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Sample records for ratassepp ervi lauk

  1. Pengaruh Jenis Tepung dan Pengolahan Ikan Terhadap Mutu Tepung Sala Lauk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamsina Kamsina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sala lauk is a specific food of Pariaman City of West Sumatera which is made from rice flour, fish, chilli and other spices, then mixed together, cooked with low heat until smooth. The dough was formed into small balls and then fried. It is now available sala lauk flour mixed with spices, but chilli and fish are not included in the mixture and the flour still has short shelf life. The research was conducted to enrich the nutrients in the sala lauk by adding fish as a protein source. Completely randomized design (CRD in factorial was used to see the effect of the use of flour, rice flour 100%, rice flour 95% and glutinous rice flour 5%, rice flour 95% and tapioca flour 5% and the variation of fish treatment that was directly dried, cooked in a pressure cooker and steamed. The result showed that sala lauk flour using rice flour 95% and glutinous rice flour 5% with directly dried fish gave preferred result in terms of organoleptic (taste, colour, flavour, and texture, with water content was 8.97%, acid degree was 0.35%, and protein content was 71.31%. Mold/yeast, salmonella and other bacteria were not found and the product had shelf life for 3 months.ABSTRAKSala lauk merupakan makanan khas Pariaman Sumatera Barat yang terbuat dari bahan baku tepung beras, ikan, cabe, dan bumbu lainnya dengan cara diadon, dimasak dengan api kecil sampai kalis. Adonan dibentuk menjadi bulat-bulat kecil dan kemudian digoreng. Saat ini sudah tersedia tepung sala lauk yang dicampur langsung dengan bumbubumbu, tetapi cabe dan ikan belum termasuk dalam campuran, dan tepung tersebut masih memiliki daya tahan simpan yang masih rendah. Penelitian dilakukan untuk memperkaya nutrisi dalam sala lauk dengan menambahkan sumber protein yaitu ikan. Rancangan acak lengkap (RAL secara faktorial digunakan untuk melihat pengaruh tiga perlakuan pemakaian tepung yaitu tepung beras 100%, tepung beras 95% dan tepung beras ketan 5%, tepung beras 95% dan tepung tapioka 5% dan variasi

  2. Larval competition between Aphidius ervi and Praon volucre (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) in Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney, Lívia Alvarenga; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Lins, Juracy Caldeira; Sampaio, Marcus Vinicius; Silva, Diego Bastos

    2010-10-01

    Interspecific competition between parasitoid larvae may influence the size, structure, and stability of the population, leading to a reduction in total parasitism and thus restricting the pest control. Aphidius ervi (Haliday) and Praon volucre (Haliday) are endoparasitoids that possess a wide host range and present considerable potential for the biological control of the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas). The larval competition between A. ervi and P. volucre, and the possible intrinsic competitive superiority of one of the parasitoids in M. euphorbiae, have been studied. In single parasitism experiments, mated parasitoid females (n=10) were maintained individually in contact with M. euphorbiae hosts (n=30) inside petri dishes containing lettuce leaf discs and maintained in environmental chamber at 22 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% RH, and 12-h photophase. The multiple parasitism experiments consisted of exposing single parasitized aphids (n=120) to the second parasitoid species. Two oviposition events were performed with a 4-h interval between them, namely the following: sequence A (oviposition by A. ervi, followed by P. volucre) and sequence B (oviposition by P. volucre, followed by A. ervi). Oviposition sequence A generated 24 A. ervi and 55 P. volucre adults, whereas oviposition sequence B generated 23 and 49 adults. P. volucre is an intrinsically superior competitor compared with A. ervi, and the use of the two species simultaneously may result in competitive exclusion and influence the stability of the parasitoid population.

  3. Morphological variation of Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae associated with different aphid hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya M. Villegas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Parasitoids are frequently used in biological control due to the fact that they are considered host specific and highly efficient at attacking their hosts. As they spend a significant part of their life cycle within their hosts, feeding habits and life history of their host can promote specialization via host-race formation (sequential radiation. The specialized host races from different hosts can vary morphologically, behaviorally and genetically. However, these variations are sometimes inconspicuous and require more powerful tools in order to detect variation such as geometric morphometrics analysis. Methods We examined Aphidius ervi, an important introduced biological control agent in Chile associated with a great number of aphid species, which are exploiting different plant hosts and habitats. Several combinations (biotypes of parasitoids with various aphid/host plant combinations were analyzed in order to obtain measures of forewing shape and size. To show the differences among defined biotypes, we chose 13 specific landmarks on each individual parasitoid wing. The analysis of allometric variation calculated in wing shape and size over centroid size (CS, revealed the allometric changes among biotypes collected from different hosts. To show all differences in shape of forewings, we made seven biotype pairs using an outline-based geometric morphometrics comparison. Results The biotype A. pis_pea (Acyrthosiphon pisum on pea was the extreme wing size in this study compared to the other analyzed biotypes. Aphid hosts have a significant influence in the morphological differentiation of the parasitoid forewing, splitting biotypes in two groups. The first group consisted of biotypes connected with Acyrthosiphon pisum on legumes, while the second group is composed of biotypes connected with aphids attacking cereals, with the exception of the R. pad_wheat (Rhopalosiphum padi on wheat biotype. There was no significant effect of plant

  4. Effects of feeding frequency and sugar concentration on behavior and longevity of the adult aphid parasitoid: Aphidius ervi (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azzouz, H.; Giordanengo, P.; Wäckers, F.L.; Kaiser, L.

    2004-01-01

    Aphidius ervi (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a solitary aphid endoparasitoid. Adults feed on honeydew and possibly on other sugar sources such as nectar. Sugar sources can vary qualitatively and quantitatively according to biotic factors and environmental conditions. Experiments were

  5. Placenta-like structure of the aphid endoparasitic wasp Aphidius ervi: a strategy of optimal resources acquisition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Sabri

    Full Text Available Aphidius ervi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae is an entomophagous parasitoid known to be an effective parasitoid of several aphid species of economic importance. A reduction of its production cost during mass rearing for inundative release is needed to improve its use in biological control of pests. In these contexts, a careful analysis of its entire development phases within its host is needed. This paper shows that this parasitoid has some characteristics in its embryological development rather complex and different from most other reported insects, which can be phylogenetically very close. First, its yolkless egg allows a high fecundity of the female but force them to hatch from the egg shell rapidly to the host hemocoel. An early cellularisation allowing a rapid differentiation of a serosa membrane seems to confirm this hypothesis. The serosa wraps the developing embryo until the first instar larva stage and invades the host tissues by microvilli projections and form a placenta like structure able to divert host resources and allowing nutrition and respiration of embryo. Such interspecific invasion, at the cellular level, recalls mammal's trophoblasts that anchors maternal uterine wall and underlines the high adaptation of A. ervi to develop in the host body.

  6. Pre-pupation behaviour of the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi (Haliday) and its consequences for pre-imaginal learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, Cristián; Villagra, Cristian A.; Niemeyer, Hermann M.

    2007-07-01

    Olfactory learning may occur at different stages of insect ontogeny. In parasitoid wasps, it has been mostly shown at adult emergence, whilst it remains controversial at pre-imaginal stages. We followed larval growth of the parasitoid wasp, Aphidius ervi Haliday, inside the host aphid, Acyrthosiphom pisum Harris, and characterised in detail the behaviour of third instar larvae. We found that just before cocoon spinning begins, the third instar larva bites a hole through the ventral side of the mummified aphid exoskeleton. We then evaluated whether this period of exposure to the external environment represented a sensitive stage for olfactory learning. In our first experiment, the third instar larvae were allowed to spin their cocoon on the host plant ( Vicia faba L.) surface or on a plastic plate covering the portion of the host plant exposed to the ventral opening. Recently emerged adults of the first group showed a preference for plant volatiles in a glass Y-olfactometer, whereas no preference was found in adults of the second group. In a second experiment, during the period in which the aphid carcass remains open or is being sealed by cocoon spinning, third instar larvae were exposed for 24 h to either vanilla odours or water vapours as control. In this experiment, half of the parasitoid larvae were later excised from the mummy to avoid further exposure to vanilla. Adult parasitoids exposed to vanilla during the larval ventral opening of the mummy showed a significant preference for vanilla odours in the olfactometer, regardless of excision from the mummy. The larval behaviour described and the results of the manipulations performed are discussed as evidences for the acquisition of olfactory memory during the larval stage and its persistence through metamorphosis.

