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Sample records for rat-treated rats recovered

  1. Haematological and Serum Biochemical Variables in rats Treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The haematology and serum biochemical effects of oral administration of the ethanolic extract of the root of Moringa oleifera at 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg were investigated in 30 mated female Wistar rats. The rats were assigned into five groups of six rats each. Group A was given 50mg/kg of the extract; group B, 100mg/kg; ...

  2. Pixe analysis of trace elements in tissues of rats treated with anticonvulsants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, R. W.; Van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Kinyua, A. M.; O'Neill, M. P.; Wilder, B. J.; Houdayer, A.; Hinrichsen, P. F.

    1987-04-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate metals in epilepsy. Anticonvulsant drugs are noted to alter levels of metals in humans and animals. PIXE analysis was used to investigate effects of three anticonvulsant drugs on tissue and brain cortex trace elements. The content of zinc and copper was increased in liver and spleen of rats treated with anticonvulsants while selenium was decreased in cortex.

  3. PIXE analysis of trace elements in tissues of rats treated with anticonvulsants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, R.W.; Van Rinsvelt, H.A.; Kinyua, A.M.; O' Neill, M.P.; Wilder, B.J.; Houdayer, A.; Hinrichsen, P.F.

    1987-04-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate metals in epilepsy. Anticonvulsant drugs are noted to alter levels of metals in humans and animals. PIXE analysis was used to investigate effects of three anticonvulsant drugs on tissue and brain cortex trace elements. The content of zinc and copper was increased in liver and spleen of rats treated with anticonvulsants while selenium was decreased in cortex.

  4. PIXE analysis of trace elements in tissues of rats treated with anticonvulsants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurd, R.W.; Van Rinsvelt, H.A.; Kinyua, A.M.; O'Neill, M.P.; Wilder, B.J.; Florida Univ., Gainesville; Houdayer, A.; Hinrichsen, P.F.

    1987-01-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate metals in epilepsy. Anticonvulsant drugs are noted to alter levels of metals in humans and animals. PIXE analysis was used to investigate effects of three anticonvulsant drugs on tissue and brain cortex trace elements. The content of zinc and copper was increased in liver and spleen of rats treated with anticonvulsants while selenium was decreased in cortex. (orig.)

  5. Heart dysfunction and fibrosis in rat treated with myocardial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because cardiovascular disease remains a serious problem in modern human society, the aim of this study was to establish the rat model animal and to compare the heart dysfunction and fibrosis with SD and LE rats when treated with myocardial ischemia and reperfusion operation. A 20-minute thoracotomy was performed ...

  6. [Changes in serum lipids in rats treated with oral cooper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Corredor, O M; Carnevalí de Tatá, E; Reinosa-Füller, J; Contreras, Y; Ramírez de Fernández, M; Yánez-Domínguez, C

    2000-09-01

    Disturbances in lipid metabolism during copper deficiency in rats are well recognized. Copper deficiency is associated with the spontaneous retention of hepatic iron. Previous studies have reported that hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia are associated with elevated hepatic iron concentrations in copper deficient rats. There was a direct relationship between the magnitude of blood lipids and the concentration of hepatic iron. Based on these data, it has been hypothesized that iron was responsible for the development of lipemia of copper deficiency. In this study was determined the effect of increasing doses of Cu(10, 20 and 50 ppm) in the diet, on the serum total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides (triacylglicerols), phospholipids, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and liver iron and zinc concentrations in normal rats. The results were compared with normal rats that received a balanced diet containing 0.6 and 6 ppm of Cu, respectively. The results show that Cu-supplement diminished the cholesterol and triglyceride serum levels, increased the level of phospholipids, NEFA and concomitantly decreased the hepatic concentrations of Fe and Zn. There was a statistically significant (p Cu (r = -0.612), liver Fe and liver Zn (r = 0.837), liver Cu and liver Zn (r = -0.612), and serum triglycerides and liver Zn (r = 0.967). The mechanism(s) by which Fe and Zn determine these changes is not known; none of the enzymes that act in cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism and biosynthesis require Fe and/or Zn. The increase of NEFA is due to changes in the process of lipolysis and re-esterification of the fatty acids in blood. However, additional studies are needed for the precise mechanisms of this interrelationships to be clarified.

  7. Biological effects of pesticides on rats treated with carbon tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Kader, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of repeated oral doses of the organophosphorus pesticide, cytrolane on normal and pretreated rate with different oral doses of carbon tetrachloride. For that purpose the effect of cytrolane, CCl 4 and their potential interaction had been studied on brain and erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (Ache), plasma cholinesterase (Ch E), liver succinic dehydrogenase (SDH), serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP), liver succinic dehydrogenas (SDH), serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP), glutamic oxaloacetic (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic (GPT) transaminases. It also investigates the effect of an acute oral dose of cytrolane at short time intervals (1/2-24 hours) on brain and blood ache of normal and pretreated rate with a single oral dose of CCl 4 . The distribution and excretion of 1 4cc1 4 at different time intervals (2,6 and 24 hours) in normal rats and in rats pretreated with o.89 mg cytrolane/kg/day for a week had been determined in different organs, expired air, urine and faeces

  8. Liver Gene Expression Profiles of Rats Treated with Clofibric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Cécile; Desdouets, Chantal; Sacre-Salem, Béatrice; Gautier, Jean-Charles; Roberts, Ruth; Boitier, Eric

    2003-01-01

    Clofibric acid (CLO) is a peroxisome proliferator (PP) that acts through the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α, leading to hepatocarcinogenesis in rodents. CLO-induced hepatocarcinogenesis is a multi-step process, first transforming normal liver cells into foci. The combination of laser capture microdissection (LCM) and genomics has the potential to provide expression profiles from such small cell clusters, giving an opportunity to understand the process of cancer development in response to PPs. To our knowledge, this is the first evaluation of the impact of the successive steps of LCM procedure on gene expression profiling by comparing profiles from LCM samples to those obtained with non-microdissected liver samples collected after a 1 month CLO treatment in the rat. We showed that hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and laser microdissection itself do not impact on RNA quality. However, the overall process of the LCM procedure affects the RNA quality, resulting in a bias in the gene profiles. Nonetheless, this bias did not prevent accurate determination of a CLO-specific molecular signature. Thus, gene-profiling analysis of microdissected foci, identified by H&E staining may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogenesis in the rat by allowing identification of specific genes that are regulated by CLO in early pre-neoplastic foci. PMID:14633594

  9. Evaluation of lipid profile and oxidative stress in STZ-induced rats treated with antioxidant vitamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Ayr Tavares de Almeida

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of supplementation of vitamin E on streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats by measuring blood glucose, changes in body weight, food and water intake, lipid profile, serum urea and creatinine level, and antioxidant enzyme activity. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control rats (GI; rats receiving vitamin E (GII; STZ-induced diabetic rats (GIII and STZ-induced diabetic rats treated with vitamin E (GIV. Vitamin E reduced (p<0.05 blood glucose and urea, improved the lipid profile (decreased the serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol and triacylglycerols, and increased HDL cholesterol and increased total protein in STZ-induced diabetic rats (GIV. Vitamin prevented changes in the activity of SOD and GSH-Px and in the concentration of lipid hydroperoxide. These results suggested that vitamin E improved hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia while inhibiting the progression of oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  10. Lipid Peroxidation and Electrolytes in Irradiated Rats Treated with Caffeine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Gawad, I.I.; Ahmed, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    This Study was conducted to elarify the potential role of caffeine (1,3,7-trimethyl xanthine), a major component of coffee, against damages induced by gamma rays. Thirty adult female albino rats (130+10) were divided into three groups, each of ten animals. The first group acted as control animals. The second was sujected to a single dose of (7) Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The third group was injected intraperitoneally with a single dose (80mg/kg body weight) of caffeine one-hour prior irradiation. Blood samples were collected five time intervals 1,3,7,15 and 30 days post-irradiation. The content of serum lipid peroxides was measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). Electrolytes as calcium (Ca2 + ), sodium (Na + ) and potassium (K + ) and levels were estimated and Na + /K + ratio was calculated. Also serum enzymes as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aminotransaminases (AST and ALT) activity levels were measured. The data revealed significant increase in TBARS, AST and ALT levels in serum due to irradiation exposure. While, radiation induced significant decrease in serum level of ALP, level of electrolytes Ca 2+ , Ma + , and Na + /K + ratio. On the other hand, group injected intraperitoneally with caffeine pre-irradiation exhibited reduction in the changes produced by gamma-radiation with variable degree. The data showed that this antioxidant confers protection damage inflicted by radiation when given prior to irradiation exposure on the examined parameters

  11. Urinary metabonomics study on toxicity biomarker discovery in rats treated with Xanthii Fructus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fang; Cao, Min; Wu, Bin; Li, Xu-zhao; Liu, Hong-yu; Chen, Da-zhong; Liu, Shu-min

    2013-08-26

    Xanthii Fructus (XF) is commonly called "Cang-Erzi" in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and widely used for the treatment of sinusitis, headache, rheumatism, and skin itching. However, the clinical utilization of XF is relatively restricted owing to its toxicity. To discover the characteristic potential biomarkers in rats treated with XF by urinary metabonomics. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) was applied in the study. The total ion chromatograms obtained from control and different dosage groups were distinguishable by a multivariate statistical analysis method. The greatest difference in metabolic profile was observed between high dosage group and control group, and the metabolic characters in rats treated with XF were perturbed in a dose-dependent manner. The metabolic changes in response for XF treatment were observed in urinary samples, which were revealed by orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA), and 10 metabolites could be served as the potential toxicity biomarkers. In addition, the mechanism associated with the damages of lipid per-oxidation and the metabolic disturbances of fatty acid oxidation were investigated. These results indicate that metabonomics analysis in urinary samples may be useful for predicting the toxicity induced by XF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Immunohistochemical profile of some neurotransmitters and neurotrophins in the seminiferous tubules of rats treated by lonidamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, M; Bronzetti, E; Saso, L; Felici, L M; D'Ambrosio, A; Forte, F; Grande, C; Ortolani, F

    2007-01-01

    Lonidamine (LND) or [1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxylic acid] is an anticancer and antispermatogenic drug that exerts a large number of effects on tumor cells and germ cells. Sexually mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were housed at 22 degrees C on a 12-h light/12-h dark cycle 1 week before the experiments, with free access to food and water. LND was suspended in 0.5% methylcellulose at a concentration of 10 mg/mL and administered orally at the dose of 10 mL/kg (b.w.) as a single dose. Control rats received an equal amount of vehicle. Testes were removed, fixed for 24 h in 2% glutaraldehyde and 2% paraformaldehyde in 0.1 M sodium phosphate (pH 7.2 at 22 degrees C), rinsed with the same buffer, and stored at room temperature. From each sample, a block of tissue was removed by sectioning through the organ. After dehydration in ethanol at increasing concentrations (70-100%), each block was embedded in paraffin and serial 5 mm thick sections were cut using a rotatory microtome. The immunoreactivity for NTs has been observed in spermatogonia of untreated rats, while the rats treated with LND showed an immunohistochemical localization in all the stages of germinal cells. The generally well-expressed immunoreactivity for the neurotrophins receptors in treated rats observed in our study is presumably attributable to alterations of the receptors' structure and/or expression leading to changes of the activity, affinity, localization or protein interactions that may depend on sensitization of ion channels (induced by LND). Neurotrophins (NTs) appear to be interesting proteins for the modulation of sperm maturation and motility with a prominent role for the nerve growth factor (NGF), that may exert an autocrine or paracrine role. We therefore investigated the location and distribution of immunoreactivity for some neurotransmitters (SP, VIP, CGRP, nNOS, Chat), neurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, NT-3) and their own receptors (TrKA, TrKB, TrKC, p75) in the seminiferous tubules

  13. Immunohistochemical profile of some neurotransmitters and neurotrophins in the seminiferous tubules of rats treated by lonidamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Artico

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Lonidamine (LND or [1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl-1H-indazole-3- carboxylic acid] is an anticancer and antispermatogenic drug that exerts a large number of effects on tumor cells and germ cells. Sexually mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were housed at 22°C on a 12-h light/12-h dark cycle 1 week before the experiments, with free access to food and water. LND was suspended in 0.5% methylcellulose at a concentration of 10 mg/mL and administered orally at the dose of 10 mL/kg (b.w. as a single dose. Control rats received an equal amount of vehicle. Testes were removed, fixed for 24 h in 2% glutaraldehyde and 2% paraformaldehyde in 0.1 M sodium phosphate (pH 7.2 at 22°C, rinsed with the same buffer, and stored at room temperature. From each sample, a block of tissue was removed by sectioning through the organ. After dehydration in ethanol at increasing concentrations (70-100%, each block was embedded in paraffin and serial 5 mm thick sections were cut using a rotatory microtome. The immunoreactivity for NTs has been observed in spermatogonia of untreated rats, while the rats treated with LND showed an immunohistochemical localization in all the stages of germinal cells. The generally well-expressed immunoreactivity for the neurotrophins receptors in treated rats observed in our study is presumably attributable to alterations of the receptors’ structure and/or expression leading to changes of the activity, affinity, localization or protein interactions that may depend on sensitization of ion channels (induced by LND. Neurotrophins (NTs appear to be interesting proteins for the modulation of sperm maturation and motility with a prominent role for the nerve growth factor (NGF, that may exert an autocrine or paracrine role.We therefore investigated the location and distribution of immunoreactivity for some neurotransmitters (SP, VIP, CGRP, nNOS, Chat, neurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, NT-3 and their own receptors (TrKA, TrKB, TrKC, p75 in the seminiferous tubules of

  14. Efficacy of fish liver oil and propolis as neuroprotective agents in pilocarpine epileptic rats treated with valproate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannaa, Fathia; El-Shamy, Karima A; El-Shaikh, Kamal A; El-Kassaby, Mahitab

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the action of fish liver oil and propolis in pilocarpine epileptic rats treated with the anticonvulsant drug valproate. Seven groups of rats were treated daily for six months: control; fish liver oil (0.4ml/kg b.w); propolis (50mg/kg b.w); pilocarpine-treated rats (epileptic control); epileptic rats treated with valproate (400mg/kg b.w); groups 6 and 7, epileptic rats treated with valproate plus fish liver oil or propolis. Pilocarpine administration caused a significant increase in hippocampal dopamine and serotonin levels accompanied with a significant decrease in their levels in serum. Lipid peroxidation level and LDH activity in hippocampus were significantly increased after pilocarpine treatment whereas Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and total antioxidant capacity were significantly decreased compared to the controls. Animals treated with the combined treatments showed a significant improvement in tested parameters towards the normal values of the control. Fish liver oil and propolis when given in combination with valproate, neuroprotected against the neurophysiological disorders induced by pilocarpine epilepsy in rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dielectric parameters of blood plasma of rats treated with cerium-144 and external irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzhidekova, E.; Kiradzhiev, G.; Paskalev, Z.; Miloslavov, V.

    1988-01-01

    Investigation was carried out of the dielectric parameters of blood plasma of male Wistar rats treated with cerium 144 in doses of 370 kBq/animal and external gamma irradiation in doses of 200 cGy and 400 cGy. The radioactive cerium was introduced intraperitoneally 1 h after the external irradiation with dose rate of 1,6 cGy/sec. The permittivity ε, the time of relaxation τ and the coefficient of Debaye κ of plasma protein molecules were determined at the 1st, 3rd, 10th, 15th, and 30th days after treatement for frequence ranges of 1,4, 2,2, 3,6 and 6 MHz. At the same terms the content of cerium 144 was measured in the organs of predilectional accumulation of cerium. It was established that the treatment only with cerium lead to most essential changes of dielectric parameters at frequence of 3,6 MHz. The external irradiation didn't influence essentially the kinetics of absorbed cerium. In combination of both radiation factors the action of cerium was predominant

  16. Histometric study of alveolar bone healing in rats treated with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug nimesulide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teófilo, Juliana Mazzonetto; Giovanini, Gabriela Salgueiro; Fracon, Ricardo Nogueira; Lamano, Teresa

    2011-04-01

    There is extensive experimental and clinical evidence in the orthopedic area that prolonged use of nonselective (inhibitor of both cyclooxygenases 1 and 2) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can hinder long bone fracture healing, spinal fusion rate, and new bone formation around implants. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether nimesulide (Nimesulida, Medley S.A., Campinas, SP, Brazil), a preferential cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, can hinder alveolar bone healing, in rats. Treated rats received oral doses (5 mg/kg/rat/day) of nimesulide from the day of tooth extraction until euthanasia 2 weeks later and control rats received tap water (n = 5 per group). The volume of neoformed bone inside the alveolar socket was estimated in semiserial longitudinal histological sections by a differential point-counting method, and the significance of the difference between groups was analyzed by Student t test (P alveolar bone healing in rats.

  17. Exhaustive physical exercise increases the number of colonic preneoplastic lesions in untrained rats treated with a chemical carcinogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Garcia, Sérgio Britto

    2004-12-08

    Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) have been used for early detection of factors that influence colorectal carcinogenesis in rats. It has been observed that exhaustive exercise increases free radical DNA oxidative damage and depresses immune function, events also related to the increased risk for cancer development. Fifteen days after a single exhaustive swimming bout in untrained rats treated with a colon carcinogen, we observed a statistically significant increased number of ACF when compared to the non-exercised group. Thus, we concluded that exhaustive exercise increased the susceptibility for colon cancer in rats. From our finding and literature data, we hypothesize that, similarly to the suggested relationship between exercise and infections, exercise could be protective against cancer or it could increase the risk for this disease depending on its type, dose and duration.

  18. Protective Effect of Brazilian Propolis against Liver Damage with Cholestasis in Rats Treated with α-Naphthylisothiocyanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Nakamura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the protective effect of Brazilian propolis against liver damage with cholestasis in rats treated with α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT in comparison with that of vitamin E (VE. Rats orally received Brazilian propolis ethanol extract (BPEE (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg, VE (250 mg/kg or vehicle at 12 h after intraperitoneal injection of ANIT (75 mg/kg and were killed 24 h after the injection. Vehicle-treated rats showed liver cell damage and cholestasis, judging from the levels of serum marker enzymes and components. The vehicle group had increased serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipid, and lipid peroxide levels, increased hepatic lipid peroxide, reduced glutathione, and ascorbic acid levels and myeloperoxidase activity, and decreased hepatic superoxide dismutase activity. BPEE (50 mg/kg administered to ANIT-treated rats prevented liver cell damage and cholestasis and attenuated these serum and hepatic biochemical changes except hepatic ascorbic acid, although administered BPEE (25 or 100 mg/kg was less effective. VE administered to ANIT-treated rats prevented liver cell damage, but not cholestasis, and attenuated increased serum lipid peroxide level, increased hepatic lipid peroxide level and myeloperoxidase activity, and decreased hepatic superoxide dismutase activity. These results indicate that BPEE protects against ANIT-induced liver damage with cholestasis in rats more effectively than VE.

  19. Influence of hesperidin and vitamin C on glycemic parameters, lipid profile, and DNA damage in rats treated with sucrose overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA I.R. FRANKE

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We evaluated the influence of hesperidin and vitamin C (VitC on glycemic parameters, lipid profile, and DNA damage in male Wistar rats treated with sucrose overload. Rats were divided into six experimental groups: I-water control; II-sucrose control; III-hesperidin control; IV-VitC control; V-co-treatment of sucrose plus hesperidin; VI-co-treatment of sucrose plus VitC. We measured the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c, fasting glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (A1C. DNA damage was evaluated in blood and brain cells using the comet assay and the micronucleus test was used to evaluate chromosomal damages in the rat bone marrow. Co-treatment with VitC, but not with hesperidin, normalized the serum glucose. No effect of co-treatments was observed on A1C. The co-treatment with VitC or hesperidin did not influence the lipid profile (p>0.05. Rats co-treated with hesperidin had a significantly lower DNA damage level in blood (p0.05. Hesperidin and VitC showed different effects on sucrose and DNA damage levels. While VitC lowered the serum glucose, hesperidin reduced the DNA damage.

  20. Urinary excretion of biomarkers for radical-induced damage in rats treated with NDMA or diquat and the effects of calcium carbimide co-administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zwart, L L; Vermeulen, N P; Hermanns, R.C.A.; Commandeur, J N; Salemink, P.J.M.; Meerman, J H

    1999-01-01

    The urinary excretion of seven aldehydes, acetone, coproporphyrin III and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) as non-invasive biomarkers of oxidative damage was measured in rats treated with diquat or N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), two compounds causing hepatic damage by different mechanisms.

  1. Effect of ascorbic acid on thyroid functions and some biochemical activities in rats treated with cadmium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sherbiny, E.M.; Osman, H.F.

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the role of oral administration of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in rats at a dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight in reducing disturbances caused by cadmium at a dose level of 1.2 mg CdCl 2 /Kg body weight (1/4 LD 50 ). Cadmium treatment induced thyroid dysfunction and disturbance in blood count and some elements in sera of male rats. The rats were divided into four groups. The first group (I) of rats served as normal control, the second group (II) was treated with CdCl 2 , the third group (III) was treated with CdCl 2 followed by 2 weeks rehabilitation and the fourth one (IV) was treated with CdCl 2 followed by ascorbic acid treatment. Serum total T3, total T4, hemoglobin, red blood cell count, and hematocrit value, blood indices as well as white blood cell count, total serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase were evaluated in all rats.The results revealed that treatment with cadmium in groups II and III led to significant decreases in T3 and T4 levels and most of blood count parameters.In rats treated with ascorbic acid, a non-significant improvement in serum T3 level was obtained, whereas, serum T4 level was significantly increased and its level was reached around corresponding control value. Also, ascorbic acid treatment led to significant increases in Hb, RBCs, Hct, MCV, MCH and MCHC values, which were comparable to those obtained in control, whereas WBCs count was slightly improved in group (IV) in comparison with both groups treated with Cd but it was highly significantly decreased in both groups treated with Cd as compared to control. Serum total calcium and alkaline phosphatase activity were non-significantly decreased, whereas inorganic phosphorus concentrations was significantly decreased in groups III and IV as compared to control

  2. Hormones of thyroid gland in sera of rats treated with different dose of concentrated potassium iodine solutions

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    Marković Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Potassium iodine (KI is used as a drug therapy for treating numerous diseases such as small-vessel vasculitis, erythema nodosum, vasculitis nodularis, Sweet's syndrome, tuberculosis and granulomatosis, and for iodized salt. At the same time, KI can be harmful. Iodine intake may increase the frequency of thyroiditis in humans, and may induce the occurrence of experimental thyroiditis (ET in animals. Investigations on an experimental model for the examination of thyroiditis in Wistar rats have clearly showed morphological changes in the rat thyroid evoked by KI administration. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of low and high doses of KI on the thyroid gland of Wistar rats and determine the effect on hormone status (T4, T3 and TSH in this rat strain. Methods Two groups of rats from the Wistar strain were treated with a low iodine dose (225 μg/g BW and with a high iodine dose (675 μg/g BW of KI solutions. Untreated nonimmunized animals served as controls. The solution was administrated daily intraperitoneally during the period of 26 consecutive days. Results Monitoring hormone status (TSH, T3 and T4 and morphological changes it was found that therapeutic doses of KI applied in treatment induced the occurrence of experimental thyroiditis (chronic destructive Hashimoto's thyroiditis in humans and cell necrosis in animals not carrying a genetic susceptibility. Significant inflammatory changes were observed in rats treated with a high iodine dose. Conclusion The early iodine induced cell necrosis and inflammation in the nonimmunized animals without genetic susceptibility is a new experimental model of thyroiditis. .

  3. Improved ovulation rate and implantation in rats treated with royal jelly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ovaries and uteris of 12 mature female rats (Rattus norvegicus) were examined to determine the effect of commercial royal jelly on ovulation, ovarian weight and implantation rates. Rats were split in two groups of 6 each. Group one served as the treatment and group two the control. A daily dose of 25mg of royal jelly ...

  4. Contribution to the study of calcium metabolism in rats treated with tetracycline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, M.R.B.

    1980-01-01

    The tetracycline is one of the most used antibiotics. The interferences in the rats calcium metabolism were studied. Sixteen rats, R dutch type were treated with a 1 mg/100 g of corporal weight, of tetracycline twice a day, for 23 days. In the twentieth day of the treatment, a dose of Calcium 45 was administrated to verify thhe decay curve of the radionuclide plasmatic concentration. A control group of 16 rats was studied to compare the results. A significative decrease of the calcemy and of bone reabsorption in the group treated with tetracycline were observed. (L.M.J.)

  5. Increased DNA damage in blood cells of rat treated with lead as assessed by comet assay

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    Mohammad Arif

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that oxidative stress is the key player in the pathogenesis of lead-induced toxicity. The present study investigated lead induced oxidative DNA damage, if any in rat blood cells by alkaline comet assay. Lead was administered intraperitoneally to rats at doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight for 5 days consecutively. Blood collected on day six from sacrificed lead-treated rats was used to assess the extent of DNA damage by comet assay which entailed measurement of comet length, olive tail moment, tail DNA (% and tail length. The results showed that treatment with lead significantly increased DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, our data suggests that lead treatment is associated with oxidative stress-induced DNA damage in rat blood cells which could be used as an early bio-marker of lead-toxicity.

  6. Histometric study of socket healing after tooth extraction in rats treated with diclofenac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugoshi Luciana Ibara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate if diclofenac administration interferes with the time course of alveolar wound healing in rats. Forty-two Wistar rats were used, 21 rats received 10 mg/kg/day of diclofenac one day before and 4 days after extraction of the right maxillary incisors and 21 rats received saline. The animals were sacrificed 7, 14 and 21 days after tooth extraction. Progressive new bone formation and a decrease in the volume fraction of blood clot and connective tissue from 1 to 3 weeks after tooth extraction was quantified using the histometric point-counting method. Diclofenac treatment caused a significant delay in new bone formation in association with an impairment of blood clot remission/organization.

  7. Functional assessments and histopathology of hepatorenal tissues of rats treated with raw and processed herbs

    OpenAIRE

    Ojiako, Okey A.; Chikezie, Paul C.; Ukairo, Doris I.; Ibegbulem, Chiedozie O.; Nwaoguikpe, Reginald N.

    2017-01-01

    The present study ascertained the functional integrity of hepatic and renal tissues, concurrently with blood lipid patterns, of Wistar rats infused with CCl4 and treated with raw and hydrothermal processed herbs, namely, Monodora myristica, Chromolaena odorata, Buccholzia coriacea and Sphenostylis stenocarpa. Measurement of phytochemical contents of the herbs was according to standard methods. The rats were randomly designated on the bases of diets and treatments received for 28 consecutive d...

  8. Achilles tendon of wistar rats treated with laser therapy and eccentric exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Maria Verônica de; Silva, Carlos Henrique Osório; Silva, Micheline Ozana da; Costa, Marcela Bueno Martins da; Dornas, Raul Felipe; Borges, Andréa Pacheco Batista; Natali, Antônio José

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTIntroduction:Both laser therapy and eccentric exercises are used in tendon injuries. However, the association of these physiotherapeutic modalities is yet little investigated.Objective:To evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy associated to eccentric exercise (downhill walking) on Achilles tendinopathy of Wistar rats.Method:Eighteen Achilles tendon from 15 adult male Wistar rats were used. Tendons were distributed in six groups (laser, eccentric exercise, laser and eccentric e...

  9. Lipid profile of alloxan-induced diabetic wistar rats treated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    weeks; Group 2, diabetes control rats, induced with 150 mg/kg b.w., i.p. administration of alloxan and thereafter given 0.2 ml distilled water throughout the study period; Groups 3, 4 and 5, diabetic (i.p., 150 mg/kg b.w. alloxan) rats were given single oral dose of MAD (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg b.w. respectively) for 4 weeks; ...

  10. MICROMORPHOLOGICALCHARACTERISTICS OF THE LIVER AND BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSES IN THE BLOOD OF RATS TREATED BY GENTAMICIN AND VERAPAMIL

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    Milan Stoiljkovic

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of antimicrobial drugs, especially gentamicin and calcium blocker verapamil, may cause transitional functional damage of the liver.The aim of this study is to explore micro-morphological changes in the liver and biochemical changes in the blood of rats treated with gentamicin and verapamil. The research included 20 rats divided in experimental and control group. The experimental group (10 rats was treated with gentamicin (100 mg/kg/BW/24h and verapamil (3 mg/kgBW/24 h for 8 days. The control group (10 rats received physiological solution (1 ml/kgBW/24 h at the same time. We analyzed micro-morphological changes in the liver and biochemical parameters in blood: transaminase, bilirubin and glucose.In the control group, there was a normal lobular liver structure. All hepatocytes had polygonal shape, pink cytoplasm and the location of nucleus was central or paracentral. Biochemical blood analysis showed normal level of transaminase (SGOT 29.5 +/- 7.4 iu/l; SGPT 31.7 +/- 6.9 iu/l, total bilirubin (3.1 +/- 0.9 mmol/l and glucose (4.9 +/- 0.9 mmol/l. In the experimental group of animals, hepatocytes of all three zones were equally damaged. In the cytoplasm, we found vacuolar degeneration, reduced condensation of chromatine in nucleus and light nucleoplasm. Hepatocytes of the periportal zone had acidofillic degeneration, picnotic and hiperchromatic nuclei. Biochemical blood analysis showed high level of transaminase (SGOT 46.4 +/- 4.7 iu/l; SGPT 50.8+/-6.1 iu/l, total bilirubin (12.8+/-1.7 mmol/l and glucose (9.3+/-1.8 mmol/l. There is a statistically significant difference in biochemical parameters between the two groups (p < 0,001. The results of our experimental study suggest that there is an obvious correlation between application of gentamicin and verapamil and these changes.

  11. Reproductive performance of rats treated with defatted jojoba meal or simmondsin before or during gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokelaere, M; Daenens, P; Decuypere, E; Flo, G; Kühn, E; Van Boven, M; Vermaut, S

    1998-01-01

    The effects on food intake, growth and reproductive performance parameters of defatted jojoba meal and pure simmondsin, an extract from jojoba meal, were compared in female Wistar rats. Rats fed 0.15% simmondsin or 3% defatted jojoba meal (equivalent to 0.15% simmondsin) for 8 weeks before conception showed a similar reduction in food intake (about 20%) and a similar growth retardation compared with controls. Both treatments induced a reduction in the number of corpora lutea on gestation day 16: this effect could be ascribed to the lower food intake before conception because it was also observed in rats pair-fed to the treated ones. Rats given feed containing 0.15% simmondsin or 3% defatted jojoba meal during days 1-16 of gestation showed a similar reduction in food intake relative to controls. Foetal and placental weights were reduced, relative to controls, to a similar extent in both groups, and the reductions were slightly greater than in the corresponding pair-fed groups. We conclude that the effects on food intake, growth and reproductive performance that were seen after feeding rats defatted jojoba meal were due to the simmondsin content of the meal. The simmondsin induced reduction in food intake and probably also a relative protein shortage.

  12. Analysis of the Ki-67 index in the vaginal epithelium of castrated rats treated with tamoxifen

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    Afif Rieth Nery-Aguiar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Vaginal atrophy and breast cancer are common conditions in postmenopausal women and tamoxifen is the standard endocrine treatment for hormone-sensitive tumors. The present study aimed to assess the effect of tamoxifen on Ki-67 protein expression in the vaginal epithelium of castrated rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty Wistar-Hannover adult, virgin, castrated rats were randomly divided into two groups, group I (control, n=20 and group II (tamoxifen, n=20, receiving 0.5 ml of propylene glycol and 250 µg of tamoxifen diluted in 0.5 ml of propylene glycol, respectively, daily by gavage for 30 days. On the 31st day, the rats were euthanized and their vaginas were removed and fixed in 10% buffered formalin for the immunohistochemical study of Ki-67 protein expression. Data were analyzed by the Levene and Student’s t tests (p<0.05. RESULTS: The mean index of Ki-67 expression in the rat vagina of groups I and II was 4.04±0.96 and 26.86±2.19, respectively (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: According to the results of the present study, tamoxifen, at the dose and treatment length used, induced a significant increase in the cell proliferation of the vaginal mucosa in castrated rats, as evaluated by Ki-67 protein expression.

  13. Estrogen hormone level of prepubertal female rat treated with Calliandra calothyrsus ethanolic leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawati, I.; Wiratmini, N. I.; Narayani, I.

    2018-03-01

    This research examined the phytoestrogen potential of Calliandra calothyrsus leaf extract in prepubertal female rat (Rattus norvegicus). Sixty weaned female rats (21 days old) were divided into five groups i.e. control (K), negative control which was given 0.5% Na CMC suspension (KN) and treatment groups which were given with C. calothyrsus ethanolic leaf extract doses 25 mg/kg bw (P1), 50 mg/kg bw (P2) and 75 mg/kg bw (P3). The treatment suspension was administered 0.5 mL/rat/day by gavage for 28 days, started at the age of 21st days old. The rats were sacrificed and the blood samples were collected from 4 rats / group at the age of 28th, 42nd and 56th days old, each. The concentration of estrogen hormone levels were measured from blood serum by ELISA kit and were read at 450 nm wavelength with an ELISA Spectrophotometer. Data was analyzed statistically by General Linear Model with 95% of confidence. The result showed that rat’s body weight decreased significantly with the higher doses and the longer the treatment of C. calothyrsus leaf extract due to the anti-nutritive activity of calliandra tannins. The estrogen hormone level was significantly increased at the highest dose. The highest estrogen levels were found in the group of female rats which were given the exctract of 75 mg/kg bw until the age of 42nd days. This results showed that there was a phytoestrogen potential in the C. calothyrsus leaf extract.

  14. Simultaneous bone marrow and composite tissue transplantation in rats treated with nonmyeloablative conditioning promotes tolerance1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong; Ramsey, Deborah M.; Wu, Shengli; Bozulic, Larry D.; Ildstad, Suzanne T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Approaches to safely induce tolerance in vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) with chimerism through bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are currently being pursued. However, the VCA were historically performed sequentially after donor chimerism was established. Delayed VCA is not clinically applicable due to the time constraints associated with procurement from deceased donors. A more clinically relevant approach to perform both the BMT and VCA simultaneously was evaluated. Methods WF (RT1Au) rats were treated with a short course of immunosuppressive therapy (anti-αβ-TCR mAb, FK-506, and anti-lymphocyte serum). One day prior to BMT, rats were treated with varying doses of total body irradiation (TBI) followed by transplantation of heterotopic osteomyocutaneous flaps from hind limbs of ACI (RT1Aabl) rats. Results 80% of rats conditioned with 300 cGy TBI and 40% of rats receiving 400 cGy TBI accepted the VCA. Mixed chimerism was detected in peripheral blood at one month post-VCA, but chimerism was lost in all transplant recipients by 4 months. The majority of peripheral donor cells originated from the BMT and not the VCA. Acceptors of VCA were tolerant of a donor skin graft challenge and no anti-donor antibodies were detectable, suggesting a central deletional mechanism for tolerance. Regulatory T cells (Treg) from spleens of acceptors more potently suppressed lymphocyte proliferation than Treg from rejectors in the presence of donor stimulator cells. Conclusions These studies suggest that simultaneous BMT and VCA may establish indefinite allograft survival in rats through Treg-mediated suppression and thymic deletion of alloreactive T cells. PMID:23250336

  15. Sperm quality of male rats treated with aqueous extract of Enantia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of aqueous extract of Enantia chlorantha were studied on sperm motility, viability and counts in adult albino rats. Oral administration of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract daily for a week caused dose-dependent changes in the sperm motility and viability without a significant change in the sperm counts.

