WorldWideScience

Sample records for rate based transport

  1. Risk-based approach in valuation of workplace injury rate for transportation and construction industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pykhtin, Kirill; Simankina, Tatiana; Sharmanov, Vladimir; Kopytova, Anna

    2017-10-01

    The danger of injuries and accidents in various industries such as transportation and construction urges the government to control the occupational health and safety more strictly. However, in order to do so with the minimal costs modern risk management tools, have to be implemented. Risk-based approach is an essential tool for competent risk- assessment and used in a great variety of other countries, demonstrating great results in providing of safe working environment. The article describes the problems that the implementation of the method faces in Russia and suggests certain ways to resolve them.

  2. The impact of highway base-saturation flow rate adjustment on Kuwait's transport and environmental parameters estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlRukaibi, Fahad; AlKheder, Sharaf; Al-Rukaibi, Duaij; Al-Burait, Abdul-Aziz

    2018-03-23

    Traditional transportation systems' management and operation mainly focused on improving traffic mobility and safety without imposing any environmental concerns. Transportation and environmental issues are interrelated and affected by the same parameters especially at signalized intersections. Additionally, traffic congestion at signalized intersections has a major contribution in the environmental problem as related to vehicle emission, fuel consumption, and delay. Therefore, signalized intersections' design and operation is an important parameter to minimize the impact on the environment. The design and operation of signalized intersections are highly dependent on the base saturation flow rate (BSFR). Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) uses a base-saturation flow rate of 1900-passenger car/h/lane for areas with a population intensity greater than or equal to 250,000 and a value of 1750-passenger car/h/lane for less populated areas. The base-saturation flow rate value in HCM is derived from a field data collected in developed countries. The adopted value in Kuwait is 1800passengercar/h/lane, which is the value that used in this analysis as a basis for comparison. Due to the difference in behavior between drivers in developed countries and their fellows in Kuwait, an adjustment was made to the base-saturation flow rate to represent Kuwait's traffic and environmental conditions. The reduction in fuel consumption and vehicles' emission after modifying the base-saturation flow rate (BSFR increased by 12.45%) was about 34% on average. Direct field measurements of the saturation flow rate were used while using the air quality mobile lab to calculate emissions' rates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Calculating the Contribution Rate of Intelligent Transportation System in Improving Urban Traffic Smooth Based on Advanced DID Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-wei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed the rapid development of intelligent transportation system around the world, which helps to relieve urban traffic congestion problems. For instance, many mega-cities in China have devoted a large amount of money and resources to the development of intelligent transportation system. This poses an intriguing and important issue: how to measure and quantify the contribution of intelligent transportation system to the urban city, which is still a puzzle. This paper proposes a matching difference-in-difference model to calculate the contribution rate of intelligent transportation system on traffic smoothness. Within the model, the main effect indicators of traffic smoothness are first identified, and then the evaluation index system is built, and finally the ideas of the matching pool are introduced. The proposed model is illustrated in Guangzhou, China (capital city of Guangdong province. The results show that introduction of ITS contributes 9.25% to the improvement of traffic smooth in Guangzhou. Also, the research explains the working mechanism of how ITS improves urban traffic smooth. Eventually, some strategy recommendations are put forward to improve urban traffic smooth.

  4. Calculating the Contribution Rate of Intelligent Transportation System in Improving Urban Traffic Smooth Based on Advanced DID Model

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ming-wei; Yun, Jun; Liu, Na

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the rapid development of intelligent transportation system around the world, which helps to relieve urban traffic congestion problems. For instance, many mega-cities in China have devoted a large amount of money and resources to the development of intelligent transportation system. This poses an intriguing and important issue: how to measure and quantify the contribution of intelligent transportation system to the urban city, which is still a puzzle. This paper pro...

  5. [Natural gas rate design and transportation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, G.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is presented from an industrial user viewpoint with regards to natural gas distribution and pricing. The author reviews the problems with rate structures at local distributing companies and gas utility companies which resort to charging high prices to industrial users while subsidizing residential users. He goes on then to discuss the lack of innovation amount LDCs to meet the needs of the industrial sector. Secondly it analyses the regulation and price structure of the pipeline industry which drastically affects all gas prices. The paper specifically discusses 'equivalent margin rates' which are being used by many states to control transportation rates. The author feels that these margin rates are inappropriate in that it transfers much of the LDC's exploration and development costs to the pipeline company which transfers it on to the consumer. He feels that the transportation rates should exclude all costs that are clearly not incurred by an LDC to provide transportation service. The paper concludes with recommendations to regulators regarding the need for regulatory reform of deregulation of the gas industry with regards to profit-taking and the transportation industry with regards to developing capacity assignment programs

  6. Toward autonomous measurements of photosynthetic electron transport rates: An evaluation of active fluorescence-based measurements of photochemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Silsbe, G.; Oxborough, K.; Suggett, D. J.; Forster, R. M.; Ihnken, S.; Komárek, Ondřej; Lawrenz, Evelyn; Prášil, Ondřej; Roettgers, R.; Šicner, M.; Simis, S. G. H.; Van Dijk, M. A.; Kromkamp, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 13, MAR 2015 (2015), s. 138-155 ISSN 1541-5856 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : REPETITION-RATE FLUOROMETRY * CAVITY ABSORPTION METER * CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.008, year: 2015

  7. Toward autonomous measurements of photosynthetic electron transport rates: An evaluation of active fluorescence-based measurements of photochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silsbe, G.M.; Oxborough, K.; Suggett, D.J.; Forster, R.M.; Ihnken, S.; Komárek, O.; Lawrenz, E.; Prášil, O.; Röttgers, R.; Šicner, M.; Simis, S.G.H.; Van Dijk, M.A.; Kromkamp, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a methods evaluation and intercalibration of active fluorescence-based measurements of the quantum yield ( inline image) and absorption coefficient ( inline image) of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry. Measurements of inline image, inline image, and irradiance (E) can be

  8. Peritoneal fluid transport in CAPD patients with different transport rates of small solutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobiecka, Danuta; Waniewski, Jacek; Weryński, Andrzej; Lindholm, Bengt

    2004-01-01

    Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients with high peritoneal solute transport rate often have inadequate peritoneal fluid transport. It is not known whether this inadequate fluid transport is due solely to a too rapid fall of osmotic pressure, or if the decreased effectiveness of fluid transport is also a contributing factor. To analyze fluid transport parameters and the effectiveness of dialysis fluid osmotic pressure in the induction of fluid flow in CAPD patients with different small solute transport rates. 44 CAPD patients were placed in low (n = 6), low-average (n = 13), high-average (n = 19), and high (n = 6) transport groups according to a modified peritoneal equilibration test (PET). The study involved a 6-hour peritoneal dialysis dwell with 2 L 3.86% glucose dialysis fluid for each patient. Radioisotopically labeled serum albumin was added as a volume marker.The fluid transport parameters (osmotic conductance and fluid absorption rate) were estimated using three mathematical models of fluid transport: (1) Pyle model (model P), which describes ultrafiltration rate as an exponential function of time; (2) model OS, which is based on the linear relationship of ultrafiltration rate and overall osmolality gradient between dialysis fluid and blood; and (3) model G, which is based on the linear relationship between ultrafiltration rate and glucose concentration gradient between dialysis fluid and blood. Diffusive mass transport coefficients (K(BD)) for glucose, urea, creatinine, potassium, and sodium were estimated using the modified Babb-Randerson-Farrell model. The high transport group had significantly lower dialysate volume and glucose and osmolality gradients between dialysate and blood, but significantly higher K(BD) for small solutes compared with the other transport groups. Osmotic conductance, fluid absorption rate, and initial ultrafiltration rate did not differ among the transport groups for model OS and model P. Model G yielded

  9. Rate based failure detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brett Emery Trabun; Gamage, Thoshitha Thanushka; Bakken, David Edward

    2018-01-02

    This disclosure describes, in part, a system management component and failure detection component for use in a power grid data network to identify anomalies within the network and systematically adjust the quality of service of data published by publishers and subscribed to by subscribers within the network. In one implementation, subscribers may identify a desired data rate, a minimum acceptable data rate, desired latency, minimum acceptable latency and a priority for each subscription. The failure detection component may identify an anomaly within the network and a source of the anomaly. Based on the identified anomaly, data rates and or data paths may be adjusted in real-time to ensure that the power grid data network does not become overloaded and/or fail.

  10. Vgi Based Urban Public Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymurian, F.; Alesheikh, A. A.; Alimohammadi, A.; Sadeghi-Niaraki, A.

    2013-09-01

    in constant contact with the system can have detailed and updated information about the problems, solutions and they are affected by the related implemented policies. Thus user involvement is an essential part in public transport decision making process. Although GIS in transportation (GIS-T) has been used for data collection, spatial analysis, and spatial modeling, due to recent promotions, GIS-T is moving towards the use of capabilities of VGI to user-centric services. The main goals of this paper are two as follows: First is to survey and review the key concepts of the geo-collaboration, to introduce and present fields to utilizing the VGI in the public transportation system to improve the performance of that system. The Second goal is to propose a VGI-based public transport conceptual framework. in this paper in the first part capabilities of VGI is explored, and areas of public transport that can utilize the public involvement is assessed and classified. Then, by surveying the related works in this context, a classification based on the models of participation is provided. Finally, a VGI-based conceptual framework for organizing a public participation for performance measurement of urban public transport for Tehran city is proposed. Results of this paper show that utilizing VGI presents an efficient solution for public transport problems.

  11. 18 CFR 284.267 - Intrastate pipeline emergency transportation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Emergency Natural Gas Sale, Transportation, and Exchange... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intrastate pipeline emergency transportation rates. 284.267 Section 284.267 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL...

  12. Annual variation in the net longshore sediment transport rate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schoonees, JS

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The annual variation in the net long shore sediment transport rates at three South African and at one North African site is investigated. The net rates at these sites, given in the first table, showed large variations. It was found that measurements...

  13. Binding proteins enhance specific uptake rate by increasing the substrate-transporter encounter rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosdriesz, Evert; Magnúsdóttir, Stefanía; Bruggeman, Frank J; Teusink, Bas; Molenaar, Douwe

    2015-06-01

    Microorganisms rely on binding-protein assisted, active transport systems to scavenge for scarce nutrients. Several advantages of using binding proteins in such uptake systems have been proposed. However, a systematic, rigorous and quantitative analysis of the function of binding proteins is lacking. By combining knowledge of selection pressure and physiochemical constraints, we derive kinetic, thermodynamic, and stoichiometric properties of binding-protein dependent transport systems that enable a maximal import activity per amount of transporter. Under the hypothesis that this maximal specific activity of the transport complex is the selection objective, binding protein concentrations should exceed the concentration of both the scarce nutrient and the transporter. This increases the encounter rate of transporter with loaded binding protein at low substrate concentrations, thereby enhancing the affinity and specific uptake rate. These predictions are experimentally testable, and a number of observations confirm them. © 2015 FEBS.

  14. RADIONUCLIDE DISPERSION RATES BY AEOLIAN, FLUVIAL, AND POROUS MEDIA TRANSPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, J.; Goodell, P.; Brashears, C.; French, D.; Kelts, A.

    2005-01-01

    Radionuclide transport was measured from high grade uranium ore boulders near the Nopal I Site, Chihuahua, Mexico. High grade uranium ore boulders were left behind after removal of a uranium ore stockpile at the Prior High Grade Stockpile (PHGS). During the 25 years when the boulder was present, radionuclides were released and transported by sheetflow during precipitation events, wind blown resuspension, and infiltration into the unsaturated zone. In this study, one of the boulders was removed, followed by grid sampling of the surrounding area. Measured gamma radiation levels in three dimensions were used to derive separate dispersion rates by the three transport mechanisms

  15. RADIONUCLIDE DISPERSION RATES BY AEOLIAN, FLUVIAL, AND POROUS MEDIA TRANSPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Walton; P. Goodell; C. Brashears; D. French; A. Kelts

    2005-07-11

    Radionuclide transport was measured from high grade uranium ore boulders near the Nopal I Site, Chihuahua, Mexico. High grade uranium ore boulders were left behind after removal of a uranium ore stockpile at the Prior High Grade Stockpile (PHGS). During the 25 years when the boulder was present, radionuclides were released and transported by sheetflow during precipitation events, wind blown resuspension, and infiltration into the unsaturated zone. In this study, one of the boulders was removed, followed by grid sampling of the surrounding area. Measured gamma radiation levels in three dimensions were used to derive separate dispersion rates by the three transport mechanisms.

  16. Panel presentation: LDC rate design and transportation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper covers four general views about local distributing company (LDC) sales rate design, transportation issues, and their implications for policy makers. LDC sales rates often hinder marketing to price sensitive customers. LDC rate design contributes to this problem, but there are other major causes such as add-on revenue taxes and pipeline take-or-pay charges that add to customer costs. State commissions, in varying degrees, are constrained in their ability to respond to a number of the barriers to improved gas marketing. Some problems are simply beyond the power of state commissions to remedy. These include federally imposed pipeline rate structures and take-or-pay costs, as well as various limits imposed by state legislatures (e.g., shut-off prohibitions, add-on taxes). Where they are feasible, LDC transportation services can mitigate marketing barriers that impede sales services. Customers select and pay for only their desired level of supply reliability and flexibility from sellers and pipeline transporters, as well as desired levels of standby service from the LDC. While it greatly benefits markets, the provision of transportation service by an LDC creates important new issues. One is fairness in allocating LDC resources between the sales and transportation functions and in pricing them, to avoid subsidies of one service by the other

  17. The rate-limiting process of hydrogen transport in Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkoshi, Keishiro; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka; Bandourko, V; Yamaguchi, Kenji; Yamawaki, Michio [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen isotope transport characteristics of Mo, whose refractory properties are considered to be suitable as plasma facing material, was investigated by applying 3 keV D{sub 2}{sup +} beam to the membrane specimen. The Arrhenius plot of deuterium permeation probability showed linear increase against the reciprocal temperature and its apparent activation energy was determined as 41.5 kJ/mol. The simultaneous irradiation of 3 keV Ar{sup +} onto backside surface of specimen had little effect on the deuterium permeation rate. According to these results, the rate-limiting process of deuterium transport in Mo was determined. (author)

  18. Intuitive Understanding of Base Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Laurel

    Purpose: This study examines whether physicians and other adults intuitively understand that the probability a positive test result is a true positive (positive predictive value, PPV) depends on the base rate of disease in the population tested. In particular, this research seeks to examine perce...

  19. Transport rates and concentration gradients during grain filling in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.B.; Gifford, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Short-term mass transport rates into wheat ears were calculated at mid grain fill from 32 PO 4 translocation velocities and sieve tube sap concentrations in the peduncle. Over a wide range of velocities (8.5 to 170 cm/hr), sieve tube sap concentrations (514 to 1050 milliosmolal) and grains per ear (20 to 54 in intact ears, as few as 7 in partially degrained ears), there were no evident differences in the rate of mass transport per grain through the peduncle. Increased sieve tube sap concentration was accompanied in the endosperm cavity sap by increased sucrose concentration, but amino acid concentration and total osmolality remained essentially constant. Thus the rate of transport into the grains appeared to remain constant in spite of altered concentration gradients across the crease tissues of the grain and changing sucrose concentration in the endosperm cavity. The constancy of endosperm cavity sap osmolality suggests that osmoregulatory processes in the grain may play a role in regulating transport rate into the grain

  20. 78 FR 76098 - Rail Transportation of Grain, Rate Regulation Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ..., DOT. ACTION: Request for Comments. SUMMARY: The Surface Transportation Board invites public comment on... proceeding in January 2008, the Board reasoned that guidelines for simplified rate procedures had recently... relationship between carriers and grain interests, and that if future regulatory action were warranted, it...

  1. Rate and Regulation of Copper Transport by Human Copper Transporter 1 (hCTR1)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryon, Edward B.; Molloy, Shannon A.; Ivy, Kristin; Yu, Huijun; Kaplan, Jack H.

    2013-01-01

    Human copper transporter 1 (hCTR1) is a homotrimer of a 190-amino acid monomer having three transmembrane domains believed to form a pore for copper permeation through the plasma membrane. The hCTR1-mediated copper transport mechanism is not well understood, nor has any measurement been made of the rate at which copper ions are transported by hCTR1. In this study, we estimated the rate of copper transport by the hCTR1 trimer in cultured cells using 64Cu uptake assays and quantification of plasma membrane hCTR1. For endogenous hCTR1, we estimated a turnover number of about 10 ions/trimer/s. When overexpressed in HEK293 cells, a second transmembrane domain mutant of hCTR1 (H139R) had a 3-fold higher Km value and a 4-fold higher turnover number than WT. Truncations of the intracellular C-terminal tail and an AAA substitution of the putative metal-binding HCH C-terminal tripeptide (thought to be required for transport) also exhibited elevated transport rates and Km values when compared with WT hCTR1. Unlike WT hCTR1, H139R and the C-terminal mutants did not undergo regulatory endocytosis in elevated copper. hCTR1 mutants combining methionine substitutions that block transport (M150L,M154L) on the extracellular side of the pore and the high transport H139R or AAA intracellular side mutations exhibited the blocked transport of M150L,M154L, confirming that Cu+ first interacts with the methionines during permeation. Our results show that hCTR1 elements on the intracellular side of the hCTR1 pore, including the carboxyl tail, are not essential for permeation, but serve to regulate the rate of copper entry. PMID:23658018

  2. Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Interim report on coal transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to examine changes in domestic coal distribution and railroad coal transportation rates since enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90). From 1988 through 1993, the demand for low-sulfur coal increased, as a the 1995 deadline for compliance with Phase 1 of CAAA90 approached. The shift toward low-sulfur coal came sooner than had been generally expected because many electric utilities switched early from high-sulfur coal to ``compliance`` (very low-sulfur) coal. They did so to accumulate emissions allowances that could be used to meet the stricter Phase 2 requirements. Thus, the demand for compliance coal increased the most. The report describes coal distribution and sulfur content, railroad coal transportation and transportation rates, and electric utility contract coal transportation trends from 1979 to 1993 including national trends, regional comparisons, distribution patterns and regional profiles. 14 figs., 76 tabs.

  3. Rapid Measurement of Neutron Dose Rate for Transport Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    A newly available neutron dose equivalent remmeter with improved sensitivity and energy response has been put into service at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). This instrument is being used to expedite measurement of the Transport Index and as an ALARA tool to identify locations where slightly elevated neutron dose equivalent rates exist. The meter is capable of measuring dose rates as low as 0.2 μSv per hour (20 μrem per hour). Tests of the angular response and energy response of the instrument are reported. Calculations of the theoretical instrument response made using MCNPtrademark are reported for materials typical of those being shipped

  4. 47 CFR 65.800 - Rate base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rate base. 65.800 Section 65.800 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.800 Rate base. The rate base shall...

  5. Base Rates: Both Neglected and Intuitive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycook, Gordon; Trippas, Dries; Handley, Simon J.; Thompson, Valerie A.

    2014-01-01

    Base-rate neglect refers to the tendency for people to underweight base-rate probabilities in favor of diagnostic information. It is commonly held that base-rate neglect occurs because effortful (Type 2) reasoning is required to process base-rate information, whereas diagnostic information is accessible to fast, intuitive (Type 1) processing…

  6. Ratings of Business, Economic and Transport Borrowed Lexis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Petrėtienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, a book “Language Advice (4. Lexis. Usage of Loanwords” was published. It contains a list of loanwords of different fields discussed by the State Commission of the Lithuanian Language. In addition to each loanword, a rating is indicated. The article discusses how the loanwords of business, economic and transport fields are treated in this publication. The study showed that the majority of new business and economical loanwords are derived from the English language. The majority of them are assessed as non-recommendable barbarisms. The majority of international words of this field consist of the Latin origin words. In the transport field there is a great number of Slavic origin loanwords. They are also included into the list discussed and are assessed as non-recommendable barbarisms. Here, there are much less new loanwords than in the business and economic fields. International terms of the transport field are more diverse origin-wise than the terms used in business and economic field. The majority of international words of this field derive from the French and English languages.

  7. Base Information Transport Infrastructure Wired (BITI Wired)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Base Information Transport Infrastructure Wired (BITI Wired) Defense Acquisition Management...Combat Information Transport System program was restructured into two pre-Major Automated Information System (pre-MAIS) components: Information...Major Automated Information System MAIS OE - MAIS Original Estimate MAR – MAIS Annual Report MDA - Milestone Decision Authority MDD - Materiel

  8. Extremal bounds on drift wave growth rates and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1990-03-01

    A variational technique is used to obtain bounds on the growth constant γ versus wave number κ for plasma drift waves. We find, for T i = T e , γ * (1 + 3/√2 η) in usual notation. This agrees closely with dispersion---relation results that have had good success in explaining global confinement times in tokamaks based on transport coefficients of the form (γ/κ 2 ). The present method is easier to calculate and results are of such general nature as to give greater assurance that nothing has been missed. The method is based on the time behavior of a free energy function that is chosen to be a constant of motion for an idealized Maxwellian plasma without currents, and almost constant for small departures from this ideal state. The underlying premise associating the variational technique with drift waves remains conjectural. 6 refs

  9. Winning the rate base battle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steigelmann, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    In most states, all costs associated with building new power plants and other facilities are born by the owning utility until the facility becomes useful to customers. For a nuclear plant, this means that a utility must raise several billion dollars in capital over a period of 10 to 20 years, often undergrowing pressures to cancel the project. None of the possible ways of mitigating rate shock is free of controversy, but the objective should be to do that which is most equitable and has least adverse effects. The basic options are discussed, and all but one involves phasing in over time the full economic effects of the new plant. The impacts on average electricity price of three of the seven approaches are illustrated

  10. 14 CFR 61.63 - Additional aircraft ratings (other than for ratings at the airline transport pilot certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional aircraft ratings (other than for ratings at the airline transport pilot certification level). 61.63 Section 61.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTOR...

  11. Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Availability of data and studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-13

    Pursuant to Section 1340(c) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), this report presents the Secretary of Energy`s review of data collected by the Federal Government on rates for rail and pipeline transportation of domestic coal, oil, and gas for the years 1988 through 1997, and proposals to develop an adequate data base for each of the fuels, based on the data availability review. This report also presents the Energy Information Administration`s findings regarding the extent to which any Federal agency is studying the impacts of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) and other Federal policies on the transportation rates and distribution patterns of domestic coal, oil, and gas.

  12. Charge transport through DNA based electronic barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sunil R.; Chawda, Vivek; Qi, Jianqing; Anantram, M. P.; Sinha, Niraj

    2018-05-01

    We report charge transport in electronic 'barriers' constructed by sequence engineering in DNA. Considering the ionization potentials of Thymine-Adenine (AT) and Guanine-Cytosine (GC) base pairs, we treat AT as 'barriers'. The effect of DNA conformation (A and B form) on charge transport is also investigated. Particularly, the effect of width of 'barriers' on hole transport is investigated. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed on energy minimized DNA structures to obtain the electronic Hamiltonian. The quantum transport calculations are performed using the Landauer-Buttiker framework. Our main findings are contrary to previous studies. We find that a longer A-DNA with more AT base pairs can conduct better than shorter A-DNA with a smaller number of AT base pairs. We also find that some sequences of A-DNA can conduct better than a corresponding B-DNA with the same sequence. The counterions mediated charge transport and long range interactions are speculated to be responsible for counter-intuitive length and AT content dependence of conductance of A-DNA.

  13. Changes in heart rate and heart rate variability during transportation of horses by road and air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmura, Hajime; Hobo, Seiji; Hiraga, Atsushi; Jones, James H

    2012-04-01

    To determine the influence of transportation by road and air on heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) in horses. Animals-6 healthy horses. ECG recordings were obtained from horses before (quarantine with stall rest [Q]; 24 hours) and during a journey that included transportation by road (RT; 4.5 hours), waiting on the ground in an air stall (W; 5.5 hours), and transportation by air (AT; 11 hours); HR was determined, and HRV indices of autonomic nervous activity (low-frequency [LF; 0.01 to 0.07 Hz] and high-frequency [HF; 0.07 to 0.6 Hz] power) were calculated. Mean ± SD HRs during Q, RT, W, and AT were 38.9 ± 1.5 beats/min, 41.7 ± 5.6 beats/min, 41.5 ± 4.3 beats/min, and 48.8 ± 5.6 beats/min, respectively; HR during AT was significantly higher than HR during Q. The LF power was significantly higher during Q (3,454 ± 1,087 milliseconds(2)) and AT (3,101 ± 567 milliseconds(2)) than it was during RT (1,824 ± 432 milliseconds(2)) and W (2,072 ± 616 milliseconds(2)). During Q, RT, W, and AT, neither HF powers (range, 509 to 927 milliseconds(2)) nor LF:HF ratios (range, 4.1 to 6.2) differed significantly. The HR during RT was highly correlated with LF power (R(2) = 0.979), and HR during AT was moderately correlated with the LF:HF ratio (R(2) = 0.477). In horses, HR and HRV indices during RT and AT differed, suggesting that exposure to different stressors results in different autonomic nervous influences on HR.

  14. 77 FR 2297 - Office of Asset and Transportation Management; Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... of Asset and Transportation Management; Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates AGENCY... Bulletin 12-02, Calendar Year (CY) 2012 Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates. SUMMARY: The General Services Administration's (GSA) annual privately owned vehicle (POV) mileage reimbursement rate...

  15. Optimal decisions of sharing rate and ticket price of different transportation modes in inter-city transportation corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoping Tang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper concerns competition of different transportation modes coexist in inter-city transportation corridor. The purpose of this paper is to express the competitive relationship by building mathematical model and obtain the best sharing rate and the optimal ticket price of different transportation modes. Design/methodology/approach: Firstly, analyzing influencing factors of passenger choice about transportation modes, we designed an utility function of transportation modes. Secondly, referring to the game theory and logit modle, a non-cooperative game model between railway and highway was built. Finally, the model was applied to Nanchang-Jiujiang transportation corridor in China for an empirical analysis. Findings: The results indicate that the proposed non-cooperative game model is rational and reliable, and it supplies a scientific method to determine the optimal ticket price and passenger sharing rate of different transportation modes, and can be applied to the competition study on different transportation modes in inter-city transportation corridor. Originality/value: The main contribution of this paper is to built the non-cooperative game model, which can consider the needs of different travelers, and achieve reasonable passenger divergence of different transportation modes and coordinated development of whole transport market.

  16. From nose to brain: understanding transport capacity and transport rate of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongbing; Hu, Kaili; Jiang, Xinguo

    2008-10-01

    The unique relationship between nasal cavity and cranial cavity tissues in anatomy and physiology makes intranasal delivery to the brain feasible. An intranasal delivery provides some drugs with short channels to bypass the blood-brain barrier (BBB), especially for those with fairly low brain concentrations after a routine delivery, thus greatly enhancing the therapeutic effect on brain diseases. In the past two decades, a good number of encouraging outcomes have been reported in the treatment of diseases of the brain or central nervous system (CNS) through nasal administration. In spite of the significant merit of bypassing the BBB, direct nose-to-brain delivery still bears the problems of low efficiency and volume for capacity due to the limited volume of the nasal cavity, the small area ratio of olfactory mucosa to nasal mucosa and the limitations of low dose and short retention time of drug absorption. It is crucial that selective distribution and retention time of drugs or preparations on olfactory mucosa should be enhanced so as to increase the direct delivery efficiency. In this article, we first briefly review the nose-to-brain transport pathways, before detailing the impacts on them, followed by a comprehensive summary of effective methods, including formulation modification, agglutinant-mediated transport and a brain-homing, peptide-mediated delivery based on phage display screening technique, with a view to providing a theoretic reference for elevating the therapeutic effects on brain diseases.

  17. Investigation of RFID Based Sensors for Sustainable Transportation Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    Through support of a University Transportation Research Center Faculty Development Minigrant an investigation was made into the use of RFID based sensing technologies for transportation purposes. Transportation applications would potentially include ...

  18. Underground Coal Gasification: Rates of Post Processing Gas Transport

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Karel; Hejtmánek, Vladimír; Stanczyk, K.; Šolcová, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 12 (2014), s. 1707-1715 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7C12017 Grant - others:RFCS(XE) RFCR-CT-2011-00002 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : underground coal gas ification * gas transport * textural properties Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2014

  19. Apparatus for the measurement of radionuclide transport rates in rock cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weed, H.C.; Koszykowski, R.F.; Dibley, L.L.; Murray, I.

    1981-09-01

    An apparatus and procedure for the study of radionuclide transport in intact rock cores are presented in this report. This equipment more closely simulates natural conditions of radionuclide transport than do crushed rock columns. The apparatus and the procedure from rock core preparation through data analysis are described. The retardation factors measured are the ratio of the transport rate of a non-retarded radionuclide, such as 3 H, to the transport rate of a retarded radionuclide. Sample results from a study of the transport of /sup 95m/Tc and 85 Sr in brine through a sandstone core are included

  20. Nanomembrane-Based, Thermal-Transport Biosensor for Living Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Elafandy, Rami T.; AbuElela, Ayman; Mishra, Pawan; Janjua, Bilal; Oubei, Hassan M.; Buttner, Ulrich; Majid, Mohammed Abdul; Ng, Tien Khee; Merzaban, Jasmeen; Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of materials' thermal-transport properties, conductivity and diffusivity, is crucial for several applications within areas of biology, material science and engineering. Specifically, a microsized, flexible, biologically integrated thermal transport sensor is beneficial to a plethora of applications, ranging across plants physiological ecology and thermal imaging and treatment of cancerous cells, to thermal dissipation in flexible semiconductors and thermoelectrics. Living cells pose extra challenges, due to their small volumes and irregular curvilinear shapes. Here a novel approach of simultaneously measuring thermal conductivity and diffusivity of different materials and its applicability to single cells is demonstrated. This technique is based on increasing phonon-boundary-scattering rate in nanomembranes, having extremely low flexural rigidities, to induce a considerable spectral dependence of the bandgap-emission over excitation-laser intensity. It is demonstrated that once in contact with organic or inorganic materials, the nanomembranes' emission spectrally shift based on the material's thermal diffusivity and conductivity. This NM-based technique is further applied to differentiate between different types and subtypes of cancer cells, based on their thermal-transport properties. It is anticipated that this novel technique to enable an efficient single-cell thermal targeting, allow better modeling of cellular thermal distribution and enable novel diagnostic techniques based on variations of single-cell thermal-transport properties.

  1. Nanomembrane-Based, Thermal-Transport Biosensor for Living Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Elafandy, Rami T.

    2016-11-23

    Knowledge of materials\\' thermal-transport properties, conductivity and diffusivity, is crucial for several applications within areas of biology, material science and engineering. Specifically, a microsized, flexible, biologically integrated thermal transport sensor is beneficial to a plethora of applications, ranging across plants physiological ecology and thermal imaging and treatment of cancerous cells, to thermal dissipation in flexible semiconductors and thermoelectrics. Living cells pose extra challenges, due to their small volumes and irregular curvilinear shapes. Here a novel approach of simultaneously measuring thermal conductivity and diffusivity of different materials and its applicability to single cells is demonstrated. This technique is based on increasing phonon-boundary-scattering rate in nanomembranes, having extremely low flexural rigidities, to induce a considerable spectral dependence of the bandgap-emission over excitation-laser intensity. It is demonstrated that once in contact with organic or inorganic materials, the nanomembranes\\' emission spectrally shift based on the material\\'s thermal diffusivity and conductivity. This NM-based technique is further applied to differentiate between different types and subtypes of cancer cells, based on their thermal-transport properties. It is anticipated that this novel technique to enable an efficient single-cell thermal targeting, allow better modeling of cellular thermal distribution and enable novel diagnostic techniques based on variations of single-cell thermal-transport properties.

  2. Multicolor bleach-rate imaging enlightens in vivo sterol transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüstner, Daniel; Sage, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    , dehydroergosterol (DHE) in the genetically tractable model organism Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). DHE is structurally very similar to cholesterol and ergosterol, two sterols used by the sterol-auxotroph nematode. We developed a new computational method measuring fluorophore bleaching kinetics at every pixel...... with a lysosomal marker, GFP-LMP1. Our new methods hold great promise for further studies on endosomal sterol transport in C. elegans....

  3. Transportation legislative data base : state radioactive materials transportation statute compilation, 1989-1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-30

    The Transportation Legislative Data Base (TLDB) is a computer-based information service containing summaries of federal, state and certain local government statutes and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials in the United...

  4. IOT Based Smart Public Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Gawade

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things IoT joins the objects of this present reality to the virtual world and empowers at whatever time anyplace network for anything that has a turn ON and turn OFF switch. It constitutes to a world where physical things and humans and other living things and virtual information and situations collaborate with each other. Substantial measure of information is created as expansive number of gadgets is associated with the web. So this expansive measure of information must be controlled and changed over to helpful data keeping in mind the end goal to create productive frameworks. In this paper we concentrate on to a urban IoT framework that is utilized to construct Intelligent Transportation System ITS. IoT based intelligent transportation systems are intended to bolster the Smart City vision which intends to utilize the progressed and capable communication systems for the organization of the city and the residents.

  5. 14 CFR 223.22 - Other persons to whom free and reduced-rate transportation may be furnished.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel § 223.22 Other persons to whom free and reduced-rate transportation may be furnished. Air... such transportation is undertaken for a promotional purpose; (f) Persons being transported on an...

  6. Mass transport around comets and its impact on the seasonal differences in water production rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, M.; Altwegg, K.; Thomas, N. [Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Fougere, N.; Combi, M. R.; Tenishev, V. M. [Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Le Roy, L. [Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2014-06-20

    Comets are surrounded by a thin expanding atmosphere, and although the nucleus' gravity is small, some molecules and grains, possibly with the inclusion of ices, can get transported around the nucleus through scattering (atoms/molecules) and gravitational pull (grains). Based on the obliquity of the comet, it is also possible that volatile material and icy grains get trapped in regions, which are in shadow until the comet passes its equinox. When the Sun rises above the horizon and the surface starts to heat up, this condensed material starts to desorb and icy grains will sublimate off the surface, possibly increasing the comet's neutral gas production rate on the outbound path. In this paper we investigate the mass transport around the nucleus, and based on a simplified model, we derive the possible contribution to the asymmetry in the seasonal gas production rate that could arise from trapped material released from cold areas once they come into sunlight. We conclude that the total amount of volatiles retained by this effect can only contribute up to a few percent of the asymmetry observed in some comets.

  7. Transportation of ions through cement based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterji, S.

    1994-01-01

    Transportation of ions, both anions and cations, through cement based materials is one of the important processes in their durability and as such has been studied very extensively. It has been studied from the point of view of the reinforcement corrosion, alkali-silica reaction, sulfate attack on cement and concrete, as well as in the context of the use of the cement based materials in the disposal of nuclear waste. In this paper the fundamental equations of diffusion, i.e. Fick's two equations, Nernst and Nernst-Planck equations have been collected. Attention has been drawn to the fact that Fick's two equations are valid for non-ionic diffusants and that for ions the relevant equations are those of Nernst and Nernst-Planck. The basic measurement techniques have also been commented upon

  8. The molecular mechanism for overcoming the rate-limiting step in monoamine neurotransmitter transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinning, Steffen; Said, Saida; Malinauskaite, Lina

    The monoamine transporter family consists of dopamine (DAT), norepinephrine (NET) and serotonin transporters (SERT) that mediate the reuptake of the monoamine neurotransmitters after their release during neurotransmission. These transporters play prominent roles in psychiatric disorders and are t......The monoamine transporter family consists of dopamine (DAT), norepinephrine (NET) and serotonin transporters (SERT) that mediate the reuptake of the monoamine neurotransmitters after their release during neurotransmission. These transporters play prominent roles in psychiatric disorders...... membrane. The rate-limiting step in monoamine reuptake is the return of the empty transporter from an inward-facing to an outward-facing conformation without neurotransmitter and sodium bound. The molecular mechanism underlying this important conformational transition has not been described. Crystal...

  9. Emotionally Excited Eyeblink-Rate Variability Predicts an Experience of Transportation into the Narrative World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota eNomura

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Collective spectator communications such as oral presentations, movies, and storytelling performances are ubiquitous in human culture. This study investigated the effects of past viewing experiences and differences in expressive performance on an audience’s transportive experience into a created world of a storytelling performance. In the experiment, 60 participants (mean age = 34.12 yrs., SD = 13.18 yrs., range 18–63 yrs. were assigned to watch one of two videotaped performances that were played (1 in an orthodox way for frequent viewers and (2 in a modified way aimed at easier comprehension for first-time viewers. Eyeblink synchronization among participants was quantified by employing distance-based measurements of spike trains, Dspike and Dinterval (Victor & Purpura, 1997. The results indicated that even non-familiar participants’ eyeblinks were synchronized as the story progressed and that the effect of the viewing experience on transportation was weak. Rather, the results of a multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the degrees of transportation could be predicted by a retrospectively reported humor experience and higher real-time variability (i.e., logarithmic transformed standard deviation of inter blink intervals during a performance viewing. The results are discussed from the viewpoint in which the extent of eyeblink synchronization and eyeblink-rate variability acts as an index of the inner experience of audience members.

  10. A simplified 137Cs transport model for estimating erosion rates in undisturbed soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinbao; Long Yi; He Xiubin; Fu Jiexiong; Zhang Yunqi

    2008-01-01

    137 Cs is an artificial radionuclide with a half-life of 30.12 years which released into the environment as a result of atmospheric testing of thermo-nuclear weapons primarily during the period of 1950s-1970s with the maximum rate of 137 Cs fallout from atmosphere in 1963. 137 Cs fallout is strongly and rapidly adsorbed by fine particles in the surface horizons of the soil, when it falls down on the ground mostly with precipitation. Its subsequent redistribution is associated with movements of the soil or sediment particles. The 137 Cs nuclide tracing technique has been used for assessment of soil losses for both undisturbed and cultivated soils. For undisturbed soils, a simple profile-shape model was developed in 1990 to describe the 137 Cs depth distribution in profile, where the maximum 137 Cs occurs in the surface horizon and it exponentially decreases with depth. The model implied that the total 137 Cs fallout amount deposited on the earth surface in 1963 and the 137 Cs profile shape has not changed with time. The model has been widely used for assessment of soil losses on undisturbed land. However, temporal variations of 137 Cs depth distribution in undisturbed soils after its deposition on the ground due to downward transport processes are not considered in the previous simple profile-shape model. Thus, the soil losses are overestimated by the model. On the base of the erosion assessment model developed by Walling, D.E., He, Q. [1999. Improved models for estimating soil erosion rates from cesium-137 measurements. Journal of Environmental Quality 28, 611-622], we discuss the 137 Cs transport process in the eroded soil profile and make some simplification to the model, develop a method to estimate the soil erosion rate more expediently. To compare the soil erosion rates calculated by the simple profile-shape model and the simple transport model, the soil losses related to different 137 Cs loss proportions of the reference inventory at the Kaixian site of the

  11. Evaluation of dose equivalent rate distribution in JCO critical accident by radiation transport calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Sakamoto, Y

    2002-01-01

    In the prevention of nuclear disaster, there needs the information on the dose equivalent rate distribution inside and outside the site, and energy spectra. The three dimensional radiation transport calculation code is a useful tool for the site specific detailed analysis with the consideration of facility structures. It is important in the prediction of individual doses in the future countermeasure that the reliability of the evaluation methods of dose equivalent rate distribution and energy spectra by using of Monte Carlo radiation transport calculation code, and the factors which influence the dose equivalent rate distribution outside the site are confirmed. The reliability of radiation transport calculation code and the influence factors of dose equivalent rate distribution were examined through the analyses of critical accident at JCO's uranium processing plant occurred on September 30, 1999. The radiation transport calculations including the burn-up calculations were done by using of the structural info...

  12. The influence of sediment transport rate on the development of structure in gravel bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockelford, Annie; Rice, Steve; Powell, Mark; Reid, Ian; Nguyen, Thao; Tate, Nick; Wood, Jo

    2013-04-01

    Although adjustments of surface grain size are known to be strongly influenced by sediment transport rate little work has systematically explored how different transport rates can affect the development of surface structure in gravel bed rivers. Specifically, it has been well established that the transport of mixed sized sediments leads to the development of a coarser surface or armour layer which occurs over larger areas of the gravel bed. Armour layer development is known to moderate overall sediment transport rate as well as being extremely sensitive to changes in applied shear stress. However, during this armouring process a bed is created where, smaller gain scale changes, to the bed surface are also apparent such as the development of pebble clusters and imbricate structures. Although these smaller scale changes affect the overall surface grain size distribution very little their presence has the ability to significantly increase the surface stability and hence alter overall sediment transport rates. Consequently, the interplay between the moderation of transport rate as a function of surface coarsening at a larger scale and moderation of transport rate as a function of the development of structure on the bed surface at the smaller scale is complicated and warrants further investigation. During experiments a unimodal grain size distribution (σg = 1.30, D50 = 8.8mm) was exposed to 3 different levels of constant discharge that produced sediment transport conditions ranging from marginal transport to conditions approaching full mobility of all size fractions. Sediment was re-circulated during the experiments surface grain size distribution bed load and fractional transport rates were measured at a high temporal resolution such that the time evolution of the beds could be fully described. Discussion concentrates on analysing the effects of the evolving bed condition sediment transport rate (capacity) and transported grain size (competence). The outcome of this

  13. Physical control of carrier-mediated ion-transporters by entrainment of their turnover rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Mathis, Clausell; Fang, Zhihui; Mast, Jason; Hamidi, Karim; Kelly, Patrick; Eve, Max

    2012-02-01

    In the past, tremendous efforts have been made to physically activate carrier-mediated ion-transporters, such as Na/K pumps. However, the outcome is not significant. Recently, we developed a new technique which can effectively and efficiently control the pumping rate by introducing a concept of an electronic synchrotron accelerator to the biological system. The approach consists of two steps. First, a specially designed oscillating electric field is used to force or synchronize individual pump molecules to run at the same turnover rate and phase as the field oscillation frequency. Then, by gradually changing the field frequency and carefully keeping the pump synchronization we can entrain the pump molecules so that their pumping rate can be progressively modulated, either decelerated or accelerated, following the field frequency to a defined value. Based on theoretical analysis of the underlying mechanisms involved in the technique, computer simulation of the entrainment process, and intensive experimental studies we have realized significant activation of the Na/K pumping rate up to ten-folds quickly in less than ten seconds.

  14. Light Quality Affects Chloroplast Electron Transport Rates Estimated from Chl Fluorescence Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John R; Morgan, Patrick B; von Caemmerer, Susanne

    2017-10-01

    Chl fluorescence has been used widely to calculate photosynthetic electron transport rates. Portable photosynthesis instruments allow for combined measurements of gas exchange and Chl fluorescence. We analyzed the influence of spectral quality of actinic light on Chl fluorescence and the calculated electron transport rate, and compared this with photosynthetic rates measured by gas exchange in the absence of photorespiration. In blue actinic light, the electron transport rate calculated from Chl fluorescence overestimated the true rate by nearly a factor of two, whereas there was closer agreement under red light. This was consistent with the prediction made with a multilayer leaf model using profiles of light absorption and photosynthetic capacity. Caution is needed when interpreting combined measurements of Chl fluorescence and gas exchange, such as the calculation of CO2 partial pressure in leaf chloroplasts. © Crown copyright 2017.

  15. Distribution of longshore sediment transport along the Indian coast based on empirical model

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.

    An empirical sediment transport model has been developed based on longshore energy flux equation. Study indicates that annual gross sediment transport rate is high (1.5 x 10 super(6) cubic meters to 2.0 x 10 super(6) cubic meters) along the coasts...

  16. Characterizing the transplanar and in-plane water transport properties of fabrics under different sweat rate: Forced Flow Water Transport Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, K. P. M.; Chau, K. H.; Kan, C. W.; Fan, J. T.

    2015-11-01

    The water absorption and transport properties of fabrics are critical to wear comfort, especially for sportswear and protective clothing. A new testing apparatus, namely Forced Flow Water Transport Tester (FFWTT), was developed for characterizing the transplanar and in-plane wicking properties of fabrics based on gravimetric and image analysis technique. The uniqueness of this instrument is that the rate of water supply is adjustable to simulate varying sweat rates with reference to the specific end-use conditions ranging from sitting, walking, running to other strenuous activities. This instrument is versatile in terms of the types of fabrics that can be tested. Twenty four types of fabrics with varying constructions and surface finishes were tested. The results showed that FFWTT was highly sensitive and reproducible in differentiating these fabrics and it suggests that water absorption and transport properties of fabrics are sweat rate-dependent. Additionally, two graphic methods were proposed to map the direction of liquid transport and its relation to skin wetness, which provides easy and direct comparison among different fabrics. Correlation analysis showed that FFWTT results have strong correlation with subjective wetness sensation, implying validity and usefulness of the instrument.

  17. Transportation optimization with fuzzy trapezoidal numbers based on possibility theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dayi; Li, Ran; Huang, Qi; Lei, Ping

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a parametric method is introduced to solve fuzzy transportation problem. Considering that parameters of transportation problem have uncertainties, this paper develops a generalized fuzzy transportation problem with fuzzy supply, demand and cost. For simplicity, these parameters are assumed to be fuzzy trapezoidal numbers. Based on possibility theory and consistent with decision-makers' subjectiveness and practical requirements, the fuzzy transportation problem is transformed to a crisp linear transportation problem by defuzzifying fuzzy constraints and objectives with application of fractile and modality approach. Finally, a numerical example is provided to exemplify the application of fuzzy transportation programming and to verify the validity of the proposed methods.

  18. Nanoparticle transport in water-unsaturated porous media: effects of solution ionic strength and flow rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prédélus, Dieuseul; Lassabatere, Laurent; Louis, Cédric; Gehan, Hélène; Brichart, Thomas; Winiarski, Thierry; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the influence of ionic strength and flow on nanoparticle (NP) retention rate in an unsaturated calcareous medium, originating from a heterogeneous glaciofluvial deposit of the region of Lyon (France). Laboratory columns 10 cm in diameter and 30 cm in length were used. Silica nanoparticles (Au-SiO 2 -FluoNPs), with hydrodynamic diameter ranging from 50 to 60 nm and labeled with fluorescein derivatives, were used to simulate particle transport, and bromide was used to characterize flow. Three flow rates and five different ionic strengths were tested. The transfer model based on fractionation of water into mobile and immobile fractions was coupled with the attachment/detachment model to fit NPs breakthrough curves. The results show that increasing flow velocity induces a decrease in nanoparticle retention, probably as the result of several physical but also geochemical factors. The results show that NPs retention increases with ionic strength. However, an inversion of retention occurs for ionic strength >5.10 −2  M, which has been scarcely observed in previous studies. The measure of zeta potential and DLVO calculations show that NPs may sorb on both solid-water and air-water interfaces. NPs size distribution shows the potential for nanoparticle agglomeration mostly at low pH, leading to entrapment in the soil pores. These mechanisms are highly sensitive to both hydrodynamic and geochemical conditions, which explains their high sensitivity to flow rates and ionic strength.

  19. Nanoparticle transport in water-unsaturated porous media: effects of solution ionic strength and flow rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prédélus, Dieuseul; Lassabatere, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.lassabatere@entpe.fr [Université de Lyon, Laboratoire d’Ecologie des Hydrosystèmes Naturels et Anthropisés, LEHNA (France); Louis, Cédric; Gehan, Hélène [Nano-H S.A.S., 2 place de l’Europe, Bâtiment A, Parc d’activité VALAD (France); Brichart, Thomas [Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Institut Lumière Matière, UMR 5306 CNRS (France); Winiarski, Thierry; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael [Université de Lyon, Laboratoire d’Ecologie des Hydrosystèmes Naturels et Anthropisés, LEHNA (France)

    2017-03-15

    This paper presents the influence of ionic strength and flow on nanoparticle (NP) retention rate in an unsaturated calcareous medium, originating from a heterogeneous glaciofluvial deposit of the region of Lyon (France). Laboratory columns 10 cm in diameter and 30 cm in length were used. Silica nanoparticles (Au-SiO{sub 2}-FluoNPs), with hydrodynamic diameter ranging from 50 to 60 nm and labeled with fluorescein derivatives, were used to simulate particle transport, and bromide was used to characterize flow. Three flow rates and five different ionic strengths were tested. The transfer model based on fractionation of water into mobile and immobile fractions was coupled with the attachment/detachment model to fit NPs breakthrough curves. The results show that increasing flow velocity induces a decrease in nanoparticle retention, probably as the result of several physical but also geochemical factors. The results show that NPs retention increases with ionic strength. However, an inversion of retention occurs for ionic strength >5.10{sup −2} M, which has been scarcely observed in previous studies. The measure of zeta potential and DLVO calculations show that NPs may sorb on both solid-water and air-water interfaces. NPs size distribution shows the potential for nanoparticle agglomeration mostly at low pH, leading to entrapment in the soil pores. These mechanisms are highly sensitive to both hydrodynamic and geochemical conditions, which explains their high sensitivity to flow rates and ionic strength.

  20. Glutamate transporter type 3 knockout leads to decreased heart rate possibly via parasympathetic mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Jiao; Li, Jiejie; Li, Liaoliao; Feng, Chenzhuo; Xiong, Lize; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2013-01-01

    Parasympathetic tone is a dominant neural regulator for basal heart rate. Glutamate transporters (EAAT) via their glutamate uptake functions regulate glutamate neurotransmission in the central nervous system. We showed that EAAT type 3 (EAAT3) knockout mice had a slower heart rate than wild-type mice when they were anesthetized. We design this study to determine whether non-anesthetized EAAT3 knockout mice have a slower heart rate and, if so, what may be the mechanism for this effect. Young a...

  1. A Process-Based Transport-Distance Model of Aeolian Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, A. K.; Okin, G.; Wainwright, J.; Parsons, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    We present a new approach to modeling aeolian transport based on transport distance. Particle fluxes are based on statistical probabilities of particle detachment and distributions of transport lengths, which are functions of particle size classes. A computational saltation model is used to simulate transport distances over a variety of sizes. These are fit to an exponential distribution, which has the advantages of computational economy, concordance with current field measurements, and a meaningful relationship to theoretical assumptions about mean and median particle transport distance. This novel approach includes particle-particle interactions, which are important for sustaining aeolian transport and dust emission. Results from this model are compared with results from both bulk- and particle-sized-specific transport equations as well as empirical wind tunnel studies. The transport-distance approach has been successfully used for hydraulic processes, and extending this methodology from hydraulic to aeolian transport opens up the possibility of modeling joint transport by wind and water using consistent physics. Particularly in nutrient-limited environments, modeling the joint action of aeolian and hydraulic transport is essential for understanding the spatial distribution of biomass across landscapes and how it responds to climatic variability and change.

  2. Strengths and limitations of the transport category in the green star South Africa rating system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathetha, Mokonyama T

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available the right dimensions, it remains fundamentally flawed by disregarding the network-based nature of transport services and operations, as well as the travel behaviour of building users. Prospects for improving the calculator are discussed. The role...

  3. CEMENT TRANSPORTATION LIMITED-FLEET MODELING AND ASSIGNING TO RATED DEMANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjes MASHHADI BANDANI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is an inseparable part of the supply chain, with a key role in product distribution. This role is highlighted when ratio of “the cost of transportation” to “the value of goods” such as cement is significant. Iran has recently become one of the main centers of cement production in the world. However, transportation is the most important challenge in cement distribution because of weak structure of the transportation fleet and its independent action. Independence of and lack of commitment on the part of transportation fleets to cement companies as well as lack of timely delivery due to shortage of transportation in some routes and seasons lead to customers` dissatisfaction and even market loss or lack of market development. One of the significant differences between the transportation system in Iran and that in developed countries is lack of complete productivity of the transportation fleet. It means that trucks are driver-based in Iran. This paper introduces a model considering some issues such as driver-based trucks, size of the transportation fleet based on the number of active trucks, and demand priorities in the cement company. Taking the relation between the number of active trucks and the cement company into account, this model assigns weekly demands to the transportation fleet. It also tries to minimize the delay to respond to demands and increases the efficiency of the transportation fleet. Finally, this current condition-based model is compared with two other models including “no constraints on different routes of trucks” as well as single-route model for trucks.

  4. Effects of episodic sediment supply on bedload transport rate in mountain rivers. Detecting debris flow activity using continuous monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Taro; Sakurai, Wataru; Iuchi, Takuma; Izumiyama, Hiroaki; Borgatti, Lisa; Marcato, Gianluca; Pasuto, Alessandro

    2018-04-01

    Monitoring of sediment transport from hillslopes to channel networks as a consequence of floods with suspended and bedload transport, hyperconcentrated flows, debris and mud flows is essential not only for scientific issues, but also for prevention and mitigation of natural disasters, i.e. for hazard assessment, land use planning and design of torrent control interventions. In steep, potentially unstable terrains, ground-based continuous monitoring of hillslope and hydrological processes is still highly localized and expensive, especially in terms of manpower. In recent years, new seismic and acoustic methods have been developed for continuous bedload monitoring in mountain rivers. Since downstream bedload transport rate is controlled by upstream sediment supply from tributary channels and bed-external sources, continuous bedload monitoring might be an effective tool for detecting the sediments mobilized by debris flow processes in the upper catchment and thus represent an indirect method to monitor slope instability processes at the catchment scale. However, there is poor information about the effects of episodic sediment supply from upstream bed-external sources on downstream bedload transport rate at a single flood time scale. We have examined the effects of sediment supply due to upstream debris flow events on downstream bedload transport rate along the Yotagiri River, central Japan. To do this, we have conducted continuous bedload observations using a hydrophone (Japanese pipe microphone) located 6.4 km downstream the lower end of a tributary affected by debris flows. Two debris flows occurred during the two-years-long observation period. As expected, bedload transport rate for a given flow depth showed to be larger after storms triggering debris flows. That is, although the magnitude of sediment supply from debris flows is not large, their effect on bedload is propagating >6 km downstream at a single flood time scale. This indicates that continuous bedload

  5. Effects of growth rate, cell size, motion, and elemental stoichiometry on nutrient transport kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Kevin J; Skibinski, David O F; Lindemann, Christian

    2018-04-01

    Nutrient acquisition is a critical determinant for the competitive advantage for auto- and osmohetero- trophs alike. Nutrient limited growth is commonly described on a whole cell basis through reference to a maximum growth rate (Gmax) and a half-saturation constant (KG). This empirical application of a Michaelis-Menten like description ignores the multiple underlying feedbacks between physiology contributing to growth, cell size, elemental stoichiometry and cell motion. Here we explore these relationships with reference to the kinetics of the nutrient transporter protein, the transporter rate density at the cell surface (TRD; potential transport rate per unit plasma-membrane area), and diffusion gradients. While the half saturation value for the limiting nutrient increases rapidly with cell size, significant mitigation is afforded by cell motion (swimming or sedimentation), and by decreasing the cellular carbon density. There is thus potential for high vacuolation and high sedimentation rates in diatoms to significantly decrease KG and increase species competitive advantage. Our results also suggest that Gmax for larger non-diatom protists may be constrained by rates of nutrient transport. For a given carbon density, cell size and TRD, the value of Gmax/KG remains constant. This implies that species or strains with a lower Gmax might coincidentally have a competitive advantage under nutrient limited conditions as they also express lower values of KG. The ability of cells to modulate the TRD according to their nutritional status, and hence change the instantaneous maximum transport rate, has a very marked effect upon transport and growth kinetics. Analyses and dynamic models that do not consider such modulation will inevitably fail to properly reflect competitive advantage in nutrient acquisition. This has important implications for the accurate representation and predictive capabilities of model applications, in particular in a changing environment.

  6. A transport-based condensed history algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolar, D. R. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Condensed history algorithms are approximate electron transport Monte Carlo methods in which the cumulative effects of multiple collisions are modeled in a single step of (user-specified) path length s 0 . This path length is the distance each Monte Carlo electron travels between collisions. Current condensed history techniques utilize a splitting routine over the range 0 le s le s 0 . For example, the PEnELOPE method splits each step into two substeps; one with length ξs 0 and one with length (1 minusξ)s 0 , where ξ is a random number from 0 0 is fixed (not sampled from an exponential distribution), conventional condensed history schemes are not transport processes. Here the authors describe a new condensed history algorithm that is a transport process. The method simulates a transport equation that approximates the exact Boltzmann equation. The new transport equation has a larger mean free path than, and preserves two angular moments of, the Boltzmann equation. Thus, the new process is solved more efficiently by Monte Carlo, and it conserves both particles and scattering power

  7. Electrostatic levitation, control and transport in high rate, low cost production of inertial confinement fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.; Johnson, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion requires production of power plant grade targets at high rates and process yield. A review of present project specifications and techniques to produce targets is discussed with special emphasis on automating the processes and combining them with an electrostatic transport and suspension system through the power plant target factory

  8. Determination of albumin transport rate between plasma and peritoneal space in decompensated cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring-Larsen, H; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1984-01-01

    Plasma-to-peritoneal transport rate of albumin (TERperit.space) was determined in eighteen patients with decompensated cirrhosis by sampling ascitic fluid after i.v. injection of 125I-labelled serum albumin. Median TERperit.space was 0.30% of the intravascular albumin mass (IVM) per hour (range 0...