  7. Projektimeeskonnad vahefinišis / Katre Ratassepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ratassepp, Katre

    2015-01-01

    Projektimeeskondadele pandi alus mullu suvel, kui esimest korda kogunes laiendatud RMK juhtgrupp, et arutada RMK arengukava aastateks 2015-2020. Struktuuriüksuste juhtidest ja tegevusvaldkondade peaspetsialistidest moodustati mõttekoda, kes aasta jooksul koos käis. 25 käima lükatud arendusprojektist 17 on tänaseks staadiumis "tehtud", 4 peaks kohe-kohe tulemini jõudma ning 4 projekti vajavad jätkutegevusi

  8. Džässist Tallinnas 1918-1945 / Tiiu Lauk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lauk, Tiiu

    2011-01-01

    Esimestest džässi mängimise katsetustest. Tallinna kohvikute ja restoranide džässiorkestritest. Tähtsamatest Tallinnas tegutsenud poolelukutselistest juhumänguorkestritest. Orkestrite stiilist, koosseisudest ja repertuaarist. Džässist kontserdilaval. Priit Veebelist, Hans Speegist ja Kuldsest Seitsmest kontserdilaval. Hans Speegi Plaza-kontsertidest

  9. Ilmunud on ÕS 2006 / Siiri Lauk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lauk, Siiri

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Keele Instituudi, Eesti Terminoloogia Ühingu ja Kaitseministeeriumi ettevõtmisel korraldati 9. ja 10. novembril 2006 rahvusvaheline üld- ja oskuskeelekorralduse konverents, millega tähistati Eesti õigekeelsussõnaraamatu ilmumist

  10. Kuulsuste keeruline elu : [anekdoodid] / Toomas Kall ; karikatuur: Rein Lauks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kall, Toomas, 1947-

    2014-01-01

    Anekdoodid järgmistest kuulsustest: Luisa Värk, Taavi Rõivas, Ardo Hansson, Bill Gates, Nicolas Sarkozy, Dmitri Medvedev, Edgar Savisaar, Vladimir Putin, Anton Vaino, Astrid Kannel, Viktor Janukovitš, Evelin Ilves, Toomas Hendrik Ilves, Jürgen Ligi, Urve Palo, Indrek Tarand

  11. Kas passiivne meediatarbija või aktiivne kodanik? / Epp Lauk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lauk, Epp, 1952-

    2003-01-01

    2001. a. viidi Tartu Ülikooli ajakirjanduse õppetoolis läbi küsitlus Eesti kooliõpilaste meediakasutuse (arvuti, Internet, elektroonilised vahendid) kohta. Tab.: Erinevused maa- ja linnalaste arvuti ja interneti kasutamises ; Elektrooniliste meediavahendite kättesaadavus maal ja linnas

  12. Effects of honeydew sugar composition on the longevity of Aphidius ervi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, P.A.M.; Wäckers, F.L.; Romeis, J.

    2007-01-01

    Feeding on sugar-rich foods such as nectar and honeydew is important for survival of many adult parasitoids. Especially in agricultural systems, honeydew is often the most prevalent carbohydrate source. However, relative to plant nectar, honeydew may be relatively unsuitable, as a result of an

  13. Tsharterlennud võivad tulevikus Eestist kaduda / Andres Eilart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eilart, Andres

    2002-01-01

    Turismifirmade liidu asepresident Daisy Järva, Tallinna Lennujaama turundusmees Sven Ratassepp ja Horizon Traveli turundusjuht Annika Sillaots tsharterlennundusest Baltikumis. Tabel: kaheksa sihtkohta, kuhu Estonian Air regulaarlende korraldab

  14. Andrus Saar: Neid inimesi, kes peavad õhtul tühja kõhuga magama minema, on ka parimatel aegadel olnud liiga palju / Andrus Saar ; intervjueerinud Katre Ratassepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saar, Andrus, 1946-

    2010-01-01

    Vaesuse ja sotsiaalse tõrjutuse vastu võitlemise Euroopa aasta Eesti hea tahte saadik leiab, et hirm kaotada töökoht on igati normaalne olukorras, kus inimesed ei ole informeeritud ettevõtte arengust ja perspektiividest ning et praegu oleks viimane aeg muuta toetuste süsteemi. Saar Polli poolt läbiviidud Eurobarometer Flash uuringust

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04919-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available b... 44 3.3 1 ( AY427910 ) Aphidius ervi isolate NYG2 cytochrome oxidase sub... 44 3.3 1 ( AY427909 ) Aphidius ervi isolate Morocco...us ervi clone Japan2 mitochondrial cytochro... 44 3.3 1 ( AY262773 ) Aphidius ervi clone Morocco

  16. Unintended effects of a Phytophtora-resistant cisgenic potato clone on the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae and its parasitoid Aphidius ervi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cascone, P.; Radkova, M.; Arpaia, S.; Errico, S.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Magarelli, R.A.; Djilianov, D.; Guerrieri, E.

    2018-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) plants may show unintended differences compared to the original varieties, due to the modification process. Such differences might in some cases affect non-target organisms linked to the crop into an agro-ecosystem. In this paper, we aimed to study interactions of two

  17. Kehalise väärkohtlemise ja avaliku korra raske rikkumise eristamine : magistritöö / Reelika Ratassepp ; juhendaja Jaan Ginter ; Tartu Ülikool, sotsiaalteaduste valdkond, õigusteaduskond, karistusõiguse osakond

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ratassepp, Reelika, 1992-

    2018-01-01

    Kehalise väärkohtlemise koosseisust enne karistusõiguse revisjoni 1. jaanuaril 2015. Avaliku korra mõistest, avalikus kohas käitumise üldnõudetest ning avaliku korra raskest rikkumisest enne korrakaitseseaduse jõustumis ja pärast jõustumist

  18. Kultuurkapitali preemiad

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Eesti Kultuurkapitali aastapreemia U. Lippusele, Helikunsti aastapreemiad J. Leitenile, M. Martinile, J. Reinverele, V. Sarvele, A. Volmerile, Uus Tallinna Triole, Duole Kai Ratassepp, Mati Mikali; Rahvakultuuri Sihtkapitali aastapreemia J. Rent, V. Sarv

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15499-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ius ervi isolate NYG2 cytochrome oxidase sub... 40 9.8 2 ( AY427909 ) Aphidius ervi isolate Morocco...ochro... 40 9.9 2 ( AY262773 ) Aphidius ervi clone Morocco2 mitochondrial cytoch... 40 9.9 2 ( AY262772 ) Ap

  20. Piiriülesed mikroettevõtted on ka Eesti IT-äride võimalus = Estonian IT firms on course to becoming micro-multinationals / Mihkel Lauk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lauk, Mihkel

    2014-01-01

    Piiriülesest mikroettevõttest (micro multinational). Eesti IKT-ettevõtete arengut pidurdavatest teguritest. PwC kutsub üles looma Läänemere Infoühiskonna Äriakadeemiat, mille ülesanne oleks korraldada väikeettevõtlusõpet koostöös piirkonna ülikoolide ja eraettevõtetega

  1. Bits of Accountability in a Sea of Freedom. In: Eberwein, T., Fenglers, S. Lauk, E. & Leppik-Bork, T.(Eds.) Mapping Media Accountability - in Europe and Beyond. Koln: Herbert von Halem Verlag.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr Huub Evers; drs Harmen Groenhart

    2011-01-01

    Freedom of speech, plurality and self-regulation characterize the Dutch media system. With fading political parallelism, strong public service broadcasting and a fair level of professionalization the Dutch media system fits the model of Democratic Corporatist media system. Continuous debates on

  2. Lādētu daļiņu kustības magnētiskā laukā 3D modelēšana OpenFOAM vidē

    OpenAIRE

    Venčels, Juris

    2013-01-01

    Darbā tiek aplūkota aprēķinu programmas izveide un tās funkcionalitāte elektriskā un magnētiskā lauka modelēšanai trijās dimensijās, izmantojot magnētiskā vektorpotenciāla “A, V-A” formulējumu. Programma veidota uz atvērtā koda bibliotēkas OpenFOAM bāzes. Rezultāti salīdzināti ar programmas FEMM aksiāl-simetriskajiem aprēķiniem. Programma nodrošina multi-reģionu aprēķinus, iespēju vienlaicīgi modelēt dažādus procesus, uzdot fizikālu lielumu atkarību no citiem lielumiem. Programma modelē el...

