Sample records for rate distributions measured

  1. An inverse modeling procedure to determine particle growth and nucleation rates from measured aerosol size distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Verheggen


    Full Text Available Classical nucleation theory is unable to explain the ubiquity of nucleation events observed in the atmosphere. This shows a need for an empirical determination of the nucleation rate. Here we present a novel inverse modeling procedure to determine particle nucleation and growth rates based on consecutive measurements of the aerosol size distribution. The particle growth rate is determined by regression analysis of the measured change in the aerosol size distribution over time, taking into account the effects of processes such as coagulation, deposition and/or dilution. This allows the growth rate to be determined with a higher time-resolution than can be deduced from inspecting contour plots ('banana-plots''. Knowing the growth rate as a function of time enables the evaluation of the time of nucleation of measured particles of a certain size. The nucleation rate is then obtained by integrating the particle losses from time of measurement to time of nucleation. The regression analysis can also be used to determine or verify the optimum value of other parameters of interest, such as the wall loss or coagulation rate constants. As an example, the method is applied to smog chamber measurements. This program offers a powerful interpretive tool to study empirical aerosol population dynamics in general, and nucleation and growth in particular.

  2. Reaction rate distribution measurement and the core performance evaluation in the prototype FBR Monju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usami, S.; Suzuoki, Z.; Deshimaru, T. [Monju Construction Office, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Fukui-ken (Japan); Nakashima, F. [Tsuruga head Office, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Fukui-ken (Japan)


    Monju is a prototype fast breeder reactor designed to have an output of 280 MW (714 MWt), fueled with mixed oxides of plutonium and uranium and cooled by liquid sodium. The principal data on plant design and performance are shown in Table 1. Monju attained initial criticality in April 1994 and the reactor physics tests were carried out from May through November 1994. The reaction rate distribution measurement by the foil activation method was one of these tests and was carried out in order to verify the core performance and to contribute to the development of the core design methods. On the basis of the reaction rate measurement data, the Monju initial core breeding ratio and the power distribution were evaluated. (author)

  3. Distributed optical fibre temperature measurements in a low dose rate radiation environment based on Rayleigh backscattering (United States)

    Faustov, A.; Gussarov, A.; Wuilpart, M.; Fotiadi, A. A.; Liokumovich, L. B.; Kotov, O. I.; Zolotovskiy, I. O.; Tomashuk, A. L.; Deschoutheete, T.; Mégret, P.


    On-line monitoring of environmental conditions in nuclear facilities is becoming a more and more important problem. Standard electronic sensors are not the ideal solution due to radiation sensitivity and difficulties in installation of multiple sensors. In contrast, radiation-hard optical fibres can sustain very high radiation doses and also naturally offer multi-point or distributed monitoring of external perturbations. Multiple local electro-mechanical sensors can be replaced by just one measuring fibre. At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the world 1. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of major NPP components can threaten plant safety and also plant life. Among those elements, cables are vital components of I&C systems in NPPs. To ensure their safe operation and predict remaining life, environmental monitoring is necessary. In particular, temperature and radiation dose are considered to be the two most important parameters. The aim of this paper is to assess experimentally the feasibility of optical fibre temperature measurements in a low doserate radiation environment, using a commercially available reflectometer based on Rayleigh backscattering. Four different fibres were installed in the Sub-Pile Room of the BR2 Material testing nuclear reactor in Mol, Belgium. This place is man-accessible during the reactor shut-down, allowing easy fibre installation. When the reactor operates, the dose-rates in the room are in a range 0.005-5 Gy/h with temperatures of 40-60 °C, depending on the location. Such a surrounding is not much different to some "hot" environments in NPPs, where I&C cables are located.

  4. Dynamics, OH distributions and UV emission of a gliding arc at various flow-rates investigated by optical measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Sun, Zhiwei; Li, Zhongshan


    We demonstrate a plasma discharge which is generated between two diverging electrodes and extended into a gliding arc in non-equilibrium condition by an air flow at atmospheric pressure. Effects of the air flow rates on the dynamics, ground-state OH distributions and spectral characterization of UV...... occur more frequently at higher flow rates. The anchor points of the gliding arc are mostly steady at the top of the electrodes at lower flow rates whereas at higher flow rates they glide up along the electrodes most of the time. The afterglow of fully developed gliding arcs is observed to decay over......-state OH were investigated using planar laser-induced fluorescence. The results show that the shape, height, intensity and thickness of ground-state OH distribution vary significantly with air flow rates. Finally, UV emission of the gliding arc is measured using optical emission spectroscopy...

  5. Measurements of activation reaction rate distributions on a mercury target bombarded with high-energy protons at AGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Hiroshi; Kasugai, Yoshimi; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Yujiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ino, Takashi; Kawai, Masayoshi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Jerde, Eric; Glasgow, David [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    A neutronics experiment was carried out using a thick mercury target at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory in a framework of the ASTE (AGS Spallation Target Experiment) collaboration. Reaction rate distributions around the target were measured by the activation technique at incident proton energies of 1.6, 12 and 24 GeV. Various activation detectors such as the {sup 115}In(n,n'){sup 115m}In, {sup 93}Nb(n,2n){sup 92m}Nb, and {sup 209}Bi(n,xn) reactions with threshold energies ranging from 0.3 to 70.5 MeV were employed to obtain the reaction rate data for estimating spallation source neutron characteristics of the mercury target. It was found from the measured {sup 115}In(n,n'){sup 115m}In reaction rate distribution that the number of leakage neutrons becomes maximum at about 11 cm from the top of hemisphere of the mercury target for the 1.6-GeV proton incidence and the peak position moves towards forward direction with increase of the incident proton energy. The similar result was observed in the reaction rate distributions of other activation detectors. The experimental procedures and a full set of experimental data in numerical form are summarized in this report. (author)

  6. Evening heart rate measured at home is associated with visceral obesity and abnormal fat distribution in patients with hypertension. (United States)

    Yano, Yuichiro; Haimoto, Hajime; Hoshide, Satoshi; Kabutoya, Tomoyuki; Eguchi, Kazuo; Kario, Kazuomi


    Our aim was to examine the association between heart rate (HR) and visceral obesity and abnormal fat distribution in patients undergoing treatment for hypertension. We also ascertained whether such associations differ depending on the time of day when HR is measured and the venue at which the measurement is carried out (office or home). The study enrolled a total of 390 patients (mean age 63.9 years; 45% men) receiving treatment with antihypertensive drugs other than β blockers or nondihydropyridine Ca-channel blockers. Office blood pressure (BP) and HR as well as home BP and HR, both morning and evening, were measured in all these patients for 14 days. The amount of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were determined using abdominal computed tomography (CT). Evening HR was positively associated with VAT (r = 0.26) and negatively associated with SAT (r = -0.16); as a consequence, evening HR was closely associated with the VAT/SAT ratio (r = 0.30; all P logistic regression analysis revealed that a 1-s.d. increase (10 beats per minute) in evening HR was significantly associated with visceral obesity (defined as VAT ≥100 cm)(2) (odds ratio (95% confidence interval: 1.7 (1.3-2.3)), P < 0.001), and that this association was independent of body mass index (BMI) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥85 cm for men and ≥90 cm for women). In these patients receiving treatment for hypertension, high evening HR was associated with visceral obesity, independent of the presence of subcutaneous fat and BMI. This novel finding could explain why cardiovascular risk is higher in individuals with high HR.

  7. Universality in movie rating distributions (United States)

    Lorenz, J.


    In this paper histograms of user ratings for movies (1bigstar,...,10bigstar) are analysed. The evolving stabilised shapes of histograms follow the rule that all are either double- or triple-peaked. Moreover, at most one peak can be on the central bins 2bigstar,...,9bigstar and the distribution in these bins looks smooth `Gaussian-like’ while changes at the extremes (1bigstar and 10bigstar) often look abrupt. It is shown that this is well approximated under the assumption that histograms are confined and discretised probability density functions of Lévy skew α-stable distributions. These distributions are the only stable distributions which could emerge due to a generalized central limit theorem from averaging of various independent random variables as which one can see the initial opinions of users. Averaging is also an appropriate assumption about the social process which underlies the process of continuous opinion formation. Surprisingly, not the normal distribution achieves the best fit over histograms observed on the web, but distributions with fat tails which decay as power-laws with exponent -(1+α) (α=4/3). The scale and skewness parameters of the Lévy skew α-stable distributions seem to depend on the deviation from an average movie (with mean about 7.6bigstar). The histogram of such an average movie has no skewness and is the most narrow one. If a movie deviates from average the distribution gets broader and skew. The skewness pronounces the deviation. This is used to construct a one parameter fit which gives some evidence of universality in processes of continuous opinion dynamics about taste.

  8. Rain rate and modeled fade distributions at 20 GHz and 30 GHz derived from five years of network rain gauge measurements (United States)

    Goldhirsh, Julius; Krichevsky, Vladimir; Gebo, Norman


    Five years of rain rate and modeled slant path attenuation distributions at 20 GHz and 30 GHz derived from a network of 10 tipping bucket rain gages was examined. The rain gage network is located within a grid 70 km north-south and 47 km east-west in the Mid-Atlantic coast of the United States in the vicinity of Wallops Island, Virginia. Distributions were derived from the variable integration time data and from one minute averages. It was demonstrated that for realistic fade margins, the variable integration time results are adequate to estimate slant path attenuations at frequencies above 20 GHz using models which require one minute averages. An accurate empirical formula was developed to convert the variable integration time rain rates to one minute averages. Fade distributions at 20 GHz and 30 GHz were derived employing Crane's Global model because it was demonstrated to exhibit excellent accuracy with measured COMSTAR fades at 28.56 GHz.

  9. Development of a high-precision xyz-measuring table for the determination of the 3D dose rate distributions of brachytherapy sources. (United States)

    Eichmann, M; Krause, T; Flühs, D; Spaan, B


    An xyz-measuring table with a modular design has been developed for the determination of the individual 3D dose rate distributions of different brachytherapy sources requiring a high spatial resolution and reproducibility. The instrumental setup consists of a plastic scintillator detector system and the xyz-measuring table for guiding the detector across the radioactive sources. For this purpose, a micro positioning system with piezo inertial drives is chosen, providing a step width of 450 nm. To ensure a high reproducibility and accuracy better than 1 μm, an exposed linear encoder controls the positioning. The successful operation of the xyz-measuring table is exemplarily shown by measurements of dose profiles of two brachytherapy sources, an ophthalmic plaque and a radioactive seed. The setup allows a fully automated quality assurance of ophthalmic plaques and radioactive seeds under clinical conditions and can be extended to other (brachytherapy) sources of similar dimensions.

  10. Measurements of Rates, Asymmetries, and Angular Distributions in B -> K l+ l- and B -> K* l+ l- Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollar, Jonathan; /SLAC /Wisconsin U., Madison


    This dissertation describes studies of the rare decays B{sub d} {yields} K{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} and B{sub d} {yields} K*{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}, where {ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} is either an e{sup +}e{sup -} or a {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} pair. These decays are highly suppressed in the Standard Model, and could be strongly affected by physics beyond the Standard Model. The authors measure the total branching fractions {Beta}(B{sub d} {yields} K{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}) = (0.34 {+-} 0.07 {+-} 0.03) x 10{sup -6}, {Beta}(B{sub d} {yields} K*{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}) = (0.78{sub -0.17}{sup +0.19} {+-} 0.12) x 10{sup -6}. In addition, they measure the partial branching fractions, relative abundance of muons to electrons, direct CP asymmetry, dilepton forward-backward asymmetry, and longitudinal polarization of the K* in these modes. They also search for the lepton flavor-violating decays B{sub d} {yields} Ke{sup {+-}}{mu}{sup {-+}} and B{sub d} {yields} K*e{sup {+-}}{mu}{sup {-+}}. The measurements were performed at the SLAC PEP II storage ring running at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance.

  11. Effect of change in fluid distribution in segments in hemodialysis patients at different ultrafiltration rates on accuracy of whole body bioimpedance measurement. (United States)

    Abbas, Samer R; Zhu, Fansan; Kaysen, George A; Kotanko, Peter; Levin, Nathan W


    This study explored divergence (error) between ultrafiltration volumes (UFV) and intradialytic changes in extracellular volume (ΔECV) in hemodialysis (HD) patients measured by whole body (wBIS) and sum of segmental bioimpedance spectroscopy (sBIS). The primary aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of different ultrafiltration rates (UFR) on error of estimation of ΔECV by changes in their distribution in body segments (arm, trunk, and leg). Forty-four HD patients (26 men, age 63.5 ± 14.3 yr) were studied twice in the same week following high and low UFR treatments. ΔECV and distributions (segmental ΔECV/Σsegmental ΔECV, %) in arm, trunk, and leg were measured. ΔECV by wBIS underestimated UFV (0.58 ± 0.43 in high vs. 0.36 ± 0.5 liters at low UFR; P measurements of segmental volumes. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Validation of absolute axial neutron flux distribution calculations with MCNP with 197Au(n,γ)198Au reaction rate distribution measurements at the JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor. (United States)

    Radulović, Vladimir; Štancar, Žiga; Snoj, Luka; Trkov, Andrej


    The calculation of axial neutron flux distributions with the MCNP code at the JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor has been validated with experimental measurements of the (197)Au(n,γ)(198)Au reaction rate. The calculated absolute reaction rate values, scaled according to the reactor power and corrected for the flux redistribution effect, are in good agreement with the experimental results. The effect of different cross-section libraries on the calculations has been investigated and shown to be minor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A probability distribution model for rain rate (United States)

    Kedem, Benjamin; Pavlopoulos, Harry; Guan, Xiaodong; Short, David A.


    A systematic approach is suggested for modeling the probability distribution of rain rate. Rain rate, conditional on rain and averaged over a region, is modeled as a temporally homogeneous diffusion process with appropiate boundary conditions. The approach requires a drift coefficient-conditional average instantaneous rate of change of rain intensity-as well as a diffusion coefficient-the conditional average magnitude of the rate of growth and decay of rain rate about its drift. Under certain assumptions on the drift and diffusion coefficients compatible with rain rate, a new parametric family-containing the lognormal distribution-is obtained for the continuous part of the stationary limit probability distribution. The family is fitted to tropical rainfall from Darwin and Florida, and it is found that the lognormal distribution provides adequate fits as compared with other members of the family and also with the gamma distribution.

  14. Distributed Rate Allocation for Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Jose, Jubin


    This paper describes a distributed algorithm for rate allocation in wireless networks. As the main result, the paper establishes that this algorithm is throughput-optimal for very general class of throughput regions. In contrast to distributed on-off scheduling algorithms, this algorithm enables optimal utilization of physical layer schemes by scheduling multiple rate levels. The algorithm is based on a Markov process on these discrete set of rates with certain transition rates. For dealing with multiple rate levels, the paper introduces an important structure for the transition rates, which enable the design of appropriate update rule for these transition rates. The update uses local queue length information alone, and thus does not require global exchange of queue length information. In addition, the algorithm requires that each link can determine the feasibility of increasing its data-rate from the current value without reducing the data-rates of other links. Determining rate feasibility does not introduce...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharso Suharso


    Full Text Available The growth rates of borax single crystals from aqueous solutions at various flow rates in the (001 direction were measured using in situ cell method. From the growth rate data obtained, the growth rate distribution of borax crystals was investigated using Minitab Software and SPSS Software at relative supersaturation of 0807 and temperature of 25 °C. The result shows that normal, gamma, and log-normal distribution give a reasonably good fit to GRD. However, there is no correlation between growth rate distribution and flow rate of solution.   Keywords: growth rate dispersion (GRD, borax, flow rate

  16. Rating scales and Rasch measurement. (United States)

    Andrich, David


    Assessments with ratings in ordered categories have become ubiquitous in health, biological and social sciences. Ratings are used when a measuring instrument of the kind found in the natural sciences is not available to assess some property in terms of degree - for example, greater or smaller, better or worse, or stronger or weaker. The handling of ratings has ranged from the very elementary to the highly sophisticated. In an elementary form, and assumed in classical test theory, the ratings are scored with successive integers and treated as measurements; in a sophisticated form, and used in modern test theory, the ratings are characterized by probabilistic response models with parameters for persons and the rating categories. Within modern test theory, two paradigms, similar in many details but incompatible on crucial points, have emerged. For the purposes of this article, these are termed the statistical modeling and experimental measurement paradigms. Rather than reviewing a compendium of available methods and models for analyzing ratings in detail, the article focuses on the incompatible differences between these two paradigms, with implications for choice of model and inferences. It shows that the differences have implications for different roles for substantive researchers and psychometricians in designing instruments with rating scales. To illustrate these differences, an example is provided.

  17. Sensor for Injection Rate Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Marcic


    Full Text Available A vast majority of the medium and high speed Diesel engines are equipped withmulti-hole injection nozzles nowadays. Inaccuracies in workmanship and changinghydraulic conditions in the nozzles result in differences in injection rates between individualinjection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the paperallows injection rate measurement in each injection nozzle hole. The differences in injectionrates lead to uneven thermal loads of Diesel engine combustion chambers. All today knownmeasuring method, such as Bosch and Zeuch give accurate results of the injection rate indiesel single-hole nozzles. With multihole nozzles they tell us nothing about possibledifferences in injection rates between individual holes of the nozzle. At deformationalmeasuring method, the criterion of the injected fuel is expressed by the deformation ofmembrane occurring due to the collision of the pressure wave against the membrane. Thepressure wave is generated by the injection of the fuel into the measuring space. For eachhole of the nozzle the measuring device must have a measuring space of its own into whichfuel is injected as well as its measuring membrane and its own fuel outlet. Duringmeasurements procedure the measuring space must be filled with fuel to maintain anoverpressure of 5 kPa. Fuel escaping from the measuring device is conducted into thegraduated cylinders for measuring the volumetric flow through each hole of the nozzle.Themembrane deformation is assessed by strain gauges. They are glued to the membrane andforming the full Wheatstone’s bridge. We devoted special attention to the membrane shapeand temperature compensation of the strain gauges.

  18. Universal Distribution of Litter Decay Rates (United States)

    Forney, D. C.; Rothman, D. H.


    Degradation of litter is the result of many physical, chemical and biological processes. The high variability of these processes likely accounts for the progressive slowdown of decay with litter age. This age dependence is commonly thought to result from the superposition of processes with different decay rates k. Here we assume an underlying continuous yet unknown distribution p(k) of decay rates [1]. To seek its form, we analyze the mass-time history of 70 LIDET [2] litter data sets obtained under widely varying conditions. We construct a regularized inversion procedure to find the best fitting distribution p(k) with the least degrees of freedom. We find that the resulting p(k) is universally consistent with a lognormal distribution, i.e.~a Gaussian distribution of log k, characterized by a dataset-dependent mean and variance of log k. This result is supported by a recurring observation that microbial populations on leaves are log-normally distributed [3]. Simple biological processes cause the frequent appearance of the log-normal distribution in ecology [4]. Environmental factors, such as soil nitrate, soil aggregate size, soil hydraulic conductivity, total soil nitrogen, soil denitrification, soil respiration have been all observed to be log-normally distributed [5]. Litter degradation rates depend on many coupled, multiplicative factors, which provides a fundamental basis for the lognormal distribution. Using this insight, we systematically estimated the mean and variance of log k for 512 data sets from the LIDET study. We find the mean strongly correlates with temperature and precipitation, while the variance appears to be uncorrelated with main environmental factors and is thus likely more correlated with chemical composition and/or ecology. Results indicate the possibility that the distribution in rates reflects, at least in part, the distribution of microbial niches. [1] B. P. Boudreau, B.~R. Ruddick, American Journal of Science,291, 507, (1991). [2] M

  19. Measurement of tritium production rate distribution in natural LiAlO{sub 2}/HDPE assembly irradiated by D-T neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakhar, Shrichand, E-mail: [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India); Abhangi, Mitul; Rao, C.V.S.; Basu, T.K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India); Bhade, Sonali P.D.; Reddy, Priyanka J. [Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai (India)


    A neutronics experiment was performed to measure the tritium production rate (TPR) profile in the breeder assembly with LiAlO{sub 2} as breeder and high density polyethylene (HDPE) as neutron reflector. The breeder assembly was irradiated with 14 MeV neutrons from DT neutron generator at IPR Neutronics Laboratory. The objective of the experiment was to validate the tritium production prediction capability of the Monte-Carlo code MCNP and FENDL 2.1 data library. The tritium production rate profile in the breeding assembly was measured by irradiating Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} pellets kept at various locations and then tritium counting liquid scintillation technique. Experiment was analyzed with 3D Monte-Carlo code MCNP with FENDL 2.1 cross-section data library. The calculation results were found to agree with the measured tritium production rates except one point near to the source. This experiment is a starting experiment in the series of benchmark experiments for the Indian Demo breeding blanket.

  20. Angular Rate Estimation Using a Distributed Set of Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kyung Hong


    Full Text Available A distributed set of accelerometers based on the minimum number of 12 accelerometers allows for computation of the magnitude of angular rate without using the integration operation. However, it is not easy to extract the magnitude of angular rate in the presence of the accelerometer noises, and even worse, it is difficult to determine the direction of a rotation because the angular rate is present in its quadratic form within the inertial measurement system equations. In this paper, an extended Kalman filter scheme to correctly estimate both the direction and magnitude of the angular rate through fusion of the angular acceleration and quadratic form of the angular rate is proposed. We also provide observability analysis for the general distributed accelerometers-based inertial measurement unit, and show that the angular rate can be correctly estimated by general nonlinear state estimators such as an extended Kalman filter, except under certain extreme conditions.

  1. Variable Control Charts - Linear Failure Rate Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metlapalli Chaitanya Priya


    Full Text Available The well known Linear Failure Rate Distribution (LFRD is considered. A process variate following LFRD is thought of in order to develop control charts for subgroup mean and subgroup range. In view of the limitations on LFRD the theoretical control limits are obtained through some approximations and the resulting control chart limits are worked out. Comparisons with the control limits of similar variable control charts is also presented.

  2. HANARO core channel flow-rate measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heon Il; Chae, Hee Tae; Im, Don Soon; Kim, Seon Duk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    HANARO core consists of 23 hexagonal flow tubes and 16 cylindrical flow tubes. To get the core flow distribution, we used 6 flow-rate measuring dummy fuel assemblies (instrumented dummy fuel assemblies). The differential pressures were measured and converted to flow-rates using the predetermined relationship between AP and flow-rate for each instrumented dummy fuel assemblies. The flow-rate for the cylindrical flow channels shows +-7% relative errors and that for the hexagonal flow channels shows +-3.5% relative errors. Generally the flow-rates of outer core channels show smaller values compared to those of inner core. The channels near to the core inlet pipe and outlet pipes also show somewhat lower flow-rates. For the lower flow channels, the thermal margin was checked by considering complete linear power histories. From the experimental results, the gap flow-rate was estimated to be 49.4 kg/s (cf. design flow of 50 kg/s). 15 tabs., 9 figs., 10 refs. (Author) .new.

  3. Measurements of Branching Fractions, Rate Asymmetries, and Angular Distributions in the Rare Decays B -> Kl+l- and B -> K*l+ l-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.


    We present measurements of the flavor-changing neutral current decays B {yields} K{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} and B {yields} K*{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}, where {ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} is either an e{sup +}e{sup -} or {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} pair. The data sample comprises 229 x 10{sup 6} {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring. Flavor-changing neutral current decays are highly suppressed in the Standard Model and their predicted properties could be significantly modified by new physics at the electroweak scale. We measure the branching fractions {Beta}(B {yields} K{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}) = (0.34 {+-} 0.07 {+-} 0.02) x 10{sup -6}, {Beta}(B {yields} K*{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}) = (0.78{sub -0.17}{sup +0.19} {+-} 0.11) x 10{sup -6}, the direct CP asymmetries of these decays, and the relative abundances of decays to electrons and muons. For two regions in {ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} mass, above and below m{sub J/{psi}}, we measure partial branching fractions and the forward-backward angular asymmetry of the lepton pair. In these same regions we also measure the K* longitudinal polarization in B {yields} K*{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} decays. Upper limits are obtained for the lepton flavor-violating decays B {yields} Ke{mu} and B {yields} K*e{mu}. All measurements are consistent with Standard Model expectations.

  4. Image migration: measured retrieval rates (United States)

    Witt, Robert M.


    When the Indianapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center changed Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) vendors, we chose to use "on demand" image migration as the more cost effective solution. The legacy PACS stores the image data on optical disks in multi-platter jukeboxes. The estimated size of the legacy image data is about 5 terabytes containing studies from ~1997 to ~2003. Both the legacy and the new PACS support a manual DICOM query/retrieve. We implemented workflow rules to determine when to fetch the relevant priors from the legacy PACS. When a patient presents for a new radiology study, we used the following rules to initiate the manual DICOM query/retrieve. For general radiography we retrieved the two most recent prior examinations and for the modalities MR and CT we retrieved the clinically relevant prior examinations. We monitored the number of studies retrieved each week for about a 12 month period. For our facility which performs about 70,000 radiology examinations per year, we observed an essentially constant retrieval rate of slightly less than 50 studies per week. Some explanations for what may be considered an anomalous result maybe related to the fact that we are a tertiary care facility and a teaching hospital.

  5. On the rate of convergence as t\\to+\\infty of the distributions of solutions to the stationary measure for the stochastic system of the Lorenz model describing a baroclinic atmosphere (United States)

    Klevtsova, Yu Yu


    The paper is concerned with a nonlinear system of partial differential equations with parameters which describes the two-layer quasi-solenoidal Lorenz model for a baroclinic atmosphere on a rotating two-dimensional sphere. The right-hand side of the system is perturbed by white noise. A unique stationary measure for the Markov semigroup defined by the solutions of the Cauchy problem for this problem is considered. An estimate for the rate of convergence of the distributions of all solutions in a certain class of this system to the unique stationary measure as t\\to+∞ is proposed. A similar result is obtained for the equation of a barotropic atmosphere and the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation. A comparative analysis with some of the available related results is given for the latter. Bibliography: 39 titles.

  6. Global evidence on the distribution of GDP growth rates (United States)

    Williams, Michael A.; Baek, Grace; Li, Yiyang; Park, Leslie Y.; Zhao, Wei


    We study the size distribution of changes in the gross domestic product (GDP) of 167 countries for the period 1950-2011. A consensus has developed in the literature that the distribution of GDP growth rates can be approximated by the Laplace distribution in the central part and power-law distributions in the tails. Using a richer database than prior studies and testing for more theoretical distributions, we find that the distribution of GDP growth rates can be fitted using the heavy-tailed Cauchy distribution for almost all countries. Significantly, this same finding recently has been demonstrated for (1) the distribution of firm growth rates and (2) the distribution of firm economic profit rates. Together, these three findings suggest the possibility that there exist universal mechanisms that give rise to general laws governing the growth dynamics of firms and economies.

  7. Flow rate measurements by means of tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosetti, F. (Trieste Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Geodesia e Geofisica)

    The application of some sources of diffusion for the flow rate measurement of water or other fluids is here presented. The laminar instantaneous source, obtained in practice with easy devices, is very useful in river or channel measurements. The analysis of the measurements could supply the flow rate and the presence of water losses or recharges. The section of the channel can also be determined by such a method.

  8. Application of Uniform Measurement Error Distribution (United States)


    specific distribution and the associated joint probability density function ( PDF ). Then, assuming uniformly distributed measurement errors, we will try...PFA), Probability of False Reject (PFR). 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 15 19a. NAME...calibration tolerance limits but the difference of the observed measurement results of the UUT and the Calibration Standard (CalStd or CAL) is within

  9. Systems Measures of Water Distribution System Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murray, Regan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Resilience is a concept that is being used increasingly to refer to the capacity of infrastructure systems to be prepared for and able to respond effectively and rapidly to hazardous events. In Section 2 of this report, drinking water hazards, resilience literature, and available resilience tools are presented. Broader definitions, attributes and methods for measuring resilience are presented in Section 3. In Section 4, quantitative systems performance measures for water distribution systems are presented. Finally, in Section 5, the performance measures and their relevance to measuring the resilience of water systems to hazards is discussed along with needed improvements to water distribution system modeling tools.

  10. Measuring Exocytosis Rate Using Corrected Fluorescence Recovery After Photoconversion. (United States)

    Luo, Nan; Yan, An; Yang, Zhenbiao


    Exocytosis plays crucial roles in regulating the distribution and function of plasma membrane (PM) and extracellular matrix proteins. However, measuring the exocytosis rate of a specific protein by conventional methods is very difficult because of exocytosis-independent trafficking such as endocytosis, which also affects membrane protein distribution. Here, we describe a novel method, corrected fluorescence recovery after photoconversion, in which exocytosis-dependent and -independent trafficking events are measured simultaneously to accurately determine exocytosis rate. In this method, the protein-of-interest is tagged with Dendra2, a green-to-red photoconvertible fluorescent protein. Following the photoconversion of PM-localized Dendra2, both the recovery of the green signal and the changes in the photoconverted red signal are measured, and the rate of exocytosis is calculated from the changing rates of these two signals. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Inferring differences in the distribution of reaction rates across conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, D.M.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Hendriks, M.M.W.B.; Vis, D.J.; Canelas, A.B.; Teusink, B.; Smilde, A.K.


    Elucidating changes in the distribution of reaction rates in metabolic pathways under different conditions is a central challenge in systems biology. Here we present a method for inferring regulation mechanisms responsible for changes in the distribution of reaction rates across conditions from

  12. Pirani pressure sensor with distributed temperature measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, B.R.; Bula, W.P.; Zalewski, D.R.; van Baar, J.J.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.


    Surface micro-machined distributed Pirani pressure gauges, with designed heater-to-heat sink distances (gap-heights) of 0.35 μm and 1.10 μm, are successfully fabricated, modeled and characterized. Measurements and model response correspond within 5% of the measured value in a pressure range of 10 to

  13. Angular-Rate Estimation Using Quaternion Measurements (United States)

    Azor, Ruth; Bar-Itzhack, Y.; Deutschmann, Julie K.; Harman, Richard R.


    In most spacecraft (SC) there is a need to know the SC angular rate. Precise angular rate is required for attitude determination, and a coarse rate is needed for attitude control damping. Classically, angular rate information is obtained from gyro measurements. These days, there is a tendency to build smaller, lighter and cheaper SC, therefore the inclination now is to do away with gyros and use other means and methods to determine the angular rate. The latter is also needed even in gyro equipped satellites when performing high rate maneuvers whose angular-rate is out of range of the on board gyros or in case of gyro failure. There are several ways to obtain the angular rate in a gyro-less SC. When the attitude is known, one can differentiate the attitude in whatever parameters it is given and use the kinematics equation that connects the derivative of the attitude with the satellite angular-rate and compute the latter. Since SC usually utilize vector measurements for attitude determination, the differentiation of the attitude introduces a considerable noise component in the computed angular-rate vector.

  14. Glass dissolution rate measurement and calculation revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, Maxime, E-mail: [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Ull, Aurélien; Nicoleau, Elodie [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Inagaki, Yaohiro [Department of Applied Quantum Physics & Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 819-0395 (Japan); Odorico, Michaël [ICSM-UMR5257 CEA/CNRS/UM2/ENSCM, Site de Marcoule, BP17171, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Frugier, Pierre; Gin, Stéphane [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France)


    Aqueous dissolution rate measurements of nuclear glasses are a key step in the long-term behavior study of such waste forms. These rates are routinely normalized to the glass surface area in contact with solution, and experiments are very often carried out using crushed materials. Various methods have been implemented to determine the surface area of such glass powders, leading to differing values, with the notion of the reactive surface area of crushed glass remaining vague. In this study, around forty initial dissolution rate measurements were conducted following static and flow rate (SPFT, MCFT) measurement protocols at 90 °C, pH 10. The international reference glass (ISG), in the forms of powders with different particle sizes and polished monoliths, and soda-lime glass beads were examined. Although crushed glass grains clearly cannot be assimilated with spheres, it is when using the samples geometric surface (S{sub geo}) that the rates measured on powders are closest to those found for monoliths. Overestimation of the reactive surface when using the BET model (S{sub BET}) may be due to small physical features at the atomic scale—contributing to BET surface area but not to AFM surface area. Such features are very small compared with the thickness of water ingress in glass (a few hundred nanometers) and should not be considered in rate calculations. With a S{sub BET}/S{sub geo} ratio of 2.5 ± 0.2 for ISG powders, it is shown here that rates measured on powders and normalized to S{sub geo} should be divided by 1.3 and rates normalized to S{sub BET} should be multiplied by 1.9 in order to be compared with rates measured on a monolith. The use of glass beads indicates that the geometric surface gives a good estimation of glass reactive surface if sample geometry can be precisely described. Although data clearly shows the repeatability of measurements, results must be given with a high uncertainty of approximately ±25%. - Highlights: • Initial dissolution

  15. Heart rate detection from plantar bioimpedance measurements. (United States)

    González Landaeta, R; Casas, O; Pallàs-Areny, R


    The heart rate is a basic health indicator, useful in both clinical measurements and home health care. Current home care systems often require the attachment of electrodes or other sensors to the body, which can be cumbersome to the patient. Moreover, some measurements are sensitive to movement artifacts, are not user-friendly and require a specialized supervision. In this paper, a novel technique for heart rate measurement for a standing subject is proposed, which is based on plantar bioimpedance measurements, such as those performed by some bathroom weighting scales for body composition analysis. Because of the low level of heart-related impedance variations, the measurement system has a gain of 1400. We have implemented a fully differential AC amplifier with a common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of 105 dB at 10 kHz. Coherent demodulation based on synchronous sampling yields a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 55 dB. The system has a sensitivity of 1.9 V/Omega. The technique has been demonstrated on 18 volunteers, whose bioimpedance signal and ECG were simultaneously measured to validate the results. The average cross-correlation coefficient between the heart rates determined from these two signals was 0.998 (std. dev. 0.001).

  16. High resolution measurement of the glycolytic rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla X Bittner


    Full Text Available The glycolytic rate is sensitive to physiological activity, hormones, stress, aging and malignant transformation. Standard techniques to measure the glycolytic rate are based on radioactive isotopes, are not able to resolve single cells and have poor temporal resolution, limitations that hamper the study of energy metabolism in the brain and other organs. A new method is described in this article, which makes use of a recently-developed FRET glucose nanosensor to measure the rate of glycolysis in single cells with high temporal resolution. Used in cultured astrocytes, the method showed for the first time that glycolysis can be activated within seconds by a combination of glutamate and K+, supporting a role for astrocytes in neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling in the brain. It was also possible to make a direct comparison of metabolism in neurons and astrocytes lying in close proximity, paving the way to a high-resolution characterization of brain energy metabolism. Single-cell glycolytic rates were also measured in fibroblasts, adipocytes, myoblasts and tumor cells, showing higher rates for undifferentiated cells and significant metabolic heterogeneity within cell types. This method should facilitate the investigation of tissue metabolism at the single-cell level and is readily adaptable for high-throughput analysis.

  17. The analysis of distribution of karyometric measurements. (United States)

    Halwa, W S; Ratajczak, J; Wójtowicz, J G; Halwa, S R


    The aim of the work was the analysis of distribution of karyometric measurements for semi- and ultrathin sections. The investigation was performed using spheres (diameter 16.2 mm), which were randomly cut using a microtome knife. The diameters of sections were measured with ocular with accuracy 0.1 mm. It has been shown, that the mean value of the measurements does not correspond to the real value of the spheres' diameter, and it is distinctly lower. The theoretical analysis explaining this fenomenon was performed. The obtained results allow for estimation of real diameter of spherical nuclei of the some size.

  18. Convergence Rate Analysis of Distributed Gossip (Linear Parameter) Estimation: Fundamental Limits and Tradeoffs (United States)

    Kar, Soummya; Moura, José M. F.


    The paper considers gossip distributed estimation of a (static) distributed random field (a.k.a., large scale unknown parameter vector) observed by sparsely interconnected sensors, each of which only observes a small fraction of the field. We consider linear distributed estimators whose structure combines the information \\emph{flow} among sensors (the \\emph{consensus} term resulting from the local gossiping exchange among sensors when they are able to communicate) and the information \\emph{gathering} measured by the sensors (the \\emph{sensing} or \\emph{innovations} term.) This leads to mixed time scale algorithms--one time scale associated with the consensus and the other with the innovations. The paper establishes a distributed observability condition (global observability plus mean connectedness) under which the distributed estimates are consistent and asymptotically normal. We introduce the distributed notion equivalent to the (centralized) Fisher information rate, which is a bound on the mean square error reduction rate of any distributed estimator; we show that under the appropriate modeling and structural network communication conditions (gossip protocol) the distributed gossip estimator attains this distributed Fisher information rate, asymptotically achieving the performance of the optimal centralized estimator. Finally, we study the behavior of the distributed gossip estimator when the measurements fade (noise variance grows) with time; in particular, we consider the maximum rate at which the noise variance can grow and still the distributed estimator being consistent, by showing that, as long as the centralized estimator is consistent, the distributed estimator remains consistent.

  19. Measuring strength at ultrahigh strain rates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogler, Tracy John


    The strain rate sensitivity of materials is measured through a combination of quasistatic, Hopkinson bar, and pressure-shear experiments. The pressure-shear technique has largely been limited to strain rates of order 1E6 1/s. Recent advances in laser and magnetically driven ramp loading have made it possible to achieve significantly higher rates, 1E5-1E8 1/s, under uniaxial strain compression. Strength in these experiments can be calculated by comparing the loading response to the hydrostatic (pressure-density) response of the material for the same density and temperature [Fowles, 1961]. This must be done accounting for the heating due to plastic work in the experiments. Experimental uniaxial strain data for aluminum for strain rates up to 1E8 1/s are examined and compared with existing data. The results are consistent with conventional views of the strain rate sensitivity of aluminum. However, when one considers the higher mean stress (pressure) present in the uniaxial strain experiments and, to a lesser extent, the pressure-shear experiments, one finds the material remains rate insensitive to about 1E7 1/s, two orders of magnitude higher than previously thought. Important caveats about determining strength in this manner will be discussed, and recommendations for future work will be made.

  20. Ultrasonic rate measurement of multiphase flow (United States)

    Dannert, David A.; Horne, Roland N.


    One of the most important tools in production logging and well testing is the downhole flowmeter. Unfortunately, existing tools are inaccurate outside of an idealized single phase flow regime. Spinner tools are inaccurate at extremely high or low flow rates and when the flow rate is variable. Radioactive tracer tools have similar inaccuracies and are extremely sensitive to the flow regime. Both tools completely fail in the presence of multiphase flow, whether for gas/oil, gas/water, or fluid/solid. Downhole flowmetering is important for locating producing zones and thief zones and monitoring production and injection rates. The effects of stimulation can also be determined. The goal of this project is the investigation of accurate downhole flowmetering techniques for all single phase flow regimes and multiphase flows. The measurement method investigated in this report is the use of ultrasound. There are two ways to use ultrasound for fluid velocity measurement. The first method, examined in Chapter 2, is the contrapropagation, or transit-time, method which compares travel times with and against fluid flow. Chapter 3 details the second method which measures the Doppler frequency shift of a reflected sound wave in the moving fluid. Both of these technologies need to be incorporated in order to build a true multiphase flowmeter. Chapter 4 describes the proposed downhole multiphase flowmeter.

  1. Electronic cigarette aerosol particle size distribution measurements. (United States)

    Ingebrethsen, Bradley J; Cole, Stephen K; Alderman, Steven L


    The particle size distribution of aerosols produced by electronic cigarettes was measured in an undiluted state by a spectral transmission procedure and after high dilution with an electrical mobility analyzer. The undiluted e-cigarette aerosols were found to have particle diameters of average mass in the 250-450 nm range and particle number concentrations in the 10(9) particles/cm(3) range. These measurements are comparable to those observed for tobacco burning cigarette smoke in prior studies and also measured in the current study with the spectral transmission method and with the electrical mobility procedure. Total particulate mass for the e-cigarettes calculated from the size distribution parameters measured by spectral transmission were in good agreement with replicate determinations of total particulate mass by gravimetric filter collection. In contrast, average particle diameters determined for e-cigarettes by the electrical mobility method are in the 50 nm range and total particulate masses calculated based on the suggested diameters are orders of magnitude smaller than those determined gravimetrically. This latter discrepancy, and the very small particle diameters observed, are believed to result from almost complete e-cigarette aerosol particle evaporation at the dilution levels and conditions of the electrical mobility analysis. A much smaller degree, ~20% by mass, of apparent particle evaporation was observed for tobacco burning cigarette smoke. The spectral transmission method is validated in the current study against measurements on tobacco burning cigarette smoke, which has been well characterized in prior studies, and is supported as yielding an accurate characterization of the e-cigarette aerosol particle size distribution.

  2. Principal modes of variation of rain-rate probability distributions (United States)

    Bell, Thomas L.; Suhasini, R.


    Radar or satellite observations of an area generate sequences of rain-rate maps. From a gridded map a histogram of rain rates can be obtained representing the relative areas occupied by rain rates of various strengths. The histograms vary with time as precipitating systems in the area evolve and decay and amounts of convective and stratiform rain in the area change. A method of decomposing the histograms into linear combinations of a few empirical distributions with time-dependent coefficients is developed, using principal component analysis as a starting point. When applied to a tropical Atlantic dataset (GATE), two distributions emerge naturally from the analysis, resembling stratiform and convective rain-rate distributions in that they peak at low and high rain rates, respectively. The two 'modes' have different timescales and only the high-rain-rate mode has a statistically significant diurnal cycle. The ability of just two modes to describe rain variabiltiy over an area can explain why methods of estimating area-averaged rain rate from the area covered by rain rates above a certain threshold are so successful.

  3. Growth rate measurement in free jet experiments (United States)

    Charpentier, Jean-Baptiste; Renoult, Marie-Charlotte; Crumeyrolle, Olivier; Mutabazi, Innocent


    An experimental method was developed to measure the growth rate of the capillary instability for free liquid jets. The method uses a standard shadow-graph imaging technique to visualize a jet, produced by extruding a liquid through a circular orifice, and a statistical analysis of the entire jet. The analysis relies on the computation of the standard deviation of a set of jet profiles, obtained in the same experimental conditions. The principle and robustness of the method are illustrated with a set of emulated jet profiles. The method is also applied to free falling jet experiments conducted for various Weber numbers and two low-viscosity solutions: a Newtonian and a viscoelastic one. Growth rate measurements are found in good agreement with linear stability theory in the Rayleigh's regime, as expected from previous studies. In addition, the standard deviation curve is used to obtain an indirect measurement of the initial perturbation amplitude and to identify beads on a string structure on the jet. This last result serves to demonstrate the capability of the present technique to explore in the future the dynamics of viscoelastic liquid jets.

  4. Beam distribution measurements in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, RW; Burkart, F; Cauchi, M; Deboy, D; Lari, L; Redaelli, S; Rossi, A; Valentino, G; Wollmann, D


    Understanding the population and shape of the beam halo is important to predict possible intensity limitations due to collimation at $\\unit[7]{TeV}$. Therefore studies to measure the population of the beam halo are indispensable. Furthermore, using horizontal, vertical and skew collimators during halo scans opens the possibility to confirm the results measured in single plane scans. During the beam distribution MD in the LHC one set of slow full beam scrapings (hor., ver. and skew) with a step size of $\\unit[40]{\\mu m}$ was performed at $\\unit[450]{GeV}$ in both beams. In addition fast full beam scrapings with the vertical primary collimators in IR7 were conducted. \\\\In this note the results of the different measurements are presented and compared.

  5. Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.


    Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

  6. Body awareness rating questionnaire: measurement properties. (United States)

    Tove, Dragesund; Målfrid, Råheim; Liv Inger, Strand


    The purpose of present study was to investigate important measurement properties of the Body Awareness Rating Questionnaire (BARQ) subscales: Function; Mood; Feelings; and Awareness. Samples of 50 patients with prolonged musculoskeletal pain and psychosomatic disorders, and 50 gender and age-matched healthy persons participated in the study. Relative (ICC 2,1) and absolute reliability (S(w)) were calculated. Construct validity was examined by testing hypothesis using Pearson (r) or Spearman rank (r(s)) correlation. Discriminate ability was examined using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the area under the curve (aROC) being the measure of discriminative validity. All patients reported more or less improvement after treatment, using the Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) as an external indicator of important change. Responsiveness to important change was therefore examined by one-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), relating change scores of BARQ subscales to the PGIC categories. Relative and absolute reliability values were within recommended limits for all four subscales. Construct and discriminate validity was indicated for Function, Feelings and Awareness, but not for Mood. Responsiveness was indicated for the subscales Function and Awareness, but not for Feelings and Mood. Further research is needed to complement the subscales of BARQ, found with appropriate measurement properties.

  7. Coolant rate distribution in horizontal steam generator under natural circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blagovechtchenski, A.; Leontieva, V.; Mitrioukhin, A. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)


    In the presentation the major factors determining the conditions of NCC (Natural Coolant Circulation) in the primary circuit and in particular conditions of coolant rate distribution on the horizontal tubes of PGV-1000 in NPP with VVER-1000 under NCC are considered. 5 refs.

  8. An Introduction to Collision Theory Rate Constants via Distribution Functions. (United States)

    McAlduff, E. J.


    Described is an introduction to the collision theory by arriving at the many degrees of freedom rote constant and showing that the (-Ea/RT) is a special case and corresponds to activation in 2 squared terms on the line of center rate constant, which is found through the use of distributed functions. (Author/DS)

  9. Rate-adaptive BCH codes for distributed source coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmistraro, Matteo; Larsen, Knud J.; Forchhammer, Søren


    This paper considers Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes for distributed source coding. A feedback channel is employed to adapt the rate of the code during the decoding process. The focus is on codes with short block lengths for independently coding a binary source X and decoding it given its...... correlated side information Y. The proposed codes have been analyzed in a high-correlation scenario, where the marginal probability of each symbol, Xi in X, given Y is highly skewed (unbalanced). Rate-adaptive BCH codes are presented and applied to distributed source coding. Adaptive and fixed checking...... strategies for improving the reliability of the decoded result are analyzed, and methods for estimating the performance are proposed. In the analysis, noiseless feedback and noiseless communication are assumed. Simulation results show that rate-adaptive BCH codes achieve better performance than low...

  10. Geometry of shoot apical dome and distribution of growth rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Nakielski


    Full Text Available The distribution of the relative elementary rate of growth (RERG in apical domes of various shapes and patterns of displacement lines can be analytically examined. The geometry of these domes may be described by parabolas of n-th order, the variant of the distribution of linear growth rate should be established along any displacement line (e.g. along the axis and then the RERG can be studied as the function depending on the position coordinates and the parameter n. Such investigations of several aplical domes of various shapes have been performed. The results confirm the occurrence of the minimum of relative, elementary growth rate (in volume in the subapical region of the dome independently of the type of geometry (n parabola order.

  11. Distribution of adhesion rate constant in the coal sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Brožek


    Full Text Available Flotation is the process of enrichment which consists in differentiating the useful component (volume property in the separation products. Flotation leads to the differentiation of the volume property by means of applying the differentiation of surface properties. Since there is a correlation between these properties, the authors determined the distribution of adhesion rate constant in relation with the content of the useful component and applying the dispersive model of a particle. The content of the useful component is directly connected with the volume physical property, represented by particle density. The paper present distribution functions of density and adhesion rate constant in the sample. Also the relation between adhesion rate constant and ash content for narrow density fractions has been revealed.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikari, T. P.; Różańska, A.; Sobolewska, M. [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bartycka 18, 00-716, Warsaw (Poland); Czerny, B., E-mail: [Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46 02-668, Warsaw (Poland)


    In this paper we model the observed absorption measure distribution (AMD) in Mrk 509, which spans three orders of magnitude in ionization level with a single-zone absorber in pressure equilibrium. AMD is usually constructed from observations of narrow absorption lines in radio-quiet active galaxies with warm absorbers. We study the properties of the warm absorber in Mrk 509 using recently published broadband spectral energy distribution observed with different instruments. This spectrum is an input in radiative transfer computations with full photoionization treatment using the titan code. We show that the simplest way to fully reproduce the shape of AMD is to assume that the warm absorber is a single zone under constant total pressure. With this assumption, we found theoretical AMD that matches the observed AMD determined on the basis of the 600 ks reflection grating spectrometer XMM-Newton spectrum of Mrk 509. The softness of the source spectrum and the important role of the free–free emission breaks the usual degeneracy in the ionization state calculations, and the explicit dependence of the depths of AMD dips on density open a new path to the density diagnostic for the warm absorber. In Mrk 509, the implied density is of the order of 10{sup 8} cm{sup −3}.

  13. Inferring differences in the distribution of reaction rates across conditions. (United States)

    Hendrickx, Diana M; Hoefsloot, Huub C J; Hendriks, Margriet M W B; Vis, Daniël J; Canelas, André B; Teusink, Bas; Smilde, Age K


    Elucidating changes in the distribution of reaction rates in metabolic pathways under different conditions is a central challenge in systems biology. Here we present a method for inferring regulation mechanisms responsible for changes in the distribution of reaction rates across conditions from correlations in time-resolved data. A reversal of correlations between conditions reveals information about regulation mechanisms. With the use of a small in silico hypothetical network, based on only the topology and directionality of a known pathway, several regulation scenarios can be formulated. Confronting these scenarios with experimental data results in a short list of possible pathway regulation mechanisms associated with the reversal of correlations between conditions. This procedure allows for the formulation of regulation scenarios without detailed prior knowledge of kinetics and for the inference of reaction rate changes without rate information. The method was applied to experimental time-resolved metabolomics data from multiple short-term perturbation-response experiments in S. cerevisiae across aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The method's output was validated against a detailed kinetic model of glycolysis in S. cerevisiae, which showed that the method can indeed infer the correct regulation scenario.

  14. The uniqueness of firm size distribution function from tent-shaped growth rate distribution (United States)

    Ishikawa, Atushi


    Employing profits data of Japanese firms in 2003 and 2004, we report the proof that a Non-Gibrat's law in the middle scale region of profits is unique under the law of detailed balance. This uniquely leads to the probability distribution function (pdf) of profits. In the proof, two approximations are employed. The pdf of growth rate is described as tent-shaped exponential functions and the value of the origin of the growth rate distribution is constant. These approximations are confirmed in the database. The resultant profits pdf fits with the empirical data consistently. This guarantees the validity of the approximations.

  15. Microwave measurement of intra bunch charge distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Dehler, M


    A direct way of obtaining intra bunch charge distributions is to measure the amplitude roll off as well as the phase behavior of the spectrum of the single bunch self field. To that effect, a microwave pickup together with a microwave front end has been installed in the storage ring of the Swiss Light Source (SLS). As pickup, button type bpms are used, which have been designed for a broad band behavior in the excess of 30 GHz. Three bpms together with their individual front ends are used in order to sample the beam spectrum at frequencies of 6, 12 and 18 GHz, which compares to the standard spectrum of a 1 mA single bunch extending to approximately 12 GHz (13 ps rms bunch length). The signals are mixed to base band in loco using the multiplied RF frequency as a LO. By shifting the LO phase, simultaneously the amplitude roll off as well the complex phase of the beam spectrum can be obtained. Where using a resonator as a pickup would smear out the response over several bunches, allowing only the determination of...

  16. Exchange rate and interest rate distribution and volatility under the Portuguese target zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portugal Duarte António


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyse the exchange rate and interest rate distribution and volatility under the participation of the Portuguese economy in the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM of the European Monetary System (EMS based on some of the main predictions of the target zone literature. Portugal adopted this exchange rate target zone from April 6 1992 until December 31 1998. During this period, the exchange rate distribution reveals that the majority of the observations lie close to the central parity, thus rejecting one of the key predictions of the Paul Krugman (1991 model. The analysis of the data also shows that exchange rate volatility tended to increase as the exchange rate approached the edges of the band, contrary to the predictions of the basic model. Interest rate differential volatility, on the other hand, seemed to behave in line with theoretical predictions. This suggests an increase in the credibility of monetary policy, allowing us to conclude that the adoption of a target zone has contributed decisively to the creation of the macroeconomic stability conditions necessary for the participation in the European Monetary Union (EMU. The Portuguese integration process should therefore be considered as an example to be followed by other small open economies in transition to the euro area.

  17. Measuring heart rate with optical sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barachi, M. (Mitra)


    The problem addressed in this report is to verify the possibility of using an optical sensor in the SaxShirt in order to extract the heart rate. There are specifically three questions that we try to address. 1) How is it possible to extract heart rate (BPM) from the optical sensor? 2) Is it

  18. Spatial and temporal distribution of snowmelt rate in Japan (United States)

    Sen Gupta, A.; Chowdhary, H.; Chinnayakanahalli, K.; Ashouri, H.


    Volume and timing of runoff due to snowmelt are major factors influencing the magnitude and timing of floods, reservoir operations, as well as the duration of the skiing season in the high-altitude northern regions of Japan. Snowmelt models are often used within rainfall-runoff models to estimate snowmelt runoff. In order to accurately model snowmelt runoff, these models need to account for the spatial and temporal variability of the snowmelt rate. Temperature index (TI) snowmelt models are commonly used for this purpose owing to their simplicity, parsimonious nature and computational efficiency. Traditional TI models assume a constant melt rate or degree day factor (DDF) over the entire melting season which usually overestimates the melt quantity during early season and underestimates during the latter part of the season. Moreover, available information on the spatial variability of the DDF is generally inadequate to develop spatially distributed snowmelt models. In this study, DDF has been estimated using Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) Noah Land Surface Model (LSM) outputs over Japan at 0.25° spatial resolution. 3-hourly temperature and snowmelt amount data have been used to estimate spatially varying daily melt rates resulting in time-varying seasonal melt factor curve similar to that proposed in SNOW-17. A distributed TI model was then applied to model snow water equivalent (SWE) and daily snowmelt over the entire Japan from 2000 to 2010. The modeled distributions of the onset and cessation of the snowpack buildup, and of the annual maximum SWE and its time of occurrence have been found to be in agreement with the patterns available from the GLDAS Noah data. The model performed better for Hokkaido, the northernmost of Japan's five main islands, where the annual maximum SWE is higher compared to the other parts of the country. The DDFs estimated in this study provide improved snowmelt driven flood estimates, especially for northern Japan.

  19. Measurements of Protein Crystal Face Growth Rates (United States)

    Gorti, S.


    Protein crystal growth rates will be determined for several hyperthermophile proteins.; The growth rates will be assessed using available theoretical models, including kinetic roughening.; If/when kinetic roughening supersaturations are established, determinations of protein crystal quality over a range of supersaturations will also be assessed.; The results of our ground based effort may well address the existence of a correlation between fundamental growth mechanisms and protein crystal quality.

  20. In-cell reaction rate distributions and cell-average reaction rates in fast critical assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brumbach, S.B.; Gasidlo, J.M.


    Measurements are described for determining average values of fission rates in /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U and /sup 239/Pu and capture rates in /sup 238/U for heterogeneous cells used to construct fast critical assemblies. The measurements are based on irradiations of foils of /sup 238/U, /sup 235/U and /sup 239/Pu with counting of fission and capture products using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Both plate and pin cells are considered. Procedures are described for inferring cell-average reaction rate values from a single foil location based on a cell using a quantity called a cell factor. Cell factors are determined from special measurements in which several foils are irradiated within a cell. Comparisons are presented between cell factors determined by measurements and by Monte Carlo calculations which lend credibility to the measurement procedures.

  1. Chest compression rate measurement from smartphone video. (United States)

    Engan, Kjersti; Hinna, Thomas; Ryen, Tom; Birkenes, Tonje S; Myklebust, Helge


    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is a life threatening situation where the first person performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) most often is a bystander without medical training. Some existing smartphone apps can call the emergency number and provide for example global positioning system (GPS) location like Hjelp 113-GPS App by the Norwegian air ambulance. We propose to extend functionality of such apps by using the built in camera in a smartphone to capture video of the CPR performed, primarily to estimate the duration and rate of the chest compression executed, if any. All calculations are done in real time, and both the caller and the dispatcher will receive the compression rate feedback when detected. The proposed algorithm is based on finding a dynamic region of interest in the video frames, and thereafter evaluating the power spectral density by computing the fast fourier transform over sliding windows. The power of the dominating frequencies is compared to the power of the frequency area of interest. The system is tested on different persons, male and female, in different scenarios addressing target compression rates, background disturbances, compression with mouth-to-mouth ventilation, various background illuminations and phone placements. All tests were done on a recording Laerdal manikin, providing true compression rates for comparison. Overall, the algorithm is seen to be promising, and it manages a number of disturbances and light situations. For target rates at 110 cpm, as recommended during CPR, the mean error in compression rate (Standard dev. over tests in parentheses) is 3.6 (0.8) for short hair bystanders, and 8.7 (6.0) including medium and long haired bystanders. The presented method shows that it is feasible to detect the compression rate of chest compressions performed by a bystander by placing the smartphone close to the patient, and using the built-in camera combined with a video processing algorithm performed real-time on the device.

  2. Thermogravimetry for measuring the molecular mass distribution of perfluorinated oligomers (United States)

    Kim, I. P.; Kolesnikova, A. M.


    A method for determinoffing the molecular mass distribution (MMD) in mixtures of perfluorinated oligomers based on analysis of the differential thermogravimetric (DTG) curves (temperature dependences of the rate of mass loss) is proposed. It is indicated that this method allows us to measure the MMD of oligomers whose boiling temperature is less than the temperature of their thermal decomposition, and the total portion of longer oligomers. This method was applied to the determination of MMD of products of the radiation-chemical telomerization of tetrafluoroethylene in solution.

