison of gluon and mixed flavour quark jets shows that gluon jets have a softer fragmentation function, a larger angular width and a higher particle multiplicity. Evidence is also presented which shows that the corresponding differences between gluon and heavy flavour jets are significantly smaller.

  15. Improved inhaled air quality at reduced ventilation rate by control of airflow interaction at the breathing zone with lobed jets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Spilak, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Inhaled air quality at a reduced supply of clean air was studied by controlling the airflow interaction at the breathing zone of a person using lobed jets as part of personalized ventilation (PV). Experiments were performed in a full-scale test room at 23°C (73.4°F) with a breathing thermal manikin...... seated at a workstation, with realistic free-convection flow around the body and a normal breathing cycle. The air in the room was mixed with tracer gas R134a. Clean air was supplied isothermally from three nozzles with circular, four-leafed clover, and six-edged star openings of 0.025 m (0.08 ft...... over the interaction between the inserted jets and the free convection flow was efficient. Over 80% clean PV air was measured in inhalation. The worst performing nozzle was the four-leafed clover: its best performance yielded 23% clean air inhalation, at the shortest distance and the highest velocity...

  16. The entrainment of air by water jet impinging on a free surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soh, Wee King [University of Wollongong, School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronics Engineering, Northfields Ave, NSW (Australia); Khoo, Boo Cheong [National University of Singapore, Department of Mechanical and Production Engineering, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent (Singapore); Yuen, W.Y. Daniel [BlueScope Steel Research, Port Kembla, NSW (Australia)

    2005-09-01

    High-speed cine and video photographs were used to capture the flow patterns of a column of water jet impinging into a pool of water. The impact results in air entrainment into water in the form of a void with no mixing between the water in the jet and the surrounding water. Conservation of fluid momentum shows that the rate of increase of the height of the air void depends on the drag coefficient of the jet front. By neglecting the frictional losses, the application of energy conservation yields an expression that relates the maximum height of the air void with the properties of the water jet. (orig.)

  17. Ancient Jets of Fiery Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2015-04-01

    Chondrules are intriguing millimeter-sized crystallized droplets that are abundant in chondrites, so named because of the presence of numerous chondrules. They have puzzled cosmochemists since they were described by English scientist H. C. Sorby in 1877. Everyone agrees that they formed as molten droplets of silicates, but nobody agrees on how the little things formed. Ideas range from impacts onto asteroids, primary condensation in the solar nebula, shock waves and/or lightening in the solar nebula, or by processes operating as planets began to form. A new twist on this last idea was investigated in a new way by Brandon Johnson (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT) and co-authors David Minton and Jay Melosh (Purdue University), and Maria Zuber at MIT. Johnson and coworkers modeled the effects of impacts between planetesimals 100-1000 kilometers in diameter. When such objects hit each other, the first thing that happens is jetting of molten rock. Johnson and colleagues propose that the jets will subdivide into droplets as the jetted material is shot into space. They estimate that the chondrules would have the correct cooling rates (as determined from previous studies of chondrules) and the collision frequency would be high enough to produce abundant chondrules. Johnson and coworkers suggest that chondrules are a "byproduct of [planetary] accretion."

  18. Impact of ECRH launcher flexibility on NTM stabilization and advanced scenarios in large toroidal configurations as JET plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, S.; Bruschi, A.; Ramponi, G.; Cirant, S.; Lazzaro, E.; Verhoeven, A.G.A.; Zohm, H.

    2003-01-01

    A beam-tracing code is used for extensive beam-tracing, ECCD and ECRH profile calculations in ideal JET-like plasmas with the main aim of specifying such crucial parameters for the ECRH launcher as the poloidal and toroidal steering ranges, the permitted error in the various launching angles and the optimal shape of the last mirrors reflecting surfaces. In order to be fusion-relevant, the calculations are performed on ideal target plasmas and equilibrium configurations scaled from real JET shots, selected by the JET-EP ECRH Physics Integration Project. The launching scheme is fully compliant with a launcher designed under the geometric constraints of JET, which consists of 6 to 8 beams arranged in pairs, with four end mirrors steerable both in the poloidal and in the toroidal directions. It is shown that with this arrangement all launching configurations requested by the physics goals of ECRH in a JET-like device are feasible. (authors)

  19. Jet energy scale corrections and their impact on measurements of the top-quark mass at CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschenmann, Henning

    2014-10-01

    The final state of many physics processes at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is dominated by jets, the experimental signature of quarks and gluons. The precise measurement of jets is a prerequisite to understand these processes. In this thesis, the determination of jet-energy corrections at CMS using dijet events is described, and the investigation of a correction specifically tailored to improve the reconstruction of b-jets in top-quark mass measurements is presented. Dijet events are used to determine the response relative to the central detector region in data and simulation as a function of the pseudorapidity η. Two complementary response estimators are introduced and detailed supplementary studies, e.g. of the time stability of the response, are performed. For the 2011 data-taking period, the MC/Data differences are found to be below 5% in the tracker-covered detector region with systematic uncertainties of less than 1%. Furthermore, a study of b-jet properties in 2012 data is presented. The correlation of various such observables with the response is exploited to improve the jet-energy measurement of b-jets. A resolution improvement of about 10% can be achieved, and the evaluation of b-jet specific jet-energy scale uncertainties (b-JES) indicates improvements of about 30%. This additional correction is applied to an existing measurement of the top-quark mass in the muon+jets channel. It leads to a statistical sensitivity improvement of about 10% and a reduction of systematic uncertainties related to the b-JES from 0.6 GeV to 0.3 GeV.

  20. Comparison of the Performance of Chilled Beam with Swirl Jet and Diffuse Ceiling Air Supply: Impact of Heat Load Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertheussen, Bård; Mustakallio, Panu; Kosonen, Risto

    2013-01-01

    The impact of heat load strength and positioning on the indoor environment generated by diffuse ceiling air supply and chilled beam with radial swirl jet was studied and compared. An office room with two persons and a meeting room with six persons were simulated in a test room (4.5 x 3.95 x 3.5 m3......) and Category B thermal environment in the meeting room at high heat load of 94 W∙m−2. The air distribution pattern was influenced by the convective flows from the heat sources. The maximum local velocity in the occupied zone was 0.23–0.26 m∙s−1. The diffuse ceiling supply did not ensure complete mixing...... temperature was controlled at 24 °C. The quality of the generated indoor environment as defined in ISO standard 7730 (2005) was assessed based on comprehensive physical measurements. The systems created Category A thermal environment in cooling situations at heat load of 50 W∙m−2 and 78 W∙m−2 (office room...

  1. Performance of $b$-Jet Identification in the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; 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Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; 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Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Childers, John Taylor; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saimpert, Matthias; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simoniello, Rosa; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sosebee, Mark; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2016-04-04

    The identification of jets containing $b$ hadrons is important for the physics programme of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. Several algorithms to identify jets containing $b$ hadrons are described, ranging from those based on the reconstruction of an inclusive secondary vertex or the presence of tracks with large impact parameters to combined tagging algorithms making use of multi-variate discriminants. An independent $b$-tagging algorithm based on the reconstruction of muons inside jets as well as the $b$-tagging algorithm used in the online trigger are also presented. The $b$-jet tagging efficiency, the $c$-jet tagging efficiency and the mistag rate for light flavour jets in data have been measured with a number of complementary methods. The calibration results are presented as scale factors defined as the ratio of the efficiency (or mistag rate) in data to that in simulation. In the case of $b$ jets, where more than one calibration method exists, the results from the various analyses hav...

  2. Impact of the temperature gradient between twin inclined jets and an oncoming crossflow on their resulting heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhouane, Amina; Mahjoub, Nejla; Mhiri, Hatem; Le Palec, George; Bournot, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the interaction of twin inclined jets in crossflow. The consideration of this particular configuration is of great interest due to its wide presence in various domains and applications and to its dependence in many parameters. These parameters may be geometric like the jets height, the jet nozzles separating distance, the jet nozzles, exit section, etc... It may also be based upon one of the reigning features like the velocity ratio, the temperature gradient, etc...The gradient between the jets and the crossflow temperatures is precisely the parameter we intend to handle in the present work due to its great relevance in several environmental concerns and in technical constraints as well. The evaluation of this parameter will be carried out numerically on the temperature distribution itself. This evaluation is likely to give a thorough idea about the cooling/heating process resulted from the jets interaction with the oncoming crossflow. Such an understanding is likely to give viable solutions to problems raised by this configuration like the acid rain engendered by too hot fumes or the deterioration of the combustors walls by too high temperature jets, etc...The numerically simulated model is based on the resolution of the Navier-Stokes equations by means of the finite volume method and the RSM second order turbulent model and is validated by confrontation to experimental data depicted on the same geometric replica

  3. Impact of CMS Multi-jets and Missing Energy Search on CMSSM Fits

    CERN Document Server

    Allanach, B C

    2011-01-01

    Recent CMS data significantly extend the direct search exclusion for supersymmetry. We examine the impact of such data on global fits of the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model (CMSSM) to indirect and cosmological data. By simulating supersymmetric signal events at the LHC, we construct a likelihood map for the recent CMS data, validating it against the exclusion region calculated by the experiment itself. A previous CMSSM global fit is then re-weighted by our likelihood map. The CMS results nibble away at the high fit probability density region, transforming probability distributions for the scalar and gluino masses. The CMS search has a with non-trivial effect on tan \\beta due to correlations between the parameters implied by the fits to indirect data.

  4. Multiple Jets at the LHC with High Energy Jets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Rosenkrantz; Smillie, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    We present a flexible Monte Carlo implementation of the perturbative framework of High Energy Jets, describing multi-jet events at hadron colliders. The description includes a resummation which ensures leading logarithmic accuracy for large invariant mass between jets, and is matched to tree......-level accuracy for multiplicities up to 4 jets. The resummation includes all-order hard corrections, which become important for increasing centre-of-mass energy of the hadronic collision. We discuss observables relevant for confronting the perturbative framework with 7 TeV data from the LHC, and the impact...

  5. A Measurement of the Production of Jets in Association with a W Boson in Proton-Antiproton Collisions at the Tevatron Using Data Collected with the CDF Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Ben D. [University Coll. London

    2006-10-01

    A measurement of the diff rential pp → W + ≥ n jets production cross-section with respect to a range of different jet kinematic variables is presented. The W is required to decay leptonically to an electron and neutrino, and the kinematics of the decay products are restricted such that the electron PT > 20 GeV, electron η < 1.1, neutrino PT > 30 GeV and the W transverse mass > 20 GeV/c2. Jets are defi using the CDF JetClu cone algorithm with a radius of R = 0.4, requiring ηjet < 2.0 and ET > 15 GeV. The jet energies are corrected individually such that they are on average equal to the energy of the hadrons within the jet, with additional correction factors being applied to account for the impact of detector resolution on the jet spectra. The diff tial cross-section is measured with respect to the fi second, third and fourth jet ET spectra, the separation in R and the invariant mass of the two leading jets. In addition, the jet ET measurements can be integrated to form W + ≥ n Jets cross-section measurements for 1,2,3 and 4 jets with a range of minimum jet ET requirements, the lowest being 15 GeV. These cross-section results are compared to Enhanced Leading Order (ELO) W + jets theoretical predictions and predictions made using the leading order CKKW and MLM matching prescriptions. The ELO predictions are not suited to describ- ing the absolute rate of W + jet production, but display success in reproducing certain relative rates, dependent on the choice of renormalisation scale. The com- parisons with matching prescriptions indicate that these new approaches could be used successfully to improve W + Jets LO predictions.

  6. Impact of uncertainties in inorganic chemical rate constants on tropospheric composition and ozone radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Newsome

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical rate constants determine the composition of the atmosphere and how this composition has changed over time. They are central to our understanding of climate change and air quality degradation. Atmospheric chemistry models, whether online or offline, box, regional or global, use these rate constants. Expert panels evaluate laboratory measurements, making recommendations for the rate constants that should be used. This results in very similar or identical rate constants being used by all models. The inherent uncertainties in these recommendations are, in general, therefore ignored. We explore the impact of these uncertainties on the composition of the troposphere using the GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model. Based on the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL and International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC evaluations we assess the influence of 50 mainly inorganic rate constants and 10 photolysis rates on tropospheric composition through the use of the GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model. We assess the impact on four standard metrics: annual mean tropospheric ozone burden, surface ozone and tropospheric OH concentrations, and tropospheric methane lifetime. Uncertainty in the rate constants for NO2 + OH →M  HNO3 and O3 + NO  →  NO2 + O2 are the two largest sources of uncertainty in these metrics. The absolute magnitude of the change in the metrics is similar if rate constants are increased or decreased by their σ values. We investigate two methods of assessing these uncertainties, addition in quadrature and a Monte Carlo approach, and conclude they give similar outcomes. Combining the uncertainties across the 60 reactions gives overall uncertainties on the annual mean tropospheric ozone burden, surface ozone and tropospheric OH concentrations, and tropospheric methane lifetime of 10, 11, 16 and 16 %, respectively. These are larger than the spread between models in recent model intercomparisons. Remote

  7. High-Strain-Rate Material Behavior and Adiabatic Material Instability in Impact of Micron-Scale Al-6061 Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiyong; Alizadeh, Arash; Xie, Wanting; Wang, Xuemei; Champagne, Victor; Gouldstone, Andrew; Lee, Jae-Hwang; Müftü, Sinan

    2018-04-01

    Impact of spherical particles onto a flat sapphire surface was investigated in 50-950 m/s impact speed range experimentally and theoretically. Material parameters of the bilinear Johnson-Cook model were determined based on comparison of deformed particle shapes from experiment and simulation. Effects of high-strain-rate plastic flow, heat generation due to plasticity, material damage, interfacial friction and heat transfer were modeled. Four distinct regions were identified inside the particle by analyzing temporal variation of material flow. A relatively small volume of material near the impact zone becomes unstable due to plasticity-induced heating, accompanied by severe drop in the flow stress for impact velocity that exceeds 500 m/s. Outside of this region, flow stress is reduced due to temperature effects without the instability. Load carrying capacity of the material degrades and the material expands horizontally leading to jetting. The increase in overall plastic and frictional dissipation with impact velocity was found to be inherently lower than the increase in the kinetic energy at high speeds, leading to the instability. This work introduces a novel method to characterize HSR (109 s-1) material properties and also explains coupling between HSR material behavior and mechanics that lead to extreme deformation.

  8. Detailed Post-Soft Impact Progressive Damage Assessment for Hybrid Structure Jet Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddens, Aaron; Bayandor, Javid; Celestina, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, certification of engine designs for resistance to bird strike is reliant on physical tests. Predictive modeling of engine structural damage has mostly been limited to evaluation of individual forward section components, such as fan blades within a fixed frame of reference, to direct impact with a bird. Such models must be extended to include interactions among engine components under operating conditions to evaluate the full extent of engine damage. This paper presents the results of a study aim to develop a methodology for evaluating bird strike damage in advanced propulsion systems incorporating hybrid composite/metal structures. The initial degradation and failure of individual fan blades struck by a bird were investigated. Subsequent damage to other fan blades and engine components due to resultant violent fan assembly vibrations and fragmentation was further evaluated. Various modeling parameters for the bird and engine components were investigated to determine guidelines for accurately capturing initial damage and progressive failure of engine components. Then, a novel hybrid structure modeling approach was investigated and incorporated into the crashworthiness methodology. Such a tool is invaluable to the process of design, development, and certification of future advanced propulsion systems.

  9. Impact of clinical audits on cesarean section rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fu-Shiang; Lin, Hsien-Ming; Lin, Ho-Hsiung; Tu, Fung-Chao; Hsiao, Chin-Fen; Hsiao, Sheng-Mou

    2016-08-01

    Many countries have noted a substantial increase in the cesarean section rate (CSR). Several methods for lowering the CSR have been described. Understanding the impact of clinical audits on the CSR may aid in lowering CSR. Thus, our aim is to elucidate the effect of clinical audits on the CSR. We retrospectively analyzed 3781 pregnant women who gave birth in a medical center between January 2008 and January 2011. Pregnant women who delivered between January 2008 and July 2009 were enrolled as the pre-audit group (n = 1592). After August 2009, all cesarean section cases that were audited were enrolled in the audit group (n = 2189). The CSR was compared between groups. The overall CSR (34.5% vs. 31.1%, adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.83, p = 0.008) and the cesarean section rate due to dystocia (9.6% vs. 6.2%, p strategy for reducing the CSR. Therefore, we recommend strict monitoring of the indications in dystocia for cesarean section to reduce the CSR. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. An Investigation of the impact of interest rates and interest rate volatility on Australian financial sector stock return distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faff, R.; Kremmer, M.; Hodgson, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper extends the existing literature by analysing the dual impact of changes in the interest rate and interest rate volatility on the distribution of Australian financial sector stock returns. In addition, a multivariate GARCH-M model is used to analyse the impact of deregulation on the

  11. Decorrelated Jet Substructure Tagging using Adversarial Neural Networks

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    We describe a strategy for constructing a neural network jet substructure tagger which powerfully discriminates boosted decay signals while remaining largely uncorrelated with the jet mass. This reduces the impact of systematic uncertainties in background modeling while enhancing signal purity, resulting in improved discovery significance relative to existing taggers. The network is trained using an adversarial strategy, resulting in a tagger that learns to balance classification accuracy with decorrelation. As a benchmark scenario, we consider the case where large-radius jets originating from a boosted Z' decay are discriminated from a background of nonresonant quark and gluon jets. We show that in the presence of systematic uncertainties on the background rate, our adversarially-trained, decorrelated tagger considerably outperforms a conventionally trained neural network, despite having a slightly worse signal-background separation power. We generalize the adversarial training technique to include a paramet...

  12. Cryogenically assisted abrasive jet micromachining of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getu, H; Papini, M; Spelt, J K

    2008-01-01

    The abrasive jet micromachining (AJM) of elastomers and polymers such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) for use in micro-fluidic devices was found to be very slow or impossible at room temperature. To enhance the material removal rate in such materials, a stream of liquid nitrogen (LN 2 ) was injected into the abrasive jet, cooling the target to cryogenic temperatures. Erosion rate measurements on the three polymeric materials (PDMS, ABS and PTFE) with and without the use of LN 2 were compared along with the profiles of micromachined channels and holes. It was found that the use of LN 2 cooling caused brittle erosion in PDMS, allowing it to be micromachined successfully. An erosion rate increase was also observed in PTFE and ABS at high and intermediate impact angles. The use of LN 2 also was found to reduce particle embedding

  13. The impact of food viscosity on eating rate, subjective appetite, glycemic response and gastric emptying rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhu

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of rheological properties of food on postprandial appetite and glycemic response helps to design novel functional products. It has been shown that solid foods have a stronger satiating effect than their liquid equivalent. However, whether a subtle change in viscosity of a semi-solid food would have a similar effect on appetite is unknown. Fifteen healthy males participated in the randomized cross-over study. Each participant consumed a 1690 kJ portion of a standard viscosity (SV and a high viscosity (HV semi-solid meal with 1000 mg acetaminophen in two separate sessions. At regular intervals during the three hours following the meal, subjective appetite ratings were measured and blood samples collected. The plasma samples were assayed for insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP, glucose and acetaminophen. After three hours, the participants were provided with an ad libitum pasta meal. Compared with the SV meal, HV was consumed at a slower eating rate (P = 0.020, with postprandial hunger and desire to eat being lower (P = 0.019 and P<0.001 respectively while fullness was higher (P<0.001. In addition, consuming the HV resulted in lower plasma concentration of GIP (P<0.001, higher plasma concentration of glucose (P<0.001 and delayed gastric emptying as revealed by the acetaminophen absorption test (P<0.001. However, there was no effect of food viscosity on insulin or food intake at the subsequent meal. In conclusion, increasing the viscosity of a semi-solid food modulates glycemic response and suppresses postprandial satiety, although the effect may be short-lived. A slower eating rate and a delayed gastric emptying rate can partly explain for the stronger satiating properties of high viscous semi-solid foods.

  14. The Impact of Soil Sampling Errors on Variable Rate Fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Hoskinson; R C. Rope; L G. Blackwood; R D. Lee; R K. Fink

    2004-07-01

    Variable rate fertilization of an agricultural field is done taking into account spatial variability in the soil’s characteristics. Most often, spatial variability in the soil’s fertility is the primary characteristic used to determine the differences in fertilizers applied from one point to the next. For several years the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been developing a Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) to determine the economically optimum recipe of various fertilizers to apply at each site in a field, based on existing soil fertility at the site, predicted yield of the crop that would result (and a predicted harvest-time market price), and the current costs and compositions of the fertilizers to be applied. Typically, soil is sampled at selected points within a field, the soil samples are analyzed in a lab, and the lab-measured soil fertility of the point samples is used for spatial interpolation, in some statistical manner, to determine the soil fertility at all other points in the field. Then a decision tool determines the fertilizers to apply at each point. Our research was conducted to measure the impact on the variable rate fertilization recipe caused by variability in the measurement of the soil’s fertility at the sampling points. The variability could be laboratory analytical errors or errors from variation in the sample collection method. The results show that for many of the fertility parameters, laboratory measurement error variance exceeds the estimated variability of the fertility measure across grid locations. These errors resulted in DSS4Ag fertilizer recipe recommended application rates that differed by up to 138 pounds of urea per acre, with half the field differing by more than 57 pounds of urea per acre. For potash the difference in application rate was up to 895 pounds per acre and over half the field differed by more than 242 pounds of potash per acre. Urea and potash differences

  15. Quark and gluon jet properties in symmetric three-jet events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskulic, D.; Casper, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Lucotte, A.; Minard, M.-N.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Orteu, S.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Palla, F.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Gelao, G.; Girone, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marinelli, N.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Alemany, R.; Bazarko, A. O.; Bonvicini, G.; Cattaneo, M.; Comas, P.; Coyle, P.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kneringer, E.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Martin, E. B.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Moneta, L.; Oest, T.; Palazzi, P.; Pater, J. R.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rensing, P.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Venturi, A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Barrès, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rossignol, J.-M.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Wäänänen, A.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Delfino, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Dorris, S. J.; Halley, A. W.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, F.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Becker, U.; Braun, O.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Schmidt, M.; Sommer, J.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Abbaneo, D.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; San Martin, G.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Stacey, A. M.; Dissertori, G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Sloan, T.; Whelan, E. P.; Williams, M. I.; Galla, A.; Greene, A. M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Etienne, F.; Konstantinidis, N.; Nicod, D.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Trabelsi, K.; Abt, I.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Ganis, G.; Gotzhein, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kroha, H.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Rosado-Schlosser, A.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Denis, R. St.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jacquet, M.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Nikolic, I.; Park, H. J.; Park, I. C.; Schune, M.-H.; Simion, S.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Cerutti, F.; Chambers, J. T.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Johnson, D. L.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J. A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Edwards, M.; Maley, P.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Kim, H. Y.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Beddall, A.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, R.; Brew, C. A. J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Koksal, A.; Letho, M.; Newton, W. M.; Rankin, C.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Feigl, E.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Minguet-Rodriguez, J.; Rivera, F.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Apollonio, M.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Ragusa, F.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S. R.; Bellantoni, L.; Elmer, P.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; González, S.; Grahl, J.; Greening, T. C.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; McNamara, P. A.; Nachtman, J. M.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I. J.; Sharma, V.; Turk, J. D.; Walsh, A. M.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration

    1996-02-01

    Quark and gluon jets with the same energy, 24 GeV, are compared in symmetric three-jet configurations from hadronic Z decays observed by the ALEPH detector. Jets are defined using the Durham algorithm. Gluon jets are identified using an anti-tag on b jets, based on a track impact parameter method. The comparison of gluon and mixed flavour quark jets shows that gluon jets have a softer fragmentation function, a larger angular width and a higher particle multiplicity, Evidence is presented which shows that the corresponding differences between gluon and b jets are significantly smaller. In a statistically limited comparison the multiplicity in c jets was found to be comparable with that observed for the jets of mixed quark flavour.

  16. Impacts of Korea's Exchange Rate Uncertainty on Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Sik Kim

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of two types of uncertainty related to the real effective exchange rate (REER in Korea for export trends. To decompose uncertainties into two types of component, I propose an advanced generalized Markov switching model, as developed by Hamilton (1989 and then expanded by Kim and Kim (1996. The proposed model is useful in uncovering two sources of uncertainty: the permanent component of REER and the purely transitory component. I think that the two types of uncertainties have a different effect on export trends in Korea. The transitory component of REER has no effect on the export trend at 5-percent significance, but the permanent component has an effect at this level. In addition, the degree of uncertainty, consisting of low, medium and high uncertainty in the permanent component, and low, medium and high uncertainty in transitory component of REER, also has different effects on export trends in Korea. Only high uncertainty in permanent components effects export trends. The results show that when the policy authority intends to prevent the shrinkage of exports due to the deepening of uncertainties in the foreign exchange market, the economic impacts of its intervention could appear differently according to the characteristics and degree of the uncertainties. Therefore, they imply that its economic measures, which could not grasp the sources of uncertainties properly, may even bring economic costs.

  17. Magnetically driven jets and winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, R. V. E.; Berk, H. L.; Contopoulos, J.

    1991-01-01

    Four equations for the origin and propagation of nonrelativistic jets and winds are derived from the basic conservation laws of ideal MHD. The axial current density is negative in the vicinity of the axis and positive at larger radii; there is no net current because this is energetically favored. The magnetic field is essential for the jet solutions in that the zz-component of the magnetic stress acts, in opposition to gravity, to drive matter through the slow magnetosonic critical point. For a representative self-consistent disk/jet solution relevant to a protostellar system, the reaction of the accreted mass expelled in the jets is 0.1, the ratio of the power carried by the jets to the disk luminosity is 0.66, and the ratio of the boundary layer to disk luminosities is less than about 0.13. The star's rotation rate decreases with time even for rotation rates much less than the breakup rate.

  18. Investigations of needle-free jet injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm-Baxter, J R; Mitragotri, S

    2004-01-01

    Jet injection is a needle-free drug delivery method in which a high-speed stream of fluid impacts the skin and delivers drugs. Although a number of jet injectors are commercially available, especially for insulin delivery, they have a low market share compared to needles possibly due to occasional pain associated with jet injection. Jets employed by the traditional jet injectors penetrate deep into the dermal and sub-dermal regions where the nerve endings are abundantly located. To eliminate the pain associated with jet injections, we propose to utilize microjets that penetrate only into the superficial region of the skin. However, the choice of appropriate jet parameters for this purpose is challenging owing to the multiplicity of factors that determine the penetration depth. Here, we describe the dependence of jet injections into human skin on the power of the jet. Dermal delivery of liquid jets was quantified using two measurements, penetration of a radiolabeled solute, mannitol, into skin and the shape of jet dispersion in the skin which was visualized using sulforhodamine B. The dependence of the amount of liquid delivered in the skin and the geometric measurements of jet dispersion on nozzle diameter and jet velocity was captured by a single parameter, jet power.

  19. Boosted jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juknevich, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the substructure of jets high transverse momentum at hadron colliders. A template method is introduced to distinguish heavy jets by comparing their energy distributions to the distributions of a set of templates which describe the kinematical information from signal or background. As an application, a search for a boosted Higgs boson decaying into bottom quarks in association with a leptonically decaying W boson is presented as well. (author)

  20. Emerging Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Schwaller, Pedro; Weiler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilit...

  1. Emerging jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwaller, Pedro; Stolarski, Daniel [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). TH-PH Div.; Weiler, Andreas [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). TH-PH Div.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  2. Emerging jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaller, Pedro; Stolarski, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  3. Life cycle greenhouse gas analysis of biojet fuels with a technical investigation into their impact on jet engine performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokesh, Kadambari; Sethi, Vishal; Nikolaidis, Theoklis; Goodger, Eric; Nalianda, Devaiah

    2015-01-01

    Biojet fuels have been claimed to be one of the most promising and strategic solutions to mitigate aviation emissions. This study examines the environmental competence of Bio-Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (Bio-SPKs) against conventional Jet-A, through development of a life cycle GHG model (ALCEmB – Assessment of Life Cycle Emissions of Biofuels) from “cradle-grave” perspective. This model precisely calculates the life cycle emissions of the advanced biofuels through a multi-disciplinary study entailing hydrocarbon chemistry, thermodynamic behaviour and fuel combustion from engine/aircraft performance, into the life cycle studies, unlike earlier studies. The aim of this study is predict the “cradle-grave” carbon intensity of Camelina SPK, Microalgae SPK and Jatropha SPK through careful estimation and inclusion of combustion based emissions, which contribute ≈70% of overall life cycle emissions (LCE). Numerical modelling and non-linear/dynamic simulation of a twin-shaft turbofan, with an appropriate airframe, was conducted to analyse the impact of alternative fuels on engine/aircraft performance. ALCEmB revealed that Camelina SPK, Microalgae SPK and Jatropha SPK delivered 70%, 58% and 64% LCE savings relative to the reference fuel, Jet-A1. The net energy ratio analysis indicates that current technology for the biofuel processing is energy efficient and technically feasible. An elaborate gas property analysis infers that the Bio-SPKs exhibit improved thermodynamic behaviour in an operational gas turbine engine. This thermodynamic effect has a positive impact on aircraft-level fuel consumption and emissions characteristics demonstrating fuel savings in the range of 3–3.8% and emission savings of 5.8–6.3% (CO 2 ) and 7.1–8.3% (LTO NOx), relative to that of Jet-A. - Highlights: • Bio-SPKs were determined to deliver “Cradle-Grave” GHG savings of 58–70%. • Bio-SPKs exhibited improved thermodynamic behaviour at integrated system level assessment

  4. One-step argon/nitrogen binary plasma jet irradiation of Li4Ti5O12 for stable high-rate lithium ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chun-Kai; Chuang, Shang-I.; Bao, Qi; Liao, Yen-Ting; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2015-02-01

    Atmospheric pressure Ar/N2 binary plasma jet irradiation has been introduced into the manufacturing process of lithium ions batteries as a facile, green and scalable post-fabrication treatment approach, which enhanced significantly the high-rate anode performance of lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12). Main emission lines in Ar/N2 plasma measured by optical emission spectroscopy reveal that the dominant excited high-energy species in Ar/N2 plasma are N2*, N2+, N∗ and Ar∗. Sufficient oxygen vacancies have been evidenced by high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and Raman spectra. Nitrogen doping has been achieved simultaneously by the surface reaction between pristine Li4Ti5O12 particles and chemically reactive plasma species such as N∗ and N2+. The variety of Li4Ti5O12 particles on the surface of electrodes after different plasma processing time has been examined by grazing incident X-Ray diffraction. Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) confirm that the Ar/N2 atmospheric plasma treatment facilitates Li+ ions diffusion and reduces the internal charge-transfer resistance. The as-prepared Li4Ti5O12 anodes exhibit a superior capacity (132 mAh g-1) and excellent stability with almost no capacity decay over 100 cycles under a high C rate (10C).

  5. Impact of plasma jet vacuum ultraviolet radiation on reactive oxygen species generation in bio-relevant liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonowski, H.; Hammer, M. U.; Reuter, S. [Center for Innovation Competence plasmatis, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology, INP Greifswald e.V. Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Bussiahn, R.; Weltmann, K.-D.; Woedtke, Th. von [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology, INP Greifswald e.V. Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Plasma medicine utilizes the combined interaction of plasma produced reactive components. These are reactive atoms, molecules, ions, metastable species, and radiation. Here, ultraviolet (UV, 100–400 nm) and, in particular, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, 10–200 nm) radiation generated by an atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet were investigated regarding plasma emission, absorption in a humidified atmosphere and in solutions relevant for plasma medicine. The energy absorption was obtained for simple solutions like distilled water (dH{sub 2}O) or ultrapure water and sodium chloride (NaCl) solution as well as for more complex ones, for example, Rosewell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI 1640) cell culture media. As moderate stable reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) was studied. Highly reactive oxygen radicals, namely, superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup •−}) and hydroxyl radicals ({sup •}OH), were investigated by the use of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. All species amounts were detected for three different treatment cases: Plasma jet generated VUV and UV radiation, plasma jet generated UV radiation without VUV part, and complete plasma jet including all reactive components additionally to VUV and UV radiation. It was found that a considerable amount of radicals are generated by the plasma generated photoemission. From the experiments, estimation on the low hazard potential of plasma generated VUV radiation is discussed.

  6. Impact of electro-magnetic stabilization, small- scale turbulence and multi-scale interactions on heat transport in JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantica, Paola

    2016-10-01

    Heat transport experiments in JET, based on ICRH heat flux scans and temperature modulation, have confirmed the importance of two transport mechanisms that are often neglected in modeling experimental results, but are crucial to reach agreement between theory and experiment and may be significant in ITER. The first mechanism is the stabilizing effect of the total pressure gradient (including fast ions) on ITG driven ion heat transport. Such stabilization is found in non-linear gyro-kinetic electro-magnetic simulations using GENE and GYRO, and is the explanation for the observed loss of ion stiffness in the core of high NBI-power JET plasmas. The effect was recently observed also in JET plasmas with dominant ICRH heating and small rotation, due to ICRH fast ions, which is promising for ITER. Such mechanism dominates over ExB flow shear in the core and needs to be included in quasi-linear models to increase their ability to capture the relevant physics. The second mechanism is the capability of small- scale ETG instabilities to carry a significant fraction of electron heat. A decrease in Te peaking is observed when decreasing Zeff Te/Ti, which cannot be ascribed to TEMs but is in line with ETGs. Non-linear GENE single-scale simulations of ETGs and ITG/TEMs show that the ITG/TEM electron heat flux is not enough to match experiment. TEM stiffness is also much lower than measured. In the ETG single scale simulations the external flow shear is used to saturate the ETG streamers. Multi-scale simulations are ongoing, in which the ion zonal flows are the main saturating mechanism for ETGs. These costly simulations should provide the final answer on the importance of ETG-driven electron heat flux in JET. with JET contributors [F.Romanelli, Proc.25thIAEA FEC]. Supported by EUROfusion Grant 633053.

  7. Investigation of the impact of high liquid viscosity on jet atomization in crossflow via high-fidelity simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyi; Gao, Hui; Soteriou, Marios C.

    2017-08-01

    Atomization of extremely high viscosity liquid can be of interest for many applications in aerospace, automotive, pharmaceutical, and food industries. While detailed atomization measurements usually face grand challenges, high-fidelity numerical simulations offer the advantage to comprehensively explore the atomization details. In this work, a previously validated high-fidelity first-principle simulation code HiMIST is utilized to simulate high-viscosity liquid jet atomization in crossflow. The code is used to perform a parametric study of the atomization process in a wide range of Ohnesorge numbers (Oh = 0.004-2) and Weber numbers (We = 10-160). Direct comparisons between the present study and previously published low-viscosity jet in crossflow results are performed. The effects of viscous damping and slowing on jet penetration, liquid surface instabilities, ligament formation/breakup, and subsequent droplet formation are investigated. Complex variations in near-field and far-field jet penetrations with increasing Oh at different We are observed and linked with the underlying jet deformation and breakup physics. Transition in breakup regimes and increase in droplet size with increasing Oh are observed, mostly consistent with the literature reports. The detailed simulations elucidate a distinctive edge-ligament-breakup dominated process with long surviving ligaments for the higher Oh cases, as opposed to a two-stage edge-stripping/column-fracture process for the lower Oh counterparts. The trend of decreasing column deflection with increasing We is reversed as Oh increases. A predominantly unimodal droplet size distribution is predicted at higher Oh, in contrast to the bimodal distribution at lower Oh. It has been found that both Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz linear stability theories cannot be easily applied to interpret the distinct edge breakup process and further study of the underlying physics is needed.

  8. Study of short-haul aircraft operating economics. Phase 2: an analysis of the impact of jet modernization on local service airline operating costs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrastek, D.A.

    1976-05-01

    The objectives of this phase of the study were (1) to assess the 10 year operating cost trends of the local service airlines operating in the 1965 through 1974 period, (2) to glean from these trends the technological and operational parameters which were impacted most significantly by the transition to newer pure jet, short haul transports, and effected by changing fuel prices and cost of living indices, and (3) to develop, construct, and evaluate an operating cost forecasting model which would incorporate those factors which best predicted airline total operating cost behavior over that 10-year period.

  9. A JET BREAK IN THE X-RAY LIGHT CURVE OF SHORT GRB 111020A: IMPLICATIONS FOR ENERGETICS AND RATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, W.; Berger, E.; Margutti, R.; Zauderer, B. A.; Czekala, I.; Chornock, R.; Troja, E.; Gehrels, N.; Sakamoto, T.; Fox, D. B.; Podsiadlowski, P.

    2012-01-01

    We present broadband observations of the afterglow and environment of the short GRB 111020A. An extensive X-ray light curve from Swift/XRT, XMM-Newton, and Chandra, spanning ∼100 s to 10 days after the burst, reveals a significant break at δt ≈ 2 days with pre- and post-break decline rates of α X,1 ≈ –0.78 and α X,2 ∼ j ≈ 3°-8°. The resulting beaming-corrected γ-ray (10-1000 keV band) and blast-wave kinetic energies are (2-3) × 10 48 erg and (0.3-2) × 10 49 erg, respectively, with the range depending on the unknown redshift of the burst. We report a radio afterglow limit of c X , constrains the circumburst density to n 0 ∼ 0.01-0.1 cm –3 . Optical observations provide an afterglow limit of i ∼> 24.4 mag at 18 hr after the burst and reveal a potential host galaxy with i ≈ 24.3 mag. The subarcsecond localization from Chandra provides a precise offset of 0.''80 ± 0.''11 (1σ) from this galaxy corresponding to an offset of 5-7 kpc for z 0.5-1.5. We find a high excess neutral hydrogen column density of (7.5 ± 2.0) × 10 21 cm –2 (z = 0). Our observations demonstrate that a growing fraction of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are collimated, which may lead to a true event rate of ∼> 100-1000 Gpc –3 yr –1 , in good agreement with the NS-NS merger rate of ≈200-3000 Gpc –3 yr –1 . This consistency is promising for coincident short GRB-gravitational wave searches in the forthcoming era of Advanced LIGO/VIRGO.