  3. Uudised : Eesti klaveriduo edukas. Preemiaga Leipzigist. Eesti pianist Carnegie Halli laval / Kristel Kase

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kase, Kristel

    2000-01-01

    Duo Ratassepp-Mikalai pälvisid 2. koha Itaalias Paduas II Silvio Omizzolo klaveriduode konkursil. 14. ja 15. apr. Leipzigis toimunud IV improvisatsioonikonkursist, kus B. Baumann ja T. Johannes pälvisid eripreemia. Klaveriduo A. Nahkur-E. Iroidou võitudest 1999. a. rahvusvahelistel konkurssidel ja kontserdireisist USAsse

  4. Midagi enamat kui hea film / Peep Pedmanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pedmanson, Peep

    2006-01-01

    Mängufilm "Libahundi needus" : stsenaristid Margus Kasterpalu, Ilmar Raag ja Rainer Sarnet : režissöör Rainer Sarnet : osades Katariina Lauk, Rene Reinumägi : Shop of Dreams - Eesti Televisioon 2005

  5. ERÜ aasta- ja teenetepreemiad 2009 / Reet Olevsoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olevsoo, Reet, 1956

    2010-01-01

    ERÜ aastapreemia 2009 vääris Eesti Rahvusraamatukogu raamatukoguterminoloogia juhtiv spetsialist, ERÜ terminoloogiatoimkonna sekretär Siiri Lauk. ERÜ teenetepreemia said Koigi Raamatukogu juhataja Mare Nurmsalu ning aastakümneid eesti rahvusbibliograafiaga tegelenud Anne Ainz

  6. DVD-d. "Libahundi needus" / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2006-01-01

    Mängufilm "Libahundi needus" : stsenaristid Margus Kasterpalu, Ilmar Raag ja Rainer Sarnet : režissöör Rainer Sarnet : osades Katariina Lauk, Rene Reinumägi : Shop of Dreams - Eesti Televisioon 2005

  7. Journalism that Matters: Views from Central and Eastern Europe. By Michał Głowacki, Epp Lauk and Auksė Balčytienė. Bern: Peter Lang, 2014, 214 pp.; ISBN: 978-3-631-65421-7 hb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Rodina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This book is a much-needed contribution to journalistic studies that allows us to have a closer and more nuanced look at media systems and press cultures in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE from a non-Western perspective. The volume is of high value to anyone who is interested in the diversity that underlies the unifying term of “post-communist media.” Most of its authors rely on rich data collected throughout lengthy periods of time on the territory of Central and Eastern Europe, which allows us to see not only the current state of “Eastern” media, but its development throughout time.

  8. Eesti film - needusega? / Margot Visnap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Visnap, Margot, 1959-

    2006-01-01

    Mängufilm "Libahundi needus" : stsenaristid Margus Kasterpalu, Ilmar Raag ja Rainer Sarnet : režissöör Rainer Sarnet : osades Katariina Lauk, Rene Reinumägi, Raine Loo, Kersti Kreismann, Marje Metsur, Tiit Lilleorg : Shop of Dreams - Eesti Televisioon 2005

  9. Gwyneth Paltrow jätkab eesti teatri suunda / Meelis Kapstas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kapstas, Meelis, 1963-

    1999-01-01

    Mängufilm "Armunud Shakespeare" ("Shakespeare in Love") : režissöör John Madden : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Suurbritannia 1998 sai 7 Oscarit, ühtlasi viies mõttele, et Eesti viimaste aastate Shakespeare'i lavastused ja näitlejannad K.Lauk ja R.Olmaru on oma aja suundumusi täpselt tabanud

  10. Kas võidab teater või sihikindel needus ? / Matis Song

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Song, Matis, 1978-

    2006-01-01

    Mängufilm "Libahundi needus" : stsenaristid Margus Kasterpalu, Ilmar Raag ja Rainer Sarnet : režissöör Rainer Sarnet : osades Katariina Lauk, Rene Reinumägi, Raine Loo, Kersti Kreismann, Marje Metsur, Tiit Lilleorg : Shop of Dreams - Eesti Televisioon 2005

  11. Teatripreemiad omapäi kõndijatele / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2002-01-01

    H. Toompere - lavastajapreemia, M. Malmsten - meesnäitlejapreemia, K. Kreismann naisnäitlejapreemia, E.-L. Semper - teatrikunstnikupreemia, L. Tormis kriitikapreemia, R. Neimar kriitikapreemia, A. Raag - Ants Lauteri preemia, K. Lauk-Tamm - Ants Lauteri preemia, I. Normet - Priit Põldroosi preemia, T. Oja - Aleksander Kurtna preemia, V. Kangur - Aleksander Kurtna preemia

  12. DVD. Margit Tõnson soovitab : "Libahundi needus" / Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnson, Margit, 1978-

    2006-01-01

    ETV levitab DVD-l mängufilmi "Libahundi needus" : stsenaristid Margus Kasterpalu, Ilmar Raag ja Rainer Sarnet : režissöör Rainer Sarnet : osades Katariina Lauk, Rene Reinumägi : Shop of Dreams - Eesti Televisioon 2005

  13. Koolipingist ärisse / Kai Väärtnõu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Väärtnõu, Kai

    2004-01-01

    Õpilasfirmade Neli Poega ja R@t tegevusest ja saavutustest Euroopa õpilasfirmade võistlustel. Õpilasfirmade tegevust koordineeriva Junior Achievement'i arengufondi tegevdirektor Epp Lauk ja nõukogu esimees Rein Loik kinnitavad, et ettevõtjad ja riik on hakanud ettevõtlusharidust hindama. Kommenteerib Karoli Hindriks

  14. Parasitic wasp responses to symbiont-based defense in aphids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Kerry M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent findings indicate that several insect lineages receive protection against particular natural enemies through infection with heritable symbionts, but little is yet known about whether enemies are able to discriminate and respond to symbiont-based defense. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, receives protection against the parasitic wasp, Aphidius ervi, when infected with the bacterial symbiont Hamiltonella defensa and its associated bacteriophage APSE (Acyrthosiphon pisum secondary endosymbiont. Internally developing parasitoid wasps, such as A. ervi, use maternal and embryonic factors to create an environment suitable for developing wasps. If more than one parasitoid egg is deposited into a single aphid host (superparasitism, then additional complements of these factors may contribute to the successful development of the single parasitoid that emerges. Results We performed experiments to determine if superparasitism is a tactic allowing wasps to overcome symbiont-mediated defense. We found that the deposition of two eggs into symbiont-protected aphids significantly increased rates of successful parasitism relative to singly parasitized aphids. We then conducted behavioral assays to determine whether A. ervi selectively superparasitizes H. defensa-infected aphids. In choice tests, we found that A. ervi tends to deposit a single egg in uninfected aphids, but two or more eggs in H. defensa-infected aphids, indicating that oviposition choices may be largely determined by infection status. Finally, we identified differences in the quantity of the trans-β-farnesene, the major component of aphid alarm pheromone, between H. defensa-infected and uninfected aphids, which may form the basis for discrimination. Conclusions Here we show that the parasitic wasp A. ervi discriminates among symbiont-infected and uninfected aphids, and changes its oviposition behavior in a way that increases the likelihood of overcoming symbiont

  15. Tants - üks viis edastada kehalist kogemist / Evelin Lagle

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lagle, Evelin, 1986-

    2008-01-01

    Helsingi teatriakadeemia tantsukompanii TADaC Kumus 25. III 2008: Ervi Siren "Seize the Moment - Snatch, Catch, Enjoy", Jyrki Karttunen "Dramatic Miniatures", Maria Saivosalmi ja Andrius Katinas "Farewell Anna Karenina", Jenni Kivelä "Scrapbook for Rainy Days", Ari Tenhula videomäng/installatsioon "Entr'acte"

  16. Gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) new to the Danish fauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarder, Simon; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Harris, Keith M.

    2016-01-01

    First records of twenty-three gall midge species in Denmark are reported: Asphondylia ervi Rübsaamen, Contarinia acetosellae Rübsaamen, C. viburnorum Kieffer, Dasineura astragalorum (Kieffer), D. fructum (Rübsaamen), D. harrisoni (Bagnall), D. lotharingiae (Kieffer), D. papaveris (Winnertz), D...

  17. [Luuletused] / no igauņu valodas atdzejojis Guntars Godiņš

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    fs, pseud., 1971-

    2005-01-01

    Sisu: "kas mēs esam..." ; "Dzejnieki dzejo par dzejoshanu..." ; "ko gan es iesāktu bez Tevis Ave..." ; "strādāju arhīvā..."; "mīli mani no deviņiem līdz pieciem..." ; "kad cilvēks nomirst..." ; "skarbs vīrs no rīta iziet laukā..."

  18. History of Canaveral District: 1950 - 1971

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-07-01

    world, the Canaveral sites had from the beginning required special precautions to alienate corrosion of exposed items. Special finishes were required...SHA’d rtr,. 111 E.xt 240 PAGE 5 UlI!IIIISTRATIVE Sl/PP(I!T NASA r-- __ .... J___ -. OfF I CZ Ufo ’ ,W,.:m. ’:;ERVI C:.s J. H. DAVl.:l Rrn 109

  19. Civilsamfundets ABC: L for Lykke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anker Brink; Meyer, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    Vi er nået til L for Lykke. I mindst 2500 år har der i den vestlige verden været almindelig uenighed om, hvad lykke er.......Vi er nået til L for Lykke. I mindst 2500 år har der i den vestlige verden været almindelig uenighed om, hvad lykke er....