  3. Automated Speech Rate Measurement in Dysarthria (United States)

    Martens, Heidi; Dekens, Tomas; Van Nuffelen, Gwen; Latacz, Lukas; Verhelst, Werner; De Bodt, Marc


    Purpose: In this study, a new algorithm for automated determination of speech rate (SR) in dysarthric speech is evaluated. We investigated how reliably the algorithm calculates the SR of dysarthric speech samples when compared with calculation performed by speech-language pathologists. Method: The new algorithm was trained and tested using Dutch…

  4. Distributed Capacitive Sensor for Sample Mass Measurement (United States)

    Toda, Risaku; McKinney, Colin; Jackson, Shannon P.; Mojarradi, Mohammad; Manohara, Harish; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey


    Previous robotic sample return missions lacked in situ sample verification/ quantity measurement instruments. Therefore, the outcome of the mission remained unclear until spacecraft return. In situ sample verification systems such as this Distributed Capacitive (DisC) sensor would enable an unmanned spacecraft system to re-attempt the sample acquisition procedures until the capture of desired sample quantity is positively confirmed, thereby maximizing the prospect for scientific reward. The DisC device contains a 10-cm-diameter pressure-sensitive elastic membrane placed at the bottom of a sample canister. The membrane deforms under the weight of accumulating planetary sample. The membrane is positioned in close proximity to an opposing rigid substrate with a narrow gap. The deformation of the membrane makes the gap narrower, resulting in increased capacitance between the two parallel plates (elastic membrane and rigid substrate). C-V conversion circuits on a nearby PCB (printed circuit board) provide capacitance readout via LVDS (low-voltage differential signaling) interface. The capacitance method was chosen over other potential approaches such as the piezoelectric method because of its inherent temperature stability advantage. A reference capacitor and temperature sensor are embedded in the system to compensate for temperature effects. The pressure-sensitive membranes are aluminum 6061, stainless steel (SUS) 403, and metal-coated polyimide plates. The thicknesses of these membranes range from 250 to 500 m. The rigid substrate is made with a 1- to 2-mm-thick wafer of one of the following materials depending on the application requirements glass, silicon, polyimide, PCB substrate. The glass substrate is fabricated by a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication approach. Several concentric electrode patterns are printed on the substrate. The initial gap between the two plates, 100 m, is defined by a silicon spacer ring that is anodically bonded to the glass

  5. Measuring inequalities in the distribution of the Fiji Health Workforce. (United States)

    Wiseman, Virginia; Lagarde, Mylene; Batura, Neha; Lin, Sophia; Irava, Wayne; Roberts, Graham


    Despite the centrality of health personnel to the health of the population, the planning, production and management of human resources for health remains underdeveloped in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In addition to the general shortage of health workers, there are significant inequalities in the distribution of health workers within LMICs. This is especially true for countries like Fiji, which face major challenges in distributing its health workforce across many inhabited islands. In this study, we describe and measure health worker distributional inequalities in Fiji, using data from the 2007 Population Census, and Ministry of Health records of crude death rates and health workforce personnel. We adopt methods from the economics literature including the Lorenz Curve/Gini Coefficient and Theil Index to measure the extent and drivers of inequality in the distribution of health workers at the sub-national level in Fiji for three categories of health workers: doctors, nurses, and all health workers (doctors, nurses, dentists and health support staff). Population size and crude death rates are used as proxies for health care needs. There are greater inequalities in the densities of health workers at the provincial level, compared to the divisional level in Fiji - six of the 15 provinces fall short of the recommended threshold of 2.3 health workers per 1,000 people. The estimated decile ratios, Gini co-efficient and Thiel index point to inequalities at the provincial level in Fiji, mainly with respect to the distribution of doctors; however these inequalities are relatively small. While populations with lower mortality tend to have a slightly greater share of health workers, the overall distribution of health workers on the basis of need is more equitable in Fiji than for many other LMICs. The overall shortage of health workers could be addressed by creating new cadres of health workers; employing increasing numbers of foreign doctors, including

  6. Heartbeat Rate Measurement from Facial Video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haque, Mohammad Ahsanul; Irani, Ramin; Nasrollahi, Kamal


    by combining a ‘Good feature to track’ and a ‘Supervised descent method’ in order to overcome the limitations of currently available facial video based HR measuring systems. Such limitations include, e.g., unrealistic restriction of the subject’s movement and artificial lighting during data capture. A face...

  7. Reliability and Inequality Measures for the Weimal Distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ). This article aimed at discussing both reliability and inequality measures from the Weimal distribution. The work has derived and discussed theoretically, expressions for the survival and hazard function of the Weimal distribution. The ordinary ...

  8. Measuring Transpiration to Regulate Winter Irrigation Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelson, Lisa [Auburn University


    Periodic transpiration (monthly sums) in a young loblolly pine plantation between ages 3 and 6 was measured using thermal dissipation probes. Fertilization and fertilization with irrigation were better than irrigation alone in increasing transpiration of young loblolly pines during winter months, apparently because of increased leaf area in fertilized trees. Irrigation alone did not significantly increase transpiration compared with the non-fertilized and non-irrigated control plots.

  9. Field measurements give biased estimates of functional response parameters, but help explain foraging distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijns, S.; Knot, I.E.; Piersma, T.; van Gils, J.A.


    1.Mechanistic insights and predictive understanding of the spatial distributions of foragers are typically derived by fitting either field measurements on intake rates and food abundance, or observations from controlled experiments, to functional response models. It has remained unclear, however,

  10. Evaluation of ambient dose equivalent rates influenced by vertical and horizontal distribution of radioactive cesium in soil in Fukushima Prefecture

    CERN Document Server

    Malins, Alex; Nakama, Shigeo; Saito, Tatsuo; Okumura, Masahiko; Machida, Masahiko; Kitamura, Akihiro


    The air dose rate in an environment contaminated with 134Cs and 137Cs depends on the amount, depth profile and horizontal distribution of these contaminants within the ground. This paper introduces and verifies a tool that models these variables and calculates ambient dose equivalent rates at 1 m above the ground. Good correlation is found between predicted dose rates and dose rates measured with survey meters in Fukushima Prefecture in areas contaminated with radiocesium from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This finding is insensitive to the choice for modelling the activity depth distribution in the ground using activity measurements of collected soil layers, or by using exponential and hyperbolic secant fits to the measurement data. Better predictions are obtained by modelling the horizontal distribution of radioactive cesium across an area if multiple soil samples are available, as opposed to assuming a spatially homogeneous contamination distribution. Reductions seen in air dose rate...

  11. Benchmark Experiment of Dose Rate Distributions Around the Gamma Knife Medical Apparatus (United States)

    Oishi, K.; Kosako, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Sonoki, I.


    Dose rate measurements around a gamma knife apparatus were performed by using an ionization chamber. Analyses have been performed by using the Monte Carlo code MCNP-5. The nuclear library used for the dose rate distribution of 60Co was MCPLIB04. The calculation model was prepared with a high degree of fidelity, such as the position of each Cobalt source and shielding materials. Comparisons between measured results and calculated ones were performed, and a very good agreement was observed. It is concluded that the Monte Carlo calculation method with its related nuclear data library is very effective for such a complicated radiation oncology apparatus.

  12. 29 CFR 530.202 - Piece rates-work measurement. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Piece rates-work measurement. 530.202 Section 530.202 Labor... Piece rates—work measurement. (a) No certificate will be issued pursuant to § 530.101 of subpart B to an employer who pays homeworkers based on piece rates unless the employer establishes the piece rates for the...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rosario Proto


    Full Text Available In Italy, the woodworking industry presents many issues in terms of occupational health and safety. This study on exposure to wood dust could contribute to the realization of a prevention model in order to limit exposure to carcinogenic agents to the worker. The sampling methodology illustrated the analysis of dust emissions from the woodworking machinery in operation throughout the various processing cycles. The quantitative and qualitative assessment of exposure was performed using two different methodologies. The levels of wood dust were determined according to EN indications and sampling was conducted using IOM and Cyclon personal samplers. The qualitative research of wood dust was performed using an advanced laser air particle counter. This allowed the number of particles present to be counted in real time. The results obtained allowed for an accurate assessment of the quality of the dust emitted inside the workplace during the various processing phases. The study highlighted the distribution of air particles within the different size classes, the exact number of both thin and ultra-thin dusts, and confirmed the high concentration of thin dust particles which can be very harmful to humans.

  14. Measuring SNM Isotopic Distributions using FRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The first group of slides provides background information on the isotopic composition of plutonium. It is shown that 240Pu is the critical isotope in neutron coincidence/multiplicity counting. Next, response function analysis to determine isotopic composition is discussed. The isotopic composition can be determined by measuring the net peak counts from each isotope and then taking the ratio of the counts for each isotope relative to the total counts for the element. Then FRAM (Fixed energy Response function Analysis with Multiple efficiencies) is explained. FRAM can control data acquisition, automatically analyze newly acquired data, analyze previously acquired data, provide information on the quality of the analysis, and facilitate analysis in unusual situations (non-standard energy calibrations, gamma rays from non-SNM isotopes, poor spectra (within limits)).

  15. Measuring survival rates from sudden cardiac arrest: the elusive definition. (United States)

    Sayre, Michael R; Travers, Andrew H; Daya, Mohamud; Greene, H Leon; Salive, Marcel E; Vijayaraghavan, Krishnaswami; Craven, Richard A; Groh, William J; Hallstrom, Alfred P


    Measuring survival from sudden out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOH-CA) is often used as a benchmark of the quality of a community's emergency medical service (EMS) system. The definition of OOH-CA survival rates depends both upon the numerator (surviving cases) and the denominator (all cases). The purpose of the public access defibrillation (PAD) trial was to measure the impact on survival of adding an automated external defibrillator (AED) to a volunteer response system trained in CPR. This paper reports the definition of OOH-CA developed by the PAD trial investigators, and it evaluates alternative statistical methods used to assess differences in reported "survival." Case surveillance was limited to the prospectively determined geographic boundaries of the participating trial units. The numerator in calculating a survival rate should include only those patients who survived an event but who otherwise would have died except for the application of some facet of emergency medical care-in this trial a defibrillatory shock. Among denominators considered were: total population of the study unit, all deaths within the study unit, and documented ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrests. The PAD classification focused upon cases that might have benefited from the early use of an AED, in addition to the likely benefit from early recognition of OOH-CA, early access of EMS, and early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Results of this classification system were used to evaluate the impact of the PAD definition on the distribution of cardiac arrest case types between CPR only and CPR + AED units. Potential OOH-CA episodes were classified into one of four groups: definite, probable, uncertain, or not an OOH-CA. About half of cardiac arrests in the PAD units were judged to be definite OOH-CA events and therefore potentially treatable with an AED. However, events that occurred in CPR-only units were less likely to be classified as definite or probable OOH-CA events than those

  16. Distribution of Global Measures of Deviation Between the Empirical Distribution Function and Its Concave Majorant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulikov, V.N.; Lopuhaä, H.P.


    We investigate the distribution of some global measures of deviation between the empirical distribution function and its least concave majorant. In the case that the underlying distribution has a strictly decreasing density, we prove asymptotic normality for several L k -type distances. In the case


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, Margaret J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Diaferio, Antonaldo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Rines, Kenneth J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA 98225 (United States); Serra, Ana Laura, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy)


    Cluster mass profiles are tests of models of structure formation. Only two current observational methods of determining the mass profile, gravitational lensing, and the caustic technique are independent of the assumption of dynamical equilibrium. Both techniques enable the determination of the extended mass profile at radii beyond the virial radius. For 19 clusters, we compare the mass profile based on the caustic technique with weak lensing measurements taken from the literature. This comparison offers a test of systematic issues in both techniques. Around the virial radius, the two methods of mass estimation agree to within {approx}30%, consistent with the expected errors in the individual techniques. At small radii, the caustic technique overestimates the mass as expected from numerical simulations. The ratio between the lensing profile and the caustic mass profile at these radii suggests that the weak lensing profiles are a good representation of the true mass profile. At radii larger than the virial radius, the extrapolated Navarro, Frenk and White fit to the lensing mass profile exceeds the caustic mass profile. Contamination of the lensing profile by unrelated structures within the lensing kernel may be an issue in some cases; we highlight the clusters MS0906+11 and A750, superposed along the line of sight, to illustrate the potential seriousness of contamination of the weak lensing signal by these unrelated structures.

  18. Measured Thermal and Fast Neutron Fluence Rates for ATF-1 Holders During ATR Cycle 157D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Larry Don [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Miller, David Torbet [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    This report contains the thermal (2200 m/s) and fast (E>1MeV) neutron fluence rate data for the ATF-1 holders located in core for ATR Cycle 157D which were measured by the Radiation Measurements Laboratory (RML) as requested by the Power Reactor Programs (ATR Experiments) Radiation Measurements Work Order. This report contains measurements of the fluence rates corresponding to the particular elevations relative to the 80-ft. core elevation. The data in this report consist of (1) a table of the ATR power history and distribution, (2) a hard copy listing of all thermal and fast neutron fluence rates, and (3) plots of both the thermal and fast neutron fluence rates. The fluence rates reported are for the average power levels given in the table of power history and distribution.

  19. Palmitate binding to serum albumin, measured by rate of dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, R; Honoré, B; Andersen, S


    Dialysis experiments were performed with an acetylcellulose membrane between two identical sample solutions; a trace amount of radiolabelled palmitate was added on one side and the rate of dialytic equilibration of the label was measured. By comparison with rates measured in standard experiments...

  20. Hybrid oil film approach to measuring skin friction distribution (United States)

    Kurita, Mitsuru; Iijima, Hidetoshi


    This paper describes a technique for quantitatively measuring the time-averaged skin friction distribution on a wind tunnel test model. The technique is a hybrid oil film approach that is based on the combination of the qualitative skin friction distribution obtained from luminescent oil film and the quantitative local skin friction measurements obtained from oil film interferometry in another blowing of the same flow condition. To demonstrate its validity, the proposed method was applied to the flow field around a vortex generator on a flat plate, and successfully measured the quantitative skin friction distribution.

  1. Resistive Wall Growth Rate Measurements in the Fermilab Recycler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainsworth, R. [Fermilab; Adamson, P. [Fermilab; Burov, A. [Fermilab; Kourbanis, I. [Fermilab


    Impedance could represent a limitation of running high intensity beams in the Fermilab recycler. With high intensity upgrades foreseen, it is important to quantify the impedance. To do this,studies have been performed measuring the growth rate of presumably the resistive wall instability. The growth rates at varying intensities and chromaticities are shown. The measured growth rates are compared to ones calculated with the resistive wall impedance.

  2. Measuring firm size distribution with semi-nonparametric densities (United States)

    Cortés, Lina M.; Mora-Valencia, Andrés; Perote, Javier


    In this article, we propose a new methodology based on a (log) semi-nonparametric (log-SNP) distribution that nests the lognormal and enables better fits in the upper tail of the distribution through the introduction of new parameters. We test the performance of the lognormal and log-SNP distributions capturing firm size, measured through a sample of US firms in 2004-2015. Taking different levels of aggregation by type of economic activity, our study shows that the log-SNP provides a better fit of the firm size distribution. We also formally introduce the multivariate log-SNP distribution, which encompasses the multivariate lognormal, to analyze the estimation of the joint distribution of the value of the firm's assets and sales. The results suggest that sales are a better firm size measure, as indicated by other studies in the literature.

  3. Inferring Microscopic Kinetic Rates from Stationary State Distributions. (United States)

    Dixit, Purushottam D; Dill, Ken A


    We present a principled approach for estimating the matrix of microscopic transition probabilities among states of a Markov process, given only its stationary state population distribution and a single average global kinetic observable. We adapt Maximum Caliber, a variational principle in which the path entropy is maximized over the distribution of all possible trajectories, subject to basic kinetic constraints and some average dynamical observables. We illustrate the method by computing the solvation dynamics of water molecules from molecular dynamics trajectories.

  4. Reliability and Inequality Measures for the Weimal Distribution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Reliability analysis basically deals with the probability of survival or failure (death). This article aimed at discussing both reliability and inequality measures from the Weimal distribution. The work has derived and discussed theoretically, expressions for the survival and hazard function of the Weimal distribution.

  5. Blood flow rate measurements with indicator techniques revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejrsen, Per; Bülow, Jens


    In view of the emerging role, disturbances in regional blood flow rate seem to play in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome; we review the concepts of the classical indicator dilution and washout techniques used for determinations of regional blood flow rate. Prerequisites, assumptions......, necessary precautions for the application of these experimental techniques are emphasized. Special attention has been carried out to elucidate the consequence of a choice of indicators having a large distribution volume in the tissues....

  6. Rating scales measuring the severity of psychotic depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, S D; Rothschild, A J; Flint, A J


    OBJECTIVE: Unipolar psychotic depression (PD) is a severe and debilitating syndrome, which requires intensive monitoring. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of the rating scales used to assess illness severity in PD. METHOD: Selective review of publications reporting results...... on non-self-rated, symptom-based rating scales utilized to measure symptom severity in PD. The clinical and psychometric validity of the identified rating scales was reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 14 rating scales meeting the predefined criteria were included in the review. These scales grouped...... into the following categories: (i) rating scales predominantly covering depressive symptoms, (ii) rating scales predominantly covering psychotic symptoms, (iii) rating scales covering delusions, and (iv) rating scales covering PD. For the vast majority of the scales, the clinical and psychometric validity had...

  7. Rating PV Power and Energy: Cell, Module, and System Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, Keith


    A summary of key points related to research-level measurements of current vs. voltage measurement theory including basic PV operation, equivalent circuit, and concept of spectral error; PV power performance including PV irradiance sensors, simulators and commercial and generic I-V systems; PV measurement artifacts, intercomparisons, and alternative rating methods.

  8. Accuracy of smartphone apps for heart rate measurement. (United States)

    Coppetti, Thomas; Brauchlin, Andreas; Müggler, Simon; Attinger-Toller, Adrian; Templin, Christian; Schönrath, Felix; Hellermann, Jens; Lüscher, Thomas F; Biaggi, Patric; Wyss, Christophe A


    Background Smartphone manufacturers offer mobile health monitoring technology to their customers, including apps using the built-in camera for heart rate assessment. This study aimed to test the diagnostic accuracy of such heart rate measuring apps in clinical practice. Methods The feasibility and accuracy of measuring heart rate was tested on four commercially available apps using both iPhone 4 and iPhone 5. 'Instant Heart Rate' (IHR) and 'Heart Fitness' (HF) work with contact photoplethysmography (contact of fingertip to built-in camera), while 'Whats My Heart Rate' (WMH) and 'Cardiio Version' (CAR) work with non-contact photoplethysmography. The measurements were compared to electrocardiogram and pulse oximetry-derived heart rate. Results Heart rate measurement using app-based photoplethysmography was performed on 108 randomly selected patients. The electrocardiogram-derived heart rate correlated well with pulse oximetry ( r = 0.92), IHR ( r = 0.83) and HF ( r = 0.96), but somewhat less with WMH ( r = 0.62) and CAR ( r = 0.60). The accuracy of app-measured heart rate as compared to electrocardiogram, reported as mean absolute error (in bpm ± standard error) was 2 ± 0.35 (pulse oximetry), 4.5 ± 1.1 (IHR), 2 ± 0.5 (HF), 7.1 ± 1.4 (WMH) and 8.1 ± 1.4 (CAR). Conclusions We found substantial performance differences between the four studied heart rate measuring apps. The two contact photoplethysmography-based apps had higher feasibility and better accuracy for heart rate measurement than the two non-contact photoplethysmography-based apps.

  9. Measurement and Analysis of Fission Rates in a Spherical Mockup of Uranium and Polyethylene


    Tong-Hua, Zhu; Chao-Wen, YANG; Xin-Xin, Lu; Rong, Liu; Zi-Jie, Han; Li, Jiang; Mei, Wang


    Measurements of the reaction rate distribution were carried out using two kinds of Plate Micro Fission Chamber(PMFC). The first is a depleted uranium chamber and the second an enriched uranium chamber. The material in the depleted uranium chamber is strictly the same as the material in the uranium assembly. With the equation solution to conduct the isotope contribution correction, the fission rate of 238U and 235U were obtained from the fission rate of depleted uranium and enriched uranium. A...

  10. Effect of Dose Rate Variation on Dose Distribution in IMRT with a Dynamic Multileaf Collimator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Kyoung Dal; Jae, Young Wan; Yoon, Il Kyu; Lee, Jae Hee; Yoo, Suk Hyun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate dose distribution differences when the dose rates are randomly changed in intensity-modulated radiation therapy using a dynamic multileaf collimator. Two IMRT treatment plans including small-field and large-field plans were made using a commercial treatment planning system (Eclipse, Varian, Palo Alto, CA). Each plan had three sub-plans according to various dose rates of 100, 400, and 600 MU/min. A chamber array (2D-Array Seven729, PTW-Freiburg) was positioned between solid water phantom slabs to give measurement depth of 5 cm and backscattering depth of 5 cm. Beam deliveries were performed on the array detector using a 6 MV beam of a linear accelerator (Clinac 21EX, Varian, Palo Alto, CA) equipped with 120-leaf MLC (Millenium 120, Varian). At first, the beam was delivered with same dose rates as planned to obtain reference values. After the standard measurements, dose rates were then changed as follows: 1) for plans with 100 MU/min, dose rate was varied to 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 MU/min, 2) for plans with 400 MU/min, dose rate was varied to 100, 200, 300, 500 and 600 MU/min, 3) for plans with 600 MU/min, dose rate was varied to 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 MU/min. Finally, using an analysis software (Verisoft 3.1, PTW-Freiburg), the dose difference and distribution between the reference and dose-rate-varied measurements was evaluated. For the small field plan, the local dose differences were -0.8, -1.1, -1.3, -1.5, and -1.6% for the dose rate of 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 MU/min, respectively (for 100 MU/min reference), +0.9, +0.3, +0.1, -0.2, and -0.2% for the dose rate of 100, 200, 300, 500, 600 MU/min, respectively (for 400 MU/min reference) and +1.4, +0.8, +0.5, +0.3, and +0.2% for the dose rate of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 MU/min, respectively (for 600 MU/min reference). On the other hand, for the large field plan, the pass-rate differences were -1.3, -1.6, -1.8, -2.0, and -2.4% for the dose rate of 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 MU/min, respectively (for 100


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.; S.K. Dua, Ph.D., C.H.P.; Hillol Guha, Ph.D.


    During deactivation and decommissioning activities, thermal cutting tools, such as plasma torch, laser, and gasoline torch, are used to cut metals. These activities generate fumes, smoke and particulates. These airborne species of matter, called aerosols, may be inhaled if suitable respiratory protection is not used. Inhalation of the airborne metallic aerosols has been reported to cause ill health effects, such as acute respiratory syndrome and chromosome damage in lymphocytes. In the nuclear industry, metals may be contaminated with radioactive materials. Cutting these metals, as in size reduction of gloveboxes and tanks, produces high concentrations of airborne transuranic particles. Particles of the respirable size range (size < 10 {micro}m) deposit in various compartments of the respiratory tract, the fraction and the site in the respiratory tract depending on the size of the particles. The dose delivered to the respiratory tract depends on the size distribution of the airborne particulates (aerosols) and their concentration and radioactivity/toxicity. The concentration of airborne particulate matter in an environment is dependent upon the rate of their production and the ventilation rate. Thus, measuring aerosol size distribution and generation rate is important for (1) the assessment of inhalation exposures of workers, (2) the selection of respiratory protection equipment, and (3) the design of appropriate filtration systems. Size distribution of the aerosols generated during cutting of different metals by plasma torch was measured. Cutting rates of different metals, rate of generation of respirable mass, as well as the fraction of the released kerf that become respirable were determined. This report presents results of these studies. Measurements of the particles generated during cutting of metal plates with a plasma arc torch revealed the presence of particles with mass median aerodynamic diameters of particles close to 0.2 {micro}m, arising from

  12. Human capital, innovation and the distribution of firm growth rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedhuys-Degelin, M.D.L.; Sleuwaegen, L.


    This paper focuses on the occurrence of high-growth firms in relation to human capital and innovation. High-growth firms are rather exceptional and temporary phenomena and occur in the upper tail of the conditional firm growth distribution. Using quantile regression we study how human capital and

  13. Distribution of ACTFL Ratings by TOEFL Score Ranges. (United States)

    Boldt, R. F.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to align verbal descriptions of test takers' language performance with distributions of the numerical scores they received on the three sections (Listening Comprehension, Structure and Written Expression, and Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary) of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). The descriptors of…

  14. Measurements of humidity and current distribution in a PEFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, H.; Kurihara, R.; Sukemori, S.; Sugawara, T.; Abe, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering Tokyo Denki University, 2-2 Kandanishiki-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8457 (Japan); Kobayasi, H.; Aoki, T.; Ogami, Y.; Matsunaga, A. [Fuel Cell Technology Development Department Toshiba Fuel Cell System,4-1 Ukishima-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa 210-0862 (Japan)


    Voltage decreases of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) are affected by the relative humidity of the reaction gas inside the cells. A study was conducted to establish a method for measuring relative humidity and current distribution inside PEFC cells in order to identify the factors affecting the voltage decay of such fuel cells. The humidity distribution was measured using a humidity sensor for directly monitoring the relative humidity of the reaction gas flowing through the air flow channel of the cathode separator. The current distribution was measured directly by attaching a current sensor to the rib of the cathode separator. Typical results of relative humidity and current distribution are described and interpretations are discussed. (author)

  15. Measuring distributed leadership agency in a hospital context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Thomas; Unterrainer, Christine; Jeppesen, Hans Jeppe


    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to develop and validate an instrument that can measure Distributed Leadership as employees’ active participation in distributed leadership tasks. We designate this as the Distributed Leadership Agency (DLA). Methodology: Data were collected throughout all...... and valid quantitative instrument that measures how much employees’ at all hierarchical levels are involved in concrete leadership activities in the hospital context. Taking a normative perspective we could show that Distributed Leadership – measured with the DLA-questionnaire – has positive effects......, discriminant and convergent validity, and ANOVAs were applied to analyze group differences in DLA. Findings: The identified uni-dimensional questionnaire consists of seven items, as it is different from, but associated with, empowering leadership, organizational influence, attitude to participation and trust...

  16. Method to measure the relaxation rates of molecular levels (United States)

    Bakos, J. S.; Mandula, K.; Sorlei, Zsuzsa

    The influence of buffer gases (He and SF6) on vibrational and relaxational rates has been studied. The line shapes (width and amplitude) of the small signal gain of the 119-micron methanol laser line are measured at different methanol vapor and buffer gas pressures using an infrared far-infrared double resonance method. The relaxation rates are calculated using the modified rate equations of the Henningsen-Jensen model.

  17. Confidence bands for measured economically optimal nitrogen rates (United States)

    While numerous researchers have computed economically optimal N rate (EONR) values from measured yield – N rate data, nearly all have neglected to compute or estimate the statistical reliability of these EONR values. In this study, a simple method for computing EONR and its confidence bands is descr...

  18. Sensors measure surface ablation rate of reentry vehicle heat shield (United States)

    Russel, J. M., III


    Sensors measure surface erosion rate of ablating material in reentry vehicle heat shield. Each sensor, which is placed at precise depths in the heat shield is activated when the ablator surface erodes to the location of a sensing point. Sensor depth and activation time determine ablator surface erosion rate.

  19. A new setup to measure bidirectional reflectance distribution functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosjen, P.P.J.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Bartholomeus, H.


    The Plant Facility, a new laboratory goniometer system, built by the Wageningen University has been tested in order to take bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurements. An ASD FieldSpec 3 spectroradiometer mounted on an industrial robot arm is able to measure small targets

  20. Distribution of cancer mortality rates by province in South Africa. (United States)

    Made, Felix; Wilson, Kerry; Jina, Ruxana; Tlotleng, Nonhlanhla; Jack, Samantha; Ntlebi, Vusi; Kootbodien, Tahira


    Cancer mortality rates are expected to increase in developing countries. Cancer mortality rates by province remain largely unreported in South Africa. This study described the 2014 age standardised cancer mortality rates by province in South Africa, to provide insight for strategic interventions and advocacy. 2014 deaths data were retrieved from Statistics South Africa. Deaths from cancer were extracted using 10th International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for cancer (C00-C97). Adjusted 2013 mid-year population estimates were used as a standard population. All rates were calculated per 100 000 individuals. Nearly 38 000 (8%) of the total deaths in South Africa in 2014 were attributed to cancer. Western Cape Province had the highest age standardised cancer mortality rate in South Africa (118, 95% CI: 115-121 deaths per 100 000 individuals), followed by the Northern Cape (113, 95% CI: 107-119 per 100 000 individuals), with the lowest rate in Limpopo Province (47, 95% CI: 45-49 per 100 000). The age standardised cancer mortality rate for men (71, 95% CI: 70-72 per 100 000 individuals) was similar to women (69, 95% CI: 68-70 per 100 000). Lung cancer was a major driver of cancer death in men (13, 95% CI: 12.6-13.4 per 100 000). In women, cervical cancer was the leading cause of cancer death (13, 95% CI: 12.6-13.4 per 100 000 individuals). There is a need to further investigate the factors related to the differences in cancer mortality by province in South Africa. Raising awareness of risk factors and screening for cancer in the population along with improved access and quality of health care are also important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Distribution Line Parameter Estimation Under Consideration of Measurement Tolerances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prostejovsky, Alexander; Gehrke, Oliver; Kosek, Anna Magdalena


    State estimation and control approaches in electric distribution grids rely on precise electric models that may be inaccurate. This work presents a novel method of estimating distribution line parameters using only root mean square voltage and power measurements under consideration of measurement...... tolerances, noise, and asynchronous timestamps. A measurement tolerance compensation model and an alternative representation of the power flow equations without voltage phase angles are introduced. The line parameters are obtained using numeric methods. The simulation demonstrates in case of the series...... conductance that the absolute compensated error is −1.05% and −1.07% for both representations, as opposed to the expected uncompensated error of −79.68%. Identification of a laboratory distribution line using real measurement data grid yields a deviation of 6.75% and 4.00%, respectively, from a calculation...

  2. Measurement of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol by Globally Distributed MP Lidar Network Sites (United States)

    Spinhirne, James; Welton, Judd; Campbell, James; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)


    The global distribution of aerosol has an important influence on climate through the scattering and absorption of shortwave radiation and through modification of cloud optical properties. Current satellite and other data already provide a great amount of information on aerosol distribution. However there are critical parameters that can only be obtained by active optical profiling. For aerosol, no passive technique can adequately resolve the height profile of aerosol. The aerosol height distribution is required for any model for aerosol transport and the height resolved radiative heating/cooling effect of aerosol. The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is an orbital lidar to be launched by 2002. GLAS will provide global measurements of the height distribution of aerosol. The sampling will be limited by nadir only coverage. There is a need for local sites to address sampling, and accuracy factors. Full time measurements of the vertical distribution of aerosol are now being acquired at a number of globally distributed MP (micro pulse) lidar sites. The MP lidar systems provide profiling of all significant cloud and aerosol to the limit of signal attenuation from compact, eye safe instruments. There are currently six sites in operation and over a dozen planned. At all sites there are a complement of passive aerosol and radiation measurements supporting the lidar data. Four of the installations are at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program sites. The aerosol measurements, retrievals and data products from the network sites will be discussed. The current and planned application of data to supplement satellite aerosol measurements is covered.

  3. Aluminum X-ray mass-ablation rate measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Kline


    Full Text Available Measurements of the mass ablation rate of aluminum (Al have been completed at the Omega Laser Facility. These measurements show that the mass-ablation rate of Al is higher than plastic (CH, comparable to high density carbon (HDC, and lower than beryllium. The mass-ablation rate is consistent with predictions using a 1D Lagrangian code, Helios. The results suggest Al capsules have a reasonable ablation pressure even with a higher albedo than beryllium or carbon ablators and further investigation into the viability of Al capsules for ignition should be pursued.

  4. Cosmological constraints from large-scale structure growth rate measurements (United States)

    Pavlov, Anatoly; Farooq, Omer; Ratra, Bharat


    We compile a list of 14 independent measurements of a large-scale structure growth rate between redshifts 0.067≤z≤0.8 and use this to place constraints on model parameters of constant and time-evolving general-relativistic dark energy cosmologies. With the assumption that gravity is well modeled by general relativity, we discover that growth-rate data provide restrictive cosmological parameter constraints. In combination with type Ia supernova apparent magnitude versus redshift data and Hubble parameter measurements, the growth rate data are consistent with the standard spatially flat ΛCDM model, as well as with mildly evolving dark energy density cosmological models.

  5. Assessment of salivary flow rate: biologic variation and measure error.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerius, P.H.; Limbeek, J. van; Rotteveel, J.J.


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the applicability of the swab method in the measurement of salivary flow rate in multiple-handicap drooling children. To quantify the measurement error of the procedure and the biologic variation in the population. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study. METHODS: In a repeated

  6. Deriving gradient measures of child speech from crowdsourced ratings (United States)

    Byun, Tara McAllister; Harel, Daphna; Halpin, Peter F.; Szeredi, Daniel


    Recent research has demonstrated that perceptual ratings aggregated across multiple non-expert listeners can reveal gradient degrees of covert contrast between target and error sounds that listeners might transcribe identically. Aggregated ratings have been found to correlate strongly with acoustic gold standard measures both when individual raters use a continuous rating scale such as visual analog scaling (Munson, Johnson, & Edwards, 2012) and when individual raters provide binary ratings (McAllister Byun, Halpin, & Szeredi, 2015). In light of evidence that inexperienced listeners use continuous scales less consistently than experienced listeners, this study investigated the relative merits of binary versus continuous rating scales when aggregating responses over large numbers of naive listeners recruited through online crowdsourcing. Stimuli were words produced by children in treatment for misarticulation of North American English /r/. Each listener rated the same 40 tokens two times: once using Visual Analog Scaling (VAS) and once using a binary rating scale. The gradient rhoticity of each item was then estimated using (a) VAS click location, averaged across raters; (b) the proportion of raters who assigned the “correct /r/” label to each item in the binary rating task (p̂). First, we validate these two measures of rhoticity against each other and against an acoustic gold standard. Second, we explore the range of variability in individual response patterns that underlie these group-level data. Third, we integrate statistical, theoretical, and practical considerations to offer guidelines for determining which measure to use in a given situation. PMID:27481555

  7. Spatial distribution of soda straws growth rates of the Coufin Cave (Vercors, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrette Yves


    Full Text Available The Choranche Cave system (Vercors, France is an excellent locality for measuring the growth rates of large numbers soda straws. This is especially the case for the Coufin Cave, as enlargement of the cave entrance in 1875 led to a change in stalactite color from brown to white, thus providing a reliable chronomarker. The date of this brown-to-white calcite transition has been confirmed by lamina counting. We measured and georeferenced the growth-lengths of 306 soda straws in a 1m2 area of the roof of the Coufin Cave entrance chamber. Because of the very slow and sometimes inexistent water feeding of those stalactites, hydrochemistry analysis were not achieved and drop rate effect on growth were neglected; this study is based on a geomorphological and geostatistical work. By measuring a large number of soda straws in a very small area for which most of the parameters affecting stalactite growth could be considered uniform, and because flow rates are very slow (frequencies are always superior to 1 drop per half hour, we could ascribe differences in growth rates to variations in the global increase of water flow through the unsaturated matrix. Statistical and geostatistical analyses of the measurements showed that this set of similarly shaped stalactites actually consisted of three Gaussian populations with different mean growth rates: fast growth rate (FGR- mean of 0.92 mm.y-1, medium growth rate (MGR- mean of 0.47 mm.y-1 and low growth rate (LGR- 0.09 mm.y-1. Plotting the lengths and spatial distribution of the 20 longest FGR soda straws revealed that there is a rough pattern to the water flow through the cave roof. Even if no direction is statisticaly different from others, the observed directional pattern is consistent with local and regional tectonic observations. Plots of the spatial distribution of the soda straws show that FGR soda straws follow lines of regional geological stress, whereas MGR and LGR soda straws are more dispersed.

  8. Measuring Outdoor Air Intake Rates into Existing Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William; Sullivan, Douglas; Cohen, Sebastian; Han, Hwataik


    Practical and accurate technologies are needed for continuously measuring and controlling outdoor air (OA) intake rates in commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. This project evaluated two new measurement approaches. Laboratory experiments determined that OA flow rates were measurable with errors generally less than 10 percent using electronic air velocity probes installed between OA intake louver blades or at the outlet face of louvers. High accuracy was maintained with OA flow rates as low as 15 percent of the maximum for the louvers. Thus, with this measurement approach HVAC systems do not need separate OA intakes for minimum OA supply. System calibration parameters are required for each unique combination of louver type and velocity sensor location but calibrations are not necessary for each system installation. The research also determined that the accuracy of measuring OA flow rates with velocity probes located in the duct downstream of the intake louver was not improved by installing honeycomb airflow straighteners upstream of the probes. Errors varied with type of upstream louver, were as high as 100 percent, and were often greater than 25 percent. In conclusion, use of electronic air velocity probes between the blades of OA intake louvers or at the outlet face of louvers is a highly promising means of accurately measuring rates of OA flow into HVAC systems. The use of electronic velocity probes downstream of airflow straighteners is less promising, at least with the relatively small OA HVAC inlet systems employed in this research.

  9. Affine Bond Pricing with a Mixture Distribution for Interest Rate Time-Series Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben B.

    Starting from the discrete-time ane term structure model by Dai, Le & Singleton (2006), this paper proposes a Radon-Nikodym derivative which implies that factors follow a mixture distribution under the physical measure. The model thus maintains attractive features of an affine relation between yi......-period rate that both increase fast with higher levels of the yield curve. The added second component is found to capture infrequent relatively large simultaneous shifts in direction of a yield curve that is at a lower level, is steeper, and is more positively curved....

  10. Statistical analysis of solar measurements in Algeria using beta distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettoumi, F. Youcef; Adane, A. [Univ. of Sciences and Technology of Algiers (U.S.T.H.B.), Dept. of Telecommunications, Algiers (Algeria); Mefti, A.; Bouroubi, M.Y. [Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables (CDER), Algiers (Algeria)


    A method of smoothing solar data by beta probability distributions is implemented in this paper. In the first step, this method has been used to process daily sunshine duration data recorded at thirty- three meteorological stations in Algeria for eleven year periods or more. In the second step, it has been applied to hourly global solar irradiation flux measured in Algiers during the 1987/89 period. For each location and each month of the year, beta probability density functions fitting the monthly frequency distributions of the daily sunshine duration measurements are obtained. Both the parameters characterising the resulting beta distributions are then mapped, enabling us to build the frequency distributions of sunshine duration for every site in Algeria. In the case of solar radiation for Algiers, the recorded data have been processed following two different ways. The first one consists in sorting the hourly global solar irradiation data into eight typical classes of the daily clearness index. The second one is based on the repartition of these data per month. The results of the first classification show that for each class of daily clearness index, the hourly data under consideration are modelled by only one beta distribution. When using the second classification, linear combinations of two beta distributions are found to fit the monthly frequency distributions of the hourly solar radiation data. (Author)

  11. Generalised Central Limit Theorems for Growth Rate Distribution of Complex Systems (United States)

    Takayasu, Misako; Watanabe, Hayafumi; Takayasu, Hideki


    We introduce a solvable model of randomly growing systems consisting of many independent subunits. Scaling relations and growth rate distributions in the limit of infinite subunits are analysed theoretically. Various types of scaling properties and distributions reported for growth rates of complex systems in a variety of fields can be derived from this basic physical model. Statistical data of growth rates for about 1 million business firms are analysed as a real-world example of randomly growing systems. Not only are the scaling relations consistent with the theoretical solution, but the entire functional form of the growth rate distribution is fitted with a theoretical distribution that has a power-law tail.

  12. Exchange Rate Misalignment, Capital Accumulation and Income Distribution: Theory and Evidence from the Case of Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José Luis Oreiro; Eliane Araujo


      This article analyzes the relationship between economic growth, income distribution and real exchange rate within the neo-Kaleckian literature, through the construction of a nonlinear macrodynamic...

  13. Size distribution measurements and chemical analysis of aerosol components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakkanen, T.A.


    The principal aims of this work were to improve the existing methods for size distribution measurements and to draw conclusions about atmospheric and in-stack aerosol chemistry and physics by utilizing size distributions of various aerosol components measured. A sample dissolution with dilute nitric acid in an ultrasonic bath and subsequent graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric analysis was found to result in low blank values and good recoveries for several elements in atmospheric fine particle size fractions below 2 {mu}m of equivalent aerodynamic particle diameter (EAD). Furthermore, it turned out that a substantial amount of analyses associated with insoluble material could be recovered since suspensions were formed. The size distribution measurements of in-stack combustion aerosols indicated two modal size distributions for most components measured. The existence of the fine particle mode suggests that a substantial fraction of such elements with two modal size distributions may vaporize and nucleate during the combustion process. In southern Norway, size distributions of atmospheric aerosol components usually exhibited one or two fine particle modes and one or two coarse particle modes. Atmospheric relative humidity values higher than 80% resulted in significant increase of the mass median diameters of the droplet mode. Important local and/or regional sources of As, Br, I, K, Mn, Pb, Sb, Si and Zn were found to exist in southern Norway. The existence of these sources was reflected in the corresponding size distributions determined, and was utilized in the development of a source identification method based on size distribution data. On the Finnish south coast, atmospheric coarse particle nitrate was found to be formed mostly through an atmospheric reaction of nitric acid with existing coarse particle sea salt but reactions and/or adsorption of nitric acid with soil derived particles also occurred. Chloride was depleted when acidic species reacted

  14. The Transfer Eligible Rate: Longitudinal Results of a Companion Measure to the Transfer Rate. (United States)

    Rasor, Richard A.; Barr, James E.

    A project was conducted at American River College, in California, to develop and apply a transfer eligibility measure as a companion to the college's transfer rate. The transfer eligible rate is calculated by dividing the number of transfer directed students by those who are transfer eligible. In the original model, transfer directed students were…

  15. Simultaneous measurement of dynamic strain and temperature distribution using high birefringence PANDA fiber Bragg grating (United States)

    Zhu, Mengshi; Murayama, Hideaki


    New approach in simultaneous measurement of dynamic strain and temperature has been done by using a high birefringence PANDA fiber Bragg grating sensor. By this technique, we have succeeded in discriminating dynamic strain and temperature distribution at the sampling rate of 800 Hz and the spatial resolution of 1 mm. The dynamic distribution of strain and temperature were measured with the deviation of 5mm spatially. In addition, we have designed an experimental setup by which we can apply quantitative dynamic strain and temperature distribution to the fiber under testing without bounding it to a specimen.

  16. High-rate measurement-device-independent quantum cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirandola, Stefano; Ottaviani, Carlo; Spedalieri, Gaetana


    Quantum cryptography achieves a formidable task - the remote distribution of secret keys by exploiting the fundamental laws of physics. Quantum cryptography is now headed towards solving the practical problem of constructing scalable and secure quantum networks. A significant step in this direction...... than those currently achieved. Our protocol could be employed to build high-rate quantum networks where devices securely connect to nearby access points or proxy servers....

  17. An Investigation of the impact of interest rates and interest rate volatility on Australian financial sector stock return distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faff, R.; Kremmer, M.; Hodgson, A.


    This paper extends the existing literature by analysing the dual impact of changes in the interest rate and interest rate volatility on the distribution of Australian financial sector stock returns. In addition, a multivariate GARCH-M model is used to analyse the impact of deregulation on the

  18. Calcite dissolution rate spectra measured by in situ digital holographic microscopy. (United States)

    Brand, Alexander S; Feng, Pan; Bullard, Jeffrey W


    Digital holographic microscopy in reflection mode is used to track in situ, real-time nanoscale topography evolution of cleaved (104) calcite surfaces exposed to flowing or static deionized water. The method captures full-field holograms of the surface at frame rates of up to 12.5 s(-1). Numerical reconstruction provides 3D surface topography with vertical resolution of a few nanometers and enables measurement of time-dependent local dissolution fluxes. A statistical distribution, or spectrum, of dissolution rates is generated by sampling multiple area domains on multiple crystals. The data show, as has been demonstrated by Fischer et al. (2012), that dissolution is most fully described by a rate spectrum, although the modal dissolution rate agrees well with published mean dissolution rates (e.g., 0.1 µmol m(-2) s(-1) to 0.3 µmol m(-2) s(-1)). Rhombohedral etch pits and other morphological features resulting from rapid local dissolution appear at different times and are heterogeneously distributed across the surface and through the depth. This makes the distribution in rates measured on a single crystal dependent both on the sample observation field size and on time, even at nominally constant undersaturation. Statistical analysis of the inherent noise in the DHM measurements indicates that the technique is robust and that it likely can be applied to quantify and interpret rate spectra for the dissolution or growth of other minerals.

  19. Adapting workload improves the measurement of heart rate recovery. (United States)

    Lamberts, R P; Maskell, S; Borresen, J; Lambert, M I


    Heart rate after a standardized test varies with a change in training status, possibly compromising the accuracy of measuring changes in heart rate recovery (HRR). The aim of this study was to determine if a change in the exercise intensity would result in a change in heart rate recovery and/or the accuracy of the heart rate recovery measurement. 31 subjects performed 4 submaximal running tests (HIMS). Based on the heart rate after the first HIMS, subjects either completed 4 identical HIMS (SAME (n=9)), 2 standard and 2 faster HIMS (FASTER (n=10)) or 2 standard and 2 slower HIMS (SLOWER (n=12)). Although no changes in heart rate recovery were found when the HIMS protocol was adapted, lower coefficients of variation (CV) and typical errors of measurement (TEM) were found in the SLOWER (CV: 11 ± 7 to 5 ± 3% ( P=0.025)), TEM: 6 to 3 beats and FASTER group (CV: 11 ± 7 to 4 ± 3% ( P=0.048), TEM: 7 to 3 beats). To ensure the highest level of sensitivity in detecting meaningful changes in HRR over time, submaximal testing protocols should target exercise intensities ranging in-between 86-93% of heart rate maximum. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Accuracy of real time radiography burning rate measurement (United States)

    Olaniyi, Bisola

    The design of a solid propellant rocket motor requires the determination of a propellant's burning-rate and its dependency upon environmental parameters. The requirement that the burning-rate be physically measured, establishes the need for methods and equipment to obtain such data. A literature review reveals that no measurement has provided the desired burning rate accuracy. In the current study, flash x-ray modeling and digitized film-density data were employed to predict motor-port area to length ratio. The pre-fired port-areas and base burning rate were within 2.5% and 1.2% of their known values, respectively. To verify the accuracy of the method, a continuous x-ray and a solid propellant rocket motor model (Plexiglas cylinder) were used. The solid propellant motor model was translated laterally through a real-time radiography system at different speeds simulating different burning rates. X-ray images were captured and the burning-rate was then determined. The measured burning rate was within 1.65% of the known values.

  1. Measuring plasma membrane protein endocytic rates by reversible biotinylation. (United States)

    Gabriel, Luke; Stevens, Zachary; Melikian, Haley


    Plasma membrane proteins are a large, diverse group of proteins comprised of receptors, ion channels, transporters and pumps. Activity of these proteins is responsible for a variety of key cellular events, including nutrient delivery, cellular excitability, and chemical signaling. Many plasma membrane proteins are dynamically regulated by endocytic trafficking, which modulates protein function by altering protein surface expression. The mechanisms that facilitate protein endocytosis are complex and are not fully understood for many membrane proteins. In order to fully understand the mechanisms that control the endocytic trafficking of a given protein, it is critical that the protein s endocytic rate be precisely measured. For many receptors, direct endocytic rate measurements are frequently achieved utilizing labeled receptor ligands. However, for many classes of membrane proteins, such as transporters, pumps and ion channels, there is no convenient ligand that can be used to measure the endocytic rate. In the present report, we describe a reversible biotinylation method that we employ to measure the dopamine transporter (DAT) endocytic rate. This method provides a straightforward approach to measuring internalization rates, and can be easily employed for trafficking studies of most membrane proteins.

  2. Imaging and Measuring Electron Beam Dose Distributions Using Holographic Interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; McLaughlin, W. L.


    Holographic interferometry was used to image and measure ionizing radiation depth-dose and isodose distributions in transparent liquids. Both broad and narrowly collimated electron beams from accelerators (2–10 MeV) provided short irradiation times of 30 ns to 0.6 s. Holographic images...... and measurements of absorbed dose distributions were achieved in liquids of various densities and thermal properties and in water layers thinner than the electron range and with backings of materials of various densities and atomic numbers. The lowest detectable dose in some liquids was of the order of a few k...

  3. Measurements of the angular distribution of diffuse irradiance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Nielsen, Kristian Pagh; Dragsted, Janne


    Advanced solar resource assessment and forecasting is necessary for optimal solar energy utilization. In order to investigate the short-term resource variability, for instance caused by clouds it is necessary to investigate how clouds affect the solar irradiance, including the angular distribution...... of the solar irradiance. The investigation is part of the Danish contribution to the taskforce 46 within the International Energy Agency and financed by the Danish Energy Agency. The investigation focuses on the distribution of the diffuse solar irradiance and is based on horizontal measurements of the solar...... irradiance from 8 different parts of the sky as well as horizontal measurements of the total beam and total diffuse irradiance....

  4. High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glascoe, E A; Tan, N


    High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique ammonium perchlorate (AP) based propellant are required to design the base burn motor for a Raytheon weapon system. The results of these deflagration rate measurements will be key in assessing safety and performance of the system. In particular, the system may experience transient pressures on the order of 100's of MPa (10's kPSI). Previous studies on similar AP based materials demonstrate that low pressure (e.g. P < 10 MPa or 1500 PSI) burn rates can be quite different than the elevated pressure deflagration rate measurements (see References and HPP results discussed herein), hence elevated pressure measurements are necessary in order understand the deflagration behavior under relevant conditions. Previous work on explosives have shown that at 100's of MPa some explosives will transition from a laminar burn mechanism to a convective burn mechanism in a process termed deconsolidative burning. The resulting burn rates that are orders-of-magnitude faster than the laminar burn rates. Materials that transition to the deconsolidative-convective burn mechanism at elevated pressures have been shown to be considerably more violent in confined heating experiments (i.e. cook-off scenarios). The mechanisms of propellant and explosive deflagration are extremely complex and include both chemical, and mechanical processes, hence predicting the behavior and rate of a novel material or formulation is difficult if not impossible. In this work, the AP/HTPB based material, TAL-1503 (B-2049), was burned in a constant volume apparatus in argon up to 300 MPa (ca. 44 kPSI). The burn rate and pressure were measured in-situ and used to calculate a pressure dependent burn rate. In general, the material appears to burn in a laminar fashion at these elevated pressures. The experiment was reproduced multiple times and the burn rate law using the best data is B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} where B is the burn

  5. Optical tomography for measuring dose distribution in radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauppinen Matti


    Full Text Available The dosimetry is used to verify the dose magnitude with artificial samples (phantoms before giving the planned radiation therapy to the patient. Typically, dose distribution is measured only in a single point or on a two-dimensional matrix plane. New techniques of radiation therapy ensure more detailed planning of radiation dose distribution which will lead to the need of measuring the radiation dose distribution three-dimensionally. The gel dosimetry is used to indicate and determine the ionizing radiation three-dimensionally. The radiation causes changes in chemical properties of the gel. The radiation dose distribution is defined by measuring the chemical changes. A conventional method is the magnetic resonance imaging and a new possibility is optical computed tomography (optical-CT. The optical-CT is much cheaper and more practical than magnetic resonance imaging. In this project, an optical-CT based method device was built by aiming at low material costs and a simple realization. The constructed device applies the charge coupled device camera and fluorescent lamp technologies. The test results show that the opacity level of the radiated gel can be measured accurately enough. The imaging accuracy is restricted by the optical distortion, e. g. vignetting, of the lenses, the distortion of a fluorescent lamp as the light source and a noisy measuring environment.

  6. A molecular ruler for measuring quantitative distance distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S Mathew-Fenn

    Full Text Available We report a novel molecular ruler for measurement of distances and distance distributions with accurate external calibration. Using solution X-ray scattering we determine the scattering interference between two gold nanocrystal probes attached site-specifically to a macromolecule of interest. Fourier transformation of the interference pattern provides a model-independent probability distribution for the distances between the probe centers-of-mass. To test the approach, we measure end-to-end distances for a variety of DNA structures. We demonstrate that measurements with independently prepared samples and using different X-ray sources are highly reproducible, we demonstrate the quantitative accuracy of the first and second moments of the distance distributions, and we demonstrate that the technique recovers complex distribution shapes. Distances measured with the solution scattering-interference ruler match the corresponding crystallographic values, but differ from distances measured previously with alternate ruler techniques. The X-ray scattering interference ruler should be a powerful tool for relating crystal structures to solution structures and for studying molecular fluctuations.

  7. Boulder Distributions at Legacy Landing Sites: Assessing Regolith Production Rates and Landing Site Hazards (United States)

    Watkins, R. N.; Jolliff, B. L.; Lawrence, S. J.; Hayne, P. O.; Ghent, R. R.


    Understanding how the distribution of boulders on the lunar surface changes over time is key to understanding small-scale erosion processes and the rate at which rocks become regolith. Boulders degrade over time, primarily as a result of micrometeorite bombardment so their residence time at the surface can inform the rate at which rocks become regolith or become buried within regolith. Because of the gradual degradation of exposed boulders, we expect that the boulder population around an impact crater will decrease as crater age increases. Boulder distributions around craters of varying ages are needed to understand regolith production rates, and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images provide one of the best tools for conducting these studies. Using NAC images to assess how the distribution of boulders varies as a function of crater age provides key constraints for boulder erosion processes. Boulders also represent a potential hazard that must be addressed in the planning of future lunar landings. A boulder under a landing leg can contribute to deck tilt, and boulders can damage spacecraft during landing. Using orbital data to characterize boulder populations at locations where landers have safely touched down (Apollo, Luna, Surveyor, Chang'e-3) provides validation for landed mission hazard avoidance planning. Additionally, counting boulders at legacy landing sites is useful because: 1) LROC has extensive coverage of these sites at high resolutions (approximately 0.5 meters per pixel). 2) Returned samples from craters at these sites have been radiometrically dated, allowing assessment of how boulder distributions vary as a function of crater age. 3) Surface photos at these sites can be used to correlate with remote sensing measurements.

  8. Longshore sediment transport rate-measurement and estimation, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Anand, N.M.; Chandramohan, P.; Naik, G.N.

    Measurements of the longshore sediment transport rate (LSTR) along the surf zone at a 4-km-long beach on the central west coast of India were made over a 4-month period. During the study, both the lateral and vertical distributions of the sediment...

  9. Classifying work rate from heart rate measurements using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system. (United States)

    Kolus, Ahmet; Imbeau, Daniel; Dubé, Philippe-Antoine; Dubeau, Denise


    In a new approach based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS), field heart rate (HR) measurements were used to classify work rate into four categories: very light, light, moderate, and heavy. Inter-participant variability (physiological and physical differences) was considered. Twenty-eight participants performed Meyer and Flenghi's step-test and a maximal treadmill test, during which heart rate and oxygen consumption (VO2) were measured. Results indicated that heart rate monitoring (HR, HRmax, and HRrest) and body weight are significant variables for classifying work rate. The ANFIS classifier showed superior sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy compared to current practice using established work rate categories based on percent heart rate reserve (%HRR). The ANFIS classifier showed an overall 29.6% difference in classification accuracy and a good balance between sensitivity (90.7%) and specificity (95.2%) on average. With its ease of implementation and variable measurement, the ANFIS classifier shows potential for widespread use by practitioners for work rate assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Anti-islanding Protection of Distributed Generation Using Rate of Change of Impedance (United States)

    Shah, Pragnesh; Bhalja, Bhavesh


    Distributed Generation (DG), which is interlinked with distribution system, has inevitable effect on distribution system. Integrating DG with the utility network demands an anti-islanding scheme to protect the system. Failure to trip islanded generators can lead to problems such as threats to personnel safety, out-of-phase reclosing, and degradation of power quality. In this article, a new method for anti-islanding protection based on impedance monitoring of distribution network is carried out in presence of DG. The impedance measured between two phases is used to derive the rate of change of impedance (dz/dt), and its peak values are used for final trip decision. Test data are generated using PSCAD/EMTDC software package and the performance of the proposed method is evaluated in MatLab software. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme as it is capable to detect islanding condition accurately. Subsequently, it is also observed that the proposed scheme does not mal-operate during other disturbances such as short circuit and switching event.

  11. Determination and optimization of spatial samples for distributed measurements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huo, Xiaoming (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Tran, Hy D.; Shilling, Katherine Meghan; Kim, Heeyong (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA)


    There are no accepted standards for determining how many measurements to take during part inspection or where to take them, or for assessing confidence in the evaluation of acceptance based on these measurements. The goal of this work was to develop a standard method for determining the number of measurements, together with the spatial distribution of measurements and the associated risks for false acceptance and false rejection. Two paths have been taken to create a standard method for selecting sampling points. A wavelet-based model has been developed to select measurement points and to determine confidence in the measurement after the points are taken. An adaptive sampling strategy has been studied to determine implementation feasibility on commercial measurement equipment. Results using both real and simulated data are presented for each of the paths.

  12. Angular-Rate Estimation Using Delayed Quaternion Measurements (United States)

    Azor, R.; Bar-Itzhack, I. Y.; Harman, R. R.


    This paper presents algorithms for estimating the angular-rate vector of satellites using quaternion measurements. Two approaches are compared one that uses differentiated quaternion measurements to yield coarse rate measurements, which are then fed into two different estimators. In the other approach the raw quaternion measurements themselves are fed directly into the two estimators. The two estimators rely on the ability to decompose the non-linear part of the rotas rotational dynamics equation of a body into a product of an angular-rate dependent matrix and the angular-rate vector itself. This non unique decomposition, enables the treatment of the nonlinear spacecraft (SC) dynamics model as a linear one and, thus, the application of a PseudoLinear Kalman Filter (PSELIKA). It also enables the application of a special Kalman filter which is based on the use of the solution of the State Dependent Algebraic Riccati Equation (SDARE) in order to compute the gain matrix and thus eliminates the need to compute recursively the filter covariance matrix. The replacement of the rotational dynamics by a simple Markov model is also examined. In this paper special consideration is given to the problem of delayed quaternion measurements. Two solutions to this problem are suggested and tested. Real Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data is used to test these algorithms, and results are presented.

  13. Top-quark mass measurements using jet rates at LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch S.


    Full Text Available This work presents a new method to measure the top-quark mass in hadronic collisions[1]. The method uses the sensitivity of the tt¯+1$tar t + 1$-jet production on the top-quark mass. In detail we study the ℛ distribution defined as the tt¯+1$tar t + 1$-jet normalized cross section differential in the invariant mass of the total system and calculated at NLO accuracy. We prove that the ℛ distribution has a high sensitivity to the top-quark mass. Furthermore we investigate and quantify the impact of the dominant theoretical and experimental uncertainties. The results obtained show, that the method has the potential to be competitive in precision with established approaches and allows a complementary measurement of the top-quark mass at hadron colliders. We emphasize that in the proposed method the mass parameter is uniquely defined through one-loop renormalization.

  14. Physiological Measurement on Students’ Engagement In a Distributed Learning Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Wang (Chen); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago)


    htmlabstractMeasuring students’ engagement in a distributed learning environment is a challenge. In particular, a teacher gives a lecture at one location, while at the same time the remote students watch the lecture through a display screen. In such situation, it is difficult for the teacher to know

  15. Measurements of distribution coefficients and lipophilicity values for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hollow fibre supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) has been applied in the measurements of distribution constants, KD and lipophilicity (log P) values for the isomeric triterpenic acids, betulinic acid (BA) and oleanolic acid (OA) isolated from indigenous plants. The results have shown that BA had an optimum pH of 3.5 while ...