  10. The Impact of the Rating Agencies' Through-the-cycle Methodology on Rating Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altman, E.I.; Rijken, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Surveys on the use of agency credit ratings reveal that some investors believe that credit-rating agencies are relatively slow in adjusting their ratings. A well-accepted explanation for this perception on rating timeliness is the through-the-cycle methodology that agencies use. Through-the-cycle

  11. Performance of pile-up mitigation techniques for jets in pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Testa, Marianna; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The large rate of multiple simultaneous proton-proton interactions, or pile-up, generated by the Large Hadron Collider in Run I required the development of many new techniques to mitigate the adverse effects of these conditions. This presentation shows the methods employed to correct for the impact of pile-up on jet energy, jet shapes, and even spurious additional jets. Energy correction techniques that incorporate sophisticated estimates of the average pile-up energy density and tracking information are described in detail. Jet-to-vertex association techniques are also presented. We also describe the extension of these techniques to ameliorate the effect of pile-up on jet shapes using both subtraction and grooming procedures. Prospects for pile-up suppression at the HL-LHC will be also discussed.

  12. Characteristic study of DC electric Arc plasma igniter jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Yudan; He Liming; Du Hongliang; Wang Feng; Chen Xin

    2012-01-01

    The spectrometer was adopted to measure the emission spectrum of Ar plasma jet at the igniter exit. Boltzmann curve slope method was applied to calculate the jet electron temperature. Ionization equilibrium equation was used to calculate jet temperature and measure the laws that jet length, jet velocity, electron temperature and jet temperature of igniter exit change with arc current and inlet Ar flow rate. Whether the electron temperature could be used to replace jet temperature in aircraft plasma arc jet was also discussed. The experiment results show that arc current reduces with the rising of inlet Ar flow rate; exit jet length and velocity increase with the rising of arc current, and increase at first and then reduce with the rising of inlet Ar flow rate; exit electron temperature, electron density and jet temperature increase with the rising of arc current and reduce with the rising of inlet Ar flow rate. (authors)

  13. CONDITIONAL FLOW STATISTICS AND ALIGNMENT OF PRINCIPAL STRAIN RATES, VORTICITY, AND SCALAR GRADIENTS IN A TURBULENT NONPREMIXED JET FLAME

    KAUST Repository

    Attili, Antonio

    2015-06-30

    The alignment of vorticity and gradients of conserved and reactive scalars with the eigenvectors of the strain rate tensor (i.e., the principal strains) is investigated in a direct numerical simulation of a turbulent nonpremixed flame achieving a Taylor’s scale Reynolds number in the range 100≤Reλ≤150 (Attili et al. Comb. Flame, 161, 2014). The vorticity vector displays a pronounced tendency to align with the direction of the intermediate strain. These alignment statistics are in almost perfect agreement with those in homogeneous isotropic turbulence (Ashurst et al. Physics of Fluids 30, 1987) and differ significantly from the results obtained in other nonpremixed flames in which vorticity alignment with the most extensive strain was observed (Boratavet al. Physics of Fluids 8, 1996). The gradients of conserved and reactive scalars align with the most compressive strain. It is worth noting that conditioning on the local values of the mixture fraction, or equivalently conditioning on the distance from the flame sheet, does not affect the statistics. Our results suggest that turbulence overshadows the effects of heat release and chemical reactions. This may be due to the larger Reynolds number achieved in the present study compared to that in previous works.

  14. CONDITIONAL FLOW STATISTICS AND ALIGNMENT OF PRINCIPAL STRAIN RATES, VORTICITY, AND SCALAR GRADIENTS IN A TURBULENT NONPREMIXED JET FLAME

    KAUST Repository

    Attili, Antonio; Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The alignment of vorticity and gradients of conserved and reactive scalars with the eigenvectors of the strain rate tensor (i.e., the principal strains) is investigated in a direct numerical simulation of a turbulent nonpremixed flame achieving a Taylor’s scale Reynolds number in the range 100≤Reλ≤150 (Attili et al. Comb. Flame, 161, 2014). The vorticity vector displays a pronounced tendency to align with the direction of the intermediate strain. These alignment statistics are in almost perfect agreement with those in homogeneous isotropic turbulence (Ashurst et al. Physics of Fluids 30, 1987) and differ significantly from the results obtained in other nonpremixed flames in which vorticity alignment with the most extensive strain was observed (Boratavet al. Physics of Fluids 8, 1996). The gradients of conserved and reactive scalars align with the most compressive strain. It is worth noting that conditioning on the local values of the mixture fraction, or equivalently conditioning on the distance from the flame sheet, does not affect the statistics. Our results suggest that turbulence overshadows the effects of heat release and chemical reactions. This may be due to the larger Reynolds number achieved in the present study compared to that in previous works.

  15. Exchange rate risks and their impact upon the energy market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abed Al-Zabidi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of international business in Slovakia brought not only the opening of markets and expansion of enterprise possibilities but also an increase in the competition and new risks. One of such risks is also the exchange rate risk. The business that realizes a financial transaction exceeding borders of the state or derives his buying or selling prices in Slovak crowns from the foreign currency, is subjected to the exchange rate risks. The exchange rate risks are caused by volatility of exchange courses of Slovak crowns related to foreign currencies. The progress of exchange rates can considerably influence a real result of a transaction negatively; therefore it is important for enterprises to identify possible risks resulting from changes in exchange rates, so they could react accordingly.The proposed article is aimed at the explanation of basic techniques of minimizing exchange rate risks with the use of financial tools available on the financial market.

  16. Flame spread over electrical wire with AC electric fields: Internal circulation, fuel vapor-jet, spread rate acceleration, and molten insulator dripping

    KAUST Repository

    Lim, Seungjae

    2015-04-01

    The effect of electric field on the characteristics of flame spread along a polyethylene (PE) insulated electrical wire was investigated experimentally by varying the AC frequency and voltage applied to the wire. The results showed that the flame spread rate was accelerated due to the convergence of electric flux near the end of wire, having three distinct regimes depending on applied voltage. In each regime, several subregimes could be identified depending on AC frequency. Flame shape (height and width) and slanted direction of the spreading flame were influenced differently. Fuel-vapor jets were ejected from the molten PE surface even for the baseline case without the application of an electric field; this could be attributed to the bursting of fuel vapor bubbles generated from internal boiling at the molten PE surface. An internal circulation of molten-PE was also observed as a result of non-uniform heating by the spreading flame. In the high voltage regime with a high AC frequency, excessive dripping of molten PE led to flame extinction.

  17. PEER ASSESSMENT RATING (PAR INDEX CALCULATION ON 2D DENTAL MODEL IMAGE FOR OVER JET, OPEN BITE, AND TEETH SEGMENTATION ON OCCLUSION SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Febrian Rachmadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malocclusion is a clinical symptom, in which the teeth of maxilla and mandible are not located at the proper location. If malocclusion left untreated, it can lead to complications in the digestive system, headache, and periodontal disease disorders. Malocclusion problems involving abnormalities of teeth, bones, and muscles around the jaw are obligation of orthodontic specialists to treat them. The treatments can be varying based on the type of malocclusion, including tooth extraction and tooth braces. To know certain degree of malocclusion experienced by the patient, an assessment method called Peer Assessment Rating (PAR Index is usually used by the specialist. To help the works of orthodontic specialists in Indonesia, a new automated calculation system based on 2D image of tooth model for PAR Index is being developed. In this paper, the calculation system for over-jet, open-bite, and teeth segmentation is developed. The result of the developed system is then compared with manual assessment done by orthodontic specialist, in order to verify the accuracy of the system.

  18. NASA Jet Noise Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    The presentation highlights NASA's jet noise research for 2016. Jet-noise modeling efforts, jet-surface interactions results, acoustic characteristics of multi-stream jets, and N+2 Supersonic Aircraft system studies are presented.

  19. Impingement heat/mass transfer to hybrid synthetic jets and other reversible pulsating jets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trávníček, Zdeněk; Vít, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 85, June (2015), s. 473-487 ISSN 0017-9310 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-08888S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : impinging jet * reversible pulsating jet * synthetic jet Subject RIV: JU - Aeronautics, Aerodynamics, Aircrafts Impact factor: 2.857, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001793101500143X

  20. Structure and dynamics of a wave train along the wintertime Asian jet and its impact on East Asian climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kaiming; Huang, Gang; Wu, Renguang; Wang, Lin

    2017-04-01

    Based on observational and reanalysis datasets, this study investigates the structure and dynamics of a wave-like atmospheric teleconnection pattern along the wintertime Asian jet and its influence on East Asian climate. Along the jet, the leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode of monthly meridional winds at 250-hPa in winter (December, January, and February) is organized as a wave train with maximum anomalies at upper troposphere. The wave train propagates northeastward from the North Atlantic to Europe, turns southeastward to the Middle East with amplifying amplitude, propagates along the jet to South China, and reaches Japan, which is partly induced by sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the equatorial eastern Pacific and the North Atlantic Oscillation. Over the sector from Europe to the Middle East, the anomalous vortices in the wave train tilt northwestward with height and tilt northeast/southwest in horizontal at 250 hPa, favoring for extracting available potential energy and kinetic energy from mean flows effectively. In addition, there exists a positive feedback between transient eddies and the wave train-related anomalous circulation over the North Atlantic and Europe. These processes help to maintain and amplify the wave train. Moreover, the wave train can exert significant influences on the wintertime climate in East Asia. When it is in the phase with a cyclone (anticyclone) over South China (Japan), rainfall tends to be above normal in South and East China and surface air temperature tends to be above normal around Japan and the Korea peninsula.

  1. Heavy quark production form jet conversions in a quark-gluon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu , W.; Fries, R.

    2008-05-22

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that the chemical composition of jets in heavy ion collisions is significantly altered compared to the jets in the vacuum. This signal can be used to probe the medium formed in nuclear collisions. In this study we investigate the possibility that fast light quarks and gluons can convert to heavy quarks when passing through a quark-gluon plasma. We study the rate of light to heavy jet conversions in a consistent Fokker-Planck framework and investigate their impact on the production of high-p{sub T} charm and bottom quarks at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the Large Hadron Collider.

  2. Impact of exchange rates on the world uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, M.E.; Combs, G.F. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of the relationship between exchange rates and US uranium prices and product ion is presented. This analysis supplements the discussions on the broader topic of fuel prices, exchange rates and other international economic phenomena scheduled during the 1985 EPRI Fuel Supply Seminar. By varying exchange rate assumptions in the recently developed Uranium Market Model, estimates of the magnitude and timing of price and production effects were obtained. These effects do indeed appear to be large and have implications in procurement, fuel planning and commodity policy. While analysts may differ on details, the inescapable conclusion is that exchange rates matter a great deal in the uranium market. The case described is for a scenario of exchange rates with other currencies returning to their 1980 levels. A second case, an across the board weakening of the dollar by 25%, the results of which are somewhat less dramatic is also examined

  3. Impact of interest rate changes on South African GDP and households

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chestt

    these rates have important impacts on the economy and on the financial ... by applying only an economic impact model based on a social accounting matrix .... macro point of view) by combining historic data, economic theory and statistical.

  4. Studies on the properties of turbulent jets, 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigaki, Hiroshi

    1984-01-01

    The round turbulent buoyant jet issuing vertically into quiescent fluid is studied analytically. Formulae on maximum velocity, temperature, concentration and entrainment rate are derived. These formulae agree well with the available experimental data for whole region of jet and plume. Quantitative classification as to the flow regime of jet, transition and plume are given for the nondimensional distance from jet exit. (author)

  5. Impact of urbanization on detection rates of eating disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, H.W.; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Bosveld, J.J.F.; Graaf, Y. van der; Limpens, V.E.L.; Maiwald, M.; Spaaij, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa among patients in primary care and to evaluate the impact of urbanization, age and sex differences, and changes over time. Method: During 1985-1989, 58 general practitioners, trained in

  6. Ingestion rates and grazing impact of the brackwater mussel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bivalves feed on a combination of phytoplankton and zooplankton and have the potential to impact considerably the planktonic biomass, especially when they occur in high densities, such as in oyster and mussel beds. The brackwater mussel Brachidontes virgiliae is numerically dominant during wet phases within Africa's ...

  7. Impact of Seed Structure Modification on the Rate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rochová, Kristina; Sovová, Helena; Sobolík, Václav; Allaf, K.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 2 (2008), s. 211-218 ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) GA104/06/1174 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : dic process * supercritical extraction * porosity Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.428, year: 2008

  8. Neighbourhood alcohol availability and gonorrhea rates: impact of social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine P. Theall

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Social capital and income inequality have been proposed as important mediators of the relation between the material environment and health outcomes. We determined whether indicators of social capital are (i associated with neighbourhood gonorrhea rates, and (ii mediate the relation between alcohol outlet density and gonorrhea rate. Longitudinal analyses of age- and sex-adjusted gonorrhea cases reported from 1990 to 1996 in the 445 census tracts affected by the 1992 civil unrest in Los Angeles, California was conducted. The role of alcohol outlets was assessed both as tracts with surrendered off-sale outlets due to the civil unrest and annual off-sale alcohol outlet density rates. Tract level voting rates were used as one indicator of social capital, while neighbourhood structure conducive to social organization was used as another. Neighbourhoods with greater voting over time and greater endogenous social organization experienced 1.9 and 67.2 fewer gonorrhea cases per 100,000. Results also reveal a partial mediating role of social capital on the relationship between alcohol outlet density and gonorrhea rate. The alcohol environment may have a direct or partially mediated role in infectious disease outcomes such as gonorrhea. Our findings support the importance of continuing controls and limits on off-premise alcohol outlet density, as a potential means of reducing gonorrhea rates and increasing social capital.

  9. Annular Impinging Jet Controlled by Radial Synthetic Jets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trávníček, Zdeněk; Tesař, Václav; Broučková, Zuzana; Peszyński, K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 35, 16-17 (2014), s. 1450-1461 ISSN 0145-7632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-08888S; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200760801 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : impinging jet * hybrid synthetic jet * flow control Subject RIV: JU - Aeronautics, Aerodynamics, Aircrafts Impact factor: 0.814, year: 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01457632.2014.889467

  10. Modeling jet and outflow feedback during star cluster formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federrath, Christoph [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Schrön, Martin [Department of Computational Hydrosystems, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Banerjee, Robi [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Klessen, Ralf S., E-mail: christoph.federrath@monash.edu [Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-08-01

    Powerful jets and outflows are launched from the protostellar disks around newborn stars. These outflows carry enough mass and momentum to transform the structure of their parent molecular cloud and to potentially control star formation itself. Despite their importance, we have not been able to fully quantify the impact of jets and outflows during the formation of a star cluster. The main problem lies in limited computing power. We would have to resolve the magnetic jet-launching mechanism close to the protostar and at the same time follow the evolution of a parsec-size cloud for a million years. Current computer power and codes fall orders of magnitude short of achieving this. In order to overcome this problem, we implement a subgrid-scale (SGS) model for launching jets and outflows, which demonstrably converges and reproduces the mass, linear and angular momentum transfer, and the speed of real jets, with ∼1000 times lower resolution than would be required without the SGS model. We apply the new SGS model to turbulent, magnetized star cluster formation and show that jets and outflows (1) eject about one-fourth of their parent molecular clump in high-speed jets, quickly reaching distances of more than a parsec, (2) reduce the star formation rate by about a factor of two, and (3) lead to the formation of ∼1.5 times as many stars compared to the no-outflow case. Most importantly, we find that jets and outflows reduce the average star mass by a factor of ∼ three and may thus be essential for understanding the characteristic mass of the stellar initial mass function.

  11. Impact-generated Tsunamis: An Over-rated Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melosh, H. J.

    2003-01-01

    A number of authors have suggested that oceanic waves (tsunami) created by the impact of relatively small asteroids into the Earth's oceans might cause widespread devastation to coastal cities. If correct, this suggests that asteroids > 100 m in diameter may pose a serious hazard to humanity and could require a substantial expansion of the current efforts to identify earth-crossing asteroids > 1 km in diameter. The debate on this hazard was recently altered by the release of a document previously inaccessible to the scientific community. In 1968 the US Office of Naval Research commissioned a summary of several decades of research into the hazard proposed by waves generated by nuclear explosions in the ocean. Authored by tsunami expert William Van Dorn, this 173-page report entitled Handbook of Explosion-Generated Water Waves affords new insight into the process of impact wave formation, propagation, and run up onto the shoreline.

  12. Asymmetric bubble collapse and jetting in generalized Newtonian fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Ratnesh K.; Freund, Jonathan B.

    2017-11-01

    The jetting dynamics of a gas bubble near a rigid wall in a non-Newtonian fluid are investigated using an axisymmetric simulation model. The bubble gas is assumed to be homogeneous, with density and pressure related through a polytropic equation of state. An Eulerian numerical description, based on a sharp interface capturing method for the shear-free bubble-liquid interface and an incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solver for generalized fluids, is developed specifically for this problem. Detailed simulations for a range of rheological parameters in the Carreau model show both the stabilizing and destabilizing non-Newtonian effects on the jet formation and impact. In general, for fixed driving pressure ratio, stand-off distance and reference zero-shear-rate viscosity, shear-thinning and shear-thickening promote and suppress jet formation and impact, respectively. For a sufficiently large high-shear-rate limit viscosity, the jet impact is completely suppressed. Thresholds are also determined for the Carreau power-index and material time constant. The dependence of these threshold rheological parameters on the non-dimensional driving pressure ratio and wall stand-off distance is similarly established. Implications for tissue injury in therapeutic ultrasound will be discussed.

  13. The Impact of Financial Sophistication on Adjustable Rate Mortgage Ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hyrum; Finke, Michael S.; Huston, Sandra J.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of a financial sophistication scale on adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) borrowing is explored. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis using recent data from the Survey of Consumer Finances reveal that ARM borrowing is driven by both the least and most financially sophisticated households but for different reasons. Less…

  14. Federal Graduation Rate Policies and the Impact on Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In today's economy, employers increasingly demand that workers have a high school diploma, yet America's graduation rates are unacceptably low, particularly among poor and minority students. Nationally, only about 70 percent of students graduate from high school on time with a regular diploma; for African American and Hispanic students, this…

  15. Global epidemiology of hysterectomy: possible impact on gynecological cancer rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne; Rositch, Anne; Kahlert, Johnny Abildgaard

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that hysterectomy is the most common surgical procedure worldwide in gynecology, national reporting of the incidence rate of gynecological cancers rarely removes the proportion no longer at risk of the disease from the population-at-risk-denominator (ie. women who have had a hyst...

  16. Impact of Exchange Rate on Balance of Payment in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exchange rate policies have to be used along with the fiscal and monetary instruments to get meaningful results. This implies that our balance of payments problems can be solved simultaneously from two angles, namely, boosting supply and managing demand. Export diversification and promotion, import substitution and ...

  17. Hypervelocity impact of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, A.J.; Anderson, W.F.; Archer, B.

    1982-01-01

    Blocks of concrete and various other materials were impacted by high speed copper jets at the centre of one face, the resulting transient phenomena were measured using ultra high speed photography and various electrical signal transducers. Measurements were made of the jet velocity, penetration rate, crack velocity and initiation time, and strain pulse propagation. Post test measurements were made using electron microscopy, ultra sonics and stereoscopic photography. (orig.) [de

  18. The Structure and Dynamics of GRB Jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granot, Jonathan; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-10-25

    There are several lines of evidence which suggest that the relativistic outflows in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are collimated into narrow jets. The jet structure has important implications for the true energy release and the event rate of GRBs, and can constrain the mechanism responsible for the acceleration and collimation of the jet. Nevertheless, the jet structure and its dynamics as it sweeps up the external medium and decelerates, are not well understood. In this review I discuss our current understanding of GRB jets, stressing their structure and dynamics.

  19. Flow Field and Acoustic Predictions for Three-Stream Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Shaun Patrick; Henderson, Brenda S.; Khavaran, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics was used to analyze a three-stream nozzle parametric design space. The study varied bypass-to-core area ratio, tertiary-to-core area ratio and jet operating conditions. The flowfield solutions from the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) code Overflow 2.2e were used to pre-screen experimental models for a future test in the Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory (AAPL) at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). Flowfield solutions were considered in conjunction with the jet-noise-prediction code JeNo to screen the design concepts. A two-stream versus three-stream computation based on equal mass flow rates showed a reduction in peak turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) for the three-stream jet relative to that for the two-stream jet which resulted in reduced acoustic emission. Additional three-stream solutions were analyzed for salient flowfield features expected to impact farfield noise. As tertiary power settings were increased there was a corresponding near nozzle increase in shear rate that resulted in an increase in high frequency noise and a reduction in peak TKE. As tertiary-to-core area ratio was increased the tertiary potential core elongated and the peak TKE was reduced. The most noticeable change occurred as secondary-to-core area ratio was increased thickening the secondary potential core, elongating the primary potential core and reducing peak TKE. As forward flight Mach number was increased the jet plume region decreased and reduced peak TKE.

  20. Impact of the initial streamwise inclination of a double jet emitted within a cool crossflow on its temperature field and pollutants dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhouane, A.; Mahjoub Said, Nejla; Mhiri, H. [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Unite de Thermique et Thermodynamique des Procedes Industriels, Monastir (Tunisia); Palec, G. le; Bournot, P. [IUSTI, UMR 6595, Technopole de Chateau-Gombert, Marseille (France)

    2009-04-15

    environment. All these considerations allowed us then to well characterize the impact of the injection inclination on the mixing process of the tandem emitted jets through the cooler oncoming crossflow as well as on the pollutants' dispersion and mixing within the whole domain. (orig.)

  1. THE IMPACT OF THE EXCHANGE RATE ON THE COMMERCIALS FLOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela IAVORSCHI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The liberalization of capital movements between states and of the trade of goods and services, are one of the most important phenomena in the current world economy. The purpose of the present study, in the case of Romania, is to answer the question whether the interventions by means of the exchange rate of the national currency contributes to the fluidization and improvement of the commercial trades. The study demonstrates that the leu devaluation does not lead to a substantial increase of the exports. As a mechanism of influence of the commercials flows, the exchange rate has a short-term influence and the economy requires structural reforms, meant to stimulate the growth of the economic competitiveness.

  2. Working While Studying: The Impact of Term-Time Employment on Dropout Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovdhaugen, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    There are many possible reasons why students leave university prior to degree completion, and one of the more commonly cited is being employed while studying. This paper analyses the impact of employment status on dropout rates using survival analysis. It finds that employment status does have an impact on dropout rates; students who work full…

  3. Quantifying ground impact fatality rate for small unmanned aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2018-01-01

    is based on a standard stochastic model, and employs a parameterized high fidelity ground impact distribution model that accounts for both aircraft specifications, parameter uncertainties, and wind. The method also samples the flight path to create an almost continuous quantification of the risk......One of the major challenges of conducting operation of unmanned aircraft, especially operations beyond visual line-of-sight (BVLOS), is to make a realistic and sufficiently detailed risk assessment. An important part of such an assessment is to identify the risk of fatalities, preferably...... in a quantitative way since this allows for comparison with manned aviation to determine whether an equivalent level of safety is achievable. This work presents a method for quantifying the probability of fatalities resulting from an uncontrolled descent of an unmanned aircraft conducting a BVLOS flight. The method...

  4. A Theoretical Model of X-Ray Jets from Young Stellar Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takasao, Shinsuke; Suzuki, Takeru K. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Shibata, Kazunari, E-mail: takasao@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan)

    2017-09-20

    There is a subclass of X-ray jets from young stellar objects that are heated very close to the footpoint of the jets, particularly DG Tau jets. Previous models have attributed the strong heating to shocks in the jets. However, the mechanism that localizes the heating at the footpoint remains puzzling. We presented a different model of such X-ray jets, in which the disk atmosphere is magnetically heated. Our disk corona model is based on the so-called nanoflare model for the solar corona. We show that the magnetic heating near the disks can result in the formation of a hot corona with a temperature of ≳10{sup 6} K, even if the average field strength in the disk is moderately weak, ≳1 G. We determine the density and the temperature at the jet base by considering the energy balance between the heating and cooling. We derive the scaling relations of the mass-loss rate and terminal velocity of jets. Our model is applied to the DG Tau jets. The observed temperature and estimated mass-loss rate are consistent with the prediction of our model in the case of a disk magnetic field strength of ∼20 G and a heating region of <0.1 au. The derived scaling relation of the temperature of X-ray jets could be a useful tool for estimating the magnetic field strength. We also find that the jet X-ray can have a significant impact on the ionization degree near the disk surface and the dead zone size.

  5. Impact of patient satisfaction ratings on physicians and clinical care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zgierska A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aleksandra Zgierska,1 David Rabago,1 Michael M Miller2–4 1Department of Family Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, 2American Society of Addiction Medicine, Chevy Chase, MD, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, School of Medicine and Public Health, 4Herrington Recovery Center, Rogers Memorial Hospital, Oconomowoc, WI, USA Background: Although patient satisfaction ratings often drive positive changes, they may have unintended consequences. Objective: The study reported here aimed to evaluate the clinician-perceived effects of patient satisfaction ratings on job satisfaction and clinical care. Methods: A 26-item survey, developed by a state medical society in 2012 to assess the effects of patient satisfaction surveys, was administered online to physician members of a state-level medical society. Respondents remained anonymous. Results: One hundred fifty five physicians provided responses (3.9% of the estimated 4,000 physician members of the state-level medical society, or approximately 16% of the state's emergency department [ED] physicians. The respondents were predominantly male (85% and practicing in solo or private practice (45%, hospital (43%, or academia (15%. The majority were ED (57%, followed by primary care (16% physicians. Fifty-nine percent reported that their compensation was linked to patient satisfaction ratings. Seventy-eight percent reported that patient satisfaction surveys moderately or severely affected their job satisfaction; 28% had considered quitting their job or leaving the medical profession. Twenty percent reported their employment being threatened because of patient satisfaction data. Almost half believed that pressure to obtain better scores promoted inappropriate care, including unnecessary antibiotic and opioid prescriptions, tests, procedures, and hospital admissions. Among 52 qualitative responses, only three were positive. Conclusion

  6. Three Mile Island: Impact on electric rate structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, E.F.

    1983-01-01

    The historical significance of the March 28, 1979 accident at TMI-2 has not, can not and will not likely be fully appreciated by our generation. The nuclear industry, the financial community, regulator of electric utilities and the investor-owned electric utilities are beginning to understand this newly added complex dimension that has entered our daily work process. The degree of understanding that each possesses is a function of his involvement in the restoration process in evaluating whether the nuclear option is to survive. The body of material presented herein represents an effort to capsulize the significant associated with providing electricity at reasonable prices to all service classifications that followed in the wake of the March 29, 1979 TMI accident. Highlights of some of the oft-conflicting activities and cost implications are defined. An attempt is also made to quantify the rate changes, subsequent to the accident, as to TMI related and non-TMI related cost. Some of the cost allocation difficulties encountered are also enumerated. There are no classic textbooks, treatise, or manuals on the market that abridge the traditional approaches to ratemaking. Finally, a perspective comparison is made to demonstrate that GPU's rates are still reasonable considering other factors - namely overall inflation and regional electricity prices

  7. Impact of extracorporeal blood flow rate on blood pressure, pulse rate and cardiac output during haemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Philip Andreas; Mace, Maria Lerche; Soja, Anne Merete Boas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: If blood pressure (BP) falls during haemodialysis (HD) [intradialytic hypotension (IDH)] a common clinical practice is to reduce the extracorporeal blood flow rate (EBFR). Consequently the efficacy of the HD (Kt/V) is reduced. However, only very limited knowledge on the effect...

  8. Smashing a Jet into a Cloud to Form Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-12-01

    What happens when the highly energetic jet from the center of an active galaxy rams into surrounding clouds of gas and dust? A new study explores whether this might be a way to form stars.The authors simulations at an intermediate (top) and final (bottom) stage show the compression in the gas cloud as a jet (red) enters from the left. Undisturbed cloud material is shown in blue, whereas green corresponds to cold, compressed gas actively forming stars. [Fragile et al. 2017]Impacts of FeedbackCorrelation between properties of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies suggest that there is some means of communication between them. For this reason, we suspect that feedback from an active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the form of jets, for instance controls the size of the galaxy by influencing star formation. But how does this process work?AGN feedback can be either negative or positive. In negative feedback, the gas necessary for forming stars is heated or dispersed by the jet, curbing or halting star formation. In positive feedback, jets propagate through the surrounding gas with energies high enough to create compression in the gas, but not so high that they heat it. The increased density can cause the gas to collapse, thereby triggering star formation.In a recent study, a team of scientists led by Chris Fragile (College of Charleston) modeled what happens when an enormous AGN jet slams into a dwarf-galaxy-sized, inactive cloud of gas. In particular, the team explored the possibility of star-forming positive feedback with the goal of reproducing recent observations of something called Minkowskis Object, a stellar nursery located at the endpoint of a radio jet emitted from the active galaxy NGC 541.The star formation rate in the simulated cloud increases dramatically as a result of the jets impact, reaching the rate currently observed for Minkowskis Objects within 20 million years. [Fragile et al. 2017]Triggering Stellar BirthFragile and collaborators used a

  9. Impact of socioeconomic status on municipal solid waste generation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, D; Kumar, A; Samadder, S R

    2016-03-01

    The solid waste generation rate was expected to vary in different socioeconomic groups due to many environmental and social factors. This paper reports the assessment of solid waste generation based on different socioeconomic parameters like education, occupation, income of the family, number of family members etc. A questionnaire survey was conducted in the study area to identify the different socioeconomic groups that may affect the solid waste generation rate and composition. The average waste generated in the municipality is 0.41 kg/capita/day in which the maximum waste was found to be generated by lower middle socioeconomic group (LMSEG) with average waste generation of 0.46 kg/capita/day. Waste characterization indicated that there was no much difference in the composition of wastes among different socioeconomic groups except ash residue and plastic. Ash residue is found to increase as we move lower down the socioeconomic groups with maximum (31%) in lower socioeconomic group (LSEG). The study area is a coal based city hence application of coal and wood as fuel for cooking in the lower socioeconomic group is the reason for high amount of ash content. Plastic waste is maximum (15%) in higher socioeconomic group (HSEG) and minimum (1%) in LSEG. Food waste is a major component of generated waste in almost every socioeconomic group with maximum (38%) in case of HSEG and minimum (28%) in LSEG. This study provides new insights on the role of various socioeconomic parameters on generation of household wastes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Dynamics of Eddy Fluxes and Jet-Scale Overturning Circulations and its Impact on the Mixed Layer Formation in the Indo-Western Pacific Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, Q.; Lee, S.

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) jets and eddy fluxes in the Indo-western Pacific Southern Ocean (90°E-145°E) is investigated using an eddy-resolving model. In this region, transient eddy momentum flux convergence occurs at the latitude of the primary jet core, whereas eddy buoyancy flux is located over a broader region that encompasses the jet and the inter-jet minimum. In a small sector (120°E-144°E) where jets are especially zonal, a spatial and temporal decomposition of the eddy fluxes further reveals that fast eddies act to accelerate the jet with the maximum eddy momentum flux convergence at the jet center, while slow eddies tend to decelerate the zonal current at the inter-jet minimum. Transformed Eulerian mean (TEM) diagnostics reveals that the eddy momentum contribution accelerates the jets at all model depths, whereas the buoyancy flux contribution decelerates the jets at depths below 600 m. In ocean sectors where the jets are relatively well defined, there exist jet-scale overturning circulations (JSOC) with sinking motion on the equatorward flank, and rising motion on the poleward flank of the jets. The location and structure of these thermally indirect circulations suggest that they are driven by the eddy momentum flux convergence, much like the Ferrel cell in the atmosphere. This study also found that the JSOC plays a significant role in the oceanic heat transport and that it also contributes to the formation of a thin band of mixed layer that exists on the equatorward flank of the Indo-western Pacific ACC jets.

  11. Multiscale Investigation on Biofilm Distribution and Its Impact on Macroscopic Biogeochemical Reaction Rates: BIOFILM DISTRIBUTION AND RATE SCALING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Zhifeng [Institute of Surface-Earth System Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin China; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Liu, Chongxuan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen China; Liu, Yuanyuan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; School of Earth Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing China; Bailey, Vanessa L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2017-11-01

    Biofilms are critical locations for biogeochemical reactions in the subsurface environment. The occurrence and distribution of biofilms at microscale as well as their impacts on macroscopic biogeochemical reaction rates are still poorly understood. This paper investigated the formation and distributions of biofilms in heterogeneous sediments using multiscale models, and evaluated the effects of biofilm heterogeneity on local and macroscopic biogeochemical reaction rates. Sediment pore structures derived from X-ray computed tomography were used to simulate the microscale flow dynamics and biofilm distribution in the sediment column. The response of biofilm formation and distribution to the variations in hydraulic and chemical properties was first examined. One representative biofilm distribution was then utilized to evaluate its effects on macroscopic reaction rates using nitrate reduction as an example. The results revealed that microorganisms primarily grew on the surfaces of grains and aggregates near preferential flow paths where both electron donor and acceptor were readily accessible, leading to the heterogeneous distribution of biofilms in the sediments. The heterogeneous biofilm distribution decreased the macroscopic rate of biogeochemical reactions as compared with those in homogeneous cases. Operationally considering the heterogeneous biofilm distribution in macroscopic reactive transport models such as using dual porosity domain concept can significantly improve the prediction of biogeochemical reaction rates. Overall, this study provided important insights into the biofilm formation and distribution in soils and sediments as well as their impacts on the macroscopic manifestation of reaction rates.

  12. Impact of alternative interventions on changes in generic dispensing rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, A James; Frank, Richard G; Kaddis, Atheer; Rothenberg, Barbara M; McNeil, Barbara J

    2006-10-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of four alternative interventions (member mailings, advertising campaigns, free generic drug samples to physicians, and physician financial incentives) used by a major health insurer to encourage its members to switch to generic drugs. Using claim-level data from Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan, we evaluated the success of four interventions implemented during 2000-2003 designed to increase the use of generic drugs among its members. Around 13 million claims involving seven important classes of drugs were used to assess the effectiveness of the interventions. For each intervention a control group was developed that most closely resembled the corresponding intervention group. Logistic regression models with interaction effects between the treatment group (intervention versus control) and the status of the intervention (active versus not active) were used to evaluate if the interventions had an effect on the generic dispensing rate (GDR). Because the mail order pharmacy was considered more aggressive at converting prescriptions to generics, separate generic purchasing models were fitted to retail and mail order claims. In secondary analyses separate models were also fitted to claims involving a new condition and claims refilled for preexisting conditions. The interventions did not appear to increase the market penetration of generic drugs for either retail or mail order claims, or for claims involving new or preexisting conditions. In addition, we found that the ratio of copayments for brand name to generic drugs had a large positive effect on the GDR. The interventions did not appear to directly influence the GDR. Financial incentives expressed to consumers through benefit designs have a large influence on their switching to generic drugs and on the less-costly mail-order mode of purchase.

  13. Transition and Electron Impact Excitation Collision Rates for O III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayal, S. S.; Zatsarinny, O.

    2017-12-01

    Transition probabilities, electron excitation collision strengths, and rate coefficients for a large number of O III lines over a broad wavelength range, from the infrared to ultraviolet, have been reported. The collision strengths have been calculated in the close-coupling approximation using the B-spline Breit-Pauli R-matrix method. The multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method in combination with B-spline expansions is employed for an accurate representation of the target wave functions. The close-coupling expansion contains 202 O2+ fine-structure levels of the 2{s}22{p}2,2s2{p}3, 2{p}4,2{s}22p3s,3p,3d, 4s,4p,4d,4f,5s, and 2s2{p}33s,3p,3d configurations. The effective collision strengths are obtained by averaging electron excitation collision strengths over a Maxwellian distribution of velocities at electron temperatures ranging from 100 to 100,000 K. The calculated effective collision strengths have been reported for the 20,302 transitions between all 202 fine-structure levels. There is an overall good agreement with the recent R-matrix calculations by Storey et al. for the transitions between all levels of the ground 2{s}22{p}2 configuration, but significant discrepancies have been found with Palay et al. for transitions to the 2{s}22{p}2 1 S 0 level. Line intensity ratios between the optical lines arising from the 2{s}22{p}2{}3{P}{0,1,2} - 1 D 2 transitions have been compared with other calculations and observations from the photoionized gaseous nebulae, and good agreement is found. The present calculations provide the most complete and accurate data sets, which should allow a more detailed treatment of the available measured spectra from different ground and space observatories.

  14. The effect of westward travel across five time zones on sleep and subjective jet-lag ratings in athletes before and during the 2015's World Rowing Junior Championships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölling, Sarah; Treff, Gunnar; Winkert, Kay; Ferrauti, Alexander; Meyer, Tim; Pfeiffer, Mark; Kellmann, Michael

    2017-11-01

    This study examined sleep-wake habits and subjective jet-lag ratings of 55 German junior rowers (n = 30 male, 17.8 ± 0.5 years) before and during the World Rowing Junior Championships 2015 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Athletes answered sleep logs every morning, and Liverpool John Moore's University Jet-Lag Questionnaires each evening and morning. Following an 11-h westward flight with 5-h time shift, advanced bedtimes (-1 h, P travel fatigue probably had a major effect on perceptual decrements, sleep during travel and time to recover upon arrival should be emphasised. Coaches and practitioners should consider higher sleep propensity in the early evening by scheduling training sessions and meetings until the late afternoon.

  15. The Impact of High School Exit Exams on Graduation Rates and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caves, Katherine; Balestra, Simone

    2018-01-01

    The authors examined the short- and long-term effects of high school exit exams (HSEEs) on graduation rates and achievement using an interrupted time series approach. There is a positive overall effect of HSEE introduction for graduation rate trends, which is heterogeneous over time. HSEEs have a negative impact on graduation rates in the year of…

  16. Growth-rate regulated genes have profound impact on interpretation of transcriptome profiling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regenberg, Birgitte; Grotkjær, Thomas; Winther, Ole

    2006-01-01

    Growth rate is central to the development of cells in all organisms. However, little is known about the impact of changing growth rates. We used continuous cultures to control growth rate and studied the transcriptional program of the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with generation time...

  17. An Examination of the Impacts of Exchange Rate Volatility on Sectoral Trade in the Mercosur

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Donald W.; Bittencourt, Maurício Vaz Lobo; Thompson, Stanley R.

    2005-01-01

    This study captures the lack of macroeconomic policy coordination among Mercosur countries, through the impact of real bilateral exchange rate volatility on trade. A sectoral gravity model is estimated under two different measures of exchange rate volatility. Results show that the reduction in exchange rate volatility can increase bilateral trade.

  18. Jet Car Track Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located in Lakehurst, New Jersey, the Jet Car Track Site supports jet cars with J57 engines and has a maximum jet car thrust of 42,000 pounds with a maximum speed of...