  9. Shape signature based on Ricci flow and optimal mass transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Su, Zengyu; Zhang, Min; Zeng, Wei; Dai, Junfei; Gu, Xianfeng

    2014-11-01

    A shape signature based on surface Ricci flow and optimal mass transportation is introduced for the purpose of surface comparison. First, the surface is conformally mapped onto plane by Ricci flow, which induces a measure on the planar domain. Second, the unique optimal mass transport map is computed that transports the new measure to the canonical measure on the plane. The map is obtained by a convex optimization process. This optimal transport map encodes all the information of the Riemannian metric on the surface. The shape signature consists of the optimal transport map, together with the mean curvature, which can fully recover the original surface. The discrete theories of surface Ricci flow and optimal mass transportation are explained thoroughly. The algorithms are given in detail. The signature is tested on human facial surfaces with different expressions accquired by structured light 3-D scanner based on phase-shifting method. The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency and efficacy of the method.

  10. Ship Block Transportation Scheduling Problem Based on Greedy Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ship block transportation problems are crucial issues to address in reducing the construction cost and improving the productivity of shipyards. Shipyards aim to maximize the workload balance of transporters with time constraint such that all blocks should be transported during the planning horizon. This process leads to three types of penalty time: empty transporter travel time, delay time, and tardy time. This study aims to minimize the sum of the penalty time. First, this study presents the problem of ship block transportation with the generalization of the block transportation restriction on the multi-type transporter. Second, the problem is transformed into the classical traveling salesman problem and assignment problem through a reasonable model simplification and by adding a virtual node to the proposed directed graph. Then, a heuristic algorithm based on greedy algorithm is proposed to assign blocks to available transporters and sequencing blocks for each transporter simultaneously. Finally, the numerical experiment method is used to validate the model, and its result shows that the proposed algorithm is effective in realizing the efficient use of the transporters in shipyards. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the promising application of the proposed method to efficiently improve the utilization of transporters and to reduce the cost of ship block logistics for shipyards.

  11. Determination of uncertainties in the calculation of dose rates at transport and storage casks; Unsicherheiten bei der Berechnung von Dosisleistungen an Transport- und Lagerbehaeltern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schloemer, Luc Laurent Alexander

    2014-12-17

    The compliance with the dose rate limits for transport and storage casks (TLB) for spent nuclear fuel from pressurised water reactors can be proved by calculation. This includes the determination of the radioactive sources and the shielding-capability of the cask. In this thesis the entire computational chain, which extends from the determination of the source terms to the final Monte-Carlo-transport-calculation is analysed and the arising uncertainties are quantified not only by benchmarks but also by variational calculi. The background of these analyses is that the comparison with measured dose rates at different TLBs shows an overestimation by the values calculated. Regarding the studies performed, the overestimation can be mainly explained by the detector characteristics for the measurement of the neutron dose rate and additionally in case of the gamma dose rates by the energy group structure, which the calculation is based on. It turns out that the consideration of the uncertainties occurring along the computational chain can lead to even greater overestimation. Concerning the dose rate calculation at cask loadings with spent uranium fuel assemblies an uncertainty of (({sup +21}{sub -28}) ±2) % (rel.) for the total gamma dose rate and of ({sup +28±23}{sub -55±4}) % (rel.) for the total neutron dose rate are estimated. For mixed-loadings with spent uranium and MOX fuel assemblies an uncertainty of ({sup +24±3}{sub -27±2}) % (rel.) for the total gamma dose rate and of ({sup +28±23}{sub -55±4}) % (rel.) for the total neutron dose rate are quantified. The results show that the computational chain has not to be modified, because the calculations performed lead to conservative dose rate predictions, even if high uncertainties at neutron dose rate measurements arise. Thus at first the uncertainties of the neutron dose rate measurement have to be decreased to enable a reduction of the overestimation of the calculated dose rate afterwards. In the present thesis

  12. Evaluation method of gas leakage rate from transportation casks of radioactive materials (gas leakage rates from scratches on O-ring surface)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Li Ninghua; Asano, Ryoji; Kawa, Tsunemichi

    2004-01-01

    A sealing function is essential for transportation and/or storage casks of radioactive materials under both normal and accidental operating conditions in order to prevent radioactive materials from being released into the environment. In the safety analysis report, the release rate of radioactive materials into the environment is evaluated using the correlations specified in the ANSI N14.5, 1987. The purposes of the work are to reveal the underlying problems on the correlations specified in the ANSI N14.5 related to gas leakage rates from a scratch on O-ring surface and from multi-leak paths, to offer a data base to study the evaluation method of the leakage rate and to propose the evaluation method. In this paper, the following insights were obtained and clarified: 1. If a characteristic value of a leak path is defined as D 4 /a ('D' is the diameter and 'a' is the length), a scratch on the O-ring surface can be evaluated as a circular tube. 2. It is proper to use the width of O-ring groove on the flange as the leak path length for elastomer O-rings. 3. Gas leakage rates from multi leak paths of the transportation cask can be evaluated in the same manner as a single leak path if an effective D4/a is introduced. (author)

  13. Count rate balance method of measuring sediment transport of sand beds by radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauzay, G.

    1968-01-01

    Radioactive tracers are applied to the direct measurement of the sediment transport rate of sand beds. The theoretical measurement formula is derived: the variation of the count rate balance is inverse of that of the transport thickness. Simultaneously the representativeness of the tracer is critically studied. The minimum quantity of tracer which has to be injected in order to obtain a correct statistical definition of count rate given by a low number of grains 'seen' by the detector is then studied. A field experiment was made and has let to study the technological conditions for applying this method: only the treatment of results is new, the experiment itself is carried out with conventional techniques applied with great care. (author) [fr

  14. Time-dependent integral transport equation kernels, leakage rates and collision rates for plane and spherical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    Time-dependent integral transport equation flux and current kernels for plane and spherical geometry are derived for homogeneous media. Using the multiple collision formalism, isotropic sources that are delta distributions in time are considered for four different problems. The plane geometry flux kernel is applied to a uniformly distributed source within an infinite medium and to a surface source in a semi-infinite medium. The spherical flux kernel is applied to a point source in an infinite medium and to a point source at the origin of a finite sphere. The time-dependent first-flight leakage rates corresponding to the existing steady state first-flight escape probabilities are computed by the Laplace transform technique assuming a delta distribution source in time. The case of a constant source emitting neutrons over a time interval, Δt, for a spatially uniform source is obtained for a slab and a sphere. Time-dependent first-flight leakage rates are also determined for the general two region spherical medium problem for isotropic sources with a delta distribution in time uniformly distributed throughout both the inner and outer regions. The time-dependent collision rates due to the uncollided neutrons are computed for a slab and a sphere using the time-dependent first-flight leakage rates and the time-dependent continuity equation. The case of a constant source emitting neutrons over a time interval, Δt, is also considered

  15. Agent-based transportation planning compared with scheduling heuristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mes, Martijn R.K.; van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; van Harten, Aart

    2004-01-01

    Here we consider the problem of dynamically assigning vehicles to transportation orders that have di¤erent time windows and should be handled in real time. We introduce a new agent-based system for the planning and scheduling of these transportation networks. Intelligent vehicle agents schedule

  16. Substituted polyfluorene-based hole transport layer with tunable solubility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craciun, N.I.; Wildeman, J.; Blom, P.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the synthesis and electrical characterization of polyfluorene-triarylamine-based hole transport layers (HTLs). The solubility of the HTL can be tuned by adjustment of the chemical structure without loss of the charge transport properties. Double-layer polymer light-emitting diodes are

  17. Identification of biomolecule mass transport and binding rate parameters in living cells by inverse modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirmohammadi Adel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantification of in-vivo biomolecule mass transport and reaction rate parameters from experimental data obtained by Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching (FRAP is becoming more important. Methods and results The Osborne-Moré extended version of the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm was coupled with the experimental data obtained by the Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching (FRAP protocol, and the numerical solution of a set of two partial differential equations governing macromolecule mass transport and reaction in living cells, to inversely estimate optimized values of the molecular diffusion coefficient and binding rate parameters of GFP-tagged glucocorticoid receptor. The results indicate that the FRAP protocol provides enough information to estimate one parameter uniquely using a nonlinear optimization technique. Coupling FRAP experimental data with the inverse modeling strategy, one can also uniquely estimate the individual values of the binding rate coefficients if the molecular diffusion coefficient is known. One can also simultaneously estimate the dissociation rate parameter and molecular diffusion coefficient given the pseudo-association rate parameter is known. However, the protocol provides insufficient information for unique simultaneous estimation of three parameters (diffusion coefficient and binding rate parameters owing to the high intercorrelation between the molecular diffusion coefficient and pseudo-association rate parameter. Attempts to estimate macromolecule mass transport and binding rate parameters simultaneously from FRAP data result in misleading conclusions regarding concentrations of free macromolecule and bound complex inside the cell, average binding time per vacant site, average time for diffusion of macromolecules from one site to the next, and slow or rapid mobility of biomolecules in cells. Conclusion To obtain unique values for molecular diffusion coefficient and

  18. Cathodic delamination: Quantification of ionic transport rates along coating-steel interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.A.; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Weinell, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    So-called cathodic delamination is one of the major modes of failure for organic coatings immersed in electrolyte solutions (e.g. seawater). Cathodic delamination occurs as a result of the electrochemical reactions, which takes place on a corroding steel surface. This means that reactants must...... continuously be transported from the bulk solution to the cathodic areas. The transport of sodium ions from a defect in the coating to the cathodic areas is generally considered the rate-determining step for cathodic delamination because the transport of oxygen and water through the coating is sufficient...... for the corrosion processes. In this work, a novel practical method, which allows direct estimation of the apparent diffusion coefficient of sodium ions in the ultrathin aqueous layer at the coating-steel interface, is described. The apparent diffusion coefficients estimated are of similar magnitude as previously...

  19. Image Inpainting Based on Coherence Transport with Adapted Distance Functions

    KAUST Repository

    Mä rz, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We discuss an extension of our method image inpainting based on coherence transport. For the latter method the pixels of the inpainting domain have to be serialized into an ordered list. Until now, to induce the serialization we have used

  20. A variational solution of transport equation based on spherical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hui; Zhang Ben'ai

    2002-01-01

    A variational method with differential forms gives better precision for numerical solution of transport critical problem based on spherical geometry, and its computation seems simple than other approximate methods

  1. On the observability of turbulent transport rates by Argo: supporting evidence from an inversion experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Forget

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although estimation of turbulent transport parameters using inverse methods is not new, there is little evaluation of the method in the literature. Here, it is shown that extended observation of the broad-scale hydrography by Argo provides a path to improved estimates of regional turbulent transport rates. Results from a 20-year ocean state estimate produced with the ECCO v4 (Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean, version 4 non-linear inverse modeling framework provide supporting evidence. Turbulent transport parameter maps are estimated under the constraints of fitting the extensive collection of Argo profiles collected through 2011. The adjusted parameters dramatically reduce misfits to in situ profiles as compared with earlier ECCO solutions. They also yield a clear reduction in the model drift away from observations over multi-century-long simulations, both for assimilated variables (temperature and salinity and independent variables (biogeochemical tracers. Despite the minimal constraints imposed specifically on the estimated parameters, their geography is physically plausible and exhibits close connections with the upper-ocean stratification as observed by Argo. The estimated parameter adjustments furthermore have first-order impacts on upper-ocean stratification and mixed layer depths over 20 years. These results identify the constraint of fitting Argo profiles as an effective observational basis for regional turbulent transport rate inversions. Uncertainties and further improvements of the method are discussed.

  2. SEAWAT-based simulation of axisymmetric heat transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbohede, Alexander; Louwyck, Andy; Vlamynck, Nele

    2014-01-01

    Simulation of heat transport has its applications in geothermal exploitation of aquifers and the analysis of temperature dependent chemical reactions. Under homogeneous conditions and in the absence of a regional hydraulic gradient, groundwater flow and heat transport from or to a well exhibit radial symmetry, and governing equations are reduced by one dimension (1D) which increases computational efficiency importantly. Solute transport codes can simulate heat transport and input parameters may be modified such that the Cartesian geometry can handle radial flow. In this article, SEAWAT is evaluated as simulator for heat transport under radial flow conditions. The 1971, 1D analytical solution of Gelhar and Collins is used to compare axisymmetric transport with retardation (i.e., as a result of thermal equilibrium between fluid and solid) and a large diffusion (conduction). It is shown that an axisymmetric simulation compares well with a fully three dimensional (3D) simulation of an aquifer thermal energy storage systems. The influence of grid discretization, solver parameters, and advection solution is illustrated. Because of the high diffusion to simulate conduction, convergence criterion for heat transport must be set much smaller (10(-10) ) than for solute transport (10(-6) ). Grid discretization should be considered carefully, in particular the subdivision of the screen interval. On the other hand, different methods to calculate the pumping or injection rate distribution over different nodes of a multilayer well lead to small differences only. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  3. Space-Time Dependent Transport, Activation, and Dose Rates for Radioactivated Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazza, Sergio

    Two methods are developed to calculate the space - and time-dependent mass transport of radionuclides, their production and decay, and the associated dose rates generated from the radioactivated fluids flowing through pipes. The work couples space- and time-dependent phenomena, treated as only space- or time-dependent in the open literature. The transport and activation methodology (TAM) is used to numerically calculate space- and time-dependent transport and activation of radionuclides in fluids flowing through pipes exposed to radiation fields, and volumetric radioactive sources created by radionuclide motions. The computer program Radionuclide Activation and Transport in Pipe (RNATPA1) performs the numerical calculations required in TAM. The gamma ray dose methodology (GAM) is used to numerically calculate space- and time-dependent gamma ray dose equivalent rates from the volumetric radioactive sources determined by TAM. The computer program Gamma Ray Dose Equivalent Rate (GRDOSER) performs the numerical calculations required in GAM. The scope of conditions considered by TAM and GAM herein include (a) laminar flow in straight pipe, (b)recirculating flow schemes, (c) time-independent fluid velocity distributions, (d) space-dependent monoenergetic neutron flux distribution, (e) space- and time-dependent activation process of a single parent nuclide and transport and decay of a single daughter radionuclide, and (f) assessment of space- and time-dependent gamma ray dose rates, outside the pipe, generated by the space- and time-dependent source term distributions inside of it. The methodologies, however, can be easily extended to include all the situations of interest for solving the phenomena addressed in this dissertation. A comparison is made from results obtained by the described calculational procedures with analytical expressions. The physics of the problems addressed by the new technique and the increased accuracy versus non -space and time-dependent methods

  4. Agent-Based Coordination Model for Designing Transportation Applications

    OpenAIRE

    BADEIG, F; BALBO, F; SCEMAMA, G; ZARGAYOUNA, M

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an environment-centered approach to design multi-agent solutions to transportation problems. Based on the Property-based Coordination Principle (PbC), the objective of our approach is to solve three recurrent issues in the design of these solutions: the knowledge problem, the space-time dimension and the dynamics of the real environment. To demonstrate the benefits of our approach, two completely different applications, a demand-responsive transportation system and a simul...

  5. Tunneling rates in electron transport through double-barrier molecular junctions in a scanning tunneling microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazin, G V; Wu, S W; Ho, W

    2005-06-21

    The scanning tunneling microscope enables atomic-scale measurements of electron transport through individual molecules. Copper phthalocyanine and magnesium porphine molecules adsorbed on a thin oxide film grown on the NiAl(110) surface were probed. The single-molecule junctions contained two tunneling barriers, vacuum gap, and oxide film. Differential conductance spectroscopy shows that electron transport occurs via vibronic states of the molecules. The intensity of spectral peaks corresponding to the individual vibronic states depends on the relative electron tunneling rates through the two barriers of the junction, as found by varying the vacuum gap tunneling rate by changing the height of the scanning tunneling microscope tip above the molecule. A simple, sequential tunneling model explains the observed trends.

  6. Evaluation of Nasal Mucociliary Transport Rate by99mTc-Macroaggregated Albumin Rhinoscintigraphy in Woodworkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostbil, Zeki; Polat, Cahit; Uysal, İsmail Önder; Bakır, Salih; Karakuş, Askeri; Altındağ, Serdar

    2011-01-01

    Woodworkers in the furniture industry are exposed to wood dust in their workplaces. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of occupational wood dust exposure on the nasal mucociliary transport rates (NMTRs) in woodworkers. Twenty five woodworkers and 30 healthy controls were included in this study. Wood dust concentration in workplaces was measured using the sampling device. 99m Tc-macroaggregated albumin (99mTc-MAA) rhinoscintigraphy was performed, and NMTR was calculated in all cases. In statistical analysis, an independent samples t-test was used to compare NMTR of woodworkers and control subjects. We found that the mean NMTR of the woodworkers was lower than that of the healthy controls. However, there was not a statistically significant difference between them (P = 0.066). In conclusion, our findings suggested that wood dust exposure may not impair nasal mucociliary transport rate in woodworkers employed in joinery workshops. PMID:21804940

  7. Evaluation of Nasal Mucociliary Transport Rate byTc-Macroaggregated Albumin Rhinoscintigraphy in Woodworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostbil, Zeki; Polat, Cahit; Uysal, Ismail Önder; Bakır, Salih; Karakuş, Askeri; Altındağ, Serdar

    2011-01-01

    Woodworkers in the furniture industry are exposed to wood dust in their workplaces. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of occupational wood dust exposure on the nasal mucociliary transport rates (NMTRs) in woodworkers. Twenty five woodworkers and 30 healthy controls were included in this study. Wood dust concentration in workplaces was measured using the sampling device. (99m) Tc-macroaggregated albumin ((99m)Tc-MAA) rhinoscintigraphy was performed, and NMTR was calculated in all cases. In statistical analysis, an independent samples t-test was used to compare NMTR of woodworkers and control subjects. We found that the mean NMTR of the woodworkers was lower than that of the healthy controls. However, there was not a statistically significant difference between them (P = 0.066). In conclusion, our findings suggested that wood dust exposure may not impair nasal mucociliary transport rate in woodworkers employed in joinery workshops.

  8. Considerations on free public transport implementation - based on Krakow case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakowska, L.; Piwowarczyk, M.A.; Aleksandrowicz, J.H.

    2016-07-01

    New transport philosophy follows the equity criteria and should also lead toward sustainability and equity in building policies of public transport in cities. Implementation of free public transport for citizens is widely considered in different countries, cities and on several administrative government levels. However, there are not may examples of successful implementation if this concept in Europe. This work presents the discussion on multi-dimensional barriers, which make implementation of equity criteria to transport policies difficult. Both advantages and disadvantages of free of charge public transport system are presented, based on current discussions, as well as on some European examples, case studies and scientific evaluations. The case study simulation for the Krakow urban area is initiated and described, testing the effects of free of charge public transport on economic and mobility factors. Considerations presented in this work are based on current challenges to build green with multimodal transport, respecting factors of economy, traffic volumes, safety and environmental factors. It is predicted that success of free public transport for citizens could create a significant shift in travel demand from private car use toward trams and busses, reducing accident costs, decreasing congestion in city centers and limiting air pollution, contributing to social and economic growth of the whole metropolitan area. (Author)

  9. Increased Ratio of Electron Transport to Net Assimilation Rate Supports Elevated Isoprenoid Emission Rate in Eucalypts under Drought1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Kaidala Ganesha Srikanta; Jamie, Ian McLeod; Prentice, Iain Colin; Atwell, Brian James

    2014-01-01

    Plants undergoing heat and low-CO2 stresses emit large amounts of volatile isoprenoids compared with those in stress-free conditions. One hypothesis posits that the balance between reducing power availability and its use in carbon assimilation determines constitutive isoprenoid emission rates in plants and potentially even their maximum emission capacity under brief periods of stress. To test this, we used abiotic stresses to manipulate the availability of reducing power. Specifically, we examined the effects of mild to severe drought on photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) and net carbon assimilation rate (NAR) and the relationship between estimated energy pools and constitutive volatile isoprenoid emission rates in two species of eucalypts: Eucalyptus occidentalis (drought tolerant) and Eucalyptus camaldulensis (drought sensitive). Isoprenoid emission rates were insensitive to mild drought, and the rates increased when the decline in NAR reached a certain species-specific threshold. ETR was sustained under drought and the ETR-NAR ratio increased, driving constitutive isoprenoid emission until severe drought caused carbon limitation of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway. The estimated residual reducing power unused for carbon assimilation, based on the energetic status model, significantly correlated with constitutive isoprenoid emission rates across gradients of drought (r2 > 0.8) and photorespiratory stress (r2 > 0.9). Carbon availability could critically limit emission rates under severe drought and photorespiratory stresses. Under most instances of moderate abiotic stress levels, increased isoprenoid emission rates compete with photorespiration for the residual reducing power not invested in carbon assimilation. A similar mechanism also explains the individual positive effects of low-CO2, heat, and drought stresses on isoprenoid emission. PMID:25139160

  10. Radiative transport-based frequency-domain fluorescence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Amit; Rasmussen, John C; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M; Wareing, Todd A; McGhee, John

    2008-01-01

    We report the development of radiative transport model-based fluorescence optical tomography from frequency-domain boundary measurements. The coupled radiative transport model for describing NIR fluorescence propagation in tissue is solved by a novel software based on the established Attila(TM) particle transport simulation platform. The proposed scheme enables the prediction of fluorescence measurements with non-contact sources and detectors at a minimal computational cost. An adjoint transport solution-based fluorescence tomography algorithm is implemented on dual grids to efficiently assemble the measurement sensitivity Jacobian matrix. Finally, we demonstrate fluorescence tomography on a realistic computational mouse model to locate nM to μM fluorophore concentration distributions in simulated mouse organs

  11. Natural hazard impacts on transport systems: analyzing the data base of transport accidents in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Elena

    2015-04-01

    We consider a transport accident as any accident that occurs during transportation of people and goods. It comprises of accidents involving air, road, rail, water, and pipeline transport. With over 1.2 million people killed each year, road accidents are one of the world's leading causes of death; another 20-50 million people are injured each year on the world's roads while walking, cycling, or driving. Transport accidents of other types including air, rail, and water transport accidents are not as numerous as road crashes, but the relative risk of each accident is much higher because of the higher number of people killed and injured per accident. Pipeline ruptures cause large damages to the environment. That is why safety and security are of primary concern for any transport system. The transport system of the Russian Federation (RF) is one of the most extensive in the world. It includes 1,283,000 km of public roads, more than 600,000 km of airlines, more than 200,000 km of gas, oil, and product pipelines, 115,000 km of inland waterways, and 87,000 km of railways. The transport system, especially the transport infrastructure of the country is exposed to impacts of various natural hazards and weather extremes such as heavy rains, snowfalls, snowdrifts, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, snow avalanches, debris flows, rock falls, fog or icing roads, and other natural factors that additionally trigger many accidents. In June 2014, the Ministry of Transport of the RF has compiled a new version of the Transport Strategy of the RF up to 2030. Among of the key pillars of the Strategy are to increase the safety of the transport system and to reduce negative environmental impacts. Using the data base of technological accidents that was created by the author, the study investigates temporal variations and regional differences of the transport accidents' risk within the Russian federal regions and a contribution of natural factors to occurrences of different

  12. A field study on chemistry, S(IV) oxidation rates and vertical transport during fog conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joos, F.; Baltensperger, U.

    An extensive fog study was carried out in the central plateu of Switzerland. Ninety-seven fog samples were collected along with aerosol filter and cascade impactor samples, and measurements of O 3, SO 2, NO, NO x, PAN, temperature, and wind speed and direction. Maximum levels in fogwater were 4.3, 4.4., 0.033, 1.7, 0.5, 0.024 and 9.2 mmol ℓ -1 for Cl -, NO 3-, NO 2-, SO 42-, S(IV), oxalate and NH 4+, respectively. pH varied between 2.9 and 7.1. Sixteen additional elements were determined in the fog samples by ICP. The sum of the concentrations of SO 42- and S(IV) agreed very with the total sulfur concentration as determined by ICP. A substantial excess of S(IV) (up to 0.2 mmol ℓ -1) compared to Henry and acid-base equilibrium calculations was found, which can probably be attributed to complex formations with aldehydes. S(IV) oxidation rates of up to 650 nmol ℓ -1 s -1 with ozone and of up to 100 nmol ℓ -1 s -1 with NO 2 were calculated. S(IV) oxidation due to PAN, NO 2- and Fe(III) was of minor importance. A substantial fraction of the major ions was present in the intersitial aerosol (aerosol particles < 4 μm) even during fog conditions. High correlations were found for NH 4+, NO 32-. From their ratios in the fog water and the aerosol (< 4 μm) it could be concluded that at least 40% of NO 3- and 20% of NH 4+ in fog water was due to gas phase scavenging. Increasing concentrations in fog water were found during fog dissipation. Concentrations decreased with increasing height. A vertical transport model including turbulent diffusion and droplet sedimentation is introduced, which matches the experimental data of this vertical profile.

  13. Intelligent Transportation Control based on Proactive Complex Event Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yongheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex Event Processing (CEP has become the key part of Internet of Things (IoT. Proactive CEP can predict future system states and execute some actions to avoid unwanted states which brings new hope to intelligent transportation control. In this paper, we propose a proactive CEP architecture and method for intelligent transportation control. Based on basic CEP technology and predictive analytic technology, a networked distributed Markov decision processes model with predicting states is proposed as sequential decision model. A Q-learning method is proposed for this model. The experimental evaluations show that this method works well when used to control congestion in in intelligent transportation systems.

  14. 75 FR 72581 - Assessments, Assessment Base and Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Part III Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation 12 CFR Part 327 Assessments, Assessment Base and... Assessments, Assessment Base and Rates AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. ACTION: Notice of... Consumer Protection Act regarding the definition of an institution's deposit insurance assessment base...

  15. Intelligent Transportation Control based on Proactive Complex Event Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Yongheng; Geng Shaofeng; Li Qian

    2016-01-01

    Complex Event Processing (CEP) has become the key part of Internet of Things (IoT). Proactive CEP can predict future system states and execute some actions to avoid unwanted states which brings new hope to intelligent transportation control. In this paper, we propose a proactive CEP architecture and method for intelligent transportation control. Based on basic CEP technology and predictive analytic technology, a networked distributed Markov decision processes model with predicting states is p...

  16. Energy efficiency achievements in China's industrial and transport sectors: How do they rate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Libo; Huo, Hong

    2014-01-01

    China is experiencing intensified industrialisation and motorisation. In the world's largest emerging economy, energy efficiency is expected to play a critical role in the ever-rising demand for energy. Based on factual overviews and numerical analysis, this article carries out an in-depth investigation into the effectiveness of policies announced or implemented in recent decades targeted at energy conservation in the energy intensive manufacturing and transportation sectors. It highlights nine energy intensive sectors that achieved major improvements in their energy technology efficiency efforts. Under the umbrella of the 11th Five-Year Plan, these sectors' performances reflect the effectiveness of China's energy conservation governance. Numerous actions have been taken in China to reduce the road transport sector's demand for energy and its GHG emissions by implementing fuel economy standards, promoting advanced energy efficient vehicles, and alternative fuels. Coal-based energy saving technologies, especially industrial furnace technologies, are critical for China's near and medium-term energy saving. In the long run, renewable energy development and expanding the railway transport system are the most effective ways to reduce energy use and GHG emissions in China. Fuel economy standards could reduce oil consumption and GHGs by 34–35 per cent. - Highlights: • This article makes an investigation into the effectiveness of energy conservation policies in China. • Efficiency improvement reflects the effective governance of energy conservation in China. • Numerous actions have been taken to reduce the road transport sector's demand for energy. • Coal-based energy saving technologies are critical for China's near and medium-term energy saving. • In the long run, renewable energy and expanding the railway transport system are the most effective ways

  17. Maximum Plant Uptakes for Water, Nutrients, and Oxygen Are Not Always Met by Irrigation Rate and Distribution in Water-based Cultivation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Chris; Jackson, Brian E.; Guo, Xianfeng; Visser, De Pieter H.B.; Marcelis, Leo F.M.

    2017-01-01

    Growing on rooting media other than soils in situ -i.e., substrate-based growing- allows for higher yields than soil-based growing as transport rates of water, nutrients, and oxygen in substrate surpass those in soil. Possibly water-based growing allows for even higher yields as transport rates of

  18. Green maritime transportation: Market based measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the concept of Market Based Measures (MBMs) to reduce Green House Gas (GHG) emissions from ships, and review several distinct MBM proposals that have been under consideration by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The chapter discusses the me...... the mechanisms used by MBMs, and explores how the concept of the Marginal Abatement Cost (MAC) can be linked to MBMs. It also attempts to discuss the pros and cons of the submitted proposals....

  19. Coupled force-balance and particle-occupation rate equations for high-field electron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, X. L.

    2008-01-01

    It is pointed out that in the framework of balance-equation approach, the coupled force-balance and particle-occupation rate equations can be used as a complete set of equations to determine the high-field transport of semiconductors in both strong and weak electron-electron interaction limits. We call to attention that the occupation rate equation conserves the total particle number and maintains the energy balance of the relative electron system, and there is no need to introduce any other term in it. The addition of an energy-drift term in the particle-occupation rate equation [Phys. Rev. B 71, 195205 (2005)] is physically inadequate for the violation of the total particle-number conservation and the energy balance. It may lead to a substantial unphysical increase of the total particle number by the application of a dc electric field

  20. A Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion Predictor-Based Model Reference Adaptive Controller for a Generic Transport Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Stefan F.; Kaneshige, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Presented here is a Predictor-Based Model Reference Adaptive Control (PMRAC) architecture for a generic transport aircraft. At its core, this architecture features a three-axis, non-linear, dynamic-inversion controller. Command inputs for this baseline controller are provided by pilot roll-rate, pitch-rate, and sideslip commands. This paper will first thoroughly present the baseline controller followed by a description of the PMRAC adaptive augmentation to this control system. Results are presented via a full-scale, nonlinear simulation of NASA s Generic Transport Model (GTM).

  1. PSA-based evaluation and rating of operational events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Cobo, A.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the PSA-based evaluation and rating of operational events, including the following: historical background, procedures for event evaluation using PSA, use of PSA for event rating, current activities

  2. A Novel Segment-Based Approach for Improving Classification Performance of Transport Mode Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvensan, M Amac; Dusun, Burak; Can, Baris; Turkmen, H Irem

    2017-12-30

    Transportation planning and solutions have an enormous impact on city life. To minimize the transport duration, urban planners should understand and elaborate the mobility of a city. Thus, researchers look toward monitoring people's daily activities including transportation types and duration by taking advantage of individual's smartphones. This paper introduces a novel segment-based transport mode detection architecture in order to improve the results of traditional classification algorithms in the literature. The proposed post-processing algorithm, namely the Healing algorithm, aims to correct the misclassification results of machine learning-based solutions. Our real-life test results show that the Healing algorithm could achieve up to 40% improvement of the classification results. As a result, the implemented mobile application could predict eight classes including stationary, walking, car, bus, tram, train, metro and ferry with a success rate of 95% thanks to the proposed multi-tier architecture and Healing algorithm.

  3. Changes in cortisol release and heart rate variability in sport horses during long-distance road transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A; Biau, S; Möstl, E; Becker-Birck, M; Morillon, B; Aurich, J; Faure, J-M; Aurich, C

    2010-04-01

    It is widely accepted that transport is stressful for horses, but only a few studies are available involving horses that are transported regularly and are accustomed to transport. We determined salivary cortisol immunoreactivity (IR), fecal cortisol metabolites, beat-to-beat (RR) interval, and heart rate variability (HRV) in transport-experienced horses (N=7) in response to a 2-d outbound road transport over 1370 km and 2-d return transport 8 d later. Salivary cortisol IR was low until 60 min before transport but had increased (PHRV variable standard deviation 2 (SD2) occurred (PHRV, which is indicative of stress. The degree of these changes tended to be most pronounced on the first day of both outbound and return transport. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Data-based mathematical modeling of vectorial transport across double-transfected polarized cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomé, Kilian; Rius, Maria; Letschert, Katrin; Keller, Daniela; Timmer, Jens; Keppler, Dietrich

    2007-09-01

    Vectorial transport of endogenous small molecules, toxins, and drugs across polarized epithelial cells contributes to their half-life in the organism and to detoxification. To study vectorial transport in a quantitative manner, an in vitro model was used that includes polarized MDCKII cells stably expressing the recombinant human uptake transporter OATP1B3 in their basolateral membrane and the recombinant ATP-driven efflux pump ABCC2 in their apical membrane. These double-transfected cells enabled mathematical modeling of the vectorial transport of the anionic prototype substance bromosulfophthalein (BSP) that has frequently been used to examine hepatobiliary transport. Time-dependent analyses of (3)H-labeled BSP in the basolateral, intracellular, and apical compartments of cells cultured on filter membranes and efflux experiments in cells preloaded with BSP were performed. A mathematical model was fitted to the experimental data. Data-based modeling was optimized by including endogenous transport processes in addition to the recombinant transport proteins. The predominant contributions to the overall vectorial transport of BSP were mediated by OATP1B3 (44%) and ABCC2 (28%). Model comparison predicted a previously unrecognized endogenous basolateral efflux process as a negative contribution to total vectorial transport, amounting to 19%, which is in line with the detection of the basolateral efflux pump Abcc4 in MDCKII cells. Rate-determining steps in the vectorial transport were identified by calculating control coefficients. Data-based mathematical modeling of vectorial transport of BSP as a model substance resulted in a quantitative description of this process and its components. The same systems biology approach may be applied to other cellular systems and to different substances.

  5. Assessing the transport rate of hyperpolarized pyruvate and lactate from the intra- to the extracellular space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reineri, Francesca; Daniele, Valeria; Cavallari, Eleonora; Aime, Silvio

    2016-08-01

    The use of [1-(13) C]pyruvate hyperpolarized by means of dynamic nuclear polarization provides a direct way to track the metabolic transformations of this metabolite in vivo and in cell cultures. The identification of the intra- and extracellular contributions to the (13) C NMR resonances is not straightforward. In order to obtain information about the rate of pyruvate and lactate transport through the cellular membrane, we set up a method that relies on the sudden 'quenching' of the extracellular metabolites' signal. The paramagnetic Gd-tetraazacyclododecane triacetic acid (Gd-DO3A) complex was used to dramatically decrease the longitudinal relaxation time constants of the (13) C-carboxylate resonances of both pyruvate and lactate. When Gd-DO3A was added to an MCF-7 cellular culture, which had previously received a dose of hyperpolarized [1-(13) C]pyruvate, the contributions of the extracellular pyruvate and lactate signals were deleted. From the analysis of the decay curves of the (13) C-carboxylate resonances of pyruvate and lactate it was possible to extract information about the exchange rate of the two metabolites across the cellular membrane. In particular, it was found that, in the reported experimental conditions, the lactate transport from the intra- to the extracellular space is not much lower than the rate of lactate formation. The method reported herein is non-destructive and it could be translated to in vivo studies. It opens a route for the use of hyperpolarized pyruvate to assess altered activity of carboxylate transporter proteins that may occur in pathological conditions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Nature of rate-limiting steps in a compartmentalized enzyme system. Quantitation of dopamine transport and hydroxylation rates in resealed chromaffin granule ghosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, N.G.; Klinman, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Using isolated chromaffin granule ghosts from bovine adrenal medullae, we have studied the kinetics of dopamine beta-monooxygenase (D beta M) activity as it is linked to dopamine transport. Measurements of the initial rates of transport and of transport-linked norepinephrine formation suggested that enzyme activity may be partially rate-limiting in the coupled carrier/enzyme system. This was confirmed by (i) measurements of initial rates of norepinephrine formation using deuterated substrate, which gave isotope effects greater than 2.0, and (ii) kinetic measurements using ghosts pulsed with varying concentrations of labeled dopamine, which indicated substantial substrate accumulation in the vesicle interior as a function of time. Initial rates of product formation, when combined with approximations of internal substrate concentrations, allowed estimates of Kcat and Km for intravesicular D beta M. Activation by external reductant was apparent in both initial rate parameters and the measurements of transients. Under conditions of optimal D beta M activity, the enzyme rate parameters (kcat = 0.31 nmol/s.mg and Km = 2 mM) indicated partial rate limitation compared to dopamine transport (kcat = 0.38 nmol/s.mg and Km = 32 microM). Compartmental analysis of the time curves, performed using numerical nonlinear least squares methods, gave least squares estimates of rate constants for a simple carrier mechanism and kcat values for D beta M which were consistent with estimates from initial rates

  7. Computational modeling and statistical analyses on individual contact rate and exposure to disease in complex and confined transportation hubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. L.; Tsui, K. L.; Lo, S. M.; Liu, S. B.

    2018-01-01

    Crowded transportation hubs such as metro stations are thought as ideal places for the development and spread of epidemics. However, for the special features of complex spatial layout, confined environment with a large number of highly mobile individuals, it is difficult to quantify human contacts in such environments, wherein disease spreading dynamics were less explored in the previous studies. Due to the heterogeneity and dynamic nature of human interactions, increasing studies proved the importance of contact distance and length of contact in transmission probabilities. In this study, we show how detailed information on contact and exposure patterns can be obtained by statistical analyses on microscopic crowd simulation data. To be specific, a pedestrian simulation model-CityFlow was employed to reproduce individuals' movements in a metro station based on site survey data, values and distributions of individual contact rate and exposure in different simulation cases were obtained and analyzed. It is interesting that Weibull distribution fitted the histogram values of individual-based exposure in each case very well. Moreover, we found both individual contact rate and exposure had linear relationship with the average crowd densities of the environments. The results obtained in this paper can provide reference to epidemic study in complex and confined transportation hubs and refine the existing disease spreading models.

  8. Flux-based transport enhancement as a plausible unifying mechanism for auxin transport in meristem development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Stoma

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants continuously generate new organs through the activity of populations of stem cells called meristems. The shoot apical meristem initiates leaves, flowers, and lateral meristems in highly ordered, spiralled, or whorled patterns via a process called phyllotaxis. It is commonly accepted that the active transport of the plant hormone auxin plays a major role in this process. Current hypotheses propose that cellular hormone transporters of the PIN family would create local auxin maxima at precise positions, which in turn would lead to organ initiation. To explain how auxin transporters could create hormone fluxes to distinct regions within the plant, different concepts have been proposed. A major hypothesis, canalization, proposes that the auxin transporters act by amplifying and stabilizing existing fluxes, which could be initiated, for example, by local diffusion. This convincingly explains the organised auxin fluxes during vein formation, but for the shoot apical meristem a second hypothesis was proposed, where the hormone would be systematically transported towards the areas with the highest concentrations. This implies the coexistence of two radically different mechanisms for PIN allocation in the membrane, one based on flux sensing and the other on local concentration sensing. Because these patterning processes require the interaction of hundreds of cells, it is impossible to estimate on a purely intuitive basis if a particular scenario is plausible or not. Therefore, computational modelling provides a powerful means to test this type of complex hypothesis. Here, using a dedicated computer simulation tool, we show that a flux-based polarization hypothesis is able to explain auxin transport at the shoot meristem as well, thus providing a unifying concept for the control of auxin distribution in the plant. Further experiments are now required to distinguish between flux-based polarization and other hypotheses.

  9. Acid-base transport in pancreas-new challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Haanes, Kristian Agmund; Wang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Along the gastrointestinal tract a number of epithelia contribute with acid or basic secretions in order to aid digestive processes. The stomach and pancreas are the most extreme examples of acid (H+) and base (HCO-3) transporters, respectively. Nevertheless, they share the same challenges...... to consider in pancreas are the proton pumps (H-K-ATPases), as well as the calcium-activated K and Cl channels, such as K3.1 and TMEM16A/ANO1. Local regulators, such as purinergic signaling, fine-tune, and coordinate pancreatic secretion. Lastly, we speculate whether dys-regulation of acid-base transport...

  10. Vehicle coordinated transportation dispatching model base on multiple crisis locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ran; Li, Shanwei; Yang, Guoying

    2018-05-01

    Many disastrous events are often caused after unconventional emergencies occur, and the requirements of disasters are often different. It is difficult for a single emergency resource center to satisfy such requirements at the same time. Therefore, how to coordinate the emergency resources stored by multiple emergency resource centers to various disaster sites requires the coordinated transportation of emergency vehicles. In this paper, according to the problem of emergency logistics coordination scheduling, based on the related constraints of emergency logistics transportation, an emergency resource scheduling model based on multiple disasters is established.

  11. Transportation legislative data base: State radioactive materials transportation statute compilation, 1989--1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Transportation Legislative Data Base (TLDB) is a computer-based information service containing summaries of federal, state and certain local government statutes and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials in the United States. The TLDB has been operated by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) under cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management since 1992. The data base system serves the legislative and regulatory information needs of federal, state, tribal and local governments, the affected private sector and interested members of the general public. Users must be approved by DOE and NCSL. This report is a state statute compilation that updates the 1989 compilation produced by Battelle Memorial Institute, the previous manager of the data base. This compilation includes statutes not included in the prior compilation, as well as newly enacted laws. Statutes not included in the prior compilation show an enactment date prior to 1989. Statutes that deal with low-level radioactive waste transportation are included in the data base as are statutes from the states of Alaska and Hawaii. Over 155 new entries to the data base are summarized in this compilation

  12. Linking soil DOC production rates and transport processes from landscapes to sub-basin scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y. Q.; Yu, Q.; Li, J.; Ye, C.

    2014-12-01

    Recent research rejects the traditional perspective that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) component in global carbon cycle are simply trivial, and in fact evidence demonstrates that lakes likely mediate carbon dynamics on a global scale. Riverine and estuarine carbon fluxes play a critical role in transporting and recycling carbon and nutrients, not only within watersheds but in their receiving waters. However, the underlying mechanisms that drive carbon fluxes, from land to rivers, lake and oceans, remain poorly understood. This presentation will report a research result of the scale-dependent DOC production rate in coastal watersheds and DOC transport processes in estuarine regions. We conducted a series of controlled experiments and field measurements for examining biogeochemical, biological, and geospatial variables that regulate downstream processing on global-relevant carbon fluxes. Results showed that increased temperatures and raised soil moistures accelerate decomposition rates of organic matter with significant variations between vegetation types. The measurements at meso-scale ecosystem demonstrated a good correlation to bulk concentration of DOC monitored in receiving waters at the outlets of sub-basins (R2 > 0.65). These field and experimental measurements improved the model of daily carbon exports through below-ground processes as a function of the organic matter content of surface soils, forest litter supply, and temperature. The study demonstrated a potential improvement in modeling the co-variance of CDOM and DOC with the unique terrestrial sources. This improvement indicated a significant promise for monitoring riverine and estuarine carbon flux from satellite images. The technical innovations include deployments of 1) mini-ecosystem (mesocosms) with soil as replicate controlled experiments for DOC production and leaching rates, and 2) aquatic mesocosms for co-variances of DOC and CDOM endmembers, and an instrumented incubation experiment for

  13. Quantification of the Intracellular Life Time of Water Molecules to Measure Transport Rates of Human Aquaglyceroporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmgren, Madelene; Hernebring, Malin; Eriksson, Stefanie; Elbing, Karin; Geijer, Cecilia; Lasič, Samo; Dahl, Peter; Hansen, Jesper S; Topgaard, Daniel; Lindkvist-Petersson, Karin

    2017-12-01

    Orthodox aquaporins are transmembrane channel proteins that facilitate rapid diffusion of water, while aquaglyceroporins facilitate the diffusion of small uncharged molecules such as glycerol and arsenic trioxide. Aquaglyceroporins play important roles in human physiology, in particular for glycerol metabolism and arsenic detoxification. We have developed a unique system applying the strain of the yeast Pichia pastoris, where the endogenous aquaporins/aquaglyceroporins have been removed and human aquaglyceroporins AQP3, AQP7, and AQP9 are recombinantly expressed enabling comparative permeability measurements between the expressed proteins. Using a newly established Nuclear Magnetic Resonance approach based on measurement of the intracellular life time of water, we propose that human aquaglyceroporins are poor facilitators of water and that the water transport efficiency is similar to that of passive diffusion across native cell membranes. This is distinctly different from glycerol and arsenic trioxide, where high glycerol transport efficiency was recorded.

  14. MURLI, 1-D Flux, Reaction Rate in Cylindrical Geometry Thermal Reactor Lattice by Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huria, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: MURLI is an integral transport theory code to calculate fluxes and reaction rates in one- dimensional cylindrical geometry lattice cells of a thermal reactor. For a specified buckling, it computes k-effective using few-group diffusion theory and a few-group collapsed set of Cross sections. The code can optionally be used to solve a first order differential equation for the number density of fissile, fertile and fission product nuclei as a function of time, and to recalculate fluxes, reaction rates and k-effective at different stages of burnup. A 27-group cross section data library is included. There are four pseudo-fission products each associated with the decay chains of plutonium and uranium isotopes in addition to Rh-105, Xe-135, Np-239, U-236, Am-241, Am-242 and Am-243. There is also data for one lumped pseudo-fission product. 2 - Method of solution: Multiple collision probabilities and escape probabilities are calculated for each cylindrical shell region assuming protons are born uniformly and isotropically over the entire region volume. The equations of integral transport theory can then be solved for neutron flux. The first order differential burnup equation is solved by a fourth order Runge-Kutta method. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: There are maxima of 8 fissionable elements, 8 resonant elements, and 20 spatial regions

  15. Experimental study on unsteady open channel flow and bedload transport based on a physical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, W.

    2015-12-01

    Flow in a nature river are usually unsteady, while nearly all the theories about bedload transport are on the basis of steady, uniform flow, and also with supposed equilibrium state of sediment transport. This is may be one of the main reasons why the bedload transport formulas are notoriously poor accuracy to predict the bedload. The aim of this research is to shed light on the effect of unsteadiness on the bedload transport based on experimental studies. The novel of this study is that the experiments were not carried out in a conventional flume but in a physical model, which are more similar to the actual river. On the other hand, in our experiments, multiple consecutive flood wave were reproduced in the physical model, and all the flow and sediment parameters are based on a large number of data obtained from many of identical flood waves. This method allow us to get more data for one flood, efficiently avoids the uncertainty of bedload rate only for one single flood wave, due to the stochastic fluctuation of the bedload transport. Three different flood waves were selected in the experiments. During each run of experiment, the water level of five different positions along the model were measured by ultrasonic water level gauge, flow velocity at the middle of the channel were measured by two dimensional electromagnetic current meter. Moreover, the bedload transport rate was measured by a unique automatic trap collecting and weighing system at the end of the physical model. The results shows that the celerity of flood wave propagate varies for different flow conditions. The velocity distribution was approximately accord with log-law profile during the entire rising and falling limb of flood. The bedload transport rate show intensity fluctuation in all the experiments, moreover, for different flood waves, the moment when the shear stress reaches its maximum value is not the exact moment when the sediment transport rate reaches its maximum value, which indicates

  16. A Range-Based Multivariate Model for Exchange Rate Volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Tims (Ben); R.J. Mahieu (Ronald)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we present a parsimonious multivariate model for exchange rate volatilities based on logarithmic high-low ranges of daily exchange rates. The multivariate stochastic volatility model divides the log range of each exchange rate into two independent latent factors, which are

  17. Mass gathering medicine: a predictive model for patient presentation and transport rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbon, P; Bridgewater, F H; Smith, C

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on research into the influence of environmental factors (including crowd size, temperature, humidity, and venue type) on the number of patients and the patient problems presenting to first-aid services at large, public events in Australia. Regression models were developed to predict rates of patient presentation and of transportation-to-a-hospital for future mass gatherings. To develop a data set and predictive model that can be applied across venues and types of mass gathering events that is not venue or event specific. Data collected will allow informed event planning for future mass gatherings for which health care services are required. Mass gatherings were defined as public events attended by in excess of 25,000 people. Over a period of 12 months, 201 mass gatherings attended by a combined audience in excess of 12 million people were surveyed throughout Australia. The survey was undertaken by St. John Ambulance Australia personnel. The researchers collected data on the incidence and type of patients presenting for treatment and on the environmental factors that may influence these presentations. A standard reporting format and definition of event geography was employed to overcome the event-specific nature of many previous surveys. There are 11,956 patients in the sample. The patient presentation rate across all event types was 0.992/1,000 attendees, and the transportation-to-hospital rate was 0.027/1,000 persons in attendance. The rates of patient presentations declined slightly as crowd sizes increased. The weather (particularly the relative humidity) was related positively to an increase in the rates of presentations. Other factors that influenced the number and type of patients presenting were the mobility of the crowd, the availability of alcohol, the event being enclosed by a boundary, and the number of patient-care personnel on duty. Three regression models were developed to predict presentation rates at future events. Several

  18. End use energy consumption data base: transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, J.N.; Rose, A.B.; Greene, D.L.

    1980-02-01

    The transportation fuel and energy use estimates developed a Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the End Use Energy Consumption Data Base are documented. The total data base contains estimates of energy use in the United States broken down into many categories within all sectors of the economy: agriculture, mining, construction, manufacturing, commerce, the household, electric utilities, and transportation. The transportation data provided by ORNL generally cover each of the 10 years from 1967 through 1976 (occasionally 1977 and 1978), with omissions in some models. The estimtes are broken down by mode of transport, fuel, region and State, sector of the economy providing transportation, and by the use to which it is put, and, in the case of automobile and bus travel, by the income of the traveler. Fuel types include natural gas, motor and aviation gasoline, residual and diesel oil, liuqefied propane, liquefied butane, and naphtha- and kerosene-type jet engine fuels. Electricity use is also estimated. The mode, fuel, sector, and use categories themselves subsume one, two, or three levels of subcategories, resulting in a very detailed categorization and definitive accounting.

  19. Flow rate of transport network controls uniform metabolite supply to tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meigel, Felix J; Alim, Karen

    2018-05-01

    Life and functioning of higher organisms depends on the continuous supply of metabolites to tissues and organs. What are the requirements on the transport network pervading a tissue to provide a uniform supply of nutrients, minerals or hormones? To theoretically answer this question, we present an analytical scaling argument and numerical simulations on how flow dynamics and network architecture control active spread and uniform supply of metabolites by studying the example of xylem vessels in plants. We identify the fluid inflow rate as the key factor for uniform supply. While at low inflow rates metabolites are already exhausted close to flow inlets, too high inflow flushes metabolites through the network and deprives tissue close to inlets of supply. In between these two regimes, there exists an optimal inflow rate that yields a uniform supply of metabolites. We determine this optimal inflow analytically in quantitative agreement with numerical results. Optimizing network architecture by reducing the supply variance over all network tubes, we identify patterns of tube dilation or contraction that compensate sub-optimal supply for the case of too low or too high inflow rate. © 2018 The Authors.

  20. Mass-transport limitation to in-cloud reaction rates: Implications of new accommodation coefficient measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, S.E.

    1988-10-01

    Although it has been recognized for some time that the rate of reactive uptake of gases in cloudwater can depend on the value of the mass-accommodation coefficient (α) describing interfacial mass transport (MT), definitive evaluation of such rates is only now becoming possible with the availability of measurements of α for gases of atmospheric interest at air-water interfaces. Examination of MT limitation to the rate of in-cloud aqueous-phase oxidation of SO 2 by O 3 and H 2 O 2 shows that despite the low value of α/sub O3/ (5 /times/ 10/sup /minus/4/), interfacial MT of this species is not limiting under essentially all conditions of interest; the high values of α for SO 2 (≥ 0.2) and H 2 O 2 (≥ 0.08) indicate no interfacial MT limitation for these species also. Although gas- and aqueous-phase MT can be limiting under certain extremes of conditions, treating the system as under chemical kinetic control is generally an excellent approximation. Interfacial MT limitation also is found not to hinder the rate of H 2 O 2 formation by aqueous-phase disproportionation of HO 2 . Finally, the rapid uptake of N 2 O 5 by cloud droplets implies that the yield of aqueous HNO 3 from in-cloud gas-phase oxidation of NO 2 by O 3 can be substantial even under daytime conditions. This report consists of copies of viewgraphs prepared for this presentation

  1. Research Algorithm on Building Intelligent Transportation System based on RFID Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanqi Chen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent transportation system to all aspects of organic integration of human, vehicle, road and environment of the transport system, so that the operation of functional integration and intelligent vehicle, road. Intelligent transportation system (ITS to improve the efficiency of traffic system by increasing the effective use and management of traffic information is mainly composed of information collection and input, output, control strategy, implementation of the subsystems of data transmission and communication subsystem. The RFID reader to wireless communication through the antenna and RFID tag can achieve a write operation on the tag identification codes and memory read data. The paper proposes research on building intelligent transportation system based on RFID technology. Experimental results show that ITS system can effectively improve the traffic situation, improve the utilization rate of the existing road resource and save social cost.

  2. Using periodic orbits to compute chaotic transport rates between resonance zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattari, Sulimon; Mitchell, Kevin A.

    2017-11-01

    Transport properties of chaotic systems are computable from data extracted from periodic orbits. Given a sufficient number of periodic orbits, the escape rate can be computed using the spectral determinant, a function that incorporates the eigenvalues and periods of periodic orbits. The escape rate computed from periodic orbits converges to the true value as more and more periodic orbits are included. Escape from a given region of phase space can be computed by considering only periodic orbits that lie within the region. An accurate symbolic dynamics along with a corresponding partitioning of phase space is useful for systematically obtaining all periodic orbits up to a given period, to ensure that no important periodic orbits are missing in the computation. Homotopic lobe dynamics (HLD) is an automated technique for computing accurate partitions and symbolic dynamics for maps using the topological forcing of intersections of stable and unstable manifolds of a few periodic anchor orbits. In this study, we apply the HLD technique to compute symbolic dynamics and periodic orbits, which are then used to find escape rates from different regions of phase space for the Hénon map. We focus on computing escape rates in parameter ranges spanning hyperbolic plateaus, which are parameter intervals where the dynamics is hyperbolic and the symbolic dynamics does not change. After the periodic orbits are computed for a single parameter value within a hyperbolic plateau, periodic orbit continuation is used to compute periodic orbits over an interval that spans the hyperbolic plateau. The escape rates computed from a few thousand periodic orbits agree with escape rates computed from Monte Carlo simulations requiring hundreds of billions of orbits.

  3. Intelligent Transportation and Evacuation Planning A Modeling-Based Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Naser, Arab

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation and Evacuation Planning: A Modeling-Based Approach provides a new paradigm for evacuation planning strategies and techniques. Recently, evacuation planning and modeling have increasingly attracted interest among researchers as well as government officials. This interest stems from the recent catastrophic hurricanes and weather-related events that occurred in the southeastern United States (Hurricane Katrina and Rita). The evacuation methods that were in place before and during the hurricanes did not work well and resulted in thousands of deaths. This book offers insights into the methods and techniques that allow for implementing mathematical-based, simulation-based, and integrated optimization and simulation-based engineering approaches for evacuation planning. This book also: Comprehensively discusses the application of mathematical models for evacuation and intelligent transportation modeling Covers advanced methodologies in evacuation modeling and planning Discusses principles a...

  4. Fabrication and Transport Properties of Manganite-Polyacrylamide-Based Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Sandu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the fabrication and transport properties of a series of composites made of La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 and acrylamide-based copolymers. The most important result is the very narrow transition, of only 27 K, displayed by the peak that appears around the metal-insulator transition of the composites made with poly(acrylamide-vinylacetate. Although the amount of polymer is rather low, different copolymers change drastically the electric transport characteristics.