  16. The measurements of thermal neutron flux distribution in a paraffin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The term `thermal flux' implies a Maxwellian distribution of velocity and energy corresponding to the most probable velocity of 2200 ms-1 at 293.4 K. In order to measure the thermal neutron flux density, the foil activation method was used. Thermal neutron flux determination in paraffin phantom by counting the emitted rays of ...

  17. Magnetic Implosion for Novel Strength Measurements at High Strain Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.; Preston, D.L.; Bartsch, R.R.; Bowers, R.L.; Holtkamp, D.; Wright, B.L.


    Recently Lee and Preston have proposed to use magnetic implosions as a new method for measuring material strength in a regime of large strains and high strain rates inaccessible to previously established techniques. By its shockless nature, this method avoids the intrinsic difficulties associated with an earlier approach using high explosives. The authors illustrate how the stress-strain relation for an imploding liner can be obtained by measuring the velocity and temperature history of its inner surface. They discuss the physical requirements that lead us to a composite liner design applicable to different test materials, and also compare the code-simulated prediction with the measured data for the high strain-rate experiments conducted recently at LANL. Finally, they present a novel diagnostic scheme that will enable us to remove the background in the pyrometric measurement through data reduction.

  18. Heart rate measurement based on face video sequence (United States)

    Xu, Fang; Zhou, Qin-Wu; Wu, Peng; Chen, Xing; Yang, Xiaofeng; Yan, Hong-jian


    This paper proposes a new non-contact heart rate measurement method based on photoplethysmography (PPG) theory. With this method we can measure heart rate remotely with a camera and ambient light. We collected video sequences of subjects, and detected remote PPG signals through video sequences. Remote PPG signals were analyzed with two methods, Blind Source Separation Technology (BSST) and Cross Spectral Power Technology (CSPT). BSST is a commonly used method, and CSPT is used for the first time in the study of remote PPG signals in this paper. Both of the methods can acquire heart rate, but compared with BSST, CSPT has clearer physical meaning, and the computational complexity of CSPT is lower than that of BSST. Our work shows that heart rates detected by CSPT method have good consistency with the heart rates measured by a finger clip oximeter. With good accuracy and low computational complexity, the CSPT method has a good prospect for the application in the field of home medical devices and mobile health devices.

  19. Measurement of radon exhalation rate in various building materials ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mended by Organization for Economic Coopera- tion and Development (OECD 1979). Hence, the result shows that this study area is safe as far as the health hazards of radium are concerned. It is recommended that the radon exhalation rate should be measured for all building materials and a standard code placed on all ...

  20. Measurement of radon exhalation rate in various building materials ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indoor radon is considered as one of the potential dangerous radioactive elements. Common building materials and soil are the major source of this radon gas in the indoor environment. In the present study, the measurement of radon exhalation rate in the soil and building material samples of Una and Hamirpurdistricts of ...

  1. Atomic recombination rate determination through heat-transfer measurement. (United States)

    Park, C.; Anderson, L. A.; Sheldahl, R. E.


    A theoretical and experimental demonstration is presented which shows that under suitable conditions the volume recombination coefficient can be determined by measuring the heat transfer rate into the wall of a cylinder through which a dissociated stream is passing. The experimental results obtained are in agreement with those of other investigators.

  2. Building Fluent Performance: Measuring Response Rate and Multiplying Response Opportunities (United States)

    Binder, Carl


    Precision teaching emerged from O.R. Lindsley's pristine application of Skinner's natural science of behavior, with a focus on response rate measurement and free operant procedures. When applied with human learners in instructional settings, these first principles led to a series of developments framed in this paper as four kinds of ceilings that…

  3. QT measurement and heart rate correction during hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Folke; Randløv, Jette; Christensen, Leif Engmann


    Introduction. Several studies show that hypoglycemia causes QT interval prolongation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of QT measurement methodology, heart rate correction, and insulin types during hypoglycemia. Methods. Ten adult subjects with type 1 diabetes had hypoglycemia ...

  4. Measuring hospital quality using pediatric readmission and revisit rates. (United States)

    Bardach, Naomi S; Vittinghoff, Eric; Asteria-Peñaloza, Renée; Edwards, Jeffrey D; Yazdany, Jinoos; Lee, Henry C; Boscardin, W John; Cabana, Michael D; Dudley, R Adams


    To assess variation among hospitals on pediatric readmission and revisit rates and to determine the number of high- and low-performing hospitals. In a retrospective analysis using the State Inpatient and Emergency Department Databases from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project with revisit linkages available, we identified pediatric (ages 1-20 years) visits with 1 of 7 common inpatient pediatric conditions (asthma, dehydration, pneumonia, appendicitis, skin infections, mood disorders, and epilepsy). For each condition, we calculated rates of all-cause readmissions and rates of revisits (readmission or presentation to the emergency department) within 30 and 60 days of discharge. We used mixed logistic models to estimate hospital-level risk-standardized 30-day revisit rates and to identify hospitals that had performance statistically different from the group mean. Thirty-day readmission rates were low (1% of hospitals labeled as different from the mean on 30-day risk-standardized revisit rates was mood disorders (4.2% of hospitals [n = 15], range of hospital performance 6.3%-15.9%). We found that when comparing hospitals' performances to the average, few hospitals that care for children are identified as high- or low-performers for revisits, even for common pediatric diagnoses, likely due to low hospital volumes. This limits the usefulness of condition-specific readmission or revisit measures in pediatric quality measurement.

  5. Methodology for measuring current distribution effects in electrochromic smart windows. (United States)

    Engfeldt, Johnny Degerman; Georen, Peter; Lagergren, Carina; Lindbergh, Göran


    Electrochromic (EC) devices for use as smart windows have a large energy-saving potential when used in the construction and transport industries. When upscaling EC devices to window size, a well-known challenge is to design the EC device with a rapid and uniform switching between colored (charged) and bleached (discharged) states. A well-defined current distribution model, validated with experimental data, is a suitable tool for optimizing the electrical system design for rapid and uniform switching. This paper introduces a methodology, based on camera vision, for experimentally validating EC current distribution models. The key is the methodology's capability to both measure and simulate current distribution effects as transmittance distribution. This paper also includes simple models for coloring (charging) and bleaching (discharging), taking into account secondary current distribution with charge transfer resistance and ohmic effects. Some window-size model predictions are included to show the potential for using a validated EC current distribution model as a design tool. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  6. Measuring an antibody affinity distribution molecule by molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Werner, James H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Temirov, Jamshid [INVITROGEN


    Single molecule fluorescence mIcroscopy was used to observe the binding and unbinding of hapten decorated quantum dots with individual surface immobilized antibodies. The fluorescence time history from an individual antibody site can be used to calculate its binding affinity. While quantum dot blinking occurs during these measurements, we describe a simple empirical method to correct the apparent/observed affinity to account for the blinking contribution. The combination of many single molecule affinity measurements from different antibodies yields not only the average affinity, it directly measures the full shape and character of the surface affinity distribution function.

  7. Rotation Rate of Saturn's Magnetosphere using CAPS Plasma Measurements (United States)

    Sittler, E.; Cooper, J.; Simpson, D.; Paterson, W.


    We present the present status of an investigation of the rotation rate of Saturn 's magnetosphere using a 3D velocity moment technique being developed at Goddard which is similar to the 2D version used by Sittler et al. (2005) [1] for SOI and similar to that used by Thomsen et al. (2010). This technique allows one to nearly cover the full energy range of the CAPS IMS from 1 V less than or equal to E/Q less than 50 kV. Since our technique maps the observations into a local inertial frame, it does work during roll manoeuvres. We have made comparisons with Wilson et al. (2008) [2] (2005-358 and 2005-284) who performs a bi-Maxwellian fit to the ion singles data and our results are nearly identical. We will also make comparisons with results by Thomsen et al. (2010) [3]. Our analysis uses ion composition data to weight the non-compositional data, referred to as singles data, to separate H+, H2+ and water group ions (W+) from each other. The ion data set is especially valuable for measuring flow velocities for protons, which are more difficult to derive using singles data within the inner magnetosphere, where the signal is dominated by heavy ions (i.e., proton peak merges with W+ peak as low energy shoulder). Our technique uses a flux function, which is zero in the proper plasma flow frame, to estimate fluid parameter uncertainties. The comparisons investigate the experimental errors and potential for systematic errors in the analyses, including ours. The rolls provide the best data set when it comes to getting 4PI coverage of the plasma but are more susceptible to time aliasing effects. Since our analysis is a velocity moments technique it will work within the inner magnetosphere where pickup ions are important and velocity distributions are non-Maxwellian. So, we will present results inside Enceladus' L shell and determine if mass loading is important. In the future we plan to make comparisons with magnetic field observations, use Saturn ionosphere conductivities as

  8. High-temperature rate constant measurements for OH+xylenes

    KAUST Repository

    Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid


    The overall rate constants for the reactions of hydroxyl (OH) radicals with o-xylene (k 1), m-xylene (k 2), and p-xylene (k 3) were measured behind reflected shock waves over 890-1406K at pressures of 1.3-1.8atm using OH laser absorption near 306.7nm. Measurements were performed under pseudo-first-order conditions. The measured rate constants, inferred using a mechanism-fitting approach, can be expressed in Arrhenius form as:k1=2.93×1013exp(-1350.3/T)cm3mol-1s-1(890-1406K)k2=3.49×1013exp(-1449.3/T)cm3mol-1s-1(906-1391K)k3=3.5×1013exp(-1407.5/T)cm3mol-1s-1(908-1383K)This paper presents, to our knowledge, first high-temperature measurements of the rate constants of the reactions of xylene isomers with OH radicals. Low-temperature rate-constant measurements by Nicovich et al. (1981) were combined with the measurements in this study to obtain the following Arrhenius expressions, which are applicable over a wider temperature range:k1=2.64×1013exp(-1181.5/T)cm3mol-1s-1(508-1406K)k2=3.05×109exp(-400/T)cm3mol-1s-1(508-1391K)k3=3.0×109exp(-440/T)cm3mol-1s-1(526-1383K) © 2015 The Combustion Institute.

  9. Measuring distributed leadership agency in a hospital context. (United States)

    Jønsson, Thomas; Unterrainer, Christine; Jeppesen, Hans-Jeppe; Jain, Ajay Kumar


    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate an instrument that can measure distributed leadership (DL) as employees' active participation in DL tasks. The authors designate this as the distributed leadership agency (DLA). Design/methodology/approach Data were collected throughout all departments and occupational groups at a merged centralized hospital setting in Denmark. A total of 1,774 employees from 24 hospital departments and 16 occupational groups completed our survey. Structural equation model and confirmatory factor analyses were applied to identify appropriate items and a test for measurement invariance, predictive, discriminant and convergent validity, and ANOVAs were applied to analyse group differences in DLA. Findings The identified unidimensional questionnaire consists of seven items, as it is different from, but associated with, empowering leadership, organizational influence, attitude to participation and trust in management. As theoretically predicted, DLA is positively related to self-efficacy, job satisfaction and innovative behaviour. Chief physicians, permanent employees and employee representatives scored higher on the scale than the rest of their respective counterparts. Practical implications The survey offers a method to assess a distribution of leadership agency in hospital organizations. Such assessment may provide a basis for organizational and leadership development. Originality/value The present study provides a reliable and valid quantitative instrument that measures how much employees at all hierarchical levels are involved in concrete leadership activities in the hospital context. Taking a normative perspective the authors could show that DL - measured with the DLA-questionnaire - has positive effects on employees' behaviour.

  10. Local T1-T2distribution measurements in porous media. (United States)

    Vashaee, S; Li, M; Newling, B; MacMillan, B; Marica, F; Kwak, H T; Gao, J; Al-Harbi, A M; Balcom, B J


    A novel slice-selective T 1 -T 2 measurement is proposed to measure spatially resolved T 1 -T 2 distributions. An adiabatic inversion pulse is employed for slice-selection. The slice-selective pulse is able to select a quasi-rectangular slice, on the order of 1 mm, at an arbitrary position within the sample.The method does not employ conventional selective excitation in which selective excitation is often accomplished by rotation of the longitudinal magnetization in the slice of interest into the transverse plane, but rather a subtraction based on CPMG data acquired with and without adiabatic inversion slice selection. T 1 weighting is introduced during recovery from the inversion associated with slice selection. The local T 1 -T 2 distributions measured are of similar quality to bulk T 1 -T 2 measurements. The new method can be employed to characterize oil-water mixtures and other fluids in porous media. The method is beneficial when a coarse spatial distribution of the components is of interest. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A watershed scale spatially-distributed model for streambank erosion rate driven by channel curvature (United States)

    McMillan, Mitchell; Hu, Zhiyong


    Streambank erosion is a major source of fluvial sediment, but few large-scale, spatially distributed models exist to quantify streambank erosion rates. We introduce a spatially distributed model for streambank erosion applicable to sinuous, single-thread channels. We argue that such a model can adequately characterize streambank erosion rates, measured at the outsides of bends over a 2-year time period, throughout a large region. The model is based on the widely-used excess-velocity equation and comprised three components: a physics-based hydrodynamic model, a large-scale 1-dimensional model of average monthly discharge, and an empirical bank erodibility parameterization. The hydrodynamic submodel requires inputs of channel centerline, slope, width, depth, friction factor, and a scour factor A; the large-scale watershed submodel utilizes watershed-averaged monthly outputs of the Noah-2.8 land surface model; bank erodibility is based on tree cover and bank height as proxies for root density. The model was calibrated with erosion rates measured in sand-bed streams throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico coastal plain. The calibrated model outperforms a purely empirical model, as well as a model based only on excess velocity, illustrating the utility of combining a physics-based hydrodynamic model with an empirical bank erodibility relationship. The model could be improved by incorporating spatial variability in channel roughness and the hydrodynamic scour factor, which are here assumed constant. A reach-scale application of the model is illustrated on ∼1 km of a medium-sized, mixed forest-pasture stream, where the model identifies streambank erosion hotspots on forested and non-forested bends.

  12. Practical remarks on the heart rate and saturation measurement methodology (United States)

    Kowal, M.; Kubal, S.; Piotrowski, P.; Staniec, K.


    A surface reflection-based method for measuring heart rate and saturation has been introduced as one having a significant advantage over legacy methods in that it lends itself for use in special applications such as those where a person’s mobility is of prime importance (e.g. during a miner’s work) and excluding the use of traditional clips. Then, a complete ATmega1281-based microcontroller platform has been described for performing computational tasks of signal processing and wireless transmission. In the next section remarks have been provided regarding the basic signal processing rules beginning with raw voltage samples of converted optical signals, their acquisition, storage and smoothing. This chapter ends with practical remarks demonstrating an exponential dependence between the minimum measurable heart rate and the readout resolution at different sampling frequencies for different cases of averaging depth (in bits). The following section is devoted strictly to the heart rate and hemoglobin oxygenation (saturation) measurement with the use of the presented platform, referenced to measurements obtained with a stationary certified pulsoxymeter.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukadam, Anjum S.; Fraser, Oliver; Riecken, T. S.; Kronberg, M. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Bischoff-Kim, Agnes [Georgia College and State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061 (United States); Corsico, A. H. [Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina); Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.; Hermes, J. J.; Winget, K. I.; Falcon, Ross E.; Reaves, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78759 (United States); Kepler, S. O.; Romero, A. D. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre 91501-970, RS (Brazil); Chandler, D. W. [Meyer Observatory, Central Texas Astronomical Society, 3409 Whispering Oaks, Temple, TX 76504 (United States); Kuehne, J. W. [McDonald Observatory, Fort Davis, TX 79734 (United States); Sullivan, D. J. [Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington (New Zealand); Von Hippel, T. [Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, 600 South Clyde Morris Boulevard, Daytona Beach, FL 32114 (United States); Mullally, F. [SETI Institute, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 244-30, Moffet Field, CA 94035 (United States); Shipman, H. [Delaware Asteroseismic Research Center, Mt. Cuba Observatory, Greenville, DE 19807 (United States); and others


    We have finally measured the evolutionary rate of cooling of the pulsating hydrogen atmosphere (DA) white dwarf ZZ Ceti (Ross 548), as reflected by the drift rate of the 213.13260694 s period. Using 41 yr of time-series photometry from 1970 November to 2012 January, we determine the rate of change of this period with time to be dP/dt = (5.2 {+-} 1.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} s s{sup -1} employing the O - C method and (5.45 {+-} 0.79) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} s s{sup -1} using a direct nonlinear least squares fit to the entire lightcurve. We adopt the dP/dt obtained from the nonlinear least squares program as our final determination, but augment the corresponding uncertainty to a more realistic value, ultimately arriving at the measurement of dP/dt = (5.5 {+-} 1.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} s s{sup -1}. After correcting for proper motion, the evolutionary rate of cooling of ZZ Ceti is computed to be (3.3 {+-} 1.1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} s s{sup -1}. This value is consistent within uncertainties with the measurement of (4.19 {+-} 0.73) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} s s{sup -1} for another similar pulsating DA white dwarf, G 117-B15A. Measuring the cooling rate of ZZ Ceti helps us refine our stellar structure and evolutionary models, as cooling depends mainly on the core composition and stellar mass. Calibrating white dwarf cooling curves with this measurement will reduce the theoretical uncertainties involved in white dwarf cosmochronometry. Should the 213.13 s period be trapped in the hydrogen envelope, then our determination of its drift rate compared to the expected evolutionary rate suggests an additional source of stellar cooling. Attributing the excess cooling to the emission of axions imposes a constraint on the mass of the hypothetical axion particle.

  14. Regional oxygen reduction and denitrification rates in groundwater from multi-model residence time distributions, San Joaquin Valley, USA (United States)

    Green, Christopher T.; Jurgens, Bryant; Zhang, Yong; Starn, Jeffrey; Singleton, Michael J.; Esser, Bradley K.


    Rates of oxygen and nitrate reduction are key factors in determining the chemical evolution of groundwater. Little is known about how these rates vary and covary in regional groundwater settings, as few studies have focused on regional datasets with multiple tracers and methods of analysis that account for effects of mixed residence times on apparent reaction rates. This study provides insight into the characteristics of residence times and rates of O2 reduction and denitrification (NO3− reduction) by comparing reaction rates using multi-model analytical residence time distributions (RTDs) applied to a data set of atmospheric tracers of groundwater age and geochemical data from 141 well samples in the Central Eastern San Joaquin Valley, CA. The RTD approach accounts for mixtures of residence times in a single sample to provide estimates of in-situ rates. Tracers included SF6, CFCs, 3H, He from 3H (tritiogenic He),14C, and terrigenic He. Parameter estimation and multi-model averaging were used to establish RTDs with lower error variances than those produced by individual RTD models. The set of multi-model RTDs was used in combination with NO3− and dissolved gas data to estimate zero order and first order rates of O2 reduction and denitrification. Results indicated that O2 reduction and denitrification rates followed approximately log-normal distributions. Rates of O2 and NO3− reduction were correlated and, on an electron milliequivalent basis, denitrification rates tended to exceed O2 reduction rates. Estimated historical NO3− trends were similar to historical measurements. Results show that the multi-model approach can improve estimation of age distributions, and that relatively easily measured O2 rates can provide information about trends in denitrification rates, which are more difficult to estimate.

  15. Deconvolving Single-Molecule Intensity Distributions for Quantitative Microscopy Measurements (United States)

    Mutch, Sarah A.; Fujimoto, Bryant S.; Kuyper, Christopher L.; Kuo, Jason S.; Bajjalieh, Sandra M.; Chiu, Daniel T.


    In fluorescence microscopy, images often contain puncta in which the fluorescent molecules are spatially clustered. This article describes a method that uses single-molecule intensity distributions to deconvolve the number of fluorophores present in fluorescent puncta as a way to “count” protein number. This method requires a determination of the correct statistical relationship between the single-molecule and single-puncta intensity distributions. Once the correct relationship has been determined, basis histograms can be generated from the single-molecule intensity distribution to fit the puncta distribution. Simulated data were used to demonstrate procedures to determine this relationship, and to test the methodology. This method has the advantages of single-molecule measurements, providing both the mean and variation in molecules per puncta. This methodology has been tested with the avidin-biocytin binding system for which the best-fit distribution of biocytins in the sample puncta was in good agreement with a bulk determination of the avidin-biocytin binding ratio. PMID:17259276

  16. Characterization of tropical precipitation using drop size distribution and rain rate-radar reflectivity relation (United States)

    Das, Saurabh; Maitra, Animesh


    Characterization of precipitation is important for proper interpretation of rain information from remotely sensed data. Rain attenuation and radar reflectivity (Z) depend directly on the drop size distribution (DSD). The relation between radar reflectivity/rain attenuation and rain rate (R) varies widely depending upon the origin, topography, and drop evolution mechanism and needs further understanding of the precipitation characteristics. The present work utilizes 2 years of concurrent measurements of DSD using a ground-based disdrometer at five diverse climatic conditions in Indian subcontinent and explores the possibility of rain classification based on microphysical characteristics of precipitation. It is observed that both gamma and lognormal distributions are performing almost similar for Indian region with a marginally better performance by one model than other depending upon the locations. It has also been found that shape-slope relationship of gamma distribution can be a good indicator of rain type. The Z-R relation, Z = ARb, is found to vary widely for different precipitation systems, with convective rain that has higher values of A than the stratiform rain for two locations, whereas the reverse is observed for the rest of the three locations. Further, the results indicate that the majority of rainfall (>50%) in Indian region is due to the convective rain although the occurrence time of convective rain is low (<10%).

  17. Remote measurement of microwave distribution based on optical detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Zhong; Ding, Wenzheng; Yang, Sihua; Chen, Qun, E-mail:, E-mail:; Xing, Da, E-mail:, E-mail: [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)


    In this letter, we present the development of a remote microwave measurement system. This method employs an arc discharge lamp that serves as an energy converter from microwave to visible light, which can propagate without transmission medium. Observed with a charge coupled device, quantitative microwave power distribution can be achieved when the operators and electronic instruments are in a distance from the high power region in order to reduce the potential risk. We perform the experiments using pulsed microwaves, and the results show that the system response is dependent on the microwave intensity over a certain range. Most importantly, the microwave distribution can be monitored in real time by optical observation of the response of a one-dimensional lamp array. The characteristics of low cost, a wide detection bandwidth, remote measurement, and room temperature operation make the system a preferred detector for microwave applications.

  18. Measuring target detection performance in paradigms with high event rates. (United States)

    Bendixen, Alexandra; Andersen, Søren K


    Combining behavioral and neurophysiological measurements inevitably implies mutual constraints, such as when the neurophysiological measurement requires fast-paced stimulus presentation and hence the attribution of a behavioral response to a particular preceding stimulus becomes ambiguous. We develop and test a method for validly assessing behavioral detection performance in spite of this ambiguity. We examine four approaches taken in the literature to treat such situations. We analytically derive a new variant of computing the classical parameters of signal detection theory, hit and false alarm rates, adapted to fast-paced paradigms. Each of the previous approaches shows specific shortcomings (susceptibility towards response window choice, biased estimates of behavioral detection performance). Superior performance of our new approach is demonstrated for both simulated and empirical behavioral data. Further evidence is provided by reliable correspondence between behavioral performance and the N2b component as an electrophysiological indicator of target detection. The appropriateness of our approach is substantiated by both theoretical and empirical arguments. We demonstrate an easy-to-implement solution for measuring target detection performance independent of the rate of event presentation. Thus overcoming the measurement bias of previous approaches, our method will help to clarify the behavioral relevance of different measures of cortical activation. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Disintegration rate measurement of a 192Ir solution. (United States)

    Fonseca, K A; Koskinas, M F; Dias, M S


    The disintegration rate of 192Ir has been measured using the 4pibeta-gamma coincidence technique. This radionuclide decays by electron capture (EC) and beta-emission. Since the EC contribution is low (4.5%), it has been corrected using decay scheme data taken from the literature. This measurement has been performed in collaboration with the Laboratório Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes (IRDDM), in Rio de Janeiro. The results, which were obtained independently and employed different techniques, are compared with the Systéme International Reference (SIR) maintained at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures.

  20. Measurement of the Vertical Distribution of Reflected Solar Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsu Aoki


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a devicefor measuring the vertical distribution of the reflected radiation to the inside of a room from terrace to building.The proposed device is attached to aluminum plates that are painted matte black at intervals of 20 cm on polystyrene insulation. The surface temperature of the aluminum plate, called the SAT (sol-air temperature, is used as an indicator of the quantity of solar radiation. In order to compare terrace materials, two of the measuring devices were located facing south.Concrete tile, artificial turf, and wood chips were selected as materials to be comparedfor the surface of the terrace and were laid in front of the measuring devices. The results indicate that the SAT reflected onto a vertical plane was higher closer to the ground for all materials. Hourly fluctuations of the vertical distribution of the reflected solar radiation differed, depending on the terrace surface material. When concrete tiles of different thicknesses were compared, the temporal heating patterns varied due to differences in heat capacity. These results lead us to the conclusion that using the developed measuringdevice enables grasping the effect of vertical distribution of reflected solar radiation from a terrace.

  1. On the measurement of the (multidimensional) inequality of health distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave


    Health outcomes are often described according to two dimensions: quality of life and quantity of life. We analyze the measurement of inequality of health distributions referring to these two dimensions. Our analysis relies on a novel treatment of the quality-of-life dimension, which might not have...... a standard mathematical structure. We single out two families of (absolute and relative) multidimensional health inequality indices, inspired by the classical normative approach to income inequality measurement. We also discuss how to extend the analysis to deal with the related problem of health deprivation...

  2. Comparison of Measured Dark Current Distributions with Calculated Damage Energy Distributions in HgCdTe (United States)

    Marshall, C. J.; Marshall, P. W.; Howe, C. L.; Reed, R. A.; Weller, R. A.; Mendenhall, M.; Waczynski, A.; Ladbury, R.; Jordan, T. M.


    This paper presents a combined Monte Carlo and analytic approach to the calculation of the pixel-to-pixel distribution of proton-induced damage in a HgCdTe sensor array and compares the results to measured dark current distributions after damage by 63 MeV protons. The moments of the Coulombic, nuclear elastic and nuclear inelastic damage distributions were extracted from Monte Carlo simulations and combined to form a damage distribution using the analytic techniques first described in [1]. The calculations show that the high energy recoils from the nuclear inelastic reactions (calculated using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX [2]) produce a pronounced skewing of the damage energy distribution. While the nuclear elastic component (also calculated using the MCNPX) contributes only a small fraction of the total nonionizing damage energy, its inclusion in the shape of the damage across the array is significant. The Coulombic contribution was calculated using MRED [3-5], a Geant4 [4,6] application. The comparison with the dark current distribution strongly suggests that mechanisms which are not linearly correlated with nonionizing damage produced according to collision kinematics are responsible for the observed dark current increases. This has important implications for the process of predicting the on-orbit dark current response of the HgCdTe sensor array.

  3. Gender differences in rates of depression among undergraduates: measurement matters. (United States)

    Grant, Kathryn; Marsh, Patricia; Syniar, Gina; Williams, Megan; Addlesperger, Elisa; Kinzler, Mi Hyon; Cowman, Shaun


    Two studies tested for gender differences in rates of depression among undergraduates using three conceptualizations of depression (mood, syndrome, disorder). The first sample consisted of 325 non-referred undergraduate students, who completed pencil-and-paper measures of depressed mood, depressive syndrome and a depressive disorder analogue. The second sample consisted of 894 undergraduate students seeking counselling services, who participated in clinical intake interviews assessing depressed mood and depressive disorder. Results of analyses provide no evidence of gender differences in rates of depressed mood in either samples or of depressive syndrome in the non-referred sample. However, in both samples, gender differences in rates of depressive disorder were found, with male students more likely than female students to be depressed. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  4. Dose distribution response in HDRB measured with EBT2 and compared with PLATO SYSTEM. (United States)

    Hernández-Ruiz, L; Hernández-Oviedo, J O; Ruesga-Vazquez, D; Rivera-Montalvo, T


    Dose distribution of a High Dose Rate Brachytherapy (BHDR) oncological treatment with (192)Ir was measured using a Gafchromic EBT2 film. The film calibration was performed with a (60)Co unit and a LINAC of 6 mV and 18 mV. Gafchromic behavior of a dosimeter varies in respect of energy. Experimental results of dose distribution match with those planned in the PLATO commercial system, they also show that there is a difference of 2.11% between the planning system and isodoses measured. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Measurement of the Formation Rate of Muonic Hydrogen Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, V A; Carey, R M; Case, T A; Clayton, S M; Crowe, K M; Deutsch, J; Egger, J; Freedman, S J; Ganzha, V A; Gorringe, T; Gray, F E; Hertzog, D W; Hildebrandt, M; Kammel, P; Kiburg, B; Knaack, S; Kravtsov, P A; Krivshich, A G; Lauss, B; Lynch, K R; Maev, E M; Maev, O E; Mulhauser, F; Petitjean, C; Petrov, G E; Prieels, R; Schapkin, G N; Semenchuk, G G; Soroka, M A; Tishchenko, V; Vasilyev, A A; Vorobyov, A A; Vznuzdaev, M E; Winter, P


    Background: The rate \\lambda_pp\\mu\\ characterizes the formation of pp\\mu\\ molecules in collisions of muonic p\\mu\\ atoms with hydrogen. In measurements of the basic weak muon capture reaction on the proton to determine the pseudoscalar coupling g_P, capture occurs from both atomic and molecular states. Thus knowledge of \\lambda_pp\\mu\\ is required for a correct interpretation of these experiments. Purpose: Recently the MuCap experiment has measured the capture rate \\Lambda_S from the singlet p\\mu\\ atom, employing a low density active target to suppress pp\\mu\\ formation (PRL 110, 12504 (2013)). Nevertheless, given the unprecedented precision of this experiment, the existing experimental knowledge in \\lambda_pp\\mu\\ had to be improved. Method: The MuCap experiment derived the weak capture rate from the muon disappearance rate in ultra-pure hydrogen. By doping the hydrogen with 20 ppm of argon, a competing process to pp\\mu\\ formation was introduced, which allowed the extraction of \\lambda_pp\\mu\\ from the observed t...

  6. Determine Neuronal Tuning Curves by Exploring Optimum Firing Rate Distribution for Information Efficiency (United States)

    Han, Fang; Wang, Zhijie; Fan, Hong


    This paper proposed a new method to determine the neuronal tuning curves for maximum information efficiency by computing the optimum firing rate distribution. Firstly, we proposed a general definition for the information efficiency, which is relevant to mutual information and neuronal energy consumption. The energy consumption is composed of two parts: neuronal basic energy consumption and neuronal spike emission energy consumption. A parameter to model the relative importance of energy consumption is introduced in the definition of the information efficiency. Then, we designed a combination of exponential functions to describe the optimum firing rate distribution based on the analysis of the dependency of the mutual information and the energy consumption on the shape of the functions of the firing rate distributions. Furthermore, we developed a rapid algorithm to search the parameter values of the optimum firing rate distribution function. Finally, we found with the rapid algorithm that a combination of two different exponential functions with two free parameters can describe the optimum firing rate distribution accurately. We also found that if the energy consumption is relatively unimportant (important) compared to the mutual information or the neuronal basic energy consumption is relatively large (small), the curve of the optimum firing rate distribution will be relatively flat (steep), and the corresponding optimum tuning curve exhibits a form of sigmoid if the stimuli distribution is normal. PMID:28270760

  7. Determine Neuronal Tuning Curves by Exploring Optimum Firing Rate Distribution for Information Efficiency. (United States)

    Han, Fang; Wang, Zhijie; Fan, Hong


    This paper proposed a new method to determine the neuronal tuning curves for maximum information efficiency by computing the optimum firing rate distribution. Firstly, we proposed a general definition for the information efficiency, which is relevant to mutual information and neuronal energy consumption. The energy consumption is composed of two parts: neuronal basic energy consumption and neuronal spike emission energy consumption. A parameter to model the relative importance of energy consumption is introduced in the definition of the information efficiency. Then, we designed a combination of exponential functions to describe the optimum firing rate distribution based on the analysis of the dependency of the mutual information and the energy consumption on the shape of the functions of the firing rate distributions. Furthermore, we developed a rapid algorithm to search the parameter values of the optimum firing rate distribution function. Finally, we found with the rapid algorithm that a combination of two different exponential functions with two free parameters can describe the optimum firing rate distribution accurately. We also found that if the energy consumption is relatively unimportant (important) compared to the mutual information or the neuronal basic energy consumption is relatively large (small), the curve of the optimum firing rate distribution will be relatively flat (steep), and the corresponding optimum tuning curve exhibits a form of sigmoid if the stimuli distribution is normal.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa Haque


    Full Text Available The aim of this research conducted is to optimalize the zakat distribution using economy variabel measurement. Design/Metodology. The Quantitative Research Method is used to analyze financial data, with Optimalize Model as Z variable design, Measurement of Economy as Y variable and Objective Output as X variable, using AMOS program and SEM as tool analysis to confirm that the model can be used as a measurement tool. Research result. Using some indicators to analyze every variable, obtaining output and objective result, influence optimalization of measurement of economy. Conclusion. The measurement of optimalization of zakat distribution using measurement of economy variable, with independent variable/output exogenous and objective, can be used as a model to measure Lembaga Amil Zakat performance. Furthermore, this research need to have some indicators’ development especially in the area of objective variable.

  9. Impact of receiver and constellation on high rate GNSS phase rate measurements to monitor ionospheric irregularities (United States)

    Ghoddousi-Fard, Reza


    High rate (1 Hz) GPS and GLONASS phase rate measurements from the global Real Time International GNSS Service (RT-IGS) network are used to monitor ionospheric irregularities. In this paper, impact of different receiver types and satellite constellations on GNSS-derived indices are studied. Constellation dependent background phase noise is quantified at RT-IGS stations for different receiver categories. Improved sampling of the ionosphere is achieved using multiple constellations. Correlation of hourly mean values of dual constellation GNSS indices with hourly magnetic ranges at a co-located auroral magnetic observatory slightly increased compared to when single constellation is used.

  10. Patient-rated versus proxy-rated cognitive and functional measures in older adults (United States)

    Howland, Molly; Allan, Kevin C; Carlton, Caitlin E; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Smyth, Kathleen A; Sajatovic, Martha


    Objectives Patients with cognitive impairment may have difficulty reporting their functional and cognitive abilities, which are important clinical outcomes. Health care proxies may be able to corroborate patient self-reports. Several studies reported discrepancy between patient and proxy ratings, though the literature is sparse on changes over time of these ratings. Our goals in this 12-month study were to compare patient and proxy reports on functioning, cognition, and everyday executive function, and to further elucidate correlates of patient–proxy discrepancy. Methods This was a prospective cohort study of individuals older than 70 years who ranged from having no cognitive impairment to having moderate dementia who had a proxy available to complete instruments at baseline (N=76). Measurements included Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study–Activities of Daily Living Inventory (ADCS-ADLI), Neuro-QOL Executive Function, PROMIS Applied Cognition (PROMIS-Cog), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Geriatric Depression Scale. Results Patient- and proxy-rated ADCS-ADLI were correlated at baseline and at 1-year follow-up. Patient and proxy ratings were discrepant on Neuro-QOL Executive Function and PROMIS-Cog. Greater patient–proxy discrepancy on PROMIS-Cog was associated with younger age and less depression, and greater patient–proxy discrepancy on Neuro-QOL Executive Function was associated with less depression and worse cognitive impairment. Patient–proxy discrepancy increased over time for everyday executive function. Changes in proxy-rated but not patient-rated ADCS-ADLI correlated with MMSE changes. Conclusion Patients and proxies generally agree in reporting on activities of daily living. Patient and proxy reports differ in their respective evaluation of cognitive functioning and everyday executive function. Ratings from both sources may be preferred for these two domains, though studies using gold standard measures are necessary. It is important

  11. Reaction Rate Distributions and Ratios in FR0 Assemblies 1, 2 and 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, T.L.


    The spatial distribution of different reaction rates and reaction ratios in Assemblies 1, 2 and 3 of the fast reactor FR0 was measured by fission chamber scans and foil activation technique. Assemblies 1 and 2 had cores of undiluted fuel (uranium metal enriched to 20 % U{sup 235}) while the core of Assembly 3 was diluted with about 30 vol. % graphite. All the systems had a thick copper reflector, The experimental results were compared with calculated values obtained from DSN and TDC multigroup spectra and group cross-section sets for the reactions. Good agreement between experiment and calculations is generally obtained in the core region but in the reflector the neutron spectrum is calculated too hard.

  12. An overview of aerosol particle sensors for size distribution measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panich Intra


    Full Text Available Fine aerosols are generally referred to airborne particles of diameter in submicron or nanometer size range. Measurement capabilities are required to gain understanding of these particle dynamics. One of the most important physical and chemical parameters is the particle size distribution. The aim of this article is to give an overview of recent development of already existing sensors for particle size distribution measurement based on electrical mobility determination. Available instruments for particle size measurement include a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, an electrical aerosol spectrometer (EAS, an engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS, a bipolar charge aerosol classifier (BCAC, a fast aerosol spectrometer (FAS a differential mobility spectrometer (DMS, and a CMU electrical mobility spectrometer (EMS. The operating principles, as well as detailed physical characteristics of these instruments and their main components consisting of a particle charger, a mobility classifier, and a signal detector, are described. Typical measurements of aerosol from various sources by these instruments compared with an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI are also presented.

  13. Erythrocyte filtrability measurement by the initial flow rate method. (United States)

    Hanss, M


    A new filtration technique, based on the initial filtration rate of a diluted RBC suspension through 5 mu Nucleopore filter is described. As only a few hundreds RBCs traverse each pore and as the measurement are made in a few seconds, the method is by large insensitive to filter plugging and to sedimentation effects. The results are given as a filtration index IF which is, as a first order approximation, independent of the filter conductance and of the suspending medium viscosity. The filtration times are measured electronically. The filters are re-used many times. The influence on the results reproducibility of RBC washing, of the anticoagulant, of the blood sample and the suspension storage times are considered. With our technical procedure, the relative incertitude on the measurement of I.F. is about +/- 10%. The filtration index is shown to be an intrinsic RBC filterability property.

  14. Aspects of charge distribution measurement for 252Cf(sf) (United States)

    Wang, Taofeng; Li, Guangwu; Zhu, Liping; Hen, Or; Zhang, Gaolong; Meng, Qinghua; Wang, Liming; Han, Hongyin; Xia, Haihong


    Measurements of charge distributions of fragments in the spontaneous fission of 252Cf have been performed using a unique detector setup consisting of a typical grid-ionization chamber coupled with a Δ E -E charged particle telescope. We find that the fragment mass dependency of the kinetic-energy-averaged width of the charge distribution shows a systematically decreasing trend with obvious fluctuations. The variation of the widths of the charge distribution with kinetic energy shows a pan-like shape. This is due to the large number of neutrons emitted at the high excitation energies and cold fragmentation at the low excitation energies. Deviation of the kinetic-energy-averaged most probable charge Zp from the unchanged charge distribution (UCD), Δ Z , as a function of the mass number of primary fragments, A*, changes from negative for mass asymmetric fission to positive near the symmetric fissions. Concerning the kinetic energy dependence of Zp given primary mass number A*, obvious increasing tendencies of Zp with increasing kinetic energy are observed.

  15. Effect of weak measurement on entanglement distribution over noisy channels. (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Wen; Yu, Sixia; Zhang, Deng-Yu; Oh, C H


    Being able to implement effective entanglement distribution in noisy environments is a key step towards practical quantum communication, and long-term efforts have been made on the development of it. Recently, it has been found that the null-result weak measurement (NRWM) can be used to enhance probabilistically the entanglement of a single copy of amplitude-damped entangled state. This paper investigates remote distributions of bipartite and multipartite entangled states in the amplitudedamping environment by combining NRWMs and entanglement distillation protocols (EDPs). We show that the NRWM has no positive effect on the distribution of bipartite maximally entangled states and multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, although it is able to increase the amount of entanglement of each source state (noisy entangled state) of EDPs with a certain probability. However, we find that the NRWM would contribute to remote distributions of multipartite W states. We demonstrate that the NRWM can not only reduce the fidelity thresholds for distillability of decohered W states, but also raise the distillation efficiencies of W states. Our results suggest a new idea for quantifying the ability of a local filtering operation in protecting entanglement from decoherence.

  16. Evaluation of dose equivalent rate distribution in JCO critical accident by radiation transport calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Sakamoto, Y


    In the prevention of nuclear disaster, there needs the information on the dose equivalent rate distribution inside and outside the site, and energy spectra. The three dimensional radiation transport calculation code is a useful tool for the site specific detailed analysis with the consideration of facility structures. It is important in the prediction of individual doses in the future countermeasure that the reliability of the evaluation methods of dose equivalent rate distribution and energy spectra by using of Monte Carlo radiation transport calculation code, and the factors which influence the dose equivalent rate distribution outside the site are confirmed. The reliability of radiation transport calculation code and the influence factors of dose equivalent rate distribution were examined through the analyses of critical accident at JCO's uranium processing plant occurred on September 30, 1999. The radiation transport calculations including the burn-up calculations were done by using of the structural info...

  17. [Measuring pressure distribution on the human tibia in ski boots]. (United States)

    Schaff, P; Hauser, W


    Pressure distribution inside shoes is of great importance for orthopaedic and biomechanical inquiries. Especially in sports, safety and comfort depend essentially on this quantity, which also determines whether a shoe is well suited for a certain discipline. Therefore, the measurement of pressure distribution allows detailed and objective statements about these factors. Using a set of newly developed thin and highly flexible measuring mats and the corresponding electronic equipment, such statements have become possible. First results with this method were obtained in alpine skiing. 8 different types of ski boots (sizes 5 and 8) worn by 14 subjects were tested on different foreward leans and temperatures using 7-point measuring mats (2 cm2/point) fixed between the boot shaft and the front of the lower leg of each leg. Additional measurements on three different types of boots using a 3 x 24-point mat (1 cm2/point) for the lower leg, as well as measurements underneath the foot with a 14-point (2 cm2/point) and a 80-point (1 cm2/point) mat were performed. A complementary determination of the force at the heel element of a ski binding and a registration of muscular activity (EMG) helped in the interpretation of the results. Some field research using telemetry completed our study. Considerable variations between different boots were found in value and location of pressure maxima. Traditional boots show high pressure values over the instep at foreward leans of 35 degrees and a rise of pressure underneath the forefoot while fixing the buckles, whereas minimal pressure over the instep, no compression of the forefoot and a pressure maximum near the upper end of the shaft are observed in rear entry boots. The force at the heel-important for binding release-varies widely between different boots at the same foreward lean. There was no asymmetry between the pressure distributions of right and left. The pressure distributions for different subjects measured in the same boot were

  18. Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, M.L.; Goth-Goldstein, R.; Apte, M.G.; Fisk, W.J.


    About 50% of viral-induced respiratory illnesses are caused by the human rhinovirus (HRV). Measurements of the concentrations and sizes of bioaerosols are critical for research on building characteristics, aerosol transport, and mitigation measures. We developed a quantitative reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for HRV and verified that this assay detects HRV in nasal lavage samples. A quantitation standard was used to determine a detection limit of 5 fg of HRV RNA with a linear range over 1000-fold. To measure the size distribution of HRV aerosols, volunteers with a head cold spent two hours in a ventilated research chamber. Airborne particles from the chamber were collected using an Andersen Six-Stage Cascade Impactor. Each stage of the impactor was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR for HRV. For the first two volunteers with confirmed HRV infection, but with mild symptoms, we were unable to detect HRV on any stage of the impactor.

  19. Measurement-dependent locality beyond independent and identically distributed runs (United States)

    Tan, Ernest Y.-Z.; Cai, Yu; Scarani, Valerio


    When conducting a Bell test, it is normal to assume that the preparation of the quantum state is independent of the measurements performed on it. Remarkably, the violation of local realism by entangled quantum systems can be certified even if this assumption is partially relaxed. Here, we allow such measurement dependence to correlate multiple runs of the experiment, going beyond previous studies that considered independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) runs. To do so, we study the polytope defined by block-i.i.d. measurement-dependent local models. We prove that non-i.i.d. models are strictly more powerful than i.i.d. ones, and comment on the relevance of this work for the study of randomness amplification in simple Bell scenarios with suitably optimized inequalities.

  20. On Measuring Cosmic Ray Energy Spectra with the Rapidity Distributions (United States)

    Bashindzhagyan, G.; Adams, J.; Chilingarian, A.; Drury, L.; Egorov, N.; Golubkov, S.; Korotkova, N.; Panasyuk, M.; Podorozhnyi, D.; Procqureur, J.


    An important goal of cosmic ray research is to measure the elemental energy spectra of galactic cosmic rays up to 10(exp 16) eV. This goal cannot be achieved with an ionization calorimeter because the required instrument is too massive for space flight. An alternate method will be presented. This method is based on measuring the primary particle energy by determining the angular distribution of secondaries produced in a target layer. The proposed technique can be used over a wide range of energies (10 (exp 11) -10 (exp 16) eV) and gives an energy resolution of 60% or better. Based on this technique, a conceptual design for a new instrument (KLEM) will be presented. Due to its light weight, this instrument can have a large aperture enabling the direct measurement of cosmic rays to 1016 eV.

  1. Assessing heart rate variability through wavelet-based statistical measures. (United States)

    Wachowiak, Mark P; Hay, Dean C; Johnson, Michel J


    Because of its utility in the investigation and diagnosis of clinical abnormalities, heart rate variability (HRV) has been quantified with both time and frequency analysis tools. Recently, time-frequency methods, especially wavelet transforms, have been applied to HRV. In the current study, a complementary computational approach is proposed wherein continuous wavelet transforms are applied directly to ECG signals to quantify time-varying frequency changes in the lower bands. Such variations are compared for resting and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) conditions using statistical and information-theoretic measures, and compared with standard HRV metrics. The latter confirm the expected lower variability in the LBNP condition due to sympathetic nerve activity (e.g. RMSSD: p=0.023; SDSD: p=0.023; LF/HF: p=0.018). Conversely, using the standard Morlet wavelet and a new transform based on windowed complex sinusoids, wavelet analysis of the ECG within the observed range of heart rate (0.5-1.25Hz) exhibits significantly higher variability, as measured by frequency band roughness (Morlet CWT: p=0.041), entropy (Morlet CWT: p=0.001), and approximate entropy (Morlet CWT: p=0.004). Consequently, this paper proposes that, when used with well-established HRV approaches, time-frequency analysis of ECG can provide additional insights into the complex phenomenon of heart rate variability. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Gamma spectrum, count rate, and dose rate measurements of the Columbia riverbank from Vernita to Sacajawea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grande, L.A.


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate radiological conditions that exist on the riverbank of the Columbia River. Included was a comparative study of the suitability of three instruments to measure the dose rates. These instruments were a NaI (T1) scintillation counter normally used for aerial monitoring, a bioplastic scintillation counter normally used as a road monitor, and a portable 40 liter ionization chamber normally used to measure very low gamma dose rates. The selection of representative sites for the comparative study was based on an initial GM survey of the general areas in question. Seven sites were studied--from Vernita Ferry Landing above the Hanford project to Sacajawea Park below Pasco.

  3. Pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) measurements of embedded charge distributions (United States)

    Dennison, J. R.; Pearson, Lee H.


    Knowledge of the spatial distribution and evolution of embedded charge in thin dielectric materials has important applications in semiconductor, high-power electronic device, high-voltage DC power cable insulation, high-energy and plasma physics apparatus, and spacecraft industries. Knowing how, where, and how much charge accumulates and how it redistributes and dissipates can predict destructive charging effects. Pulsed Electro-acoustic (PEA) measurements— and two closely related methods, Pressure Wave Propagation (PWP) and Laser Intensity Modulation (LIMM)— nondestructively probe such internal charge distributions. We review the instrumentation, methods, theory and signal processing of simple PEA experiments, as well as the related PPW and LIMM methods. We emphasize system improvements required to achieve high spatial resolution for in vacuo measurements of thin dielectrics charged using electron beam injection.

  4. Measurement of baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms. (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Qin


    Distributed platforms play an important role in aerospace remote sensing, radar navigation, and wireless communication applications. However, besides the requirement of high accurate time and frequency synchronization for coherent signal processing, the baseline between the transmitting platform and receiving platform and the orientation of platform towards each other during data recording must be measured in real time. In this paper, we propose an improved pulsed duplex microwave ranging approach, which allows determining the spatial baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms by the proposed high-precision time-interval estimation method. This approach is novel in the sense that it cancels the effect of oscillator frequency synchronization errors due to separate oscillators that are used in the platforms. Several performance specifications are also discussed. The effectiveness of the approach is verified by simulation results.

  5. Camera-based measurement of respiratory rates is reliable. (United States)

    Becker, Christoph; Achermann, Stefan; Rocque, Mukul; Kirenko, Ihor; Schlack, Andreas; Dreher-Hummel, Thomas; Zumbrunn, Thomas; Bingisser, Roland; Nickel, Christian H


    Respiratory rate (RR) is one of the most important vital signs used to detect whether a patient is in critical condition. It is part of many risk scores and its measurement is essential for triage of patients in emergency departments. It is often not recorded as measurement is cumbersome and time-consuming. We intended to evaluate the accuracy of camera-based measurements as an alternative measurement to the current practice of manual counting. We monitored the RR of healthy male volunteers with a camera-based prototype application and simultaneously by manual counting and by capnography, which was considered the gold standard. The four assessors were mutually blinded. We simulated normoventilation, hypoventilation and hyperventilation as well as deep, normal and superficial breathing depths to assess potential clinical settings. The volunteers were assessed while being undressed, wearing a T-shirt or a winter coat. In total, 20 volunteers were included. The results of camera-based measurements of RRs and capnography were in close agreement throughout all clothing styles and respiratory patterns (Pearson's correlation coefficient, r=0.90-1.00, except for one scenario, in which the volunteer breathed slowly dressed in a winter coat r=0.84). In the winter-coat scenarios, the camera-based prototype application was superior to human counters. In our pilot study, we found that camera-based measurements delivered accurate and reliable results. Future studies need to show that camera-based measurements are a secure alternative for measuring RRs in clinical settings as well.

  6. Residence time distribution as a measure for stochastic resonance in a bistable system (United States)

    Choi, Mee Hyang


    We review an alternative measure of Stochastic Resonance (SR), the residence time distribution function (RTDF), in a bistable system, and try to find a legitimate connection between it and either SNR or periodic response. We show that the area of the first peak in the RTDF is not related to SR, and that the exponential decay distribution has to be removed to find any meaningful measure as a response to the input signal. We introduce a model under which we study SR and briefly review the results of response amplitude in linear and nonlinear regimes. We introduce the definitions of the escape time distribution based on a rate equation. We show a useful method for calculating the phase distribution, which is crucial for obtaining the residence time distribution (RTDF). We are focused on the regime where the modulation frequency and the noise- jumping rate are comparable, and the uniform phase averaging does not lead to a correct result for the RTDF. We derive an explicit form for the RTDF, and study the area of the peaks around odd multiples of half of the driving period as a valid measure for SR. We conclude by showing some other statistical quantities which are easily obtained from our analytical results. We compare the numerical solutions of the Langevin equation of our model with our analysis.

  7. A comparison of measured and calculated values of air kerma rates from 137Cs in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Ramzaev


    Full Text Available In 2010, a study was conducted to determine the air gamma dose rate from 137Cs deposited in soil. The gamma dose rate measurements and soil sampling were performed at 30 reference plots from the south-west districts of the Bryansk region (Russia that had been heavily contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The 137Cs inventory in the top 20 cm of soil ranged from 260 kBq m–2 to 2800 kBq m–2. Vertical distributions of 137Cs in soil cores (6 samples per a plot were determined after their sectioning into ten horizontal layers of 2 cm thickness. The vertical distributions of 137Cs in soil were employed to calculate air kerma rates, K, using two independent methods proposed by Saito and Jacob [Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry, 1995, Vol. 58, P. 29–45] and Golikov et al. [Contaminated Forests– Recent Developments in Risk Identification and Future Perspective. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. – P. 333–341]. A very good coincidence between the methods was observed (Spearman’s rank coefficient of correlation = 0.952; P<0.01; on average, a difference between the kerma rates calculated with two methods did not exceed 3%. The calculated air kerma rates agreed with the measured dose rates in air very well (Spearman’s coefficient of correlation = 0.952; P<0.01. For large grassland plots (n=19, the measured dose rates were on average 6% less than the calculated kerma rates. The tested methods for calculating the air dose rate from 137Cs in soil can be recommended for practical studies in radiology and radioecology. 

  8. A Distributed Flow Rate Control Algorithm for Networked Agent System with Multiple Coding Rates to Optimize Multimedia Data Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Zeng


    Full Text Available With the development of wireless technologies, mobile communication applies more and more extensively in the various walks of life. The social network of both fixed and mobile users can be seen as networked agent system. At present, kinds of devices and access network technology are widely used. Different users in this networked agent system may need different coding rates multimedia data due to their heterogeneous demand. This paper proposes a distributed flow rate control algorithm to optimize multimedia data transmission of the networked agent system with the coexisting various coding rates. In this proposed algorithm, transmission path and upload bandwidth of different coding rate data between source node, fixed and mobile nodes are appropriately arranged and controlled. On the one hand, this algorithm can provide user nodes with differentiated coding rate data and corresponding flow rate. On the other hand, it makes the different coding rate data and user nodes networked, which realizes the sharing of upload bandwidth of user nodes which require different coding rate data. The study conducts mathematical modeling on the proposed algorithm and compares the system that adopts the proposed algorithm with the existing system based on the simulation experiment and mathematical analysis. The results show that the system that adopts the proposed algorithm achieves higher upload bandwidth utilization of user nodes and lower upload bandwidth consumption of source node.

  9. Seabed measurements of modern corrosion rates on the Florida escarpment (United States)

    Paull, C.K.; Commeau, R.F.; Curray, Joseph R.; Neumann, A.C.


    A mooring containing diverse carbonate and anhydrite substrates was exposed to bottom waters for 9 months at the base of the Florida Escarpment to determine the influence of dissolution on the development of this continental margin. Weight loss was measured on all samples. Etching, pitting, and loss of the original framework components were observed on substrates with known characteristics. Extrapolations of modern dissolution rates predict only about 1.6 meters of corrosion per million years. However, more rapid anhydrite dissolution, up to 1 km per million years, would cause exposed anhydrite beds to undercut and destabilize intercalated limestones. 

  10. Exposure Time Distributions reveal Denitrification Rates along Groundwater Flow Path of an Agricultural Unconfined Aquifer (United States)

    Kolbe, T.; Abbott, B. W.; Thomas, Z.; Labasque, T.; Aquilina, L.; Laverman, A.; Babey, T.; Marçais, J.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Peiffer, S.; De Dreuzy, J. R.; Pinay, G.


    Groundwater contamination by nitrate is nearly ubiquitous in agricultural regions. Nitrate is highly mobile in groundwater and though it can be denitrified in the aquifer (reduced to inert N2 gas), this process requires the simultaneous occurrence of anoxia, an electron donor (e.g. organic carbon, pyrite), nitrate, and microorganisms capable of denitrification. In addition to this the ratio of the time groundwater spent in a denitrifying environment (exposure time) to the characteristic denitrification reaction time plays an important role, because denitrification can only occur if the exposure time is longer than the characteristic reaction time. Despite a long history of field studies and numerical models, it remains exceedingly difficult to measure or model exposure times in the subsurface at the catchment scale. To approach this problem, we developed a unified modelling approach combining measured environmental proxies with an exposure time based reactive transport model. We measured groundwater age, nitrogen and sulfur isotopes, and water chemistry from agricultural wells in an unconfined aquifer in Brittany, France, to quantify changes in nitrate concentration due to dilution and denitrification. Field data showed large differences in nitrate concentrations among wells, associated with differences in the exposure time distributions. By constraining a catchment-scale characteristic reaction time for denitrification with water chemistry proxies and exposure times, we were able to assess rates of denitrification along groundwater flow paths. This unified modeling approach is transferable to other catchments and could be further used to investigate how catchment structure and flow dynamics interact with biogeochemical processes such as denitrification.

  11. [Comparison of heart rate variability measurements between ballistocardiogram and electrocardiography]. (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Zhu, Tiangang; Zhang, Xianwen; Yu, Chao; Cao, Xinrong; Tang, Jintian; Wan, Zheng


    To compare the heart rate variability (HRV) measurements between ballistocardiogram (BCG) and electrocardiography (ECG). The signals of BCG and ECG of 21 patients were collected synchronously. JJ intervals of BCG and RR intervals of ECG were used to calculate the cardiac periods. The parameters of HRV analysis were calculated in time domain analysis, frequency domain analysis and nonlinear analysis. The results derived from BCG and ECG were compared. The parameters of HRV analysis calculated from BCG and ECG had high similarity. The correlation coefficients of SDNN, TP, LF, HF and SD2 between the BCG and ECG methods were high (r = 1). The correlation coefficients of rMSSD and SD2 were 0.99 and of PNN50 and LF/HF were 0.98 between the two methods. HRV analysis results derived from the two methods were similar (P > 0.05). HRV could also be measured reliably by calculating the JJ interval from BCG.

  12. Measurement and Modelling of Air Flow Rate in a Naturally Ventilated Double Skin Facade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Kalyanova, Olena; Jensen, Rasmus Lund


    Air flow rate in a naturally ventilated double skin façade (DSF) is extremely difficult to measure due to the stochastic nature of wind, and as a consequence non-uniform and dynamic flow conditions. This paper describes the results of two different methods to measure the air flow in a full......-scale outdoor test facility with a naturally ventilated double skin façade. Although both methods are difficult to use under such dynamic air flow conditions, they show reasonable agreement and can be used for experimental validation of numerical models of natural ventilation air flow in DSF. Simulations...... by the thermal simulation program, BSim, based on measured weather boundary conditions are compared to the measured air temperature, temperature gradient and mass flow rate in the DSF cavity. The results show that it is possible to predict the temperature distribution and airflow in the DSF although some...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Elad; Sari, Re’em [The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem (Israel)


    The Asteroid Belt and the Kuiper Belt are relics from the formation of our solar system. Understanding the size and spin distribution of the two belts is crucial for a deeper understanding of the formation of our solar system and the dynamical processes that govern it. In this paper, we investigate the effect of collisions on the evolution of the spin distribution of asteroids and KBOs. We find that the power law nature of the impactors’ size distribution leads to a Lévy distribution of the spin rates. This results in a power law tail in the spin distribution, in stark contrast to the usually quoted Maxwellian distribution. We show that for bodies larger than 10 km, collisions alone lead to spin rates peaking at 0.15–0.5 revolutions per day. Comparing that to the observed spin rates of large asteroids (R > 50 km), we find that the spins of large asteroids, peaking at ∼1–2 revolutions per day, are dominated by a primordial component that reflects the formation mechanism of the asteroids. Similarly, the Kuiper Belt has undergone virtually no collisional spin evolution, assuming current densities. Collisions contribute a spin rate of ∼0.01 revolutions per day, thus the observed fast spin rates of KBOs are also primordial in nature.