  19. Jet Crackle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-23

    crackle is correlated to signals with intermittent periods of steepened shock-like waves followed by weaker, longer, rounded rarefaction regions, but to...turbulence is concentrated in a weakly curved (for a typical round jet) shear layer between the high-speed potential core flow and the surrounding co-flow...decreases into the acoustic field. The effect of varying dc between −0.1 and −0.003δm(t)/∆U causes the Nδm/Lx curves to shift downward as fewer waves

  20. Jet algorithms performance in 13 TeV data

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The performance of jet algorithms with data collected by the CMS detector at the LHC in 2015 with a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, corresponding to 2.3 fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity, is reported. The criteria used to reject jets originating from detector noise are discussed and the efficiency and noise jet rejection rate are measured. A likelihood discriminant designed to differentiate jets initiated by light-quark partons from jets initiated from gluons is studied. A multivariate discriminator is built to distinguish jets initiated by a single high $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ quark or gluon from jets originating from the overlap of multiple low $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ particles from non-primary vertices (pileup jets). Algorithms used to identify large radius jets reconstructed from the decay products of highly Lorentz boosted W bosons and top quarks are discussed, and the efficiency and background rejection rates of these algorithms are measured.

  1. The exchange rate arrangements-government finance relationship and the impact on debt management

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Trifonova; Milena Kovachevich

    2016-01-01

    The choice of exchange rate regime can have a significant impact on the development of the national economy, which affects the main economic indicators. Traditionally, researchers consider the effects of certain types of exchange rate regimes on economic indicators such as gross domestic product, inflation, current account, real exchange rate and investments, but is it possible that the exchange rate regime can also reflect the country's government finance and thus influence the management of...

  2. The exchange rate arrangements-government finance relationship and the impact on debt management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Trifonova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The choice of exchange rate regime can have a significant impact on the development of the national economy, which affects the main economic indicators. Traditionally, researchers consider the effects of certain types of exchange rate regimes on economic indicators such as gross domestic product, inflation, current account, real exchange rate and investments, but is it possible that the exchange rate regime can also reflect the country's government finance and thus influence the management of public debt?

  3. Investigating the Role of Coherence Effects on Jet Quenching in Pb-Pb Collisions at √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV using Jet Substructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardoshti, Nima; Alice Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    We report measurements of two jet shapes, the ratio of 2-Subjettiness to 1-Subjettiness (τ2 /τ1) and the opening angle between the two axes of the 2-Subjettiness jet shape, which is obtained by reclustering the jet with the exclusive-kT algorithm [S.D.Ellis and D.E.Soper, Phys.Rev.B 48, 3160] and undoing the final clustering step. The aim of this measurement is to explore a possible change in the rate of 2-pronged objects in Pb-Pb compared to pp due to colour coherence. Coherence effects [Y.Mehtar-Tani, C.A.Salgado and K.Tywoniuk Phys. Rev. Lett. 106:122002, 2011] relate to the ability of the medium to resolve a jet's substructure, which has an impact on the energy loss magnitude and mechanism of the traversing jet. In both collision systems charged jets are found with the anti-kT algorithm [M.Cacciari, G.P.Salam and G.Soyez JHEP 0804:063, 2008], a resolution parameter of R = 0.4 and a constituent cut off of 0.15 GeV. This analysis uses hadron-jet coincidence techniques in Pb-Pb collisions to reject the combinatorial background and corrects further for background effects by employing various jet shape subtraction techniques and two dimensional unfolding. Measurements of the Nsubjettiness for jet momenta of 40-60 GeV/c in Pb-Pb collisions at √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV and pp collisions at √{ s} = 7 TeV will be presented and compared to PYTHIA simulations.

  4. Impact of different moisture regimes and nitrogen rates on yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of different moisture regimes and nitrogen rates on yield and yield attributes of maize (Zea mays L.) Muhammad Maqsood, Muhammad Asif Shehzad, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar, Hafiz Tassawar Abbas, Salman Mushtaq ...

  5. Results of the JET real-time disruption predictor in the ITER-like wall campaigns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, Jesús; Dormido-Canto, Sebastián; López, Juan M.; Murari, Andrea; Ramírez, Jesús M.; Moreno, Raúl; Ruiz, Mariano; Alves, Diogo; Felton, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •JET real-time disruption predictor with metallic wall 991 discharges analyzed. •Predictor training has been carried out with JET C wall data. •Success, false alarm and missed alarm rates are 98.4%, 0.9% and 1.6%, respectively. •Alarms are triggered in average 426 ms before the disruption. -- Abstract: The impact of disruptions in JET became even more important with the replacement of the previous Carbon Fiber Composite (CFC) wall with a more fragile full metal ITER-like wall (ILW). The development of robust disruption mitigation systems is crucial for JET (and also for ITER). Moreover, a reliable real-time (RT) disruption predictor is a pre-requisite to any mitigation method. The Advance Predictor Of DISruptions (APODIS) has been installed in the JET Real-Time Data Network (RTDN) for the RT recognition of disruptions. The predictor operates with the new ILW but it has been trained only with discharges belonging to campaigns with the CFC wall. 7 real-time signals are used to characterize the plasma status (disruptive or non-disruptive) at regular intervals of 32 ms. After the first 3 JET ILW campaigns (991 discharges), the success rate of the predictor is 98.36% (alarms are triggered in average 426 ms before the disruptions). The false alarm and missed alarm rates are 0.92% and 1.64%

  6. Results of the JET real-time disruption predictor in the ITER-like wall campaigns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Jesús, E-mail: jesus.vega@ciemat.es [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusión, Madrid (Spain); Dormido-Canto, Sebastián [Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Madrid (Spain); López, Juan M. [Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, CAEND UPM-CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Murari, Andrea [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM/ENEA per la Fusione, Padua (Italy); Ramírez, Jesús M. [Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Madrid (Spain); Moreno, Raúl [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusión, Madrid (Spain); Ruiz, Mariano [Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, CAEND UPM-CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Alves, Diogo [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear – Laboratório Associado, Instituto Superior Técnico, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Felton, Robert [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Center, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •JET real-time disruption predictor with metallic wall 991 discharges analyzed. •Predictor training has been carried out with JET C wall data. •Success, false alarm and missed alarm rates are 98.4%, 0.9% and 1.6%, respectively. •Alarms are triggered in average 426 ms before the disruption. -- Abstract: The impact of disruptions in JET became even more important with the replacement of the previous Carbon Fiber Composite (CFC) wall with a more fragile full metal ITER-like wall (ILW). The development of robust disruption mitigation systems is crucial for JET (and also for ITER). Moreover, a reliable real-time (RT) disruption predictor is a pre-requisite to any mitigation method. The Advance Predictor Of DISruptions (APODIS) has been installed in the JET Real-Time Data Network (RTDN) for the RT recognition of disruptions. The predictor operates with the new ILW but it has been trained only with discharges belonging to campaigns with the CFC wall. 7 real-time signals are used to characterize the plasma status (disruptive or non-disruptive) at regular intervals of 32 ms. After the first 3 JET ILW campaigns (991 discharges), the success rate of the predictor is 98.36% (alarms are triggered in average 426 ms before the disruptions). The false alarm and missed alarm rates are 0.92% and 1.64%.

  7. Exchange rate volatility and oil prices shocks and its impact on economic sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Shaf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact of exchange rate volatility has received a great attention from the last century, its importance is certain in all sectors of the economy and it affects welfare as well as social life of the economy. Exchange rate between two currencies tells the value of one currency in terms of others one. Depreciation/Appreciation of exchange rate affects economic growth in terms of trade and shifts income to/from exporting countries from/to importing countries. The factors affecting exchange rate are inflation, interest rate, foreign direct investment, government consumption expenditure and balance of trade. This research study examines the impact of oil prices and exchange rate volatility on economic growth in Germany based on 40-year annual data. Cointegration technique is applied to check the impact of macroeconomic variables on exchange rate in the long run and short run. It is estimated that imports, exports, inflation, interest rate, government consumption expenditure and foreign direct investment had significant impacts on real effective exchange rate in the long run and short run. Sin addition, Engle Granger results indicate that relationship was significant for the long run and its error correction adjustment mechanism (ECM in short a run is significant and correctly signed for Germany.

  8. High rate loading tests and impact tests of concrete and reinforcement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, J.I.; Tachikawa, H.; Fujimoto, K.

    1982-01-01

    The responses of reinforced concrete structural members and structures subjected to impact or impulsive loadings are affected by the behavior of constituent concrete and reinforcement which are the synthesis of the rate effects and the contribution of propagating stress waves of them. The rate effects and the contribution of stress waves do not have the same tendency in the variation of magnitude of them with speed of impact or impulsive loadings. Therefore the rate effects, mentioned above, should be obtained by the tests minimized the effect of stress waves (high rate loading test). This paper deals with the testing techniques with high rate loadings and impact, and also reports the main results of these tests. (orig.) [de

  9. Measurement of Strain and Strain Rate during the Impact of Tennis Ball Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Lane

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to establish the strains and strain rates experienced by tennis ball cores during impact to inform material characterisation testing and finite element modelling. Three-dimensional surface strains and strain rates were measured using two high-speed video cameras and corresponding digital image correlation software (GOM Correlate Professional. The results suggest that material characterisation testing to a maximum strain of 0.4 and a maximum rate of 500 s−1 in tension and to a maximum strain of −0.4 and a maximum rate of −800 s−1 in compression would encapsulate the demands placed on the material during impact and, in turn, define the range of properties required to encapsulate the behavior of the material during impact, enabling testing to be application-specific and strain-rate-dependent properties to be established and incorporated in finite element models.

  10. Numerical Experiments of Counterflowiing Jet Effects on Supersonic Slender-Body Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachari, Balaji Shankar; Mullane, Michael; Cheng, Gary C.; Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the use of counterflowing jets can greatly reduce the drag and heat loads on blunt-body geometries, especially when the long penetration mode jet condition can be established. Previously, the authors had done some preliminary numerical studies to determine the ability to establish long penetration mode jets on a typical Mach 1.6 slender configuration, and study its impact on the boom signature. The results indicated that a jet with a longer penetration length was required to achieve any impact on the boom signature of a typical Mach 1.6 slender configuration. This paper focuses on an in-depth parametric study, done using the space-time conservation element solution element Navier-Stokes flow solver, for investigating the effect of various counterflowing jet conditions/configurations on two supersonic slender-body models (cone-cylinder and quartic body of revolution). The study is aimed at gaining a better understanding of the relationship between the shock penetration length and reduction of drag and boom signature for these two supersonic slender-body configurations. Different jet flow rates, Mach numbers, nozzle jet exit diameters and jet-to-base diameter ratios were examined. The results show the characteristics of a short-to-long-to-short penetration-mode pattern with the increase of jet mass flow rates, observed across various counterflowing jet nozzle configurations. Though the optimal shock penetration length for potential boom-signature mitigation is tied to the long penetration mode, it often results in a very unsteady flow and leads to large oscillations of surface pressure and drag. Furthermore, depending on the geometry of the slender body, longer jet penetration did not always result in maximum drag reduction. For the quartic geometry, the maximum drag reduction corresponds well to the longest shock penetration length, while this was not the case for the cone-cylinder-as the geometry was already optimized for

  11. A new constitutive model for prediction of impact rates response of polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckley C.P.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new constitutive model for predicting the impact rates response of polypropylene. Impact rates, as used here, refer to strain rates greater than 1000 1/s. The model is a physically based, three-dimensional constitutive model which incorporates the contributions of the amorphous, crystalline, pseudo-amorphous and entanglement networks to the constitutive response of polypropylene. The model mathematics is based on the well-known Glass-Rubber model originally developed for glassy polymers but the arguments have herein been extended to semi-crystalline polymers. In order to predict the impact rates behaviour of polypropylene, the model exploits the well-known framework of multiple processes yielding of polymers. This work argues that two dominant viscoelastic relaxation processes – the alpha- and beta-processes – can be associated with the yield responses of polypropylene observed at low-rate-dominant and impact-rates dominant loading regimes. Compression test data on polypropylene have been used to validate the model. The study has found that the model predicts quite well the experimentally observed nonlinear rate-dependent impact response of polypropylene.

  12. The Impact of Institutional Student Support on Graduation Rates in US Ph.D. Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolli, Thomas; Agasisti, Tommaso; Johnes, Geraint

    2015-01-01

    Using National Research Council data, we investigate the determinants of graduation rates in US Ph.D. programmes. We emphasise the impact that support and facilities offered to doctoral students have on completion rates. Significant, strong and positive effects are found for the provision of on-site graduate conferences and dedicated workspace,…

  13. Objective assessment of the impact of frame rate on video quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ukhanova, Ann; Korhonen, Jari; Forchhammer, Søren

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel objective quality metric that takes the impact of frame rate into account. The proposed metric uses PSNR, frame rate and a content dependent parameter that can easily be obtained from spatial and temporal activity indices. The results have been validated on data ...

  14. Variations in multiple birth rates and impact on perinatal outcomes in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heino, A.; Gissler, M.; Hindori-Mohangoo, A.D.; Blondel, B.; Klungsøyr, K.; Verdenik, I.; Mierzejewska, E.; Velebil, P.; Sól Ólafsdóttir, H.; Macfarlane, A.; Zeitlin, J.; et al.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Infants from multiple pregnancies have higher rates of preterm birth, stillbirth and neonatal death and differences in multiple birth rates (MBR) exist between countries. We aimed to describe differences in MBR in Europe and to investigate the impact of these differences on adverse

  15. Transition in synthetic jets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav; Kordík, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 187, NOV 2012 (2012), s. 105-117 ISSN 0924-4247 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA02020795; GA ČR(CZ) GPP101/12/P556; GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : turbulence * synthetic jet * transition * velocity spectra Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.841, year: 2012 http://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S0924424712005031

  16. Jet inclusive cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.

    1992-11-01

    Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons

  17. The Impact of Sovereign Credit Rating Changes on Emerging Stock Markets

    OpenAIRE

    YIN, WEIGUO

    2008-01-01

    This study investigate the impact of sovereign rating change in emerging markets by using 42 sample counties over the period Jan. 1999 to Aug. 2008. The concurrent relationship between sovereign rating changes and the associated stock market spread can be established: the spreads tend to rise (fall) when upgrades (downgrades) occur. Surprisingly, according to Fitch report regarding the emerging market liquidity, we divide the whole time line into two sub-periods. It is found that rating chang...

  18. Surrogate obesity negatively impacts pregnancy rates in third-party reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeUgarte, Daniel A; DeUgarte, Catherine M; Sahakian, Vicken

    2010-02-01

    In a retrospective cohort review of third-party reproduction, we observed that surrogate body mass index (BMI) negatively impacts implantation rates in oocyte-donor in vitro fertilization cycles. A BMI > or =35 kg/m(2) cutoff is associated with a statistically significant decrease in pregnancy rates but not miscarriage rates. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the impact of retail electricity rate design on the economic value of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, focusing on commercial customers in California. Using 15-min interval building load and PV production data from a sample of 24 actual commercial PV installations, we compare the value of the bill savings across 20 commercial-customer retail electricity rates currently offered in the state. Across all combinations of customers and rates, we find that the annual ...

  20. A CONSISTENT ESTIMATE FOR THE IMPACT OF SINGAPORE'S EXCHANGE RATE ON COMPETITIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    JANG PING THIA

    2010-01-01

    Services form a larger part of the Singapore economy. However, it is difficult to analyze the exchange rate impact on services due to the lack of price data. Regression of output or export on exchange rate, while highly intuitive, is likely to suffer from the endogeneity problem since Singapore's exchange rate is used as a counter-cyclical policy tool. This results in inconsistent estimates. I propose a novel approach to overcome these limitations by using Hong Kong as a control for Singapore...

  1. JET and COMPASS asymmetrical disruptions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gerasimov, S.N.; Abreu, P.; Baruzzo, M.; Drozdov, V.; Dvornova, A.; Havlíček, Josef; Hender, T.C.; Hronová-Bilyková, Olena; Kruezi, U.; Li, X.; Markovič, Tomáš; Pánek, Radomír; Rubinacci, G.; Tsalas, M.; Ventre, S.; Villone, F.; Zakharov, L.E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 11 (2015), s. 113006-113006 ISSN 0029-5515 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tokamak * asymmetrical disruption * JET * COMPASS Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.040, year: 2015

  2. Measurements of jet-related observables at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkas, P.

    2015-11-01

    During the first years of the LHC operation a large amount of jet data was recorded by the ATLAS and CMS experiments. In this review several measurements of jet-related observables are presented, such as multi-jet rates and cross sections, ratios of jet cross sections, jet shapes and event shape observables. All results presented here are based on jet data collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. Data are compared to various Monte Carlo generators, as well as to theoretical next-to-leading-order calculations allowing a test of perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics in a previously unexplored energy region.

  3. Numerical Investigation of the Interaction of Counterflowing Jets and Supersonic Capsule Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachari, Balaji Shankar; Ito, Yasushi; Cheng, Gary; Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2011-01-01

    Use of counterflowing jets ejected into supersonic freestreams as a flow control concept to modify the external flowfield has gained renewed interest with regards to potential retropropulsion applications pertinent to entry, descent, and landing investigations. This study describes numerical computations of such a concept for a scaled wind-tunnel capsule model by employing the space-time conservation element solution element viscous flow solver with unstructured meshes. Both steady-state and time-accurate computations are performed for several configurations with different counterflowing jet Mach numbers. Axisymmetric computations exploring the effect of the jet flow rate and jet Mach number on the flow stability, jet interaction with the bow shock and its subsequent impact on the aerodynamic and aerothermal loads on the capsule body are carried out. Similar to previous experimental findings, both long and short penetration modes exist at a windtunnel Mach number of 3.48. It was found that both modes exhibit non-stationary behavior and the former is much more unstable than the latter. It was also found that the unstable long penetration mode only exists in a relatively small range of the jet mass flow rate. Solution-based mesh refinement procedures are used to improve solution accuracy and provide guidelines for a more effective mesh generation procedure for parametric studies. Details of the computed flowfields also serve as a means to broaden the knowledge base for future retropropulsion design studies.

  4. Jet Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.; O'Hara, G.W.; Pollard, I.E.

    1988-07-01

    The paper presents the Jet Joint Undertaking annual report 1987. A description is given of the JET and Euratom and International Fusion Programmes. The technical status of JET is outlined, including the development and improvements made to the system in 1987. The results of JET Operation in 1987 are described within the areas of: density effects, temperature improvements, energy confinement studies and other material effects. The contents also contain a summary of the future programme of JET. (U.K.)

  5. The impact of dynamic data assimilation on the numerical simulations of the QE II cyclone and an analysis of the jet streak influencing the precyclogenetic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manobianco, John; Uccellini, Louis W.; Brill, Keith F.; Kuo, Ying-Hwa

    1992-01-01

    A mesoscale numerical model is combined with a dynamic data assimilation via Newtonian relaxation, or 'nudging', to provide initial conditions for subsequent simulations of the QE II cyclone. Both the nudging technique and the inclusion of supplementary data are shown to have a large positive impact on the simulation of the QE II cyclone during the initial phase of rapid cyclone development. Within the initial development period (from 1200 to 1800 UTC 9 September 1978), the dynamic assimilation of operational and bogus data yields a coherent two-layer divergence pattern that is not well defined in the model run using only the operational data and static initialization. Diagnostic analysis based on the simulations show that the initial development of the QE II storm between 0000 UTC 9 September and 0000 UTC 10 September was embedded within an indirect circulation of an intense 300-hPa jet streak, was related to baroclinic processes extending throughout a deep portion of the troposphere, and was associated with a classic two-layer mass-divergence profile expected for an extratropical cyclone.

  6. Impact of Subgrid Scale Models and Heat Loss on Large Eddy Simulations of a Premixed Jet Burner Using Flamelet-Generated Manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez Perez, Francisco E.; Im, Hong G.; Lee, Bok Jik; Fancello, Alessio; Donini, Andrea; van Oijen, Jeroen A.; de Goey, L. Philip H.

    2017-11-01

    Large eddy simulations (LES) of a turbulent premixed jet flame in a confined chamber are performed employing the flamelet-generated manifold (FGM) method for tabulation of chemical kinetics and thermochemical properties, as well as the OpenFOAM framework for computational fluid dynamics. The burner has been experimentally studied by Lammel et al. (2011) and features an off-center nozzle, feeding a preheated lean methane-air mixture with an equivalence ratio of 0.71 and mean velocity of 90 m/s, at 573 K and atmospheric pressure. Conductive heat loss is accounted for in the FGM tabulation via burner-stabilized flamelets and the subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence-chemistry interaction is modeled via presumed filtered density functions. The impact of heat loss inclusion as well as SGS modeling for both the SGS stresses and SGS variance of progress variable on the numerical results is investigated. Comparisons of the LES results against measurements show a significant improvement in the prediction of temperature when heat losses are incorporated into FGM. While further enhancements in the LES results are accomplished by using SGS models based on transported quantities and/or dynamically computed coefficients as compared to the Smagorinsky model, heat loss inclusion is more relevant. This research was sponsored by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) and made use of computational resources at KAUST Supercomputing Laboratory.

  7. Bouncing and Merging of Liquid Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Abhishek; Li, Minglei; Law, Chung K.

    2014-11-01

    Collision of two fluid jets is a technique that is utilized in many industrial applications, such as in rocket engines, to achieve controlled mixing, atomization and sometimes liquid phase reactions. Thus, the dynamics of colliding jets have direct impact on the performance, efficiency and reliability of such applications. In analogy with the dynamics of droplet-droplet collision, in this work we have experimentally demonstrated, for n-alkane hydrocarbons as well as water, that with increasing impact inertia obliquely colliding jets also exhibit the same nonmonotonic responses of merging, bouncing, merging again, and merging followed by disintegration; and that the continuous entrainment of the boundary layer air over the jet surface into the colliding interfacial region leads to two distinguishing features of jet collision, namely: there exists a maximum impact angle beyond which merging is always possible, and that merging is inhibited and then promoted with increasing pressure. These distinct response regimes were mapped and explained on the bases of impact inertia, deformation of the jet surface, viscous loss within the jet interior, and the thickness and pressure build-up within the interfacial region in order to activate the attractive surface van der Waals force to effect merging.

  8. Kinetic theory of surface waves in plasma jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokri, B.

    2002-01-01

    The kinetic theory analysis of surface waves propagating along a semi-bounded plasma jet is presented. The frequency spectra and their damping rate are obtained in both the high and low frequency regions. Finally, the penetration of the static field in the plasma jet under the condition that the plasma jet velocity is smaller than the sound velocity is studied

  9. Impact of Exchange Rate Fluctuation to the Romanian Foreign Currency Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Diana Vasile

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we intend to indentify the impact of the currency rate of exchange variation of the two main currencies which represent Romania’s foreign currency reserve and the stress test it submits the latter. Up to the present moment there not established a cause-effect relationship or correlation between the foreign currency exchage rate was variation and the foreign currency reserve. In this respect we used an econometrics model based on cointegration analysis of the three series of data corresponding to the period of time 31.01.1995-31.06.2006 (the EURO exchange rate, the USD exchange rate and the foreign currency reserve.

  10. Monotonic and cyclic responses of impact polypropylene and continuous glass fiber-reinforced impact polypropylene composites at different strain rates

    KAUST Repository

    Yudhanto, Arief

    2016-03-08

    Impact copolymer polypropylene (IPP), a blend of isotactic polypropylene and ethylene-propylene rubber, and its continuous glass fiber composite form (glass fiber-reinforced impact polypropylene, GFIPP) are promising materials for impact-prone automotive structures. However, basic mechanical properties and corresponding damage of IPP and GFIPP at different rates, which are of keen interest in the material development stage and numerical tool validation, have not been reported. Here, we applied monotonic and cyclic tensile loads to IPP and GFIPP at different strain rates (0.001/s, 0.01/s and 0.1/s) to study the mechanical properties, failure modes and the damage parameters. We used monotonic and cyclic tests to obtain mechanical properties and define damage parameters, respectively. We also used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images to visualize the failure mode. We found that IPP generally exhibits brittle fracture (with relatively low failure strain of 2.69-3.74%) and viscoelastic-viscoplastic behavior. GFIPP [90]8 is generally insensitive to strain rate due to localized damage initiation mostly in the matrix phase leading to catastrophic transverse failure. In contrast, GFIPP [±45]s is sensitive to the strain rate as indicated by the change in shear modulus, shear strength and failure mode.

  11. Aeroacoustics of Three-Stream Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brenda S.

    2012-01-01

    Results from acoustic measurements of noise radiated from a heated, three-stream, co-annular exhaust system operated at subsonic conditions are presented. The experiments were conducted for a range of core, bypass, and tertiary stream temperatures and pressures. The nozzle system had a fan-to-core area ratio of 2.92 and a tertiary-to-core area ratio of 0.96. The impact of introducing a third stream on the radiated noise for third-stream velocities below that of the bypass stream was to reduce high frequency noise levels at broadside and peak jet-noise angles. Mid-frequency noise radiation at aft observation angles was impacted by the conditions of the third stream. The core velocity had the greatest impact on peak noise levels and the bypass-to-core mass flow ratio had a slight impact on levels in the peak jet-noise direction. The third-stream jet conditions had no impact on peak noise levels. Introduction of a third jet stream in the presence of a simulated forward-flight stream limits the impact of the third stream on radiated noise. For equivalent ideal thrust conditions, two-stream and three-stream jets can produce similar acoustic spectra although high-frequency noise levels tend to be lower for the three-stream jet.

  12. The impact of exchange rate volatility on capital flows in BRICS economies

    OpenAIRE

    Bonga-Bonga, Lumengo; Gnagne, Pascal Xavier

    2017-01-01

    This study intends to analyse the impact of exchange rate risk on equity returns and bond yields as well as the volatility spillover between the foreign exchange, equity and bond markets in the BRICS economies. To reach this objective, a multivariate GARCH-M with BEKK specifications is applied on weekly data obtained from Thomson Reuters DataStream. The findings of the paper show that exchange rate volatility has a positive impact on ten-year bond yields in all BRICS countries except in South...

  13. Heat and mass transfers in the jets; Transferts de chaleur et de masse dans les jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This day on the heat and mass transfers in the jets, was organized by the SFT (French Society of Thermic) to present the state of the art in the domain. Fifteen presentations allowed the participants to discuss about turbulent flows, simulation of fluid flow and jets impacts. (A.L.B.)

  14. Performance of pile-up mitigation techniques for jets in pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testa, M., E-mail: marianna.testa@lnf.infn.it

    2016-07-11

    The large rate of multiple simultaneous proton–proton interactions, or pile-up, generated by the Large Hadron Collider in Run 1 required the development of many new techniques to mitigate the adverse effects of these conditions. The methods employed to correct for the impact of pile-up on jet energy, shapes and multiplicity with the ATLAS detector are presented here. They include energy correction techniques based on estimates of the average pile-up energy density and jet-to-vertex association techniques. Extensions of these methods to reduce the impact of pile-up on jet shapes use both subtraction and grooming procedures. Prospects for pile-up suppression at the HL-LHC are also shown.

  15. Performance of pile-up mitigation techniques for jets in pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, M.

    2016-01-01

    The large rate of multiple simultaneous proton–proton interactions, or pile-up, generated by the Large Hadron Collider in Run 1 required the development of many new techniques to mitigate the adverse effects of these conditions. The methods employed to correct for the impact of pile-up on jet energy, shapes and multiplicity with the ATLAS detector are presented here. They include energy correction techniques based on estimates of the average pile-up energy density and jet-to-vertex association techniques. Extensions of these methods to reduce the impact of pile-up on jet shapes use both subtraction and grooming procedures. Prospects for pile-up suppression at the HL-LHC are also shown.

  16. Performance of pile-up mitigation techniques for jets in pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Testa, Marianna; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The large rate of multiple simultaneous proton-proton interactions, or pile-up, generated by the Large Hadron Collider in Run I required the development of many new techniques to mitigate the adverse effects of these conditions. The methods employed to correct for the impact of pile-up on jet energy, shapes and multiplicity with the ATLAS detector are here presented. They include energy correction techniques based on estimates of the average pile-up energy density and jet-to-vertex association techniques. Extensions of these methods to reduce the impact of pile-up on jet shapes use both subtraction and grooming procedures. Prospects for pile-up suppression at the HL-LHC are also shown.

  17. An Analysis of the Most Adopted Rating Systems for Assessing the Environmental Impact of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bernardi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rating systems for assessing the environmental impact of buildings are technical instruments that aim to evaluate the environmental impact of buildings and construction projects. In some cases, these rating systems can also cover urban-scale projects, community projects, and infrastructures. These schemes are designed to assist project management in making the projects more sustainable by providing frameworks with precise criteria for assessing the various aspects of a building’s environmental impact. Given the growing interest in sustainable development worldwide, many rating systems for assessing the environmental impact of buildings have been established in recent years, each one with its peculiarities and fields of applicability. The present work is motivated by an interest in emphasizing such differences to better understand these rating systems and extract the main implications to building design. It also attempts to summarize in a user-friendly form the vast and fragmented assortment of information that is available today. The analysis focuses on the six main rating systems: the Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Methodology (BREEAM, the Comprehensive Assessment System for Built Environment Efficiency (CASBEE, the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nachhaltiges Bauen (DGNB, the Haute Qualité Environnementale (HQETM, the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED, and the Sustainable Building Tool (SBTool.

  18. Modelling the impact of changes in the interest rates on the economy: An Austrian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Le Roux

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Even though econometric models and yield curve analysis are useful in assessing the impact of interest rate changes on the economic structure, their power to predict the magnitude and direction of swings in the business cycle is often restricted to the use of short-term interest rates. From an Austrian school perspective on interest rates, empirical evidence suggests that the profitability of heavy industries further downstream outperforms that of light industries in the initial stages of monetary easing, due to a rising demand for investment goods and a rise in capacity utilisation levels. This paper assesses the impact of interest rates changes on the productive structure of the economy by taking into account the effect thereof on sector earnings and ultimately share prices.

  19. Vector boson tagged jets and jet substructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitev Ivan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In these proceedings, we report on recent results related to vector boson-tagged jet production in heavy ion collisions and the related modification of jet substructure, such as jet shapes and jet momentum sharing distributions. Z0-tagging and γ-tagging of jets provides new opportunities to study parton shower formation and propagation in the quark-gluon plasma and has been argued to provide tight constrains on the energy loss of reconstructed jets. We present theoretical predictions for isolated photon-tagged and electroweak boson-tagged jet production in Pb+Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV at the LHC, addressing the modification of their transverse momentum and transverse momentum imbalance distributions. Comparison to recent ATLAS and CMS experimental measurements is performed that can shed light on the medium-induced radiative corrections and energy dissipation due to collisional processes of predominantly quark-initiated jets. The modification of parton splitting functions in the QGP further implies that the substructure of jets in heavy ion collisions may differ significantly from the corresponding substructure in proton-proton collisions. Two such observables and the implication of tagging on their evaluation is also discussed.

  20. Understanding jet noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabasov, S A

    2010-08-13

    Jets are one of the most fascinating topics in fluid mechanics. For aeronautics, turbulent jet-noise modelling is particularly challenging, not only because of the poor understanding of high Reynolds number turbulence, but also because of the extremely low acoustic efficiency of high-speed jets. Turbulent jet-noise models starting from the classical Lighthill acoustic analogy to state-of-the art models were considered. No attempt was made to present any complete overview of jet-noise theories. Instead, the aim was to emphasize the importance of sound generation and mean-flow propagation effects, as well as their interference, for the understanding and prediction of jet noise.

  1. Very forward jet, Mueller Navelet jets and jet gap jet measurements in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Cerci, Salim

    2018-01-01

    The measurements of very forward jet, Mueller-Navelet jets and jet-gap-jet events are presented for different collision energies. The analyses are based on data collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. Jets are defined through the anti-$k_\\mathrm{t}$ clustering algorithm for different cone sizes. Jet production studies provide stringent tests of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and contribute to tune Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and phenomenological models. The measurements are compared to predictions from various Monte Carlo event generators.

  2. NON-PRICE PROMOTION IMPACTS ON COTTON AND SOYBEANS EXPORTS UNDER EXCHANGE RATE LINKED SUBSIDIES

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, Laxmi; Adhikari, Murali; Houston, Jack E.; Kinnucan, Henry W.

    2003-01-01

    Issue of exchange rate-linked subsidies for non-price export promotion has recently emerged as an area of interest among marketing researchers because of fluctuating strength of US dollars and position of US agricultural goods in export markets. One solution to mitigate these impacts was to link the federal export promotion subsidies with the changing value of US dollars. In the study, an equilibrium displacement framework was developed to analyze the effectiveness of exchange rate-linked sub...

  3. Impact of Alternative Rate Structures on Distributed Solar Customer Electricity Bills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-03-02

    Electric utilities are increasingly proposing changes to residential rate structures, in order to address concerns about their inability to recover fixed system costs from customers with grid connected distributed generation. The most common proposals have been to increase fixed charges, set minimum bills or instigate residential demand charges. This presentation provides results of an analysis to explore how these rate design alternatives impact electricity bills for PV and non-PV customers.

  4. Performance of pile-up mitigation techniques for jets in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozic, Ivan; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Childers, John Taylor; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghazlane, Hamid; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Mori, Daniel; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simoniello, Rosa; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sosebee, Mark; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2016-10-27

    The large rate of multiple simultaneous proton--proton interactions, or pile-up, generated by the Large Hadron Collider in Run 1 required the development of many new techniques to mitigate the adverse effects of these conditions. This paper describes the methods employed in the ATLAS experiment to correct for the impact of pile-up on jet energy and jet shapes, and for the presence of spurious additional jets, with a primary focus on the large 20.3 fb$^{-1}$ data sample collected at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV. The energy correction techniques that incorporate sophisticated estimates of the average pile-up energy density and tracking information are presented. Jet-to-vertex association techniques are discussed and projections of performance for the future are considered. Lastly, the extension of these techniques to mitigate the effect of pile-up on jet shapes using subtraction and grooming procedures is presented.

  5. The Fast Tracker real time processor and its impact on the muon isolation, tau & b jet online selections at Atlas

    CERN Document Server

    Crescioli, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    As the LHC luminosity is ramped up to the design level of 3x10^{34} cm^{-2} s^{-1} and beyond, the high rates, multipicities, and energies of particles seen by the detectors will pose a unique challenge. Only a tiny fraction of the produced collisions can be stored on tape and immense real-time data reduction is needed. An effective trigger system must maintain high trigger efficiencies for the physics we are most interested in, and at the same time suppress the enormous QCD backgrounds. This requires massive computing power to minimize the online execution time of complex algorithms. A multi-level trigger is an effective solution for an otherwise impossible problem. The Fast Tracker (FTK) is a proposed upgrade to the ATLAS trigger system that will operate at full Level-1 output rates and provide high quality tracks reconstructed over the entire detector by the start of processing in Level-2. FTK solves the combinatorial challenge inherent to tracking by exploiting the massive parallelism of associative memor...

  6. Population densities and rate coefficients for electron impact excitation in singly ionized oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awakowicz, P.; Behringer, K.

    1995-01-01

    In non-LTE arc plasmas, O II excited state number densities were measured relative to the O II ground and metastable states. The results were compared with collisional-radiative code calculations on the basis of the JET ADAS programs. Stationary He plasmas with small oxygen admixtures, generated in a 5 mm diameter cascade arc chamber (pressures 13-70 hPa, arc current 150 A), were investigated spectroscopically in the visible and the VUV spectral range. The continuum of a 2 mm diameter pure He arc (atmospheric pressure, current 100 A) served for calibration of the VUV system response. Plasma diagnostics on the basis of Hβ Stark broadening yielded electron densities between 2.4 x 10 14 and 2.0 x 10 15 cm -3 for the low-pressure O II mixture plasmas. The agreement of measured and calculated excited state populations is generally very satisfactory, thus confirming the rate coefficients in the code. This is of particular interest in this intermediate region between corona balance and LTE, where many atomic data are required in the simulation. Clear indications were found for the diffusion of metastables lowering their number densities significantly below their statistical values. (author)

  7. Comparison of animated jet stream visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocke, Thomas; Hoffmann, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The visualization of 3D atmospheric phenomena in space and time is still a challenging problem. In particular, multiple solutions of animated jet stream visualizations have been produced in recent years, which were designed to visually analyze and communicate the jet and related impacts on weather circulation patterns and extreme weather events. This PICO integrates popular and new jet animation solutions and inter-compares them. The applied techniques (e.g. stream lines or line integral convolution) and parametrizations (color mapping, line lengths) are discussed with respect to visualization quality criteria and their suitability for certain visualization tasks (e.g. jet patterns and jet anomaly analysis, communicating its relevance for climate change).

  8. Cutting concrete with abrasion jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yie, G.G.

    1982-01-01

    Fluidyne Corporation has developed a unique process and apparatus that allow selected abrasives to be introduced into high-speed waterjet to produce abrasive-entrained waterjet that has high material-cutting capabilities, which is termed by Fluidyne as the Abrasion Jet. Such Abrasion Jet has demonstrated capability in cutting hard rock and concrete at a modest pressure of less than 1360 bars (20,000 psi) and a power input of less than 45 kW (60 horsepower). Abrasion Jet cutting of concrete is characterized by its high rate of cutting, flexible operation, good cut quality, and relatively low costs. This paper presents a general description of this technology together with discussions of recent test results and how it could be applied to nuclear decontamination and decommissioning work. 8 references

  9. The flow structure of jets from transient sources and implications for modeling short-duration explosive volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnicki, K. N.; Clarke, A. B.; Adrian, R. J.; Phillips, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    We used laboratory experiments to examine the rise process in neutrally buoyant jets that resulted from an unsteady supply of momentum, a condition that defines plumes from discrete Vulcanian and Strombolian-style eruptions. We simultaneously measured the analog-jet discharge rate (the supply rate of momentum) and the analog-jet internal velocity distribution (a consequence of momentum transport and dilution). Then, we examined the changes in the analog-jet velocity distribution over time to assess the impact of the supply-rate variations on the momentum-driven rise dynamics. We found that the analog-jet velocity distribution changes significantly and quickly as the supply rate varied, such that the whole-field distribution at any instant differed considerably from the time average. We also found that entrainment varied in space and over time with instantaneous entrainment coefficient values ranging from 0 to 0.93 in an individual unsteady jet. Consequently, we conclude that supply-rate variations exert first-order control over jet dynamics, and therefore cannot be neglected in models without compromising their capability to predict large-scale eruption behavior. These findings emphasize the fundamental differences between unsteady and steady jet dynamics, and show clearly that: (i) variations in source momentum flux directly control the dynamics of the resulting flow; (ii) impulsive flows driven by sources of varying flux cannot reasonably be approximated by quasi-steady flow models. New modeling approaches capable of describing the time-dependent properties of transient volcanic eruption plumes are needed before their trajectory, dilution, and stability can be reliably computed for hazards management.