  16. Uptake of /sup 67/Ga in the heart of rats treated with isoproterenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, T; Kojima, S; Kubodera, A

    1982-12-01

    Gallium-67 citrate (/sup 67/Ga) accumulation and various enzyme activities during the repair of rat heart with infarct-like lesions induced by isoproterenol (ISP) treatment were measured for 10 days after treatment. Serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) activities were increased immediately after ISP treatment, reaching maximum levels of activity of 545+-64 U/ml and 542+-94 KU/ml, respectively, within 12 h. Uptake of /sup 67/Ga in the rat heart was elevated 12 h after ISP treatment, reaching a maximum on day 1 (0.267+-0.020% dose/g heart). This pattern was essentially similar to the pattern of uronic acid content in the 1.2 M NaCl fraction, which contained mainly heparan sulfate (HS). The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), a marker enzyme for fibrogenesis of damaged tissues, was also elevated 12 h after the ISP treatment, reaching a maximum of approximately 2.47 times that of the control heart on day 1. On the other hand, there were no significant changes in the /sup 67/Ga uptake and uronic acid content in any of the fractions of the liver and kidneys. These findings suggested that HS might be an acceptor for /sup 67/Ga accumulation during the repair of rat heart with infarct-like lesions, in accord with our previous results on CCl/sub 4/-damaged rat liver.

  17. Uptake of 67Ga in the heart of rats treated with isoproterenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, T.; Kojima, S.; Kubodera, A.

    1982-01-01

    Gallium-67 citrate ( 67 Ga) accumulation and various enzyme activities during the repair of rat heart with infarct-like lesions induced by isoproterenol (ISP) treatment were measured for 10 days after treatment. Serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) activities were increased immediately after ISP treatment, reaching maximum levels of activity of 545+-64 U/ml and 542+-94 KU/ml, respectively, within 12 h. Uptake of 67 Ga in the rat heart was elevated 12 h after ISP treatment, reaching a maximum on day 1 (0.267+-0.020% dose/g heart). This pattern was essentially similar to the pattern of uronic acid content in the 1.2 M NaCl fraction, which contained mainly heparan sulfate (HS). The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), a marker enzyme for fibrogenesis of damaged tissues, was also elevated 12 h after the ISP treatment, reaching a maximum of approximately 2.47 times that of the control heart on day 1. On the other hand, there were no significant changes in the 67 Ga uptake and uronic acid content in any of the fractions of the liver and kidneys. These findings suggested that HS might be an acceptor for 67 Ga accumulation during the repair of rat heart with infarct-like lesions, in accord with our previous results on CCl 4 -damaged rat liver. (orig.)

  18. Modulation of lung inflammation and immune markers in asthmatic rats treated by Portulaca oleracea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaveh, Mahsa; Eidi, Akram; Nemati, Ali; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies indicated anti-inflammatory effects for Portulaca oleracea in various inflammatory disorders. In this study, the effects of P. oleracea on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) levels of total protein (TP), Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and IgE in sensitized rats were examined. Materials and Methods: Male rats were randomly divided into six groups namely, control (group C), sensitized rats (group S), sensitized animal treated with three concentrations of the extract of P. oleracea and dexamethasone (n = 8 for each group). The levels of TP, PLA2 and IgE in BALF were measured. Results: The levels of TP, PLA2 and IgE were significantly increased in the BALF of group S compared to group C (p<0.001 for all cases). However, treatment of S rats with all concentrations of the extract, resulted in a significant and concentration-dependent reduction in BALF levels of TP, PLA2 and IgE compared to group S (p<0.001 for all cases except for the effect of the low extract concentration on TP). Dexamethasone treatment also led to significant reduction of TP, PLA2 and IgE (p<0.001 for all cases). The effect of dexamethasone treatment on PLA2 was significantly higher than the effects of all extract concentrations (p<0.001 for all cases). However, the effect of high extract concentration on TP and IgE was significantly higher than that of dexamethasone (p<0.001 both cases). Conclusion: The results indicated anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of P. oleracea in sensitized rats (as an animal model of asthma) which was equal or more marked than dexamethasone at studied concentrations. PMID:29062802

  19. [Mechanism study on leptin resistance in lung cancer cachexia rats treated by Xiaoyan Decoction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-Chao; Jia, Ying-Jie; Yang, Pei-Ying; Zhang, Xing; Li, Xiao-Jiang; Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Jin-Li; Sun, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jun; Duan, Hao-Guo; Guo, Hua; Li, Chao

    2014-12-01

    To study the leptin resistance mechanism of Xiaoyan Decoction (XD) in lung cancer cachexia (LCC) rats. An LCC rat model was established. Totally 40 rats were randomly divided into the normal control group, the LCC model group, the XD group, and the positive control group, 10 in each group. After LCC model was set up, rats in the LCC model group were administered with normal saline, 2 mL each time. Rats in the XD group were administered with XD at the daily dose of 2 mL. Those in the positive control group were administered with Medroxyprogesterone Acetate suspension (20 mg/kg) by gastrogavage at the daily dose of 2 mL. All medication lasted for 14 days. The general condition and tumor growth were observed. Serum levels of leptin and leptin receptor in the hypothalamus were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Contents of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and anorexia for genomic POMC were detected using real-time PCR technique. Serum leptin levels were lower in the LCC model group than in the normal control group with statistical significance (P XD group (P XD or Medroxyprogesterone Acetate could effectively reduce levels of leptin receptor with statistical significance (P XD group and the positive control group (P 0.05). There was statistical difference in POMC between the normal control group and the LCC model group (P XD group and the positive control group with statistical significance (P XD group (P XD could increase serum leptin levels and reduce leptin receptor levels in the hypothalamus. LCC could be improved by elevating NPY contents in the hypothalamus and reducing POMC contents, promoting the appetite, and increasing food intake from the periphery pathway and the central pathway.

  20. Partial recovery of erythrocyte glycogen in diabetic rats treated with phenobarbital

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    da-Silva C.A.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythrocytes may play a role in glucose homeostasis during the postprandial period. Erythrocytes from diabetic patients are defective in glucose transport and metabolism, functions that may affect glycogen storage. Phenobarbital, a hepatic enzyme inducer, has been used in the treatment of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM, increasing the insulin-mediated glucose disposal. We studied the effects of phenobarbital treatment in vivo on glycemia and erythrocyte glycogen content in control and alloxan-diabetic rats during the postprandial period. In control rats (blood glucose, 73 to 111 mg/dl in femoral and suprahepatic veins the erythrocyte glycogen content was 45.4 ± 1.1 and 39.1 ± 0.8 µg/g Hb (mean ± SEM, N = 4-6 in the femoral artery and vein, respectively, and 37.9 ± 1.1 in the portal vein and 47.5 ± 0.9 in the suprahepatic vein. Diabetic rats (blood glucose, 300-350 mg/dl presented low (P<0.05 erythrocyte glycogen content, i.e., 9.6 ± 0.1 and 7.1 ± 0.7 µg/g Hb in the femoral artery and vein, respectively, and 10.0 ± 0.7 and 10.7 ± 0.5 in the portal and suprahepatic veins, respectively. After 10 days of treatment, phenobarbital (0.5 mg/ml in the drinking water did not change blood glucose or erythrocyte glycogen content in control rats. In diabetic rats, however, it lowered (P<0.05 blood glucose in the femoral artery (from 305 ± 18 to 204 ± 45 mg/dl and femoral vein (from 300 ± 11 to 174 ± 48 mg/dl and suprahepatic vein (from 350 ± 10 to 174 ± 42 mg/dl, but the reduction was not sufficient for complete recovery. Phenobarbital also stimulated the glycogen synthesis, leading to a partial recovery of glycogen stores in erythrocytes. In treated rats, erythrocyte glycogen content increased to 20.7 ± 3.8 µg/g Hb in the femoral artery and 30.9 ± 0.9 µg/g Hb in the suprahepatic vein (P<0.05. These data indicate that phenobarbital activated some of the insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism steps which were

  1. CAR expression and inducibility of CYP2B genes in liver of rats treated with PB-like inducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustylnyak, Vladimir O.; Gulyaeva, Lyudmila F.; Lyakhovich, Vyacheslav V.

    2005-01-01

    The expression of the CAR gene and inducibility of CYP2B protein in the liver of male Wistar rats treated with phenobarbital (PB) and triphenyldioxane (TPD) were investigated. To clarify the role of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation in these processes, rats were treated with inhibitors of Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent kinase II (W 7 ) or protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A (OA) before induction. Constitutive expression of the CAR gene in livers of untreated rats was detected by multiplex RT-PCR. Treatment with W 7 resulted in a 2.8-fold induction of CAR gene expression, whereas OA led to a 2.4-fold decrease of the mRNA level. The same results were obtained for CYP2B genes expression, which were increased by W 7 treatment (two-fold) and decreased by OA (2.3-fold). PB-induction did not lead to significant alteration in the level of CAR gene expression, although CYP2B genes expression was enhanced two-fold over control values. TPD caused a two-fold increase of both CAR and CYP2B mRNA levels. Both inducers reduced the effects of inhibitors on CAR gene expression. Results of EMSA showed that PB, TPD or W 7 alone induced formation of complexes of NR1 with nuclear proteins. Appearance of the complexes correlated with an increase in CYP2B expression, and their intensities were modulated by the protein kinase inhibitors. Thus, our results demonstrate that constitutive expressions of CAR as well as CYP2B during induction are regulated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation processes

  2. Effect of sodium selenite on chosen anti- and pro-oxidative parameters in rats treated with lithium: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musik, Irena; Kocot, Joanna; Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata

    2015-06-01

    Selenium is an essential element of antioxidant properties. Lithium is widely used in medicine but its administration can cause numerous side effects including oxidative stress. The present study aimed at evaluating if sodium selenite could influence chosen anti- and pro-oxidant parameters in rats treated with lithium. The experiment was performed on four groups of Wistar rats: I (control) - treated with saline; II (Li) - treated with lithium (2.7 mgLi/kg b.w. as Li2CO3), III (Se) - treated with selenium (0.5 mgSe/kg b.w. as Na2SeO3), IV (Li+Se) - treated with Li2CO3 and Na2SeO3 together at the same doses as in group II and III, respectively. All treatments were performed by stomach tube for three weeks in form of water solutions. The following anti- and pro-oxidant parameters: total antioxidant status (TAS) value, catalase (CAT) activity, concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA) and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) in plasma as well as whole blood superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were measured. Selenium given alone markedly enhanced whole blood GPx and diminished plasma CAT vs. Lithium significantly decreased plasma CAT and slightly increased AA vs. Selenium co-administration restored these parameters to the values observed in control animals. Furthermore, selenium co-administration significantly increased GPx in Li-treated rats. All other parameters (TAS, SOD and MDA) were not affected by lithium and/or selenium. Further research seems to be warranted to decide if application of selenium as an adjuvant in lithium therapy is worth considering. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  3. Locomotion and physical development in rats treated with ionizing radiation in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, M.S.; Hupp, E.W.; Lancaster, F.E.

    1993-01-01

    Effects of ionizing radiation on the emergence of locomotor skill, and physical development were studied in laboratory rats (Fisher F-344 inbred strain). Rats were treated with 3 different doses of radiation (150 rad, 15 rad, and 6.8 rad) delivered on the 20th day of prenatal life. Results indicated that relatively moderate (15 rad) to high (150 rad) doses of radiation had effects on certain locomotion and physical development parameters. Exposure to 150 rad delayed pivoting, cliff-avoidance, upper jaw tooth eruption, and decreased body weights. Other parameters, such as negative geotaxis, eye opening, and lower jaw tooth eruption were marginally delayed in the 150 rad treated animals. Exposure to 15 rad delayed pivoting and cliff-avoidance

  4. Metallothionein and antioxidant enzymes in Long-Evans Cinnamon rats treated with zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medici, Valentina; Sturniolo, Giacomo Carlo; D' Inca, Renata [Department of Surgical and Gastroenterological Sciences, University of Padua, Padua (Italy); Santon, Alessandro; Giannetto, Sabrina; Albergoni, Vincenzo; Irato, Paola [Department of Biology, University of Padua, via U. Bassi 58/B, 35131 Padua (Italy)

    2002-09-01

    The Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat is a mutant animal model for Wilson's disease. It is known that an abnormal accumulation of Cu and Fe in the liver and low concentrations of both ceruloplasmin and Cu in the serum occur in these rats. The accumulation of Cu is explained by the defective expression of the Cu-transporting P-type ATPase gene, homologous to the gene for Wilson's disease (ATP7B). The aim of this work was to clarify the action mechanism of Zn, and to verify the role that this metal plays in LEC rats in short-term treatment experiments (1 and 2 weeks) on concentrations of Cu, Zn, Fe, metallothionein (MT), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (oh{sup 8}dG) and on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. It is well known that Zn induces MT and has the ability to prevent redox-active metals, Cu and Fe, binding to and causing oxidative damage at active sites of Zn metalloenzymes and nonspecific binding sites on proteins. Zn administration reduces Cu and Fe transport from mucosal to serosal intestinal sides through competitive mechanisms. Our findings show that treatment with zinc acetate increases tissue Zn and MT contents and decreases Cu and Fe concentrations in the liver and kidneys, even if hepatic Zn and MT concentrations decrease with treatment period. Induction of MT synthesis by Zn contributes to the reduction in free radicals produced by Cu and Fe. We also observed that the superoxide dismutase (SOD)activity in liver decreases with treatment duration in association with the Cu and Fe liver decrease. However, the SOD activity in kidney increases in untreated rats at 2 weeks relative to those untreated for 1 week. (orig.)

  5. Improvement of Some Biochemical Activities of Rats Treated with The Organophosphorus Insecticide Cytrolane Using Soyabean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, A.M.; Elmahdy, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    This Study aims to evaluate the role of soyabean diet in improvement of some biochemical activities of female rats received daily oral dose 0.89 mg/kg (1/10 LD 50 )of cytrolane as organophosphorus insecticide on some biochemical activities in female rats for ten consecutive days. Prior pesticide administration, female rats received soyabean at dose 58 g/kg body weight for 2 and 4 weeks. Under the effect of cytrolane administration, the results showed significant increase in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and CPK mean levels. Total serum protein and progesterone levels were significantly decreased compared to the control. On the other hand, by the administration of soyabean prior cytrolane, it reduced considerably the changes produced by cytrolane on levels of serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol which decreased more or less compared to control, total protein level was within normal value. Also, serum progesterone concentration increased. Therefore, soyabean administration accelerated the normalization and improvement processes of the altered lipid profiles, protein and progesterone hormone

  6. Orthodontic tooth movement and root resorption in ovariectomized rats treated by systemic administration of zoledronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirisoontorn, Irin; Hotokezaka, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Megumi; Gonzales, Carmen; Luppanapornlarp, Suwannee; Darendeliler, M Ali; Yoshida, Noriaki

    2012-05-01

    The effect of zoledronic acid, a potent and novel bisphosphonate, on tooth movement and orthodontically induced root resorption in osteoporotic animals systemically treated with zoledronic acid as similarly used in postmenopausal patients has not been elucidated. Therefore, this study was undertaken. Fifteen 10-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: ovariectomy, ovariectomy + zoledronic acid, and control. Only the ovariectomy and ovariectomy + zoledronic acid groups underwent ovariectomies. Two weeks after the ovariectomy, zoledronic acid was administered only to the ovariectomy + zoledronic acid group. Four weeks after the ovariectomy, 25-g nickel-titanium closed-coil springs were applied to observe tooth movement and orthodontically induced root resorption. There were significant differences in the amounts of tooth movement and orthodontically induced root resorption between the ovariectomy and the control groups, and also between the ovariectomy and the ovariectomy + zoledronic acid groups. There was no statistically significant difference in tooth movement and orthodontically induced root resorption between the ovariectomy + zoledronic acid and the control groups. Zoledronic acid inhibited significantly more tooth movement and significantly reduced the severity of orthodontically induced root resorption in the ovariectomized rats. The ovariectomy + zoledronic acid group showed almost the same results as did the control group in both tooth movement and orthodontically induced root resorption. Zoledronic acid inhibits excessive orthodontic tooth movement and also reduces the risk of severe orthodontically induced root resorption in ovariectomized rats. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Biochemical and histopathological profiling of Wistar rat treated with Brassica napus as a supplementary feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Md. Mahmudul Hasan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic changes together with cardiovascular and hepatic factors are related to the development of diseases like myocardial lipidosis, heart disease, and profound toxicity. The aim of this animal study is to determine the effects of high erucic acid containing rapeseed oil (Brassica napus L. varieties on liver, kidney and heart muscles in Wistar rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups where each group containing four rats. Group A was considered as control diet group, while Group B rapeseed wild oil group and Group C rapeseed hybrid oil group were considered as experimental diet groups. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT,alkaline phosphatase(ALP, creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB and creatinine of two experimental groups were significantly elevated while compared to the control groups (p  0.05. Noticeable tissue injury observed in this study is a sign of the relative toxicity of erucic acid containing rapeseed oil to mammalian species. The use of Brassica napus as a supplementary feed ingredient should be, therefore, thoroughly considered Keywords: Rapeseed oil, Rattus norvegicus, Serum enzymes, Erucic acid, Tissue profiling

  8. Morphological analysis of the enamel organ in rats treated with fluoxetine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Morais Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Previous studies have evaluated the presence of serotonin in the dental epithelia and mesenchyme during odontogenesis, suggesting its participation in tooth development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we used fluoxetine, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, at a dose of 10 mg/kg, administered for 20 days during pregnancy in 12 Wistar rats to examine the influence of this drug on the development of the enamel organ of the upper first molars of rat fetuses at 17 days of intra-uterine life (i.u.l., and at one, five and ten days postpartum. The pregnant rats were anesthetized with xylazine at 10 mg/kg and ketamine at 25 mg/kg. The fetuses were removed and beheaded; their jaws were removed, and the upper jaws were exposed. The tissues were fixed in Bouin's fixative, decalcified in 5% nitric acid for 4 - 12 h, conventionally processed for microscopy, and embedded in paraffin. Serial sections of approximately 5 mm were obtained and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, as well as periodic acid-Schiff. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Morphological analysis showed no structural changes in the experimental group compared to the controls, suggesting that, at the dose used, fluoxetine does not interfere with serotonin-mediated development of the enamel organ or the process of amelogenesis.

  9. TGF-beta1 immunohistochemistry and promoter methylation in chronic renal failure rats treated with Uremic Clearance Granules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Bin Chen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was the explain the mechanism related to therapeutic effects of Uremic Clearance Granules (Niaoduqing Keli in Chinese on adenine-induced Chronic Renal Failure in rats. Thirty 8-week-old male Wistar rats were selected and randomly divided in to 3 groups: Normal Control Group (NCGconsisted of 10 rats, Chronic Renal Failure Pathological Control Group (PCG 10 rats, and Uremic Clearance Granules Treatment Group (UCG 10 rats. Each rat in PCG and UCG was fed with adenine-enriched diets, containing 10 g adenine per kg food for 6 weeks. After fed with adenine, each rat in UCG was administered orally with 2 ml solution of Uremic Clearance Granules for 6 weeks. The concentration of Uremic Clearance Granules solution was 0.42 g/ml which was 10 times of human. On days 42 and 84, the serum levels of creatinine, Blood Urea Nitrogen and homocysteine were determined. The methylation of TGFbeta1 promoter was tested by methylation-specific PCR. TGF-beta1 mRNA and protein expression in rat renal cortex were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR and Immunohistochemistry. (1 Experimented on model of Chronic Renal Failure in rats, the preparation was proved to be able to reduce serum creatinine, Blood Urea Nitrogen, and homocysteine (p<0.05, improve renal function. (2 The expression of TGF-beta1 in mRNA and protein level were down-regulated. (3 TGF-beta1 promoter was demethylated at some loci in PCG, and was recovered in UCG. After treatment with Uremic Clearance Granules, the Chronic Renal Failure Wistar rat's kidney function was recovered. The recovery may be result of the remethylation of TGF-beta1 promoter and then lead to TGF-beta1 be transcripted and translated normally. The experimental study explain the molecular mechanism by which Uremic Clearance Granules treat Chronic Renal Failure.

  10. Association between hepatic cholesterol and oleic acid in the liver of rats treated with partially hydrogenated vegetable oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Salim Ferreira de Castro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the lipid profiles of the hepatic and adipose tissues of Wistar rats treated for 21 days with a diet high in saturated fat (high saturated fat, n=6 or high in hydrogenated fat, that is, having 50% partially hydrogenated vegetable oil in its composition (high hydrogenated fat, n=6, and compare them to those of a control group (control group, n=6. METHODS: Adipose tissue and total hepatic fat were higher in the saturated fat group than in the hydrogenated fat group. Hepatic lipid peroxidation was greatest in the saturated fat group, with consequent lower hepatic vitamin E and A levels. In contrast, serum vitamin A was highest in the saturated fat group. Analysis of hepatic lipid fractions found more cholesterol and less high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in the hydrogenated fat group. The hydrogenated fat group had the highest levels of triacylglycerols, followed by the saturated fat group. RESULTS: Significant amounts of trans fatty acids were detected in the hepatic and adipose tissues of the hydrogenated fat group. Among the identified fatty acids, 18:1n9 had a higher positive association with hepatic cholesterol and triacylglycerols, and a higher negative association with high density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Partially hydrogenated vegetable oil promotes greater accumulation of cholesterol and triacylglycerols in the liver than saturated fats. CONCLUSION: Trans fatty acids were incorporated into hepatocytes and adipocytes in a highly efficient manner.

  11. Tissue dyslipidemia in salmonella-infected rats treated with amoxillin and pefloxacin

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    Rotimi Solomon O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the effects of salmonella infection and its chemotherapy on lipid metabolism in tissues of rats infected orally with Salmonella typhimurium and treated intraperitoneally with pefloxacin and amoxillin. Methods Animals were infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain TA 98. After salmonellosis was confirmed, they were divided into 7 groups of 5 animals each. While one group served as infected control group, three groups were treated with amoxillin (7.14 mg/kg body weight, 8 hourly and the remaining three groups with pefloxacin (5.71mg/kg body weight, 12 hourly for 5 and 10 days respectively. Uninfected control animals received 0.1ml of vehicle. Rats were sacrificed 24h after 5 and 10 days of antibiotic treatment and 5 days after discontinuation of antibiotic treatment. Their corresponding controls were also sacrificed at the same time point. Blood and tissue lipids were then evaluated. Results Salmonella infection resulted in dyslipidemia characterised by increased concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA in plasma and erythrocyte, as well as enhanced cholesterogenesis, hypertriglyceridemia and phospholipidosis in plasma, low density lipoprotein-very low density lipoprotein (LDL-VLDL, erythrocytes, erythrocyte ghost and the organs. The antibiotics reversed the dyslipidemia but not totally. A significant correlation was observed between fecal bacterial load and plasma cholesterol (r=0.456, p Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that salmonella infection in rats and its therapy with pefloxacin and amoxillin perturb lipid metabolism and this perturbation is characterised by cholesterogenesis.

  12. Histological changes in kidneys of adult rats treated with Monosodium glutamate: A light microscopic study

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    Singh BR, Ujwal Gajbe, Anil Kumar Reddy, Vandana Kumbhare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Monosodium Glutamate (MSG, which is chemically known as AJI-NO-MOTO also familiar as MSG in routine life. MSG is always considered to be a controversial food additive used in the world. It is a natural excitatory neurotransmitter, helps in transmitting the fast synaptic signals in one third of CNS. Liver and kidney play a crucial role in metabolism as well as elimination of MSG from the body. Present study is to detect structural changes in adult rat kidney tissue treated with MSG; observations are done with a light microscope. Materials & Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Anatomy, J.N.M.C, Sawangi (M Wardha. Thirty (30 adult Wistar rats (2-3 months old weighing about (200 ± 20g were used in the current study, animals were divided into three groups (Group – A, B, C. Group A: Control, Group B: 3 mg /gm body weight, Group C: 6 mg /gm body weight, MSG were administered orally daily for 45 days along with the regular diet. Observations & Results: The Mean values of animals weight at the end of experiment (46th day respectively were 251.2 ± 13, 244.4 ± 19.9 and 320 ± 31.1. Early degenerative changes like, Glomerular shrinkage (GSr, loss of brush border in proximal convoluted tubules and Cloudy degeneration was observed in sections of kidney treated with 3 mg/gm body weight of MSG. Animals treated with 6 mg/gm body weight of MSG showed rare changes like interstitial chronic inflammatory infiltrate with vacuolation in some of the glomeruli, and much glomerular shrinkage invaginated by fatty lobules. Conclusion: The effects of MSG on kidney tissues of adult rats revealed that the revelatory changes are directly proportional to the doses of MSG.

  13. The immunoreactivity of satellite glia of the spinal ganglia of rats treated with monosodium glutamate

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    Aleksandra Ewa Krawczyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite glia of the peripheral nervous system ganglia provide metabolic protection to the neurons. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of monosodium glutamate administered parenterally to rats on the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, S-100β protein and Ki-67 antigen in the satellite glial cells. Adult, 60-day-old male rats received monosodium glutamate at two doses of 2 g/kg b.w. (group 1 and 4 g/kg b.w. (group 2 subcutaneously for 3 consecutive days. Animals in the control group (group C were treated with corresponding doses of 0.9% sodium chloride. Immediately after euthanasia, spinal ganglia of the lumbar region were dissected. Immunohistochemical peroxidase anti-peroxidase reactions were performed on the sections containing the examined material using antibodies against glial fibrillary acidic protein, S-100β and Ki-67. Next, morphological and morphometric analyses of immunopositive and immunonegative glia were conducted. The data were presented as the mean number of cells with standard deviation. Significant differences were analysed using ANOVA (P < 0.05. In all 63-day-old rats, immunopositivity for the examined proteins glia was observed. Increased number of cells expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein was demonstrated in group 2, whereas the number of S-100β-positive glia grew in the groups with the increasing doses of monosodium glutamate. The results indicate the early stage reactivity of glia in response to increased levels of glutamate in the extracellular space. These changes may be of a neuroprotective nature under the conditions of excitotoxicity induced by the action of this excitatory neurotransmitter.

  14. Some hematological parameters of Wistar rats treated with Chromolaena odorata leave extracts

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    Henshaw Uchechi Okoroiwu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effects of the different extracts of Chromolaena odorata leave on the hematopoietic system of Wistar rats. Solvent extraction was used for the ethanol and aqueous extractions while decoction method was used for the crude extraction. Fifty Wistar rats of both sexes weighing 140-180 g were used for this study. They were divided into ten groups each containing five rats. The animals were fed the extracts by oral gavage once daily for 21 days. Blood sample was collected via cardiac artery. Hematological parameters were analyzed using automation method. The ethanol extract gave the highest extract yield. The aqueous, ethanol and crude extraction had median lethal toxicity (LD50 of 2738.6 mg/kg, 1581.1 mg/kg and 224.7 mg/kg, respectively. Significant difference (P<0.05 in the total white blood cell count was observed in the 75 mg/kg ethanol and 300 mg/kg crude extracts when compared with control group. Significant difference (P<0.05 in the hemoglobin concentration was observed in the 150 mg/kg ethanol extracts when compared with the control group. Significant difference (P<0.05 in the packed cell volume was seen in the 75 mg/kg aqueous, 150 mg/kg aqueous and 75 mg/kg ethanol extracts in respect to the control group. The mean cell volume, the mean platelet volume and platelet large cell ratio of the 75 mg/kg aqueous extract were significantly different (P<0.05 when compared with the control group. The present study showed possible treatment-induced hematopoietic function of C. odorata leave extracts.

  15. [Biochemical changes in the placenta of white rats treated with basfungin].

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    Markova, E

    1976-01-01

    The author carried out experiments on white rats and discussed the role of the placental insufficiency in the perinatal pathology under the action of fungicide basfugine. After administration of the preparation singly at the critical 13th day of embriogenesis and repeatedly during the course of the gestation the author examined biochemically the activity of the following enzymes: glucose-6-phosphatdehydrogenase, lactatdehydrogenase and thermostable alkaline phosphatase. Basfungine, administered in effective teratogenic doses, inhibited the activity of the indicated enzymes in the placenta, manifesting in this way its functional insufficiency, which was most probably the substantial moment in the pathogenesis of the induced anamaly in the fetal development.

  16. Mechanism of antifertility in male rats treated with 3-monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD).

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    Kwack, Seung Jun; Kim, Soon Sun; Choi, Yo Woo; Rhee, Gyu Seek; Da Lee, Rhee; Seok, Ji Hyun; Chae, Soo Yeong; Won, Yong Hyuck; Lim, Kwon Jo; Choi, Kwang Sik; Park, Kui Lea; Lee, Byung Mu

    2004-12-01

    3-Monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) is a food contaminant that is often found in foods containing acid-hydrolyzed (AH) protein, like seasonings and savory food products. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 3-MCPD on male fertility, sperm, and hormonal levels and its antifertility mechanism. In vivo male fertility testing was performed to observe the adverse effects of 3-MCPD on the functioning of the male reproductive system and pregnancy outcome. 3-MCPD (0.01-5 mg/kg) was administered daily by gavage to Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rats for 4 wk. At the end of the pretreatment period, male rats were mated overnight with untreated females. Males successfully inducing pregnancy were sacrificed to assess sperm parameters, reproductive organ histopathology, and spermatogenesis. The resulting pregnant females were sacrificed on 20 of gestation to evaluate pregnancy outcome. The paternal administration of 3-MCPD (5 mg/kg) was found to result in adverse effects on male fertility and pregnancy outcome without inducing remarkable histopathological changes in testes and epididymides. Additionally, 3-MCPD (5 mg/kg) significantly reduced sperm motility, copulation, fertility indices, and the number of live fetuses showed steep dose-response curves. 3-MCPD did not affect spermatogenesis or induce hormonal changes in the blood and testes of male rats. An in vitro hormone assay using primary isolated Leydig cells showed no significant changes in related hormone levels after 3-MCPD treatment. To evaluate the effects of 3-MCPD on apoptotic induction and H+-ATPase levels in the testis and epididymis, 10 or 100 mg/kg of 3-MCPD was administered by gavage to male rats and testes and epididymides were examined at 3, 6, 12, and 24 h later. Apoptosis was not detected in the testes of animals treated with 100 mg/kg 3-MCPD. However, the level of H+-ATPase in the cauda epididymis was reduced by 3-MCPD treatment. These results indicate that 3-MCPD induced a

  17. Tissue distribution of residual antimony in rats treated with multiple doses of meglumine antimoniate

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    Deise Riba Coelho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Meglumine antimoniate (MA and sodium stibogluconate are pentavalent antimony (SbV drugs used since the mid-1940s. Notwithstanding the fact that they are first-choice drugs for the treatment of leishmaniases, there are gaps in our knowledge of their toxicological profile, mode of action and kinetics. Little is known about the distribution of antimony in tissues after SbV administration. In this study, we evaluated the Sb content of tissues from male rats 24 h and three weeks after a 21-day course of treatment with MA (300 mg SbV/kg body wt/d, subcutaneous. Sb concentrations in the blood and organs were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In rats, as with in humans, the Sb blood levels after MA dosing can be described by a two-compartment model with a fast (t1/2 = 0.6 h and a slow (t1/2 >> 24 h elimination phase. The spleen was the organ that accumulated the highest amount of Sb, while bone and thyroid ranked second in descending order of tissues according to Sb levels (spleen >> bone, thyroid, kidneys > liver, epididymis, lungs, adrenals > prostate > thymus, pancreas, heart, small intestines > skeletal muscle, testes, stomach > brain. The pathophysiological consequences of Sb accumulation in the thyroid and Sb speciation in the liver, thyroid, spleen and bone warrant further studies.

  18. Assessment of changes in plasma total antioxidant status in gamma irradiated rats treated with eugenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azab, Kh. SH.

    2002-01-01

    Eugenol, a volatile phenolic phyto chemical, is a major constituent of clove oil. The present study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant effect of eugenol on certain lipid metabolites and variations in the antioxidant status. In vitro study (oxidative susceptibility of lipoprotein) revealed that eugenol elongates the lag phase for the induction of conjugated diene and decreased the rate of lipid peroxidation (production of thiobarbituric reactive substances; TBARS) during the propagation phase. In vivo study on rats revealed a significant increase in plasma total antioxidant status after eugenol regime. Furthermore, eugenol water emulsion delivered to rats by garage in a concentration of 1 g/kg body weight for 15 days before and during exposure to fractionated whole body gamma radiation (1.5 Gy every other day) up to a total dose of 7.5 Gy showed that, administration of eugenol reduces significantly the concentration of plasma TBARS and minimize the decrease in plasma antioxidants. Amelioration in the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) in blood and liver and the activities of cytosolic glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in the liver were also observed. Furthermore, the changes in the concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were less pronounced. It could be postulated that by minimizing the decrease in antioxidant status, eugenol could prevents the radiation induce alterations in lipid metabolism

  19. Histomorphometric analysis of the Achilles tendon of Wistar rats treated with laser therapy and eccentric exercise

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    Maria V. de Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Low-level laser therapy is recommended for the treatment of tendinopathies despite the contradictory results related to the ideal dose of energy, wavelength and time of application. This study aimed to assess the effects of laser therapy and eccentric exercise on tendinopathy of the Achilles tendon of Wistar rats. Forty-eight adult male rats were randomly distributed into four groups (L= laser; E= eccentric exercise; LE = laser and eccentric exercise; and R= rest. Laser therapy (904nm/3J/cm2 and/or eccentric exercise (downhill walking; 15o incline treadmill; 12m/min; 50min/day was started 24h after induction of unilateral tendinopathy and remained for 20 days. At 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after lesion induction, three rats from each group were euthanized and the tendons were collected for histological and morphometric analyses. There was no difference among groups or among times for the characteristics hemorrhage (p=0.4154, fibrinous adhesion formation (p=0.0712, and organization of collagen fibers (p=0.2583 and of the connective tissue (p=0.1046. For these groups, regardless of the time, eccentric exercise led to epitenon thickening (p=0.0204, which was lower in the group treated with laser therapy. Histological analysis revealed differences (p=0.0032 in the number of inflammatory cells over time. They were more numerous in the group that only exercised. This result was confirmed by morphometric analysis, which showed a significant interaction (groups x time for this characteristic. Eccentric exercise increased (p=0.0014 the inflammatory infiltrate over time (3 and 21 days. However, association with laser therapy reduced inflammatory reaction. On the other hand, the combination of the treatments increased angiogenesis in morphometric (p=0.0000 and histological (p=0.0006 analyses compared with the other groups, while the isolated application of low-level laser reduced this characteristic over time. Animals maintained at rest presented the

  20. Evaluation of sphingolipids in Wistar rats treated to prolonged and single oral doses of fumonisin b₁.

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    Direito, Glória M; Almeida, Adriana P; Aquino, Simone; dos Reis, Tatiana Alves; Pozzi, Claudia Rodrigues; Corrêa, Benedito

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate sphingolipid levels (sphingosine-So and sphinganine-Sa) and to compare the Sa/So ratio in liver, serum and urine of Wistar rats after prolonged administration (21 days) of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)). In parallel, the kinetics of sphingolipid elimination in urine was studied in animals receiving a single dose of FB(1). Prolonged exposure to FB(1) caused an increase in Sa levels in urine, serum and liver. The most marked effect on sphingolipid biosynthesis was observed in animals treated with the highest dose of FB(1). Animals receiving a single dose of FB(1) presented variations in Sa and So levels and in the Sa/So ratio.

  1. Normalization of periodontal tissues in osteopetrotic mib mutant rats, treated with CSF-1

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    Wojtowicz, A.; Yamauchi, M.; Sotowski, R.; Ostrowski, K.