  14. Measuring coral size-frequency distribution using stereo video technology, a comparison with in situ measurements. (United States)

    Turner, Joseph A; Polunin, Nicholas V C; Field, Stuart N; Wilson, Shaun K


    Coral colony size-frequency distribution data offer valuable information about the ecological status of coral reefs. Such data are usually collected by divers in situ, but stereo video is being increasingly used for monitoring benthic marine communities and may be used to collect size information for coral colonies. This study compared the size-frequency distributions of coral colonies obtained by divers measuring colonies 'in situ' with digital video imagery collected using stereo video and later processed using computer software. The size-frequency distributions of the two methods were similar for corymbose colonies, although distributions were different for massive, branching and all colonies combined. The differences are mainly driven by greater abundance of colonies >50 cm and fewer colonies 5 cm and was able to record measurements on 87% of the colonies detected. However, stereo video only detected 57% of marked colonies coral recruits. Estimates of colony size made with the stereo video were smaller than the in situ technique for all growth forms, particularly for massive morphologies. Despite differences in size distributions, community assessments, which incorporated genera, growth forms and size, were similar between the two techniques. Stereo video is suitable for monitoring coral community demographics and provided data similar to in situ measure for corymbose corals, but the ability to accurately measure massive and branching coral morphologies appeared to decline with increasing colony size.

  15. Ethnic differences in anthropometric measures and abdominal fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, Pernille F.; Andersen, Gregers S.; Lauritzen, Torsten


    BACKGROUND: Ethnic variation in abdominal fat distribution may explain differences in cardiometabolic risk between populations. However, the ability of anthropometric measures to quantify abdominal fat is not clearly understood across ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to investigate...... across ethnic groups. Thus, the obesity level at which Inuit and Africans are at increased cardiometabolic risk is likely to differ from that of Europeans......., 1397 Africans and 795 Europeans) aged 17-95 years with measures of anthropometry and ultrasonography of abdominal fat were included in the study. Multiple regression models with fractional polynomials were used to analyse VAT and SAT as functions of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist...

  16. Universal distribution of protein evolution rates as a consequence of protein folding physics. (United States)

    Lobkovsky, Alexander E; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V


    The hypothesis that folding robustness is the primary determinant of the evolution rate of proteins is explored using a coarse-grained off-lattice model. The simplicity of the model allows rapid computation of the folding probability of a sequence to any folded conformation. For each robust folder, the network of sequences that share its native structure is identified. The fitness of a sequence is postulated to be a simple function of the number of misfolded molecules that have to be produced to reach a characteristic protein abundance. After fixation probabilities of mutants are computed under a simple population dynamics model, a Markov chain on the fold network is constructed, and the fold-averaged evolution rate is computed. The distribution of the logarithm of the evolution rates across distinct networks exhibits a peak with a long tail on the low rate side and resembles the universal empirical distribution of the evolutionary rates more closely than either distribution resembles the log-normal distribution. The results suggest that the universal distribution of the evolutionary rates of protein-coding genes is a direct consequence of the basic physics of protein folding.

  17. High speed and adaptable error correction for megabit/s rate quantum key distribution. (United States)

    Dixon, A R; Sato, H


    Quantum Key Distribution is moving from its theoretical foundation of unconditional security to rapidly approaching real world installations. A significant part of this move is the orders of magnitude increases in the rate at which secure key bits are distributed. However, these advances have mostly been confined to the physical hardware stage of QKD, with software post-processing often being unable to support the high raw bit rates. In a complete implementation this leads to a bottleneck limiting the final secure key rate of the system unnecessarily. Here we report details of equally high rate error correction which is further adaptable to maximise the secure key rate under a range of different operating conditions. The error correction is implemented both in CPU and GPU using a bi-directional LDPC approach and can provide 90-94% of the ideal secure key rate over all fibre distances from 0-80 km.

  18. Snowfall Rate Retrieval using NPP ATMS Passive Microwave Measurements (United States)

    Meng, Huan; Ferraro, Ralph; Kongoli, Cezar; Wang, Nai-Yu; Dong, Jun; Zavodsky, Bradley; Yan, Banghua; Zhao, Limin


    Passive microwave measurements at certain high frequencies are sensitive to the scattering effect of snow particles and can be utilized to retrieve snowfall properties. Some of the microwave sensors with snowfall sensitive channels are Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) and Advance Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). ATMS is the follow-on sensor to AMSU and MHS. Currently, an AMSU and MHS based land snowfall rate (SFR) product is running operationally at NOAA/NESDIS. Based on the AMSU/MHS SFR, an ATMS SFR algorithm has been developed recently. The algorithm performs retrieval in three steps: snowfall detection, retrieval of cloud properties, and estimation of snow particle terminal velocity and snowfall rate. The snowfall detection component utilizes principal component analysis and a logistic regression model. The model employs a combination of temperature and water vapor sounding channels to detect the scattering signal from falling snow and derive the probability of snowfall (Kongoli et al., 2014). In addition, a set of NWP model based filters is also employed to improve the accuracy of snowfall detection. Cloud properties are retrieved using an inversion method with an iteration algorithm and a two-stream radiative transfer model (Yan et al., 2008). A method developed by Heymsfield and Westbrook (2010) is adopted to calculate snow particle terminal velocity. Finally, snowfall rate is computed by numerically solving a complex integral. The ATMS SFR product is validated against radar and gauge snowfall data and shows that the ATMS algorithm outperforms the AMSU/MHS SFR.

  19. Patient-rated versus proxy-rated cognitive and functional measures in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howland M


    Full Text Available Molly Howland,1 Kevin C Allan,1 Caitlin E Carlton,1 Curtis Tatsuoka,2–4 Kathleen A Smyth,3 Martha Sajatovic1,2,4,5 1Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, 2Neurological and Behavioral Outcomes Center, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, 3Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, 4Department of Neurology, 5Department of Psychiatry, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA Objectives: Patients with cognitive impairment may have difficulty reporting their functional and cognitive abilities, which are important clinical outcomes. Health care proxies may be able to corroborate patient self-reports. Several studies reported discrepancy between patient and proxy ratings, though the literature is sparse on changes over time of these ratings. Our goals in this 12-month study were to compare patient and proxy reports on functioning, cognition, and everyday executive function, and to further elucidate correlates of patient–proxy discrepancy. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of individuals older than 70 years who ranged from having no cognitive impairment to having moderate dementia who had a proxy available to complete instruments at baseline (N=76. Measurements included Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study–Activities of Daily Living Inventory (ADCS-ADLI, Neuro-QOL Executive Function, PROMIS Applied Cognition (PROMIS-Cog, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, and Geriatric Depression Scale. Results: Patient- and proxy-rated ADCS-ADLI were correlated at baseline and at 1-year follow-up. Patient and proxy ratings were discrepant on Neuro-QOL Executive Function and PROMIS-Cog. Greater patient–proxy discrepancy on PROMIS-Cog was associated with younger age and less depression, and greater patient–proxy discrepancy on Neuro-QOL Executive Function was associated with less depression and worse cognitive impairment. Patient–proxy discrepancy increased over time for everyday executive

  20. Study of network topology effect on measurement accuracy for a distributed rotary-laser measurement system (United States)

    Guo, Siyang; Lin, Jiarui; Ren, Yongjie; Yang, Linghui; Zhu, Jigui


    The workshop Measurement Positioning System (wMPS) is a large-scale measurement system that better copes with the current challenges of dimensional metrology. However, as a distributed measuring system with multiple transmitters forming a spatial measurement network, the network topology of transmitters relative to the receiver exerts a significant influence on the measurement accuracy albeit one that is difficult to quantify. An evaluation metric, termed the geometric dilution of precision (GDOP), is introduced to quantify the quality of the network topology of the wMPS. The GDOP is derived from the measurement error model of wMPS and its mathematical derivation is expounded. Two significant factors (density and layout of the transmitter) affecting the network topology are analyzed by simulations and experiments. The experimental results show that GDOP is approximately proportional to the measurement error. More transmitters, and a relatively good layout thereof, can decrease the value of GDOP and the measurement error.

  1. ESR isochron exercises: how accurately do modern dose rate measurements reflect paleodose rates? (United States)

    Blackwell, B. A. B.; Skinner, A. R.; Blickstein, J. I. B.


    In electron spin resonance (ESR) dating tooth enamel, after selecting the appropriate U uptake model, the most significant uncertainty lies in the external dose rate, Dext( t), which can vary with time. Unlike standard ESR which measures the external dose rate in the modern context, Dext( t0), assuming that it reflects the actual external dose rate over the millennia, the isochron method calculates the time-averaged dose rate, D¯ext(t) , experienced by the tooth without such assumptions. In 45 teeth ranging from 30 ka to 4.5 Ma from 17 sites, D¯ext(t) determined by EU or LU isochrons only equalled Dext( t0) about 50% of the time. In several sites, geologic evidence indicates that secondary sedimentary processes have significantly altered sedimentary compositions and/or water concentrations, and hence, Dext( t), over time, accounting for 60-80% of D¯ext(t)-D ext(t 0) disagreements. Simulated isochrons suggest that at least seven teeth, whose isochrons had negative ages or D¯ext(t) , probably had lost U, while five, with accurate ages but very large D¯ext(t) , have likely experienced a second U uptake event.

  2. Analysis of regularly perturbed lattices and reaction rate distributions from TIC experiments for X7 lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishna, A., E-mail: [Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Niyamak Bhavan, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Jagannathan, V. [Light Water Reactors Physics Section, Reactor Physics Design Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Jain, R.P. [IIT Bombay, Mumbai (India)


    at the conclusion of WIMS library update project (WLUP). In the present study we have used libraries based on ENDF/B-6, ENDF/B-7, JEFF3.1 and JENDL3.2 evaluated nuclear datasets. Except ENDF/B-6, the trends of the k{sub eff} from the remaining three libraries were found to be similar. JEFF3.1 data is being used for most of the design computations of LWR projects in India. Therefore, HEXPIN simulations were performed using the cross section library based on JEFF3.1 data. The calculated results are presented in two categories. In category-1, the calculated k{sub eff} values using TRIHEX-FA and HEXPIN are presented for the TIC experiments on Xn lattices. In our earlier work, we have reported that there is a need to perform 3-D core computations for leakage calculations. The improvements in k{sub eff} values by using core calculation tools, TRIHEX-FA and HEXPIN, are presented in this paper by comparing the results with zero dimensional buckling model of EXCEL. In category-2, calculated reaction rate distributions for different activation foils are compared with the measured reaction rate distributions from the TIC experiments. Reaction rate distributions have been calculated using cross section library based on JEFF3.1 data.

  3. Hyperion net: A distributed measurement system for monitoring background ionizing radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šaponjić Đorđe P.


    Full Text Available The distributed measurement system - HYPERION NET, based on the concept of FieldBus technology, has been developed, implemented, and tested as a pilot project, the first WEB enabled on-line networked ionizing radiation monitoring and measurement system. The Net has layered the structure, tree topology, and is based on the Internet infrastructure and TCP/IP communication protocol. The Net' s core element is an intelligent GM transmitter, based on GM tube, used for measuring the absorbed dose in air in the range of 0.087 to 720 μGy/h. The transmitter makes use of an advanced count rate measurement algorithm capable of suppressing the statistical fluctuations of the measured quantity, which significantly improves its measurement performance making it suitable for environmental radiation measurements.

  4. Preliminary analysis of distributed in situ soil moisture measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Brocca


    Full Text Available Surface soil moisture content is highly variable in both space and time. Remote sensing can provide an effective methodology for mapping surface moisture content over large areas but ground based measurements are required to test its reliability and to calibrate retrieval algorithms. Recently, we had the opportunity to design and perform an experiment aimed at jointly acquiring measurements of surface soil water content at various locations and remotely sensed hyperspectral data. The area selected for the experiment is located in central Umbria and it extends for 90km2. For the area, detailed lithological and multi-temporal landslide inventory maps were available. We identified eight plots where measurements of soil water content were made using a Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR. The plots range in size from 100m2 to 600m2, and cover a variety of topographic and morphological settings. The TDR measurements were conducted during four days, on 5 April, 15 April, 2 May and 3 May 2004. On 3 May the NERC airborne CASI 2 acquired the hyperspectral data. Preliminary analysis concerning the matching between the landslides and the soil moisture were reported. Statistical and geostatistical analysis investigating the spatial-temporal soil moisture distribution were performed. These results will be compared with the data of surface temperature obtained from the remotely sensed hyperspectral sensor.

  5. Measurement of anisotropic angular distributions of photon energy spectra for I-125 brachytherapy sources. (United States)

    Unno, Yasuhiro; Yunoki, Akira; Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Yamada, Takahiro; Sato, Yasushi; Hino, Yoshio


    The angular distribution of photon energy spectra emitted from an I-125 brachytherapy source was measured using a specially designed jig in the range of ±70° in the plane of the long axis of the source. It is important to investigate the angular dependence of photon emissions from these sources for the calibration of the air kerma rate. The results show that the influence of the distributions between 0° and ±8° is small enough to allow a calibration using current primary instruments which have a large entrance window. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimisation of occupational radiological protection in image-guided interventions: potential impact of dose rate measurements. (United States)

    Almén, A; Sandblom, V; Båth, M; Lundh, C


    The optimisation of occupational radiological protection is challenging and a variety of factors have to be considered. Physicians performing image-guided interventions are working in an environment with one of the highest radiation risk levels in healthcare. Appropriate knowledge about the radiation environment is a prerequisite for conducting the optimisation process. Information about the dose rate variation during the interventions could provide valuable input to this process. The overall purpose of this study was to explore the prerequisite and feasibility to measure dose rate in scattered radiation and to assess the usefulness of such data in the optimisation process.Using an active dosimeter system, the dose rate in the unshielded scattered radiation field was measured in a fixed point close to the patient undergoing an image-guided intervention. The measurements were performed with a time resolution of one second and the dose rate data was continuously timed in a data log. In two treatment rooms, data was collected during a 6 month time period, resulting in data from 380 image-guided interventions and vascular treatments in the abdomen, arms and legs. These procedures were categorised into eight types according to the purpose of the treatment and the anatomical region involved.The dose rate varied substantially between treatment types, both regarding the levels and the distribution during the procedure. The maximum dose rate for different types of interventions varied typically between 5 and 100 mSv h(-1), but substantially higher and lower dose rates were also registered. The average dose rate during a complete procedure was however substantially lower and varied typically between 0.05 and 1 mSv h(-1). An analysis of the distribution disclosed that for a large part of the treatment types, the major amount of the total accumulated dose for a procedure was delivered in less than 10% of the exposure time and in less than 1% of the total procedure

  7. Computing the rates of measurement-induced quantum jumps (United States)

    Bauer, Michel; Bernard, Denis; Tilloy, Antoine


    Small quantum systems can now be continuously monitored experimentally which allows for the reconstruction of quantum trajectories. A peculiar feature of these trajectories is the emergence of jumps between the eigenstates of the observable which is measured. Using the stochastic master equation (SME) formalism for continuous quantum measurements, we show that the density matrix of a system indeed shows a jumpy behaviour when it is subjected to a tight measurement (even if the noise in the SME is Gaussian). We are able to compute the jump rates analytically for any system evolution, i.e. any Lindbladian, and we illustrate how our general recipe can be applied to two simple examples. We then discuss the mathematical, foundational and practical applications of our results. The analysis we present is based on a study of the strong noise limit of a class of stochastic differential equations (the SME) and as such the method may be applicable to other physical situations in which a strong noise limit plays a role.

  8. Nonperturbing measurements of spatially distributed underwater acoustic fields using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. (United States)

    Harland, Andy R; Petzing, Jon N; Tyrer, John R


    Localized changes in the density of water induced by the presence of an acoustic field cause perturbations in the localized refractive index. This relationship has given rise to a number of nonperturbing optical metrology techniques for recording measurement parameters from underwater acoustic fields. A method that has been recently developed involves the use of a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) targeted at a fixed, nonvibrating, plate through an underwater acoustic field. Measurements of the rate of change of optical pathlength along a line section enable the identification of the temporal and frequency characteristics of the acoustic wave front. This approach has been extended through the use of a scanning LDV, which facilitates the measurement of a range of spatially distributed parameters. A mathematical model is presented that relates the distribution of pressure amplitude and phase in a planar wave front with the rate of change of optical pathlength measured by the LDV along a specifically orientated laser line section. Measurements of a 1 MHz acoustic tone burst generated by a focused transducer are described and the results presented. Graphical depictions of the acoustic power and phase distribution recorded by the LDV are shown, together with images representing time history during the acoustic wave propagation.

  9. Theoretical foundation for measuring the groundwater age distribution.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, William Payton; Arnold, Bill Walter


    In this study, we use PFLOTRAN, a highly scalable, parallel, flow and reactive transport code to simulate the concentrations of 3H, 3He, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, SF6, 39Ar, 81Kr, 4He and themean groundwater age in heterogeneous fields on grids with an excess of 10 million nodes. We utilize this computational platform to simulate the concentration of multiple tracers in high-resolution, heterogeneous 2-D and 3-D domains, and calculate tracer-derived ages. Tracer-derived ages show systematic biases toward younger ages when the groundwater age distribution contains water older than the maximum tracer age. The deviation of the tracer-derived age distribution from the true groundwater age distribution increases with increasing heterogeneity of the system. However, the effect of heterogeneity is diminished as the mean travel time gets closer the tracer age limit. Age distributions in 3-D domains differ significantly from 2-D domains. 3D simulations show decreased mean age, and less variance in age distribution for identical heterogeneity statistics. High-performance computing allows for investigation of tracer and groundwater age systematics in high-resolution domains, providing a platform for understanding and utilizing environmental tracer and groundwater age information in heterogeneous 3-D systems. Groundwater environmental tracers can provide important constraints for the calibration of groundwater flow models. Direct simulation of environmental tracer concentrations in models has the additional advantage of avoiding assumptions associated with using calculated groundwater age values. This study quantifies model uncertainty reduction resulting from the addition of environmental tracer concentration data. The analysis uses a synthetic heterogeneous aquifer and the calibration of a flow and transport model using the pilot point method. Results indicate a significant reduction in the uncertainty in permeability with the addition of environmental tracer data, relative

  10. Disintegration rate measurement of a 152Eu solution. (United States)

    Koskinas, Marina F; Fonseca, Kátia A; Dias, Mauro S


    The procedure followed by the Laboratório de Metrologia Nuclear at the IPEN-CNEN/SP, in São Paulo, for the standardization of 152Eu is described. The disintegration rate of 152Eu has been measured using the 4pi beta-gamma coincidence technique, using a 4pi proportional counter, filled with P-10 gas and operated at 0.1 MPa, coupled to one HPGe detector for the gamma-ray emission. Two discrimination windows were set in the gamma-channel, one related to the beta branch (344 keV) and the other related to the electron capture events (1408.03 keV), in order to determine the counting efficiencies for beta, X-ray and Auger electron events in the proportional counter. The activity of solution was determined by a biparametric extrapolation curve obtained for the two selected gamma-windows.

  11. Exchange Flow Rate Measurement Technique in Density Different Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoo Fumizawa


    Full Text Available Buoyancy-driven exchange flows of helium-air through inclined a narrow tube was investigated. Exchange flows may occur following the opening of a window for ventilation, as well as when a pipe ruptures in a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. The experiment in this paper was carried out in a test chamber filled with helium and the flow was visualized using the smoke wire method. A high-speed camera recorded the flow behavior. The image of the flow was transferred to digital data, and the slow flow velocity, i.e. micro flow rate was measured by PIV software. Numerical simulation was carried out by the code of moving particle method with Lagrange method.

  12. Three-parameter distribution function fit to growth rate dispersion among small crystals (United States)

    Zikic, A. M.; Ristic, R. I.; Sherwood, J. N.


    This paper considers the advantages of using a three-parameter fit to both log-normal and gamma distributions rather than the two parameter fit normally used for the statistical treatment of growth rate dispersion among small crystals. It discusses the distribution functions, the procedure of searching for location parameters and the optimal number of bins for the best log-normal and gamma fits. As an example, the three-parameter fit is applied to results of the growth rate distributions of small paracetamol crystals. It is shown that the application of three-parameter distributions yields both a better fit to the experimental data than the two-parameter ones and the potential for a compound statistical treatment of growth, zero-growth and dissolution among small particles.

  13. Growth rate measurement of ULF waves in the ion foreshock (United States)

    Dorfman, S. E.; Hietala, H.; Astfalk, P.; Angelopoulos, V.


    Waves generated by accelerated particles are important throughout our heliosphere. These particles often gain their energy at shocks via Fermi acceleration. At the Earth's bow shock, this mechanism accelerates ion beams back into the solar wind; the beams can then generate ultra low frequency (ULF) waves via an ion-ion right hand resonant instability. These waves influence the shock structure and particle acceleration, lead to coherent structures in the magnetosheath, and are a possible source of the ULF waves that play a key role in magnetospheric dynamics.ULF wave observations at the Earth's ion foreshock have been primarily conducted using missions within 30 Earth radii (Re). However, many of the events observed at this location consist of waves generated further upstream that are convected back towards the spacecraft. By contrast, the present study makes use of the two ARTEMIS spacecraft orbiting the moon at 60 Re from Earth to investigate the properties of ULF waves further upstream while they are in the linear stage of instability growth.The present study represents the first satellite measurement of the ULF wave growth rate in the upstream region. Using the flux gate magnetometer and electrostatic analyzer instruments aboard the two ARTEMIS spacecraft, we characterize crescent-shaped ion beams and relatively monochromatic ULF waves. The selected event features spacecraft separation in the solar wind flow direction along a nearly radial Interplanetary Magnetic Field. We estimate the ULF wave growth rate and find it to match dispersion solver predictions during the initial growth time. Observed frequencies and wavenumbers are also within the predicted range. Other ULF wave properties such as the phase speed and obliquity are consistent with expectations from prior satellite measurements. Multiple frequency peaks observed in ARTEMIS data and additional events characterized by diffuse ion beams are currently under investigation.Supported by NASA & NASA Eddy

  14. Measuring inequalities in the distribution of dental caries. (United States)

    Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Narvai, Paulo Capel; Nugent, Zoann Jane


    To evaluate different measurements of prevalence and inequality in the distribution of dental caries as to their partial collinearity, and ability in expressing associations with the supply of fluoridated tap water, indices of socioeconomic status and provision of dental services. The DMFT, the Significant Caries (SiC) Index, the proportions of children with high- (DMFT > or = 4) and rampant- (DMFT > or = 7) caries experience, caries-free children (DMFT = 0), the Gini coefficient and the Dental Health Inequality Index (DHII) were the dental outcomes appraised in a sample comprising 18 718 oral examination records for 11- and 12-year-old schoolchildren in 131 towns of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Spatial data analysis assessed the association between aggregate figures of dental indices and several covariates. The DMFT, the SiC Index and the proportions of children with high- and rampant-caries experience presented strong linear associations (Pearson r near or higher than 0.95), and an analogous profile of correlation with indicators of socioeconomic status, dental services and access to fluoride tap water. The same was observed for the DHII, the Gini coefficient and the proportion of caries-free children. These observations involve the perception of variables in each set as interchangeable tools for ecological studies assessing factors influencing, respectively, prevalence levels and inequality in the distribution of dental disease. An improved characterization of the skewed distribution of caries experience demands the concurrent estimation of figures of prevalence and inequality in dental outcomes. This strategy may contribute to the design of socially appropriate programmes of oral health promotion. Copyright Blackwell Munksgaard, 2004

  15. Measuring hand hygiene compliance rates at hospital entrances. (United States)

    Vaidotas, Marina; Yokota, Paula Kiyomi Onaga; Marra, Alexandre R; Camargo, Thiago Zinsly Sampaio; Victor, Elivane da Silva; Gysi, Deisy Morselli; Leal, Flavio; Santos, Oscar Fernando Pavão dos; Edmond, Michael B


    Despite the importance of hand hygiene in the health care setting, there are no studies evaluating hand hygiene compliance at hospital entrances. The study was prospectively performed over a 33-week period from March 30, 2014-November 15, 2014, to evaluate hand hygiene compliance in 2 hospital reception areas. We compared electronic handwash counters with the application of radiofrequency identification (GOJO SMARTLINK) (electronic observer) that counts each activation of alcohol gel dispensers to direct observation (human observer) via remote review of video surveillance. We found low hand hygiene compliance rates of 2.2% (99/4,412) and 1.7% (140/8,277), respectively, at reception areas A and D, detected by direct observation. Using the electronic observer, we measured rates of 17% (15,624/91,724) and 7.1% (51,605/730,357) at reception areas A and D, respectively. For the overall time period of simultaneous electronic and human observation, the human observer captured 1% of the hand hygiene episodes detected by the electronic observer. Our study showed very low hand hygiene compliance in hospital reception areas, and we found an electronic hand hygiene system to be a useful method to monitor hand hygiene compliance. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Standard test method for measurement of fatigue crack growth rates

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This test method covers the determination of fatigue crack growth rates from near-threshold to Kmax controlled instability. Results are expressed in terms of the crack-tip stress-intensity factor range (ΔK), defined by the theory of linear elasticity. 1.2 Several different test procedures are provided, the optimum test procedure being primarily dependent on the magnitude of the fatigue crack growth rate to be measured. 1.3 Materials that can be tested by this test method are not limited by thickness or by strength so long as specimens are of sufficient thickness to preclude buckling and of sufficient planar size to remain predominantly elastic during testing. 1.4 A range of specimen sizes with proportional planar dimensions is provided, but size is variable to be adjusted for yield strength and applied force. Specimen thickness may be varied independent of planar size. 1.5 The details of the various specimens and test configurations are shown in Annex A1-Annex A3. Specimen configurations other than t...

  17. Spatiotemporal measurement of surfactant distribution on gravity-capillary waves

    CERN Document Server

    Strickland, Stephen L; Daniels, Karen E


    Materials adsorbed to the surface of a fluid -- for instance, crude oil, biogenic slicks, or industrial/medical surfactants -- will move in response to surface waves. Due to the difficulty of non-invasive measurement of the spatial distribution of a molecular monolayer, little is known about the dynamics that couple the surface waves and the evolving density field. Here, we report measurements of the spatiotemporal dynamics of the density field of an insoluble surfactant driven by gravity-capillary waves in a shallow cylindrical container. Standing Faraday waves and traveling waves generated by the meniscus are superimposed to create a non-trivial surfactant density field. We measure both the height field of the surface using moir\\'e-imaging, and the density field of the surfactant via the fluorescence of NBD-tagged phosphatidylcholine, a lipid. Through phase-averaging stroboscopically-acquired images of the density field, we determine that the surfactant accumulates on the leading edge of the traveling menis...

  18. Distributed Sensible Heat Flux Measurements for Wireless Sensor Networks (United States)

    Huwald, H.; Brauchli, T.; Lehning, M.; Higgins, C. W.


    The sensible heat flux component of the surface energy balance is typically computed using eddy covariance or two point profile measurements while alternative approaches such as the flux variance method based on convective scaling has been much less explored and applied. Flux variance (FV) certainly has a few limitations and constraints but may be an interesting and competitive method in low-cost and power limited wireless sensor networks (WSN) with the advantage of providing spatio-temporal sensible heat flux over the domain of the network. In a first step, parameters such as sampling frequency, sensor response time, and averaging interval are investigated. Then we explore the applicability and the potential of the FV method for use in WSN in a field experiment. Low-cost sensor systems are tested and compared against reference instruments (3D sonic anemometers) to evaluate the performance and limitations of the sensors as well as the method with respect to the standard calculations. Comparison experiments were carried out at several sites to gauge the flux measurements over different surface types (gravel, grass, water) from the low-cost systems. This study should also serve as an example of spatially distributed sensible heat flux measurements.

  19. Measuring one nucleon transfer reaction 24Mg( p, d)23Mg for astrophysical reaction rates (United States)

    Lee, E. J.; Chae, K. Y.


    The level structure of a radionuclide 23Mg has been studied by using the 24Mg( p, d)23Mg one nucleon transfer reaction measurement for the astrophysical 19Ne(α, γ)23Mg reaction rate. A 41 MeV proton beam was produced and accelerated at the 25 MV tandem accelerator of the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the United States. The beam particles impinged on an isotopically-enriched 24Mg solid target. Angular distributions of recoiling deuterons were extracted by using a large area silicon strip detector array. By comparing the experimentally-obtained angular distributions with zero range distorted wave Born approximation calculations, spins and parities of three energy levels of 23Mg could be constrained for the first time, which is very important information needed to understand the 19Ne(α, γ)23Mg reaction rate.

  20. The binary fraction, separation distribution, and merger rate of white dwarfs from SPY (United States)

    Maoz, Dan; Hallakoun, Na'ama


    From a sample of spectra of 439 white dwarfs (WDs) from the ESO-VLT Supernova-Ia Progenitor Survey (SPY), we measure the maximal changes in radial velocity (ΔRVmax) between epochs (generally two epochs, separated by up to 470 d), and model the observed ΔRVmax statistics via Monte Carlo simulations, to constrain the population characteristics of double WDs (DWDs). The DWD fraction among WDs is fbin = 0.10 ± 0.02 (1σ, random) +0.02 (systematic), in the separation range ≲4 au within which the data are sensitive to binarity. Assuming the distribution of binary separation, a, is a power law, dN/da ∝ aα, at the end of the last common-envelope phase and the start of solely gravitational-wave-driven binary evolution, the constraint by the data is α = -1.3 ± 0.2 (1σ) ±0.2 (systematic). If these parameters extend to small separations, the implied Galactic WD merger rate per unit stellar mass is Rmerge = (1-80) × 10-13 yr^{-1} M_{⊙}^{-1} (2σ), with a likelihood-weighted mean of Rmerge = (7 ± 2) × 10-13 yr^{-1} M_{⊙}^{-1} (1σ). The Milky Way's specific Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate is likely RIa ≈ 1.1 × 10-13 yr^{-1} M_{⊙}^{-1} and therefore, in terms of rates, a possibly small fraction of all merging DWDs (e.g. those with massive-enough primary WDs) could suffice to produce most or all SNe Ia.

  1. Simple and Low-Cost Wireless Distributed Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Flammini


    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and realization of a simple and low-cost system for distributed measurements. Traditional handheld digital multimeters have been equipped with a radio-frequency interface in order to implement what the authors call WDMM, the basic block of a wireless multi-probe data logger. New functionalities require very few components and result in a cost increase of less than 10$. In addition, also maintenance has been facilitated since tracking data such as working state or last calibration time are available to the user. Data inquiry can be performed by a purposely designed module that has the same hardware of the WDMM but a different user interface or by a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant or a traditional personal computer thanks to a USB connection. Simple supervisory software has been realized under the LabVIEW graphical programming environment.

  2. Associations of objectively measured physical activity and abdominal fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Annelotte; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Jørgensen, Marit Eika


    Introduction/Purpose: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and physical activity are both independent predictors of Type 2 diabetes. Physical activity and overall obesity are inversely associated with each other. Yet the nature of the association between objectively measured dimensions of physical...... activity and abdominal fat distribution has not been well characterized. We aimed to do so in a middle-age to elderly population at high risk of diabetes. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of 1134 participants of the ADDITION-PRO study. VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were assessed one......-dimensionally by ultrasonography and physical activity with combined accelerometry and HR monitoring. Linear regression of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and time spent in different physical activity intensity levels on VAT and SAT was performed. Results: Median body mass index (BMI) was 26.6 kg.m(-2) and PAEE was 28...

  3. Long-term measurement of heart rate in chicken eggs. (United States)

    Akiyama, R; Matsuhisa, A; Pearson, J T; Tazawa, H


    Taking advantage of acoustocardiogram (ACG), we measured the heart rate (HR) of chick embryos continuously from day 12 until hatching and then investigated the development of HR irregularities (HRI), HR variability (HRV), and the existence of a circadian rhythm in mean HR (MHR). HRI comprised transient bradycardia and tachycardia, which first developed on day 14 and 16 in most embryos, respectively. Transient bradycardia increased in frequency and magnitude with embryonic development and occurred over periods of up to 30 min in some embryos. MHR was maximal on around days 14-15 and thereafter decreased to about 250-260 bpm on days 16-18. Baseline HRV, which is an oscillation of the MHR baseline, occurred as HR decreased from days 15-16 and became predominant on days 17-18. The magnitude of the baseline oscillations reached up to 50 bpm in some embryos and the period ranged between about 40-90 min (ultradian rhythm). A circadian rhythm of MHR was not found in late chick embryos. On days 18-19, embryonic activities were augmented and then breathing movements began to occur, disturbing ACG signals and thus making it difficult to measure the HR. Instead, the development of breathing activities was recorded. Breathing frequency was irregular at first and then increased to a maximum of about 1.5 Hz prior to hatching.

  4. On the symmetric α-stable distribution with application to symbol error rate calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza


    The probability density function (PDF) of the symmetric α-stable distribution is investigated using the inverse Fourier transform of its characteristic function. For general values of the stable parameter α, it is shown that the PDF and the cumulative distribution function of the symmetric stable distribution can be expressed in terms of the Fox H function as closed-form. As an application, the probability of error of single input single output communication systems using different modulation schemes with an α-stable perturbation is studied. In more details, a generic formula is derived for generalized fading distribution, such as the extended generalized-k distribution. Later, simpler expressions of these error rates are deduced for some selected special cases and compact approximations are derived using asymptotic expansions.

  5. The supernova rate and delay time distribution in the Magellanic Clouds (United States)

    Maoz, Dan; Badenes, Carles


    We use the supernova remnants (SNRs) in the two Magellanic Clouds (MCs) as a supernova (SN) survey, `conducted' over tens of kyr, from which we derive the current SN rate, and the SN delay time distribution (DTD), i.e. the SN rate versus time that would follow a hypothetical brief burst of a star formation. In a companion paper we have compiled a list of 77 SNRs in the MCs, and argued that it is a fairly complete record of the SNRs that are now in the Sedov phase of their expansions. We recover the SN DTD by comparing the numbers of SNRs observed in small individual `cells' in these galaxies to the star formation histories of each cell, as calculated from resolved stellar populations by Harris & Zaritsky. We identify the visibility times of SNRs in each cell with the Sedov-phase lifetimes, which depend on the local ambient densities. The local densities are estimated from 21-cm emission, from an inverse Schmidt-Kennicutt law based on either Hα emission or the star formation rate from the resolved stellar populations, and from combinations of these tracers. This is the first SN DTD that is based on resolved stellar populations. We detect a population of `prompt' Type Ia SNe (that explode within 330 Myr of star formation) at >99 per cent confidence level (CL). The best fit for the number of prompt Type Ia SNe per stellar mass formed is 2.7 -11.0 × 10-3 M-1solar, depending on the density tracer used. The 95 per cent CL range for a `delayed' (from 330 Myr to a Hubble time) Type Ia component is historical record and with rates measured in other dwarf irregulars. Conversely, assuming the SNRs are in free expansion, rather than in their Sedov phase, would impose on the SNRs a maximum age of 6 kyr, and would imply an MC SN rate per unit mass that is five times higher than in any type of galaxy, and a low-mass limit for core-collapse progenitors in conflict with stellar evolution theory.

  6. Quantitative measurement and visualization of biofilm O 2 consumption rates in membrane filtration systems

    KAUST Repository

    Prest, Emmanuelle I E C


    There is a strong need for techniques enabling direct assessment of biological activity of biofouling in membrane filtration systems. Here we present a new quantitative and non-destructive method for mapping O 2 dynamics in biofilms during biofouling studies in membrane fouling simulators (MFS). Transparent planar O 2 optodes in combination with a luminescence lifetime imaging system were used to map the two-dimensional distribution of O 2 concentrations and consumption rates inside the MFS. The O 2 distribution was indicative for biofilm development. Biofilm activity was characterized by imaging of O 2 consumption rates, where low and high activity areas could be clearly distinguished. The spatial development of O 2 consumption rates, flow channels and stagnant areas could be determined. This can be used for studies on concentration polarization, i.e. salt accumulation at the membrane surface resulting in increased salt passage and reduced water flux. The new optode-based O 2 imaging technique applied to MFS allows non-destructive and spatially resolved quantitative biological activity measurements (BAM) for on-site biofouling diagnosis and laboratory studies. The following set of complementary tools is now available to study development and control of biofouling in membrane systems: (i) MFS, (ii) sensitive pressure drop measurement, (iii) magnetic resonance imaging, (iv) numerical modelling, and (v) biological activity measurement based on O 2 imaging methodology. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Measurement of Gamma Energy Distributions and Multiplicities Using STEFF (United States)

    Murray, E.; Smith, A. G.; Pollitt, A. J.; Matarranz, J.; Tsekhanovich, I.; Soldner, T.; Koster, U.; Biswas, D. C.


    Prompt gamma-ray energy distributions and multiplicities released during thermally induced fission of 235U have been measured using STEFF (SpecTrometer for Exotic Fission Fragments). Thermal neutrons are provided by the high-flux reactor at the ILL, Grenoble. STEFF is a unique 2E2v device that uses a coincidence timing method to measure the emission of prompt gamma rays as a function of the fragment mass and energy. Following scission, the fission fragments contain excitation energy that is released via prompt neutron and gamma-ray emission as the fragment decays to the ground state. STEFF contains an array of 11 NaI detectors surrounding the uranium target providing a 6.8% photopeak detection efficiency for gamma rays released within 1 ns of the scission time. STEFF also consists of 7 NE213 detectors, which detect the emission of prompt neutrons, the release of which is associated with reduction of fragment energy and, to a lesser extent, fragment spin. This experiment acts as a direct response to the NEA high priority demand which requires more accurate knowledge of heating caused by gamma emission in the next generation of nuclear reactors.

  8. Rotation Rate of Saturn's Magnetosphere using CAPS Plasma Measurements (United States)

    Sittler, E.; Cooper, J.; Hartle, R.; Simpson, D.; Johnson, R.; Thomsen, M.; Arridge, C.


    We present the present status of an investigation of the rotation rate of Saturn's magnetosphere using a 3D velocity moment technique being developed at Goddard which is similar to the 2D version used by Sittler et al. for SOI and similar to that used by Thomsen et al.. This technique allows one to nearly cover the full energy range of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) IMS from 1 V . E/Q frame, it does work during roll maneuvers. We make comparisons with the bi-Maxwellian fitting technique developed by Wilson et al. and the similar velocity moment technique by Thomsen et al. . We concentrate our analysis when ion composition data is available, which is used to weight the non-compositional data, referred to as singles data, to separate H+, H2+ and water group ions (W+) from each other. The chosen periods have high enough telemetry rates (4 kbps or higher) so that coincidence ion data, similar to that used by Sittler et al. for SOI is available. The ion data set is especially valuable for measuring flow velocities for protons, which are more difficult to derive using singles data within the inner magnetosphere, where the signal is dominated by heavy ions (i.e., proton peak merges with W+ peak as low energy shoulder). Our technique uses a flux function, which is zero in the proper plasma flow frame, to estimate fluid parameter uncertainties. The comparisons investigate the experimental errors and potential for systematic errors in the analyses, including ours. The rolls provide the best data set when it comes to getting 4PI coverage of the plasma but are more susceptible to time aliasing effects. In the future we will then make comparisons with magnetic field observations, Saturn ionosphere conductivities as presently known and the field aligned currents necessary for the planet to enforce corotation of the rotating plasma.

  9. Methods for determining particle size distribution and growth rates between 1 and 3 nm using the Particle Size Magnifier

    CERN Document Server

    Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Kontkanen, Jenni; Kangasluoma, Juha; Franchin, Alessandro; Wimmer, Daniela; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Junninen, Heikki; Petäjä, Tuukka; Sipilä, Mikko; Mikkilä, Jyri; Vanhanen, Joonas; Worsnop, Douglas R; Kulmala, Markku


    The most important parameters describing the atmospheric new particle formation process are the particle formation and growth rates. These together determine the amount of cloud condensation nuclei attributed to secondary particle formation. Due to difficulties in detecting small neutral particles, it has previously not been possible to derive these directly from measurements in the size range below about 3 nm. The Airmodus Particle Size Magnifier has been used at the SMEAR II station in Hyytiälä, southern Finland, and during nucleation experiments in the CLOUD chamber at CERN for measuring particles as small as about 1 nm in mobility diameter. We developed several methods to determine the particle size distribution and growth rates in the size range of 1–3 nm from these data sets. Here we introduce the appearance-time method for calculating initial growth rates. The validity of the method was tested by simulations with the Ion-UHMA aerosol dynamic model.

  10. Volatility modeling for IDR exchange rate through APARCH model with student-t distribution (United States)

    Nugroho, Didit Budi; Susanto, Bambang


    The aim of this study is to empirically investigate the performance of APARCH(1,1) volatility model with the Student-t error distribution on five foreign currency selling rates to Indonesian rupiah (IDR), including the Swiss franc (CHF), the Euro (EUR), the British pound (GBP), Japanese yen (JPY), and the US dollar (USD). Six years daily closing rates over the period of January 2010 to December 2016 for a total number of 1722 observations have analysed. The Bayesian inference using the efficient independence chain Metropolis-Hastings and adaptive random walk Metropolis methods in the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) scheme has been applied to estimate the parameters of model. According to the DIC criterion, this study has found that the APARCH(1,1) model under Student-t distribution is a better fit than the model under normal distribution for any observed rate return series. The 95% highest posterior density interval suggested the APARCH models to model the IDR/JPY and IDR/USD volatilities. In particular, the IDR/JPY and IDR/USD data, respectively, have significant negative and positive leverage effect in the rate returns. Meanwhile, the optimal power coefficient of volatility has been found to be statistically different from 2 in adopting all rate return series, save the IDR/EUR rate return series.

  11. Are We Correctly Measuring Star-Formation Rates? (United States)

    McQuinn, Kristen B.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Mitchell, Noah P.


    Integrating our knowledge of star formation (SF) traced by observations at different wavelengths is essential for correctly interpreting and comparing SF activity in a variety of systems and environments. This study compares extinction-corrected, integrated ultraviolet (UV) emission from resolved galaxies with color-magnitude diagram (CMD) based star-formation rates (SFRs) derived from resolved stellar populations and CMD fitting techniques in 19 nearby starburst and post-starburst dwarf galaxies. The data sets are from the panchromatic Starburst Irregular Dwarf Survey (STARBIRDS) and include deep legacy GALEX UV imaging, Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging, and Spitzer MIPS imaging. For the majority of the sample, the integrated near-UV fluxes predicted from the CMD-based SFRs—using four different models—agree with the measured, extinction corrected, integrated near-UV fluxes from GALEX images, but the far-UV (FUV) predicted fluxes do not. Furthermore, we find a systematic deviation between the SFRs based on integrated FUV luminosities and existing scaling relations, and the SFRs based on the resolved stellar populations. This offset is not driven by different SF timescales, variations in SFRs, UV attenuation, nor stochastic effects. This first comparison between CMD-based SFRs and an integrated FUV emission SFR indicator suggests that the most likely cause of the discrepancy is the theoretical FUV-SFR calibration from stellar evolutionary libraries and/or stellar atmospheric models. We present an empirical calibration of the FUV-based SFR relation for dwarf galaxies, with uncertainties, which is ˜53% larger than previous relations. These results have signficant implications for measuring FUV-based SFRs of high-redshift galaxies.

  12. A fast simulation method for the Log-normal sum distribution using a hazard rate twisting technique

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir B.


    The probability density function of the sum of Log-normally distributed random variables (RVs) is a well-known challenging problem. For instance, an analytical closed-form expression of the Log-normal sum distribution does not exist and is still an open problem. A crude Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is of course an alternative approach. However, this technique is computationally expensive especially when dealing with rare events (i.e. events with very small probabilities). Importance Sampling (IS) is a method that improves the computational efficiency of MC simulations. In this paper, we develop an efficient IS method for the estimation of the Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function (CCDF) of the sum of independent and not identically distributed Log-normal RVs. This technique is based on constructing a sampling distribution via twisting the hazard rate of the original probability measure. Our main result is that the estimation of the CCDF is asymptotically optimal using the proposed IS hazard rate twisting technique. We also offer some selected simulation results illustrating the considerable computational gain of the IS method compared to the naive MC simulation approach.

  13. Results of APL rain gauge network measurements in mid-Atlantic coast region and comparisons of distributions with CCIR models (United States)

    Goldhirsh, Julius; Gebo, Norman; Rowland, John


    In this effort are described cumulative rain rate distributions for a network of nine tipping bucket rain gauge systems located in the mid-Atlantic coast region in the vicinity of the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Virginia. The rain gauges are situated within a gridded region of dimensions of 47 km east-west by 70 km north-south. Distributions are presented for the individual site measurements and the network average for the year period June 1, 1986 through May 31, 1987. A previous six year average distribution derived from measurements at one of the site locations is also presented. Comparisons are given of the network average, the CCIR (International Radio Consultative Committee) climatic zone, and the CCIR functional model distributions, the latter of which approximates a log normal at the lower rain rate and a gamma function at the higher rates.

  14. Flow rate through microfilters: Influence of the pore size distribution, hydrodynamic interactions, wall slip, and inertia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Valente, Andre X. C. N.; Stone, Howard A.


    to obtain an analytical formula for the pressure drop across the microfilter versus the flow rate that accounts for the non-uniform distribution of pore sizes, the hydrodynamic interactions between the pores given their layout pattern, and wall slip. Further, we discuss inertial effects and their order...

  15. Particle size distribution effect on burn rate of ammonium nitrate based propellant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, J.R.; Klein, A.J.J.; Zee, F.W.M.


    Burn rate control of a Phase Stabilised Ammonium Nitrate (PSAN) propellant by specific surface area (SSA) tuning of the PSAN oxidiser resulted in unexpected effects of applying a new batch of PSAN having a different particle size distribution. Analysis of the deviations and consultation of

  16. Mallards feed longer to maintain intake rate under competition on a natural food distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, J.G.B.; Duijns, S.; Gyimesi, A.; De Boer, W.F.; Nolet, B.A.


    Animals foraging in groups may benefit from a faster detection of food and predators, but competition by conspecifics may reduce intake rate. Competition may also alter the foraging behaviour of individuals, which can be influenced by dominance status and the way food is distributed over the

  17. Mallards Feed Longer to Maintain Intake Rate under Competition on a Natural Food Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, J.G.B.; Duijns, S.; Gyimesi, A.; de Boer, W.F.; Nolet, B.A.


    Animals foraging in groups may benefit from a faster detection of food and predators, but competition by conspecifics may reduce intake rate. Competition may also alter the foraging behaviour of individuals, which can be influenced by dominance status and the way food is distributed over the

  18. Effect of stroke rate on the distribution of net mechanical power in rowing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmijster, M.J.; Landman, E.H.; Smith, R.M.; van Soest, A.J.


    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of manipulating stroke rate on the distribution of mechanical power in rowing. Two causes of inefficient mechanical energy expenditure were identified in rowing. The ratio between power not lost at the blades and generated mechanical power (P̄

  19. Rotational Laser Cooling of MgH+ Ions and Rotational Rate Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Kragh; Staanum, Peter; Højbjerre, Klaus

    blackbody radiation field. To undertake such modelling, we will carry out measurements of a series of transition rates between rotational states in the vibronic ground state at room temperature. The measurements will be performed by the same Resonance Enhanced Multi-Photon Dissociation (REMPD) process used......A method of laser cooling vibrationally and translationally cold trapped MgH+ ions to the rotational ground state using optical pumping was recently demonstrated in our group [1]. This method relies on the 293 K blackbody radiation to redistribute population among the rotational states, while...... exciting a single rovibrational transition within the X1Σ+ electronic ground state for optical pumping into the rovibrational ground state. To model the expected rotational state distributions after the application of the laser beam, one has to know the various rotational transitions rates in the present...

  20. Evaluation of Risk Minimisation Measures for Blood Components - Based on Reporting Rates of Transfusion-Transmitted Reactions (1997-2013). (United States)

    Funk, Markus B; Heiden, Margarethe; Volkers, Peter; Lohmann, Annette; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte


    To assess the impact of safety measures, we compared reporting rates of transfusion-related reactions before and after the implementation of six measures in 1999, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2009. Reporting rates of transfusion-transmitted bacterial infection (TTBI), viral infection (TTVI) and immune-mediated transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) were calculated on the basis of confirmed annual reports and distributed blood components. The introduction of HCV NAT testing caused a significant reduction of HCV reporting rate from 1:0.6 to 1:83.16 million administered blood components (p haemovigilance data, a significant benefit could be demonstrated for four of six implemented safety measures.

  1. Radioactivity and measurements of sediment deposition rate of the Drenova reservoir (B&H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Radislav


    Full Text Available This work presents the first estimate of the radioactivity and sediment deposition rate of the Drenova reservoir. The radioactivity and sedimentation rate were computed applying the 210Pb and 137Cs methods. Samples of 210Pb and 137Cs were taken from four boreholes drilled in the Drenova reservoir in June 2010. Vertical distribution of the natural and artificial radionuclides in four boreholes was examined using a gamma spectrometry measurement with HpGe detectors, Gamma X type (10 keV-3 MeV. Activities ranging from 122-8 Bq/kg were found for 210Pb, and from 140-0.8 Bq/kg for 137Cs. The sedimentation rate in the Drenova reservoir varied from 1.96 to 2.90 cm per year for unsupported 210Pb and 0.47 to 5.33 cm per year for 137Cs.

  2. Comparison of Drop Size Distribution Measurements by Impact and Optical Disdrometers. (United States)

    Tokay, Ali; Kruger, Anton; Krajewski, Witold F.


    Simultaneous observations made with optical- and impact-type disdrometers were analyzed to broaden knowledge of these instruments. These observations were designed to test how accurately they measure drop size distributions (DSDs). The instruments' use in determining radar rainfall relations such as that between reflectivity and rainfall rate also was analyzed. A unique set of instruments, including two video and one Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer along with eight tipping-bucket rain gauges, was operated within a small area of about 100 × 50 m2 during a 2-month-long field campaign in central Florida. The disdrometers were evaluated by comparing their rain totals with the rain gauges. Both disdrometers underestimated the rain totals, but the video disdrometers had higher readings, resulting in a better agreement with the gauges. The disdrometers underreported small- to medium-size drops, which most likely caused the underestimation of rain totals. However, more medium-size drops were measured by the video disdrometer, thus producing higher rain rates for that instrument. The comparison of DSDs, averaged at different timescales, showed good agreement between the two types of disdrometers. A continuous increase in the number of drops toward smaller sizes was only evident in the video disdrometers at rain rates above 20 mm h1. Otherwise, the concentration of small drops remained the same or decreased to the smallest measurable size. The Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer severely underestimated only at very small drop size (diameter 0.5 mm). Beyond the Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer measurement limit were very large drops that fell during heavy and extreme rain intensities. The derived parameters of exponential and gamma distributions reflect the good agreement between the disdrometers' DSD measurements. The parameters of fitted distributions were close to each other, especially when all the coincident measurements were averaged. The low concentrations of very large drops observed by

  3. Species distributions, quantum theory, and the enhancement of biodiversity measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Real, Raimundo; Barbosa, A. Márcia; Bull, Joseph William


    differently to similar environmental conditions at different places or moments, so their distribution is, in principle, not completely predictable. We argue that this uncertainty exists, and warrants considering species distributions as analogous to coherent quantum objects, whose distributions are better...... biodiversity”. We show how conceptualizing species’ distributions in this way could help overcome important weaknesses in current biodiversity metrics, both in theory and by using a worked case study of mammal distributions in Spain over the last decade. We propose that considerable theoretical advances could...... eventually be gained through interdisciplinary collaboration between biogeographers and quantum physicists. [Biogeography; favorability; physics; predictability; probability; species occurrence; uncertainty; wavefunction....

  4. Gender Differences in Rates of Depression among Undergraduates: Measurement Matters. (United States)

    Grant, Kathryn; Marsh, Patricia; Syniar, Gina; Williams, Megan; Addlesperger, Elisa; Kinzler, Mi Hyon; Cowman, Shaun


    Two studies tested for gender differences in rates of depression among undergraduates using three conceptualizations of depression. Results provide no evidence of gender differences in rates of depressed mood in either sample. However, in both samples, gender differences in rates of depressive disorder were found, with male students more likely…

  5. Shape of growth-rate distribution determines the type of Non-Gibrat’s Property (United States)

    Ishikawa, Atushi; Fujimoto, Shouji; Mizuno, Takayuki


    In this study, the authors examine exhaustive business data on Japanese firms, which cover nearly all companies in the mid- and large-scale ranges in terms of firm size, to reach several key findings on profits/sales distribution and business growth trends. Here, profits denote net profits. First, detailed balance is observed not only in profits data but also in sales data. Furthermore, the growth-rate distribution of sales has wider tails than the linear growth-rate distribution of profits in log-log scale. On the one hand, in the mid-scale range of profits, the probability of positive growth decreases and the probability of negative growth increases symmetrically as the initial value increases. This is called Non-Gibrat’s First Property. On the other hand, in the mid-scale range of sales, the probability of positive growth decreases as the initial value increases, while the probability of negative growth hardly changes. This is called Non-Gibrat’s Second Property. Under detailed balance, Non-Gibrat’s First and Second Properties are analytically derived from the linear and quadratic growth-rate distributions in log-log scale, respectively. In both cases, the log-normal distribution is inferred from Non-Gibrat’s Properties and detailed balance. These analytic results are verified by empirical data. Consequently, this clarifies the notion that the difference in shapes between growth-rate distributions of sales and profits is closely related to the difference between the two Non-Gibrat’s Properties in the mid-scale range.

  6. Burning rate of solid wood measured in a heat release rate calorimeter (United States)

    H. C. Tran; R. H. White


    Burning rate is a key factor in modeling fire growth and fire endurance of wood structures. This study investigated the burning rate of selected wood materials as determined by heat release, mass loss and charring rates. Thick samples of redwood, southern pine, red oak and basswood were tested in a heat release rate calorimeter. Results on ignitability and average beat...

  7. Decreasing-Rate Pruning Optimizes the Construction of Efficient and Robust Distributed Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saket Navlakha


    Full Text Available Robust, efficient, and low-cost networks are advantageous in both biological and engineered systems. During neural network development in the brain, synapses are massively over-produced and then pruned-back over time. This strategy is not commonly used when designing engineered networks, since adding connections that will soon be removed is considered wasteful. Here, we show that for large distributed routing networks, network function is markedly enhanced by hyper-connectivity followed by aggressive pruning and that the global rate of pruning, a developmental parameter not previously studied by experimentalists, plays a critical role in optimizing network structure. We first used high-throughput image analysis techniques to quantify the rate of pruning in the mammalian neocortex across a broad developmental time window and found that the rate is decreasing over time. Based on these results, we analyzed a model of computational routing networks and show using both theoretical analysis and simulations that decreasing rates lead to more robust and efficient networks compared to other rates. We also present an application of this strategy to improve the distributed design of airline networks. Thus, inspiration from neural network formation suggests effective ways to design distributed networks across several domains.

  8. Imaging System For Measuring Macromolecule Crystal Growth Rates in Microgravity (United States)

    Corder, Eric L.; Briscoe, Jeri


    In order to determine how macromolecule crystal quality improvement in microgravity is related to crystal growth characteristics, a team of scientists and engineers at NASA's Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed flight hardware capable of measuring the crystal growth rates of a population of crystals growing under the same conditions. As crystal growth rate is defined as the change or delta in a defined dimension or length (L) of crystal over time, the hardware was named Delta-L. Delta-L consists of three sub assemblies: a fluid unit including a temperature-controlled growth cell, an imaging unit, and a control unit (consisting of a Data Acquisition and Control Unit (DACU), and a thermal control unit). Delta-L will be used in connection with the Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology (g-LIMIT) inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), onboard the International Space Station. This paper will describe the Delta-L imaging system. The Delta-L imaging system was designed to locate, resolve, and capture images of up to 10 individual crystals ranging in size from 10 to 500 microns with a point-to-point accuracy of +/- 2.0 microns within a quartz growth cell observation area of 20 mm x 10 mm x 1 mm. The optical imaging system is comprised of a video microscope camera mounted on computer controlled translation stages. The 3-axis translation stages and control units provide crewmembers the ability to search throughout the growth cell observation area for crystals forming in size of approximately 10 microns. Once the crewmember has selected ten crystals of interest, the growth of these crystals is tracked until the size reaches approximately 500 microns. In order to resolve these crystals an optical system with a magnification of 10X was designed. A black and white NTSC camera was utilized with a 20X microscope objective and a 0.5X custom designed relay lens with an inline light to meet the magnification requirement. The design allows a 500 pm

  9. Coexistence of High-Bit-Rate Quantum Key Distribution and Data on Optical Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Patel


    Full Text Available Quantum key distribution (QKD uniquely allows the distribution of cryptographic keys with security verified by quantum mechanical limits. Both protocol execution and subsequent applications require the assistance of classical data communication channels. While using separate fibers is one option, it is economically more viable if data and quantum signals are simultaneously transmitted through a single fiber. However, noise-photon contamination arising from the intense data signal has severely restricted both the QKD distances and secure key rates. Here, we exploit a novel temporal-filtering effect for noise-photon rejection. This allows high-bit-rate QKD over fibers up to 90 km in length and populated with error-free bidirectional Gb/s data communications. With a high-bit rate and range sufficient for important information infrastructures, such as smart cities and 10-Gbit Ethernet, QKD is a significant step closer toward wide-scale deployment in fiber networks.