  20. Trichoderma harzianum enhances tomato indirect defense against aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Mariangela; Cascone, Pasquale; Chiusano, Maria Luisa; Colantuono, Chiara; Lorito, Matteo; Pennacchio, Francesco; Rao, Rosa; Woo, Sheridan Lois; Guerrieri, Emilio; Digilio, Maria Cristina

    2017-12-01

    Many fungal root symbionts of the genus Trichoderma are well-known for their beneficial effects on agronomic performance and protection against plant pathogens; moreover, they may enhance protection from insect pests, by triggering plant resistance mechanisms. Defense barriers against insects are induced by the activation of metabolic pathways involved in the production of defense-related plant compounds, either directly active against herbivore insects, or exerting an indirect effect, by increasing the attraction of herbivore natural enemies. In a model system composed of the tomato plant, the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae and the parasitoid Aphidius ervi, plant metabolic changes induced by Trichoderma harzianum and their effects on higher trophic levels have been assessed. T. harzianum T22 treatments induce a primed state that upon aphid attacks leads to an increased attraction of aphid parasitoids, mediated by the enhanced production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are known to induce Aphidius ervi flight. Transcriptome sequencing of T22-treated plants infested by aphids showed a remarkable upregulation of genes involved in terpenoids biosynthesis and salicylic acid pathway, which are consistent with the observed flight response of A. ervi and the VOC bouquet profile underlying this behavioral response. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. Reply to: Analysis of the effects of fractionated irradiation to the rat heart (by E. van Rongen)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttenberger, R.

    1987-01-01

    The applicability of the linear quadratic (LQ) model in the analysis of the data presented by Lauk et al. (Radiotherapy. Oncol. 8: 363-367, 1987) is investigated with the linear regression method of Tucker, by simulating fractionated irradiation experiments on tissues with α/β values varying from 1 to 20, starting from theoretical iso-effect doses. It turns out that the LQ model is unreliable for small (∼ 1) α/β values using the error probability p=0.05 and that the sensitivity of the linear regression method is dependent on the underlying α/β. 3 refs.; 1 table

  2. Eesti teatri aastaauhinnad 2001

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Lavastajaauhind Hendrik Toompere, meesnäitleja Mait Malmsten, naisnäitleja Kersti Kreismann, meeskõrvalosatäitja Sulev Teppart, naiskõrvalosatäitja Kersti Tombak, kunstnikupreemia Ene-Liis Semper, eriauhind Marko Matvere, tantsulavastuse auhind Age Oks, Toomas Edur, Katrin Essenson, kriitikuauhind Reet Neimar ja Lea Tormis, Ants Lauteri preemia Katariina Lauk-Tamm ja Andres Raag, Salme Reegi auhind VAT Teater, Priit Põldroosi preemia Ingo Normet, Aleksander Kurtna preemia Tõnu Oja ja Villu Kangur, Georg Otsa preemia Pille Lill, muusikalavastuse auhind Mati Palm, muusikalavastuse eriauhind Teo Maiste

  3. Trans-generational effects of mild heat stress on the life history traits of an aphid parasitoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaeil, Ibrahim; Doury, Géraldine; Desouhant, Emmanuel; Dubois, Françoise; Prevost, Geneviève; Couty, Aude

    2013-01-01

    Temperature changes are common in nature and insects are particularly exposed and sensitive to such variations which can be potential stresses, ultimately affecting life history traits and overall fitness. Braconids have been widely used to study the effects of temperature on host-parasitoid interactions and the present work focused on the solitary endoparasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae Aphidiidae), an efficient biological control agent commercially used against aphids such as the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae). Contrary to previous studies using heat shocks at extreme temperatures, we evaluated the effects of mild heat stresses by transferring young parasitoid adults from the constant temperature of 20°C to either a warm (25°C) or hot (28°C) temperature, for either 1 h or 48 h. Such treatments are consistent with situations commonly experienced by parasitoids when moved from their rearing conditions to greenhouses or field conditions. The effects were evaluated both on the heat stressed A. ervi adults (G0) (immediate effects) and on their first generation (G1) progeny (trans-generational effects). G0 wasps' mortality was significantly affected by the temperature in interaction with the duration of the stress. Longevity of G0 wasps surviving the heat stress was negatively affected by the temperature and females lived longer than males. Heat stress applied to A. ervi parents also had consequences on their G1 progeny whose developmental time, rates of mummification and percentage of parasitoid completing total development were negatively affected. Surprisingly, the egg load at emergence of the G1 female progeny was increased when their mothers had been submitted to a mild heat stress of 25°C or 28°C. These results clearly demonstrate trans-generational phenotypic plasticity, showing that adaptation to thermal stresses may be achieved via maternal effects. This study also sheds light on the complexity

  4. Influence of temperature on patch residence time in parasitoids: physiological and behavioural mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiroux, Joffrey; Abram, Paul K.; Louâpre, Philippe; Barrette, Maryse; Brodeur, Jacques; Boivin, Guy

    2016-04-01

    Patch time allocation has received much attention in the context of optimal foraging theory, including the effect of environmental variables. We investigated the direct role of temperature on patch time allocation by parasitoids through physiological and behavioural mechanisms and its indirect role via changes in sex allocation and behavioural defences of the hosts. We compared the influence of foraging temperature on patch residence time between an egg parasitoid, Trichogramma euproctidis, and an aphid parasitoid, Aphidius ervi. The latter attacks hosts that are able to actively defend themselves, and may thus indirectly influence patch time allocation of the parasitoid. Patch residence time decreased with an increase in temperature in both species. The increased activity levels with warming, as evidenced by the increase in walking speed, partially explained these variations, but other mechanisms were involved. In T. euproctidis, the ability to externally discriminate parasitised hosts decreased at low temperature, resulting in a longer patch residence time. Changes in sex allocation with temperature did not explain changes in patch time allocation in this species. For A. ervi, we observed that aphids frequently escaped at intermediate temperature and defended themselves aggressively at high temperature, but displayed few defence mechanisms at low temperature. These defensive behaviours resulted in a decreased patch residence time for the parasitoid and partly explained the fact that A. ervi remained for a shorter time at the intermediate and high temperatures than at the lowest temperature. Our results suggest that global warming may affect host-parasitoid interactions through complex mechanisms including both direct and indirect effects on parasitoid patch time allocation.

  5. Trans-generational effects of mild heat stress on the life history traits of an aphid parasitoid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ismaeil

    Full Text Available Temperature changes are common in nature and insects are particularly exposed and sensitive to such variations which can be potential stresses, ultimately affecting life history traits and overall fitness. Braconids have been widely used to study the effects of temperature on host-parasitoid interactions and the present work focused on the solitary endoparasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae Aphidiidae, an efficient biological control agent commercially used against aphids such as the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae. Contrary to previous studies using heat shocks at extreme temperatures, we evaluated the effects of mild heat stresses by transferring young parasitoid adults from the constant temperature of 20°C to either a warm (25°C or hot (28°C temperature, for either 1 h or 48 h. Such treatments are consistent with situations commonly experienced by parasitoids when moved from their rearing conditions to greenhouses or field conditions. The effects were evaluated both on the heat stressed A. ervi adults (G0 (immediate effects and on their first generation (G1 progeny (trans-generational effects. G0 wasps' mortality was significantly affected by the temperature in interaction with the duration of the stress. Longevity of G0 wasps surviving the heat stress was negatively affected by the temperature and females lived longer than males. Heat stress applied to A. ervi parents also had consequences on their G1 progeny whose developmental time, rates of mummification and percentage of parasitoid completing total development were negatively affected. Surprisingly, the egg load at emergence of the G1 female progeny was increased when their mothers had been submitted to a mild heat stress of 25°C or 28°C. These results clearly demonstrate trans-generational phenotypic plasticity, showing that adaptation to thermal stresses may be achieved via maternal effects. This study also sheds light on

  6. Feasibility for the disinfestation of pulses and cereal grains by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.; Al-Bachir, M.