    1998-01-01

    The osteopetrotic mib mutation in rats causes defects in the skeletal bone tissue in young animals. These defects, i.e. slow bone remodelling, changes in both crystallinity and mineral content, are transient and undergo normalization, even without any treatment in 6-wk-old animals. Treatment with CSF-1 (colony stimulating factor-1) accelerates the normalization process in skeletal bones. The periodontal tissues around the apices of incisors show abnormalities caused by the slow remodelling process of the mandible bone tissue, the deficiency of osteoclasts and their abnormal morphology, as well as the disorganization of periodontal ligament fibres. In contrast to the skeletal tissues, these abnormalities would not undergo spontaneous normalization. Under treatment with colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1), the primitive bone trabeculae of mandible are resorbed and the normalization of the number of osteoclasts and their cytology occurs. The organization of the periodontal ligament fibres is partially restored, resembling the histological structure of the normal one.

  2. Locomotion, physical development, and brain myelination in rats treated with ionizing radiation in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Effects of ionizing radiation on the emergence of locomotion skill and some physical development parameters were studied in laboratory rats (Fisher F-344 inbred strain). Rats were treated with 3 different doses of radiation (150 R, 15 R, and 6.8 R) delivered on the 20th day of the prenatal life. Results indicated that relatively moderate (15 R) to high (150 R) doses of radiation have effects on certain locomotion and physical development parameters. Exposure to 150 R affected pivoting, cliff-avoidance, upper jaw tooth eruption, body weight, and organs, such as brain, cerebral cortex, ovary, kidney, heart and spleen weights. Other parameters, such as negative geotaxis, eye opening, and lower jaw tooth eruption appeared to be affected in the 150 R treated animals. Exposure to 15 R affected pivoting and cliff-avoidance parameters. The cerebral cortex weight of the 15 R treated animals was found to be reduced at the age of day 30. Exposure to 6.8 R had no adverse effects on these parameters. Prenatal exposure to 150 R of radiation reduced the cerebral cortex weight by 22.07% at 30 days of age, and 20.15% at 52 days of age which caused a reduction in cerebral cortex myelin content by 20.16, and 22.89% at the ages of day 30 and day 52 respectively. Exposure to 150 R did not affect the myelin content of the cerebellum or the brain stem; or the myelin concentration (mg myelin/g brain tissue weight) of the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and the brain stem. Exposure to 15 R, and 6.8 R did not affect either the myelin content or the myelin concentration of these brain areas

  3. Investigation of liver tissue and biochemical parameters of adult wistar rats treated with Arctium lappa L.

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    Fabrícia Souza Predes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of Arctium lappa L. (burdock on the liver of adult male Wistar rats as measured by light microscopy and biochemical parameters. The rats received the extract in water bottles at doses of 10 or 20 g/L daily for 40 days. There were no significant changes in the plasma levels of albumin, aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, total protein, total cholesterol, urea, uric acid, triacylglycerol, calcium, phosphorus, chlorine and direct bilirubin. The morphological analysis did not reveal histopathological alterations in liver tissue. Both biochemical and morphological data did not indicate A. lappa toxicity.A bardana (Arctium lappa L é uma planta trazida do Japão e aclimatada no Brasil, e é extensamente utilizada na medicina popular em todo mundo. Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar os possíveis efeitos da A. lappa no fígado e nos parâmetros bioquímicos plasmáticos em ratos Wistar adultos. Estes receberam a infusão de bardana nas doses de 10 ou 20 g de folhas secas /L de água, por 40 dias. Não houve alteração significativa nos níveis plasmáticos de albumina, aspartato transaminase (AST, alanina transaminase (ALT, gamma glutamil transferase (GGT, proteínas totais, colesterol total, uréia, ácido úrico, triglicérides, cálcio, fósforo, bilirrubina direta e cloro. A análise morfológica não revelou alterações histopatológicas no fígado. Os dados bioquímicos e morfológicos não indicaram a toxicidade da bardana.

  4. Achilles tendon of wistar rats treated with laser therapy and eccentric exercise

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    Maria Verônica de Souza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Both laser therapy and eccentric exercises are used in tendon injuries. However, the association of these physiotherapeutic modalities is yet little investigated.Objective:To evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy associated to eccentric exercise (downhill walking on Achilles tendinopathy of Wistar rats.Method:Eighteen Achilles tendon from 15 adult male Wistar rats were used. Tendons were distributed in six groups (laser, eccentric exercise, laser and eccentric exercise, rest, contralateral tendon, and healthy tendon. Unilateral tendinopathy was surgically induced by transversal compression followed by scarification of tendon fibers. The treatments laser therapy (904 nm, 3J/cm² and/or eccentric exercise (downhill walking; 12 m/min; 50 min/day; 15o inclination treadmill began 24 hours after surgery and remained for 20 days. Clinical and biomechanical analyzes were conducted. Achilles tendon was macroscopically evaluated and the transversal diameter measured. Euthanasia was performed 21 days after lesion induction. Tendons of both limbs were collected and frozen at -20°C until biomechanical analysis, on which the characteristic of maximum load (N, stress at ultimate (MPa and maximum extension (mm were analyzed.Results:Swelling was observed within 72 hours postoperative. No fibrous adhesions were observed nor increase in transversal diameter of tendons. Animals with the exercised tendons, but not treated with laser therapy, presented lower (p=0.0000 locomotor capacity. No difference occurred be-tween groups for the biomechanical characteristics maximum load (p=0.4379, stress at ultimate (p=0.4605 and maximum extension (p=0.3820 evaluated, even considering healthy and contralateral tendons.Conclusion:The concomitant use of low-level laser and the eccentric exercise of downhill walking, starting 24 hours after surgically induced tendinopathy, do not result in a tendon with the same biomechanical resistance or elasticity

  5. Physiological and Biophysical Studies on Gamma Irradiated Rat Treated with Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate (DHEAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, G.R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate (DHEAS) is an adrenal hormone, and is the most abundant circulatory steroid hormone in the body. Serum DHEAS concentration peaks at around age 25 years, displaying a significant decrease with age linked with some pathological changes. Objective: This study was performed to investigate the effect(s) of DHEAS oral administration, and its possible prophylactic and/or mitigating roles against γ-irradiation-induced disorders in the irradiated rat. Experimental Animals and Design: Five groups of male Albino rats were used: 1- Control: untreated group. 2- Irradiated: animals exposed to a single dose of whole-body γ-irradiation (6 Gy). 3- DHEAS group: given a single dose of DHEAS (20 mg/100 g b. wt.), intra gastrically. 4-DHEAS + Irrad. group: given a single dose of DHEAS, 2 hrs before irradiation. 5- Irrad.+ DHEAS group: given DHEAS, 2 hrs after irradiation. Blood and testicular tissue samples were collected after one day, one week and two weeks post irradiation or DHEAS treatment. Parameters Measured: Plasma levels of triiodothyronine (T 3 ), thyroxin (T 4 ), thyrotropin (TSH), testosterone, acid phosphatase (ACP), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-Ch), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-Ch) were determined, and the atherogenic index (AI) was calculated. Reduced glutathione (GSH) content and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured in blood and testes. A complete blood picture and some biophysical properties were also examined. Results: DHEAS administration pre-irradiation, and to a lesser magnitude, post-irradiation, improved the disturbances induced by irradiation in the plasma levels of the tested parameters: tT 3 , tT 4 , and TSH, testosterone and the lipid profile, showing almost normalization of the AI. Beneficial effects were also observed in the hematological picture, blood viscosity and conductivity. DHEAS elevated GSH levels and decreased lipid peroxidation (LPO) in blood

  6. Rats treated with Hypericum perforatum during pregnancy generate offspring with behavioral changes in adulthood

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    Leandro V. Campos

    Full Text Available Abstract Drugs used in the treatment of depression can cross the placenta giving rise to questions regarding the effects these drugs exert on the fetus. Hypericum perforatum L., Hypericaceae, is a natural product used to treat depression. However, information about its toxicity and the occurrence of alterations in the central nervous system development of the offspring is scarce. This work assessed the behavior of adult male rats born from mothers treated with Hypericum extract during gestation and analyzed the fluorescence of the extract in different organs of mothers and fetuses. Male pups were divided into three treated groups, corresponding to the administration of the Hypericum extract to mothers at the dose levels of 36 mg/kg, 72 mg/kg and 144 mg/kg, and one control group in which the mothers received distilled water. At 90 days of age, the offspring underwent the following tests: rotarod, pentobarbital-induced sleep time, elevated plus maze, hole-board and forced swimming test. The observed fluorescence indicated the presence of the extract in all tissues analyzed. The obtained results suggest lasting changes in the performances displayed in the CNS, depression and anxiety tests, indicating that the use of Hypericum during gestation could interfere with the behavioral development of the offspring reducing anxiety and depression when they become adults. We suggest that these alterations are associated with the reprogramming of the brain regions related to changes in emotional reactivity.

  7. Antimutagenic Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Aqueous Extract on Rats Treated with Monosodium Glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheller, Ana Carla Guidini Valentini; Kerkhoff, Jacqueline; Vieira Júnior, Gerardo Magela; de Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Sugui, Marina Mariko

    2017-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant of the Malvaceae family, commonly known as roselle. H. sabdariffa is known to contain antioxidant, cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, insulin resistance reduction, antihypertensive, and skin cancer chemopreventive properties. This study evaluated the effects of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract against cyclophosphamide (CPA, 25 mg/Kg) induced damage to DNA in male Wistar rats by micronucleus test. Samples of H. sabdariffa calyx were obtained in the municipality of Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The aqueous extract was prepared by infusion and each animal received a daily dose of 400 mg/Kg by gavage for 15 consecutive days of treatment. The presence of anthocyanins was confirmed by ferric chloride test and phenolic compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography, with emphasis on the identification of rutin. The animals were sacrificed by deepening of anaesthesia to obtain bone marrow and determination of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. The group treated with the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa revealed a 91% reduction in micronucleus frequency when compared with the positive control group. Under the conditions tested, H. sabdariffa L. presented a protective effect to CPA-induced damage to DNA of the treated animals, and it is a potential candidate as a chemopreventive agent against carcinogenesis.

  8. Antimutagenic Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Aqueous Extract on Rats Treated with Monosodium Glutamate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoff, Jacqueline; Vieira Júnior, Gerardo Magela; de Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Sugui, Marina Mariko

    2017-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant of the Malvaceae family, commonly known as roselle. H. sabdariffa is known to contain antioxidant, cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, insulin resistance reduction, antihypertensive, and skin cancer chemopreventive properties. This study evaluated the effects of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract against cyclophosphamide (CPA, 25 mg/Kg) induced damage to DNA in male Wistar rats by micronucleus test. Samples of H. sabdariffa calyx were obtained in the municipality of Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The aqueous extract was prepared by infusion and each animal received a daily dose of 400 mg/Kg by gavage for 15 consecutive days of treatment. The presence of anthocyanins was confirmed by ferric chloride test and phenolic compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography, with emphasis on the identification of rutin. The animals were sacrificed by deepening of anaesthesia to obtain bone marrow and determination of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. The group treated with the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa revealed a 91% reduction in micronucleus frequency when compared with the positive control group. Under the conditions tested, H. sabdariffa L. presented a protective effect to CPA-induced damage to DNA of the treated animals, and it is a potential candidate as a chemopreventive agent against carcinogenesis. PMID:28197528

  9. Antimutagenic Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Aqueous Extract on Rats Treated with Monosodium Glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Guidini Valentini Gheller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant of the Malvaceae family, commonly known as roselle. H. sabdariffa is known to contain antioxidant, cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, insulin resistance reduction, antihypertensive, and skin cancer chemopreventive properties. This study evaluated the effects of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract against cyclophosphamide (CPA, 25 mg/Kg induced damage to DNA in male Wistar rats by micronucleus test. Samples of H. sabdariffa calyx were obtained in the municipality of Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The aqueous extract was prepared by infusion and each animal received a daily dose of 400 mg/Kg by gavage for 15 consecutive days of treatment. The presence of anthocyanins was confirmed by ferric chloride test and phenolic compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography, with emphasis on the identification of rutin. The animals were sacrificed by deepening of anaesthesia to obtain bone marrow and determination of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. The group treated with the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa revealed a 91% reduction in micronucleus frequency when compared with the positive control group. Under the conditions tested, H. sabdariffa L. presented a protective effect to CPA-induced damage to DNA of the treated animals, and it is a potential candidate as a chemopreventive agent against carcinogenesis.

  10. Profiling of hepatic gene expression in rats treated with fibric acid analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwell, Paul D.; Souza, Angus T. de; Ulrich, Roger G

    2004-05-18

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a group of nuclear receptors whose ligands include fatty acids, eicosanoids and the fibrate class of drugs. In humans, fibrates are used to treat dyslipidemias. In rodents, fibrates cause peroxisome proliferation, a change that might explain the observed hepatomegaly. In this study, rats were treated with multiple dose levels of six fibric acid analogs (including fenofibrate) for up to two weeks. Pathological analysis identified hepatocellular hypertrophy as the only sign of hepatotoxicity, and only one compound at the highest dose caused any significant increase in serum ALT or AST activity. RNA profiling revealed that the expression of 1288 genes was related to dose or length of treatment and correlated with hepatocellular hypertrophy. This gene list included expression changes that were consistent with increased mitochondrial and peroxisomal {beta}-oxidation, increased fatty acid transport, increased hepatic uptake of LDL-cholesterol, decreased hepatic uptake of glucose, decreased gluconeogenesis and decreased glycolysis. These changes are likely linked to many of the clinical benefits of fibrate drugs, including decreased serum triglycerides, decreased serum LDL-cholesterol and increased serum HDL-cholesterol. In light of the fact that all six compounds stimulated similar or identical changes in the expression of this set of 1288 genes, these results indicate that hepatomegaly is due to PPAR{alpha} activation, although signaling through other receptors (e.g. PPAR{gamma}, RXR) or through non-receptor pathways cannot be excluded.

  11. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferramosca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group, a diet with 35% fat (HF group, or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group. The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism.

  12. Progeny of male rats treated with methadone: physiological and behavioural effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, J M; Peruzović, M; Milković, K

    1990-04-01

    Male rats were injected with methadone HCl (METH) at 5 mg/kg s.c. for 4 days prior to mating with drug-free females. Offspring resulting from these matings were compared with offspring of drug-free males. The progeny of METH-treated males gained less weight after weaning and had lighter thymuses as adults (but not in infancy). Gonadal weights did not differ in infancy or adulthood, and adrenal weights were heavier in female offspring in adulthood. In adulthood METH offspring were significantly different from controls on all behavioural tests used (open field activity, activity cage activity, passive avoidance latencies, shuttle box avoidances, and rotarod latencies), with the differences frequently affected by test order, days of testing, or sex of offspring. The effects in progeny of METH-treated males in the absence of differences in litter size or neonatal mortality indicate that paternal drug ingestion prior to mating can produce physiological and behavioural changes in progeny that are not dependent on detectable effects on early viability or growth.

  13. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Zara, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group), a diet with 35% fat (HF group), or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group). The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism.

  14. Profiling of hepatic gene expression in rats treated with fibric acid analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornwell, Paul D.; Souza, Angus T. de; Ulrich, Roger G.

    2004-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a group of nuclear receptors whose ligands include fatty acids, eicosanoids and the fibrate class of drugs. In humans, fibrates are used to treat dyslipidemias. In rodents, fibrates cause peroxisome proliferation, a change that might explain the observed hepatomegaly. In this study, rats were treated with multiple dose levels of six fibric acid analogs (including fenofibrate) for up to two weeks. Pathological analysis identified hepatocellular hypertrophy as the only sign of hepatotoxicity, and only one compound at the highest dose caused any significant increase in serum ALT or AST activity. RNA profiling revealed that the expression of 1288 genes was related to dose or length of treatment and correlated with hepatocellular hypertrophy. This gene list included expression changes that were consistent with increased mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-oxidation, increased fatty acid transport, increased hepatic uptake of LDL-cholesterol, decreased hepatic uptake of glucose, decreased gluconeogenesis and decreased glycolysis. These changes are likely linked to many of the clinical benefits of fibrate drugs, including decreased serum triglycerides, decreased serum LDL-cholesterol and increased serum HDL-cholesterol. In light of the fact that all six compounds stimulated similar or identical changes in the expression of this set of 1288 genes, these results indicate that hepatomegaly is due to PPARα activation, although signaling through other receptors (e.g. PPARγ, RXR) or through non-receptor pathways cannot be excluded

  15. Hepatoprotective effects of Vernonia amygdalina (astereaceae) in rats treated with carbon tetrachloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesanoye, Omolola A; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2010-03-01

    The possible modulatory effect of methanolic extract of Vernonia amygdalina (MEVA), a plant widely consumed in the tropics and used locally in the treatment of fever, jaundice, stomach disorders and diabetes on the toxicity of CCl(4), was investigated in male rats. Oral administration of CCl(4) at a dose of 1.2g/kg body weight 3 times a week for 3 weeks significantly induced marked hepatic injury as revealed by increased activity of the serum enzymes ALT, AST, SALP and gamma-GT. Methanolic extract of V. amygdalina administered 5 times a week for 2 weeks before CCl(4) treatment at 250 and 500 mg/kg doses of the extract ameliorated the increase in the activities of these enzymes. Likewise the methanolic extract of V. amygdalina reduced the CCl(4)-induced increase in the concentrations of cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipid by 37.8%, 30.6% and 8.5%, respectively, and a reduction in the cholesterol/phospholipids ratio. These parameters were however increased at 750 mg/kg extract pretreatment. CCl(4)-induced lipid peroxidation was likewise attenuated by 57.2% at 500 mg/kg dose of the methanolic extract of V. amygdalina. Similarly, administration of the extract increased the activities of the antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase and reduced glutathione concentration significantly at 500 mg/kg (P<0.05) and catalase activity at 500-1000 mg/kg doses. These results suggest that methanolic extract of V. amygdalina leaves posseses protective effect against CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity by the antioxidant mechanism of action. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Royal Jelly Modulates Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Liver and Kidneys of Rats Treated with Cisplatin

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    Ali Karadeniz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin (CDDP is one of the most active cytotoxic agents in the treatment of cancer and has adverse side effects such as nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. The present study was designed to determine the effects of royal jelly (RJ against oxidative stress caused by CDDP injury of the kidneys and liver, by measuring tissue biochemical and antioxidant parameters and investigating apoptosis immunohistochemically. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups, group C: control group received 0.9% saline; group CDDP: injected i.p. with cisplatin (CDDP, 7 mg kg-1 body weight i.p., single dose; group RJ: treated for 15 consecutive days by gavage with RJ (300 mg/kg/day; group RJ + CDDP: treated by gavage with RJ 15 days following a single injection of CDDP. Malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione (GSH levels, glutathione S-transferase (GST, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities were determined in liver and kidney homogenates, and the liver and kidney were also histologically examined. RJ elicited a significant protective effect towards liver and kidney by decreasing the level of lipid peroxidation (MDA, elevating the level of GSH, and increasing the activities of GST, GSH-Px, and SOD. In the immunohistochemical examinations were observed significantly enhanced apoptotic cell numbers and degenerative changes by cisplatin, but these histological changes were lower in the liver and kidney tissues of RJ + CDDP group. Besides, treatment with RJ lead to an increase in antiapoptotic activity hepatocytes and tubular epithelium. In conclusion, RJ may be used in combination with cisplatin in chemotherapy to improve cisplatin-induced oxidative stress parameters and apoptotic activity.

  17. Tissue injuries of wistar rats treated with hydroalcoholic extract of Sonchus oleraceus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Carla Prichoa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant species is emerging as an important alternative in the treatment of injuries. Therefore, the extract of Sonchus oleraceus 10% was employed in the repair of skin lesions. A total of 36 male Wistar rats were subjected to a punch injury and divided into three groups: a negative control, receiving no treatment, a positive control, treated with Dersani, and the experimental group treated with the extract. The injury was assessed macroscopically and microscopically. Morphometric data was collected at the 3rd, 5th and 7th postoperative day, and the experimental group showed greater changes in shrinkage of the lesion compared to control groups. On the 3rd postoperative day, the injury in the experimental group showed less necrotic tissue, lower slough and more granulation tissue in relation to the positive control group. On the 7th and 10th postoperative day, the injury in the experimental group showed lower slough compared to the positive control group. Microscopic analysis of lesions on the 5th postoperative day revealed increased fibroplasia in the experimental group compared to control groups, while on the 14th postoperative day less neovascularization was evident in the experimental group and increased formation of hair follicles in the negative control group. The extract of S. oleraceus provided tissue repair in accordance with normal physiological patterns thus confirming empirical evidence for its use.O emprego de espécies vegetais vem surgindo como alternativa no tratamento de lesões. Dessa forma, foi utilizado o extrato hidroalcoólico de Sonchus oleraceus a 10% na reparação de lesões cutâneas. Trinta e seis ratos machos Wistar, foram submetidos a uma lesão com "punch" e distribuídos em três grupos: controle negativo, não recebeu tratamento; controle positivo, tratado com Dersani; e o experimental, tratado com extrato. A lesão foi avaliada macroscopicamente e microscopicamente. Os dados morfométricos mostraram que

  18. Effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of the intestine and enzymes of both the intestine and the pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Mawla, Ahmed M. A.; Osman, Husam Eldien H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause gastrointestinal damage both in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, in addition to their undesirable side effects on the pancreas. Meloxicam like all NSAIDs has damaging effects on the gastrointestinal tract including perforations, ulcers and bleeding. Objective: The present work describes the effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine and enzymes of both intestine and Pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on four groups of equally weighed male rats, each group included ten animals; the first group was received a diet containing 0.2 mg/kg bw meloxicam per day; the second was given 1gm Gum acacia per day in its diet; the third was given meloxicam followed by gum in the same doses per day; while the fourth group (control rats) was placed on a normal diet and water. All rats were received their diet for a period of 21 days. Results: A considerable protective effect of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine of albino rats treated with meloxicam was recorded. In addition, the study displayed a significant increase (P < 0.001) in the intestinal enzymes; lipase, amylase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the 1st and 3rd groups animals while these enzymes were significantly decreased (P < 0.001) in the 2nd group when compared with the 4th control group. Conclusion: This study concluded that Gum acacia provides a protection and defense against the harmful effects of meloxicam therapy used as one of the novel anti-Cox-1 and Cox-2 NSAIDs. PMID:21772755

  19. Effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of the intestine and enzymes of both the intestine and the pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Mawla, Ahmed M A; Osman, Husam Eldien H

    2011-04-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause gastrointestinal damage both in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, in addition to their undesirable side effects on the pancreas. Meloxicam like all NSAIDs has damaging effects on the gastrointestinal tract including perforations, ulcers and bleeding. The present work describes the effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine and enzymes of both intestine and Pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam. This study was performed on four groups of equally weighed male rats, each group included ten animals; the first group was received a diet containing 0.2 mg/kg bw meloxicam per day; the second was given 1gm Gum acacia per day in its diet; the third was given meloxicam followed by gum in the same doses per day; while the fourth group (control rats) was placed on a normal diet and water. All rats were received their diet for a period of 21 days. A considerable protective effect of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine of albino rats treated with meloxicam was recorded. In addition, the study displayed a significant increase (P < 0.001) in the intestinal enzymes; lipase, amylase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the 1(st) and 3(rd) groups animals while these enzymes were significantly decreased (P < 0.001) in the 2(nd) group when compared with the 4(th) control group. This study concluded that Gum acacia provides a protection and defense against the harmful effects of meloxicam therapy used as one of the novel anti-Cox-1 and Cox-2 NSAIDs.

  20. Promoting effects of potassium dibasic phosphate on early-stage renal carcinogenesis in unilaterally nephrectomized rats treated with N-ethyl-N-hydroxyethylnitrosamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiasa, Y; Konishi, N; Nakaoka, S; Nakamura, T; Nishii, K; Ohshima, M

    1992-07-01

    The effects of potassium dibasic phosphate (PDP), potassium aluminum sulfate (PAS) and copper sulfate (CS) on early-stage renal carcinogenesis were investigated in unilaterally nephrectomized male Wistar rats after N-ethyl-N-hydroxyethylnitrosamine (EHEN) administration. After feeding 1,000 ppm EHEN, or basal diet for 2 weeks and removal of the left kidney at week 3, male Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups of 20 rats each. These groups received the following dietary treatments: 50,000 ppm PDP, 50,000 ppm PAS, 5,000 ppm CS or basal diet, respectively, for 18 weeks from weeks 3 to 20. The average numbers of adenomatous hyperplasias counted as preneoplastic lesions in the EHEN with 50,000 ppm PDP group were significantly higher than in the EHEN alone group or the EHEN followed by 50,000 ppm PAS or 5,000 ppm CS group. The treatment with 50,000 ppm PDP induced renal calcification and promoted the development of preneoplastic lesions in unilaterally nephrectomized rats treated with EHEN, but that with 50,000 ppm PAS or 5,000 ppm CS did not.

  1. Promoting Effects of Potassium Dibasic Phosphate on Early‐stage Renal Carcinogenesis in Unilaterally Nephrectomized Rats Treated with N‐Ethyl‐N‐hydroxyethylnitrosamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Noboru; Nakaoka, Shingo; Nakamura, Toshimitsu; Nishii, Kiyoji; Ohshima, Masato

    1992-01-01

    The effects of potassium dibasic phosphate (PDP), potassium aluminum sulfate (PAS) and copper sulfate (CS) on early‐stage renal carcinogenesis were investigated in unilaterally nephrectomized male Wistar rats after N‐ethyl‐N‐hydroxyethylnitrosamine (EHEN) administration. After feeding 1,000 ppm EHEN, or basal diet for 2 weeks and removal of the left kidney at week 3, male Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups of 20 rats each. These groups received the following dietary treatments: 50,000 ppm PDP, 50,000 ppm PAS, 5,000 ppm CS or basal diet, respectively, for 18 weeks from weeks 3 to 20. The average numbers of adenomatous hyperplasias counted as preneoplastic lesions in the EHEN with 50,000 ppm PDP group were significantly higher than in the EHEN alone group or the EHEN followed by 50,000 ppm PAS or 5,000 ppm CS group. The treatment with 50,000 ppm PDP induced renal calcification and promoted the development of preneoplastic lesions in unilaterally nephrectomized rats treated with EHEN, but that with 50,000 ppm PAS or 5,000 ppm CS did not. PMID:1517146

  2. Effect of Saccharomyces Boulardii Cell Wall Extracts on Colon Cancer Prevention in Male F344 Rats Treated with 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Olivier; Aguilar-Uscanga, Blanca R; Vu, Khanh D; Salmieri, Stephane; Lacroix, Monique

    2018-01-01

    The effect of Saccharomyces boulardii cell wall extracts on colon cancer prevention in rats treated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine was investigated. A crude insoluble glucan (0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg/day) and a crude mannoprotein extract (0.3 and 3.0 mg/kg/day) were administered in rats by gavage for 12 weeks along with a high fat low fiber diet whereupon rats were sacrificed and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were counted in the colon. Moreover, NAD(P)H: quinone reductase (QR) and harmful fecal enzymes (β-glucosidase and β-glucuronidase) were quantified in the liver and in the caecum, respectively. Results showed a reduction in ACF counts, a decreased β-glucuronidase activity and an increased QR activity when rats were treated only with insoluble glucan. While these enzymatic modulations may be constituted one of the mechanisms that is responsible for the reduction of ACF counts observed, the reduction of ACF counts caused by insoluble glucan should be addressed, at least, as a biomarker of their cancer-prevention properties. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrated that crude cell wall extract obtained from S. boulardii could have a potential role in colon cancer prevention in vivo by revealing the potential implication of QR and β-glucuronidase modulation.

  3. BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS IN NORMAL AND STONE FORMING RATS TREATED WITH THE RIPE KERNEL JUICE OF PLANTAIN (MUSA PARADISIACA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, V. Kalpana; Baskar, R.; Varalakshmi, P.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of Musa paradisiaca stem kernel juice was investigated in experimental urolithiatic rats. Stone forming rats exhibited a significant elevation in the activities of two oxalate synthesizing enzymes - Glycollic acid oxidase and Lactate dehydrogenase. Deposition and excretion of stone forming constituents in kidney and urine were also increased in these rats. The enzyme activities and the level of crystalline components were lowered with the extract treatment. The extract also reduced the activities of urinary alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, r-glutamyl transferase, inorganic pyrophosphatase and β-glucuronidase in calculogenic rats. No appreciable changes were noticed with leucine amino peptidase activity in treated rats. PMID:22556626

  4. Time course of cholinesterase inhibition in adult rats treated acutely with carbaryl, carbofuran, formetanate, methomyl, methiocarb, oxamyl or propoxur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, S.; Marshall, R.S.; Hunter, D.L.; Lowit, A.

    2007-01-01

    To compare the toxicity of seven N-methyl carbamates, time course profiles for brain and red blood cell (RBC) cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition were established for each. Adult, male, Long Evans rats (n = 4-5 dose group) were dosed orally with either carbaryl (30 mg/kg in corn oil); carbofuran (0.5 mg/kg in corn oil); formetanate HCl (10 mg/kg in water); methomyl (3 mg/kg in water); methiocarb (25 mg/kg in corn oil); oxamyl (1 mg/kg in water); or propoxur (20 mg/kg in corn oil). This level of dosing produced at least 40% brain ChE inhibition. Brain and blood were taken from 0.5 to 24 h after dosing for analysis of ChE activity using two different methods: (1) a radiometric method which limits the amount of reactivation of ChE activity, and (2) a spectrophotometric method (Ellman method using traditional, unmodified conditions) which may encourage reactivation. The time of peak ChE inhibition was similar for all seven N-methyl carbamate pesticides: 0.5-1.0 h after dosing. By 24 h, brain and RBC ChE activity in all animals returned to normal. The spectrophotometric method underestimated ChE inhibition. Moreover, there was a strong, direct correlation between brain and RBC ChE activity (radiometric assay) for all seven compounds combined (r 2 = 0.73, slope 1.1), while the spectrophotometric analysis of the same samples showed a poor correlation (r 2 = 0.09). For formetanate, propoxur, methomyl, and methiocarb, brain and RBC ChE inhibitions were not different over time, but for carbaryl, carbofuran and oxamyl, the RBC ChE was slightly more inhibited than brain ChE. These data indicate (1) the radiometric method is superior for analyses of ChE activity in tissues from carbamate-treated animals (2) that animals treated with these N-methyl carbamate pesticides are affected rapidly, and recover rapidly, and (3) generally, assessment of RBC ChE is an accurate predictor of brain ChE inhibition for these seven pesticides

  5. Effect of Nd:YAG laser light on post-extractive socket healing in rats treated with zoledronic acid and dexamethasone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergoni, Giovanni; Merigo, Elisabetta; Passerini, Pietro; Corradi, Domenico; Maestri, Roberta; Bussolati, Ovidio; Bianchi, Massimiliano; Sala, Roberto; Govoni, Paolo; Namour, Samir; Vescovi, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Introduction The effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on the healing process could be useful for the prevention of post-extractive Bisphosphonate-related Osteonecrosis of the Jaws (BRONJ). The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of LLLT on the post-extractive socket healing in rats treated with zoledronic acid and dexamethasone. Material and Methods Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided in 4 groups: control group (C, n = 5), laser group (L, n = 5), treatment group (T, n = 10) and treatment plus laser group (T+L, n = 10). Rats of group T and T+L received zoledronate 0,1 mg/Kg and dexamethasone 1 mg/Kg every 2 days for 10 weeks. Rats of group C and L were infused with vehicle. After 9 weeks the first maxillary molars were extracted in all rats. Rats of groups L and T+L received laser therapy (Nd:YAG, 1064 nm, 1.25W, 15Hz, 5 min, 14.37 J/cm2) in the socket area at days 0, 2, 4 and 6 after surgery. At 8 days from extraction, the sockets were clinically assessed with a grading score and the wound area was measured with a dedicate software. Histomorphometric evaluation and western blot analysis of osteopontin and osteocalcin expression were performed. Results Group T+L showed a trend toward a better clinical grading score compared to group T (grade I 22% Vs 28 % - grade II 56% Vs 28% - grade III 22% Vs 44%, respectively). The average wound area was similar among the groups. Inhibition of osteoclastic alveolar bone resorption was found in groups T and T+L (Phealing in conditions at risk for MRONJ development.

  6. Astrocytic expression of GFAP and serum levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in rats treated with different pain relievers

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    Gisele Ferreira Amaral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pro-inflammatory cytokines and glial cells, especially microglial cells, have been implicated in persistent pain sensitization. Less is known about the role of astrocytes in pain regulation. This study aimed to observe the expression of the astrocytic biomarker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and the serum levels of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α after short-term administration of central pain relievers in rats not submitted to noxious stimuli. Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups, receiving for nine days- (1 amitriptyline (Amt-10 mg/kg/day, by gavage; (2 gabapentin (Gb-60 mg/kg/day, by gavage; (3 methadone (Me-4.5 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal route [IP]; (4 morphine (Mo-10 mg/kg/day, IP; or (5 0.9% saline solution, IP. Brain samples were collected for immunohistochemical study of GFAP expression in the mesencephalon and nucleus accumbens (NAc. The area of GFAP-positive cells was calculated using MetaMorph software and serum levels of IL-1β and TNF-α were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum TNF-α levels were decreased in the groups treated with Mo, Me and Gb, but not in the Amt-treated group. IL-1β decreased only in rats treated with Me. The astrocytic expression of GFAP was decreased in the brainstem with all drugs, while it was increased in the NAc with Amt, Me and Mo.

  7. iTRAQ-Based Proteomics Analysis of Serum Proteins in Wistar Rats Treated with Sodium Fluoride: Insight into the Potential Mechanism and Candidate Biomarkers of Fluorosis

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    Yan Wei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluorosis induced by exposure to high level fluoride is quite widespread in the world. The manifestations of fluorosis include dental mottling, bone damage, and impaired malfunction of soft tissues. However, the molecular mechanism of fluorosis has not been clarified until now. To explore the underlying mechanisms of fluorosis and screen out serum biomarkers, we carried out a quantitative proteomics study to identify differentially expressed serum proteins in Wistar rats treated with sodium fluoride (NaF by using a proteomics approach of isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ. We fed Wistar rats drinking water that had 50, 150, and 250 mg/L of dissolved NaF for 24 weeks. For the experimental duration, each rat was given an examination of the lower incisors to check for the condition of dental fluorosis (DF. By the end of the treatment, fluoride ion concentration in serum and lower incisors were detected. The results showed that NaF treatment can induce rat fluorosis. By iTRAQ analysis, a total of 37 differentially expressed serum proteins were identified between NaF-treated and control rats. These proteins were further analyzed by bioinformatics, out of which two proteins were validated by enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assays (ELISA. The major proteins were involved in complement and coagulation cascade, inflammatory response, complement activation, defense response, and wound response, suggesting that inflammation and immune reactions may play a key role in fluorosis pathogenesis. These proteins may contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of fluoride toxicity, and may serve as potential biomarkers for fluorosis.