  10. DNA methylation arrays as surrogate measures of cell mixture distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houseman Eugene


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a long-standing need in biomedical research for a method that quantifies the normally mixed composition of leukocytes beyond what is possible by simple histological or flow cytometric assessments. The latter is restricted by the labile nature of protein epitopes, requirements for cell processing, and timely cell analysis. In a diverse array of diseases and following numerous immune-toxic exposures, leukocyte composition will critically inform the underlying immuno-biology to most chronic medical conditions. Emerging research demonstrates that DNA methylation is responsible for cellular differentiation, and when measured in whole peripheral blood, serves to distinguish cancer cases from controls. Results Here we present a method, similar to regression calibration, for inferring changes in the distribution of white blood cells between different subpopulations (e.g. cases and controls using DNA methylation signatures, in combination with a previously obtained external validation set consisting of signatures from purified leukocyte samples. We validate the fundamental idea in a cell mixture reconstruction experiment, then demonstrate our method on DNA methylation data sets from several studies, including data from a Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC study and an ovarian cancer study. Our method produces results consistent with prior biological findings, thereby validating the approach. Conclusions Our method, in combination with an appropriate external validation set, promises new opportunities for large-scale immunological studies of both disease states and noxious exposures.

  11. Statistical evaluation of photon count rate data for nanoscale particle measurement in wastewaters. (United States)

    Smeraldi, Josh; Ganesh, Rajagopalan; Safarik, Jana; Rosso, Diego


    The dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique can detect the concentration and size distribution of nanoscale particles in aqueous solutions by analyzing photon interactions. This study evaluated the applicability of using photon count rate data from DLS analyses for measuring levels of biogenic and manufactured nanoscale particles in wastewater. Statistical evaluations were performed using secondary wastewater effluent and a Malvern Zetasizer. Dynamic light scattering analyses were performed equally by two analysts over a period of two days using five dilutions and twelve replicates for each dilution. Linearity evaluation using the sixty sample analysis yielded a regression coefficient R(2) = 0.959. The accuracy analysis for various dilutions indicated a recovery of 100 ± 6%. Precision analyses indicated low variance coefficients for the impact of analysts, days, and within sample error. The variation by analysts was apparent only in the most diluted sample (intermediate precision ~12%), where the photon count rate was close to the instrument detection limit. The variation for different days was apparent in the two most concentrated samples, which indicated that wastewater samples must be analyzed for nanoscale particle measurement within the same day of collection. Upon addition of 10 mg l(-1) of nanosilica to wastewater effluent samples, the measured photon count rates were within 5% of the estimated values. The results indicated that photon count rate data can effectively complement various techniques currently available to detect nanoscale particles in wastewaters.

  12. Measurement of glomerular filtration rate in the conscious rat. (United States)

    Pestel, Sabine; Krzykalla, Volker; Weckesser, Gerhard


    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is an important parameter for studying drug-induced impairments on renal function in rats. The GFR is calculated from the concentration of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in serum and in urine, respectively. Following current protocols serum and urine samples must be taken from the same animal. Thus, in order to determine time-dependent effects it is necessary to use for each time point one separated group of animals. We developed a statistical test which allows analyzing the GFR from two different groups of animals: one used for repeated serum and the other one used for repeated urine analysis. Serum and urine samples were taken from two different sets of rats which were otherwise treated identically, i.e. drug doses, routes of administration (per os or per inhalation) and tap water loading. For each dose group GFR mean, standard deviation and statistical analysis to identify differences between the dose groups were determined. After determination of the optimal time points for measurements, the effect on GFR of the three reference compounds, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide and formoterol, was calculated. The results showed that the diuretic drugs furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide decreased the GFR and the antidiuretic drug formoterol increased the GFR, as counter regulation on urine loss or urine retention, respectively. A mathematical model and the corresponding algorithm were developed, which can be used to calculate the GFR, and to test for differences between groups from two separated sets of rats, one used for urine, and the other one for serum analysis. This new method has the potential to reduce the number of animals needed and to improve the quality of data generated from various groups of animals in renal function studies.

  13. Updated Measurements of ACS/SBC Dark Rates (United States)

    Avila, R. J.


    The results of dark rate monitoring programs for the ACS/SBC are presented here. The dark rate has a very low and stable value of 8.11 × 106 cts/pix/s when the instrument is 25°C. In a 1000s exposure, less than 1% of pixels will have 1 count. As the instrument warms up, the overall dark rate increases due to an elevated dark rate in the central region of the detector. Recommendations are made regarding observation planning and data analysis.

  14. Effect of weak measurement on entanglement distribution over noisy channels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Xin-Wen; Yu, Sixia; Zhang, Deng-Yu; Oh, C H


    .... This paper investigates remote distributions of bipartite and multipartite entangled states in the amplitudedamping environment by combining NRWMs and entanglement distillation protocols (EDPs...

  15. Measurements of superficial dose distributions in radiation therapy using translucent cryogel dosimeters (United States)

    Eyadeh, M. M.; Wierzbicki, M.; Diamond, K. R.


    Superficial dose distributions were measured using radiochromic translucent poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogels. The relationship between dose to the skin surface and dose measured with the bolus (cryogel) was established using a series of oblique irradiations. Gafchromic film was placed under the bolus, and the ratio of bolus-film dose was determined for angle ranging from 0o to 90o. The average ratio over 0-67.5 degrees (0.800 ± 0.064) was used as the single correction factor to convert dose in bolus to dose to the skin surface, and applied to bolus measurements of skin dose from head and neck intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatments delivered to a RANDO phantom. The resulting dose distributions were compared to film measurements using gamma analysis with a 3%/3mm tolerance and a 10% threshold. The minimum gamma pass rate was 95.2%. This study is the first report on the use of a poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogels based dosimeter to provide an accurate estimation of superficial dose distributions in megavoltage photon beams.

  16. Distributed Fair Access Point Selection for Multi-Rate IEEE 802.11 WLANs (United States)

    Gong, Huazhi; Nahm, Kitae; Kim, Jongwon

    In IEEE 802.11 networks, the access point (AP) selection based on the strongest signal strength often results in the extremely unfair bandwidth allocation among mobile users (MUs). In this paper, we propose a distributed AP selection algorithm to achieve a fair bandwidth allocation for MUs. The proposed algorithm gradually balances the AP loads based on max-min fairness for the available multiple bit rate choices in a distributed manner. We analyze the stability and overhead of the proposed algorithm, and show the improvement of the fairness via computer simulation.

  17. Performance and radial distribution profiles of a variable flow rate sprinkler developed for precision irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson André Armindo


    Full Text Available Variable rate sprinklers (VRS have been developed to promote localized water application of irrigated areas. In Precision Irrigation, VRS permits better control of flow adjustment and, at the same time, provides satisfactory radial distribution profiles for various pressures and flow rates are really necessary. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance and radial distribution profiles of a developed VRS which varies the nozzle cross sectional area by moving a pin in or out using a stepper motor. Field tests were performed under different conditions of service pressure, rotation angles imposed on the pin and flow rate which resulted in maximal water throw radiuses ranging from 7.30 to 10.38 m. In the experiments in which the service pressure remained constant, the maximal throw radius varied from 7.96 to 8.91 m. Averages were used of repetitions performed under conditions without wind or with winds less than 1.3 m s-1. The VRS with the four stream deflector resulted in greater water application throw radius compared to the six stream deflector. However, the six stream deflector had greater precipitation intensities, as well as better distribution. Thus, selection of the deflector to be utilized should be based on project requirements, respecting the difference in the obtained results. With a small opening of the nozzle, the VRS produced small water droplets that visually presented applicability for foliar chemigation. Regarding the comparison between the estimated and observed flow rates, the stepper motor produced excellent results.

  18. Analysis of the measured medical waste generation rate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to differences in generation rates, the data was normalized in order to compare statistical parameters used to assess medical waste generation rates. The statistical parameters used include: range, skewness, kurtosis, probability density functions and histograms. The study revealed that management of medical waste ...

  19. The Correlation Between Ultrasound-Measured Fetal Heart Rate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 400 apparently healthy pregnant women with singleton fetuses from Enugu, Southeast Nigeria were randomly selected for the study. The aims of the study are to establish: a normogram for fetal heart rate (FHR) and the relationship between fetal heart rate and gestational age (GA) by 2–D ultrasound. Crown rump ...

  20. Track decay rate measurements using the PBA technque

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.


    Track decay rates are an important quanty relevant for raiway rolng noise. The vertical and ateral track decay rates are used to characterise he dynamc behaviour of the rack, both as an nput to calculations and for track characterisation given n EU regulations (TSIs). TNO has developed ethods and

  1. Multi-party Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution Based on Cluster States (United States)

    Liu, Chuanqi; Zhu, Changhua; Ma, Shuquan; Pei, Changxing


    We propose a novel multi-party measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol based on cluster states. A four-photon analyzer which can distinguish all the 16 cluster states serves as the measurement device for four-party MDI-QKD. Any two out of four participants can build secure keys after the analyzers obtains successful outputs and the two participants perform post-processing. We derive a security analysis for the protocol, and analyze the key rates under different values of polarization misalignment. The results show that four-party MDI-QKD is feasible over 280 km in the optical fiber channel when the key rate is about 10- 6 with the polarization misalignment parameter 0.015. Moreover, our work takes an important step toward a quantum communication network.

  2. Noise Measurements of High Aspect Ratio Distributed Exhaust Systems (United States)

    Bridges, James E.


    This paper covers far-field acoustic measurements of a family of rectangular nozzles with aspect ratio 8, in the high subsonic flow regime. Several variations of nozzle geometry, commonly found in embedded exhaust systems, are explored, including bevels, slants, single broad chevrons and notches, and internal septae. Far-field acoustic results, presented previously for the simple rectangular nozzle, showed that increasing aspect ratio increases the high frequency noise, especially directed in the plane containing the minor axis of the nozzle. Detailed changes to the nozzle geometry generally made little difference in the noise, and the differences were greatest at low speed. Having an extended lip on one broad side (bevel) did produce up to 3 decibels more noise in all directions, while extending the lip on the narrow side (slant) produced up to 2 decibels more noise, primarily on the side with the extension. Adding a single, non-intrusive chevron, made no significant change to the noise, while inverting the chevron (notch) produced up to 2decibels increase in the noise. Having internal walls (septae) within the nozzle, such as would be required for structural support or when multiple fan ducts are aggregated, reduced the noise of the rectangular jet, but could produce a highly directional shedding tone from the septae trailing edges. Finally, a nozzle with both septae and a beveled nozzle, representative of the exhaust system envisioned for a distributed electric propulsion aircraft with a common rectangular duct, produced almost as much noise as the beveled nozzle, with the septae not contributing much reduction in noise.

  3. Estimation of the rate of volcanism on Venus from reaction rate measurements (United States)

    Fegley, Bruce, Jr.; Prinn, Ronald G.


    Laboratory rate data for the reaction between SO2 and calcite to form anhydrite are presented. If this reaction rate represents the SO2 reaction rate on Venus, then all SO2 in the Venusian atmosphere will disappear in 1.9 Myr unless volcanism replenishes the lost SO2. The required volcanism rate, which depends on the sulfur content of the erupted material, is in the range 0.4-11 cu km of magma erupted per year. The Venus surface composition at the Venera 13, 14, and Vega 2 landing sites implies a volcanism rate of about 1 cu km/yr. This geochemically estimated rate can be used to determine if either (or neither) of two discordant geophysically estimated rates is correct. It also suggests that Venus may be less volcanically active than the earth.

  4. MCNPX calculations of dose rate distribution inside samples treated in the research gamma irradiating facility at CTEx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusin, Tiago; Rebello, Wilson F.; Vellozo, Sergio O.; Gomes, Renato G., E-mail: tiagorusin@ime.eb.b, E-mail: rebello@ime.eb.b, E-mail: vellozo@cbpf.b, E-mail: renatoguedes@ime.eb.b [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Vital, Helio C., E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.b [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Ademir X., E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear


    A cavity-type cesium-137 research irradiating facility at CTEx has been modeled by using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX. The irradiator has been daily used in experiments to optimize the use of ionizing radiation for conservation of many kinds of food and to improve materials properties. In order to correlate the effects of the treatment, average doses have been calculated for each irradiated sample, accounting for the measured dose rate distribution in the irradiating chambers. However that approach is only approximate, being subject to significant systematic errors due to the heterogeneous internal structure of most samples that can lead to large anisotropy in attenuation and Compton scattering properties across the media. Thus this work is aimed at further investigating such uncertainties by calculating the dose rate distribution inside the items treated such that a more accurate and representative estimate of the total absorbed dose can be determined for later use in the effects-versus-dose correlation curves. Samples of different simplified geometries and densities (spheres, cylinders, and parallelepipeds), have been modeled to evaluate internal dose rate distributions within the volume of the samples and the overall effect on the average dose. (author)

  5. Measurement uncertainties when determining heat rate, isentropic efficiency and swallowing capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snygg, U.


    The objective of the project was to determine the uncertainties when calculating heat rate, isentropic efficiencies and swallowing capacities of power plants. Normally when a power plant is constructed, the supplier also guarantee some performance values, e.g. heat rate. When the plant is built and running under normal conditions, an evaluation is done and the guarantee values are checked. Different measured parameters influence the calculated value differently, and therefore a sensitivity factor can be defined as the sensitivity of a calculated value when the measured value is changing. The product of this factor and the uncertainty of the measured parameter gives an error of the calculated value. For every measured parameter, the above given factor has to be determined and then the root square sum gives the overall uncertainty of the calculated parameter. To receive acceptable data during the evaluation of the plant, a test code is to be followed. The test code also gives guidelines how big the errors of the measurements are. In this study, ASME PTC6 and DIN 1943 were used. The results show that not only the test code was of vital importance, but also the distribution of the power output of the HP-IP turbines contra LP turbines. A higher inlet pressure of the LP turbine gives a smaller uncertainty of the isentropic efficiency. An increase from 6 to 13 bar will lower the uncertainty 1.5 times. 10 refs, 24 figs, 23 tabs, 5 appendixes

  6. Influence of water relations and growth rate on plant element uptake and distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany


    Plant uptake of Ni, Sr, Mo, Cs, La, Th, Se, Cl and I was examined to determine how plant water relations and growth rate influence the uptake and distribution of these elements in the studied plants. The specific questions were how water uptake and growth rate influenced the uptake of various nuclides and how transpiration influenced translocation to the shoot. The knowledge gained will be used in future modelling of radionuclide leakage from nuclear waste deposits entering the ecosystem via plants. The plant studied was willow, Salix viminalis, a common plant in the areas suggested for waste disposal; since there can be clone variation, two different clones having different uptake properties for several other heavy metals were used. The plants were grown in nutrient solution and the experiments on 3-month-old plants were run for 3 days. Polyethylene glycol was added to the medium to decrease the water uptake rate, a fan was used to increase the transpiration rate, and different light intensities were used to produce different growth rates. Element concentration was analysed in roots and shoots. The results show that both the uptake and distribution of various elements are influenced in different ways and to various extents by water flow and plant growth rate, and that it is not possible from the chemical properties of these elements to know how they will react. However, in most cases increased growth rate diluted the concentration of the element in the tissue, reduced water uptake reduced the element uptake, while transpiration had no effect on the translocation of elements to the shoot. The clones did not differ in terms of either the uptake or translocation of the elements, except that I was not taken up and translocated to the shoot in one of the clones when the plant water flow or growth rate was too low. Not all of the elements were found in the plant in the same proportions as they had been added to the nutrient solution.

  7. Identifiability of models for time-resolved fluorescence with underlying distributions of rate constants. (United States)

    Boens, Noël; Van der Auweraer, Mark


    The deterministic identifiability analysis of photophysical models for the kinetics of excited-state processes, assuming errorless time-resolved fluorescence data, can verify whether the model parameters can be determined unambiguously. In this work, we have investigated the identifiability of several uncommon models for time-resolved fluorescence with underlying distributions of rate constants which lead to non-exponential decays. The mathematical functions used here for the description of non-exponential fluorescence decays are the stretched exponential or Kohlrausch function, the Becquerel function, the Förster type energy transfer function, decay functions associated with exponential, Gaussian and uniform distributions of rate constants, a decay function with extreme sub-exponential behavior, the Mittag-Leffler function and Heaviside's function. It is shown that all the models are uniquely identifiable, which means that for each specific model there exists a single parameter set that describes its associated fluorescence δ-response function.

  8. Transmission Selection Schemes using Sum Rate Analysis in Distributed Antenna Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Heejin; Lee, Kyoung-Jae; Lee, Inkyu


    In this paper, we study single cell multi-user downlink distributed antenna systems (DAS) where the antenna ports are geographically separated in a cell. First, we derive an expression of the ergodic sum rate for DAS in the presence of pathloss. Then, we propose a transmission selection scheme based on the derived expressions to maximize the overall ergodic sum rate. Utilizing the knowledge of distance information from a user to each distributed antenna (DA) port, we consider the pairings of each DA port and its supporting user to optimize the system performance. Then, we compute the ergodic sum rate for various transmission mode candidates and adopt a transmission selection scheme which chooses the best mode maximizing the ergodic sum rate among the mode candidates. In our proposed scheme, the number of mode candidates are greatly reduced compared to that of the ideal mode selection. Through Monte Carlo simulations, we will show the accuracy of our derivation for the ergodic sum rate expression. Moreover, si...

  9. Isometric size-scaling of metabolic rate and the size abundance distribution of phytoplankton (United States)

    Huete-Ortega, María; Cermeño, Pedro; Calvo-Díaz, Alejandra; Marañón, Emilio


    The relationship between phytoplankton cell size and abundance has long been known to follow regular, predictable patterns in near steady-state ecosystems, but its origin has remained elusive. To explore the linkage between the size-scaling of metabolic rate and the size abundance distribution of natural phytoplankton communities, we determined simultaneously phytoplankton carbon fixation rates and cell abundance across a cell volume range of over six orders of magnitude in tropical and subtropical waters of the Atlantic Ocean. We found an approximately isometric relationship between carbon fixation rate and cell size (mean slope value: 1.16; range: 1.03–1.32), negating the idea that Kleiber's law is applicable to unicellular autotrophic protists. On the basis of the scaling of individual resource use with cell size, we predicted a reciprocal relationship between the size-scalings of phytoplankton metabolic rate and abundance. This prediction was confirmed by the observed slopes of the relationship between phytoplankton abundance and cell size, which have a mean value of −1.15 (range: −1.29 to −0.97), indicating that the size abundance distribution largely results from the size-scaling of metabolic rate. Our results imply that the total energy processed by carbon fixation is constant along the phytoplankton size spectrum in near steady-state marine ecosystems. PMID:22171079

  10. Measuring Robustness of Timetables at Stations using a Probability Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Wittrup; Landex, Alex

    infrastructure layouts given a timetable. These two methods provide different precision at the expense of a more complex calculation process. The advanced and more precise method is based on a probability distribution that can describe the expected delay between two trains as a function of the buffer time....... This paper proposes to use the exponential distribution, only taking non-negative delays into account, but any probability distribution can be used. Furthermore, the paper proposes that the calculation parameters are estimated from existing delay data, at a station, to achieve a higher precision. As delay...

  11. Comprehensive evaluation of power grid enterprises' credit rating under the reform of transmission and distribution price (United States)

    Wang, Yongli; Wang, Gang; Zuo, Yi; Fan, Lisha; Wei, Jiaxiang


    On March 15, 2015, the central office issued the "Opinions on Further Deepening the Reform of Electric Power System" (in the 2015 No. 9). This policy marks the central government officially opened a new round of electricity reform. As a programmatic document under the new situation to comprehensively promote the reform of the power system, No. 9 document will be approved as a separate transmission and distribution of electricity prices, which is the first task of promoting the reform of the power system. Grid tariff reform is not only the transmission and distribution price of a separate approval, more of the grid company input-output relationship and many other aspects of deep-level adjustments. Under the background of the reform of the transmission and distribution price, the main factors affecting the input-output relationship, such as the main business, electricity pricing, and investment approval, financial accounting and so on, have changed significantly. The paper designed the comprehensive evaluation index system of power grid enterprises' credit rating under the reform of transmission and distribution price to reduce the impact of the reform on the company's international rating results and the ability to raise funds.

  12. Measurement of switching latency in high data rate Ethernet networks


    Hegr, Tomáš; Vozňák, Miroslav; Kozák, Miloš; Boháč, Leoš


    The paper deals with a methodology of switching latency measurement in switched Ethernet networks. The switching latency is parameter necessary for simulation and design of low-latency networks that are often intended for realtime control inherent to many industrial applications. The proposed measurement methodology provides a simple way of switching the latency determination and vendor quoted latency values verification directly at the physical layer. Numerous experimental measurements...

  13. Distributed solar radiation fast dynamic measurement for PV cells (United States)

    Wan, Xuefen; Yang, Yi; Cui, Jian; Du, Xingjing; Zheng, Tao; Sardar, Muhammad Sohail


    need of complex local installations, configuring of our SRMA system is very easy. Lora also provides SRMA a means to overcome the short communication distance and weather signal propagation decline such as in ZigBee and WiFi. The host computer in SRMA system uses the low power single-board PC EMB-3870 which was produced by NORCO. Wind direction sensor SM5386B and wind-force sensor SM5387B are installed to host computer through RS-485 bus for wind reference data collection. And Davis 6450 solar radiation sensor, which is a precision instrument that detects radiation at wavelengths of 300 to 1100 nanometers, allow host computer to follow real-time solar radiation. A LoRa polling scheme is adopt for the communication between host computer and terminal nodes in SRMA. An experimental SRMA has been established. This system was tested in Ganyu, Jiangshu province from May to August, 2016. In the test, the distances between the nodes and the host computer were between 100m and 1900m. At work, SRMA system showed higher reliability. Terminal nodes could follow the instructions from host computer and collect solar radiation data of distributed PV cells effectively. And the host computer managed the SRAM and achieves reference parameters well. Communications between the host computer and terminal nodes were almost unaffected by the weather. In conclusion, the testing results show that SRMA could be a capable method for fast dynamic measuring about solar radiation and related PV cell operating characteristics.

  14. Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat Transfer Rate Using a Thin-Skin Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This test method covers the design and use of a thin metallic calorimeter for measuring heat transfer rate (also called heat flux). Thermocouples are attached to the unexposed surface of the calorimeter. A one-dimensional heat flow analysis is used for calculating the heat transfer rate from the temperature measurements. Applications include aerodynamic heating, laser and radiation power measurements, and fire safety testing. 1.2 Advantages 1.2.1 Simplicity of ConstructionThe calorimeter may be constructed from a number of materials. The size and shape can often be made to match the actual application. Thermocouples may be attached to the metal by spot, electron beam, or laser welding. 1.2.2 Heat transfer rate distributions may be obtained if metals with low thermal conductivity, such as some stainless steels, are used. 1.2.3 The calorimeters can be fabricated with smooth surfaces, without insulators or plugs and the attendant temperature discontinuities, to provide more realistic flow conditions for ...

  15. Application of MCNP nonanalog techniques for calculations of reaction rate measurements at the BFS facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.N. Andrianova


    Full Text Available An analysis of measurements of criticality, central reaction rate ratios, reaction rate distributions and reactivity coefficients performed at the BFS critical assemblies is important both for obtaining information required to refine neutron data and assessing the accuracy of neutron-physical characteristics. The high core heterogeneity of critical assemblies dictates the need for using codes capable of reproducing an accurate description of the geometry and detailed representation of the energy dependence of neutron data. At the same time, serial verification tests of evaluated nuclear data libraries and processing and transport codes require significant computer time to obtain results of sufficient precision. In such cases, it is possible to achieve the required accuracy in measuring neutron-physical characteristics by using non-analogous calculation methods (variance reduction methods. The paper presents the algorithms for improving the efficiency of calculations based on non-analogous methods implemented in the MCNP code as exemplified by an analysis of experiments on measuring reaction rates in critical multiplying systems with a complex heterogeneous composition. The results of the analysis have shown that the combination of mesh-based weight window with energy splitting/roulette leads to a significant increase in the calculation efficiency and a reduction of computational time from a few days to a few hours at a statistical error in the spectral indexes of less than 2%.

  16. Measuring Team Collaboration in a Distributed Coalition Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bowman, Elizabeth K


    ...). Multinational Experiment 4 (MNE 4) provided researchers an opportunity to evaluate how distributed teams interact in a collaborative, networked environment to conduct the Effects Based Approach to Operations (EBAO...

  17. Concentration and size distribution data of silicon nitride nanoparticles measured using nanoparticle tracking analysis. (United States)

    Lal, Saurabh; Hall, Richard M; Tipper, Joanne L


    This article refers to the paper "A novel method for isolation and recovery of ceramic nanoparticles and metal wear debris from serum lubricants at ultra-low wear rates" (Lal et al., 2016) [1] and describes the concentration and size distribution data of silicon nitride nanoparticles measured using nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). A NanoSight LM10 instrument was used to capture the video data of silicon nitride nanoparticles moving under Brownian motion in the water. The video data was then analyzed using the NanoSight NTA software. This article also describes a methodology for calculating the percentage recovery of a nanoparticle isolation process.

  18. Page 1 § i Measurements of Atmospheric Ozone 297 distribution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Europe are shown together in Fig. 3. It may be noted that each distribution. | NTTV. |Nº||. 2Lº. •Ü08 -Ji? Q • Gö4 Qg5 & •004 Jö8. Ozone in cm. per km. height. FIG. 3. Height distributions of atmospheric ozone in different latitudes. curve for Kodaikanal has a single pronounced maximum near about 30 km. most of the ozone ...

  19. Intercomparison of measurements of distribution coefficient. Investigation of factors affecting variability of measured values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Takebe, Shinichi; Kimura, Hideo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others


    The distribution coefficient(Kd), which is defined as partitioning of solute between a solid and liquid phases, is used for various models which describe the migration behavior of nuclides in the environment. Therefore it is a very important parameter for safety assessment of nuclear facilities. Aiming at the recommendation of standard methodologies for measurement and application of Kd, we have discussed a procedure of standardization in `WG on Parameters for Safety Assessment` of `Technical Committee on Behavior of Environmental Radioactivity` which belongs to `Research Committee on Environmental Radioactivity` organized by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. As a first step for recommendation of a standard methodology for measurement, intercomparisons on measurement of Kd for radionuclides ({sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 85}Sr and {sup 54}Mn) were carried out by four groups to evaluate the cause of variability in measured Kds. As a result of five different experiments under various conditions, it was found that the difference of chemical property of radionuclide solution, form of vessels and method of shaking have strong influence on the measured values of Kd. (author)

  20. Species Distributions, Quantum Theory, and the Enhancement of Biodiversity Measures. (United States)

    Real, Raimundo; Barbosa, A Márcia; Bull, Joseph W


    Species distributions are typically represented by records of their observed occurrence at a given spatial and temporal scale. Such records are inevitably incomplete and contingent on the spatial-temporal circumstances under which the observations were made. Moreover, organisms may respond differently to similar environmental conditions at different places or moments, so their distribution is, in principle, not completely predictable. We argue that this uncertainty exists, and warrants considering species distributions as analogous to coherent quantum objects, whose distributions are better described by a wavefunction rather than by a set of locations. We use this to extend the existing concept of "dark diversity", which incorporates into biodiversity metrics those species that could, but which have not yet been observed to, inhabit a region-thereby developing the idea of "potential biodiversity". We show how conceptualizing species' distributions in this way could help overcome important weaknesses in current biodiversity metrics, both in theory and by using a worked case study of mammal distributions in Spain over the last decade. We propose that considerable theoretical advances could eventually be gained through interdisciplinary collaboration between biogeographers and quantum physicists. [Biogeography; favorability; physics; predictability; probability; species occurrence; uncertainty; wavefunction. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  1. Measuring low rates of erosion from forest fuel reduction operations (United States)

    William J. Elliot; Ina Sue Miller


    A study was carried out to evaluate three methods for measuring low levels of hillside soil erosion associated with forest fuel management activities, and to measure erosion from cable logging and skid trails. The tipping bucket device with a sediment basin appears to be a better tool for this application than silt fences or rillmeter analysis. The greatest erosion...

  2. The Real Exchange Rate as a Measure of Competitiveness in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is the second research to calculate and analyse various measures of competitiveness for Botswana through the RER, and it is more comprehensive than the first. Two measures of competitiveness, being the bilateral RERs and multilateral RERs based on the Consumer Price Indexes (CPI) and the Gross Domestic ...

  3. From experiments to simulations: tracing Na+ distribution around roots under different transpiration rates and salinity levels (United States)

    Perelman, Adi; Jorda, Helena; Vanderborght, Jan; Pohlmeier, Andreas; Lazarovitch, Naftali


    When salinity increases beyond a certain threshold it will result in reduced crop yield at a fixed rate, according to Maas and Hoffman model (1976). Thus, there is a great importance of predicting salinization and its impact on crops. Current models do not consider the impact of environmental conditions on plants salt tolerance, even though these conditions are affecting plant water uptake and therefore salt accumulation around the roots. Different factors, such as transpiration rates, can influence the plant sensitivity to salinity by influencing salt concentrations around the roots. Better parametrization of a model can help improving predicting the real effects of salinity on crop growth and yield. The aim of this research is to study Na+ distribution around roots at different scales using different non-invasive methods, and study how this distribution is being affected by transpiration rate and plant water uptake. Results from tomato plants growing on Rhizoslides (capillary paper growth system), show that Na+ concentration is higher at the root- substrate interface, compared with the bulk. Also, Na+ accumulation around the roots decreased under low transpiration rate, which is supporting our hypothesis. Additionally, Rhizoslides enable to study roots' growth rate and architecture under different salinity levels. Root system architecture was retrieved from photos taken during the experiment and enabled us to incorporate real root systems into a simulation. To observe the correlation of root system architectures and Na+ distribution in three dimensions, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI provides fine resolution of Na+ accumulation around a single root without disturbing the root system. With time, Na+ was accumulating only where roots were found in the soil and later on around specific roots. These data are being used for model calibration, which is expected to predict root water uptake in saline soils for different climatic conditions and different

  4. Evolution Models with Conditional Mutation Rates: Strange Plateaus in Population Distribution (United States)

    Saakian, David B.


    Cancer is related to clonal evolution with a strongly nonlinear, collective behavior. Here we investigate a slightly advanced version of the popular Crow-Kimura evolution model, suggested recently, by simply assuming a conditional mutation rate. We investigated the steady-state solution and found a highly intriguing plateau in the distribution. There are selective and nonselective phases, with a rather narrow plateau in the distribution at the peak in the first phase, and a wide plateau for many Hamming classes (a collection of genomes with the same number of mutations from the reference genome) in the second phase. We analytically solved the steady state distribution in the selective and nonselective phases, calculating the widths of the plateaus. Numerically, we also found an intermediate phase with several plateaus in the steady-state distribution, related to large finite-genome-length corrections. We assume that the newly observed phenomena should exist in other versions of evolution dynamics when the parameters of the model are conditioned to the population distribution.

  5. Hydrodynamic size distribution of gold nanoparticles controlled by repetition rate during pulsed laser ablation in water (United States)

    Menéndez-Manjón, Ana; Barcikowski, Stephan


    Most investigations on the laser generation and fragmentation of nanoparticles focus on Feret particle size, although the hydrodynamic size of nanoparticles is of great importance, for example in biotechnology for diffusion in living cells, or in engineering, for a tuned rheology of suspensions. In this sense, the formation and fragmentation of gold colloidal nanoparticles using femtosecond laser ablation at variable pulse repetition rates (100-5000 Hz) in deionized water were investigated through their plasmon resonance and hydrodynamic diameter, measured by Dynamic Light Scattering. The increment of the repetition rate does not influence the ablation efficiency, but produces a decrease of the hydrodynamic diameter and blue-shift of the plasmon resonance of the generated gold nanoparticles. Fragmentation, induced by inter-pulse irradiation of the colloids was measured online, showing to be more effective low repetition rates. The pulse repetition rate is shown to be an appropriate laser parameter for hydrodynamic size control of nanoparticles without further influence on the production efficiency.

  6. Comparison of monthly rain rates derived from GPI and SSM/I using probability distribution functions (United States)

    Chiu, Long S.; Chang, Alfred T. C.; Janowiak, John


    Three years of monthly rain rates over 5 deg x 5 deg latitude-longitude boxes have been calculated for oceanic regions 50 deg N-50 deg S from measurements taken by the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager on board the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program satellites using the technique developed by Wilheit et al. (1987, 1991). The annual and seasonal zonal-mean rain rates are larger than Jaeger's (1983) climatological estimates but are smaller than those estimated from the GOES precipitation index (GPI) for the same period. Regional comparison with the GPI showed that these rain rates are smaller in the north Indian Ocean and in the southern extratropics where the GPI is known to overestimate. The differences are also dominated by a jump at 170 deg W in the GPI rain rates across the mid-Pacific Ocean. This jump is attributed to the fusion of different satellite measurements in producing the GPI.

  7. Food Price Inflation Rates in the Euro Zone: Distribution Dynamics and Convergence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelos Liontakis


    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that inflation as a monetary phenomenon is determined by money supply changes. In the short run, however, several factors may lead to inflation rate differentials among different regions in the same country or among different countries in a monetary union. This paper examines the mean reversion attitude of food price inflation rates in the Euro zone, borrowing the concepts and developments from the recent growth literature and using panel unit root tests. Additionally, in order to capture sufficiently the evolving distributional dynamics, nonparametric econometric methods are also implemented. Finally, the comovement of the inflation rates among different food subgroups is also explored. The data consist of monthly observations of the EU harmonized consumer price indices of food and three different food subgroups (meat, bread and cereals, and vegetables for the 12 older member states of the Euro zone, covering the period from 1997 to 2010. The results do not fully support the hypothesis of the food price inflation rates convergence for the whole period under investigation. Mean reversion shows up in different time periods and in different food categories. Moreover, the analysis of distribution dynamics sheds light to different aspects of convergence and highlights processes like club formation and polarization.

  8. Transmission Schemes based on Sum Rate Analysis in Distributed Antenna Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Heejin; Lee, Kyoung-Jae; Lee, Inkyu


    In this paper, we study single cell multi-user downlink distributed antenna systems (DAS) where antenna ports are geographically separated in a cell. First, we derive an expression of the ergodic sum rate for the DAS in the presence of pathloss. Then, we propose a transmission selection scheme based on the derived expressions which does not require channel state information at the transmitter. Utilizing the knowledge of distance information from a user to each distributed antenna (DA) port, we consider the optimization of pairings of DA ports and users to maximize the system performance. Based on the ergodic sum rate expressions, the proposed scheme chooses the best mode maximizing the ergodic sum rate among mode candidates. In our proposed scheme, the number of mode candidates are greatly reduced compared to that of ideal mode selection. In addition, we analyze the signal to noise ratio cross-over point for different modes using the sum rate expressions. Through Monte Carlo simulations, we show the accuracy ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, C. Y.; Asada, K.; Rao, R.; Nakamura, M.; Algaba, J. C.; Liu, H. B.; Inoue, M.; Koch, P. M.; Ho, P. T. P.; Matsushita, S.; Pu, H.-Y.; Nishioka, H.; Pradel, N. [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Akiyama, K. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)


    We present the first constraint on the Faraday rotation measure (RM) at submillimeter wavelengths for the nucleus of M87. By fitting the polarization position angles (χ) observed with the Submillimeter Array at four independent frequencies around ∼230 GHz and interpreting the change in χ as a result of external Faraday rotation associated with accretion flow, we determine the RM of the M87 core to be between –7.5 × 10{sup 5} and 3.4 × 10{sup 5} rad m{sup –2}. Assuming a density profile of the accretion flow that follows a power-law distribution and a magnetic field that is ordered, radial, and has equipartition strength, the limit on the RM constrains the mass accretion rate M-dot to be below 9.2 × 10{sup –4} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} at a distance of 21 Schwarzschild radii from the central black hole. This value is at least two orders of magnitude smaller than the Bondi accretion rate, suggesting significant suppression of the accretion rate in the inner region of the accretion flow. Consequently, our result disfavors the classical advection-dominated accretion flow and prefers the adiabatic inflow-outflow solution or convection-dominated accretion flow for the hot accretion flow in M87.

  10. Measurement of oxygen consumption rate of osteoblasts from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 10, 2011 ... expanding long term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs) in the bone marrow hematopoietic niche (Calvi et al.,. 2003; Zhang et al., 2003). In respect to their described functions in vitro and in vivo, we believe that the in vitro oxygen consumption rate of osteoblasts in different cultures could be an important ...

  11. Biomass burning fuel consumption rates: a field measurement database

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Leeuwen, TT


    Full Text Available be combined with estimates of area burned to assess emissions. While burned area can be detected from space and estimates are becoming more reliable due to improved algorithms and sensors, FC rates are either modeled or taken selectively from the literature...

  12. /sup 238/U capture rate measurements in FFTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlins, J.A.; Wootan, D.W.; Dobbin, K.D.; Daughtry, J.W.; Matsumoto, W.Y.


    Calculation overpredicts the in-core /sup 238/U(n,..gamma..) reaction rate in FFTF driver fuel by approximately 8%. Dosimetry-based adjustment calculations indicate the calculated neutron spectrum in fuel requires significant adjustment below 3 keV, and the /sup 238/U capture cross section above 500 eV needs downward adjustment to achieve consistency.

  13. Continuous measurement of heart rate variability following carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 16, 2010 ... Power spectral analysis of the electrocardiographic R-R interval [heart rate variability: (HRV)] is a well known, non- invasive method for assessing autonomic nervous activity.1. Studies using HRV analysis during positive-pressure pneumoperitoneum (PPP) have demonstrated increased sympathetic ...

  14. Continuous measurement of heart rate variability following carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Previous studies of autonomic nervous system activity through analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) have demonstrated increased sympathetic activity during positive-pressure pneumoperitoneum. We employed an online, continuous method for rapid HRV analysis (MemCalc™, Tarawa, Suwa Trust, Tokyo, ...


    Previous research hs identified significant reductions in infiltration rates in disturbed urban soils, More than 150 prior tests were conducted in predominately sandy and clayey urban soils in the Birmingham and Mobile, AL areas. Infiltration in Clayey soils ws found to be affect...

  16. DOC questionnaire : measuring how GPs and medical specialists rate collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, A.J.; Benneker, W.H.; Groenier, K.H.; Schuling, J.; Grol, R.P.; Meyboom-de Jong, B.


    PURPOSE: This paper aims to assess the validity of a questionnaire aimed at assessing how general practitioners (GPs) and specialists rate collaboration. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Primary data were collected in The Netherlands during March to September 2006. A cross-sectional study was conducted

  17. DOC questionnaire: measuring how GPs and medical specialists rate collaboration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, A.J.; Benneker, W.H.; Groenier, K.H.; Schuling, J.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Meyboom-de Jong, B.


    PURPOSE: This paper aims to assess the validity of a questionnaire aimed at assessing how general practitioners (GPs) and specialists rate collaboration. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Primary data were collected in The Netherlands during March to September 2006. A cross-sectional study was conducted

  18. Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Chenn Zhou


    The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

  19. Tachyphylaxis associated with repeated epidural injections of lidocaine is not related to changes in distribution or the rate of elimination from the epidural space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, T; Simonsen, L; Scott, N B


    The relationship between tachyphylaxis (measured as a decrease in the rate of regression of sensory levels of analgesia) during repeated epidural injections of lidocaine and both the distribution of lidocaine within the epidural space (as measured by spread of simultaneous injection of the tracer......% lidocaine at 2-hr intervals. Epidural distribution was assessed by injection of 99mTc-DTPA diluted in saline on the preoperative day and diluted in an equal volume of 2% lidocaine on the morning before surgery and again after the fourth injection of lidocaine 6 hr later. The distribution of 99m...

  20. Evaluation of induced activity, decay heat and dose rate distribution after shutdown in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, Koichi [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Research Lab.; Satoh, Satoshi; Hayashi, Katsumi; Yamada, Koubun; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Iida, Hiromasa


    Induced activity, decay heat and dose rate distributions after shutdown were estimated for 1MWa/m{sup 2} operation in ITER. The activity in the inboard blanket one day after shutdown is 1.5x10{sup 11}Bq/cm{sup 3}, and the average decay heating rate 0.01w/cm{sup 3}. The dose rate outside the 120cm thick concrete biological shield is two order higher than the design criterion of 5{mu}Sv/h. This indicates that the biological shield thickness should be enhanced by 50cm in concrete, that is, total thickness 170cm for workers to enter the reactor room and to perform maintenance. (author)

  1. Calculation and Spatial Distribution of Capitalization Rates in the Selected Segment of Reality Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardielli Eva


    Full Text Available The process of real property valuation by usage of income approaches is significantly affected by capitalization rate. This article deals with problematic of the capitalization rate determination in the real estate segment of apartments in the Ostrava city. It primarily aims to calculate the level of gross capitalization rate according to different urban localities of Ostrava, for various sizes of apartments, as well depending on the type of apartment ownership. The analysis of the real estate market is an important part of the research. It is focused on the offer of apartments from the perspective of market apartments for sale and also of market apartments for rent. The analyzed and calculated spatial values distributions are consequently processed into cartographic outputs.

  2. Prediction of corrosion rates of water distribution pipelines according to aggressive corrosive water in Korea. (United States)

    Chung, W S; Yu, M J; Lee, H D


    The drinking water network serving Korea has been used for almost 100 years. Therefore, pipelines have suffered various degrees of deterioration due to aggressive environments. The pipe breaks were caused by in-external corrosion, water hammer, surface loading, etc. In this paper, we focused on describing corrosion status in water distribution pipes in Korea and reviewing some methods to predict corrosion rates. Results indicate that corrosive water of lakes was more aggressive than river water and the winter was more aggressive compared to other seasons. The roughness growth rates of Dongbok lake showed 0.23 mm/year. The high variation of corrosion rates is controlled by the aging pipes and smaller diameter. Also the phenolphthalein test on a cementitious core of cement mortar lined ductile cast iron pipe indicated the pipes over 15 years old had lost 50-100% of their lime active cross sectional area.

  3. The 183-WSL Fast Rain Rate Retrieval Algorithm. Part II: Validation Using Ground Radar Measurements (United States)

    Laviola, Sante; Levizzani, Vincenzo


    The Water vapour Strong Lines at 183 GHz (183-WSL) algorithm is a method for the retrieval of rain rates and precipitation type classification (convectivestratiform), that makes use of the water vapor absorption lines centered at 183.31 GHz of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit module B (AMSU-B) and of the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) flying on NOAA-15-18 and NOAA-19Metop-A satellite series, respectively. The characteristics of this algorithm were described in Part I of this paper together with comparisons against analogous precipitation products. The focus of Part II is the analysis of the performance of the 183-WSL technique based on surface radar measurements. The ground truth dataset consists of 2.5 years of rainfall intensity fields from the NIMROD European radar network which covers North-Western Europe. The investigation of the 183-WSL retrieval performance is based on a twofold approach: 1) the dichotomous statistic is used to evaluate the capabilities of the method to identify rain and no-rain clouds; 2) the accuracy statistic is applied to quantify the errors in the estimation of rain rates.The results reveal that the 183-WSL technique shows good skills in the detection of rainno-rain areas and in the quantification of rain rate intensities. The categorical analysis shows annual values of the POD, FAR and HK indices varying in the range 0.80-0.82, 0.330.36 and 0.39-0.46, respectively. The RMSE value is 2.8 millimeters per hour for the whole period despite an overestimation in the retrieved rain rates. Of note is the distribution of the 183-WSL monthly mean rain rate with respect to radar: the seasonal fluctuations of the average rainfalls measured by radar are reproduced by the 183-WSL. However, the retrieval method appears to suffer for the winter seasonal conditions especially when the soil is partially frozen and the surface emissivity drastically changes. This fact is verified observing the discrepancy distribution diagrams where2the 183-WSL

  4. The measurements of water flow rates in the straight microchannel based on the scanning micro-PIV technique (United States)

    Wang, H. L.; Han, W.; Xu, M.


    Measurement of the water flow rate in microchannel has been one of the hottest points in the applications of microfluidics, medical, biological, chemical analyses and so on. In this study, the scanning microscale particle image velocimetry (scanning micro-PIV) technique is used for the measurements of water flow rates in a straight microchannel of 200μm width and 60μm depth under the standard flow rates ranging from 2.481μL/min to 8.269μL/min. The main effort of this measurement technique is to obtain three-dimensional velocity distribution on the cross sections of microchannel by measuring velocities of the different fluid layers along the out-of-plane direction in the microchannel, so the water flow rates can be evaluated from the discrete surface integral of velocities on the cross section. At the same time, the three-dimensional velocity fields in the measured microchannel are simulated numerically using the FLUENT software in order to verify the velocity accuracy of measurement results. The results show that the experimental values of flow rates are well consistent to the standard flow rates input by the syringe pump and the compared results between numerical simulation and experiment are consistent fundamentally. This study indicates that the micro-flow rate evaluated from three-dimensional velocity by the scanning micro-PIV technique is a promising method for the micro-flow rate research.

  5. Curve fitting of the corporate recovery rates: the comparison of Beta distribution estimation and kernel density estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongda Chen

    Full Text Available Recovery rate is essential to the estimation of the portfolio's loss and economic capital. Neglecting the randomness of the distribution of recovery rate may underestimate the risk. The study introduces two kinds of models of distribution, Beta distribution estimation and kernel density distribution estimation, to simulate the distribution of recovery rates of corporate loans and bonds. As is known, models based on Beta distribution are common in daily usage, such as CreditMetrics by J.P. Morgan, Portfolio Manager by KMV and Losscalc by Moody's. However, it has a fatal defect that it can't fit the bimodal or multimodal distributions such as recovery rates of corporate loans and bonds as Moody's new data show. In order to overcome this flaw, the kernel density estimation is introduced and we compare the simulation results by histogram, Beta distribution estimation and kernel density estimation to reach the conclusion that the Gaussian kernel density distribution really better imitates the distribution of the bimodal or multimodal data samples of corporate loans and bonds. Finally, a Chi-square test of the Gaussian kernel density estimation proves that it can fit the curve of recovery rates of loans and bonds. So using the kernel density distribution to precisely delineate the bimodal recovery rates of bonds is optimal in credit risk management.

  6. Space Shuttle exhausted aluminum oxide - A measured particle size distribution (United States)

    Cofer, W. R., III; Purgold, G. C.; Edahl, R. A.; Winstead, E. L.


    Aluminum oxide (A2O3) particles were collected from the Space Shuttle exhaust plume immediately following the launch of STS-34 on October 18, 1989. A2O3 samples were obtained at 2.4, 3.0, 3.2, and 7.4 km in altitude. The samples were analyzed using SEM to develope particle size distributions. There were no indications that the particle size distribution changed as a function of altitude. The particle number concentrations per cubic meter of air sampled for the four collections was found to fit an exponential expression.

  7. Effects of music on work-rate distribution during a cycling time trial. (United States)

    Atkinson, G; Wilson, D; Eubank, M


    Previous research work on the ergogenic effects of music has mainly involved constant power tests to exhaustion as dependent variables. Time trials are more externally valid than constant power tests, may be more reliable and allow the distribution of self-selected work-rate to be explored. We examined whether music improved starting, finishing and/or overall power during a 10-km cycling time trial, and whether heart rate and subjective responses to this time trial were altered by music. Sixteen participants performed two 10-km time trials on a Cybex cycle ergometer with, and without, the presence of a form of dance music known as "trance" (tempo = 142 beats x min (-1), volume at ear = 87 dB). Participants also completed the Brunel music rating inventory (BMRI) after each time trial in the music condition. The mean +/- SD time to complete the time trial was 1030 +/- 79 s in the music condition compared to 1052 +/- 77 s without music (95 % CI of difference = 10 to 34 s, p = 0.001). Nevertheless, ratings of perceived exertion were consistently (0.8 units) higher throughout the time trial with music (p music-induced increases in cycling speed and heart rate were observed in the first 3 km of the time trial. After completion of the BMRI, participants rated the "tempo" and "rhythm" of the music as more motivating than the "harmony" and "melody" aspects. These results suggest that music improves cycling speed mostly in the first few minutes of a 10-km time trial. In contrast to the findings of previous research, which suggested that music lowers perceived exertion at a constant work-rate, the participants in our time trials selected higher work-rates with music, whilst at the same time perceived these work-rates as being harder than without music.

  8. Diversification Rates and the Evolution of Species Range Size Frequency Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Castiglione


    Full Text Available The geographic range sizes frequency distribution (RFD within clades is typically right-skewed with untransformed data, and bell-shaped or slightly left-skewed under the log-transformation. This means that most species within clades occupy diminutive ranges, whereas just a few species are truly widespread. A number of ecological and evolutionary explanations have been proposed to account for this pattern. Among the latter, much attention has been given to the issue of how extinction and speciation probabilities influence RFD. Numerous accounts now convincingly demonstrate that extinction rate decreases with range size, both in living and extinct taxa. The relationship between range size and speciation rate, though, is much less obvious, with either small or large ranged species being proposed to originate more daughter taxa. Herein, we used a large fossil database including 21 animal clades and more than 80,000 fossil occurrences distributed over more than 400 million years of marine metazoans (exclusive of vertebrates evolution, to test the relationship between extinction rate, speciation rate, and range size. As expected, we found that extinction rate almost linearly decreases with range size. In contrast, speciation rate peaks at the large (but not the largest end of the range size spectrum. This is consistent with the peripheral isolation mode of allopatric speciation being the main mechanism of species origination. The huge variation in phylogeny, fossilization potential, time of fossilization, and the overarching effect of mass extinctions suggest caution must be posed at generalizing our results, as individual clades may deviate significantly from the general pattern.

  9. Scaling precipitation input to spatially distributed hydrological models by measured snow distribution (United States)

    Vögeli, Christian; Lehning, Michael; Wever, Nander; Bavay, Mathias


    Accurate knowledge on snow distribution in alpine terrain is crucial for various applications such as flood risk assessment, avalanche warning or managing water supply and hydro-power. To simulate the seasonal snow cover development in alpine terrain, the spatially distributed, physics-based model Alpine3D is suitable. The model is typically driven by spatial interpolations of observations from automatic weather stations (AWS), leading to errors in the spatial distribution of atmospheric forcing. With recent advances in remote sensing techniques, maps of snow depth can be acquired with high spatial resolution and accuracy. In this work, maps of the snow depth distribution, calculated from summer and winter digital surface models based on Airborne Digital Sensors (ADS), are used to scale precipitation input data, with the aim to improve the accuracy of simulation of the spatial distribution of snow with Alpine3D. A simple method to scale and redistribute precipitation is presented and the performance is analysed. The scaling method is only applied if it is snowing. For rainfall the precipitation is distributed by interpolation, with a simple air temperature threshold used for the determination of the precipitation phase. It was found that the accuracy of spatial snow distribution could be improved significantly for the simulated domain. The standard deviation of absolute snow depth error is reduced up to a factor 3.4 to less than 20 cm. The mean absolute error in snow distribution was reduced when using representative input sources for the simulation domain. For inter-annual scaling, the model performance could also be improved, even when using a remote sensing dataset from a different winter. In conclusion, using remote sensing data to process precipitation input, complex processes such as preferential snow deposition and snow relocation due to wind or avalanches, can be substituted and modelling performance of spatial snow distribution is improved.

  10. Is there an association between the high-risk medication star ratings and member experience CMS star ratings measures? (United States)

    Erickson, Sara C; Leslie, R Scott; Patel, Bimal V


    Methods to achieve high star ratings for the High-Risk Medication (HRM) measure are thought to result in unintended consequences and to compromise several member experience measures that ultimately put at risk the plan sponsor's Medicare Part D Centers for Medicare Medicaid (CMS) star rating.  To determine if HRM scores are associated with relevant member experience measure scores.  This is a cross-sectional analysis utilizing CMS 2013 and 2014 plan star ratings reports (2011 and 2012 benefit year data) for Medicare Advantage prescription drug (MA-PD) plans and prescription drug plans (PDPs). Medicare contracts with complete data for all measures of interest in 2013 and 2014 star ratings reports were included (N = 443). Bivariate linear regressions were performed for each of 2 independent variables: (1) 2014 HRM score and (2) 2013 to 2014 change in HRM score. Dependent variables were the 2014 scores for "Getting Needed Prescription Drugs," "Complaints about Drug Plan," "Rating of Drug Plan," and "Members Choosing to Leave the Plan." The bivariate linear regressions demonstrated weak positive associations between the 2014 HRM score and each of the 2014 member experience measures that explained 0.5% to 4% (R2) of variance of these measures. The bivariate regressions for the 2013 to 2014 change in the HRM score and 2014 member experience measures of interest demonstrated associations accounting for 1% to 8% of variance (R2). The greatest associations were observed between each independent variable and the 2014 "Getting Needed Prescription Drugs" score with correlation coefficients of 0.21 and 0.29.  HRM star ratings and change in HRM star ratings are weakly correlated with member experience measures in concurrent measurement periods. Plan sponsors may be more aggressive in HRM utilization management, since it is unlikely to negatively impact CMS summary star ratings

  11. Software Quality Measurement for Distributed Systems. Volume 1. (United States)


    Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, Jun. 1980 (CHW) ( Chu , W. and Chew, P., "Computer Networks: A Tutorial", IEEE Comput. Soc., New York, 1980) (COD...Pragmatic View of Distributed Processing Systems", IEEE Conput. Soc., Los Alemedas, California, 1980) (WU) Wu, Chuan-lin, & Feng, Tsu -yun. "A software

  12. Global distribution of pauses observed with satellite measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Several studies have been carried out on the tropopause, stratopause, and mesopause (collectively termed as 'pauses') independently; however, all the pauses have not been studied together. We present global distribution of altitudes and temperatures of these pauses observed with long-term space borne high resolution ...

  13. Association of general population suicide rates with fertility rates: a test of fertility as a measure of social integration. (United States)

    Bhandarkar, Ritesh; Shah, Ajit


    A negative correlation between societal suicide rates and social integration has been reported using data within individual countries; however, this has rarely been examined cross-nationally. The relation of general population suicide rates with fertility rates across 75 countries was examined for data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations. Social integration has been defined as the extent to which members of society are bound together in social relationships, and higher fertility rates, reflecting greater vigour and unity of the family, serve as a proxy measure of social integration. Multiple regression analysis indicated that general population suicide rates in males and females were independently correlated with fertility rates. The relation of general population suicide rates with fertility rates was also curvilinear (U-shaped curve). Explanation of the observed curvilinear relationship requires further study.

  14. A Concept for Measuring Electron Distribution Functions Using Collective Thomson Scattering (United States)

    Milder, A. L.; Froula, D. H.


    A.B. Langdon proposed that stable non-Maxwellian distribution functions are realized in coronal inertial confinement fusion plasmas via inverse bremsstrahlung heating. For Zvosc2 Zvosc2 vth2 > 1 , vth2 > 1 , the inverse bremsstrahlung heating rate is sufficiently fast to compete with electron-electron collisions. This process preferentially heats the subthermal electrons leading to super-Gaussian distribution functions. A method to identify the super-Gaussian order of the distribution functions in these plasmas using collective Thomson scattering will be proposed. By measuring the collective Thomson spectra over a range of angles the density, temperature and super-Gaussian order can be determined. This is accomplished by fitting non-Maxwellian distribution data with a super-Gaussian model; in order to match the density and electron temperature to within 10%, the super-Gaussian order must be varied. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  15. Photochemistry of Solutes in Different Locations in/on Ice. Part II: Reaction Rate Measurements (United States)

    Hullar, T.; Anastasio, C.


    Particularly in polar regions, photochemical reactions in snowpacks can be an important mechanism for transforming organic and inorganic compounds. Chemicals within snow and ice are found in three different compartments: distributed in the bulk ice, concentrated in liquid-like regions (LLRs) within the ice matrix (such as at grain boundaries), or in quasi-liquid layers at the air-ice interface. While some experiments suggest reaction rates may vary in these different compartments, it is not clear if the reaction rates are different or if the changes are due to variations in the reaction environment (such as photon flux). A companion presentation discusses our work identifying solute location in laboratory ice samples; here, we describe experimental measurements of reaction rates in different ice compartments. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common pollutants in snow and ice. We first prepared aqueous solutions of a single PAH. We then froze these samples using various methods that segregate the solute into different locations in the ice matrix. With simulated sunlight, we illuminated these samples and measured photon flux (using 2-nitrobenzaldehyde) and the photodecay of the PAH. We will discuss differences in PAH photochemistry as a function of location in the ice sample and the implications of these results for environmental snow and ice.

  16. Transmurally differentiated measurement of ATP hydrolysis rates in the in vivo porcine hearts. (United States)

    Jang, Albert; Xiong, Qiang; Zhang, Pengyuan; Zhang, Jianyi


    Compare the transmural distribution of forward creatine kinase reaction (kf,CK ) and ATP hydrolysis rate (kr,ATPase ) in the myocardium of normal porcine heart. Rate constants were extracted from partially relaxed spectra by applying the T1nom method, effectively reducing data acquisition time by up to an order of magnitude. T1nom method for double saturation of PCr and Pi is introduced and validated through simulations. Bioenergetics was measured in vivo utilizing one-dimensional chemical shift imaging (1D-CSI) magnetic resonance (31) P spectroscopy. At basal conditions, there was no significant difference between subepicardial layers (EPI) vs. the subendocardial layers (ENDO) for both fluxf,CK and fluxr,ATPase . At high cardiac workload (HWL), where the rate pressure product increased 2.6-fold, PCr/ATP ratio and fluxf,CK showed no significant change in both EPI and ENDO layers, while fluxr,ATPase increased significantly (baseline: 1.11 ± 0.12 and 1.12 ± 0.13 μmol/g/s, EPI and ENDO, respectively; to HWL: 2.35 ± 0.27 and 2.21 ± 0.08 μmol/g/s, EPI and ENDO, respectively, each P heart, increase of cardiac work state is accompanied by an increase in ATP hydrolysis rate with no changes in CK flux rate. There are no significant differences between EPI vs. ENDO concerning the ATP hydrolysis rate or CK flux rate in both baseline and high cardiac work states. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Earthquake rate and magnitude distributions of great earthquakes for use in global forecasts (United States)

    Kagan, Yan Y.; Jackson, David D.


    principle that equates the seismic moment rate with the tectonic moment rate inferred from geodesy and geology, we obtain a consistent estimate of the corner moment largely independent of seismic history. These evaluations confirm the above-mentioned corner magnitude value. The new estimates of corner magnitudes are important both for the forecast part based on seismicity as well as the part based on geodetic strain rates. We examine rate variations as expressed by annual earthquake numbers. Earthquakes larger than magnitude 6.5 obey the Poisson distribution. For smaller events the negative-binomial distribution fits much better because it allows for earthquake clustering.