  10. Magnetosheath jets: MMS observations of internal structures and jet interactions with ambient plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaschke, F.; Karlsson, T.; Hietala, H.; Archer, M. O.; Voros, Z.; Nakamura, R.; Magnes, W.; Baumjohann, W.; Torbert, R. B.; Russell, C. T.; Giles, B. L.

    2017-12-01

    The dayside magnetosheath downstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock is commonly permeated by high-speed jets. Under low IMF cone angle conditions, large scale jets alone (with cross-sectional diameters of over 2 Earth radii) have been found to impact the subsolar magnetopause once every 6 minutes - smaller scale jets occurring much more frequently. The consequences of jet impacts on the magnetopause can be significant: they may trigger local reconnection and waves, alter radiation belt electron drift paths, disturb the geomagnetic field, and potentially generate diffuse throat aurora at the dayside ionosphere. Although some basic statistical properties of jets are well-established, their internal structure and interactions with the surrounding magnetosheath plasma are rather unknown. We present Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) observations which reveal a rich jet-internal structure of high-amplitude plasma moment and magnetic field variations and associated currents. These variations/structures are generally found to be in thermal and magnetic pressure balance; they mostly (but not always) convect with the plasma flow. Small velocity differences between plasma and structures are revealed via four-spacecraft timing analysis. Inside a jet core region, where the plasma velocity maximizes, structures are found to propagate forward (i.e., with the jet), whereas backward propagation is found outside that core region. Although super-magnetosonic flows are detected by MMS in the spacecraft frame of reference, no fast shock is seen as the jet plasma is sub-magnetosonic with respect to the ambient magnetosheath plasma. Instead, the fast jet plasma pushes ambient magnetosheath plasma ahead of the jet out of the way, possibly generating anomalous sunward flows in the vicinity, and modifies the magnetic field aligning it with the direction of jet propagation.

  11. Structure of strongly underexpanded gas jets submerged in liquids – Application to the wastage of tubes by aggressive jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roger, Francis, E-mail: roger@ensma.fr [Institut PPRIME, Département Fluides, Thermique, Combustion CNRS ENSMA Université de Poitiers UPR 3346, ENSMA BP 109, 86960 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Carreau, Jean-Louis; Gbahoué, Laurent; Hobbes, Philippe [Institut PPRIME, Département Fluides, Thermique, Combustion CNRS ENSMA Université de Poitiers UPR 3346, ENSMA BP 109, 86960 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Allou, Alexandre; Beauchamp, François [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, DTN/STPA/LTRS, 13108 Saint-Paul lez, Durance Cedex (France)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Underexpanded gas jets submerged in liquids behave similarly to homogeneous gas jets. • The counter rotating vortex pairs of jet produce discrete imprints on the targets. • The shape of hollows made on the targets is explained by the jet structure. • The erosion–corrosion phenomenon well explains the wastage of exchange tubes. - Abstract: Strongly underexpanded gas jets submerged in a liquid at rest behave similarly to underexpanded homogeneous gas jets. The existence of the Taylor-Görtler vortices around the inner zone of the gas jets is demonstrated in free gas jets submerged in water by means of optical probe. In the near field, the same phenomenon produces discrete imprints, approximately distributed in a circle, when underexpanded nitrogen jet submerged in liquid sodium hydroxide and underexpanded water vapour jet submerged in liquid sodium impact onto AU{sub 4}G-T{sub 4} and Incoloy 800{sup ®} alloy targets respectively. For a jet-target couple, the volume of the hollow is satisfactorily related to the strain energy density of the material and the kinetic energy of the gas jet. However, the comparison between volumes of hollows produced by both jets also indicates strong corrosive action of the medium on targets. This allows better understanding of the mechanism of wastage of tubes employed in steam generators integrated in liquid metal fast breeder reactors.

  12. Impact of temperature on ammonium and nitrite removal rates in RAS moving bed biofilters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinyage, John Peter Hewa; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2016-01-01

    The impact of temperature on bacterial processes is well known; however temperature related data on nitrification rates in aquaculture systems are fragmented and compiled from different studies. We sought to determine ammonium and nitrite removal kinetics over a temperature range from 6 to 36 °C...

  13. The Impact of Impairment Criteria on Rates of ADHD Diagnoses in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Dione M.; Miller, Carlin J.; Castelli, Katia L.; Marks, David J.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    Behaviors characteristic of ADHD are common among preschool children, and as such, their clinical significance is oftentimes difficult to ascertain. Thus a focus on impairment is essential in determining the clinical significance of these behaviors. In order to explore the impact of impairment criteria on rates of diagnoses in…

  14. The Perceived Impact of Teacher Performance Ratings on the Teacher Evaluation Process: Voices from the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was focused on the various perceived impacts created by the expansion to a four-tier teacher performance evaluation rating model which would inform educational leaders in the State of Illinois. By studying the experiences of principals in two other states who previously underwent the same change, Florida and…

  15. The impact of education on subjective discount rate in Ugandan villages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bauer, Michal; Chytilová, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 4 (2010), s. 643-669 ISSN 0013-0079 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Keywords : education * subjective discount rate * rural populations * Uganda Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.392, year: 2010

  16. The impact of height during childhood on the national prevalence rates of overweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dommelen, Paula; De Kroon, Marlou L A; Cameron, Noël; Schon̈beck, Yvonne; Van Buuren, Stef

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is known that height and body mass index (BMI) are correlated in childhood. However, its impact on the (trend of) national prevalence rates of overweight and obesity has never been investigated. The aim of our study is to investigate the relation between height and national prevalence

  17. The impact of height during childhood on the national prevalence rates of overweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommelen, P. van; Kroon, M.L.A. de; Cameron, N.; Schonbeck, Y.; Buuren, S. van

    2014-01-01

    Background It is known that height and body mass index (BMI) are correlated in childhood. However, its impact on the (trend of) national prevalence rates of overweight and obesity has never been investigated. The aim of our study is to investigate the relation between height and national prevalence

  18. Modeling exchange rate volatility in CEEC countries: Impact of global financial and European sovereign debt crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić Siniša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to envisage the impact of global financial (GFC and European sovereign debt crisis (ESDC on foreign exchange markets of emerg- ing countries in Central and Eastern Europe CEEC countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, poland and Serbia. The daily returns of exchange rates on Czech Republic koruna (CZK, Hungarian forint (HuF, Romanian lea (RoL, polish zloty (pLZ and Serbian dinar (RSD, all against the Euro are analyzed during the period from 3rd January 2000 to15th April 2013, in respect. To examine the impact of global financial crisis and European sovereign debt crisis, dummy variables were adopted. overall results imply that global financial crisis has no impact on exchange rate returns in selected CEEC countries, while European sovereign debt crisis inf luencing in depreciation of polish zloty by 8% and Roma- nian lea by 6%. obtained results by our calculation, imply that global financial crisis increased enhanced volatility on exchange rate returns of Czech koruna, Romanian lea and polish zloty. Moreover, results of empirical analysis imply that this impact has the strongest inf luence in volatility on exchange rate returns of polish zloty.

  19. Beyond reduced-impact logging: silvicultural treatments to increase growth rates of tropical trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peña-Claros, M.; Fredericksen, T.S.; Alarcón, A.; Blate, G.M.; Choque, U.; Leaño, C.; Licona, J.C.; Mostacedo, B.; Pariona, W.; Villegas, Z.; Putz, F.E.

    2008-01-01

    Use of reduced-impact logging (RIL) techniques has repeatedly been shown to reduce damage caused by logging. Unfortunately, these techniques do not necessarily ameliorate the low growth rates of many commercial species or otherwise assure recovery of the initial volume harvested during the next

  20. Impacts of Exchange Rate Regime Choice on Macroeconomic Performance in Emerging Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüstem Yanar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of exchange rate regime choice on macroeconomic performance after Bretton Woods in emerging market countries. It is studied especially inflation, growth and financial crises. It’s found that for emerging market countries, fixed regimes are associated with lower inflation than floats. On growth effect of exchange rate regime choice is not same all period. Fixed regimes are associated with faster growth but after 1990 fixed regimes brought about slower growth. At the same time, fixed exchange rate regimes are associated with financial fragility after 1990 in emerging markets

  1. Evaluating the Impact of Prescription Fill Rates on Risk Stratification Model Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsien-Yen; Richards, Thomas M; Shermock, Kenneth M; Elder Dalpoas, Stacy; J Kan, Hong; Alexander, G Caleb; Weiner, Jonathan P; Kharrazi, Hadi

    2017-12-01

    Risk adjustment models are traditionally derived from administrative claims. Prescription fill rates-extracted by comparing electronic health record prescriptions and pharmacy claims fills-represent a novel measure of medication adherence and may improve the performance of risk adjustment models. We evaluated the impact of prescription fill rates on claims-based risk adjustment models in predicting both concurrent and prospective costs and utilization. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 43,097 primary care patients from HealthPartners network between 2011 and 2012. Diagnosis and/or pharmacy claims of 2011 were used to build 3 base models using the Johns Hopkins ACG system, in addition to demographics. Model performances were compared before and after adding 3 types of prescription fill rates: primary 0-7 days, primary 0-30 days, and overall. Overall fill rates utilized all ordered prescriptions from electronic health record while primary fill rates excluded refill orders. The overall, primary 0-7, and 0-30 days fill rates were 72.30%, 59.82%, and 67.33%. The fill rates were similar between sexes but varied across different medication classifications, whereas the youngest had the highest rate. Adding fill rates modestly improved the performance of all models in explaining medical costs (improving concurrent R by 1.15% to 2.07%), followed by total costs (0.58% to 1.43%), and pharmacy costs (0.07% to 0.65%). The impact was greater for concurrent costs compared with prospective costs. Base models without diagnosis information showed the highest improvement using prescription fill rates. Prescription fill rates can modestly enhance claims-based risk prediction models; however, population-level improvements in predicting utilization are limited.

  2. Jet Vertex Charge Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Nektarijevic, Snezana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A newly developed algorithm called the jet vertex charge tagger, aimed at identifying the sign of the charge of jets containing $b$-hadrons, referred to as $b$-jets, is presented. In addition to the well established track-based jet charge determination, this algorithm introduces the so-called \\emph{jet vertex charge} reconstruction, which exploits the charge information associated to the displaced vertices within the jet. Furthermore, the charge of a soft muon contained in the jet is taken into account when available. All available information is combined into a multivariate discriminator. The algorithm has been developed on jets matched to generator level $b$-hadrons provided by $t\\bar{t}$ events simulated at $\\sqrt{s}$=13~TeV using the full ATLAS detector simulation and reconstruction.

  3. Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on the Unemployment Rate in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhd Irpan, Hamidah; Mat Saad, Rosfadzimi; Nor, Abu Hassan Shaari Md; Noor, Abd Halim Md; Ibrahim, Noorazilah

    2016-04-01

    Malaysia as a developing country needs support from other countries for economic growth. This is done by receiving massive foreign direct investment (FDI) which contributes to a higher employment rate. Higher employment leads to a better living among Malaysians while increasing its gross domestic product (GDP). During 2009, Malaysia faced a downward trend on the FDI. In many studies, decreasing FDI affects employment rate significantly. This study focuses on the impact of FDI on employment rate in Malaysia. Other factors such as the number of foreign workers, gross domestic product (GDP) and exchange rate (EXCR) are also included in the study. Data used in the study is annual data spanning from 1980 to 2012. Autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model is used to determine the long run relationship between the variables. The study finds that FDI, number of foreign workers, and GDP significantly influence the unemployment rate in Malaysia.

  4. THE IMPACT OF BASEL III ADOPTION BY G20 MEMBERS ON THEIR CREDIT RATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Kalloub

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the effect of Basel III standards adoption made by 27 countries included in Basel III adoption reports (including G20 group members on their credit rating. In addition, the study tests the impact of some macroeconomic variables on sovereign credit rating. The data are obtained from BCBS semi-annual adoption reports, along with other macroeconomic indicators published by IMF and World Bank; however, the basic indicator for credit rating is Standard &Poor’s credit rating. The period under the study is between 2011 and 2016. The results of the analysis show that there is a strong statistical significant positive effect of Basel III standards on 27 countries’ credit rating.

  5. Dissemination of the CDC's Hand Hygiene Guideline and impact on infection rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Elaine L; Quiros, Dave; Lin, Susan X

    2007-12-01

    The diffusion of national evidence-based practice guidelines and their impact on patient outcomes often go unmeasured. Our objectives were to (1) evaluate implementation and compliance with clinical practices recommended in the new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Hand Hygiene Guideline, (2) compare rates of health care-associated infections (HAI) before and after implementation of the Guideline recommendations, and (3) examine the patterns and correlates of changes in rates of HAI. We used pre- and post-Guideline implementation site visits and surveys in the setting of 40 US hospitals--members of the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System--and measured HAI rates 1 year before and after publication of the CDC Guideline and used direct observation of hand hygiene compliance and Guideline implementation scores. All study hospitals had changed their policies and procedures and provided products in compliance with Guideline recommendations; 89.8% of 1359 staff members surveyed anonymously reported that they were familiar with the Guideline. However, in 44.2% of the hospitals (19/40), there was no evidence of a multidisciplinary program to improve compliance. Hand hygiene rates remained low (mean, 56.6%). Rates of central line-associated bloodstream infections were significantly lower in hospitals with higher rates of hand hygiene (P hand hygiene compliance on other HAI rates was identified. Other factors occurring over time could affect rates of HAI. Observed hand hygiene compliance rates were likely to overestimate rates in actual practice. The study may have been of too short duration to detect the impact of a practice guideline. Wide dissemination of this Guideline was not sufficient to change practice. Only some hospitals had initiated multidisciplinary programs; practice change is unlikely without such multidisciplinary efforts and explicit administrative support.

  6. Jet physics at the LHC with ALICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsch, A.

    2005-01-01

    In central Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC, jet rates are expected to be high at energies at which ALICE can reconstruct jets over the background of the underlying event. This will open the possibility to quantify the effect of partonic energy loss through medium induced gluon radiation, jet quenching, by detailed measurement of the modification of the longitudinal and transverse structure of identified jets. In order to obtain probes sensitive to the properties of the QCD medium, it is mandatory to measure the high-p T parton fragments together with the low-p T particles from the radiated gluons. Hence, the excellent charged particle tracking capabilities of ALICE combined with the proposed electromagnetic calorimeter for ALICE, EMCAL, represent an ideal tool for jet quenching studies at the LHC. (orig.)

  7. Delving into QCD jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, K.

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses, in an introductory fashion, the latest developments in the study of hadronic jets produced in hard processes, based on perturbative QCD. Emphasis is on jet calculus (and its applications and generalizations), and on the appearance of a parton-like consistent, over-all picture of jet evolution in momentum, colour, and real space-time. (Auth.)

  8. Role & Impact of Interest Rate in Jordan’ Economy from Points of View of Banking Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REEM SAHER alaraj

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed at investigating the role, impact and determinants of interest rate in Jordanian economy from view points of banking managers in Jordan. The methodology is descriptive and analytical using mean, standard deviation, t-test and percentages as statistical tools. The study concluded that the role of interest rate in Jordanian monetary policy is restricted by two factors: pegging JD with US$ which limits the effective role of interest rate in Jordanian monetary policy and the dual banking system of traditional and Islamic banks where Islamic banks do not deal with Interest rate. Raising interest rate in Jordan caused higher cost of credit for companies, less competitiveness of exports, less liquidity in the economy, higher profit margin for banks, higher exchange rate of JD and higher inflation. Nevertheless, lowering interest rate in Jordan caused lower cost of borrowing, higher liquidity, better competitiveness of exports and more credit facilities by banks but inflation was much lower. Moreover, the study concluded the determinants of interest rate in Jordan are money supply, demand for money, inflation and economic conditions. In order to have an effective role for interest rate in monetary policy, the researcher recommends pegging JD to a basket of currencies.

  9. Multiscale Investigation on Biofilm Distribution and Its Impact on Macroscopic Biogeochemical Reaction Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhifeng; Liu, Chongxuan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Bailey, Vanessa L.

    2017-11-01

    Biofilms are critical locations for biogeochemical reactions in the subsurface environment. The occurrence and distribution of biofilms at microscale as well as their impacts on macroscopic biogeochemical reaction rates are still poorly understood. This paper investigated the formation and distributions of biofilms in heterogeneous sediments using multiscale models and evaluated the effects of biofilm heterogeneity on local and macroscopic biogeochemical reaction rates. Sediment pore structures derived from X-ray computed tomography were used to simulate the microscale flow dynamics and biofilm distribution in the sediment column. The response of biofilm formation and distribution to the variations in hydraulic and chemical properties was first examined. One representative biofilm distribution was then utilized to evaluate its effects on macroscopic reaction rates using nitrate reduction as an example. The results revealed that microorganisms primarily grew on the surfaces of grains and aggregates near preferential flow paths where both electron donor and acceptor were readily accessible, leading to the heterogeneous distribution of biofilms in the sediments. The heterogeneous biofilm distribution decreased the macroscopic rate of biogeochemical reactions as compared with those in homogeneous cases. Operationally considering the heterogeneous biofilm distribution in macroscopic reactive transport models such as using dual porosity domain concept can significantly improve the prediction of biogeochemical reaction rates. Overall, this study provided important insights into the biofilm formation and distribution in soils and sediments as well as their impacts on the macroscopic manifestation of reaction rates.

  10. Impact of exchange rate depreciation on the balance of payments: Empirical evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Iyoboyi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the impact of exchange rate depreciation on the balance of payments (BOP in Nigeria over the period 1961–2012. The analysis is based on a multivariate vector error correction framework. A long-term equilibrium relationship was found between BOP, exchange rate and other associated variables. The empirical results are in favour of bidirectional causality between BOP and other variables employed. Results of the generalized impulse response functions suggest that one standard deviation innovation on exchange rate reduces positive BOP in the medium and long term, while results of the variance decomposition indicate that a significant variation in Nigeria’s BOP is not due to changes in exchange rate movements. The policy implication is that exchange rate depreciation which has been preponderant in Nigeria since the mid-1980s has not been very useful in promoting the country’s positive BOP. It is recommended that growth in the real sector should be improved to enhance exports, create employment, curb inflation and reduce poverty, while cutting non-productive imports, attracting foreign private investment and implementing well coordinated macroeconomic policies that impact inflation positively and stimulate exchange rate stability.

  11. Impact of Oil Price Shocks and Exchange Rate Volatility on Stock Market Behavior in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adedoyin I. Lawal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of exchange rate and oil prices fluctuation on the stock market has been a subject of hot debate among researchers. This study examined the impact of both the exchange rate volatility and oil price volatility on stock market volatility in Nigeria, so as to guide policy formulation based on the fact that the nation’s economy was foreign induced and mono-cultured with heavy dependence on oil. EGARCH estimation techniques were employed to examine if either the volatility in exchange rate, oil price volatility or both experts on stock market volatility in Nigeria. The result shows that share price volatility is induced by both the exchange rate volatility and oil price volatility. Thus, it is recommended that policymakers should pursue policies that tend to stabilize the exchange rate regime on the one hand, and guarantee the net oil exporting position for the economy, that market practitioners should formulate portfolio strategies in such a way that volatility in both exchange rates and oil price will be factored in time when investment decisions are being made.

  12. Liquid jets for experiments on complex fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinke, Ingo

    2015-02-01

    The ability of modern storage rings and free-electron lasers to produce intense X-ray beams that can be focused down to μm and nm sizes offers the possibility to study soft condensed matter systems on small length and short time scales. Gas dynamic virtual nozzles (GDVN) offer the unique possibility to investigate complex fluids spatially confined in a μm sized liquid jet with high flow rates, high pressures and shear stress distributions. In this thesis two different applications of liquid jet injection systems have been studied. The influence of the shear flow present in a liquid jet on colloidal dispersions was investigated via small angle X-ray scattering and a coherent wide angle X-ray scattering experiment on a liquid water jet was performed. For these purposes, liquid jet setups that are capable for X-ray scattering experiments have been developed and the manufacturing of gas dynamic virtual nozzles was realized. The flow properties of a liquid jet and their influences on the liquid were studied with two different colloidal dispersions at beamline P10 at the storage ring PETRA III. The results show that high shear flows present in a liquid jet lead to compressions and expansions of the particle structure and to particle alignments. The shear rate in the used liquid jet could be estimated to γ ≥ 5.4 . 10 4 Hz. The feasibility of rheology studies with a liquid jet injection system and the combined advantages is discussed. The coherent X-ray scattering experiment on a water jet was performed at the XCS instrument at the free-electron laser LCLS. First coherent single shot diffraction patterns from water were taken to investigate the feasibility of measuring speckle patterns from water.

  13. The impact of child welfare legislation on domestic violence-related homicide rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Kabir; Pacheco, Gail

    2018-05-01

    State-specific statutes providing legal consequences for perpetrating domestic violence in the presence of a child have been enacted across the United States between 1996 and 2012. This paper examines the impact of this child welfare legislation, using a difference-in-differences approach. We find a significant drop in domestic violence-related homicide rates, when considering a wide range of victim-offender relationships. However, this result does not hold for marital homicides, suggesting that for this subpopulation, the risk of reprisal and consequent reduction in reporting may be counterbalancing the hypothesized deterrent impacts of the legislation. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Sound-Intensity Feedback During Running Reduces Loading Rates and Impact Peak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Jeremiah J; Milner, Clare E

    2017-08-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study, within-session design. Background Gait retraining has been proposed as an effective intervention to reduce impact loading in runners at risk of stress fractures. Interventions that can be easily implemented in the clinic are needed. Objective To assess the immediate effects of sound-intensity feedback related to impact during running on vertical impact peak, peak vertical instantaneous loading rate, and vertical average loading rate. Methods Fourteen healthy, college-aged runners who ran at least 9.7 km/wk participated (4 male, 10 female; mean ± SD age, 23.7 ± 2.0 years; height, 1.67 ± 0.08 m; mass, 60.9 ± 8.7 kg). A decibel meter provided real-time sound-intensity feedback of treadmill running via an iPad application. Participants were asked to reduce the sound intensity of running while receiving continuous feedback for 15 minutes, while running at their self-selected preferred speed. Baseline and follow-up ground reaction force data were collected during overground running at participants' self-selected preferred running speed. Results Dependent t tests indicated a statistically significant reduction in vertical impact peak (1.56 BW to 1.13 BW, P≤.001), vertical instantaneous loading rate (95.48 BW/s to 62.79 BW/s, P = .001), and vertical average loading rate (69.09 BW/s to 43.91 BW/s, P≤.001) after gait retraining, compared to baseline. Conclusion The results of the current study support the use of sound-intensity feedback during treadmill running to immediately reduce loading rate and impact force. The transfer of within-session reductions in impact peak and loading rates to overground running was demonstrated. Decreases in loading were of comparable magnitude to those observed in other gait retraining methods. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(8):565-569. Epub 6 Jul 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7275.

  15. Strain rate dependency of bovine trabecular bone under impact loading at sideways fall velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns-Bray, William S; Ferguson, Stephen J; Helgason, Benedikt

    2018-05-03

    There is currently a knowledge gap in scientific literature concerning the strain rate dependent properties of trabecular bone at intermediate strain rates. Meanwhile, strain rates between 10 and 200/s have been observed in previous dynamic finite element models of the proximal femur loaded at realistic sideways fall speeds. This study aimed to quantify the effect of strain rate (ε̇) on modulus of elasticity (E), ultimate stress (σ u ), failure energy (U f ), and minimum stress (σ m ) of trabecular bone in order to improve the biofidelity of material properties used in dynamic simulations of sideways fall loading on the hip. Cylindrical cores of trabecular bone (D = 8 mm, L gauge  = 16 mm, n = 34) from bovine proximal tibiae and distal femurs were scanned in µCT (10 µm), quantifying apparent density (ρ app ) and degree of anisotropy (DA), and subsequently impacted within a miniature drop tower. Force of impact was measured using a piezoelectric load cell (400 kHz), while displacement during compression was measured from high speed video (50,000 frames/s). Four groups, with similar density distributions, were loaded at different impact velocities (0.84, 1.33, 1.75, and 2.16 m/s) with constant kinetic energy (0.4 J) by adjusting the impact mass. The mean strain rates of each group were significantly different (p < 0.05) except for the two fastest impact speeds (p = 0.09). Non-linear regression models correlated strain rate, DA, and ρ app with ultimate stress (R 2  = 0.76), elastic modulus (R 2  = 0.63), failure energy (R 2  = 0.38), and minimum stress (R 2  = 0.57). These results indicate that previous estimates of σ u could be under predicting the mechanical properties at strain rates above 10/s. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Elevated rates of organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus accumulation in a highly impacted mangrove wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Christian J.; Eyre, Bradley D.; Santos, Isaac R.; Machado, Wilson; Luiz-Silva, Wanilson; Smoak, Joseph M.; Breithaupt, Joshua L.; Ketterer, Michael E.; Sanders, Luciana; Marotta, Humberto; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel

    2014-04-01

    The effect of nutrient enrichment on mangrove sediment accretion and carbon accumulation rates is poorly understood. Here we quantify sediment accretion through radionuclide tracers to determine organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) accumulation rates during the previous 60 years in both a nutrient-enriched and a pristine mangrove forest within the same geomorphological region of southeastern Brazil. The forest receiving high nutrient loads has accumulated OC, TN, and TP at rates that are fourfold, twofold, and eightfold respectively, higher than those from the undisturbed mangrove. Organic carbon and TN stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) reflect an increased presence of organic matter (OM) originating with either phytoplankton, benthic algae, or another allochthonous source within the more rapidly accumulated sediments of the impacted mangrove. This suggests that the accumulation rate of OM in eutrophic mangrove systems may be enhanced through the addition of autochthonous and allochthonous nonmangrove material.

  17. Impact of standard rate of VAT on tax mix in EU 27

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Šinkyříková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Value Added Tax (VAT is one of the key resources within tax collection and therefore VAT effectiveness and VAT complexity represent one of the current world topics. Standard rates of VAT may and may not be the simple key to define whether VAT is important in the tax mix or not. This paper focuses on the question whether the amount of the VAT rate has an impact on the share of VAT in the tax mix. The VAT share on total taxes is studied in connection of average and median standard rates applied so as to answer the question: “Do the countries with higher share of VAT in the tax mix set its standard rates of VAT beyond the average of EU 27?” The paper examines this issue using data EU member countries, especially EU 27, in years 1995–2010.

  18. Impinging jets controlled by fluidic input signal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav; Trávníček, Zdeněk; Peszyński, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 249, October (2016), s. 85-92 ISSN 0924-4247 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23046S; GA ČR GA14-08888S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : fluidics * jets * impinging jets * coanda effect Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.499, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924424716303880

  19. Quasi-Similarity Model of Synthetic Jets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav; Kordík, Jozef

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 2 (2009), s. 255-265 ISSN 0924-4247 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760705; GA ČR GA101/07/1499 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : jets * synthetic jets * similarity solution Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.674, year: 2009 http://www.sciencedirect.com

  20. Suicide epidemics: the impact of newly emerging methods on overall suicide rates - a time trends study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Shu-Sen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of newly emerging, popular suicide methods on overall rates of suicide has not previously been investigated systematically. Understanding these effects may have important implications for public health surveillance. We examine the emergence of three novel methods of suicide by gassing in the 20th and 21st centuries and determine the impact of emerging methods on overall suicide rates. Methods We studied the epidemic rises in domestic coal gas (1919-1935, England and Wales, motor vehicle exhaust gas (1975-1992, England and Wales and barbecue charcoal gas (1999-2006, Taiwan suicide using Poisson and joinpoint regression models. Joinpoint regression uses contiguous linear segments and join points (points at which trends change to describe trends in incidence. Results Epidemic increases in the use of new methods of suicide were generally associated with rises in overall suicide rates of between 23% and 71%. The recent epidemic of barbecue charcoal suicides in Taiwan was associated with the largest rise in overall rates (40-50% annual rise, whereas the smallest rise was seen for car exhaust gassing in England and Wales (7% annual rise. Joinpoint analyses were only feasible for car exhaust and charcoal burning suicides; these suggested an impact of the emergence of car exhaust suicides on overall suicide rates in both sexes in England and Wales. However there was no statistical evidence of a change in the already increasing overall suicide trends when charcoal burning suicides emerged in Taiwan, possibly due to the concurrent economic recession. Conclusions Rapid rises in the use of new sources of gas for suicide were generally associated with increases in overall suicide rates. Suicide prevention strategies should include strengthening local and national surveillance for early detection of novel suicide methods and implementation of effective media guidelines and other appropriate interventions to limit the spread of

  1. Advanced Modified High Performance Synthetic Jet Actuator with Curved Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The advanced modified high performance synthetic jet actuator with optimized curvature shape chamber (ASJA-M) is a synthetic jet actuator (SJA) with a lower volume reservoir or chamber. A curved chamber is used, instead of the conventional cylinder chamber, to reduce the dead volume of the jet chamber and increase the efficiency of the synthetic jet actuator. The shape of the curvature corresponds to the maximum displacement (deformation) profile of the electroactive diaphragm. The jet velocity and mass flow rate for the ASJA-M will be several times higher than conventional piezoelectric actuators.

  2. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.; Lallia, P.; O'Hara, G.W.; Pollard, I.E.

    1987-06-01

    The paper presents the annual report of the Joint European Torus (JET) Joint Undertaking, 1986. The report is divided into two parts: a part on the scientific and technical programme of the project, and a part setting out the administration and organisation of the Project. The first part includes: a summary of the main features of the JET apparatus, the JET experimental programme, the position of the Project in the overall Euratom programme, and how JET relates to other large fusion devices throughout the world. In addition, the technical status of JET is described, as well as the results of the JET operations in 1986. The final section of the first part outlines the proposed future programme of JET. (U.K.)

  3. Jet substructure in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, David W

    2011-01-01

    Measurements are presented of the jet invariant mass and substructure in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV with the ATLAS detector using an integrated luminosity of 37 pb$^{-1}$. These results exercise the tools for distinguishing the signatures of new boosted massive particles in the hadronic final state. Two "fat" jet algorithms are used, along with the filtering jet grooming technique that was pioneered in ATLAS. New jet substructure observables are compared for the first time to data at the LHC. Finally, a sample of candidate boosted top quark events collected in the 2010 data is analyzed in detail for the jet substructure properties of hadronic "top-jets" in the final state. These measurements demonstrate not only our excellent understanding of QCD in a new energy regime but open the path to using complex jet substructure observables in the search for new physics.

  4. The Impact of the Source of Alkali on Sludge Batch 3 Melt Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M

    2005-01-01

    Previous Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) melt rate tests in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) have indicated that improvements in melt rate can be achieved through an increase in the total alkali of the melter feed. Higher alkali can be attained by the use of an ''underwashed'' sludge, a high alkali frit, or a combination of the two. Although the general trend between melt rate and total alkali (in particular Na 2 O content) has been demonstrated, the question of ''does the source of alkali (SOA) matter?'' still exists. Therefore the purpose of this set of tests was to determine if the source of alkali (frit versus sludge) can impact melt rate. The general test concept was to transition from a Na 2 O-rich frit to a Na 2 O-deficient frit while compensating the Na 2 O content in the sludge to maintain the same overall Na 2 O content in the melter feed. Specifically, the strategy was to vary the amount of alkali in frits and in the sludge batch 3 (SB3) sludge simulant (midpoint or baseline feed was SB3/Frit 418 at 35% waste loading) so that the resultant feeds had the same final glass composition when vitrified. A set of SOA feeds using frits ranging from 0 to 16 weight % Na 2 O (in 4% increments) was first tested in the Melt Rate Furnace (MRF) to determine if indeed there was an impact. The dry-fed MRF tests indicated that if the alkali is too depleted from either the sludge (16% Na 2 O feed) or the frit (the 0% Na 2 O feed), then melt rate was negatively impacted when compared to the baseline SB3/Frit 418 feed currently being processed at DWPF. The MRF melt rates for the 4 and 12% SOA feeds were similar to the baseline SB3/Frit 418 (8% SOA) feed. Due to this finding, a smaller subset of SOA feeds that could be processed in the DWPF (4 and 12% SOA feeds) was then tested in the Slurry-fed Melt Rate Furnace (SMRF). The results from a previous SMRF test with SB3/Frit 418 (Smith et al. 2004) were used as the SMRF melt rate of the baseline

  5. Eloquence is The Key – the Impact of Monetary Policy Speeches on Exchange Rate Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Cantemir Călin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last years the monetary policy initiatives of the main central banks have been profoundly influenced by quantitative easing (QE. Blessing, curse, effective instruments or a simple fad, these unconventional measures have occupied the center stage of academic and public attention. In this context, this paper focuses on a wide set of public speeches delivered by officials belonging to the most relevant central banks. These statements cover a large pallet of topics including areas such as QE, tapering, financial stability, unemployment or interest rates. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact that these speeches have on the volatility of exchange rates. For this purpose, the methodology relies on an econometric event study that incorporates three volatility models and intraday five-minute frequencies. The results indicate the fact that public statements have a clear, evident, significant and robust impact on the observed assets.

  6. Methodology for assessing the impacts of alternative rate designs on industrial energy use. Draft report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-11

    A task was undertaken to develop a method for analyzing industrial user responses to alternative rate designs. The method described considers the fuel switching and conservation responses of industrial users and the impact to a hypothetical utility regarding revenue stability, annual gas demand, and seasonal fluctuations. Twenty-seven hypothetical industrial plant types have been specified. For each combustor in the plant, the fuel consumption by season, initial fuel type, fuel switching costs, conservation costs, and amount of fuel conservable is provided. The decision making takes place at the plant level and is aggregated to determine the impact to the utility. Section 2 discusses the factors affecting an industrial user's response to alternative rate designs. Section 3 describes the methodology, includes an overview of the model and an example industrial user's response to a set of fuel prices. The data describing the 27 hypothetical firms is in an appendix.

  7. Interaction of a hot jet with two cold side jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouali Nassira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spreading of the multijet in terms of both the velocity and temperature field depends strongly on the flow type related to the velocity and temperature ratios between the cold side jets to the hot central one. This is the reason why the present work focuses on numerical investigation of non isothermal three parallel non-ventilated turbulent plane jets. As well, it seems natural to pick as reference the available experimental data. The numerical predictions confirm the three types (A, B, C of flow patterns given by the available flow visualization and reveal a fourth that will be called type D. The purpose of the present study is to explore the effect of the velocity ratio on the decay rates of the velocity and temperature in the fully developed region. It is found that the addition of side jets increase the rate of decrease of the centerline velocity for the flow of type A and decreases in the other cases. The effect of various types of flow on the rate of decrease of the velocity and the temperature in the fully developed flow region are investigated in details: This led to establish several correlations of the rate of decrease that play an important role in the diffusion of momentum and temperature.

  8. The time aspect of bioenergy. Climate impacts of bioenergy due to differences in carbon uptake rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zetterberg, Lars [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Chen, Deliang [Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    This paper investigates the climate impacts from bioenergy due to how they influence carbon stocks over time and more specifically how fast combustion related carbon emissions are compensated by uptake of atmospheric carbon. A set of fuel types representing different uptake rates are investigated, namely willow, branches and tops, stumps and coal. Net emissions are defined as emissions from utilizing the fuel minus emissions from a reference case of no utilisation. In the case of forest residues, the compensating 'uptake' is avoided emissions from the reference case of leaving the residues to decompose on the ground. Climate impacts are estimated using the measures radiative forcing and global average surface temperature, which have been calculated by an energy balance climate model. We conclude that there is a climate impact from using bioenergy due to how fast the emission pulse is compensated by uptake of atmospheric carbon (or avoided emissions). Biofuels with slower uptake rates have a stronger climate impact than fuels with a faster uptake rate, assuming all other parameters equal. The time perspective over which the analysis is done is crucial for the climate impact of biofuels. If only biogenic fluxes are considered, our results show that over a 100 year perspective branches and tops are better for climate mitigation than stumps which in turn are better than coal. Over a 20 year time perspective this conclusion holds, but the differences between these fuels are relatively smaller. Establishing willow on earlier crop land may reduce atmospheric carbon, provided new land is available. However, these results are inconclusive since we haven't considered the effects, if needed, of producing the traditional agricultural crops elsewhere. The analysis is not a life cycle assessment of different fuels and does therefore not consider the use of fossil fuels for logging, transportation and refining, other greenhouse gases than carbon or energy

  9. Impact of Total, Internal and External Government Debt on Interest Rate in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Perveen, Asma; Munir, Kashif

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine impact of total, internal and external government debt on nominal interest rate in Pakistan. To attain these objectives, the study used annual time series data from 1973 to 2016. The study used loanable fund theory as theoretical model and ARDL bound testing approach for cointegration and Granger causality test to estimate the results. The results of the study found negative relation between total government debt, external debt and nominal interest rat...

  10. Jets with ALICE: from vacuum to high-temperature QCD

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    ALICE measures jets in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions to study modifications of the jet fragmentation due to cold nuclear and hot QCD matter. In pp collisions ALICE has measured inclusive jet yields, the ratio of yields with different resolution R, a variety of jet shapes and the semi-inclusive rate of jets recoiling against a high transverse momentum hadron trigger. These measurements are compared to NLO calculations including hadronization corrections and to MC models. Jets in pp are primarily conceived as a vacuum reference for jet observables in p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions. In p-Pb collisions ALICE explores cold nuclear matter effects on jet yields, jet fragmentation and dijet acoplanarity. The hot and dense medium created in heavy-ion collisions is expected to modify the fragmentation of high energy partonic projectiles leading to changes in the energy and structure of the reconstructed jets with respect to pp jets. The study of modified jets aims at understanding the detailed mechanisms of in-medium energy...

  11. Self-citation rate and impact factor in the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Shimpei

    2018-02-01

    Journal ranking based on the impact factor (IF) can be distorted by self-citation. The aim of this study is to investigate the present status of self-citation in the plastic surgery journals and its effect on the journals' IFs. IF, IF without self-citations (corrected IF), self-cited rate, and self-citing rate for 11 plastic surgery journals were investigated from 2009-2015, by reviewing the Journal Citation Report ® . The correlations of the IF with the self-cited rate and the self-citing rate were statistically assessed. In addition, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery was compared with 15 top journals from other surgical specialties in 2015. IF was significantly correlated with the self-cited rate (R: 0.594, p = 0.001) and the self-citing rate (R: 0.824, p citation rate positively affects the IF in plastic surgery journals. A high concentration of self-citation of some journals could distort the ranking among plastic surgery journals in general.