  5. Role of NH3 and NH4+ transporters in renal acid-base transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, I David; Verlander, Jill W

    2011-01-01

    Renal ammonia excretion is the predominant component of renal net acid excretion. The majority of ammonia excretion is produced in the kidney and then undergoes regulated transport in a number of renal epithelial segments. Recent findings have substantially altered our understanding of renal ammonia transport. In particular, the classic model of passive, diffusive NH3 movement coupled with NH4+ "trapping" is being replaced by a model in which specific proteins mediate regulated transport of NH3 and NH4+ across plasma membranes. In the proximal tubule, the apical Na+/H+ exchanger, NHE-3, is a major mechanism of preferential NH4+ secretion. In the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop, the apical Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter, NKCC2, is a major contributor to ammonia reabsorption and the basolateral Na+/H+ exchanger, NHE-4, appears to be important for basolateral NH4+ exit. The collecting duct is a major site for renal ammonia secretion, involving parallel H+ secretion and NH3 secretion. The Rhesus glycoproteins, Rh B Glycoprotein (Rhbg) and Rh C Glycoprotein (Rhcg), are recently recognized ammonia transporters in the distal tubule and collecting duct. Rhcg is present in both the apical and basolateral plasma membrane, is expressed in parallel with renal ammonia excretion, and mediates a critical role in renal ammonia excretion and collecting duct ammonia transport. Rhbg is expressed specifically in the basolateral plasma membrane, and its role in renal acid-base homeostasis is controversial. In the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD), basolateral Na+-K+-ATPase enables active basolateral NH4+ uptake. In addition to these proteins, several other proteins also contribute to renal NH3/NH4+ transport. The role and mechanisms of these proteins are discussed in depth in this review.

  6. Acid-base transport in pancreas – new challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana eNovak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Along the gastrointestinal tract a number of epithelia contribute with acid or basic secretions in order to aid digestive processes. The stomach and pancreas are the most extreme examples of acid (H+ and base (HCO3- transporters, respectively. Nevertheless, they share the same challenges of transporting acid and bases across epithelia and effectively regulating their intracellular pH. In this review, we will make use of comparative physiology to enlighten the cellular mechanisms of pancreatic HCO3- and fluid secretion, which is still challenging physiologists. Some of the novel transporters to consider in pancreas are the proton pumps (H+-K+-ATPases, as well as the calcium-activated K+ and Cl- channels, such as KCa3.1 and TMEM16A/ANO1. Local regulators, such as purinergic signalling, fine-tune and coordinate pancreatic secretion. Lastly, we speculate whether dys-regulation of acid-base transport contributes to pancreatic diseases including cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis and cancer.

  7. Mechanism of Strain Rate Effect Based on Dislocation Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kun, Qin; Shi-Sheng, Hu; Li-Ming, Yang

    2009-01-01

    Based on dislocation theory, we investigate the mechanism of strain rate effect. Strain rate effect and dislocation motion are bridged by Orowan's relationship, and the stress dependence of dislocation velocity is considered as the dynamics relationship of dislocation motion. The mechanism of strain rate effect is then investigated qualitatively by using these two relationships although the kinematics relationship of dislocation motion is absent due to complicated styles of dislocation motion. The process of strain rate effect is interpreted and some details of strain rate effect are adequately discussed. The present analyses agree with the existing experimental results. Based on the analyses, we propose that strain rate criteria rather than stress criteria should be satisfied when a metal is fully yielded at a given strain rate. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  8. Theory-based transport simulation of tokamaks: density scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, E.S.; Kinsey, J.; Singer, C.; Bateman, G.

    1992-01-01

    There has been a sizeable amount of work in the past few years using theoretically based flux-surface-average transport models to simulate various types of experimental tokamak data. Here we report two such studies, concentrating on the response of the plasma to variation of the line averaged electron density. The first study reported here uses a transport model described by Ghanem et al. to examine the response of global energy confinement time in ohmically heated discharges. The second study reported here uses a closely related and more recent transport model described by Bateman to examine the response of temperature profiles to changes in line-average density in neutral-beam-heated discharges. Work on developing a common theoretical model for these and other scaling experiments is in progress. (author) 5 refs., 2 figs

  9. An application by Centra Gas Manitoba Inc. for an order of the Manitoba Public Utilities Board approving: Rates for the sale of natural gas and the provision of transportation services, to be effective with respect to all gas consumed on and after January 1, 1994; determination of a year-end rate base, rate of return and revenue requirement based on a 1993 test year including new gas supply arrangements; confirmation of interim ex parte order 113/93 related to franchise agreements with the rural municipality of Elton and the rural municipality of Grey; and other related matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-28

    Centra Gas Manitoba, a gas utility, applied before the Manitoba Public Utilities Board for an order approving a year-end rate base, rate of return, cost of service, and revenue requirement based on a 1993 test year and increased rates to be effective in 1994. A hearing was held to consider matters related to Centra's application, and views of intervenors at the hearings, the utility, and the Board are summarized along with the Board decision. Issues considered at the hearings include year-end net plant values, computer expenditures, working capital allowance, capital structure and risk, cost adjustments, gas sales and cost of gas, operating and maintenance expenses, financial expenses, cost allocation, rate design, and other matters including service policies. The revenue requirement increase approved was $30.4 million, which included a $24.8 million increase in the commodity cost of gas. The allowed overall rate of return was 10.17%. 2 figs., 33 tabs.

  10. Simple mass transport model for metal uptake by marine macroalgae growing at different rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Although algae growing at different rates may exhibit different concentrations of a given metal, such differences in algal chemistry may or may not reflect actual effects of environmental growth factors on the kinetics of metal uptake. Published data on uptake of rubidium, cadmium, and manganese by the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile grown at different rates in open system sea water was interpreted using the model. Differences in exposure time to sea water of relatively old and relatively young thalli were responsible for significant decreases in algal rubidium and cadmium concentrations with increases in specific growth rate. The biomass-specific growth rates of uptake of these two metals did not vary with growth rate. Both algal concentrations and specific rates of uptake of manganese increase significantly with increasing growth rate, thus indicating a distinct link between the kinetics of manganese uptake and metabolic rate. Under some circumstances, seaweed bioassay coupled with an interpretive model may provide the only reasonable approach to the study of chemical uptake-growth phenomena. In practice, if the residence time of sea water in culture chambers is sufficiently low to preclude pseudo-closed system artifacts, differences in trace metal concentrations between input and output sea water may be difficult to detect. In the field and in situ experiments based on time-series monitoring of changes in the water chemistry would be technically difficult or perhaps impossible to perform. 13 references, 1 figure.

  11. A Model of Exchange-Rate-Based Stabilization for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ozlem Aytac

    2008-01-01

    The literature on the exchange-rate-based stabilization has focused almost exclusively in Latin America. Many other countries however, such as Egypt, Lebanon and Turkey; have undertaken this sort of programs in the last 10-15 years. I depart from the existing literature by developing a model specifically for the 2000-2001 heterodox exchange-rate-based stabilization program in Turkey: When the government lowers the rate of crawl, the rate of domestic credit creation is set equal to the lower r...

  12. Transport and transfer rates in the waters of the continental shelf. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscaye, P.E.; Broecker, W.S.; Feely, H.W.; Gerard, R.D.

    1976-04-01

    The report is to the Energy Research and Development Administration on accomplishments of the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory geochemistry and physical oceanography groups during the 1975-1976 funding period on grant E(11-1)2185. Goals are to obtain detailed, quantitative knowledge of the rates of mixing within coastal waters of the New York Bight and across the continental slope and the exchange of water masses and species transported within them between shelf and Atlantic Ocean waters. The research is aimed at understanding the chemical, physical, and biological processes which control the origin, dispersal, and fate of particulate matter and trace metals, and to ultimately model the impact of energy related pollutants on the continental shelf

  13. Relationship among reaction rate, release rate and efficiency of nanomachine-based targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qingying; Li, Min; Luo, Jun

    2017-12-04

    In nanomachine applications towards targeted drug delivery, drug molecules released by nanomachines propagate and chemically react with tumor cells in aqueous environment. If the nanomachines release drug molecules faster than the tumor cells react, it will result in loss and waste of drug molecules. It is a potential issue associated with the relationship among reaction rate, release rate and efficiency. This paper aims to investigate the relationship among reaction rate, release rate and efficiency based on two drug reception models. We expect to pave a way for designing a control method of drug release. We adopted two analytical methods that one is drug reception process based on collision with tumors and another is based on Michaelis Menten enzymatic kinetics. To evaluate the analytical formulations, we used the well-known simulation framework N3Sim to establish simulations. The analytical results of the relationship among reaction rate, release rate and efficiency is obtained, which match well with the numerical simulation results in a 3-D environment. Based upon two drug reception models, the results of this paper would be beneficial for designing a control method of nanomahine-based drug release.

  14. Predicting fractional bed load transport rates: Application of the Wilcock‐Crowe equations to a regulated gravel bed river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeuman, David; Andrews, E.D.; Krause, Andreas; Smith, Wes

    2009-01-01

    Bed load samples from four locations in the Trinity River of northern California are analyzed to evaluate the performance of the Wilcock‐Crowe bed load transport equations for predicting fractional bed load transport rates. Bed surface particles become smaller and the fraction of sand on the bed increases with distance downstream from Lewiston Dam. The dimensionless reference shear stress for the mean bed particle size (τ*rm) is largest near the dam, but varies relatively little between the more downstream locations. The relation between τ*rm and the reference shear stresses for other size fractions is constant across all locations. Total bed load transport rates predicted with the Wilcock‐Crowe equations are within a factor of 2 of sampled transport rates for 68% of all samples. The Wilcock‐Crowe equations nonetheless consistently under‐predict the transport of particles larger than 128 mm, frequently by more than an order of magnitude. Accurate prediction of the transport rates of the largest particles is important for models in which the evolution of the surface grain size distribution determines subsequent bed load transport rates. Values of τ*rm estimated from bed load samples are up to 50% larger than those predicted with the Wilcock‐Crowe equations, and sampled bed load transport approximates equal mobility across a wider range of grain sizes than is implied by the equations. Modifications to the Wilcock‐Crowe equation for determining τ*rm and the hiding function used to scale τ*rm to other grain size fractions are proposed to achieve the best fit to observed bed load transport in the Trinity River.

  15. A Range-Based Multivariate Model for Exchange Rate Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Tims, Ben; Mahieu, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we present a parsimonious multivariate model for exchange rate volatilities based on logarithmic high-low ranges of daily exchange rates. The multivariate stochastic volatility model divides the log range of each exchange rate into two independent latent factors, which are interpreted as the underlying currency specific components. Due to the normality of logarithmic volatilities the model can be estimated conveniently with standard Kalman filter techniques. Our resu...

  16. Transport simulations TFTR: Theoretically-based transport models and current scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redi, M.H.; Cummings, J.C.; Bush, C.E.; Fredrickson, E.; Grek, B.; Hahm, T.S.; Hill, K.W.; Johnson, D.W.; Mansfield, D.K.; Park, H.; Scott, S.D.; Stratton, B.C.; Synakowski, E.J.; Tang, W.M.; Taylor, G.

    1991-12-01

    In order to study the microscopic physics underlying observed L-mode current scaling, 1-1/2-d BALDUR has been used to simulate density and temperature profiles for high and low current, neutral beam heated discharges on TFTR with several semi-empirical, theoretically-based models previously compared for TFTR, including several versions of trapped electron drift wave driven transport. Experiments at TFTR, JET and D3-D show that I p scaling of τ E does not arise from edge modes as previously thought, and is most likely to arise from nonlocal processes or from the I p -dependence of local plasma core transport. Consistent with this, it is found that strong current scaling does not arise from any of several edge models of resistive ballooning. Simulations with the profile consistent drift wave model and with a new model for toroidal collisionless trapped electron mode core transport in a multimode formalism, lead to strong current scaling of τ E for the L-mode cases on TFTR. None of the theoretically-based models succeeded in simulating the measured temperature and density profiles for both high and low current experiments

  17. Heart rate-based lactate minimum test: a reproducible method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strupler, M.; Muller, G.; Perret, C.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To find the individual intensity for aerobic endurance training, the lactate minimum test (LMT) seems to be a promising method. LMTs described in the literature consist of speed or work rate-based protocols, but for training prescription in daily practice mostly heart rate is used. The

  18. Rate adaptation in ad hoc networks based on pricing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Awuor, F

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available that incorporates penalty (pricing) obtruded to users’ choices of transmission parameters to curb the self-interest behaviour. Therefore users determine their data rates and transmit power based on the perceived coupled interference at the intended receiver...

  19. Not that neglected! Base rates influence related and unrelated judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, Michał

    2017-06-01

    It is claimed that people are unable (or unwilling) to incorporate prior probabilities into posterior assessments, such as their estimation of the likelihood of a person with characteristics typical of an engineer actually being an engineer given that they are drawn from a sample including a very small number of engineers. This paper shows that base rates are incorporated in classifications (Experiment 1) and, moreover, that base rates also affect unrelated judgments, such as how well a provided description of a person fits a stereotypical engineer (Experiment 2). Finally, Experiment 3 shows that individuals who make both types of assessments - though using base rates to the same extent in the former judgments - are able to decrease the extent to which they incorporate base rates in the latter judgments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Releasable activity and maximum permissible leakage rate within a transport cask of Tehran Research Reactor fuel samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaeian Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Containment of a transport cask during both normal and accident conditions is important to the health and safety of the public and of the operators. Based on IAEA regulations, releasable activity and maximum permissible volumetric leakage rate within the cask containing fuel samples of Tehran Research Reactor enclosed in an irradiated capsule are calculated. The contributions to the total activity from the four sources of gas, volatile, fines, and corrosion products are treated separately. These calculations are necessary to identify an appropriate leak test that must be performed on the cask and the results can be utilized as the source term for dose evaluation in the safety assessment of the cask.

  1. 41 CFR 302-7.14 - Are there any disadvantages to using the commuted rate method for transporting HHG, PBP&E and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... disadvantages to using the commuted rate method for transporting HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage? 302-7.14... disadvantages to using the commuted rate method for transporting HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage? Yes. The disadvantages to using the commuted rate method for transporting HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage are that the...

  2. Charge transport in metal oxide nanocrystal-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnerstrom, Evan Lars

    There is probably no class of materials more varied, more widely used, or more ubiquitous than metal oxides. Depending on their composition, metal oxides can exhibit almost any number of properties. Of particular interest are the ways in which charge is transported in metal oxides: devices such as displays, touch screens, and smart windows rely on the ability of certain metal oxides to conduct electricity while maintaining visible transparency. Smart windows, fuel cells, and other electrochemical devices additionally rely on efficient transport of ionic charge in and around metal oxides. Colloidal synthesis has enabled metal oxide nanocrystals to emerge as a relatively new but highly tunable class of materials. Certain metal oxide nanocrystals, particularly highly doped metal oxides, have been enjoying rapid development in the last decade. As in myriad other materials systems, structure dictates the properties of metal oxide nanocrystals, but a full understanding of how nanocrystal synthesis, the processing of nanocrystal-based materials, and the structure of nanocrystals relate to the resulting properties of nanocrystal-based materials is still nascent. Gaining a fundamental understanding of and control over these structure-property relationships is crucial to developing a holistic understanding of metal oxide nanocrystals. The unique ability to tune metal oxide nanocrystals by changing composition through the introduction of dopants or by changing size and shape affords a way to study the interplay between structure, processing, and properties. This overall goal of this work is to chemically synthesize colloidal metal oxide nanocrystals, process them into useful materials, characterize charge transport in materials based on colloidal metal oxide nanocrystals, and develop ways to manipulate charge transport. In particular, this dissertation characterizes how the charge transport properties of metal oxide nanocrystal-based materials depend on their processing and

  3. Exchange rate based stabilization : tales from Europe and Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Ades, Alberto F.; Kiguel, Miguel; Liviatan, Nissan

    1993-01-01

    There is convincing empirical evidence that the cycle for exchange-rate-based disinflation in high-inflation Latin American economies typically begins with expansion and ends in recession - a surprising pattern. The authors explore whether a similar cycle can be observed in exchange-rate-based disinflation in low-inflation economies. They draw on empirical evidence from stabilizaton programs in three European countries in the early 1980s: in Denmark (1982), Ireland (1982), and France (1983). ...

  4. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 141 - Aircraft Type Rating Course, For Other Than an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft Type Rating Course, For Other Than an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate J Appendix J to Part 141 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... PILOT SCHOOLS Pt. 141, App. J Appendix J to Part 141—Aircraft Type Rating Course, For Other Than an...

  5. Bedload transport rates in a gravel bedded-river derived from high-resolution monitoring using seismic impact plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Peter; Soar, Philip

    2015-04-01

    Accurate characterisation of bedload transport rates is critical for a better understanding of geomorphological process dynamics, aquatic habitats, sediment budgets and strategies for catchment-scale initiatives in sediment management under conditions of climate change. However, rate estimation is challenging in practice: direct measurements are costly and logistically difficult to achieve with acceptable accuracy over geomorphologically-relevant time periods, and the uncertainty in transport rates predicted from empirical formulae and numerical simulation is rarely below 50 per cent. Partly reflecting these issues, passive technologies for continuous bedload monitoring are becoming increasingly popular. Sensors such as seismic impact plates offer the opportunity to characterise bedload activity at exceptionally high resolution - monitoring from the River Avon, (Devon, UK) indicated that despite significant intra-event and between-plate differences in apparent bedload transport aggregated over 5-minute periods, the magnitude-frequency product of discharge and impact frequency result in a highly plausible effective discharge, supporting the potential value of impact plates as indicators of relative sediment transport loads over annual timescales. Whereas the focus in bedload rate estimation to date has been on developing satisfactory sediment rating curves from detection signals, we instead develop a method for directly estimating bedload transport rates from impact plate data as a function of intensity of transport (count, n, per second), bed material mass (kg) and cross-stream transport variability. Bulk sediment samples are converted to a mass in transit for each instantaneous discharge according to the intensity of transport and a Monte Carlo simulation of the load in transit determined at random from the bed material particle size distribution. The lower detection threshold is determined using experimental calibration and the upper size limit is determined from

  6. Estimation of guinea pig tracheobronchial transport rates using a compartmental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez, D.J.; Morrow, P.E.

    1984-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance in the tracheobronchial tree of guinea pigs was examined using monodisperse 7.9 μm MMAD polystyrene particles. Animals were exposed for approximately 1 h by inhalation via an intratracheal tube to aerosols tagged with gold-198 and fluorescent dyes. Following exposure, animals were radioactively monitored and sacrificed at predetermined times. The lungs were removed, freeze-dried, sectioned completely, and examined with a fluorescent microscope. Measurements were made of airway diameters where particles were found. An anatomic model for guinea pig lung morphology was used to assign ranges of airway diameters to five zones, which were incorporated into a compartmental model for lung clearance. Kinetic analysis of particle distributions in the zones led to development of first-order equations describing the compartmental clearance. Rate constants obtained from the kinetic analysis were used to estimate mucociliary transport rates in specific bronchial generations, which ranged from approximately 0.001 mm/min in the distal bronchioles to approximately 8 mm/min in the trachea, and resulted in a calculated 24-h clearance time for tracheobronchial clearance in the guinea pig. No evidence for either bronchial penetration by particles or relatively prolonged bronchial retention of particles was found in this study. 22 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  7. Heart rate and leukocytes after air and ground transportation in artificially ventilated neonates: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosek, Stefan; Mlakar, Gorazd; Vidmar, Ivan; Ihan, Alojz; Primozic, Janez

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of interhospital air and ground transportation of artificially ventilated neonates on heart rate and peripheral blood leukocyte counts. Prospective, observational study. Level III multidisciplinary Neonatal and Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. Fifty-eight near-term artificially ventilated transported neonates between May 2006 and April 2007. Day-helicopter, day- and night-ground transportation. Heart rate at retrieval, on admission to the ICU and 1 h later, and peripheral blood leukocyte counts on admission and 1 d later were compared. Fifteen neonates were transported by helicopter during the daytime (D-HEL), 20 by daytime ground and 23 by nighttime ground transportation (D-GROUND, N-GROUND). No differences in delivery mode, birth weight, gestational age, gender, primary diagnoses for transportation, response time and duration of transportation were found between the groups. Similarly, no differences in pH, pCO(2), blood pressure and skin temperature at retrieval and on admission to the ICU were found between the three groups. The mean heart rate at retrieval did not differ significantly, while on arrival in the ICU and 1 h later the D-GROUND group of patients showed a significantly higher mean heart rate compared to the D-HEL and N-GROUND groups. Moreover, leukocyte counts on arrival in the ICU showed significantly higher leukocyte counts in the D-GROUND group of patients compared to the D-HEL group of patients. These results demonstrate that there is an association between daytime ground transportation and higher heart rate and peripheral blood leukocytes.

  8. Thermal transport in nanocrystalline Si and SiGe by ab initio based Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lina; Minnich, Austin J

    2017-03-14

    Nanocrystalline thermoelectric materials based on Si have long been of interest because Si is earth-abundant, inexpensive, and non-toxic. However, a poor understanding of phonon grain boundary scattering and its effect on thermal conductivity has impeded efforts to improve the thermoelectric figure of merit. Here, we report an ab-initio based computational study of thermal transport in nanocrystalline Si-based materials using a variance-reduced Monte Carlo method with the full phonon dispersion and intrinsic lifetimes from first-principles as input. By fitting the transmission profile of grain boundaries, we obtain excellent agreement with experimental thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline Si [Wang et al. Nano Letters 11, 2206 (2011)]. Based on these calculations, we examine phonon transport in nanocrystalline SiGe alloys with ab-initio electron-phonon scattering rates. Our calculations show that low energy phonons still transport substantial amounts of heat in these materials, despite scattering by electron-phonon interactions, due to the high transmission of phonons at grain boundaries, and thus improvements in ZT are still possible by disrupting these modes. This work demonstrates the important insights into phonon transport that can be obtained using ab-initio based Monte Carlo simulations in complex nanostructured materials.

  9. In vitro comparison rate of dental root canal transportation using two single file systems on the simulated resin blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Etesami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Cleaning and shaping is one of the most important stages in endodontic treatment. Single-file systems save time and reduce the risk of transmission of pathogens. This in vitro study was aimed to compare the rate of canal transportation after the preparation of the stimulated resin root canal with two single-file systems, namely Waveone and Reciproc. Materials and Methods: Thirty stimulated resin root canal blocks with size 8/0. 02 K file were randomly divided into two study groups. The preparation in Group A and Group B was performed using Reciproc and Waveone files, respectively. Pre and post- preparation photographs were taken and the images were superimposed to evaluate the inner and outer wall’s curvature tendency at three points (apical, middle and coronal using AutoCad pragram. Data were analyzed using T-test. Results: Based on the results, the degree of transportation in the inner and outer walls of the canal was less at the level of 3 millimeters (P0.05. Conclusion: Waveone showed better performance in the middle third of canal and this system maybe recommended.

  10. Staff background paper on performance-based rate making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, J.; Brownell, B.

    1998-10-01

    An alternative to the traditional cost of service (COS) regulation for electric utilities in British Columbia has been proposed. The alternative to pure COS regulation is performance-based rate making (PBR). PBR partially decouples a utility's rates from its costs and ties utility profits to performance relative to specific benchmarks. The motivation underlying PBR is that ideally, it provides incentives for utilities to cost-effectively achieve pre-defined goals. This report describes the design of PBR mechanisms, base rate PBR formulas, base rate PBR in other jurisdictions including New York, California, Maine and New Jersey. The report also describes gas procurement PBR in other jurisdictions, as well as British Columbia Utilities' Commission's own experience with PBR. In general, PBR has the potential to provide resource efficiency, allocative efficiency, support for introduction of new services, and reduced regulatory administrative costs. 15 refs., 4 tabs

  11. Trend of mortality rate and injury burden of transport accidents, suicides, and falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Sook; Kim, Soon Duck; Lee, Sang Hee

    2012-01-01

    Recently injury has become a major world-wide health problem. But studies in Korea about injuries were very few. Thus, this study was conducted to analyze the trend of major injuries from 1991 to 2006 and to provide basic data for preventing injuries. This study was based on the National Statistical Office data from 1991 to 2006 and calculated to estimate the burden of major injuries by using the standard expected years of life lost (SEYLL) and total lost earnings equation. For transport accidents, mortality, SEYLL and total lost earnings were increased from 1991 to 1996 and decreased from 2000 to 2006. On the other hand, for suicides, these were increased gradually. Since 2003, falls were included in ten leading causes of death. This study showed that injury causes major social and economical losses. We could reduce injury related premature death through active interest in injury prevention program.

  12. Rate and mechanism of facilitated americium(III) transport through a supported liquid membrane containing a bifunctional organophosphorus mobile carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danesi, P.R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Rickert, P.G.

    1983-01-01

    The facilitated transport of Am(III) from aqueous nitrate solutions to formic acid aqueous solutions through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) is described. The supported liquid membrane consists of a solution of a new (carbamoylmethyl)phosphine oxide in diethylbenzene (DEB) absorbed into a 48 μm thick microporous polypropylene film. The transport mechanism consists of a diffusion process through an aqueous diffusion film, a fast interfacial chemical reaction, and diffusion through the membrane itself. Equations describing the rate of transport are derived. They correlate the membrane permeability coefficient to diffusional parameters and to the chemical composition of the system. Different rate-controlling processes are shown to control the membrane permeability when the composition of the system is varied and as long as the transport occurs. The experimental data are quantitatively explained with the derived equations. The diffusion coefficient of the permeating species and the equilibrium constant of the fast interfacial reactions are evaluated. 13 figures, 1 table

  13. Rain-rate data base development and rain-rate climate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Robert K.

    1993-01-01

    The single-year rain-rate distribution data available within the archives of Consultative Committee for International Radio (CCIR) Study Group 5 were compiled into a data base for use in rain-rate climate modeling and for the preparation of predictions of attenuation statistics. The four year set of tip-time sequences provided by J. Goldhirsh for locations near Wallops Island were processed to compile monthly and annual distributions of rain rate and of event durations for intervals above and below preset thresholds. A four-year data set of tropical rain-rate tip-time sequences were acquired from the NASA TRMM program for 30 gauges near Darwin, Australia. They were also processed for inclusion in the CCIR data base and the expanded data base for monthly observations at the University of Oklahoma. The empirical rain-rate distributions (edfs) accepted for inclusion in the CCIR data base were used to estimate parameters for several rain-rate distribution models: the lognormal model, the Crane two-component model, and the three parameter model proposed by Moupfuma. The intent of this segment of the study is to obtain a limited set of parameters that can be mapped globally for use in rain attenuation predictions. If the form of the distribution can be established, then perhaps available climatological data can be used to estimate the parameters rather than requiring years of rain-rate observations to set the parameters. The two-component model provided the best fit to the Wallops Island data but the Moupfuma model provided the best fit to the Darwin data.

  14. A new turbulence-based model for sand transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayaud, Jerome; Wiggs, Giles; Bailey, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of the changing rate of sediment flux in space and time is essential for quantifying surface erosion and deposition in desert landscapes. While many aeolian studies have relied on time-averaged parameters such as wind velocity (U) and wind shear velocity (u*) to determine sediment flux, there is increasing evidence that high-frequency turbulence is an important driving force behind the entrainment and transport of sand. However, turbulence has yet to be incorporated into a functional sand transport model that can be used for predictive purposes. In this study we present a new transport model (the 'turbulence model') that accounts for high-frequency variations in the horizontal (u) and vertical (w) components of wind flow. The turbulence model is fitted to wind velocity and sediment transport data from a field experiment undertaken in Namibia's Skeleton Coast National Park, and its performance at three temporal resolutions (10 Hz, 1 Hz, 1 min) is compared to two existing models that rely on time-averaged wind velocity data (Radok, 1977; Dong et al., 2003). The validity of the three models is analysed under a variety of saltation conditions, using a 2-hour (1 Hz measurement resolution) dataset from the Skeleton Coast and a 5-hour (1 min measurement resolution) dataset from the southwestern Kalahari Desert. The turbulence model is shown to outperform the Radok and Dong models when predicting total saltation count over the three experimental periods. For all temporal resolutions presented in this study (10 Hz-10 min), the turbulence model predicted total saltation count to within at least 0.34%, whereas the Radok and Dong models over- or underestimated total count by up to 5.50% and 20.53% respectively. The strong performance of the turbulence model can be attributed to a lag in mass flux response built into its formulation, which can be adapted depending on the temporal resolution of investigation. This accounts for the inherent lag within the physical

  15. Estimation of gamma dose rate from hulls and shield design for the hull transport cask of Fuel Reprocessing Plant (FRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekaran, S.; Rajagopal, V.; Jose, M.T.; Venkatraman, B.

    2012-01-01

    In Fuel Reprocessing Plant (FRP), un-dissolved clad of fuel pins known as hulls are the major sources of high level solid waste. Safe handling, transport and disposal require the estimation of radioactivity as a consequent of gamma dose rate from hulls in fast reactor fuel reprocessing plant in comparison with thermal reactor fuel. Due to long irradiation time and low cooling of spent fuel, the evolution of activation products 51 Cr, 58 Co, 54 Mn and 59 Fe present as impurities in the fuel clad are the major sources of gamma radiation. Gamma dose rate from hull container with hulls from Fuel Sub Assembly (FSA) and Radial Sub Assembly (RSA) of Fuel Reprocessing Plant (FRP) was estimated in order to design the hull transport cask. Shielding computations were done using point kernel code, IGSHIELD. This paper describes the details of source terms, estimation of dose rate and shielding design of hull transport cask in detail. (author)

  16. Utilization of electromigration in civil and environmental engineering--processes, transport rates and matrix changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Christensen, Iben V; Rorig-Dalgård, Inge; Jensen, Pernille E; Hansen, Henrik K

    2008-07-01

    Electromigration (movement of ions in an applied electric field) is utilized for supply or extraction of ions from various porous materials within both civil and environmental engineering. In civil engineering, most research has been conducted on the removal of chlorides from concrete to hinder reinforcement corrosion while in environmental engineering remediation of heavy metal polluted soil is the issue most studied. Never the less, experiments have been conducted with utilization for several other materials and purposes within both engineering fields. Even though there are many topics of common interest in the use of electromigration for the two fields, there is no tradition for collaboration. The present paper is a review with the aim of pointing out areas of shared interest. Focus is laid on the purposes of the different processes, transport rates of various ions in different materials and on changes in the matrix itself. Desorption and dissolution of the target elements into ionic form is a key issue to most of the processes, and can be the limiting step. The removal rate is generally below 1 cm day(- 1), but it can be much less than 1 mm day(- 1) when desorption is slow and insufficient. Matrix changes occurs under the action of the applied electric field and it includes both physico-chemical and hydrological changes. Some of the solid phases is weathered and new can be formed. Increased fundamental understanding of the effects and side effects, when applying the electric field to a porous material, can lead to improvement of the known technologies and possibly to new applications.

  17. Seabed Gradient Controlling Onshore Transport Rates of Surf Sand during Beach Retreat by Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Jun; Yi, Hi-Il

    2018-03-01

    A simple relationship is proposed for the onshore transport rates of surf-zone sand to evaluate the beach retreat caused by sea level rise. It suggests that the preservation potential of surf sand is proportional inversely to the seabed gradient during beach retreat. According to this relationship, the erosional remnants of surf sand would be more readily developed on a gentler shelf collectively as transgressive sand sheets. This finding may explain the previous studies regarding the Korean shelves that proposed that the Holocene transgressive sand sheets (HTSS) occur not in the steep eastern shelf but in the gentle western shelf. In line with such presence/absence of the HTSS are the results from some coastal seismic profiles obtained in the present study. The profiles indicate that sand deposits are restricted within the nearshore in the eastern coast, whereas they are persistently traceable to the offshore HTSS in the western coast. Tide is proven to have a negligible influence on the total duration of surf-zone processes. This study may be useful in predicting the consequences of the beach retreat that takes place worldwide as sea levels rise as a result of global warming.

  18. Transport and transfer rates in the waters of the Continental Shelf. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscaye, P.E.

    1978-07-01

    The present contract year has been one of transition from an emphasis on field work and sample gathering to the predominance of sample and data analysis and the formulation of testable hypotheses concerning specific processes in the New York Bight. We have begun to understand the seasonal transition in the role of phytoplankton vs. grazing zooplankton in forming the particles on which some reactive pollutants are removed. Using natural radioactive tracers we have estimated the removal rates of reactive metals from the surface waters and these range over an order of magnitude from most rapid nearshore to least rapid over the upper continental slope. Once removed nearshore, however, these tracers, and the pollutants for which they proxy, do not remain permanently in the sediments but appear to be remobilized (probably by oxidation) during the winter and are reintroduced into the water column. Work on transport and mixing processes of pollutants which are or behave like those in solution has continued along several fronts. Hydrographic data on the structure of the water column continues to give a description of the system that is crucial to understanding geochemical and biological processes which affect pollutants. Hydrographic characterization of water masses from the data sets of cruises has resulted in hypotheses concerning the renewal of shelf water by direct exchange between shelf and upper slope water

  19. Visual Perception Based Rate Control Algorithm for HEVC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zeqi; Liu, PengYu; Jia, Kebin

    2018-01-01

    For HEVC, rate control is an indispensably important video coding technology to alleviate the contradiction between video quality and the limited encoding resources during video communication. However, the rate control benchmark algorithm of HEVC ignores subjective visual perception. For key focus regions, bit allocation of LCU is not ideal and subjective quality is unsatisfied. In this paper, a visual perception based rate control algorithm for HEVC is proposed. First bit allocation weight of LCU level is optimized based on the visual perception of luminance and motion to ameliorate video subjective quality. Then λ and QP are adjusted in combination with the bit allocation weight to improve rate distortion performance. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm reduces average 0.5% BD-BR and maximum 1.09% BD-BR at no cost in bitrate accuracy compared with HEVC (HM15.0). The proposed algorithm devotes to improving video subjective quality under various video applications.

  20. Arduino-based noise robust online heart-rate detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sangita; Pal, Saurabh; Mitra, Madhuchhanda

    2017-04-01

    This paper introduces a noise robust real time heart rate detection system from electrocardiogram (ECG) data. An online data acquisition system is developed to collect ECG signals from human subjects. Heart rate is detected using window-based autocorrelation peak localisation technique. A low-cost Arduino UNO board is used to implement the complete automated process. The performance of the system is compared with PC-based heart rate detection technique. Accuracy of the system is validated through simulated noisy ECG data with various levels of signal to noise ratio (SNR). The mean percentage error of detected heart rate is found to be 0.72% for the noisy database with five different noise levels.

  1. Improved air ventilation rate estimation based on a statistical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabec, M.; Jilek, K.

    2004-01-01

    A new approach to air ventilation rate estimation from CO measurement data is presented. The approach is based on a state-space dynamic statistical model, allowing for quick and efficient estimation. Underlying computations are based on Kalman filtering, whose practical software implementation is rather easy. The key property is the flexibility of the model, allowing various artificial regimens of CO level manipulation to be treated. The model is semi-parametric in nature and can efficiently handle time-varying ventilation rate. This is a major advantage, compared to some of the methods which are currently in practical use. After a formal introduction of the statistical model, its performance is demonstrated on real data from routine measurements. It is shown how the approach can be utilized in a more complex situation of major practical relevance, when time-varying air ventilation rate and radon entry rate are to be estimated simultaneously from concurrent radon and CO measurements

  2. Current-based detection of nonlocal spin transport in graphene for spin-based logic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hua; Zhu, Tiancong; Luo, Yunqiu Kelly; Amamou, Walid; Kawakami, Roland K.

    2014-05-01

    Graphene has been proposed for novel spintronic devices due to its robust and efficient spin transport properties at room temperature. Some of the most promising proposals require current-based readout for integration purposes, but the current-based detection of spin accumulation has not yet been developed. In this work, we demonstrate current-based detection of spin transport in graphene using a modified nonlocal geometry. By adding a variable shunt resistor in parallel to the nonlocal voltmeter, we are able to systematically cross over from the conventional voltage-based detection to current-based detection. As the shunt resistor is reduced, the output current from the spin accumulation increases as the shunt resistance drops below a characteristic value R*. We analyze this behavior using a one-dimensional drift-diffusion model, which accounts well for the observed behavior. These results provide the experimental and theoretical foundation for current-based detection of nonlocal spin transport.

  3. Mars Scenario-Based Visioning: Logistical Optimization of Transportation Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this conceptual design investigation is to examine transportation forecasts for future human Wu missions to Mars. - Scenario-Based Visioning is used to generate possible future demand projections. These scenarios are then coupled with availability, cost, and capacity parameters for indigenously designed Mars Transfer Vehicles (solar electric, nuclear thermal, and chemical propulsion types) and Earth-to-Orbit launch vehicles (current, future, and indigenous) to provide a cost-conscious dual-phase launch manifest to meet such future demand. A simulator named M-SAT (Mars Scenario Analysis Tool) is developed using this method. This simulation is used to examine three specific transportation scenarios to Mars: a limited "flaus and footprints" mission, a More ambitious scientific expedition similar to an expanded version of the Design Reference Mission from NASA, and a long-term colonization scenario. Initial results from the simulation indicate that chemical propulsion systems might be the architecture of choice for all three scenarios. With this mind, "what if' analyses were performed which indicated that if nuclear production costs were reduced by 30% for the colonization scenario, then the nuclear architecture would have a lower life cycle cost than the chemical. Results indicate that the most cost-effective solution to the Mars transportation problem is to plan for segmented development, this involves development of one vehicle at one opportunity and derivatives of that vehicle at subsequent opportunities.

  4. Electron transport in gold colloidal nanoparticle-based strain gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Helena; Grisolia, Jérémie; Sangeetha, Neralagatta M.; Decorde, Nicolas; Farcau, Cosmin; Viallet, Benoit; Chen, Ke; Viau, Guillaume; Ressier, Laurence

    2013-03-01

    A systematic approach for understanding the electron transport mechanisms in resistive strain gauges based on assemblies of gold colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) protected by organic ligands is described. The strain gauges were fabricated from parallel micrometer wide wires made of 14 nm gold (Au) colloidal NPs on polyethylene terephthalate substrates, elaborated by convective self-assembly. Electron transport in such devices occurs by inter-particle electron tunneling through the tunnel barrier imposed by the organic ligands protecting the NPs. This tunnel barrier was varied by changing the nature of organic ligands coating the nanoparticles: citrate (CIT), phosphines (BSPP, TDSP) and thiols (MPA, MUDA). Electro-mechanical tests indicate that only the gold NPs protected by phosphine and thiol ligands yield high gauge sensitivity. Temperature-dependent resistance measurements are explained using the ‘regular island array model’ that extracts transport parameters, i.e., the tunneling decay constant β and the Coulomb charging energy EC. This reveals that the Au@CIT nanoparticle assemblies exhibit a behavior characteristic of a strong-coupling regime, whereas those of Au@BSPP, Au@TDSP, Au@MPA and Au@MUDA nanoparticles manifest a weak-coupling regime. A comparison of the parameters extracted from the two methods indicates that the most sensitive gauges in the weak-coupling regime feature the highest β. Moreover, the EC values of these 14 nm NPs cannot be neglected in determining the β values.

  5. Release rate of diazinon from microcapsule based on melamine formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noviana Utami C., S.; Rochmadi

    2018-04-01

    The microcapsule containing diazinon as the core material and melamine formaldehyde as the membrane material have been synthesized by in situ polymerization method. The microcapsule membrane in this research is melamine formaldehyde (MF). This research aims to study the effect of pH and temperature on the release rate of diazinon from microcapsule based on melamine formaldehyde in aqueous medium. The results showed that pH and temperature has little effect on the release rate of diazinon from microcapsule based on melamine formaldehyde. This is due to the diffusion through the microcapsule membrane is not influenced by the pH and temperature of the solution outside of microcapsule.

  6. Tax Rate and Tax Base Competition for Foreign Direct Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Egger; Horst Raff

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that the large reduction in corporate tax rates and only gradual widening of tax bases in many countries over the last decades are consistent with tougher international competition for foreign direct investment (FDI). To make this point we develop a model in which governments compete for FDI using corporate tax rates and tax bases. The model’s predictions regarding the slope of policy reaction functions and the response of equilibrium tax parameters to trade costs and mark...

  7. Assembly work and transport of JT-60SA cryostat base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Fuminori; Masaki, Kei; Yagyu, Jun-ichi; Shibama, Yusuke; Sakasai, Akira; Miyo, Yasuhiko; Kaminaga, Atsushi; Nishiyama, Tomokazu; Suzuki, Sadaaki; Nakamura, Shigetoshi; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    2013-11-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency started to construct a fully superconducting tokamak experiment device, JT-60SA, to support the ITER since January, 2013 at the Fusion Research and Development Directorate in Naka, Japan. The JT-60SA will be constructed with enhancing the previous JT-60 infrastructures, in the JT-60 torus hall, where the ex-JT-60 machine was disassembled. The JT-60SA Cryostat Base, for base of the entire tokamak structure, were assembly as the first step of this construction. The Cryostat Base (CB, 250tons) is consists of 7 main components made of stainless steel, in 12 m diameter and 3 m height. The CB was built in the Spain and transported to the Naka site, via Hitachi port. After pre-assembly work including preliminary measurements and sole plate adjustments of its height/flatness, the JT-60SA CB was carefully set on the sole plate. JT-60SA CB was assembled with high accuracy by using a laser tracker. The CB was adjusted in the height and flatness against the assembly reference position and determined by the absolute coordinates. This report introduces the concrete result of assembly work and transport of JT-60SA CB. (author)

  8. Biomass-based energy carriers in the transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Bengt.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to study the technical and economic prerequisites to attain reduced carbon dioxide emissions through the use of biomass-based energy carriers in the transportation sector, and to study other environmental impacts resulting from an increased use of biomass-based energy carriers. CO 2 emission reduction per unit arable and forest land used for biomass production (kg CO 2 /ha,year) and costs for CO 2 emission reduction (SEK/kg CO 2 ) are estimated for the substitution of gasoline and diesel with rape methyl ester, biogas from lucerne, ethanol from wheat and ethanol, methanol, hydrogen and electricity from Salix and logging residues. Of the studied energy carriers, those based on Salix provide the largest CO 2 emission reduction. In a medium long perspective, the costs for CO 2 emission reduction seem to be lowest for methanol from Salix and logging residues. The use of fuel cell vehicles, using methanol or hydrogen as energy carriers, can in a longer perspective provide more energy efficient utilization of biomass for transportation than the use of internal combustion engine vehicles. 136 refs, 12 figs, 25 tabs

  9. GIS-Based Population Model Applied to Nevada Transportation Routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, a model based on geographic information system (GIS) processing of US Census Block data has made high-resolution population analysis for transportation risk analysis technically and economically feasible. Population density bordering each kilometer of a route may be tabulated with specific route sections falling into each of three categories (Rural, Suburban or Urban) identified for separate risk analysis. In addition to the improvement in resolution of Urban areas along a route, the model provides a statistically-based correction to population densities in Rural and Suburban areas where Census Block dimensions may greatly exceed the 800-meter scale of interest. A semi-automated application of the GIS model to a subset of routes in Nevada (related to the Yucca Mountain project) are presented, and the results compared to previous models including a model based on published Census and other data. These comparisons demonstrate that meaningful improvement in accuracy and specificity of transportation risk analyses is dependent on correspondingly accurate and geographically-specific population density data

  10. Acid-base transport by the renal proximal tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Lara A; Boron, Walter F; Zhou, Yuehan

    2010-01-01

    Each day, the kidneys filter 180 L of blood plasma, equating to some 4,300 mmol of the major blood buffer, bicarbonate (HCO3-). The glomerular filtrate enters the lumen of the proximal tubule (PT), and the majority of filtered HCO3- is reclaimed along the early (S1) and convoluted (S2) portions of the PT in a manner coupled to the secretion of H+ into the lumen. The PT also uses the secreted H+ to titrate non-HCO3- buffers in the lumen, in the process creating "new HCO3-" for transport into the blood. Thus, the PT - along with more distal renal segments - is largely responsible for regulating plasma [HCO3-]. In this review we first focus on the milestone discoveries over the past 50+ years that define the mechanism and regulation of acid-base transport by the proximal tubule. Further on in the review, we will summarize research still in progress from our laboratory, work that addresses the problem of how the PT is able to finely adapt to acid-base disturbances by rapidly sensing changes in basolateral levels of HCO3- and CO2 (but not pH), and thereby to exert tight control over the acid-base composition of the blood plasma.

  11. Transport of nitrate from a large cement based waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    A finite-element model is used to calculate the time-dependent transport of nitrate from a cement-based (saltstone) monolith with and without a clay cap. Model predictions agree well with data from two lysimeter field experiments begun in 1984. The clay cap effectively reduces the flux of nitrate from the monolith. Predictions for a landfill monolith design show a peak concentration occurring within 25 years; however, the drinking water guideline is exceeded for 1200 years. Alternate designs and various restrictive liners are being considered

  12. Image Inpainting Based on Coherence Transport with Adapted Distance Functions

    KAUST Repository

    März, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We discuss an extension of our method image inpainting based on coherence transport. For the latter method the pixels of the inpainting domain have to be serialized into an ordered list. Until now, to induce the serialization we have used the distance to boundary map. But there are inpainting problems where the distance to boundary serialization causes unsatisfactory inpainting results. In the present work we demonstrate cases where we can resolve the difficulties by employing other distance functions which better suit the problem at hand. © 2011 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  13. Bulk Restoration for SDN-Based Transport Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a bulk restoration scheme for software defined networking- (SDN- based transport network. To enhance the network survivability and improve the throughput, we allow disrupted flows to be recovered synchronously in dynamic order. In addition backup paths are scheduled globally by applying the principles of load balance. We model the bulk restoration problem using a mixed integer linear programming (MILP formulation. Then, a heuristic algorithm is devised. The proposed algorithm is verified by simulation and the results are analyzed comparing with sequential restoration schemes.

  14. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, James; Carr, Ron; Chebl, Maroun; Coleman, Robert; Costantini, William; Cox, Robert; Dial, William; Jenkins, Robert; McGovern, James; Mueller, Peter

    2006-01-01

    ...., trains, ships, etc.) and maximizing intermodal efficiency. A healthy balance must be achieved between the flow of international commerce and security requirements regardless of transportation mode...

  15. A frequency conversion mode for dispenser in the service station based on flow rate signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y J; Tang, D; Huang, J B; Liu, J; Jia, P F

    2012-01-01

    Dispenser is an integrated fuel transport and measurement system at the service station. In this paper, we developed a frequency conversion mode for the dispenser, based on the flow rate signal which is obtained from the converter measuring flow capacity. After introducing the frequency conversion mode to dispenser, we obtained that pump rotates at a high speed when fuelled with high flow rate, and it rotates at a low speed when fuelled with low flow rate. This makes the fuel dispenser more energy-efficient and controllable. We also did some valve optimizations on the dispenser and developed a new control mode for preset refuelling based on the frequency conversion mode, Experimental and theoretical studies have shown that the new dispenser not only can meet the national standards, but also performs better than the ordinary one especially in preset refuelling.

  16. Factors influencing the transport rate of short-chain alcohols through mesoporous y-alumina membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy Chowdhury, Sankhanilay; Roy Chowdhury, S.; Blank, David H.A.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2005-01-01

    The pressure-driven transport of water, ethanol, and 1-propanol through supported -alumina membranes with different pore diameters is reported. Water and alcohols had similar permeabilities when they were transported through y-alumina membranes with average pore diameters of 4.4 and 6.0 nm, and the

  17. Growth rate-regulated expression of the hexose transporter HXT5 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwaal, René

    2003-01-01

    Glucose, which is the most preferred carbon source for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is transported across the plasma membrane into cells by hexose transporter (Hxt) proteins. The Hxt proteins are encoded by a multigene family consisting of 20 members. It was shown previously that HXT1-4 and

  18. Density-based and transport-based core-periphery structures in networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Cucuringu, Mihai; Porter, Mason A

    2014-03-01

    Networks often possess mesoscale structures, and studying them can yield insights into both structure and function. It is most common to study community structure, but numerous other types of mesoscale structures also exist. In this paper, we examine core-periphery structures based on both density and transport. In such structures, core network components are well-connected both among themselves and to peripheral components, which are not well-connected to anything. We examine core-periphery structures in a wide range of examples of transportation, social, and financial networks-including road networks in large urban areas, a rabbit warren, a dolphin social network, a European interbank network, and a migration network between counties in the United States. We illustrate that a recently developed transport-based notion of node coreness is very useful for characterizing transportation networks. We also generalize this notion to examine core versus peripheral edges, and we show that the resulting diagnostic is also useful for transportation networks. To examine the properties of transportation networks further, we develop a family of generative models of roadlike networks. We illustrate the effect of the dimensionality of the embedding space on transportation networks, and we demonstrate that the correlations between different measures of coreness can be very different for different types of networks.

  19. The water footprint of biofuel-based transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2011-01-01

    The EU target to replace 10 percent of transport fuels by renewables by 2020 requires additional water. This study calculates water footprints (WFs) of transport modes using first generation bio-ethanol, biodiesel or bio-electricity and of European transport if 10 percent of transport fuels is

  20. Flume and field-based calibration of surrogate sensors for monitoring bedload transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, L.; Carrillo, R.; Escauriaza, C.; Iroume, A.

    2016-01-01

    Bedload transport assessment is important for geomorphological, engineering, and ecological studies of gravel-bed rivers. Bedload can be monitored at experimental stations that require expensive maintenance or by using portable traps, which allows measuring instantaneous transport rates but at a single point and at high costs and operational risks. The need for continuously measuring bedload intensity and dynamics has therefore increased the use and enhancement of surrogate methods. This paper reports on a set of flume experiments in which a Japanese acoustic pipe and an impact plate have been tested using four well-sorted and three poorly sorted sediment mixtures. Additional data were collected in a glacierized high-gradient Andean stream (Estero Morales) using a portable Bunte-type bedload sampler. Results show that the data provided by the acoustic pipe (which is amplified on 6 channels having different gains) can be calibrated for the grain size and for the intensity of transported sediments coarser than 9 mm (R2 = 0.93 and 0.88, respectively). Even if the flume-based calibration is very robust, upscaling the calibration to field applications is more challenging, and the bedload intensity could be predicted better than the grain size of transported sediments (R2 = 0.61 and 0.43, respectively). The inexpensive impact plate equipped with accelerometer could be calibrated for bedload intensity quite well in the flume but only poorly in the field (R2 = 0.16) and could not provide information on the size of transported sediments.

  1. Planning for rate base treatment of large power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruki, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper addresses two related areas of planning for inclusion in rate base of large generating stations. First, the paper discusses the range of options available as to how the plant is to go into rate base, e.g., phase-in plans. In this connection the process of generating the entire range of options that may be available is described and examined. Second, the paper examines innovative ways of using procedures (e.g., accounting proceedings, settlement procedures, cost caps, and other ideas short of a full-blown rate case) and the resources available in the ratemaking arena, to obtain, in the least painful way possible, the necessary ratemaking orders. The thesis is that there must be better alternatives to the many proceedings that have either begun as, or seem to be leading to, endless retrospective examinations of multiple questions (from load forecasting to construction management to continuation-of-construction decisions) under the label of prudence inquiries

  2. Evaporation rate-based selection of supramolecular chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Shingo; Vandendriessche, Stefaan; Koeckelberghs, Guy; Verbiest, Thierry; Ishii, Kazuyuki

    2017-03-09

    We demonstrate the evaporation rate-based selection of supramolecular chirality for the first time. P-type aggregates prepared by fast evaporation, and M-type aggregates prepared by slow evaporation are kinetic and thermodynamic products under dynamic reaction conditions, respectively. These findings provide a novel solution reaction chemistry under the dynamic reaction conditions.

  3. Heterogeneity of road traffic accident rate in the Russian cities and the need of usage various methods of transport safety management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, A. I.; Petrova, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    The article considers one of the topical problems of road safety management at the federal level - the problem of the heterogeneity of road traffic accident rate in Russian cities. The article analyzes actual statistical data on road traffic accident rate in the administrative centers of Russia. The histograms of the distribution of the values of two most important road accidents characteristics - Social Risk HR and Severity Rate of Road Accidents - formed in 2016 in administrative centers of Russia are presented. On the basis of the regression model of the statistical connection between Severity Rate of Road Accidents and Social Risk HR, a classification of the Russian cities based on the level of actual road traffic accident rate was developed. On the basis of this classification a differentiated system of priority methods for organizing the safe functioning of transport systems in the cities of Russia is proposed.

  4. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  5. Public Transportation Based Dynamic Urban Pollution Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando LOPEZ-PEÑA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and results of a mobile sensor based opportunistic urban pollution monitoring network that uses public transportation buses as platforms for its deployment. This work is an extended and improved version of the paper presented to the IDAACS’09 conference. It reports some aspects of the implementation of a single pollution sensor based sensing node prototype which was used for testing an opportunistic communications network and which was reported in depth elsewhere. More emphasis is given to the description of the basic sensing unit and its modular conversion into a sensing system able to acquire data on several pollutants as well as temperature, humidity and geo-location information. The software architecture developed around it in order to process the huge amounts of data the system produces is also described. The different prototypes were tested on the public transportation system of the city of Vigo and on multiple test runs around the city of A Coruña in the north-west of Spain producing very promising results.

  6. Regulation of microtubule-based transport by MAP4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, Irina; Ikeda, Kazuho; Resaul, Karim; Kraikivski, Pavel; Aguiar, Mike; Gygi, Steven; Zaliapin, Ilya; Cowan, Ann; Rodionov, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Microtubule (MT)-based transport of organelles driven by the opposing MT motors kinesins and dynein is tightly regulated in cells, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we tested the regulation of MT transport by the ubiquitous protein MAP4 using Xenopus melanophores as an experimental system. In these cells, pigment granules (melanosomes) move along MTs to the cell center (aggregation) or to the periphery (dispersion) by means of cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin-2, respectively. We found that aggregation signals induced phosphorylation of threonine residues in the MT-binding domain of the Xenopus MAP4 (XMAP4), thus decreasing binding of this protein to MTs. Overexpression of XMAP4 inhibited pigment aggregation by shortening dynein-dependent MT runs of melanosomes, whereas removal of XMAP4 from MTs reduced the length of kinesin-2–dependent runs and suppressed pigment dispersion. We hypothesize that binding of XMAP4 to MTs negatively regulates dynein-dependent movement of melanosomes and positively regulates kinesin-2–based movement. Phosphorylation during pigment aggregation reduces binding of XMAP4 to MTs, thus increasing dynein-dependent and decreasing kinesin-2–dependent motility of melanosomes, which stimulates their accumulation in the cell center, whereas dephosphorylation of XMAP4 during dispersion has an opposite effect. PMID:25143402

  7. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is increased in peritoneal dialysis patients with high peritoneal solute transport rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mizutani, Makoto; Ito, Yasuhiko; Mizuno, Masashi; Nishimura, Hayato; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Hattori, Ryohei; Matsukawa, Yoshihisa; Imai, Masaki; Oliver, Noelynn; Goldschmeding, Roel; Aten, Jan; Krediet, Raymond T.; Yuzawa, Yukio; Matsuo, Seiichi

    2010-01-01

    Mizutani M, Ito Y, Mizuno M, Nishimura H, Suzuki Y, Hattori R, Matsukawa Y, Imai M, Oliver N, Goldschmeding R, Aten J, Krediet RT, Yuzawa Y, Matsuo S. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is increased in peritoneal dialysis patients with high peritoneal solute transport rate. Am J Physiol

  8. Impact of carbonation on water transport properties of cement-based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auroy, M.; Poyet, S.; Le Bescop, P.; Torrenti, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Cement-based materials would be commonly used for nuclear waste management and, particularly for geological disposal vaults as well as containers in France. Under service conditions, the structures would be subjected to simultaneous drying and carbonation. Carbonation relates to the reaction between CO 2 and the hydrated cement phases (mainly portlandite and C-S-H). It induces mineralogical and microstructural changes (due to hydrates dissolution and calcium carbonate precipitation). It results in transport properties modifications, which can have important consequences on the durability of reinforced concrete structures. Concrete durability is greatly influenced by water: water is necessary for chemical reactions to occur and significantly impacts transport. The evaluation of the unsaturated water transport properties in carbonated materials is then an important issue. That is the aim of this study. A program has been established to assess the water transport properties in carbonated materials. In this context, four mature hardened cement pastes (CEM I, CEM III/A, CEM V/A according to European standards and a Low-pH blend) are carbonated. Accelerated carbonation tests are performed in a specific device, controlling environmental conditions: (i) CO 2 content of 3%, to ensure representativeness of the mineralogical evolution compared to natural carbonation and (ii) 25 C. degrees and 55% RH, to optimize carbonation rate. After carbonation, the data needed to describe water transport are evaluated in the framework of simplified approach. Three physical parameters are required: (1) the concrete porosity, (2) the water retention curve and, (3) the effective permeability. The obtained results allow creating link between water transport properties of non-carbonated materials to carbonated ones. They also provide a better understanding of the effect of carbonation on water transport in cementitious materials and thus, complement literature data. (authors)

  9. Nanoarchitectured current collector for high rate capability of polyaniline based supercapacitor electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumboja, Afriyanti; Wang Xu; Yan Jian; Lee, Pooi See

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Preparation of organic/inorganic coaxial nanowires. ► Modifying current collector to improve both capacitance and rate capability simultaneously. ► Improvement in the charge transport process resulted in the superior rate capability. - Abstract: Indium tin oxide (ITO) nanowires array was used as current collector and building block for polyaniline based supercapacitor. Thin polyaniline coating was deposited on the nanowires and resulted in the formation of polyaniline ITO coaxial nanowires. This hybrid heterostructure design improved the specific capacitance, rate capability, and cycling stability of the supercapacitor electrode. Good conductivity harnessed by these directly grown ITO nanowires is useful to improve the charge transport during the charge discharge processes which were confirmed by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement. Electrochemical test in 1 M H 2 SO 4 at 4 A g −1 delivered specific capacitance as high as 738 F g −1 . In addition, sub-micron size of the intercoaxial nanowires spacing ensures the fast penetration of electrolyte ions which resulted in the superior rate capability (98% capacitance retention when applied current was varied from 4 to 25 A g −1 ). The capacitance retention is significantly higher as compared to other polyaniline composite electrodes and it is one of the best reported performances to date for polyaniline based supercapacitor electrodes. This work illustrates a promising platform that can be adopted for other redox nanocomposite materials while reaping the benefit as low cost and binder free electrode material for supercapacitor application.