  8. Alkaline comet assay in liver and stomach, and micronucleus assay in bone marrow, from rats treated with 2-acetylaminofluorene, azidothymidine, cisplatin, or isobutyraldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraynak, A R; Barnum, J E; Cunningham, C L; Ng, A; Ykoruk, B A; Bennet, B; Stoffregen, D; Merschman, M; Freeland, E; Galloway, S M

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), we examined the ability of the assay to determine the genotoxicity of 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF), azidothymidine (AZT), cisplatin (CPN), and isobutyraldehyde (IBA) in liver and glandular stomach of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were given oral doses of test compound or control once daily for three days. High dose levels were approximately maximum tolerated doses and were based on preliminary range-finding studies. Tissues were harvested 3h after the final dose (48h after the initial dose). A bone marrow micronucleus assay (MN) was also conducted on the rats treated with AZT, CPN, and IBA. Acute toxic effects of treatment were determined primarily through histomorphologic analysis of liver and stomach but also by body weight and serum liver enzyme changes. The comet assay was conducted on fresh tissue preparations but frozen samples from two studies were also assayed. Statistically significant dose-related differences in comet % DNA in tail were found in liver and stomach for the genotoxin AZT and in liver for the genotoxin CPN, but not in liver or stomach for the non-genotoxin IBA. Statistically significant differences in % DNA in tail were measured in liver for the low and mid dose of the genotoxin AAF, but not the high dose. The comet assays of frozen liver suspensions from CPN- and AAF-treated rats yielded comparable results to the assays of fresh preparations. There were no indications of significant toxicity induced by any treatment. The micronucleus assay was positive for CPN and AZT and negative for IBA. In conclusion, the in vivo comet assay is capable of detecting genotoxic effects of a variety of chemicals and may fill an important role in the genotoxicity test battery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Histomorphological changes in induced benign prostatic hyperplasia with exogenous testosterone and estradiol in adult male rats treated with aqueous ethanol extract of Secamone afzelii

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    Godwin Mbaka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Secamone afzelii (S. afzelii used locally to manage benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH was used to treat exogenously induced BPH in adult male Wister rats. Male rats weighing 200 ± 10 g kg−1 had exogenous administration of testosterone and estradiol in staggered doses (three times weekly for three weeks. The induced animals were in five groups (6 rats per group. Groups 1 and 2 received extract at 200 and 400 mg kg−1 body weight (bwt by gavages for thirty days; group 3, finasteride (0.1 mg kg−1; group 4, untreated for thirty days; group 5, negative control, which was sacrificed twenty-one days after induction. Group 6 received extract (400 mg kg−1 and steroid hormones simultaneously; group 7, normal control. The extract caused marked decrease in prostate weight of BPH induced rats with the photomicrograph of the prostate showing extensive shrinkage of glandular tissue whereas glandular hyperplasia occurred in the negative control. Prostate specific antigen (PSA level significantly (p < 0.05 decreased in the treated groups compared to negative control. Treatment with the extract/finasteride caused significant decrease in testosterone to a level comparable to normal. The BPH induced rats treated with S. afzelii/finasteride recorded marked increase in the levels of antioxidant enzymes compared to the negative control. S. afzelii effectively ameliorated prostatic hyperplasia exogenously induced by causing extensive shrinkage of glands and stroma. It also exhibited antioxidant properties and showed to be a good prophylaxis.

  10. Biochemical indicators of nephrotoxicity in blood serum of rats treated with novel 4-thiazolidinone derivatives or their complexes with polyethylene glycol-containing nanoscale polymeric carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Kоbylinska

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect of new synthetic 4-thiazolidinone derivatives (potential anticancer compounds denoted as 3882, 3288 and 3833 and doxorubicin (positive control in free form and in their complexes with synthetic polyethylene glycol-containing nanoscale polymeric carrier on the biochemical indicators of nephrotoxicity in blood serum of rats. The concentration of total protein, urea, creatinine, glucose, ions of sodium, potassium, calcium, iron and chloride was measured. It was found that after injection of the investigated compounds, the concentration of sodium cations and chloride anions in blood serum was increased compared with control (untreated animals. Doxorubicin’s injection was accompanied by a decrease in the concentration of iron cations. The concentration of total protein, urea and creatinine decreased under the influence of the studied compounds. Complexation of these аntineoplastic substances with a synthetic polymeric nanocarrier lowered the concentration of the investigated metabolites substantially compared to the effect of these compounds in free form. The normalization of concentration of total protein, urea and creatinine in blood serum of rats treated with complexes of the studied compounds with the polymeric carrier comparing with increased concentration of these indicators at the introduction of such compounds in free form was found.

  11. Polyploidy Analysis and Attenuation of Oxidative Stress in Hepatic Tissue of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats Treated with an Aqueous Extract of Vochysia rufa

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    Izabela Barbosa Moraes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is characterized by hyperglycemia and alterations in the metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins. Due to its hypoglycemic effect Vochysia rufa is frequently used in Uberlandia, Brazil, to treat DM. Despite its popularity, there is little information about its effect on hepatic tissue. Therefore, we evaluated the histoarchitecture, oxidative stress parameters, and polyploidy of liver tissue from streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic rats treated with aqueous extract of Vochysia rufa (AEV. Histology was determined by fixing the livers, processing, and staining with HE. Oxidative stress was determined by evaluating CAT, GPx, and SOD activity in liver homogenates and hepatic mitochondria fraction and by measuring GST, GSH levels and lipid peroxidation (MDA. Polyploidy was determined by subjecting isolated hepatocyte nuclei to flow cytometry. In the diabetic group, GST activity and GSH rates decreased whereas liver homogenate analysis showed that GPx, SOD activity and MDA increased. AEV treatment restored all parameters to normal levels. The oxidative stress analysis of hepatic mitochondria fraction showed similar results. Lower polyploid cell populations were found in the diabetic rat livers, even after glibenclamide treatment. Thus, AEV treatment efficiently reduced hepatic oxidative stress caused by STZ-induced diabetes and produced no morphological changes in the histological analysis.

  12. Induction of mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration is associated with mTOR regulation in hepatocytes of rats treated with the pan-PPAR activator tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagland, Hanne R.; Nilsson, Linn I.H. [Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen (Norway); Burri, Lena [Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Haukeland University Hospital (Norway); Nikolaisen, Julie [Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen (Norway); Berge, Rolf K. [Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Haukeland University Hospital (Norway); Department of Heart Disease, Haukeland University Hospital (Norway); Tronstad, Karl J., E-mail: karl.tronstad@biomed.uib.no [Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen (Norway)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated mechanisms of mitochondrial regulation in rat hepatocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) was employed to activate mitochondrial oxidation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration were induced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was confirmed that PPAR target genes were induced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanism involved activation mTOR. -- Abstract: The hypolipidemic effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activators has been explained by increasing mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, as observed in livers of rats treated with the pan-PPAR activator tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA). PPAR-activation does, however, not fully explain the metabolic adaptations observed in hepatocytes after treatment with TTA. We therefore characterized the mitochondrial effects, and linked this to signalling by the metabolic sensor, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). In hepatocytes isolated from TTA-treated rats, the changes in cellular content and morphology were consistent with hypertrophy. This was associated with induction of multiple mitochondrial biomarkers, including mitochondrial DNA, citrate synthase and mRNAs of mitochondrial proteins. Transcription analysis further confirmed activation of PPAR{alpha}-associated genes, in addition to genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Analysis of mitochondrial respiration revealed that the capacity of both electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation were increased. These effects coincided with activation of the stress related factor, ERK1/2, and mTOR. The protein level and phosphorylation of the downstream mTOR actors eIF4G and 4E-BP1 were induced. In summary, TTA increases mitochondrial respiration by inducing hypertrophy and mitochondrial biogenesis in rat hepatocytes, via adaptive regulation of PPARs as well as mTOR.

  13. Mast cell concentration and skin wound contraction in rats treated with Brazilian pepper essential oil (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevão, Lígia Reis Moura; Medeiros, Juliana Pinto de; Simões, Ricardo Santos; Arantes, Rosa Maria Esteves; Rachid, Milene Alvarenga; Silva, Regildo Márcio Gonçalves da; Mendonça, Fábio de Souza; Evêncio-Neto, Joaquim

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate wound contraction and the concentration of mast cells in skin wounds treated with 5% BPT essential oil-based ointment in rats. Twenty rats, male, of adult age, were submitted to skin surgery on the right (RA) and left antimeres (LA) of the thoracic region. They were divided into two groups: control (RA - wounds receiving daily topical application of vaseline and lanolin) and treated (LA - wounds treated daily with the topical ointment). The skin region with wounds were collected at days 4, 7, 14 and 21 after surgery. Those were fixed in 10% formaldehyde and later processed for paraffin embedding. Sections were obtained and stained by H.E for histopathology analysis. The degree of epithelial contraction was measured and mast cell concentration were also evaluated. The treated group showed higher mast cell concentrations (poil increases mast cell concentration and promotes skin wound contraction in rats.

  14. Histophatologic changes of lung in asthmatic male rats treated with hydro-alcoholic extract of Plantago major and theophylline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Farokhi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Plantago major (P. major is one of the medicinal crops in the world which has therapeutic properties for treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Theophylline is commonly used for the treatment of respiratory diseases. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of P. major on lung in asthmatic male rats. Materials and Methods: 32 male adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: The control group (C received normal saline; Asthma (A group received a normal diet; Asthma group treated with Theophylline (200 mg/kg b.w. (T; Asthma group which received p.major (100 mg/kg b.w. (P. Asthma was induced by citric acid, 0.1 mg in form of spraying. The injection of P.major extract and theophylline was administered intraperitoneally for four weeks. At the end of the treatment, all of the rats were sacrificed and lungs were taken out, fixed, and stained with H&E, toluidine blue, and PAS, then histological studies were followed with light microscope. Results: Results showed that, in asthmatic group, the mean number of mast cells was significantly increased (p<0.05. Thickness of alveolar epithelium and accumulation of glycoprotein in airways was increased. Moreover, in some of alveolar sac hemorrhaging was observed. Administration of p.major extract in asthmatic rats restored these changes towards normal group.Conclusion: The present study revealed that P. major compared with theophylline, has a protective effect on lung in asthmatic rats.

  15. Disruption of estrogen homeostasis as a mechanism for uterine toxicity in Wistar Han rats treated with tetrabromobisphenol A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, J. Michael; Coulter, Sherry J.; Knudsen, Gabriel A.; Dunnick, June K.; Kissling, Grace E.; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic oral treatment of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) to female Wistar Han rats resulted in increased incidence of cell proliferation at 250 mg/kg and tumor formation in the uterus at higher doses. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that disruption of estrogen homeostasis was a major mode-of-action for the observed effects. Biological changes were assessed in serum, liver, and the proximal (nearest the cervix) and distal (nearest the ovaries) sections of the uterine horn of Wistar Han rats 24 h following administration of the last of five daily oral doses of 250 mg/kg. Expression of genes associated with receptors, biosynthesis, and metabolism of estrogen was altered in the liver and uterus. TBBPA treatment also resulted in changes in expression of genes associated with cell division and growth. Changes were also observed in the concentration of thyroxine in serum and in expression of genes in the liver and uterus associated with thyroid hormone receptors. Differential expression of some genes was tissue-dependent or specific to tissue location in the uterus. The biological responses observed in the present study support the hypothesis that perturbation of estrogen homeostasis is a major mode-of-action for TBBPA-mediated cell proliferation and tumorigenesis previously observed in the uterus of TBBPA-treated Wistar Han rats. - Highlights: • Perturbation of estrogen homeostasis in TBBPA-treated female rats was investigated. • Gene expression changes were observed in the liver and uterus of these rats. • Genes associated with estrogen biosynthesis and metabolism were affected. • Genes associated with thyroid homeostasis and cell division/growth were affected. • A mechanism of uterine toxicity via endocrine disruption was indicated.

  16. Disruption of estrogen homeostasis as a mechanism for uterine toxicity in Wistar Han rats treated with tetrabromobisphenol A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, J. Michael, E-mail: sander10@mail.nih.gov [Laboratory of Toxicology and Toxicokinetics, National Cancer Institute at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Coulter, Sherry J.; Knudsen, Gabriel A. [Laboratory of Toxicology and Toxicokinetics, National Cancer Institute at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Dunnick, June K.; Kissling, Grace E. [National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Birnbaum, Linda S. [Laboratory of Toxicology and Toxicokinetics, National Cancer Institute at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Chronic oral treatment of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) to female Wistar Han rats resulted in increased incidence of cell proliferation at 250 mg/kg and tumor formation in the uterus at higher doses. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that disruption of estrogen homeostasis was a major mode-of-action for the observed effects. Biological changes were assessed in serum, liver, and the proximal (nearest the cervix) and distal (nearest the ovaries) sections of the uterine horn of Wistar Han rats 24 h following administration of the last of five daily oral doses of 250 mg/kg. Expression of genes associated with receptors, biosynthesis, and metabolism of estrogen was altered in the liver and uterus. TBBPA treatment also resulted in changes in expression of genes associated with cell division and growth. Changes were also observed in the concentration of thyroxine in serum and in expression of genes in the liver and uterus associated with thyroid hormone receptors. Differential expression of some genes was tissue-dependent or specific to tissue location in the uterus. The biological responses observed in the present study support the hypothesis that perturbation of estrogen homeostasis is a major mode-of-action for TBBPA-mediated cell proliferation and tumorigenesis previously observed in the uterus of TBBPA-treated Wistar Han rats. - Highlights: • Perturbation of estrogen homeostasis in TBBPA-treated female rats was investigated. • Gene expression changes were observed in the liver and uterus of these rats. • Genes associated with estrogen biosynthesis and metabolism were affected. • Genes associated with thyroid homeostasis and cell division/growth were affected. • A mechanism of uterine toxicity via endocrine disruption was indicated.

  17. Statin-induced myotoxicity is exacerbated by aging: A biophysical and molecular biology study in rats treated with atorvastatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camerino, Giulia Maria; De Bellis, Michela; Conte, Elena; Liantonio, Antonella; Musaraj, Kejla; Cannone, Maria; Fonzino, Adriano; Giustino, Arcangela; De Luca, Annamaria; Romano, Rossella; Camerino, Claudia; Laghezza, Antonio; Loiodice, Fulvio; Desaphy, Jean-Francois; Conte Camerino, Diana; Pierno, Sabata

    2016-01-01

    Statin-induced skeletal muscle damage in rats is associated to the reduction of the resting sarcolemmal chloride conductance (gCl) and ClC-1 chloride channel expression. These drugs also affect the ClC-1 regulation by increasing protein kinase C (PKC) activity, which phosphorylate and close the channel. Also the intracellular resting calcium (restCa) level is increased. Similar alterations are observed in skeletal muscles of aged rats, suggesting a higher risk of statin myotoxicity. To verify this hypothesis, we performed a 4–5-weeks atorvastatin treatment of 24-months-old rats to evaluate the ClC-1 channel function by the two-intracellular microelectrodes technique as well as transcript and protein expression of different genes sensitive to statins by quantitative real-time-PCR and western blot analysis. The restCa was measured using FURA-2 imaging, and histological analysis of muscle sections was performed. The results show a marked reduction of resting gCl, in agreement with the reduced ClC-1 mRNA and protein expression in atorvastatin-treated aged rats, with respect to treated adult animals. The observed changes in myocyte-enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) expression may be involved in ClC-1 expression changes. The activity of PKC was also increased and further modulate the gCl in treated aged rats. In parallel, a marked reduction of the expression of glycolytic and mitochondrial enzymes demonstrates an impairment of muscle metabolism. No worsening of restCa or histological features was found in statin-treated aged animals. These findings suggest that a strong reduction of gCl and alteration of muscle metabolism coupled to muscle atrophy may contribute to the increased risk of statin-induced myopathy in the elderly. - Highlights: • This work characterizes the causes of atorvastatin related myotoxicity in aged rats. • Skeletal muscle chloride channel ClC-1 is a target of statin-induced side effects. • ClC-1 dysfunction is worsened by aging process. • Age

  18. Statin-induced myotoxicity is exacerbated by aging: A biophysical and molecular biology study in rats treated with atorvastatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camerino, Giulia Maria; De Bellis, Michela; Conte, Elena; Liantonio, Antonella; Musaraj, Kejla; Cannone, Maria; Fonzino, Adriano [Section of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy & Drug Sciences, University of Bari - Aldo Moro, Bari (Italy); Giustino, Arcangela [Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, University of Bari - Aldo Moro, Medical School, Bari (Italy); De Luca, Annamaria; Romano, Rossella [Section of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy & Drug Sciences, University of Bari - Aldo Moro, Bari (Italy); Camerino, Claudia [Department of Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sense Organs, University of Bari - Aldo Moro, Bari (Italy); Laghezza, Antonio; Loiodice, Fulvio [Section of Medicinal Chemistry, Department of Pharmacy & Drug Sciences, University of Bari - Aldo Moro, Bari (Italy); Desaphy, Jean-Francois [Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, University of Bari - Aldo Moro, Medical School, Bari (Italy); Conte Camerino, Diana [Section of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy & Drug Sciences, University of Bari - Aldo Moro, Bari (Italy); Pierno, Sabata, E-mail: sabata.pierno@uniba.it [Section of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy & Drug Sciences, University of Bari - Aldo Moro, Bari (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    Statin-induced skeletal muscle damage in rats is associated to the reduction of the resting sarcolemmal chloride conductance (gCl) and ClC-1 chloride channel expression. These drugs also affect the ClC-1 regulation by increasing protein kinase C (PKC) activity, which phosphorylate and close the channel. Also the intracellular resting calcium (restCa) level is increased. Similar alterations are observed in skeletal muscles of aged rats, suggesting a higher risk of statin myotoxicity. To verify this hypothesis, we performed a 4–5-weeks atorvastatin treatment of 24-months-old rats to evaluate the ClC-1 channel function by the two-intracellular microelectrodes technique as well as transcript and protein expression of different genes sensitive to statins by quantitative real-time-PCR and western blot analysis. The restCa was measured using FURA-2 imaging, and histological analysis of muscle sections was performed. The results show a marked reduction of resting gCl, in agreement with the reduced ClC-1 mRNA and protein expression in atorvastatin-treated aged rats, with respect to treated adult animals. The observed changes in myocyte-enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) expression may be involved in ClC-1 expression changes. The activity of PKC was also increased and further modulate the gCl in treated aged rats. In parallel, a marked reduction of the expression of glycolytic and mitochondrial enzymes demonstrates an impairment of muscle metabolism. No worsening of restCa or histological features was found in statin-treated aged animals. These findings suggest that a strong reduction of gCl and alteration of muscle metabolism coupled to muscle atrophy may contribute to the increased risk of statin-induced myopathy in the elderly. - Highlights: • This work characterizes the causes of atorvastatin related myotoxicity in aged rats. • Skeletal muscle chloride channel ClC-1 is a target of statin-induced side effects. • ClC-1 dysfunction is worsened by aging process. • Age

  19. A metabonomic analysis of serum from rats treated with ricinine using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Peng

    Full Text Available A metabonomic approach based on ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS was used to study the hepatotoxicity of ricinine in rats. Potential biomarkers of ricinine toxicity and toxicological mechanism were analyzed by serum metabonomic method. The significant differences in the metabolic profiling of the control and treated rats were clear by using the principal components analysis (PCA of the chromatographic data. Significant changes of metabolite biomarkers like phenylalanine, tryptophan, cholic acid, LPC and PC were detected in the serum. These biochemical changes were related to the metabolic disorders in amino acids and phospholipids. This research indicates that UPLC/MS-based metabonomic analysis of serum samples can be used to predict the hepatotoxicity and further understand the toxicological mechanism induced by ricinine. This work shows that metabonomics method is a valuable tool in drug mechanism study.

  20. Electroencephalogram in relation to brain glycogen level in irradiated rats treated with vitamin E as a radioprotective compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdy, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Whole body gamma irradiation of untreated rats at the dose of 7 Gy induced severe abnormalities in the brain electrical activity, electroencephalogram (EEG), patterns of both frontal and occipital cortical areas. The visual analysis of the frontal EEG records showed a significant shift of frequencies towards faster and higher voltage activity along the experiment period (first , third, seventh and tenth days post irradiation). However, an opposite picture was prominent on the occipital EEG records after irradiation. On the other hand,the level of brain glycogen, which is considered as an important energy source for brain functions, significantly increased at all intervals of post irradiation. The treatment of rats with intraperitoneal injection of vitamin E pre-irradiation succeeded in diminishing the deleterious abnormalities in the EEG records in both frontal and occipital areas as well as the changes induced in the level of brain glycogen after whole body gamma irradiation.4 fig

  1. Plasma metabonomics study on toxicity biomarker in rats treated with Euphorbia fischeriana based on LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingfeng; Man, Hongxue; Gao, Jian; Liu, Xinfeng; Ren, Xiaolei; Chen, Jianxin; Zhang, Jiayu; Gao, Kuo; Li, Zhongfeng; Zhao, Baosheng

    2016-09-01

    Lang-du (LD) has been traditionally used to treat human diseases in China. Plasma metabolic profiling was applied in this study based on LC-MS to elucidate the toxicity in rats induced by injected ethanol extract of LD. LD injection was given by intraperitoneal injection at doses of 0.1, 0.05, 0.025 and 0 g kg(-1) body weight per day to rats. The blood biochemical levels of alanine aminotransferase, direct bilirubin, creatinine, serum β2-microglobulin and low-density lipoprotein increased in LD-injected rats, and the levels of total protein and albumin decreased in these groups. The metabolic profiles of the samples were analyzed by multivariate statistics analysis, including principal component analysis, partial least squares discriminant analysis and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA). The metabolic characters in rats injected with LD were perturbed in a dose-dependent manner. By OPLS-DA, 18 metabolites were served as the potential toxicity biomarkers. Moreover, LD treatment resulted in an increase in the p-cresol, p-cresol sulfate, lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) (18:0), LPE (16:0), lysophosphatidylcholine (16:0) and 12-HETE concentrations, and a decrease in hippuric acid, cholic acid and N-acetyl-l-phenylalanine. These results suggested that chronic exposure to LD could cause a disturbance in lipids metabolism and amino acids metabolism, etc. Therefore, an analysis of the metabolic profiles can contribute to a better understanding of the adverse effects of LD. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Kolaviron and vitamin E ameliorate hematotoxicity and oxidative stress in brains of prepubertal rats treated with an anticonvulsant phenytoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoeye, Olatunde; Adedara, Isaac A; Bakare, Oluwafemi S; Adeyemo, Oluwatobi A; Egun, Christa; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2014-06-01

    Phenytoin (PHT), an anticonvulsant agent, widely used for the treatment of epilepsy has been reported to exhibit toxic side effects. The present study investigated the protective effects of kolaviron and vitamin E on hematotoxicity and neurotoxicity induced by phenytoin, in prepubertal male rats. The animals were treated with PHT (75 mg/kg) separately or in combination with either kolaviron (200 mg/kg) or vitamin E (500 mg/kg) for 14 days. Phenytoin treatment significantly decreased the hemoglobin, white blood cells, lymphocytes and mean corpuscular volume levels without affecting red blood cell, packed cell volume, neutrophils, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration when compared with the control rats. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide levels with marked depletion in antioxidant status in brains of PHT-treated rats when compared with the control. Although PHT treatment had no effect on the granular layer, widest diameter of Purkinje cells and Purkinje layer of the cerebellum, it significantly reduced its molecular layer and the density of Purkinje cell. Administration of PHT significantly reduced the densities of the granule cells of the dentate gyrus and the pyramidal neurons of the cornu ammonis of hippocampus proper. Co-treatment with kolaviron and vitamin E effectively reversed the PHT-mediated alterations in the hematology, brain antioxidant status and histomorphometry when compared to PHT only. Taken together, the present data indicate the abilities of kolaviron and vitamin E to ameliorate phenytoin-induced hematotoxicity and oxidative stress in brains of rats.

  3. Histophatologic changes of lung in asthmatic male rats treated with hydro-alcoholic extract of plantago major and theophylline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Farokhi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Plantago major (P. major is one of the medicinal crops in the world which has therapeutic properties for treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Theophylline is commonly used for the treatment of respiratory diseases. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of P. majoron lung in asthmatic male rats. Materials and Methods: 32 male adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: The control group (C received normal saline; Asthma (A group received a normal diet; Asthma group treated with Theophylline (200 mg/kg b.w. (T; Asthma group which received p.major (100 mg/kg b.w. (P. Asthma was induced by citric acid, 0.1 mg in form of spraying. The injection of P.major extract and theophylline was administered intraperitoneally for four weeks. At the end of the treatment, all of the rats were sacrificed and lungs were taken out, fixed, and stained with H&E, toluidine blue, and PAS, then histological studies were followed with light microscope. Results: Results showed that, in asthmatic group, the mean number of mast cells was significantly increased (p

  4. Effects of vitamin E on the NF-κB pathway in rats treated with the peroxisome proliferator, ciprofibrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calfee-Mason, Karen G.; Spear, Brett T.; Glauert, Howard P.

    2004-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferators (PPs) are a diverse group of nongenotoxic compounds, which induce hepatic tumors in rodents. The mechanisms leading to hepatic tumors have not been elucidated, but oxidative stress may play a role in the process. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that peroxisome proliferators activate the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and that this activation is mediated at least in part by oxidative stress. We therefore hypothesized that increased dietary vitamin E would decrease NF-κB DNA binding in rodents treated with ciprofibrate (CIP). In this study, 36 male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a purified diet containing varying levels of vitamin E (10, 50, 250 ppm α-tocopherol acetate). After 28 days on the purified diet, seven animals per vitamin E group received 0.01% CIP in the diet for 10 days. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) showed that CIP treatment increased DNA binding of NF-κB. Increased dietary α-tocopherol acetate inhibited CIP-induced NF-κB DNA binding. Because NF-κB translocates to the nucleus upon the phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor of IκB, we also used Western blots to measure cytosolic protein levels of IκBα and IκBβ, and the IκB kinases, IKKα and IKKβ. IκBα protein levels were decreased in all three CIP-treated groups, with the 10 ppm vitamin E diet also decreasing IκBα levels in control rats. No difference in IκBβ protein levels was observed among any of the groups. The CIP-treated rats generally had lower protein levels of IKKα and IKKβ. This study supports our working hypothesis that an increased antioxidant environment can inhibit CIP-mediated NF-κB induction

  5. Expression of Dlx-5 and Msx-1 in Craniofacial Skeletons and Ilia of Rats Treated With Zoledronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Bin; Yang, Pan; Wu, Shichao; Li, Lin; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Wenyi

    2017-05-01

    Because of the different embryologic origins of the craniofacial skeleton and ilium, differences in gene expression patterns have been observed between the jaw bones and ilium. Distal-less homeobox (Dlx) genes and Msh homeobox genes, particularly Dlx-5 and Msx-1, play major roles in cell differentiation and osteogenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of zoledronate (ZOL) on the craniofacial skeleton and ilium by detecting changes in Dlx-5 and Msx-1 expression at both the protein and messenger RNA levels. A total of 24 female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: ZOL group (n = 12), in which the rats were injected intraperitoneally with zoledronic acid for 12 weeks, and control group (n = 12), in which the rats were injected with saline solution for 12 weeks. By use of immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, the expression levels of Dlx-5 and Msx-1 in the craniofacial skeleton (including the maxilla, mandible, and parietal bone) and ilium were examined. Dlx-5 expression in the maxilla and mandible was increased at the protein and messenger RNA levels in the ZOL group compared with the control group (P Msx-1 expression in the maxilla and mandible was decreased in the ZOL group (P Msx-1 expression in the ilium was decreased in the ZOL group (P Msx-1 expression in the parietal bone was observed between the 2 groups (P > .05). Site-specific differences in the effects of ZOL on the craniofacial skeleton and ilium could be explained by differently altered tendencies in Dlx-5 and Msx-1 expression. The jaw bones were more susceptible to the effects of ZOL than the parietal bone and ilium. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Apis mellifera bee venom and gamma radiation on bone marrow cells of wistar rats treated in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varanda, E.A.; Takahashi, C.S.; Soares, A.E.E.; Barreto, S.A.J.

    1992-01-01

    To determine whether the venom of Apis mellifera can exert a radioprotective effect, by reducing the frequency of chromosomal aberrations induced by radiation, five different experiments were performed on bone marrow cells of Wistar rats. Animals weighing about 100 g were injected intraperitoneally with different venom concentrations (1.0 or 0.5 μ1) 1 or 24 h before, or 30 min after being submitted to three or four Gy of gamma radiation, and sacrificed 24 h after the last treatment. (author)

  7. Apoptosis Induced in The Brain and Liver of Fetuses And Placenta of Irradiated Pregnant Rats Treated With Antacid Containing Aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, F.L.; Madkour, N.K.

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is widely used in antacid medicine which frequently used by pregnant women. It is of great importance to increase the knowledge about its harmful effects on the fetuses. The present study clarified that administration of antacid containing Al and/or exposure to gamma radiation induced maternal and fetal detrimental impact. Pregnant albino rats were administered antacid containing Al on the gestational days 5th, 7th, 9th, 11th, 13th, 15th and 17th at a dose of 4.5 mg/g and exposed to whole body fractionated gamma radiation (2 Gy) at a dose of 0.5 Gy for 4 times on gestational days 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th of pregnancy. Morphological, biochemical and molecular changes were studied. The investigation was carried out one day prior to parturition (the 20th day of gestation). Antacid containing Al and/or radiation induced growth retardation, intrauterine death, malformations and embryonic resorption. The extent of lipid peroxidase formation as well as glutathione content in the brain and liver tissues of rat fetuses and placenta of pregnant rats were used as sensitive parameters to evaluate tissues damage. Antacid containing Al and/or radiation treatment resulted in decreased total protein content in the maternal placenta tissue. Moreover, the elevation in the lipid peroxidase (malondialdehyde; MDA) was accompanied with decline in the glutathione content (GSH) in the brain and liver tissues of rat fetuses. The activity of a key enzyme of apoptosis namely the caspase-3 was analyzed, which its activation represent a point of no return in apoptosis induction. Apoptosis was confirmed by another important hallmark of programmed cell death such as the DNA fragmentation. Treatment with antacid containing Al and/or gamma irradiation significantly increased caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation in maternal placental tissue and fetal brain and liver tissues as compared to control animals. In conclusion, the present investigation showed that the deleterious

  8. Liver gene expression profiles of rats treated with clofibric acid: comparison of whole liver and laser capture microdissected liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Cécile; Desdouets, Chantal; Sacre-Salem, Béatrice; Gautier, Jean-Charles; Roberts, Ruth; Boitier, Eric

    2003-12-01

    Clofibric acid (CLO) is a peroxisome proliferator (PP) that acts through the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha, leading to hepatocarcinogenesis in rodents. CLO-induced hepatocarcinogenesis is a multi-step process, first transforming normal liver cells into foci. The combination of laser capture microdissection (LCM) and genomics has the potential to provide expression profiles from such small cell clusters, giving an opportunity to understand the process of cancer development in response to PPs. To our knowledge, this is the first evaluation of the impact of the successive steps of LCM procedure on gene expression profiling by comparing profiles from LCM samples to those obtained with non-microdissected liver samples collected after a 1 month CLO treatment in the rat. We showed that hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and laser microdissection itself do not impact on RNA quality. However, the overall process of the LCM procedure affects the RNA quality, resulting in a bias in the gene profiles. Nonetheless, this bias did not prevent accurate determination of a CLO-specific molecular signature. Thus, gene-profiling analysis of microdissected foci, identified by H&E staining may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogenesis in the rat by allowing identification of specific genes that are regulated by CLO in early pre-neoplastic foci.

  9. Assessment of estrous cycle, ovarian and uterine tissue and fetal parameters of Wistar rats treated with Topiramate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Cherici Camargo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Topiramate (TPM is included in the newer generation of antiepileptic drugs and is known to have multiple mechanisms of action. The drug has also been used for reducing body weight. Its effect on reproductive tissues and estrous cycle deserve greater attention. Then, this study aimed to investigate possible effects of the drug on ovarian and uterine tissues, estrous cycle and some fetal parameters of non-epileptic Wistar rats. In Experiment I, females received tap water (C - Control group; n=8 or Topiramate (TPM group; 100 mg/kg; n=8, orally for 6 weeks. The estrous cycle and food consumption were monitored. Ovarian and uterine sections were examined under light microscopy. In Experiment II, pregnant rats of C and TPM groups received treatments during the pre-implantation, implantation or organogenesis period. In females of Experiment I, TPM had no effect on the food consumption, final body weight, weekly body weight and estrous cycle. Ovarian and uterine weight was similar in both groups. The kinetics of folliculogenesis was unaffected by treatment with the drug. There was a significant (p<0.05 decrease in endometrial thickness of TPM-group. In Experiment II, fetal weight was decreased (p<0.05 in all periods of TPM exposure. There was no effect of treatment on fetal external morphology. In conclusion, the findings indicate that TPM promotes discrete alterations in the uterine tissue, and causes decrease on the fetus weight after exposure in different gestational periods.

  10. Effect of cerium 144 on the activity of liver monooxigenase system in rats treated in chronic experiment with phosphororganic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nechev, Kh.; Nankova, D.; Miteva, S.; Tsvetkov, Ts.; Shopova, V.

    1982-01-01

    Male rats Wistar breed were treated with insecticide Agria-1050 which contains methylnitrophos or thionphosphate (TP). The animals received treatment 5 days weekly during 4 months per os in a dose of 1/40 LD 50 (15 mg/kg b.w.). On the 20th day Ce 144 was introduced as CeCl 2 . The control group was composed of rats untreated with insecticide. On the 1st, 3rd, 8th and 15th day after application of Ce 144 the activities or cytochrom P-450 (P-450), amino-pyrine-N-demethylase (APD) and aniline liver microsome fraction. As a result of the chronic treatment with Agria 1050 a decrease chronic treatment with Agria 1050 a decrease is found in the content of P-450, ADP and AH. The study of the restoration of the liver monooxigenase system after a low activity of compensatory mechanisms. Ce 144 applied intratracheally caused changes, corresponding to a post-stress situation with their biphasic character, as well as with their amplitude: increased activity of P-450 and ADP on the first day, followed by a prolonged 144 and TP the radionuclide caused the character of the changes, whereas the insecticide only increased 4-5 times the amplitudes of these changes. The most pronounced was the increase of AH after the combined action of Ce 144 and TP. (authors)

  11. NMR-based plasma metabolomic discrimination for male fertility assessment of rats treated with Eurycoma longifolia extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Forough; Ibrahim, Baharudin; Teh, Chin-Hoe; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Chan, Kit-Lam

    2017-06-01

    Male infertility is one of the leading causes of infertility which affects many couples worldwide. Semen analysis is a routine examination of male fertility status which is usually performed on semen samples obtained through masturbation that may be inconvenient to patients. Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali, TA), native to Malaysia, has been traditionally used as a remedy to boost male fertility. In our recent studies in rats, upon the administration of high-quassinoid content extracts of TA including TA water (TAW), quassinoid-rich TA (TAQR) extracts, and a low-quassinoid content extract including quassinoid-poor TA (TAQP) extract, sperm count (SC) increased in TAW- and TAQR-treated rats when compared to the TAQP-treated and control groups. Consequently, the rats were divided into normal- (control and TAQP-treated) and high- (TAW- and TAQR-treated) SC groups [Ebrahimi et al. 2016]. Post-treatment rat plasma was collected. An optimized plasma sample preparation method was developed with respect to the internal standards sodium 3- (trimethylsilyl) propionate- 2,2,3,3- d4 (TSP) and deuterated 4-dimethyl-4-silapentane-1-ammonium trifluoroacetate (DSA). Carr-Purcell-Meibum-Gill (CPMG) experiments combined with orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was employed to evaluate plasma metabolomic changes in normal- and high-SC rats. The potential biomarkers associated with SC increase were investigated to assess fertility by capturing the metabolomic profile of plasma. DSA was selected as the optimized internal standard for plasma analysis due to its significantly smaller half-height line width (W h/2 ) compared to that of TSP. The validated OPLS-DA model clearly discriminated the CPMG profiles in regard to the SC level. Plasma profiles of the high-SC group contained higher levels of alanine, lactate, and histidine, while ethanol concentration was significantly higher in the normal-SC group. This approach might be a new alternative applicable to

  12. Transplacental and mammary passage of radioactivity in rats treated vaginally and orally with [14C]propranolol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttar, H.S.; Moffatt, J.H.; Bura, C.