  12. The impact of retail rate structures on the economics of commercial photovoltaic systems in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the impact of retail electricity rate design on the economic value of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, focusing on commercial customers in California. Using 15-min interval building load and PV production data from a sample of 24 actual commercial PV installations, we compare the value of the bill savings across 20 commercial-customer retail electricity rates currently offered in the state. Across all combinations of customers and rates, we find that the annual bill savings from PV, per kWh generated, ranges from 0.05 to 0.24/kWh. This sizable range in rate-reduction value reflects differences in rate structures, revenue requirements, the size of the PV system relative to building load, and customer load shape. The most significant rate design issue for the value of commercial PV is found to be the percentage of total utility bills recovered through demand charges, though a variety of other factors are also found to be of importance. The value of net metering is found to be substantial, but only when energy from commercial PV systems represents a sizable portion of annual customer load. Though the analysis presented here is specific to California, our general results demonstrate the fundamental importance of retail rate design for the customer-economics of grid-connected, customer-sited PV. (author)

  13. Electron-impact excitation rate-coefficients and polarization of subsequent emission for Ar"+ ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dipti; Srivastava, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Electron impact excitation in Ar"+ ions has been studied by using fully relativistic distorted wave theory. Calculations are performed to obtain the excitation cross-sections and rate-coefficients for the transitions from the ground state 3p"5 (J=3/2) to fine-structure levels of excited states 3p"44s, 3p"44p, 3p"45s, 3p"45p, 3p"43d and 3p"44d. Polarization of the radiation following the excitation has been calculated using the obtained magnetic sub-level cross-sections. Comparison of the present rate-coefficients is also done with the previously reported theoretical results for some unresolved fine structure transitions. - Highlights: • Fully relativistic distorted wave theory has been used to study the excitation of fine-structure states of Ar"+. • We have calculated electron-impact excitation cross-sections for the wide range of incident electron energies. • Electron impact excitation rate-coefficients are calculated as a function of electron temperature. • Polarization of photons emitted following the decay of the excited fine-structure states are also reported.

  14. Turbulent buoyant jets and plumes

    CERN Document Server

    Rodi, Wolfgang

    The Science & Applications of Heat and Mass Transfer: Reports, Reviews, & Computer Programs, Volume 6: Turbulent Buoyant Jets and Plumes focuses on the formation, properties, characteristics, and reactions of turbulent jets and plumes. The selection first offers information on the mechanics of turbulent buoyant jets and plumes and turbulent buoyant jets in shallow fluid layers. Discussions focus on submerged buoyant jets into shallow fluid, horizontal surface or interface jets into shallow layers, fundamental considerations, and turbulent buoyant jets (forced plumes). The manuscript then exami

  15. The exhalant jet of mussels Mytilus edulis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgard, Hans Ulrik; Jørgensen, Bo Hoffmann; Lundgreen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    shell lengths. Here, we present results of a detailed study of fully open mussels Mytilus edulis in terms of filtration rate, exhalant siphon aperture area, jet velocity, gill area and body dry weight, all as a function of shell length (mean +/- SD) over the range 16.0 +/- 0.4 to 82.6 +/- 2.9 mm...... detailed 2-component velocity distributions near the exhalant siphon in 5 planes parallel to the axis of the jet and the major axis of the oval aperture, and hence estimates of momentum and kinetic energy flows in addition to mean velocity. Data obtained on particles inside the exhalant jet of filtered...

  16. JET flywheel generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huart, M.; Sonnerup, L.

    1986-01-01

    Two large vertical shaft flywheel generators each provides the JET device with peak power up to 400 MW and energy up to 2600 MJ per pulse to induce and confine the multi-mega-ampere plasma current. The integrated rotor flywheel consists of a 650 tonne/10 m diameter rim carrying the poles of the machine. The energy is stored kinetically during a 9 min interval of acceleration from half-speed to full-speed and then released during a 20 s long deceleration. A design life of 100 000 cycles at full energy rating was specified. The mechanical design and construction of the generators is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the assessment of the stresses and fatigue life of the rotor system, its dynamic behaviour (rim movement, critical speed and balancing) and on the performance in operation of the large thrust bearing. (author)

  17. Probing medium-induced energy loss with direct jet reconstruction in p+p and Cu+Cu collisions at PHENIX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Y.-S.

    2009-01-01

    We present the application of a new jet reconstruction algorithm that uses a Gaussian filter to locate and reconstruct the jet energy to p+p and heavy ion data from the PHENIX detector. This algorithm is combined with a fake jet rejection scheme that provides efficient jet reconstruction with an acceptable fake rate. We show our first results on the measured jet spectra, and on jet-jet angular correlation in p+p and Cu+Cu collisions.

  18. Impact of Narrative Expressive Writing on Heart Rate, Heart Rate Variability, and Blood Pressure After Marital Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, Kyle J; Allen, John J B; Mehl, Matthias R; Sbarra, David A

    Divorce is a common stressor that is associated with increased risk for poor long-term physical and mental health. Using an experimental design, the current study examined the impact of expressive writing (EW) on average heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV), and blood pressure (BP) 7.5 months later. Participants from a community sample of recently separated adults (N = 109) were assigned to one of three conditions: traditional EW, narrative EW, or a control writing condition, and were assessed three times for an average of 7.5 months. Each study visit included 27 minutes of physiological assessment; the primary outcomes at each assessment were mean-level HR, HRV, BP scores averaged across six different tasks. Participants in the traditional EW condition did not significantly differ from control participants in their later HR, HRV, or BP. However, relative to control participants, those in the narrative EW condition had significantly lower HR (B = -3.41, 95% confidence interval = -5.76 to -1.06, p = .004) and higher HRV 7.5 months later (B = 0.41, 95% confidence interval = 0.16 to 0.74, p = .001). When comparing narrative EW participants to those in the traditional EW and control writing as a single group, these effects remained and were moderately sized, Cohen d values of -0.61 and 0.60, respectively, and durable across all task conditions when analyzed in independent models. The writing condition groups did not differ in their later BP. Narrative EW decreased HR and increased HRV after marital separation but did not affect BP. We discuss the possible disconnect between psychology and physiology in response to EW, as well as possible future clinical applications after marital separation.

  19. A computational study of highly viscous impinging jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.W.

    1998-11-01

    Two commercially-available computational fluid dynamics codes, FIDAP (Fluent, Inc., Lebanon, NH) and FLOW-3D (Flow Science, Inc., Los Alamos, NM), were used to simulate the landing region of jets of highly viscous fluids impinging on flat surfaces. The volume-of-fluid method was combined with finite difference and finite element approaches to predict the jet behavior. Several computational models with varying degrees of physical realism were developed, and the results were compared with experimental observations. In experiments, the jet exhibited several complex behaviors. As soon as it exited the nozzle, the jet began to neck down and become narrower. When it impacted the solid surface, the jet developed an instability near the impact point and buckled to the side. This buckling became a spiraling motion, and the jet spiraled about the impact point. As the jet spiraled around, a cone-shaped pile was build up which eventually became unstable and slumped to the side. While all of these behaviors were occurring, air bubbles, or voids, were being entrapped in the fluid pool. The results obtained from the FLOW-3D models more closely matched the behavior of real jets than the results obtained from /the FIDAP models. Most of the FLOW-3D models predicted all of the significant jet behaviors observed in experiments: necking, buckling, spiraling, slumping, and void entrapment. All of the FIDAP models predicted that the jet would buckle relatively far from the point of impact, whereas the experimentally observed jet behavior indicates that the jets buckle much nearer the impact point. Furthermore, it was shown that FIDAP is incapable of incorporating heat transfer effects into the model, making it unsuitable for this work

  20. A computational study of highly viscous impinging jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1998-11-01

    Two commercially-available computational fluid dynamics codes, FIDAP (Fluent, Inc., Lebanon, NH) and FLOW-3D (Flow Science, Inc., Los Alamos, NM), were used to simulate the landing region of jets of highly viscous fluids impinging on flat surfaces. The volume-of-fluid method was combined with finite difference and finite element approaches to predict the jet behavior. Several computational models with varying degrees of physical realism were developed, and the results were compared with experimental observations. In experiments, the jet exhibited several complex behaviors. As soon as it exited the nozzle, the jet began to neck down and become narrower. When it impacted the solid surface, the jet developed an instability near the impact point and buckled to the side. This buckling became a spiraling motion, and the jet spiraled about the impact point. As the jet spiraled around, a cone-shaped pile was build up which eventually became unstable and slumped to the side. While all of these behaviors were occurring, air bubbles, or voids, were being entrapped in the fluid pool. The results obtained from the FLOW-3D models more closely matched the behavior of real jets than the results obtained from /the FIDAP models. Most of the FLOW-3D models predicted all of the significant jet behaviors observed in experiments: necking, buckling, spiraling, slumping, and void entrapment. All of the FIDAP models predicted that the jet would buckle relatively far from the point of impact, whereas the experimentally observed jet behavior indicates that the jets buckle much nearer the impact point. Furthermore, it was shown that FIDAP is incapable of incorporating heat transfer effects into the model, making it unsuitable for this work.

  1. The Impact of Government Debt Issuance on Short-Term interest rates in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Adiningsih

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes whether the expansionary fiscal policy funded by issuing debt instruments in financial markets will increase short-term interest rates. If  the expansionary fiscal policy increases interest rates, which decrease private spending especially investment, crowding out occurs. This is interesting because global economic crisis has encouraged many countries to run large budget deficits to stimulate the economy. Indonesia has also run budget deficit during this crisis and even in years before. The impact of such a policy can be significant because Indonesia’s debt market is still narrow and shallow. Therefore, its capability of absorbing the government debt instruments without influencing the private sector funding is limited. This study tests whether the crowding out occurs in Indonesia using a time series econometric model inspired by Cebula and Cuellar’s model. The Cointegration Regression and Error Correction Model (ECM are used in this study. Monthly data from April 2000 to December 2008 are used for overnight real interbank call money interest rates, real net government bond issues in trading, real narrow money supply, real rate of one-month Certificate of Bank Indonesia, growth of Gross Domestic Product, and real net international capital flows. This empirical study shows that the crowding out problem occurred in Indonesia during the period. This indicates that financing budget deficit in Indonesia by issuing debt instruments in the financial markets has a negative impact on the private sector.

  2. The impact of rate reduction and increased loudness on fundamental frequency characteristics in dysarthria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Greg

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which articulatory rate reduction and increased loudness were associated with adjustments in utterance-level measures of fundamental frequency (F(0)) variability for speakers with dysarthria and healthy controls that have been shown to impact on intelligibility in previously published studies. More generally, the current study sought to compare and contrast how a slower-than-normal rate and increased vocal loudness impact on a variety of utterance-level F(0) characteristics for speakers with dysarthria and healthy controls. Eleven speakers with Parkinson's disease, 15 speakers with multiple sclerosis, and 14 healthy control speakers were audio recorded while reading a passage in habitual, loud, and slow conditions. Magnitude production was used to elicit variations in rate and loudness. Acoustic measures of duration, intensity and F(0) were obtained. For all speaker groups, a slower-than-normal articulatory rate and increased vocal loudness had distinct effects on F(0) relative to the habitual condition, including a tendency for measures of F(0) variation to be greater in the loud condition and reduced in the slow condition. These results suggest implications for the treatment of dysarthria. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Rate Dependent Multicontinuum Progressive Failure Analysis of Woven Fabric Composite Structures under Dynamic Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Lua

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine composite materials typically exhibit significant rate dependent response characteristics when subjected to extreme dynamic loading conditions. In this work, a strain-rate dependent continuum damage model is incorporated with multicontinuum technology (MCT to predict damage and failure progression for composite material structures. MCT treats the constituents of a woven fabric composite as separate but linked continua, thereby allowing a designer to extract constituent stress/strain information in a structural analysis. The MCT algorithm and material damage model are numerically implemented with the explicit finite element code LS-DYNA3D via a user-defined material model (umat. The effects of the strain-rate hardening model are demonstrated through both simple single element analyses for woven fabric composites and also structural level impact simulations of a composite panel subjected to various impact conditions. Progressive damage at the constituent level is monitored throughout the loading. The results qualitatively illustrate the value of rate dependent material models for marine composite materials under extreme dynamic loading conditions.

  4. Jet Substructure Without Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP

    2011-08-19

    We present an alternative approach to identifying and characterizing jet substructure. An angular correlation function is introduced that can be used to extract angular and mass scales within a jet without reference to a clustering algorithm. This procedure gives rise to a number of useful jet observables. As an application, we construct a top quark tagging algorithm that is competitive with existing methods. In preparation for the LHC, the past several years have seen extensive work on various aspects of collider searches. With the excellent resolution of the ATLAS and CMS detectors as a catalyst, one area that has undergone significant development is jet substructure physics. The use of jet substructure techniques, which probe the fine-grained details of how energy is distributed in jets, has two broad goals. First, measuring more than just the bulk properties of jets allows for additional probes of QCD. For example, jet substructure measurements can be compared against precision perturbative QCD calculations or used to tune Monte Carlo event generators. Second, jet substructure allows for additional handles in event discrimination. These handles could play an important role at the LHC in discriminating between signal and background events in a wide variety of particle searches. For example, Monte Carlo studies indicate that jet substructure techniques allow for efficient reconstruction of boosted heavy objects such as the W{sup {+-}} and Z{sup 0} gauge bosons, the top quark, and the Higgs boson.

  5. Jet quenching at ALICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    RHIC results on leading hadron suppression indicate that the jets produced in hard processes are strongly quenched by the dense medium created in heavy ion collisions. Most of the energy lost by the leading parton remains within the jet cone, but several questions on the medium modification of the jet structure have not been addressed. These include the longitudinal and transverse structures of the quenched jet, the associated radiation observables, and the dependence on the parton flavor. These topics will be studied by ALICE thanks to both the robustness of its tracking and the charged particle identification system. Large medium effects are expected in both the low pt and in the high pt regions. To make ALICE better suited for jet physics, the performances on high p t particles and jets can be significantly improved by completing the present set-up with a large Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EmCal). This will significantly improve the resolution on the jet energy and on the particle composition (with the detection of both charged and neutral particles). It will also allow to calibrate the jet energy by measuring the high energy photon emitted in the opposite direction. EmCal will be used to trigger on the jet energy itself, thus allowing a significant improvement of the statistics achievable for jets of high energy. Finally, due too both the γ/π 0 and the electron/hadron discrimination, EmCal will enhance the ALICE capabilities at high p t for direct photons and heavy quarks measurements

  6. Alternative aviation jet fuel sustainability evaluation report - task 3 : sustainability criteria and rating systems for the use in aircraft alternative fuel supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-31

    This report identifies criteria that can be used to evaluate the sustainability of biofuels introduced into the aviation fuel supply chain. It describes the inputs, criteria and outputs that can be used in a sustainability rating system. It identifie...

  7. New Jet Substructure Techniques at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Swiatlowski, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Q-jets technique introduces the idea of interpreting jets through multiple sets of possible showering histories. This approach allows jet observables, such as the jet mass, to be evaluated not simply as single values, but rather as distributions. The resulting distributions can be interpreted statistically to form new observables, allowing the separation of boosted, hadronically-decaying particles from light quark and gluon backgrounds. We present a study of Q-jets in boosted, hadronically-decaying $W$ boson and dijet samples, demonstrating the discriminating power of this technique. Different Q-jet parameters and observables are studied, and an optimal configuration based on physics performance and computational efficiency is proposed, leading to a factor of 15 in dijet rejection at a 50\\% efficiency for jets from boosted, hadronically decaying $W$ bosons. The impact of pile-up on the performance of this method is tested up to an average of 40 additional interactions per event and found to be weak. A per...

  8. Impact of window decrement rate on TCP performance in an adhoc network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Hutasuhut, Arief T. W.; Badra, Khaldun; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Transmission control protocol (TCP) is a reliable transport protocol handling end to end connection in TCP/IP stack. It works well in copper or optical fibre link, but experiences increasing delay in wireless network. Further, TCP experiences multiple retransmissions due to higher collision probability within wireless network. The situation may get worsen in an ad hoc network. This paper examines the impact half window or window reduction rate to the overall TCP performances. The evaluation using NS-2 simulator shows that the smaller the window decrement rate results the smaller end to end delay. Delay is reduced to 17.05% in average when window decrement rate decreases. Average jitter also decreases 4.15%, while packet loss is not affected.

  9. The impact of the total tax rate reduction on public services provided in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina TRANDAFIR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of economic globalization, governments tend to take tax measures disadvantageous to society in order to increase the attractiveness of the business environment. A common measures for this purpose is the reduction in tax rate. According to the classical theory of tax competition such measure leads to under the provision of public goods. This article aims to show, through an econometric analysis, whether in Romania, in the period 2006-2013, reducing total tax rate had a negative impact on public services. For this, using linear regression technique, the article analysed the correlation between total tax rate and the variation in the share of the main public service spending in GDP.

  10. The Impact of Reviews and Average Rating on Hotel-Booking-Intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Line Thomassen; Jensen, Charlotte Thodberg; Jessen, Anne Mette Karnøe

    2016-01-01

    User-generated information types (ratings and reviews) are highly used when booking hotel rooms on Online Travel Agency (OTA) websites. The impact of user-generated information on decision-making is often investigated through quantitative research, thereby not examining in depth how and why...... website followed by an interview. We processed the data from the interview, and the analysis resulted in a model generalizing the use of reviews and average rating in the deliberation phase of a hotel-booking. The findings are overall consistent with related research. Yet, beyond this, the qualitative...... travelers use this information. This paper therefore presents a qualitative study conducted to achieve a deeper understanding. We investigated the use of reviews and average rating in a hotel-booking-context through a laboratory experiment, which involved a task of examining a hotel on a pre-designed OTA...

  11. The JET vacuum interspace system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orchard, J.; Scales, S.

    1999-01-01

    In the past JET has suffered from a number of vacuum leaks on components such as bellows, windows and feedthroughs due, in part, to the adverse conditions, including high mechanical forces, which may prevail during plasma operation. Therefore before the recent Tritium experiments on JET it was deemed prudent to manufacture and install items with a secondary containment or interspace in order to minimise the effect of failure of the primary vacuum barrier on both the leak integrity of the machine and the outcome of the experiments. This paper describes the philosophy, logistics, method and implementation of an integrated connection and monitoring system on the 330 interspaces currently in position on the JET machine. Using the JET leak database comparisons are drawn of leak failure rates of the components allied to the number of operational hours, prior to the system being present and after installation and commissioning, and the case of detection compared to the previous situation. An argument is also presented on the feasibility and adaptability of this system to any large complex machine and the benefits to be obtained in reduction of leaks and operational down time. (author)

  12. Rate of Change in Lake Level and its Impact on Reservoir-triggered Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    With recent interest in increased seismicity related to fluid injection, it is useful to review cases of reservoir-triggered earthquakes to explore common characteristics and seek ways to mitigate the influence of anthropogenic impacts. Three reservoirs - Koyna, India; Nurek, Tajikistan; and Aswan, Egypt - are well-documented cases of triggered earthquakes with recorded time series of seismicity and water levels that extend for more than 30 years. The geological setting, regional tectonics and modes of reservoir utilization, along with the characteristics of the reservoir-seismicity interaction, are distinctly different in each of these three cases. Similarities and differences between these three cases point to regional and local geological and hydrological structures and the rate of changes in reservoir water level as important factors controlling the presence and timing of triggered seismicity. In a manner similar to the way in which the rate of fluid injection influences injection-related seismicity, the rate of change in reservoir water level is a significant factor in determining whether or not reservoir-triggered seismicity occurs. The high rate of annual water level rise may be important in sustaining the exceptionally long sequence of earthquakes at Koyna. In addition to the rate of filling being a determining factor in whether or not earthquakes are triggered, changes in the rate of filling may influence the time of occurrence of individual earthquakes.

  13. The Impact of the Applied Exchange Rate Regimes on the Internal Balance of Transition Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujanić Vlado

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the key goals of the economic policy makers of every country is to achieve internal and external balance. An unavoidable segment of the analysis concerning the achievement of internal and external balance is certainly the influence of the exchange rate regime applied in a country. European transition countries, despite their similar initial problems and final objectives, applied different exchange rate regimes adapted to the economic circumstances and needs of the country. The paper aims to examine and demonstrate the impact of the applied exchange rate regime on the internal balance of the transition countries. The research encompasses 10 representative transition countries, in the period from 2000-2014. The results of the research, from the aspect of internal balance, confirmed the justification of the application of the floating exchange rate regime in more developed, but not in less-developed, European transition countries. The application of floating exchange rate regimes in less-developed transition countries is associated with a considerably higher average inflation rate, which may be explained by the higher import dependence of lessdeveloped countries and by the consequent transfer of depreciation to price growth.

  14. Numerical study of the influence of dielectric tube on propagation of atmospheric pressure plasma jet based on coplanar dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haixin, HU; Feng, HE; Ping, ZHU; Jiting, OUYANG

    2018-05-01

    A 2D fluid model was employed to simulate the influence of dielectric on the propagation of atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet based on coplanar dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The spatio-temporal distributions of electron density, ionization rate, electrical field, spatial charge and the spatial structure were obtained for different dielectric tubes that limit the helium flow. The results show that the change of the relative permittivity of the dielectric tube where the plasma jet travels inside has no influence on the formation of DBD itself, but has great impact on the jet propagation. The velocity of the plasma jet changes drastically when the jet passes from a tube of higher permittivity to one of lower permittivity, resulting in an increase in jet length, ionization rate and electric field, as well as a change in the distribution of space charges and discharge states. The radius of the dielectric tube has a great influence on the ring-shaped or solid bullet structure. These results can well explain the behavior of the plasma jet from the dielectric tube into the ambient air and the hollow bullet in experiments.

  15. Jets in Planetary Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Tim

    2018-05-01

    Jet streams, "jets" for short, are remarkably coherent streams of air found in every major atmosphere. They have a profound effect on a planet's global circulation, and have been an enigma since the belts and zones of Jupiter were discovered in the 1600s. The study of jets, including what processes affect their size, strength, direction, shear stability, and predictability, are active areas of research in geophysical fluid dynamics. Jet research is multidisciplinary and global, involving collaborations between observers, experimentalists, numerical modelers, and applied mathematicians. Jets in atmospheres have strong analogies with shear instability in nonneutral plasmas, and these connections are highlighted throughout the article. The article begins with a description of four major challenges that jet researchers face: nonlinearity, non-intuitive wave physics, non-constant-coefficients, and copious nondimensional numbers. Then, two general fluid-dynamical tenets, the practice of rendering expressions dimensionally homogeneous (nondimensional), and the universal properties of shocks are applied to the open question of what controls the on-off switch of shear instability. The discussion progresses to how the physics of jets varies in equatorial, midlatitude, and polar regions, and how jets are observed to behave in each of these settings. The all-in-one conservation law of potential vorticity (PV), which combines the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and thermal energy into a single expression, is the common language of jet research. Earth and Uranus have weak retrograde equatorial jets, but most planets exhibit super-rotating equatorial jets, which require eddies to transport momentum up gradient in a non-intuitive manner. Jupiter and Saturn exhibit multiple alternating jets in their midlatitudes. The theory for why jets are invariably zonal (east-west orientated) is reviewed, and the particular challenges that Jupiter's sharp westward jets present to existing

  16. Investigation the Impact of Exchange Rate Volatility on the Export of Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jamalipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Agricultural commodity export is a main attribute of developing countries and it is the basic force of development, however, developing countries have faced domestic and international instability in their markets and monetary and fiscal policies and these instabilities create a difficult condition for most of producers and exporters. Volatility in exchange market is one of the most important factor and vital concentrate for international trade especially agricultural commodity export. Because of this concern many studies have been conducted in this filed; (Aristotelous, 2001; Chen, 2009 and Sabuhoi and Piri, 2009 .Many of these studies has stated that exchange rate fluctuation has a negative impact on aggregated agricultural export; however, none of them has been focused on the effects of exchange rate fluctuation on exported value of important commodities in long run and short run. In recent years, exchange rate fluctuation has been raised about 6 percent since 2007 to 2010 and it seemed that this phenomenon has a negative impact on agricultural commodity export in Iran. To test this hypothesis exported value of three important commodity (date, orange and grape and exchange rate volatility since 1970 to 2013 have been used. Material and Methods: In order to examine the relation between real exchange rate volatility and export values of date, orange and grapes, first GARCH method has been used to draw out exchange rate volatility; then, Panel unite root test has been used to check the level of integration. Since real exchange rate is not heterogeneous for different cross sections Levi-Lin and Chow unit root test has been used for this variable and IPS test has been applied to export value. Pederoni co-integration test has been used to check the integration between these variables. Finally, FMOLS (Fully Modified Ordinary Least Square and DOLS (Dynamic Ordinary Least Square methods have been used to estimate long run and short run

  17. Use of fundamental condensation heat transfer experiments for the development of a sub-grid liquid jet condensation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buschman, Francis X., E-mail: Francis.Buschman@unnpp.gov; Aumiller, David L.

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Direct contact condensation data on liquid jets up to 1.7 MPa in pure steam and in the presence of noncondensable gas. • Identified a pressure effect on the impact of noncondensables to suppress condensation heat transfer not captured in existing data or correlations. • Pure steam data is used to develop a new correlation for condensation heat transfer on subcooled liquid jets. • Noncondensable data used to develop a modification to the renewal time estimate used in the Young and Bajorek correlation for condensation suppression in the presence of noncondensables. • A jet injection boundary condition, using a sub-grid jet condensation model, is developed for COBRA-IE which provides a more detailed estimate of the condensation rate on the liquid jet and allows the use of jet specific closure relationships. - Abstract: Condensation on liquid jets is an important phenomenon for many different facets of nuclear power plant transients and analyses such as containment spray cooling. An experimental facility constructed at the Pennsylvania State University, the High Pressure Liquid Jet Condensation Heat Transfer facility (HPLJCHT), has been used to perform steady-state condensation heat transfer experiments in which the temperature of the liquid jet is measured at different axial locations allowing the condensation rate to be determined over the jet length. Test data have been obtained in a pure steam environment and with varying concentrations of noncondensable gas. This data extends the available jet condensation data from near atmospheric pressure up to a pressure of 1.7 MPa. An empirical correlation for the liquid side condensation heat transfer coefficient has been developed based on the data obtained in pure steam. The data obtained with noncondensable gas were used to develop a correlation for the renewal time as used in the condensation suppression model developed by Young and Bajorek. This paper describes a new sub-grid liquid jet

  18. Use of fundamental condensation heat transfer experiments for the development of a sub-grid liquid jet condensation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buschman, Francis X.; Aumiller, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Direct contact condensation data on liquid jets up to 1.7 MPa in pure steam and in the presence of noncondensable gas. • Identified a pressure effect on the impact of noncondensables to suppress condensation heat transfer not captured in existing data or correlations. • Pure steam data is used to develop a new correlation for condensation heat transfer on subcooled liquid jets. • Noncondensable data used to develop a modification to the renewal time estimate used in the Young and Bajorek correlation for condensation suppression in the presence of noncondensables. • A jet injection boundary condition, using a sub-grid jet condensation model, is developed for COBRA-IE which provides a more detailed estimate of the condensation rate on the liquid jet and allows the use of jet specific closure relationships. - Abstract: Condensation on liquid jets is an important phenomenon for many different facets of nuclear power plant transients and analyses such as containment spray cooling. An experimental facility constructed at the Pennsylvania State University, the High Pressure Liquid Jet Condensation Heat Transfer facility (HPLJCHT), has been used to perform steady-state condensation heat transfer experiments in which the temperature of the liquid jet is measured at different axial locations allowing the condensation rate to be determined over the jet length. Test data have been obtained in a pure steam environment and with varying concentrations of noncondensable gas. This data extends the available jet condensation data from near atmospheric pressure up to a pressure of 1.7 MPa. An empirical correlation for the liquid side condensation heat transfer coefficient has been developed based on the data obtained in pure steam. The data obtained with noncondensable gas were used to develop a correlation for the renewal time as used in the condensation suppression model developed by Young and Bajorek. This paper describes a new sub-grid liquid jet

  19. The impact of chest compression rates on quality of chest compressions - a manikin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Richard A; Soar, Jasmeet; Davies, Robin P; Akhtar, Naheed; Perkins, Gavin D

    2012-03-01

    Chest compressions are often performed at a variable rate during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The effect of compression rate on other chest compression quality variables (compression depth, duty-cycle, leaning, performance decay over time) is unknown. This randomised controlled cross-over manikin study examined the effect of different compression rates on the other chest compression quality variables. Twenty healthcare professionals performed 2 min of continuous compressions on an instrumented manikin at rates of 80, 100, 120, 140 and 160 min(-1) in a random order. An electronic metronome was used to guide compression rate. Compression data were analysed by repeated measures ANOVA and are presented as mean (SD). Non-parametric data was analysed by Friedman test. At faster compression rates there were significant improvements in the number of compressions delivered (160(2) at 80 min(-1) vs. 312(13) compressions at 160 min(-1), P<0.001); and compression duty-cycle (43(6)% at 80 min(-1) vs. 50(7)% at 160 min(-1), P<0.001). This was at the cost of a significant reduction in compression depth (39.5(10)mm at 80 min(-1) vs. 34.5(11)mm at 160 min(-1), P<0.001); and earlier decay in compression quality (median decay point 120 s at 80 min(-1) vs. 40s at 160 min(-1), P<0.001). Additionally not all participants achieved the target rate (100% at 80 min(-1) vs. 70% at 160 min(-1)). Rates above 120 min(-1) had the greatest impact on reducing chest compression quality. For Guidelines 2005 trained rescuers, a chest compression rate of 100-120 min(-1) for 2 min is feasible whilst maintaining adequate chest compression quality in terms of depth, duty-cycle, leaning, and decay in compression performance. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of the Guidelines 2010 recommendation for deeper and faster chest compressions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of severity of congenital heart diseases on university graduation rate among male patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Emin Evren; Küçük, Alaattin

    2012-04-01

    This study examines university graduation rates among individuals with congenital heart disease (CHD) in comparison to their healthy peers. The effect of disease severity, type of surgery, and timing of surgery on graduation rate was also evaluated. One hundred forty-five male patients with CHD at military age were enrolled in the study between the dates of January 2005 and May 2007. Severity of disease was operationalised in term of initial diagnosis (According to classification of 32th ACC Bethesta Conference Task Force 1). University graduation rates of among two groups of CHD patients (mild disease (group 1) or moderate to severe disease (group 2)) are compared to each other and to healthy peers. Patients with CHD have reduced rates of participation in higher education compared with healthy individuals (13.1% vs 20.7%, p=0.01). Furthermore, this negative effect on education participation rate is independent of the severity of disease (group 1, 16.4%, p=0.01; group 2, 9.7%, pgraduation rate was relatively higher in patients with mild disease severity, no significant difference was found between the two patient groups (p=0.23). Having an operation does not effect graduation rate (p=0.58), however greater age at the time of operation increases the likelihood of graduation (p=0.02). Being born with CHD significantly reduces the chance of completing higher education. This negative impact on university graduation rate is independent of the severity of the disease. No negative effects of disease related surgery or subsequent corrective surgery on education were observed. Patients who were operated on later in life were more likely to complete university education. Mean operation age of this group corresponds to the typical age during the last year of elementary school in Turkey.

  1. A turbulent radio jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, F.D.

    1983-01-01

    A relativistic plasma flow can explain many of the observations on the one-sided jets, which are associated with radio sources that show superluminal motions in their cores. The pressure from the ambient medium will communicate across the jet in a relatively short distance, typically 30 kpc. The friction between the jet and the external medium then makes the flow go turbulent. As a result the jet dissipates energy and will be brought to rest within a few hundred kpc, if it does not strike an obstacle before. The mean flow in the jet is strongly sheared and stretches the lines of force of any magnetic field frozen into the plasma. The dominant field direction, as seen from the rest frame of the plasma, is therefore parallel to the length of the jet. Polarization measurements have shown that this is in fact the case. (author)

  2. Measurement of peak impact loads differ between accelerometers - Effects of system operating range and sampling rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebart, Christina; Giangregorio, Lora M; Gibbs, Jenna C; Levine, Iris C; Tung, James; Laing, Andrew C

    2017-06-14

    A wide variety of accelerometer systems, with differing sensor characteristics, are used to detect impact loading during physical activities. The study examined the effects of system characteristics on measured peak impact loading during a variety of activities by comparing outputs from three separate accelerometer systems, and by assessing the influence of simulated reductions in operating range and sampling rate. Twelve healthy young adults performed seven tasks (vertical jump, box drop, heel drop, and bilateral single leg and lateral jumps) while simultaneously wearing three tri-axial accelerometers including a criterion standard laboratory-grade unit (Endevco 7267A) and two systems primarily used for activity-monitoring (ActiGraph GT3X+, GCDC X6-2mini). Peak acceleration (gmax) was compared across accelerometers, and errors resulting from down-sampling (from 640 to 100Hz) and range-limiting (to ±6g) the criterion standard output were characterized. The Actigraph activity-monitoring accelerometer underestimated gmax by an average of 30.2%; underestimation by the X6-2mini was not significant. Underestimation error was greater for tasks with greater impact magnitudes. gmax was underestimated when the criterion standard signal was down-sampled (by an average of 11%), range limited (by 11%), and by combined down-sampling and range-limiting (by 18%). These effects explained 89% of the variance in gmax error for the Actigraph system. This study illustrates that both the type and intensity of activity should be considered when selecting an accelerometer for characterizing impact events. In addition, caution may be warranted when comparing impact magnitudes from studies that use different accelerometers, and when comparing accelerometer outputs to osteogenic impact thresholds proposed in literature. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hadronic jets an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Banfi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Jet physics is an incredibly rich subject detailing the narrow cone of hadrons and other particles produced by the hadronization of a quark or gluon in a particle physics or heavy ion experiment. This book is a general overview of jet physics for scientists not directly involved in the field. It presents the basic experimental and theoretical problems arising when dealing with jets, and describing the solutions proposed in recent years.

  4. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.

    1988-03-01

    The paper is a JET progress report 1987, and covers the fourth full year of JET's operation. The report contains an overview summary of the scientific and technical advances during the year, and is supplemented by appendices of detailed contributions of the more important JET articles published during 1987. The document is aimed at specialists and experts engaged in nuclear fusion and plasma physics, as well as the general scientific community. (U.K.)

  5. Excitational metamorphosis of surface flowfield under an impinging annular jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 144, č. 2 (2008), s. 312-316 ISSN 1385-8947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/07/1499; GA AV ČR IAA200760705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : jets * impinging jets * flow topology * annular jets * stagnation points Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.813, year: 2008 http://www.sciencedirect.com/

  6. The impact of varicella vaccination on varicella-related hospitalization rates: global data review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Maki; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Ferronato, Angela Esposito; Ragazzi, Selma Lopes Betta

    2016-09-01

    to describe the impact of varicella vaccination on varicella-related hospitalization rates in countries that implemented universal vaccination against the disease. we identified countries that implemented universal vaccination against varicella at the http://apps.who.int/immunization_monitoring/globalsummary/schedules site of the World Health Organization and selected articles in Pubmed describing the changes (pre/post-vaccination) in the varicella-related hospitalization rates in these countries, using the Keywords "varicella", "vaccination/vaccine" and "children" (or) "hospitalization". Publications in English published between January 1995 and May 2015 were included. 24 countries with universal vaccination against varicella and 28 articles describing the impact of the vaccine on varicella-associated hospitalizations rates in seven countries were identified. The US had 81.4% -99.2% reduction in hospitalization rates in children younger than four years after 6-14 years after the onset of universal vaccination (1995), with vaccination coverage of 90%; Uruguay: 94% decrease (children aged 1-4 years) in six years, vaccination coverage of 90%; Canada: 93% decrease (age 1-4 years) in 10 years, coverage of 93%; Germany: 62.4% decrease (age 1-4 years) in 8 years, coverage of 78.2%; Australia: 76.8% decrease (age 1-4 years) in 5 years, coverage of 90%; Spain: 83.5% decrease (age <5 years) in four years, coverage of 77.2% and Italy 69.7% -73.8% decrease (general population), coverage of 60%-95%. The publications showed variations in the percentage of decrease in varicella-related hospitalization rates after universal vaccination in the assessed countries; the results probably depend on the time since the implementation of universal vaccination, differences in the studied age group, hospital admission criteria, vaccination coverage and strategy, which does not allow direct comparison between data. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por

  7. The impact of varicella vaccination on varicella-related hospitalization rates: global data review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Hirose

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To describe the impact of varicella vaccination on varicella-related hospitalization rates in countries that implemented universal vaccination against the disease. Data source: We identified countries that implemented universal vaccination against varicella at the http://apps.who.int/immunization_monitoring/globalsummary/schedules site of the World Health Organization and selected articles in Pubmed describing the changes (pre/post-vaccination in the varicella-related hospitalization rates in these countries, using the Keywords "varicella", "vaccination/vaccine" and "children" (or "hospitalization". Publications in English published between January 1995 and May 2015 were included. Data synthesis: 24 countries with universal vaccination against varicella and 28 articles describing the impact of the vaccine on varicella-associated hospitalizations rates in seven countries were identified. The US had 81.4%–99.2% reduction in hospitalization rates in children younger than four years, 6–14 years after the onset of universal vaccination (1995, with vaccination coverage of 90%; Uruguay: 94% decrease (children aged 1–4 years in six years, vaccination coverage of 90%; Canada: 93% decrease (age 1–4 years in 10 years, coverage of 93%; Germany: 62.4% decrease (age 1–4 years in 8 years, coverage of 78.2%; Australia: 76.8% decrease (age 1–4 years in 5 years, coverage of 90%; Spain: 83.5% decrease (age <5 years in four years, coverage of 77.2% and Italy 69.7%–73.8% decrease (general population, coverage of 60%–95%. Conclusions: The publications showed variations in the percentage of decrease in varicella-related hospitalization rates after universal vaccination in the assessed countries; the results probably depend on the time since the implementation of universal vaccination, differences in the studied age group, hospital admission criteria, vaccination coverage and strategy, which does not allow direct comparison between

  8. Acidifier application rate impacts on ammonia emissions from US roaster chicken houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sanjay B.; Grimes, Jesse L.; Oviedo-Rondón, Edgar O.; Westerman, Philip W.