    1994-01-01

    The faba bean seed beetle, Bruchus dentipes Baudi, the lentil seed beetle, B. Ervi Froel, and the European lentil seed beetle, B. Lentis Froel are the most important insect pests of lentil and faba bean in Syria. Adults lay their eggs on the green pods in the field and immature stages develop inside the seeds. Infestation rate differs from year to year and from one location to another. In 1991, it ranged between 9.6 and 13.90 for lentil seeds and 31.00 to 57.39% for faba bean seeds depending on the region. This reduced the economic value by about 50% for faba bean seeds and 20-30% for lentil seeds. Current disinfestation methods are unsafe and not adequately effective. Ionizing radiation could be an alternative approach. An investigation was initiated to determine the possibility of applying the irradiation disinfestation technique against these pests. The dose of gamma radiation needed for disinfesting faba bean seeds infested with B. dentipes was found to be 90 Gy for the last two larval instars. Immature stages of B. ervi and B. lentils develop very rapidly in the field and reach the pupal or adult stage by harvest. This makes the application of this technique for disinfesting lentil seeds of little or no value. However, the results indicate that the irradiation disinfestation method could be an advantageous approach for disinfesting faba bean seeds. (author). 38 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  7. Feasibility for the disinfestation of pulses and cereal grains by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.Y.; Al-Bachir, M.

    1993-05-01

    The faba bean seed beetle,Bruchus Dentipes Baudi, the lentil seed beetle, B.ervi Froel, and the European lentil seed beetle, B.lentis Froel are the most important insect pests of lentil and faba bean in Syria. Adults lay their eggs on the green pods in the field and immature stages develop inside the seeds. Infestation rate differs from year to year and from one location to another. In 1991, it ranged between 9.6 and 13.90 for lentil seeds and 31.00 to 57.39% for faba bean seeds depending on the region. This reduced the economic value by about 50% for faba bean seeds and 20 - 30% for lentil seeds. Current disinfestation methods are unsafe and not adequately effective. Ionizing radiation could be an alternative approach. An investigation was initiated to determine the possibility of applying the irradiation disinfestation technique against these pests. The dose of gamma radiation needed for disinfecting faba bean seeds infested with B.Dentipes was found to be 90 Gy for the last two larval instars. Immature stages of B.ervi and B.lentis develop very rapidly in the field and reach the pupal or adult stage by harvest. This makes the application of this technique for disinfecting lentil seeds of little or no value. However, the results indicate that the irradiation disinfestation method could be an advantageous approach for disinfecting faba bean seeds. (author). 38 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  8. Partial aphid resistance in lettuce negatively affects parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanteigne, Marie-Eve; Brodeur, Jacques; Jenni, Sylvie; Boivin, Guy

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of partial plant resistance on the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a major pest of cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), and one of its parasitoids, Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Aphids were reared on susceptible (L. sativa variety Estival; S) or partially resistant (Lactuca serriola L. PI 491093; PR) lettuce, and next parasitized by A. ervi females. Fitness proxies were measured for both aphids and parasitoids. Developmental time to adult stage took longer for alate and apterous aphids (an average of 3.5 and 1.5 additional days, respectively) on PR than on S lettuce, and fecundity of alate aphids reared on PR lettuce was reduced by 37.8% relative to those reared on S lettuce. Size (tibia length) and weight of aphids reared on PR lettuce were lower than for aphids reared on S lettuce from the third and second instar onward, respectively. Parasitism of aphids reared on PR plants resulted in lower parasitoid offspring emergence (-49.9%), lower adult female (-30.3%) and male (-27.5%) weight, smaller adult female (-17.5%) and male (-11.9%) size, and lower female fecundity (37.8% fewer eggs) than when parasitoids developed from aphids reared on S plants. Our results demonstrate that partial aphid resistance in lettuce negatively affects both the second and third trophic levels. Host plant resistance in cultivated lettuce may therefore create an ecological sink for aphid parasitoids.

  9. Augalų, auginamų žaliajai trąšai, agrobiologinis įvertinimas ir įtaka svogūnų derliui

    OpenAIRE

    Starkutė, Roma; Duchovskienė, Laisvūnė; Zalatorius, Zytautas

    2006-01-01

    2003–2005 m. Lietuvos sodininkystės daržininkystės institute ekologiškai daržovėms auginti skirtame bandymų lauke tirti ir įvertinti žaliajai trąšai tinkamiausi augalai ir nustatyta jų įtaka ekologiškai auginamų svogūnų derliui. Tirti augalai žaliajai trąšai: miežiai, miežiai su dobilų įsėliu, vasariniai kviečiai, žirnių ir avižų mišinys, aliejiniai ridikai. Kontrolinis variantas – juodasis pūdymas. Nustatyta, kad žaliajai trąšai auginamų augalų biomasė armenyje paliko nevienodą organinės med...

  10. Javų agrofitocenozių produktyvumo tyrimai

    OpenAIRE

    Juknevičius, Algirdas

    2009-01-01

    Tiriamojo darbo objektas – varpinių javų pasėliai smėlinguose Dzūkijos dirvožemiuose. Tyrimo tikslas – nustatyti pagrindinių produktyvumo rodiklių įtaką varpiniams javams. Tyrimo metodika. Tyrimas buvo atliktas viename ekologiniame ūkyje, tačiau šešiuose laukuose. Tirti žieminiai kvietrugiai, žieminiai kviečiai ir vasariniai miežiai pasėti skirtinguose priešsėliuose. Piktžolių bei rugių kiekis buvo nustatomas kiekviename lauke išskiriant po 0,25 m2 tyrimo laukelius kiekvieno lauko pradž...

  11. Pamokslo ir eseistikos sąveika Juliaus Sasnausko ir Giedrės Kazlauskaitės eseistikoje

    OpenAIRE

    Skirmantienė, Daiva

    2010-01-01

    Jaunosios kartos rašytojų kunigo pamokslininko Juliaus Sasnausko ir pasaulietės Giedrės Kazlauskaitės kūrybos semantinį ir įdėjinį lauką padeda suprasti teologinės literatūros ir literatūrinės teologijos sąveika. Teologinių prasmių paieška jų tekstuose atliepia šiuolaikinio žmogaus pastangas per literatūrą, skelbiančią gyvenamojo laikotarpio aktualijas, rasti kelią į tam tikras krikščioniškąsias tiesas ir bandyti reflektuoti savo tikėjimą bei analizuoti išganymo istoriją. Autorių kūryo...

  12. Bacteriophages encode factors required for protection in a symbiotic mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Kerry M; Degnan, Patrick H; Hunter, Martha S; Moran, Nancy A

    2009-08-21

    Bacteriophages are known to carry key virulence factors for pathogenic bacteria, but their roles in symbiotic bacteria are less well understood. The heritable symbiont Hamiltonella defensa protects the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum from attack by the parasitoid Aphidius ervi by killing developing wasp larvae. In a controlled genetic background, we show that a toxin-encoding bacteriophage is required to produce the protective phenotype. Phage loss occurs repeatedly in laboratory-held H. defensa-infected aphid clonal lines, resulting in increased susceptibility to parasitism in each instance. Our results show that these mobile genetic elements can endow a bacterial symbiont with benefits that extend to the animal host. Thus, phages vector ecologically important traits, such as defense against parasitoids, within and among symbiont and animal host lineages.

  13. Primary and secondary parasitoids (Hymenoptera) of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on blueberry and other Vaccinium in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raworth, D A; Pike, K S; Tanigoshi, L K; Mathur, S; Graf, G

    2008-04-01

    Blueberry scorch virus, a commercially important Carlavirus in highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., is vectored by aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae). We surveyed the aphids, primary parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, Braconidae), and associated secondary parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Charipidae, Megaspilidae, Pteromalidae) on highbush blueberry and other Vaccinium in the Pacific Northwest from 1995 to 2006, with samples concentrated in 2005 and 2006, to lay the groundwork for augmentative biological control. Ericaphis fimbriata (Richards) was the principal aphid. The dominant parasitoid species were Praon unicum Smith, Aphidius n. sp., A. sp., and Aphidius ervi Haliday. Their frequency in relation to the other primary parasitoids varied significantly with geographical area; P. unicum dominated the frequency distribution in southwestern British Columbia, A. n. sp., west of the Cascades, and A. sp. and A. ervi east of the Cascades. Among the secondary parasitoids, pteromalids dominated, and their frequency in relation to the other secondary parasitoids was lowest in southwestern British Columbia. The parasitization rate for P. unicum and A. n. sp. in southwestern British Columbia increased from May or June to a maximum of 0.080 +/- 0.024 and 0.090 +/- 0.084 (SD), respectively, in late July or early August. P. unicum emerged in the spring 4 wk before A. n. sp. The parasitization rate for P. unicum was lower in conventional than organic fields. Whereas aphid density increased monotonically, P. unicum had two spring peaks. A simulation model showed that these peaks could reflect discrete generations. Releases of insectary-reared P. unicum at 150 or 450 DD above 5.6 degrees C, summing from 1 January, may effectively augment the natural spring populations by creating overlapping generations.