    1988-01-01

    Single doses (10 mg/kg) of an aqueous solution of [14C]propranolol were administered either orally (po) or intravaginally (ivg) on gestational d 15, or on postpartum d 7-10. Upon ivg administration, [14C]propranolol was quickly transferred to systemic circulation and the mean blood [14C] concentrations were significantly greater during the first 0.25-2 h than in po dosed counterparts. About 98% of the ivg applied dose was absorbed after 6 h in gravid rats, and the combined 6-h excretions of radioactivity in the urine (ivg = 24.6%; po = 22.9%) and feces (ivg = 16.8%; po = 14.6%) were equivalent in both groups. At the end of 6 h, the levels of [14C] in the urinary bladder, adrenal, uterus, ovary, spleen, skeletal muscle, brain, heart, lung and fat were significantly higher in ivg treated rats than po dosed animals. Compared with the maternal plasma (ivg = 0.76; po = 0.88 microgram/ml), the mean concentrations of [14C] in the placentas were similar in both groups, while the amounts of [14C] were three to five times lower in the amniotic fluids and the fetuses of both po and ivg treated dams. In lactating rats, over 99% of the administered radioactivity was absorbed from the vagina within 6 h. The blood concentrations of [14C] were significantly elevated at 0.5 and 1 h in the per vaginam treated animals, and afterward the disappearance rate of [14C] followed a similar course in both groups. Following ivg application, the milk radioactivity peaked at 0.5 h and declined rapidly. However, the appearance of [14C] in milk was rather slow after oral dosing: the milk [14C] peaked between 2 and 3 h posttreatment and remained steady thereafter. The milk to blood (M/B) [14C] concentration ratios were markedly greater during 0.5 to 1 h in the ivg group than in their po dosed counterparts

  13. Serotonergic modulation of receptor occupancy in rats treated with L-DOPA after unilateral 6-OHDA lesioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nahimi, Adjmal; Høltzermann, Mette; Landau, Anne M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that l-3,4 dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesia (LID), a severe complication of conventional L-DOPA therapy of Parkinson's disease, may be caused by dopamine (DA) release originating in serotonergic neurons. To evaluate the in vivo effect of a 5-HT(1A) agonist...... [(±)-8-hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino) tetralin hydrobromide, 8-OHDPAT] on the L-DOPA-induced increase in extracellular DA and decrease in [(11) C]raclopride binding in an animal model of advanced Parkinson's disease and LID, we measured extracellular DA in response to L-DOPA or a combination of L......-DOPA and the 5-HT(1A) agonist, 8-OHDPAT, with microdialysis, and determined [(11) C]raclopride binding to DA receptors, with micro-positron emission tomography, as the surrogate marker of DA release. Rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions had micro-positron emission tomography scans with [(11) C...

  14. Evaluation of Sphingolipids in Wistar Rats Treated to Prolonged and Single Oral Doses of Fumonisin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Glória M.; Almeida, Adriana P.; Aquino, Simone; dos Reis, Tatiana Alves; Pozzi, Claudia Rodrigues; Corrêa, Benedito

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate sphingolipid levels (sphingosine-So and sphinganine-Sa) and to compare the Sa/So ratio in liver, serum and urine of Wistar rats after prolonged administration (21 days) of fumonisin B1 (FB1). In parallel, the kinetics of sphingolipid elimination in urine was studied in animals receiving a single dose of FB1. Prolonged exposure to FB1 caused an increase in Sa levels in urine, serum and liver. The most marked effect on sphingolipid biosynthesis was observed in animals treated with the highest dose of FB1. Animals receiving a single dose of FB1 presented variations in Sa and So levels and in the Sa/So ratio. PMID:19333435

  15. FT-Raman spectroscopic study of skin wound healing in diabetic rats treated with Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Nayana Pinheiro Machado de Freitas; Martins, Marcelino, E-mail: nayanamachado@oi.com.br [Faculdade Diferencial Integral (FACID), Teresina, PI (Brazil); Costa, Charlytton Luis Sena da; Maia Filho, Antonio Luis [Universidade Estadual do Piaui (UESPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil); Raniero, Leandro; Martin, Airton Abrahao; Arisawa, Emilia Angela Loschiavo [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: patients with diabetes mellitus exhibit a delay in the lesion repair process. The active components of Cenostigma macrophyllum may represent a viable alternative to facilitate the recovery of these lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of emulsion oil-water Cenostigma macrophyllum in the repair process of lesions in rats with induced diabetes. Methods: 63 male rats (Wistar, 200-250 g body weight, 30-40 days old) were distributed into the following groups: control (C), diabetic (D) and diabetic treated with Cenostigma macrophyllum (P), subdivided based on the experimental times, days 7, 14 and 28, with 21 animals per main group. Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by administration of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg via penile vein and 12-h fasting) and confirmed at day 21 (glycemic index > 240 mg/dL). In the animals of group P, 0.5 ml of the oil-water emulsion obtained from the plant seed was used. The samples were removed and hemisectioned, and one portion was used for the quantitative histological analysis of collagen using Masson's trichrome staining, while another portion was analyzed by FT-Raman spectroscopy. Results: A higher percentage area of the volume of collagen fibers was observed for the experimental time Day 14 in group P compared with group D (p < 0.001). Regarding the ratio of areas of the amides I (1700-1600 cm{sup -1}) and III (1245-1345 cm{sup -1}), the groups D and P show the opposite behavior. Conclusion: Cenostigma macrophyllum accelerated the repair process in skin of diabetic ratsfor14 days. (author)

  16. Protective Effects of Long Term Administration of Zinc on Bone Metabolism Parameters in Male Wistar Rats Treated with Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Najafi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Violent poisoning by cadmium in human is created through drinks or meals which have packed in the metallic tins with cadmium plating. The symptoms of variation in the mineral metabolism of bones are observed and different conditions maybe appeared. The toxic (poisonous effect due to cadmium can be neutralized by intervening zinc. This study has been designed to investigate the protective effects of zinc for reducing the poisonous effects due to cadmium on the metabolism in the parameters related to the bone in rat. Methods In this experimental study, 48 male rats of wistar species were distributed in eight experimental groups and tested in the investigative lab of Falavarjan university. These groups were received 0.5 cc physiological serum, 0.5 mg/kg Zinc, 0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg Cadmium respectively and some groups were included in those were taken all there cadmium and zinc concentrations synchronously. Blood samples were taken in a 60 days period and those factors related to the bone metabolism were measured. The data were analyzed by 2-ANOVA Ways, complementary tests through software SPSS 16. Results The results showed that 0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg doses cadmium chloride caused to increase alkaline Phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and decrease albumin as compared with control group. Also, synchronous usage of all three cadmium chloride concentrations with zinc cause to decrease alkaline phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and increase albumin concentration. In a word, the other bone parameters have been significant in different cadmium and zinc doses (P < 0.05. Conclusions Findings showed that zinc can play a protective role on the metabolism parameters related to bone against to poisoning caused by cadmium.

  17. Perioperative antibiotic regimen in rats treated with pamidronate plus dexamethasone and subjected to dental extraction: a study of the changes in the jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jornet, Pía; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Martínez-Canovas, Ascensión; Molina-Miñano, Francisco; Gómez-García, Francisco; Vicente-Ortega, Vicente

    2011-10-01

    Osteonecrosis of the jaws is a well-known condition associated with long-term bisphosphonate use. This study analyzed the prophylactic effect of antibiotic treatment in Sprague-Dawley rats treated with pamidronate plus dexamethasone and subjected to oral surgery in the form of dental extraction. One hundred twenty animals were included in a randomized prospective study. Animals in group I (n = 60) were treated with dexamethasone 1 mg/kg and pamidronate 3 mg/kg 3 times per week for 7, 14, and 21 days. All were subjected to right mandibular or maxillary molar extraction 8, 15, and 22 days after the start of dosing. Animals in group II (n = 60) received the same treatment except for the addition of penicillin 0.1 mL/kg per day for 3 days before and 4 days after extraction. Rats in the 2 groups were sacrificed 14 and 28 days after extraction. A clinical and histologic evaluation was performed. In group I, osteonecrosis was documented in 18 cases (34.6%; affecting the upper and lower jaws in 10 and 8 cases, respectively). In group II, osteonecrosis was documented in 5 cases (9.61%; affecting the upper and lower jaws in 3 and 2 cases, respectively). The difference between the 2 groups was statistically significant (P = .002). The adoption of preventive measures (antibiotic prophylaxis) in invasive dental procedures results in a significant decrease in osteonecrosis of the jaws associated with bisphosphonate use. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Attenuation of phosphamidon-induced oxidative stress and immune dysfunction in rats treated with N-acetylcysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Suke

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of N-acetylcysteine, a thiolic antioxidant, on attenuation of phosphamidon-induced oxidative stress and immune dysfunction was evaluated in adult male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g. Rats were divided into four groups, 8 animals/group, and treated with phosphamidon, N-acetylcysteine or the combination of both for 28 days. Oral administration of phosphamidon (1.74 mg/kg, an organophosphate insecticide, increased serum malondialdehyde (3.83 ± 0.18 vs 2.91 ± 0.24 nmol/mL; P < 0.05 and decreased erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (567.8 ± 24.36 vs 749.16 ± 102.61 U/gHb; P < 0.05, catalase activity (1.86 ± 0.18 vs 2.43 ± 0.08 U/gHb; P < 0.05 and whole blood glutathione levels (1.25 ± 0.21 vs 2.28 ± 0.08 mg/gHb; P < 0.05 showing phosphamidon-induced oxidative stress. Phosphamidon exposure markedly suppressed humoral immune response as assessed by antibody titer to ovalbumin (4.71 ± 0.51 vs 8.00 ± 0.12 -log2; P < 0.05, and cell-mediated immune response as assessed by leukocyte migration inhibition (25.24 ± 1.04 vs 70.8 ± 1.09%; P < 0.05 and macrophage migration inhibition (20.38 ± 0.99 vs 67.16 ± 5.30%; P < 0.05 response. Phosphamidon exposure decreased IFN-у levels (40.7 ± 3.21 vs 55.84 ± 3.02 pg/mL; P < 0.05 suggesting a profound effect of phosphamidon on cell-mediated immune response. A phosphamidon-induced increase in TNF-α level (64.19 ± 6.0 vs 23.16 ± 4.0 pg/mL; P < 0.05 suggests a contributory role of immunocytes in oxidative stress. Co-administration of N-acetylcysteine (3.5 mmol/kg, orally with phosphamidon attenuated the adverse effects of phosphamidon. These findings suggest that oral N-acetylcysteine treatment exerts protective effect and attenuates free radical injury and immune dysfunction caused by subchronic phosphamidon exposure.

  19. Evaluation of Glycemic and Lipid Profile of Offspring of Diabetic Wistar Rats Treated with Malpighia emarginata Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M. Barbalho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowing that maternal diabetes is related to hyperglycemia and fetal hyperinsulinemia, which affect the lipid metabolism, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Malpighia emarginata (acerola juice on the glycemic and lipid profile of offspring of diabetic and nondiabetic Wistar rats. The adult offspring of non-diabetic dams and of dams with severe streptozotocin-induced diabetes were divided into groups: G1, offspring (of control dams treated with water, G2, offspring (of diabetic dams treated with water, G3, male offspring (of control dams treated with acerola juice, and G4, male offspring (of diabetic dams treated with acerola juice. The offspring of diabetic dams treated with acerola juice showed significantly decreased levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and increased HDL-c. The use of acerola juice is a potential strategy to aid in the prevention of DM and dyslipidemia and its complications or to act as an auxiliary in the treatment of these diseases.

  20. Prevention of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced toxicity in testes of rats treated with Physalis peruviana L. fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2016-06-01

    Treatment of rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4; 2 ml/kg body weight) once a week for 12 weeks caused a significant decrease in serum levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone. These decreases in sex hormones were reduced with Physalis peruviana L. (Cape gooseberry) juice supplementation. In addition, testicular activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione-S-transferase suppressed with CCl4 were elevated after P. peruviana juice supplements. P. peruviana juice supplementation significantly increased the testicular glutathione and significantly decreased the level of lipid peroxidation and the nitric oxide production compared with the CCl4 group. In addition, the decline in the activity of antioxidant enzymes after CCl4 was ameliorated by P. peruviana Moreover, degeneration of germ and Leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis induced after CCl4 injections were prevented with the supplementation of P. peruviana juice. Furthermore, P. peruviana juice attenuated CCl4-induced apoptosis in testes tissue by inhibition of caspase-3 activity. The results clearly demonstrate that P. peruviana juice augments the antioxidants defense mechanism against CCl4-induced reproductive toxicity and provides evidence that the juice may have a therapeutic role in free radical-mediated diseases and infertility. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. A perspective of mitochondrial dysfunction in rats treated with silver and titanium nanoparticles (AgNPs and TiNPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Lilian Cristina; Pazin, Murilo; Franco-Bernardes, Mariana Furio; Martins, Airton da Cunha; Barcelos, Gustavo Rafael Mazzaron; Pereira, Márcio Cesar; Mesquita, João Paulo; Rodrigues, Jairo Lisboa; Barbosa, Fernando; Dorta, Daniel Junqueira

    2018-05-01

    Nanotechnology is a growing branch of science that deals with the development of structural features bearing at least one dimension in the nano range. More specifically, nanomaterials are defined as objects with dimensions that range from 1 to 100 nm, which give rise to interesting properties. In particular, silver and titanium nanoparticles (AgNPs and TiNPs, respectively) are known for their biological and biomedical properties and are often used in consumer products such as cosmetics, food additives, kitchen utensils, and toys. This situation has increased environmental and occupational exposure to AgNPs and TiNPs, which has placed demand for the risk assessment of NPs. Indeed, the same properties that make nanomaterials so attractive could also prove deleterious to biological systems. Of particular concern is the effect of NPs on mitochondria because these organelles play an essential role in cellular homeostasis. In this scenario, this work aimed to study how AgNPs and TiNPs interact with the mitochondrial respiration chain and to analyze how this interaction interferes in the bioenergetics and oxidative state of the organelles after sub-chronic exposure. Mitochondria were exposed to the NPs by gavage treatment for 21 days to check whether co-exposure of the organelles to the two types of NPs elicited any mitochondrion-NP interaction. More specifically, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups. Groups I, II, III, and IV received mineral oil, TiNPs (100 μg/kg/day), AgNPs (100 μg/kg/day), and TiNPs + AgNPs (100 μg/kg/day), respectively, by gavage. The liver was immediately removed, and the mitochondria were isolated and used within 3 h. Exposure of mitochondria to TiNPs + AgNPs lowered the respiratory control ratio, causing an uncoupling effect in the oxidative phosphorylation system. Moreover, both types of NPs induced mitochondrial swelling. Extended exposure of mitochondria to the NPs maintained increased ROS levels and

  2. Histomorfometria da mama de ratas tratadas com estrogênio e/ou progestagênio Breast histomorphometry of rats treated with estrogen and/or progestogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Maria Preda dos Santos Torres

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações histomorfométricas nas mamas de ratas tratadas com estrogênio e/ou progestagênio por curto período de tempo. MÉTODOS: Foram divididas em quatro grupos 40 ratas ooforectomizadas: GC-recebeu veículo; GE-recebeu benzoato de estradiol (37,6 µg/animal; GP-recebeu acetato de medroxiprogesterona (11,28 mg/animal e, GEP-recebeu benzoato de estradiol (37,6 µg/animal e acetato de medroxiprogesterona (11,28 mg/animal. No grupo GE, o estradiol foi administrado durante sete dias, por via subcutânea. Já no grupo EP o estradiol foi administrado nos primeiros sete dias e o progestagênio por mais 23 dias, por via subcutânea. Vinte e quatro horas após a última administração dos hormônios, os animais foram anestesiados e o primeiro par de mamas inguinais removido, imerso em formaldeído a 10% e processado para inclusão em parafina, sendo os cortes corados pela Hematoxilina-Eosina. Foram avaliadas a morfologia e a área ocupada pelo parênquima mamário, sendo os dados submetidos à análise de variância complementado pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis (p GEP > GC; p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the breast histomorphometric changes in rats treated with estrogen and/or progestogen for a short period of time. METHODS: Forty oophorectomized rats were divided into four groups: GC, vehicle; GE, treated with estradiol benzoate (37.6 mg/animal; GP, treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (11.2 mg/animal and GEP, treated with estradiol benzoate (37.6 mg/animal plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (11.28 mg/animal. In GE group, estradiol was administered subcutaneously for seven days; in GEP group, estradiol was administered once in a day for the first seven days and the progestogen over the next 23 days both subcutaneously. Twenty-four hours after the last hormone administration, the animals were killed upon deep anesthesia and the first inguinal breasts were removed, fixed in 10% formaldehyde and processed to be included in paraffin

  3. Histomorphometric analysis and immunolocalization of RANKL and OPG during the alveolar healing process in female ovariectomized rats treated with oestrogen or raloxifene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvizuto, Eloá Rodrigues; Queiroz, Thallita Pereira; Dias, Sheila Mônica Damásio; Okamoto, Tetuo; Dornelles, Rita Cássia Menegati; Garcia, Idelmo Rangel; Okamoto, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effects of bone-resorption inhibitors (oestrogen and raloxifene) on the RANKL/OPG balance during the chronology of the alveolar healing process in ovariectomized (OVX) rats by means of immunocolocalization and histomorphometric analysis. One hundred sixty female Wistar rats at 70 days of age were either OVX or sham-operated and divided into four groups: sham, OVX/Oil, OVX with E(2) replacement (17beta-estradiol, 400 microg/month), OVX with RLX treatment (1mg/kg bw/day). The 60-day treatment started 8 days after ovariectomy. The incisors were extracted to allow analysis of 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days of wound healing. After obtaining the histological samples, slides were stained with hematoxylin and eosin or subjected to immunocolocalization reaction for RANKL and OPG. Results were quantitatively evaluated. Histomorphometric analysis showed that the sham group presented the highest and OVX/Oil group the lowest mean bone formation value in the post-extraction period. The immunocolocalization analysis showed a larger increase in bone turnover at 7 postoperative days in OVX/Oil and sham groups and decreasing bone turnover in the other periods. The OVX/Oil group showed a large decrease in bone turnover at 14 postoperative days, a period demonstrated by mild cellular activity. OVX/E(2) and sham groups showed a decreased bone turnover at 28 postoperative days while OVX/RLX group showed a decreased bone turnover at 21 postoperative days. On the 42nd postoperative day, sham and OVX/RLX groups showed an established alveolar bone healing process. Ovariectomy delays the alveolar healing process and interferes with bone turnover through the balance between RANKL and OPG. Oestrogen replacement or raloxifene treatment did not totally recover the oestrogen-deficient state. However raloxifene treatment showed more satisfactory results than oestrogen replacement. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibition of follicle-stimulating hormone-induced preovulatory follicles in rats treated with a nonsteroidal negative allosteric modulator of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, James A; Campo, Brice; Weaver, Barbara A; Watts, Julie; Kluetzman, Kerri; Thomas, Richard M; Bonnet, Béatrice; Mutel, Vincent; Poli, Sonia M

    2014-01-01

    We previously described a negative allosteric modulator (NAM) of FSHR (ADX61623) that blocked FSH-induced cAMP and progesterone production but did not block estradiol production. That FSHR NAM did not affect FSH-induced preovulatory follicle development as evidenced by the lack of an effect on the number of FSH-dependent oocytes found in the ampullae following ovulation with hCG. A goal is the development of a nonsteroidal contraceptive. Toward this end, a high-throughput screen using human FSHR identified an additional nonsteroidal small molecule (ADX68692). Although ADX68692 behaved like ADX61623 in inhibiting production of cAMP and progesterone, it also inhibited FSH-induced estradiol in an in vitro rat granulosa primary cell culture bioassay. When immature, noncycling female rats were injected subcutaneously or by oral dosing prior to exogenous FSH administration, it was found that ADX68692 decreased the number of oocytes recovered from the ampullae. The estrous cycles of mature female rats were disrupted by administration by oral gavage of 25 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg ADX68692. In the highest dose tested (25 mg/kg), 55% of animals cohabited with mature males had implantation sites compared to 33% in the 10 mg/kg group and 77% in the control group. A surprising finding was that a structural analog ADX68693, while effectively blocking progesterone production with similar efficacy as ADX68692, did not block estrogen production and despite better oral availability did not decrease the number of oocytes found in the ampullae even when used at 100 mg/kg. These data demonstrate that because of biased antagonism of the FSHR, nonsteroidal contraception requires that both arms of the FSHR steroidogenic pathway must be effectively blocked, particularly estrogen biosynthesis. Thus, a corollary to these findings is that it seems reasonable to propose that the estrogen-dependent diseases such as endometriosis may benefit from inhibition of FSH action at the ovary using the FSHR

  5. Role of ceftazidime dose regimen on the selection of resistant Enterobacter cloacae in the intestinal flora of rats treated for an experimental pulmonary infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); J.W. Mouton (Johan); M.T. ten Kate (Marian); A.J. Bijl; A. Ott (Alewijn); I.A.J.M. Bakker-Woudenberg (Irma)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: The effect of ceftazidime dosing increments and frequency of dosing on the selection of ceftazidime-resistant Enterobacter cloacae in the intestine was studied in rats, during treatment of a pulmonary infection caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods: Rats with pulmonary

  6. Histomorphological and morphometric studies of the pancreatic islet cells of diabetic rats treated with aqueous extracts of Momordica charantia (karela fruits

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    Mohammad Aftab Hossain

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Momordica charantia (karela (M. charantia fruits on blood glucose level, pancreatic weight changes and histopathology of pancreatic changes in the streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods: Thirty-six albino rats were used in the experiment; diabetes mellitus was induced in 30 adult albino rats, using intraperitoneal injection of 55 mg/kg STZ. Six non diabetic rats remained as control (T1 . The diabetic rats were randomly assigned into five equal groups: diabetic control (T2 without any treatment, groups T3, T4, T5 and T6 were treated with aqueous extract of karela fruits daily at a doses of 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg and glibenclamide (5 mg/kg up to 90 d, respectively. At Day 90, all rats were sacrificed, the pancreases of the rats were excised and processed. Results: The results of this study indicate that aqueous extract of M. charantia fruits was able to reduce blood glucose level significantly compared with the diabetic control group (P<0.01. Histopathologically, STZ resulted severe necrotic changes in pancreatic islets. Tissues sections of pancreas in the treated groups showed regeneration of β cells and increased size of pancreatic islets. Conclusions: The present study suggests that oral feeding of M. charantia fruit juice has a significant anti-hyperglycemic effect and may have a role in the regeneration of the β cells in STZ diabetic rats.

  7. Effects of methylphenidate on attention in Wistar rats treated with the neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Joachim; Reissmann, Andreas; Sontag, Thomas-A; Tucha, Oliver; Lange, Klaus W

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4) on attention in rats as measured using the 5-choice-serial-reaction-time task (5CSRTT) and to investigate whether methylphenidate has effects on DSP4-treated rats. Methylphenidate is a noradrenaline and dopamine reuptake inhibitor and commonly used in the pharmacological treatment of individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Wistar rats were trained in the 5CSRTT and treated with one of three doses of DSP4 or saline. Following the DSP4 treatment rats were injected with three doses of methylphenidate or saline and again tested in the 5CSRTT. The treatment with DSP4 caused a significant decline of performance in the number of correct responses and a decrease in response accuracy. A reduction in activity could also be observed. Whether or not the cognitive impairments are due to attention deficits or changes in explorative behaviour or activity remains to be investigated. The treatment with methylphenidate had no beneficial effect on the rats' performance regardless of the DSP4 treatment. In the group without DSP4 treatment, methylphenidate led to a reduction in response accuracy and bidirectional effects in regard to parameters related to attention. These findings support the role of noradrenaline in modulating attention and call for further investigations concerning the effects of methylphenidate on attentional processes in rats.

  8. Protective effect of pumpkin seed extract on sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and epididymal histology in adult male rats treated with cyclophosphamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei, S; Nikzad, H; Taghizadeh, M; Tameh, A A; Taherian, A; Moravveji, A

    2014-10-01

    Cancer treatment with cyclophosphamide (CP) may result in reproductive toxicity as one of its side effects. The pumpkin seed is a rich natural source of antioxidant. We have assessed the possible protective efficacy of pumpkin seed extract on sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and epididymal histology of CP-treated rats. Male adult Wistar rats were categorised into four groups. Group 1 served as control and received intraperitoneal (IP) injection of isotonic saline solution. Group 2 rats were treated with CP by IP injection in a single dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, only once. Group 3 and 4 received CP plus 300 and 600 mg/kg pumpkin seed extract respectively. Six weeks after treatment, sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and histopathological changes were examined. Results showed that, sperm characteristics in CP-treated rats were significantly decreased. Biochemical analysis results showed that the co-administration of 300 mg pumpkin seed extract could increase the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level significantly. In CP-treated rats, histopathological changes such as vacuolisation, disorganisation and separation of epididymal epithelium were observed as well. Interestingly, pumpkin seed extract could improve the above-mentioned parameters remarkably in CP-treated rats. Our findings indicated that pumpkin seed extract might be used as protective agent against CP-induced reproductive toxicity. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Identification of New Epididymal Luminal Fluid Proteins Involved in Sperm Maturation in Infertile Rats Treated by Dutasteride Using iTRAQ

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    Shu-Wu Xie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spermatozoa become mature and acquire fertilizing capacity during their passage through the epididymal lumen. In this study, we identified new epididymal luminal fluid proteins involved in sperm maturation in infertile rats by dutasteride, a dual 5α-reductase inhibitor, in order to provide potential epididymal targets for new contraceptives and infertility treatment. Methods: Male rats were treated with dutasteride for 28 consecutive days. We observed the protein expression profiles in the epididymal luminal fluids in infertile and normal rats using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ technique. The confidence of proteome data was validated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results: 1045 proteins were tested, and 23 of them presented different expression profiling in the infertile and normal rats. The seven proteins were down-regulated, and 16 proteins were up-regulated. Among the seven proteins which were significantly down-regulated by dutasteride in the epididymal luminal fluids, there were three β-defensins (Defb2, Defb18 and Defb39, which maybe the key proteins involved in epididymal sperm maturation and male fertility. Conclusions: We report for the first time that dutasteride influences the protein expression profiling in the epididymal luminal fluids of rats, and this result provides some new epididymal targets for male contraception and infertility therapy.

  10. Muscle protein turnover in rats treated with corticosterone (CC) or/and nandrolone decanoate (ND) and fed an adequate or a low-protein diet

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    Santidrian, S.; Cuevillas, F.; Goena, M.; Larralde, J.

    1986-03-01

    In order to investigate the possible antagonistic effect between glucocorticoids and androgens on muscle protein turnover, the authors have measured the fractional rates of gastrocnemius muscle protein synthesis (k/sub s/) and degradation (k/sub d/) by the constant-intravenous-infusion method using L-//sup 14/C/-tyrosine in rats receiving via s.c. per 100 g b.wt. 10 mg of CC, or 2 mg of ND or CC+ND at the indicated doses, and fed either an 18% or 5% protein diets over a period of 5 days. As an additional index of protein synthesis, RNA activity (g of synthesized protein/day/g RNA) was determined as well. Results showed that as compared to vehicle-injected animals fed the adequate diet, CC-treated rats exhibited a reduction of muscle k/sub d/, while ND-treated rats had an outstanding increase of muscle k/sub s/. However, rats receiving CC+ND showed k/sub s/ and k/sub d/ values similar to those displayed by control animals. Nevertheless, when the steroids were injected to rats fed the low-protein diet, CC has a catabolic effect on muscle protein but by reducing k/sub s/, while the anabolic action of ND is still displayed but by a significant reduction of muscle k/sub d/. CC+ND given to these protein-deficient rats caused an increase in muscle k/sub s/ and a reduction in k/sub d/. These results might indicate that, at least in part, ND antagonizes the catabolic action of high doses of CC on muscle protein metabolism.

  11. Muscle protein turnover in rats treated with corticosterone (CC) or/and nandrolone decanoate (ND) and fed an adequate or a low-protein diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santidrian, S.; Cuevillas, F.; Goena, M.; Larralde, J.

    1986-01-01

    In order to investigate the possible antagonistic effect between glucocorticoids and androgens on muscle protein turnover, the authors have measured the fractional rates of gastrocnemius muscle protein synthesis (k/sub s/) and degradation (k/sub d/) by the constant-intravenous-infusion method using L-/ 14 C/-tyrosine in rats receiving via s.c. per 100 g b.wt. 10 mg of CC, or 2 mg of ND or CC+ND at the indicated doses, and fed either an 18% or 5% protein diets over a period of 5 days. As an additional index of protein synthesis, RNA activity (g of synthesized protein/day/g RNA) was determined as well. Results showed that as compared to vehicle-injected animals fed the adequate diet, CC-treated rats exhibited a reduction of muscle k/sub d/, while ND-treated rats had an outstanding increase of muscle k/sub s/. However, rats receiving CC+ND showed k/sub s/ and k/sub d/ values similar to those displayed by control animals. Nevertheless, when the steroids were injected to rats fed the low-protein diet, CC has a catabolic effect on muscle protein but by reducing k/sub s/, while the anabolic action of ND is still displayed but by a significant reduction of muscle k/sub d/. CC+ND given to these protein-deficient rats caused an increase in muscle k/sub s/ and a reduction in k/sub d/. These results might indicate that, at least in part, ND antagonizes the catabolic action of high doses of CC on muscle protein metabolism

  12. Effects of atomoxetine on attention in Wistar rats treated with the neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauser, J.; Reissmann, A.; Sontag, T.A.; Tucha, Oliver; Lange, K.W.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of the neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4), which allows a depletion of noradrenergic terminals in a dose-dependent manner, on attention in rats as measured using the five-choice serial-reaction time task (5CSRTT). In

  13. Comparison of hepatic fibrosis models and associated hepatic fibronectin expression in Wistar rats treated by bile duct ligation and CCl4

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    LIU Xiaoya

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo compare serum biochemical parameters, liver pathology, and fibronectin (FN expression in Wister rats with hepatic fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation (BDL and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4. MethodsNinety healthy male Wister rats were assigned to CCl4 model (n=44, CCl4 control (n=6, BDL model (n=30, and BDL control groups (n=10. Animal models of hepatic fibrosis were established by intraperitoneal injection of olive oil solution containing 50% CCl4 in the CCl4 model group and by BDL in the BDL group. General conditions of rats were examined. Expression of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, total bilirubin (TBil, and direct bilirubin (DBil was measured by biochemical analysis. Expression of serum hyaluronic acid (HA and laminin (LN was measured by ELISA assay. Pathological changes in liver tissue were examined through hematoxylin-eosin and Masson staining. Expression of FN was assayed by immunohistochemistry. Comparison between groups was made by t test. ResultsSerum biochemical analysis showed that TBil and DBil levels in BDL model rats increased to and maintained at relatively high levels from day 7 after surgery (P<0.05; these two parameters in CCl4 model rats increased gradually from week 2 and peaked at week 8 after injection (P<0.05. The indicators of hepatic fibrosis, i.e., HA and LN levels, were significantly higher in the BDL model group than in the CCl4 model group. Pathologically, the CCl4 model group showed diffuse fatty degeneration of liver cells, with extremely significant fiber interval formation in the portal area - portal area or the portal area - central vein; the BDL model group showed coexistence of significant intrahepatic bile duct hyperplasia, inflammatory cell infiltration, and fiber interval formation. In the BDL model group, FN expression was dispersive and irregular with thin fibrous tissues; in the CCl4 model group, FN was mostly expressed in the interlobular septa

  14. Possible participation of oxidative stress in causation of cell proliferation and in vivo mutagenicity in kidneys of gpt delta rats treated with potassium bromate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umemura, Takashi; Tasaki, Masako; Kijima, Aki; Okamura, Toshiya; Inoue, Tomoki; Ishii, Yuji; Suzuki, Yuta; Masui, Norio; Nohmi, Takehiko; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Clarifying the participation of oxidative stress among possible contributing factors in potassium bromate (KBrO 3 )-induced carcinogenesis is of importance from the perspective of human health protection. In the present study, utilizing the antioxidative effects of α-tocopherol (α-TP) or sodium ascorbic acid (SAA) to attenuate oxidative stress, alterations in bromodeoxyuridine labeling indices (BrdU-LIs) and reporter gene mutations in kidneys of male and female gpt delta rats given KBrO 3 were examined. Five male and female gpt delta rats in each group were given KBrO 3 at a concentration of 500 ppm in the drinking water for 9 weeks, with 1% of α-TP or SAA administered in the diet from 1 week prior to the KBrO 3 treatment until the end of the experiment. Increases in 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine levels in kidney DNA of both sexes of rats given KBrO 3 were significantly inhibited by SAA, but not α-TP. While BrdU-LIs in the proximal tubules of female rats were also significantly reduced by SAA, those in the males and gpt mutant frequencies in kidney DNA of both sexes were not affected by SAA or α-TP. Immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses for α 2u -globulin strongly suggested that induction of cell proliferation observed in the males might primarily result from accumulation of this protein, independent of oxidative stress. The overall data indicated that while oxidative stress well correlates with induction of cell proliferation in females, its role in males and in generation of in vivo mutagenicity by KBrO 3 in both sexes is limited

  15. Transcriptomics analysis and hormonal changes of male and female neonatal rats treated chronically with a low dose of acrylamide in their drinking water

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    Reyna Cristina Collí-Dulá

    Full Text Available Acrylamide is known to produce follicular cell tumors of the thyroid in rats. RccHan Wistar rats were exposed in utero to a carcinogenic dose of acrylamide (3 mg/Kg bw/day from gestation day 6 to delivery and then through their drinking water to postnatal day 35. In order to identify potential mechanisms of carcinogenesis in the thyroid glands, we used a transcriptomics approach. Thyroid glands were collected from male pups at 10 PM and female pups at 10 AM or 10 PM in order to establish whether active exposure to acrylamide influenced gene expression patterns or pathways that could be related to carcinogenesis. While all animals exposed to acrylamide showed changes in expected target pathways related to carcinogenesis such as DNA repair, DNA replication, chromosome segregation, among others; animals that were sacrificed while actively drinking acrylamide-laced water during their active period at night showed increased changes in pathways related to oxidative stress, detoxification pathways, metabolism, and activation of checkpoint pathways, among others. In addition, thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4, were increased in acrylamide-treated rats sampled at night, but not in quiescent animals when compared to controls. The data clearly indicate that time of day for sample collection is critical to identifying molecular pathways that are altered by the exposures. These results suggest that carcinogenesis in the thyroids of acrylamide treated rats may ensue from several different mechanisms such as hormonal changes and oxidative stress and not only from direct genotoxicity, as has been assumed to date. Keywords: Acrylamide, RccHan Wistar, Transcriptomics, Thyroid

  16. Protective effect of combined pumpkin seed and ginger extracts on sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and epididymal histology in adult male rats treated with cyclophosphamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaie, Somaieh; Nikzad, Hossein; Mahabadi, Javad Amini; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Azami-Tameh, Abolfazl; Taherian, Aliakbar; Sajjadian, Seyyed Mohammad Sajjad; Kamani, Mehran

    2016-09-01

    Reproductive toxicity is one of the side effects of cyclophosphamide (CP) in cancer treatment. Pumpkin seeds and Zingiber officinale are natural sources of antioxidants. We investigated the possible protective effect of combined pumpkin seed and Zingiber officinale extracts on sperm characteristics, epididymal histology and biochemical parameters of CP-treated rats. Male adult Wistar rats were divided randomly into six groups. Group 1, as a control, received an isotonic saline solution injection intraperitoneally (IP). Group 2 were injected IP with a single dose of CP (100 mg/kg) once. Groups 3 and 4 received CP plus 300 and 600 mg/kg combined pumpkin seed and Zingiber officinale extract (50:50). Groups 5 and 6 received only 300 and 600 mg/kg combined pumpkin seed and Zingiber officinale extract. Six weeks after treatment, sperm characteristics, histopathological changes and biochemical parameters were assessed. In CP-treated rats, motile spermatozoa were decreased, and abnormal or dead spermatozoa increased significantly (P < 0.001) but administration of the mixed extract improved sperm parameters. Epididymal epithelium and fibromascular thickness were also improved in extract-treated rats compared to control or CP groups. Biochemical analysis showed that the administration of combined extracts could increase the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level significantly in groups 3, 4, 5 and 6. Interestingly, the mixed extract could decrease most of the side effects of CP such as vacuolization and separation of epididymal tissue. Our findings indicated that the combined extracts might be used as a protective agent against CP-induced reproductive toxicity.