  10. Transportable Hydrogen Research Plant Based on Renewable Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikel Fernandez; Carlos Madina; Asier Gil de Muro; Jose Angel Alzolab; Iker Marino; Javier Garcia-Tejedor; Juan Carlos Mugica; Inaki Azkkrate; Jose Angel Alzola

    2006-01-01

    Efficiency and cost are nowadays the most important barriers for the penetration of systems based on hydrogen and renewable energies. According to this background, TECNALIA Corporation has started in 2004 the HIDROTEC project: 'Hydrogen Technologies for Renewable Energy Applications'. The ultimate aim of this project is the implementation of a multipurpose demonstration and research plant in order to explore diverse options for sustainable energetic solutions based on hydrogen. The plant is conceived as an independent system that can be easily transported and assembled. Research and demonstration activities can thus be carried out at very different locations, including commercial renewable facilities. Modularity and scalability have also been taken into account for an optimised exploitation. (authors)

  11. Pilot Testing of a Sampling Methodology for Assessing Seed Attachment Propensity and Transport Rate in a Soil Matrix Carried on Boot Soles and Bike Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Nigel; Dietz, Kristina Charlotte; Bride, Ian; Passfield, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Land managers of natural areas are under pressure to balance demands for increased recreation access with protection of the natural resource. Unintended dispersal of seeds by visitors to natural areas has high potential for weedy plant invasions, with initial seed attachment an important step in the dispersal process. Although walking and mountain biking are popular nature-based recreation activities, there are few studies quantifying propensity for seed attachment and transport rate on boot soles and none for bike tires. Attachment and transport rate can potentially be affected by a wide range of factors for which field testing can be time-consuming and expensive. We pilot tested a sampling methodology for measuring seed attachment and transport rate in a soil matrix carried on boot soles and bike tires traversing a known quantity and density of a seed analog (beads) over different distances and soil conditions. We found % attachment rate on boot soles was much lower overall than previously reported, but that boot soles had a higher propensity for seed attachment than bike tires in almost all conditions. We believe our methodology offers a cost-effective option for researchers seeking to manipulate and test effects of different influencing factors on these two dispersal vectors.

  12. Pilot Testing of a Sampling Methodology for Assessing Seed Attachment Propensity and Transport Rate in a Soil Matrix Carried on Boot Soles and Bike Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Nigel; Dietz, Kristina Charlotte; Bride, Ian; Passfield, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Land managers of natural areas are under pressure to balance demands for increased recreation access with protection of the natural resource. Unintended dispersal of seeds by visitors to natural areas has high potential for weedy plant invasions, with initial seed attachment an important step in the dispersal process. Although walking and mountain biking are popular nature-based recreation activities, there are few studies quantifying propensity for seed attachment and transport rate on boot soles and none for bike tires. Attachment and transport rate can potentially be affected by a wide range of factors for which field testing can be time-consuming and expensive. We pilot tested a sampling methodology for measuring seed attachment and transport rate in a soil matrix carried on boot soles and bike tires traversing a known quantity and density of a seed analog (beads) over different distances and soil conditions. We found % attachment rate on boot soles was much lower overall than previously reported, but that boot soles had a higher propensity for seed attachment than bike tires in almost all conditions. We believe our methodology offers a cost-effective option for researchers seeking to manipulate and test effects of different influencing factors on these two dispersal vectors.

  13. Tunneling rates in electron transport through double-barrier molecular junctions in a scanning tunneling microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Nazin, G. V.; Wu, S. W.; Ho, W.

    2005-01-01

    The scanning tunneling microscope enables atomic-scale measurements of electron transport through individual molecules. Copper phthalocyanine and magnesium porphine molecules adsorbed on a thin oxide film grown on the NiAl(110) surface were probed. The single-molecule junctions contained two tunneling barriers, vacuum gap, and oxide film. Differential conductance spectroscopy shows that electron transport occurs via vibronic states of the molecules. The intensity of spectral peaks correspondi...

  14. Constitutive law for seismicity rate based on rate and state friction: Dieterich 1994 revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimisson, E. R.; Segall, P.

    2017-12-01

    Dieterich [1994] derived a constitutive law for seismicity rate based on rate and state friction, which has been applied widely to aftershocks, earthquake triggering, and induced seismicity in various geological settings. Here, this influential work is revisited, and re-derived in a more straightforward manner. By virtue of this new derivation the model is generalized to include changes in effective normal stress associated with background seismicity. Furthermore, the general case when seismicity rate is not constant under constant stressing rate is formulated. The new derivation provides directly practical integral expressions for the cumulative number of events and rate of seismicity for arbitrary stressing history. Arguably, the most prominent limitation of Dieterich's 1994 theory is the assumption that seismic sources do not interact. Here we derive a constitutive relationship that considers source interactions between sub-volumes of the crust, where the stress in each sub-volume is assumed constant. Interactions are considered both under constant stressing rate conditions and for arbitrary stressing history. This theory can be used to model seismicity rate due to stress changes or to estimate stress changes using observed seismicity from triggered earthquake swarms where earthquake interactions and magnitudes are take into account. We identify special conditions under which influence of interactions cancel and the predictions reduces to those of Dieterich 1994. This remarkable result may explain the apparent success of the model when applied to observations of triggered seismicity. This approach has application to understanding and modeling induced and triggered seismicity, and the quantitative interpretation of geodetic and seismic data. It enables simultaneous modeling of geodetic and seismic data in a self-consistent framework. To date physics-based modeling of seismicity with or without geodetic data has been found to give insight into various processes

  15. A high mitochondrial transport rate characterizes CNS neurons with high axonal regeneration capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Cartoni

    Full Text Available Improving axonal transport in the injured and diseased central nervous system has been proposed as a promising strategy to improve neuronal repair. However, the contribution of each cargo to the repair mechanism is unknown. DRG neurons globally increase axonal transport during regeneration. Because the transport of specific cargos after axonal insult has not been examined systematically in a model of enhanced regenerative capacity, it is unknown whether the transport of all cargos would be modulated equally in injured central nervous system neurons. Here, using a microfluidic culture system we compared neurons co-deleted for PTEN and SOCS3, an established model of high axonal regeneration capacity, to control neurons. We measured the axonal transport of three cargos (mitochondria, synaptic vesicles and late endosomes in regenerating axons and found that the transport of mitochondria, but not the other cargos, was increased in PTEN/SOCS3 co-deleted axons relative to controls. The results reported here suggest a pivotal role for this organelle during axonal regeneration.

  16. Intracellular pH regulation by acid-base transporters in mammalian neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Vernon A.; Salameh, Ahlam I.; Boron, Walter F.; Parker, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular pH (pHi) regulation in the brain is important in both physiological and physiopathological conditions because changes in pHi generally result in altered neuronal excitability. In this review, we will cover 4 major areas: (1) The effect of pHi on cellular processes in the brain, including channel activity and neuronal excitability. (2) pHi homeostasis and how it is determined by the balance between rates of acid loading (JL) and extrusion (JE). The balance between JE and JL determine steady-state pHi, as well as the ability of the cell to defend pHi in the face of extracellular acid-base disturbances (e.g., metabolic acidosis). (3) The properties and importance of members of the SLC4 and SLC9 families of acid-base transporters expressed in the brain that contribute to JL (namely the Cl-HCO3 exchanger AE3) and JE (the Na-H exchangers NHE1, NHE3, and NHE5 as well as the Na+- coupled HCO3− transporters NBCe1, NBCn1, NDCBE, and NBCn2). (4) The effect of acid-base disturbances on neuronal function and the roles of acid-base transporters in defending neuronal pHi under physiopathologic conditions. PMID:24592239

  17. HZETRN radiation transport validation using balloon-based experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, James E.; Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2018-05-01

    The deterministic radiation transport code HZETRN (High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport) was developed by NASA to study the effects of cosmic radiation on astronauts and instrumentation shielded by various materials. This work presents an analysis of computed differential flux from HZETRN compared with measurement data from three balloon-based experiments over a range of atmospheric depths, particle types, and energies. Model uncertainties were quantified using an interval-based validation metric that takes into account measurement uncertainty both in the flux and the energy at which it was measured. Average uncertainty metrics were computed for the entire dataset as well as subsets of the measurements (by experiment, particle type, energy, etc.) to reveal any specific trends of systematic over- or under-prediction by HZETRN. The distribution of individual model uncertainties was also investigated to study the range and dispersion of errors beyond just single scalar and interval metrics. The differential fluxes from HZETRN were generally well-correlated with balloon-based measurements; the median relative model difference across the entire dataset was determined to be 30%. The distribution of model uncertainties, however, revealed that the range of errors was relatively broad, with approximately 30% of the uncertainties exceeding ± 40%. The distribution also indicated that HZETRN systematically under-predicts the measurement dataset as a whole, with approximately 80% of the relative uncertainties having negative values. Instances of systematic bias for subsets of the data were also observed, including a significant underestimation of alpha particles and protons for energies below 2.5 GeV/u. Muons were found to be systematically over-predicted at atmospheric depths deeper than 50 g/cm2 but under-predicted for shallower depths. Furthermore, a systematic under-prediction of alpha particles and protons was observed below the geomagnetic cutoff, suggesting that

  18. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, D. W; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  19. Turbulent transport measurements in a cold model of GT-burner at realistic flow rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobyzov Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work simultaneous velocity field and passive admixture concentration field measurements at realistic flow-rates conditions in a non-reacting flow in a model of combustion chamber with an industrial mixing device are reported. In the experiments for safety reasons the real fuel (natural gas was replaced with neon gas to simulate stratification in a strongly swirling flow. Measurements were performed by means of planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF and particle image velocimetry technique (PIV at Reynolds number, based on the mean flow rate and nozzle diameter, ≈300 000. Details on experimental technique, features of the experimental setup, images and data preprocessing procedures and results of performed measurements are given in the paper. In addition to the raw velocity and admixture concentration data in-depth evaluation approaches aimed for estimation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE components, assessment of turbulent Schmidt number and analysis of the gradient closure hypothesis from experimental data are presented in the paper.

  20. Division-Based, Growth Rate Diversity in Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislain Y. Gangwe Nana

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the nature and origins of growth rate diversity in bacteria, we grew Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis in liquid minimal media and, after different periods of 15N-labeling, analyzed and imaged isotope distributions in individual cells with Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. We find a striking inter- and intra-cellular diversity, even in steady state growth. This is consistent with the strand-dependent, hyperstructure-based hypothesis that a major function of the cell cycle is to generate coherent, growth rate diversity via the semi-conservative pattern of inheritance of strands of DNA and associated macromolecular assemblies. We also propose quantitative, general, measures of growth rate diversity for studies of cell physiology that include antibiotic resistance.

  1. Low rate of membrane lithium transport during treatment correlates with outcome of maintenance pharmacotherapy in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinger, A G; Frank, E; Thase, M E; Dippold, C S; Kupfer, D J

    1997-05-01

    Lithium is transported across cell membranes by an exchange diffusion process (Na(+)-Li+ countertransport) that is inhibited during lithium treatment. We hypothesized that low rates of lithium efflux (a potential manifestation of strong transport inhibition) would be associated with better clinical outcome of maintenance pharmacotherapy. We measured the erythrocyte (RBC) apparent rate constant for lithium efflux (kexch) in 22 patients with bipolar disorder who had been euthymic on lithium for 1 month. Subsequently, clinical mood ratings and in vivo RBC: plasma lithium ratios (LiR) were determined monthly. Outcome was categorized according to whether subjects completed 1 year of successful maintenance treatment (n = 10), experienced a recurrent affective episode (n = 8), or dropped out (n = 4). The kexch at the outset of the study was significantly lower (potentially because of greater transport inhibition) in 1-year completers than in patients with recurrences or those who dropped out (median kexch = 0.09, 0.24, and 0.27 h-1, respectively; P lower were successfully maintained on lithium for 1 year, whereas only 23% of those with a kexch greater than or equal to 0.12 h-1 had a successful treatment outcome. LiR measured during the course of maintenance treatment was significantly higher (suggesting greater transport inhibition) in 1-year completers than in noncompleters (recurrences and dropouts). Measurement of kexch at an early point in treatment may provide a means for prospectively identifying those bipolar patients at greater risk for failure of maintenance lithium therapy.

  2. Quantification of Na+,K+ pumps and their transport rate in skeletal muscle: Functional significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    During excitation, muscle cells gain Na+ and lose K+, leading to a rise in extracellular K+ ([K+]o), depolarization, and loss of excitability. Recent studies support the idea that these events are important causes of muscle fatigue and that full use of the Na+,K+-ATPase (also known as the Na+,K+ pump) is often essential for adequate clearance of extracellular K+. As a result of their electrogenic action, Na+,K+ pumps also help reverse depolarization arising during excitation, hyperkalemia, and anoxia, or from cell damage resulting from exercise, rhabdomyolysis, or muscle diseases. The ability to evaluate Na+,K+-pump function and the capacity of the Na+,K+ pumps to fill these needs require quantification of the total content of Na+,K+ pumps in skeletal muscle. Inhibition of Na+,K+-pump activity, or a decrease in their content, reduces muscle contractility. Conversely, stimulation of the Na+,K+-pump transport rate or increasing the content of Na+,K+ pumps enhances muscle excitability and contractility. Measurements of [3H]ouabain binding to skeletal muscle in vivo or in vitro have enabled the reproducible quantification of the total content of Na+,K+ pumps in molar units in various animal species, and in both healthy people and individuals with various diseases. In contrast, measurements of 3-O-methylfluorescein phosphatase activity associated with the Na+,K+-ATPase may show inconsistent results. Measurements of Na+ and K+ fluxes in intact isolated muscles show that, after Na+ loading or intense excitation, all the Na+,K+ pumps are functional, allowing calculation of the maximum Na+,K+-pumping capacity, expressed in molar units/g muscle/min. The activity and content of Na+,K+ pumps are regulated by exercise, inactivity, K+ deficiency, fasting, age, and several hormones and pharmaceuticals. Studies on the α-subunit isoforms of the Na+,K+-ATPase have detected a relative increase in their number in response to exercise and the glucocorticoid dexamethasone but have not

  3. Quantification of Na+,K+ pumps and their transport rate in skeletal muscle: functional significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Torben

    2013-10-01

    During excitation, muscle cells gain Na(+) and lose K(+), leading to a rise in extracellular K(+) ([K(+)]o), depolarization, and loss of excitability. Recent studies support the idea that these events are important causes of muscle fatigue and that full use of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (also known as the Na(+),K(+) pump) is often essential for adequate clearance of extracellular K(+). As a result of their electrogenic action, Na(+),K(+) pumps also help reverse depolarization arising during excitation, hyperkalemia, and anoxia, or from cell damage resulting from exercise, rhabdomyolysis, or muscle diseases. The ability to evaluate Na(+),K(+)-pump function and the capacity of the Na(+),K(+) pumps to fill these needs require quantification of the total content of Na(+),K(+) pumps in skeletal muscle. Inhibition of Na(+),K(+)-pump activity, or a decrease in their content, reduces muscle contractility. Conversely, stimulation of the Na(+),K(+)-pump transport rate or increasing the content of Na(+),K(+) pumps enhances muscle excitability and contractility. Measurements of [(3)H]ouabain binding to skeletal muscle in vivo or in vitro have enabled the reproducible quantification of the total content of Na(+),K(+) pumps in molar units in various animal species, and in both healthy people and individuals with various diseases. In contrast, measurements of 3-O-methylfluorescein phosphatase activity associated with the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase may show inconsistent results. Measurements of Na(+) and K(+) fluxes in intact isolated muscles show that, after Na(+) loading or intense excitation, all the Na(+),K(+) pumps are functional, allowing calculation of the maximum Na(+),K(+)-pumping capacity, expressed in molar units/g muscle/min. The activity and content of Na(+),K(+) pumps are regulated by exercise, inactivity, K(+) deficiency, fasting, age, and several hormones and pharmaceuticals. Studies on the α-subunit isoforms of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase have detected a relative increase in their

  4. A Logistic Regression Based Auto Insurance Rate-Making Model Designed for the Insurance Rate Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengmin Duan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Using a generalized linear model to determine the claim frequency of auto insurance is a key ingredient in non-life insurance research. Among auto insurance rate-making models, there are very few considering auto types. Therefore, in this paper we are proposing a model that takes auto types into account by making an innovative use of the auto burden index. Based on this model and data from a Chinese insurance company, we built a clustering model that classifies auto insurance rates into three risk levels. The claim frequency and the claim costs are fitted to select a better loss distribution. Then the Logistic Regression model is employed to fit the claim frequency, with the auto burden index considered. Three key findings can be concluded from our study. First, more than 80% of the autos with an auto burden index of 20 or higher belong to the highest risk level. Secondly, the claim frequency is better fitted using the Poisson distribution, however the claim cost is better fitted using the Gamma distribution. Lastly, based on the AIC criterion, the claim frequency is more adequately represented by models that consider the auto burden index than those do not. It is believed that insurance policy recommendations that are based on Generalized linear models (GLM can benefit from our findings.

  5. Predicting online ratings based on the opinion spreading process

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xing-Sheng; Zhou, Ming-Yang; Zhuo, Zhao; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2015-10-01

    Predicting users' online ratings is always a challenge issue and has drawn lots of attention. In this paper, we present a rating prediction method by combining the user opinion spreading process with the collaborative filtering algorithm, where user similarity is defined by measuring the amount of opinion a user transfers to another based on the primitive user-item rating matrix. The proposed method could produce a more precise rating prediction for each unrated user-item pair. In addition, we introduce a tunable parameter λ to regulate the preferential diffusion relevant to the degree of both opinion sender and receiver. The numerical results for Movielens and Netflix data sets show that this algorithm has a better accuracy than the standard user-based collaborative filtering algorithm using Cosine and Pearson correlation without increasing computational complexity. By tuning λ, our method could further boost the prediction accuracy when using Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) as measurements. In the optimal cases, on Movielens and Netflix data sets, the corresponding algorithmic accuracy (MAE and RMSE) are improved 11.26% and 8.84%, 13.49% and 10.52% compared to the item average method, respectively.

  6. [Performance based regulation: a strategy to increase breastfeeding rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo-Armijo, Fernanda; Charvel, Sofía; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2017-01-01

    The decreasing breastfeeding rate in México is of public health concern. In this paper we discus an innovative regulatory approach -Performance Based Regulation- and its application to improve breastfeeding rates. This approach, forces industry to take responsibility for the lack of breastfeeding and its consequences. Failure to comply with this targets results in financial penalties. Applying performance based regulation as a strategy to improve breastfeeding is feasible because: the breastmilk substitutes market is an oligopoly, hence it is easy to identify the contribution of each market participant; the regulation's target population is clearly defined; it has a clear regulatory standard which can be easily evaluated, and sanctions to infringement can be defined under objective parameters. modify public policy, celebrate concertation agreements with the industry, create persuasive sanctions, strengthen enforcement activities and coordinate every action with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes.

  7. Performance based regulation: a strategy to increase breastfeeding rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cobo-Armijo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The decreasing breastfeeding rate in México is of public health concern. In this paper we discus an innovative regulatory ap­proach -Performance Based Regulation- and its application to improve breastfeeding rates. This approach, forces industry to take responsibility for the lack of breastfeeding and its consequences. Failure to comply with this targets results in financial penalties. Applying performance based regulation as a strategy to improve breastfeeding is feasible because: the breastmilk substitutes market is an oligopoly, hence it is easy to identify the contribution of each market participant; the regulation’s target population is clearly defined; it has a clear regulatory standard which can be easily evaluated, and sanctions to infringement can be defined under objective parameters. Recommendations: modify public policy, celebrate concertation agreements with the industry, create persuasive sanctions, strengthen enforcement activities and coordinate every action with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes.

  8. Heart rate measurement based on face video sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang; Zhou, Qin-Wu; Wu, Peng; Chen, Xing; Yang, Xiaofeng; Yan, Hong-jian

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes a new non-contact heart rate measurement method based on photoplethysmography (PPG) theory. With this method we can measure heart rate remotely with a camera and ambient light. We collected video sequences of subjects, and detected remote PPG signals through video sequences. Remote PPG signals were analyzed with two methods, Blind Source Separation Technology (BSST) and Cross Spectral Power Technology (CSPT). BSST is a commonly used method, and CSPT is used for the first time in the study of remote PPG signals in this paper. Both of the methods can acquire heart rate, but compared with BSST, CSPT has clearer physical meaning, and the computational complexity of CSPT is lower than that of BSST. Our work shows that heart rates detected by CSPT method have good consistency with the heart rates measured by a finger clip oximeter. With good accuracy and low computational complexity, the CSPT method has a good prospect for the application in the field of home medical devices and mobile health devices.

  9. Burning water: The water footprint of biofuel-based transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2010-01-01

    The trend towards substitution of conventional transport fuels by biofuels requires additional water. The EU aims to replace 10 percent of total transport fuels by biofuels by 2020. This study calculates the water footprint (WF) of different transport modes using bio-ethanol, biodiesel or

  10. [Effect of high magnesium ion concentration on the electron transport rate and proton exchange in thylakoid membranes in higher plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat'ev, A R; Khorobrykh, S A; Ivanov, B N

    2001-01-01

    The effects of magnesium ion concentration on the rate of electron transport in isolated pea thylakoids were investigated in the pH range from 4.0 up to 8.0. In the absence of magnesium ions in the medium and in the presence of 5 mM MgCl2 in the experiments not only without added artificial acceptors but also with ferricyanide or methylviologen as an acceptor, this rate had a well-expressed maximum at pH 5.0. It was shown that, after depression to minimal values at pH 5.5-6.5, it gradually rose with increasing pH. An increase in magnesium ion concentration up to 20 mM essentially affected the electron transfer rate: it decreased somewhat at pH 4.0-5.0 but increased at higher pH values. At this magnesium ion concentration, the maximum rate was at pH 6.0-6.5 and the minimum, at pH 7.0. Subsequent rise upon increasing pH to 8.0 was expressed more sharply. The influence of high magnesium ion concentration on the rate of electron transport was not observed in the presence of gramicidin D. It was found that without uncoupler, the changes in the electron transfer rate under the influence of magnesium ions correlated to the changes in the first-order rate constant of the proton efflux from thylakoids. It is supposed that the change in the ability of thylakoids to keep protons by the action of magnesium ions is the result of electrostatic interactions of these ions with the charges on the external surface of membranes. A possible role of regulation of the electron transport rate by magnesium ions in vivo is discussed.

  11. Solid formation in piperazine rate-based simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaspar, Jozsef; Thomsen, Kaj; von Solms, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    of view but also from a modeling perspective. The present work develops a rate-based model for CO2 absorption and desorption modeling for gas-liquid-solid systems and it is demonstrated for the piperazine CO2 capture process. This model is an extension of the DTU CAPCO2 model to precipitating systems....... It uses the extended UNIQUAC thermodynamic model for phase equilibria and thermal properties estimation. The mass and heat transfer phenomena is implemented in a film model approach, based on second order reactions kinetics. The transfer fluxes are calculated using the concentration of the dissolved...

  12. Safety assessment of dangerous goods transport enterprise based on the relative entropy aggregation in group decision making model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Li, Chengbing; Huo, Yueying

    2014-01-01

    Safety of dangerous goods transport is directly related to the operation safety of dangerous goods transport enterprise. Aiming at the problem of the high accident rate and large harm in dangerous goods logistics transportation, this paper took the group decision making problem based on integration and coordination thought into a multiagent multiobjective group decision making problem; a secondary decision model was established and applied to the safety assessment of dangerous goods transport enterprise. First of all, we used dynamic multivalue background and entropy theory building the first level multiobjective decision model. Secondly, experts were to empower according to the principle of clustering analysis, and combining with the relative entropy theory to establish a secondary rally optimization model based on relative entropy in group decision making, and discuss the solution of the model. Then, after investigation and analysis, we establish the dangerous goods transport enterprise safety evaluation index system. Finally, case analysis to five dangerous goods transport enterprises in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region validates the feasibility and effectiveness of this model for dangerous goods transport enterprise recognition, which provides vital decision making basis for recognizing the dangerous goods transport enterprises.

  13. Investigation of Transport Parameters of Graphene-Based Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeyev, D. M.; Shunkeyev, K. Sh.

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents results of computer simulation of the main transport parameters of nanostructures obtained through the row-by-row removal of carbon atoms from graphene ribbon. Research into the electrical parameters is carried out within the density functional theory using the non-equilibrium Green functions in the local-density approximation. Virtual NanoLab based on Atomistix ToolKit is used to construct structures and analyze simulation results. Current-voltage characteristics, differential conductivity and transmittance spectra of nanostructures are calculated at different values of bias voltage. It is found that there is a large region of negative differential resistance in current-voltage characteristics of nanostructures caused by resonant tunneling of quasi-particles. Differential (dI/dV) characteristic also has similar changes. The obtained results can be useful for building novel electronic devices in the field of nanoelectronics.

  14. Regularized Regression and Density Estimation based on Optimal Transport

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, M.

    2012-03-11

    The aim of this paper is to investigate a novel nonparametric approach for estimating and smoothing density functions as well as probability densities from discrete samples based on a variational regularization method with the Wasserstein metric as a data fidelity. The approach allows a unified treatment of discrete and continuous probability measures and is hence attractive for various tasks. In particular, the variational model for special regularization functionals yields a natural method for estimating densities and for preserving edges in the case of total variation regularization. In order to compute solutions of the variational problems, a regularized optimal transport problem needs to be solved, for which we discuss several formulations and provide a detailed analysis. Moreover, we compute special self-similar solutions for standard regularization functionals and we discuss several computational approaches and results. © 2012 The Author(s).

  15. Time-dependent quantum transport through an interacting quantum dot beyond sequential tunneling: second-order quantum rate equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, B; Ding, G H; Lei, X L

    2015-01-01

    A general theoretical formulation for the effect of a strong on-site Coulomb interaction on the time-dependent electron transport through a quantum dot under the influence of arbitrary time-varying bias voltages and/or external fields is presented, based on slave bosons and the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function (GF) techniques. To avoid the difficulties of computing double-time GFs, we generalize the propagation scheme recently developed by Croy and Saalmann to combine the auxiliary-mode expansion with the celebrated Lacroix's decoupling approximation in dealing with the second-order correlated GFs and then establish a closed set of coupled equations of motion, called second-order quantum rate equations (SOQREs), for an exact description of transient dynamics of electron correlated tunneling. We verify that the stationary solution of our SOQREs is able to correctly describe the Kondo effect on a qualitative level. Moreover, a comparison with other methods, such as the second-order von Neumann approach and Hubbard-I approximation, is performed. As illustrations, we investigate the transient current behaviors in response to a step voltage pulse and a harmonic driving voltage, and linear admittance as well, in the cotunneling regime. (paper)

  16. Web-based reactive transport modeling using PFLOTRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H.; Karra, S.; Lichtner, P. C.; Versteeg, R.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Actionable understanding of system behavior in the subsurface is required for a wide spectrum of societal and engineering needs by both commercial firms and government entities and academia. These needs include, for example, water resource management, precision agriculture, contaminant remediation, unconventional energy production, CO2 sequestration monitoring, and climate studies. Such understanding requires the ability to numerically model various coupled processes that occur across different temporal and spatial scales as well as multiple physical domains (reservoirs - overburden, surface-subsurface, groundwater-surface water, saturated-unsaturated zone). Currently, this ability is typically met through an in-house approach where computational resources, model expertise, and data for model parameterization are brought together to meet modeling needs. However, such an approach has multiple drawbacks which limit the application of high-end reactive transport codes such as the Department of Energy funded[?] PFLOTRAN code. In addition, while many end users have a need for the capabilities provided by high-end reactive transport codes, they do not have the expertise - nor the time required to obtain the expertise - to effectively use these codes. We have developed and are actively enhancing a cloud-based software platform through which diverse users are able to easily configure, execute, visualize, share, and interpret PFLOTRAN models. This platform consists of a web application and available on-demand HPC computational infrastructure. The web application consists of (1) a browser-based graphical user interface which allows users to configure models and visualize results interactively, and (2) a central server with back-end relational databases which hold configuration, data, modeling results, and Python scripts for model configuration, and (3) a HPC environment for on-demand model execution. We will discuss lessons learned in the development of this platform, the

  17. The efficacy of centralized flow rate control in 802.11-based wireless mesh networks

    KAUST Repository

    Jamshaid, K.

    2013-06-13

    Commodity WiFi-based wireless mesh networks (WMNs) can be used to provide last mile Internet access. These networks exhibit extreme unfairness with backlogged traffic sources. Current solutions propose distributed source-rate control algorithms requiring link-layer or transport-layer changes on all mesh nodes. This is often infeasible in large practical deployments. In wireline networks, router-assisted rate control techniques have been proposed for use alongside end-to-end mechanisms. We wish to evaluate the feasibility of establishing similar centralized control via gateways in WMNs. In this paper, we focus on the efficacy of this control rather than the specifics of the controller design mechanism. We answer the question: Given sources that react predictably to congestion notification, can we enforce a desired rate allocation through a single centralized controller? The answer is not obvious because flows experience varying contention levels, and transmissions are scheduled by a node using imperfect local knowledge. We find that common router-assisted flow control schemes used in wired networks fail in WMNs because they assume that (1) links are independent, and (2) router queue buildups are sufficient for detecting congestion. We show that non-work-conserving, rate-based centralized scheduling can effectively enforce rate allocation. It can achieve results comparable to source rate limiting, without requiring any modifications to mesh routers or client devices. 2013 Jamshaid et al.; licensee Springer.

  18. EFFECTS OF PORE STRUCTURE CHANGE AND MULTI-SCALE HETEROGENEITY ON CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT AND REACTION RATE UPSCALING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Catherine A [Princeton University

    2013-05-15

    This project addressed the scaling of geochemical reactions to core and field scales, and the interrelationship between reaction rates and flow in porous media. We targeted reactive transport problems relevant to the Hanford site specifically the reaction of highly caustic, radioactive waste solutions with subsurface sediments, and the immobilization of 90Sr and 129I through mineral incorporation and passive flow blockage, respectively. We addressed the correlation of results for pore-scale fluid-soil interaction with field-scale fluid flow, with the specific goals of (i) predicting attenuation of radionuclide concentration; (ii) estimating changes in flow rates through changes of soil permeabilities; and (iii) estimating effective reaction rates. In supplemental work, we also simulated reactive transport systems relevant to geologic carbon sequestration. As a whole, this research generated a better understanding of reactive transport in porous media, and resulted in more accurate methods for reaction rate upscaling and improved prediction of permeability evolution. These scientific advancements will ultimately lead to better tools for management and remediation of DOE legacy waste problems.

  19. Modeling uranium transport in acidic contaminated groundwater with base addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fan [Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Luo, Wensui [ORNL; Parker, Jack C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL; Jardine, Philip [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Gu, Baohua [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates reactive transport modeling in a column of uranium(VI)-contaminated sediments with base additions in the circulating influent. The groundwater and sediment exhibit oxic conditions with low pH, high concentrations of NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, U and various metal cations. Preliminary batch experiments indicate that additions of strong base induce rapid immobilization of U for this material. In the column experiment that is the focus of the present study, effluent groundwater was titrated with NaOH solution in an inflow reservoir before reinjection to gradually increase the solution pH in the column. An equilibrium hydrolysis, precipitation and ion exchange reaction model developed through simulation of the preliminary batch titration experiments predicted faster reduction of aqueous Al than observed in the column experiment. The model was therefore modified to consider reaction kinetics for the precipitation and dissolution processes which are the major mechanism for Al immobilization. The combined kinetic and equilibrium reaction model adequately described variations in pH, aqueous concentrations of metal cations (Al, Ca, Mg, Sr, Mn, Ni, Co), sulfate and U(VI). The experimental and modeling results indicate that U(VI) can be effectively sequestered with controlled base addition due to sorption by slowly precipitated Al with pH-dependent surface charge. The model may prove useful to predict field-scale U(VI) sequestration and remediation effectiveness.

  20. Modeling uranium transport in acidic contaminated groundwater with base addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fan; Luo Wensui; Parker, Jack C.; Brooks, Scott C.; Watson, David B.; Jardine, Philip M.; Gu Baohua

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates reactive transport modeling in a column of uranium(VI)-contaminated sediments with base additions in the circulating influent. The groundwater and sediment exhibit oxic conditions with low pH, high concentrations of NO 3 - , SO 4 2- , U and various metal cations. Preliminary batch experiments indicate that additions of strong base induce rapid immobilization of U for this material. In the column experiment that is the focus of the present study, effluent groundwater was titrated with NaOH solution in an inflow reservoir before reinjection to gradually increase the solution pH in the column. An equilibrium hydrolysis, precipitation and ion exchange reaction model developed through simulation of the preliminary batch titration experiments predicted faster reduction of aqueous Al than observed in the column experiment. The model was therefore modified to consider reaction kinetics for the precipitation and dissolution processes which are the major mechanism for Al immobilization. The combined kinetic and equilibrium reaction model adequately described variations in pH, aqueous concentrations of metal cations (Al, Ca, Mg, Sr, Mn, Ni, Co), sulfate and U(VI). The experimental and modeling results indicate that U(VI) can be effectively sequestered with controlled base addition due to sorption by slowly precipitated Al with pH-dependent surface charge. The model may prove useful to predict field-scale U(VI) sequestration and remediation effectiveness.

  1. Modeling uranium transport in acidic contaminated groundwater with base addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Fan, E-mail: zhangfan@itpcas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing, 100085 (China); Luo Wensui [Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen, 361021 (China); Parker, Jack C. [Institute for a Secure and Sustainable Environment, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Brooks, Scott C.; Watson, David B. [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Jardine, Philip M. [Biosystems Engineering and Soil Science Department, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Gu Baohua [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    This study investigates reactive transport modeling in a column of uranium(VI)-contaminated sediments with base additions in the circulating influent. The groundwater and sediment exhibit oxic conditions with low pH, high concentrations of NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, U and various metal cations. Preliminary batch experiments indicate that additions of strong base induce rapid immobilization of U for this material. In the column experiment that is the focus of the present study, effluent groundwater was titrated with NaOH solution in an inflow reservoir before reinjection to gradually increase the solution pH in the column. An equilibrium hydrolysis, precipitation and ion exchange reaction model developed through simulation of the preliminary batch titration experiments predicted faster reduction of aqueous Al than observed in the column experiment. The model was therefore modified to consider reaction kinetics for the precipitation and dissolution processes which are the major mechanism for Al immobilization. The combined kinetic and equilibrium reaction model adequately described variations in pH, aqueous concentrations of metal cations (Al, Ca, Mg, Sr, Mn, Ni, Co), sulfate and U(VI). The experimental and modeling results indicate that U(VI) can be effectively sequestered with controlled base addition due to sorption by slowly precipitated Al with pH-dependent surface charge. The model may prove useful to predict field-scale U(VI) sequestration and remediation effectiveness.

  2. Chord-based versus voxel-based methods of electron transport in the skeletal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Amish P.; Jokisch, Derek W.; Rajon, Didier A.; Watchman, Christopher J.; Patton, Phillip W.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2005-01-01

    Anatomic models needed for internal dose assessment have traditionally been developed using mathematical surface equations to define organ boundaries, shapes, and their positions within the body. Many researchers, however, are now advocating the use of tomographic models created from segmented patient computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) scans. In the skeleton, however, the tissue structures of the bone trabeculae, marrow cavities, and endosteal layer are exceedingly small and of complex shape, and thus do not lend themselves easily to either stylistic representations or in-vivo CT imaging. Historically, the problem of modeling the skeletal tissues has been addressed through the development of chord-based methods of radiation particle transport, as given by studies at the University of Leeds (Leeds, UK) using a 44-year male subject. We have proposed an alternative approach to skeletal dosimetry in which excised sections of marrow-intact cadaver spongiosa are imaged directly via microCT scanning. The cadaver selected for initial investigation of this technique was a 66-year male subject of nominal body mass index (22.7 kg m -2 ). The objectives of the present study were to compare chord-based versus voxel-based methods of skeletal dosimetry using data from the UF 66-year male subject. Good agreement between chord-based and voxel-based transport was noted for marrow irradiation by either bone surface or bone volume sources up to 500-1000 keV (depending upon the skeletal site). In contrast, chord-based models of electron transport yielded consistently lower values of the self-absorbed fraction to marrow tissues than seen under voxel-based transport at energies above 100 keV, a feature directly attributed to the inability of chord-based models to account for nonlinear electron trajectories. Significant differences were also noted in the dosimetry of the endosteal layer (for all source tissues), with chord-based transport predicting a higher fraction of

  3. Effect of Transition From a Unit-Based Team to External Transport Team for a Pediatric Critical Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Brian M; Kaliannan, Kanakaraju; Yager, Phoebe H; Noviski, Natan

    2017-12-01

    Pediatric hospitals must consider staff, training, and direct costs required to maintain a pediatric specialized transport team, balanced with indirect potential benefits of marketing and referral volume. The effect of transitioning a unit-based transport team to an external service on the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) is unknown, but information is needed as hospital systems focus on population management. We examined the impact on PICU transports after transition to an external transport vendor. Single-center retrospective review performed of PICU admissions, referrals, and transfers during baseline, post-, and maintenance period with a total of 9-year follow-up. Transfer volume was analyzed during pre-, post-, and maintenance phase with descriptive statistics and statistical process control charts from 1999 to 2012. Total PICU admissions increased with an annual growth rate of 3.7%, with mean annual 626 admissions prior to implementation to the mean of 890 admissions at the end of period, P < .001. The proportion of transport to total admissions decreased from 27% to 21%, but mean annual transports were unchanged, 175 to 183, P = .6, and mean referrals were similar, 186 to 203, P = .8. Seasonal changes in transport volume remained as a predominant source of variability. Annual transport refusals increased initially in the postimplementation phase, mean 11 versus 33, P < .03, but similar to baseline in the maintenance phase, mean 20/year, P = .07. Patient refusals were due to bed and staffing constraints, with 7% due to the lack of transport vendor availability. In a transition to a regional transport service, PICU transport volume was maintained in the long-term follow-up and total PICU admissions increased. Further research on the direct and indirect impact of transport regionalization is needed to determine the optimal cost-benefit and quality of care as health-care systems focus on population management.

  4. Goal based mesh adaptivity for fixed source radiation transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.M.J.; Buchan, A.G.; Pain, C.C.; Tollit, B.S.; Goffin, M.A.; Merton, S.R.; Warner, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Derives an anisotropic goal based error measure for shielding problems. ► Reduces the error in the detector response by optimizing the finite element mesh. ► Anisotropic adaptivity captures material interfaces using fewer elements than AMR. ► A new residual based on the numerical scheme chosen forms the error measure. ► The error measure also combines the forward and adjoint metrics in a novel way. - Abstract: In this paper, the application of goal based error measures for anisotropic adaptivity applied to shielding problems in which a detector is present is explored. Goal based adaptivity is important when the response of a detector is required to ensure that dose limits are adhered to. To achieve this, a dual (adjoint) problem is solved which solves the neutron transport equation in terms of the response variables, in this case the detector response. The methods presented can be applied to general finite element solvers, however, the derivation of the residuals are dependent on the underlying finite element scheme which is also discussed in this paper. Once error metrics for the forward and adjoint solutions have been formed they are combined using a novel approach. The two metrics are combined by forming the minimum ellipsoid that covers both the error metrics rather than taking the maximum ellipsoid that is contained within the metrics. Another novel approach used within this paper is the construction of the residual. The residual, used to form the goal based error metrics, is calculated from the subgrid scale correction which is inherent in the underlying spatial discretisation employed

  5. Fast evolutionary rates associated with functional loss in class I glucose transporters of Schistosoma mansoni

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabezas-Cruz, A.; Valdés, James J.; Lancelot, J.; Pierce, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, NOV 19 2015 (2015), s. 980 ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Schistosoma mansoni * glucose transporters * transcriptional regulation * phylogen * biophysics Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.867, year: 2015

  6. Transport and transfer rates in the waters of the continental shelf. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscaye, P.E.

    1980-09-01

    The goal of govern project is to understand and quantify the processes that the transport and dispersal of energy-related pollutants introduced to the waters of the continental shelf and slope. The report is divided into sections dealing with processes associated with suspended solids; processes associated with sediments sinks for radionuclides and other pollutants; and spreading of water characteristics and species in solution

  7. Effects of radiation transport on mass ablation rate and conversion efficiency in numerical simulations of inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, N.K.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of radiation transport on hydrodynamic parameters of laser produced plasmas are studied. LTE and non-LTE atomic models are used to calculate multi group opacities and emissivities. Screened hydrogenic atom model is used to calculate the energy levels. The population densities of neutral to fully ionized ions are obtained by solving the steady state rate equations. Radiation transport is treated in multi-group diffusion or Sn method. A comparison is made between 1 and 100 group radiation transport and LTE and non-LTE models. For aluminium, multi group radiation transport leads to much higher mass ablation as compared to the 1 group and no radiation transport cases. This in turn leads to higher ablation pressures. However, for gold gray approximation gives higher mass ablation as compared to multi group simulations. LTE conversion efficiency of laser light into x-rays is more than the non-LTE estimates. For LTE as well as non-LTE cases, the one group approximation over-predicts the conversion efficiency Multi group non-LTE simulations predict that the conversion efficiency increases with laser intensity up to a maximum and then it decreases. (author)

  8. Toward a transport-based analysis of nutrient spiraling and uptake in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    Nutrient addition experiments are designed to study the cycling of nutrients in stream ecosystems where hydrologic and nonhydrologic processes determine nutrient fate. Because of the importance of hydrologic processes in stream ecosystems, a conceptual model known as nutrient spiraling is frequently employed. A central part of the nutrient spiraling approach is the determination of uptake length (SW), the average distance traveled by dissolved nutrients in the water column before uptake. Although the nutrient spiraling concept has been an invaluable tool in stream ecology, the current practice of estimating uptake length from steady-state nutrient data using linear regression (called here the "SW approach") presents a number of limitations. These limitations are identified by comparing the exponential SW equation with analytical solutions of a stream solute transport model. This comparison indicates that (1) SW, is an aggregate measure of uptake that does not distinguish between main channel and storage zone processes, (2) SW, is an integrated measure of numerous hydrologie and nonhydrologic processes-this process integration may lead to difficulties in interpretation when comparing estimates of SW, and (3) estimates of uptake velocity and areal uptake rate (Vf and U) based on S W, are not independent of system hydrology. Given these findings, a transport-based approach to nutrient spiraling is presented for steady-state and time-series data sets. The transport-based approach for time-series data sets is suggested for future research on nutrient uptake as it provides a number of benefits, including the ability to (1) separately quantify main channel and storage zone uptake, (2) quantify specific hydrologic and nonhydrologic processes using various model parameters (process separation), (3) estimate uptake velocities and areal uptake rates that are independent of hydrologic effects, and (4) use short-term, non-plateau nutrient additions such that the effects of

  9. Replacing -CH2CH2- with -CONH- does not significantly change rates of charge transport through Ag(TS)-SAM//Ga2O3/EGaIn junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuo, Martin M; Reus, William F; Simeone, Felice C; Kim, Choongik; Schulz, Michael D; Yoon, Hyo Jae; Whitesides, George M

    2012-07-04

    This paper describes physical-organic studies of charge transport by tunneling through self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), based on systematic variations of the structure of the molecules constituting the SAM. Replacing a -CH(2)CH(2)- group with a -CONH- group changes the dipole moment and polarizability of a portion of the molecule and has, in principle, the potential to change the rate of charge transport through the SAM. In practice, this substitution produces no significant change in the rate of charge transport across junctions of the structure Ag(TS)-S(CH(2))(m)X(CH(2))(n)H//Ga(2)O(3)/EGaIn (TS = template stripped, X = -CH(2)CH(2)- or -CONH-, and EGaIn = eutectic alloy of gallium and indium). Incorporation of the amide group does, however, increase the yields of working (non-shorting) junctions (when compared to n-alkanethiolates of the same length). These results suggest that synthetic schemes that combine a thiol group on one end of a molecule with a group, R, to be tested, on the other (e.g., HS~CONH~R) using an amide-based coupling provide practical routes to molecules useful in studies of molecular electronics.

  10. Urban development control based on transportation carrying capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miharja, M.; Sjafruddin, A. H.

    2017-06-01

    Severe transportation problems in Indonesian urban areas are stimulated by one fundamental factor, namely lack of awareness on transportation carrying capacity in these areas development control. Urban land use development towards more physical coverage is typically not related with the capability of transportation system to accommodate additional trips volume. Lack of clear connection between development permit with its implication on the transportation side has led to a phenomenon of exceeding transport demand over supply capacity. This paper discusses the concept of urban land use development control which will be related with transport carrying capacity. The discussion would cover both supply and demand sides of transportation. From supply side, the analysis regarding the capacity of transport system would take both existing as well as potential road network capacity could be developed. From demand side, the analysis would be through the control of a maximum floor area and public transport provision. Allowed maximum floor area for development would be at the level of generating traffic at reasonable volume. Ultimately, the objective of this paper is to introduce model to incorporate transport carrying capacity in Indonesian urban land use development control.

  11. Simulation of chloride transport based description soil structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood-ul-Hassan, M.; Akhtar, M.S.; Gill, S.M.; Nabi, G.

    2003-01-01

    There is a need of environmental implications of rapid appearance of surface by applying chemical at depths below the vadose zone (tile line or shallow groundwater) for developing better insight into solute flow mechanism through the arable lands. Transport of chloride, a representative non-adsorbing solute, through a moderately structured silty clay loam soil (Gujranwala series, Typic Ustochrepts) and an un-structured sandy loam soil (Nabipur series, Typic Camborthid) was characterized and two existing models viz. convection dispersion equation (CDE) and preferential flow models were tested. The flux average of solute concentration in the outflow as a function of cumulative drainage was fitted to the models. The CDE fitted, relatively, better in the non-structured soil than in the moderately structured soil. Dispersivity value determined by CDE was very high for the structured soil which is physically not possible. The preferential flow model fitted well in the Gujranwala soil, but not in the Nabipur soil. The breakthrough characteristics i.e. drainage to peak concentration (Dp), symmetry coefficient (SC), skewness, and kurtosis were compared. Chloride breakthrough was earlier than expected based on piston flow. It indicated preferential flow in both the soils, yet, immediate appearance of the tracer in the Gujranwala soil demonstrated even larger magnitude of the preferential flow. Breakthrough curves' parameters indicated a large amount of the solute movement through the preferred pathways by passing the soil matrix in the Gujranwala soil. The study suggests that some soil structure parameters (size/shape and degree of aggregation) should be incorporated in the solute transport models.(author)

  12. Prediction of pipeline corrosion rate based on grey Markov models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yonghong; Zhang Dafa; Peng Guichu; Wang Yuemin

    2009-01-01

    Based on the model that combined by grey model and Markov model, the prediction of corrosion rate of nuclear power pipeline was studied. Works were done to improve the grey model, and the optimization unbiased grey model was obtained. This new model was used to predict the tendency of corrosion rate, and the Markov model was used to predict the residual errors. In order to improve the prediction precision, rolling operation method was used in these prediction processes. The results indicate that the improvement to the grey model is effective and the prediction precision of the new model combined by the optimization unbiased grey model and Markov model is better, and the use of rolling operation method may improve the prediction precision further. (authors)

  13. Quantum transport in nanowire-based hybrid devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenel, Haci Yusuf

    2013-05-08

    We have studied the low-temperature transport properties of nanowires contacted by a normal metal as well as by superconducting electrodes. As a consequence of quantum coherence, we have demonstrated the electron interference effect in different aspects. The mesoscopic phase coherent transport properties were studied by contacting the semiconductor InAs and InSb nanowires with normal metal electrodes. Moreover, we explored the interaction of the microscopic quantum coherence of the nanowires with the macroscopic quantum coherence of the superconductors. In superconducting Nb contacted InAs nanowire junctions, we have investigated the effect of temperature, magnetic field and electric field on the supercurrent. Owing to relatively high critical temperature of superconducting Nb (T{sub c} ∝ 9 K), we have observed the supercurrent up to 4 K for highly doped nanowire-based junctions, while for low doped nanowire-based junctions a full control of the supercurrent was achieved. Due to low transversal dimension of the nanowires, we have found a monotonous decay of the critical current in magnetic field dependent measurements. The experimental results were analyzed within narrow junction model which has been developed recently. At high bias voltages, we have observed subharmonic energy gap structures as a consequence of multiple Andreev reflection. Some of the nanowires were etched, such that the superconducting Nb electrodes are connected to both ends of the nanowire rather than covering the surface of the nanowire. As a result of well defined nanowire-superconductor interfaces, we have examined quasiparticle interference effect in magnetotransport measurements. Furthermore, we have developed a new junction geometry, such that one of the superconducting Nb electrodes is replaced by a superconducting Al. Owing to the smaller critical magnetic field of superconducting Al (B{sub c} ∝ 15-50,mT), compared to superconducting Nb (B{sub c} ∝ 3 T), we were able to studied

  14. A structure-based model for the transport of passive scalars in homogeneous turbulent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagiotou, C.F.; Kassinos, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The Interacting Particle Representation Model (IPRM) is extended for passive scalar transport. • We develop a structure-based set of scale equations for the scalar field and couple them to the IPRM. • The complete model is evaluated for several cases of homogeneous deformation with good results. • We outline steps for coupling the new scalar scales to the Algebraic Structure-Based Model (ASBM). - Abstract: A structure-based model has been constructed, for the first time, for the study of passive scalar transport in turbulent flows. The scalar variance and the large-scale scalar gradient variance are proposed as the two turbulence scales needed for closure of the scalar equations in the framework of the Interacting Particle Representation Model (IPRM). The scalar dissipation rate is modeled in terms of the scalar variance and the large-scale enstrophy of the velocity field. Model parameters are defined by matching the decay rates in freely isotropic turbulence. The model is validated for a large number of cases of deformation in both fixed and rotating frames, showing encouraging results. The model shows good agreement with DNS results for the case of pure shear flow in the presence of either transverse or streamwise mean scalar gradient, while it correctly predicts the presence of direct cascade for the passive scalar variance in two dimensional isotropic turbulence.

  15. Rate-Based Model Predictive Control of Turbofan Engine Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCastro, Jonathan A.

    2006-01-01

    An innovative model predictive control strategy is developed for control of nonlinear aircraft propulsion systems and sub-systems. At the heart of the controller is a rate-based linear parameter-varying model that propagates the state derivatives across the prediction horizon, extending prediction fidelity to transient regimes where conventional models begin to lose validity. The new control law is applied to a demanding active clearance control application, where the objectives are to tightly regulate blade tip clearances and also anticipate and avoid detrimental blade-shroud rub occurrences by optimally maintaining a predefined minimum clearance. Simulation results verify that the rate-based controller is capable of satisfying the objectives during realistic flight scenarios where both a conventional Jacobian-based model predictive control law and an unconstrained linear-quadratic optimal controller are incapable of doing so. The controller is evaluated using a variety of different actuators, illustrating the efficacy and versatility of the control approach. It is concluded that the new strategy has promise for this and other nonlinear aerospace applications that place high importance on the attainment of control objectives during transient regimes.

  16. Simulation-based seismic loss estimation of seaport transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ung Jin Na; Shinozuka, Masanobu

    2009-01-01

    Seaport transportation system is one of the major lifeline systems in modern society and its reliable operation is crucial for the well-being of the public. However, past experiences showed that earthquake damage to port components can severely disrupt terminal operation, and thus negatively impact on the regional economy. The main purpose of this study is to provide a methodology for estimating the effects of the earthquake on the performance of the operation system of a container terminal in seaports. To evaluate the economic loss of damaged system, an analytical framework is developed by integrating simulation models for terminal operation and fragility curves of port components in the context of seismic risk analysis. For this purpose, computerized simulation model is developed and verified with actual terminal operation records. Based on the analytical procedure to assess the seismic performance of the terminal, system fragility curves are also developed. This simulation-based loss estimation methodology can be used not only for estimating the seismically induced revenue loss but also serve as a decision-making tool to select specific seismic retrofit technique on the basis of benefit-cost analysis

  17. Charge and energy transports via poly-phenylacetylene based dendrimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yongwoo; Li, Minghai; Lin, Xi

    2010-03-01

    Poly-Phenylacetylene (PPA) is widely used in photoconductivity, photoluminescence, and light harvesting applications. In this work, we investigate the charge and exciton transport energetics and mechanisms in the PPA-based dendrimers using our recently developed adapted Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model Hamiltonians and ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF) calculations. We found both doping and photo-excitation lead to the formation of optical phonon dressed pi electron states, namely the self-localized polarons, in the energy gap. Independent from their origins, these polarons can be self-trapped at multiple lattice locations along the PPA chain, and migrate from one to the next with an activation barrier of ˜0.006 eV, slightly higher than the corresponding barrier found in trans-polyacetylene. The PPA-based dendrimers can be constructed via the meta-positions of phenyl rings. In this case, we found the dendrimer junctions form attractive potential wells for both polarons and excitons, and the width and height of these junction potential wells can be controlled by the geometry of the dendrimers.

  18. Transport of nitrate from a large cement-based wasteform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, D.W.

    1986-10-01

    A two-dimensional finite element model has been developed to calculate the time-dependent transport of nitrate from a cement-based (saltstone) monolith. A steady-state velocity field is also calculated, based on saturated ground water flow and Darcy's law. Model predictions are compared with data from two lysimeter field experiments begun in 1984. The model results agree very well with data from the uncapped and clay-capped monoliths. A peak concentration of 140 ppM is predicted for the uncapped case within four years; the clay-capped case shows a rather flat peak of 70 ppM occurring within approximately 20 years. The clay cap effectively reduces the groundwater velocity and dispersion coefficient adjacent to the exposed monolith surface. The cap also significantly reduces the flux of nitrate out the top surface of the monolith, in contrast to the uncapped monolith. Predictions for a landfill monolith design show a peak concentration of approximately 280 ppM occurring within 25 years. Results indicate that the 44 ppM drinking water guideline would be exceeded for over 1000 years. Alternate designs and various restrictive liners are being considered. 9 refs., 8 figs

  19. Surrogate-Based Optimization of Biogeochemical Transport Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieß, Malte; Slawig, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    First approaches towards a surrogate-based optimization method for a one-dimensional marine biogeochemical model of NPZD type are presented. The model, developed by Oschlies and Garcon [1], simulates the distribution of nitrogen, phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus in a water column and is driven by ocean circulation data. A key issue is to minimize the misfit between the model output and given observational data. Our aim is to reduce the overall optimization cost avoiding expensive function and derivative evaluations by using a surrogate model replacing the high-fidelity model in focus. This in particular becomes important for more complex three-dimensional models. We analyse a coarsening in the discretization of the model equations as one way to create such a surrogate. Here the numerical stability crucially depends upon the discrete stepsize in time and space and the biochemical terms. We show that for given model parameters the level of grid coarsening can be choosen accordingly yielding a stable and satisfactory surrogate. As one example of a surrogate-based optimization method we present results of the Aggressive Space Mapping technique (developed by John W. Bandler [2, 3]) applied to the optimization of this one-dimensional biogeochemical transport model.

  20. Comparative economic efficiency, operating costs and fuel consumption rates of freight transport modes between the largest industrial cities and seaports in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W J (Wessel Pienaar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with aspects of efficiency within the five modes of freight transport, with special reference to the operating cost and fuel consumption rates between South Africa’s largest industrial cities and seaports. In particular, the paper deals with (a the opportunities that exist for the achievement of efficiency in freight transport; (b the subgroups of economies that can enhance efficiency attainment in the freight transport industry; (c prevailing cost structures, operating cost and fuel consumption rates within the five modes of freight transport; and (d the salient economic features of the freight transport market. The research approach and methodology combine (a a literature survey; (b empiric research, (c an analysis of the cost structures of freight transport operators from different modes of transport; and (d interviews conducted with specialists in the freight transport industry.