  14. The geothermal potentials for electric development in Maluku Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Isnaniawardhani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic of small to medium size islands is the limited amount of natural resources for electric generation. Presently the needs of energy in Maluku Province are supplied by the diesel generation units. The electricity distributes through an isolated grid system of each island. There are 10 separate systems in Maluku Province, namely Ambon, Namlea, Tual, Saumlaki, Mako, Piru, Bula, Masohi, Dobo and Langgur. From the geothermal point of view, this condition is suitable because the nature of the generation is small to medium and the locations are dispersed. The geological condition of Maluku Province is conducive for the formation of geothermal resources. The advanced utilization of geothermal energy in Maluku Province is in Tulehu located about 8 kilometers NE of Ambon. It is expected that 60 MW electric will be produced at the first stage in 2019. A total of 100 MW resources were estimated. Other places of geothermal potentials are Lauke and Tawen both located in Ambon Island with the potentials of 25 MW respectively. In Oma Haruku, Saparua and Nusa Laut the geothermal potentials were estimated to be 25 MW each. The total amount of geothermal energy in Maluku Province is thus, 225 MW which will contribute significantly to the needs of projected 184 MW in the year 2025.

  15. ELEKTROMAGNĒTISKI IETEKMĒTU HIDRODINAMISKO PROCESU EKSPERIMENTĀLI PĒTĪJUMI ŠĶIDRU METĀLU NOSLĒGTOS TILPUMOS

    OpenAIRE

    Andris Bojarevičs

    2014-01-01

    ANOTĀCIJA Promocijas darbs veidots kā paplašināts kopsavilkums par 18 zinātnisku publikāciju kopu, kas veltīta šķidru metālu kustības dinamikai noslēgtos tilpumos apstākļos, kad to ietekmē ārēji uzlikts magnētiskais lauks, kā pastāvīgs, tā arī laikā mainīgs. Praktiski visi darbi ir autora plānotu un realizētu fizikālu eksperimentālu modeļu izpētes izklāsts, kas iekļaujas magnētiskās hidrodinamikas jomā. Darbā atspoguļoti eksperimentālie rezultāti par dažādu ārēji rosinātu faktoru veidotu ...

  16. Federal and Provincial Responsibilities to Implement Physician-Assisted Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David; Sharpe, Gilbert; Lauks, Rebeka

    2016-02-01

    In the most significant constitutional decision of the last generation, Carter v. Canada, the Supreme Court of Canada reversed itself and decided that it was possible for Parliament to enact safeguards that would be adequate to protect persons who are vulnerable in times of weakness, then proceeded to declare that Canadians were entitled to a s. 7 Charter right to physician-assisted death. David Baker and Gilbert Sharpe accepted the challenge issued by the Court and drafted a Bill to amend the Criminal Code in a manner they believed would strike a constitutional balance between providing access to the right declared by the Court and protecting the vulnerable. This article represents their attempt, along with co-author Rebeka Lauks, to explain many of the key provisions in their draft. Amongst the most noteworthy are their attempts to ensure that those choosing PAD are informed about quality of life, as well as treatment choices; to define vulnerability and to install safeguards adequate to protect persons while vulnerable; and finally a prior review process that would ensure both ready access to the Charter right declared by the Court and consistent and transparent application of the law. The authors have attempted to establish an alternative model to that currently in effect in the Benelux countries, which they regard as having been ineffective in achieving any of these objectives.

  17. Mobility of 232Th and 210Po in red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedűs, Miklós; Tóth-Bodrogi, Edit; Jónás, Jácint; Somlai, János; Kovács, Tibor

    2018-04-01

    The valorization of industrial by-products such as red mud became a tempting opportunity, but the understanding of the risks involved is required for the safe utilization of these products. One of the risks involved are the elevated levels of radionuclides (in the 100-1300 Bq/kg range for both the 238 U and 232  Th decay chains, but usually lower than 1000 Bq/kg, which is the recommended limit for excemption or clearance according to the EU BSS released in 2013) in red mud that can affect human health. There is no satisfactory answer for the utilization of red mud; the main current solution is still almost exclusively disposal into a landfill. For the safe utilization and deposition of red mud, it is important to be able to assess the leaching behaviour of radionuclides. Because there is no commonly accepted measurement protocol for testing the leaching of radionuclides in the EU a combined measurement protocol was made and tested based on heavy metal leaching methods. The leaching features of red mud were studied by methods compliant with the MSZ-21470-50 Hungarian standard, the CEN/TS 14429 standard and the Tessier sequential extraction method for 232 Th and 210 Po. The leached solutions were taken to radiochemical separation followed by spontaneous deposition for Po and electrodeposition for Th. The 332 ± 33 Bq/kg 232 Th content was minimally mobile, 1% became available for distilled water 1% and 6% for Lakanen-Erviö solution; the Tessier extraction showed minimal mobility in the first four steps, while more than 85% remained in the residue. The 210 Po measurements had a severe disturbing effect in many cases, probably due to large amounts of iron present in the red mud, from the 310 ± 12 Bq/kg by aqua regia digestion, distilled water mobilized 23%, while Lakanen-Erviö solution mobilized ∼13%. The proposed protocol is suitable for the analysis of Th and Po leaching behaviour. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Long term effect of metal pollution in the catchment area of Tisza River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Győri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In January and March 2000 two tailings dam failures occurred in the upper Tisza catchment area near Baia Mare and Baia Borsa (Romania. These accidents focused attention on the metal pollution of the Tisza catchment area, and the short term effects of them were studied by many researchers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long term effects of these pollutions by determining the Lakanen-Erviö extractable easily available metal contents of samples collected in 2011 from floodplains and pastures along the Tisza (Tivadar, Vásárosnamény, Rakamaz, Tiszacsege, and comparing them to our earlier results. Cu and Zn contents were measured by Optima 3300 DV ICP-OES (Perkin-Elmer. The measurement of Pb and Cd was conducted by QZ 939 GF-AAS (Unicam in 2000 and by an X7 ICP-MS (Thermo Fisher in 2011. We found that the Cd, Zn and Pb contents of the pasture near Vásárosnamény exceed limit values and natural background values. In addition, during a 11 year period the easily available Cd, Zn and Pb contents increased significantly, suggesting that the hazard of this pollution should not be neglected.

  19. NATURAL ENEMIES OF DIURAPHIS NOXIA (STERNORRHYNCHA: APHIDIDAE IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter TÓTH

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A study from 2002 documented the occurrence of natural enemies (parasitoid wasps, predatory fl ies, entomopathogenic fungi associated with colonies of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov, 1913 (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae, in the spring barley fi elds in Slovakia. Parasitization by wasps was low (<5.5% with Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh, 1855 the dominant hymenopterous parasitoid (91% of emerging wasps. The remaining parasitoid guild comprised of Aphidius ervi Haliday, 1834 Aphidius rhopalosiphi DeStefani, 1902, Aphidius picipes (Nees, 1811, Ephedrus plagiator (Nees, 1811, Praon volucre (Haliday, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae and two hyperparasites Asaphes suspensus (Nees, 1834 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae and Lygocerus spp. (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae. Predaceous midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae were consistently found with densities ranging from 0.1 to 2.5 larvae per aphid colony. The most abundant predaceous midge was Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani, 1847, while Lestodiplosis sp. was recorded infrequently. Four syrphids, Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer, 1776, Melanostoma mellinum (L., 1758, Sphaerophoria rueppellii (Wiedemann, 1830, Sphaerophoria scripta (L., 1758 (Diptera: Syrphidae and one pathogenic fungus, Pandora neoaphidis (Remaudière et Hennebert Humber, were recorded.

  20. Carrier mobility and crystal perfection of tetracene thin film FET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriguchi, N.; Nishikawa, T.; Anezaki, T.; Unno, A.; Tachibana, M.; Kojima, K.