  18. A comparative analysis of massed vs. distributed practice on basic math fact fluency growth rates. (United States)

    Schutte, Greg M; Duhon, Gary J; Solomon, Benjamin G; Poncy, Brian C; Moore, Kathryn; Story, Bailey


    To best remediate academic deficiencies, educators need to not only identify empirically validated interventions but also be able to apply instructional modifications that result in more efficient student learning. The current study compared the effect of massed and distributed practice with an explicit timing intervention to evaluate the extent to which these modifications lead to increased math fact fluency on basic addition problems. Forty-eight third-grade students were placed into one of three groups with each of the groups completing four 1-min math explicit timing procedures each day across 19 days. Group one completed all four 1-min timings consecutively; group two completed two back-to-back 1-min timings in the morning and two back-to-back 1-min timings in the afternoon, and group three completed one, 1-min independent timing four times distributed across the day. Growth curve modeling was used to examine the progress throughout the course of the study. Results suggested that students in the distributed practice conditions, both four times per day and two times per day, showed significantly higher fluency growth rates than those practicing only once per day in a massed format. These results indicate that combining distributed practice with explicit timing procedures is a useful modification that enhances student learning without the addition of extra instructional time when targeting math fact fluency. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Wireless Technology Recognition Based on RSSI Distribution at Sub-Nyquist Sampling Rate for Constrained Devices. (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Kulin, Merima; Kazaz, Tarik; Shahid, Adnan; Moerman, Ingrid; De Poorter, Eli


    Driven by the fast growth of wireless communication, the trend of sharing spectrum among heterogeneous technologies becomes increasingly dominant. Identifying concurrent technologies is an important step towards efficient spectrum sharing. However, due to the complexity of recognition algorithms and the strict condition of sampling speed, communication systems capable of recognizing signals other than their own type are extremely rare. This work proves that multi-model distribution of the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) is related to the signals' modulation schemes and medium access mechanisms, and RSSI from different technologies may exhibit highly distinctive features. A distinction is made between technologies with a streaming or a non-streaming property, and appropriate feature spaces can be established either by deriving parameters such as packet duration from RSSI or directly using RSSI's probability distribution. An experimental study shows that even RSSI acquired at a sub-Nyquist sampling rate is able to provide sufficient features to differentiate technologies such as Wi-Fi, Long Term Evolution (LTE), Digital Video Broadcasting-Terrestrial (DVB-T) and Bluetooth. The usage of the RSSI distribution-based feature space is illustrated via a sample algorithm. Experimental evaluation indicates that more than 92% accuracy is achieved with the appropriate configuration. As the analysis of RSSI distribution is straightforward and less demanding in terms of system requirements, we believe it is highly valuable for recognition of wideband technologies on constrained devices in the context of dynamic spectrum access.

  20. Scaling precipitation input to spatially distributed hydrological models by measured snow distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Vögeli


    Full Text Available Accurate knowledge on snow distribution in alpine terrain is crucial for various applicationssuch as flood risk assessment, avalanche warning or managing water supply and hydro-power.To simulate the seasonal snow cover development in alpine terrain, the spatially distributed,physics-based model Alpine3D is suitable. The model is typically driven by spatial interpolationsof observations from automatic weather stations (AWS, leading to errors in the spatial distributionof atmospheric forcing. With recent advances in remote sensing techniques, maps of snowdepth can be acquired with high spatial resolution and accuracy. In this work, maps of the snowdepth distribution, calculated from summer and winter digital surface models based on AirborneDigital Sensors (ADS, are used to scale precipitation input data, with the aim to improve theaccuracy of simulation of the spatial distribution of snow with Alpine3D. A simple method toscale and redistribute precipitation is presented and the performance is analysed. The scalingmethod is only applied if it is snowing. For rainfall the precipitation is distributed by interpolation,with a simple air temperature threshold used for the determination of the precipitation phase.It was found that the accuracy of spatial snow distribution could be improved significantly forthe simulated domain. The standard deviation of absolute snow depth error is reduced up toa factor 3.4 to less than 20 cm. The mean absolute error in snow distribution was reducedwhen using representative input sources for the simulation domain. For inter-annual scaling, themodel performance could also be improved, even when using a remote sensing dataset from adifferent winter. In conclusion, using remote sensing data to process precipitation input, complexprocesses such as preferential snow deposition and snow relocation due to wind or avalanches,can be substituted and modelling performance of spatial snow distribution is improved.

  1. Variance in Broad Reading Accounted for by Measures of Reading Speed Embedded within Maze and Comprehension Rate Measures (United States)

    Hale, Andrea D.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Wilhoit, Brian; Ciancio, Dennis; Morrow, Jennifer A.


    Maze and reading comprehension rate measures are calculated by using measures of reading speed and measures of accuracy (i.e., correctly selected words or answers). In sixth- and seventh-grade samples, we found that the measures of reading speed embedded within our Maze measures accounted for 50% and 39% of broad reading score (BRS) variance,…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.П. Харченко


    Full Text Available The principles of forming the world's most popular international Internet-ranking of universities are considered. The principles of forming the international rating of electronic resources known as Webometrics, which results are defined by summing four values based on quantity of unique external links to the site page and by the quantity of “valuable” files placed on website are represented.  Мost Internet ratings make slope on the  Web activity of the university and its researchers, therefore the participation of entire staff at university is required

  3. A Simple Formula for Local Burnup and Isotope Distributions Based on Approximately Constant Relative Reaction Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenxi Yuan


    Full Text Available A simple and analytical formula is suggested to solve the problems of the local burnup and the isotope distributions. The present method considers two extreme conditions of neutrons penetrating the fuel rod. Based on these considerations, the formula is obtained to calculate the reaction rates of 235U, 238U, and 239Pu and straightforward the local burnup and the isotope distributions. Starting from an initial burnup level, the parameters of the formula are fitted to the reaction rates given by a Monte Carlo (MC calculation. Then the present formula independently gives very similar results to the MC calculation from the starting to high burnup level but takes just a few minutes. The relative reaction rates are found to be almost independent of the radius (except (n,γ of  238U and the burnup, providing a solid background for the present formula. A more realistic examination is also performed when the fuel rods locate in an assembly. A combination of the present formula and the MC calculation is expected to have a nice balance between the numerical accuracy and time consumption.

  4. Variation in the standard deviation of the lure rating distribution: Implications for estimates of recollection probability. (United States)

    Dopkins, Stephen; Varner, Kaitlin; Hoyer, Darin


    In word recognition semantic priming of test words increased the false-alarm rate and the mean of confidence ratings to lures. Such priming also increased the standard deviation of confidence ratings to lures and the slope of the z-ROC function, suggesting that the priming increased the standard deviation of the lure evidence distribution. The Unequal Variance Signal Detection (UVSD) model interpreted the priming as increasing the standard deviation of the lure evidence distribution. Without additional parameters the Dual Process Signal Detection (DPSD) model could only accommodate the results by fitting the data for related and unrelated primes separately, interpreting the priming, implausibly, as decreasing the probability of target recollection (DPSD). With an additional parameter, for the probability of false (lure) recollection the model could fit the data for related and unrelated primes together, interpreting the priming as increasing the probability of false recollection. These results suggest that DPSD estimates of target recollection probability will decrease with increases in the lure confidence/evidence standard deviation unless a parameter is included for false recollection. Unfortunately the size of a given lure confidence/evidence standard deviation relative to other possible lure confidence/evidence standard deviations is often unspecified by context. Hence the model often has no way of estimating false recollection probability and thereby correcting its estimates of target recollection probability.

  5. Outcome Rating Scale and Session Rating Scale in Psychological Practice: Clinical Utility of Ultra-Brief Measures (United States)

    Campbell, Alistair; Hemsley, Samantha


    The validity and reliability of the Outcome Rating Scale (ORS) and the Session Rating Scale (SRS) were evaluated against existing longer measures, including the Outcome Questionnaire-45, Working Alliance Inventory, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, Quality of Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and General Self-efficacy Scale. The measures…

  6. Computing the Rates of Measurement-Induced Quantum Jumps


    Bauer, Michel; Bernard, Denis; Tilloy, Antoine


    9 pages, 2 figures, close to the published version. The text has been profoundly rewritten. The concept of "quantum spikes" is no longer discussed and will be studied in a subsequent article; International audience; Small quantum systems can now be continuously monitored experimentally which allows for the reconstruction of quantum trajectories. A peculiar feature of these trajectories is the emergence of jumps between the eigenstates of the observable which is measured. Using the Stochastic ...

  7. Measurements of environmental radiation exposure dose rates at selected sites in Brazil. (United States)

    Pfeiffer, W C; Penna-Franca, E; Ribeiro, C C; Nogueira, A R; Londres, H; Oliveira, A E


    Two types of portable instruments were developed by the former Health and Safety Laboratory of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission to characterize external gamma radiation fields and to estimate individual exposure dose rates from major natural or fission radionuclides distributed in the soil: a pressurized ionization chamber and a NaI(T1) gamma-ray spectrometer. The two instruments were used to measure environmental radiation exposure rates at three distinct geological areas of Brazil: - in the towns of Guarapari and Meaípe located on the monazite sand belt, ES. - on the vicinities of the uranium mine of Poços de Caldas, MG. - around the site of the Brazilian first nuclear power plant, in Angra dos Reis, RJ. The radiometric survey demonstrated once more the usefulness and versatility of the two instruments used. The measurements around the nuclear installations of Poços de Caldas and Angra dos Reis, allowed a rapid assessment of the local radiation background and its variability, as well as the selection of stations for the routine monitoring program. Radioactive anomalies were detected and characterized previously to the start of plant operations. The survey in Guarapari and Meaípe confirmed the results obtained by Roser and Cullen in 1958 and 1962, except on sites where considerable changes took place since then. The spectrometric measurements gave estimations of the relative proportion of 40K, 238U and 232Th series in the ground and also indications on the homogeneity of their distribution in the soil.

  8. Measuring the nucleation rate of Lysozyme using microfluidics (United States)

    Selimović, Šeila; Jia, Yanwei; Fraden, Seth


    We employ the PhaseChip, a (poly)dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device, for statistical studies of protein crystal nucleation. The PhaseChip is designed to decouple nucleation and growth of protein crystals and so improve their yield and quality. Two layers of fluidic channels containing salt reservoirs and nanoliter-sized wells for protein drops in oil are separated by a thin PDMS membrane, which is permeable to water, but not to salt or macromolecules such as protein. We reversibly vary the supersaturation of protein inside the stored droplets by controlling the chemical potential of the reservoir. Lysozyme in the presence of sodium chloride is used as a model system. We determine the crystal nucleation rate as a function of protein supersaturation by counting the number of crystal nuclei per droplet, as demonstrated by Galkin and Vekilov.1 PMID:20161207

  9. Rotation Measure Distribution in Compact Steep-steep Spectrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We have used radio polarization data at different frequencies to obtain the rotation measure, RM, the source rest frame rotation measure, RM(1+z)2 and the spectral index, α in a sample of Compact Steepspectrum Sources (CSSs). The CSS quasar sub-sample has RM(1+z)2 median values of ~-15.01 and 14.13 for the jet ...

  10. Numerical Simulation of the Effect of Rate of Change of Glucose on Measurement Error of Continuous Glucose Monitors (United States)

    Taub, Marc B.; Peyser, Thomas A.; Erik Rosenquist, J.


    Background A 5-day in-patient study designed to assess the accuracy of the FreeStyle Navigator® Continuous Glucose Monitoring System revealed that the level of accuracy of the continuous sensor measurements was dependent on the rate of glucose change. When the absolute rate of change was less than 1 mg•dl−1•min−1 (75% of the time), the median absolute relative difference (ARD) was 8.5%, with 85% of all points falling within the A zone of the Clarke error grid. When the absolute rate of change was greater than 2 mg•dl−1•min−1 (8% of the time), the median ARD was 17.5%, with 59% of all points falling within the Clarke A zone. Method Numerical simulations were performed to investigate effects of the rate of change of glucose on sensor measurement error. This approach enabled physiologically relevant distributions of glucose values to be reordered to explore the effect of different glucose rate-of-change distributions on apparent sensor accuracy. Results The physiological lag between blood and interstitial fluid glucose levels is sufficient to account for the observed difference in sensor accuracy between periods of stable glucose and periods of rapidly changing glucose. Conclusions The role of physiological lag on the apparent decrease in sensor accuracy at high glucose rates of change has implications for clinical study design, regulatory review of continuous glucose sensors, and development of performance standards for this new technology. This work demonstrates the difficulty in comparing accuracy measures between different clinical studies and highlights the need for studies to include both relevant glucose distributions and relevant glucose rate-of-change distributions. PMID:19885136

  11. Development of a scale to measure individuals’ ratings of peace (United States)


    Background The evolving concept of peace-building and the interplay between peace and health is examined in many venues, including at the World Health Assembly. However, without a metric to determine effectiveness of intervention programs all efforts are prone to subjective assessment. This paper develops a psychometric index that lays the foundation for measuring community peace stemming from intervention programs. Methods After developing a working definition of ‘peace’ and delineating a Peace Evaluation Across Cultures and Environments (PEACE) scale with seven constructs comprised of 71 items, a beta version of the index was pilot-tested. Two hundred and fifty subjects in three sites in the U.S. were studied using a five-point Likert scale to evaluate the psychometric functioning of the PEACE scale. Known groups validation was performed using the SOS-10. In addition, test-retest reliability was performed on 20 subjects. Results The preliminary data demonstrated that the scale has acceptable psychometric properties for measuring an individual’s level of peacefulness. The study also provides reliability and validity data for the scale. The data demonstrated internal consistency, correlation between data and psychological well-being, and test-retest reliability. Conclusions The PEACE scale may serve as a novel assessment tool in the health sector and be valuable in monitoring and evaluating the peace-building impact of health initiatives in conflict-affected regions. PMID:25298781

  12. Development of a scale to measure individuals' ratings of peace. (United States)

    Zucker, Howard; Ahn, Roy; Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Blais, Mark; Nelson, Brett D; Burke, Thomas F


    The evolving concept of peace-building and the interplay between peace and health is examined in many venues, including at the World Health Assembly. However, without a metric to determine effectiveness of intervention programs all efforts are prone to subjective assessment. This paper develops a psychometric index that lays the foundation for measuring community peace stemming from intervention programs. After developing a working definition of 'peace' and delineating a Peace Evaluation Across Cultures and Environments (PEACE) scale with seven constructs comprised of 71 items, a beta version of the index was pilot-tested. Two hundred and fifty subjects in three sites in the U.S. were studied using a five-point Likert scale to evaluate the psychometric functioning of the PEACE scale. Known groups validation was performed using the SOS-10. In addition, test-retest reliability was performed on 20 subjects. The preliminary data demonstrated that the scale has acceptable psychometric properties for measuring an individual's level of peacefulness. The study also provides reliability and validity data for the scale. The data demonstrated internal consistency, correlation between data and psychological well-being, and test-retest reliability. The PEACE scale may serve as a novel assessment tool in the health sector and be valuable in monitoring and evaluating the peace-building impact of health initiatives in conflict-affected regions.

  13. Research of strain distribution and strain rate change in the fracture surroundings by the videoextensometric methode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mihaliková


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the strain distribution and the strain rate of material in the surroundings of its fracture. Three steels applied in the automotive industry (DP - dual phase steel, microalloyed steel HR 45 and IF - interstitial free steel were used as the experimental material. The videoextensometric technique was used for sensing with CCD camera and computer. During the test, software records the coordinates of the centres of gravity of individual points, from which the respective strain values are then obtained. For individual steel grades, strain field maps in the fracture surroundings were plotted. The change in the strain rate in the fracture surroundings and at places more distant from the fracture was observed.

  14. High frame rate multi-resonance imaging refractometry with distributed feedback dye laser sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Dufva, Martin; Kristensen, Anders


    High frame rate and highly sensitive imaging of refractive index changes on a surface is very promising for studying the dynamics of dissolution, mixing and biological processes without the need for labeling. Here, a highly sensitive distributed feedback (DFB) dye laser sensor for high frame rate...... by analyzing laser light from all areas in parallel with an imaging spectrometer. With this multi-resonance imaging refractometry method, the spatial position in one direction is identified from the horizontal, i.e., spectral position of the multiple laser lines which is obtained from the spectrometer charged...... coupled device (CCD) array. The orthogonal spatial position is obtained from the vertical spatial position on the spectrometer CCD array as in established spatially resolved spectroscopy. Here, the imaging technique is demonstrated by monitoring the motion of small sucrose molecules upon dissolution...

  15. Kinetics of low-temperature transitions and a reaction rate theory from non-equilibrium distributions (United States)

    Aquilanti, Vincenzo; Coutinho, Nayara Dantas; Carvalho-Silva, Valter Henrique


    This article surveys the empirical information which originated both by laboratory experiments and by computational simulations, and expands previous understanding of the rates of chemical processes in the low-temperature range, where deviations from linearity of Arrhenius plots were revealed. The phenomenological two-parameter Arrhenius equation requires improvement for applications where interpolation or extrapolations are demanded in various areas of modern science. Based on Tolman's theorem, the dependence of the reciprocal of the apparent activation energy as a function of reciprocal absolute temperature permits the introduction of a deviation parameter d covering uniformly a variety of rate processes, from those where quantum mechanical tunnelling is significant and d 0, corresponding to the Pareto-Tsallis statistical weights: these generalize the Boltzmann-Gibbs weight, which is recovered for d = 0. It is shown here how the weights arise, relaxing the thermodynamic equilibrium limit, either for a binomial distribution if d > 0 or for a negative binomial distribution if d < 0, formally corresponding to Fermion-like or Boson-like statistics, respectively. The current status of the phenomenology is illustrated emphasizing case studies; specifically (i) the super-Arrhenius kinetics, where transport phenomena accelerate processes as the temperature increases; (ii) the sub-Arrhenius kinetics, where quantum mechanical tunnelling propitiates low-temperature reactivity; (iii) the anti-Arrhenius kinetics, where processes with no energetic obstacles are rate-limited by molecular reorientation requirements. Particular attention is given for case (i) to the treatment of diffusion and viscosity, for case (ii) to formulation of a transition rate theory for chemical kinetics including quantum mechanical tunnelling, and for case (iii) to the stereodirectional specificity of the dynamics of reactions strongly hindered by the increase of temperature. This article is part of

  16. Floc size distributions of suspended kaolinite in an advection transport dominated tank: measurements and modeling (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoteng; Maa, Jerome P.-Y.


    In estuaries and coastal waters, floc size and its statistical distributions of cohesive sediments are of primary importance, due to their effects on the settling velocity and thus deposition rates of cohesive aggregates. The development of a robust flocculation model that includes the predictions of floc size distributions (FSDs), however, is still in a research stage. In this study, a one-dimensional longitudinal (1-DL) flocculation model along a streamtube is developed. This model is based on solving the population balance equation to find the FSDs by using the quadrature method of moments. To validate this model, a laboratory experiment is carried out to produce an advection transport-dominant environment in a cylindrical tank. The flow field is generated by a marine pump mounted at the bottom center, with its outlet facing upward. This setup generates an axially symmetric flow which is measured by an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV). The measurement results provide the hydrodynamic input data required for this 1-DL model. The other measurement results, the FSDs, are acquired by using an automatic underwater camera system and the resulting images are analyzed to validate the predicted FSDs. This study shows that the FSDs as well as their representative sizes can be efficiently and reasonably simulated by this 1-DL model.

  17. Quality of life of community-residing persons with dementia based on self-rated and caregiver-rated measures. (United States)

    Black, Betty S; Johnston, Deirdre; Morrison, Ann; Rabins, Peter V; Lyketsos, Constantine G; Samus, Quincy M


    To identify correlates of self-rated and caregiver-rated quality of life (QOL) in community-residing persons with dementia (PWD) for intervention development. Cross-sectional data of 254 PWD and their caregivers participating in a clinical trial were derived from in-home assessments. Self-rated QOL was measured with the Quality of Life-Alzheimer Disease (QOL-AD) scale, and caregiver-rated QOL was measured using the QOL-AD and Alzheimer Disease-Related Quality of Life (ADRQL) scales. Multivariate modeling identified correlates of the PWD' QOL. Self-rated QOL was related significantly to participant race, unmet needs, depression, and total medications. Caregiver-rated QOL-AD scores were significantly associated with participant function, unmet needs, depression, and health problems and with caregiver burden and self-rated health. Significant correlates of ADRQL scores included neuropsychiatric symptom severity, functional and cognitive impairment, and caregiver burden and depression. Correlates of QOL in community-residing PWD depend on who rates the PWD's QOL and which measure is used. Addressing health problems, medication use, and dementia-related unmet needs, reducing functional dependency, and treating neuropsychiatric symptoms in PWD, while reducing caregiver burden and depression, may maximize QOL in those with dementia.

  18. Probability Measure of Navigation pattern predition using Poisson Distribution Analysis


    Dr.V.Valli Mayil; Ms. R. Rooba; Ms. C. Parimala


    The World Wide Web has become one of the most important media to store, share and distribute information. The rapid expansion of the web has provided a great opportunity to study user and system behavior by exploring web access logs. Web Usage Mining is the application of data mining techniques to large web data repositories in order to extract usage patterns. Every web server keeps a log of all transactions between the server and the clients. The log data which are collected by web servers c...

  19. A correction algorithm for particle size distribution measurements made with the forward-scattering spectrometer probe (United States)

    Lock, James A.; Hovenac, Edward A.


    A correction algorithm for evaluating the particle size distribution measurements of atmospheric aerosols obtained with a forward-scattering spectrometer probe (FSSP) is examined. A model based on Poisson statistics is employed to calculate the average diameter and rms width of the particle size distribution. The dead time and coincidence errors in the measured number density are estimated. The model generated data are compared with a Monte Carlo simulation of the FSSP operation. It is observed that the correlation between the actual and measured size distribution is nonlinear. It is noted that the algorithm permits more accurate calculation of the average diameter and rms width of the distribution compared to uncorrected measured quantities.

  20. Inequality measures for wealth distribution: Population vs individuals perspective (United States)

    Pascoal, R.; Rocha, H.


    Economic inequality is, nowadays, frequently perceived as following a growing trend with impact on political and religious agendas. However, there is a wide range of inequality measures, each of which pointing to a possibly different degree of inequality. Furthermore, regardless of the measure used, it only acknowledges the momentary population inequality, failing to capture the individuals evolution over time. In this paper, several inequality measures were analyzed in order to compare the typical single time instant degree of wealth inequality (population perspective) to the one obtained from the individuals' wealth mean over several time instants (individuals perspective). The proposed generalization of a simple addictive model, for limited time average of individual's wealth, allows us to verify that the typically used inequality measures for a given snapshot instant of the population significantly overestimate the individuals' wealth inequality over time. Moreover, that is more extreme for the ratios than for the indices analyzed.

  1. SU-E-T-165: Characterization of Dose Distributions in High-Dose-Rate Surface Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzurovic, I; Hansen, J; Bhagwat, M; O’Farrell, D; Damato, A; Friesen, S; Devlin, P; Cormack, R [Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women’s Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)


    Purpose: To characterize dose distributions in high-dose-rate(HDR) surface brachytherapy using an Ir-125 source for different geometries, field sizes and topology of the clinical targets(CT). To investigate the depth doses at the central axis(CAX), edges of the treatment fields(E), and lateral dose distributions(L) present when using flap applicators in skin cancer treatments. Methods: When malignancies diagnosed on the skin are treated, various geometries of the CT require proper adaptation of the flap or custom-made applicators to the treatment site. Consequently, the dose at the depth on CAX and field edges changes with variation of the curvatures and size of the applicators. To assess the dose distributions, we created a total of 10 treatment plans(TP) for 10×10 and 20×20 field sizes(FS) with a step size of 1cm. The geometry of the applicators was: planar(PA), curved to 30(CA30) and 60(CA60) degrees with respect to the CAX, half-cylinder(HC), and cylindrical shape(CS). One additional TP was created in which the applicators were positioned to form a dome shape(DS) with a diameter of 16cm. This TP was used to emulate treatment of the average sized scalp. All TPs were optimized to deliver a prescription dose at 8mm equidistantly from the planes containing the dwell positions. This optimization is equivalent to the clinical arrangement since the SSD for the flap applicators is 5mm and the prescription depth is 3mm in the majority of clinical cases. Results: The depths (in mm) of the isodose lines were: FS(10×10):PA[90%(9.1CAX,8.0E,7.6L),50%(28.3CAX,20E,17.3L), 25%(51.1CAX,40E,27L)],CA30[90%(10.3CAX,8.2E,7.9L),50%(32.1CAX, 16.2E,15.8L),25%(61.3CAX,36.7E,31.8L)],CA60[90%(12.2CAX,6.1E,6.3L ),50%(47CAX,14E,16.6L),25%(70.8CAX,31.9E,35.4L)],HC[90%(11.1CA X,6.3E,7.3L),50%(38.3CAX,14.6E,16.1L),25%(66.2CAX,33.8E,34.2L)];FS (20×20):PA[90%(11.1CAX,9.0E,7.0L),50%(34.4CAX,21.9E,15.3L),25%(7 0.4CAX,50.9E,34.8L)],CA30[90%(10.9CAX,7.5E,7.1L),50%(38.8CAX,16. 7E,15.4L),25

  2. Realization of a video-rate distributed aperture millimeter-wave imaging system using optical upconversion (United States)

    Schuetz, Christopher; Martin, Richard; Dillon, Thomas; Yao, Peng; Mackrides, Daniel; Harrity, Charles; Zablocki, Alicia; Shreve, Kevin; Bonnett, James; Curt, Petersen; Prather, Dennis


    Passive imaging using millimeter waves (mmWs) has many advantages and applications in the defense and security markets. All terrestrial bodies emit mmW radiation and these wavelengths are able to penetrate smoke, fog/clouds/marine layers, and even clothing. One primary obstacle to imaging in this spectrum is that longer wavelengths require larger apertures to achieve the resolutions desired for many applications. Accordingly, lens-based focal plane systems and scanning systems tend to require large aperture optics, which increase the achievable size and weight of such systems to beyond what can be supported by many applications. To overcome this limitation, a distributed aperture detection scheme is used in which the effective aperture size can be increased without the associated volumetric increase in imager size. This distributed aperture system is realized through conversion of the received mmW energy into sidebands on an optical carrier. This conversion serves, in essence, to scale the mmW sparse aperture array signals onto a complementary optical array. The side bands are subsequently stripped from the optical carrier and recombined to provide a real time snapshot of the mmW signal. Using this technique, we have constructed a real-time, video-rate imager operating at 75 GHz. A distributed aperture consisting of 220 upconversion channels is used to realize 2.5k pixels with passive sensitivity. Details of the construction and operation of this imager as well as field testing results will be presented herein.

  3. Measurements of charged-particle distributions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cairo, Valentina Maria Martina


    Inclusive charged-particle measurements probe the low-energy region of the non-perturbative quantum chromodynamics. The ATLAS collaboration has recently measured the charged-particle multiplicity and its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity in special data sets with low LHC beam currents, recorded at centre-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The measurements at 8 TeV cover a wide spectrum using charged-particle selections with minimum transverse momentum of both 100 MeV and 500 MeV and in various phase space regions of low and high charged-particle multiplicities, some of which are studied for the first time by ATLAS. The measurements at 13 TeV also present detailed studies with a minimum transverse momentum of both 100 MeV and 500 MeV. The measurements are compared with predictions of various tuned Monte Carlo generators and are found to provide strong constraints on these. None of the Monte Carlo generators with their respective tunes are able to reproduce all the features of the data.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Navarrete


    Full Text Available The present work describes the development of a photoacoustic flowmeter with probe-beam deflection. A pulsedlaser beam produces an acoustic pulse, whose propagation is registered by its deflection effects on two cw probebeams. The acoustic pulse in a flowing fluid is produced by absorption of a laser pulse (30 ns, 1.1 mJ focused overa path flow line. The acoustic propagations, along and against the flow, are monitored by two cw probe beams. Inthe interaction, the probe beam undergoes a transient deflection that is detected by a fast response photodiode.The velocity distribution data profile of a square pipe is obtained by means of the acoustic pulse arrival timemeasured through its cross section applying the cylindrical shockwave model developed by Vlasses. The profilesdetermined with this experimental technique are compared with two turbulent pipe flow models.

  5. Investigation of Ultrasound-Measured Flow Velocity, Flow Rate and Wall Shear Rate in Radial and Ulnar Arteries Using Simulation. (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaowei; Xia, Chunming; Stephen, Gandy; Khan, Faisel; Corner, George A; Hoskins, Peter R; Huang, Zhihong


    Parameters of blood flow measured by ultrasound in radial and ulnar arteries, such as flow velocity, flow rate and wall shear rate, are widely used in clinical practice and clinical research. Investigation of these measurements is useful for evaluating accuracy and providing knowledge of error sources. A method for simulating the spectral Doppler ultrasound measurement process was developed with computational fluid dynamics providing flow-field data. Specific scanning factors were adjusted to investigate their influence on estimation of the maximum velocity waveform, and flow rate and wall shear rate were derived using the Womersley equation. The overestimation in maximum velocity increases greatly (peak systolic from about 10% to 30%, time-averaged from about 30% to 50%) when the beam-vessel angle is changed from 30° to 70°. The Womersley equation was able to estimate flow rate in both arteries with less than 3% error, but performed better in the radial artery (2.3% overestimation) than the ulnar artery (15.4% underestimation) in estimating wall shear rate. It is concluded that measurements of flow parameters in the radial and ulnar arteries with clinical ultrasound scanners are prone to clinically significant errors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Measurements over distributed high performance computing and storage systems (United States)

    Williams, Elizabeth; Myers, Tom


    A strawman proposal is given for a framework for presenting a common set of metrics for supercomputers, workstations, file servers, mass storage systems, and the networks that interconnect them. Production control and database systems are also included. Though other applications and third part software systems are not addressed, it is important to measure them as well.

  7. A measure of mutual divergence among a number of probability distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Kapur


    major inequalities due to Shannon, Renyi and Holder. The inequalities are then used to obtain some useful results in information theory. In particular measures are obtained to measure the mutual divergence among two or more probability distributions.

  8. Floodlight quantum key distribution: Demonstrating a framework for high-rate secure communication (United States)

    Zhang, Zheshen; Zhuang, Quntao; Wong, Franco N. C.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.


    Floodlight quantum key distribution (FL-QKD) is a radically different QKD paradigm that can achieve gigabit-per-second secret-key rates over metropolitan area distances without multiplexing [Q. Zhuang et al., Phys. Rev. A 94, 012322 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.94.012322]. It is a two-way protocol that transmits many photons per bit duration and employs a high-gain optical amplifier, neither of which can be utilized by existing QKD protocols, to mitigate channel loss. FL-QKD uses an optical bandwidth that is substantially larger than the modulation rate and performs decoding with a unique broadband homodyne receiver. Essential to FL-QKD is Alice's injection of photons from a photon-pair source—in addition to the light used for key generation—into the light she sends to Bob. This injection enables Alice and Bob to quantify Eve's intrusion and thus secure FL-QKD against collective attacks. Our proof-of-concept experiment included 10 dB propagation loss—equivalent to 50 km of low-loss fiber—and achieved a 55 Mbit/s secret-key rate (SKR) for a 100 Mbit/s modulation rate, as compared to the state-of-the-art system's 1 Mbit/s SKR for a 1 Gbit/s modulation rate [M. Lucamarini et al., Opt. Express 21, 24550 (2013), 10.1364/OE.21.024550], representing ˜500 -fold and ˜50 -fold improvements in secret-key efficiency (bits per channel use) and SKR (bits per second), respectively.

  9. Rain rate measurements over global oceans from IRS-P4 MSMR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... rate by multiple regression. Multiple correlation analysis involving various combinations of channels in linear and non-linear forms and rain rate from TMI is carried out, and thus the best possible algorithm for rain rate measurement was identified which involved V and H polarized brightness temperature measurements at ...

  10. Evaluation for Intensity of Stress in Lesson using Heart Rate Variability Detected by Simultaneously Measurement (United States)

    Horiguchi, Ayaka; Takatsu, Hiroaki; Ohno, Wataru; Ozeki, Osamu

    We studied the evaluation for the intensity of stress of students in lesson using heart rate variability. Heart rate of many students were measured simultaneously by developed portable measurement systems. Heart rate variability data suggests that many students have more stress in normal dictation lesson then video lesson using difficult subject.

  11. Terahertz Measurement of the Water Content Distribution in Wood Materials (United States)

    Bensalem, M.; Sommier, A.; Mindeguia, J. C.; Batsale, J. C.; Pradere, C.


    Recently, THz waves have been shown to be an effective technique for investigating the water diffusion within porous media, such as biomaterial or insulation materials. This applicability is due to the sufficient resolution for such applications and the safe levels of radiation. This study aims to achieve contactless absolute water content measurements at a steady state case in semi-transparent solids (wood) using a transmittance THz wave range setup. First, a calibration method is developed to validate an analytical model based on the Beer-Lambert law, linking the absorption coefficient, the density of the solid, and its water content. Then, an estimation of the water content on a local scale in a transient-state case (drying) is performed. This study shows that THz waves are an effective contactless, safe, and low-cost technique for the measurement of water content in a porous medium, such as wood.

  12. Fission Fragment Angular Distributions measured with a Time Projection Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinrath, Verena [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The subject is presented in a series of slides with the following organization: Introduction (What is anisotropy? Relevance (Theory and ratio cross section), Previous measurements); Experiment (Particle tracking in the fissionTPC, Neutron time of flight, Data analysis & uncertainty calculation, Preliminary result for 235U); and Future Work (Refine 235U result, Process 239Pu data).

  13. Test-Cost-Sensitive Attribute Reduction of Data with Normal Distribution Measurement Errors


    Hong Zhao; Fan Min; William Zhu


    The measurement error with normal distribution is universal in applications. Generally, smaller measurement error requires better instrument and higher test cost. In decision making based on attribute values of objects, we shall select an attribute subset with appropriate measurement error to minimize the total test cost. Recently, error-range-based covering rough set with uniform distribution error was proposed to investigate this issue. However, the measurement errors satisfy normal distrib...

  14. Investigation of the limits of a fibre optic sensor system for measurement of temperature distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm, Robert; Johnson, Frank


    The aim of this project is to develop an innovative temperature sensor system which is able to measure the temperature distribution along a fibre optical cable. This technique for temperature measurement is based on Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR).......The aim of this project is to develop an innovative temperature sensor system which is able to measure the temperature distribution along a fibre optical cable. This technique for temperature measurement is based on Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR)....

  15. Bayesian Analysis of the Survival Function and Failure Rate of Weibull Distribution with Censored Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bambey Guure


    Full Text Available The survival function of the Weibull distribution determines the probability that a unit or an individual will survive beyond a certain specified time while the failure rate is the rate at which a randomly selected individual known to be alive at time will die at time (. The classical approach for estimating the survival function and the failure rate is the maximum likelihood method. In this study, we strive to determine the best method, by comparing the classical maximum likelihood against the Bayesian estimators using an informative prior and a proposed data-dependent prior known as generalised noninformative prior. The Bayesian estimation is considered under three loss functions. Due to the complexity in dealing with the integrals using the Bayesian estimator, Lindley’s approximation procedure is employed to reduce the ratio of the integrals. For the purpose of comparison, the mean squared error (MSE and the absolute bias are obtained. This study is conducted via simulation by utilising different sample sizes. We observed from the study that the generalised prior we assumed performed better than the others under linear exponential loss function with respect to MSE and under general entropy loss function with respect to absolute bias.

  16. Estimation of customer lifetime value of a health insurance with interest rates obeying uniform distribution (United States)

    Widyawan, A.; Pasaribu, U. S.; Henintyas, Permana, D.


    Nowadays some firms, including insurer firms, think that customer-centric services are better than product-centric ones in terms of marketing. Insurance firms will try to attract as many new customer as possible while maintaining existing customer. This causes the Customer Lifetime Value (CLV) becomes a very important thing. CLV are able to put customer into different segments and calculate the present value of a firm's relationship with its customer. Insurance customer will depend on the last service he or she can get. So if the service is bad now, then customer will not renew his contract though the service is very good at an erlier time. Because of this situation one suitable mathematical model for modeling customer's relationships and calculating their lifetime value is Markov Chain. In addition, the advantages of using Markov Chain Modeling is its high degree of flexibility. In 2000, Pfeifer and Carraway states that Markov Chain Modeling can be used for customer retention situation. In this situation, Markov Chain Modeling requires only two states, which are present customer and former ones. This paper calculates customer lifetime value in an insurance firm with two distinctive interest rates; the constant interest rate and uniform distribution of interest rates. The result shows that loyal customer and the customer who increase their contract value have the highest CLV.

  17. Provably secure and high-rate quantum key distribution with time-bin qudits. (United States)

    Islam, Nurul T; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Cahall, Clinton; Kim, Jungsang; Gauthier, Daniel J


    The security of conventional cryptography systems is threatened in the forthcoming era of quantum computers. Quantum key distribution (QKD) features fundamentally proven security and offers a promising option for quantum-proof cryptography solution. Although prototype QKD systems over optical fiber have been demonstrated over the years, the key generation rates remain several orders of magnitude lower than current classical communication systems. In an effort toward a commercially viable QKD system with improved key generation rates, we developed a discrete-variable QKD system based on time-bin quantum photonic states that can generate provably secure cryptographic keys at megabit-per-second rates over metropolitan distances. We use high-dimensional quantum states that transmit more than one secret bit per received photon, alleviating detector saturation effects in the superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors used in our system that feature very high detection efficiency (of more than 70%) and low timing jitter (of less than 40 ps). Our system is constructed using commercial off-the-shelf components, and the adopted protocol can be readily extended to free-space quantum channels. The security analysis adopted to distill the keys ensures that the demonstrated protocol is robust against coherent attacks, finite-size effects, and a broad class of experimental imperfections identified in our system.

  18. Using Reported Rates of Sexually Transmitted Diseases to Illustrate Potential Methodological Issues in the Measurement of Racial and Ethnic Disparities. (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Patel, Chirag G; Gift, Thomas L; Bernstein, Kyle T; Aral, Sevgi O


    Racial disparities in the burden of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have been documented and described for decades. Similarly, methodological issues and limitations in the use of disparity measures to quantify disparities in health have also been well documented. The purpose of this study was to use historic STD surveillance data to illustrate four of the most well-known methodological issues associated with the use of disparity measures. We manually searched STD surveillance reports to find examples of racial/ethnic distributions of reported STDs that illustrate key methodological issues in the use of disparity measures. The disparity measures we calculated included the black-white rate ratio, the Index of Disparity (weighted and unweighted by subgroup population), and the Gini coefficient. The 4 examples we developed included illustrations of potential differences in relative and absolute disparity measures, potential differences in weighted and nonweighted disparity measures, the importance of the reference point when calculating disparities, and differences in disparity measures in the assessment of trends in disparities over time. For example, the gonorrhea rate increased for all minority groups (relative to whites) from 1992 to 1993, yet the Index of Disparity suggested that racial/ethnic disparities had decreased. Although imperfect, disparity measures can be useful to quantify racial/ethnic disparities in STDs, to assess trends in these disparities, and to inform interventions to reduce these disparities. Our study uses reported STD rates to illustrate potential methodological issues with these disparity measures and highlights key considerations when selecting disparity measures for quantifying disparities in STDs.

  19. Dietary glycemic index and load, measures of glucose metabolism, and body fat distribution in older adults. (United States)

    Sahyoun, Nadine R; Anderson, Amy L; Kanaya, Alka M; Koh-Banerjee, Pauline; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Tylavsky, Frances A; Schwartz, Ann V; Lee, Jung Sun; Harris, Tamara B


    Recent evidence suggests that the rate of carbohydrate digestion and absorption may influence the development of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine associations of dietary glycemic index and glycemic load with predictors of type 2 diabetes in older adults. This study evaluated cross-sectional relations of dietary glycemic index and glycemic load with measures of glucose metabolism and body fat distribution in participants of the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study, a prospective cohort study of adults aged 70-80 y (n = 2248). In men, dietary glycemic index was positively associated with 2-h glucose (P for trend = 0.04) and fasting insulin (P for trend = 0.004), inversely associated with thigh intramuscular fat (P for trend = 0.02), and not significantly associated with fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, or visceral abdominal fat. Dietary glycemic load was inversely associated in men with visceral abdominal fat (P for trend = 0.02) and not significantly associated with fasting glucose, 2-h glucose, glycated hemoglobin, fasting insulin, or thigh intramuscular fat. In women, although dietary glycemic index and load were not significantly related to any measures of glucose metabolism or body fat distribution, the association between dietary glycemic index and 2-h glucose was nearly significant (P for trend = 0.06). The findings of this cross-sectional study indicate an association between dietary glycemic index and selected predictors of type 2 diabetes in older adults, particularly in men.

  20. Measurements of non-linear noise re-distribution in an SOA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip; Tromborg, Bjarne; Mørk, Jesper


    Measurements of the noise statistics after a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) demonstrate non-linear noise re-distribution with a strong power and bandwidth dependence.......Measurements of the noise statistics after a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) demonstrate non-linear noise re-distribution with a strong power and bandwidth dependence....

  1. Light distribution in leaf chambers and its consequences for photosynthesis measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogewoning, S.W.; Trouwborst, G.; Harbinson, J.; Ieperen, van W.


    The impact of a heterogeneous distribution of actinic light within a leaf chamber for photosynthetic measurements by gas exchange on the photosynthesis-irradiance relationship was investigated. High-resolution light distributions were measured over the area of a commercially available clamp-on leaf

  2. The development of MOPED - a mobile tool for performance measurement and evaluation during distributed team training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, A.M.F.; Berlo, M.P.W. van; Hoekstra, W.


    Distributed team training, often in joint settings, is becoming more and more important in military training today. Performance measurement and feedback are crucial for effective team training. To support observers during distributed team training the Mobile tool for Performance measurement and

  3. Reaction rate constants of H-abstraction by OH from large ketones: measurements and site-specific rate rules. (United States)

    Badra, Jihad; Elwardany, Ahmed E; Farooq, Aamir


    Reaction rate constants of the reaction of four large ketones with hydroxyl (OH) are investigated behind reflected shock waves using OH laser absorption. The studied ketones are isomers of hexanone and include 2-hexanone, 3-hexanone, 3-methyl-2-pentanone, and 4-methl-2-pentanone. Rate constants are measured under pseudo-first-order kinetics at temperatures ranging from 866 K to 1375 K and pressures near 1.5 atm. The reported high-temperature rate constant measurements are the first direct measurements for these ketones under combustion-relevant conditions. The effects of the position of the carbonyl group (C=O) and methyl (CH3) branching on the overall rate constant with OH are examined. Using previously published data, rate constant expressions covering, low-to-high temperatures, are developed for acetone, 2-butanone, 3-pentanone, and the hexanone isomers studied here. These Arrhenius expressions are used to devise rate rules for H-abstraction from various sites. Specifically, the current scheme is applied with good success to H-abstraction by OH from a series of n-ketones. Finally, general expressions for primary and secondary site-specific H-abstraction by OH from ketones are proposed as follows (the subscript numbers indicate the number of carbon atoms bonded to the next-nearest-neighbor carbon atom, the subscript CO indicates that the abstraction is from a site next to the carbonyl group (C=O), and the prime is used to differentiate different neighboring environments of a methylene group):

  4. Current distribution measurements inside an electromagnetic plasma gun operated in a gas-puff mode


    Poehlmann, Flavio R.; Cappelli, Mark A.; Rieker, Gregory B.


    Measurements are presented of the time-dependent current distribution inside a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun. The measurements are carried out using an array of six axially distributed dual-Rogowski coils in a balanced circuit configuration. The radial current distributions indicate that operation in the gas-puff mode, i.e., the mode in which the electrode voltage is applied before injection of the gas, results in a stationary ionization front consistent with the presence of a plasma def...

  5. Advanced material distribution measurement in multiphase flows: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, D.L.; Ceccio, S.L. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); O`Hern, T.J.; Shollenberger, K.A.; Torczynski, J.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center


    A variety of tomographic techniques that have been applied to multiphase flows are described. The methods discussed include electrical impedance tomography (EIT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), gamma-densitometry tomography (GDT), radiative particle tracking (RDT), X-ray imaging, and acoustic tomography. Also presented is a case study in which measurements were made with EIT and GDT in two-phase flows. Both solid-liquid and gas-liquid flows were examined. EIT and GDT were applied independently to predict mean and spatially resolved phase volume fractions. The results from the two systems compared well.

  6. The Menopause Rating Scale (MRS as outcome measure for hormone treatment? A validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnitker Jörg


    Full Text Available Background The Menopause Rating Scale is a health-related Quality of Life scale developed in the early 1990s and step-by-step validated since then. No methodologically detailed work on the utility of the scale to assess health-related changes after treatment was published before. Method We analysed an open, uncontrolled post-marketing study with over 9000 women with pre- and post-treatment data of the MRS scale to critically evaluate the capacity of the scale to measure the health-related effects of hormone treatment independent from the severity of complaints at baseline. Results The improvement of complaints during treatment relative to the baseline score was 36% in average. Patients with little/no complaints before therapy improved by 11%, those with mild complaints at entry by 32%, with moderate by 44%, and with severe symptoms by 55% – compared with the baseline score. We showed that the distribution of complaints in women before therapy returned to norm values after 6 months of hormone treatment. We also provided weak evidence that the MRS results may well predict the assessment of the treating physician. Limitations of the study, however, may have lead to overestimating the utility of the MRS scale as outcome measure. Conclusion The MRS scale showed some evidence for its ability to measure treatment effects on quality of life across the full range of severity of complaints in aging women. This however needs confirmation in other and better-designed clinical/outcome studies.

  7. Lognormal firing rate distribution reveals prominent fluctuation-driven regime in spinal motor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Peter C.; Berg, Rune W.


    When spinal circuits generate rhythmic movements it is important that the neuronal activity remains within stable bounds to avoid saturation and to preserve responsiveness. Here, we simultaneously record from hundreds of neurons in lumbar spinal circuits of turtles and establish the neuronal...... fraction that operates within either a ‘mean-driven’ or a ‘fluctuation–driven’ regime. Fluctuation-driven neurons have a ‘supralinear’ input-output curve, which enhances sensitivity, whereas the mean-driven regime reduces sensitivity. We find a rich diversity of firing rates across the neuronal population...... as reflected in a lognormal distribution and demonstrate that half of the neurons spend at least 50 %% of the time in the ‘fluctuation–driven’ regime regardless of behavior. Because of the disparity in input–output properties for these two regimes, this fraction may reflect a fine trade–off between stability...

  8. Sampling-based correlation estimation for distributed source coding under rate and complexity constraints. (United States)

    Cheung, Ngai-Man; Wang, Huisheng; Ortega, Antonio


    In many practical distributed source coding (DSC) applications, correlation information has to be estimated at the encoder in order to determine the encoding rate. Coding efficiency depends strongly on the accuracy of this correlation estimation. While error in estimation is inevitable, the impact of estimation error on compression efficiency has not been sufficiently studied for the DSC problem. In this paper,we study correlation estimation subject to rate and complexity constraints, and its impact on coding efficiency in a DSC framework for practical distributed image and video applications. We focus on, in particular, applications where binary correlation models are exploited for Slepian-Wolf coding and sampling techniques are used to estimate the correlation, while extensions to other correlation models would also be briefly discussed. In the first part of this paper, we investigate the compression of binary data. We first propose a model to characterize the relationship between the number of samples used in estimation and the coding rate penalty, in the case of encoding of a single binary source. The model is then extended to scenarios where multiple binary sources are compressed, and based on the model we propose an algorithm to determine the number of samples allocated to different sources so that the overall rate penalty can be minimized, subject to a constraint on the total number of samples. The second part of this paper studies compression of continuous valued data. We propose a model-based estimation for the particular but important situations where binary bit-planes are extracted from a continuous-valued input source, and each bit-plane is compressed using DSC. The proposed model-based method first estimates the source and correlation noise models using continuous valued samples, and then uses the models to derive the bit-plane statistics analytically. We also extend the model-based estimation to the cases when bit-planes are extracted based on the

  9. Influence of cooling rate on residual stress profile in veneering ceramic: measurement by hole-drilling. (United States)

    Mainjot, Amélie K; Schajer, Gary S; Vanheusden, Alain J; Sadoun, Michaël J


    The manufacture of dental crowns and bridges generates residual stresses within the veneering ceramic and framework during the cooling process. Residual stress is an important factor that control the mechanical behavior of restorations. Knowing the stress distribution within the veneering ceramic as a function of depth can help the understanding of failures, particularly chipping, a well-known problem with Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal based fixed partial dentures. The objective of this study is to investigate the cooling rate dependence of the stress profile in veneering ceramic layered on metal and zirconia frameworks. The hole-drilling method, often used for engineering measurements, was adapted for use with veneering ceramic. The stress profile was measured in bilayered disc samples 20 mm in diameter, with a 0.7 mm thick metal or Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal framework and a 1.5mm thick veneering ceramic. Three different cooling procedures were investigated. The magnitude of the stresses in the surface of the veneering ceramic was found to increase with cooling rate, while the interior stresses decreased. At the surface, compressive stresses were observed in all samples. In the interior, compressive stresses were observed in metal samples and tensile in zirconia samples. Cooling rate influences the magnitude of residual stresses. These can significantly influence the mechanical behavior of metal-and zirconia-based bilayered systems. The framework material influenced the nature of the interior stresses, with zirconia samples showing a less favorable stress profile than metal. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Distributed Space-Time Block Coded Transmission with Imperfect Channel Estimation: Achievable Rate and Power Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Aïssa


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of channel estimation error at the receiver on the achievable rate of distributed space-time block coded transmission. We consider that multiple transmitters cooperate to send the signal to the receiver and derive lower and upper bounds on the mutual information of distributed space-time block codes (D-STBCs when the channel gains and channel estimation error variances pertaining to different transmitter-receiver links are unequal. Then, assessing the gap between these two bounds, we provide a limiting value that upper bounds the latter at any input transmit powers, and also show that the gap is minimum if the receiver can estimate the channels of different transmitters with the same accuracy. We further investigate positioning the receiving node such that the mutual information bounds of D-STBCs and their robustness to the variations of the subchannel gains are maximum, as long as the summation of these gains is constant. Furthermore, we derive the optimum power transmission strategy to achieve the outage capacity lower bound of D-STBCs under arbitrary numbers of transmit and receive antennas, and provide closed-form expressions for this capacity metric. Numerical simulations are conducted to corroborate our analysis and quantify the effects of imperfect channel estimation.

  11. Co-gradient variation in growth rate and development time of a broadly distributed butterfly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Barton

    Full Text Available Widespread species often show geographic variation in thermally-sensitive traits, providing insight into how species respond to shifts in temperature through time. Such patterns may arise from phenotypic plasticity, genetic adaptation, or their interaction. In some cases, the effects of genotype and temperature may act together to reduce, or to exacerbate, phenotypic variation in fitness-related traits across varying thermal environments. We find evidence for such interactions in life-history traits of Heteronympha merope, a butterfly distributed across a broad latitudinal gradient in south-eastern Australia. We show that body size in this butterfly is negatively related to developmental temperature in the laboratory, in accordance with the temperature-size rule, but not in the field, despite very strong temperature gradients. A common garden experiment on larval thermal responses, spanning the environmental extremes of H. merope's distribution, revealed that butterflies from low latitude (warmer climate populations have relatively fast intrinsic growth and development rates compared to those from cooler climates. These synergistic effects of genotype and temperature across the landscape (co-gradient variation are likely to accentuate phenotypic variation in these traits, and this interaction must be accounted for when predicting how H. merope will respond to temperature change through time. These results highlight the importance of understanding how variation in life-history traits may arise in response to environmental change. Without this knowledge, we may fail to detect whether organisms are tracking environmental change, and if they are, whether it is by plasticity, adaptation or both.

  12. Space charge distribution measurement methods and particle loaded insulating materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hole, S [Laboratoire des Instruments et Systemes d' Ile de France, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris6, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris (France); Sylvestre, A [Laboratoire d' Electrostatique et des Materiaux Dielectriques, CNRS UMR5517, 25 avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Lavallee, O Gallot [Laboratoire d' Etude Aerodynamiques, CNRS UMR6609, boulevard Marie et Pierre Curie, Teleport 2, BP 30179, 86962 Futuroscope, Chasseneuil (France); Guillermin, C [Schneider Electric Industries SAS, 22 rue Henry Tarze, 38000 Grenoble (France); Rain, P [Laboratoire d' Electrostatique et des Materiaux Dielectriques, CNRS UMR5517, 25 avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Rowe, S [Schneider Electric Industries SAS, 22 rue Henry Tarze, 38000 Grenoble (France)


    In this paper the authors discuss the effects of particles (fillers) mixed in a composite polymer on the space charge measurement techniques. The origin of particle-induced spurious signals is determined and silica filled epoxy resin is analysed using the laser-induced-pressure-pulse (LIPP) method, the pulsed-electro-acoustic (PEA) method and the laser-induced-thermal-pulse (LITP) method. A spurious signal identified as the consequence of a piezoelectric effect of some silica particles is visible for all the method. Moreover, space charges are clearly detected at the epoxy/silica interface after a 10 kV mm{sup -1} poling at room temperature for 2 h.

  13. Measuring the corrosion rate of steel in concrete – effect of measurement technique, polarisation time and current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Peter Vagn; Geiker, Mette Rica


    Both on-site investigations and laboratory studies have shown that different corrosion rates are obtained when different commercially available corrosion rate instruments are used. The different electrochemical techniques and the measurement parameters used, i.e. polarisation current and time...... electrochemical techniques often used in instruments for on-site corrosion rate measurements are investigated. On passively corroding reinforcement the measured polarisation resistance was for both techniques found to be highly affected by the polarisation time and current and no plateaus at either short or long...... rate for actively corroding steel. For both techniques guidelines for polarisation times and currents are given for (on-site) non-destructive corrosion rate measurements on reinforcement steel in concrete....

  14. Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution over Untrustful Metropolitan Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Lin Tang


    Full Text Available Quantum cryptography holds the promise to establish an information-theoretically secure global network. All field tests of metropolitan-scale quantum networks to date are based on trusted relays. The security critically relies on the accountability of the trusted relays, which will break down if the relay is dishonest or compromised. Here, we construct a measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDIQKD network in a star topology over a 200-square-kilometer metropolitan area, which is secure against untrustful relays and against all detection attacks. In the field test, our system continuously runs through one week with a secure key rate 10 times larger than previous results. Our results demonstrate that the MDIQKD network, combining the best of both worlds—security and practicality, constitutes an appealing solution to secure metropolitan communications.

  15. Radiochromic Plastic Films for Accurate Measurement of Radiation Absorbed Dose and Dose Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W. L.; Miller, Arne; Fidan, S.


    Thin radiochromic dye films are useful for measuring large radiation absorbed doses (105–108 rads) and for high-resolution imaging of dose patterns produced by penetrating radiation beams passing through non-homogeneous media. Certain types of amino-substituted triarylmethane cyanides dissolved...... in polymeric solutions can be cast into flexible free-standing thin films of uniform thickness and reproducible response to ultraviolet and ionizing radiation. The increase in optical density versus energy deposited by radiation is linear over a wide range of doses and is for practical purposes independent...... of dose rate (1–1014 rad s−1). Upon irradiation of the film, the profile of the radiation field is registered as a permanent colored image of the dose distribution. Unlike most other types of dyed plastic dose meters, the optical density produced by irradiation is in most cases stable for periods...

  16. Measuring the usefulness of family planning job aids following distribution at training workshops. (United States)

    Tumlinson, Katherine; Hubacher, David; Wesson, Jennifer; Lasway, Christine


    A job aid is a tool, such as a flowchart or checklist, that makes it easier for staff to carry out tasks by providing quick access to needed information. Many public health organizations are engaged in the production of job aids intended to improve adherence to important medical guidelines and protocols, particularly in resource-constrained countries. However, some evidence suggests that actual use of job aids remains low. One strategy for improving utilization is the introduction of job aids in training workshops. This paper summarizes the results of two separate evaluations conducted in Uganda and the Dominican Republic (DR) which measured the usefulness of a series of four family planning checklists 7-24 months after distribution in training workshops. While more than half of the health care providers used the checklists at least once, utilization rates were sub-optimal. However, the vast majority of those providers who utilized the checklists found them to be very useful in their work.

  17. Rainfall simulators - innovations seeking rainfall uniformity and automatic flow rate measurements (United States)

    Bauer, Miroslav; Kavka, Petr; Strouhal, Luděk; Dostál, Tomáš; Krása, Josef


    Field rainfall simulators are used worldwide for many experimental purposes, such as runoff generation and soil erosion research. At CTU in Prague a laboratory simulator with swinging nozzles VeeJet has been operated since 2001. Since 2012 an additional terrain simulator is being used with 4 fixed FullJet 40WSQ nozzles with 2,4 m spacing and operating over two simultaneously sprinkled experimental plots sizing 8x2 and 1x1 m. In parallel to other research projects a specific problem was solved: improving rainfall spatial uniformity and overall intensity and surface runoff measurements. These fundamental variables significantly affect investigated processes as well as resulting water balance of the plot, therefore they need to be determined as accurately as possible. Although the original nozzles setting produced (commonly used) Christiansen uniformity index CU over 80 %, detailed measurements proved this index insufficient and showed many unrequired rainfall extremes within the plot. Moreover the number of rainfall intensity scenarios was limited and some of them required problematic multi-pressure operation of the water distribution system. Therefore the simulator was subjected to many substantial changes in 2015. Innovations ranged from pump intensification to control unit upgrade. As essential change was considered increase in number of nozzles to 9 in total and reducing their spacing to 1,2 m. However new uniformity measurements did not bring any significant improvement. Tested scenarios showed equal standard deviations of interpolated intensity rasters and equal or slightly lower CU index. Imperfections of sprinkling nozzles were found to be the limiting factor. Still many other benefits were brought with the new setup. Whole experimental plot 10x2 m is better covered with the rainfall while the water consumption is retained. Nozzles are triggered in triplets, which enables more rainfall intensity scenarios. Water distribution system is more stable due to

  18. Consumer and service determinants of completion of a consumer self-rating outcome measure. (United States)

    Trauer, Tom


    To study the relative contribution of consumer, clinician and service factors to whether or not consumers completed a self-rating measure in the context of routine outcome measurement. Four Victorian mental health services commenced routine outcome measurement in their adult services in mid-2000. Clinician-completed measures (Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) and Life Skills Profile (LSP)) and a consumer self-rated measure (Behaviour and Symptom Identification Scale (BASIS)) were entered into specialized software. Analyses were restricted to assessments conducted at review in the community. Wide differences were observed between the four agencies in the rates of completion of the self-rating measure. Overall, consumer characteristics associated with greater likelihood of completion were lower age, non-organic diagnosis, lesser severity as measured by the HoNOS, and lesser disability as measured by the LSP. A more focused analysis showed that agency, lower age, and higher compliance were most reliably associated with completion. Significant proportions of clinicians had no recorded instances of consumer self-rating associated with their assessments. Service and clinician factors appear to be equally important as consumer factors in whether or not a self-rating measure was completed. Information systems designed for outcomes measurement should include indications of whether or not a self-rating was invited, and, if not, why not. The results suggest that consumer self-rating is not yet firmly established in the outcomes measurement culture.