  1. High Data Rate Optical Wireless Communications Based on Ultraviolet Band

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiaobin

    2017-10-01

    Optical wireless communication systems based on ultraviolet (UV)-band has a lot inherent advantages, such as low background solar radiation, low device dark noise. Besides, it also has small restrictive requirements for PAT (pointing, acquisition, and tracking) because of its high atmospheric scattering with molecules and aerosols. And these advantages are driving people to explore and utilize UV band for constructing and implementing a high-data-rate, less PAT communication links, such as diffuse-line-of-sight links (diffuse-LOS) and non-line-of-sight (NLOS). The responsivity of the photodetector at UV range is far lower than that of visible range, high power UV transmitters which can be easily modulated are under investigation. These factors make it is hard to realize a high-data-rate diffuse-LOS or NLOS UV communication links. To achieve a UV link mentioned above with current devices and modulation schemes, this thesis presents some efficient modulation schemes and available devices for the time being. Besides, a demonstration of ultraviolet-B (UVB) communication link is implemented utilizing quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM). The demonstration is based on a 294-nm UVB-light-emitting-diode (UVB-LED) with a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 9 nm, and according to the measured L-I-V curve, we set the bias voltage as 7V for maximum the ac amplitude and thus get a high signal-noise-ratio (SNR) channel, and the light output power is 190 μW with such bias voltage. Besides, there is a unique silica gel lens on top of the LED to concentrate the beam. A -3-dB bandwidth of 29 MHz was measured and a high-speed near-solar-blind communication link with a data rate of 71 Mbit/s was achieved using 8-QAM-OFDM at perfect alignment, and 23.6 Mbit/s using 2-QAM-OFDM when the angle subtended by the pointing direction of the UVB-LED and photodetector (PD) is 12 degrees, thus establishing a diffuse-line-of-sight (LOS) link

  2. An Agent-Based Approach for a Smart Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian PEÑARANDA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposal for a Smart Transport System which is an application that facilitates the interconnection between people (citizens, tourists and transport providers (Bus, metro, trains, trams, defining the services that everyone can request or offer. The system has been defined as a virtual organization where agents (representing actors of the transport system can enter or leave into the system consuming or offering services. Due to the fact that modern urban public transport is increasingly an important service used by citizens in current cities, the proposed system will improve the use of resources while also ensuring time flexible mobility solutions for citizens.

  3. [Design of Oxygen Saturation, Heart Rate, Respiration Rate Detection System Based on Smartphone of Android Operating System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingshan; Zeng, Bixin

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we designed an oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiration rate monitoring system based on smartphone of android operating system, physiological signal acquired by MSP430 microcontroller and transmitted by Bluetooth module.

  4. Transport calculations of. gamma. -ray flux density and dose rate about implantable californium-252 sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, A; Lin, B I [Cincinnati Univ., Ohio (USA). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Windham, J P; Kereiakes, J G

    1976-07-01

    ..gamma.. flux density and dose rate distributions have been calculated about implantable californium-252 sources for an infinite tissue medium. Point source flux densities as a function of energy and position were obtained from a discrete-ordinates calculation, and the flux densities were multiplied by their corresponding kerma factors and added to obtain point source dose rates. The point dose rates were integrated over the line source to obtain line dose rates. Container attenuation was accounted for by evaluating the point dose rate as a function of platinum thickness. Both primary and secondary flux densities and dose rates are presented. The agreement with an independent Monte Carlo calculation was excellent. The data presented should be useful for the design of new source configurations.

  5. Video rate morphological processor based on a redundant number representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczborski, Wojciech; Attikiouzel, Yianni; Crebbin, Gregory A.

    1992-03-01

    This paper presents a video rate morphological processor for automated visual inspection of printed circuit boards, integrated circuit masks, and other complex objects. Inspection algorithms are based on gray-scale mathematical morphology. Hardware complexity of the known methods of real-time implementation of gray-scale morphology--the umbra transform and the threshold decomposition--has prompted us to propose a novel technique which applied an arithmetic system without carrying propagation. After considering several arithmetic systems, a redundant number representation has been selected for implementation. Two options are analyzed here. The first is a pure signed digit number representation (SDNR) with the base of 4. The second option is a combination of the base-2 SDNR (to represent gray levels of images) and the conventional twos complement code (to represent gray levels of structuring elements). Operation principle of the morphological processor is based on the concept of the digit level systolic array. Individual processing units and small memory elements create a pipeline. The memory elements store current image windows (kernels). All operation primitives of processing units apply a unified direction of digit processing: most significant digit first (MSDF). The implementation technology is based on the field programmable gate arrays by Xilinx. This paper justified the rationality of a new approach to logic design, which is the decomposition of Boolean functions instead of Boolean minimization.

  6. Sediment mobility and bedload transport rates in a high-elevation glacier-fed stream (Saldur river, Eastern Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Agnese, A.; Mao, L.; Comiti, F.

    2012-04-01

    The assessment of bedload transport in high-gradient streams is necessary to evaluate and mitigate flood hazards and to understand morphological processes taking place in the whole river network. Bedload transport in steep channels is particularly difficult to predict due to the complex and varying types of flow resistance, the very coarse and heterogeneous sediments, and the activity and connections of sediment sources at the basin scale. Yet, bedload measurements in these environments are still relatively scarce, and long-term monitoring programs are highly valuable to explore spatial and temporal variability of bedload processes. Even fewer are investigations conducted in high-elevation glaciarized basins, despite their relevance in many regions worldwide. The poster will present bedload transport measurements in a newly established (spring 2011) monitoring station in the Saldur basin (Eastern Italian Alps), which presents a 3.3 km2 glacier in its upper part. At 2100 m a.s.l. (20 km2 drainage area), a pressure transducer measures flow stage and bedload transport is monitored continuously by means of a hydrophone (a cylindrical steel pipe with microphones registering particle collisions) and by 4 fixed antennas for tracing clasts equipped with PITs (Passive Integrated Transponders). At the same location bedload samples are collected by using both a "Bunte" bedload trap and a "Helley-Smith" sampler at 5 positions along a 5 m wide cross-section. Bedload was measured from June to August 2011 during daily discharge fluctuations due to snow- and ice- melt flows. Samples were taken at a large range of discharges (1.1 to 4.6 m3 s-1) and bedload rates (0.01 to 700 g s-1 m-1). As expected, samples taken using the two samplers are not directly comparable even if taken virtually at the same time and at the same location across the section. Results indicate that the grain size of the transported material increases with the shear stress acting on the channel bed and with the

  7. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics transport and rate processes in physical, chemical and biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Demirel, Yasar

    2014-01-01

    Natural phenomena consist of simultaneously occurring transport processes and chemical reactions. These processes may interact with each other and may lead to self-organized structures, fluctuations, instabilities, and evolutionary systems. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics, 3rd edition emphasizes the unifying role of thermodynamics in analyzing the natural phenomena. This third edition updates and expands on the first and second editions by focusing on the general balance equations for coupled processes of physical, chemical, and biological systems. The new edition contains a new chapte

  8. Longshore sediment transport rate-measurement and estimation, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Anand, N.M.; Chandramohan, P.; Naik, G.N.

    rate—measurement and estimation, central west coast of India V. Sanil Kumar * , N.M. Anand, P. Chandramohan, G.N. Naik Ocean Engineering Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Donapaula, Goa 403 004, India Received 26 October 2001; received... engineering designs. The longshore current generated by obliquely incident breaking waves plays an important role in transporting sediment in the surf zone. The longshore current velocity varies across the surf zone, reaching a maximum value close to the wave...

  9. Development of a generic data base for failure rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosleh, A.; Apostolakis, G.

    1985-01-01

    The data analysis task in a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) involves the assessment of data needs, the collection of information, and, finally, the analysis of the data to generate estimates for various parameters. This paper describes a framework for developing a data base for component failure rates and presents mathematical methods for the analysis of various types of information. The discussion is focused on the development of generic data bases used in PRAs. For plants without an operating history, the generic distributions are used directly to calculate component unavailability. In the case of plants that have operated for some time, the generic distributions can be used as priors in Bayesian analysis and, thus, specialized by plant-specific experience

  10. Assessment of sustainable urban transport development based on entropy and unascertained measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yancang; Yang, Jing; Shi, Huawang; Li, Yijie

    2017-01-01

    To find a more effective method for the assessment of sustainable urban transport development, the comprehensive assessment model of sustainable urban transport development was established based on the unascertained measure. On the basis of considering the factors influencing urban transport development, the comprehensive assessment indexes were selected, including urban economical development, transport demand, environment quality and energy consumption, and the assessment system of sustainable urban transport development was proposed. In view of different influencing factors of urban transport development, the index weight was calculated through the entropy weight coefficient method. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted according to the actual condition. Then, the grade was obtained by using the credible degree recognition criterion from which the urban transport development level can be determined. Finally, a comprehensive assessment method for urban transport development was introduced. The application practice showed that the method can be used reasonably and effectively for the comprehensive assessment of urban transport development.

  11. Persistent changes in the initial rate of pyruvate transport by isolated rat liver mitochondria after preincubation with adenine nucleotides and calcium ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaartjes, W.J.; Breejen, J.N. den; Geelen, M.J.H.; Bergh, S.G. van den

    1980-01-01

    1. Preincubation of isolated rat-liver mitochondria in the presence of adenine nucleotides or Ca2+ results in definite and persistent changes in the initial rate of pyruvate transport. 2. These changes in the rate of pyruvate transport are accompanied by equally persistent changes in the opposite

  12. Lattice Boltzmann based multicomponent reactive transport model coupled with geochemical solver for scale simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, R.A.; Perko, J.; Jaques, D.; De Schutter, G.; Ye, G.; Van Breugel, K.

    2013-01-01

    A Lattice Boltzmann (LB) based reactive transport model intended to capture reactions and solid phase changes occurring at the pore scale is presented. The proposed approach uses LB method to compute multi component mass transport. The LB multi-component transport model is then coupled with the

  13. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Faculty ii INDUSTRY TRAVEL Domestic Assistant Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Transportation Policy), Washington, DC Department of...developed between the railroad and trucking industries. Railroads: Today’s seven Class I freight railroad systems move 42% of the nation’s intercity ...has been successfully employed in London to reduce congestion and observed by this industry study during its travels . It is currently being

  14. THE AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT RATE IN CIVIL AVIATION DURING AIR TRANSPORT OPERATIONS AT THE AIRPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Запорожець

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aircraft accident dates in civil aviation Ukraine and in republics of participants Agreement werecollected. The aircraft accident rate per 1 million flights was defined for civil aviation Ukraine and republicsof participants Agreement. Dynamics of aircraft accident rate was represented for civil aviation Ukraine.This dynamics was done for civil aviation of republics of participants Agreement and worldwide.

  15. Transportation mode-based segmentation and classification of movement trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biljecki, F.; Ledoux, H.; Van Oosterom, P.

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge of the transportation mode used by humans (e. g. bicycle, on foot, car, and train) is critical for travel behaviour research, transport planning and traffic management. Nowadays, new technologies such as the GPS have replaced traditional survey methods (paper diaries, telephone) since

  16. Envisaging quantum transport phenomenon in a muddled base pair ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RAJAN VOHRA

    2018-03-27

    Mar 27, 2018 ... effect of mispairs G(anti)·A(syn) and G(anti)·A(anti) on electron transport by replacing ... used by us with two-probe system consisting of three parts: right, left ... The ballistic transport results if probability of transmitting electrons ...

  17. Circumvention of over-excitation of PSII by maintaining electron transport rate in leaves of four cotton genotypes developed under long-term drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitao, M; Lei, T T

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the patterns of response to a long-term drought in the field in cotton cultivars (genotypes) with known differences in their drought tolerance. Four cotton genotypes with varying physiological and morphological traits, suited to different cropping conditions, were grown in the field and subjected to a long-term moderate drought. In general, cotton leaves developed under drought had significantly higher area-based leaf nitrogen content (N (area)) than those under well irrigation. Droughted plants showed a lower light-saturated net photosynthetic rate (A (sat)) with lower stomatal conductance (g (s)) and intercellular CO (2) concentration (C (i)) than irrigated ones. Based on the responses of A (sat) to g (s) and C (i), there was no decreasing trend in A (sat) at a given g (s) and C (i) in droughted leaves, suggesting that the decline in A (sat) in field-grown cotton plants under a long-term drought can be attributed mainly to stomatal closure, but not to nonstomatal limitations. There was little evidence of an increase in thermal energy dissipation as indicated by the lack of a decrease in the photochemical efficiency of open PSII (F (v)'/F (m)') in droughted plants. On the basis of electron transport (ETR) and photochemical quenching (q (P)), however, we found evidence indicating that droughted cotton plants can circumvent the risk of excessive excitation energy in photosystem (PS) II by maintaining higher electron transport rates associated with higher N (area), even while photosynthetic rates were reduced by stomatal closure.

  18. Satellite altimetry based rating curves throughout the entire Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, A.; Calmant, S.; Paiva, R. C.; Collischonn, W.; Silva, J. S.; Bonnet, M.; Seyler, F.

    2013-05-01

    The Amazonian basin is the largest hydrological basin all over the world. In the recent past years, the basin has experienced an unusual succession of extreme draughts and floods, which origin is still a matter of debate. Yet, the amount of data available is poor, both over time and space scales, due to factor like basin's size, access difficulty and so on. One of the major locks is to get discharge series distributed over the entire basin. Satellite altimetry can be used to improve our knowledge of the hydrological stream flow conditions in the basin, through rating curves. Rating curves are mathematical relationships between stage and discharge at a given place. The common way to determine the parameters of the relationship is to compute the non-linear regression between the discharge and stage series. In this study, the discharge data was obtained by simulation through the entire basin using the MGB-IPH model with TRMM Merge input rainfall data and assimilation of gage data, run from 1998 to 2010. The stage dataset is made of ~800 altimetry series at ENVISAT and JASON-2 virtual stations. Altimetry series span between 2002 and 2010. In the present work we present the benefits of using stochastic methods instead of probabilistic ones to determine a dataset of rating curve parameters which are consistent throughout the entire Amazon basin. The rating curve parameters have been computed using a parameter optimization technique based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampler and Bayesian inference scheme. This technique provides an estimate of the best parameters for the rating curve, but also their posterior probability distribution, allowing the determination of a credibility interval for the rating curve. Also is included in the rating curve determination the error over discharges estimates from the MGB-IPH model. These MGB-IPH errors come from either errors in the discharge derived from the gage readings or errors in the satellite rainfall estimates. The present

  19. Use of sediment rating curves and optical backscatter data to characterize sediment transport in the Upper Yuba River watershed, California, 2001-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jennifer A.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Alpers, Charles N.; Wright, Scott A.; Snyder, Noah P.

    2006-01-01

    Sediment transport in the upper Yuba River watershed, California, was evaluated from October 2001 through September 2003. This report presents results of a three-year study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the California Ecosystem Restoration Program of the California Bay-Delta Authority and the California Resources Agency. Streamflow and suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) samples were collected at four gaging stations; however, this report focuses on sediment transport at the Middle Yuba River (11410000) and the South Yuba River (11417500) gaging stations. Seasonal suspended-sediment rating curves were developed using a group-average method and non-linear least-squares regression. Bed-load transport relations were used to develop bed-load rating curves, and bed-load measurements were collected to assess the accuracy of these curves. Annual suspended-sediment loads estimated using seasonal SSC rating curves were compared with previously published annual loads estimated using the Graphical Constituent Loading Analysis System (GCLAS). The percent difference ranged from -85 percent to +54 percent and averaged -7.5 percent. During water year 2003 optical backscatter sensors (OBS) were installed to assess event-based suspended-sediment transport. Event-based suspended-sediment loads calculated using seasonal SSC rating curves were compared with loads calculated using calibrated OBS output. The percent difference ranged from +50 percent to -369 percent and averaged -79 percent. The estimated average annual sediment yield at the Middle Yuba River (11410000) gage (5 tons/mi2) was significantly lower than that estimated at the South Yuba River (11417500) gage (14 tons/mi2). In both rivers, bed load represented 1 percent or less of the total annual load throughout the project period. Suspended sediment at the Middle Yuba River (11410000) and South Yuba River (11417500) gages was typically greater than 85 percent silt and clay during water year 2003, and

  20. Magnetic and transport properties of Fe-based nanocrystalline materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barandiarán, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Fe-rich amorphous alloys containing late transition metals like Nb, V, Zr,..., sometimes with the addition of Cu, can crystallize in ultrafine grains of a crystalline phase, a few nanometers in diameter, embedded in a disordered matrix. In such state they have shown excellent soft magnetic properties for technical applications, rising the interest for deep studies. In this paper, recent work on some Fe-Nb and Fe-Zr based alloys both in amorphous state and after several degrees of nanocrystallization is presented. The nanocrystallization process has been achieved by conventional heat treatments (about 1 h at temperatures around 400-500 °C in a controlled atmosphere furnance) as well as by Joule heating using an electrical current flowing through the sample. Magnetic measurements, electrical resistivity, x-rays diffraction and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy were used in the study of the crystalline phases appearing after the thermal treatments. The basic magnetic and transport properties of the nanocrystals do not differ appreciably from their bulk values. The magnetic anisotropy, however, is very sensitive to grain size and to the intergranular magnetic coupling. The effect of such coupling is deduced from the coercivity changes at the Curie Temperature of the amorphous matrix remaining after nanocrystallization.

  1. Fugitive emission source characterization using a gradient-based optimization scheme and scalar transport adjoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brereton, Carol A.; Joynes, Ian M.; Campbell, Lucy J.; Johnson, Matthew R.

    2018-05-01

    Fugitive emissions are important sources of greenhouse gases and lost product in the energy sector that can be difficult to detect, but are often easily mitigated once they are known, located, and quantified. In this paper, a scalar transport adjoint-based optimization method is presented to locate and quantify unknown emission sources from downstream measurements. This emission characterization approach correctly predicted locations to within 5 m and magnitudes to within 13% of experimental release data from Project Prairie Grass. The method was further demonstrated on simulated simultaneous releases in a complex 3-D geometry based on an Alberta gas plant. Reconstructions were performed using both the complex 3-D transient wind field used to generate the simulated release data and using a sequential series of steady-state RANS wind simulations (SSWS) representing 30 s intervals of physical time. Both the detailed transient and the simplified wind field series could be used to correctly locate major sources and predict their emission rates within 10%, while predicting total emission rates from all sources within 24%. This SSWS case would be much easier to implement in a real-world application, and gives rise to the possibility of developing pre-computed databases of both wind and scalar transport adjoints to reduce computational time.

  2. Predicting corrosion product transport in nuclear power stations using a solubility-based model for flow-accelerated corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrill, K.A.; Cheluget, E.L.

    1995-01-01

    A general model of solubility-driven flow-accelerated corrosion of carbon steel was derived based on the assumption that the solubilities of ferric oxyhydroxide and magnetite control the rate of film dissolution. This process involves the dissolution of an oxide film due to fast-flowing coolant unsaturated in iron. The soluble iron is produced by (i) the corrosion of base metal under a porous oxide film and (ii) the dissolution of the oxide film at the fluid-oxide film interface. The iron released at the pipe wall is transferred into the bulk flow by turbulent mass transfer. The model is suitable for calculating concentrations of dissolved iron in feedtrain lines. These iron levels were used to calculate sludge transport rates around the feedtrain. The model was used to predict sludge transport rates due to flow accelerated corrosion of major feedtrain piping in a CANDU reactor. The predictions of the model compare well with plant measurements

  3. Truck Rates For Selected North, South, And Northeastern Brazilian Soybean Export Transportation Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — Compares monthly truck rates from north Mato Grosso and East Tocantins to the ports Itaituba, Porto Velho, Santarém, São Luís, Santos, and Paranaguá. This is figure...

  4. Importance of anisotropy in detachment rates for force production and cargo transport by a team of motor proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takshak, Anjneya; Kunwar, Ambarish

    2016-05-01

    Many cellular processes are driven by collective forces generated by a team consisting of multiple molecular motor proteins. One aspect that has received less attention is the detachment rate of molecular motors under mechanical force/load. While detachment rate of kinesin motors measured under backward force increases rapidly for forces beyond stall-force; this scenario is just reversed for non-yeast dynein motors where detachment rate from microtubule decreases, exhibiting a catch-bond type behavior. It has been shown recently that yeast dynein responds anisotropically to applied load, i.e. detachment rates are different under forward and backward pulling. Here, we use computational modeling to show that these anisotropic detachment rates might help yeast dynein motors to improve their collective force generation in the absence of catch-bond behavior. We further show that the travel distance of cargos would be longer if detachment rates are anisotropic. Our results suggest that anisotropic detachment rates could be an alternative strategy for motors to improve the transport properties and force production by the team. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  5. Transport and relaxation properties of superfluid 3He. I. Kinetic equation and Bogoliubov quasiparticle relaxation rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einzel, D.; Woelfle, P.

    1978-01-01

    The kinetic equation for Bogoliubov quasiparticles for both the A and B phases of superfluid 3 He is derived from the general matrix kinetic equation. A condensed expression for the exact spin-symmetric collision integral is given. The quasiparticle relaxation rate is calculated for the BW state using the s--p approximation for the quasiparticle scattering amplitude. By using the results for the quasiparticle relaxation rate, the mean free path of Bogoliubov quasiparticles is calculated for all temperatures

  6. A Transportable Gravity Gradiometer Based on Atom Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nan; Thompson, Robert J.; Kellogg, James R.; Aveline, David C.; Maleki, Lute; Kohel, James M.

    2010-01-01

    A transportable atom interferometer-based gravity gradiometer has been developed at JPL to carry out measurements of Earth's gravity field at ever finer spatial resolutions, and to facilitate high-resolution monitoring of temporal variations in the gravity field from ground- and flight-based platforms. Existing satellite-based gravity missions such as CHAMP and GRACE measure the gravity field via precise monitoring of the motion of the satellites; i.e. the satellites themselves function as test masses. JPL's quantum gravity gradiometer employs a quantum phase measurement technique, similar to that employed in atomic clocks, made possible by recent advances in laser cooling and manipulation of atoms. This measurement technique is based on atomwave interferometry, and individual laser-cooled atoms are used as drag-free test masses. The quantum gravity gradiometer employs two identical atom interferometers as precision accelerometers to measure the difference in gravitational acceleration between two points (Figure 1). By using the same lasers for the manipulation of atoms in both interferometers, the accelerometers have a common reference frame and non-inertial accelerations are effectively rejected as common mode noise in the differential measurement of the gravity gradient. As a result, the dual atom interferometer-based gravity gradiometer allows gravity measurements on a moving platform, while achieving the same long-term stability of the best atomic clocks. In the laboratory-based prototype (Figure 2), the cesium atoms used in each atom interferometer are initially collected and cooled in two separate magneto-optic traps (MOTs). Each MOT, consisting of three orthogonal pairs of counter-propagating laser beams centered on a quadrupole magnetic field, collects up to 10(exp 9) atoms. These atoms are then launched vertically as in an atom fountain by switching off the magnetic field and introducing a slight frequency shift between pairs of lasers to create a moving

  7. Experimental elucidation on rate-determining process of water transport in polymer electrolyte fuel cell membrane by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takita, Shinpei; Tsushima, Shohji; Hirai, Shuichiro; Kubo, Norio; Aotani, Koichiro

    2007-01-01

    We examined rate-determining process of water transport in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) used in fuel cells by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We measured transversal water content distributions of the membrane by MRI and through-plane mass flux of water by hygrometers. Through place water flux has taken place in the membrane when relative humidify of supplied gas is not equal in both side of the membrane. MRI results revealed that diffusion coefficient of water in the membrane increases with water content of membrane, λ, whilst it shows intensive peak at λ=3-4. Diffusion resistance and mass transfer resistance involving evaporation and condensation on the interface are almost in the same order and thus water transport process in the membrane is determined by either concentration diffusion or mass transfer, depending on water content of membrane. (author)

  8. Stratospheric mean ages and transport rates from observations of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boering, K A; Wofsy, S C; Daube, B C; Schneider, H R [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Div. of Engineering and Applied Sciences; Loewenstein, M; Podolske, J R [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Conway, T J [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Measurements of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O concentrations are reported and analyzed to investigate stratospheric transport rates. Temporal variations in tropospheric CO{sub 2} are observed to propagate into the stratosphere, showing that tropospheric air enters the lower tropical stratosphere continuously, ascends, and is transported rapidly (in less than 1 month) to both hemispheres. The mean age of stratospheric air determined from CO{sub 2} data is approximately 5 years in the mid-stratosphere. It is shown that the mean age is mathematically equivalent to a conserved tracer analogous to exhaust from stratospheric aircraft. Comparison of the mean age from models and observations indicates that current model simulations likely underestimate pollutant concentrations from proposed stratospheric aircraft by 25-100%. (author) 36 refs.

  9. Stratospheric mean ages and transport rates from observations of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boering, K.A.; Wofsy, S.C.; Daube, B.C.; Schneider, H.R. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Div. of Engineering and Applied Sciences; Loewenstein, M.; Podolske, J.R. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Conway, T.J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Measurements of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O concentrations are reported and analyzed to investigate stratospheric transport rates. Temporal variations in tropospheric CO{sub 2} are observed to propagate into the stratosphere, showing that tropospheric air enters the lower tropical stratosphere continuously, ascends, and is transported rapidly (in less than 1 month) to both hemispheres. The mean age of stratospheric air determined from CO{sub 2} data is approximately 5 years in the mid-stratosphere. It is shown that the mean age is mathematically equivalent to a conserved tracer analogous to exhaust from stratospheric aircraft. Comparison of the mean age from models and observations indicates that current model simulations likely underestimate pollutant concentrations from proposed stratospheric aircraft by 25-100%. (author) 36 refs.

  10. Transportation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  11. Modeling the downward transport of 210Pb in Peatlands: Initial Penetration‐Constant Rate of Supply (IP-CRS) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olid, Carolina; Diego, David; Garcia-Orellana, Jordi; Cortizas, Antonio Martínez; Klaminder, Jonatan

    2016-01-01

    The vertical distribution of 210 Pb is commonly used to date peat deposits accumulated over the last 100–150 years. However, several studies have questioned this method because of an apparent post-depositional mobility of 210 Pb within some peat profiles. In this study, we introduce the Initial Penetration–Constant Rate of Supply (IP-CRS) model for calculating ages derived from 210 Pb profiles that are altered by an initial migration of the radionuclide. This new, two-phased, model describes the distribution of atmospheric-derived 210 Pb ( 210 Pb xs ) in peat taking into account both incorporation of 210 Pb into the accumulating peat matrix as well as an initial flushing of 210 Pb through the uppermost peat layers. The validity of the IP-CRS model is tested in four anomalous 210 Pb peat records that showed some deviations from the typical exponential decay profile not explained by variations in peat accumulation rates. Unlike the most commonly used 210 Pb-dating model (Constant Rate of Supply (CRS)), the IP-CRS model estimates peat accumulation rates consistent with typical growth rates for peatlands from the same areas. Confidence in the IP-CRS chronology is also provided by the good agreement with independent chronological markers (i.e. 241 Am and 137 Cs). Our results showed that the IP-CRS can provide chronologies from peat records where 210 Pb mobility is evident, being a valuable tool for studies reconstructing past environmental changes using peat archives during the Anthropocene. - Highlights: • Accurate age dating of peat and sediment cores is critical for evaluating change. • A new 210 Pb dating model that includes vertical transport of 210 Pb was developed. • The IP-CRS model provided consistent peat accumulation rates. • The IP-CRS ages were consistent with independent chronological markers. • The IP-CRS model derives peat ages where downward 210 Pb transport is evidenced.

  12. Smartphone-based photoplethysmographic imaging for heart rate monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alafeef, Maha

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to make use of visible light reflected mode photoplethysmographic (PPG) imaging for heart rate (HR) monitoring via smartphones. The system uses the built-in camera feature in mobile phones to capture video from the subject's index fingertip. The video is processed, and then the PPG signal resulting from the video stream processing is used to calculate the subject's heart rate. Records from 19 subjects were used to evaluate the system's performance. The HR values obtained by the proposed method were compared with the actual HR. The obtained results show an accuracy of 99.7% and a maximum absolute error of 0.4 beats/min where most of the absolute errors lay in the range of 0.04-0.3 beats/min. Given the encouraging results, this type of HR measurement can be adopted with great benefit, especially in the conditions of personal use or home-based care. The proposed method represents an efficient portable solution for HR accurate detection and recording.

  13. Mobile Phone-Based Mood Ratings Prospectively Predict Psychotherapy Attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruehlman-Senecal, Emma; Aguilera, Adrian; Schueller, Stephen M

    2017-09-01

    Psychotherapy nonattendance is a costly and pervasive problem. While prior research has identified stable patient-level predictors of attendance, far less is known about dynamic (i.e., time-varying) factors. Identifying dynamic predictors can clarify how clinical states relate to psychotherapy attendance and inform effective "just-in-time" interventions to promote attendance. The present study examines whether daily mood, as measured by responses to automated mobile phone-based text messages, prospectively predicts attendance in group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression. Fifty-six Spanish-speaking Latino patients with elevated depressive symptoms (46 women, mean age=50.92years, SD=10.90years), enrolled in a manualized program of group CBT, received daily automated mood-monitoring text messages. Patients' daily mood ratings, message response rate, and delay in responding were recorded. Patients' self-reported mood the day prior to a scheduled psychotherapy session significantly predicted attendance, even after controlling for patients' prior attendance history and age (OR=1.33, 95% CI [1.04, 1.70], p=.02). Positive mood corresponded to a greater likelihood of attendance. Our results demonstrate the clinical utility of automated mood-monitoring text messages in predicting attendance. These results underscore the value of text messaging, and other mobile technologies, as adjuncts to psychotherapy. Future work should explore the use of such monitoring to guide interventions to increase attendance, and ultimately the efficacy of psychotherapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Adaptive Rate Sampling and Filtering Based on Level Crossing Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mian Qaisar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent sophistications in areas of mobile systems and sensor networks demand more and more processing resources. In order to maintain the system autonomy, energy saving is becoming one of the most difficult industrial challenges, in mobile computing. Most of efforts to achieve this goal are focused on improving the embedded systems design and the battery technology, but very few studies target to exploit the input signal time-varying nature. This paper aims to achieve power efficiency by intelligently adapting the processing activity to the input signal local characteristics. It is done by completely rethinking the processing chain, by adopting a non conventional sampling scheme and adaptive rate filtering. The proposed approach, based on the LCSS (Level Crossing Sampling Scheme presents two filtering techniques, able to adapt their sampling rate and filter order by online analyzing the input signal variations. Indeed, the principle is to intelligently exploit the signal local characteristics—which is usually never considered—to filter only the relevant signal parts, by employing the relevant order filters. This idea leads towards a drastic gain in the computational efficiency and hence in the processing power when compared to the classical techniques.

  15. SEE rate estimation based on diffusion approximation of charge collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogoyan, Armen V.; Chumakov, Alexander I.; Smolin, Anatoly A.

    2018-03-01

    The integral rectangular parallelepiped (IRPP) method remains the main approach to single event rate (SER) prediction for aerospace systems, despite the growing number of issues impairing method's validity when applied to scaled technology nodes. One of such issues is uncertainty in parameters extraction in the IRPP method, which can lead to a spread of several orders of magnitude in the subsequently calculated SER. The paper presents an alternative approach to SER estimation based on diffusion approximation of the charge collection by an IC element and geometrical interpretation of SEE cross-section. In contrast to the IRPP method, the proposed model includes only two parameters which are uniquely determined from the experimental data for normal incidence irradiation at an ion accelerator. This approach eliminates the necessity of arbitrary decisions during parameter extraction and, thus, greatly simplifies calculation procedure and increases the robustness of the forecast.

  16. Transportation performance measures for outcome based system management and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) is mature in its development and use of : performance measures, however there was not a standard approach for selecting measures nor : evaluating if existing ones were used to inform decision-making. Thi...

  17. Regularized Regression and Density Estimation based on Optimal Transport

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, M.; Franek, M.; Schonlieb, C.-B.

    2012-01-01

    for estimating densities and for preserving edges in the case of total variation regularization. In order to compute solutions of the variational problems, a regularized optimal transport problem needs to be solved, for which we discuss several formulations

  18. Computer-based modelling and optimization in transportation

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    This volume brings together works resulting from research carried out by members of the EURO Working Group on Transportation (EWGT) and presented during meetings and workshops organized by the Group under the patronage of the Association of European Operational Research Societies in 2012 and 2013. The main targets of the EWGT include providing a forum to share research information and experience, encouraging joint research and the development of both theoretical methods and applications, and promoting cooperation among the many institutions and organizations which are leaders at national level in the field of transportation and logistics. The primary fields of interest concern operational research methods, mathematical models and computation algorithms, to solve and sustain solutions to problems mainly faced by public administrations, city authorities, public transport companies, service providers and logistic operators. Related areas of interest are: land use and transportation planning, traffic control and ...

  19. Productivity-based approach to valuation of transportation infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Transportation infrastructure, a vital component to sustain economic prosperity, represents the largest public-owned : infrastructure asset in the U.S. With over a trillion invested dollars invested into long-lived physical assets such as : roads and...

  20. Transmutation approximations for the application of hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic neutron transport to shutdown dose rate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondo, Elliott D.; Wilson, Paul P. H.

    2017-01-01

    In fusion energy systems (FES) neutrons born from burning plasma activate system components. The photon dose rate after shutdown from resulting radionuclides must be quantified. This shutdown dose rate (SDR) is calculated by coupling neutron transport, activation analysis, and photon transport. The size, complexity, and attenuating configuration of FES motivate the use of hybrid Monte Carlo (MC)/deterministic neutron transport. The Multi-Step Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (MS-CADIS) method can be used to optimize MC neutron transport for coupled multiphysics problems, including SDR analysis, using deterministic estimates of adjoint flux distributions. When used for SDR analysis, MS-CADIS requires the formulation of an adjoint neutron source that approximates the transmutation process. In this work, transmutation approximations are used to derive a solution for this adjoint neutron source. It is shown that these approximations are reasonably met for typical FES neutron spectra and materials over a range of irradiation scenarios. When these approximations are met, the Groupwise Transmutation (GT)-CADIS method, proposed here, can be used effectively. GT-CADIS is an implementation of the MS-CADIS method for SDR analysis that uses a series of single-energy-group irradiations to calculate the adjoint neutron source. For a simple SDR problem, GT-CADIS provides speedups of 200 100 relative to global variance reduction with the Forward-Weighted (FW)-CADIS method and 9 _± 5 • _1_0_"_4 relative to analog. As a result, this work shows that GT-CADIS is broadly applicable to FES problems and will significantly reduce the computational resources necessary for SDR analysis.

  1. Modeling of multi-species ion transport in cement-based materials for radioactive waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, X.Y.; Li, K.F.; Dangla, P.

    2015-01-01

    Through the conservations of heat and ions mass, a thermo-hydro-ionic model is established for radionuclide ions transport in cement-based porous barrier materials in radwaste disposal. This model is applied to the design and the safety assessment of a high-integrity container (HIC) used for near surface disposal of low- and intermediate-level radwaste. Five working cases are investigated in the safety assessment considering the internal nuclide ion release, internal heating and pressure accumulation, and external leaching. Comparative analysis shows that leaching increases concrete porosity from external side of container, internal heating of 10 K increase can considerably accelerate the nuclide transport process, and the internal pressure increases the transport rate to limited extent. It is shown that each increment of 10 mm in wall thickness will reduce the radioactivity release by 1.5 to 2 times. Together with the mechanical resistance of HIC under impact actions, the thickness of 100 mm is finally retained for design

  2. Application of a mechanism-based rate equation to black liquor gasification rate data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overacker, N.L.; Waag, K.J.; Frederick, W.J. [Oregon State University, OR (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Whitty, K.J.

    1995-09-01

    There is growing interest worldwide to develop alternate chemical recovery processes for paper mills which are cheaper, safer, more efficient and more environmentally sound than traditional technology. Pressurized gasification of black liquor is the basis for many proposed schemes and offers the possibility to double the amount of electricity generated per unit of dry black liquor solids. Such technology also has capital, safety and environmental advantages. One of the most important considerations regarding this emerging technology is the kinetics of the gasification reaction. This has been studied empirically at Aabo Akademi University for the pressurized gasification with carbon dioxide and steam. For the purposes of reactor modeling and scale-up, however, a thorough understanding of the mechanism behind the reaction is desirable. This report discusses the applicability of a mechanism-based rate equation to gasification of black liquor. The mechanism considered was developed for alkali-catalyzed gasification of carbon and is tested using black liquor gasification data obtained during simultaneous reaction with H{sub 2}O and CO. Equilibrium considerations and the influence of the water-gas shift reaction are also discussed. The work presented here is a cooperative effort between Aabo Akademi University and Oregon State University. The experimental work and some of the data analysis was performed at Aabo Akademi University. Development of the models and consideration of their applicability was performed primarily at Oregon State University

  3. Preliminary Report: Bases for Containment Analysis for Transportation of Aluminum-Based Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinson, D.W.

    1998-01-01

    Aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (Al-SNF) from foreign and domestic research reactors (FRR/DRR) is being shipped to SRS under the site FRR/DRR Receipts Program. Shipment of the FRR/DRR assemblies required that the cask with loaded fuel be certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (for US-owned casks) or the US Department of Transportation (for foreign-owned casks) to comply with the requirements in 10CFR71

  4. Sediment movement along the U.S. east coast continental shelf—II. Modelling suspended sediment concentration and transport rate during storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyne, Vincent D.; Butman, Bradford; Grant, William D.

    1990-05-01

    Long-term near-bottom wave and current observations and a one-dimensional sediment transport model are used to calculate the concentration and transport of sediment during winter storms at 60-80 m water depth along the southern flank of Georges Bank and in the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Calculations are presented for five stations, separated by more than 600 km alongshelf, that have different bottom sediment texture, bedforms and current conditions. A modified version of the sediment transport model presented by GRANT and GLENN (1983, Technical Report to the American Gas Association), GLENN (1983, D.Sc. Thesis, M.I.T.), and GLENN and GRANT (1987, Journal of Geophysical Research, 92, 8244-8264) is used to examine the influence of wave-current interaction, sediment stratification, and limitations on the erodibility of the bottom sediments on the concentration of sediment in the water column and on transport. Predicted suspended sediment concentrations are higher than observed, based on beam transmissometer measurements, unless an erosion limit of order a few millimeters for sediments finer than 94 μm is imposed. The agreement between predicted and measured beam attenuation is better at stations that have significant amounts of silt plus clay in the surficial sediments than for stations with sandy sediments. Sediment concentrations during storms estimated by MOODYet al. (1987, Continental Shelf Research, 7, 609-628) are within 50% of the model predictions. Sediment transport rates for sediments 94 μm and finer are determined largely by the concentrations in the surficial sediment and the erosion depth limit. Large alongshelf transports in the direction of storm-driven currents are inferred for stations in the Mid-Atlantic Bight. During a 115-day period in winter 1979-1980, the net transport of sediment along the shelf was westward; benthic storms (defined as periods when the bottom wave stress exceeded the current stress by 2 dyn cm -2) occurred between 23 and 73% of the

  5. Deterministic 3D transport, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of TPR and reaction rate measurements in HCPB Breeder Blanket mock-up benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodeli, I.

    2006-01-01

    The Helium-Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) Breeder Blanket mock-up benchmark experiment was analysed using the deterministic transport, sensitivity and uncertainty code system in order to determine the Tritium Production Rate (TPR) in the ceramic breeder and the neutron reaction rates in beryllium, both nominal values and the corresponding uncertainties. The experiment, performed in 2005 to validate the HCPB concept, consists of a metallic beryllium set-up with two double layers of breeder material (Li 2 CO 3 powder). The reaction rate measurements include the Li 2 CO 3 pellets for the tritium breeding monitoring and activation foils, inserted at several axial and lateral locations in the block. In addition to the well established and validated procedure based on the 2-dimensional (2D) code DORT, a new approach for the 3D modelling was validated based on the TORT/GRTUNCL3D transport codes. The SUSD3D code, also in 3D geometry, was used for the cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty calculations. These studies are useful for the interpretation of the experimental measurements, in particular to assess the uncertainties linked to the basic nuclear data. The TPR, the neutron activation rates and the associated uncertainties were determined using the EFF-3.0 9 Be nuclear cross section and covariance data, and compared with those from other evaluations, like FENDL-2.1. Sensitivity profiles and nuclear data uncertainties of the TPR and detector reaction rates with respect to the cross-sections of 9 Be, 6 Li, 7 Li, O and C were determined at different positions in the experimental block. (author)

  6. Characteristics of Mammalian Rh Glycoproteins (SLC42 transporters) and Their Role in Acid-Base Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhoul, Nazih L.; Hamm, L. Lee

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian Rh glycoproteins belong to the solute transporter family SLC42 and include RhAG, present in red blood cells, and two non-erythroid members RhBG and RhCG that are expressed in various tissues, including kidney, liver, skin and the GI tract. The Rh proteins in the red blood cell form an “Rh complex” made up of one D-subunit, one CE-subunit and two RhAG subunits. The Rh complex has a well-known antigenic effect but also contributes to the stability of the red cell membrane. RhBG and RhCG are related to the NH4+ transporters of the yeast and bacteria but their exact function is yet to be determined. This review describes the expression and molecular properties of these membrane proteins and their potential role as NH3/NH4+ and CO2 transporters. The likelihood that these proteins transport gases such as CO2 or NH3 is novel and significant. The review also describes the physiological importance of these proteins and their relevance to human disease. PMID:23506896

  7. Review of the Field-Data Base for Longshore Sediment Transport

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schoonees, JS

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available A literature search was undertaken to collect field data on longshore sediment transport. This yielded a large number of data sets (273 points for bulk transport rates) from a variety of sites around the world. Data are especially lacking...

  8. Strange metal from Gutzwiller correlations in infinite dimensions: Transverse transport, optical response, and rise of two relaxation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wenxin; Žitko, Rok; Shastry, B. Sriram

    2017-09-01

    Using two approaches to strongly correlated systems, the extremely correlated Fermi liquid theory and the dynamical mean field theory, we compute the transverse transport coefficients, namely, the Hall constants RH and Hall angles θH, and the longitudinal and transverse optical response of the U =∞ Hubbard model in the limit of infinite dimensions. We focus on two successive low-temperature regimes, the Gutzwiller-correlated Fermi liquid (GCFL) and the Gutzwiller-correlated strange metal (GCSM). We find that the Hall angle cotθH is proportional to T2 in the GCFL regime, while upon warming into the GCSM regime it first passes through a downward bend and then continues as T2. Equivalently, RH is weakly temperature dependent in the GCFL regime, but becomes strongly temperature dependent in the GCSM regime. Drude peaks are found for both the longitudinal optical conductivity σx x(ω ) and the optical Hall angles tanθH(ω ) below certain characteristic energy scales. By comparing the relaxation rates extracted from fitting to the Drude formula, we find that in the GCFL regime there is a single relaxation rate controlling both longitudinal and transverse transport, while in the GCSM regime two different relaxation rates emerge. We trace the origin of this behavior to the dynamical particle-hole asymmetry of the Dyson self-energy, arguably a generic feature of doped Mott insulators.

  9. Conductivity equations of protons transporting through 2D crystals obtained with the rate process theory and free volume concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Tian; Xu, Yuanze; Hao, Ting

    2018-04-01

    The Eyring's rate process theory and free volume concept are employed to treat protons (or other particles) transporting through a 2D (two dimensional) crystal like graphene and hexagonal boron nitride. The protons are assumed to be activated first in order to participate conduction and the conduction rate is dependent on how much free volume available in the system. The obtained proton conductivity equations show that only the number of conduction protons, proton size and packing structure, and the energy barrier associated with 2D crystals are critical; the quantization conductance is unexpectedly predicted with a simple Arrhenius type temperature dependence. The predictions agree well with experimental observations and clear out many puzzles like much smaller energy barrier determined from experiments than from the density function calculations and isotope separation rate independent of the energy barrier of 2D crystals, etc. Our work may deepen our understandings on how protons transport through a membrane and has direct implications on hydrogen related technology and proton involved bioprocesses.

  10. Exchange-Rate-Based Stabilization under Imperfect Credibility

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Calvo; Carlos A. Végh Gramont

    1991-01-01

    This paper analyzes stabilization policy under predetermined exchange rates in a cash-in-advance, staggered-prices model. Under full credibility, a reduction in the rate of devaluation results in an immediate and permanent reduction in the inflation rate, with no effect on output or consumption. In contrast, a non-credible stabilization results in an initial expansion of output, followed by a later recession. The inflation rate of home goods remains above the rate of devaluation throughout th...

  11. 7 CFR 1005.83 - Mileage rate for the transportation credit balancing fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Marketwide Service Payments § 1005.83 Mileage rate for... recent 4 four weeks of the Diesel Price per Gallon as reported by the Energy Information Administration...

  12. An Analysis of the Space Transportation System Launch Rate Capability Utilizing Q-GERT Simulation Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    VAPE was modeled to determine this launch rate and to determine the processing times for an Orbiter at VAPe . This informa- 21 tion was then used in the...year (node 79 and activity ?1). ETa are then selected to be sent to either KSC or VAPE (node 80). This decision is made (using Ur 8) on the basis of

  13. 7 CFR 1007.83 - Mileage rate for the transportation credit balancing fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Marketwide Service Payments § 1007.83 Mileage rate for... result in paragraph (a)(1) in this section subtract $1.42 per gallon; (3) Divide the result in paragraph...

  14. Equivalent flow rate concept used in near field transport model COMP23 - Proposed values for SR 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, L.

    1998-11-01

    SKB is using NUCTRAN to calculate transport of radionuclides from a possible defective canister into the far field. NUCTRAN is included in the Performance Assessment model chain that calculates the release from the canister into the biosphere. In the chain, NUCTRAN is denoted COMP23. In order to calculate the transport of radionuclides by diffusion into the flowing water in the rock, NUCTRAN uses the concept of equivalent flow rate, Q eq . To calculate the value of Q eq in the different paths, COMP23 needs information about the Darcy velocity, the geometry of the system, material properties and the flow porosity in the rock. At present, this information is supplied to COMP23 by means of three parameters. The aim of this note is to propose a method to calculate the flow equivalent within the SR 97 project. Estimated intervals of the factors to adopt HYDRASTAR results to COMP23 are presented. Since it is difficult to give general validity to the factors, solely proposed factor intervals are presented to obtain equivalent flow rate values for COMP23. To obtain accurate equivalent flow rate values, information about the hydraulic conditions at canister locations in the groundwater model should be available for the near field model or the Q eq values could be calculated directly in the groundwater flow model. One of the main tasks in the SR 97 project is to show the barrier performance of the rock using different alternative models for flow and transport. In addition, the Alternative Model Project (AMP) aims to show how robust the assessment model description is, in terms of relevant far field performance measures. In the AMP, three main approaches were used, namely, the Stochastic Continuum approach, the Channel Network model and the Discrete Feature Network model

  15. System and method for air temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean M

    2016-09-27

    A system and method for air temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor is provided. The system and method involves introducing a specific quantity of cooling air or trim air in between stages in a multistage oxygen transport membrane based reactor or furnace to maintain generally consistent surface temperatures of the oxygen transport membrane elements and associated reactors. The associated reactors may include reforming reactors, boilers or process gas heaters.

  16. Towards sustainable sanitation management: Establishing the costs and willingness to pay for emptying and transporting sludge in rural districts with high rates of access to latrines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanya, Soumya; Evans, Barbara; Hardy, Richard; Ahmed, Rizwan; Habib, Ahasan; Asad, N S M; Rahman, Mominur; Hasan, M; Dey, Digbijoy; Fletcher, Louise; Camargo-Valero, Miller Alonso; Chaitanya Rao, Krishna; Fernando, Sudarshana

    2017-01-01

    Proper management of fecal sludge has significant positive health and environmental externalities. Most research on managing onsite sanitation so far either simulates the costs of, or the welfare effects from, managing sludge in situ in pit latrines. Thus, designing management strategies for onsite rural sanitation is challenging, because the actual costs of transporting sludge for treatment, and sources for financing these transport costs, are not well understood. In this paper we calculate the actual cost of sludge management from onsite latrines, and identify the contributions that latrine owners are willing to make to finance the costs. A spreadsheet-based model is used to identify a cost-effective transport option, and to calculate the cost per household. Then a double-bound contingent valuation method is used to elicit from pit-latrine owners their willingness-to-pay to have sludge transported away. This methodology is employed for the case of a rural subdistrict in Bangladesh called Bhaluka, a unit of administration at which sludge management services are being piloted by the Government of Bangladesh. The typical sludge accumulation rate in Bhaluka is calculated at 0.11 liters/person/day and a typical latrine will need to be emptied approximately once every 3 to 4 years. The costs of emptying and transport are high; approximately USD 13 per emptying event (circa 14% of average monthly income); household contributions could cover around 47% of this cost. However, if costs were spread over time, the service would cost USD 4 per year per household, or USD 0.31 per month per household-comparable to current expenditures of rural households on telecommunications. This is one of few research papers that brings the costs of waste management together with financing of that cost, to provide evidence for an implementable solution. This framework can be used to identify cost effective sludge management options and private contributions towards that cost in other

  17. Risk Evaluation of Railway Coal Transportation Network Based on Multi Level Grey Evaluation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Wei; Wang, Xifu

    2018-01-01

    The railway transport mode is currently the most important way of coal transportation, and now China’s railway coal transportation network has become increasingly perfect, but there is still insufficient capacity, some lines close to saturation and other issues. In this paper, the theory and method of risk assessment, analytic hierarchy process and multi-level gray evaluation model are applied to the risk evaluation of coal railway transportation network in China. Based on the example analysis of Shanxi railway coal transportation network, to improve the internal structure and the competitiveness of the market.

  18. Transport and fate of chloride from road salt within a mixed urban and agricultural watershed in Illinois (USA): assessing the influence of chloride application rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwikowski, Jessica J.; Peterson, Eric W.

    2018-01-01

    In a typical winter season, approximately 471,000 tons of road salt are deposited along roadways in Illinois, USA. An estimated 45% of the deposited road salt will infiltrate through the soils and into shallow aquifers. Transported through shallow aquifers, chloride associated with the road salts has the potential to reside within groundwater for years based on the pathway, the geologic material, and the recharge rate of the aquifer system. Utilizing MODFLOW and MT3D, simulations employing various road-salt application rates were conducted to assess the net accumulation of chloride and the residence times of chloride in an agriculture-dominated watershed that originates in an urban area. A positive-linear relationship was observed between the application rate of chloride and both the maximum chloride concentration and total mass accumulated within the watershed. Simulated annual recharge rates along impacted surfaces ranged from 1,000 to 10,000 mg/L. After 60 years of application, simulated chloride concentrations in groundwater ranged from 197 to 1,900 mg/L. For all application rates, chloride concentrations within the groundwater rose at an annual rate of >3 mg/L. While concentrations increase throughout the system, the majority of chloride accumulation occurs near the roads and the urban areas. Model simulations reveal a positive relationship between application rate and residence time of chloride (1,123-1,288 days based on application rate). The models indicate that continued accumulation of chloride in shallow aquifers can be expected, and methods that apply less chloride effectively need to be examined.

  19. System-of-Systems Framework for the Future Hydrogen-Based Transportation Economy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, M.; Sandor, D.

    2008-06-01

    From a supply chain view, this paper traces the flow of transportation fuels through required systems and addresses the current petroleum-based economy, DOE's vision for a future hydrogen-based transportation economy, and the challenges of a massive market and infrastructure transformation.

  20. Estimating the Per-Base-Pair Mutation Rate in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Gregory I.; Murray, Andrew W.

    2008-01-01

    Although mutation rates are a key determinant of the rate of evolution they are difficult to measure precisely and global mutations rates (mutations per genome per generation) are often extrapolated from the per-base-pair mutation rate assuming that mutation rate is uniform across the genome. Using budding yeast, we describe an improved method for the accurate calculation of mutation rates based on the fluctuation assay. Our analysis suggests that the per-base-pair mutation rates at two genes...

  1. Survey of strain-rate effects for some common structural materials used in radioactive material packaging and transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.A.; Zielenbach, W.J.; Lawrence, A.A.

    1976-08-01

    In safety evaluation of radioactive material packaging and transport systems during accidents mechanical property data for the structural materials under impact conditions are needed in order to assess the damage and consequences of the accident. This document reviews the status of dynamic material property data for the following common structural materials: lead, uranium, stainless steels, steels, aluminum, copper, and brass. The strain rate data reviewed were limited to the range from static to dynamic impact velocities of 50 ft/s or strain rates of 10 2 /second; temperature conditions were limited to the range -40 to 1000 0 F. Purpose of this document is to explain the test methods, present some of the relevant data, and identify some of the needs for additional data. 7 tables, 14 figures, 77 references

  2. Redox reaction rates in shallow aquifers: Implications for nitrate transport in groundwater and streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesoriero, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater age and water chemistry data along flow paths from recharge areas to streams were used to evaluate the trends and transformations of agricultural chemicals. Results from this analysis indicate that median nitrate recharge concentrations in these agricultural areas have increased markedly over the last 50 years from 4 mg N/L in samples collected prior to 1983 to 7.5 mg N/L in samples collected since 1983. The effect that nitrate accumulation in shallow aquifers will have on drinking water quality and stream ecosystems is dependent on the rate of redox reactions along flow paths and on the age distribution of nitrate discharging to supply wells and streams.

  3. Estimating glomerular filtration rate in a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Shankar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Anoop Shankar1, Kristine E Lee2, Barbara EK Klein2, Paul Muntner3, Peter C Brazy4, Karen J Cruickshanks2,5, F Javier Nieto5, Lorraine G Danforth2, Carla R Schubert2,5, Michael Y Tsai6, Ronald Klein21Department of Community Medicine, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, 4Department of Medicine, 5Department of Population Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA; 3Department of Community Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY, USA; 6Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USABackground: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR-estimating equations are used to determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD in population-based studies. However, it has been suggested that since the commonly used GFR equations were originally developed from samples of patients with CKD, they underestimate GFR in healthy populations. Few studies have made side-by-side comparisons of the effect of various estimating equations on the prevalence estimates of CKD in a general population sample.Patients and methods: We examined a population-based sample comprising adults from Wisconsin (age, 43–86 years; 56% women. We compared the prevalence of CKD, defined as a GFR of <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 estimated from serum creatinine, by applying various commonly used equations including the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD equation, Cockcroft–Gault (CG equation, and the Mayo equation. We compared the performance of these equations against the CKD definition of cystatin C >1.23 mg/L.Results: We found that the prevalence of CKD varied widely among different GFR equations. Although the prevalence of CKD was 17.2% with the MDRD equation and 16.5% with the CG equation, it was only 4.8% with the Mayo equation. Only 24% of those identified to have GFR in the range of 50–59 mL/min per 1

  4. Rate-base determination through real-time efficiency assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhardt, J.H.; Bishop, T.W.

    1990-01-01

    One of the main problems with nuclear power is the extremely high construction costs and long schedules for plant construction and start-up. It is unlikely that utility executives will risk their companies' financial health by committing the necessary capital resources given the prevailing uncertainties. For new nuclear plants to play a major role in preventing future electric supply shortages, the financial uncertainties associated with high construction costs must be minimized. To contain costs and maintain reasonable schedules for future plants, the utilities, vendors, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the state regulatory commissions can make specific changes. One of the key factors to reduce uncertainty and improve cost and schedule performance is for the state regulatory commissions to change the method of determining reasonable plant costs and placing those costs in the rate base. Currently, most state regulatory commissions assess the reasonableness of costs only after completion of construction, resulting in years of financial uncertainty and untimely conclusions as to what should have been done better

  5. The RBANS Effort Index: base rates in geriatric samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Kevin; Spering, Cynthia C; O'Bryant, Sid E; Beglinger, Leigh J; Moser, David J; Bayless, John D; Culp, Kennith R; Mold, James W; Adams, Russell L; Scott, James G

    2011-01-01

    The Effort Index (EI) of the RBANS was developed to assist clinicians in discriminating patients who demonstrate good effort from those with poor effort. However, there are concerns that older adults might be unfairly penalized by this index, which uses uncorrected raw scores. Using five independent samples of geriatric patients with a broad range of cognitive functioning (e.g., cognitively intact, nursing home residents, probable Alzheimer's disease), base rates of failure on the EI were calculated. In cognitively intact and mildly impaired samples, few older individuals were classified as demonstrating poor effort (e.g., 3% in cognitively intact). However, in the more severely impaired geriatric patients, over one third had EI scores that fell above suggested cutoff scores (e.g., 37% in nursing home residents, 33% in probable Alzheimer's disease). In the cognitively intact sample, older and less educated patients were more likely to have scores suggestive of poor effort. Education effects were observed in three of the four clinical samples. Overall cognitive functioning was significantly correlated with EI scores, with poorer cognition being associated with greater suspicion of low effort. The current results suggest that age, education, and level of cognitive functioning should be taken into consideration when interpreting EI results and that significant caution is warranted when examining EI scores in elders suspected of having dementia.