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that the carrier mobility of an organic field effect semiconductor (FET) depended on the crystal quality and/or the crystal perfection of the organic thin films [T.W. Kelly, D.V. Muyres, P.F. Baude, T.P. Smith, T.D. Jones, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 771 (2003) L6.5.1; D.J. Gundlach, J.A. Nichols, L. Zhou, T.N. Jackson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80 (2002) 2925; H.K. Lauk, M. Halik, U. Zschieschang, G. Schmid, W. Radlik, J. Appl. Phys. 92 (2002) 5259; M. Shtein, J. Mapel, J.B. Benziger, S.R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81 (2002) 268; D. Knipp, R.A. Street, A.R. Volkel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82 (2003) 3907; R. Ruiz, A.C. Mayer, G.G. Malliaras, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85 (2004) 4926; R.W.I. de Boer, M.E. Gershenson, A.F. Morpurgo, V. Podzorov, Phys. Stat. Sol. A 201 (2004) 1031]. To improve the crystal quality of the thin film many efforts were made. One of the important improvements was the surface treatment of the substrate. The tetracene thin film FET (top contact structure) was fabricated using the substrate, which was coated by a spin-coating method with a 0.1% poly α-methylstyrene (AMS) solution. The crystal quality was improved by this treatment so that the carrier mobility was higher than that of non-treatment. The maximum mobility of the AMS-treated sample was obtained to be 0.12 cm 2 /V s

  1. PENETAPAN KADAR RESIDU ORGANOKLORIN DAN TAKSIRAN RESIKO KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT TERHADAP RESIDU PESTISIDA ORGANOKLORIN PADA 10 KOMODITI PANGAN

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    Ani Isnawati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Usaha untuk mendapatkan hasil pertanian yang meningkat tidak ekonomis jika tidak menggunakan pestisida untuk menanggulangi serangan hama tanaman. Selain memberikan keuntungan bagi petani, disisi lain residu pestisida dapat membahayakan konsumen dalam batas-batas tertentu. Pemakaian pestisida  organoklorin telah dilarang penggunaannya melalui Menteri Pertanian nomor 434.1/kpts/TP.270/7/2001 karena sifatnya yang persisten. Oleh karena itu untuk mengetahui sejauh mana residu pestistda organoklorin masih ada dikomoditi makanan, maka dilakukan penetapan kadar residu pestisida organoklorin dan melakukan perhitungan taksiran resiko terhadap kesehatan masyarakat. Sampel adalah 10 jenis makanan (beras, }agung, kacang panjang, pisang ambon, tahu tempe, daging sapi, daging ayam, ikan mas, ikan gabus yang paling banyak dikonsumsi masyarakat yang digolongkan sebagai makanan pokok, lauk, sayur dan buah. Tempat pengambilan sampel dipilih secara purposif dt wilayah propinsi Jawa Barat dari 3 kota besar, yaitu Bandung, Cirebon dan Serang. sepuluh jenis sampel diambil secara acak sederhana di beberapa kios di satu pasar tradisional dart tiap kota. Penetapan kadar residu organoklorin dilakukan dengan menggunakan kromatografi gas. Sampel diambil secara acak sederhana dibeberapa kios di satu pasar tradisional dari tiap kota. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa daging sapi yang berasal dari Bandung merupakan jenis makanan yang terdeteksi pestisida organoklorin, yaitu: alfa-endosulfon dan beta endosulfon dengan kadar masing-masing 0,0284 mg/kg dan 0,0249 mg/kg. Kadar yang didapat masih di bawah BMR (Batas Maksimum Residu dan nilai ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake untuk endosulfon, sehingga tidak berisiko terhadap masyarakat yang mengkonsumsinya.

  2. Aphid parasitoids that occur on wheat crops of Northeast of the Parana State with recovery of Aphidius rhopalosiphi in BrazilParasitoides de pulgões-do-trigo que ocorrem no Norte do estado do Paraná e recaptura de Aphidius rhopalosiphi no Brasil

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    Adriano Thibes Hoshino

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae are the main pest of wheat (Hemiptera: Aphididae in several countries. In Brazil, the Biological Control of Wheat Aphids released millions of aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Aphelinidae on wheat fields and in the present moment the chemical control is rarely necessary. However, since the 80’s few studies was carried out to evaluate the species established in Brazil. For this reason, the aim of this study was to record the species of aphid parasitoids that occur in wheat in the northern region of Parana state, Brazil. Four commercial wheat fields were investigated in the agricultural years of 2008 and 2009. The aphid parasitoids were captured with traps (Moericke and Malaise and aphid mummified were collected. In total, six species of parasitoids were found, Aphidius colemani, A. uzbekistanicus, A. ervi, Aphidius rhopalosiphi, Diaeretiella rapae e Lysiphlebus testaceipes. These results contribute with the register of three exotic species in Parana, and confirm the establishment of A. rhopalosiphi in the country. We emphasize the need for further studies in other regions of the country, as other species introduced also need to have their establishment confirmed.Os pulgões (Hemiptera: Aphididae são pragas de extrema importância em cereais de inverno no mundo todo. No Brasil, o programa Controle Biológico de Pulgões do Trigo liberou milhões de parasitoides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae e Aphelinidae nas áreas tritícolas, reduzindo expressivamente a população da praga, e atualmente raramente o controle químico se faz necessário. Entretanto, desde a década de 80 poucos trabalhos de campo tem sido realizados para verificar as espécies efetivamente estabelecidas no País. Por esta razão, este estudo objetivou registrar as espécies de parasitoides de pulgões ocorrentes em lavouras de trigo na região Norte no Paraná. O trabalho foi realizado em quatro áreas comerciais de trigo, durante as safras

  3. Zapożyczenia litewskie dotyczące człowieka w gwarach polskich na Litwie. Aspekt semantyczny i etnolingwistyczny

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    Krystyna Rutkowska

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ŽMOGŲ APIBŪDINANTYS LIETUVIŠKI SKOLINIAI LIETUVOS LENKŲ TARMĖSE. SEMANTINIS IR ETNOLINGVISTINIS ASPEKTASSantraukaLietuvos lenkų tarmėse į žmogaus semantinį lauką patenkantys lituanizmai sudaro apie 24 procentus skolinių iš lietuvių kalbos. Ypač gausūs emocionalizmai ir ekspresy­vizmai, pasitelkiami žmogui įvertinti tais atvejais, kai šis neatitinka tam tikroje socialinėje grupėje įsigalėjusių normų ir grožio kanono.Kai kurie tirti leksikos vienetai yra bendri tarminei ir šnekamajai lenkų kalbai bei lie­tuvių kalbai, (pvz., dryblas „aukštas žmogus“, tarmėse dar ir „žioplys“, liet. dribla, driblia; kurdupel, kurdupelek „žemo ūgio žmogus“, liet. kurdupelis, kartupelis „bulvė; neūžauga, susitraukęs žmogus“; taip pat rasta labai išplitusių žodžių, vartojamų lenkų kalbos tar­mėse Lietuvoje ir baltarusių bei rusų tarmėse (pvz., kurstać ir iš šio žodžio sudarytos priešdėlių pod-, wy- (pa-, iš- formos, kurių reikšmė „raginti, skatinti“, balt. крстаць iš liet. kurstyti „dėti į ugnį kuro“, prk. „raginti, skatinti, žadinti, įkalbinėti, siundyti“. Šie lituanizmai yra prigiję slavų kalbose ir labai praverčia įvairių žmogaus išvaizdos ir psichi­kos aspektų konceptualizavimui.Aptariamas žodyno sluoksnis semantiškai gana įvairus. Čia randama stilistiškai kono­tuotų žodžių, kuriais žmogus priskiriamas tam tikrai kategorijai pagal jo kūno ypatumus: a nuo normos nukrypstantį ūgį ir akivaizdžius kūno defektus (pvz., kliszawy „šleivas, šleivakojis“, kupraty „kuprotas“; b vaikščiojimo būdą (tupotać / tupiniać (tupenti „eiti smulkiais žingsneliais, bidzenti“; c aplaidžią išvaizdą (murziak, liet. murzius „išsitepęs, nešvarus (apie vaiką“, sutra, liet. sutra, „netvarkinga, nevalyva moteris“ ir kt. Išskirtini ir žmogaus proto gebėjimus pagal jo elgesio racionalumą vertinantys žodžiai (kiemny

  4. Multi-modal defences in aphids offer redundant protection and increased costs likely impeding a protective mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Adam J; Doremus, Matthew R; Kraft, Laura J; Kim, Kyungsun L; Oliver, Kerry M

    2018-03-01

    The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, maintains extreme variation in resistance to its most common parasitoid wasp enemy, Aphidius ervi, which is sourced from two known mechanisms: protective bacterial symbionts, most commonly Hamiltonella defensa, or endogenously encoded defences. We have recently found that individual aphids may employ each defence individually, occasionally both defences together, or neither. In field populations, Hamiltonella-infected aphids are found at low to moderate frequencies and while less is known about the frequency of resistant genotypes, they show up less often than susceptible genotypes in field collections. To better understand these patterns, we sought to compare the strengths and costs of both types of defence, individually and together, in order to elucidate the selective pressures that maintain multi-modal defence mechanisms or that may favour one over the other. We experimentally infected five aphid genotypes (two lowly and three highly resistant), each with two symbiont strains, Hamiltonella-APSE8 (moderate protection) and Hamiltonella-APSE3 (high protection). This resulted in three sublines per genotype: uninfected, +APSE8 and +APSE3. Each of the 15 total sublines was first subjected to a parasitism assay to determine its resistance phenotype and in a second experiment, a subset was chosen to compare fitness (fecundity and survivorship) in the presence and absence of parasitism. In susceptible aphid genotypes, parasitized sublines infected with Hamiltonella generally showed increased protection with direct fitness benefits, but clear infection costs to fitness in the absence of parasitism. In resistant genotypes, Hamiltonella infection rarely conferred additional protection, often further reduced fecundity and survivorship when enemy challenged, and resulted in constitutive fitness costs in the absence of parasitism. We also identified strong aphid genotype × symbiont-strain interactions, such that the best defensive