    2014-08-01

    Due to its potential environmental and public health impacts, emissions of ammonia (NH3) as well as several other gases from US livestock farms may be regulated. Broiler houses are important sources of NH3 emissions. However, there are no emissions data from roaster (8-12 wk old broilers, ˜4 kg ea.) houses. Producers treat the litter in broiler houses with acidifiers, such as sodium bisulfate (SBS, NaHSO4) to reduce ammonia production and protect bird health. However, there is very little data on the effect of acidifiers, particularly at high application rates on ammonia emissions. The impact of different SBS application rates [High (0.95-1.46 kg m-2, whole house), Medium (0.73 kg m-2, whole house), Low (0.37-0.49 kg m-2, whole house), and Control (0.37-0.49 kg m-2, brood chamber)] on ammonia emissions was evaluated in commercial roaster houses over 22 months spanning eight flocks. Ammonia emission from each fan was measured with an acid scrubber that operated only when the fan operated. Emissions were calculated using >95% measured data with the rest being estimated using robust methods. Exhaust ammonia-N concentrations were inversely correlated with the SBS application rates. Emission rates on animal unit (AU, where 1 AU = 500 kg live-mass) basis (ER, g d-1 AU-1) were reduced by 27, 13, and 5%, respectively, in the High, Medium, and Low treatments vs. the Control treatment (mean: 100 g d-1 AU-1, range: 86-114 g d-1 AU-1). Emission rates for the Control treatment measured in this study on roasters were mostly higher than ERs in the literature. Differences in ERs are not only due to diet, environmental and management conditions, but also due to measurement methods.

  9. Contraction rate, flow modification and bed layering impact on scour at the elliptical guide banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjunsburgs, B.; Jaudzems, G.; Bizane, M.; Bulankina, V.

    2017-10-01

    Flow contraction by the bridge crossing structures, intakes, embankments, piers, abutments and guide banks leads to general scour and the local scour in the vicinity of the structures. Local scour is depending on flow, river bed and structures parameters and correct understanding of the impact of each parameter can reduce failure possibility of the structures. The paper explores hydraulic contraction, the discharge redistribution between channel and floodplain during the flood, local flow modification and river bed layering on depth, width and volume of scour hole near the elliptical guide banks on low-land rivers. Experiments in a flume, our method for scour calculation and computer modelling results confirm a considerable impact of the contraction rate of the flow, the discharge redistribution between channel and floodplain, the local velocity, backwater and river bed layering on the depth, width, and volume of scour hole in steady and unsteady flow, under clear water condition. With increase of the contraction rate of the flow, the discharge redistribution between channel and floodplain, the local velocity, backwater values, the scour depth increases. At the same contraction rate, but at a different Fr number, the scour depth is different: with increase in the Fr number, the local velocity, backwater, scour depth, width, and volume is increasing. Acceptance of the geometrical contraction of the flow, approach velocity and top sand layer of the river bed for scour depth calculation as accepted now, may be the reason of the structures failure and human life losses.

  10. The impact of height during childhood on the national prevalence rates of overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dommelen, Paula; de Kroon, Marlou L A; Cameron, Noël; Schönbeck, Yvonne; van Buuren, Stef

    2014-01-01

    It is known that height and body mass index (BMI) are correlated in childhood. However, its impact on the (trend of) national prevalence rates of overweight and obesity has never been investigated. The aim of our study is to investigate the relation between height and national prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in childhood between 1980, 1997, and 2009, and to calculate which fixed value of p (2.0,2.1, …,3.0) in kg/m(p) during childhood is most accurate in predicting adult overweight. Cross-sectional growth data of children from three Dutch nationwide surveys in 1980, 1997, and 2009, and longitudinal data from the Terneuzen Birth Cohort and the Harpenden Growth Study were used. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Our study showed that tall (>1 standard deviation (SD)) girls aged 5.0-13.9 y were more often overweight (RR = 3.5,95%CI:2.8-4.4) and obese (RR = 3.9,95%CI:2.1-7.4) than short girls (rates of overweight and obesity than their shorter peers. We suggest taking into account the impact of height when evaluating trends and variations of BMI distributions in childhood, and to use BMI to predict adult overweight.

  11. Does Thermal Granulation Drive Tephra Jets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J. D.; Zimanowski, B.; Buettner, R.; Sonder, I.; Dellino, P.

    2011-12-01

    Surtseyan tephra jets, also called cypressoid or cock's tail plumes, comprise a characteristic mixture of ash with bombs travelling roughly ballistic paths that tip the individual fingers of the projecting jet. Jets of similar form but smaller scale are generated by littoral magma-water interactions, confirming the general inference that surtseyan tephra jets are a characteristic product of explosive magma-water interaction, and suggesting that magmatic volatiles play a subsidiary role, if any, in their formation. Surtseyan jets have been inferred to result from both intense fuel-coolant interactions, and from simple boiling of water entrained into rising magma, and little new information has become available to test these two positions since they were clearly developed in the 1980s. Recent experiments in which magma is poured into standing water have produced vigorous jetting of hot water as melt solidifies and undergoes extensive thermal granulation. We present high-resolution hi-speed video of these jets, which we see as having the following origin. As thermal granulation takes place, a fracture network advances into the melt/glass body, and water invading the cracks at the rate of propagation is heated nearly instantaneously. Vapor produced at the contact expands and drives outward through cooled cracks, condensing as it moves to the exterior of the magma body where it is emitted as a jet of hot water. In ocean ridge hydrothermal systems a diffuse crack network inducts cold water, which is heated and expelled in focused jets. Focusing of hot outflow in experiments is inferred to result, as suggested for ridge hydrothermal systems, from thermoelastic closure of cracks near the one(s) feeding the jet. From the cooled products of our experimental runs, we know that thermal contraction produces a network of curved cracks with modal spacing of 1-2 mm, which separate domains of unbroken glass. It is during growth of this crack network that cold water enters, is

  12. The hydrogen laminar jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Sanz, M. [Departamento de Motopropulsion y Termofluidomecanica, ETSI Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rosales, M. [Department Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911, Leganes (Spain); Instituto de Innovacion en Mineria y Metalurgia, Avenida del Valle 738, Santiago (Chile); Sanchez, A.L. [Department Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911, Leganes (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    Numerical and asymptotic methods are used to investigate the structure of the hydrogen jet discharging into a quiescent air atmosphere. The analysis accounts in particular for the variation of the density and transport properties with composition. The Reynolds number of the flow R{sub j}, based on the initial jet radius a, the density {rho}{sub j} and viscosity {mu}{sub j} of the jet and the characteristic jet velocity u{sub j}, is assumed to take moderately large values, so that the jet remains slender and stable, and can be correspondingly described by numerical integration of the continuity, momentum and species conservation equations written in the boundary-layer approximation. The solution for the velocity and composition in the jet development region of planar and round jets, corresponding to streamwise distances of order R{sub j}a, is computed numerically, along with the solutions that emerge both in the near field and in the far field. The small value of the hydrogen-to-air molecular weight ratio is used to simplify the solution by considering the asymptotic limit of vanishing jet density. The development provides at leading-order explicit analytical expressions for the far-field velocity and hydrogen mass fraction that describe accurately the hydrogen jet near the axis. The information provided can be useful in particular to characterize hydrogen discharge processes from holes and cracks. (author)

  13. Properties of gluon jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, K.

    1987-01-01

    The properties of gluon jets are reviewed, and the measured characteristics are compared to the theoretical expectations. Although neither data nor models for the gluon jets are in the mature stage, in general the agreement between experiment and theory is remarkable. There are some intriguing differences. Since the properties of gluon jets are deeply rooted in the basic structure of non-Abelian gauge theory, the study of gluon jets casts further light on our understanding of QCD. Finally, the future prospects are discussed

  14. Properties of gluon jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, K.

    1988-01-01

    The properties of gluon jets are reviewed from an experimental point of view. The measured characteristics are compared to theoretical expectations. Although neither data nor models for the gluon jets are in the mature stage, there are remarkable agreements and also intriguing disagreements between experiment and theory. Since much interesting data have begun to emerge from various experiments and the properties of gluon jets are deeply rooted in the basic structure of non-Abelian gauge theory, the study of gluon jets casts further light on understanding of QCD. The future prospects are discussed

  15. Are jets really there

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillethun, E.

    1976-09-01

    Based on the results of high energy proton-proton collisions obtained at the CERN ISR in 1972-73, the production of 'jets' is discussed. Jets in e + e - collisions are also discussed and the parameters 'sphericity' and 'rapidity' are used in analysis of the data. The jets studied have been defined as having at least one particle of high transverse momentum. It is not clear whether the jets represent new physics or are another way of stating that resonances (rho,K*, Δ, N* etc.) are produced with high p(sub T), and that in such production the high transverse momentum must be balanced essentially locally in the collision. (JIW)

  16. Measurement of ttbb production rate in final state with lepton+jets and the cross section ratio ttbb/ttjj at 8 TeV with the CMS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Verlage, Tobias Anton

    2015-01-01

    The cross sections of the associated production of a top-quark pair with at least two additional jets or two additional b jets are measured in the final state with one lepton and jets. The study is performed for an integrated luminosity of 19.6 fb$^{-1}$ at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}$\\,=\\,8 TeV. To identify the jets originating from the top-quark pair decay a kinematic fit with mass constraints, multivariate classifiers in categories split by the jet multiplicity and b-tag discriminants of the jets are used. The contributions of $\\rm{t\\bar{t}b\\bar{b}}$ and $\\rm{t\\bar{t}jj}$ with at least two additional b jets or jets of any flavor are measured with a simultaneous template fit using shapes of b-tag discriminants. The measured cross sections $\\sigma(\\rm{t\\bar{t}b\\bar{b}}) =271.0 \\pm 103.0(stat)\\pm 32.2(syst)\\pm 7.0(lumi)$ fb, $\\sigma(\\rm{t\\bar{t}jj}) = 23.1 \\pm 2.3(stat)\\pm 2.9(syst)\\pm 0.6(lumi)$ pb and the cross section ratio $\\sigma(\\rm{t\\bar{t}b\\bar{b}})$/$\\sigma(\\rm{t\\bar{t}jj}) = 0....

  17. Misaligned Accretion and Jet Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew; Nixon, Chris

    2018-04-01

    Disk accretion onto a black hole is often misaligned from its spin axis. If the disk maintains a significant magnetic field normal to its local plane, we show that dipole radiation from Lense–Thirring precessing disk annuli can extract a significant fraction of the accretion energy, sharply peaked toward small disk radii R (as R ‑17/2 for fields with constant equipartition ratio). This low-frequency emission is immediately absorbed by surrounding matter or refracted toward the regions of lowest density. The resultant mechanical pressure, dipole angular pattern, and much lower matter density toward the rotational poles create a strong tendency to drive jets along the black hole spin axis, similar to the spin-axis jets of radio pulsars, also strong dipole emitters. The coherent primary emission may explain the high brightness temperatures seen in jets. The intrinsic disk emission is modulated at Lense–Thirring frequencies near the inner edge, providing a physical mechanism for low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). Dipole emission requires nonzero hole spin, but uses only disk accretion energy. No spin energy is extracted, unlike the Blandford–Znajek process. Magnetohydrodynamic/general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD/GRMHD) formulations do not directly give radiation fields, but can be checked post-process for dipole emission and therefore self-consistency, given sufficient resolution. Jets driven by dipole radiation should be more common in active galactic nuclei (AGN) than in X-ray binaries, and in low accretion-rate states than high, agreeing with observation. In non-black hole accretion, misaligned disk annuli precess because of the accretor’s mass quadrupole moment, similarly producing jets and QPOs.

  18. Experimental study of hydrogen jet ignition and jet extinguishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierman, R.W.

    1979-04-01

    Two phases are described of an experimental study that investigated: (1) the ignition characteristics of hydrogen--sodium jets, (2) the formation of hydrogen in sodium--humid air atmospheres, and (3) the extinguishment characteristics of burning hydrogen--sodium jets. Test conditions were similar to those postulated for highly-improbable breeder reactor core melt-through accidents and included: jet temperature, jet velocity, jet hydrogen concentration, jet sodium concentration, atmospheric oxygen concentration, and atmospheric water vapor concentration

  19. Monotonic and cyclic responses of impact polypropylene and continuous glass fiber-reinforced impact polypropylene composites at different strain rates

    KAUST Repository

    Yudhanto, Arief; Lubineau, Gilles; Wafai, Husam; Mulle, Matthieu; Pulungan, Ditho Ardiansyah; Yaldiz, R.; Verghese, N.

    2016-01-01

    Impact copolymer polypropylene (IPP), a blend of isotactic polypropylene and ethylene-propylene rubber, and its continuous glass fiber composite form (glass fiber-reinforced impact polypropylene, GFIPP) are promising materials for impact

  20. “The impact of online ratings on video game sales”

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Online third-party reviews have been grown over the last decade and they now play an important role as a tool for helping customers evaluate products and services that in many cases offer more than tangible features. This study intends to quantify the impact online ratings have over video game sales by conducting a linear regression analysis on 300 titles for the previous console generation (PlayStation® 3 and Xbox® 360) using a data from the video game industry to understand the existing inf...

  1. Jet mass spectra in Higgs+one jet at NNLL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouttenus, Teppo T.; Stewart, Iain W.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.

    2013-02-01

    The invariant mass of a jet is a benchmark variable describing the structure of jets at the LHC. We calculate the jet mass spectrum for Higgs plus one jet at the LHC at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic (NNLL) order using a factorization formula. At this order, the cross section becomes sensitive to perturbation theory at the soft m 2 jet /p jet T scale. Our calculation is exclusive and uses the 1-jettiness global event shape to implement a veto on additional jets. The dominant dependence on the jet veto is removed by normalizing the spectrum, leaving residual dependence from non-global logarithms depending on the ratio of the jet mass and jet veto variables. For our exclusive jet cross section these non-global logarithms are parametrically smaller than in the inclusive case, allowing us to obtain a complete NNLL result. Results for the dependence of the jet mass spectrum on the kinematics, jet algorithm, and jet size R are given. Using individual partonic channels we illustrate the difference between the jet mass spectra for quark and gluon jets. We also study the effect of hadronization and underlying event on the jet mass in Pythia. To highlight the similarity of inclusive and exclusive jet mass spectra, a comparison to LHC data is presented.

  2. Jet mass spectra in Higgs+one jet at NNLL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouttenus, Teppo T.; Stewart, Iain W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Center for Theoretical Physics; Tackmann, Frank J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Waalewijn, Wouter J. [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2013-02-15

    The invariant mass of a jet is a benchmark variable describing the structure of jets at the LHC. We calculate the jet mass spectrum for Higgs plus one jet at the LHC at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic (NNLL) order using a factorization formula. At this order, the cross section becomes sensitive to perturbation theory at the soft m{sup 2}{sub jet}/p{sup jet}{sub T} scale. Our calculation is exclusive and uses the 1-jettiness global event shape to implement a veto on additional jets. The dominant dependence on the jet veto is removed by normalizing the spectrum, leaving residual dependence from non-global logarithms depending on the ratio of the jet mass and jet veto variables. For our exclusive jet cross section these non-global logarithms are parametrically smaller than in the inclusive case, allowing us to obtain a complete NNLL result. Results for the dependence of the jet mass spectrum on the kinematics, jet algorithm, and jet size R are given. Using individual partonic channels we illustrate the difference between the jet mass spectra for quark and gluon jets. We also study the effect of hadronization and underlying event on the jet mass in Pythia. To highlight the similarity of inclusive and exclusive jet mass spectra, a comparison to LHC data is presented.

  3. Using an energized oxygen micro-jet for improved graphene etching by focused electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Songkil; Henry, Mathias [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Fedorov, Andrei G., E-mail: agf@gatech.edu [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Parker H. Petit Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2015-12-07

    We report on an improved Focused Electron Beam Induced Etching (FEBIE) process, which exploits heated oxygen delivery via a continuous supersonic micro-jet resulting in faster graphene patterning and better etch feature definition. Positioning a micro-jet in close proximity to a graphene surface with minimal jet spreading due to a continuous regime of gas flow at the exit of the 10 μm inner diameter capillary allows for focused exposure of the surface to reactive oxygen at high mass flux and impingement energy of a supersonic gas stream localized to a small etching area exposed to electron beam. These unique benefits of focused supersonic oxygen delivery to the surface enable a dramatic increase in the etch rate of graphene with no parasitic carbon “halo” deposition due to secondary electrons from backscattered electrons (BSE) in the area surrounding the etched regions. Increase of jet temperature via local nozzle heating provides means for enhancing kinetic energy of impinging oxygen molecules, which further speed up the etch, thus minimizing the beam exposure time and required electron dose, before parasitic carbon film deposition due to BSE mediated decomposition of adsorbed hydrocarbon contaminants has a measurable impact on quality of graphene etched features. Interplay of different physical mechanisms underlying an oxygen micro-jet assisted FEBIE process is discussed with support from experimental observations.

  4. Using an energized oxygen micro-jet for improved graphene etching by focused electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Songkil; Henry, Mathias; Fedorov, Andrei G.

    2015-01-01

    We report on an improved Focused Electron Beam Induced Etching (FEBIE) process, which exploits heated oxygen delivery via a continuous supersonic micro-jet resulting in faster graphene patterning and better etch feature definition. Positioning a micro-jet in close proximity to a graphene surface with minimal jet spreading due to a continuous regime of gas flow at the exit of the 10 μm inner diameter capillary allows for focused exposure of the surface to reactive oxygen at high mass flux and impingement energy of a supersonic gas stream localized to a small etching area exposed to electron beam. These unique benefits of focused supersonic oxygen delivery to the surface enable a dramatic increase in the etch rate of graphene with no parasitic carbon “halo” deposition due to secondary electrons from backscattered electrons (BSE) in the area surrounding the etched regions. Increase of jet temperature via local nozzle heating provides means for enhancing kinetic energy of impinging oxygen molecules, which further speed up the etch, thus minimizing the beam exposure time and required electron dose, before parasitic carbon film deposition due to BSE mediated decomposition of adsorbed hydrocarbon contaminants has a measurable impact on quality of graphene etched features. Interplay of different physical mechanisms underlying an oxygen micro-jet assisted FEBIE process is discussed with support from experimental observations

  5. Using an energized oxygen micro-jet for improved graphene etching by focused electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Songkil; Henry, Mathias; Fedorov, Andrei G.

    2015-12-01

    We report on an improved Focused Electron Beam Induced Etching (FEBIE) process, which exploits heated oxygen delivery via a continuous supersonic micro-jet resulting in faster graphene patterning and better etch feature definition. Positioning a micro-jet in close proximity to a graphene surface with minimal jet spreading due to a continuous regime of gas flow at the exit of the 10 μm inner diameter capillary allows for focused exposure of the surface to reactive oxygen at high mass flux and impingement energy of a supersonic gas stream localized to a small etching area exposed to electron beam. These unique benefits of focused supersonic oxygen delivery to the surface enable a dramatic increase in the etch rate of graphene with no parasitic carbon "halo" deposition due to secondary electrons from backscattered electrons (BSE) in the area surrounding the etched regions. Increase of jet temperature via local nozzle heating provides means for enhancing kinetic energy of impinging oxygen molecules, which further speed up the etch, thus minimizing the beam exposure time and required electron dose, before parasitic carbon film deposition due to BSE mediated decomposition of adsorbed hydrocarbon contaminants has a measurable impact on quality of graphene etched features. Interplay of different physical mechanisms underlying an oxygen micro-jet assisted FEBIE process is discussed with support from experimental observations.

  6. [The impact of a verbal consent form on the participation rate in a telephone survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Christian; Ladouceur, Robert; Fournier, Patricia-Maude; Baillargeon, Lucie

    2009-03-01

    To assess the impact of a consent form on the participation rate in a telephone survey about gambling and money. Four different consent forms were tested. The first consent form globally met the academic ethics committee requirements, while the second and third forms excluded some elements. Finally, the fourth form was similar to the introduction generally used by private survey firms. Even when the consent form required by academic ethics committees was shortened, the private firm introduction led to the best participation rate. However, participants who received the private firm introduction indicated that they wished they had been better informed before the interview started. The discussion highlights the delicate situation of academic research wishing to meet ethics requirements as well as conduct valid and representative research.

  7. A new estimate of the impact of OSHA inspections on manufacturing injury rates, 1998-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviland, Amelia M; Burns, Rachel M; Gray, Wayne B; Ruder, Teague; Mendeloff, John

    2012-11-01

    A prior study indicated that the effect of OSHA inspections on lost workday injuries had declined from 1979 through 1998. This study provides an updated estimate for 1998-2005. Injury data from the Pennsylvania workers' compensation program were linked with employment data from unemployment compensation records to calculate lost-time rates for single-establishment manufacturing firms with more than 10 employees. These rates were linked to OSHA inspection findings. The RAND Human Subjects Protection Committee determined that this study was exempt from review. Inspections with penalties reduced injuries by an average of 19-24% annually in the 2 years following the inspection. These effects were not found for workplaces with fewer than 20 or more than 250 employees or for inspections without penalties. These findings should be generalizable to the 29 states where federal OSHA directly enforces standards. They suggest that the impact of inspections has increased from the 1990s. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Impact of Optimized Flow Pattern on Pollutant Removal and Biogas Production Rate Using Wastewater Anaerobic Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruyi Huang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new-type of antigravity mixing method, which was applied in the biogas production process, using organic wastewater fermentation. It was found that the digesters with two designs, a high-position, centralized pressure outlet and a high-position, dispersed pressure outlets, both lead to an increase in biogas production rates by 89% and 125%, respectively. The biogas production peak appeared 1 day and 7 days earlier, and the COD removal rates were raised by 27% and 42%, respectively. The results indicated that the optimized flow field had a significant impact. This work also explains the mechanism of flow field optimization using computational fluid dynamics (CFD software for the simulation of the flow field form in the hydraulic mixing.

  9. HIV infection among tuberculosis patients in Vietnam: prevalence and impact on tuberculosis notification rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, D H; Sy, D N; Linh, N D; Hoan, T M; Dien, H T; Thuy, T B; Hoa, N P; Tung, L B; Cobelens, F

    2010-08-01

    Vietnam has an emerging human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic (estimated population prevalence 0.5%), but valid data on HIV prevalence among tuberculosis (TB) patients are limited. Recent increases in TB notification rates among young adults may be related to HIV. To assess the prevalence of HIV infection among smear-positive TB patients in six provinces with relatively high HIV population prevalence in Vietnam. All patients who registered for treatment of smear-positive TB during the fourth quarter of 2005 were offered HIV testing. Of the 1217 TB patients included in the study, 100 (8.2%) tested HIV-positive. HIV prevalence varied between 2% and 17% in the provinces, and was strongly associated with age Vietnam, HIV infection is concentrated in drug users, as well as in specific geographic areas where it has considerable impact on TB notification rates among men aged 15-34 years.

  10. The Impact of Cooling Rate on the Safety of Food Products as Affected by Food Containers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coorey, Ranil; Ng, Denise Sze Hu; Jayamanne, Vijith S.

    2018-01-01

    In recent decades, the demand for ready‐to‐eat (RTE) food items prepared by the food catering sector has increased together with the value of cook‐serve, cook‐chill, and cook‐freeze food products. The technologies by which foods are cooked, chilled, refrigerated for storage, and reheated before...... serving are of prime importance to maintain safety. Packaging materials and food containers play an important role in influencing the cooling rate of RTE foods. Food items that are prepared using improper technologies and inappropriate packaging materials may be contaminated with foodborne pathogens....... Numerous research studies have shown the impact of deficient cooling technologies on the survival and growth of foodborne pathogens, which may subsequently pose a threat to public health. The operating temperatures and cooling rates of the cooling techniques applied must be appropriate to inhibit...

  11. The impact of sex ratio and economic status on local birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipman, A; Morrison, E

    2013-04-23

    Human mating and reproductive behaviour can vary depending on various mechanisms, including the local sex ratio. Previous research shows that as sex ratios become female-biased, women from economically deprived areas are less likely to delay reproductive opportunities to wait for a high-investing mate but instead begin their reproductive careers sooner. Here, we show that the local sex ratio also has an impact on female fertility schedules. At young ages, a female-biased ratio is associated with higher birth rates in the poorest areas, whereas the opposite is true for the richest areas. At older ages, a female-biased ratio is associated with higher birth rates in the richest, but not the poorest areas. These patterns suggest that female-female competition encourages poorer women to adopt a fast life-history strategy and give birth early, and richer women to adopt a slow life-history strategy and delay reproduction.

  12. The impact of rate of weight loss on body composition and compensatory mechanisms during weight reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Sílvia Ribeiro; With, Emilie; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Rapid weight loss (WL) has been associated with a larger loss of fat free mass and a disproportional reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR), but the evidence is inconclusive. We aimed to evaluate the impact of WL rate on body composition and compensatory mechanisms activated...... with WL (reduced RMR, increased exercise efficiency (ExEff) and appetite), both during negative and neutral energy balance (EB). METHODS: Thirty-five participants with obesity were randomized to lose a similar weight rapidly (4 weeks) or gradually (8 weeks), and afterwards to maintain it (4 weeks). Body...... weight and composition, RMR, ExEff (10, 25 and 50 W), appetite feelings and appetite-regulating hormones (active ghrelin, cholecystokinin, total peptide YY (PYY), active glucagon-like peptide-1 and insulin), in fasting and every 30 min up to 2.5 h, were measured at baseline and after each phase. RESULTS...

  13. Impact on breeding rate of different Molten Salt reactor core structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haiwei; Mei Longwei; Cai Xiangzhou; Chen Jingen; Guo Wei; Jiang Dazhen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) has several advantages over the other Generation IV reactor. Referred to the French CNRS research and compared to the fast reactor, super epithermal neutron spectrum reactor type is slightly lower and beading rate reaches 1.002. Purpose: The aim is to explore the best conversion zone layout scheme in the super epithermal neutron spectrum reactor. This study can make nuclear fuel as one way to solve the energy problems of mankind in future. Methods: Firstly, SCALE program is used for molten salt reactor graphite channel, molten salt core structure, control rods, graphite reflector and layer cladding structure. And the SMART modules are used to record the important actinides isotopes and their related reaction values of each reaction channel. Secondly, the thorium-uranium conversion rate is calculated. Finally, the better molten salt reactor core optimum layout scheme is studied comparing with various beading rates. Results: Breading zone layout scheme has an important influence on the breading rate of MSR. Central graphite channels in the core can get higher neutron flux irradiation. And more 233 Th can convert to 233 Pa, which then undergoes beta decay to become 233 U. The graphite in the breading zone gets much lower neutron flux irradiation, so the life span of this graphite can be much longer than that of others. Because neutron flux irradiation in the uranium molten salt graphite has nearly 10 times higher than the graphite in the breading zone, it has great impact on the thorium-uranium conversion rates. For the super epithermal neutron spectrum molten salt reactors, double salt design cannot get higher thorium-uranium conversion rates. The single molten salt can get the same thorium-uranium conversion rate, meanwhile it can greatly extend the life of graphite in the core. Conclusions: From the analysis of calculation results, Blanket breeding area in different locations in the core can change the breeding rates of thorium

  14. Jet models of X-Ray Flashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, D.Q.; Donaghy, T.Q.; Graziani, C.

    2005-01-01

    One third of all HETE-2-localized bursts are X-Ray Flashes (XRFs), a class of events first identified by Heise in which the fluence in the 2-30 keV energy band exceeds that in the 30-400 keV energy band We summarize recent HETE-2 and other results on the properties of XRFs. These results show that the properties of XRFs, X-ray-rich gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and GRBs form a continuum, and thus provide evidence that all three kinds of bursts are closely related phenomena. As the most extreme burst population, XRFs provide severe constraints on burst models and unique insights into the structure of GRB jets, the GRB rate, and the nature of Type Ib/Ic supernovae. We briefly mention a number of the physical models that have been proposed to explain XRFs. We then consider two fundamentally different classes of phenomenological jet models: universal jet models, in which it is posited that all GRBs jets are identical and that differences in the observed properties of the bursts are due entirely to differences in the viewing angle; and variable-opening angle jet models, in which it is posited that GRB jets have a distribution of jet opening angles and that differences in the observed properties of the bursts are due to differences in the emissivity and spectra of jets having different opening angles. We consider three shapes far the emissivity as a function of the viewing angle θ ν from the axis of the jet: power law, top hat (or uniform) , and Gaussian (or Fisher). We then discuss the effect of relativistic beaming on each of these models. We show that observations can distinguish between these various models

  15. Impact of socioeconomic deprivation on rate and cause of death in severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julie Langan; McLean, Gary; Park, John; Martin, Daniel J; Connolly, Moira; Mercer, Stewart W; Smith, Daniel J

    2014-09-12

    Socioeconomic status has important associations with disease-specific mortality in the general population. Although individuals with Severe Mental Illnesses (SMI) experience significant premature mortality, the relationship between socioeconomic status and mortality in this group remains under investigated. We aimed to assess the impact of socioeconomic status on rate and cause of death in individuals with SMI (schizophrenia and bipolar disorder) relative to the local (Glasgow) and wider (Scottish) populations. Cause and age of death during 2006-2010 inclusive for individuals with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder registered on the Glasgow Psychosis Clinical Information System (PsyCIS) were obtained by linkage to the Scottish General Register Office (GRO). Rate and cause of death by socioeconomic status, measured by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD), were compared to the Glasgow and Scottish populations. Death rates were higher in people with SMI across all socioeconomic quintiles compared to the Glasgow and Scottish populations, and persisted when suicide was excluded. Differences were largest in the most deprived quintile (794.6 per 10,000 population vs. 274.7 and 252.4 for Glasgow and Scotland respectively). Cause of death varied by socioeconomic status. For those living in the most deprived quintile, higher drug-related deaths occurred in those with SMI compared to local Glasgow and wider Scottish population rates (12.3% vs. 5.9%, p = socioeconomic quintiles compared to the Glasgow and Scottish populations but was most marked in the most deprived quintiles when suicide was excluded as a cause of death. Further work assessing the impact of socioeconomic status on specific causes of premature mortality in SMI is needed.

  16. The economic impact of reduced value added tax rates for groceries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavomíra Martinková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The value added tax represents one of the most important sources of state budget revenues of EU Member States. The basic value added tax rate is in the EU currently between 15% in Luxembourg to 27% applied in Hungary. The revenues from this tax represent an average of 17.5% of all tax revenues of EU countries and create an average GDP of 7.0% (year 2016, EU 28. As revenues from value added tax represent a stable income of state budget, the legislative changes in the system of value added tax, mainly its reductions as well as its imposition on groceries, can significantly influence further macroeconomic development. In the last year, the government of the Slovak Republic implemented changes in universal indirect taxing in such way that in addition to the standard value added tax rate of 20%, the Act No. 268/2015 on Value added tax adopted in 2016 a decreased value added tax rate of 10% on selected groceries, in order to support domestic producers and reduce the tax burden of low-income and middle-income groups. According to the European Commission (2007, the reduced rate of value added tax in selected cases has its justification and importance in the country's economy. The aim of this paper is to analyse the economic impact of the applied reduced value added tax on food in the Slovak Republic in the context of household expenditures and revenues of the state budget.

  17. Investigating the impact of LSO on the count rate of wholebody PET tomographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, J.L.; Moisan, C.; Rogers, J.G.

    1996-05-01

    We investigated the impact of using detectors made of lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) on the count rate performances of wholebody PET tomographs. To that end, we used a single computational model that predicts the prompt and random contributions to the total event rate in septaless PET tomographs. Dead time factors at all stages of a typical event acquisition stream are calculated from specified values of their respective processing clock cycle. We validated our approach by fitting the true, random and multiple count rates measured with the ECAT-953B and the EXACT HR PLUS scanners for a standard 20 x 20 cm cylindrical phantom. We then investigated the implications of using position encoding detectors made of LSO in the EXACT HR PLUS scanner geometry. The results in indicate that only replacing BGO by the faster LSO incurs no appreciable change in the maximum noise-equivalent-count (NEC) rate of the scanner. However, one could realistically increase the NEC by a factor 2.5 using a 4 nsec coincidence window width with the detector processing front-end operating on a 128 nsec clock cycle. Further reducing the coincidence window width to 600 psec and the front-end clock cycle to 64 nsec leads to an increase of the NEC by a factor 7.5. To sustain the operation of an HR Plus with these specifications, the saturation bandwidth of the data acquisition system would have to be increased to no more than 4.5 MHz. (authors)

  18. Measuring Disability: Comparing the Impact of Two Data Collection Approaches on Disability Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Sabariego

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The usual approach in disability surveys is to screen persons with disability upfront and then ask questions about everyday problems. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate the impact of screeners on disability rates, to challenge the usual exclusion of persons with mild and moderate disability from disability surveys and to demonstrate the advantage of using an a posteriori cut-off. Using data of a pilot study of the WHO Model Disability Survey (MDS in Cambodia and the polytomous Rasch model, metric scales of disability were built. The conventional screener approach based on the short disability module of the Washington City Group and the a posteriori cut-off method described in the World Disability Report were compared regarding disability rates. The screener led to imprecise rates and classified persons with mild to moderate disability as non-disabled, although these respondents already experienced important problems in daily life. The a posteriori cut-off applied to the general population sample led to a more precise disability rate and allowed for a differentiation of the performance and needs of persons with mild, moderate and severe disability. This approach can be therefore considered as an inclusive approach suitable to monitor the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

  19. Impact of Drug Therapy, Radiation Dose, and Dose Rate on Renal Toxicity Following Bone Marrow Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Jonathan C.; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate a radiation dose response and to determine the dosimetric and chemotherapeutic factors that influence the incidence of late renal toxicity following total body irradiation (TBI). Methods and Materials: A comprehensive retrospective review was performed of articles reporting late renal toxicity, along with renal dose, fractionation, dose rate, chemotherapy regimens, and potential nephrotoxic agents. In the final analysis, 12 articles (n = 1,108 patients), consisting of 24 distinct TBI/chemotherapy conditioning regimens were included. Regimens were divided into three subgroups: adults (age ≥18 years), children (age <18 years), and mixed population (both adults and children). Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify dosimetric and chemotherapeutic factors significantly associated with late renal complications. Results: Individual analysis was performed on each population subgroup. For the purely adult population, the only significant variable was total dose. For the mixed population, the significant variables included total dose, dose rate, and the use of fludarabine. For the pediatric population, only the use of cyclosporin or teniposide was significant; no dose response was noted. A logistic model was generated with the exclusion of the pediatric population because of its lack of dose response. This model yielded the following significant variables: total dose, dose rate, and number of fractions. Conclusion: A dose response for renal damage after TBI was identified. Fractionation and low dose rates are factors to consider when delivering TBI to patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Drug therapy also has a major impact on kidney function and can modify the dose-response function

  20. Tickling a high speed round jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, Vijay; Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu; Siddavaram, Vikram; Alkislar, Mehmet

    2001-11-01

    We have experimentally studied the effect of tickling a Mach 0.9 round jet with a set of microjets.Two dimensional velocity field measurements with PIV show a significant reduction in the turbulent intensities in the developing region of the jet with the activation of the microjets.Quantitatively,the axial and normal turbulence intensities are reduced by about 15respectively;even a larger effect is found on the magnitude of the correlation of axial and normal fluctuation intensities with a reduction of almost 40possible with a mass flow rate of the microjets being only about one percent of the main jet mass flow rate and hence justifying the use of the term `tickling`.The above findings are difficult to explain on the basis of stability considerations since there is very little change in the mean profile.Physically,the observed effect could be due to the alteration of the large eddy structures,which are so natural to a round jet,by the presence of the microjets.Exact nature of this interaction may be clarified with three dimensional PIV studies.It is expected that the tickling of the jet done as presently could have a favourable reflection in the aeroacoustics characteristics of the main jet.

  1. Numerical Analysis on the Compressible Flow Characteristics of Supersonic Jet Caused by High-Pressure Pipe Rupture Using CFD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jong-Kil; Yoon, Jun-Kyu [Gachon Univ., Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang-Chu [KEPCO-E& C, Kimchun (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    A rupture in a high-pressure pipe causes the fluid in the pipe to be discharged in the atmosphere at a high speed resulting in a supersonic jet that generates the compressible flow. This supersonic jet may display complicated and unsteady behavior in general . In this study, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed to investigate the compressible flow generated by a supersonic jet ejected from a high-pressure pipe. A Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model was selected to analyze the unsteady nature of the flow, which depends upon the various gases as well as the diameter of the pipe. In the CFD analysis, the basic boundary conditions were assumed to be as follows: pipe of diameter 10 cm, jet pressure ratio of 5, and an inlet gas temperature of 300 K. During the analysis, the behavior of the shockwave generated by a supersonic jet was observed and it was found that the blast wave was generated indirectly. The pressure wave characteristics of hydrogen gas, which possesses the smallest molecular mass, showed the shortest distance to the safety zone. There were no significant difference observed for nitrogen gas, air, and oxygen gas, which have similar molecular mass. In addition, an increase in the diameter of the pipe resulted in the ejected impact caused by the increased flow rate to become larger and the zone of jet influence to extend further.

  2. Impinging jet-based fluidic diodes for hybrid synthetic jet actuators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kordík, Jozef; Broučková, Zuzana; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2015), s. 449-458 ISSN 1343-8875 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP101/12/P556 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : synthetic jet * hybrid synthetic jet * volumetric efficiency Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.720, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12650-014-0251-0

  3. The potential impact of integrated malaria transmission control on entomologic inoculation rate in highly endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, G F; McKenzie, F E; Foy, B D; Schieffelin, C; Billingsley, P F; Beier, J C

    2000-05-01

    We have used a relatively simple but accurate model for predicting the impact of integrated transmission control on the malaria entomologic inoculation rate (EIR) at four endemic sites from across sub-Saharan Africa and the southwest Pacific. The simulated campaign incorporated modestly effective vaccine coverage, bed net use, and larval control. The results indicate that such campaigns would reduce EIRs at all four sites by 30- to 50-fold. Even without the vaccine, 15- to 25-fold reductions of EIR were predicted, implying that integrated control with a few modestly effective tools can meaningfully reduce malaria transmission in a range of endemic settings. The model accurately predicts the effects of bed nets and indoor spraying and demonstrates that they are the most effective tools available for reducing EIR. However, the impact of domestic adult vector control is amplified by measures for reducing the rate of emergence of vectors or the level of infectiousness of the human reservoir. We conclude that available tools, including currently neglected methods for larval control, can reduce malaria transmission intensity enough to alleviate mortality. Integrated control programs should be implemented to the fullest extent possible, even in areas of intense transmission, using simple models as decision-making tools. However, we also conclude that to eliminate malaria in many areas of intense transmission is beyond the scope of methods which developing nations can currently afford. New, cost-effective, practical tools are needed if malaria is ever to be eliminated from highly endemic areas.