  6. Humidity effects on the electronic transport properties in carbon based nanoscale device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jun; Chen, Ke-Qiu

    2012-01-01

    By applying nonequilibrium Green's functions in combination with the density functional theory, we investigate the effect of humidity on the electronic transport properties in carbon based nanoscale device. The results show that different humidity may form varied localized potential barrier, which is a very important factor to affect the stability of electronic transport in the nanoscale system. A mechanism for the humidity effect is suggested. -- Highlights: ► Electronic transport in carbon based nanoscale device. ► Humidity affects the stability of electronic transport. ► Different humidity may form varied localized potential barrier.

  7. Wafer scale millimeter-wave integrated circuits based on epitaxial graphene in high data rate communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibpour, Omid; He, Zhongxia Simon; Strupinski, Wlodek; Rorsman, Niklas; Zirath, Herbert

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, the demand for high data rate wireless communications has increased dramatically, which requires larger bandwidth to sustain multi-user accessibility and quality of services. This can be achieved at millimeter wave frequencies. Graphene is a promising material for the development of millimeter-wave electronics because of its outstanding electron transport properties. Up to now, due to the lack of high quality material and process technology, the operating frequency of demonstrated circuits has been far below the potential of graphene. Here, we present monolithic integrated circuits based on epitaxial graphene operating at unprecedented high frequencies (80-100 GHz). The demonstrated circuits are capable of encoding/decoding of multi-gigabit-per-second information into/from the amplitude or phase of the carrier signal. The developed fabrication process is scalable to large wafer sizes.

  8. Wafer scale millimeter-wave integrated circuits based on epitaxial graphene in high data rate communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibpour, Omid; He, Zhongxia Simon; Strupinski, Wlodek; Rorsman, Niklas; Zirath, Herbert

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, the demand for high data rate wireless communications has increased dramatically, which requires larger bandwidth to sustain multi-user accessibility and quality of services. This can be achieved at millimeter wave frequencies. Graphene is a promising material for the development of millimeter-wave electronics because of its outstanding electron transport properties. Up to now, due to the lack of high quality material and process technology, the operating frequency of demonstrated circuits has been far below the potential of graphene. Here, we present monolithic integrated circuits based on epitaxial graphene operating at unprecedented high frequencies (80-100 GHz). The demonstrated circuits are capable of encoding/decoding of multi-gigabit-per-second information into/from the amplitude or phase of the carrier signal. The developed fabrication process is scalable to large wafer sizes.

  9. Kinetic parameters, collision rates, energy exchanges and transport coefficients of non-thermal electrons in premixed flames at sub-breakdown electric field strengths

    KAUST Repository

    Bisetti, Fabrizio; El Morsli, Mbark

    2014-01-01

    The effects of an electric field on the collision rates, energy exchanges and transport properties of electrons in premixed flames are investigated via solutions to the Boltzmann kinetic equation. The case of high electric field strength, which

  10. Modeling low-dose-rate effects in irradiated bipolar-base oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, R.J.; Cirba, C.R.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Milanowski, R.J.; Saigne, F.; Michez, A.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Witczak, S.C.

    1997-02-01

    A physical model is developed to quantify the contribution of oxide-trapped charge to enhanced low-dose-rate gain degradation in BJTs. Simulations show that space charge limited transport is partially responsible for the low-dose-rate enhancement

  11. EFFECTS OF PORE STRUCTURE CHANGE AND MULTI-SCALE HETEROGENEITY ON CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT AND REACTION RATE UPSCALING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindquist, W. Brent; Jones, Keith W.; Um, Wooyong; Rockhold, mark; Peters, Catherine A.; Celia, Michael A.

    2013-02-15

    This project addressed the scaling of geochemical reactions to core and field scales, and the interrelationship between reaction rates and flow in porous media. We targeted reactive transport problems relevant to the Hanford site - specifically the reaction of highly caustic, radioactive waste solutions with subsurface sediments, and the immobilization of 90Sr and 129I through mineral incorporation and passive flow blockage, respectively. We addressed the correlation of results for pore-scale fluid-soil interaction with field-scale fluid flow, with the specific goals of (i) predicting attenuation of radionuclide concentration; (ii) estimating changes in flow rates through changes of soil permeabilities; and (iii) estimating effective reaction rates. In supplemental work, we also simulated reactive transport systems relevant to geologic carbon sequestration. As a whole, this research generated a better understanding of reactive transport in porous media, and resulted in more accurate methods for reaction rate upscaling and improved prediction of permeability evolution. These scientific advancements will ultimately lead to better tools for management and remediation of DOE’s legacy waste problems. We established three key issues of reactive flow upscaling, and organized this project in three corresponding thrust areas. 1) Reactive flow experiments. The combination of mineral dissolution and precipitation alters pore network structure and the subsequent flow velocities, thereby creating a complex interaction between reaction and transport. To examine this phenomenon, we conducted controlled laboratory experimentation using reactive flow-through columns. Results and Key Findings: Four reactive column experiments (S1, S3, S4, S5) have been completed in which simulated tank waste leachage (STWL) was reacted with pure quartz sand, with and without Aluminum. The STWL is a caustic solution that dissolves quartz. Because Al is a necessary element in the formation of

  12. Study on Contaminant Transportation of a Typical Chemical Industry Park Based on GMS Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, LinXian; Liu, GuoZhen; Xing, LiTing; Liu, BenHua; Xu, ZhengHe; Yang, LiZhi; Zhu, HebgHua

    2018-03-01

    The groundwater solute transport model can effectively simulated the transport path, the transport scope, and the concentration of contaminant which can provide quantitative data for groundwater pollution repair and groundwater resource management. In this study, we selected biological modern technology research base of Shandong province as research objective and simulated the pollution characteristic of typicalcontaminant cis-1, 3-dichloropropene under different operating conditions by using GMS software.

  13. Institutional support to the nuclear power based on transportable installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.P.; Cherepnin, Y.S.

    2010-01-01

    Existing nuclear power uses large-power nuclear plants (more than 1,000 MWe) and enriched uranium fuel ( 2 35 U ). Each plant is treated as an exclusive costly project. As a result, large NPPs are operated predominantly in highly developed big countries. In many countries, construction of large power units is not reasonable because of the economic conditions and national specifics. This calls for the use of small- and medium-power nuclear plants (SMPNP), especially transportable nuclear installations (TNI). TNI feature small power (up to 100 MWe); serial production, and transportability. Small- and medium-power nuclear plants could serve to produce electricity and heat; perform water desalination; provide temporary and emergency energy supply. The authors discuss some findings of the studies carried out on the various aspects of the TNI life, as well as the legal and institutional support to their development, construction and operation. The studies have been performed in the framework of the INPRO Action Plan

  14. Offset Trace-Based Video Quality Evaluation Network Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeling, P.; Reisslein, M.; Fitzek, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Video traces contain information about encoded video frames, such as frame sizes and qualities, and provide a convenient method to conduct multimedia networking research. Although wiedely used in networking research, these traces do not allow to determine the video qaulityin an accurate manner...... after networking transport that includes losses and delays. In this work, we provide (i) an overview of frame dependencies that have to be taken into consideration when working with video traces, (ii) an algorithmic approach to combine traditional video traces and offset distortion traces to determine...... the video quality or distortion after lossy network transport, (iii) offset distortion and quality characteristics and (iv) the offset distortion trace format and tools to create offset distortion traces....

  15. Effective pollutant emission heights for atmospheric transport modelling based on real-world information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregger, Thomas; Friedrich, Rainer

    2009-02-01

    Emission data needed as input for the operation of atmospheric models should not only be spatially and temporally resolved. Another important feature is the effective emission height which significantly influences modelled concentration values. Unfortunately this information, which is especially relevant for large point sources, is usually not available and simple assumptions are often used in atmospheric models. As a contribution to improve knowledge on emission heights this paper provides typical default values for the driving parameters stack height and flue gas temperature, velocity and flow rate for different industrial sources. The results were derived from an analysis of the probably most comprehensive database of real-world stack information existing in Europe based on German industrial data. A bottom-up calculation of effective emission heights applying equations used for Gaussian dispersion models shows significant differences depending on source and air pollutant and compared to approaches currently used for atmospheric transport modelling.

  16. Peterson Air Force Base Transportation Plan Final Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    on the southeast side of Colorado Springs in El Paso County (Figure 1-1). Peterson AFB is bordered by the Colorado Springs Municipal Airport on the...outside of their existing boundaries has changed.  El Paso County is evaluating potential improvements to Marksheffel Road. These changes and...require 7,600 spaces in remote parking lots served by a shuttle system.  Identify Motorized and Non- Motorized Transportation Systems – Future personnel

  17. Charge splitters and charge transport junctions based on guanine quadruplexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Ruojie; Xiang, Limin; Liu, Chaoren; Balaeff, Alexander; Zhang, Yuqi; Zhang, Peng; Li, Yueqi; Beratan, David N.; Tao, Nongjian; Seeman, Nadrian C.

    2018-04-01

    Self-assembling circuit elements, such as current splitters or combiners at the molecular scale, require the design of building blocks with three or more terminals. A promising material for such building blocks is DNA, wherein multiple strands can self-assemble into multi-ended junctions, and nucleobase stacks can transport charge over long distances. However, nucleobase stacking is often disrupted at junction points, hindering electric charge transport between the two terminals of the junction. Here, we show that a guanine-quadruplex (G4) motif can be used as a connector element for a multi-ended DNA junction. By attaching specific terminal groups to the motif, we demonstrate that charges can enter the structure from one terminal at one end of a three-way G4 motif, and can exit from one of two terminals at the other end with minimal carrier transport attenuation. Moreover, we study four-way G4 junction structures by performing theoretical calculations to assist in the design and optimization of these connectors.

  18. Transportation data base for the US Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrowood, L.F.

    1983-01-01

    In addition to providing rapid retrieval of large amounts of shipping and receiving data in response to inquiries and allowing remote access to the data from dial-up terminals, shipment mobility/accountability collection system (SMAC) is a central accounting system for DOE transportation activities. This facilitates the analysis of site, regional, or national traffic flow patterns thereby allowing DOE to identify frequently utilized routes and negotiate more favorable shipping contracts using the results. The data on radioactive shipments can be used for risk assessment and other research and development activities as well as to answer questions concerning such shipments. The accessibility of transportation data to traffic managers allows DOE to be more responsive to congressional, agency, and public requests for traffic information. It also assists DOE efforts to find more economical and safer methods of moving material by supplying research institutes with shipping and receiving data for participating contractors. SMAC is an example of the computer's growing importance as a managerial tool in the area of transporting both radioactive and nonradioactive materials

  19. Fitting the elementary rate constants of the P-gp transporter network in the hMDR1-MDCK confluent cell monolayer using a particle swarm algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Agnani

    Full Text Available P-glycoprotein, a human multidrug resistance transporter, has been extensively studied due to its importance to human health and disease. In order to understand transport kinetics via P-gp, confluent cell monolayers overexpressing P-gp are widely used. The purpose of this study is to obtain the mass action elementary rate constants for P-gp's transport and to functionally characterize members of P-gp's network, i.e., other transporters that transport P-gp substrates in hMDR1-MDCKII confluent cell monolayers and are essential to the net substrate flux. Transport of a range of concentrations of amprenavir, loperamide, quinidine and digoxin across the confluent monolayer of cells was measured in both directions, apical to basolateral and basolateral to apical. We developed a global optimization algorithm using the Particle Swarm method that can simultaneously fit all datasets to yield accurate and exhaustive fits of these elementary rate constants. The statistical sensitivity of the fitted values was determined by using 24 identical replicate fits, yielding simple averages and standard deviations for all of the kinetic parameters, including the efflux active P-gp surface density. Digoxin required additional basolateral and apical transporters, while loperamide required just a basolateral tranporter. The data were better fit by assuming bidirectional transporters, rather than active importers, suggesting that they are not MRP or active OATP transporters. The P-gp efflux rate constants for quinidine and digoxin were about 3-fold smaller than reported ATP hydrolysis rate constants from P-gp proteoliposomes. This suggests a roughly 3∶1 stoichiometry between ATP hydrolysis and P-gp transport for these two drugs. The fitted values of the elementary rate constants for these P-gp substrates support the hypotheses that the selective pressures on P-gp are to maintain a broad substrate range and to keep xenobiotics out of the cytosol, but not out of the

  20. Estimating time-based instantaneous total mortality rate based on the age-structured abundance index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingbin; Jiao, Yan

    2015-05-01

    The instantaneous total mortality rate ( Z) of a fish population is one of the important parameters in fisheries stock assessment. The estimation of Z is crucial to fish population dynamics analysis, abundance and catch forecast, and fisheries management. A catch curve-based method for estimating time-based Z and its change trend from catch per unit effort (CPUE) data of multiple cohorts is developed. Unlike the traditional catch-curve method, the method developed here does not need the assumption of constant Z throughout the time, but the Z values in n continuous years are assumed constant, and then the Z values in different n continuous years are estimated using the age-based CPUE data within these years. The results of the simulation analyses show that the trends of the estimated time-based Z are consistent with the trends of the true Z, and the estimated rates of change from this approach are close to the true change rates (the relative differences between the change rates of the estimated Z and the true Z are smaller than 10%). Variations of both Z and recruitment can affect the estimates of Z value and the trend of Z. The most appropriate value of n can be different given the effects of different factors. Therefore, the appropriate value of n for different fisheries should be determined through a simulation analysis as we demonstrated in this study. Further analyses suggested that selectivity and age estimation are also two factors that can affect the estimated Z values if there is error in either of them, but the estimated change rates of Z are still close to the true change rates. We also applied this approach to the Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) fishery of eastern Newfoundland and Labrador from 1983 to 1997, and obtained reasonable estimates of time-based Z.

  1. Experimental protocol to assess the tourism vehicles accessibility based on heart rate and access time measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcala Fazio, E.; Alvarez Fernandez, N.

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the Project is to define an experimental protocol for the accessibility assessment of the transport vehicles, by analysing the evolution of the effort and time variables consumed by a target group –Persons of Reduced Mobility (PMRs). This protocol consisted in tests of accessibility on a sample of 6 passenger cars (class M1) by 8 elderly people carrying a heart rate monitor, and whose access manoeuvres were recorded by video cameras. Based on the Hilloskorpi et al. [1] model and by developing a method of truncation of the heart rate (HR) tests records - eliminating the component of the work biologically needed by the organism to keep its basal metabolic rate from the work each person performed – it was possible to evaluate how much energy each individual invested in each access manoeuver. Immediately after each test, and after the whole round of vehicles, each participant was surveyed for a subjective assessment of the difficulty of accessing to the cars. According to each of the above results, the HR objective measurements and the subjective opinion about the ease of access experienced by each individual, the vehicles were ranked by order of accessibility to the front and rear seats. The result of both rankings showed the orders of the similar vehicles, the potential of the method and a fair closeness between its results and the subjective, but real and unequivocal, judgments of the participants. (Author)

  2. Prediction of 222 Rn exhalation rates from phosphogypsum based stacks. Part I: parametric mathematical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabi, Jose A.; Mohamad, Abdulmajeed A.

    2004-01-01

    Radon-222 is a radionuclide exhaled from phosphogypsum by-produced at phosphate fertilizer industries. Alternative large-scale application of this waste may indicate a material substitute for civil engineering provided that environmental issues concerning its disposal and management are overcome. The first part of this paper outlines a steady-state two-dimensional model for 222 Rn transport through porous media, inside which emanation (source term) and decay (sink term) exist. Boussinesq approach is evoked for the laminar buoyancy-driven interstitial air flow, which is also modeled according to Darcy-Brinkman formulation. In order to account for simultaneous effects of entailed physical parameters, governing equations are cast into dimensionless form. Apart from usual controlling parameters like Reynolds, Prandtl, Schmidt, Grashof and Darcy numbers, three unconventional dimensionless groups are put forward. Having in mind 222 Rn transport in phosphogypsum-bearing porous media, the physical meaning of those newly introduced parameters and representative values for the involved physical parameters are presented. A limiting diffusion-dominated scenario is addressed, for which an analytical solution is deduced for boundary conditions including an impermeable phosphogypsum stack base and a non-zero fixed concentration activity at the stack top. Accordingly, an expression for the average Sherwood number corresponding to the normalized 222 Rn exhalation rate is presented

  3. MamMoeT : An intelligent agent-based communication support platform for multimodal transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaert, Wout; Neutens, Tijs; Vanden Berghe, Greet; Vermeulen, Tijs; Vernimmen, Bert; Witlox, Frank

    In this paper, an intelligent agent-based communication support platform for multimodal transport is developed. The rationale for doing so is found in the potential of such a system to increase cost efficiency, service and safety for different transport-related actors. Although, at present several

  4. Transport and transfer rates in the waters of the continental shelf and slope: SEEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscaye, P.E.; Anderson, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    The overall Shelf Edge Exchange Processes (SEEP) Program, which began in 1980 or 1981, had as its goal the testing of a hypothesis with respect to the fate of particulate matter formed in and introduced into the waters of the continental shelf adjacent to the northern east coast of the US, i.e., the MAB. The original hypothesis was that a large proportion of the particles in general, and of the particulate organic carbon (POC) in particular, was exported from the shelf, across the shelf/slope break and front, into the waters of, and, to some degree, deposited in the sediments of the continental slope. This hypothesis was based on budgets of organic carbon and lead-210 that did not account for a large proportion of those species in the waters or sediments of the shelf, and on a carbon-rich band of sediments centered on the slope at ∼1,000 m water depth. The results of the first SEEP experiment, south of New England and Long Island (SEEP-1) suggested, but did not prove, that there was only a relatively small proportion of the carbon which was exported from the shelf to the slope. The objective of the second experiment -- SEEP-2 -- done under the subject grant, was to tighten the experiment in terms of the kinds of data collected, and to focus it more on the shelf and only the upper slope, where shelf-derived particles were thought to be deposited

  5. Riluzole increases the rate of glucose transport in L6 myotubes and NSC-34 motor neuron-like cells via AMPK pathway activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Bareket; Green, Omer; Viskind, Olga; Gruzman, Arie

    2013-09-01

    Riluzole is the only approved ALS drug. Riluzole influences several cellular pathways, but its exact mechanism of action remains unclear. Our goal was to study the drug's influence on the glucose transport rate in two ALS relevant cell types, neurons and myotubes. Stably transfected wild-type or mutant G93A human SOD1 NSC-34 motor neuron-like cells and rat L6 myotubes were exposed to riluzole. The rate of glucose uptake, translocation of glucose transporters to the cell's plasma membrane and the main glucose transport regulatory proteins' phosphorylation levels were measured. We found that riluzole increases the glucose transport rate and up-regulates the translocation of glucose transporters to plasma membrane in both types of cells. Riluzole leads to AMPK phosphorylation and to the phosphorylation of its downstream target, AS-160. In conclusion, increasing the glucose transport rate in ALS affected cells might be one of the mechanisms of riluzole's therapeutic effect. These findings can be used to rationally design and synthesize novel anti-ALS drugs that modulate glucose transport in neurons and skeletal muscles.

  6. Thermoelectric and thermospintronic transport in Dirac material-based nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Po-Hao

    The growing need for power due to the rapid developments of the technologies has urged both engineers and scientists to study more sustainable types of energy. On the other hand, the improvement of our abilities although enable us, for example, to double the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit approximately every two years (Moore's law), comes with side effect due to overheating. Taking advantage of thermoelectric effect has thus become one of the obvious solutions for the problems. But due to the poor efficiency of electricity-heat conversion, there are still challenges to be overcome in order to fully utilize the idea. In the past few years, the realization of graphene along with the discoveries of topological insulators (TI) which are both considered as Dirac material (DM) have offer alternative routs for improving the energy conversion efficiency through different approaches as well as novel quantum effects of materials themselves for investigation. The aim of this thesis is to present contributions to improving the efficiency of thermoelectric conversion as well as analyzing spin transport phenomena that occur in nano-devices. This thesis spans the areas of thermoelectric (TE) effect, spin-Seebeck effect (SSE) and the spin transport on the 3D topological insulator (TI). The different methods have been applied ranging from tight-binding (TB) approximation to density function theory (DFT) combined with non-equilibrium function (NEGF) techniques.

  7. Plasticity of osmoregulatory function in the killifish intestine: drinking rates, salt and water transport, and gene expression after freshwater transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Graham R; Schulte, Patricia M; Wood, Chris M

    2006-10-01

    We have explored intestinal function in the euryhaline killifish Fundulus heteroclitus after transfer from brackish water (10% seawater) to fresh water. Plasma Na+ and Cl- concentrations fell at 12 h post-transfer, but recovered by 7 days. Drinking rate decreased substantially at 12 h (32% of control value) and remained suppressed after 3 and 7 days in fresh water (34 and 43%). By contrast, there was a transient increase in the capacity for water absorption measured across isolated intestines in vitro (3.3- and 2.6-fold at 12 h and 3 days), which returned to baseline after 7 days. These changes in water absorption could be entirely accounted for by changes in net ion flux: there was an extremely strong correlation (R2=0.960) between water absorption and the sum of net Na+ and net Cl- fluxes (3.42+/-0.10 microl water micromol(-1) ion). However, enhanced ion transport across the intestine in fresh water would probably not increase water uptake in vivo, because the drinking rate was far less than the capacity for water absorption across the intestine. The increased intestinal ion absorption after freshwater transfer may instead serve to facilitate ion absorption from food when it is present in the gut. Modulation of net ion flux occurred without changes in mRNA levels of many ion transporters (Na+/K+-ATPase alpha(1a), carbonic anhydrase 2, CFTR Cl- channel, Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter 2, and the signalling protein 14-3-3a), and before a measured increase in Na+/K+-ATPase activity at 3 days, suggesting that there is some other mechanism responsible for increasing ion transport. Interestingly, net Cl- flux always exceeded net Na+ flux, possibly to help maintain Cl- balance and/or facilitate bicarbonate excretion. Our results suggest that intestinal NaCl absorption from food is important during the period of greatest ionic disturbance after transfer to fresh water, and provide further insight into the mechanisms of euryhalinity in killifish.

  8. Radiocarbon Based Ages and Growth Rates: Hawaiian Deep Sea Corals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roark, E B; Guilderson, T P; Dunbar, R B; Ingram, B L

    2006-01-13

    The radial growth rates and ages of three different groups of Hawaiian deep-sea 'corals' were determined using radiocarbon measurements. Specimens of Corallium secundum, Gerardia sp., and Leiopathes glaberrima, were collected from 450 {+-} 40 m at the Makapuu deep-sea coral bed using a submersible (PISCES V). Specimens of Antipathes dichotoma were collected at 50 m off Lahaina, Maui. The primary source of carbon to the calcitic C. secundum skeleton is in situ dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Using bomb {sup 14}C time markers we calculate radial growth rates of {approx} 170 {micro}m y{sup -1} and ages of 68-75 years on specimens as tall as 28 cm of C. secundum. Gerardia sp., A. dichotoma, and L. glaberrima have proteinaceous skeletons and labile particulate organic carbon (POC) is their primary source of architectural carbon. Using {sup 14}C we calculate a radial growth rate of 15 {micro}m y{sup -1} and an age of 807 {+-} 30 years for a live collected Gerardia sp., showing that these organisms are extremely long lived. Inner and outer {sup 14}C measurements on four sub-fossil Gerardia spp. samples produce similar growth rate estimates (range 14-45 {micro}m y{sup -1}) and ages (range 450-2742 years) as observed for the live collected sample. Similarly, with a growth rate of < 10 {micro}m y{sup -1} and an age of {approx}2377 years, L. glaberrima at the Makapuu coral bed, is also extremely long lived. In contrast, the shallow-collected A. dichotoma samples yield growth rates ranging from 130 to 1,140 {micro}m y{sup -1}. These results show that Hawaiian deep-sea corals grow more slowly and are older than previously thought.

  9. Using 'component multiplication' in MONK to reduce pessimism in the dose rate assessment for water-filled (ullaged) transport packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    The external dose rates from spent fuel packages consist of gamma ray and neutron components. The source of gamma rays is from fission products and actinides in the spent fuel and from activation products in structural components of the fuel element. Neutrons originate from spontaneous fission in actinides (for example from curium isotopes) within the spent fuel and from (alpha, n) reactions in oxide fuel. However, a significant number of neutrons are produced due to further fission within the fuel. This is known as neutron enhancement or multiplication (M). To treat the effects of enhancement, the neutron source may be scaled within the dose rate calculation. In a wet package, it has been customary to determine k effective (k eff ) for a completely water-filled package or a package with a defined water level (for the horizontal transport condition). The irradiation of the fuel is normally taken into account in calculating k eff for this purpose. The neutron enhancement is then obtained by calculating M=1/(1-k eff ), which is then applied as a source scaling factor throughout each fuel assembly. In a wet package, there is normally an ullage volume above the water level, the package only being partially flooded. The ullage volume is designed to accommodate pressure build-up within the package. Typically the top row of fuel assemblies may be partially covered and partially uncovered by water. When the above value of M is used for fuel within the dry part of the package, dose rates above the package tend to be overestimated and can limit the carrying capability of the package. (Also, a single value of M will tend to over-predict dose rate contributions from all assemblies around the periphery). Use of component multiplication (a new feature available in the MONK computer code) enables two separate values of 'k eff ' to be determined for the wet and dry parts of the package. These typically differ by a factor of three, leading to differences in the enhancement, M. Use

  10. Accessibility-Based Transportation Planning : Literature and Applications for Shrinking Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    For 15 years, scholars have claimed that accessibility-based transportation planning was at the brink of becoming a new paradigm, and yet this hope remains unrealized. Its implementation may lag due to vague definitions when compared to mobility, or ...

  11. Improved picture rate conversion using classification based LMS-filters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    An, L.; Heinrich, A.; Cordes, C.N.; Haan, de G.; Rabbani, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Due to the recent explosion of multimedia formats and the need to convert between them, more attention is drawn to picture rate conversion. Moreover, growing demands on video motion portrayal without judder or blur requires improved format conversion. The simplest conversion repeats the latest

  12. Thermodynamically based constraints for rate coefficients of large biochemical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, Marcel O; Ross, John

    2009-01-01

    Wegscheider cyclicity conditions are relationships among the rate coefficients of a complex reaction network, which ensure the compatibility of kinetic equations with the conditions for thermodynamic equilibrium. The detailed balance at equilibrium, that is the equilibration of forward and backward rates for each elementary reaction, leads to compatibility between the conditions of kinetic and thermodynamic equilibrium. Therefore, Wegscheider cyclicity conditions can be derived by eliminating the equilibrium concentrations from the conditions of detailed balance. We develop matrix algebra tools needed to carry out this elimination, reexamine an old derivation of the general form of Wegscheider cyclicity condition, and develop new derivations which lead to more compact and easier-to-use formulas. We derive scaling laws for the nonequilibrium rates of a complex reaction network, which include Wegscheider conditions as a particular case. The scaling laws for the rates are used for clarifying the kinetic and thermodynamic meaning of Wegscheider cyclicity conditions. Finally, we discuss different ways of using Wegscheider cyclicity conditions for kinetic computations in systems biology.

  13. Polarization-multiplexed rate-adaptive non-binary-quasi-cyclic-LDPC-coded multilevel modulation with coherent detection for optical transport networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabaci, Murat; Djordjevic, Ivan B; Saunders, Ross; Marcoccia, Roberto M

    2010-02-01

    In order to achieve high-speed transmission over optical transport networks (OTNs) and maximize its throughput, we propose using a rate-adaptive polarization-multiplexed coded multilevel modulation with coherent detection based on component non-binary quasi-cyclic (QC) LDPC codes. Compared to prior-art bit-interleaved LDPC-coded modulation (BI-LDPC-CM) scheme, the proposed non-binary LDPC-coded modulation (NB-LDPC-CM) scheme not only reduces latency due to symbol- instead of bit-level processing but also provides either impressive reduction in computational complexity or striking improvements in coding gain depending on the constellation size. As the paper presents, compared to its prior-art binary counterpart, the proposed NB-LDPC-CM scheme addresses the needs of future OTNs, which are achieving the target BER performance and providing maximum possible throughput both over the entire lifetime of the OTN, better.

  14. Sustainable transportation according to certification systems: A viability analysis based on neighborhood size and context relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouda, Amr Ah.; Masoumi, Houshmand E.

    2017-01-01

    Urban sustainability certification (USC) systems comprehensively assess and benchmark the sustainability of neighborhoods, communities, etc. However, it is important to understand what USCs mean by neighborhoods and communities in terms of definition and their certified developments' size. This study focuses on sustainable transportation and its measures in USCs in order to discern: how relevant are these measures to the varied local conditions, especially in developing countries? And whether they can generate palpable benefits vis-à-vis the certified developments' site areas. Taking descriptive analysis methods, this study focuses on four prominent USCs, namely, LEED for Neighborhood Development, BREEAM Communities, CASBEE for Urban Development, and The Pearl Community Rating System. The four USCs prescribed multiple measures for sustainable transportation, particularly in favor of active transportation and public transportation. However, the relatively small size of their citified developments and the varying transportation conditions among different contexts attenuate the viability and relevance of the advocated measures for both modes. In order to yield more benefits, USCs should underscore the integrative nature of neighborhoods and communities, and transportation within their prescribed criteria and measures. Moreover, sustainable transportation as a theme should be tailored to the local conditions rather than being adopted or adapted from global USCs. - Highlights: • Transportation measures in four prominent certification systems were investigated. • Most certified neighborhoods, communities and developments have small site areas. • Certifications are insensitive to realities of transport in developing countries. • Benefits from advocating active transport only within certified areas are minimal. • Certifications devalue the integrative nature of neighborhoods and transportation.

  15. Sustainable transportation according to certification systems: A viability analysis based on neighborhood size and context relevance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouda, Amr Ah., E-mail: amr.gouda@eng.asu.edu.eg [Center for Technology and Society, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr, 16-18, Berlin 10623 (Germany); Architecture Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, 1 Sarayat St., Abassia, Cairo (Egypt); Masoumi, Houshmand E. [Center for Technology and Society, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr, 16-18, Berlin 10623 (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    Urban sustainability certification (USC) systems comprehensively assess and benchmark the sustainability of neighborhoods, communities, etc. However, it is important to understand what USCs mean by neighborhoods and communities in terms of definition and their certified developments' size. This study focuses on sustainable transportation and its measures in USCs in order to discern: how relevant are these measures to the varied local conditions, especially in developing countries? And whether they can generate palpable benefits vis-à-vis the certified developments' site areas. Taking descriptive analysis methods, this study focuses on four prominent USCs, namely, LEED for Neighborhood Development, BREEAM Communities, CASBEE for Urban Development, and The Pearl Community Rating System. The four USCs prescribed multiple measures for sustainable transportation, particularly in favor of active transportation and public transportation. However, the relatively small size of their citified developments and the varying transportation conditions among different contexts attenuate the viability and relevance of the advocated measures for both modes. In order to yield more benefits, USCs should underscore the integrative nature of neighborhoods and communities, and transportation within their prescribed criteria and measures. Moreover, sustainable transportation as a theme should be tailored to the local conditions rather than being adopted or adapted from global USCs. - Highlights: • Transportation measures in four prominent certification systems were investigated. • Most certified neighborhoods, communities and developments have small site areas. • Certifications are insensitive to realities of transport in developing countries. • Benefits from advocating active transport only within certified areas are minimal. • Certifications devalue the integrative nature of neighborhoods and transportation.

  16. Violence in public transportation: an approach based on spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Daiane Castro Bittencourt de; Pitombo, Cira Souza; Rocha, Samille Santos; Salgueiro, Ana Rita; Delgado, Juan Pedro Moreno

    2017-12-11

    To carry out a spatial analysis of the occurrence of acts of violence (specifically robberies) in public transportation, identifying the regions of greater incidence, using geostatistics, and possible causes with the aid of a multicriteria analysis in the Geographic Information System. The unit of analysis is the traffic analysis zone of the survey named Origem-Destino, carried out in Salvador, state of Bahia, in 2013. The robberies recorded by the Department of Public Security of Bahia in 2013 were located and made compatible with the limits of the traffic analysis zones and, later, associated with the respective centroids. After determining the regions with the highest probability of robbery, we carried out a geographic analysis of the possible causes in the region with the highest robbery potential, considering the factors analyzed using a multicriteria analysis in a Geographic Information System environment. The execution of the two steps of this study allowed us to identify areas corresponding to the greater probability of occurrence of robberies in public transportation. In addition, the three most vulnerable road sections (Estrada da Liberdade, Rua Pero Vaz, and Avenida General San Martin) were identified in these areas. In these sections, the factors that most contribute with the potential for robbery in buses are: F1 - proximity to places that facilitate escape, F3 - great movement of persons, and F2 - absence of policing, respectively. Indicator Kriging (geostatistical estimation) can be used to construct a spatial probability surface, which can be a useful tool for the implementation of public policies. The multicriteria analysis in the Geographic Information System environment allowed us to understand the spatial factors related to the phenomenon under analysis.

  17. Activity-Based Costing Application in an Urban Mass Transport Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popesko Boris

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a basic overview of the application of Activity-Based Costing in an urban mass transport company which operates land public transport via buses and trolleys within the city. The case study was conducted using the Activity-Based Methodology in order to calculate the true cost of individual operations and to measure the profitability of particular transport lines. The case study analysis showed the possible effects of the application of the Activity-Based Costing for an urban mass transport company as well as the limitations of using the ABC methodology in the service industry. With regards to the application of the ABC methodology, the primary limitation of the accuracy of the conclusions is the quality of the non-financial information which had to be gathered throughout the implementation process. A basic limitation of the accurate data acquisition is the nature of the fare system of the transport company which does not allow the identification of the route that is taken by an individual passenger. The study illustrates the technique of ABC in urban mass transport and provides a real company example of information outputs of the ABC system. The users indicated that, the ABC model is very useful for profitability reporting and profit management. Also, the paper shows specific application of the Activity-Based Methodology in conditions of urban mass transport companies with regional specifics.

  18. Evaluation of Stress Parameters Based on Heart Rate Variability Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Uysal, Fatma; Tokmakçı, Mahmut

    2018-01-01

    In this study, heart rate variabilitymeasurements and analysis was carried with help of the ECG recordings to showhow autonom nervous system activity changes. So as to evaluate the parametersrelated to stress of the study, the situation of relaxation, Stroop color/wordtest, mental test and auditory stimulus that would stress someone out wereapplied to six volunteer participants in a laboratory environment. Being takentotally seven minutes ECG recording and made analysis in time and frequencyd...

  19. Infant breathing rate counter based on variable resistor for pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakti, Novi Angga; Hardiyanto, Ardy Dwi; La Febry Andira R., C.; Camelya, Kesa; Widiyanti, Prihartini

    2016-03-01

    Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of death in new born baby in Indonesia. According to WHO in 2002, breathing rate is very important index to be the symptom of pneumonia. In the Community Health Center, the nurses count with a stopwatch for exactly one minute. Miscalculation in Community Health Center occurs because of long time concentration and focus on two object at once. This calculation errors can cause the baby who should be admitted to the hospital only be attended at home. Therefore, an accurate breathing rate counter at Community Health Center level is necessary. In this work, resistance change of variable resistor is made to be breathing rate counter. Resistance change in voltage divider can produce voltage change. If the variable resistance moves periodically, the voltage will change periodically too. The voltage change counted by software in the microcontroller. For the every mm shift at the variable resistor produce average 0.96 voltage change. The software can count the number of wave generated by shifting resistor.

  20. Bounding quantum gate error rate based on reported average fidelity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Yuval R; Wallman, Joel J; Sanders, Barry C

    2016-01-01

    Remarkable experimental advances in quantum computing are exemplified by recent announcements of impressive average gate fidelities exceeding 99.9% for single-qubit gates and 99% for two-qubit gates. Although these high numbers engender optimism that fault-tolerant quantum computing is within reach, the connection of average gate fidelity with fault-tolerance requirements is not direct. Here we use reported average gate fidelity to determine an upper bound on the quantum-gate error rate, which is the appropriate metric for assessing progress towards fault-tolerant quantum computation, and we demonstrate that this bound is asymptotically tight for general noise. Although this bound is unlikely to be saturated by experimental noise, we demonstrate using explicit examples that the bound indicates a realistic deviation between the true error rate and the reported average fidelity. We introduce the Pauli distance as a measure of this deviation, and we show that knowledge of the Pauli distance enables tighter estimates of the error rate of quantum gates. (fast track communication)

  1. Digital image processing based mass flow rate measurement of gas/solid two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Ding; Peng Lihui; Lu Geng; Yang Shiyuan [Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Department of Automation, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Yan Yong, E-mail: lihuipeng@tsinghua.edu.c [University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NT (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-01

    With the rapid growth of the process industry, pneumatic conveying as a tool for the transportation of a wide variety of pulverized and granular materials has become widespread. In order to improve plant control and operational efficiency, it is essential to know the parameters of the particle flow. This paper presents a digital imaging based method which is capable of measuring multiple flow parameters, including volumetric concentration, velocity and mass flow rate of particles in the gas/solid two phase flow. The measurement system consists of a solid state laser for illumination, a low-cost CCD camera for particle image acquisition and a microcomputer with bespoke software for particle image processing. The measurements of particle velocity and volumetric concentration share the same sensing hardware but use different exposure time and different image processing methods. By controlling the exposure time of the camera a clear image and a motion blurred image are obtained respectively. The clear image is thresholded by OTSU method to identify the particles from the dark background so that the volumetric concentration is determined by calculating the ratio between the particle area and the total area. Particle velocity is derived from the motion blur length, which is estimated from the motion blurred images by using the travelling wave equation method. The mass flow rate of particles is calculated by combining the particle velocity and volumetric concentration. Simulation and experiment results indicate that the proposed method is promising for the measurement of multiple parameters of gas/solid two-phase flow.

  2. Digital image processing based mass flow rate measurement of gas/solid two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Ding; Peng Lihui; Lu Geng; Yang Shiyuan; Yan Yong

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid growth of the process industry, pneumatic conveying as a tool for the transportation of a wide variety of pulverized and granular materials has become widespread. In order to improve plant control and operational efficiency, it is essential to know the parameters of the particle flow. This paper presents a digital imaging based method which is capable of measuring multiple flow parameters, including volumetric concentration, velocity and mass flow rate of particles in the gas/solid two phase flow. The measurement system consists of a solid state laser for illumination, a low-cost CCD camera for particle image acquisition and a microcomputer with bespoke software for particle image processing. The measurements of particle velocity and volumetric concentration share the same sensing hardware but use different exposure time and different image processing methods. By controlling the exposure time of the camera a clear image and a motion blurred image are obtained respectively. The clear image is thresholded by OTSU method to identify the particles from the dark background so that the volumetric concentration is determined by calculating the ratio between the particle area and the total area. Particle velocity is derived from the motion blur length, which is estimated from the motion blurred images by using the travelling wave equation method. The mass flow rate of particles is calculated by combining the particle velocity and volumetric concentration. Simulation and experiment results indicate that the proposed method is promising for the measurement of multiple parameters of gas/solid two-phase flow.

  3. Towards sustainable sanitation management: Establishing the costs and willingness to pay for emptying and transporting sludge in rural districts with high rates of access to latrines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Balasubramanya

    Full Text Available Proper management of fecal sludge has significant positive health and environmental externalities. Most research on managing onsite sanitation so far either simulates the costs of, or the welfare effects from, managing sludge in situ in pit latrines. Thus, designing management strategies for onsite rural sanitation is challenging, because the actual costs of transporting sludge for treatment, and sources for financing these transport costs, are not well understood.In this paper we calculate the actual cost of sludge management from onsite latrines, and identify the contributions that latrine owners are willing to make to finance the costs. A spreadsheet-based model is used to identify a cost-effective transport option, and to calculate the cost per household. Then a double-bound contingent valuation method is used to elicit from pit-latrine owners their willingness-to-pay to have sludge transported away. This methodology is employed for the case of a rural subdistrict in Bangladesh called Bhaluka, a unit of administration at which sludge management services are being piloted by the Government of Bangladesh.The typical sludge accumulation rate in Bhaluka is calculated at 0.11 liters/person/day and a typical latrine will need to be emptied approximately once every 3 to 4 years. The costs of emptying and transport are high; approximately USD 13 per emptying event (circa 14% of average monthly income; household contributions could cover around 47% of this cost. However, if costs were spread over time, the service would cost USD 4 per year per household, or USD 0.31 per month per household-comparable to current expenditures of rural households on telecommunications.This is one of few research papers that brings the costs of waste management together with financing of that cost, to provide evidence for an implementable solution. This framework can be used to identify cost effective sludge management options and private contributions towards that cost

  4. Bi-objective optimization for multi-modal transportation routing planning problem based on Pareto optimality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Sun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of study is to solve the multi-modal transportation routing planning problem that aims to select an optimal route to move a consignment of goods from its origin to its destination through the multi-modal transportation network. And the optimization is from two viewpoints including cost and time. Design/methodology/approach: In this study, a bi-objective mixed integer linear programming model is proposed to optimize the multi-modal transportation routing planning problem. Minimizing the total transportation cost and the total transportation time are set as the optimization objectives of the model. In order to balance the benefit between the two objectives, Pareto optimality is utilized to solve the model by gaining its Pareto frontier. The Pareto frontier of the model can provide the multi-modal transportation operator (MTO and customers with better decision support and it is gained by the normalized normal constraint method. Then, an experimental case study is designed to verify the feasibility of the model and Pareto optimality by using the mathematical programming software Lingo. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of the demand and supply in the multi-modal transportation organization is performed based on the designed case. Findings: The calculation results indicate that the proposed model and Pareto optimality have good performance in dealing with the bi-objective optimization. The sensitivity analysis also shows the influence of the variation of the demand and supply on the multi-modal transportation organization clearly. Therefore, this method can be further promoted to the practice. Originality/value: A bi-objective mixed integer linear programming model is proposed to optimize the multi-modal transportation routing planning problem. The Pareto frontier based sensitivity analysis of the demand and supply in the multi-modal transportation organization is performed based on the designed case.

  5. High Data Rate Optical Wireless Communications Based on Ultraviolet Band

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiaobin

    2017-01-01

    Optical wireless communication systems based on ultraviolet (UV)-band has a lot inherent advantages, such as low background solar radiation, low device dark noise. Besides, it also has small restrictive requirements for PAT (pointing, acquisition

  6. Serotonin transporter binding in the hypothalamus correlates negatively with tonic heat pain ratings in healthy subjects: A [11C]DASB PET study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupers, Ron; Frokjaer, Vibe G.; Erritzoe, David

    2010-01-01

    There is a large body of evidence that the serotonergic system plays an important role in the transmission and regulation of pain. Here we used positron emission tomography (PET) with the serotonin transporter (SERT) tracer [11C]DASB to study the relationship between SERT binding in the brain and....... The negative correlation between SERT binding in the hypothalamus and insula with tonic pain ratings suggests a possible serotonergic control of the role of these areas in the modulation or in the affective appreciation of pain.......) tonic noxious heat stimulus. PET data were analyzed using both volume-of-interest (VOI) and voxel-based approaches. VOI analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between tonic pain ratings and SERT binding in the hypothalamus (r = −0.59; p = 0.008), a finding confirmed by the parametric...... analysis. The parametric analysis also revealed a negative correlation between tonic pain ratings and SERT binding in the right anterior insula. Measures of regional SERT binding did not correlate with pain threshold or with responses to short phasic suprathreshold phasic heat stimuli. Finally, the VOI...

  7. 224Ra distribution in surface and deep water of Long Island Sound: sources and horizontal transport rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgersen, T.; O'Donnell, J.; DeAngelo, E.; Turekian, K.K.; Turekian, V.C.; Tanaka, N.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of surface water and deep water 224 Ra(half-life 3.64 days) distributions in Long Island Sound (LIS) were conducted in July 1991. Because the pycnocline structure of LIS had been in place for about 50 days in July (long compared to the half-life of 224 Ra) in the surface water and the deep water operate as separate systems. In the surface water, the fine-grain sediments of nearshore and saltmarsh environments provide a strong source of 224 Ra, which is horizontally mixed away from the short to central LIS. A one-dimensional model of 224 Ra distribution suggests a cross-LIS horizontal eddy dispersivity of 5-50 m 2 s -1 . In the deep water, the mid-LIS sediment flux of 224 Ra is enhanced by ∼ 2x relative to the periphery, and the horizontal eddy flux is from central LIS to the periphery. A second one-dimensional model suggests a cross-LIS horizontal eddy dispersivity below the thermocline of 5-50 m 2 -1 . 224 Ra fluxes into the deep water of the central LIS are likely enhanced by (1) inhomogeneous sediment or (2) a reduced scavenging of 224 Ra in the sediments of central LIS brought about by low oxygen conditions (hypoxia) and the loss of the MnO 2 scavenging layer in the sediments. These rates of horizontal eddy dispersivity are significantly less than the estimate of 100-650 m 2 s -1 (Riley, 1967) but are consistent with the transport necessary to explain the dynamics of oxygen depletion in summer LIS. These results demonstrate the use of 224 Ra for quantifying the parameters needed to describe estuarine mixing and transport. (Author)

  8. A packet-based dual-rate PID control strategy for a slow-rate sensing Networked Control System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, A; Alcaina, J; Salt, J; Casanova, V; Pizá, R

    2018-05-01

    This paper introduces a packet-based dual-rate control strategy to face time-varying network-induced delays, packet dropouts and packet disorder in a Networked Control System. Slow-rate sensing enables to achieve energy saving and to avoid packet disorder. Fast-rate actuation makes reaching the desired control performance possible. The dual-rate PID controller is split into two parts: a slow-rate PI controller located at the remote side (with no permanent communication to the plant) and a fast-rate PD controller located at the local side. The remote side also includes a prediction stage in order to generate the packet of future, estimated slow-rate control actions. These actions are sent to the local side and converted to fast-rate ones to be used when a packet does not arrive at this side due to the network-induced delay or due to occurring dropouts. The proposed control solution is able to approximately reach the nominal (no-delay, no-dropout) performance despite the existence of time-varying delays and packet dropouts. Control system stability is ensured in terms of probabilistic Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs). Via real-time control for a Cartesian robot, results clearly reveal the superiority of the control solution compared to a previous proposal by authors. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Finite element based composite solution for neutron transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, A.N.; Mirza, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    A finite element treatment for solving neutron transport problems is presented. The employs region-wise discontinuous finite elements for the spatial representation of the neutron angular flux, while spherical harmonics are used for directional dependence. Composite solutions has been obtained by using different orders of angular approximations in different parts of a system. The method has been successfully implemented for one dimensional slab and two dimensional rectangular geometry problems. An overall reduction in the number of nodal coefficients (more than 60% in some cases as compared to conventional schemes) has been achieved without loss of accuracy with better utilization of computational resources. The method also provides an efficient way of handling physically difficult situations such as treatment of voids in duct problems and sharply changing angular flux. It is observed that a great wealth of information about the spatial and directional dependence of the angular flux is obtained much more quickly as compared to Monte Carlo method, where most of the information in restricted to the locality of immediate interest. (author)

  10. Research on Evaluation of resource allocation efficiency of transportation system based on DEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhehui; Du, Linan

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we select the time series data onto 1985-2015 years, construct the land (shoreline) resources, capital and labor as inputs. The index system of the output is freight volume and passenger volume, we use Quantitative analysis based on DEA method evaluated the resource allocation efficiency of railway, highway, water transport and civil aviation in China. Research shows that the resource allocation efficiency of various modes of transport has obvious difference, and the impact on scale efficiency is more significant. The most important two ways to optimize the allocation of resources to improve the efficiency of the combination of various modes of transport is promoting the co-ordination of various modes of transport and constructing integrated transportation system.

  11. Simulation-Based Planning and Control of Transport Flows in Port Logistic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Diogo Passos Lima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In highly dynamic and uncertain transport conditions, transport transit time has to be continuously monitored so that the service level is ensured at a proper cost. The aim of this research is to propose and to test a procedure which allows an agile planning and control of transport flows in port logistic systems. The procedure couples an agent-based simulation and a queueing theory model. In this paper, the transport scheduling performed by an agent at the intermodal terminal was taken into consideration. The decision-making agent takes into account data which is acquired in remote points of the system. The obtained results indicate the relevance of continuously considering, for the transport planning and control, the expected transit time and further waiting times along port logistic systems.

  12. Research on crude oil storage and transportation based on optimization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xuhua

    2018-04-01

    At present, the optimization theory and method have been widely used in the optimization scheduling and optimal operation scheme of complex production systems. Based on C++Builder 6 program development platform, the theoretical research results are implemented by computer. The simulation and intelligent decision system of crude oil storage and transportation inventory scheduling are designed. The system includes modules of project management, data management, graphics processing, simulation of oil depot operation scheme. It can realize the optimization of the scheduling scheme of crude oil storage and transportation system. A multi-point temperature measuring system for monitoring the temperature field of floating roof oil storage tank is developed. The results show that by optimizing operating parameters such as tank operating mode and temperature, the total transportation scheduling costs of the storage and transportation system can be reduced by 9.1%. Therefore, this method can realize safe and stable operation of crude oil storage and transportation system.

  13. Analysis and forecast of railway coal transportation volume based on BP neural network combined forecasting model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongbin; Xie, Haihong; Wu, Liuyi

    2018-05-01

    The share of coal transportation in the total railway freight volume is about 50%. As is widely acknowledged, coal industry is vulnerable to the economic situation and national policies. Coal transportation volume fluctuates significantly under the new economic normal. Grasp the overall development trend of railway coal transportation market, have important reference and guidance significance to the railway and coal industry decision-making. By analyzing the economic indicators and policy implications, this paper expounds the trend of the coal transportation volume, and further combines the economic indicators with the high correlation with the coal transportation volume with the traditional traffic prediction model to establish a combined forecasting model based on the back propagation neural network. The error of the prediction results is tested, which proves that the method has higher accuracy and has practical application.

  14. Intelligent transportation systems 802 11-based vehicular communications

    CERN Document Server

    Hasan, Syed Faraz; Chakraborty, Shyam

    2017-01-01

    This book begins by describing a mathematical model that represents disruption in WLAN-based Vehicular Communications. Secondly, it sets out to reduce the handover latency for establishing quick connections between the mobile nodes and the roadside WLAN APs.

  15. Quantum logic gates based on ballistic transport in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragoman, Daniela [Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Academy of Romanian Scientists, Splaiul Independentei 54, 050094 Bucharest (Romania); Dragoman, Mircea, E-mail: mircea.dragoman@imt.ro [National Institute for Research and Development in Microtechnology (IMT), P.O. Box 38-160, 023573 Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-03-07

    The paper presents various configurations for the implementation of graphene-based Hadamard, C-phase, controlled-NOT, and Toffoli gates working at room temperature. These logic gates, essential for any quantum computing algorithm, involve ballistic graphene devices for qubit generation and processing and can be fabricated using existing nanolithographical techniques. All quantum gate configurations are based on the very large mean-free-paths of carriers in graphene at room temperature.

  16. Data base of accident and agricultural statistics for transportation risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saricks, C.L.; Williams, R.G.; Hopf, M.R.

    1989-11-01

    A state-level data base of accident and agricultural statistics has been developed to support risk assessment for transportation of spent nuclear fuels and high-level radioactive wastes. This data base will enhance the modeling capabilities for more route-specific analyses of potential risks associated with transportation of these wastes to a disposal site. The data base and methodology used to develop state-specific accident and agricultural data bases are described, and summaries of accident and agricultural statistics are provided. 27 refs., 9 tabs.

  17. Data base of accident and agricultural statistics for transportation risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saricks, C.L.; Williams, R.G.; Hopf, M.R.

    1989-11-01

    A state-level data base of accident and agricultural statistics has been developed to support risk assessment for transportation of spent nuclear fuels and high-level radioactive wastes. This data base will enhance the modeling capabilities for more route-specific analyses of potential risks associated with transportation of these wastes to a disposal site. The data base and methodology used to develop state-specific accident and agricultural data bases are described, and summaries of accident and agricultural statistics are provided. 27 refs., 9 tabs

  18. Rate-based structural health monitoring using permanently installed sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Joseph

    2017-09-01

    Permanently installed sensors are becoming increasingly ubiquitous, facilitating very frequent in situ measurements and consequently improved monitoring of `trends' in the observed system behaviour. It is proposed that this newly available data may be used to provide prior warning and forecasting of critical events, particularly system failure. Numerous damage mechanisms are examples of positive feedback; they are `self-accelerating' with an increasing rate of damage towards failure. The positive feedback leads to a common time-response behaviour which may be described by an empirical relation allowing prediction of the time to criticality. This study focuses on Structural Health Monitoring of engineering components; failure times are projected well in advance of failure for fatigue, creep crack growth and volumetric creep damage experiments. The proposed methodology provides a widely applicable framework for using newly available near-continuous data from permanently installed sensors to predict time until failure in a range of application areas including engineering, geophysics and medicine.

  19. The effect of bedload transport rates on bedform and planform morphological development in a laboratory meandering stream under varying flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, C.; Good, R. G. R.; Binns, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Sediment transport processes in streams provides valuable insight into the temporal evolution of planform and bedform geometry. The majority of previous experimental research in the literature has focused on bedload transport and corresponding bedform development in rectangular, confined channels, which does not consider planform adjustment processes in streams. In contrast, research conducted with laboratory streams having movable banks can investigate planform development in addition to bedform development, which is more representative of natural streams. The goal of this research is to explore the relationship between bedload transport rates and the morphological adjustments in meandering streams. To accomplish this, a series of experimental runs were conducted in a 5.6 m by 1.9 m river basin flume at the University of Guelph to analyze the bedload impacts on bed formations and planform adjustments in response to varying flow conditions. In total, three experimental runs were conducted: two runs using steady state conditions and one run using unsteady flow conditions in the form of a symmetrical hydrograph implementing quasi steady state flow. The runs were performed in a series of time-steps in order to monitor the evolution of the stream morphology and the bedload transport rates. Structure from motion (SfM) was utilized to capture the channel morphology after each time-step, and Agisoft PhotoScan software was used to produce digital elevation models to analyze the morphological evolution of the channel with time. Bedload transport rates were quantified using a sediment catch at the end of the flume. Although total flow volumes were similar for each run, the morphological evolution and bedload transport rates in each run varied. The observed bedload transport rates from the flume are compared with existing bedload transport formulas to assess their accuracy with respect to sediment transport in unconfined meandering channels. The measured sediment transport

  20. Contingency inferences driven by base rates: Valid by sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Kutzner

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fiedler et al. (2009, reviewed evidence for the utilization of a contingency inference strategy termed pseudocontingencies (PCs. In PCs, the more frequent levels (and, by implication, the less frequent levels are assumed to be associated. PCs have been obtained using a wide range of task settings and dependent measures. Yet, the readiness with which decision makers rely on PCs is poorly understood. A computer simulation explored two potential sources of subjective validity of PCs. First, PCs are shown to perform above chance level when the task is to infer the sign of moderate to strong population contingencies from a sample of observations. Second, contingency inferences based on PCs and inferences based on cell frequencies are shown to partially agree across samples. Intriguingly, this criterion and convergent validity are by-products of random sampling error, highlighting the inductive nature of contingency inferences.