  19. Practical passive decoy state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with unstable sources. (United States)

    Liu, Li; Guo, Fen-Zhuo; Wen, Qiao-Yan


    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) with the active decoy state method can remove all detector loopholes, and resist the imperfections of sources. But it may lead to side channel attacks and break the security of QKD system. In this paper, we apply the passive decoy state method to the MDI-QKD based on polarization encoding mode. Not only all attacks on detectors can be removed, but also the side channel attacks on sources can be overcome. We get that the MDI-QKD with our passive decoy state method can have a performance comparable to the protocol with the active decoy state method. To fit for the demand of practical application, we discuss intensity fluctuation in the security analysis of MDI-QKD protocol using passive decoy state method, and derive the key generation rate for our protocol with intensity fluctuation. It shows that intensity fluctuation has an adverse effect on the key generation rate which is non-negligible, especially in the case of small data size of total transmitting signals and long distance transmission. We give specific simulations on the relationship between intensity fluctuation and the key generation rate. Furthermore, the statistical fluctuation due to the finite length of data is also taken into account.

  20. Nitrification rates, nitrite and nitrate distribution in the Almeria-Oran frontal systems (eastern Alboran Sea) (United States)

    Bianchi, M.; Morin, P.; Le Corre, P.


    In the western Mediterranean Sea, the Almeria-Oran frontal zone constitutes the eastern boundary of the Alboran Sea. During the "Almofront-1" cruise (April-May 1991) physical, chemical and biological features of the front and surrounding Atlantic and Mediterranean Waters were investigated. In the present study, the nitrite and nitrate concentrations and nitrification rates were measured. The nitracline was close to the surface in the north, close to the Spanish coast and in the south on the left side of the jet. The highest concentration of nitrite (0.25 μM) was located in the incoming Atlantic Waters. The ammonium oxidation rates were from 0 to 16 nmol 1 -1 d -1, except in Atlantic Waters in which the rates reached 28-42 nmol 1 -1 d -1. For all types of superficial water, i.e. Atlantic, jet core, Mediterranean, the nitrite produced by nitrification could account for the in situ concentrations in less time than the ages of the water masses. In contrast, to reach the ambient concentration, the production of nitrate would need more time than the lifetime of the water masses, except for the Atlantic Waters. In these Atlantic Waters, showing an increased rate of nitrate production, the in situ concentration of nitrate would be reached within its lifetime. The contribution of the nitrate produced by nitrification to the nitrate uptake by primary producers was estimated to range from 7% (Mediterranean Waters) to 40% (Atlantic Waters).

  1. Influenza infection rates, measurement errors and the interpretation of paired serology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Cauchemez

    Full Text Available Serological studies are the gold standard method to estimate influenza infection attack rates (ARs in human populations. In a common protocol, blood samples are collected before and after the epidemic in a cohort of individuals; and a rise in haemagglutination-inhibition (HI antibody titers during the epidemic is considered as a marker of infection. Because of inherent measurement errors, a 2-fold rise is usually considered as insufficient evidence for infection and seroconversion is therefore typically defined as a 4-fold rise or more. Here, we revisit this widely accepted 70-year old criterion. We develop a Markov chain Monte Carlo data augmentation model to quantify measurement errors and reconstruct the distribution of latent true serological status in a Vietnamese 3-year serological cohort, in which replicate measurements were available. We estimate that the 1-sided probability of a 2-fold error is 9.3% (95% Credible Interval, CI: 3.3%, 17.6% when antibody titer is below 10 but is 20.2% (95% CI: 15.9%, 24.0% otherwise. After correction for measurement errors, we find that the proportion of individuals with 2-fold rises in antibody titers was too large to be explained by measurement errors alone. Estimates of ARs vary greatly depending on whether those individuals are included in the definition of the infected population. A simulation study shows that our method is unbiased. The 4-fold rise case definition is relevant when aiming at a specific diagnostic for individual cases, but the justification is less obvious when the objective is to estimate ARs. In particular, it may lead to large underestimates of ARs. Determining which biological phenomenon contributes most to 2-fold rises in antibody titers is essential to assess bias with the traditional case definition and offer improved estimates of influenza ARs.

  2. Distribution of cataract surgical rate and its economic inequality in Iran. (United States)

    Hashemi, Hassan; Rezvan, Farhad; Fotouhi, Akbar; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Gilasi, Hamidreza; Etemad, Koroush; Mahdavi, Alireza; Mehravaran, Shiva; Asgari, Soheila


    To determine the distribution of the cataract surgical number per million population per year (CSR), the CSR in the population older than 50 years (CSR 50+) in the provinces of Iran, and their economic inequality in 2010. As part of the cross-sectional 2011 CSR survey, the provincial CSR and CSR 50+ were calculated as the total number of surgeries in major and minor centers divided by the total population and the population older than 50 years in each province. Economic inequality was determined using the average province income, the average urban and rural household incomes, and the percentage of urban and rural population in each province. Tehran and Ilam provinces had the highest and lowest CSR (12,465 vs. 359), respectively. Fars and Ilam provinces had the highest and lowest CSR 50+ (71,381 vs. 2481), respectively. Low CSR (CSR (>5000) was observed in 14 provinces (45.2%) where rates were 0.6 to 59.9% higher than the global target. Cataract surgical rate increased at higher economic quintiles. Differences between the first, second, and fifth (poorest) quintiles were statistically significant. The CSR concentration index was 0.1964 (95% confidence interval, 0.0964 to 0.2964). In line with the goals of the Vision 2020 initiative to eliminate cataract blindness, more than 70% of geographic areas in Iran have achieved the minimum CSR of 3000 or more. However, a large gap still exists in less than 30% of areas, mainly attributed to the economic status.

  3. Nanoimprinted distributed feedback dye laser sensors for high frame rate refractometric imaging of dissolution and fluid flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl; Gade, Carsten


    High frame rate refractometric dissolution and fluid flow monitoring in one and two dimensions of space with distributed feedback dye laser sensors is presented. The sensors provide both low detection limits and high spatial resolution. © 2015 OSA.......High frame rate refractometric dissolution and fluid flow monitoring in one and two dimensions of space with distributed feedback dye laser sensors is presented. The sensors provide both low detection limits and high spatial resolution. © 2015 OSA....

  4. Embedded electronics for a video-rate distributed aperture passive millimeter-wave imager (United States)

    Curt, Petersen F.; Bonnett, James; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Martin, Richard D.


    Optical upconversion for a distributed aperture millimeter wave imaging system is highly beneficial due to its superior bandwidth and limited susceptibility to EMI. These features mean the same technology can be used to collect information across a wide spectrum, as well as in harsh environments. Some practical uses of this technology include safety of flight in degraded visual environments (DVE), imaging through smoke and fog, and even electronic warfare. Using fiber-optics in the distributed aperture poses a particularly challenging problem with respect to maintaining coherence of the information between channels. In order to capture an image, the antenna aperture must be electronically steered and focused to a particular distance. Further, the state of the phased array must be maintained, even as environmental factors such as vibration, temperature and humidity adversely affect the propagation of the signals through the optical fibers. This phenomenon cannot be avoided or mitigated, but rather must be compensated for using a closed-loop control system. In this paper, we present an implementation of embedded electronics designed specifically for this purpose. This novel architecture is efficiently small, scalable to many simultaneously operating channels and sufficiently robust. We present our results, which include integration into a 220 channel imager and phase stability measurements as the system is stressed according to MIL-STD-810F vibration profiles of an H-53E heavy-lift helicopter.

  5. Pressure distribution evaluation of different filling methods for deposition of powders in dies: Measurement and modeling (United States)

    Sayyar Roudsari, Saed

    The aim of this research was to measure, analyze, and model the pressure distribution characteristics of powder deposition into rectangular and circular shallow dies using four filling methods. The feed shoe, the rotational rainy, the point feed, and the pneumatic filling methods were used to investigate the deposition characteristics into shallow dies. In order to evaluate the pressure distribution during filling of shallow dies, factors influencing powder deposition were studied. The factors included particle size and shape, particle size distribution, feed shoe speed, and tube cross-section (in case of feed shoe filling) and deposition rates (in case of rotational rainy, point feed, and pneumatic filling). A battery powder mixture (BPM) and microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH102) with median size of 84 and 600mum, respectively, were used to fill a shallow rectangular die 32x30 mm and 6.5 mm deep and a shallow circular die 35 mm in diameter and 6.5 mm deep. The second generation of pressure deposition tester (PDT-II) with circular and square feed shoe tube cross-sections was used to measure the two powders' pressure distribution characteristics. An innovative rotational rainy filling device was designed and fabricated. This versatile device can be used to measure filling characteristics at different rotational speeds (1-10 rpm) for various powders. The point feed (funnel fill) method with a funnel of 30 mm inlet diameter and 4.2 mm outlet diameter opening was used to fill the rectangular and circular shallow dies. The pneumatic filling method was designed and fabricated to fill the die using air as the conveying medium in a rectangular cross-section tube. The pneumatic filling device was limited to using only the BPM powder, since the Avicel powder generated substantial quantity of airborne dust during the test. Symmetry analysis, variance metrics, and uniformity analysis were used to quantify the deposition characteristics. The results showed that: (1) filled

  6. Tachyphylaxis associated with repeated epidural injections of lidocaine is not related to changes in distribution or the rate of elimination from the epidural space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, T; Simonsen, L; Scott, N B


    The relationship between tachyphylaxis (measured as a decrease in the rate of regression of sensory levels of analgesia) during repeated epidural injections of lidocaine and both the distribution of lidocaine within the epidural space (as measured by spread of simultaneous injection of the tracer...... technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetate [99mTc-DTPA]) and elimination of lidocaine from the epidural space (as measured by serum concentrations of lidocaine) was investigated in 18 patients undergoing minor surgery during lumbar epidural analgesia. Twelve patients received four injections of 20 mL of 2......% lidocaine at 2-hr intervals. Epidural distribution was assessed by injection of 99mTc-DTPA diluted in saline on the preoperative day and diluted in an equal volume of 2% lidocaine on the morning before surgery and again after the fourth injection of lidocaine 6 hr later. The distribution of 99m...

  7. Estimates of rates and errors for measurements of direct-. gamma. and direct-. gamma. + jet production by polarized protons at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddo, M.E.; Spinka, H.; Underwood, D.G.


    Studies of inclusive direct-{gamma} production by pp interactions at RHIC energies were performed. Rates and the associated uncertainties on spin-spin observables for this process were computed for the planned PHENIX and STAR detectors at energies between {radical}s = 50 and 500 GeV. Also, rates were computed for direct-{gamma} + jet production for the STAR detector. The goal was to study the gluon spin distribution functions with such measurements. Recommendations concerning the electromagnetic calorimeter design and the need for an endcap calorimeter for STAR are made.

  8. Electrodes as social glue: Measuring heart rate promotes giving in the trust game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lange, P.A.M.; Finkenauer, C.; Popma, A.; van Vugt, M.


    While physiological measures are increasingly used to help us understand the workings of interpersonal trust (and related behaviors), we know very little about the effects of such measures on trust. We examined the effects of a classic measure, the measurement of heart rate using a standard

  9. Thermocouple and infrared sensor-based measurement of temperature distribution in metal cutting. (United States)

    Kus, Abdil; Isik, Yahya; Cakir, M Cemal; Coşkun, Salih; Özdemir, Kadir


    In metal cutting, the magnitude of the temperature at the tool-chip interface is a function of the cutting parameters. This temperature directly affects production; therefore, increased research on the role of cutting temperatures can lead to improved machining operations. In this study, tool temperature was estimated by simultaneous temperature measurement employing both a K-type thermocouple and an infrared radiation (IR) pyrometer to measure the tool-chip interface temperature. Due to the complexity of the machining processes, the integration of different measuring techniques was necessary in order to obtain consistent temperature data. The thermal analysis results were compared via the ANSYS finite element method. Experiments were carried out in dry machining using workpiece material of AISI 4140 alloy steel that was heat treated by an induction process to a hardness of 50 HRC. A PVD TiAlN-TiN-coated WNVG 080404-IC907 carbide insert was used during the turning process. The results showed that with increasing cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, the tool temperature increased; the cutting speed was found to be the most effective parameter in assessing the temperature rise. The heat distribution of the cutting tool, tool-chip interface and workpiece provided effective and useful data for the optimization of selected cutting parameters during orthogonal machining.

  10. Thermocouple and Infrared Sensor-Based Measurement of Temperature Distribution in Metal Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdil Kus


    Full Text Available In metal cutting, the magnitude of the temperature at the tool-chip interface is a function of the cutting parameters. This temperature directly affects production; therefore, increased research on the role of cutting temperatures can lead to improved machining operations. In this study, tool temperature was estimated by simultaneous temperature measurement employing both a K-type thermocouple and an infrared radiation (IR pyrometer to measure the tool-chip interface temperature. Due to the complexity of the machining processes, the integration of different measuring techniques was necessary in order to obtain consistent temperature data. The thermal analysis results were compared via the ANSYS finite element method. Experiments were carried out in dry machining using workpiece material of AISI 4140 alloy steel that was heat treated by an induction process to a hardness of 50 HRC. A PVD TiAlN-TiN-coated WNVG 080404-IC907 carbide insert was used during the turning process. The results showed that with increasing cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, the tool temperature increased; the cutting speed was found to be the most effective parameter in assessing the temperature rise. The heat distribution of the cutting tool, tool-chip interface and workpiece provided effective and useful data for the optimization of selected cutting parameters during orthogonal machining.

  11. Thermocouple and Infrared Sensor-Based Measurement of Temperature Distribution in Metal Cutting (United States)

    Kus, Abdil; Isik, Yahya; Cakir, M. Cemal; Coşkun, Salih; Özdemir, Kadir


    In metal cutting, the magnitude of the temperature at the tool-chip interface is a function of the cutting parameters. This temperature directly affects production; therefore, increased research on the role of cutting temperatures can lead to improved machining operations. In this study, tool temperature was estimated by simultaneous temperature measurement employing both a K-type thermocouple and an infrared radiation (IR) pyrometer to measure the tool-chip interface temperature. Due to the complexity of the machining processes, the integration of different measuring techniques was necessary in order to obtain consistent temperature data. The thermal analysis results were compared via the ANSYS finite element method. Experiments were carried out in dry machining using workpiece material of AISI 4140 alloy steel that was heat treated by an induction process to a hardness of 50 HRC. A PVD TiAlN-TiN-coated WNVG 080404-IC907 carbide insert was used during the turning process. The results showed that with increasing cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, the tool temperature increased; the cutting speed was found to be the most effective parameter in assessing the temperature rise. The heat distribution of the cutting tool, tool-chip interface and workpiece provided effective and useful data for the optimization of selected cutting parameters during orthogonal machining. PMID:25587976

  12. Measurement of bubble size distribution in protein foam fractionation column using capillary probe with photoelectric sensors. (United States)

    Du, L; Ding, Y; Prokop, A; Tanner, R D


    Bubble size is a key variable for predicting the ability to separate and concentrate proteins in a foam fractionation process. It is used to characterize not only the bubble-specific interfacial area but also coalescence of bubbles in the foam phase. This article describes the development of a photoelectric method for measuring the bubble size distribution in both bubble and foam columns for concentrating proteins. The method uses a vacuum to withdraw a stream of gas-liquid dispersion from the bubble or foam column through a capillary tube with a funnel-shaped inlet. The resulting sample bubble cylinders are detected, and their lengths are calculated by using two pairs of infrared photoelectric sensors that are connected with a high-speed data acquisition system controlled by a microcomputer. The bubble size distributions in the bubble column 12 and 1 cm below the interface and in the foam phase 1 cm above the interface are obtained in a continuous foam fractionation process for concentrating ovalbumin. The effects of certain operating conditions such as the feed protein concentration, superficial gas velocity, liquid flow rate, and solution pH are investigated. The results may prove to be helpful in understanding the mechanisms controlling the foam fractionation of proteins.

  13. Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with multiple crystal heralded source with post-selection (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Shang-Hong, Zhao; MengYi, Deng


    The multiple crystal heralded source with post-selection (MHPS), originally introduced to improve the single-photon character of the heralded source, has specific applications for quantum information protocols. In this paper, by combining decoy-state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) with spontaneous parametric downconversion process, we present a modified MDI-QKD scheme with MHPS where two architectures are proposed corresponding to symmetric scheme and asymmetric scheme. The symmetric scheme, which linked by photon switches in a log-tree structure, is adopted to overcome the limitation of the current low efficiency of m-to-1 optical switches. The asymmetric scheme, which shows a chained structure, is used to cope with the scalability issue with increase in the number of crystals suffered in symmetric scheme. The numerical simulations show that our modified scheme has apparent advances both in transmission distance and key generation rate compared to the original MDI-QKD with weak coherent source and traditional heralded source with post-selection. Furthermore, the recent advances in integrated photonics suggest that if built into a single chip, the MHPS might be a practical alternative source in quantum key distribution tasks requiring single photons to work.

  14. Fission prompt gamma-ray multiplicity distribution measurements and simulations at DANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chyzh, A; Wu, C Y; Ullmann, J; Jandel, M; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Norman, E


    The nearly energy independence of the DANCE efficiency and multiplicity response to {gamma} rays makes it possible to measure the prompt {gamma}-ray multiplicity distribution in fission. We demonstrate this unique capability of DANCE through the comparison of {gamma}-ray energy and multiplicity distribution between the measurement and numerical simulation for three radioactive sources {sup 22}Na, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 88}Y. The prospect for measuring the {gamma}-ray multiplicity distribution for both spontaneous and neutron-induced fission is discussed.

  15. Technical and Economic Assessment of the Implementation of Measures for Reducing Energy Losses in Distribution Systems (United States)

    Aguila, Alexander; Wilson, Jorge


    This paper develops a methodology to assess a group of measures of electrical improvements in distribution systems, starting from the complementation of technical and economic criteria. In order to solve the problem of energy losses in distribution systems, technical and economic analysis was performed based on a mathematical model to establish a direct relationship between the energy saved by way of minimized losses and the costs of implementing the proposed measures. This paper aims at analysing the feasibility of reducing energy losses in distribution systems, by changing existing network conductors by larger crosssection conductors and distribution voltage change at higher levels. The impact of this methodology provides a highly efficient mathematical tool for analysing the feasibility of implementing improvement projects based on their costs which is a very useful tool for the distribution companies that will serve as a starting point to the analysis for this type of projects in distribution systems.

  16. Patient-Rated Alliance as a Measure of Therapist Performance in Two Clinical Settings (United States)

    Imel, Zac E.; Hubbard, Rebecca A.; Rutter, Carolyn M.; Simon, Gregory


    Objective: The ability to form a strong therapeutic alliance is considered a foundational skill across psychotherapies. Patient-rated measures of the alliance are now being used to make judgments about a therapist's tendency to build alliances with their patients. However, whether a patient-rated alliance measure provides a useful index of a…

  17. Rating Quality Studies Using Rasch Measurement Theory. Research Report 2013-3 (United States)

    Engelhard, George, Jr.; Wind, Stefanie A.


    The major purpose of this study is to examine the quality of ratings assigned to CR (constructed-response) questions in large-scale assessments from the perspective of Rasch Measurement Theory. Rasch Measurement Theory provides a framework for the examination of rating scale category structure that can yield useful information for interpreting the…

  18. Reproducibility of heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity measurements in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietrich, Andrea; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Althaus, Monika; van Roon, Arie M.; Mulder, Lambertus J. M.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Riese, Harriette

    Despite their extensive use, the reproducibility of cardiac autonomic measurements in children is not well-known. We investigated the reproducibility of short-term continuous measurements of heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV, time and frequency domain), and spontaneous baroreflex

  19. Diurnal and seasonal variation in air exchange rates and interzonal flows measured by active tracer gas in five Danish homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Geo; Bekö, Gabriel; Toftum, Jørn


    We measured the air exchange rates (AER) in up to six rooms in five naturally ventilated dwellings across four seasons using active tracer gas. Night time AER was also estimated in all bedrooms based on occupant-generated CO2. Additionally, we studied the pollutant distribution across the dwellings...... and airflows between rooms. AERs changed rapidly during the day and differed between rooms. Occupant behavior (window opening) strongly influenced the AERs. AERs were highest in the summer, lowest in the winter. Interzonal airflow measurements indicated that the air within a given floor is well mixed, while...

  20. Non-normal distribution of the Top-Of-Atmosphere satellite optical measurements over calibration sites


    Gorroño, J; Bialek, A; Green, PD; Harris, P; Scanlon, T; Fox, NP; Underwood, CI


    This paper studies the distribution associated with the measurement of the satellite derived Top-Of-Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance on a pixel-to-pixel level, within a defined spatial region of interest (ROI) within a vicarious calibration target site. The study analyses the effects of the atmosphere and surface reflectance distribution spatial shape. The analysis shows that some of the contributing effects are inherently non-linear, so produce non-normal distributions. For these non-normal dist...

  1. A directional wave measurement attack against the Kish key distribution system. (United States)

    Gunn, Lachlan J; Allison, Andrew; Abbott, Derek


    The Kish key distribution system has been proposed as a classical alternative to quantum key distribution. The idealized Kish scheme elegantly promises secure key distribution by exploiting thermal noise in a transmission line. However, we demonstrate that it is vulnerable to nonidealities in its components, such as the finite resistance of the transmission line connecting its endpoints. We introduce a novel attack against this nonideality using directional wave measurements, and experimentally demonstrate its efficacy.

  2. A form of multivariate Pareto distribution with applications to financial risk measurement


    Su, Jianxi; Furman, Edward


    A new multivariate distribution possessing arbitrarily parametrized and positively dependent univariate Pareto margins is introduced. Unlike the probability law of Asimit et al. (2010) [Asimit, V., Furman, E. and Vernic, R. (2010) On a multivariate Pareto distribution. Insurance: Mathematics and Economics 46(2), 308-316], the structure in this paper is absolutely continuous with respect to the corresponding Lebesgue measure. The distribution is of importance to actuaries through its connectio...

  3. Measurement and analysis of neutron flux distribution of STACY heterogeneous core by position sensitive proportional counter. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murazaki, Minoru; Uno, Yuichi; Miyoshi, Yoshinori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    We have measured neutron flux distribution around the core tank of STACY heterogeneous core by position sensitive proportional counter (PSPC) to develop the method to measure reactivity for subcritical systems. The neutron flux distribution data in the position accuracy of {+-}13 mm have been obtained in the range of uranium concentration of 50g/L to 210g/L both in critical and in subcritical state. The prompt neutron decay constant, {alpha}, was evaluated from the measurement data of pulsed neutron source experiments. We also calculated distribution of neutron flux and {sup 3}He reaction rates at the location of PSPC by using continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP. The measurement data was compared with the calculation results. As results of comparison, calculated values agreed generally with measurement data of PSPC with Cd cover in the region above half of solution height, but the difference between calculated value and measurement data was large in the region below half of solution height. On the other hand, calculated value agreed well with measurement data of PSPC without Cd cover. (author)

  4. Residence time distribution measurements in a pilot-scale poison tank using radiotracer technique. (United States)

    Pant, H J; Goswami, Sunil; Samantray, J S; Sharma, V K; Maheshwari, N K


    Various types of systems are used to control the reactivity and shutting down of a nuclear reactor during emergency and routine shutdown operations. Injection of boron solution (borated water) into the core of a reactor is one of the commonly used methods during emergency operation. A pilot-scale poison tank was designed and fabricated to simulate injection of boron poison into the core of a reactor along with coolant water. In order to design a full-scale poison tank, it was desired to characterize flow of liquid from the tank. Residence time distribution (RTD) measurement and analysis was adopted to characterize the flow dynamics. Radiotracer technique was applied to measure RTD of aqueous phase in the tank using Bromine-82 as a radiotracer. RTD measurements were carried out with two different modes of operation of the tank and at different flow rates. In Mode-1, the radiotracer was instantaneously injected at the inlet and monitored at the outlet, whereas in Mode-2, the tank was filled with radiotracer and its concentration was measured at the outlet. From the measured RTD curves, mean residence times (MRTs), dead volume and fraction of liquid pumped in with time were determined. The treated RTD curves were modeled using suitable mathematical models. An axial dispersion model with high degree of backmixing was found suitable to describe flow when operated in Mode-1, whereas a tanks-in-series model with backmixing was found suitable to describe flow of the poison in the tank when operated in Mode-2. The results were utilized to scale-up and design a full-scale poison tank for a nuclear reactor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Constant false alarm rate algorithm for the dim-small target detection based on the distribution characteristics of target coordinates (United States)

    Fei, Xiao-Liang; Ren, Kan; Qian, Wei-xian; Wang, Peng-cheng


    CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate) is a key technology in Infrared dim-small target detection system. Because the traditional constant false alarm rate detection algorithm gets the probability density distribution which is based on the pixel information of each area in the whole image and calculates the target segmentation threshold of each area by formula of Constant false alarm rate, the problems including the difficulty of probability distribution statistics and large amount of algorithm calculation and long delay time are existing. In order to solve the above problems effectively, a formula of Constant false alarm rate based on target coordinates distribution is presented. Firstly, this paper proposes a new formula of Constant false alarm rate by improving the traditional formula of Constant false alarm rate based on the single grayscale distribution which objective statistical distribution features are introduced. So the control of false alarm according to the target distribution information is implemented more accurately and the problem of high false alarm that is caused of the complex background in local area as the cloud reflection and the ground clutter interference is solved. At the same time, in order to reduce the amount of algorithm calculation and improve the real-time characteristics of algorithm, this paper divides the constant false-alarm statistical area through two-dimensional probability density distribution of target number adaptively which is different from the general identifying methods of constant false-alarm statistical area. Finally, the target segmentation threshold of next frame is calculated by iteration based on the function of target distribution probability density in image sequence which can achieve the purpose of controlling the false alarm until the false alarm is down to the upper limit. The experiment results show that the proposed method can significantly improve the operation time and meet the real-time requirements on

  6. Measurements and simulations of non-linear noise re-distribution in an SOA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip; Tromborg, Bjarne; Mørk, Jesper


    Measurements and numerical simulations of the noise statistics after a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) demonstrate non-linear noise re-distribution. The re-distribution, which depends on self-modulation due to gain saturation and carrier dynamics, show a strong power and bandwidth dependence...

  7. Single-Size Thermometric Measurements on a Size Distribution of Neutral Fullerenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauchy, C.; Bakker, J. M.; Huismans, Y.; Rouzee, A.; Redlich, B.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Bordas, C.; Vrakking, M. J. J.; Lepine, F.


    We present measurements of the velocity distribution of electrons emitted from mass-selected neutral fullerenes, performed at the intracavity free electron laser FELICE. We make use of mass-specific vibrational resonances in the infrared domain to selectively heat up one out of a distribution of

  8. Method to measure the position offset of multiple light spots in a distributed aperture laser angle measurement system. (United States)

    Jing, Xiaoli; Cheng, Haobo; Xu, Chunyun; Feng, Yunpeng


    In this paper, an accurate measurement method of multiple spots' position offsets on a four-quadrant detector is proposed for a distributed aperture laser angle measurement system (DALAMS). The theoretical model is put forward, as well as the corresponding calculation method. This method includes two steps. First, as the initial estimation, integral approximation is applied to fit the distributed spots' offset function; second, the Boltzmann function is employed to compensate for the estimation error to improve detection accuracy. The simulation results attest to the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed method, and tolerance synthesis analysis of DALAMS is conducted to determine the maximum uncertainties of manufacturing and installation. The maximum angle error is less than 0.08° in the prototype distributed measurement system, which shows the stability and robustness for prospective applications.

  9. Feasibility of exhaled nitric oxide measurements at various flow rates in children with asthma. (United States)

    Robroeks, Charlotte M H H T; van Vliet, Dillys; Hendriks, Han J E; Dompeling, Edward; Jöbsis, Quirijn


    Measurement of bronchial and alveolar exhaled nitric oxide (NO) levels could be of clinical importance for the treatment of asthma. To discriminate between alveolar and bronchial NO, measurements need to be assessed at various flow rates. To study the feasibility, linearity, and long-term repeatability of NO measurements at four different exhalation flow rates in children with asthma. Twenty-one children with moderate persistent asthma, aged 6-12 yrs, were included in the study. NO was measured according to the ATS/ERS guidelines, using the NIOX analyzer with flow restrictors of 30, 50, 100, and 200 ml/s. Duration of the measurements ranged from 6-10 s, depending on the flow rate. The tests were repeated 3 and 6 months after the first NO measurement. Feasibility of NO measurements at these four flow rates increased from 67% to 91% and 95% at the first, second and third visit, respectively. A significant learning effect was present. Age and lung function indices did not influence success or failure of the tests. At the first measurements occasions, no problems occurred during the NO analysis at a 100 ml/s flow rate. There was a 75-90% success rate when performing the test using flow rates of 30, 50, and 200 ml/s. However, repeating the tests resulted in a 100% success rate. Measurements were not successful if: (i) children ran out of air; (ii) NO concentration exceeded 200 ppb; (iii) the measured NO flow was unstable; and (iv) the NO plateau was not formed. This study showed good feasibility and linearity of NO measurements in asthmatic children of 6 yrs and over at flow rates between 50-200 ml/s. A significant learning effect was present. The long-term reproducibility of alveolar and bronchial NO values during 6 months was moderate. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Munksgaard.

  10. Measurement of Carbon Fixation Rates in Leaf Samples — Use of carbon-14 labeled sodium bicarbonate to estimate photosynthetic rates




    Author: David R. Caprette ### Generation of a Light Curve To address the hypothesis concerning photosynthetic efficiency it is necessary to expose sun and shade leaves to a range of light intensities long enough for them to fix significant amounts of carbon. It is necessary to expose identical surface areas under favorable conditions which are identical for all leaves except for light intensity (the experimental variable). A means of measuring the rate of carbon fixation is also neces...

  11. Simultaneous distributed measurements of temperature and strain using spontaneous Raman and Brillouin scattering (United States)

    Alahbabi, M. N.; Cho, Y. T.; Newson, Trevor P.


    We report on a novel method for simultaneous distributed measurement of the temperature and strain in an optical fiber based on spatially resolving the anti-Stokes signals of both the spontaneous Raman and Brillouin backscattered signals.

  12. Latest Constraints from Jet Measurements on Parton Distribution Functions and on the Strong Coupling Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Naumann-Emme, Sebastian Mirko


    Recent measurements of jet cross sections at HERA, the Tevatron and the LHC that provide constraints on parton distribution functions and allow for determinations of the strong coupling constant are presented.

  13. Measurements and simulations of non-linear noise re-distribution in an SOA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip; Tromborg, Bjarne; Mørk, Jesper


    Measurements and statistical simulations demonstrate that a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) induces non-linear noise re-distribution with a strong power and bandwidth dependence. © 2004 Optical Society of America......Measurements and statistical simulations demonstrate that a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) induces non-linear noise re-distribution with a strong power and bandwidth dependence. © 2004 Optical Society of America...

  14. Temperature Grid Sensor for the Measurement of Spatial Temperature Distributions at Object Surfaces


    Uwe Hampel; Thomas Schäfer; Markus Schubert


    This paper presents results of the development and application of a new temperature grid sensor based on the wire-mesh sensor principle. The grid sensor consists of a matrix of 256 Pt1000 platinum chip resistors and an associated electronics that measures the grid resistances with a multiplexing scheme at high speed. The individual sensor elements can be spatially distributed on an object surface and measure transient temperature distributions in real time. The advantage compared with other t...

  15. Dose rate measurement of a cobalt source 'Issledovatel' by means of Fricke dosimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Peimel-Stuglik, Z


    The results of measurements leading to the elaboration of a reliable and accurate dose rate determination for a cobalt irradiator 'Issledovatel' were presented. The dose measurements were done by means of classic Fricke dosimeter. The conclusions from measurements can be useful also for the dosimetry of other kinds of cobalt irradiators. The measurements were performed by a newly employed Laboratory for Measurements of Technological Doses staff and were a practical test of their proficiency in gamma ray dosimetry.

  16. Two-dimensional automatic measurement for nozzle flow distribution using improved ultrasonic sensor. (United States)

    Zhai, Changyuan; Zhao, Chunjiang; Wang, Xiu; Wang, Ning; Zou, Wei; Li, Wei


    Spray deposition and distribution are affected by many factors, one of which is nozzle flow distribution. A two-dimensional automatic measurement system, which consisted of a conveying unit, a system control unit, an ultrasonic sensor, and a deposition collecting dish, was designed and developed. The system could precisely move an ultrasonic sensor above a pesticide deposition collecting dish to measure the nozzle flow distribution. A sensor sleeve with a PVC tube was designed for the ultrasonic sensor to limit its beam angle in order to measure the liquid level in the small troughs. System performance tests were conducted to verify the designed functions and measurement accuracy. A commercial spray nozzle was also used to measure its flow distribution. The test results showed that the relative error on volume measurement was less than 7.27% when the liquid volume was 2 mL in trough, while the error was less than 4.52% when the liquid volume was 4 mL or more. The developed system was also used to evaluate the flow distribution of a commercial nozzle. It was able to provide the shape and the spraying width of the flow distribution accurately.

  17. Two-Dimensional Automatic Measurement for Nozzle Flow Distribution Using Improved Ultrasonic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyuan Zhai


    Full Text Available Spray deposition and distribution are affected by many factors, one of which is nozzle flow distribution. A two-dimensional automatic measurement system, which consisted of a conveying unit, a system control unit, an ultrasonic sensor, and a deposition collecting dish, was designed and developed. The system could precisely move an ultrasonic sensor above a pesticide deposition collecting dish to measure the nozzle flow distribution. A sensor sleeve with a PVC tube was designed for the ultrasonic sensor to limit its beam angle in order to measure the liquid level in the small troughs. System performance tests were conducted to verify the designed functions and measurement accuracy. A commercial spray nozzle was also used to measure its flow distribution. The test results showed that the relative error on volume measurement was less than 7.27% when the liquid volume was 2 mL in trough, while the error was less than 4.52% when the liquid volume was 4 mL or more. The developed system was also used to evaluate the flow distribution of a commercial nozzle. It was able to provide the shape and the spraying width of the flow distribution accurately.

  18. Measurements of the charged particle multiplicity distribution in restricted rapidity intervals

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Meinhard, H; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Stierlin, U; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Duarte, H; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Rosowsky, A; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Si Mohand, D; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G


    Charged particle multiplicity distributions have been measured with the ALEPH detector in restricted rapidity intervals |Y| \\leq 0.5,1.0, 1.5,2.0\\/ along the thrust axis and also without restriction on rapidity. The distribution for the full range can be parametrized by a log-normal distribution. For smaller windows one finds a more complicated structure, which is understood to arise from perturbative effects. The negative-binomial distribution fails to describe the data both with and without the restriction on rapidity. The JETSET model is found to describe all aspects of the data while the width predicted by HERWIG is in significant disagreement.

  19. Measurement based scenario analysis of short-range distribution system planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Chen, Zhe


    feasible scenarios are performed based on a local distribution system at Støvring in Denmark. Simulation results provide more accurate and insightful information for the decision-maker when using the probabilistic analysis than using the worst-case analysis, so that a better planning can be achieved.......This paper focuses on short-range distribution system planning using a probabilistic approach. Empirical probabilistic distributions of load demand and distributed generations are derived from the historical measurement data and incorporated into the system planning. Simulations with various...

  20. Measurement and analysis of neutron flux distribution of STACY heterogeneous core by position sensitive proportional counter. Contract research

    CERN Document Server

    Murazaki, M; Uno, Y


    We have measured neutron flux distribution around the core tank of STACY heterogeneous core by position sensitive proportional counter (PSPC) to develop the method to measure reactivity for subcritical systems. The neutron flux distribution data in the position accuracy of +-13 mm have been obtained in the range of uranium concentration of 50g/L to 210g/L both in critical and in subcritical state. The prompt neutron decay constant, alpha, was evaluated from the measurement data of pulsed neutron source experiments. We also calculated distribution of neutron flux and sup 3 He reaction rates at the location of PSPC by using continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP. The measurement data was compared with the calculation results. As results of comparison, calculated values agreed generally with measurement data of PSPC with Cd cover in the region above half of solution height, but the difference between calculated value and measurement data was large in the region below half of solution height. On the other hand, ...

  1. Measuring Flow Rate in Crystalline Bedrock Wells Using the Dissolved Oxygen Alteration Method. (United States)

    Vitale, Sarah A; Robbins, Gary A


    Determination of vertical flow rates in a fractured bedrock well can aid in planning and implementing hydraulic tests, water quality sampling, and improving interpretations of water quality data. Although flowmeters are highly accurate in flow rate measurement, the high cost and logistics may be limiting. In this study the dissolved oxygen alteration method (DOAM) is expanded upon as a low-cost alternative to determine vertical flow rates in crystalline bedrock wells. The method entails altering the dissolved oxygen content in the wellbore through bubbler aeration, and monitoring the vertical advective movement of the dissolved oxygen over time. Measurements were taken for upward and downward flows, and under ambient and pumping conditions. Vertical flow rates from 0.06 to 2.30 Lpm were measured. To validate the method, flow rates determined with the DOAM were compared to pump discharge rates and found to be in agreement within 2.5%. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  2. Evaluating standard airborne sound insulation measures in terms of annoyance, loudness, and audibility ratings. (United States)

    Park, H K; Bradley, J S


    This paper reports the results of an evaluation of the merits of standard airborne sound insulation measures with respect to subjective ratings of the annoyance and loudness of transmitted sounds. Subjects listened to speech and music sounds modified to represent transmission through 20 different walls with sound transmission class (STC) ratings from 34 to 58. A number of variations in the standard measures were also considered. These included variations in the 8-dB rule for the maximum allowed deficiency in the STC measure as well as variations in the standard 32-dB total allowed deficiency. Several spectrum adaptation terms were considered in combination with weighted sound reduction index (R(w)) values as well as modifications to the range of included frequencies in the standard rating contour. A STC measure without an 8-dB rule and an R(w) rating with a new spectrum adaptation term were better predictors of annoyance and loudness ratings of speech sounds. R(w) ratings with one of two modified C(tr) spectrum adaptation terms were better predictors of annoyance and loudness ratings of transmitted music sounds. Although some measures were much better predictors of responses to one type of sound than were the standard STC and R(w) values, no measure was remarkably improved for predicting annoyance and loudness ratings of both music and speech sounds.

  3. Measurement and prediction of aromatic solute distribution coefficients for aqueous-organic solvent systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.R.; Luthy, R.G.


    Experimental and modeling activities were performed to assess techniques for measurement and prediction of distribution coefficients for aromatic solutes between water and immiscible organic solvents. Experiments were performed to measure distribution coefficients in both clean water and wastewater systems, and to assess treatment of a wastewater by solvent extraction. The theoretical portions of this investigation were directed towards development of techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Experiments were performed to assess treatment of a phenolic-laden coal conversion wastewater by solvent extraction. The results showed that solvent extraction for recovery of phenolic material offered several wastewater processing advantages. Distribution coefficients were measured in clean water and wastewater systems for aromatic solutes of varying functionality with different solvent types. It was found that distribution coefficients for these compounds in clean water systems were not statistically different from distribution coefficients determined in a complex coal conversion process wastewater. These and other aromatic solute distribution coefficient data were employed for evaluation of modeling techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Eight solvents were selected in order to represent various chemical classes: toluene and benzene (aromatics), hexane and heptane (alkanes), n-octanol (alcohols), n-butyl acetate (esters), diisopropyl ether (ethers), and methylisobutyl ketone (ketones). The aromatic solutes included: nonpolar compounds such as benzene, toluene and naphthalene, phenolic compounds such as phenol, cresol and catechol, nitrogenous aromatics such as aniline, pyridine and aminonaphthalene, and other aromatic solutes such as naphthol, quinolinol and halogenated compounds. 100 references, 20 figures, 34 tables.

  4. Constraining the Sea Quark Distributions Through W+/- Cross Section Ratio Measurements at STAR (United States)

    Posik, Matthew; STAR Collaboration


    Over the years, extractions of parton distribution functions (PDFs) have become more precise, however there are still regions where more data are needed to improve constraints. One such distribution is the sea quark distribution near the valence region, in particular the d / u distribution. Currently, measurements in the high-x region still have large uncertainties and suggest different trends for this distribution. The charged W cross section ratio is sensitive to the unpolarized sea quark distributions and could be used to help constrain the d / u distribution. Through pp collisions, the STAR experiment at RHIC, is well equipped to measure the e+/- leptonic decays of W+/- bosons in the mid-rapidity range | η | at √{ s} = 500/510 GeV. At these kinematics STAR is sensitive to quark distributions near Bjorken-x of 0.16. STAR can also extend the sea quark sensitivity to higher x by measuring the leptonic decays in the forward rapidity range 1.1 < η < 2.0. STAR runs from 2011 through 2013 have collected about 350 pb-1 of data. Presented here are preliminary results for the 2011-2012 W cross section ratios ( 100 pb-1), and an update on the 2013 W cross section analysis ( 250 pb-1).

  5. Optimal distribution of integration time for intensity measurements in Stokes polarimetry. (United States)

    Li, Xiaobo; Liu, Tiegen; Huang, Bingjing; Song, Zhanjie; Hu, Haofeng


    We consider the typical Stokes polarimetry system, which performs four intensity measurements to estimate a Stokes vector. We show that if the total integration time of intensity measurements is fixed, the variance of the Stokes vector estimator depends on the distribution of the integration time at four intensity measurements. Therefore, by optimizing the distribution of integration time, the variance of the Stokes vector estimator can be decreased. In this paper, we obtain the closed-form solution of the optimal distribution of integration time by employing Lagrange multiplier method. According to the theoretical analysis and real-world experiment, it is shown that the total variance of the Stokes vector estimator can be significantly decreased about 40% in the case discussed in this paper. The method proposed in this paper can effectively decrease the measurement variance and thus statistically improves the measurement accuracy of the polarimetric system.

  6. Optimal distribution of integration time for intensity measurements in degree of linear polarization polarimetry. (United States)

    Li, Xiaobo; Hu, Haofeng; Liu, Tiegen; Huang, Bingjing; Song, Zhanjie


    We consider the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) polarimetry system, which performs two intensity measurements at orthogonal polarization states to estimate DOLP. We show that if the total integration time of intensity measurements is fixed, the variance of the DOLP estimator depends on the distribution of integration time for two intensity measurements. Therefore, by optimizing the distribution of integration time, the variance of the DOLP estimator can be decreased. In this paper, we obtain the closed-form solution of the optimal distribution of integration time in an approximate way by employing Delta method and Lagrange multiplier method. According to the theoretical analyses and real-world experiments, it is shown that the variance of the DOLP estimator can be decreased for any value of DOLP. The method proposed in this paper can effectively decrease the measurement variance and thus statistically improve the measurement accuracy of the polarimetry system.

  7. Exact Fill Rates for the (R, S Inventory Control with Discrete Distributed Demands for the Backordering Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia BABILONI


    Full Text Available The fill rate is usually computed by using the traditional approach, which calculates it as the complement of the quotient between the expected unfulfilled demand and the expected demand per replenishment cycle, instead of directly the expected fraction of fulfilled demand. Furthermore the available methods to estimate the fill rate apply only under specific demand conditions. This paper shows the research gap regarding the estimation procedures to compute the fill rate and suggests: (i a new exact procedure to compute the traditional approximation for any discrete demand distribution; and (ii a new method to compute the fill rate directly as the fraction of fulfilled demand for any discrete demand distribution. Simulation results show that the latter methods outperform the traditional approach, which underestimates the simulated fill rate, over different demand patterns. This paper focuses on the traditional periodic review, base stock system when backlogged demands are allowed.

  8. Standard practice for calculation of corrosion rates and related information from electrochemical measurements

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This practice covers the providing of guidance in converting the results of electrochemical measurements to rates of uniform corrosion. Calculation methods for converting corrosion current density values to either mass loss rates or average penetration rates are given for most engineering alloys. In addition, some guidelines for converting polarization resistance values to corrosion rates are provided. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

  9. The Measurements of Water Flow Rate in the T-shape Microchannels Based on the Scanning Micro-PIV Technique (United States)

    Han, W.; Wang, H. L.; Xu, M.


    In this study, the scanning microfluidic particle image velocimetry (scanning micro-PIV) technique is used to measure the water flow rate in a T-shape microchannel with the inlet and outlet width being 300 μm and 200 μm, respectively. The standard flow rates controlled by the syringe pump are ranging from 3.508 to 11.693 μL/min. The quasi-three-dimensional velocities at the branch point of the T-shape microchannel are constructed by measuring the two-dimensional velocities on 11 fluid layers from the bottom of microchannel to the top. Based on this, the flow rates are calculated by the discrete integration of velocity distributions on the cross-section of microchannel. The relative errors of the flow rates of the inlet and outlet are all within 3%, and we conclude that the main factors affecting the measurement precision of flow rate include the wall roughness of the microchannel, the spatial resolution of microscopic system and the algorithm of velocity evaluation.

  10. Reaction rate constants of H-abstraction by OH from large ketones: Measurements and site-specific rate rules

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad


    Reaction rate constants of the reaction of four large ketones with hydroxyl (OH) are investigated behind reflected shock waves using OH laser absorption. The studied ketones are isomers of hexanone and include 2-hexanone, 3-hexanone, 3-methyl-2-pentanone, and 4-methl-2-pentanone. Rate constants are measured under pseudo-first-order kinetics at temperatures ranging from 866 K to 1375 K and pressures near 1.5 atm. The reported high-temperature rate constant measurements are the first direct measurements for these ketones under combustion-relevant conditions. The effects of the position of the carbonyl group (CO) and methyl (CH3) branching on the overall rate constant with OH are examined. Using previously published data, rate constant expressions covering, low-to-high temperatures, are developed for acetone, 2-butanone, 3-pentanone, and the hexanone isomers studied here. These Arrhenius expressions are used to devise rate rules for H-abstraction from various sites. Specifically, the current scheme is applied with good success to H-abstraction by OH from a series of n-ketones. Finally, general expressions for primary and secondary site-specific H-abstraction by OH from ketones are proposed as follows (the subscript numbers indicate the number of carbon atoms bonded to the next-nearest-neighbor carbon atom, the subscript CO indicates that the abstraction is from a site next to the carbonyl group (CO), and the prime is used to differentiate different neighboring environments of a methylene group):P1,CO = 7.38 × 10-14 exp(-274 K/T) + 9.17 × 10-12 exp(-2499 K/T) (285-1355 K)S10,CO = 1.20 × 10-11 exp(-2046 K/T) + 2.20 × 10-13 exp(160 K/T) (222-1464 K)S11,CO = 4.50 × 10-11 exp(-3000 K/T) + 8.50 × 10-15 exp(1440 K/T) (248-1302 K)S11′,CO = 3.80 × 10-11 exp(-2500 K/T) + 8.50 × 10-15 exp(1550 K/T) (263-1370 K)S 21,CO = 5.00 × 10-11 exp(-2500 K/T) + 4.00 × 10-13 exp(775 K/T) (297-1376 K) © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  11. Controlling the feed rate of propanol to optimize erythromycin fermentation by on-line capacitance and oxygen uptake rate measurement. (United States)

    Guo, Qian; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Gao, Yang


    The aim of the present study was to optimize the feeding proportion of glucose and propanol for erythromycin biosynthesis by real-time monitoring and exploring its limited ratio by the on-line multi-frequency permittivity measurement. It was found that the capacitance values were sensitive to the variation of biomass concentration and microbial morphology as well as the true state of cell growth. It was most favorable to both cell growth and secondary metabolism to keep the ratio of glucose to propanol at 4.3 (g/g). The specific growth rate calculated by the capacitance measurement correctly and accurately reflected the cell physiological state. An appropriate feed rate of propanol was crucial for cell growth and secondary metabolism, as well as to improve the quality of erythromycin-A. In addition, the erythromycin production titer (10,950 U/mL) was further enhanced by 4 % when the propanol feed was regulated by step-down strategy based on both OUR (oxygen uptake rate) and the on-line monitoring capacitance.

  12. Battery Storage Systems as Grid-Balancing Measure in Low-Voltage Distribution Grids with Distributed Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Faessler


    Full Text Available Due to the promoted integration of renewable sources, a further growth of strongly transient, distributed generation is expected. Thus, the existing electrical grid may reach its physical limits. To counteract this, and to fully exploit the viable potential of renewables, grid-balancing measures are crucial. In this work, battery storage systems are embedded in a grid simulation to evaluate their potential for grid balancing. The overall setup is based on a real, low-voltage distribution grid topology, real smart meter household load profiles, and real photovoltaics load data. An autonomous optimization routine, driven by a one-way communicated incentive, determines the prospective battery operation mode. Different battery positions and incentives are compared to evaluate their impact. The configurations incorporate a baseline simulation without storage, a single, central battery storage or multiple, distributed battery storages which together have the same power and capacity. The incentives address either market conditions, grid balancing, optimal photovoltaic utilization, load shifting, or self-consumption. Simulations show that grid-balancing incentives result in lowest peak-to-average power ratios, while maintaining negligible voltage changes in comparison to a reference case. Incentives reflecting market conditions for electricity generation, such as real-time pricing, negatively influence the power quality, especially with respect to the peak-to-average power ratio. A central, feed-in-tied storage performs better in terms of minimizing the voltage drop/rise and shows lower distribution losses, while distributed storages attached at nodes with electricity generation by photovoltaics achieve lower peak-to-average power ratios.

  13. Measurement of the energy dependence of hadronic jet rates and the strong coupling $\\alpha_{s}$ from the four-jet rate with the DELPHI detector at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Adam, W; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alderweireld, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Berntzon, L; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Besson, N; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bluj, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buschmann, P; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F R; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Crennell, D J; Cuevas-Maestro, J; D'Hondt, J; Dalmau, J; Da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Dris, M; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, M; Fernández, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Herr, H; Hoffman, J; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Houlden, M A; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Johansson, P D; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Kernel, G; Kersevan, B P; Kerzel, U; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krumshtein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lopes, J H; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McNulty, R; Meroni, C; Migliore, E; Mitaroff, W A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Mönig, K; Monge, R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L; Murray, W; Muryn, B; Myatt, G; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Nawrocki, K; Nicolaidou, R; Nikolenko, M; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, R; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Palacios, J P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V F; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Pozdnyakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, A; Rames, J; Read, A; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Roudeau, P; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Sadovskii, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Sander, C; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Segar, A; Sekulin, R L; Siebel, M; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W A; Verdier, P; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, P; Zavrtanik, D; Zhuravlov, V; Zimin, N I; Zintchenko, A; Zupan, M


    Hadronic events from the data collected with the DELPHI detector at LEP within the energy range from 89 GeV to 209 GeV are selected, their jet rates are determined and compared to predictions of four different event generators. One of them is the recently developed APACIC++ generator which performs a massive matrix element calculation matched to a parton shower followed by string fragmentation. The four-jet rate is used to measure alpha_s in the next-to-leading-order approximation yielding alpha_s(M_Z^2) = 0.1175 +/- 0.0030. The running of alpha_s determined by using four-jet events has been tested. The logarithmic energy slope is measured to be d\\alpha_s^{-1} / d\\log E_{cm} = 1.14 +/- 0.36. Since the analysis is based on four-jet final states it represents an alternative approach to previous DELPHI alpha_s measurements using event shape distributions.

  14. Estimate of size distribution of charged MSPs measured in situ in winter during the WADIS-2 sounding rocket campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Asmus


    Full Text Available We present results of in situ measurements of mesosphere–lower thermosphere dusty-plasma densities including electrons, positive ions and charged aerosols conducted during the WADIS-2 sounding rocket campaign. The neutral air density was also measured, allowing for robust derivation of turbulence energy dissipation rates. A unique feature of these measurements is that they were done in a true common volume and with high spatial resolution. This allows for a reliable derivation of mean sizes and a size distribution function for the charged meteor smoke particles (MSPs. The mean particle radius derived from Schmidt numbers obtained from electron density fluctuations was ∼ 0.56 nm. We assumed a lognormal size distribution of the charged meteor smoke particles and derived the distribution width of 1.66 based on in situ-measured densities of different plasma constituents. We found that layers of enhanced meteor smoke particles' density measured by the particle detector coincide with enhanced Schmidt numbers obtained from the electron and neutral density fluctuations. Thus, we found that large particles with sizes  > 1 nm were stratified in layers of  ∼ 1 km thickness and lying some kilometers apart from each other.

  15. Estimate of size distribution of charged MSPs measured in situ in winter during the WADIS-2 sounding rocket campaign (United States)

    Asmus, Heiner; Staszak, Tristan; Strelnikov, Boris; Lübken, Franz-Josef; Friedrich, Martin; Rapp, Markus


    We present results of in situ measurements of mesosphere-lower thermosphere dusty-plasma densities including electrons, positive ions and charged aerosols conducted during the WADIS-2 sounding rocket campaign. The neutral air density was also measured, allowing for robust derivation of turbulence energy dissipation rates. A unique feature of these measurements is that they were done in a true common volume and with high spatial resolution. This allows for a reliable derivation of mean sizes and a size distribution function for the charged meteor smoke particles (MSPs). The mean particle radius derived from Schmidt numbers obtained from electron density fluctuations was ˜ 0.56 nm. We assumed a lognormal size distribution of the charged meteor smoke particles and derived the distribution width of 1.66 based on in situ-measured densities of different plasma constituents. We found that layers of enhanced meteor smoke particles' density measured by the particle detector coincide with enhanced Schmidt numbers obtained from the electron and neutral density fluctuations. Thus, we found that large particles with sizes > 1 nm were stratified in layers of ˜ 1 km thickness and lying some kilometers apart from each other.

  16. Investigating and improving student understanding of the probability distributions for measuring physical observables in quantum mechanics (United States)

    Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha


    A solid grasp of the probability distributions for measuring physical observables is central to connecting the quantum formalism to measurements. However, students often struggle with the probability distributions of measurement outcomes for an observable and have difficulty expressing this concept in different representations. Here we first describe the difficulties that upper-level undergraduate and PhD students have with the probability distributions for measuring physical observables in quantum mechanics. We then discuss how student difficulties found in written surveys and individual interviews were used as a guide in the development of a quantum interactive learning tutorial (QuILT) to help students develop a good grasp of the probability distributions of measurement outcomes for physical observables. The QuILT strives to help students become proficient in expressing the probability distributions for the measurement of physical observables in Dirac notation and in the position representation and be able to convert from Dirac notation to position representation and vice versa. We describe the development and evaluation of the QuILT and findings about the effectiveness of the QuILT from in-class evaluations.

  17. Reconstruction method for inversion problems in an acoustic tomography based temperature distribution measurement (United States)

    Liu, Sha; Liu, Shi; Tong, Guowei


    In industrial areas, temperature distribution information provides a powerful data support for improving system efficiency, reducing pollutant emission, ensuring safety operation, etc. As a noninvasive measurement technology, acoustic tomography (AT) has been widely used to measure temperature distribution where the efficiency of the reconstruction algorithm is crucial for the reliability of the measurement results. Different from traditional reconstruction techniques, in this paper a two-phase reconstruction method is proposed to ameliorate the reconstruction accuracy (RA). In the first phase, the measurement domain is discretized by a coarse square grid to reduce the number of unknown variables to mitigate the ill-posed nature of the AT inverse problem. By taking into consideration the inaccuracy of the measured time-of-flight data, a new cost function is constructed to improve the robustness of the estimation, and a grey wolf optimizer is used to solve the proposed cost function to obtain the temperature distribution on the coarse grid. In the second phase, the Adaboost.RT based BP neural network algorithm is developed for predicting the temperature distribution on the refined grid in accordance with the temperature distribution data estimated in the first phase. Numerical simulations and experiment measurement results validate the superiority of the proposed reconstruction algorithm in improving the robustness and RA.

  18. Influence of substrate magnetism of coated conductors on critical current distribution measurement using magnetic knife method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Z. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)], E-mail:; Amemiya, N.; Onuma, T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Kato, T.; Ueyama, M. [Sumitomo Electric Ind., Ltd., Electric Power and Energy Research Laboratories, 1-1-3, Shimaya, Konohana, Osaka 554-0024 (Japan); Kashima, N.; Nagaya, S. [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., 20-1 Kita-Sekiyama, Ohdaka, Midori, Nagoya 459-8522 (Japan); Shiohara, Y. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, ISTEC, 1-10-13 Shinonome, Koto, Tokyo 136-0062 (Japan)


    A YBCO coated conductor with non-magnetic substrate and a magnetic Ni alloy tape were prepared to investigate the influence of the substrate magnetism on the J{sub c} distribution measurement. We measured the J{sub c} distribution of the YBCO coated conductor and that of the same YBCO coated conductor with the magnetic tape over-lied on its face (the space between the superconducting layer and the magnetic tape is 20 {mu}m which is the thickness of protecting Ag layer), and compared the measured results with each other. The measured results agreed well with each other, and there was little influence of the tape magnetism on the J{sub c} distribution measurement. Based on this fact, the J{sub c} distribution in a HoBCO coated conductor with magnetic substrate was measured using the magnetic knife method. Twenty-two voltage taps were attached to the conductor with 5 mm separation along the conductor axis. The lateral J{sub c} distributions in the sections were generally in the shape of trapezoid.

  19. Oxygen respiration rates of benthic foraminifera as measured with oxygen microsensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geslin, E.; Risgaard-Petersen, N.; Lombard, Fabien


    Oxygen respiration rates of benthic foraminifera are still badly known, mainly because they are difficult to measure. Oxygen respiration rates of seventeen species of benthic foraminifera were measured using microelectrodes and calculated on the basis of the oxygen fluxes measured in the vicinity...... of the foraminiferal specimens. The results show a wide range of oxygen respiration rates for the different species (from 0.09 to 5.27 nl cell−1 h−1) and a clear correlation with foraminiferal biovolume showed by the power law relationship: R = 3.98 10−3 BioVol0.88 where the oxygen respiration rate (R) is expressed...... groups (nematodes, copepods, ostracods, ciliates and flagellates) suggests that benthic foraminifera have a lower oxygen respiration rates per unit biovolume. The total contribution of benthic foraminifera to the aerobic mineralisation of organic matter is estimated for the studied areas. The results...