  17. Metabolic profiling study on potential toxicity and immunotoxicity-biomarker discovery in rats treated with cyclophosphamide using HPLC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Lin, Wensi; Lin, Weiwei; Xu, Peng; Zhang, Jianmei; Yang, Haisong; Ling, Xiaomei

    2015-05-01

    Despite the recent advances in understanding toxicity mechanism of cyclophosphamide (CTX), the development of biomarkers is still essential. CTX-induced immunotoxicity in rats by a metabonomics approach was investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS). The rats were orally administered CTX (30 mg/kg/day) for five consecutive days, and on the fifth day samples of urine, thymus and spleen were collected and analyzed. A significant difference in metabolic profiling was observed between the CTX-treated group and the control group by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), which indicated that metabolic disturbances of immunotoxicity in CTX-treated rats had occurred. One potential biomarker in spleen, three in urine and three in thymus were identified. It is suggested that the CTX-toxicity mechanism may involve the modulation of tryptophan metabolism, phospholipid metabolism and energy metabolism. This research can help to elucidate the CTX-influenced pathways at a low dose and can further help to indicate the patients' pathological status at earlier stages of toxicological progression after drug administration. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Toxicologic study of carboxyatractyloside (active principle in cocklebur--Xanthium strumarium) in rats treated with enzyme inducers and inhibitors and glutathione precursor and depletor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, R C; Jain, A V; Weiss, R; Clark, J D

    1982-01-01

    Male rats (10 rats/group) were treated with phenobarbital (PB), phenylbutazone (PBZ), stanozolol (3 inducers of cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes), piperonyl butoxide (PBO; a P450 inhibitor), cobaltous chloride (CoCl2; an inhibitor of hemoprotein synthesis), 5,6-benzoflavone (BNF; an inducer of cytochrome P448 dependent enzymes), cysteine [CYS; a glutathione (GSH) precursor], or ethyl maleate (EM; a GSH depletor). The rats were then given a calculated LD50 dosage (13.5 mg/kg of body weight) of carboxyatractyloside (CAT) intraperitoneally. Clinical signs of toxicosis, duration of illness, lethality, gross lesions, and hepatic and renal histopathologic lesions were recorded. Seemingly, (i) CAT toxicosis has independent lethal and cytotoxic components (PBZ decreased lethality and cytotoxicity; CoCl2 decreased cytotoxicity but not lethality; BNF decreased duration of illness, and perhaps lethality, but not cytotoxicity); (ii) CAT cytotoxicity could be partly due to an active metabolite formed by de novo-synthesized, P450-/P448-independent hemoprotein (PBZ and CoCl2 had anticytotoxic effects, but PB, stanozolol, PBO, and BNF did not); (iii) CAT detoxification may occur partly through a hemoprotein-independent, PBZ-inducible enzyme, and partly through a P448-dependent (BNF-inducible) enzyme; and (iv) CAT detoxification apparently is not P450 or GSH-dependent because PB, stanozolol, and CYS had no beneficial effects, and PBO, CoCl2, and EM did not enhance toxicosis. Metabolism of CAT may have a role in its cytotoxic and lethal effects.

  19. Increased binding of LDL and VLDL to apo B,E receptors of hepatic plasma membrane of rats treated with Fibernat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Nandini; Devaraj, S Niranjali; Devaraj, H

    2003-10-01

    Research has focussed on the hypocholesterolemic effects of certain types of dietary fiber such as enhancing conversion of hepatic cholesterol to bile acids or increase in catabolism of low density lipoprotein (LDL) via the apo B,E receptor. The effect of oral administration of a unique fibre cocktail of fenugreek seed powder, guar gum and wheat bran (Fibernat) and its varied effects on some aspects of lipid metabolism and cholesterol homeostasis in rats were examined. Rats were administered Fibernat along with the atherogenic diet containing 1.5 % cholesterol and 0.1 % cholic acid. Amounts of hepatic lipids, hepatic and fecal bile acids and activity of hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) were determined. Transmission electron microscopic examination of the liver tissue and extent of uptake of (125)I-LDL and (125)I-VLDL by the hepatic apo B,E receptor was carried out. Food intake and body weight gain were similar between the 3 different dietary groups. Fibernat intake significantly increased apo B,E receptor expression in rat liver as reflected by an increase in the maximum binding capacity (B(max)) of the apo B,E receptor to (125)I-LDL and (125)I-VLDL. The activity of HTGL was increased by approximately 1.5-fold in Fibernat-fed rats as compared to those fed the atherogenic diet alone. A marked hypocholesterolemic effect was observed. Cholesterol homeostasis was achieved in Fibernat-fed rats. Two possible mechanisms are postulated to be responsible for the observed hypocholesterolemic effect a) an increase in conversion of cholesterol to bile acids and b) possibly by intra-luminal binding which resulted in increased fecal excretion of bile acids and neutral sterols. The resulting reduction in cholesterol content of liver cells coupled with upregulation of hepatic apo B,E receptors and increased clearance of circulating atherogenic lipoproteins-LDL and very low density lipoprotein (LDL and VLDL)-is the main mechanism involved in the hypocholesterolemic effect of

  20. Biodistribution of samarium-153-EDTMP in rats treated with docetaxel Biodistribuição de EDTMP-153-samário em ratos tratados com docetaxel

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    Arthur Villarim Neto

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Many patients with metastatic bone disease have to use radiopharmaceuticals associated with chemotherapy to relieve bone pain. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of docetaxel on the biodistribution of samarium-153-EDTMP in bones and other organs of rats. METHODS: Wistar male rats were randomly allocated into 2 groups of 6 rats each. The DS (docetaxel/samarium group received docetaxel (15 mg/kg intraperitoneally in two cycles 11 days apart. The S (samarium/control group rats were not treated with docetaxel. Nine days after chemotherapy, all the rats were injected with 0.1ml of samarium-153-EDTMP via orbital plexus (25µCi. After 2 hours, the animals were killed and samples of the brain, thyroid, lung, heart, stomach, colon, liver, kidney and both femurs were removed. The percentage radioactivity of each sample (% ATI/g was determined in an automatic gamma-counter (Wizard-1470, Perkin-Elmer, Finland. RESULTS: On the 9th day after the administration of the 2nd chemotherapy cycle, the rats had a significant weight loss (314.50±22.09g compared (pOBJETIVO: Muitos pacientes com metástases ósseas são tratados com radiofármacos associados com quimioterapia para alívio da dor óssea. O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar a influência do docetaxel na biodistribuição do EDTMP-153-samário nos ossos e outros órgãos de ratos. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar foram aleatoriamente alocados em 2 grupos de 6 animais cada. O grupo DS (docetaxel/samário recebeu docetaxel (15 mg/kg intraperitoneal em dois ciclos com 11 dias de intervalo. Os ratos do grupo S (samário/controle não foram tratados com docetaxel. Nove dias após a quimioterapia, todos os animais receberam 0,1ml de EDTMP-153-samário via plexo orbital (25µCi. Após 2 horas, os animais foram mortos e feitas biópsias de cérebro, tireóide, pulmão, coração, estômago, cólon, fígado, rim e fêmures. O percentual de radioatividade por grama (%ATI/g de tecido de cada bi

  1. Embryonic mortality and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) associated with placental alterations in pregnant rats treated with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) at the peri-implantation stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Ryohei; Hayashi, Morimichi; Tamura, Toru; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Kuroda, Junji; Kusama, Hiroshi; Kagami, Hiroshi; Ono, Tamao

    2008-12-01

    Embryonic mortality and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) are induced by exposure of rodents to xenobiotic agents during the pregastrulation period of development. We examined the time course of the effects of methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), an alkylating agent, on conceptus development in order to clarify the relative roles of the embryo and the placenta in their induction. Pregnant rats were treated orally with a single dose of MMS (200 mg/kg) in the morning of gestation day (GD) 6 (peri-implantation stage). Embryonic mortality was increased on GD12 and thereafter by MMS treatment, with newly dead embryos showing placental hypoplasia at GD12. Embryo or fetal weight was also smaller for MMS-treated dams than for control dams from GD14 to GD20. The labyrinth zone and junctional zone (JZ) of the placenta were thinner in MMS-treated rats from GD12 to GD17 and from GD12 to GD20 (except for GD17), respectively. Furthermore, MMS-treated dams showed a smaller number of glycogen cells in the JZ on GD14. In contrast, the placental glycogen concentration was higher and the expression of glucose transporter 1 in the JZ remained at GD20. These results indicate that exposure of pregnant rats to MMS at the peri-implantation stage of embryogenesis affects placental development and growth. The placental impairment induced by MMS was likely responsible for the embryonic death observed 6 days after exposure of dams to this agent as well as for the IUGR of surviving embryos or fetuses throughout the gestation period.

  2. The action of fast neutrons on Walker tumor chromatin in rats treated with thiotepa and lomustine cytostatics and with estradiol hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radu, L.; Constantinescu, B.; Gostian, O.

    1994-01-01

    Wistar rats bearing Walker carcinosarcoma were treated with thiotepa (1 mg) and lomustine (3 mg) cytostatics and with each of these cytostatics associated with estradiol hormone (0.15 mg). The extracted chromatins were subjected to fast neutrons (d(13 MeV)+Be thick target) at 30-100 Gy doses. The parameters estimated at chromatin samples were: the tyrosine and tryptophan intrinsic fluorescence, the fluorescence of chromatin - ethidium bromide complexes and thermal transition. A different and specific susceptibility to fast neutrons was observed in treated chromatin samples, when compared with controls. The chromatin acidic proteins destruction was greater in the case of estradiol - thiotepa association. (Author)

  3. Serca2a and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger are involved in left ventricular function following cardiac remodelling of female rats treated with anabolic androgenic steroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Andrews Marques do; Lima, Ewelyne Miranda de; Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Caliman, Izabela Facco; Silva, Josiane Fernandes da; Lemos, Virgínia Soares; Andrade, Tadeu Uggere de; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2016-06-15

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids are misused, including by women, but little is known about the cardiovascular effects of these drugs on women. To evaluated the effects of nandrolone decanoate (ND) and resistive physical exercise on cardiac contractility in young female rats. Female Wistar rats were separated into 4 groups: C (untrained animals); E (animals were submitted to resistance exercise by jumping in water 5 times per week); ND (animals were treated with ND, 20mg/kg/week for 4weeks); and NDE (trained and treated). The haemodynamic parameters (+dP/dtmax, -dP/dtmin and Tau) were assessed in the left ventricle. The heart was collected for histological analyses and collagen deposition. The gastrocnemius muscle was weighed, and hypertrophy was assessed by the ratio of their weights to gastrocnemius/tibia length. The expression of calcium handling proteins was measured by western blot analysis. ND treatment and physical exercise increased cardiac contractility and relaxation. In addition, ND promoted increases in phospholamban phosphorylated (p-PLB) and isoforms of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA2a) expression, while resistance exercise increased the phosphorylation of PLB and expression of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers (NCX). Cardiac hypertrophy and collagen deposition were observed after ND treatment. Regulatory components of cytosolic calcium, such as SERCA2a and p-PLB, play important roles in modulating the contractility and relaxation effects of ND in females. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional morphology of pituitary -thyroid and -adrenocortical axes in middle-aged male rats treated with Vitex agnus castus essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šošić-Jurjević, Branka; Ajdžanović, Vladimir; Filipović, Branko; Trifunović, Svetlana; Jarić, Ivana; Ristić, Nataša; Milošević, Verica

    2016-09-01

    We previously reported that Vitex agnus-castus L. essential oil (VACEO), when administered to middle-aged males, exerts a bone-protective effect, induces silencing of locomotor activities and decreases pituitary prolactin immunopositivity. To further assess the putative endocrine effects of VACEO, we examined the pituitary-thyroid and -adrenocortical axes in our model. Sixteen-month-old Wistar rats were subcutaneously administered 60mg/kg of VACEO dissolved in sterile olive oil, while the control group received the same amount of vehicle alone for three weeks. Pituitaries, thyroids and adrenals were analyzed by qualitative and quantitative histological approaches. Concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxine and triiodothyronine (TH), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone in serum and in adrenal tissue were measured. In VACEO-treated rats, the relative volume density of pituitary thyrotrophs increased (p<0.001), while intensity of cytoplasmic TSHβ immunostaining decreased (p<0.001), consistent with elevated TSH in serum (p<0.01). The thyroid tissue was characterized by a micro-follicular structure, increased relative volume of follicular epithelium (p<0.05), decreased volume of luminal colloid (p<0.001) and increased basolateral expression of sodium-iodide symporter-immunopositivity (p<0.05). Serum TH also increased (p<0.01). The relative volume density of pituitary corticotrophs decreased (p<0.05), compatible with decline in circulating ACTH (p<0.05). Neither tissue nor serum corticosterone levels were affected by VACEO treatment. In conclusion, the observed changes in TSH and ACTH strongly indicate central endocrine effects of prolonged VACEO treatment. In this respect, production of ACTH decreased without impact on corticosterone production. Increase in serum concentration of both TH and TSH are not compatible with a negative feedback loop and suggest a major change in set-point regulation of the hypothalamic

  5. Serca2a and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger are involved in left ventricular function following cardiac remodelling of female rats treated with anabolic androgenic steroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Andrews Marques do; Lima, Ewelyne Miranda de; Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Caliman, Izabela Facco; Silva, Josiane Fernandes da; Lemos, Virgínia Soares; Andrade, Tadeu Uggere de; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2016-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids are misused, including by women, but little is known about the cardiovascular effects of these drugs on women. Aim: To evaluated the effects of nandrolone decanoate (ND) and resistive physical exercise on cardiac contractility in young female rats. Main methods: Female Wistar rats were separated into 4 groups: C (untrained animals); E (animals were submitted to resistance exercise by jumping in water 5 times per week); ND (animals were treated with ND, 20 mg/kg/week for 4 weeks); and NDE (trained and treated). The haemodynamic parameters (+ dP/dt max , − dP/dt min and Tau) were assessed in the left ventricle. The heart was collected for histological analyses and collagen deposition. The gastrocnemius muscle was weighed, and hypertrophy was assessed by the ratio of their weights to gastrocnemius/tibia length. The expression of calcium handling proteins was measured by western blot analysis. Results: ND treatment and physical exercise increased cardiac contractility and relaxation. In addition, ND promoted increases in phospholamban phosphorylated (p-PLB) and isoforms of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA2a) expression, while resistance exercise increased the phosphorylation of PLB and expression of Na + /Ca 2+ exchangers (NCX). Cardiac hypertrophy and collagen deposition were observed after ND treatment. Conclusion: Regulatory components of cytosolic calcium, such as SERCA2a and p-PLB, play important roles in modulating the contractility and relaxation effects of ND in females. - Highlights: • ND and resistive exercise enhanced the cardiac function and increased expression of cytosolic calcium regulatory components.

  6. Anion Gap Toxicity in Alloxan Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats Treated with Antidiabetic Noncytotoxic Bioactive Compounds of Ethanolic Extract of Moringa oleifera

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    Maxwell Omabe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera (MO is used for a number of therapeutic purposes. This raises the question of safety and possible toxicity. The objective of the study was to ascertain the safety and possible metabolic toxicity in comparison with metformin, a known drug associated with acidosis. Animals confirmed with diabetes were grouped into 2 groups. The control group only received oral dose of PBS while the test group was treated with ethanolic extract of MO orally twice daily for 5-6 days. Data showed that the extract significantly lowered glucose level to normal values and did not cause any significant cytotoxicity compared to the control group (P=0.0698; there was no gain in weight between the MO treated and the control groups (P>0.8115. However, data showed that treatment with an ethanolic extract of MO caused a decrease in bicarbonate (P<0.0001, and more than twofold increase in anion gap (P<0.0001; metformin treatment also decreased bicarbonate (P<0.0001 and resulted in a threefold increase in anion gap (P<0.0001. Conclusively, these data show that while MO appears to have antidiabetic and noncytotoxic properties, it is associated with statistically significant anion gap acidosis in alloxan induced type 2 diabetic rats.

  7. Histomorfometria do tecido ósseo em ratas castradas tratadas com tibolona Bone tissue histomorphometry in castrated rats treated with tibolone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Bergmann de Carvalho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVO: O efeito da tibolona utilizada em alta dose e por tempo prolongado foi analisado mediante estudo histomorfométrico de tíbias e fêmures de ratas castradas. MÉTODOS: O experimento utilizou 20 ratas Wistar, com peso médio de 250 g. Os animais foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em três grupos: ooforectomizado recebendo tibolona (OVX + T (n = 9, ooforectomizado (OVX (n = 6 e grupo controle não ooforectomizado (C (n = 5. Deu-se início ao protocolo experimental 30 dias após a ooforectomia, perdurando por 20 semanas, com administração de tibolona (1 mg/dia a OVX + T e carboximetilcelulose a OVX. O grupo C não foi submetido a qualquer tratamento. Tíbias e fêmures direitos foram fixados em formol a 10% tamponado, descalcificados e processados para inclusão em parafina. Os cortes histológicos foram corados mediante hematoxilina-eosina para análise histomorfométrica. Mediram-se a espessura cortical e a cavidade medular em cortes transversais de tíbia e fêmur e percentual de porosidade e densidade trabecular em cortes longitudinais de fêmur. RESULTADO E DISCUSSÃO: Não houve diferença estatística entre OVX e OVX + T nas diversas análises. Os resultados demonstram que a tibolona não melhorou de forma significativa a qualidade óssea, porém preservou a massa óssea cortical, nas diáfises femoral e tibial, e o osso trabecular, nos côndilos femorais. O uso prolongado de tibolona em concomitância com alta dose pode ter influenciado tais efeitos, já que estudos recentes têm preconizado a utilização de doses mais baixas na prevenção da osteoporose. CONCLUSÃO: A ooforectomia ocasionou perda óssea nas regiões analisadas; a tibolona, apesar de não ter aumentado a massa óssea, manteve-a em níveis satisfatórios.INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The effect of tibolone administered in high dose over a prolonged period was analyzed through histomorphometry of tibia and femur samples from castrated rats. METHODS

  8. Proteomic characterization of hippocampus of chronically socially isolated rats treated with fluoxetine: Depression-like behaviour and fluoxetine mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perić, Ivana; Costina, Victor; Stanisavljević, Andrijana; Findeisen, Peter; Filipović, Dragana

    2018-06-01

    Due to the severity of depressive symptoms, there remains a necessity in defining the underlying mechanisms of depression and the precise actions of antidepressants in alleviating these symptoms. Proteomics is a powerful and promising tool for discovering novel pathways of cellular responses to disease and treatment. As chronic social isolation (CSIS) is a valuable animal model for studying depression, we performed a comparative subproteomic study of rat hippocampus to explore the effect of six weeks of CSIS and the therapeutic effect of chronic fluoxetine (Flx) treatment (last three weeks of CSIS; 15 mg/kg/day). Behaviorally, Flx treatment normalized the decreased sucrose preference and increased marble burying results resulting from CSIS, indicative of a FLX-induced attenuation of both anhedonia and anxiety. An analysis of cytosolic and nonsynaptic mitochondrial subproteome patterns revealed that CSIS resulted in down-regulation of proteins involved in mitochondrial transport and energy processes, primarily tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Chronic Flx treatment resulted in an up-regulation of CSIS-altered proteins and additional expression of other transporter and energy-involved proteins. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed hippocampal subregion-specific effects of CSIS and/or Flx treatment on selective protein expressions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Dinitrosyl iron complexes with glutathione recover rats with experimental endometriosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamian, L V; Burgova, E N; Tkachev, N A; Mikoian, V D; Stepanian, A A; Sonova, M M; Vanin, A F

    2013-01-01

    The effect of binuclear dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNIC) with glutathione on endometrioid tumors in rats with experimental endometriosis has been studied. The latter was induced by an autotransplantation model, where two fragments of endometrium with myometrium (2 x 2 mm) from the left uterine horn was grafted to the inner surface of the anterior abdominal wall. The test animals received intraperitoneal injections of 0.5 ml DNIC-glutathione at the dose of 12.5 micromole per kg daily for 12 days 28 days after operation. The injections resulted in more than a 2-fold decrease in the total volume of both large tumors formed from grafts and small additive tumors formed nearby grafts. The disappearance of the additive tumors was also observed in test animals. The EPR signal with g(av) = 2.03 characteristic of protein bound DNIC with thiol-containing ligands was recorded in livers, graft and additive tumors of test and control animals pointing out intensive generation of nitric oxide in rats with experimental endometriosis. Ribonucleotide reductase activation discovered by doublet the EPR signal at g = 2.0 with 2.3 mT hyperfine structure splitting was found in small tumors. The cytotoxic effect of DNIC-glutathione on endometrioid tumors was suggested to be due to DNIC degradation nearby the tumors induced by iron chelating compounds released from the tumors. The degradation resulted in release of a high amount of nitric oxide molecules and nitrosonium ions from DNICs affecting the tumors by way of the cytotoxic effect.

  10. Intrinsic denervation of the colon is associated with a decrease of some colonic preneoplastic markers in rats treated with a chemical carcinogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V.O. Vespúcio

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Denervation of the colon is protective against the colon cancer; however, the mechanisms involved are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the denervated colonic mucosa could be less responsive to the action of the chemical carcinogen dimethylhydrazine (DMH. Three groups of 32 male Wistar rats were treated as follows: group 1 (G1 had the colon denervated with 0.3 mL 1.5 mM benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium (benzalkonium chloride, BAC; G2 received a single ip injection of 125 mg/kg DMH; G3 was treated with BAC + the same dose and route of DMH. A control group (Sham, N = 32 did not receive any treatment. Each group was subdivided into four groups according to the sacrifice time (1, 2, 6, and 12 weeks after DMH. Crypt fission index, ß-catenin accumulated crypts, aberrant crypt foci, and cell proliferation were evaluated and analyzed by ANOVA and the Student t-test. G3 animals presented a small number of aberrant crypt foci and low crypt fission index compared to G2 animals after 2 and 12 weeks, respectively. From the second week on, the index of ß-catenin crypt in G3 animals increased slower than in G2 animals. From the 12th week on, G2 animals presented a significant increase in cell proliferation when compared to the other groups. Colonic denervation plays an anticarcinogenic role from early stages of colon cancer development. This finding can be of importance for the study of the role of the enteric nervous system in the carcinogenic process.

  11. Green tea chemoprotection in rats treated with Diethylnitrosamine Ação quimioprotetora do chá verde em ratos tratados com Dietilnitrosamina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halha Ostrensky Saridakis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Green tea (Camellia sinensis and its main components, the catechins present several biological activities such as: antioxidant and chemoprotective action against hepatotoxic agent as diethylnitrosamine(DEN, a known cytotoxic substance. This work has the objective to evaluate and understand the green tea extract (GTE mechanisms of action as a chemoprotector agent. Therefore, tests in vivo with Wistar rats using GTE 2% (2mg/100mL was taken orally as the only source of water for 35 days. To verify the antioxidant and chemoprotective capacity of GTE, DEN (200mg/kg was used as a lesion agent. The results indicate that green tea if the dosage close to the ones taken by the population is not able to expressively inhibit the lesion caused for the high dose of DEN, but the results indicated a tendency to chemoprotection, suggesting to green tea may act as a prevention substance even in low dosage in presence of a classically known hepatotoxic agent. O chá verde (Camellia sinensis e seus principais componentes, as catequinas, apresentam várias atividades biológicas, dentre elas a ação antioxidante e quimioprotetora contra agentes hepatotóxicos, como a dietilnitrosamina (DEN, um conhecido agente citotóxico. Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar e compreender os mecanismos da ação do extrato do chá verde (ECV, como agente antioxidante e quimioprotetor. Foram realizados testes in vivo com ratos Wistar machos utilizando o ECV a 2% (2mg/100mL via oral, como única fonte de água, durante 35 dias. Para verificar a capacidade antioxidante e quimioprotetora do ECV utilizou-se a DEN (200mg/kg como agente lesivo. Os resultados indicam que o chá verde, nas doses próximas as que são ingeridas pela população, não é capaz de inibir significativamente a lesão causada pela alta dose da DEN, mas os resultados indicaram uma tendência à quimioproteção, sugerindo que o chá verde pode agir como substância preventiva mesmo em baixasdoses, frente a um

  12. Stimulation of 5-HT2A receptors recovers sensory responsiveness in acute spinal neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Hillary E; Kauer, Sierra D; Allmond, Jacob T; Brumley, Michele R

    2017-02-01

    Quipazine is a 5-HT 2A -receptor agonist that has been used to induce motor activity and promote recovery of function after spinal cord injury in neonatal and adult rodents. Sensory stimulation also activates sensory and motor circuits and promotes recovery after spinal cord injury. In rats, tail pinching is an effective and robust method of sacrocaudal sensory afferent stimulation that induces motor activity, including alternating stepping. In this study, responsiveness to a tail pinch following treatment with quipazine (or saline vehicle control) was examined in spinal cord transected (at midthoracic level) and intact neonatal rats. Rat pups were secured in the supine posture with limbs unrestricted. Quipazine or saline was administered intraperitoneally and after a 10-min period, a tail pinch was administered. A 1-min baseline period prior to tail-pinch administration and a 1-min response period postpinch was observed and hind-limb motor activity, including locomotor-like stepping behavior, was recorded and analyzed. Neonatal rats showed an immediate and robust response to sensory stimulation induced by the tail pinch. Quipazine recovered hind-limb movement and step frequency in spinal rats back to intact levels, suggesting a synergistic, additive effect of 5-HT-receptor and sensory stimulation in spinal rats. Although levels of activity in spinal rats were restored with quipazine, movement quality (high vs. low amplitude) was only partially restored. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Influence of ferutinin on bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. II: Role in recovering osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Marzia; Bertoni, Laura; Cavani, Francesco; Zavatti, Manuela; Resca, Elisa; Carnevale, Gianluca; Benelli, Augusta; Zanoli, Paola; Palumbo, Carla

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation, which represents an extension of a previous study, was to investigate the effect of ferutinin in recovering severe osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency after rat ovariectomy and to compare phytoestrogen effects with those of estrogens commonly used in hormone replacement therapy (HRT) by women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. The animal model used was the Sprague–Dawley ovariectomized rat. Ferutinin was orally administered (2 mg kg−1 per day) for 30 or 60 days starting from 2 months after ovariectomy (i.e. when osteoporosis was clearly evident) and its effects were compared with those of estradiol benzoate (1.5 μg per rat twice a week, subcutaneously injected) vs. vehicle-treated ovariectomized (OVX) and sham-operated (SHAM) rats. Histomorphometric analyses were performed on trabecular bone of lumbar vertebrae (4th and 5th) and distal femoral epiphysis, as well as on cortical bone of femoral diaphysis. Bone histomorphometric analyses showed that ferutinin seems to display the same effects on bone mass recorded with estradiol benzoate, thus suggesting that it could enhance the recovery of bone loss due to severe estrogen deficiency in OVX rats. On this basis, the authors propose listing ferutinin among the substances representing a potential alternative for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, which occurs as a result of estrogen deficiency. PMID:20492429

  14. Enhanced fear recall and emotional arousal in rats recovering from chronic variable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Jennifer; Herman, James P; Horn, Paul S; Sallee, Floyd R; Sah, Renu

    2010-11-02

    Emergence of posttraumatic-like behaviors following chronic trauma is of interest given the rising prevalence of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Stress associated with combat usually involves chronic traumatization, composed of multiple, single episode events occurring in an unpredictable fashion. In this study, we investigated whether rats recovering from repeated trauma in the form of chronic variable stress (CVS) express posttraumatic stress-like behaviors and dysregulated neuroendocrine responses. Cohorts of Long-Evans rats underwent a 7 day CVS paradigm followed by behavioral and neuroendocrine testing during early (16 h post CVS) and delayed (7 day) recovery time points. A fear conditioning-extinction-reminder shock paradigm revealed that CVS induces exaggerated fear recall to reminder shock, suggestive of potentiated fear memory. Rats with CVS experience also expressed a delayed expression of fearful arousal under aversive context, however, social anxiety was not affected during post-CVS recovery. Persistent sensitization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocorticotropic response to a novel acute stressor was observed in CVS exposed rats. Collectively, our data are consistent with the constellation of symptoms associated with posttraumatic stress syndrome, such as re-experiencing, and arousal to fearful contexts. The CVS-recovery paradigm may be useful to simulate trauma outcomes following chronic traumatization that is often associated with repeated combat stress. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Aerobic capacity of rats recovered from fetal malnutrition with a fructose-rich diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambri, Lucieli Teresa; Dalia, Rodrigo Augusto; Ribeiro, Carla; Rostom de Mello, Maria Alice

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the aerobic capacity, through the maximal lactate steady-state (MLSS) protocol, of rats subjected to fetal protein malnutrition and recovered with a fructose-rich diet. Pregnant adult Wistar rats that were fed a balanced (17% protein) diet or a low-protein (6% protein) diet were used. After birth, the offspring were distributed into groups according to diet until 60 days of age: balanced (B), balanced diet during the whole experimental period; balanced-fructose (BF), balanced diet until birth and fructose-rich diet (60% fructose) until 60 days; low protein-balanced (LB), low-protein diet until birth and balanced diet until 60 days; and low protein-fructose (LF), low protein diet until birth and fructose-rich diet until 60 days. It was verified that the fructose-rich diet reduced body growth, mainly in the BF group. There was no difference among the groups in the load corresponding to the MLSS (B, 7.5+/-0.5%; BF, 7.4+/-0.6%; LB, 7.7+/-0.4%; and LF, 7.7+/-0.6% relative to body weight). However, the BF group presented higher blood lactate concentrations (4.8+/-0.9 mmol.L(-1)) at 25 min in the load corresponding to the MLSS (B, 3.2+/-0.9 mmol.L(-1); LB, 3.4+/-0.9 mmol.L(-1); and LF, 3.2+/-1.0 mmol.L(-1)). Taken together, these results indicate that the ability of young rats to perform exercise was not altered by intrauterine malnutrition or a fructose-rich diet, although the high fructose intake after the balanced diet in utero increased blood lactate during swimming exercises in rats.

  16. Relationship Between and Laser Acupuncture Analgesia and the Function of Mast Cells in Adjuvant Arthritis Rats Treated by Acupuncture%Relationship Between and Laser Acupuncture Analgesia and the Function of Mast Cells in Adjuvant Arthritis Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程珂; 丁光宏; 沈雪勇; 吴凡

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To observe the analgesia effect and of low-level combined- and single-laser irradiation on Zusanli (ST 36) in rats and the relationship between mast cell degranulation and laser acupuncture analgesia.Methods: A total of 66 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into normal control,model control,sham irradiation,10.6 μm laser (220 mW,40 Hz) 650nm laser(36mW,continuous),combined laser (10.6 μm+ 650 nm) groups.Arthritis mode 1 was established by injection of Complete Freund's Adjuvant (0.05 mL) into the left ankle joint.The paw withdrawal latency (PWL) was detected with a radiant heat algesimeter.Zusanli (ST 36) was irradiated with sham,single or combined laser for 30 min.After sacrifice under anesthesia (1% embutal),tissues of Zusanli (ST 36) area were sampled,sliced (5 μm) and stained with Toluidine Blue for skin for observing the mast cell degranulation.Results:Compared with model control and sham group,the pain threshold increased significantly in 650nm and combined laser groups (P<0.01),while remained no significant difference in 10.6 μm group.Compared with model and sham group,the degranulation ratios of mast cells in 650nm and combined laser group were significantly higher (P<0.001),while remained no significant difference in 10.6 μm group.The linear correlation coefficient between degranulation ratios of mast cells and PWL after laser acupuncture is 0.737 (P<0.001).Conclusion:Both 650 nm and combined laser stimulation of Zusanli (ST 36) can effectively raise pain threshold,and enhance degranulation ratio of mast cells at the stimulated acupoint.The result also suggested a linear correlation between degranulation ratio of mast cell and analgesia effect.

  17. Induction of glutathione S-transferase placental form positive foci in liver and epithelial hyperplasia in urinary bladder, but no tumor development in male Fischer 344 rats treated with monomethylarsonic acid for 104 weeks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jun; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Salim, Elsayed I.; Wei Min; Doi, Kenichiro; Yoshida, Kaoru; Endo, Ginji; Morimura,; Fukushima, Shoji

    2003-01-01

    The carcinogenicity of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), a major metabolite of inorganic arsenics in human and experimental animals, was investigated in male Fischer 344 rats. A total of 129 rats at 10 weeks of age were randomly divided into three groups and received drinking water containing MMA(V) at doses of 0 (Control), 50, and 200 ppm ad libitum for 104 weeks. No significant differences were found between the control and the MMA(V)-treated groups regarding clinical signs, mortality, hematological, and serum biochemistry findings. Quantitative analysis of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci in liver revealed a significant increase of numbers and areas in the 200 ppm MMA(V)-treated group. In the urinary bladder MMA(V) induced simple hyperplasia and significantly elevated the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive index in the urothelium. A variety of tumors developed in rats of all groups, including the controls, but all were histologically similar to those known to occur spontaneously in F344 rats and there were no significant differences among the groups. Thus, it could be concluded that, under the present experimental conditions, MMA(V) induced lesions in the liver and urinary bladder, but did not cause tumor development in male F344 rats even after 2 years exposure

  18. Reduction in renal blood flow following administration of norepinephrine and phenylephrine in septic rats treated with Kir6.1 ATP-sensitive and KCa1.1 calcium-activated K+ channel blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa Maggi Sant'Helena, Bruna; Guarido, Karla L; de Souza, Priscila; Crestani, Sandra; da Silva-Santos, J Eduardo

    2015-10-15

    We evaluated the effects of K+ channel blockers in the vascular reactivity of in vitro perfused kidneys, as well as on the influence of vasoactive agents in the renal blood flow of rats subjected to the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis. Both norepinephrine and phenylephrine had the ability to increase the vascular perfusion pressure reduced in kidneys of rats subjected to CLP at 18 h and 36 h before the experiments. The non-selective K+ channel blocker tetraethylammonium, but not the Kir6.1 blocker glibenclamide, normalized the effects of phenylephrine in kidneys from the CLP 18 h group. Systemic administration of tetraethylammonium, glibenclamide, or the KCa1.1 blocker iberiotoxin, did not change the renal blood flow in control or septic rats. Norepinephrine or phenylephrine also had no influence on the renal blood flow of septic animals, but its injection in rats from the CLP 18 h group previously treated with either glibenclamide or iberiotoxin resulted in an exacerbated reduction in the renal blood flow. These results suggest an abnormal functionality of K+ channels in the renal vascular bed in sepsis, and that the blockage of different subtypes of K+ channels may be deleterious for blood perfusion in kidneys, mainly when associated with vasoactive drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhancement of BDNF Concentration and Restoration of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Accompany Reduced Depressive-Like Behaviour in Stressed Ovariectomised Rats Treated with Either Tualang Honey or Estrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badriya Al-Rahbi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A possible interaction between glucocorticoids and estrogen-induced increases in brain-derived-neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression in enhancing depressive-like behaviour has been documented. Here we evaluated the effects of Tualang honey, a phytoestrogen, and 17β-estradiol (E2 on the depressive-like behaviour, stress hormones, and BDNF concentration in stressed ovariectomised (OVX rats. The animals were divided into six groups: (i nonstressed sham-operated control, (ii stressed sham-operated control, (iii nonstressed OVX, (iv stressed OVX, (v stressed OVX treated with E2 (20 μg daily, sc, and (vi stressed OVX treated with Tualang honey (0.2 g/kg body weight daily, orally. Two months after surgery, the animals were subjected to social instability stress procedure followed by forced swimming test. Struggling time, immobility time, and swimming time were scored. Serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and corticosterone levels, and the BDNF concentration were determined using commercially available ELISA kits. Stressed OVX rats displayed increased depressive-like behaviour with significantly increased serum ACTH and corticosterone levels, while the BDNF concentration was significantly decreased compared to other experimental groups. These changes were notably reversed by both E2 and Tualang honey. In conclusion, both Tualang honey and E2 mediate antidepressive-like effects in stressed OVX rats, possibly acting via restoration of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and enhancement of the BDNF concentration.