  1. A Wavelet-Based Finite Element Method for the Self-Shielding Issue in Neutron Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Tellier, R.; Fournier, D.; Ruggieri, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach for treating the energy variable of the neutron transport equation in the resolved resonance energy range. The aim is to avoid recourse to a case-specific spatially dependent self-shielding calculation when considering a broad group structure. This method consists of a discontinuous Galerkin discretization of the energy using wavelet-based elements. A Σ t -orthogonalization of the element basis is presented in order to make the approach tractable for spatially dependent problems. First numerical tests of this method are carried out in a limited framework under the Livolant-Jeanpierre hypotheses in an infinite homogeneous medium. They are mainly focused on the way to construct the wavelet-based element basis. Indeed, the prior selection of these wavelet functions by a thresholding strategy applied to the discrete wavelet transform of a given quantity is a key issue for the convergence rate of the method. The Canuto thresholding approach applied to an approximate flux is found to yield a nearly optimal convergence in many cases. In these tests, the capability of such a finite element discretization to represent the flux depression in a resonant region is demonstrated; a relative accuracy of 10 -3 on the flux (in L 2 -norm) is reached with less than 100 wavelet coefficients per group. (authors)

  2. An LP-based heuristic for the fixed charge transportation problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klose, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    The fixed charge transportation problem consists in finding a minimum cost network flow from a set of suppliers to a set of customers. Beside costs proportional to quantities transported, transportation costs also include a fixed charge. The paper describes a linear programming based heuristic...... approach for computing lower and upper bounds on the minimal cost. To this end, the LP relaxation is iteratively strengthened by means of adding cuts; in each iteration the current LP solution is then used to guide a local search heuristic. In addition to standard polyhedral cuts as lifted cover...

  3. Online Dispatching Rules For Vehicle-Based Internal Transport Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Le-Anh (Tuan); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractOn-line vehicles dispatching rules are widely used in many facilities such as warehouses to control vehicles' movements. Single-attribute dispatching rules, which dispatch vehicles based on only one parameter, are used commonly. However, multi-attribute dispatching rules prove to be

  4. Exchange-rate-based stabilization in Argentina and Chile : a fresh look

    OpenAIRE

    Kiguel, Miguel A.; Liviatan, Nissan

    1994-01-01

    Exchange-rate-based stabilization is designed to reduce inflation by using the exchange rate as the main nominal anchor. This does not necessarily mean a fixed exchange rate. A crawling peg with a low rate of depreciation or a pre-announced gradual reduction in the rate of devaluation are alternative ways to use the exchange rate as a nominal anchor. Exchange-rate-based stabilization (ERBS) has been widely used in the high-inflation economies of Latin America. Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay ad...

  5. Radiative heating rates profiles associated with a springtime case of Bodélé and Sudan dust transport over West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lema^itre

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The radiative heating rate due to mineral dust over West Africa is investigated using the radiative code STREAMER, as well as remote sensing and in situ observations gathered during the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period (AMMA SOP. We focus on two days (13 and 14 June 2006 of an intense and long lasting episode of dust being lifted in remote sources in Chad and Sudan and transported across West Africa in the African easterly jet region, during which airborne operations were conducted at the regional scale, from the southern fringes of the Sahara to the Gulf of Guinea. Profiles of heating rates are computed from airborne LEANDRE 2 (Lidar Embarqué pour l'étude de l'Atmosphère: Nuages Dynamique, Rayonnement et cycle de l'Eau and space-borne CALIOP (Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations lidar observations using two mineral dust model constrained by airborne in situ data and ground-based sunphotometer obtained during the campaign. Complementary spaceborne observations (from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-MODIS and in-situ observations such as dropsondes are also used to take into account the infrared contribution of the water vapour. We investigate the variability of the heating rate on the vertical within a dust plume, as well as the contribution of both shortwave and longwave radiation to the heating rate and the radiative heating rate profiles of dust during daytime and nighttime. The sensitivity of the so-derived heating rate is also analyzed for some key variables for which the associated uncertainties may be large. During daytime, the warming associated with the presence of dust was found to be between 1.5 K day−1 and 4 K day−1, on average, depending on altitude and latitude. Strong warming (i.e. heating rates as high as 8 K day−1 was also observed locally in some limited part of the dust plumes. The uncertainty on the

  6. Evaluation of finite difference and FFT-based solutions of the transport of intensity equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Zhou, Wen-Jing; Liu, Ying; Leber, Donald; Banerjee, Partha; Basunia, Mahmudunnabi; Poon, Ting-Chung

    2018-01-01

    A finite difference method is proposed for solving the transport of intensity equation. Simulation results show that although slower than fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based methods, finite difference methods are able to reconstruct the phase with better accuracy due to relaxed assumptions for solving the transport of intensity equation relative to FFT methods. Finite difference methods are also more flexible than FFT methods in dealing with different boundary conditions.

  7. First-principles-based study of transport properties of Fe thin films on Cu surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishi, Tomoya [Department of Applied Physics, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kasai, Hideaki [Department of Applied Physics, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nakanishi, Hiroshi [Department of Applied Physics, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Dino, Wilson Agerico [Department of Applied Physics, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Komori, Fumio [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8587 (Japan)

    2004-12-08

    We investigate the transport properties of Fe thin films on Cu(111) based on first principles calculation. We calculate the electron current through these Fe thin films, which can be observed by using a double-tipped scanning tunnelling microscope. We find that the conductance is majority spin polarized. On the basis of the band structures for this system, we discuss the origin of these interesting transport properties.

  8. First-principles-based study of transport properties of Fe thin films on Cu surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Tomoya; Kasai, Hideaki; Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Dino, Wilson Agerico; Komori, Fumio

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the transport properties of Fe thin films on Cu(111) based on first principles calculation. We calculate the electron current through these Fe thin films, which can be observed by using a double-tipped scanning tunnelling microscope. We find that the conductance is majority spin polarized. On the basis of the band structures for this system, we discuss the origin of these interesting transport properties

  9. Individual Travel Behavior Modeling of Public Transport Passenger Based on Graph Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Quan Liang; Jiancheng Weng; Wei Zhou; Selene Baez Santamaria; Jianming Ma; Jian Rong

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for mining the individual travel behavior regularity of different public transport passengers through constructing travel behavior graph based model. The individual travel behavior graph is developed to represent spatial positions, time distributions, and travel routes and further forecasts the public transport passenger’s behavior choice. The proposed travel behavior graph is composed of macronodes, arcs, and transfer probability. Each macronode corresponds...

  10. Polyester-Based, Biodegradable Core-Multishell Nanocarriers for the Transport of Hydrophobic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina A. Walker

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A water-soluble, core-multishell (CMS nanocarrier based on a new hyperbranched polyester core building block was synthesized and characterized towards drug transport and degradation of the nanocarrier. The hydrophobic drug dexamethasone was encapsulated and the enzyme-mediated biodegradability was investigated by NMR spectroscopy. The new CMS nanocarrier can transport one molecule of dexamethasone and degrades within five days at a skin temperature of 32 °C to biocompatible fragments.

  11. Quantifying the climate impact of emissions from land-based transport in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Hendricks, J.; Righi, M.; Dahlmann, K.; Gottschaldt, K.-D.; Grewe, V.; Ponater, M.; Sausen, R.; Heinrichs, D.; Winkler, C.; Wolfermann, A.; Kampffmeyer, T.; Friedrich, R; Klötzke, M.; Kugler, U.

    2017-01-01

    Although climate change is a global problem, specific mitigation measures are frequently applied on regional or national scales only. This is the case in particular for measures to reduce the emissions of land-based transport, which is largely characterized by regional or national systems with independent infrastructure, organization, and regulation. The climate perturbations caused by regional transport emissions are small compared to those resulting from global emissions. Consequently, they...

  12. 77 FR 9226 - Physical Systems Integration, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1013-000] Physical Systems Integration, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Physical Systems Integration, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  13. 78 FR 40473 - Plainfield Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1734-000] Plainfield Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Plainfield Renewable Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  14. 75 FR 61747 - Union Leader Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... of Union Leader Corporation's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2780-000] Union Leader Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section...

  15. 77 FR 42722 - Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2233-000] Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Petroleum Company's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting...

  16. Agreement in cardiovascular risk rating based on anthropometric parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Endilly Maria da Silva; Pinto, Cristiane Jordânia; Freitas, Rodrigo Pegado de Abreu; Medeiros, Anna Cecília Queiroz de

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the agreement in evaluation of risk of developing cardiovascular diseases based on anthropometric parameters in young adults. The study included 406 students, measuring weight, height, and waist and neck circumferences. Waist-to-height ratio and the conicity index. The kappa coefficient was used to assess agreement in risk classification for cardiovascular diseases. The positive and negative specific agreement values were calculated as well. The Pearson chi-square (χ"2) test was used to assess associations between categorical variables (p<0.05). The majority of the parameters assessed (44%) showed slight (k=0.21 to 0.40) and/or poor agreement (k<0.20), with low values of negative specific agreement. The best agreement was observed between waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio both for the general population (k=0.88) and between sexes (k=0.93 to 0.86). There was a significant association (p<0.001) between the risk of cardiovascular diseases and females when using waist circumference and conicity index, and with males when using neck circumference. This resulted in a wide variation in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk (5.5%-36.5%), depending on the parameter and the sex that was assessed. The results indicate variability in agreement in assessing risk for cardiovascular diseases, based on anthropometric parameters, and which also seems to be influenced by sex. Further studies in the Brazilian population are required to better understand this issue

  17. Agreement in cardiovascular risk rating based on anthropometric parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Endilly Maria da Silva; Pinto, Cristiane Jordânia; Freitas, Rodrigo Pegado de Abreu; Medeiros, Anna Cecília Queiroz de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the agreement in evaluation of risk of developing cardiovascular diseases based on anthropometric parameters in young adults. The study included 406 students, measuring weight, height, and waist and neck circumferences. Waist-to-height ratio and the conicity index. The kappa coefficient was used to assess agreement in risk classification for cardiovascular diseases. The positive and negative specific agreement values were calculated as well. The Pearson chi-square (χ{sup 2}) test was used to assess associations between categorical variables (p<0.05). The majority of the parameters assessed (44%) showed slight (k=0.21 to 0.40) and/or poor agreement (k<0.20), with low values of negative specific agreement. The best agreement was observed between waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio both for the general population (k=0.88) and between sexes (k=0.93 to 0.86). There was a significant association (p<0.001) between the risk of cardiovascular diseases and females when using waist circumference and conicity index, and with males when using neck circumference. This resulted in a wide variation in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk (5.5%-36.5%), depending on the parameter and the sex that was assessed. The results indicate variability in agreement in assessing risk for cardiovascular diseases, based on anthropometric parameters, and which also seems to be influenced by sex. Further studies in the Brazilian population are required to better understand this issue.

  18. Verification & Validation of High-Order Short-Characteristics-Based Deterministic Transport Methodology on Unstructured Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmy, Yousry; Wang, Yaqi

    2013-01-01

    The research team has developed a practical, high-order, discrete-ordinates, short characteristics neutron transport code for three-dimensional configurations represented on unstructured tetrahedral grids that can be used for realistic reactor physics applications at both the assembly and core levels. This project will perform a comprehensive verification and validation of this new computational tool against both a continuous-energy Monte Carlo simulation (e.g. MCNP) and experimentally measured data, an essential prerequisite for its deployment in reactor core modeling. Verification is divided into three phases. The team will first conduct spatial mesh and expansion order refinement studies to monitor convergence of the numerical solution to reference solutions. This is quantified by convergence rates that are based on integral error norms computed from the cell-by-cell difference between the code's numerical solution and its reference counterpart. The latter is either analytic or very fine- mesh numerical solutions from independent computational tools. For the second phase, the team will create a suite of code-independent benchmark configurations to enable testing the theoretical order of accuracy of any particular discretization of the discrete ordinates approximation of the transport equation. For each tested case (i.e. mesh and spatial approximation order), researchers will execute the code and compare the resulting numerical solution to the exact solution on a per cell basis to determine the distribution of the numerical error. The final activity comprises a comparison to continuous-energy Monte Carlo solutions for zero-power critical configuration measurements at Idaho National Laboratory's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Results of this comparison will allow the investigators to distinguish between modeling errors and the above-listed discretization errors introduced by the deterministic method, and to separate the sources of uncertainty.

  19. A Text Steganographic System Based on Word Length Entropy Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Xavier Kofi Akotoye

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The widespread adoption of electronic distribution of material is accompanied by illicit copying and distribution. This is why individuals, businesses and governments have come to think of how to protect their work, prevent such illicit activities and trace the distribution of a document. It is in this context that a lot of attention is being focused on steganography. Implementing steganography in text document is not an easy undertaking considering the fact that text document has very few places in which to embed hidden data. Any minute change introduced to text objects can easily be noticed thus attracting attention from possible hackers. This study investigates the possibility of embedding data in text document by employing the entropy rate of the constituent characters of words not less than four characters long. The scheme was used to embed bits in text according to the alphabetic structure of the words, the respective characters were compared with their neighbouring characters and if the first character was alphabetically lower than the succeeding character according to their ASCII codes, a zero bit was embedded otherwise 1 was embedded after the characters had been transposed. Before embedding, the secret message was encrypted with a secret key to add a layer of security to the secret message to be embedded, and then a pseudorandom number was generated from the word counts of the text which was used to paint the starting point of the embedding process. The embedding capacity of the scheme was relatively high compared with the space encoding and semantic method.

  20. Persistent changes in the initial rate of pyruvate transport by isolated rat liver mitochondria after preincubation with adenine nucleotides and calcium ions

    OpenAIRE

    Vaartjes, W.J.; Breejen, J.N. den; Geelen, M.J.H.; Bergh, S.G. van den

    1980-01-01

    1. Preincubation of isolated rat-liver mitochondria in the presence of adenine nucleotides or Ca2+ results in definite and persistent changes in the initial rate of pyruvate transport. 2. These changes in the rate of pyruvate transport are accompanied by equally persistent changes in the opposite direction of the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (EC. 1.2.4.1). 3. Changes of the transmembrane pH gradient and of the membrane potential, brought about by the pretreatments of the mitochondria, c...

  1. Identifying Different Transportation Modes from Trajectory Data Using Tree-Based Ensemble Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Xiao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of transportation modes can be used in different applications including human behavior research, transport management and traffic control. Previous work on transportation mode recognition has often relied on using multiple sensors or matching Geographic Information System (GIS information, which is not possible in many cases. In this paper, an approach based on ensemble learning is proposed to infer hybrid transportation modes using only Global Position System (GPS data. First, in order to distinguish between different transportation modes, we used a statistical method to generate global features and extract several local features from sub-trajectories after trajectory segmentation, before these features were combined in the classification stage. Second, to obtain a better performance, we used tree-based ensemble models (Random Forest, Gradient Boosting Decision Tree, and XGBoost instead of traditional methods (K-Nearest Neighbor, Decision Tree, and Support Vector Machines to classify the different transportation modes. The experiment results on the later have shown the efficacy of our proposed approach. Among them, the XGBoost model produced the best performance with a classification accuracy of 90.77% obtained on the GEOLIFE dataset, and we used a tree-based ensemble method to ensure accurate feature selection to reduce the model complexity.

  2. Base metal thermocouples drift rate dependence from thermoelement diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlasek, P; Duris, S; Palencar, R

    2015-01-01

    testing was used to establish the relation between the level of EMF drift and the lead diameter of the thermocouple thermoelements. Furthermore this data was also used to create a drift function which mathematically expresses the dependency between the drift rate and the diameter of the thermocouple leads

  3. Base metal thermocouples drift rate dependence from thermoelement diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlasek, P.; Duris, S.; Palencar, R.

    2015-02-01

    testing was used to establish the relation between the level of EMF drift and the lead diameter of the thermocouple thermoelements. Furthermore this data was also used to create a drift function which mathematically expresses the dependency between the drift rate and the diameter of the thermocouple leads.

  4. Emergency department transport rates of children from the scene of motor vehicle collisions: do booster seats make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Darlene R; Huffman, Gretchen; Walthall, Jennifer D H

    2012-11-01

    Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) are the leading cause of death and disability among children older than 1 year. Many states currently mandate all children between the ages of 4 and 8 years be restrained in booster seats. The implementation of a booster-seat law is generally thought to decrease the occurrence of injury to children. We hypothesized that appropriate restraint with booster seats would also cause a decrease in emergency department (ED) visits compared with children who were unrestrained. This is an important measure as ED visits are a surrogate marker for injury. The main purpose of this study was to look at the rate of ED visits between children in booster seats compared with those in other or no restraint systems involved in MVCs. Injury severity was compared across restraint types as a secondary outcome of booster-seat use after the implementation of a state law. A prospective observational study was performed including all children 4 to 8 years old involved in MVCs to which emergency medical services was dispatched. Ambulance services used a novel on-scene computer charting system for all MVC-related encounters to collect age, sex, child-restraint system, Glasgow Coma Scale score, injuries, and final disposition. One hundred fifty-nine children were studied with 58 children (35.6%) in booster seats, 73 children in seatbelts alone (45.2%), and 28 children (19.1%) in no restraint system. 76 children (47.7%), 74 by emergency medical services and 2 by private vehicle, were transported to the ED with no significant difference between restraint use (P = 0.534). Utilization of a restraint system did not significantly impact MVC injury severity. However, of those children who either died (n = 2) or had an on-scene decreased Glasgow Coma Scale score (n = 6), 75% (6/8) were not restrained in a booster seat. The use of booster-seat restraints does not appear to be associated with whether a child will be transported to the ED for trauma evaluation.

  5. Volume-based geometric modeling for radiation transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.; Williamson, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Accurate theoretical characterization of radiation fields is a valuable tool in the design of complex systems, such as linac heads and intracavitary applicators, and for generation of basic dose calculation data that is inaccessible to experimental measurement. Both Monte Carlo and deterministic solutions to such problems require a system for accurately modeling complex 3-D geometries that supports ray tracing, point and segment classification, and 2-D graphical representation. Previous combinatorial approaches to solid modeling, which involve describing complex structures as set-theoretic combinations of simple objects, are limited in their ease of use and place unrealistic constraints on the geometric relations between objects such as excluding common boundaries. A new approach to volume-based solid modeling has been developed which is based upon topologically consistent definitions of boundary, interior, and exterior of a region. From these definitions, FORTRAN union, intersection, and difference routines have been developed that allow involuted and deeply nested structures to be described as set-theoretic combinations of ellipsoids, elliptic cylinders, prisms, cones, and planes that accommodate shared boundaries. Line segments between adjacent intersections on a trajectory are assigned to the appropriate region by a novel sorting algorithm that generalizes upon Siddon's approach. Two 2-D graphic display tools are developed to help the debugging of a given geometric model. In this paper, the mathematical basis of our system is described, it is contrasted to other approaches, and examples are discussed

  6. Mathematical Modeling and Experimental Validation of Nanoemulsion-Based Drug Transport across Cellular Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadakia, Ekta; Shah, Lipa; Amiji, Mansoor M

    2017-07-01

    Nanoemulsions have shown potential in delivering drug across epithelial and endothelial cell barriers, which express efflux transporters. However, their transport mechanisms are not entirely understood. Our goal was to investigate the cellular permeability of nanoemulsion-encapsulated drugs and apply mathematical modeling to elucidate transport mechanisms and sensitive nanoemulsion attributes. Transport studies were performed in Caco-2 cells, using fish oil nanoemulsions and a model substrate, rhodamine-123. Permeability data was modeled using a semi-mechanistic approach, capturing the following cellular processes: endocytotic uptake of the nanoemulsion, release of rhodamine-123 from the nanoemulsion, efflux and passive permeability of rhodamine-123 in aqueous solution. Nanoemulsions not only improved the permeability of rhodamine-123, but were also less sensitive to efflux transporters. The model captured bidirectional permeability results and identified sensitive processes, such as the release of the nanoemulsion-encapsulated drug and cellular uptake of the nanoemulsion. Mathematical description of cellular processes, improved our understanding of transport mechanisms, such as nanoemulsions don't inhibit efflux to improve drug permeability. Instead, their endocytotic uptake, results in higher intracellular drug concentrations, thereby increasing the concentration gradient and transcellular permeability across biological barriers. Modeling results indicated optimizing nanoemulsion attributes like the droplet size and intracellular drug release rate, may further improve drug permeability.

  7. Simultaneous measurement of glucose blood–brain transport constants and metabolic rate in rat brain using in-vivo 1H MRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fei; Zhang, Yi; Zhu, Xiao-Hong; Chen, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral glucose consumption and glucose transport across the blood–brain barrier are crucial to brain function since glucose is the major energy fuel for supporting intense electrophysiological activity associated with neuronal firing and signaling. Therefore, the development of noninvasive methods to measure the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) and glucose transport constants (KT: half-saturation constant; Tmax: maximum transport rate) are of importance for understanding glucose transport mechanism and neuroenergetics under various physiological and pathological conditions. In this study, a novel approach able to simultaneously measure CMRglc, KT, and Tmax via monitoring the dynamic glucose concentration changes in the brain tissue using in-vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and in plasma after a brief glucose infusion was proposed and tested using an animal model. The values of CMRglc, Tmax, and KT were determined to be 0.44±0.17 μmol/g per minute, 1.35±0.47 μmol/g per minute, and 13.4±6.8 mmol/L in the rat brain anesthetized with 2% isoflurane. The Monte-Carlo simulations suggest that the measurements of CMRglc and Tmax are more reliable than that of KT. The overall results indicate that the new approach is robust and reliable for in-vivo measurements of both brain glucose metabolic rate and transport constants, and has potential for human application. PMID:22714049

  8. Estimates of magnetotail reconnection rate based on IMAGE FUV and EISCAT measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Østgaard

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dayside merging between the interplanetary and terrestrial magnetic fields couples the solar wind electric field to the Earth's magnetosphere, increases the magnetospheric convection and results in efficient transport of solar wind energy into the magnetosphere. Subsequent reconnection of the lobe magnetic field in the magnetotail transports energy into the closed magnetic field region. Combining global imaging and ground-based radar measurements, we estimate the reconnection rate in the magnetotail during two days of an EISCAT campaign in November-December 2000. Global images from the IMAGE FUV system guide us to identify ionospheric signatures of the open-closed field line boundary observed by the two EISCAT radars in Tromsø (VHF and on Svalbard (ESR. Continuous radar and optical monitoring of the open-closed field line boundary is used to determine the location, orientation and velocity of the open-closed boundary and the ion flow velocity perpendicular to this boundary. The magnetotail reconnection electric field is found to be a bursty process that oscillates between 0mV/m and 1mV/m with ~10-15min periods. These ULF oscillations are mainly due to the motion of the open-closed boundary. In situ measurements earthward of the reconnection site in the magnetotail by Geotail show similar oscillations in the duskward electric field. We also find that bursts of increased magnetotail reconnection do not necessarily have any associated auroral signatures. Finally, we find that the reconnection rate correlates poorly with the solar wind electric field. This indicates that the magnetotail reconnection is not directly driven, but is an internal magnetospheric process. Estimates of a coupling efficiency between the solar wind electric field and magnetotail reconnection only seem to be relevant as averages over long time intervals. The oscillation mode at 1mHz corresponds to the internal cavity mode with additional lower frequencies, 0.5 and 0.8m

  9. The future cost of electrical energy storage based on experience rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, O.; Hawkes, A.; Gambhir, A.; Staffell, I.

    2017-08-01

    Electrical energy storage could play a pivotal role in future low-carbon electricity systems, balancing inflexible or intermittent supply with demand. Cost projections are important for understanding this role, but data are scarce and uncertain. Here, we construct experience curves to project future prices for 11 electrical energy storage technologies. We find that, regardless of technology, capital costs are on a trajectory towards US$340 ± 60 kWh-1 for installed stationary systems and US$175 ± 25 kWh-1 for battery packs once 1 TWh of capacity is installed for each technology. Bottom-up assessment of material and production costs indicates this price range is not infeasible. Cumulative investments of US$175-510 billion would be needed for any technology to reach 1 TWh deployment, which could be achieved by 2027-2040 based on market growth projections. Finally, we explore how the derived rates of future cost reduction influence when storage becomes economically competitive in transport and residential applications. Thus, our experience-curve data set removes a barrier for further study by industry, policymakers and academics.

  10. Technetium-99m extraction and transport across tri-n-octylamine-xylene based supported liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf Chaudry, M.; Ahmad, B.

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear properties of 99m Tc radionuclide are ideal for organ imaging. Study of the technetium transport across supported liquid membranes has been performed to get data for its separation from other elements. Tri-n-octylamine diluted in xylene was used to constitute the liquid membranes, supported in polypropylene microporous films. Stripping on the product solution side was performed with dilute NaOH solutions. The effect of sulphuric acid, nitric acid and hydrochloric acid in the feed on transport of 99m Tc as TcO 4 - ions has been studied. The permeability of the given ions determined from kinetic activity data has been found to be in the order of PH 2 SO 4 >PHCl>PHNO 3 . The flux values have been calculated based on this permeability data. The increase in carrier concentration has shown an increase in flux and permeability values to a given optimum concentration. The increase in temperature has been found to reduce the transport of Tc ions. The optimum conditions for transport of 99m Tc for the given acid concentration have been determined. Mechanism of Tc ion transport has also been provided based on chemical reactions involved at the membrane interfaces and uptake of Tc ions by the membrane. MoO 4 2- ions do not permeate through membrane under optimum conditions of transport for TcO 4 2 - ions from H 2 SO 4 solution. (author). 12 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab

  11. Transportation Mode Detection Based on Permutation Entropy and Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing prevalence of GPS devices and mobile phones, transportation mode detection based on GPS data has been a hot topic in GPS trajectory data analysis. Transportation modes such as walking, driving, bus, and taxi denote an important characteristic of the mobile user. Longitude, latitude, speed, acceleration, and direction are usually used as features in transportation mode detection. In this paper, first, we explore the possibility of using Permutation Entropy (PE of speed, a measure of complexity and uncertainty of GPS trajectory segment, as a feature for transportation mode detection. Second, we employ Extreme Learning Machine (ELM to distinguish GPS trajectory segments of different transportation. Finally, to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, we make experiments on GeoLife dataset. Experiments results show that we can get more than 50% accuracy when only using PE as a feature to characterize trajectory sequence. PE can indeed be effectively used to detect transportation mode from GPS trajectory. The proposed method has much better accuracy and faster running time than the methods based on the other features and SVM classifier.

  12. Phonon Transport through Nanoscale Contact in Tip-Based Thermal Analysis of Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulhani, Jay; Lee, Bong Jae

    2017-07-28

    Nanomaterials have been actively employed in various applications for energy and sustainability, such as biosensing, gas sensing, solar thermal energy conversion, passive radiative cooling, etc. Understanding thermal transports inside such nanomaterials is crucial for optimizing their performance for different applications. In order to probe the thermal transport inside nanomaterials or nanostructures, tip-based nanoscale thermometry has often been employed. It has been well known that phonon transport in nanometer scale is fundamentally different from that occurred in macroscale. Therefore, Fourier's law that relies on the diffusion approximation is not ideally suitable for describing the phonon transport occurred in nanostructures and/or through nanoscale contact. In the present study, the gray Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) is numerically solved using finite volume method. Based on the gray BTE, phonon transport through the constriction formed by a probe itself as well as the nanoscale contact between the probe tip and the specimen is investigated. The interaction of a probe and a specimen (i.e., treated as a substrate) is explored qualitatively by analyzing the temperature variation in the tip-substrate configuration. Besides, each contribution of a probe tip, tip-substrate interface, and a substrate to the thermal resistance are analyzed for wide ranges of the constriction ratio of the probe.

  13. Comparison of ITER performance predicted by semi-empirical and theory-based transport models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhovatov, V.; Shimomura, Y.; Polevoi, A.

    2003-01-01

    The values of Q=(fusion power)/(auxiliary heating power) predicted for ITER by three different methods, i.e., transport model based on empirical confinement scaling, dimensionless scaling technique, and theory-based transport models are compared. The energy confinement time given by the ITERH-98(y,2) scaling for an inductive scenario with plasma current of 15 MA and plasma density 15% below the Greenwald value is 3.6 s with one technical standard deviation of ±14%. These data are translated into a Q interval of [7-13] at the auxiliary heating power P aux = 40 MW and [7-28] at the minimum heating power satisfying a good confinement ELMy H-mode. Predictions of dimensionless scalings and theory-based transport models such as Weiland, MMM and IFS/PPPL overlap with the empirical scaling predictions within the margins of uncertainty. (author)

  14. Increased transvascular escape rate and lymph drainage of albumin in pigs during intravenous diuretic medication. Relations to treatment in man and transport mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H; Parving, H H; Lassen, N A

    1982-01-01

    .05). Pressures in artery, right atrium, hepatic and portal veins did not change significantly from control to diuretic period. TERalb equals the lymphatic return rate of albumin provided the transport mechanisms are filtrative-convective (i.e. no local back transport). Additional measurements in five pigs...... with proteins of different molecular size confirmed a dominating filtrative-convective transport. The increased TERalb during diuretic medication is best explained by an increased lymph drainage, which may decrease interstitial fluid pressure and thereby increase the transmural capillary pressure difference...... being essential for a filtrative-convective transvascular albumin transport. Increased lymph drainage may contribute to the therapeutic effect of diuretic treatment in oedema and ascites....

  15. PELAN - a transportable, neutron-based UXO identification technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vourvopoulos, G.

    1998-01-01

    An elemental characterization method is used to differentiate between inert projectiles and UXO's. This method identifies in a non-intrusive, nondestructive manner, the elemental composition of the projectile contents. Most major and minor chemical elements within the interrogated object (hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, phosphorus, chlorine, arsenic, etc.) are identified and quantified. The method is based on PELAN - Pulsed Elemental Analysis with Neutrons. PELAN uses pulsed neutrons produced from a compact, sealed tube neutron generator. Using an automatic analysis computer program, the quantities of each major and minor chemical element are determined. A decision-making tree identifies the object by comparing its elemental composition with stored elemental composition libraries of substances that could be contained within the projectile. In a series of blind tests, PELAN was able to identify without failure, the contents of each shell placed in front of it. The PELAN probe does not need to be in contact with the interrogated projectile. If the object is buried, the interrogation can take place in situ provided the probe can be inserted a few centimeters from the object's surface. (author)

  16. Timetable-based simulation method for choice set generation in large-scale public transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Kjær; Anderson, Marie Karen; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2016-01-01

    The composition and size of the choice sets are a key for the correct estimation of and prediction by route choice models. While existing literature has posed a great deal of attention towards the generation of path choice sets for private transport problems, the same does not apply to public...... transport problems. This study proposes a timetable-based simulation method for generating path choice sets in a multimodal public transport network. Moreover, this study illustrates the feasibility of its implementation by applying the method to reproduce 5131 real-life trips in the Greater Copenhagen Area...... and to assess the choice set quality in a complex multimodal transport network. Results illustrate the applicability of the algorithm and the relevance of the utility specification chosen for the reproduction of real-life path choices. Moreover, results show that the level of stochasticity used in choice set...

  17. Charge transport model in nanodielectric composites based on quantum tunneling mechanism and dual-level traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guochang; Chen, George, E-mail: gc@ecs.soton.ac.uk, E-mail: sli@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); School of Electronic and Computer Science, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Li, Shengtao, E-mail: gc@ecs.soton.ac.uk, E-mail: sli@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2016-08-08

    Charge transport properties in nanodielectrics present different tendencies for different loading concentrations. The exact mechanisms that are responsible for charge transport in nanodielectrics are not detailed, especially for high loading concentration. A charge transport model in nanodielectrics has been proposed based on quantum tunneling mechanism and dual-level traps. In the model, the thermally assisted hopping (TAH) process for the shallow traps and the tunnelling process for the deep traps are considered. For different loading concentrations, the dominant charge transport mechanisms are different. The quantum tunneling mechanism plays a major role in determining the charge conduction in nanodielectrics with high loading concentrations. While for low loading concentrations, the thermal hopping mechanism will dominate the charge conduction process. The model can explain the observed conductivity property in nanodielectrics with different loading concentrations.

  18. Development of an Acoustic Levitation Linear Transportation System Based on a Ring-Type Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gilles P L; Andrade, Marco A B; Adamowski, Julio Cezar; Silva, Emilio Carlos Nelli

    2017-05-01

    A linear acoustic levitation transportation system based on a ring-type vibrator is presented. The system is composed by two 21-kHz Langevin transducers connected to a ring-shaped structure formed by two semicircular sections and two flat plates. In this system, a flexural standing wave is generated along the ring structure, producing an acoustic standing wave between the vibrating ring and a plane reflector located at a distance of approximately a half wavelength from the ring. The acoustic standing wave in air has a series of pressure nodes, where small particles can be levitated and transported. The ring-type transportation system was designed and analyzed by using the finite element method. Additionally, a prototype was built and the acoustic levitation and transport of a small polystyrene particle was demonstrated.

  19. Pneumatic transport devices based on the ARS equipment set for activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, I.V.; Ivanets, V.N.; Rogachev, V.M.; Zakharov, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    The AGIDEL and ARS-28G facilities manufactured on the basis of a set of standardized and aggregated products for activation analysis are described. The AGIDEL is designed for automatic activation analysis of relatively homogeneous samples from oil boreholes. The ARS-28G is designed for transporting the test samples during activation analysis, using a fast-neutron generator. Structurally, the ARS-28 is based on a pneumatic transportation system with two independenhat transport cnnels and a two-channel rotating irradiation unit. The analyzed samples are transported in polyethylene containers, which are moved by compressed air. The facility has been successfully tested and is used in an automated system for multielement activation analysis

  20. Heart rate and exercise: An evidence based interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Bezerra de Almeida

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available a manner as to facilitate clinical and epidemiological interpretation, and its use for prescribing exercise. At rest, HR can be considered a marker of subjects’ autonomic condition, but despite being affected by maximal aerobic power, neither should not be used for estimating the other. It is possible for HR to increase rapidly within just few seconds of exercise as a result of the vagal inhibition refl ex. This kind of situation is quite common in sports in which movements may be short and sudden, such as judo and tennis, and this information could be used for detecting sports talent. During prolonged exercise, HR tends to follow the level of intensity of effort, especially in continuous exercise. Maximum HR determined by equations exhibits signifi cant estimation errors and should be used with caution. Higher values suggest a better prognosis in terms of risk of mortality. Fast recovery of baseline HR after exercise, while indicating low cardiovascular risk, does not necessarily denote good aerobic fi tness. Evidence also suggests that resistance exercises evoke a lower cardiovascular response than endurance exercises. In conclusion, the utilization of HR for the purposes of diagnosis, prognosis or exercise prescription should be evidence based, in order to diminish the risk of interpretation errors, and also to increase applicability. RESUMO Nosso objetivo foi apresentar e discutir a resposta da freqüência cardíaca (FC de modo a favorecer sua interpretação clínica, epidemiológica e para a prescrição do exercício. Em repouso, a FC é um indicador da condição autonômica do indivíduo, e que apesar de ser infl uenciada pela potência aeróbia máxima, não deve ser utilizada para sua determinação. A FC pode aumentar bastante em apenas poucos segundos de exercício em decorrência do refl exo de inibição vagal. Este tipo de situação é comum em esportes cujos movimentos podem ser súbitos e de curta duração, como o judô e

  1. Desirability and feasibility of sustainable urban transport systems. An expert-based strategic scenario approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijkamp, P.; Ouwersloot, H.; Rienstra, S.A. [Department of Spatial Economics, Faculty of Economics and Econometrics, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-09-01

    Current trends in transport indicate that the system is moving away from sustainability and that major changes are necessary to make the transport system more compatible with environmental sustainability. Main problems may occur in urban transport, where not many promising solutions are expected, while the problems are severe. In view of the great number of uncertainties, we will in our paper resort to scenarios. In the paper, expert scenarios, which lead to a sustainable transport system are constructed by applying the recently developed `Spider model`. Based on a set of distinct characteristics, leading to eight axes in the spatial, institutional, economic and social-psychological field, an evaluation framework is constructed, which visualizes the driving forces that largely influence the future of the transport system. Next, expected and desired scenarios are constructed by means of opinions of Dutch transport experts - both average scenarios and scenarios of segments of the respondents - which have been investigated by means of a survey. The expected scenarios indicate that many current trends will continue, while the transport system is largely the same as the current one. The desired scenarios on the other hand, suggest the emergence and the need for a more collective system, in which also many new modes are operating. In the paper the resulting urban transport systems are also discussed. By calculating the CO2 emissions in the average expected and desired scenario, it appears that the expected scenario does not lead to a large scale reduction of those emissions; the desired scenario however, may lead to a large scale reduction of the emissions. The conclusion is that the differences in expert opinion are small and that the road towards a sustainable (urban) transport system is still far away, although the compact city concept may perhaps offer some solution. 6 figs., 2 tabs., 18 refs.

  2. Optimal perturbations for nonlinear systems using graph-based optimal transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Piyush; Elamvazhuthi, Karthik

    2018-06-01

    We formulate and solve a class of finite-time transport and mixing problems in the set-oriented framework. The aim is to obtain optimal discrete-time perturbations in nonlinear dynamical systems to transport a specified initial measure on the phase space to a final measure in finite time. The measure is propagated under system dynamics in between the perturbations via the associated transfer operator. Each perturbation is described by a deterministic map in the measure space that implements a version of Monge-Kantorovich optimal transport with quadratic cost. Hence, the optimal solution minimizes a sum of quadratic costs on phase space transport due to the perturbations applied at specified times. The action of the transport map is approximated by a continuous pseudo-time flow on a graph, resulting in a tractable convex optimization problem. This problem is solved via state-of-the-art solvers to global optimality. We apply this algorithm to a problem of transport between measures supported on two disjoint almost-invariant sets in a chaotic fluid system, and to a finite-time optimal mixing problem by choosing the final measure to be uniform. In both cases, the optimal perturbations are found to exploit the phase space structures, such as lobe dynamics, leading to efficient global transport. As the time-horizon of the problem is increased, the optimal perturbations become increasingly localized. Hence, by combining the transfer operator approach with ideas from the theory of optimal mass transportation, we obtain a discrete-time graph-based algorithm for optimal transport and mixing in nonlinear systems.

  3. Cell cycle-dependent microtubule-based dynamic transport of cytoplasmic dynein in mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Kobayashi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cytoplasmic dynein complex is a large multi-subunit microtubule (MT-associated molecular motor involved in various cellular functions including organelle positioning, vesicle transport and cell division. However, regulatory mechanism of the cell-cycle dependent distribution of dynein has not fully been understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report live-cell imaging of cytoplasmic dynein in HeLa cells, by expressing multifunctional green fluorescent protein (mfGFP-tagged 74-kDa intermediate chain (IC74. IC74-mfGFP was successfully incorporated into functional dynein complex. In interphase, dynein moved bi-directionally along with MTs, which might carry cargos such as transport vesicles. A substantial fraction of dynein moved toward cell periphery together with EB1, a member of MT plus end-tracking proteins (+TIPs, suggesting +TIPs-mediated transport of dynein. In late-interphase and prophase, dynein was localized at the centrosomes and the radial MT array. In prometaphase and metaphase, dynein was localized at spindle MTs where it frequently moved from spindle poles toward chromosomes or cell cortex. +TIPs may be involved in the transport of spindle dyneins. Possible kinetochore and cortical dyneins were also observed. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that cytoplasmic dynein is transported to the site of action in preparation for the following cellular events, primarily by the MT-based transport. The MT-based transport may have greater advantage than simple diffusion of soluble dynein in rapid and efficient transport of the limited concentration of the protein.

  4. An overload behavior detection system for engineering transport vehicles based on deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Libo; Wu, Gang

    2018-04-01

    This paper builds an overloaded truck detect system called ITMD to help traffic department automatically identify the engineering transport vehicles (commonly known as `dirt truck') in CCTV and determine whether the truck is overloaded or not. We build the ITMD system based on the Single Shot MultiBox Detector (SSD) model. By constructing the image dataset of the truck and adjusting hyper-parameters of the original SSD neural network, we successfully trained a basic network model which the ITMD system depends on. The basic ITMD system achieves 83.01% mAP on classifying overload/non-overload truck, which is a not bad result. Still, some shortcomings of basic ITMD system have been targeted to enhance: it is easy for the ITMD system to misclassify other similar vehicle as truck. In response to this problem, we optimized the basic ITMD system, which effectively reduced basic model's false recognition rate. The optimized ITMD system achieved 86.18% mAP on the test set, which is better than the 83.01% mAP of the basic ITMD system.

  5. Cross-layer restoration with software defined networking based on IP over optical transport networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Cheng, Lei; Deng, Junni; Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Jie; Lee, Young

    2015-10-01

    The IP over optical transport network is a very promising networking architecture applied to the interconnection of geographically distributed data centers due to the performance guarantee of low delay, huge bandwidth and high reliability at a low cost. It can enable efficient resource utilization and support heterogeneous bandwidth demands in highly-available, cost-effective and energy-effective manner. In case of cross-layer link failure, to ensure a high-level quality of service (QoS) for user request after the failure becomes a research focus. In this paper, we propose a novel cross-layer restoration scheme for data center services with software defined networking based on IP over optical network. The cross-layer restoration scheme can enable joint optimization of IP network and optical network resources, and enhance the data center service restoration responsiveness to the dynamic end-to-end service demands. We quantitatively evaluate the feasibility and performances through the simulation under heavy traffic load scenario in terms of path blocking probability and path restoration latency. Numeric results show that the cross-layer restoration scheme improves the recovery success rate and minimizes the overall recovery time.

  6. Microfluidic separation of viruses from blood cells based on intrinsic transport processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao; Cheng, Xuanhong

    2011-09-01

    Clinical analysis of acute viral infection in blood requires the separation of viral particles from blood cells, since the cytoplasmic enzyme inhibits the subsequent viral detection. To facilitate this procedure in settings without access to a centrifuge, we present a microfluidic device to continuously purify bionanoparticles from cells based on their different intrinsic movements on the microscale. In this device, a biological sample is layered on top of a physiological buffer, and both fluids are transported horizontally at the same flow rate in a straight channel under laminar flow. While the micron sized particles such as cells sediment to the bottom layer with a predictable terminal velocity, the nanoparticles move vertically by diffusion. As their vertical travel distances have a different dependence on time, the micro- and nanoparticles can preferentially reside in the bottom and top layers respectively after certain residence time, yielding purified viruses. We first performed numerical analysis to predicate the particle separation and then tested the theory using suspensions of synthetic particles and biological samples. The experimental results using dilute synthetic particles closely matched the numerical analysis of a two layer flow system containing different sized particles. Similar purification was achieved using diluted blood spiked with human immunodeficiency virus. However, viral purification in whole blood is compromised due to extensive bioparticle collisions. With the parallelization and automation potential offered by microfluidics, this device has the potential to function as an upstream sample preparation module to continuously provide cell depleted bio-nanoparticles for downstream analysis.

  7. Effective pollutant emission heights for atmospheric transport modelling based on real-world information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregger, Thomas; Friedrich, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Emission data needed as input for the operation of atmospheric models should not only be spatially and temporally resolved. Another important feature is the effective emission height which significantly influences modelled concentration values. Unfortunately this information, which is especially relevant for large point sources, is usually not available and simple assumptions are often used in atmospheric models. As a contribution to improve knowledge on emission heights this paper provides typical default values for the driving parameters stack height and flue gas temperature, velocity and flow rate for different industrial sources. The results were derived from an analysis of the probably most comprehensive database of real-world stack information existing in Europe based on German industrial data. A bottom-up calculation of effective emission heights applying equations used for Gaussian dispersion models shows significant differences depending on source and air pollutant and compared to approaches currently used for atmospheric transport modelling. - The comprehensive analysis of real-world stack data provides detailed default parameter values for improving vertical emission distribution in atmospheric modelling

  8. Projection-Based Adaptive Backstepping Control of a Transport Aircraft for Heavyweight Airdrop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ri Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An autopilot inner loop that combines backstepping control with adaptive function approximation is developed for airdrop operations. The complex nonlinear uncertainty of the aircraft-cargo model is factorized into a known matrix and an uncertainty function, and a projection-based adaptive approach is proposed to estimate this function. Using projection in the adaptation law bounds the estimated function and guarantees the robustness of the controller against time-varying external disturbances and uncertainties. The convergence properties and robustness of the control method are proved via Lyapunov theory. Simulations are conducted under the condition that one transport aircraft performs a maximum load airdrop task at a height of 82 ft, using single row single platform mode. The results show good performance and robust operation of the controller, and the airdrop mission performance indexes are satisfied, even in the presence of ±15% uncertainty in the aerodynamic coefficients, ±0.01 rad/s pitch rate disturbance, and 20% actuators faults.

  9. Graphical-based construction of combinatorial geometries for radiation transport and shielding applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    A graphical-based code system is being developed at ORNL to manipulate combinatorial geometries for radiation transport and shielding applications. The current version (basically a combinatorial geometry debugger) consists of two parts: a FORTRAN-based ''view'' generator and a Microsoft Windows application for displaying the geometry. Options and features of both modules are discussed. Examples illustrating the various options available are presented. The potential for utilizing the images produced using the debugger as a visualization tool for the output of the radiation transport codes is discussed as is the future direction of the development

  10. Spin-polarized transport properties of a pyridinium-based molecular spintronics device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Xu, B.; Qin, Z.

    2018-05-01

    By applying a first-principles approach based on non-equilibrium Green's functions combined with density functional theory, the transport properties of a pyridinium-based "radical-π-radical" molecular spintronics device are investigated. The obvious negative differential resistance (NDR) and spin current polarization (SCP) effect, and abnormal magnetoresistance (MR) are obtained. Orbital reconstruction is responsible for novel transport properties such as that the MR increases with bias and then decreases and that the NDR being present for both parallel and antiparallel magnetization configurations, which may have future applications in the field of molecular spintronics.

  11. Neutron transport study based on assembly modular ray tracing MOC method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Chao; Zheng Youqi; Li Yunzhao; Li Shuo; Chai Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    It is difficulty for the MOC method based on Cell Modular Ray Tracing to deal with the irregular geometry such as the water gap between the PWR lattices. Hence, the neutron transport code NECP-Medlar based on Assembly Modular Ray Tracing is developed. CMFD method is used to accelerate the transport calculation. The numerical results of the 2D C5G7 benchmark and typical PWR lattice prove that NECP-Medlar has an excellent performance in terms of accuracy and efficiency. Besides, NECP-Medlar can describe clearly the flux distribution of the lattice with water gap. (authors)

  12. Activity Development for Intersection Operations The National Transportation Curriculum Project : Developing Activity-Based Learning Modules for the Introductory Transportation Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this work was to develop activity-based learning materials for the introductory transportation engineering course : with the purpose of increasing student understanding and concept retention. These materials were to cover intersection : o...

  13. Individual Travel Behavior Modeling of Public Transport Passenger Based on Graph Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Liang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method for mining the individual travel behavior regularity of different public transport passengers through constructing travel behavior graph based model. The individual travel behavior graph is developed to represent spatial positions, time distributions, and travel routes and further forecasts the public transport passenger’s behavior choice. The proposed travel behavior graph is composed of macronodes, arcs, and transfer probability. Each macronode corresponds to a travel association map and represents a travel behavior. A travel association map also contains its own nodes. The nodes of a travel association map are created when the processed travel chain data shows significant change. Thus, each node of three layers represents a significant change of spatial travel positions, travel time, and routes, respectively. Since a travel association map represents a travel behavior, the graph can be considered a sequence of travel behaviors. Through integrating travel association map and calculating the probabilities of the arcs, it is possible to construct a unique travel behavior graph for each passenger. The data used in this study are multimode data matched by certain rules based on the data of public transport smart card transactions and network features. The case study results show that graph based method to model the individual travel behavior of public transport passengers is effective and feasible. Travel behavior graphs support customized public transport travel characteristics analysis and demand prediction.

  14. BIM-Based Decision Support System for Material Selection Based on Supplier Rating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiola Akanmu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Material selection is a delicate process, typically hinged on a number of factors which can be either cost or environmental related. This process becomes more complicated when designers are faced with several material options of building elements and each option can be supplied by different suppliers whose selection criteria may affect the budgetary and environmental requirements of the project. This paper presents the development of a decision support system based on the integration of building information models, a modified harmony search algorithm and supplier performance rating. The system is capable of producing the cost and environmental implications of different material combinations or building designs. A case study is presented to illustrate the functionality of the developed system.

  15. Spirobifluorene Core-Based Novel Hole Transporting Materials for Red Phosphorescence OLEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanaskanda Braveenth

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new hole transporting materials, named HTM 1A and HTM 1B, were designed and synthesized in significant yields using the well-known Buchwald Hartwig and Suzuki cross- coupling reactions. Both materials showed higher decomposition temperatures (over 450 °C at 5% weight reduction and HTM 1B exhibited a higher glass transition temperature of 180 °C. Red phosphorescence-based OLED devices were fabricated to analyze the device performances compared to Spiro-NPB and NPB as reference hole transporting materials. Devices consist of hole transporting material as HTM 1B showed better maximum current and power efficiencies of 16.16 cd/A and 11.17 lm/W, at the same time it revealed an improved external quantum efficiency of 13.64%. This efficiency is considerably higher than that of Spiro-NPB and NPB-based reference devices.

  16. Thermoelectric Transport by Surface States in Bi2Se3-Based Topological Insulator Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Long-Long; Xu Wen

    2015-01-01

    We develop a tractable theoretical model to investigate the thermoelectric (TE) transport properties of surface states in topological insulator thin films (TITFs) of Bi 2 Se 3 at room temperature. The hybridization between top and bottom surface states in the TITF plays a significant role. With the increasing hybridization-induced surface gap, the electrical conductivity and electron thermal conductivity decrease while the Seebeck coefficient increases. This is due to the metal-semiconductor transition induced by the surface-state hybridization. Based on these TE transport coefficients, the TE figure-of-merit ZT is evaluated. It is shown that ZT can be greatly improved by the surface-state hybridization. Our theoretical results are pertinent to the exploration of the TE transport properties of surface states in TITFs and to the potential application of Bi 2 Se 3 -based TITFs as high-performance TE materials and devices. (paper)

  17. User-based representation of time-resolved multimodal public transportation networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandretti, Laura; Karsai, Márton; Gauvin, Laetitia

    2016-07-01

    Multimodal transportation systems, with several coexisting services like bus, tram and metro, can be represented as time-resolved multilayer networks where the different transportation modes connecting the same set of nodes are associated with distinct network layers. Their quantitative description became possible recently due to openly accessible datasets describing the geo-localized transportation dynamics of large urban areas. Advancements call for novel analytics, which combines earlier established methods and exploits the inherent complexity of the data. Here, we provide a novel user-based representation of public transportation systems, which combines representations, accounting for the presence of multiple lines and reducing the effect of spatial embeddedness, while considering the total travel time, its variability across the schedule, and taking into account the number of transfers necessary. After the adjustment of earlier techniques to the novel representation framework, we analyse the public transportation systems of several French municipal areas and identify hidden patterns of privileged connections. Furthermore, we study their efficiency as compared to the commuting flow. The proposed representation could help to enhance resilience of local transportation systems to provide better design policies for future developments.

  18. Cost optimization of a real-time GIS-based management system for hazardous waste transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Lin, Che-Jen; Zhong, Yilong; Zhou, Qing; Lin, Che-Jen; Chen, Chunyi

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, the design and cost analysis of a real-time, geographical information system (GIS) based management system for hazardous waste transportation are described. The implementation of such a system can effectively prevent illegal dumping and perform emergency responses during the transportation of hazardous wastes. A case study was conducted in Guangzhou, China to build a small-scale, real-time management system for waste transportation. Two alternatives were evaluated in terms of system capability and cost structure. Alternative I was the building of a complete real-time monitoring and management system in a governing agency; whereas alternative II was the combination of the existing management framework with a commercial Telematics service to achieve the desired level of monitoring and management. The technological framework under consideration included locating transportation vehicles using a global positioning system (GPS), exchanging vehicle location data via the Internet and Intranet, managing hazardous waste transportation using a government management system and responding to emergencies during transportation. Analysis of the cost structure showed that alternative II lowered the capital and operation cost by 38 and 56% in comparison with alternative I. It is demonstrated that efficient management can be achieved through integration of the existing technological components with additional cost benefits being achieved by streamlined software interfacing.

  19. Investigating Environmentally Sustainable Transport Based on DALY weights and SIR Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Nezamianpour Jahromi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility is one of the main causes of well-being and growth in contemporary societies. Transportation is the backbone of accessibility systems that lead to the growth of economic and social networks and spatial dispersion of activities. Unfortunately, the adverse effects of transportation have a great impact on the natural and human environment. Since transportation is associated with fossil fuel combustion, it results in emissions of pollutants that cause damage to human health. To save the global eco-system, sustainable development has become an international priority. To deal with the sustainability of transportation systems is an important issue as testified by a growing number of initiatives framed to define and measure sustainability in transportation planning and infrastructure planning as well. The capability of environmental assessment as a sustainability instrument is well known. This study proposes a new approach to rank countries based on environmental sustainability development applying disability adjusted life year (DALY weights for transportation sector emissions. DALY weights consider actual impacts of pollutants on human health. By employing SIR method, a superiority and inferiority ranking method is presented for multiple criteria decision making, the sustainability ranking of a number of European countries is presented. Three various ranking methods extracted from SIR ranking method are discussed and the results and the correlation among them are demonstrated.

  20. Sediment transport modelling in a distributed physically based hydrological catchment model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Konz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bedload sediment transport and erosion processes in channels are important components of water induced natural hazards in alpine environments. A raster based distributed hydrological model, TOPKAPI, has been further developed to support continuous simulations of river bed erosion and deposition processes. The hydrological model simulates all relevant components of the water cycle and non-linear reservoir methods are applied for water fluxes in the soil, on the ground surface and in the channel. The sediment transport simulations are performed on a sub-grid level, which allows for a better discretization of the channel geometry, whereas water fluxes are calculated on the grid level in order to be CPU efficient. Several transport equations as well as the effects of an armour layer on the transport threshold discharge are considered. Flow resistance due to macro roughness is also considered. The advantage of this approach is the integrated simulation of the entire basin runoff response combined with hillslope-channel coupled erosion and transport simulation. The comparison with the modelling tool SETRAC demonstrates the reliability of the modelling concept. The devised technique is very fast and of comparable accuracy to the more specialised sediment transport model SETRAC.

  1. Demand estimation of bus as a public transport based on gravity model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmael Noor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus as a public transport is a suitable service to meet the travel demand between any two zones. Baghdad faced with severe traffic problems along with the development in city size and economy. Passengers have to wait lots of time during commutation to work because of the serious traffic jams. In the last years, rate of car ownership has increased as income levels have gone up and cars have become a preferable mode of transport. Bus, as the only public mode of transport available, is suffering from inconvenience, slowness, and inflexibility. A big emphasis must be given to the public transport system because it introduces an active utilization of limited resources, energy and land. This study determines the demand of public routes for buses using boarding / alighting values to generate a model and assign these demand values to the bus network. Five public routes were selected to collect the required data. Ride check and Point check survey was conducted for each selected route. The results of this study were public demand assigned to the selected bus routes, dwell time, load factor and headway. It is observed that R1 and R3 have the heaviest travel demand; they need special study to improve bus performance and make better transit. The model developed with only limited data available to predict travel demand will assist transportation planners and related agencies in decision making.

  2. 78 FR 18252 - Prevailing Rate Systems; North American Industry Classification System Based Federal Wage System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ...-AM78 Prevailing Rate Systems; North American Industry Classification System Based Federal Wage System... applicable sections. The Federal Prevailing Rate Advisory Committee, the national labor- management committee... proposing to amend 5 CFR part 532 as follows: PART 532--PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS 0 1. The authority citation...

  3. A rate-compatible family of protograph-based LDPC codes built by expurgation and lengthening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinar, Sam

    2005-01-01

    We construct a protograph-based rate-compatible family of low-density parity-check codes that cover a very wide range of rates from 1/2 to 16/17, perform within about 0.5 dB of their capacity limits for all rates, and can be decoded conveniently and efficiently with a common hardware implementation.

  4. Effects of Personalization and Invitation Email Length on Web-Based Survey Response Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trespalacios, Jesús H.; Perkins, Ross A.

    2016-01-01

    Individual strategies to increase response rate and survey completion have been extensively researched. Recently, efforts have been made to investigate a combination of interventions to yield better response rates for web-based surveys. This study examined the effects of four different survey invitation conditions on response rate. From a large…

  5. Preparation of TiO2-based nanotubes/nanoparticles composite thin film electrodes for their electron transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Wanyu; Fu, Wuyou; Chen, Jingkuo; Li, Huayang; Bala, Hari; Wang, Xiaodong; Sun, Guang; Cao, Jianliang; Zhang, Zhanying

    2015-01-01

    The composite thin film electrodes were prepared with one-dimensional (1D) TiO 2 -B nanotubes (NTs) and zero-dimensional TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) based on different weight ratios. The electron transport properties of the NTs/NPs composite thin film electrodes applied for dye-sensitized solar cells had been investigated systematically. The results indicated that although the amount of dye adsorption decreased slightly, the devices with the NTs/NPs composite thin film electrodes could obtain higher open-circuit voltage and overall conversion efficiency compared to devices with pure TiO 2 NPs electrodes by rational tuning the weight ratio of TiO 2 -B NTs and TiO 2 NPs. When the weight ratio of TiO 2 -B NTs in the NTs/NPs composite thin film electrodes increased, the density of states and recombination rate decreased. The 1D structure of TiO 2 -B NTs can provide direct paths for electron transport, resulting in higher electron lifetime, electron diffusion coefficient and electron diffusion length. The composite thin film electrodes possess the merits of the rapid electron transport of TiO 2 -B NTs and the high surface area of TiO 2 NPs, which has great applied potential in the field of photovoltaic devices. - Highlights: • The composite thin film electrodes (CTFEs) were prepared with nanotubes and nanoparticles. • The CTFEs possess the rapid electron transport and high surface area. • The CTFEs exhibit lower recombination rate and longer electron life time. • The CTFEs have great applied potential in the field of photovoltaic devices

  6. Adaptive Green-Kubo estimates of transport coefficients from molecular dynamics based on robust error analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Reese E.; Mandadapu, Kranthi K.