  4. The Impact of an Electronic Ordering System on Blood Bank Specimen Rejection Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Stefanie K; Shirazi, Maryam; Wu-Gall, Charlotte; Stotler, Brie A

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the impact that an electronic ordering system has on the rate of rejection of blood type and screen testing samples and the impact on the number of ABO blood-type discrepancies over a 4-year period. An electronic ordering system was implemented in May 2011. Rejection rates along with reasons for rejection were tracked between January 2010 and December 2013. A total of 40,104 blood samples were received during this period, of which 706 (1.8%) were rejected for the following reasons: 382 (54.0%) unsigned samples, 235 (33.0%) mislabeled samples, 57 (8.0%) unsigned requisitions, 18 (2.5%) incorrect tubes, and 14 (1.9%) ABO discrepancies. Of the samples, 2.5% were rejected in the year prior to implementing the electronic ordering system compared with 1.2% in the year following implementation ( P  blood sample rejection. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Vaccination against human papillomavirus in Switzerland: simulation of the impact on infection rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchtold, André; Michaud, Pierre-André; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise; Surís, Joan-Carles

    2010-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted infection of particular interest because of its high prevalence rate and strong causal association with cervical cancer. Two prophylactic vaccines have been developed and different countries have made or will soon make recommendations for the vaccination of girls. Even if there is a consensus to recommend a vaccination before the beginning of sexual activity, there are, however, large discrepancies between countries concerning the perceived usefulness of a catch-up procedure and of boosters. The main objective of this article is to simulate the impact on different vaccination policies upon the mid- and long-term HPV 16/18 age-specific infection rates. We developed an epidemiological model based on the susceptible-infective-recovered approach using Swiss data. The mid- and long-term impact of different vaccination scenarios was then compared. The generalization of a catch-up procedure is always beneficial, whatever its extent. Moreover, pending on the length of the protection offered by the vaccine, boosters will also be very useful. To be really effective, a vaccination campaign against HPV infection should at least include a catch-up to early reach a drop in HPV 16/18 prevalence, and maybe boosters. Otherwise, the protection insured for women in their 20s could be lower than expected, resulting in higher risks to later develop cervical cancer.

  6. Quark jets, gluon jets and the three-gluon vertex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, Z.

    1989-11-01

    Using hadronic jets in electron-positron annihilation, we suggest a simple and model-independent method to see the differences between quark and gluon jets. We define and analyse special energy dependent moments of jets and choose those which are the most characteristic to the jet type. The method handles the energy of a jet in an adequate way. We discuss new methods using jet flavor tagging, ordinary flavor tagging of a definite quark jet or discrimination between quark and gluon jets, to test the triple-gluon vertex in electron-positron annihilation. An enriched sample of gluon jets, jets with the smallest energy in four-jet events, as well as a continuous tagging variable are also studied. 21 refs., 6 figs. (Author)

  7. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.

    1987-03-01

    The paper presents the progress report of the Joint European Torus (JET) Joint Undertaking, 1986. The report contains a survey of the scientific and technical achievements on JET during 1986; the more important articles referred to in this survey are reproduced as appendices to this Report. The last section discusses developments which might improve the overall performance of the machine. (U.K.)

  8. Super-Eddington Accretion in Tidal Disruption Events: the Impact of Realistic Fallback Rates on Accretion Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Samantha; Coughlin, Eric R.; Nixon, Chris

    2018-04-01

    After the tidal disruption of a star by a massive black hole, disrupted stellar debris can fall back to the hole at a rate significantly exceeding its Eddington limit. To understand how black hole mass affects the duration of super-Eddington accretion in tidal disruption events, we first run a suite of simulations of the disruption of a Solar-like star by a supermassive black hole of varying mass to directly measure the fallback rate onto the hole, and we compare these fallback rates to the analytic predictions of the "frozen-in" model. Then, adopting a Zero-Bernoulli Accretion flow as an analytic prescription for the accretion flow around the hole, we investigate how the accretion rate onto the black hole evolves with the more accurate fallback rates calculated from the simulations. We find that numerically-simulated fallback rates yield accretion rates onto the hole that can, depending on the black hole mass, be nearly an order of magnitude larger than those predicted by the frozen-in approximation. Our results place new limits on the maximum black hole mass for which super-Eddington accretion occurs in tidal disruption events.

  9. Do State-Based Policies Have an Impact on Teen Birth Rates and Teen Abortion Rates in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrette, Marianne; Abenhaim, Haim Arie

    2015-10-01

    The United States has one of the highest teen birth rates among developed countries. Interstate birth rates and abortion rates vary widely, as do policies on abortion and sex education. The objective of our study is to assess whether US state-level policies regarding abortion and sexual education are associated with different teen birth and teen abortion rates. We carried out a state-level (N = 51 [50 states plus the District of Columbia]) retrospective observational cross-sectional study, using data imported from the National Vital Statistics System. State policies were obtained from the Guttmacher Institute. We used descriptive statistics and regression analysis to study the association of different state policies with teen birth and teen abortion rates. The state-level mean birth rates, when stratifying between policies protective and nonprotective of teen births, were not statistically different-for sex education policies, 39.8 of 1000 vs 45.1 of 1000 (P = .2187); for mandatory parents' consent to abortion 45 of 1000, vs 38 of 1000 when the minor could consent (P = .0721); and for deterrents to abortion, 45.4 of 1000 vs 37.4 of 1000 (P = .0448). Political affiliation (35.1 of 1000 vs 49.6 of 1000, P births. Lower teen abortion rates were, however, associated with restrictive abortion policies, specifically lower in states with financial barriers, deterrents to abortion, and requirement for parental consent. While teen birth rates do not appear to be influenced by state-level sex education policies, state-level policies that restrict abortion appear to be associated with lower state teen abortion rates. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Full One-loop Electro-Weak Corrections to Three-jet Observables at the Z pole and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Calame, C M Carloni; Piccinini, F; Ross, D A

    2009-01-01

    We describe the impact of the full one-loop EW terms of O(alpha_s alpha_EM^3) entering the electron-positron into three-jet cross-section from \\sqrt{s}=M_Z to TeV scale energies. We include both factorisable and non-factorisable virtual corrections, photon bremsstrahlung but not the real emission of W and Z bosons. Their importance for the measurement of alpha_S from jet rates and shape variables is explained qualitatively and illustrated quantitatively.

  11. High pT jet production in pp collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskola, K.J.; Wang, X.N.

    1995-01-01

    Production rates of large p T jets in pp collisions at RHIC and LHC energies are studied using the next-to-leading order calculation of S. D. Ellis, Z. Zunszt and D. Soper. The computed inclusive one-jet cross sections are compared against the CERN and Fermilab jet data from p bar p and pp collisions. The dependence of the results on the choice of the parton distributions and renormalization/factorization scales is investigated

  12. Recent results on physics with jets at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffre, M.

    1996-01-01

    Three topics will be discussed. The measurement of the strong coupling constant from the measurement of (2 + 1) jet event rate in deep inelastic interactions is presented. In quasi-real photoproduction, understanding the so-called underlying event energy is important to interpret the measured inclusive jet cross section. Observation of a class of events with a rapidity gap between high E T jets is reported. (author)

  13. Jet energy scale determination in the D0 experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B.S.; Kupčo, Alexander; Lokajíček, Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 763, Nov (2014), s. 442-475 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG12006 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Batavia TEVATRON Coll * liquid argon * uranium * jet * flavor * dijet * gluon * jet * DZERO * anti-p p * interaction Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.216, year: 2014

  14. Jet physics at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melese, P.

    1997-05-01

    We present high E T jet measurements from CDF at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The incfilusive jet cross section at √s = 1800 GeV with ∼ 5 times more data is compared to the published CDF results, preliminary D0 results, and next-to-leading order QCD predictions. The summation E T cross section is also compared to QCD predictions and the dijet angular distribution is used to place a limit on quark compositeness. The inclusive jet cross section at √s = 630 GeV is compared with that at 1800 GeV to test the QCD predictions for the scaling of jet cross sections with √s. Finally, we present momentum distributions of charged particles in jets and compare them to Modified Leading Log Approximation predictions

  15. Jet physics in ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of hadronic jets provide tests of strong interactions which are interesting both in their own right and as backgrounds to many New Physics searches. It is also through tests of Quantum Chromodynamics that new physics may be discovered. The extensive dataset recorded with the ATLAS detector throughout the 7 TeV centre-of-mass LHC operation period allows QCD to be probed at distances never reached before. We present a review of selected ATLAS jet performance and physics measurements, together with results from new physics searches using the 2011 dataset. They include studies of the underlying event and fragmentation models, measurements of the inclusive jet, dijet and multijet cross sections, parton density functions, heavy flavours, jet shape, mass and substructure. Searches for new physics in monojet, dijet and photon-jet final states are also presented.

  16. Micro-jet Cooling by Compressed Air after MAG Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Węgrzyn T.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The material selected for this investigation was low alloy steel weld metal deposit (WMD after MAG welding with micro-jet cooling. The present investigation was aimed as the following tasks: analyze impact toughness of WMD in terms of micro-jet cooling parameters. Weld metal deposit (WMD was first time carried out for MAG welding with micro-jet cooling of compressed air and gas mixture of argon and air. Until that moment only argon, helium and nitrogen and its gas mixture were tested for micro-jet cooling.

  17. Delayed high school start times later than 8:30am and impact on graduation rates and attendance rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, Pamela Malaspina; Clark, Linda

    2017-04-01

    The first purpose of this study was to investigate changes in high school graduation rates with a delayed school start time of later than 8:30am. The second aim of the study was to analyze the association between a delayed high school start time later than 8:30am and attendance rates. In the current study, a pre-post design using a repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to examine changes in attendance and graduation rates 2 years after a delayed start was implemented. Public high schools from 8 school districts (n=29 high schools) located throughout 7 different states. Schools were identified using previous research from the Children's National Medical Center's Division of Sleep Medicine Research Team. A total membership of more than 30,000 high school students enrolled in the 29 schools identified by the Children's National Medical Center's Research Team. A pre-post design was used for a within-subject design, controlling for any school-to-school difference in the calculation of the response variable. This is the recommended technique for a study that may include data with potential measurement error. Findings from this study linked a start time of later than 8:30am to improved attendance rates and graduation rates. Attendance rates and graduation rates significantly improved in schools with delayed start times of 8:30am or later. School officials need to take special notice that this investigation also raises questions about whether later start times are a mechanism for closing the achievement gap due to improved graduation rates. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The impact of a supermarket nutrition rating system on purchases of nutritious and less nutritious foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, John; Sweeney, Matthew J; Sobal, Jeffery; Just, David R; Kaiser, Harry M; Schulze, William D; Wethington, Elaine; Wansink, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The current study examines the impact of a nutrition rating system on consumers' food purchases in supermarkets. Aggregate sales data for 102 categories of food (over 60 000 brands) on a weekly basis for 2005-2007 from a supermarket chain of over 150 stores are analysed. Change in weekly sales of nutritious and less nutritious foods, after the introduction of a nutrition rating system on store shelves, is calculated, controlling for seasonality and time trends in sales. One hundred and sixty-eight supermarket stores in the north-east USA, from January 2005 to December 2007. Consumers purchasing goods at the supermarket chain during the study period. After the introduction of the nutrition ratings, overall weekly food sales declined by an average of 3637 units per category (95 % CI -5961, -1313; P<0·01). Sales of less nutritious foods fell by 8·31 % (95 % CI -13·50, -2·80 %; P=0·004), while sales of nutritious foods did not change significantly (P=0·21); as a result, the percentage of food purchases rated as nutritious rose by 1·39 % (95 % CI 0·58, 2·20 %; P<0·01). The decrease in sales of less nutritious foods was greatest in the categories of canned meat and fish, soda pop, bakery and canned vegetables. The introduction of the nutrition ratings led shoppers to buy a more nutritious mix of products. Interestingly, it did so by reducing purchases of less nutritious foods rather than by increasing purchases of nutritious foods. In evaluating nutrition information systems, researchers should focus on the entire market basket, not just sales of nutritious foods.

  19. Sting jets in intense winter North-Atlantic windstorms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Alvarado, Oscar; Gray, Suzanne L; Clark, Peter A; Catto, Jennifer L

    2012-01-01

    Extratropical cyclones dominate autumn and winter weather over western Europe. The strongest cyclones, often termed windstorms, have a large socio-economic impact due to the strong surface winds and associated storm surges in coastal areas. Here we show that sting jets are a common feature of windstorms; up to a third of the 100 most intense North-Atlantic winter windstorms over the last two decades satisfy conditions for sting jets. The sting jet is a mesoscale descending airstream that can cause strong near-surface winds in the dry slot of the cyclone, a region not usually associated with strong winds. Despite their localized transient nature, these sting jets can cause significant damage, a prominent example being the storm that devastated southeast England on 16 October 1987. We present the first regional climatology of windstorms with sting jets. Previously analysed sting-jet cases appear to have been exceptional in their track over northwest Europe rather than in their strength. (letter)

  20. Runaway beam studies during disruptions at JET-ILW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reux, C.; Plyusnin, V.; Alper, B.; Alves, D.; Bazylev, B.; Belonohy, E.; Brezinsek, S.; Decker, J.; Devaux, S.; Vries, P. de; Fil, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Runaway electrons (RE) have been obtained at JET-ILW using massive argon injection. • The runaway electron domain entry points are similar between JET-C and JET-ILW. • Inside the runaway electron domain, higher RE currents are observed with JET-ILW. • RE impact has been observed without material melting up to 100 kA RE current. • Heat deposition of 2 ± 1 mm is confirmed by measurements and simulations. - Abstract: Runaway electrons (RE) during disruptions are a concern for future tokamaks including ITER with its metallic wall. Although RE are rare in spontaneous disruptions with the JET ITER-like Wall (JET-ILW), RE beams up to 380 kA were obtained using massive injection (MGI) of argon in JET-ILW divertor discharges. Entry points into the RE domain defined by operational parameters (toroidal field, argon fraction in MGI) are unchanged but higher RE currents have been obtained inside the JET-ILW MGI-generated RE domain when compared to JET-C. This might be due to the influence of the metallic wall on the current quench plasma. Temperatures of 900 °C have been observed following RE impacts on beryllium tiles. Heat deposition depth of ∼2 mm has to be assumed to match the tile cooling time. 3D simulations of the RE energy deposition using the ENDEP/MEMOS codes show that material melting is unlikely with 100 kA RE beams

  1. Runaway beam studies during disruptions at JET-ILW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reux, C., E-mail: cedric.reux@cea.fr [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Plyusnin, V. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Instituto de Plasmas e Fuso Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tcnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Alper, B. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Alves, D. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Instituto de Plasmas e Fuso Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tcnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Bazylev, B. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Institut für Hochleistungsimpuls und Mikrowellentechnik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Campus Nord, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Belonohy, E. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); EFDA-CSU, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Brezinsek, S. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie-und Klimaforschung-Plasmaphysik, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Decker, J. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Devaux, S. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Vries, P. de [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Fil, A. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); and others

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Runaway electrons (RE) have been obtained at JET-ILW using massive argon injection. • The runaway electron domain entry points are similar between JET-C and JET-ILW. • Inside the runaway electron domain, higher RE currents are observed with JET-ILW. • RE impact has been observed without material melting up to 100 kA RE current. • Heat deposition of 2 ± 1 mm is confirmed by measurements and simulations. - Abstract: Runaway electrons (RE) during disruptions are a concern for future tokamaks including ITER with its metallic wall. Although RE are rare in spontaneous disruptions with the JET ITER-like Wall (JET-ILW), RE beams up to 380 kA were obtained using massive injection (MGI) of argon in JET-ILW divertor discharges. Entry points into the RE domain defined by operational parameters (toroidal field, argon fraction in MGI) are unchanged but higher RE currents have been obtained inside the JET-ILW MGI-generated RE domain when compared to JET-C. This might be due to the influence of the metallic wall on the current quench plasma. Temperatures of 900 °C have been observed following RE impacts on beryllium tiles. Heat deposition depth of ∼2 mm has to be assumed to match the tile cooling time. 3D simulations of the RE energy deposition using the ENDEP/MEMOS codes show that material melting is unlikely with 100 kA RE beams.

  2. High Strain Rate Deformation Mechanisms of Body Centered Cubic Material Subjected to Impact Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, William

    Low carbon steel is the most common grade of structural steel used; it has carbon content of 0.05% to 0.25% and very low content of alloying elements. It is produced in great quantities and provides material properties that are acceptable for many engineering applications, particularly in the construction industry in which low carbon steel is widely used as the strengthening phase in civil structures. The overall goal of this dissertation was to investigate the deformation response of A572 grade 50 steel when subjected to impact loading. This steel has a 0.23% by weight carbon content and has less than 2% additional alloying elements. The deformation mechanisms of this steel under shock loading conditions include both dislocation motion and twin formation. The goal of this work was achieved by performing experimental, analytical and numerical research in three integrated tasks. The first is to determine the relationship between the evolution of deformation twins and the impact pressure. Secondly, a stress criterion for twin nucleation during high strain rate loading was developed which can account for the strain history or initial dislocation density. Lastly, a method was applied for separating the effects of dislocations and twins generated by shock loading in order to determine their role in controlling the flow stress of the material. In this regard, the contents of this work have been categorically organized. First, the active mechanisms in body centered cubic (BCC) low carbon steel during shock loading have been determined as being a composed of the competing mechanisms of dislocations and deformation twins. This has been determined through a series of shock loading tests of the as-received steel. The shock loading tests were done by plate impact experiments at several impact pressures ranging from 2GPa up to 13GPa using a single stage light gas gun. A relationship between twin volume fraction and impact pressure was determined and an analytical model was

  3. Impact Of Particle Agglomeration On Accumulation Rates In The Glass Discharge Riser Of HLW Melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A. A.; Rodriguez, C. A.; Matyas, J.; Owen, A. T.; Jansik, D. P.; Lang, J. B.

    2012-01-01

    The major factor limiting waste loading in continuous high-level radioactive waste (HLW) melters is an accumulation of particles in the glass discharge riser during a frequent and periodic idling of more than 20 days. An excessive accumulation can produce robust layers a few centimeters thick, which may clog the riser, preventing molten glass from being poured into canisters. Since the accumulation rate is driven by the size of particles we investigated with x-ray microtomography, scanning electron microscopy, and image analysis the impact of spinel forming components, noble metals, and alumina on the size, concentration, and spatial distribution of particles, and on the accumulation rate. Increased concentrations of Fe and Ni in the baseline glass resulted in the formation of large agglomerates that grew over the time to an average size of ∼185+-155 μm, and produced >3 mm thick layer after 120 h at 850 deg C. The noble metals decreased the particle size, and therefore significantly slowed down the accumulation rate. Addition of alumina resulted in the formation of a network of spinel dendrites which prevented accumulation of particles into compact layers

  4. The impact of foreign direct investment on the unemployment rate in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Republic of Serbia in the period of transition from a planned economy with special social, political and economic conditions towards an open economy through the inflow of FDI and their impact on the unemployment rate. Creating the conditions for an inflow of FDI started in order to increase the employment rate. Since 2000, most FDI had entered the sector of non-tradeable goods which led towards increasing unemployment. That has had negative effects on Serbia from the development viewpoint, since the country needs FDI in the sector of non-tradeable goods, as they encourage productivity, technological progress and employment. Foreign investors in Serbia were primarily interested in profiting from the privatization (brownfield investments of former state-owned companies which led to the rationalization of the privatized companies through redundancies. The benefits that Serbia has had from the inflow of FDI are significant transfers of technology and enhancement of competition on the local market. On the other hand, negative effect is increase of the unemployment rate at the national level.

  5. The impact of item order on ratings of cancer risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kathryn L; Shelby, Rebecca A; Schwartz, Marc D; Ackerman, Josh; LaSalle, V Holland; Gelmann, Edward P; McGuire, Colleen

    2002-07-01

    Although perceived risk is central to most theories of health behavior, there is little consensus on its measurement with regard to item wording, response set, or the number of items to include. In a methodological assessment of perceived risk, we assessed the impact of changing the order of three commonly used perceived risk items: quantitative personal risk, quantitative population risk, and comparative risk. Participants were 432 men and women enrolled in an ancillary study of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Three groups of consecutively enrolled participants responded to the three items in one of three question orders. Results indicated that item order was related to the perceived risk ratings of both ovarian (P Perceptions of risk were significantly lower when the comparative rating was made first. The findings suggest that compelling participants to consider their own risk relative to the risk of others results in lower ratings of perceived risk. Although the use of multiple items may provide more information than when only a single method is used, different conclusions may be reached depending on the context in which an item is assessed.

  6. Impact of Pharmacist Immunization Authority on Seasonal Influenza Immunization Rates Across States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Edward M; Miller, Laura; Johnsrud, Michael

    2017-08-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the impact on immunization rates of policy changes that allowed pharmacists to administer influenza immunizations across the United States. Influenza immunization rates across states were compared before and after policy changes permitting pharmacists to administer influenza immunizations. The study used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey data on influenza immunization rates between 2003 and 2013. Logistic regression models were constructed and incorporated adjustments for the complex sample design of the BRFSS to predict the likelihood of a person receiving an influenza immunization based on various patient health, demographic, and access to care factors. Overall, as states moved to allow pharmacists to administer influenza immunizations, the odds that an adult resident received an influenza immunization rose, with the effect increasing over time. The average percentage of people receiving influenza immunizations in states was 35.1%, rising from 32.2% in 2003 to 40.3% in 2013. The policy changes were associated with a long-term increase of 2.2% to 7.6% in the number of adults aged 25 to 59 years receiving an influenza immunization (largest for those aged 35-39 years) and no significant change for those younger or older. These findings suggest that pharmacies and other nontraditional settings may offer accessible venues for patients when implementing other public health initiatives. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugan, M.A.

    1990-03-01

    The factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact are considered. The nature of contaminated surfaces is described and the effect on the erosion rate (on non-active lead coupons) of varying jetting parameters is illustrated. Recommendations are made for future work to enhance the effectiveness of water jetting as a nuclear decontamination technique and the importance of containment and effluent treatment is outlined. (author)

  8. Quark jets from antineutrino interactions. 2. Inclusive particle spectra and multiplicities in the quark jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammosov, V.V.; Denisov, A.G.; Gapienko, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    The results on inclusive particle production in the antineutrino charged current induced hadron jets observed in the Fermilab 15- ft. bubble chamber are presented. Fractional energy distributions, particle ratios and average multiplicities of the hadrons in the jets are measured. Ratios between the inclusive production rates of different mesons in the jets are studied to seek evidence for the d-quark origin of the observed hadrons. Good over-all agreement with the hypothesis of d-quark fragmentation with universal fragmentation functions obeying isospin systematics is established [ru

  9. The impact of cine EPID image acquisition frame rate on markerless soft-tissue tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, Stephen, E-mail: syip@lroc.harvard.edu; Rottmann, Joerg; Berbeco, Ross [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Although reduction of the cine electronic portal imaging device (EPID) acquisition frame rate through multiple frame averaging may reduce hardware memory burden and decrease image noise, it can hinder the continuity of soft-tissue motion leading to poor autotracking results. The impact of motion blurring and image noise on the tracking performance was investigated. Methods: Phantom and patient images were acquired at a frame rate of 12.87 Hz with an amorphous silicon portal imager (AS1000, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). The maximum frame rate of 12.87 Hz is imposed by the EPID. Low frame rate images were obtained by continuous frame averaging. A previously validated tracking algorithm was employed for autotracking. The difference between the programmed and autotracked positions of a Las Vegas phantom moving in the superior-inferior direction defined the tracking error (δ). Motion blurring was assessed by measuring the area change of the circle with the greatest depth. Additionally, lung tumors on 1747 frames acquired at 11 field angles from four radiotherapy patients are manually and automatically tracked with varying frame averaging. δ was defined by the position difference of the two tracking methods. Image noise was defined as the standard deviation of the background intensity. Motion blurring and image noise are correlated with δ using Pearson correlation coefficient (R). Results: For both phantom and patient studies, the autotracking errors increased at frame rates lower than 4.29 Hz. Above 4.29 Hz, changes in errors were negligible withδ < 1.60 mm. Motion blurring and image noise were observed to increase and decrease with frame averaging, respectively. Motion blurring and tracking errors were significantly correlated for the phantom (R = 0.94) and patient studies (R = 0.72). Moderate to poor correlation was found between image noise and tracking error with R −0.58 and −0.19 for both studies, respectively. Conclusions: Cine EPID

  10. The impact of cine EPID image acquisition frame rate on markerless soft-tissue tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yip, Stephen; Rottmann, Joerg; Berbeco, Ross

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although reduction of the cine electronic portal imaging device (EPID) acquisition frame rate through multiple frame averaging may reduce hardware memory burden and decrease image noise, it can hinder the continuity of soft-tissue motion leading to poor autotracking results. The impact of motion blurring and image noise on the tracking performance was investigated. Methods: Phantom and patient images were acquired at a frame rate of 12.87 Hz with an amorphous silicon portal imager (AS1000, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). The maximum frame rate of 12.87 Hz is imposed by the EPID. Low frame rate images were obtained by continuous frame averaging. A previously validated tracking algorithm was employed for autotracking. The difference between the programmed and autotracked positions of a Las Vegas phantom moving in the superior-inferior direction defined the tracking error (δ). Motion blurring was assessed by measuring the area change of the circle with the greatest depth. Additionally, lung tumors on 1747 frames acquired at 11 field angles from four radiotherapy patients are manually and automatically tracked with varying frame averaging. δ was defined by the position difference of the two tracking methods. Image noise was defined as the standard deviation of the background intensity. Motion blurring and image noise are correlated with δ using Pearson correlation coefficient (R). Results: For both phantom and patient studies, the autotracking errors increased at frame rates lower than 4.29 Hz. Above 4.29 Hz, changes in errors were negligible withδ < 1.60 mm. Motion blurring and image noise were observed to increase and decrease with frame averaging, respectively. Motion blurring and tracking errors were significantly correlated for the phantom (R = 0.94) and patient studies (R = 0.72). Moderate to poor correlation was found between image noise and tracking error with R −0.58 and −0.19 for both studies, respectively. Conclusions: Cine EPID

  11. Impact of Rate Design Alternatives on Residential Solar Customer Bills. Increased Fixed Charges, Minimum Bills and Demand-based Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    With rapid growth in energy efficiency and distributed generation, electric utilities are anticipating stagnant or decreasing electricity sales, particularly in the residential sector. Utilities are increasingly considering alternative rates structures that are designed to recover fixed costs from residential solar photovoltaic (PV) customers with low net electricity consumption. Proposed structures have included fixed charge increases, minimum bills, and increasingly, demand rates - for net metered customers and all customers. This study examines the electricity bill implications of various residential rate alternatives for multiple locations within the United States. For the locations analyzed, the results suggest that residential PV customers offset, on average, between 60% and 99% of their annual load. However, roughly 65% of a typical customer's electricity demand is non-coincidental with PV generation, so the typical PV customer is generally highly reliant on the grid for pooling services.

  12. Identification and rejection of fake reconstructed jets from a fluctuating heavy ion background in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, N.

    2009-01-01

    Full jet reconstruction in relativistic heavy ion collisions provides new and unique insights to the physics of parton energy loss. Because of the large underlying event multiplicity in A+A collisions, random and correlated fluctuations in the background can result in the reconstruction of fake jets. These fake jets must be identified and rejected to obtain the purest jet sample possible. A large but reducible fake rate of jets reconstructed using an iterative cone algorithm on HIJING events is observed. The absolute rate of fake jets exceeds the binary-scaled p+p jet rate below 50 GeV and is not negligible until 100 GeV. The variable Σj T , the sum of the jet constituent's E T perpendicular to the jet axis, is introduced to identify and reject fake jets at by a factor of 100 making it negligible. This variable is shown to not strongly depend on jet energy profiles modified by energy loss. By studying azimuthal correlations of reconstructed di-jets, the fake jet rate can be evaluated in data. (orig.)

  13. Spatial stability of jets - the nonaxisymmetric fundamental and reflection modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardee, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    A spatial stability analysis of the relativistic dispersion relation governing the growth and propagation of harmonic components comprising a perturbation to the surface of a cylindrical jet is performed. The spatial growth of harmonic components associated with the nonaxisymmetric fundamental solution and reflection solutions of several Fourier modes are analyzed. Approximate analytical expressions describing resonant frequencies and wavelengths, and maximum growth rates at resonance applicable to relativistic jets are found from the dispersion relation, and the nature of the resonances is explored. On transonic jets there is only a fundamental solution for each Fourier mode with no resonance or maximum growth rate. On supersonic jets there is a fundamental solution and reflection solutions for each Fourier mode, and each solution contains a resonance at which the growth rate is a maximum. A numerical analysis of the fundamental and first three reflection solutions of the axisymmetric and first three nonaxisymmetric Fourier modes is performed. The numerical analysis is restricted to nonrelativistic flows but otherwise covers a broad range of Mach numbers and jet densities. The numerical results are used along with the analytical results to obtain accurate expressions for resonant frequencies, wavelengths, and growth rates as a function of Mach numnber and jet density. In all cases the fastest spatial growth rate at a given frequency is of harmonic components associated with the fundamental solution of one of the nonaxisymmetric Fourier modes. The application of these results to jet structure and implication of these results for jet structure in extragalactic radio sources are considered. 23 references

  14. Modeling Jet Interaction of a Round Jet with a Subsonic Carrying Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Korobkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes numerical simulation of the round jet with a subsonic carrying flow. Performs calculations for different tilt angles of the jet ωj blowing and constructs the fields of velocities and pressures of the flow, jet trajectory, as well as calculates the pressure coefficients on the plate surface.To solve this problem, the CAD Solidworks Flow Simulation software was used. This package contains the solution of the Nowier-Stokes equation, which is necessary for modeling this problem.To test operation capability of the closing condition (k-th model of turbulence and proper choice of the boundaries of the computational domain, was solved a test problem forThe solution analysis has shown that the k-th model of turbulence was capable, and has a good agreement with other authors' experiment results [4]. Based on the selected conditions, further calculations were carried out for different tilt angles of jet blowing.In the course of research activities, it was revealed that the tilt angle of the jet blowing has a strong impact on redistribution of velocity and pressure in the area of the jet interaction, which allows the efficient use of such jets to control aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft with the same power consumption for blowing out the gas. The solution of this problem is very relevant in wide application in aviation and rocket and space technology.

  15. Impact of centralization of pancreatoduodenectomy on reported radical resections rates in a nationwide pathology database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onete, Veronica G; Besselink, Marc G; Salsbach, Chanielle M; Van Eijck, Casper H; Busch, Olivier R; Gouma, Dirk J; de Hingh, Ignace H; Sieders, Egbert; Dejong, Cornelis H; Offerhaus, Johan G; Molenaar, I Quintus

    2015-08-01

    Centralization of a pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) leads to a lower post-operative mortality, but is unclear whether it also leads to improved radical (R0) or overall resection rates. Between 2004 and 2009, pathology reports of 1736 PDs for pancreatic and peri-ampullary neoplasms from a nationwide pathology database were analysed. Pre-malignant lesions were excluded. High-volume hospitals were defined as performing ≥ 20 PDs annually. The relationship between R0 resections, PD-volume trends, quality of pathology reports and hospital volume was analysed. During the study period, the number of hospitals performing PDs decreased from 39 to 23. High-volume hospitals reported more R0 resections in the pancreatic head and distal bile duct tumours than low-volume hospitals (60% versus 54%, P = 0.035) although they operated on more advanced (T3/T4) tumours (72% versus 58%, P < 0.001). The number of PDs increased from 258 in 2004 to 394 in 2009 which was partly explained by increased overall resection rates of pancreatic head and distal bile duct tumours (11.2% in 2004 versus 17.5% in 2009, P < 0.001). The overall reported R0 resection rate of pancreatic head and distal bile duct tumours increased (6% in 2004 versus 11% in 2009, P < 0.001). Pathology reports of low-volume hospitals lacked more data including tumour stage (25% versus 15%, P < 0.001). Centralization of PD was associated with both higher resection rates and more reported R0 resections. The impact of this finding on overall survival should be further assessed. © 2015 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  16. Impact of visual repetition rate on intrinsic properties of low frequency fluctuations in the visual network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chia Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual processing network is one of the functional networks which have been reliably identified to consistently exist in human resting brains. In our work, we focused on this network and investigated the intrinsic properties of low frequency (0.01-0.08 Hz fluctuations (LFFs during changes of visual stimuli. There were two main questions to be discussed in this study: intrinsic properties of LFFs regarding (1 interactions between visual stimuli and resting-state; (2 impact of repetition rate of visual stimuli. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed scanning sessions that contained rest and visual stimuli in various repetition rates with a novel method. The method included three numerical approaches involving ICA (Independent Component Analyses, fALFF (fractional Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuation, and Coherence, to respectively investigate the modulations of visual network pattern, low frequency fluctuation power, and interregional functional connectivity during changes of visual stimuli. We discovered when resting-state was replaced by visual stimuli, more areas were involved in visual processing, and both stronger low frequency fluctuations and higher interregional functional connectivity occurred in visual network. With changes of visual repetition rate, the number of areas which were involved in visual processing, low frequency fluctuation power, and interregional functional connectivity in this network were also modulated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To combine the results of prior literatures and our discoveries, intrinsic properties of LFFs in visual network are altered not only by modulations of endogenous factors (eye-open or eye-closed condition; alcohol administration and disordered behaviors (early blind, but also exogenous sensory stimuli (visual stimuli with various repetition rates. It demonstrates that the intrinsic properties of LFFs are valuable to represent physiological states of human brains.

  17. Rate coefficients for dissociative attachment and resonant electron-impact dissociation involving vibrationally excited O{sub 2} molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laporta, V. [Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e dei Plasmi, CNR, Bari, Italy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Celiberto, R. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, del Territorio, Edile e di Chimica, Politecnico di Bari, Italy and Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e dei Plasmi, CNR, Bari (Italy); Tennyson, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-09

    Rate coefficients for dissociative electron attachment and electron-impact dissociation processes, involving vibrationally excited molecular oxygen, are presented. Analytical fits of the calculated numerical data, useful in the applications, are also provided.

  18. Impact of a diabetic foot care education program on lower limb amputation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Al-Wahbi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah M Al-WahbiDepartment of Surgery, King Abdulaziz Medical City and King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyahd, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: Diabetic foot complications are a leading cause of lower extremity amputation. With the increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus in the Arab world, specifically in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the rate of amputation will rise significantly. A diabetic foot care program was implemented at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in 2002. The program was directed at health care staff and patients to increase their awareness about diabetic foot care and prevention of complications. The purpose of this study was to perform a primary evaluation of the program’s impact on the rate of lower extremity amputation due to diabetic foot complications.Method: This pilot study was the first analysis of the diabetic foot care program and examined two groups of participants for comparison, ie, a “before” group having had diabetic foot ulcers managed between 1983, when the hospital was first established, and 2002 when the program began and an “after group” having had foot ulcers managed between 2002 and 2004, in the program’s initial phase. A total of 41 charts were randomly chosen retrospectively. A data sheet containing age, gender, medical data, and the presentation, management, and outcome of diabetic foot cases was used for the analysis.Results: The before group contained 20 patients (17 males and the after group contained 21 patients (16 males. There was no difference between the two groups with regard to age and comorbidities. The rate of amputation was 70% in the before group and 61.9% in the after group. There was a decrease in the percentage of toe amputation in the after group and an increase in the percentage of below-knee amputation in the before group. However, these changes were not significant.Conclusion: The program, although evaluated at an early

  19. Impact of newly-measured gadolinium cross sections on BWR fuel rod reaction rate distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jatuff, F.; Perret, G.; Murphy, M.; Grimm, P.; Seiler, R. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Chawla, R. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federal de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    Recent measurements of capture and total cross sections performed at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in the USA confirmed many of the gadolinium thermal and resonant neutron cross section parameters within uncertainties, but they also showed up important discrepancies well out of uncertainties, such as an approx11% overestimation of the {sup 157}Gd thermal capture cross section in ENDF/B-VI and -VII with respect to the newly measured data. In this work, the impact of the newly measured gadolinium cross sections on BWR reactor physics parameters has been preliminarily evaluated. The comparisons of rod-by-rod fission rate and modified conversion ratio predictions with selected cold critical experiments at the PROTEUS reactor in Switzerland show the potential to resolve long-term unexplained discrepancies. (authors)

  20. The impact of exchange rate EUR/USD on the rate of return of bond investments denominated in US dollar from the point of view of euro investor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldřich Šoba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Investment opportunities into foreign curruncies financial assets are rising because of financial markets globalization, financial markets integration and evolution of modern information technologies. The currency risk relates to these cases when investor converts cash from and into domestic currency. The currency risk is determined by unexcepeted change of exchange rate (currency of financial asset denomination / investor’s domestic currency during duration of the investment.Objective of the paper is quantification and analysis of exchange rate EUR/USD impact on the rate of return of bond investments denominated in US dollar from the point of view of a euro investor for investment horizons of different length.The analysis is realized for following investment horizons: 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, 5 years, 7 years, 10 year and 12 year. Complementary investment horizons are: month and 15 year. Bond investments denominated just US dollar are represented by investments into ING bond unit trust in period December 1989–December 2007. The unit trust invests into bonds with high rating (for example governmants bonds etc.. These bonds are denominated in USD only. Methodology of the analysis is based on quantification of proportion of exchange rate EUR/USD impact on the rate of return of bond investment denominated in USD. The share is based on basic piece of knowledge of the uncovered interest rate parity.

  1. Impact of hydrodynamic interactions on protein folding rates depends on temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegarra, Fabio C.; Homouz, Dirar; Eliaz, Yossi; Gasic, Andrei G.; Cheung, Margaret S.