  20. Evaluated the Up –regulation in Gene ‎Expression of Hepatic Insulin Gene and ‎Hepatic Insulin Receptor Gene in Type 1 ‎Diabetic Rats Treated with Cuscuta chinesis ‎Lam.‎

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    Fadia ‎ H. Al-Sultany

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available         This research was conducted to study the hypoglycemic activity of C. chinesis Lam on type 1 diabetic disease and investigate the  molecular and histological mechanism of  its action .many parameters was investigated , Fasting blood glucose (FBG, Fasting serum insulin,Hepatic Insulin Gene Expression, pancreas Insulin Gene Expression ,Hepatic Insulin  Receptors Gene expression  and histological sections of pancrease and liver.54 Rattus rattus male rats weighting(180 -200g were divided into 3 groups: A normal control daily administrated with Dw, B Diabetic control daily administrated with Dw  and C  diabetic group daily administrated with 400 mg/Kg body weight of C. chinesis  Lam. methanolic extract, each group consisted of  18 rats and further divided into (3 sub- groups 1 ,2  and 3. According to the period of administration  30, 60 and  90 days respectively. The results showing  the daily administration of 400 mg/Kg body weight of C. chinesis  Lam. methanolic extract for 60 day causing significance  decrease  in FBG and In the other hand each of fasting serum insulin, hepatic Insulin gene expression,pancreas Insulin gene expression and hepatic Insulin receptor gene expression was increased in group C in compare to B group and return all studied parameters involving pancrease and liver texture to the normal state ,which were statically morphologically  not appeared any significant difference from A group .this study concluded that the daily administration type 1 diabetic rats with 400 mg/Kg body weight of C. chinesis  Lam. extract for 60 day was return  fasting serum insulin and FBG to normal value by  upregulated  the gene expression of hepatic INS Gene ,INSR gene , pancreas INS Gene ,regenerate pancreatic beta- cell and returnthe texture of both liver and pancrease to the normal state

  1. A model of peripheral microvascular injury: irreversible caudal necrosis induced in carrageenan-inflamed rats treated with anti-inflammatory drugs and mild chilling: a pluricausal thrombo-haemorrhagic phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, M W; Rainsford, K D

    1985-01-01

    A florid tail injury was observed in carrageenan-inflamed rats previously treated with acidic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAI) drugs to suppress paw inflammation and then exposed to mild chilling (7-10 degrees C for 10-16 h). All three treatments, i.e. NSAI drug + carrageenan paw oedema + mild chilling treatment, were required for the development of this condition. Histological observations suggest that the tissue necrosis was initiated by a primary disturbance of the peripheral vasculature. The possible involvement of suppressed prostaglandin (PG) production in the aetiology of this condition is indicated by the fact that it was totally reversed by prior treatment with PGE2. This appears to be a classical pluricausal thrombohaemorrhagic phenomenon (of Selye), with cold-stress being the sensitizer and carrageenan and NSAI drugs being the challenger. The possibilities are considered of employing this tail injury model as a convenient method of developing drugs to control microvascular disturbances in man.

  2. Mal-Development of the Penis and Loss of Fertility in Male Rats Treated Neonatally with Female Contraceptive 17α-Ethinyl Estradiol: A Dose-Response Study and a Comparative Study with a Known Estrogenic Teratogen Diethylstilbestrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Ensa; Braden, Tim D.; Williams, Carol S.; Williams, John W.; Bolden-Tiller, Olga; Goyal, Hari O.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to find a minimal dose of 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE) that is detrimental to the developing penis and fertility and to compare estrogenic effects between EE and diethylstilbestrol (DES). Neonatal rats received EE at 10 ng (1 μg/kg), 100 ng, 1 μg, or 10 μg per pup on alternate days from postnatal days 1 to 11 (dose-response study) or received EE or DES at 100 ng per pup daily from postnatal days 1 to 6 (comparative study). Effects of EE were dose dependent, with ≥ 100-ng dose inducing significant (p penis was malformed, characterized by underdeveloped os penis and accumulation of fat cells. Fertility was 0% in the ≥ 1-μg groups, in contrast to 60% in the 100-ng group and 100% in the 10-ng and control groups. Animals treated with ≥ 10 ng had significant reductions in the weight of bulbospongious muscle, testis, seminal vesicle, epididymal fat pad, and in epididymal sperm numbers. A comparison of EE and DES effects showed similar reductions in penile weight and length and the weight of bulbospongiosus muscle, testis, seminal vesicle, epididymis, and epididymal fat pad in both adolescent and adult rats. While 5/6 control males sired, only 1/6 in the EE group and 0/6 in the DES group sired. Hence, neonatal exposure to EE at 10 ng (environmentally relevant dose) adversely affects male reproductive organs. A dose ten times higher than this leads to permanently mal-developed penis and infertility. Furthermore, EE and DES exposures show similar level of toxicity to male reproductive organs. PMID:19729556

  3. Signaling pathways of interleukin-1 actions in the brain: anatomical distribution of phospho-ERK1/2 in the brain of rat treated systemically with interleukin-1beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadjar, A; Combe, C; Busquet, P; Dantzer, R; Parnet, P

    2005-01-01

    Interleukin-1beta is released at the periphery during infection and acts on the nervous system to induce fever, neuroendocrine activation, and behavioral changes. These effects are mediated by brain type I IL-1 receptors. In vitro studies have shown the ability of interleukin-1beta to activate mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways including p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). In contrast to other mitogen-activated protein kinases, little is known about ERK1/2 activation in the rat brain in response to interleukin-1beta. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate spatial and temporal activation of ERK1/2 in the rat brain after peripheral administration of interleukin-1beta using immunohistochemistry to detect the phosphorylated form of the kinase. In non-stimulated conditions, phosphorylated ERK1/2 immunoreactivity was observed in neurons throughout the brain. Administration of interleukin-1beta (60 microg/kg, i.p.) induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in areas at the interface between brain and blood or cerebrospinal fluid: meninges, circumventricular organs, endothelial like cells of the blood vessels, and in brain nuclei involved in behavioral depression, fever and neuroendocrine activation: paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, supraoptic nucleus, central amygdala and arcuate nucleus. Double labeling of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and cell markers revealed the expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2 in neurons, astrocytes and microglia. Since phosphorylated ERK1/2 was found in structures in which type I IL-1 receptor has already been identified as well as in structures lacking this receptor, activation of ERK1/2 is likely to occur in response to both direct and indirect action of interleukin-1beta on its target cells.

  4. Serca2a and Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchanger are involved in left ventricular function following cardiac remodelling of female rats treated with anabolic androgenic steroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Andrews Marques do; Lima, Ewelyne Miranda de; Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Caliman, Izabela Facco [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, Espirito Santo (Brazil); Silva, Josiane Fernandes da; Lemos, Virgínia Soares [Department of Physiology and Biophysic, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Andrade, Tadeu Uggere de [Department of Pharmacy, University Vila Velha, Vila Velha, Espirito Santo (Brazil); Bissoli, Nazaré Souza, E-mail: nazarebissoli@gmail.com [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, Espirito Santo (Brazil)

    2016-06-15

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids are misused, including by women, but little is known about the cardiovascular effects of these drugs on women. Aim: To evaluated the effects of nandrolone decanoate (ND) and resistive physical exercise on cardiac contractility in young female rats. Main methods: Female Wistar rats were separated into 4 groups: C (untrained animals); E (animals were submitted to resistance exercise by jumping in water 5 times per week); ND (animals were treated with ND, 20 mg/kg/week for 4 weeks); and NDE (trained and treated). The haemodynamic parameters (+ dP/dt{sub max}, − dP/dt{sub min} and Tau) were assessed in the left ventricle. The heart was collected for histological analyses and collagen deposition. The gastrocnemius muscle was weighed, and hypertrophy was assessed by the ratio of their weights to gastrocnemius/tibia length. The expression of calcium handling proteins was measured by western blot analysis. Results: ND treatment and physical exercise increased cardiac contractility and relaxation. In addition, ND promoted increases in phospholamban phosphorylated (p-PLB) and isoforms of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA2a) expression, while resistance exercise increased the phosphorylation of PLB and expression of Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchangers (NCX). Cardiac hypertrophy and collagen deposition were observed after ND treatment. Conclusion: Regulatory components of cytosolic calcium, such as SERCA2a and p-PLB, play important roles in modulating the contractility and relaxation effects of ND in females. - Highlights: • ND and resistive exercise enhanced the cardiac function and increased expression of cytosolic calcium regulatory components.

  5. Development and validation of a new GC-MS method for the detection of tramadol, O-desmethyltramadol, 6-acetylmorphine and morphine in blood, brain, liver and kidney of Wistar rats treated with the combination of heroin and tramadol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdy, Tarek; El-Shihi, Taha H; Emara, Mostafa M; Chericoni, Silvio; Giusiani, Mario; Giorgi, Mario

    2012-10-01

    Heroin is one of the most dangerous abused drugs in the world. Tramadol is an additive recently found at high concentration levels in street heroin seizures in Egypt. This substance could affect the usual analytical method for the detection of heroin and metabolites, as well as the pharmacokinetic and disposition of single analytes. One shortfall regarding this issue is present in the literature. This study describes a validated, simple, sensitive and selective method to determine tramadol, O-desmethyltramadol, 6-acetylmorphine and free morphine in the blood, brain, liver and kidney of Wistar rats, intraperitoneally treated with a combination of heroin and tramadol (10 and 70 mg/kg, respectively) using liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. The calibration curves of tramadol, O-desmethyltramadol and 6-acetylmorphine in blood were linear in the concentration range from 25-5,000 ng/mL and morphine was found in the concentration range 50-5,000 ng/mL. The analytes were detected in all tested matrices, except 6-acetylmorphine, which was not detected in liver. The highest concentrations of tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol were observed in kidney (22,9381 and 28,498 ng/g), while 6-acetylmorphine and morphine were found at the highest levels in brain (3,280 and 3,899 ng/g, respectively). The present method is simple, rapid and sensitive and can be used to study the pharmacokinetics, disposition and interaction of these drugs in several animal models.

  6. Increase in seizure susceptibility in sepsis like condition explained by spiking cytokines and altered adhesion molecules level with impaired blood brain barrier integrity in experimental model of rats treated with lipopolysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewal, Rakesh K; Modi, Manish; Saikia, Uma Nahar; Chakrabarti, Amitava; Medhi, Bikash

    2017-09-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. Sepsis is a condition which initiates a cascade of a surge of inflammatory mediators. Interplay between seizures and inflammation other than of brain origin is yet to be explored. The present study was designed to evaluate the seizure susceptibility in experimental models of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced sepsis. Experimental sepsis was induced using lipopolysaccharides in Wistar rats. Valproic acid, dexametasone were given to two different groups of animals along with LPS. Two groups of animals were subjected to administration of vehicle and LPS respectively with no other treatment. 24h later, animals were subjected to seizures by using either maximal electro shock or pentylenetetrazole. Seizures related parameters, oxidative stress and TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, ICAM-1, ICAM-2, VCAM-1, MMP-9 level in serum and brain samples were evaluated. Histopathological and blood brain barrier permeability studies were conducted. Seizures were decreased in valproic acid treated animals. Reduced oxidative stress was seen in dexamethasone plus valproic acid treated groups as compared to LPS alone treated group. TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MMP-9 levels were found increased in LPS treated animals whereas a reverse observation was noted for ICAM-2 level in brain and serum. Histopathological findings confirmed the successful establishment of sepsis like state in animals. Blood brain barrier permeability was found increased in LPS treated groups of animals. Seizure susceptibility may escalate during the sepsis like inflammatory conditions and curbing the inflammatory state might reverse the phenomenon. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Efeitos das vitaminas A e C em anastomoses intestinais de ratos tratados com corticosteróide Effects of vitamines A and C on the healing of intestinal anastomosis of rats treated with corticosteroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo da Cunha Medeiros

    2003-01-01

    objetive of this study. METHODS: Fifty Wistar rats weighing 247± 22g were randomly separated in five groups. They were observated in individual cages with water and standard food ad libitum. The anesthesia was done with sodium pentobarbital 20 mg/Kg, intraperitoneal. During seven days preoperative and seven days after surgery, the groups were submmited to the protocol: I-control; II-metilprednisolone IM; III- metilprednisolone + vitamine A; IV- metilprednisolone + vitamine C; V- metilprednisolone + Vit. A + Vit. C. An enterectomy (1cm and anastomosis was done, using nylon 6-0. In the seventh postoperative day, the tensil strength of the anastomosis was measured and a representative sample of the healing tissue was fixed in formaline 10% to histopatologic study under hematoxilin-eosine Masson tricromic process. The data were analised by the t Student test, considering significance 0,05. RESULTS: The bursting pressure of anastomosis of the group I (control had no difference when compared with V group (Vitamine A and C ( p>0,05. The difference was statisticaly significant when the I and V groups were compared with the II, III and IV groups (p0,05. The control group (I had histopatologic score 142± 17, significantly shorter than group II - metilprednisolene - (95± 22. The difference was not significant when compared the control and the V group (Vitamin A and C, with the score (153± 15. CONCLUSION: the vitamin A and C, when used toghether, contributes to revert the deleterious effects of corticosteroid in the healing of intestinal anastomosis in rats.

  8. Modificações do volume e da histologia de focos de endometriose em ratas tratadas com sinvastatina Changes in the volume and histology of focus of endometriosis in rats treated with sinvastatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Nogueira Neto

    2007-08-01

    in female rats. METHODS: forty Wistar female rats were submitted to the technique of uterine self-transplant in mesenterium. After three weeks, 24 of them developed experimental endometriosis grade III, and were divided in two groups: one group received sinvastatin orally (20 mg/kg/day and the other (control group received 0.9% of sodium chloride orally (1 mL/100 g of body weight/day. Both groups received gavage for 14 days, followed by death. The implant volume was calculated [4pi (lenght/2 x (width/2 x (height/2/3] at the surgical intervention and after the animal’s death. The self-transplants were removed, dyed with hematoxylin-eosin and analyzed by light microscopy. The Mann-Whitney’s test was used in the independent samples and the Wilcoxon’s test for the related samples. The Fisher’s exact test was used for the histological evaluation, with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: the difference between groups of the initial average volumes of the self-transplants was not significant (p=1.00, but became significant for the final average volumes (p=0.04. There was a significant increase (p=0.01 between the initial and final average volumes in the control group, and a no significant decrease in the sinvastatin group (p=0.95. Histologically, the sinvastatin group (n=9 presented seven cases (77.8% of moderately preserved and two cases (22.2% of well preserved epithelial wall, while the control group (n=12 presented seven cases (58.3% of moderately preserved and five cases (41.7% of well preserved epithelial wall. CONCLUSIONS: sinvastatin prevented the growth of experimental endometriosis. Studies with sinvastatin for longer periods are promising.

  9. Sperm parameters of male Wistar rats treated with Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Annacardium occidentale is a medicinal plant with several biological properties. Phytochemical screening of its leaf and stem bark was reported to be rich in alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and saponins. Many plant extract with these phytochemicals are reputed for their antifertility activities. This study was ...

  10. Lipid Profile Of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats Treated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    most common serious metabolic disease in the world, affecting hundreds of millions and ... 1922, the treatment of diabetes mellitus relied mainly on dietary measures ..... In liver, the free fatty acids are catabolized to acetyl CoA, and the excess acetyl. CoA is converted to cholesterol, triglyceride and ketone bodies resulting in.

  11. Heart dysfunction and fibrosis in rat treated with myocardial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... choosing a suitable animal model provides good test material for MI and helps in clinical ... good material for regenerative medicine and cell therapy research in MI and .... model animal can be used to study drug treatment to improve the condition of myocardial ischemia, stem cell therapy research, and ...

  12. liver weight changes in wistar rats treated with crude aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-30

    Sep 30, 2014 ... recommendations that the approach to the evaluation and ... rigor and, to the extent possible, consistent with the regulatory guidance (Bindhu et al., 2007). ... of drugs, chemicals, biologics, food additives, and medical devices, this study ... Statistical Analysis: The data collected were analyzed using the ...

  13. Behavioral deficits in adult rats treated neonatally with glutamate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hliňák, Zdeněk; Gandalovičová, D.; Krejčí, I.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2005), s. 465-473 ISSN 0892-0362 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NF6474 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : neonatal treatment * monosodium glutamate * long-term effect Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.940, year: 2005

  14. Evidence of Myocardial infarction in rats treated with carbaryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Kader, S. M.; Ezz el-Arab, A.

    2001-01-01

    Carbaryl at a dose level of 56 mg/kg (1/5 , LD 50 ) caused a highly significant elevation in serum aspartate transferase (AST) one day after treatment. Carbaryl also significantly increased serum alanine transferase (ALT), serum lactate dehydrogenase (HDH),ser creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and its isoenzyme creatine phosphokinase-MB (CPK-MB). However the cardiac muscle was effected on the 7 Th days after treatment as it was represented by troponin subunits 1. Carbaryl also caused a hyperthyrodism as represented by an increase in circulatory triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 )

  15. Supplementation of T3 Recovers Hypothyroid Rat Liver Cells from Oxidatively Damaged Inner Mitochondrial Membrane Leading to Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutapa Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is a growing medical concern. There are conflicting reports regarding the mechanism of oxidative stress in hypothyroidism. Mitochondrial oxidative stress is pivotal to thyroid dysfunction. The present study aimed to delineate the effects of hepatic inner mitochondrial membrane dysfunction as a consequence of 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil-induced hypothyroidism in rats. Increased oxidative stress predominance in the submitochondrial particles (SMP and altered antioxidant defenses in the mitochondrial matrix fraction correlated with hepatocyte apoptosis. In order to check whether the effects caused by hypothyroidism are reversed by T3, the above parameters were evaluated in a subset of T3-treated hypothyroid rats. Complex I activity was inhibited in hypothyroid SMP, whereas T3 supplementation upregulated electron transport chain complexes. Higher mitochondrial H2O2 levels in hypothyroidism due to reduced matrix GPx activity culminated in severe oxidative damage to membrane lipids. SMP and matrix proteins were stabilised in hypothyroidism but exhibited increased carbonylation after T3 administration. Glutathione content was higher in both. Hepatocyte apoptosis was evident in hypothyroid liver sections; T3 administration, on the other hand, exerted antiapoptotic and proproliferative effects. Hence, thyroid hormone level critically regulates functional integrity of hepatic mitochondria; hypothyroidism injures mitochondrial membrane lipids leading to hepatocyte apoptosis, which is substantially recovered upon T3 supplementation.

  16. Efeitos neuromusculares in vitro e in vivo do atracúrio e do rocurônio em ratos submetidos a tratamento de sete dias com carbamazepina Efectos neuromusculares in vitro e in vivo del atracurio y del rocuronio en ratones sometidos a tratamiento de siete días con carbamazepina In vitro and in vivo neuromuscular effects of atracurium and rocuronium in rats treated with carbamazepine for seven days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Coutinho de Barcelos

    2008-04-01

    neuromuscular producido por el rocuronio y atracurio en ratones tratados con carbamazepina y determinó las concentraciones de citocromo P450 y b5 reductasis en microsomas hepáticos. MÉTODO: Ratones fueron tratados por siete días con carbamazepina (CBZ - 40 mg.kg-1 a través de una sonda y sacrificados al octavo día bajo anestesia con uretana. Las preparaciones in vitro e in vivo fueron montadas de acuerdo con las técnicas de Bulbring y de Leeuwin y Wolters, respectivamente. Las concentraciones y dosis utilizadas de los bloqueadores en las preparaciones in vitro e in vivo fueron, respectivamente, 20 µg.mL-1 y 0,5 mg.kg-1 para atracurio (ATC; 4 µg.mL-1 y 0,6 mg.kg-1 para rocuronio (ROC. Cada protocolo tuvo un n = 5 y las respuestas fueron observadas por 60 minutos. Los efectos del ATC y ROC fueron evaluados en las preparaciones de ratones tratados (Cbz t y comparados a los observados en los de ratones no tratados (CBZst. Las concentraciones de citocromo P450 y b5 reductasis fueron determinadas en microsomas aislados de hígados de ratones tratados (CBZt y comparadas con las obtenidas en ratones no tratados (CBZst RESULTADOS: La carbamazepina no alteró la amplitud de las respuestas musculares; in vitro y in vivo, no hubo diferencia entre el bloqueo neuromuscular producido por el atracurio en las preparaciones CBZt versus CBZst; el bloqueo neuromuscular producido por el Rocuronio en las preparaciones CBZt fue potenciado in vitro. La carbamazepina no alteró las concentraciones de citocromo P450 y b5. CONCLUSIONES: El tratamiento por siete días con carbamazepina, no influenció en el bloqueo producido por el atracurio, y alteró in vitro los efectos del rocuronio. El tiempo de tratamiento no fue suficiente para causar la inducción enzimática y disminuir la sensibilidad al rocuronio.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This experimental study investigated the in vitro and in vivo neuromuscular blockade of rocuronium and atracurium in rats treated with carbamazepine and determined

  17. Resistance exercise recovers the structure of cartilage and synovial membrane of the ankle joint of rats after sciatic compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizyana Vieira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim to determine the effects of sciatic compression and treatment with resistance exercise on the morphology of the ankle joint of Wistar rats. Methods 32 male rats, aged 10 ± 1 week, weighing 376±22 grams were divided into the following four groups (n=8/group: CG (control, LG (lesion, EG (exercise and LEG (lesion and exercise. Three days after sciatic compression, the animals in the EG and LEG were submitted to resistance exercise by climbing stairs (five days/week for three weeks and a load of 100 grams was added. The exercise was carried out in two sets of ten consecutive ascents of the steps. The ankle joint tissues were analyzed for their morphometry and morphology using light microscopy. Results Regarding the number of chondrocytes, the LG and EG had more cells in the anterior articular cartilage in the tibia (62 and 43% and in the talus (57 and 45% when compared to the CG. In the LEG there was a 25% and 26% reduction of chondrocytes in the anterior cartilage in the tibia and talus when compared to the LG. Changes were observed in the tibia and talus in the LG, with the presence of flocculation, invagination of the subchondral bone, discontinuity of tidemark and pannus covering the subchondral bone in the talus, as well as changes in the synovial membrane. These alterations were minimized in the articular cartilage and synovial membrane in the LEG. Conclusions exercise restores the tissue morphology of ankle joint in Wistar rats after sciatic compression.

  18. Mild Thyroid Hormone Insufficiency During Development Compromises Activity-Dependent Neuroplasticity in the Hippocampus of Adult Male Rats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — behavioral measures of learning and memory in adult offspring of rats treated with thyroid hormone synthesis inhibitor, propylthiouracil. Electrophysiological...

  19. Desenvolvimento pré-embrionário em ratas tratadas com oxcarbazepina nos quatro primeiros dias após a inseminação Pre-embryo development in rats treated with oxcarbazepine in the first four days after insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de O. Guerra

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available A oxcarbazepina é uma droga antiepiléptica de alta eficácia e poucos efeitos colaterais, mas pouco estudada quanto a seus efeitos durante a gestação humana e animal. OBJETIVO: Verificar se a administração de oxcarbazepine em ratas, nos quatro primeiros dias após a inseminação, altera a viabilidade ou o desenvolvimento do pré-embrião. MÉTODOS: Ratas Wistar foram tratadas com 20 ou 200 mg de oxcarbazepina/ Kg de peso corporal, via gástrica, nos dias 1, 2, 3, ou 4 a partir da inseminação ou, consecutivamente, do 1º ao 4º. Os pré-embriões foram coletados no quinto dia, visando verificar a quantidade e o desenvolvimento até a fase de blastocisto expandido. O peso corporal materno e sinais como pelos eriçados e alteração de atividade locomotora foram anotados para verificar indícios de toxicidade materna. Número de corpos lúteos e peso de ovários foram anotados com vistas à capacidade reprodutiva do animal. RESULTADOS: Não ocorreram perdas de pesos corporais maternos e nenhuma alteração física indicativa de desconforto para as ratas. Peso de ovários e número de corpos lúteos não diferiram entre tratados e controles. O número médio de pré-embriões por mães, o índice de perdas embrionárias, a proporção de blastocistos expandidos com relação ao total de pré-embriões e a média de blastocistos expandidos/mãe, não diferiram entre tratados e controles. CONCLUSÃO: A oxcarbazepina administrada em ratas, seguindo o esquema terapêutico mencionado, não apresentou efeito tóxico sobre a mãe e não alterou o desenvolvimento do pré-embrião.Oxcarbazepine is a highly efficcacious antiepileptic drug which has very few side effects and has been poorly investigated as to its effects during human and animal gestation. PURPOSE: To verify if the administration of oxcapazepine to female rats in the first four days ofter fertilization alters the viability or development of the pre-embryo. METHODS: Wistar rats were

  20. Estudo histológico e computadorizado das áreas com células parietais e principais no estômago de ratos Wistar tratados com pantoprazol e "N-Nitroso-N-Methylurea"(NMU Histological and computer-assisted analysis of parietal and chief cells stomach areas in Wistar rats treated with pantoprazole and N-Nitroso-N-Methylurea (NMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iure Kalinine Ferraz de Souza

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso prolongado dos inibidores da bomba de prótons tem sido considerado uma condição de risco para o desenvolvimento de gastrite atrófica e tumores gástricos. Objetivo: Estudar o efeito do uso de pantoprazol (PTZ e carcinogênese pela "N-Nitroso-N-Methylurea" (NMU, por 15 semanas, sobre o estômago glandular de ratos Wistar, pela análise histológica e computadorizada das áreas com células parietais (AP, principais (AZ e da mucosa não oxíntica (ANO, além do estudo das alterações histopatológicas identificadas. Métodos: Quarenta ratos Wistar machos foram distribuídos em 4 grupos: G1 (controle, G2 (NMU+PTZ, G3 (PTZ e G4 (NMU. O pantoprazol foi administrado 2x/semana (14mg/kg de peso, i.p. e a NMU oferecida, ad libitum, diluída na água de beber (100mig/ml. Após o estudo histológico AP, AZ e ANO foram determinadas por análise computadorizada das imagens dos estômagos, utilizando o programa "ImageJ 1.19z". Resultados: Mostraram redução da AP e aumento da ANO, em G2, G3 e G4 (pThe long-term use of proton bomb inhibitors has been considered a risk condition for the development of atrophic gastritis and gastric tumors. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pantoprazole (PTZ treatment and N-Nitroso-N-Methylurea (NMU carcinogenesis, for 15 weeks, in the glandular stomach of rats by histological and computer-assisted analysis of parietal cells area (PA, chief cells area (CP and non-oxintic mucosal area (ANO, as well as by histopathological study. Methods: A total of 40 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups on the basis of the treatment: G1 (control, G2 (NMU+PTZ, G3 (PTZ and G4 (NMU. Pantoprazole was administered twice a week (14mg/kg body wt., i.p. and NMU was given in the drinking water (100ppm ad libitum. After histological examination AP, AZ and ANO were investigated by computer-assisted analysis of the stomach image using the program ImageJ1.19z. Results: Showed a reduction of AP and

  1. Changes in the volume and histology of endometriosis foci in rats treated with copaiba oil (Copaiferalangsdorffii Mudanças no volume e histologia do foco de endometriose em ratas tratadas com óleo de Copaíba (Copaiferalangsdorffii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Nogueira Neto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyze the changes that occur in rats with experimental endometriosis after treatment with copaiba oil. METHODS: Experimental endometriosis was induced in rats. The experimental group received copaiba oil (Copaiferalangsdorffii orally (0.63 mg/day, and the control group received a 0.9% sodium chloride solution orally (1 ml/100 g of body weight/day. Both groups were treated with gavage for 14 days. After this period, the animals were euthanized, and the implant volume was calculated. The autologous transplants were removed, dyed with hematoxylin-eosin, and analyzed by light microscopy. RESULTS: The average final volumes were significantly different between the groups (p=0.007. There was a significant increase (p=0.012 between the initial and final volumes in the control group, whereas treatment with Copaiferalangsdorffii caused a marked reduction in endometrial growth over time (p=0.016. Histologically, 6/11 (55.00% rats in the experimental group had a well-preserved epithelial layer, and 3 (45.00% had mildly preserved epithelium. The control group had seven cases (58.30% of well-preserved epithelial cells and five cases (41.70% of mildly preserved epithelial cells (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: Copaiba oil (Copaiferalangsdorffii appears to be a promising alternative treatment for endometriosis.OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar as mudanças que ocorreram em ratas com endometrioses experimental tratadas com óleo de copaíba. MÉTODOS: Foi induzida a endometriose experimental nas ratas. O grupo experimental recebeu óleo de copaíba (Copaiferalangsdorffii oralmente (0,63mg/dia e o grupo controle recebeu oralmente solução salina 0,9% (1mL/100g/dia. Ambos grupos foram tratados por gavagem por 14 dias. Depois desse período, foi realizada a eutanásia dos animais e calculado o volume do implante. Os transplantes autólogos foram removidos, corados com Hematoxilina-eosina e realizada a microscopia

  2. Perfil eletrocardiográfico e conteúdo glicogênico muscular de ratos tratados com nandrolona Perfil electrocardiográfico y contenido glicogénico muscular de ratones tratados con nandrolona Electrocardiographic profile and muscle glycogen content of rats treated with nandrolone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto da Silva

    2010-12-01

    weeks, to animals in the treated group. Once a week, the rats were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, ip and they underwent an electrocardiogram (ECG. After the trial period, samples of the cardiac muscle (left ventricle - LV, soleus muscle (S, white gastrocnemius muscle (WG, red gastrocnemius muscle (RG, pectoral muscle (P, intercostal muscle (IC and diaphragm muscle (D were promptly collected and analyzed. An analysis of variance (ANOVA and then a Tukey test (p>0.05 were carried out to assess the data (mean ± sem. RESULTS: There were changes in the following parameters of rats in the treated group: QRS interval, QTc interval and heart rate, characterized by an increase in these parameters, with the peak being reached in the period between the pre-treatment week and the first week. There was an increase of 127% in glycogen reserves in the LV. In relation to the total-protein amount, the significant difference was found in S, RG and D. As for the hematocrit and biochemical profile, it was possible to notice an increase in the percentage of erythrocytes. CONCLUSION: The study shows that major cardiac changes are triggered at an early stage, which indicates a hierarchy in the sequence of changes that compromise the homeostasis of the body.

  3. Analysis of the tensile strength on the healing of the abdominal wall of rats treated with infliximab Análise da força tênsil na cicatrização da parede abdominal de ratos tratados com infliximabe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Vieira Lopes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of infliximab, a murine/human chimeric monoclonal antibody, on the tensile strength of abdominal wall surgical wounds. METHODS: Sixty Wistar healthy male rats with initial body weight between 215 and 390 g and 60 and 90 days of age were randomly assigned into two groups, E (Experimental and C (Control with 30 animals each. Group E animals received a single subcutaneous dose of 5mg/Kg of infliximab, and Group C animals received equivalent subcutaneous volume of a solution of 0.9% NaCl. After 48h, animals from both groups were submitted to a 4 cm median incision in the abdominal wall, including all layers that had been reconstituted with continuous suture of the aponeurotic muscle and skin, with 5.0 nylon thread. Then, Group E animals were separated by simple allotment into three subgroups named E3, E7 and E14 with ten animals each, and those from group C into C3, C7, C14 and were submitted, respectively, the reoperation and euthanasia at the third, seventh and fourteenth postoperative day. The anterior abdominal wall, which was resected during reoperation, was cut with No 15 scalpel lamina perpendicularly to the surgical wound. Each specimen, in the form of a 6 cm x 2 cm strip, was fixed by the extremity so that the suture line was equidistant from the fixation points of the dynamometer, in order to undergo the tensile strength test. The dynamometer, which was gauged for each series of measures, was calibrated to apply velocity to the 25 mm/min rupture test; the rupture value was expressed in N (Newton. Prior to euthanasia, the abdominal vena cava was identified and punctured in order to collect blood for TNF-α dosage. RESULTS: The mean tensile strength found for animals from subgroups E3, E7, E14, C3, C7, C14 were, respectively, 16.03, 18.69, 27.01, 28.40, 27.22, 29.15 and 24.30 N. In the results of the multiple comparisons tests, significant differences (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do infliximabe, anticorpo

  4. Induction of intestinal metaplasia in the glandular stomach of rats by x-irradiation prior to oral administration of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, I; Watanabe, H; Terada, Y; Naito, Y; Naito, M [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology

    1980-12-01

    CD/CRJ rats were subjected to localized X-irradiation of the stomach and given N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in the drinking water. Rats given MNNG alone and non-treated rats were used as controls. Upon sacrifice at 15 months after the initial MNNG administration, intestinal metaplasia was observed; the histology was of complete type and the incidence was 100% in rats treated with X-rays and MNNG, whereas in rats treated with MNNG alone the intestinal metaplasia was of incomplete type and its incidence was 80%. However, the incidence of gastric cancer in rats treated with MNNG alone was 25%.

  5. Antioxidant Activities of Celery and Parsley Juices in Rats Treated with Doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Trivic

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We have examined the influence of diluted pure celery and parsley leaf and root juices and their combinations with doxorubicin on the antioxidant status [as measured by the content of reduced glutathione (GSH and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP] in liver homogenate and hemolysate and on the contents of cytochrome P450 in liver homogenate. It was found that doxorubicin significantly decreased the content of reduced glutathione and the total antioxidative status (FRAP in liver homogenate and hemolysate, while celery and parsley juices alone and in combination with doxorubicin had different actions. Doxorubicin and celery juice had no effect on content of cytochrome P450. However, in combination with doxorubicin, parsley root juice significant increased, and parsley leaves juice decreased the cytochrome P450 content (compared to doxorubicin treated animals. Only parsley root juice significantly increased the content of cytochrome P450.

  6. Antioxidant activities of celery and parsley juices in rats treated with doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarovic, Jovanka; Popovic, Mira; Zlinská, Janka; Trivic, Svetlana; Vojnovic, Matilda

    2010-09-03

    We have examined the influence of diluted pure celery and parsley leaf and root juices and their combinations with doxorubicin on the antioxidant status [as measured by the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)] in liver homogenate and hemolysate and on the contents of cytochrome P450 in liver homogenate. It was found that doxorubicin significantly decreased the content of reduced glutathione and the total antioxidative status (FRAP) in liver homogenate and hemolysate, while celery and parsley juices alone and in combination with doxorubicin had different actions. Doxorubicin and celery juice had no effect on content of cytochrome P450. However, in combination with doxorubicin, parsley root juice significant increased, and parsley leaves juice decreased the cytochrome P450 content (compared to doxorubicin treated animals). Only parsley root juice significantly increased the content of cytochrome P450.