    2012-04-01

    We present a rigorous Green-Kubo methodology for calculating transport coefficients based on on-the-fly estimates of: (a) statistical stationarity of the relevant process, and (b) error in the resulting coefficient. The methodology uses time samples efficiently across an ensemble of parallel replicas to yield accurate estimates, which is particularly useful for estimating the thermal conductivity of semi-conductors near their Debye temperatures where the characteristic decay times of the heat flux correlation functions are large. Employing and extending the error analysis of Zwanzig and Ailawadi [Phys. Rev. 182, 280 (1969)], 10.1103/PhysRev.182.280 and Frenkel [in Proceedings of the International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi", Course LXXV (North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1980)] to the integral of correlation, we are able to provide tight theoretical bounds for the error in the estimate of the transport coefficient. To demonstrate the performance of the method, four test cases of increasing computational cost and complexity are presented: the viscosity of Ar and water, and the thermal conductivity of Si and GaN. In addition to producing accurate estimates of the transport coefficients for these materials, this work demonstrates precise agreement of the computed variances in the estimates of the correlation and the transport coefficient with the extended theory based on the assumption that fluctuations follow a Gaussian process. The proposed algorithm in conjunction with the extended theory enables the calculation of transport coefficients with the Green-Kubo method accurately and efficiently.

  7. Electronic and transport properties of Cobalt-based valence tautomeric molecules and polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yifeng; Calzolari, Arrigo; Buongiorno Nardelli, Marco

    2011-03-01

    The advancement of molecular spintronics requires further understandings of the fundamental electronic structures and transport properties of prototypical spintronics molecules and polymers. Here we present a density functional based theoretical study of the electronic structures of Cobalt-based valence tautomeric molecules Co III (SQ)(Cat)L Co II (SQ)2 L and their polymers, where SQ refers to the semiquinone ligand, and Cat the catecholate ligand, while L is a redox innocent backbone ligand. The conversion from low-spin Co III ground state to high-spin Co II excited state is realized by imposing an on-site potential U on the Co atom and elongating the Co-N bond. Transport properties are subsequently calculated by extracting electronic Wannier functions from these systems and computing the charge transport in the ballistic regime using a Non-Equilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) approach. Our transport results show distinct charge transport properties between low-spin ground state and high-spin excited state, hence suggesting potential spintronics devices from these molecules and polymers such as spin valves.

  8. Succeeding criteria of community based on land transportation infrastructure for Johor innovation valley development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redzuan, Amir A.; Aminudin, Eeydzah; Zakaria, Rozana; Ghazali, Farid Ezanee Mohamed; Baharudin, Nur Azwa Amyra; Siang, Lee Yong

    2017-10-01

    Developing countries around the world have developed innovative centre, or known as innovation hub, to meet the demand of today's changing global competitive environment. The shift of economic sector from manufacturing to services has allowed numerous regions and cities around the world to undergo major structural changes. In Malaysia, Skudai area is on its way of becoming a community-based innovation hub under the Johor State Economic Growth Strategic Plan called Johor Innovation Valley (JIV). Towards this new-city concept, land transportation infrastructure is among the most important network in being a linkage to the source of contribution in enhancing the local innovative environment. This paper highlights the requirement of land transportation infrastructure criteria that would be effective in making Skudai a community-based innovation hub. Data were collected through survey questionnaires involving stakeholders with the knowledge of land transportation infrastructure who also lives within the area. Descriptive analysis was employed with further rank breakdown using Average Index analysis. The findings distinguish the differences between each criteria of land transportation infrastructure. Change in traffic system, easier accessibility to one place to another and attraction to outside investor are among the impacts of growth of JIV. This paper concluded that selected requirement of land transportation infrastructure criteria is necessary for future contribution towards the growth of the JIV.

  9. A punctual flux estimator and reactions rates optimization in neutral particles transport calculus by the Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authier, N.

    1998-12-01

    One of the questions asked in radiation shielding problems is the estimation of the radiation level in particular to determine accessibility of working persons in controlled area (nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel reprocessing plants) or to study the dose gradients encountered in material (iron nuclear vessel, medical therapy, electronics in satellite). The flux and reaction rate estimators used in Monte Carlo codes give average values in volumes or on surfaces of the geometrical description of the system. But in certain configurations, the knowledge of punctual deposited energy and dose estimates are necessary. The Monte Carlo estimate of the flux at a point of interest is a calculus which presents an unbounded variance. The central limit theorem cannot be applied thus no easy confidence level may be calculated. The convergence rate is then very poor. We propose in this study a new solution for the photon flux at a point estimator. The method is based on the 'once more collided flux estimator' developed earlier for neutron calculations. It solves the problem of the unbounded variance and do not add any bias to the estimation. We show however that our new sampling schemes specially developed to treat the anisotropy of the photon coherent scattering is necessary for a good and regular behavior of the estimator. This developments integrated in the TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo code add the possibility of an unbiased punctual estimate on media interfaces. (author)

  10. 5 CFR 9901.312 - Maximum rates of base salary and adjusted salary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum rates of base salary and adjusted salary. 9901.312 Section 9901.312 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES....312 Maximum rates of base salary and adjusted salary. (a) Subject to § 9901.105, the Secretary may...

  11. The base rate controversy : is the glass half-full or half-empty?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keren, G.; Thijs, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    Setting the two hypotheses of complete neglect and full use of base rates against each other is inappropriate. The proper question concerns the degree to which base rates are used (or neglected), and under what conditions. We outline alternative approaches and recommend regression analysis.

  12. 77 FR 48148 - Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2413-000] Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

  13. 78 FR 49508 - Tesoro Refining & Marketing Company LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... Refining & Marketing Company LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes... proceeding of Tesoro Refining & Marketing Company LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an... of protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov...

  14. 75 FR 35017 - Brookfield Energy Marketing LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Energy Marketing LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding of Brookfield Energy Marketing LP's application for market-based rate authority, with an... protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To...

  15. 78 FR 16262 - Tesoro Refining & Marketing Company LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Refining & Marketing Company LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes... proceeding, of Tesoro Refining & Marketing Company LLC's application for market- based rate authority, with... submission of protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov...

  16. 75 FR 74711 - Planet Energy (Pennsylvania) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2167-000] Planet Energy (Pennsylvania) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding, of Planet Energy (Pennsylvania) Corp.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  17. 75 FR 74712 - Planet Energy (Maryland) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2168-000] Planet Energy (Maryland) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding, of Planet Energy (Maryland) Corp.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  18. 18 CFR 284.502 - Procedures for applying for market-based rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for applying for market-based rates. 284.502 Section 284.502 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Applications for Market-Based Rates for Storage § 284.502...

  19. 76 FR 6128 - Energy Exchange International, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2730-000] Energy Exchange International, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding Energy Exchange International, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  20. 75 FR 41855 - Stream Energy Pennsylvania, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1750-000] Stream Energy Pennsylvania, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of Stream Energy Pennsylvania, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  1. 78 FR 28214 - Gainesville Renewable Energy Center, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1348-000] Gainesville Renewable Energy Center, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Gainesville Renewable Energy Center, LLC's application for market- based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  2. 77 FR 64980 - Chesapeake Renewable Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-28-000] Chesapeake Renewable Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Chesapeake Renewable Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  3. 77 FR 52016 - Brookfield Smoky Mountain Hydropower LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2447-001] Brookfield Smoky Mountain Hydropower LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes... proceeding, of Brookfield Smoky Mountain Hydropower LLC's application for market- based rate authority, with...

  4. 76 FR 12726 - Tropicana Manufacturing Company, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... . To facilitate electronic service, persons with Internet access who will eFile a document and/or be... Manufacturing Company, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Tropicana Manufacturing Company, Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  5. Continuous weighing of conveyor-transported materials based on gamma radiation conversion to electric current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle is described of the continuous weighing of conveyer-transported materials applied in the food industry. The weighing technique is based on the measurement of the absorption of gamma radiation emitted by a source located behind the material to be scaled. (Z.M.)

  6. The Sustainable Mobility Learning Laboratory: Interactive Web-Based Education on Transportation and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Lisa A.; Marr, Linsey C.; Linford, John C.; Darby, Mary Ashburn

    2008-01-01

    The transportation field has for many years been dominated by engineers and other technical specialists. This article describes the Sustainable Mobility Learning Lab (SMLL), a Web-based tool designed to support classroom and university outreach activities to help initiate a more inclusive, nontechnical discussion about the role of transportation…

  7. A Case Study: Problem-Based Learning for Civil Engineering Students in Transportation Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes two case studies where problem-based learning (PBL) has been introduced to undergraduate civil engineering students in University College Dublin. PBL has recently been put in place in the penultimate and final year transport engineering classes in the civil engineering degree in University College Dublin. In this case study,…

  8. Electronic transport in graphene-based structures: An effective cross-section approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uppstu, Andreas; Saloriutta, Karri; Harju, Ari

    2012-01-01

    We show that transport in low-dimensional carbon structures with finite concentrations of scatterers can be modeled by utilizing scaling theory and effective cross sections. Our results are based on large-scale numerical simulations of carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons, using a tight...

  9. Silicon based nanogap device for investigating electronic transport through 12 nm long oligomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strobel, S.; Albert, E.; Csaba, G.

    2009-01-01

    We have fabricated vertical nanogap electrode devices based on Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) substrates for investigating the electronic transport properties of long, conjugated molecular wires. Our nanogap electrode devices comprise smooth metallic contact pairs situated at the sidewall of an SOI s...

  10. Innovative alpha radioactivity monitor for clearance level inspection based on ionized air transport technology (2). CFD-simulated and experimental ion transport efficiencies for uranium-attached pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yosuke; Nakahara, Katsuhiko; Sano, Akira; Sato, Mitsuyoshi; Aoyama, Yoshio; Miyamoto, Yasuaki; Yamaguchi, Hiromi; Nanbu, Kenichi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Oda, Akinori

    2007-01-01

    An innovative alpha radioactivity monitor for clearance level inspection has been developed. This apparatus measures an ion current resulting from air ionization by alpha particles. Ions generated in the measurement chamber of about 1 m 3 in volume are transported by airflow to a sensor and measured. This paper presents computational estimation of ion transport efficiencies for two pipes with different lengths, the inner surfaces of which were covered with a thin layer of uranium. These ion transport efficiencies were compared with those experimentally obtained for the purpose of our model validation. Good agreement was observed between transport efficiencies from simulations and those experimentally estimated. Dependence of the transport efficiencies on the region of uranium coating was also examined, based on which anticipated errors arising from unclear positions of contamination are also discussed. (author)

  11. Combining rate-based and cap-and-trade emissions policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Carolyn

    2003-12-01

    Rate-based emissions policies (like tradable performance standards, TPS) fix average emissions intensity, while cap-and-trade (CAT) policies fix total emissions. This paper shows that unfettered trade between rate-based and cap-and-trade programs always raises combined emissions, except when product markets are related in particular ways. Gains from trade are fully passed on to consumers in the rate-based sector, resulting in more output and greater emissions allocations. We consider several policy options to offset the expansion, including a tax, an 'exchange rate' to adjust for relative permit values, output-based allocation (OBA) for the rate-based sector, and tightening the cap. A range of combinations of tighter allocations could improve situations in both sectors with trade while holding emissions constant

  12. Study on leakage rates of high temperature water from wet-type transport casks for spent fuel. Pt. 2. Leakage rates from a scratch on O-ring surface and narrow wires adhering to O-ring surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, R.; Aritomi, M.; Sudi, A.; Kohketsu, Y.

    1997-01-01

    A programme for enhancement of fuel burnup has been promoted in Japan as part of the sophisticated programme for light water reactors to reduce the fuel cost and the amount of spent fuel. As part of this fuel programme, a new wet-type transport cask has been developed to transport the high burnup fuels efficiently. The purpose of this work is to clarify the margin of safety in the evaluation of the release rate of radioactive materials from the wet-type transport cask into the environment and to establish a practical evaluation method for leakage rates on leak behaviour of high temperature water from the casks. In this paper, leakage rates of water under high pressures and at high temperatures are investigated from two kinds of leak path model. One is a disc with a scratch on the surface which simulates a defect on the seal surface of the O-ring flange and the other is narrow stainless steel wires installed on the O-ring surface which simulates hair adhering to the O-ring surface. From the results, an evaluation method for the leakage rate of water under high pressure and at high temperature from a non-circular leak path and multiple leak paths is proposed. (author)

  13. Management of marine cage aquaculture. Environmental carrying capacity method based on dry feed conversion rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huiwen; Sun, Yinglan

    2007-11-01

    Marine cage aquaculture produces a large amount of waste that is released directly into the environment. To effectively manage the mariculture environment, it is important to determine the carrying capacity of an aquaculture area. In many Asian countries trash fish is dominantly used in marine cage aquaculture, which contains more water than pellet feed. The traditional nutrient loading analysis is for pellet feed not for trash fish feed. So, a more critical analysis is necessary in trash fish feed culturing areas. Corresponding to FCR (feed conversion rate), dry feed conversion rate (DFCR) was used to analyze the nutrient loadings from marine cage aquaculture where trash fish is used. Based on the hydrodynamic model and the mass transport model in Xiangshan Harbor, the relationship between the water quality and the waste discharged from cage aquaculture has been determined. The environmental carrying capacity of the aquaculture sea area was calculated by applying the models noted above. Nitrogen and phosphorus are the water quality parameters considered in this study. The simulated results show that the maximum nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were 0.216 mg/L and 0.039 mg/L, respectively. In most of the sea area, the nutrient concentrations were higher than the water quality standard. The calculated environmental carrying capacity of nitrogen and phosphorus in Xiangshan Harbor were 1,107.37 t/yr and 134.35 t/yr, respectively. The waste generated from cage culturing in 2000 has already exceeded the environmental carrying capacity. Unconsumed feed has been identified as the most important origin of all pollutants in cage culturing systems. It suggests the importance of increasing the feed utilization and improving the feed composition on the basis of nutrient requirement. For the sustainable development of the aquaculture industry, it is an effective management measure to keep the stocking density and pollution loadings below the environmental carrying

  14. Transportation cost of nuclear off-peak power for hydrogen production based on water electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Saburo; Ueno, Shuichi

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes transportation cost of the nuclear off-peak power for a hydrogen production based on water electrolysis in Japan. The power could be obtainable by substituting hydropower and/or fossil fueled power supplying peak and middle demands with nuclear power. The transportation cost of the off-peak power was evaluated to be 1.42 yen/kWh when an electrolyser receives the off-peak power from a 6kV distribution wire. Marked reduction of the cost was caused by the increase of the capacity factor. (author)

  15. Outsourcing strategy selection for transportation services based on the Make or Buy decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria CIEŚLA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is related to the practical approach to logistics strategies in enterprises and advanced practical applications. This article presents an analysis and solution to a specific problem, which is the subject of transport in the enterprise. It presents an analysis based on Make-or-Buy decision involving the selection of best internal or external transport service. It will be used for an exemplary production company. This case study presents the basis for the construction of logistics strategy of the company as a competitive advantage in the market.

  16. Accessibility of islands: towards a new geography based on transportation modes and choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Karampela

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility is a multifaceted concept that expresses the case of access between two points in space. For islands, accessibility is a key quality, since isolation and small size considered as inherent characteristics of “islandness”. In this paper, we discuss differences between geographical distance and accessibility potential in the Greek Aegean, combining different transportation modal choice (ferries and airplanes with the use of an accessibility index that incorporates modes and frequency of connection and data of actual usage. The findings indicate that geographical distance is not determining accessibility and new geographies emerge based more on the availability of transport modal choices.

  17. Morphology and transport in biodegradable polymer compositions based on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and polyamide 54C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhul' kina, A. L.; Ivantsova, E. L.; Filatova, A. G.; Kosenko, R. Yu.; Gumargalieva, K. Z.; Iordanskii, A. L., E-mail: iordan@chph.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-15

    Complex investigation of the equilibrium sorption of water, diffusive transport of antiseptic, and morphology of mixed compositions based on polyoxybutirate and polyamide resin 54C has been performed to develop and analyze new biodegradable polymer compositions for controlled release of medicinal substances. Samples of mixtures were prepared by two methods: pressing under pressure and solvent evaporation from a polymer solution. The samples were compared and their morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. It is shown that the component ratio in the obtained mixtures affects their morphological, transport, and sorption characteristics.

  18. Morphology and transport in biodegradable polymer compositions based on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and polyamide 54C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhul'kina, A. L.; Ivantsova, E. L.; Filatova, A. G.; Kosenko, R. Yu.; Gumargalieva, K. Z.; Iordanskii, A. L.

    2009-01-01

    Complex investigation of the equilibrium sorption of water, diffusive transport of antiseptic, and morphology of mixed compositions based on polyoxybutirate and polyamide resin 54C has been performed to develop and analyze new biodegradable polymer compositions for controlled release of medicinal substances. Samples of mixtures were prepared by two methods: pressing under pressure and solvent evaporation from a polymer solution. The samples were compared and their morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. It is shown that the component ratio in the obtained mixtures affects their morphological, transport, and sorption characteristics.

  19. Entropy-based critical reaction time for mixing-controlled reactive transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiogna, Gabriele; Rolle, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Entropy-based metrics, such as the dilution index, have been proposed to quantify dilution and reactive mixing in solute transport problems. In this work, we derive the transient advection dispersion equation for the entropy density of a reactive plume. We restrict our analysis to the case where...... the concentration distribution of the transported species is Gaussian and we observe that, even in case of an instantaneous complete bimolecular reaction, dilution caused by dispersive processes dominates the entropy balance at early times and results in the net increase of the entropy density of a reactive species...

  20. Hole transport in c-plane InGaN-based green laser diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yang; Liu, Jianping, E-mail: jpliu2010@sinano.ac.cn; Tian, Aiqin; Zhang, Feng; Feng, Meixin; Hu, Weiwei; Zhang, Shuming; Ikeda, Masao; Li, Deyao; Zhang, Liqun; Yang, Hui [Key Lab of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Suzhou 215123 (China); School of Nano Technology and Nano Bionics, University of Science and Technology of China, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2016-08-29

    Hole transport in c-plane InGaN-based green laser diodes (LDs) has been investigated by both simulations and experiments. It is found that holes can overflow from the green double quantum wells (DQWs) at high current density, which reduces carrier injection efficiency of c-plane InGaN-based green LDs. A heavily silicon-doped layer right below the green DQWs can effectively suppress hole overflow from the green DQWs.

  1. Numerical Upscaling of Solute Transport in Fractured Porous Media Based on Flow Aligned Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leube, P.; Nowak, W.; Sanchez-Vila, X.

    2013-12-01

    High-contrast or fractured-porous media (FPM) pose one of the largest unresolved challenges for simulating large hydrogeological systems. The high contrast in advective transport between fast conduits and low-permeability rock matrix, including complex mass transfer processes, leads to the typical complex characteristics of early bulk arrivals and long tailings. Adequate direct representation of FPM requires enormous numerical resolutions. For large scales, e.g. the catchment scale, and when allowing for uncertainty in the fracture network architecture or in matrix properties, computational costs quickly reach an intractable level. In such cases, multi-scale simulation techniques have become useful tools. They allow decreasing the complexity of models by aggregating and transferring their parameters to coarser scales and so drastically reduce the computational costs. However, these advantages come at a loss of detail and accuracy. In this work, we develop and test a new multi-scale or upscaled modeling approach based on block upscaling. The novelty is that individual blocks are defined by and aligned with the local flow coordinates. We choose a multi-rate mass transfer (MRMT) model to represent the remaining sub-block non-Fickian behavior within these blocks on the coarse scale. To make the scale transition simple and to save computational costs, we capture sub-block features by temporal moments (TM) of block-wise particle arrival times to be matched with the MRMT model. By predicting spatial mass distributions of injected tracers in a synthetic test scenario, our coarse-scale solution matches reasonably well with the corresponding fine-scale reference solution. For predicting higher TM-orders (such as arrival time and effective dispersion), the prediction accuracy steadily decreases. This is compensated to some extent by the MRMT model. If the MRMT model becomes too complex, it loses its effect. We also found that prediction accuracy is sensitive to the choice of

  2. Increased transvascular escape rate and lymph drainage of albumin in pigs during intravenous diuretic medication. Relations to treatment in man and transport mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Parving, H H; Lassen, N A

    1982-01-01

    in anaesthetized pigs during control conditions and during diuretic medication (furosemide i.v. 20 mg/15 min, total 160-200 mg). During diuretic medication TERalb (mean 17.1% IVMalb X h-1, range 11.5-21, n = 6) increased significantly above the control period (mean 12.3% IVMalb X h-1, range 9.5-16.5, P less than 0.......05). Pressures in artery, right atrium, hepatic and portal veins did not change significantly from control to diuretic period. TERalb equals the lymphatic return rate of albumin provided the transport mechanisms are filtrative-convective (i.e. no local back transport). Additional measurements in five pigs...... with proteins of different molecular size confirmed a dominating filtrative-convective transport. The increased TERalb during diuretic medication is best explained by an increased lymph drainage, which may decrease interstitial fluid pressure and thereby increase the transmural capillary pressure difference...

  3. Modelling land use changes according to transportation scenarios using raster based GIS indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Morten; Münier, Bernd; Hansen, Henning Sten

    2012-01-01

    the cellular automata model LUCIA. An Eastern Danish case area was selected, comprising the Copenhagen metropolitan area and its hinterland. The different scenarios are described using a range of different GIS datasets. These include mapping of accessibility based on public and private transportation, urban....... In the EU-FP7 research project PASHMINA (Paradigm Shift modelling and innovative approaches), three storylines of future transportation paradigm shifts towards 2050 are created. These storylines are translated into spatial planning strategies and their implication on land use changes were modelled via...... in urban distribution that different spatial planning strategies may initiate, and thus change the shape of the urban landscape. The scenarios outline different planning strategies, leading to a more homogenous urban structure, targeted at a reduction of transportation work and thus energy consumption...

  4. Application of Transaction Costs in Analyzing Transport Corridors Using Multi-Agent-Based Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence E. Henesey

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In analyzing the freight transportation systems, such as thetransport of intermodal containers, often direct monetary costsassociated with transportation are used to evaluate or determinethe choice of transport corridor. In forming decisions ontransport co"idor choice, this paper proposes that transactioncosts can be considered as an additional determinant in conductingtransport corridor analysis. The application of transactioncosts theory in analyzing the organizations and the transactionsthat occur, assists in indicating as to which governancestructure results in higher efficiencies. Efficiency is seen as eitherthe minimisation on costs or the maximisation of customerservice levels. The use of multi-agent based simulation for modellingthe organisational structure and mechanisms provides anovel approach in understanding the relationships in a regionaltransport co"idor.

  5. Development of a CAD-based neutron transport code with the method of characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhenping; Wang Dianxi; He Tao; Wang Guozhong; Zheng Huaqing

    2012-01-01

    The main problem determining whether the method of characteristics (MOC) can be used in complicated and highly heterogeneous geometry is how to combine an effective geometry processing method with MOC. In this study, a new idea making use of MCAM, which is a Mutlti-Calculation Automatic Modeling for Neutronics and Radiation Transport program developed by FDS Team, for geometry description and ray tracing of particle transport was brought forward to solve the geometry problem mentioned above. Based on the theory and approach as the foregoing statement, a two dimensional neutron transport code was developed which had been integrated into VisualBUS, developed by FDS Team. Several benchmarks were used to verify the validity of the code and the numerical results were coincident with the reference values very well, which indicated the accuracy and feasibility of the method and the MOC code. (authors)

  6. Free-swimming northern elephant seals have low field metabolic rates that are sensitive to an increased cost of transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresh, Jennifer L; Simmons, Samantha E; Crocker, Daniel E

    2014-01-01

    locomotion, elephant seals had low energy requirements (106.5±28.2 kJ kg−1 day−1), approaching or even falling below predictions of basal requirements. Seals responded to a small increase in locomotion costs by spending more time resting between dives (149±44 s) compared with matched control treatments (102......Widely ranging marine predators often adopt stereotyped, energy-saving behaviours to minimize the energetic cost of transport while maximizing energy gain. Environmental and anthropogenic disturbances can disrupt energy balance by prompting avoidance behaviours that increase transport costs...

  7. Behavioral Intention to Use Public Transport Based on Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambak Kamarudin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in population generates increasing in travel demand. In Malaysia, public transport become an important modes of transport that connection people. This paper presents behavioural intention to use public transport especially public bus based on Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB. A questionnaire survey was conducted to identify factors that contribute and influence users to use public bus and to determine factor that most dominant using TPB model. A total of 282 questionnaires were distributed in selected area of Batu Pahat and Kluang. Correlation and regression analysis were used for this study. Results show that the Attitude toward public transport is the most dominant factor compared with Subjective Norm and Perceived Behavior Control that influencing users to use public bus. Majority respondents were agreed that they prefer to use public bus because it is cheap to travel and no other choices of other transfer modes. As for the recommendation, this study can be extended in future as part of strategic sustainable transportation system in Batu Pahat and Kluang areas.

  8. Synthesis and properties of a spirobifluorene-based hole-transporting material containingtert-butyl group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DING Ning

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A spirobifluorene-based compound SPF-BMO was developed as hole transporters for green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes(PhOLEDs.The synthesized material showed sufficient HOMO/LUMO bandgap and triplet energy for green emitting bis[2-(2-pyridinyl-Nphenyl-C] (acetylacetonato iridium(III [Ir (ppy2(acac].The addition of a thin layer of 4,4′,4″-tri(N-carbazolyltriphenylamine (TCTAwith a high triplet energy as an exciton-blockinglayer at hole transporter/emitter interface seems to be unnecessary.SPF-BMO showed high thermal stability due to its spiro-annulated structure.Compared with the standard green PhOLEDs,organic light-emitting diodes with SPF-BMO as the hole-transport material have improved performances such as enhanced device power efficiency andlonger stability.These results clearly demonstrate that SPF-BMO is among the best hole-transporting materials reported for green PhOLEDs and utilizing anappropriate hole transporter to construct a simplified device is a promising method to enhance the power efficiency of PhOLEDs.

  9. A European perspective on GIS-based walkability and active modes of transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasser, Gerlinde; van Dyck, Delfien; Titze, Sylvia; Stronegger, Willibald J

    2017-02-01

    The association between GIS-based walkability and walking for transport is considered to be well established in USA and in Australia. Research on the association between walkability and cycling for transport in European cities is lacking. The aim of this study was to test the predictive validity of established walkability measures and to explore alternative walkability measures associated with walking and cycling for transport in a European context. Outcome data were derived from the representative cross-sectional survey ( n  = 843) ‘Radfreundliche Stadt’ of adults in the city of Graz (Austria). GIS-based walkability was measured using both established measures (e.g. gross population density, household unit density, entropy index, three-way intersection density, IPEN walkability index) and alternative measures (e.g. proportion of mixed land use, four-way intersection density, Graz walkability index). ANCOVAs were conducted to examine the adjusted association between walkability measures and outcomes. Household unit density, proportion of mixed land use, three-way intersection density and IPEN walkability index were positively associated with walking for transport, but the other measures were not. All walkability measures were positively associated with cycling for transport. The established walkability measures were applicable to a European city such as Graz. The alternative walkability measures performed well in a European context. Due to measurement issues the association between these walkability measures and walking for transport needs to be investigated further. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  10. Passenger transport modal split based on budgets and implication for energy consumption: Approach and application in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shuwei; Liu, Deshun [School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM) and Institute of Energy, Environment, and Economy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Jiang, Kejun [Energy Research Institute, National Development and Reform Commission, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2007-09-15

    Transport will be the strongest growing energy demand sector in the future, especially in developing countries like China, and it needs more attention. The evolution of transport structure is very important in the dynamic of transport development, and therefore worth emphasis. In this study, a modal split model maximizing spatial welfare and constrained by travel money budget and time budget is developed. This approach differs from the general econometric-based approach used in most existing macro transport studies and deals with the cost and speed of transport modes as important variables explicitly. The model is then applied to China's transport sector together with sensitivity test despite many data problems. The decomposition of energy consumption generated from bottom-up model based on this modal split identified the importance of modal split and turnover expansion in the next 30 years, which should be a stronger area of focus in transportation studies. (author)

  11. Passenger transport modal split based on budgets and implication for energy consumption: Approach and application in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shuwei; Liu, Deshun; Jiang, Kejun

    2007-01-01

    Transport will be the strongest growing energy demand sector in the future, especially in developing countries like China, and it needs more attention. The evolution of transport structure is very important in the dynamic of transport development, and therefore worth emphasis. In this study, a modal split model maximizing spatial welfare and constrained by travel money budget and time budget is developed. This approach differs from the general econometric-based approach used in most existing macro transport studies and deals with the cost and speed of transport modes as important variables explicitly. The model is then applied to China's transport sector together with sensitivity test despite many data problems. The decomposition of energy consumption generated from bottom-up model based on this modal split identified the importance of modal split and turnover expansion in the next 30 years, which should be a stronger area of focus in transportation studies. (author)

  12. Photosystem II electron transport rates and oxygen production in natural waterblooms of freshwater cyanobacteria during a diel cycle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Masojídek, Jiří; Grobbelaar, J. U.; Pechar, Libor; Koblížek, Michal

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2001), s. 57-66 ISSN 0142-7873 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/96/1222 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : electron transport * evolution Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.259, year: 2001

  13. Effect of specimen collection techniques, transport media, and incubation of cultures on the detection rate of Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, R. W.; Verheul, S. B.; Weel, J. F.; Gerrits, Y.; ten Kate, F. J.; Dankert, J.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1996-01-01

    Culture and histologic examination are considered "gold standard" methods for the detection of Helicobacter pylori, but discrepancies may occur with either method. Failure to detect Helicobacter pylori may be due to sampling error, inappropriate transport or culture media, or insufficient duration

  14. Relative rates of amino acid import via the ABC transporter GlnPQ determine the growth performance of Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fulyani, Faizah; Schuurman-Wolters, Geesina; Slotboom, Dirk-Jan; Poolman, Bert

    The GlnPQ transporter from Lactococcus lactis has the remarkable feature of having two substrate-binding domains (SBD) fused to the N-terminus of the transmembrane domain (TMD), and thus four SBDs are present in the homodimeric complex. Although X-ray structures and ligand binding data are available

  15. A pore structure model for the gas transport property changes, initial oxidation rates and cumulative weight loss of AGR moderator graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.A.V.

    1985-09-01

    A quantitative model has been developed for the gas transport property variation, cumulative weight loss and initial oxidation rates of AGR moderator graphite. The model utilises the theory of dynamic moments of the pore structure to calculate the changes in physical properties brought about by radiolytic corrosion taking place within the graphite porosity. In order to account for the behaviour of the initial rate curves, and the weight loss data obtained it is necessary to invoke the presence of a group of cylindrical pore and a group of small slab-shaped pores. The latter are methane depleted. This is in addition to the pore group involved in gas transport which is best represented by cylinders of mean radius 2.13 μm. The model satisfactorily predicts the experimental weight loss data obtained from experiments in the DIDO 6V3 and BFB loops. (author)

  16. Charge transport properties of graphene: Effects of Cu-based gate electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Qide [School of Physics and Optoelectronics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Zhang, C. X., E-mail: zhangchunxiao@xtu.edu.cn; Tang, Chao, E-mail: tang-chao@xtu.edu.cn; Zhong, Jianxin [School of Physics and Optoelectronics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Energy Materials and Devices, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); He, Chaoyu [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Energy Materials and Devices, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2016-07-21

    Using the first-principles nonequilibrium Green's function method, we study effects of Cu and Ni@Cu used as the Cu-based gate electrode on the charge transport of graphene in the field effect transistors (FET). We find that the transmission of graphene decreases with both Cu and Ni@Cu absorbed in the scatter region. Especially, noticeable transmission gaps are present around the Femi level. The transmission gaps are still effective, and considerable cut-off regions are found under the non-equilibrium environment. The Ni@Cu depresses the transmission of graphene more seriously than the Cu and enlarges the transmission gap in armchair direction. The effects on the charge transport are attributed to the redistribution of electronic states of graphene. Both Cu and Ni@Cu induce the localization of states, so as to block the electronic transport. The Ni@Cu transforms the interaction between graphene and gate electrode from the physisorption to the chemisorption, and then induces more localized states, so that the transmission decreases further. Our results suggest that besides being used to impose gate voltage, the Cu-based gate electrode itself will have a considerable effect on the charge transport of graphene and induces noticeable transmission gap in the FET.

  17. Parental Perceptions of Child Care Quality in Centre-Based and Home-Based Settings: Associations with External Quality Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Joanne S.; Lemay, Lise; Bigras, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined how parental perceptions of child care quality were related to external quality ratings and considered how parental perceptions of quality varied according to child care context (home-based or centre-based settings). Parents of 179 4-year-old children who attended child care centres (n = 141) and home-based settings…

  18. A review of reaction rates and thermodynamic and transport properties for the 11-species air model for chemical and thermal nonequilibrium calculations to 30000 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Roop N.; Yos, Jerrold M.; Thompson, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    Reaction rate coefficients and thermodynamic and transport properties are provided for the 11-species air model which can be used for analyzing flows in chemical and thermal nonequilibrium. Such flows will likely occur around currently planned and future hypersonic vehicles. Guidelines for determining the state of the surrounding environment are provided. Approximate and more exact formulas are provided for computing the properties of partially ionized air mixtures in such environments.

  19. Low-Protein Diet Supplemented with Keto Acids Is Associated with Suppression of Small-Solute Peritoneal Transport Rate in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We investigate whether low-protein diet would show benefits in suppressing peritoneal transport rate in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. Methods. This is a supplemented analysis of our previously published trial, which randomized 60 PD patients to receive low- (LP: dietary protein intake of 0.6–0.8 g/kg/d, keto-acid-supplemented low- (sLP: 0.6–0.8 g/kg/d with 0.12 g/kg/d of keto acids, or high- (HP: 1.0–1.2 g/kg/d protein diet and lasted for one year. In this study, the variations of peritoneal transport rate were assessed. Results. While baseline D/Pcr (dialysate-to-plasma concentration ratio for creatinine at 4 hour and D/D0glu (dialysate glucose at 4 hour to baseline dialysate glucose concentration ratio were similar, D/Pcr in group sLP was lower, and D/D0glu was higher than those in the other two groups (P<0.05 at 12th month. D/D0glu increased (P<0.05, and D/Pcr tended to decrease, (P=0.071 in group sLP. Conclusions. Low-protein diet with keto acids may benefit PD patients by maintaining peritoneum at a lower transport rate.

  20. Low-protein diet supplemented with keto acids is associated with suppression of small-solute peritoneal transport rate in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Na; Qian, Jiaqi; Lin, Aiwu; Fang, Wei; Zhang, Weiming; Cao, Liou; Wang, Qin; Ni, Zhaohui; Yao, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Objective. We investigate whether low-protein diet would show benefits in suppressing peritoneal transport rate in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Methods. This is a supplemented analysis of our previously published trial, which randomized 60 PD patients to receive low- (LP: dietary protein intake of 0.6-0.8 g/kg/d), keto-acid-supplemented low- (sLP: 0.6-0.8 g/kg/d with 0.12 g/kg/d of keto acids), or high- (HP: 1.0-1.2 g/kg/d) protein diet and lasted for one year. In this study, the variations of peritoneal transport rate were assessed. Results. While baseline D/P(cr) (dialysate-to-plasma concentration ratio for creatinine at 4 hour) and D/D0(glu) (dialysate glucose at 4 hour to baseline dialysate glucose concentration ratio) were similar, D/P(cr) in group sLP was lower, and D/D0(glu) was higher than those in the other two groups (P diet with keto acids may benefit PD patients by maintaining peritoneum at a lower transport rate.

  1. Warped Discrete Cosine Transform-Based Low Bit-Rate Block Coding Using Image Downsampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertürk Sarp

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents warped discrete cosine transform (WDCT-based low bit-rate block coding using image downsampling. While WDCT aims to improve the performance of conventional DCT by frequency warping, the WDCT has only been applicable to high bit-rate coding applications because of the overhead required to define the parameters of the warping filter. Recently, low bit-rate block coding based on image downsampling prior to block coding followed by upsampling after the decoding process is proposed to improve the compression performance for low bit-rate block coders. This paper demonstrates that a superior performance can be achieved if WDCT is used in conjunction with image downsampling-based block coding for low bit-rate applications.

  2. Performance-based contracting for maintaining transportation assets with emphasis on bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsharqawi Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With a large number of aging transportation infrastructure assets in North America and the growing problem of deterioration across the globe, managing these assets have been the subject of ongoing research. There is an overwhelming amount of maintenance and rehabilitation works to be done and selecting a suitable maintenance, repair or replacement (MRR strategy is one of the most challenging tasks for decision makers. Limited budget and resources are even making the decision making process more challenging. Maintaining infrastructure to the highest possible condition while investing the minimal amount of money has promoted innovative contracting approaches. Transportation agencies have increased private sector involvement through long term performance-based maintenance contracts or what is called Performance-Based Contracting. PBC is a type of contract that pays a contractor based on the results achieved, not on the methods for performing the maintenance work. By looking into the literature, it is observed that agencies are expanding the amount of contracting they do in order to maintain and achieve a better standard of infrastructure facilities. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to study and review performance-based contracting for transportation infrastructure with emphasis on bridge assets.

  3. Sequential multi-nuclide emission rate estimation method based on gamma dose rate measurement for nuclear emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaole; Raskob, Wolfgang; Landman, Claudia; Trybushnyi, Dmytro; Li, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Sequentially reconstruct multi-nuclide emission using gamma dose rate measurements. • Incorporate a priori ratio of nuclides into the background error covariance matrix. • Sequentially augment and update the estimation and the background error covariance. • Suppress the generation of negative estimations for the sequential method. • Evaluate the new method with twin experiments based on the JRODOS system. - Abstract: In case of a nuclear accident, the source term is typically not known but extremely important for the assessment of the consequences to the affected population. Therefore the assessment of the potential source term is of uppermost importance for emergency response. A fully sequential method, derived from a regularized weighted least square problem, is proposed to reconstruct the emission and composition of a multiple-nuclide release using gamma dose rate measurement. The a priori nuclide ratios are incorporated into the background error covariance (BEC) matrix, which is dynamically augmented and sequentially updated. The negative estimations in the mathematical algorithm are suppressed by utilizing artificial zero-observations (with large uncertainties) to simultaneously update the state vector and BEC. The method is evaluated by twin experiments based on the JRodos system. The results indicate that the new method successfully reconstructs the emission and its uncertainties. Accurate a priori ratio accelerates the analysis process, which obtains satisfactory results with only limited number of measurements, otherwise it needs more measurements to generate reasonable estimations. The suppression of negative estimation effectively improves the performance, especially for the situation with poor a priori information, where it is more prone to the generation of negative values.

  4. Sequential multi-nuclide emission rate estimation method based on gamma dose rate measurement for nuclear emergency management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaole, E-mail: zhangxiaole10@outlook.com [Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, D-76021 (Germany); Institute of Public Safety Research, Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Raskob, Wolfgang; Landman, Claudia; Trybushnyi, Dmytro; Li, Yu [Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, D-76021 (Germany)

    2017-03-05

    Highlights: • Sequentially reconstruct multi-nuclide emission using gamma dose rate measurements. • Incorporate a priori ratio of nuclides into the background error covariance matrix. • Sequentially augment and update the estimation and the background error covariance. • Suppress the generation of negative estimations for the sequential method. • Evaluate the new method with twin experiments based on the JRODOS system. - Abstract: In case of a nuclear accident, the source term is typically not known but extremely important for the assessment of the consequences to the affected population. Therefore the assessment of the potential source term is of uppermost importance for emergency response. A fully sequential method, derived from a regularized weighted least square problem, is proposed to reconstruct the emission and composition of a multiple-nuclide release using gamma dose rate measurement. The a priori nuclide ratios are incorporated into the background error covariance (BEC) matrix, which is dynamically augmented and sequentially updated. The negative estimations in the mathematical algorithm are suppressed by utilizing artificial zero-observations (with large uncertainties) to simultaneously update the state vector and BEC. The method is evaluated by twin experiments based on the JRodos system. The results indicate that the new method successfully reconstructs the emission and its uncertainties. Accurate a priori ratio accelerates the analysis process, which obtains satisfactory results with only limited number of measurements, otherwise it needs more measurements to generate reasonable estimations. The suppression of negative estimation effectively improves the performance, especially for the situation with poor a priori information, where it is more prone to the generation of negative values.

  5. A Case-Based Reasoning for Regulation of an Urban Transportation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Bouamrane

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a classification-based approach to case-based reasoning. This approach has been implemented in a decision-making system for regulating an urban transportation network. Planning relies on two classification processes: strong classification to retrieve a similar planning perturbation and smooth classification when the former fails. Smooth classification is an original mechanism that can become of general use in case-based reasoning. We discuss in this paper the two processes from general and applicative point of view.

  6. PhreeqcRM: A reaction module for transport simulators based on the geochemical model PHREEQC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, David L.; Wissmeier, Laurin

    2015-01-01

    PhreeqcRM is a geochemical reaction module designed specifically to perform equilibrium and kinetic reaction calculations for reactive transport simulators that use an operator-splitting approach. The basic function of the reaction module is to take component concentrations from the model cells of the transport simulator, run geochemical reactions, and return updated component concentrations to the transport simulator. If multicomponent diffusion is modeled (e.g., Nernst–Planck equation), then aqueous species concentrations can be used instead of component concentrations. The reaction capabilities are a complete implementation of the reaction capabilities of PHREEQC. In each cell, the reaction module maintains the composition of all of the reactants, which may include minerals, exchangers, surface complexers, gas phases, solid solutions, and user-defined kinetic reactants.PhreeqcRM assigns initial and boundary conditions for model cells based on standard PHREEQC input definitions (files or strings) of chemical compositions of solutions and reactants. Additional PhreeqcRM capabilities include methods to eliminate reaction calculations for inactive parts of a model domain, transfer concentrations and other model properties, and retrieve selected results. The module demonstrates good scalability for parallel processing by using multiprocessing with MPI (message passing interface) on distributed memory systems, and limited scalability using multithreading with OpenMP on shared memory systems. PhreeqcRM is written in C++, but interfaces allow methods to be called from C or Fortran. By using the PhreeqcRM reaction module, an existing multicomponent transport simulator can be extended to simulate a wide range of geochemical reactions. Results of the implementation of PhreeqcRM as the reaction engine for transport simulators PHAST and FEFLOW are shown by using an analytical solution and the reactive transport benchmark of MoMaS.

  7. Accounting for the Decreasing Denitrification Potential of Aquifers in Travel-Time Based Reactive-Transport Models of Nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirpka, O. A.; Loschko, M.; Wöhling, T.; Rudolph, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Excess nitrate concentrations pose a threat to drinking-water production from groundwater in all regions of intensive agriculture worldwide. Natural organic matter, pyrite, and other reduced constituents of the aquifer matrix can be oxidized by aerobic and denitrifying bacteria, leading to self-cleaning of groundwater. Various studies have shown that the heterogeneity of both hydraulic and chemical aquifer properties influence the reactive behavior. Since the exact spatial distributions of these properties are not known, predictions on the temporal evolution of nitrate should be probabilistic. However, the computational effort of pde-based, spatially explicit multi-component reactive-transport simulations are so high that multiple model runs become impossible. Conversely, simplistic models that treat denitrification as first-order decay process miss important controls on denitrification. We have proposed a Lagrangian framework of nonlinear reactive transport, in which the electron-donor supply by the aquifer matrix is parameterized by a relative reactivity, that is the reaction rate relative to a standard reaction rate for identical solute concentrations (Loschko et al., 2016). We could show that reactive transport simplifies to solving a single ordinary dfferential equation in terms of the cumulative relative reactivity for a given combination of inflow concentrations. Simulating 3-D flow and reactive transport are computationally so inexpensive that Monte Carlo simulation become feasible. The original scheme did not consider a change of the relative reactivity over time, implying that the electron-donor pool in the matrix is infinite. We have modified the scheme to address the consumption of the reducing aquifer constituents upon the reactions. We also analyzed how a minimally complex model of aerobic respiration and denitrification could look like. With the revised scheme, we performed Monte Carlo simulations in 3-D domains, confirming that the uncertainty in

  8. Credit Rating via Dynamic Slack-Based Measure And It´s Optimal Investment Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    A. Delavarkhalafi; A. Poursherafatan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we check the credit rating of firms applied for a loan. In this regard we introduce a model, named Dynamic Slack-Based Measure (DSBM) for measuring credit rating of applicant companies. Selection of financial ratios that represent the financial state of a company -in the best possible way- is one of the most challenging parts of any credit rating analysis. At first, ranking needs to identify the appropriate variables. Therefore we introduce five financial variables to provide a ...

  9. Mapping landslide source and transport areas in VHR images with Object-Based Analysis and Support Vector Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heleno, Sandra; Matias, Magda; Pina, Pedro

    2015-04-01

    Visual interpretation of satellite imagery remains extremely demanding in terms of resources and time, especially when dealing with numerous multi-scale landslides affecting wide areas, such as is the case of rainfall-induced shallow landslides. Applying automated methods can contribute to more efficient landslide mapping and updating of existing inventories, and in recent years the number and variety of approaches is rapidly increasing. Very High Resolution (VHR) images, acquired by space-borne sensors with sub-metric precision, such as Ikonos, Quickbird, Geoeye and Worldview, are increasingly being considered as the best option for landslide mapping, but these new levels of spatial detail also present new challenges to state of the art image analysis tools, asking for automated methods specifically suited to map landslide events on VHR optical images. In this work we develop and test a methodology for semi-automatic landslide recognition and mapping of landslide source and transport areas. The method combines object-based image analysis and a Support Vector Machine supervised learning algorithm, and was tested using a GeoEye-1 multispectral image, sensed 3 days after a damaging landslide event in Madeira Island, together with a pre-event LiDAR DEM. Our approach has proved successful in the recognition of landslides on a 15 Km2-wide study area, with 81 out of 85 landslides detected in its validation regions. The classifier also showed reasonable performance (false positive rate 60% and false positive rate below 36% in both validation regions) in the internal mapping of landslide source and transport areas, in particular in the sunnier east-facing slopes. In the less illuminated areas the classifier is still able to accurately map the source areas, but performs poorly in the mapping of landslide transport areas.

  10. 48 CFR 22.1002-2 - Wage determinations based on prevailing rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... on prevailing rates. 22.1002-2 Section 22.1002-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Contract Act of 1965, as Amended 22.1002-2 Wage determinations based on prevailing rates. Contractors... Department of Labor to prevail in the locality or, in the absence of a wage determination, the minimum wage...

  11. The antecedents and consequences of restrictive age-based ratings in the global motion picture industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, M.A.A.M.; Eliashberg, J.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes one key characteristic shared by a growing number of industries. Specifically, their products and services are continuously monitored and evaluated by local third-party ratings systems. In this study, we focus on understanding the local drivers of restrictive age-based ratings

  12. Dataset for Probabilistic estimation of residential air exchange rates for population-based exposure modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset provides the city-specific air exchange rate measurements, modeled, literature-based as well as housing characteristics. This dataset is associated with...

  13. Effect of PANI rate percentage on morphology, structure and charge transport mechanism in PANI–PVDF composites above percolation threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saïdi, Sami; Bouzitoun, Mouna; Mannaî, Aymen; Gmati, Fethi; Derouiche, Hassen; Mohamed, Abdellatif Belhadj

    2013-01-01

    Polyaniline–Poly(vinylidene) fluoride (PANI–PVDF) composites were prepared by adding PANI to the PVDF by different weight percentages p % (p = 0, 5, 10, 20, … until 100%). The dc and ac electrical conductivity were studied as a function of PANI percentage in the temperature range 303–453 K. The percolation threshold was found to be equal to 2.95%. When the amount of PANI varies from 5 to 30%, the charge transport mechanism was found to be governed by Mott's three-dimensional variable range hopping model and the dc conductivity decreases within this range. For p > 30%, the conductivity increases and the charge transport mechanism are better fitted by a fluctuation induced tunnelling model (FIT). By calculating the distance ‘s’ between two successive clusters (the distance between two active imines centres (=N + H–) of PANI) from the FIT model, we deduce that electron charge transfer is done by inter-chain hopping for the range [p = 40 to 60%] and by intra-chain hopping for p = 70 to 90%. Some insights about the contribution of the ionic charge transport for PANI concentrations in the interval 5% < p < 30% were obtained using impedance measurements at different frequencies. X-ray diffraction measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate the effect of PANI on the structure and morphology of composites. (paper)

  14. Fracture mechanics based design for radioactive material transport packagings -- Historical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.A.; Salzbrenner, D.; Sorenson, K.; McConnell, P.

    1998-04-01

    The use of a fracture mechanics based design for the radioactive material transport (RAM) packagings has been the subject of extensive research for more than a decade. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has played an important role in the research and development of the application of this technology. Ductile iron has been internationally accepted as an exemplary material for the demonstration of a fracture mechanics based method of RAM packaging design and therefore is the subject of a large portion of the research discussed in this report. SNL's extensive research and development program, funded primarily by the U. S. Department of Energy's Office of Transportation, Energy Management and Analytical Services (EM-76) and in an auxiliary capacity, the office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, is summarized in this document along with a summary of the research conducted at other institutions throughout the world. In addition to the research and development work, code and standards development and regulatory positions are also discussed

  15. Shilling attack detection for recommender systems based on credibility of group users and rating time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Wen, Junhao; Qu, Qiang; Zeng, Jun; Cheng, Tian

    2018-01-01

    Recommender systems are vulnerable to shilling attacks. Forged user-generated content data, such as user ratings and reviews, are used by attackers to manipulate recommendation rankings. Shilling attack detection in recommender systems is of great significance to maintain the fairness and sustainability of recommender systems. The current studies have problems in terms of the poor universality of algorithms, difficulty in selection of user profile attributes, and lack of an optimization mechanism. In this paper, a shilling behaviour detection structure based on abnormal group user findings and rating time series analysis is proposed. This paper adds to the current understanding in the field by studying the credibility evaluation model in-depth based on the rating prediction model to derive proximity-based predictions. A method for detecting suspicious ratings based on suspicious time windows and target item analysis is proposed. Suspicious rating time segments are determined by constructing a time series, and data streams of the rating items are examined and suspicious rating segments are checked. To analyse features of shilling attacks by a group user's credibility, an abnormal group user discovery method based on time series and time window is proposed. Standard testing datasets are used to verify the effect of the proposed method.

  16. Structuring as an Aid to Performance in Base-Rate Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    effect of different kinds of aids that might help the subjects overcome the base-rate fallacy. One approach that has been tried is to present the subjects...Design. All subjects were given two base-rate problems, here called the Lightbulb problem (adapted from Lyon & Slovic, 1976) and the Dyslexia problem; both...are shown in Table 1. Approximately half the subjects received the Lightbulb problem first; the others received the Dyslexia problem first. The two

  17. Novel Fingertip Image-Based Heart Rate Detection Methods for a Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifat Zaman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesize that our fingertip image-based heart rate detection methods using smartphone reliably detect the heart rhythm and rate of subjects. We propose fingertip curve line movement-based and fingertip image intensity-based detection methods, which both use the movement of successive fingertip images obtained from smartphone cameras. To investigate the performance of the proposed methods, heart rhythm and rate of the proposed methods are compared to those of the conventional method, which is based on average image pixel intensity. Using a smartphone, we collected 120 s pulsatile time series data from each recruited subject. The results show that the proposed fingertip curve line movement-based method detects heart rate with a maximum deviation of 0.0832 Hz and 0.124 Hz using time- and frequency-domain based estimation, respectively, compared to the conventional method. Moreover, another proposed fingertip image intensity-based method detects heart rate with a maximum deviation of 0.125 Hz and 0.03 Hz using time- and frequency-based estimation, respectively.

  18. Hybrid light transport model based bioluminescence tomography reconstruction for early gastric cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueli; Liang, Jimin; Hu, Hao; Qu, Xiaochao; Yang, Defu; Chen, Duofang; Zhu, Shouping; Tian, Jie

    2012-03-01

    Gastric cancer is the second cause of cancer-related death in the world, and it remains difficult to cure because it has been in late-stage once that is found. Early gastric cancer detection becomes an effective approach to decrease the gastric cancer mortality. Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) has been applied to detect early liver cancer and prostate cancer metastasis. However, the gastric cancer commonly originates from the gastric mucosa and grows outwards. The bioluminescent light will pass through a non-scattering region constructed by gastric pouch when it transports in tissues. Thus, the current BLT reconstruction algorithms based on the approximation model of radiative transfer equation are not optimal to handle this problem. To address the gastric cancer specific problem, this paper presents a novel reconstruction algorithm that uses a hybrid light transport model to describe the bioluminescent light propagation in tissues. The radiosity theory integrated with the diffusion equation to form the hybrid light transport model is utilized to describe light propagation in the non-scattering region. After the finite element discretization, the hybrid light transport model is converted into a minimization problem which fuses an l1 norm based regularization term to reveal the sparsity of bioluminescent source distribution. The performance of the reconstruction algorithm is first demonstrated with a digital mouse based simulation with the reconstruction error less than 1mm. An in situ gastric cancer-bearing nude mouse based experiment is then conducted. The primary result reveals the ability of the novel BLT reconstruction algorithm in early gastric cancer detection.

  19. Experimental and AI-based numerical modeling of contaminant transport in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourani, Vahid; Mousavi, Shahram; Sadikoglu, Fahreddin; Singh, Vijay P.

    2017-10-01

    This study developed a new hybrid artificial intelligence (AI)-meshless approach for modeling contaminant transport in porous media. The key innovation of the proposed approach is that both black box and physically-based models are combined for modeling contaminant transport. The effectiveness of the approach was evaluated using experimental and real world data. Artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) were calibrated to predict temporal contaminant concentrations (CCs), and the effect of noisy and de-noised data on the model performance was evaluated. Then, considering the predicted CCs at test points (TPs, in experimental study) and piezometers (in Myandoab plain) as interior conditions, the multiquadric radial basis function (MQ-RBF), as a meshless approach which solves partial differential equation (PDE) of contaminant transport in porous media, was employed to estimate the CC values at any point within the study area where there was no TP or piezometer. Optimal values of the dispersion coefficient in the advection-dispersion PDE and shape coefficient of MQ-RBF were determined using the imperialist competitive algorithm. In temporal contaminant transport modeling, de-noised data enhanced the performance of ANN and ANFIS methods in terms of the determination coefficient, up to 6 and 5%, respectively, in the experimental study and up to 39 and 18%, respectively, in the field study. Results showed that the efficiency of ANFIS-meshless model was more than ANN-meshless model up to 2 and 13% in the experimental and field studies, respectively.

  20. Optimization model for school transportation design based on economic and social efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heddebaut, O.; Ciommo, F. di

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to design a model that allows to suggest new planning proposals on school transport, so that greater efficiency operational will be achieved. It is a multi-objective optimization problem including the minimization of the cost of busing and minimizes the total travel time of all students. The foundation of the model is the planning routes made by bus due to changes in the starting time in schools, so the buses are able to perform more than one route. The methodology is based on the School Bus Routing Problem, so that routes from different schools within a given time window are connected, and within the restrictions of the problem, the system costs are minimized. The proposed model is programmed to be applied in any generic case. This is a multi-objective problem, in which there will be several possible solutions, depending on the weight to be assigned to each of the variables involved, economic point of view versus social point of view. Therefore, the proposed model is helpful for policy planning school transportation, supporting the decision making under conditions of economic and social efficiency. The model has been applied in some schools located in an area of Cantabria (Spain), resulting in 71 possible optimal options that minimize the cost of school transport between 2,7% and 35,1% regarding to the current routes of school transport, with different school start time and minimum travel time for students. (Author)