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the impact of hydrodynamic interactions (HI) on protein folding using a coarse-grained model. The extent of the impact of hydrodynamic interactions, whether it accelerates, retards, or has no effect on protein folding, has been controversial. Together with a theoretical framework of the energy landscape theory (ELT) for protein folding that describes the dynamics of the collective motion with a single reaction coordinate across a folding barrier, we compared the kinetic effects of HI on the folding rates of two protein models that use a chain of single beads with distinctive topologies: a 64-residue α /β chymotrypsin inhibitor 2 (CI2) protein, and a 57-residue β -barrel α -spectrin Src-homology 3 domain (SH3) protein. When comparing the protein folding kinetics simulated with Brownian dynamics in the presence of HI to that in the absence of HI, we find that the effect of HI on protein folding appears to have a "crossover" behavior about the folding temperature. This means that at a temperature greater than the folding temperature, the enhanced friction from the hydrodynamic solvents between the beads in an unfolded configuration results in lowered folding rate; conversely, at a temperature lower than the folding temperature, HI accelerates folding by the backflow of solvent toward the folded configuration of a protein. Additionally, the extent of acceleration depends on the topology of a protein: for a protein like CI2, where its folding nucleus is rather diffuse in a transition state, HI channels the formation of contacts by favoring a major folding pathway in a complex free energy landscape, thus accelerating folding. For a protein like SH3, where its folding nucleus is already specific and less diffuse, HI matters less at a temperature lower than the folding temperature. Our findings provide further theoretical insight to protein folding kinetic experiments and simulations.

  2. The impact of building orientation and discount rates on a Portuguese reference building refurbishment decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandão de Vasconcelos, Ana; Cabaço, António; Pinheiro, Manuel Duarte; Manso, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Refurbishment, as part of the construction industry, has a strong global impact, not only from the viewpoint of economies but also from social and energy-efficiency perspectives. A thermal refurbishment process, in particular, involves numerous decisions and choices; the decision-makers being ultimately confronted with two major questions: which criterion should be adopted in the choice of the refurbishment construction solutions and which refurbishment construction solutions should be chosen? In this paper, a criterion based on technical and economic points of view is proposed, aiming to identify the cost-optimal package of energy efficient solutions from among a set of possible refurbishment measures, within the life cycle of buildings. Sensitivity analyses are also performed so that the results may help the decision-maker choose the appropriate refurbishment solutions to be adopted when different discount rates and building orientations are taken into consideration. A total of seven scenarios, for a macroeconomic perspective, and nine, for a financial perspective, are performed. The costoptimal methodology adopted, following the Directive 2010/31/EU (2010) recommendations, is applied to a Portuguese reference building. The analysis carried out allows obtaining low global life cycle costs solutions and points towards nearly Zero Energy Building (nZEB) concept. The results are important for drawing national political instruments on buildings energy efficiency. - Highlights: •Building refurbishment decision based on technical and economic points of view. •35.000 Packages of thermal rehabilitation solutions considered. •Building orientation and discount rate impact on the cost-optimal package of solutions. •Portuguese reference building case base.

  3. Overview of the JET results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Romanelli, F.; Abhangi, M.; Abreu, P.; Aftanas, Milan; Afzal, M.; Aggarwal, K.M.; Aho-Mantila, L.; Ahonen, E.; Aints, M.; Airila, M.; Albanese, R.; Bílková, Petra; Cahyna, Pavel; Dejarnac, Renaud; Ďuran, Ivan; Fuchs, Vladimír; Horáček, Jan; Imríšek, M.; Janky, Filip; Ješko, Karol; Markovič, Tomáš; Mlynář, Jan; Peterka, Matěj; Petržílka, Václav; Tomeš, Matěj; Vondráček, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 10 (2015), s. 104001 ISSN 0029-5515. [Fusion Energy Conference (FEC)/25./. St Petersburg, 13.10.2014-18.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : ITER-like wall * JET * tokamaks * magnetic confinement Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.040, year: 2015 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0029-5515/55/10/104001/meta;jsessionid=3FA2A9AC9BDFE6B4A43C77C9CF6C0DF0.c2.iopscience.cld.iop.org

  4. Present and past denudation rates in the central Tianshan (Central Asia): impact of the Quaternary glaciations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charreau, J.; Puchol, N.; Blard, P.; Braucher, R.; Leanni, L.; Bourles, D. L.; Graveleau, F.; Dominguez, S.

    2012-12-01

    Denudation controls the mass transfer from the uplifting highlands to the lowlands basin. It impacts the isostatic compensation and hence tectonics, the rheology and may drives the Earth climate through its potential impact on atmospheric CO2. Denudation is therefore a key factor governing the evolution of the Earth's surface. Quantitative records of past denudation rates over geological time scales are thus of major importance to untangle the complex interactions between tectonics, climate and surface processes. This is particularly true at the Plio-pleistocene transition where the onset of Quaternary glaciations may have enhanced worldwide denudation rates. The Tianshan stands out as a key area to better address these problems. This range owes its impressive present high topography to the recent deformation due to the India-Asia collision and is moreover sandwiched between two large intracontinental endorheic basins where the total material eroded from the uplifting range may be deciphered from the sedimentary archive. Moreover, here, potential changes in the sediment volume are insensitive to global sea-level variations. Accurate reconstruction of past denudation rate require well-dated sedimentary archives. Over past decades, several magnetostratigraphic studies were carried out in the piedmonts, where remarkable sedimentary sections are exposed in deep rivers entrenchment which expose the thick conglomeratic Xiyu formation, initially assigned to be Plio-pleistocene in age. This led several authors to conclude that, in this region, the sediment fluxes rapidly increaseed at the onset of glaciations. However, absolute magnetostratigraphic dating unambiguously show that this formation is highly diachronous and, therefore, can't owe its origin to a climate change. Given the strong lateral facies variations, reconstruction of past denudation rates from the sedimentary archive require detailed chronostratigraphy and a knowledge of the basin geometry, both almost

  5. Shale gas technology innovation rate impact on economic Base Case – Scenario model benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weijermars, Ruud

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cash flow models control which technology is affordable in emerging shale gas plays. • Impact of technology innovation on IRR can be as important as wellhead price hikes. • Cash flow models are useful for technology decisions that make shale gas plays economic. • The economic gap can be closed by appropriate technology innovation. - Abstract: Low gas wellhead prices in North America have put its shale gas industry under high competitive pressure. Rapid technology innovation can help companies to improve the economic performance of shale gas fields. Cash flow models are paramount for setting effective production and technology innovation targets to achieve positive returns on investment in all global shale gas plays. Future cash flow of a well (or cluster of wells) may either improve further or deteriorate, depending on: (1) the regional volatility in gas prices at the wellhead – which must pay for the gas resource extraction, and (2) the cost and effectiveness of the well technology used. Gas price is an externality and cannot be controlled by individual companies, but well technology cost can be reduced while improving production output. We assume two plausible scenarios for well technology innovation and model the return on investment while checking against sensitivity to gas price volatility. It appears well technology innovation – if paced fast enough – can fully redeem the negative impact of gas price decline on shale well profits, and the required rates are quantified in our sensitivity analysis

  6. Impacts of aerosol direct effects on tropospheric ozone through changes in atmospheric dynamics and photolysis rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jia; Wang, Jiandong; Mathur, Rohit; Wang, Shuxiao; Sarwar, Golam; Pleim, Jonathan; Hogrefe, Christian; Zhang, Yuqiang; Jiang, Jingkun; Wong, David C.; Hao, Jiming

    2017-08-01

    Aerosol direct effects (ADEs), i.e., scattering and absorption of incoming solar radiation, reduce radiation reaching the ground and the resultant photolysis attenuation can decrease ozone (O3) formation in polluted areas. One the other hand, evidence also suggests that ADE-associated cooling suppresses atmospheric ventilation, thereby enhancing surface-level O3. Assessment of ADE impacts is thus important for understanding emission reduction strategies that seek co-benefits associated with reductions in both particulate matter and O3 levels. This study quantifies the impacts of ADEs on tropospheric ozone by using a two-way online coupled meteorology and atmospheric chemistry model, WRF-CMAQ, using a process analysis methodology. Two manifestations of ADE impacts on O3 including changes in atmospheric dynamics (ΔDynamics) and changes in photolysis rates (ΔPhotolysis) were assessed separately through multiple scenario simulations for January and July of 2013 over China. Results suggest that ADEs reduced surface daily maxima 1 h O3 (DM1O3) in China by up to 39 µg m-3 through the combination of ΔDynamics and ΔPhotolysis in January but enhanced surface DM1O3 by up to 4 µg m-3 in July. Increased O3 in July is largely attributed to ΔDynamics, which causes a weaker O3 sink of dry deposition and a stronger O3 source of photochemistry due to the stabilization of the atmosphere. Meanwhile, surface OH is also enhanced at noon in July, though its daytime average values are reduced in January. An increased OH chain length and a shift towards more volatile organic compound (VOC)-limited conditions are found due to ADEs in both January and July. This study suggests that reducing ADEs may have the potential risk of increasing O3 in winter, but it will benefit the reduction in maxima O3 in summer.

  7. Impact of dynamic rate coding aspects of mobile phone networks on forensic voice comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzqhoul, Esam A S; Nair, Balamurali B T; Guillemin, Bernard J

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that landline and mobile phone networks are different in their ways of handling the speech signal, and therefore in their impact on it. But the same is also true of the different networks within the mobile phone arena. There are two major mobile phone technologies currently in use today, namely the global system for mobile communications (GSM) and code division multiple access (CDMA) and these are fundamentally different in their design. For example, the quality of the coded speech in the GSM network is a function of channel quality, whereas in the CDMA network it is determined by channel capacity (i.e., the number of users sharing a cell site). This paper examines the impact on the speech signal of a key feature of these networks, namely dynamic rate coding, and its subsequent impact on the task of likelihood-ratio-based forensic voice comparison (FVC). Surprisingly, both FVC accuracy and precision are found to be better for both GSM- and CDMA-coded speech than for uncoded. Intuitively one expects FVC accuracy to increase with increasing coded speech quality. This trend is shown to occur for the CDMA network, but, surprisingly, not for the GSM network. Further, in respect to comparisons between these two networks, FVC accuracy for CDMA-coded speech is shown to be slightly better than for GSM-coded speech, particularly when the coded-speech quality is high, but in terms of FVC precision the two networks are shown to be very similar. Copyright © 2015 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. PERFORMANCE OF THE ATLAS JET TRIGGER AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS

    CERN Document Server

    Sherafati, Nima; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC uses a two-level trigger system to record interesting events maintaining good signal efficiency at lower energies where pileup dominates. A new challenge is to control the increased trigger rate due to the expected higher pileup for LHC Run 2. This poster presents the jet trigger efficiency as a function of the offline jet transverse momentum for proton-proton collision data at the centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. In addition, the efficiencies of global sequential calibrated (GSC) jet trigger, trimmed jet and trimmed dijet triggers are shown.

  9. Intermediate PT jet spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutay, L.J.; Koltick, D.; Hauptman, J.; Stork, D.; Theodosiou, G.

    1988-01-01

    A design is presented for a limited solid angle, high resolution double arm spectrometer at 90 degree to the begin, with a vertex detector and particle identification in both arms. The jet arm is designed to accept a complete jet, and identify its substructure of sub-jets, hadrons, and leptons. The particle arm would measure e,π,K,p ratios for P T 0 to the beam for the purpose of tagging Higgs production by boson fusion, 1 gauge boson (WW, ZZ, and WZ) scattering 2 L, and other processes involving the interactions of virtual gauge bosons

  10. Latest results from JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickerton, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    The Joint European Torus (JET) is a large tokamak designed with the essential objective of obtaining and studying plasmas with parameters close to those envisaged for an eventual power-generating, nuclear-fusion reactor. JET is situated on a site near Abingdon, Oxon, UK. JET is the largest single project of the nuclear fusion research programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The tokamak started operation in mid 1983 after a five year construction period. The scientific and technical results achieved so far are summarised in this article. (orig.)

  11. Oscillating acoustic streaming jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moudjed, Brahim; Botton, Valery; Henry, Daniel; Millet, Severine; Ben Hadid, Hamda; Garandet, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    The present paper provides the first experimental investigation of an oscillating acoustic streaming jet. The observations are performed in the far field of a 2 MHz circular plane ultrasound transducer introduced in a rectangular cavity filled with water. Measurements are made by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in horizontal and vertical planes near the end of the cavity. Oscillations of the jet appear in this zone, for a sufficiently high Reynolds number, as an intermittent phenomenon on an otherwise straight jet fluctuating in intensity. The observed perturbation pattern is similar to that of former theoretical studies. This intermittently oscillatory behavior is the first step to the transition to turbulence. (authors)

  12. Rating impacts in a multi-stressor world: a quantitative assessment of 50 stressors affecting the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sigrid D P; Mcintyre, Peter B; Halpern, Benjamin S; Cooke, Roger M; Marino, Adrienne L; Boyer, Gregory L; Buchsbaum, Andy; Burton, G A; Campbell, Linda M; Ciborowski, Jan J H; Doran, Patrick J; Infante, Dana M; Johnson, Lucinda B; Read, Jennifer G; Rose, Joan B; Rutherford, Edward S; Steinman, Alan D; Allan, J David

    2015-04-01

    Ecosystems often experience multiple environmental stressors simultaneously that can differ widely in their pathways and strengths of impact. Differences in the relative impact of environmental stressors can guide restoration and management prioritization, but few studies have empirically assessed a comprehensive suite of stressors acting on a given ecosystem. To fill this gap in the Laurentian Great Lakes, where considerable restoration investments are currently underway, we used expert elicitation via a detailed online survey to develop ratings of the relative impacts of 50 potential stressors. Highlighting the multiplicity of stressors in this system, experts assessed all 50 stressors as having some impact on ecosystem condition, but ratings differed greatly among stressors. Individual stressors related to invasive and nuisance species (e.g., dreissenid mussels and ballast invasion risk) and climate change were assessed as having the greatest potential impacts. These results mark a shift away from the longstanding emphasis on nonpoint phosphorus and persistent bioaccumulative toxic substances in the Great Lakes. Differences in impact ratings among lakes and ecosystem zones were weak, and experts exhibited surprisingly high levels of agreement on the relative impacts of most stressors. Our results provide a basin-wide, quantitative summary of expert opinion on the present-day influence of all major Great Lakes stressors. The resulting ratings can facilitate prioritizing stressors to achieve management objectives in a given location, as well as providing a baseline for future stressor impact assessments in the Great Lakes and elsewhere.

  13. Detritiation studies for JET decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perevezentsev, A.N.; Bell, A.C.; Williams, J.; Brennan, P.D. [EURATOM/UKAEA Fussion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    JET is the world largest tokamak and has the capacity of operating with a tritium plasma. Three experimental campaigns, the Preliminary Tritium Experiment (0.1g T{sub 2}) in 1991, the Trace Tritium Experiment (5g T{sub 2}) in 2005, and the large experiment, the Deuterium-Tritium Experiment (DTE1) (100g T{sub 2}) in 1997, were carried out at JET with tritium plasmas. In DTE1 about 35 grams of tritium were fed directly into the vacuum vessel, with about 30% of this tritium being retained inside the vessel. In several years time JET will cease experimental operations and enter a decommissioning phase. In preparation for this the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, the JET Operator, has been carrying out studies of various detritiation techniques. The materials which have been the subject of these studies include solid materials, such as various metals (Inconel 600 and 625, stainless steel 316L, beryllium, 'oxygen-free' copper, aluminium bronze), carbon fibre composite tiles, 'carbon' flakes and dust present in the vacuum vessel and also soft housekeeping materials. Liquid materials include organic liquids, such as vacuum oils and scintillation cocktails, and water. Detritiation of gas streams was also investigated. The purpose of the studies was to select and experimentally prove primary and auxiliary technologies for in-situ detritiation of in-vessel components and ex-situ detritiation of components removed from the vessel. The targets of ex-vessel detritiation were a reduction of the tritium inventory in and the rate of tritium out-gassing from the materials, and conversion, if possible, of intermediate level waste to low level waste and a reduction in volume of waste for disposal. The results of experimental trials and their potential application are presented. (orig.)

  14. Variations in Multiple Birth Rates and Impact on Perinatal Outcomes in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Heino

    Full Text Available Infants from multiple pregnancies have higher rates of preterm birth, stillbirth and neonatal death and differences in multiple birth rates (MBR exist between countries. We aimed to describe differences in MBR in Europe and to investigate the impact of these differences on adverse perinatal outcomes at a population level.We used national aggregate birth data on multiple pregnancies, maternal age, gestational age (GA, stillbirth and neonatal death collected in the Euro-Peristat project (29 countries in 2010, N = 5 074 643 births. We also used European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE data on assisted conception and single embryo transfer (SET. The impact of MBR on outcomes was studied using meta-analysis techniques with random-effects models to derive pooled risk ratios (pRR overall and for four groups of country defined by their MBR. We computed population attributable risks (PAR for these groups.In 2010, the average MBR was 16.8 per 1000 women giving birth, ranging from 9.1 (Romania to 26.5 (Cyprus. Compared to singletons, multiples had a nine-fold increased risk (pRR 9.4, 95% Cl 9.1-9.8 of preterm birth (<37 weeks GA, an almost 12-fold increased risk (pRR 11.7, 95% CI 11.0-12.4 of very preterm birth (<32 weeks GA. Pooled RR were 2.4 (95% Cl 1.5-3.6 for fetal mortality at or after 28 weeks GA and 7.0 (95% Cl 6.1-8.0 for neonatal mortality. PAR of neonatal death and very preterm birth were higher in countries with high MBR compared to low MBR (17.1% (95% CI 13.8-20.2 versus 9.8% (95% Cl 9.6-11.0 for neonatal death and 29.6% (96% CI 28.5-30.6 versus 17.5% (95% CI 15.7-18.3 for very preterm births, respectively.Wide variations in MBR and their impact on population outcomes imply that efforts by countries to reduce MBR could improve perinatal outcomes, enabling better long-term child health.

  15. The Impact of Changes to the Unemployment Rate on Australian Disability Income Insurance Claim Incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Khemka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We explore the extent to which claim incidence in Disability Income Insurance (DII is affected by changes in the unemployment rate in Australia. Using data from 1986 to 2001, we fit a hurdle model to explore the presence and magnitude of the effect of changes in unemployment rate on the incidence of DII claims, controlling for policy holder characteristics and seasonality. We find a clear positive association between unemployment and claim incidence, and we explore this further by gender, age, deferment period, and occupation. A multinomial logistic regression model is fitted to cause of claim data in order to explore the relationship further, and it is shown that the proportion of claims due to accident increases markedly with rising unemployment. The results suggest that during periods of rising unemployment, insurers may face increased claims from policy holders with shorter deferment periods for white-collar workers and for medium and heavy manual workers. Our findings indicate that moral hazard may have a material impact on DII claim incidence and insurer business in periods of declining economic conditions.

  16. Potential increases in natural disturbance rates could offset forest management impacts on ecosystem carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, John B.; Jensen, Nicholas R.; Domke, Grant M.; D’Amato, Anthony W.

    2013-01-01

    Forested ecosystems contain the majority of the world’s terrestrial carbon, and forest management has implications for regional and global carbon cycling. Carbon stored in forests changes with stand age and is affected by natural disturbance and timber harvesting. We examined how harvesting and disturbance interact to influence forest carbon stocks over the Superior National Forest, in northern Minnesota. Forest inventory data from the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis program were used to characterize current forest age structure and quantify the relationship between age and carbon stocks for eight forest types. Using these findings, we simulated the impact of alternative management scenarios and natural disturbance rates on forest-wide terrestrial carbon stocks over a 100-year horizon. Under low natural mortality, forest-wide total ecosystem carbon stocks increased when 0% or 40% of planned harvests were implemented; however, the majority of forest-wide carbon stocks decreased with greater harvest levels and elevated disturbance rates. Our results suggest that natural disturbance has the potential to exert stronger influence on forest carbon stocks than timber harvesting activities and that maintaining carbon stocks over the long-term may prove difficult if disturbance frequency increases in response to climate change.

  17. Workplace relationships impact self-rated health: A survey of Swedish municipal health care employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Sophie Schön; Lindström, Petra Nilsson; Pettersson, Pär; Andersson, Ingemar

    2018-05-22

    The impact of positive social relationships on the health of municipal employees in the elder care sector in Sweden needs further examination. To explore the association between health and relationships among elderly care employees using a salutogenic perspective. Survey of all employees (n = 997) in special housing, home care and Disabled Support and Services in a Swedish municipality. The questionnaire, which had a salutogenic perspective, included information on self-rated health from the previously validated SHIS (Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale), psychosocial work environment and experiences, social climate, and health-promoting workplace relationships. The response rate was 69% . Results of a multivariable linear regression model showed four significant predictors of health: general work experiences, colleague belongingness and positive relationships with managers and care recipients. In another model, colleague belongingness was significantly related to satisfaction with care recipients, work, length of employment as well as general work experiences and relationships with managers. Strengthening of positive work relationships, not only between workmates but also with managers and care recipients, seems to be an essential area for employee health promotion. Colleague belongingness may be deepened by development of a positive work climate, including satisfactory work experiences, positive manager relationships and a stable work force.

  18. Air entrainment by plunging water jets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Sande, E.

    1974-01-01

    Gas entrainment caused by the impact of liquid jets upon liquid pool surfaces is a subject which has received too little attention. This well-known phenomenon,which occurs In nature and in numerous industrial operations, has only recently received interest from scientific workers. The influence on

  19. Water Jet Technology Used in Medicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hreha, P.; Hloch, S.; Magurová, D.; Valíček, Jan; Kozak, D.; Harničárová, M.; Rakin, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 7 (2010), s. 237-240 ISSN 1330-3651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : abrasive water jet * medicine * technology Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.083, year: 2010

  20. Parton distribution and Tevatron jet data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekhin, S.; Bluemlein, J.; Moch, S.

    2011-05-01

    We study the impact of Tevatron jet data on a global fit of parton distribution functions and on the determination of the value of the strong coupling constant α s (M Z ). The consequences are illustrated for cross sections of Higgs boson production at Tevatron and the LHC. (orig.)

  1. Azimuthal anisotropy of jet quenching at LHC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We analyze the azimuthal anisotropy of jet spectra due to energy loss of hard partons in quark–gluon plasma, created initially in nuclear overlap zone in collisions with non-zero impact parameter. The calculations are performed for semi-central Pb–Pb collisions at LHC energy.

  2. Progress in Neutron Diagnostics at JET

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mlynář, Jan; Bonheure, G.; Murari, A.; Bertalot, L.; Angelone, M.; Pillon, M.; Conroy, S.; Ericsson, G.; Kaellne, J.; Popovichev, S.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, suppl.B (2006), B118-B124 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology /22nd./. Praha, 26.6.2006-29.6.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : tokamak * JET * fusion * neutrons diagnostics Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  3. The potential impact of increased treatment rates for alcohol dependence in the United Kingdom in 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Kevin D; Rehm, Jürgen; Rehm, Maximilien X; Gmel, Gerrit; Drummond, Colin

    2014-02-05

    treatment rates not only impact mortality but also impact upon the large burden of disability and morbidity attributable to AD, as well as the associated social and economic burdens.

  4. The impact of height during childhood on the national prevalence rates of overweight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula van Dommelen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is known that height and body mass index (BMI are correlated in childhood. However, its impact on the (trend of national prevalence rates of overweight and obesity has never been investigated. The aim of our study is to investigate the relation between height and national prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in childhood between 1980, 1997, and 2009, and to calculate which fixed value of p (2.0,2.1, …,3.0 in kg/m(p during childhood is most accurate in predicting adult overweight. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cross-sectional growth data of children from three Dutch nationwide surveys in 1980, 1997, and 2009, and longitudinal data from the Terneuzen Birth Cohort and the Harpenden Growth Study were used. Relative risks (RR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. Our study showed that tall (>1 standard deviation (SD girls aged 5.0-13.9 y were more often overweight (RR = 3.5,95%CI:2.8-4.4 and obese (RR = 3.9,95%CI:2.1-7.4 than short girls (<-1 SD. Similar results were found in boys aged 5.0-14.9 y (RR = 4.4,95%CI:3.4-5.7 and RR = 5.3,95%CI:2.6-11.0. No large differences were found in the other age groups and in comparison with children with an average stature. Tall boys aged 2.0-4.9 y had a significantly higher positive trend in overweight between 1980 and 1997 compared to short boys (RR = 4.0,95%CI:1.38-11.9. For other age groups and in girls, no significant trends were found. The optimal Area Under the Curve (AUC to predict adult overweight was found for p = 2.0. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Tall girls aged 5.0-13.9y and tall boys aged 5.0-14.9y have much higher prevalence rates of overweight and obesity than their shorter peers. We suggest taking into account the impact of height when evaluating trends and variations of BMI distributions in childhood, and to use BMI to predict adult overweight.

  5. [Voluntary alpha-power increasing training impact on the heart rate variability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Balioz, N V; Muravleva, K B; Skoraia, M V

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the effect of the alpha EEG power increasing training at heart rate variability (HRV) as the index of the autonomic regulation of cognitive functions there were follow tasks: (1) to figure out the impact of biofeedback in the voluntary increasing the power in the individual high-frequency alpha-band effect on heart rate variability and related characteristics of cognitive and emotional spheres, (2) to determine the nature of the relationship between alpha activity indices and heart rate variability, depending on the alpha-frequency EEG pattern at rest (3) to examine how the individual alpha frequency EEG pattern is reflected in changes HRV as a result of biofeedback training. Psychometric indicators of cognitive performance, the characteristics of the alpha-EEG activity and heart rate variability (HRV) as LF/HF and pNN50 were recorded in 27 healthy men aged 18-34 years, before, during, and after 10 sessions of training of voluntary increase in alpha power in the individual high-frequency alpha band with eyes closed. To determine the biofeedback effect on the alpha power increasing training, data subjects are compared in 2 groups: experimental (14) with the real and the control group (13 people)--with mock biofeedback. The follow up effect of trainings was studied through month over the 10 training sessions. Results showed that alpha biofeedback training enhanced the fluency and accuracy in cognitive performance, decreased anxiety and frontal EMG, increased resting frequency, width and power in individual upper alpha range only in participants with low baseline alpha frequency. While mock biofeedback increased resting alpha power only in participants with high baseline resting alpha frequency and did change neither cognitive performance, nor HRV indices. Biofeedback training eliminated the alpha power decrease in response to arithmetic task in both with high and low alpha frequency participants and this effect was followed up over the month. Mock

  6. Performance Analysis of a Multiple Micro-Jet Impingements Cooling Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Husain

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the thermal performance of a multiple micro-jet impingements model for electronics cooling. The fluid flow and heat transport characteristics were investigated for steady incompressible laminar flow by solving three-dimensional (3D Navier-Stokes equations. Several parallel and staggered micro-jet configurations (ie. inline 2 Å~ 2, 3 Å~ 3 and 4 Å~ 4 jets, and staggered five-jet and 13-jet arrays with the jet diameter to the channel height ratios from 0.25–0.5 were analyzed at various flow rates for the maximum temperature rise, pressure drop, heat-transfer coefficient, thermal resistance, and pumping power characteristics. The parametric investigation was carried out based on the number of jets and the jet diameters at various mass flow rates and jet Reynolds numbers. Temperature uniformity and coefficient of performance were evaluated to find out the trade-off among the various designs investigated in the present study. The maximum temperature rise and the pressure drop decreased with an increase in the number of jets except in the case of staggered five-jet array. A higher temperature uniformity was observed at higher flow rates with a decrease in the coefficient of performance. The performance parameters, such as thermal resistance and pumping power, showed a conflicting nature with respect to design variables (viz. jet diameter to stand-off ratio and interjet spacing or number of jets at various Reynolds numbers within the laminar regime.

  7. Numerical Investigation of Jet Impingement Heat Transfer on a Flat plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asem Nabadavis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The numerical investigation emphasizes on studying the heat transfer characteristics when a high velocity air jet impinges upon a flat plate having constant heat flux. Numerical analysis has been conducted by solving conservation equations of momentum, mass and energy with two equations based k- ε turbulence model to determine the wall temperature and Nu of the plate considering the flow to be incompressible. It was found from the investigation that the heat transfer rate increases with the increase of Reynolds number of the jet (Rej. It was also found that there is an optimum value for jet distance to nozzle diameter ratio (H/d for maximum heat transfer when all the other parameters were kept fixed. Similar results as above were found when two jets of air were used instead of one jet keeping the mass flow rate constant. For a two jets case it was also found that heat transfer rate over the surface increases when the jets are inclined outward compared to vertical and inward jets and also there exists an optimum angle of jet for maximum heat transfer. Further investigation was carried out for different jetto-jet separation distance for a twin jet impingement model where it was noted that heat transfer is more distributed in case of larger values of L and the rate of heat transfer increases as the separation between the jet increases till a certain point after which the rate of heat transfer decreases.

  8. Self-citation rates among medical imaging journals and a possible association with impact factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurmis, Timothy P.; Kurmis, Andrew P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Since conceptualisation in 1955, journal impact factors (IFs) have evolved as surrogate markers of perceived 'quality'. However, no previous research has explored the relationship between IF and journal self-citation rate, which may inflate this measure. Given Radiography's ongoing push to achieve Medline and ISI database inclusion, this paper aimed to quantitatively explore the frequency of self-citation and correlate this with ISI-reported IF. Methods: A review of articles published in two peer-reviewed, Medline and ISI-listed, imaging journals (Radiology and Academic Radiology), and Radiography, within in a 12-month period, was performed. The total number of citations and self-citations per article was recorded, and the results compared. Basic statistical and correlation analyses between listed IF ratings and self-citation indices were also performed. Results and Discussion: To our knowledge, this work represents the preliminary investigation exploring the association between ISI-listed IF and self-citation frequency. From the current results it can be suggested that such a relationship does exist, as demonstrated by the strongly positive correlation statistic (Pearson's r 2 = 0.99). Radiology was noted to have a considerably larger mean number of self-citations per article than the other two journals (p < 0.01), despite near-equivalent numbers of references per article. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that there may be relationship between an ISI-listed IFs and journal self-citation rates. It is hoped that this paper will be of interest in academic and research circles, both within medical imaging and more widely, and may provide impetus for discussion relating to self-citation frequency and influence on resultant IF calculations.

  9. Impact of Health Research Systems on Under-5 Mortality Rate: A Trend Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Yazdizadeh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Between 1990 and 2015, under-5 mortality rate (U5MR declined by 53%, from an estimated rate of 91 deaths per 1000 live births to 43, globally. The aim of this study was to determine the share of health research systems in this decrease alongside other influential factors. Methods We used random effect regression models including the ‘random intercept’ and ‘random intercept and random slope’ models to analyze the panel data from 1990 to 2010. We selected the countries with U5MRs falling between the first and third quartiles in 1990. We used both the total articles (TA and the number of child-specific articles (CSA as a proxy of the health research system. In order to account for the impact of other factors, measles vaccination coverage (MVC (as a proxy of health system performance, gross domestic product (GDP, human development index (HDI, and corruption perception index (CPI (as proxies of development, were embedded in the model. Results Among all the models, ‘the random intercept and random slope models’ had lower residuals. The same variables of CSA, HDI, and time were significant and the coefficient of CSA was estimated at -0.17; meaning, with the addition of every 100 CSA, the rate of U5MR decreased by 17 per 1000 live births. Conclusion Although the number of CSA has contributed to the reduction of U5MR, the amount of its contribution is negligible compared to the countries’ development. We recommend entering different types of researches into the model separately in future research andincluding the variable of ‘exchange between knowledge generator and user.’

  10. Measurements of Jets in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Nattrass, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE detector can be used for measurements of jets in pp , p Pb, and Pb–Pb collisions. Measurements of jets in pp collisions are consis- tent with expectations from perturbative calculations and jets in p Pb scale with the number of nucleon–nucleon collisions, indicating that cold nuclear matter effects are not observed for jets. Measurements in Pb–Pb collisions demonstrate suppression of jets relative to expectations from binary scaling to the equivalent number of nucleon–nucleon collisions

  11. Jet lag prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lose time. Symptoms of jet lag include: Trouble falling asleep or waking up Tiredness during the day ... at your destination. For longer trips, before you leave, try to adapt to the time schedule of ...

  12. Intermonsoonal equatorial jets

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.

    , respectively. Hydrographic features and transport computations favour a well developed equatorial jet during both seasons. The net surface eastward and subsurface westward flows are well balanced during the premonsoon transition period and appear...

  13. Irradiated target cooling using circular air jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvaraj, P.; Natesan, K.; Velusamy, K.; Baskaran, V.; Sundararajan, T.

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of irradiation on materials, sample coupons are irradiated in cyclotron facilities. During the irradiation process, these samples produce significant heat. This heat needs to be continuously removed from the samples in order to avoid melting of the samples as well as to keep the samples at a particular temperature during irradiation. The area available for heat transfer is limited due to the small size of the samples. To increase the heat transfer rate, jet cooling is used as it provides large heat transfer co-efficient. To understand the heat transfer characteristics of jet cooling under these conditions, experiments have been carried out. Electric Joule heating is adopted to simulate irradiation heat in stainless steel samples. An array of circular nozzles is used to create air jet. From the study the values of the parameters correspond to the maximum heat removal rate are found out. The results are also compared with an empirical correlation from the literature. (author)

  14. Effects of the cooling rate on the shear behavior of continuous glass fiber/impact polypropylene composites (GF-IPP)

    KAUST Repository

    Wafai, Husam

    2016-09-20

    Fiber-reinforced composites with improved dissipation of energy during impact loading have recently been developed based on a polypropylene copolymer commonly called impact polypropylene (IPP). Composites made of IPP reinforced with glass fibers (GF) are particularly attractive to the automotive industry due to their low cost and good impact resistance. In such composites, the cooling rate varies depending on processing techniques and manufacturing choices. Here, we study the effects of the cooling rate of GF-IPP composites on shear behavior, which is critical in impact applications, using [±45]s monotonic and cyclic (load/unload) tensile specimens. The specimens were manufactured under a wide range of cooling rates (3 °C/min, 22 °C/min, 500–1000 °C/min). Mainly dominated by the properties of the matrix, the global shear behavior of GF-IPP composites differed considerably with respect to the cooling rate. However, the performance of the fiber-matrix interface (chemically modified) appeared to be unaffected by the range of cooling rates used in this study. We found that the cooling rate has a minor effect on the rate of damage accumulation, while it strongly modifies the shear-activated rate-dependant viscoelastic behavior. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  15. Effects of the cooling rate on the shear behavior of continuous glass fiber/impact polypropylene composites (GF-IPP)

    KAUST Repository

    Wafai, Husam; Lubineau, Gilles; Yudhanto, Arief; Mulle, Matthieu; Schijve, W.; Verghese, N.

    2016-01-01

    ) are particularly attractive to the automotive industry due to their low cost and good impact resistance. In such composites, the cooling rate varies depending on processing techniques and manufacturing choices. Here, we study the effects of the cooling rate of GF

  16. The JET divertor coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, J.R.; Froger, C.; Sborchia, C.

    1989-01-01

    The divertor coil is mounted inside the Jet vacuum vessel and is able to carry 1 MA turns. It is of conventional construction - water cooled copper, epoxy glass insulation -and is contained in a thin stainless steel case. The coil has to be assembled, insulated and encased inside the Jet vacuum vessel. A description of the coil is given, together with technical information (including mechanical effects on the vacuum vessel), an outline of the manufacture process and a time schedule. (author)

  17. Pellet injectors for JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andelfinger, C.; Buechl, K.; Lang, R.S.; Schilling, H.B.; Ulrich, M.

    1981-09-01

    Pellet injection for the purpose of refuelling and diagnostic of fusion experiments is considered for the parameters of JET. The feasibility of injectors for single pellets and for quasistationary refuelling is discussed. Model calculations on pellet ablation with JET parameters show the required pellet velocity ( 3 ). For single pellet injection a light gas gun, for refuelling a centrifuge accelerator is proposed. For the latter the mechanical stress problems are discussed. Control and data acquisition systems are outlined. (orig.)

  18. The Impact of Celebrity Suicide on Subsequent Suicide Rates in the General Population of Korea from 1990 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juhyun; Choi, Nari; Kim, Seog Ju; Kim, Soohyun; An, Hyonggin; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Lee, Yu Jin

    2016-04-01

    The association between celebrity suicide and subsequent increase in suicide rates among the general population has been suggested. Previous studies primarily focused on celebrity suicides in the 2000s. To better understand the association, this study examined the impacts of celebrity suicides on subsequent suicide rates using the data of Korean celebrity suicides between 1990 and 2010. Nine celebrity suicides were selected by an investigation of media reports of suicide deaths published in three major newspapers in Korea between 1990 and 2010. Suicide mortality data were obtained from the National Statistical Office of Korea. Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average models with intervention analysis were used to test the impacts of celebrity suicides, controlling for seasonality. Six of the 9 celebrity suicides had significant impacts on suicide rates both in the total population and in the same gender- or the same age-subgroups. The incident that occurred in the 1990s had no significant impact on the overall suicide rates, whereas the majority of the incidents in the 2000s had significant influences for 30 or 60 days following each incident. The influence of celebrity suicide was shown to reach its peak following the suicide death of a renowned actress in 2008. The findings may suggest a link between media coverage and the impact of celebrity suicide. Future studies should focus more on the underlying processes and confounding factors that may contribute to the impact of celebrity suicide on subsequent suicide rates.

  19. Protostellar Jets in Context

    CERN Document Server

    Tsinganos, Kanaris; Stute, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Conference Protostellar Jets in Context held by the JETSET Marie Curie Research Training Network in July 2008. This meeting not only served to showcase some of the network's achievements but was also a platform to hear from, discuss and debate the recent findings of world-class astrophysicists in the field of protostellar jet research. Jets from young stars are of course not an isolated astrophysical phenomenon. It is known that objects as diverse as young brown dwarfs, planetary nebulae, symbiotic stars, micro-quasars, AGN, and gamma-ray bursters produce jets. Thus in a series of talks, protostellar jets were put in context by comparing them with their often much larger brethren and also by considering the ubiquitous accretion disks that seem to be necessary for their formation. With this spectrum of contributions on observations and the theory of astrophysical jets and accretion disks, this book serves as a comprehensive reference work for researchers and students...

  20. Jet supercooling and molecular jet spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wharton, L.; Levy, D.

    1979-01-01

    The marriage of the laser and the seeded supersonic jet has generated a family of new optical spectroscopic results. We shall discuss the essential features of the technique and some results. The results will include structural and dynamical views of NO 2 , NaAr, and I 2 -noble gas complexes. The extension of the method to heavier systems is illustrated with free base phthalocyanine

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