  20. A quantum inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements with applications to weak value measurements (United States)

    Escalante, George


    Weak Value Measurements (WVMs) with pre- and post-selected quantum mechanical ensembles were proposed by Aharonov, Albert, and Vaidman in 1988 and have found numerous applications in both theoretical and applied physics. In the field of precision metrology, WVM techniques have been demonstrated and proven valuable as a means to shift, amplify, and detect signals and to make precise measurements of small effects in both quantum and classical systems, including: particle spin, the Spin-Hall effect of light, optical beam deflections, frequency shifts, field gradients, and many others. In principal, WVM amplification techniques are also possible in radar and could be a valuable tool for precision measurements. However, relatively limited research has been done in this area. This article presents a quantum-inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements of arbitrary strength, including standard and pre- and post-selected measurements. The model is used to extend WVM amplification theory to radar, with the receive filter performing the post-selection role. It is shown that the description of range and range-rate measurements based on the quantum-mechanical measurement model and formalism produces the same results as the conventional approach used in radar based on signal processing and filtering of the reflected signal at the radar receiver. Numerical simulation results using simple point scatterrer configurations are presented, applying the quantum-inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements that occur in the weak measurement regime. Potential applications and benefits of the quantum inspired approach to radar measurements are presented, including improved range and Doppler measurement resolution.

  1. Air method measurements of apple vessel length distributions with improved apparatus and theory (United States)

    Shabtal Cohen; John Bennink; Mel Tyree


    Studies showing that rootstock dwarfing potential is related to plant hydraulic conductance led to the hypothesis that xylem properties are also related. Vessel length distribution and other properties of apple wood from a series of varieties were measured using the 'air method' in order to test this hypothesis. Apparatus was built to measure and monitor...

  2. Measuring heat balance residual at lake surface using distributed temperature sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Emmerik, T.H.M.; Rimmer, A.; Lechinsky, Y.; Wenker, K.J.R.; Nussboim, S.; Van de Giesen, N.C.


    This research presents a new method to verify the measurements of surface fluxes and the heat balance at a lake surface, by means of Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) measurements from 0.5 m above to 1.5 m below the surface. Using a polyvinyl chloride hyperboloid construction, a floating

  3. Particle Size Distributions Measured in the Stratospheric Plumes of Three Rockets During the ACCENT Missions (United States)

    Wiedinmyer, C.; Brock, C. A.; Reeves, J. M.; Ross, M. N.; Schmid, O.; Toohey, D.; Wilson, J. C.


    The global impact of particles emitted by rocket engines on stratospheric ozone is not well understood, mainly due to the lack of comprehensive in situ measurements of the size distributions of these emitted particles. During the Atmospheric Chemistry of Combustion Emissions Near the Tropopause (ACCENT) missions in 1999, the NASA WB-57F aircraft carried the University of Denver N-MASS and FCAS instruments into the stratospheric plumes from three rockets. Size distributions of particles with diameters from 4 to approximately 2000 nm were calculated from the instrument measurements using numerical inversion techniques. The data have been averaged over 30-second intervals. The particle size distributions observed in all of the rocket plumes included a dominant mode near 60 nm diameter, probably composed of alumina particles. A smaller mode at approximately 25 nm, possibly composed of soot particles, was seen in only the plumes of rockets that used liquid oxygen and kerosene as a propellant. Aircraft exhaust emitted by the WB-57F was also sampled; the size distributions within these plumes are consistent with prior measurements in aircraft plumes. The size distributions for all rocket intercepts have been fitted to bimodal, lognormal distributions to provide input for global models of the stratosphere. Our data suggest that previous estimates of the solid rocket motor alumina size distributions may underestimate the alumina surface area emission index, and so underestimate the particle surface area available for heterogeneous chlorine activation reactions in the global stratosphere.

  4. Hierarchy of individual calibration levels for heart rate and accelerometry to measure physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brage, Søren; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Niels


    Combining accelerometry with heart rate (HR) monitoring may improve precision of physical activity measurement. Considerable variation exists in the relationships between physical activity intensity (PAI) and HR and accelerometry, which may be reduced by individual calibration. However, individual...

  5. The Effects of Participation Rate on the Internal Reliability of Peer Nomination Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marks, P.E.L.; Babcock, B.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Crick, N.R.


    Although low participation rates have historically been considered problematic in peer nomination research, some researchers have recently argued that small proportions of participants can, in fact, provide adequate sociometric data. The current study used a classical measurement perspective to

  6. A uniform measurement expression for cross method comparison of nanoparticle aggregate size distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dudkiewicz, Agnieszka; Wagner, Stephan; Lehner, Angela


    plasma mass spectrometry detection (AF4-ICP-MS). Transformed size distributions are then compared between the methods and conclusions drawn on methods’ measurement accuracy, limits of detection and quantification related to the synthetic amorphous silca’s size. Two out of the six tested methods (GEMMA...... and AF4-ICP-MS) cross validate the MED distributions between each other, providing a true measurement. The measurement accuracy of other four techniques is shown to be compromised either by the high limit of detection and quantification (CLS, NTA, Wet-SEM) or the sample preparation that is biased...

  7. A 128-channel picoammeter system and its application on charged particle beam current distribution measurements. (United States)

    Yu, Deyang; Liu, Junliang; Xue, Yingli; Zhang, Mingwu; Cai, Xiaohong; Hu, Jianjun; Dong, Jinmei; Li, Xin


    A 128-channel picoammeter system is constructed based on instrumentation amplifiers. Taking advantage of a high electric potential and narrow bandwidth in DC energetic charged beam measurements, a current resolution better than 5 fA can be achieved. Two sets of 128-channel strip electrodes are implemented on printed circuit boards and are employed for ion and electron beam current distribution measurements. Tests with 60 keV O(3+) ions and 2 keV electrons show that it can provide exact boundaries when a positive charged particle beam current distribution is measured.

  8. Comparing measurement error correction methods for rate-of-change exposure variables in survival analysis. (United States)

    Veronesi, Giovanni; Ferrario, Marco M; Chambless, Lloyd E


    In this article we focus on comparing measurement error correction methods for rate-of-change exposure variables in survival analysis, when longitudinal data are observed prior to the follow-up time. Motivational examples include the analysis of the association between changes in cardiovascular risk factors and subsequent onset of coronary events. We derive a measurement error model for the rate of change, estimated through subject-specific linear regression, assuming an additive measurement error model for the time-specific measurements. The rate of change is then included as a time-invariant variable in a Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for the first time-specific measurement (baseline) and an error-free covariate. In a simulation study, we compared bias, standard deviation and mean squared error (MSE) for the regression calibration (RC) and the simulation-extrapolation (SIMEX) estimators. Our findings indicate that when the amount of measurement error is substantial, RC should be the preferred method, since it has smaller MSE for estimating the coefficients of the rate of change and of the variable measured without error. However, when the amount of measurement error is small, the choice of the method should take into account the event rate in the population and the effect size to be estimated. An application to an observational study, as well as examples of published studies where our model could have been applied, are also provided.

  9. Correlation Between Cone Penetration Rate And Measured Cone Penetration Parameters In Silty Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Rikke; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo


    penetration tests with varying penetration rates conducted at a test site where the subsoil primary consists of sandy silt. It is shown how a reduced penetration rate influences the cone penetration measurements e.g. the cone resistance, pore pressure, and sleeve friction.......This paper shows, how a change in cone penetration rate affects the cone penetration measurements, hence the cone resistance, pore pressure, and sleeve friction in silty soil. The standard rate of penetration is 20 mm/s, and it is generally accepted that undrained penetration occurs in clay while...... drained penetration occurs in sand. When lowering the penetration rate, the soil pore water starts to dissipate and a change in the drainage condition is seen. In intermediate soils such as silty soils, the standard cone penetration rate may result in a drainage condition that could be undrained...

  10. A bivariate extension of the Hosking and Wallis goodness-of-fit measure for regional distributions (United States)

    Kjeldsen, T. R.; Prosdocimi, I.


    This study presents a bivariate extension of the goodness-of-fit measure for regional frequency distributions developed by Hosking and Wallis (1993) for use with the method of L-moments. Utilizing the approximate joint normal distribution of the regional L-skewness and L-kurtosis, a graphical representation of the confidence region on the L-moment diagram can be constructed as an ellipsoid. Candidate distributions can then be accepted where the corresponding theoretical relationship between the L-skewness and L-kurtosis intersects the confidence region, and the chosen distribution would be the one that minimizes the Mahalanobis distance measure. Based on a set of Monte Carlo simulations, it is demonstrated that the new bivariate measure generally selects the true population distribution more frequently than the original method. Results are presented to show that the new measure remains robust when applied to regions where the level of intersite correlation is at a level found in real world regions. Finally the method is applied to two different case studies involving annual maximum peak flow data from Italian and British catchments to identify suitable regional frequency distributions.

  11. Geographic distribution of habitat, development, and population growth rates of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, in Mexico. (United States)

    López-Collado, José; Isabel López-Arroyo, J; Robles-García, Pedro L; Márquez-Santos, Magdalena


    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is an introduced pest in Mexico and a vector of huanglongbing, a lethal citrus disease. Estimations of the habitat distribution and population growth rates of D. citri are required to establish regional and areawide management strategies and can be used as a pest risk analysis tools. In this study, the habitat distribution of D. citri in Mexico was computed with MaxEnt, an inductive, machine-learning program that uses bioclimatic layers and point location data. Geographic distributions of development and population growth rates were determined by fitting a temperature-dependent, nonlinear model and projecting the rates over the target area, using the annual mean temperature as the predictor variable. The results showed that the most suitable regions for habitat of D. citri comprise the Gulf of Mexico states, Yucatán Peninsula, and areas scattered throughout the Pacific coastal states. Less suitable areas occurred in northern and central states. The most important predictor variables were related to temperature. Development and growth rates had a distribution wider than habitat, reaching some of the northern states of México. Habitat, development, and population growth rates were correlated to each other and with the citrus producing area. These relationships indicated that citrus producing states are within the most suitable regions for the occurrence, development, and population growth of D. citri, therefore increasing the risk of huanglongbing dispersion.

  12. Non-intrusive burning rate measurement under pressure by evaluation of video data


    Weiser, V.; Ebeling, H.; Weindel, M.; Eckl, W.; Klahn, T.


    A non-intrusive and simple to use method to determine the burning rate of propellants, fragile gas generators, liquid or bulk materials in tubes is introduced. A minimum preparation expense is necessary. Via a high-speed CCD-camera or an ordinary DV-camcorder the combustion process of a strand burner is digitised and automatically analysed. A good agreement with Crawford measurements is found. The method allows controlling the quality of the high precision burning rate measurements during eac...

  13. Application of optical disdrometer to characterize simulated rainfall and measure drop size distribution (United States)

    Meshesha, Derege; Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Ayehu, Nigussie


    Soil erosion by water is becoming a major threat in tropical and semiarid regions, which is causing a serious of land degradation and socio-economic problems. Knowledge of rainfall characteristics, drop size distributions and relationship between rainfall elements is essential for development of erosion-mitigation strategies. Thus, this research was carried out to further investigate the nature of raindrop size distribution, median volume drop diameter (D50) and radar reflectivity (dBz) of the different intensities using simulated rainfall and optical distrometer. Besides, operational principle and capabilities of the optical distrometer (Laser Precipitation Monitor (LPM)) to characterize rainfall of different intensities and conduct measurement was evaluated. The rain was simulated from 12 meter height and the sensor constantly and automatically recorded the diameter and terminal velocity of each raindrop and gave the output in every 1 minute interval. The median volume drop diameter (D50) of the simulated rain was found to be higher than the natural rain for almost all rainfall intensities, which might be attributed to variation in rainfall types and prevalence of turbulence in natural rain that makes larger drop sizes unstable. The result of radar reflectivity (Z) and intensity (R) relationship revealed that, similar to natural rainfall, power law function is the most suitable equation for all rainfall rates (Z=aRb). For the whole rainfall intensity datasets (1.5 to 202 mm h-1) a varies from 0.94 to 2.46 while b ranges from 162 to 706. The optical device used in the study was found to be efficient and suitable to the purpose of rainfall characterization at 1 min resolution.

  14. Reliability and validity of a self-rated analogue scale for global measure of successful aging. (United States)

    Gwee, Xinyi; Nyunt, Ma Shwe Zin; Kua, Ee Heok; Jeste, Dilip V; Kumar, Rajeev; Ng, Tze Pin


    Dimension-specific objective measures are criticized for their limited perspective and failure to endorse subjective perceptions by respondents, but the validity and correlates of a subjective global measure of successful aging (SA) are still not well established. We evaluated the reliability and validity of a self-rated analogue scale of global SA in an elderly Singaporean population. Cross-sectional data analysis using a comprehensive questionnaire survey. 489 community-dwelling Singaporeans aged 65 years and over. Self-rated SA on an analogue scale from 1 (least successful) to 10 (most successful) was analyzed for its relationship to criterion-based measures of five specific dimensions (physical health and function, mental well-being, social engagement, psychological well-being, and spirituality/religiosity), as well as outcome measures (life satisfaction and quality of life). Self-rated SA was significantly correlated to measures of specific dimensions (standardized β from 0.11 to 0.39), most strongly with psychological functioning (β = 0.391). The five dimension-specific measures together accounted for 16.7% of the variance in self-rated SA. Self-rated SA best predicted life satisfaction (R(2) = 0.26) more than any dimension-specific measure (R(2) from 0.05 to 0.17). Self-rated SA, vis-à-vis dimension-specific measures, was related to a different set of correlates, and was notably independent of chronological age, sex, education, socioeconomic status, and medical comorbidity, but was significantly related to ethnicity. The self-rated analogue scale is a sensitive global measure of SA encompassing a spectrum of underlying dimensions and subjective perspectives and its validity is well supported in this study. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sequential multi-nuclide emission rate estimation method based on gamma dose rate measurement for nuclear emergency management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaole, E-mail: [Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, D-76021 (Germany); Institute of Public Safety Research, Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Raskob, Wolfgang; Landman, Claudia; Trybushnyi, Dmytro; Li, Yu [Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, D-76021 (Germany)


    Highlights: • Sequentially reconstruct multi-nuclide emission using gamma dose rate measurements. • Incorporate a priori ratio of nuclides into the background error covariance matrix. • Sequentially augment and update the estimation and the background error covariance. • Suppress the generation of negative estimations for the sequential method. • Evaluate the new method with twin experiments based on the JRODOS system. - Abstract: In case of a nuclear accident, the source term is typically not known but extremely important for the assessment of the consequences to the affected population. Therefore the assessment of the potential source term is of uppermost importance for emergency response. A fully sequential method, derived from a regularized weighted least square problem, is proposed to reconstruct the emission and composition of a multiple-nuclide release using gamma dose rate measurement. The a priori nuclide ratios are incorporated into the background error covariance (BEC) matrix, which is dynamically augmented and sequentially updated. The negative estimations in the mathematical algorithm are suppressed by utilizing artificial zero-observations (with large uncertainties) to simultaneously update the state vector and BEC. The method is evaluated by twin experiments based on the JRodos system. The results indicate that the new method successfully reconstructs the emission and its uncertainties. Accurate a priori ratio accelerates the analysis process, which obtains satisfactory results with only limited number of measurements, otherwise it needs more measurements to generate reasonable estimations. The suppression of negative estimation effectively improves the performance, especially for the situation with poor a priori information, where it is more prone to the generation of negative values.

  16. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclide distributions in the Nansen Basin, Artic Ocean: Scavenging rates and circulation timescales (United States)

    Kirk Cochran, J.; Hirschberg, David J.; Livingston, Hugh D.; Buesseler, Ken O.; Key, Robert M.

    Determination of the naturally occurring radionuclides 232Th, 230Th, 228 Th and 210Pb, and the anthropogenic radionuclides 241Am, 239,240Pu, 134Cs and 137Cs in water samples collected across the Nansen Basin from the Barents Sea slope to the Gakkel Ridge provides tracers with which to characterize both scavenging rates and circulation timescales in this portion of the Arctic Ocean. Large volume water samples (˜ 15001) were filtered in situ to separate particulate (> 0.5 μm) and dissolved Th isotopes and 241Am. Thorium-230 displays increases in both particulate and dissolved activities with depth, with dissolved 230Th greater and particulate 230Th lower in the deep central Nansen Basin than at the Barents Sea slope. Dissolved 228Th activities also are greater relative to 228Ra, in the central basin. Residence times for Th relative to removal from solution onto particles are ˜1 year in surface water, ˜10 years in deep water adjacent to the Barents Sea slope, and ˜20 years in the Eurasian Basin Deep Water. Lead-210 in the central basin deep water also has a residence time of ˜20 years with respect to its removal from the water column. This texture of scavenging is reflected in distributions of the particle-reactive anthropogenic radionuclide 241Am, which shows higher activities relative to Pu in the central Nansen Basin than at the Barents Sea slope. Distributions Of 137Cs show more rapid mixing at the basin margins (Barents Sea slope in the south, Gakkel Ridge in the north) than in the basin interior. Cesium-137 is mixed throughout the water column adjacent to the Barents Sea slope and is present in low but detectable activities in the Eurasian Basin Deep Water in the central basin. At the time of sampling (1987) the surface water at all stations had been labeled with 134Cs released in the 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station. In the ˜1 year since the introduction of Chernobyl 134Cs to the Nansen Basin, it had been mixed to depths of ˜800 m at

  17. Economic station load distribution in thermal power stations with multi-rated sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagannathan, P.; Murty, N.S.; Dutt, R.V.S.K. [BHEL House, New Delhi (India)


    This paper presents a suitable method developed for arriving at the minimum station heat rate with dynamic heat rate characteristics evaluation for implementation on existing as well as next generation C & I platforms. 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Linking changes in subcellular cadmium distribution to growth and mortality rates in transplanted freshwater bivalves (Pyganodon grandis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perceval, Olivier [Groupe de recherche interuniversitaire en limnologie (GRIL), Departement de sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7 (Canada)]. E-mail:; Couillard, Yves [Division de l' evaluation des produits chimiques, Environnement Canada, Place Vincent Massey, 351 Bd Saint-Joseph, Hull, Quebec, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Pinel-Alloul, Bernadette [Groupe de recherche interuniversitaire en limnologie (GRIL), Departement de sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Campbell, Peter G.C. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique - Eau, Terre et Environnement (INRS-ETE), Universite du Quebec, 490 de la Couronne, Quebec, G1K 9A9 (Canada)


    Relationships between Cd accumulation and subcellular distribution, and growth and mortality rates were examined in the freshwater bivalve Pyganodon grandis in a transplant experiment. Organisms were transferred from a clean lacustrine site to four lakes situated along a Cd concentration gradient in the mining region of Rouyn-Noranda. The bivalves were maintained in open enclosures placed in the bottom sediments of the littoral zone of all five lakes for 400 days. At the end of the experiment, metallothionein (MT) was measured in the bivalve gills with a Hg-saturation assay and Cd partitioning among the various cytosolic protein pools was determined by size-exclusion chromatography. Marked differences were observed among the five sites: the range in calculated free-cadmium ion concentrations in water overlying the sediments was 35-fold whereas Cd concentrations in the gill cytosol of the transplanted bivalves varied three-fold. In the transplanted bivalves, the distribution of gill Cd among the various cytosolic complexes also varied significantly among sites. For bivalves transplanted to the three most contaminated sites, Cd concentrations in the high molecular weight pool (HMW > 25 kDa) were significantly higher than the baseline levels determined from bivalves caged at the reference site; a similar trend was seen for Cd concentrations in the metallothionein pool (Cd-MT). For bivalves transferred to two of the high contamination sites, proportionately less of the gill cytosolic Cd was sequestered (i.e. detoxified) by MT-like proteins. Reductions in survival were also observed at these two sites, and these elevated mortalities, in turn, were consistent with the absence of indigenous bivalve populations at these sites. This result is compatible with our recent work on P. grandis populations living in lakes of the Rouyn-Noranda area, in which we demonstrated that excessive accumulation of Cd in the HMW pool of the gill cytosol of the individual mollusks could be

  19. 3D ion velocity distribution function measurement in an electric thruster using laser induced fluorescence tomography. (United States)

    Elias, P Q; Jarrige, J; Cucchetti, E; Cannat, F; Packan, D


    Measuring the full ion velocity distribution function (IVDF) by non-intrusive techniques can improve our understanding of the ionization processes and beam dynamics at work in electric thrusters. In this paper, a Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) tomographic reconstruction technique is applied to the measurement of the IVDF in the plume of a miniature Hall effect thruster. A setup is developed to move the laser axis along two rotation axes around the measurement volume. The fluorescence spectra taken from different viewing angles are combined using a tomographic reconstruction algorithm to build the complete 3D (in phase space) time-averaged distribution function. For the first time, this technique is used in the plume of a miniature Hall effect thruster to measure the full distribution function of the xenon ions. Two examples of reconstructions are provided, in front of the thruster nose-cone and in front of the anode channel. The reconstruction reveals the features of the ion beam, in particular on the thruster axis where a toroidal distribution function is observed. These findings are consistent with the thruster shape and operation. This technique, which can be used with other LIF schemes, could be helpful in revealing the details of the ion production regions and the beam dynamics. Using a more powerful laser source, the current implementation of the technique could be improved to reduce the measurement time and also to reconstruct the temporal evolution of the distribution function.

  20. [Construction and application of probability distribution model for mixed forests measurement factors]. (United States)

    Liu, En-Bin; Tang, Meng-Ping; Shi, Yong-Jun; Zhou, Guo-Mo; Li, Yong-Fu


    Aiming at the deficiencies in the researches about the probability distribution model for mixed forests tree measurement factors, a joint maximum entropy probability density function was put forward, based on the maximum entropy principle. This function had the characteristics of 1) each element of the function was linked to the maximum entropy function, and hence, could integrate the information about the probability distribution of measurement factors of main tree species in mixed forests, 2) the function had a probability expression of double-weight, being possible to reflect the characteristics of the complex structure of mixed forests, and accurately and completely reflect the probability distribution of tree measurement factors of mixed forests based on the fully use of the information about the probability distribution of measurement factors of main tree species in mixed forests, and 3) the joint maximum entropy probability density function was succinct in structure and excellent in performance. The model was applied and tested in two sampling plots in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve. The fitting precision (R2 = 0.9655) and testing accuracy (R2 = 0.9772) were both high, suggesting that this model could be used as a probability distribution model for mixed forests tree measurement factors, and provided a feasible method to fully understand the comprehensive structure of mixed forests.

  1. 3D ion velocity distribution function measurement in an electric thruster using laser induced fluorescence tomography (United States)

    Elias, P. Q.; Jarrige, J.; Cucchetti, E.; Cannat, F.; Packan, D.


    Measuring the full ion velocity distribution function (IVDF) by non-intrusive techniques can improve our understanding of the ionization processes and beam dynamics at work in electric thrusters. In this paper, a Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) tomographic reconstruction technique is applied to the measurement of the IVDF in the plume of a miniature Hall effect thruster. A setup is developed to move the laser axis along two rotation axes around the measurement volume. The fluorescence spectra taken from different viewing angles are combined using a tomographic reconstruction algorithm to build the complete 3D (in phase space) time-averaged distribution function. For the first time, this technique is used in the plume of a miniature Hall effect thruster to measure the full distribution function of the xenon ions. Two examples of reconstructions are provided, in front of the thruster nose-cone and in front of the anode channel. The reconstruction reveals the features of the ion beam, in particular on the thruster axis where a toroidal distribution function is observed. These findings are consistent with the thruster shape and operation. This technique, which can be used with other LIF schemes, could be helpful in revealing the details of the ion production regions and the beam dynamics. Using a more powerful laser source, the current implementation of the technique could be improved to reduce the measurement time and also to reconstruct the temporal evolution of the distribution function.

  2. Application of Phasor Measurement Units for Protection of Distribution Networks with High Penetration of Photovoltaic Sources (United States)

    Meskin, Matin

    The rate of the integration of distributed generation (DG) units to the distribution level to meet the growth in demand increases as a reasonable replacement for costly network expansion. This integration brings many advantages to the consumers and power grids, as well as giving rise to more challenges in relation to protection and control. Recent research has brought to light the negative effects of DG units on short circuit currents and overcurrent (OC) protection systems in distribution networks. Change in the direction of fault current flow, increment or decrement of fault current magnitude, blindness of protection, feeder sympathy trip, nuisance trip of interrupting devices, and the disruption of coordination between protective devices are some potential impacts of DG unit integration. Among other types of DG units, the integration of renewable energy resources into the electric grid has seen a vast improvement in recent years. In particular, the interconnection of photovoltaic (PV) sources to the medium voltage (MV) distribution networks has experienced a rapid increase in the last decade. In this work, the effect of PV source on conventional OC relays in MV distribution networks is shown. It is indicated that the PV output fluctuation, due to changes in solar radiation, causes the magnitude and direction of the current to change haphazardly. These variations may result in the poor operation of OC relays as the main protective devices in the MV distribution networks. In other words, due to the bi-directional power flow characteristic and the fluctuation of current magnitude occurring in the presence of PV sources, a specific setting of OC relays is difficult to realize. Therefore, OC relays may operate in normal conditions. To improve the OC relay operation, a voltage-dependent-overcurrent protection is proposed. Although, this new method prevents the OC relay from maloperation, its ability to detect earth faults and high impedance faults is poor. Thus, a

  3. Development of a simplified optical technique for the simultaneous measurement of particle size distribution and velocity (United States)

    Smith, J. L.


    Existing techniques were surveyed, an experimental procedure was developed, a laboratory test model was fabricated, limited data were recovered for proof of principle, and the relationship between particle size distribution and amplitude measurements was illustrated in an effort to develop a low cost, simplified optical technique for measuring particle size distributions and velocities in fluidized bed combustors and gasifiers. A He-Ne laser illuminated Rochi Rulings (range 10 to 500 lines per inch). Various samples of known particle size distributions were passed through the fringe pattern produced by the rulings. A photomultiplier tube converted light from the fringe volume to an electrical signal which was recorded using an oscilloscope and camera. The signal amplitudes were correlated against the known particle size distributions. The correlation holds true for various samples.

  4. Real-time measurements and their effects on state estimation of distribution power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xue; You, Shi; Thordarson, Fannar


    This paper aims at analyzing the potential value of using different real-time metering and measuring instruments applied in the low voltage distribution networks for state-estimation. An algorithm is presented to evaluate different combinations of metering data using a tailored state estimator....... It is followed by a case study based on the proposed algorithm. A real distribution grid feeder with different types of meters installed either in the cabinets or at the customer side is selected for simulation and analysis. Standard load templates are used to initiate the state estimation. The deviations...... between the estimated values (voltage and injected power) and the measurements are applied to evaluate the accuracy of the estimated grid states. Eventually, some suggestions are provided for the distribution grid operators on placing the real-time meters in the distribution grid....

  5. Simultaneous independent distributed strain and temperature measurements over 15 km using spontaneous Brillouin scattering (United States)

    Kee, Huai H.; Lees, Gareth P.; Newson, Trevor P.


    Long range simultaneous distributed strain and temperature sensors have many applications for measurements in the power and oil industries and also for structural monitoring. We present an efficient technique to measure both the intensity and frequency shift at every point along the sensitive fiber with a low loss filtering device utilizing two in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometers. From these two measurements, it is possible to compute accurately the strain and temperature profile.

  6. H-Abstraction by OH from Large Branched Alkanes: Overall Rate Measurements and Site-Specific Tertiary Rate Calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Dapeng


    Reaction rate coefficients for the reaction of hydroxyl (OH) radicals with nine large branched alkanes (i.e., 2-methyl-3-ethyl-pentane, 2,3-dimethyl-pentane, 2,2,3-trimethylbutane, 2,2,3-trimethyl-pentane, 2,3,4-trimethyl-pentane, 3-ethyl-pentane, 2,2,3,4-tetramethyl-pentane, 2,2-dimethyl-3-ethyl-pentane, and 2,4-dimethyl-3-ethyl-pentane) are measured at high temperatures (900-1300 K) using a shock tube and narrow-line-width OH absorption diagnostic in the UV region. In addition, room-temperature measurements of six out of these nine rate coefficients are performed in a photolysis cell using high repetition laser-induced fluorescence of OH radicals. Our experimental results are combined with previous literature measurements to obtain three-parameter Arrhenius expressions valid over a wide temperature range (300-1300 K). The rate coefficients are analyzed using the next-nearest-neighbor (N-N-N) methodology to derive nine tertiary (T003, T012, T013, T022, T023, T111, T112, T113, and T122) site-specific rate coefficients for the abstraction of H atoms by OH radicals from branched alkanes. Derived Arrhenius expressions, valid over 950-1300 K, are given as (the subscripts denote the number of carbon atoms connected to the next-nearest-neighbor carbon): T003 = 1.80 × 10-10 exp(-2971 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1; T012 = 9.36 × 10-11 exp(-3024 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1; T013 = 4.40 × 10-10 exp(-4162 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1; T022 = 1.47 × 10-10 exp(-3587 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1; T023 = 6.06 × 10-11 exp(-3010 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1; T111 = 3.98 × 10-11 exp(-1617 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1; T112 = 9.08 × 10-12 exp(-3661 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1; T113 = 6.74 × 10-9 exp(-7547 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1; T122 = 3.47 × 10-11 exp(-1802 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1.

  7. Measurements of neutron distribution in neutrons-gamma-rays mixed field using imaging plate for neutron capture therapy. (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu


    The imaging plate (IP) technique is tried to be used as a handy method to measure the spatial neutron distribution via the (157)Gd(n,gamma)(158)Gd reaction for neutron capture therapy (NCT). For this purpose, IP is set in a water phantom and irradiated in a mixed field of neutrons and gamma-rays. The Hiroshima University Radiobiological Research Accelerator is utilized for this experiment. The neutrons are moderated with 20-cm-thick D(2)O to obtain suitable neutron field for NCT. The signal for IP doped with Gd as a neutron-response enhancer is subtracted with its contribution by gamma-rays, which was estimated using IP without Gd. The gamma-ray response of Gd-doped IP to non-Gd IP is set at 1.34, the value measured for (60)Co gamma-rays, in estimating the gamma-ray contribution to Gd-doped IP signal. Then measured distribution of the (157)Gd(n,gamma)(158)Gd reaction rate agrees within 10% with the calculated value based on the method that has already been validated for its reproducibility of Au activation. However, the evaluated distribution of the (157)Gd(n,gamma)(158)Gd reaction rate is so sensitive to gamma-ray energy, e.g. the discrepancy of the (157)Gd(n,gamma)(158)Gd reaction rate between measurement and calculation becomes 30% for the photon energy change from 33keV to 1.253MeV.

  8. The Slowly Varying Corona. I. Daily Differential Emission Measure Distributions Derived from EVE Spectra (United States)

    Schonfeld, S. J.; White, S. M.; Hock-Mysliwiec, R. A.; McAteer, R. T. J.


    Daily differential emission measure (DEM) distributions of the solar corona are derived from spectra obtained by the Extreme-ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) over a 4 yr period starting in 2010 near solar minimum and continuing through the maximum of solar cycle 24. The DEMs are calculated using six strong emission features dominated by Fe lines of charge states viii, ix, xi, xii, xiv, and xvi that sample the nonflaring coronal temperature range 0.3-5 MK. A proxy for the non-Fe xviii emission in the wavelength band around the 93.9 Å line is demonstrated. There is little variability in the cool component of the corona (T 2.0 MK) varies by more than an order of magnitude. A discontinuity in the behavior of coronal diagnostics in 2011 February-March, around the time of the first X-class flare of cycle 24, suggests fundamentally different behavior in the corona under solar minimum and maximum conditions. This global state transition occurs over a period of several months. The DEMs are used to estimate the thermal energy of the visible solar corona (of order 1031 erg), its radiative energy loss rate ((2.5-8) × {10}27 erg s-1), and the corresponding energy turnover timescale (about an hour). The uncertainties associated with the DEMs and these derived values are mostly due to the coronal Fe abundance and density and the CHIANTI atomic line database.

  9. Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond (United States)

    Lo Piparo, Nicoló; Razavi, Mohsen; Munro, William J.


    Memory-assisted measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MA-MDI-QKD) has recently been proposed as a possible intermediate step towards the realization of quantum repeaters. Despite its relaxing some of the requirements on quantum memories, the choice of memory in relation to the layout of the setup and the protocol has a stark effect on our ability to beat existing no-memory systems. Here, we investigate the suitability of nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers, as quantum memories, in MA-MDI-QKD. We particularly show that moderate cavity enhancement is required for NV centers if we want to outperform no-memory QKD systems. Using system parameters mostly achievable by today's state of the art, we then anticipate some total key rate advantage in the distance range between 300 and 500 km for cavity-enhanced NV centers. Our analysis accounts for major sources of error including the dark current, the channel loss, and the decoherence of the quantum memories.

  10. Measurement error and outcome distributions: Methodological issues in regression analyses of behavioral coding data (United States)

    Holsclaw, Tracy; Hallgren, Kevin A.; Steyvers, Mark; Smyth, Padhraic; Atkins, David C.


    Behavioral coding is increasingly used for studying mechanisms of change in psychosocial treatments for substance use disorders (SUDs). However, behavioral coding data typically include features that can be problematic in regression analyses, including measurement error in independent variables, non-normal distributions of count outcome variables, and conflation of predictor and outcome variables with third variables, such as session length. Methodological research in econometrics has shown that these issues can lead to biased parameter estimates, inaccurate standard errors, and increased type-I and type-II error rates, yet these statistical issues are not widely known within SUD treatment research, or more generally, within psychotherapy coding research. Using minimally-technical language intended for a broad audience of SUD treatment researchers, the present paper illustrates the nature in which these data issues are problematic. We draw on real-world data and simulation-based examples to illustrate how these data features can bias estimation of parameters and interpretation of models. A weighted negative binomial regression is introduced as an alternative to ordinary linear regression that appropriately addresses the data characteristics common to SUD treatment behavioral coding data. We conclude by demonstrating how to use and interpret these models with data from a study of motivational interviewing. SPSS and R syntax for weighted negative binomial regression models is included in supplementary materials. PMID:26098126

  11. Variability in heart rate recovery measurements over 1 year in healthy, middle-aged adults. (United States)

    Mellis, M G; Ingle, L; Carroll, S


    This study assessed the longer-term (12-month) variability in post-exercise heart rate recovery following a submaximal exercise test. Longitudinal data was analysed for 97 healthy middle-aged adults (74 male, 23 female) from 2 occasions, 12 months apart. Participants were retrospectively selected if they had stable physical activity habits, submaximal treadmill fitness and anthropometric measurements between the 2 assessment visits. A submaximal Bruce treadmill test was performed to at least 85% age-predicted maximum heart rate. Absolute heart rate and Δ heart rate recovery (change from peak exercise heart rate) were recorded for 1 and 2 min post-exercise in an immediate supine position. Heart rate recovery at both time-points was shown to be reliable with intra-class correlation coefficient values ≥ 0.714. Absolute heart rate 1-min post-exercise showed the strongest agreement between repeat tests (r = 0.867, P heart rate values rather than Δ heart rate recovery, and for 1-min rather than 2-min post-exercise recovery time points. Log-transformed values generated better variability with acceptable coefficient of variation for all measures (2.2-10%). Overall, 1 min post-exercise heart rate recovery data had least variability over the 12-month period in apparently healthy middle-aged adults. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Network of photonic sensors for CO2 exchange rate measurement in forests (United States)

    Sobotka, Piotr; Bieda, Marcin S.; Lesiak, Piotr; Woliński, Tomasz R.


    A network of photonic CO2 sensors based on distributed sensing elements that are spread around the tested ecosystem area is proposed. Each of the sensing elements is connected to a wireless network with adjacent sensing elements and a base station that collects, archives, and analyzes results of measurements. The sensing element includes a CO2 sensor module for data transmission as well as power supply module that analyzes speed and direction of flow of the air mass within the specified measurement point.

  13. Bitumen-clay interactions in aqueous media studied by zeta potential distribution measurement. (United States)

    Liu, J; Zhou, Z; Xu, Z; Masliyah, J


    A novel technique to investigate the interactions between bitumen and clays in an aqueous solution from the measurement of zeta potential distributions is described. For a single component suspension (i.e., clay or bitumen), a single modal zeta potential distribution was obtained under a given solution condition. In the case of a two-component (i.e., bitumen and clay) mixture system, the measured zeta potential distribution showed either one or two distribution peaks, depending on the chemical condition of the suspension and the type/amount of clays present. In the absence of added calcium ions, a mixture of bitumen emulsion and clay suspension exhibited two distinct zeta potential distribution peaks, corresponding to the peaks measured individually for the bitumen and clays, respectively. With the addition of 1 mM calcium ions, however, only one zeta potential distribution peak was obtained for the mixture of bitumen emulsion and montmorillonite clay suspension. Depending on the montmorillonite clay to bitumen ratio, the peak position in this case shifted toward the value for montmorillonite clay suspension alone. For kaolinite, the addition of 1 mM calcium ions did not cause a substantial change in the bimodal zeta potential distribution. The results suggest qualitatively a stronger interaction of bitumen with montmorillonite clay than with kaolinite clay, when calcium ions were present. The slime coating of montmorillonite clay on bitumen droplets in the presence of 1 mM calcium was validated. The conclusions obtained from this study further justified our mechanistic hypothesis for the observed depression of bitumen flotation by montmorillonite but not by kaolinite clay addition when calcium ions were added. This study demonstrated that zeta potential distribution measurement could be a powerful tool to study slime coating phenomena in a complex colloidal system.

  14. Unfolding the fission prompt gamma-ray energy and multiplicity distribution measured by DANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chyzh, A; Wu, C Y; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Jandel, M; Ullmann, J; Laptev, A


    The nearly energy independence of the {gamma}-ray efficiency and multiplicity response for the DANCE array, the unusual characteristic elucidated in our early technical report (LLNL-TR-452298), gives one a unique opportunity to derive the true prompt {gamma}-ray energy and multiplicity distribution in fission from the measurement. This unfolding procedure for the experimental data will be described in details and examples will be given to demonstrate the feasibility of reconstruction of the true distribution.

  15. Effect of Cooling Rates on Shape and Crystal Size Distributions of Mefenamic Acid Polymorph in Ethyl Acetate (United States)

    Mudalip, S. K. Abdul; Adam, F.; Parveen, J.; Abu Bakar, M. R.; Amran, N.; Sulaiman, S. Z.; Che Man, R.; Arshad, Z. I. Mohd; Shaarani, S. Md.


    This study investigate the effect of cooling rates on mefenamic acid crystallisation in ethyl acetate. The cooling rate was varied from 0.2 to 5 °C/min. The in-line conductivity system and turbidity system were employed to detect the onset of the crystallization process. The crystals produced were analysed using optical microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It was found that the crystals produced at different cooling rates were needle-like and exhibit polymorphic form type I. However, the aspect ratio and crystal size distributions were varied with the increased of cooling rate. A high crystals aspect ratio and narrower CSD (100-900 μm) was obtained at cooling rate of 0.5 °C/min. Thus, can be suggested as the most suitable cooling rate for crystallization of mefenamic acid in ethyl acetate.

  16. Dynamic measurement of inside strain distributions in adhesively bonded joints by embedded fiber Bragg grating sensor (United States)

    Murayama, Hideaki; Ning, Xiaoguang; Kageyama, Kazuro; Wada, Daichi; Igawa, Hirotaka


    Long-length fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with the length of about 100 mm was embedded onto the surface of a carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) substrate and two CFRP adherends were joined by adhesive to form an adhesive bonded single-lap joint. The joint was subjected to 0.5 Hz cyclic tensile load and longitudinal strain distributions along FBG were measured at 5 Hz by the fiber-optic distributed sensing system based on optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR). We could successfully monitor the strain distributions accurately with high spatial resolution of around 1 mm.

  17. Scoping Study on Research and Development Priorities for Distribution-System Phasor Measurement Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stewart, Emma M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Travis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Buckner, Mark [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kirkham, Harold [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tuffner, Francis [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schoenwald, David A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This report addresses the potential use of phasor measurement units (PMUs) within electricity distribution systems, and was written to assess whether or not PMUs could provide significant benefit, at the national level. We analyze examples of present and emerging distribution-system issues related to reliability, integration of distributed energy resources, and the changing electrical characteristics of load. We find that PMUs offer important and irreplaceable advantages over present approaches. However, we also find that additional research and development for standards, testing and calibration, demonstration projects, and information sharing is needed to help industry capture these benefits.

  18. A Measure for the Reliability of a Rating Scale Based on Longitudinal Clinical Trial Data (United States)

    Laenen, Annouschka; Alonso, Ariel; Molenberghs, Geert


    A new measure for reliability of a rating scale is introduced, based on the classical definition of reliability, as the ratio of the true score variance and the total variance. Clinical trial data can be employed to estimate the reliability of the scale in use, whenever repeated measurements are taken. The reliability is estimated from the…

  19. Measured thermal and fast neutron fluence rates for ATF-1 holders during ATR cycle 160A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, B. J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Miller, D. T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    This report contains the thermal (2200 m/s) and fast (E>1MeV) neutron fluence rate data for the ATF-1 holders located in core for ATR Cycle 160A which were measured by the Radiation Measurements Laboratory (RML).

  20. Measurement of Air Flow Rate in a Naturally Ventilated Double Skin Facade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Heiselberg, Per


    Air flow rate in a naturally ventilated space is extremely difficult to measure due to the stochastic nature of wind, and as a consequence non-uniform and dynamic flow conditions. This paper describes three different methods to measure the air flow in a full-scale outdoor test facility with a nat...

  1. High-Rate Field Demonstration of Large-Alphabet Quantum Key Distribution (United States)


    Public Release ∗To whom correspondence should be addressed; E-mail: May 22, 2017 A central goal of quantum information science is to...distribution field test, using photons encoded in a high-dimensional alphabet to increase the secure information yield per de- 1 tected photon. By adjusting the...fiber networks. Introduction Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two parties, Alice and Bob, to establish provably se- cure encryption keys at a

  2. Comparison of the subjective sense of high or low metabolism and objectively measured resting metabolic rate. (United States)

    Wallhuss, Andreas; Isik, Markus; Nystrom, Fredrik H


    To measure caloric intake, physical activity level and resting metabolic rate in participants having the subjective opinion of either having a high or low metabolic rate. Recruitment by local advertising of healthy subjects feeling that they have high or low metabolism, i.e. either a tendency to easily stay lean ('high') or to very easily gain weight ('low') also when taking food intake in comparison with physical activity into account. Walking distance was estimated by pedometry, assessment of caloric intake was determined by food registration. Measurement of resting metabolic rate was performed in the fasting state. We recruited 44 participants with a sense of 'high' metabolism and 12 subjects in the contrasting group. Subjects with 'high' metabolism were leaner ('high': 20.4 +/- 2.1 kg/m(2), 'low': 27.8 +/- 7.5 kg/m(2), p difference in the measured resting metabolic rate between the two groups ('high': 7230 +/- 1233 kJ/24 h, 'low': 7430 +/- 1422 kJ/24 h, p = 0.6), nor was there any difference in physical activity measured by pedometry. Resting metabolic rate was negatively correlated with age and positively correlated with BMI in multivariate analyses of the total cohort. The sense of having a low or high metabolic rate is not related to actual resting metabolic rate.

  3. Measurement of flying and diving metabolic rate in wild animals: Review and recommendations. (United States)

    Elliott, Kyle H


    Animals' abilities to fly long distances and dive to profound depths fascinate earthbound researchers. Due to the difficulty of making direct measurements during flying and diving, many researchers resort to modeling so as to estimate metabolic rate during each of those activities in the wild, but those models can be inaccurate. Fortunately, the miniaturization, customization and commercialization of biologgers has allowed researchers to increasingly follow animals on their journeys, unravel some of their mysteries and test the accuracy of biomechanical models. I provide a review of the measurement of flying and diving metabolic rate in the wild, paying particular attention to mass loss, doubly-labelled water, heart rate and accelerometry. Biologgers can impact animal behavior and influence the very measurements they are designed to make, and I provide seven guidelines for the ethical use of biologgers. If biologgers are properly applied, quantification of metabolic rate across a range of species could produce robust allometric relationships that could then be generally applied. As measuring flying and diving metabolic rate in captivity is difficult, and often not directly translatable to field conditions, I suggest that applying multiple techniques in the field to reinforce one another may be a viable alternative. The coupling of multi-sensor biologgers with biomechanical modeling promises to improve precision in the measurement of flying and diving metabolic rate in wild animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Contactless respiration rate measurement using optical method and empirical mode decomposition. (United States)

    Gan, K B; Yahyavi, E S; Ismail, M S


    At the emergency triage center, assessment of the present of the danger signs and measurement of vital signs are measured according to the guidelines. The respiration rate is still posing a challenge to the doctor as it is impractical to use conventional devices. Attaching measurement devices to the patient will induce artificial measurements (self-awareness stress effects) besides being time-consuming. Currently, the medical officers visually count the number of times the chest movement in a minute, sometimes poses cultural challenges especially for female patients. The main objective of this paper is to develop a robust algorithm to extract respiration rate using the contactless displacement sensor. In this study, chest movements were used as an indicative of inspiration and expiration to measure respiratory rate using the contactless displacement sensor. The contactless optical signals were recorded from 32 healthy subjects in four different controlled breathing conditions: rest, coughing, talking and hand movement to obtain the motion artifacts that the patients may have in the emergency department. The Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) algorithm was used to derive continuous RR signal from the contactless optical signal. The analysis showed that there is a good correlation (0.9702) with RMSE of 0.33 breaths per minutes between the contact respiration rate and contactless respiration rate using empirical mode decomposition method. It can be concluded that the empirical mode decomposition method can extract the respiration rate of the contactless optical signal from chest movement.

  5. Cognitive, Parent and Teacher Rating Measures of Executive Functioning: Shared and Unique Influences on School Achievement. (United States)

    Dekker, Marielle C; Ziermans, Tim B; Spruijt, Andrea M; Swaab, Hanna


    Very little is known about the relative influence of cognitive performance-based executive functioning (EF) measures and behavioral EF ratings in explaining differences in children's school achievement. This study examined the shared and unique influence of these different EF measures on math and spelling outcome for a sample of 84 first and second graders. Parents and teachers completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), and children were tested with computer-based performance tests from the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks (ANT). Mixed-model hierarchical regression analyses, including intelligence level and age, showed that cognitive performance and teacher's ratings of working memory and shifting concurrently explained differences in spelling. However, teacher's behavioral EF ratings did not explain any additional variance in math outcome above cognitive EF performance. Parent's behavioral EF ratings did not add any unique information for either outcome measure. This study provides support for the ecological validity of performance- and teacher rating-based EF measures, and shows that both measures could have a complementary role in identifying EF processes underlying spelling achievement problems. The early identification of strengths and weaknesses of a child's working memory and shifting capabilities, might help teachers to broaden their range of remedial intervention options to optimize school achievement.

  6. Estimating the False Discovery Rate Using Mixed Normal Distribution for Identifying Differentially Expressed Genes in Microarray Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikuma Hamada


    Full Text Available The recent development of DNA microarray technology allows us to measure simultaneously the expression levels of thousands of genes and to identify truly correlated genes with anticancer drug response (differentially expressed genes from many candidate genes. Significance Analysis of Microarray (SAM is often used to estimate the false discovery rate (FDR, which is an index for optimizing the identifiability of differentially expressed genes, while the accuracy of the estimated FDR by SAM is not necessarily confirmed. We propose a new method for estimating the FDR assuming a mixed normal distribution on the test statistic and examine the performance of the proposed method and SAM using simulated data. The simulation results indicate that the accuracy of the estimated FDR by the proposed method and SAM, varied depending on the experimental conditions. We applied both methods to actual data comprised of expression levels of 12,625 genes of 10 responders and 14 non-responders to docetaxel for breast cancer. The proposed method identified 280 differentially expressed genes correlated with docetaxel response using a cut-off value for achieving FDR <0.01 to prevent false-positive genes, although 92 genes were previously thought to be correlated with docetaxel response ones.

  7. 26 CFR 1.963-5 - Foreign corporations with variation in foreign tax rate because of distributions. (United States)


    ... corporation B, which for 1964 has $100 of pretax earnings and profits on which is imposed a foreign income tax... effective foreign tax rate applicable to B Corporation, as determined under paragraph (c) of § 1.963-2, is.... Corporation M receives a minimum distribution for 1964 if it receives from B Corporation's earnings and...

  8. Reconstructing Age Distribution, Season of Capture and Growth Rate of Fish from Archaeological Sites Based on Otoliths and Vertebrae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neer, van W.; Lougas, L.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.


    The growth increments of otoliths and vertebrae of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) derived from a 15th century single depositional event at Raversijde (Belgium) are analysed with the aim of reconstructing (a) the age distribution of the population, (b) the season of capture, and (c) the growth rate.

  9. Influence of Mechanical Stirring on the Crucible Dissolution Rate and Impurities Distribution in Directional Solidification of Multicrystalline Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu Alexandra


    Full Text Available In this study, time dependent three-dimensional numerical simulations were carried out using the STHAMAS3D software in order to understand the effects of forced convection induced by mechanical stirring of the melt, on the crucible dissolution rate and on the impurities distribution in multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si melt for different values of the diffusion coefficient.

  10. Influence of Mechanical Stirring on the Crucible Dissolution Rate and Impurities Distribution in Directional Solidification of Multicrystalline Silicon


    Popescu Alexandra; Vizman Daniel


    In this study, time dependent three-dimensional numerical simulations were carried out using the STHAMAS3D software in order to understand the effects of forced convection induced by mechanical stirring of the melt, on the crucible dissolution rate and on the impurities distribution in multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) melt for different values of the diffusion coefficient.

  11. Measuring kinetic rate constants of multiple-component reactions with optical biosensors. (United States)

    Edwards, David A; Evans, Ryan M; Li, Wenbin


    One may measure the kinetic rate constants associated with biochemical reactions using an optical biosensor: an instrument in which ligand molecules are convected through a flow cell over a surface to which receptors are immobilized. If there are multiple reactants, one is faced with the problem of fitting multiple kinetic rate constants to one signal, since data from all of the reacting species is lumped together. Even in the presence of ambiguous data, one may use a series of experiments to accurately determine the rate constants. Moreover, the true set of rate constants may be identified by either postprocessing the signals or adjusting the ligand inflow concentrations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Direct measurements of emission rates of some atmospheric biogenic sulfur compounds


    Aneja, V. P.; Overton, J. H.; Cupitt, L T; Durham, J. L.; Wilson, W E


    Direct measurements of H2S + COS and (CH3)2S emission rates were made in two salt marshes on the coast of North Carolina during the summer of 1977. An emission flux reactor (chamber) technique was used to determine the emission rates of sulfur compounds into the atmosphere. The sulfur gases were identified and their concentrations in the flux reactor measured with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometric detector specific for S. Flux measurements were made over salt marsh grass (...

  13. Measuring device for purging water flow rate in control rod drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Hiroshi.


    The device of the present invention enables highly accurate measurement for an amount of purging water supplied to control rod drives of a BWR type reactor. That is, purging water is supplied from an inlet of a scram line of the control rod drives. A temperature measuring portion is disposed, for measuring temperature fluctuation of purging water, to a hydropressure control unit for providing pressure and flow rate of water required for supplying the purging water and scram operation. An instrumentation section is disposed for calculating the flow rate of purging water based on the measured data obtained in the section. An output device is disposed for outputting a flow rate value of the purging water based on the result of the calculation obtained therein. With such a constitution, flow rate of the purging water can be measured quantitatively at the hydropressure control unit. Accordingly, influences, such as fluctuation of reactor core temperature are reduced, and accuracy for the measurement of the purging water flow rate is improved. As a result, reactor safety and maintainability can be improved. (I.S.).

  14. Convective heat-transfer rate distributions over a 140 deg blunt cone at hypersonic speeds in different gas environments (United States)

    Stewart, David A.; Chen, Y. K.


    Experiments were conducted in air, CO2, and CO2-argon gas mixtures to obtain heating distribution data over a 140 deg blunt cone with various corner radii. The effect of corner radius on the heating distribution over the forebody of the cone was included in the investigation. These experiments provide data for validation of two-dimensional axisymmetric and three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solutions. Heating distribution data and measured bow shock wave stand-off distances for 0 deg angle of attack were compared with predicted values using a two-dimensional axisymmetric Navier-Stokes code.

  15. Practical performance of real-time shot-noise measurement in continuous-variable quantum key distribution (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Huang, Peng; Zhou, Yingming; Liu, Weiqi; Zeng, Guihua


    In a practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) system, real-time shot-noise measurement (RTSNM) is an essential procedure for preventing the eavesdropper exploiting the practical security loopholes. However, the performance of this procedure itself is not analyzed under the real-world condition. Therefore, we indicate the RTSNM practical performance and investigate its effects on the CVQKD system. In particular, due to the finite-size effect, the shot-noise measurement at the receiver's side may decrease the precision of parameter estimation and consequently result in a tight security bound. To mitigate that, we optimize the block size for RTSNM under the ensemble size limitation to maximize the secure key rate. Moreover, the effect of finite dynamics of amplitude modulator in this scheme is studied and its mitigation method is also proposed. Our work indicates the practical performance of RTSNM and provides the real secret key rate under it.

  16. Global carbon monoxide vertical distributions from spaceborne high-resolution FTIR nadir measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Barret


    Full Text Available This paper presents the first global distributions of CO vertical profiles retrieved from a thermal infrared FTS working in the nadir geometry. It is based on the exploitation of the high resolution and high quality spectra measured by the Interferometric Monitor of Greenhouse gases (IMG which flew onboard the Japanese ADEOS platform in 1996-1997. The retrievals are performed with an algorithm based on the Optimal Estimation Method (OEM and are characterized in terms of vertical sensitivity and error budget. It is found that most of the IMG measurements contain between 1.5 and 2.2 independent pieces of information about the vertical distribution of CO from the lower troposphere to the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere (UTLS. The retrievals are validated against coincident NOAA/CMDL in situ surface measurements and NDSC/FTIR total columns measurements. The retrieved global distributions of CO are also found to be in good agreement with the distributions modeled by the GEOS-CHEM 3D CTM, highlighting the ability of IMG to capture the horizontal as well as the vertical structure of the CO distributions.

  17. In-situ optical and acoustical measurements of the buoyant cyanobacterium p. Rubescens: spatial and temporal distribution patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmar Hofmann

    Full Text Available Optical (fluorescence and acoustic in-situ techniques were tested in their ability to measure the spatial and temporal distribution of plankton in freshwater ecosystems with special emphasis on the harmful and buoyant cyanobacterium P. rubescens. Fluorescence was measured with the multi-spectral FluoroProbe (Moldaenke FluoroProbe, MFP and a Seapoint Chlorophyll Fluorometer (SCF. In-situ measurements of the acoustic backscatter strength (ABS were conducted with three different acoustic devices covering multiple acoustic frequencies (614 kHz ADCP, 2 MHz ADP, and 6 MHz ADV. The MFP provides a fast and reliable technique to measure fluorescence at different wavelengths in situ, which allows discriminating between P. rubescens and other phytoplankton species. All three acoustic devices are sensitive to P. rubescens even if other scatterers, e.g., zooplankton or suspended sediment, are present in the water column, because P. rubescens containing gas vesicles has a strong density difference and hence acoustic contrast to the ambient water and other scatterers. After calibration, the combination of optical and acoustical measurements not only allows qualitative and quantitative observation of P. rubescens, but also distinction between P. rubescens, other phytoplankton, and zooplankton. As the measuring devices can sample in situ at high rates they enable assessment of plankton distributions at high temporal (minutes and spatial (decimeters resolution or covering large temporal (seasonal and spatial (basin scale scales.

  18. Respiratory rates measured by a standardised clinical approach, ward staff, and a wireless device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granholm, A; Pedersen, N E; Lippert, A.


    BACKGROUND: Respiratory rate is among the first vital signs to change in deteriorating patients. The aim was to investigate the agreement between respiratory rate measurements by three different methods. METHODS: This prospective observational study included acutely admitted adult patients...... in a medical ward. Respiratory rate was measured by three methods: a standardised approach over 60 s while patients lay still and refrained from talking, by ward staff and by a wireless electronic patch (SensiumVitals). The Bland-Altman method was used to compare measurements and three breaths per minute (BPM...... of agreement were -13.3 (95% CI: -17.2 to -9.5) BPM and 16.8 (95% CI: 13.0 to 20.6) BPM. CONCLUSION: A concerning lack of agreement was found between a wireless monitoring system and a standardised clinical approach. Ward staff's measurements also seemed to be inaccurate....

  19. Estimation of Trends in Distributions of One-Minute Rain Rates Over the UK to Assess Impacts on Telecommunications (United States)

    Bellerby, Tim; Ranatunga, Channa; Paulson, Kevin


    It is known that the rain rate exceeded 0.01% of the time has experienced an increasing trend, in the UK, over the last twenty years. It is very likely that rain fade and outage experience a similar trend. This paper presents a method, applicably globally, to estimate these trends. The input data are parameters easily extracted from numerical weather prediction reanalysis data. The method is verified using rain gauge data from the UK. Dynamic fading due to rain and wet snow tends to be larger than that due to other mechanisms on terrestrial and Earth-space links at frequencies above approximately 5 GHz. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU-R) maintains a set of models for predicting average annual distributions of rain fade, with a one-minute integration time, on individual links. An important parameter in these models of rain fade is the one-minute rain rate exceeded for 0.01% of an average year (R0.01%). Several recent reports have suggested that trends in climate parameters could be having significant effect on telecommunications systems over their lifetime. A satellite communications system has a typical life-cycle of 30 years, from initial conception to decommissioning. The objective of this work is to develop a method to estimate trends in the R0.01% rain rate, globally, using readily accessible data. A relationship is postulated between very low resolution rain parameters from Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) reanalysis data and the one-minute averaged, point rain rates required for radio regulation, and the optimization of network spectral efficiency and performance. Trends in these parameters can then be linked to trends in one-minute rain rates. The transformation of reanalysis parameters to one-minute rain rate CCDF parameters has been optimized to provide the best fit to the 743 experimental CCDF statistics, acquired from over the 139 locations, archived in the database of the ITU-R Study Group 3: DBSG3. Inherent in this process is the

  20. High-Rate Field Demonstration of Large-Alphabet Quantum Key Distribution (United States)


    allowing secure communication in the presence of an eaves- dropper. It commonly relies on detecting single photons, but the secret-key generation rates...such large-alphabet schemes can encode more secure information per detected photon, boosting secure communication rates, and also provide increased...efficiency, timing resolution of tens of picoseconds, and few kcps dark count rates (24). A single optical fiber is coupled to four interleaved nanowires