  5. REINVENTARISASI MAKANAN TRADISIONAL BULELENG SEBAGAI UPAYA PELESTARIAN SENI KULINER BALI

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    Ni Wayan Sukerti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available pertama ini adalah untuk memperoleh strategi reinventarisasi makanan tradisional Buleleng sebagai salah satu upaya pelestarian seni kuliner Bali. Tujuan dapat dijabarkan sesuai tahapan pencapaian (1 Mengidentifikasi jenis-jenis makanan tradisional yang khas di Kabupaten Buleleng sejak dulu sampai sekarang (2 Menyusun pedoman/panduan resep beragam makanan tradisional khas di Kabupaten Buleleng. Jenis penelitian ini berupa penelitian survei dan pengembangan (Survei and Development Research yang dilaksanakan selama 2 (dua tahun. Penelitian tahun pertama, menghasilkan rancangan sebagai berikut: (a melakukan identifikasi terhadap jenis-jenis makanan tradisional khas Buleleng yang dikonsumsi masyarakat di Kabupaten Buleleng sebelumnya.,(b melakukan pengkajian resep-resep berbagai jenis makanan tradisional khas Buleleng berdasarkan hasil identifikasi secara tradisional, (c Menyusun draft pedoman resep tradisional . Lokasi penelitian ini adalah di delapan Kecamatan yang ada di kabupaten Buleleng, yang terbagi ke dalam 24 desa sebagai wilayah sampling. Metode pengumpulan data adalah metode wawancara, metode observasi partisipasi, dan metode Dokumentasi. Selanjutnya Data dianalisis secara deskriftif kualitatif yaitu pemaparan dengan kata-kata untuk menggambarkan objek yang diteliti. Penggambaran data hasil penelitian dilakukan secara objektif,sesuai dengan keadaan sebenarnya. Data hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa: (1 Jenis-jenis hidangan khas tradisional kabupaten Buleleng meliputi : (a Makanan Pokok seperti nasi tulen, nasi moran gadung, nasi moran keladi/talas, moran sele sawi, mengguh, blayag, tipat srosob; (b Lauk Pauk meliputi : serapah, sate celeng, timbungan , dll, (c Sayuran meliputi : urab paku, urab kacang dll, (d Jajanan meliputi: jaja bantal, jaja kaun tulud, jaja lemu, jaja satuh ; dll, (e Minuman meliputi loloh kunyit, loloh belimbing, es daluman, es kuud, rujak timun.;(2 tersusunnya 1 buah buku draft resep makanan tradisional Buleleng

  6. Pengetahuan, Sikap dan Perilaku Individu Tentang Makanan Beraneka Ragam sebagai Salah Satu Indikator Keluarga Sadar Gizi (KADARZI

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    Aditianti Aditianti

    2016-09-01

    pengetahuan, sikap dan perilaku (PSP keluarga tentang konsumsi makanan beraneka ragam yang merupakan salah satu indikator KADARZI. Metode: menganalisis data studi KADARZI tahun 2009 – 2011. Sampel adalah 4289 rumah tangga dan 9231 individu yang tersebar di 6 provinsi di Indonesia. Data yang dikumpulkan meliputi pengetahuan, sikap dan perilaku berbagai aspek indikator KADARZI. Pengolahan data dilakukan secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukan pengetahuan tentang manfaat makanan pokok pada semua kelompok usia lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan pengetahuan tentang kelompok makanan lainnya yaitu berkisar antara 41% – 53,1%. Diatas 75% responden menyatakan sikap setuju untuk mengkonsumsi lauk hewani, nabati, sayuran, buah. Namun demikian perilaku mengkonsumsi makanan beragam setiap hari pada umumnya masih rendah yaitu dibawah 20% berdasarkan kelompok usia maupun berdasarkan provinsi. Di Provinsi Jabar, Kaltim dan Sulsel, yaitu provinsi dengan perilaku konsumsi makanan beragam diatas rata–rata ke-6 provinsi masih terdapat masalah gizi, yaitu meningkatnya prevalensi penyakit tidak menular dan prevalensi stunting berdasarkan data Riskesdas 2007, 2010 dan 2013.Kata kunci : pengetahuan, sikap, perilaku

  7. Crotalaria (Crotalaria juncea L.) Heavy Metal Uptake in Eastern Hungary

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    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Summary: Soil condition, plant production and ecological protection are most important parts of the sustainable agricultural activity on all over the world nowadays. Soils, their fertility, their content of different macro-, mezo-, micro-, trace elements have almost always dictated the spread of agricultural farmlands, including the plant production-, yield harvest levels and yield element contents possible. The success of agriculturists in the 20th and 21th century, particularly in the Europe has relied on inproved soil fertility managements, appropriate crop production and environmental protection. We can test and improve the situations by using different plant species (Crotalaria juncea L.) x macro nutrients (nitrogen) x chelating agents (Desferal as deferoxamine-mesilate: C25H48N6O8-CH4O3S) methods. Crotalaria has a very potential and important role in soil fertility as a green manure crop in the design of plant rotation to field plant production, in the animal foraging as a fodder-crop with a high protein content (30%) and in the pytoremediation possibilities. Field experiment was carried out on a calcareous chernozem meadow soil (Kunság-region of Hungary, Kunmadaras) in partly of crotalaria experiment series (5 years) in 2001. The agrochemical parameters of the ploughed layer of the region soils were as follows: humus 2.5-3.0%, pH (H2O) 7.7, pH (KCl) 7.0, LE (Lakanen & Erviö 1971 [3])-P2O5 183-218 mg kg-1, LE-K2O 82-115 mg kg-1, LE-Ca 1.3%, LE-Mg 56-60 mg kg-1, LE-Mn 45 mg kg-1 according to soil analysis. Nitrogen (N) x Desferal ("D"-Novartis Pharma AG Basie [7], Switzerland, Suiza 500 mg) x Genotype ("G"-India-University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore) x Time (T) experiment involved The N levels were 0, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1 year-1, and Desferal 0 and 20 kg ha-1 year-1. The plot size had an area of 4x2=8 m2. Experimental datas were estimated by MANOVA of SPSS. The main results can be summarised as follows: a., At harvest, total air dry phytomass

  8. SUSTAINABILITY EFFECTS OF Crotalaria juncea L. AND Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH ON SOIL FERTILITY AND SOIL CONSERVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    agricultural production becomes a great possibility for Hungary and the international community. In this process a green manure crop application for example crotalaria get a great chance for improvement process on soil fertility and soil coservation (Lazányi 1998, Márton 1999). This paper briefly outlines the major effects of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH on soil fertility and soil conservation. MATERIAL AND METHOD Field experiment were carried out on a calcareous chernozem soil at Hungary (Experiment station Nagyhörcsök of Research Iinstitute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences) in partly of experiments series (3 years) in 1998. The soil with about 20% clay, 3% humus, 5 Ca CO3 in its ploughed layer. To ensure a sufficient macronutrient supply in the whole experiment, 100 kg N, 100 kg P2O5 and 100 kg K2O are given hectare in autumn of 1997. The Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH were applied with 2 replications. Each plot has an area of 45 m2 with 230-230 individual plants. Winter wheat was grown as a green crop (preceding the main product of a field) with commonly used agrotechnic. Soil samples are taken before the experiment set up on 27.04. 1998. Each composite sample consist of 20 subsamples drawn from the plow layer of each plot. Plant samples are taken during the vegetation period at least twice (20.07. 1998 and 02.11. 1998), using 5-5 plants per plot randomly. Plant material is dried, milled and digested in teflon bombs using cc.HNO3+cc.H2O2 and their total macro and microelement content with the exception of N was determined by ICP technics (JY 238 ULTRACE). N-content were determined by titration of hypobromit after the cc.H2SO4+cc.H2O2 digestion, N-NO3 content were determined by Griess-Ilosvai reaction after water extraction. Soil samples are extracted by ammonium-acetate+EDTA (Lakanen and Erviö 1971) and their available element content with the exception of N is mesaured using