  7. Effects of lysine clonixinate on cyclooxygenase I and II in rat lung and stomach preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, A M; Di Girolamo, G; de los Santos, A R; Martí, M L; Gimeno, M A

    1998-06-01

    Lysine clonixinate (LC) is a drug of antiinflammatory antipyretic and analgesic activity that produces minor digestive side-effects. This fact induced us to think that LC is possibly a weak COX-1 inhibitor. In order to investigate our hypothesis we inhibited cyclooxygenase activity with LC or indomethacin (INDO) in rat lung and stomach obtained from rats treated with lipopolysacharide (LPS) and control rats. Rat lung preparations incubated with 14C-arachidonic acid synthesise mainly PGE2. LC at 2.5 and 4.1 x 10(-5) M does not modify the basal production of PGE2 (probably COX-1) but at 6.8 x 10(-5) M significantly inhibited PGE2 production (approximately 48.5% inhibition, P<0.001). On the other hand, INDO at 10(-6) inhibited the basal production of PGE2 by around 73%. In LPS-treated rats, the production of PGE2 was significantly higher than in the lungs of control rats, probably due to the induction of COX-2. The addition of LC at 2.7 and 4.1 x 10(-5) M recovered the control values of PGE2 inhibiting, probably only from COX-2 activity. LC at higher concentrations (6.8 x 10(-5) M) and INDO 10(-6) M inhibited PGE2 formed by COX-2 and also partly by COX-1 activity.

  8. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.M.; Larson, C.E.

    1958-10-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium values from calutron deposits. The process consists in treating such deposits to produce an oxidlzed acidic solution containing uranium together with the following imparities: Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn. The uranium is recovered from such an impurity-bearing solution by adjusting the pH of the solution to the range 1.5 to 3.0 and then treating the solution with hydrogen peroxide. This results in the precipitation of uranium peroxide which is substantially free of the metal impurities in the solution. The peroxide precipitate is then separated from the solution, washed, and calcined to produce uranium trioxide.

  9. Sodium aerosol recovering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Koji; Ueda, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Kazuhisa.

    1997-01-01

    A main body of a recovering device is disposed in a sodium cooled reactor or a sodium cooled test device. Air containing sodium aerosol is sucked into the main body of the recovering device by a recycling fan and introduced to a multi-staged metal mesh filter portion. The air about against each of the metal mesh filters, and the sodium aerosol in the air is collected. The air having a reduced sodium aerosol concentration circulates passing through a recycling fan and pipelines to form a circulation air streams. Sodium aerosol deposited on each of the metal mesh filters is scraped off periodically by a scraper driving device to prevent clogging of each of the metal filters. (I.N.)

  10. Análise tensional e morfológica da anastomose colônica na colite induzida por ácido acético a 10%, em ratos Wistar, tratados com extrato aquoso de aroeira-do-sertão a 10% (Myracrodruon urundeuva fr. all. Tensional and morphologic analysis of the colonic anastomosis on 10% acetic acid induced colitis, in Wistar rats, treated with 10% aroeira-do-sertão (Myracrodruon urundeuva fr. all. aqueous extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rubens Soares Martins Cavalcante

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar, do ponto de vista tensional e morfológico, o efeito do extrato aquoso de aroeira-do-sertão a 10% na anastomose colônica, na vigência de colite induzida por ácido acético a 10%, em ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 48 ratos da linhagem Wistar, distribuídos em dois grupos. Todos os animais foram submetidos à indução da colite por solução aquosa de ácido acético a 10%. Vinte e quatro horas após, os animais foram submetidos à laparotomia, colotomia transversa total e anastomose término-terminal com fio de polipropileno 5-0. Grupo A (veículo, animais tratados com veículo à base de carboximetilcelulose. Grupo B (aroeira, animais tratados com extrato aquoso de aroeira a 10%. Ambos tratamentos foram sob a forma de enema. Os grupos A e B foram distribuídos em subgrupos A3, A7, A14 e A21; B3, B7, B14 e B21, respectivamente, conforme a data prevista para a eutanásia (3, 7, 14 e 21 dias. Nas respectivas datas, os animais foram relaparotomizados, o segmento colônico contendo a anastomose foi ressecado, submetido ao teste de pressão e em seguida à análise histológica. Para o estudo morfológico, as lâminas foram coradas com hematoxilina-eosina e avaliou-se a condição de cicatrização baseado numa tabela de escores que variava de 0 a 16. Quanto maior o escore melhor o grau de cicatrização. RESULTADOS: Na avaliação do estudo morfológico, que quantifica a evolução e o grau de cicatrização, como resultado final do processo cicatricial, o grupo aroeira foi superior ao grupo veículo (pPURPOSE: Verify, from a morphologic and tensional view point, the effect of the 10% aqueous extract of aroeira-do-sertão on the colonic anastomosis, during the occurrence of 10% acetic acid induced colitis, in Wistar rats. METHODS: There were used 48 Wistar rats, distributed in two groups. All animals were subjected to induction of colitis by aqueous solution of 10% acetic acid. Twenty-four hours later, the animals

  11. Induction of plaque-forming cell response in adrenalectomized nude rats using Thymosin fraction 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, B; Hougen, H P; Rygaard, J

    1982-01-01

    In adrenalectomized nude rats treated with Thymosin fraction 5 a plaque-forming cell (PFC) response comparable to that found in normal rats was obtained. The PFC response found after adrenalectomy alone or thymosin-treatment in unoperated animals was comparable to that of untreated nude rats....

  12. Recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1931-06-11

    A process for recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons from coking coal, mineral coal, or oil shale through treatment with hydrogen under pressure at elevated temperature is described. Catalysts and grinding oil may be used in the process if necessary. The process provides for deashing the coal prior to hydrogenation and for preventing the coking and swelling of the deashed material. During the treatment with hydrogen, the coal is either mixed with coal low in bituminous material, such as lean coal or active coal, as a diluent or the bituminous constituents which cause the coking and swelling are removed by extraction with solvents. (BLM)

  13. Uranium oxide recovering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Kazuaki; Takazawa, Hiroshi; Teramae, Naoki; Onoue, Takeshi.

    1997-01-01

    Nitrates containing uranium nitrate are charged in a molten salt electrolytic vessel, and a heat treatment is applied to prepare molten salts. An anode and a cathode each made of a graphite rod are disposed in the molten salts. AC voltage is applied between the anode and the cathode to conduct electrolysis of the molten salts. Uranium oxides are deposited as a recovered product of uranium, on the surface of the anode. The nitrates containing uranium nitrate are preferably a mixture of one or more nitrates selected from sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate, calcium nitrate and magnesium nitrate with uranium nitrate. The nitrates may be liquid wastes of nitrates. The temperature for the electrolysis of the molten salts is preferably from 150 to 300degC. The voltage for the electrolysis of the molten salts is preferably an AC voltage of from 2 to 6V, more preferably from 4 to 6V. (I.N.)

  14. Process for recovering uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacWood, G. E.; Wilder, C. D.; Altman, D.

    1959-03-24

    A process useful in recovering uranium from deposits on stainless steel liner surfaces of calutrons is presented. The deposit is removed from the stainless steel surface by washing with aqueous nitric acid. The solution obtained containing uranium, chromium, nickel, copper, and iron is treated with an excess of ammonium hydroxide to precipitnte the uranium, iron, and chromium and convert the nickel and copper to soluble ammonio complexions. The precipitated material is removed, dried and treated with carbon tetrachloride at an elevated temperature of about 500 to 600 deg C to form a vapor mixture of UCl/ sub 4/, UCl/sub 5/, FeCl/sub 3/, and CrCl/sub 4/. The UCl/sub 4/ is separated from this vapor mixture by selective fractional condensation at a temperature of about 500 to 400 deg C.

  15. Recovering oil from shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leahey, T; Wilson, H

    1920-11-13

    To recover oil free from inorganic impurities and water, and utilize the oil vapor and tarry matter for the production of heat, shale is heated in a retort at a temperature of not less than 120/sup 0/C. The vapors pass by a pipe into a water jacketed condenser from which the condensate and gas pass through a pipe into a chamber and then by a pipe to a setting chamber from where the light oils are decanted through a pipe into a tank. The heavy oil is siphoned through a pipe into a tank, while the gas passes through a pipe into a scrubber and then into a drier, exhauster and pipe to the flue and ports, above the fire-bars, into the retort. Air is introduced through a pipe, flue, and ports.

  16. Therapeutic effect of 15-deoxyspergualin on acute graft rejection detected by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectrography, and its effect on rat heart transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.; Kanashiro, M.; Watanabe, H.; Amemiya, H.

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 15-deoxyspergualin (DSG) on graft rejection, starting administration at the onset of rejection and on the induction of immunologic unresponsiveness. Hearts from WKAH rats were transplanted into the neck of ACI rats. The energy metabolism of the grafted hearts was followed by 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The day that energy metabolism started to fall was defined as the onset of rejection, and intraperitoneal administration of DSG was initiated at 5 mg/kg/day for 15 days from this day. The grafted heart arrested in 2 of 10 rats 9 and 11 days after transplantation, respectively, but the remaining 8 recovered from rejection and 5 of them showed evidence of immunologic unresponsiveness. Of 10 rats treated with DSG from the day of transplantation, only 1 rat showed evidence of unresponsiveness. The initiation of DSG treatment from the onset of rejection resulted in a higher percentage of induction of unresponsiveness. Therefore, DSG was considered to specifically inhibit lymphocyte clone expansion at the onset of rejection. Spleen cells obtained from recipients 7-10 days after the end of DSG treatment were administered to syngeneic ACI rats grafted with WKAH hearts. Graft survival was significantly prolonged, but long-term unresponsiveness could not be transferred. However, immunologic unresponsiveness could be adoptively transferred in 3 of 5 rats receiving spleen cells from syngeneic rats that had recovered from rejection after DSG treatment and had acquired long-term unresponsiveness. These results suggest that suppressor cells are resistant to DSG and are spared and participate in the maintenance of immunologic unresponsiveness

  17. [Effect of red maca (Lepidium meyenii) on INF-γ levels in ovariectomized rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva-Revilla, Johanna; Guerra-Castañon, Félix; Olcese-Mori, Paola; Lozada, Iván; Rubio, Julio; Gonzales, Carla; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2014-01-01

    Compare the effect of different doses of red maca on gamma interferon (IFN-γ) levels in ovariectomized rats (OVX). Adult female rats were randomly divided into the following six groups: Group 1: pseudo-ovariectomized rats (PO); Group 2: OVX rats; Group 3: OVX rats treated with 4 ug/kg estradiol; and Group 4, 5 and 6: OVX rats treated with red maca extracts with 2.15, 4.3 and 8.6 mg polyphenols/body weight kilogram, respectively. OVX rats showed low levels of IFN-γ compared to PO rats. Estradiol and red maca reversed the effect of ovariectomy on the IFN-γ levels. A positive dose-response effect of red maca on IFN-γ levels was shown (r = 0.57, p maca administration increases levels of IFN-γ in ovariectomized rats.

  18. RNA-sequencing data analysis of uterus in ovariectomized rats fed with soy protein isolate,17B-estradiol and casein

    Science.gov (United States)

    This data file describes the bioinformatics analysis of uterine RNA-seq data comparing genome wide effects of feeding soy protein isolate compared to casein to ovariectomized female rats age 64 days relative to treatment of casein fed rats with 5 ug/kg/d estradiol and relative to rats treated with e...

  19. LONG TERM EFFECT OF CHROMIUM ON LIPID PROFILE AND SOME HORMONES IN OBESE RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GABR, S.A.; ABDEL-KHALEK, L.G.; GHAREIB, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the long term effect of chromium picolinate (intake 30 and 60 days) on lipid profile, testosterone, thyroid hormones, corticosterone and insulin was studied in obese male rats. A total of 48 male albino rats were arranged into four equal groups. The rats were distributed into four equal main groups: 1- Normal rats left without any treatment and served as a control group. 2- Normal rats treated with chromium picolinate at a dose of 40 μg/kg/day. 3-Obese rats (after the induction of obesity) using fed high fat diet. 4- Obese rats treated with chromium picolinate. The results obtained showed that normal rats treated with chromium picolinate for 30 or 60 days had no changes in total cholesterol, triglycerides, total lipids, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ) when compared with the control group. The testosterone and corticosterone levels were significantly decreased in rats treated with chromium picolinate for 60 days. Insulin level was significantly increased in treated rats for 60 days when compared with the control ones. In obese rats, the lipid profile and corticosterone were significantly increased at 30 and 60 days, while the insulin levels were increased in obese rats fed on high fat diet for 30 days as compared with the control rats. The administration of chromium picolinate to obese rats succeeded to decrease the lipid profile, corticosterone (at 60 days) and insuline (at 30 days) when compared with the obese rats. It could be concluded from this study that chromium picolinate possess beneficial effects in decreasing lipid profile in obese rats. Therefore, additional of chromium picolinate may be useful in obese rats to burn excess body fat and in treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Since it cause decrease in testosterone level, its use was advised to restrict to relatively old age

  20. Effect of acacia nilotica leaves extract on hyperglycaemia, lipid profile and platelet aggregation in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, M.; Munir, T.A.; Nadeem, A.

    2011-01-01

    To consider new hypoglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and anti-platelet aggregation sources, aqueous methanol extract of Acacia Nilotica (AN) leaves was investigated in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced in 90 out of 120 male albino rats by administering 50 mg/Kg body weight (bw) streptozotocin intraperitoneal y, and was confirmed by measuring fasting blood glucose level >200 mg/dL on fourth post-induction day. The rats were equally divided into 4 groups, A (normal control), B (diabetic control), C (diabetics rats treated with plant extract) and group D (diabetics rats treated with glyburide). The rats of group C and D were given single dose of 300 mg/Kg bw, An extract, and 900 micro g/Kg bw glyburide respectively for 3 weeks. Blood glucose levels were measured by gluco meter, platelet aggregation by Dia Med method, beta-thrombo globulin and insulin by ELISA technique, and lipid components were measured by enzymatic calorimetric method. Results: Significant differences (p<0.05) were noticed in blood glucose, serum insulin, platelet aggregation and triglyceride levels in diabetic rats treated with AN extract and glyburide as compared to diabetic controlled rats. A significant difference (p<0.05) in beta-thrombo globulin and LDL levels was also noticed in rats treated with glyburide than the diabetic controlled rats. The levels of fasting blood glucose, beta-thrombo globulin and platelet aggregation were significantly reduced (p<0.05) in diabetic rats treated with glyburide than AN extract treated rats. Conclusions: Administration of AN leaves extract showed hypoglycaemic and anti-platelet aggregation activity in diabetic rats as that of glyburide. (author)

  1. The plasma carnitine concentration regulates renal OCTN2 expression and carnitine transport in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Schürch, R; Todesco, L; Novakova, K; Mevissen, M; Stieger, B; Krähenbühl, S

    2010-01-01

    Previous findings in rats and in human vegetarians suggest that the plasma carnitine concentration and/or carnitine ingestion may influence the renal reabsorption of carnitine. We tested this hypothesis in rats with secondary carnitine deficiency following treatment with N-trimethyl-hydrazine-3-propionate (THP) for 2 weeks and rats treated with excess L-carnitine for 2 weeks. Compared to untreated control rats, treatment with THP was associated with an approximately 70% decrease in plasma car...

  2. The Effects of Punica granatum Flower Extract on Skin Injuries Induced by Burn in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Nasiri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We compared the efficacy of P. granatum (P flower extract with that of silver sulfadiazine (SSD for treating thermal burn injuries in rats. Methods. Ten Wistar rats in each group were topically given base cream, normal saline, cream containing 1% SSD, or creams containing 5% or 10% Punica granatum flower extract. The treatments were administered once daily until complete wound healing was observed. The wound area and healing time were assessed. In addition, percentage wound contraction and histopathological characteristics such as neovascularization and collagen formation were determined. The tannin content in P. granatum extract was determined. Results. The decrease in the average size of wounds on day 15 of the treatment was higher in rats treated with creams containing P. granatum extract than in rats treated with cream containing SSD (2.8±0.9 cm2 versus 8.4±3.2 cm2. The wounds completely healed on day 25 of the treatment in rats treated with creams containing P. granatum flower extract compared with those in rats treated with the other agents. Conclusion. These results indicated that P. granatum flower extract promoted wound healing in rats and could be used for managing burn injuries.

  3. The Effects of Punica granatum Flower Extract on Skin Injuries Induced by Burn in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Ebrahim; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal; Akbari, Jafar; Azadbakht, Mohammad; Azizi, Soheil

    2017-01-01

    Background . We compared the efficacy of P. granatum (P) flower extract with that of silver sulfadiazine (SSD) for treating thermal burn injuries in rats. Methods . Ten Wistar rats in each group were topically given base cream, normal saline, cream containing 1% SSD, or creams containing 5% or 10% Punica granatum flower extract. The treatments were administered once daily until complete wound healing was observed. The wound area and healing time were assessed. In addition, percentage wound contraction and histopathological characteristics such as neovascularization and collagen formation were determined. The tannin content in P. granatum extract was determined. Results . The decrease in the average size of wounds on day 15 of the treatment was higher in rats treated with creams containing P. granatum extract than in rats treated with cream containing SSD (2.8 ± 0.9 cm 2 versus 8.4 ± 3.2 cm 2 ). The wounds completely healed on day 25 of the treatment in rats treated with creams containing P. granatum flower extract compared with those in rats treated with the other agents. Conclusion . These results indicated that P. granatum flower extract promoted wound healing in rats and could be used for managing burn injuries.

  4. Neurotensin enhances estradiol induced DNA synthesis in immature rat uterus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistry, A.; Vijayan, E.

    1985-05-27

    Systemic administration of Neurotensin, a tridecapeptide, in immature rats treated with estradiol benzoate significantly enhances uterine DNA synthesis as reflected by the incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine. The peptide may have a direct action on the uterus. Substance P, a related peptide, had no effect on uterine DNA synthesis. 18 references, 4 tables.

  5. Effect of fibrinolysis inhibitors on survival time of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smok, W.

    1988-01-01

    The possibilities of alleviation of the gastrointestinal syndrome of acute radiation sickness by modification of haemorrhagic diathesis using EACA and traskolan were studied. A significant prolongation of the mean survival time was obtained in the irradiated rats treated with EACA. 7 tabs., 10 refs. (author)

  6. In vivo bio-distribution, clearance and toxicity assessment of biogenic silver and gold nanoparticles synthesized from Abutilon indicum in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Rani; Nakkala, Jayachandra Reddy; Chandra, Varshney Khub; Raja, Kumar; Sadras, Sudha Rani

    2018-07-01

    This study reports the bio-distribution and clearance of Abutilon indicum silver and gold nanoparticles (AIAgNPs and AIAuNPs) in Wistar rats. Rats in different groups were orally administered with 5 and 10 mg/Kg BW of AIAgNPs and AIAuNPs (size 1-25 nm) for 28 days and few were maintained until 58 days of washout period. Serum biochemical parameters were not changed significantly at both doses of AIAuNPs and at lower concentration of AIAgNPs. But, with 10 mg/Kg BW of AIAgNPs rats showed elevated levels of AST, ALP and ALT on day 29, however, these levels were restored to normal after washout period. Liver oxidative stress markers were not altered with the treatment of AIAgNPs and AIAuNPs. ICP-OES analysis indicated bio-distribution of Ag and Au more in liver, kidney and spleen on day 29 and was found cleared on day 59. Histological analysis of nine vital organs indicated normal tissue architecture at both doses of AIAuNPs and lower dose of AIAgNPs. While the rats treated with higher dose of AIAgNPs showed mild liver sinusoid cell swelling on day 29, which also was recovered on day 59. Findings of this preclinical study indicate biocompatible nature of biogenic nanoparticles supporting their future biomedical applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of dietary galacto-oligosaccharides on azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci and colorectal cancer in Fischer 344 rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, M.V.W.; Schoterman, H.C.; Bruijntjes, J.P.; Hollanders, V.M.H.; Woutersen, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS, Elix'or) on the development of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and colorectal tumours in rats treated with azoxymethane (AOM). Two groups of 102 male Fischer 344 rats were injected twice with AOM to induce

  8. Toxicoproteomic assessment of liver responses to acute pyrrolizidine alkaloid intoxication in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Hong; Tai, William Chi-Shing; Khan, Imran; Lu, Cheng; Lu, Yao; Wong, Wing-Yan; Chan, Wood-Yee; Wendy Hsiao, Wen-Luan; Lin, Ge

    2018-04-03

    A toxicoproteomic study was performed on liver of rats treated with retrorsine (RTS), a representative hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid at a toxic dose (140 mg/kg) known to cause severe acute hepatotoxicity. By comparing current data with our previous findings in mild liver lesions of rats treated with a lower dose of RTS, seven proteins and three toxicity pathways of vascular endothelial cell death, which was further verified by observed sinusoidal endothelial cell losses, were found uniquely associated with retrorsine-induced hepatotoxicity. This toxicoproteomic study of acute pyrrolizidine alkaloid intoxication lays a foundation for future investigation to delineate molecular mechanisms of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced hepatotoxicity.

  9. Hepatoprotective Effects of Chinese Medicine Herbs Decoction on Liver Cirrhosis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Aziyah Mat-Rahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatoprotective and curative activities of aqueous extract of decoction containing 10 Chinese medicinal herbs (HPE-XA-08 were evaluated in Sprague–Dawley albino rats with liver damage induced by thioacetamide (TAA. These activities were assessed by investigating the liver enzymes level and also histopathology investigation. Increases in alkaline phosphatase (ALP and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT levels were observed in rats with cirrhotic liver. No significant alterations of the liver enzymes were observed following treatment with HPE-XA-08. Histopathology examination of rats treated with HPE-XA-08 at 250 mg/kg body weight, however, exhibited moderate liver protective effects. Reduced extracellular matrix (ECM proteins within the hepatocytes were noted in comparison to the cirrhotic liver. The curative effects of HPE-XA-08 were observed with marked decrease in the level of ALP (more than 3x and level of GGT (more than 2x in cirrhotic rat treated with 600 mg/kg body weight HPE-XA-08 in comparison to cirrhotic rat treated with just water diluent. Reversion of cirrhotic liver to normal liver condition in rats treated with HPE-XA-08 was observed. Results from the present study suggest that HPE-XA-08 treatment assisted in the protection from liver cirrhosis and improved the recovery of cirrhotic liver.

  10. Acacia nilotica leave extract and glyburide: comparison of fasting flood glucose, serum insulin, b-thromboglubulin levels and platelet aggregation in treptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, M.; Munir, T.A.; Afzal, N.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the hypoglycaemic and anti-platelet aggregation effect of aqueous methanol extract of Acacia Nilotica (AN) leaves compared with glyburide on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced in 90 out of 120 albino rats by administering 50 mg/kg body weight (b.w) streptozotocin and was confirmed by measuring fasting blood glucose level >200 mg/dL on fourth post-induction day. The rats were equally divided into 4 groups, A (normal control), B (diabetic control), C (diabetic rats treated with AN extract) and group D (diabetic rats treated with glyburide). The rats of group C and D were given 300 mg/kg b.w AN extract and 900 mu gm/kg b.w glyburide respectively for 3 weeks. Blood glucose was measured by gluco meter, platelet aggregation by Dia-Med method and insulin and b-thrombo globulin by ELISA technique. Results: A significant increase (p<0.05) in fasting blood glucose, b-thrombo globulin and platelet aggregation and a significant decrease (p<0.05) in insulin levels was observed in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats than the normal controls. The rats treated with AN extract and glyburide showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in fasting blood glucose and increase (p<0.05) in insulin levels than the diabetic control rats. However, the levels in both the treatment groups remained significantly different than the normal controls. A significant decrease (p<0.05) in b-thrombo globulin levels was seen in diabetic rats treated with glyburide than the diabetic control rats and diabetic rats treated with AN extract. Conclusions: AN leaves extract result into hypoglycaemic and anti-platelet aggregation activity in diabetic rats as that of glyburide. (author)

  11. Stimulation of prostacyclin synthesis in rats by phenobarbital treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pynadath, T.I.; Haghighi, A.Z.

    1986-01-01

    Prostacyclin (PGI 2 ), synthesized in the endothelial cells of arteries, is known to inhibit the aggregation of platelets and hence thrombosis in blood. Low levels of PGI 2 have been observed in coronary heart disease which is associated with low levels of HDL in blood. Recently, it has been shown that synthesis of PGI 2 in vitro, is stimulated by HDL. Hence it seems likely that higher level of HDL in blood would increase the level of PGI 2 in blood. Since phenobarbital treatment is known to increase blood HDL levels in humans and animals, this study was undertaken to determine the effect of phenobarbital treatment on the synthesis of PGI 2 . Coronary vascular microsomes were prepared from Sprague Dawley rats treated with phenobarbital for two days. The PGI 2 synthesizing activity was assayed by incubating these microsomes with 1- 14 C-arachidonic acid and by determining the 14 C-activity recovered in 6-ketoprostaglandin F/sub 1α/, the stable decomposition product of PGI 2 . Phenobarbital treatment increased the synthesis of PGI 2 nearly 2-fold. Addition of phenobarbital did not increase PGI 2 synthesis in control microsomes; however, the synthesis was increased by HDL. Thus, it appears that the observed increase in PGI 2 synthesis resulting from phenobarbital treatment was partly, if not totally, due to the increase in blood HDL level

  12. Process of recovering bituminous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1920-08-22

    A modification of the process covered by German Patent 389,393 for recovering bituminous materials from oil shale by extraction is disclosed consisting, in place of or besides wood spirit oil, of acetone oil, suitably of boiling point 80 to 130/sup 0/C, being used as the extraction medium.

  13. Effects of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) on the liver of diabetic rats: a morphological and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkent, S; Yanardag, R; Ozsoy-Sacan, O; Karabulut-Bulan, O

    2004-12-01

    Parsley is used by diabetics in Turkey to reduce blood glucose. The present study aims to investigate both the morphological and biochemical effects of parsley on liver tissue. Rat hepatocytes were examined by light and electron microscopy. Degenerative changes were observed in the hepatocytes of diabetic rats. These degenerative changes were significantly reduced or absent in the hepatocytes of diabetic rats treated with parsley. Blood glucose levels, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase were observed to be raised in diabetic rats. Diabetic rats treated with parsley demonstrated significantly lower levels of blood glucose, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. The present study suggests that parsley demonstrates a significant hepatoprotective effect in diabetic rats. 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Effect of growth hormone on glycogenesis in rat cerebral cortical slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visweswaran, P.; Binod Kumar; Azad, V.S.S.; Brahamchari, A.K.; Singh, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    Incubation of cerebral cortical slices of growth hormone treated diabetic and normal rats with U- 14 C glucose showed a two-fold increase in glycogenesis in diabetic rats. Glucose-6-phosphatase activity was lowered while the activities of phosphoglucomutase and phosphorylase were elevated in the cerebral cortex of diabetic rats treated with growth hormone. However, glycogen synthetase activity was slightly depressed. (author). 13 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Angiotensin II's role in sodium lactate-induced panic-like responses in rats with repeated urocortin 1 injections into the basolateral amygdala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Philip L; Sajdyk, Tammy J; Fitz, Stephanie D

    2013-01-01

    Rats treated with three daily urocortin 1 (UCN) injections into the basolateral amygdala (BLA; i.e., UCN/BLA-primed rats) develop prolonged anxiety-associated behavior and vulnerability to panic-like physiological responses (i.e., tachycardia, hypertension and tachypnea) following intravenous...

  16. The data set describing cognitive performance after varenicline administration in a 3-choice serial reaction time task in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ohmura

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The data shows attentional function, impulsivity, motivation, motor function, and motor activity in rats treated with varenicline, a stop-smoking aid. The data also shows these parameters in rats treated with varenicline after acute/chronic nicotine administration. Our interpretation and discussion of these data were described in the article “Varenicline Provokes Impulsive Action by Stimulating α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Infralimbic Cortex in a Nicotine Exposure Status-Dependent Manner” (Ohmura et al., 2017 [1].

  17. Treating effluents; recovering coal, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, F B; Bury, E

    1920-02-18

    Liquor obtained by scrubbing coal gas with sea-water or fresh water, and containing or having added to it finely-divided carbonaceous material in suspension, is subjected to a froth-flotation process to recover the carbonaceous matter and organic materials in the froth, and render the remaining liquor innocuous. Liquor obtained by scrubbing distillation gases, such as coal gas, may be used as a frothing-agent in a froth flotation process for the recovery of carbonaceous substances such as coal from materials containing them, thereby producing a froth containing the coal, etc., and also the organic materials from the liquor. In some cases the effluent may be diluted with sea-water, and, in recovering carbonaceous shales, there may be added to the liquor a small proportion of paraffin oil.

  18. Methods of recovering alkali metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Rigali, Mark J

    2014-03-04

    Approaches for alkali metal extraction, sequestration and recovery are described. For example, a method of recovering alkali metals includes providing a CST or CST-like (e.g., small pore zeolite) material. The alkali metal species is scavenged from the liquid mixture by the CST or CST-like material. The alkali metal species is extracted from the CST or CST-like material.

  19. The transfection of BDNF to dopamine neurons potentiates the effect of dopamine D3 receptor agonist recovering the striatal innervation, dendritic spines and motor behavior in an aged rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F Razgado-Hernandez

    Full Text Available The progressive degeneration of the dopamine neurons of the pars compacta of substantia nigra and the consequent loss of the dopamine innervation of the striatum leads to the impairment of motor behavior in Parkinson's disease. Accordingly, an efficient therapy of the disease should protect and regenerate the dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra and the dopamine innervation of the striatum. Nigral neurons express Brain Derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF and dopamine D3 receptors, both of which protect the dopamine neurons. The chronic activation of dopamine D3 receptors by their agonists, in addition, restores, in part, the dopamine innervation of the striatum. Here we explored whether the over-expression of BDNF by dopamine neurons potentiates the effect of the activation of D3 receptors restoring nigrostriatal innervation. Twelve-month old Wistar rats were unilaterally injected with 6-hydroxydopamine into the striatum. Five months later, rats were treated with the D3 agonist 7-hydroxy-N,N-di-n-propy1-2-aminotetralin (7-OH-DPAT administered i.p. during 4½ months via osmotic pumps and the BDNF gene transfection into nigral cells using the neurotensin-polyplex nanovector (a non-viral transfection that selectively transfect the dopamine neurons via the high-affinity neurotensin receptor expressed by these neurons. Two months after the withdrawal of 7-OH-DPAT when rats were aged (24 months old, immunohistochemistry assays were made. The over-expression of BDNF in rats receiving the D3 agonist normalized gait and motor coordination; in addition, it eliminated the muscle rigidity produced by the loss of dopamine. The recovery of motor behavior was associated with the recovery of the nigral neurons, the dopamine innervation of the striatum and of the number of dendritic spines of the striatal neurons. Thus, the over-expression of BDNF in dopamine neurons associated with the chronic activation of the D3 receptors appears to be a promising strategy

  20. Obesity and the use of antibiotics and probiotics in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá Del Fiol, Fernando; Tardelli Ferreira, Alessandra Cristina Marciano; Marciano, Jorge José; Marques, Maria Claudia; Sant'Ana, Luciane Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has become a major public health challenge in recent years. Recent studies suggest that alterations of the gut microbiota by antibiotics could play an important role in obesity. We investigated this topic using 60 Wistar rats, which were divided into 3 experimental groups: rats treated with amoxicillin, rats treated with amoxicillin plus Saccharomyces boulardii and controls. Treatments were administered over the course of 2 weeks. Tetrapolar bioelectric impedance analysis and anthropometric evaluations were conducted. The body mass index was significantly lower for the animals in the control group (p = 0.034). The same result was observed for the Lee index: the control group had a lower index than the 2 groups that received antibiotic treatment (p = 0.0019). The total body water data demonstrated that the control group had the greatest amount of body water (279.1 g, p = 0.0243). The groups treated with the antibiotic exhibited a greater accumulation of body fat than the control group.

  1. A schizophrenia rat model induced by early postnatal phencyclidine treatment and characterized by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Brian V; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Plath, Niels

    2013-01-01

    administration of phencyclidine (PCP) induces schizophrenia-like symptoms in healthy volunteers and exacerbates symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. In this study, pharmacological Magnetic Resonance Imaging (phMRI) was used to evaluate if rats treated with 20mg/kg PCP on postnatal days 7, 9, and 11 (neo...

  2. Laser de baixa intensidade (830 nm na recuperação funcional do nervo isquiático de ratos Low intensity laser (830 nm functional to recover of the sciatic nerve in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Marcio Marcolino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do laser de baixa intensidade na melhora funcional da marcha de ratos após esmagamento do nervo ciático. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 18 ratos divididos alea-to-riamente em dois grupos: controle (sham e irradiado com densidade de energia de 40J/cm², em 21 dias consecutivos, utilizando o laser 830nm (AsGaAl. Os animais foram submetidos ao esmagamento do nervo ciático direito com o dispositivo portátil de peso morto e avaliados pelo "Índice Funcional do Ciático" (IFC. As pegadas foram coletadas no pré-operatório, 7º, 14º e 21º dias pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: Os resultados do IFC foram significantes quando comparados os grupos no 7º e 14º dia pós-operatório (pOBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of low-intensity laser on functional improvement of the walking of rats after sciatic nerve axonotmesis. METHODS: We used 18 rats divided randomly in two groups: control (Sham and irradiated with an energy density of 40J/cm² for 21 consecutive days, using 830nm laser (AsGaAl. The animals were subjected to right sciatic nerve crushing by a portable device and assessed by the "Sciatic Functional Index" (SFI at an acrylic platform through video recorded by a digital camera. The footprints were collected preoperatively, and on the 7th, 14th and 21st postoperative days. RESULTS: The results of the SFI were significant when comparing the groups on the 7th and 14th postoperative day (p<0.05. On the 21st postoperative day there was no difference between groups. There were intra-group differences detected in each evaluated week (p<0.01. The irradiated animals showed improvement in motion pattern, shown by the SFI values in the initial periods, but after 3 weeks, there was a similar recovery. CONCLUSION: The low-intensity laser has shown to be effective in accelerating regeneration of the sciatic nerve of rats after crushing.

  3. Upgraded RECOVER system - CASDAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoichi; Koyama, Kinji

    1992-03-01

    The CASDAC (Containment And Surveillance Data Authenticated Communication) system has been developed by JAERI for nuclear safeguards and physical protection of nuclear material. This system was designed and constructed as an upgraded RECOVER system, design concept of which was based on the original RECOVER system and also the TRANSEAVER system. Both of them were developed several years ago as a remote monitoring system for continual verification of security and safeguards status of nuclear material. The system consists of two subsystems, one of them is a Grand Command Center (GCC) subsystem and the other is a facility subsystem. Communication between the two subsystems is controlled through the international telephone line network. Therefore all communication data are encrypted to prevent access by an unauthorized person who may intend to make a falsification, or tapping. The facility subsystem has an appropriate measure that ensure data security and reliable operation under unattended mode of operator. The software of this system is designed so as to be easily used in other different types of computers. This report describes the outline of the CASDAC system and the results of its performance test. This work has been carried out in the framework of Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS) as a project, JA-1. (author)

  4. Comparison of effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition with those of angiotensin II receptor antagonism on functional and metabolic recovery in postischemic working rat heart as studied by [31P] nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werrmann, J G; Cohen, S M

    1994-10-01

    To assess the role of angiotensin II (AII) in development of myocardial injury during ischemia and reperfusion, the effects of short-term treatment with the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor lisinopril were compared with the effects of short-term treatment with L-158,338, an AII antagonist, in isolated working rat heart. Myocardial function was assessed and correlated with simultaneous measurement of high-energy phosphate metabolism and intracellular pH by [31P] nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) before, during, and after global ischemia. Hearts from rats treated with 1 mg/kg lisinopril in vivo recovered substantially more function than those of controls (p effect on functional recovery. A dose-dependent increase in functional recovery was observed in rat heart treated with 0.3, 1, or 3 mg/kg L-158,338 in vivo (p energy phosphate metabolism was essentially unchanged by any treatment regimen. AII antagonism alone resulted in a degree of improvement in functional recovery comparable to that observed with oral ACE inhibitor treatment.

  5. Process of recovering shale oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1949-01-17

    A process is disclosed for recovering oil from shale rock by means of channels cut in the shale deposit, to which heat is carried for warming the shale mass and which are separated from the fume channels formed in the shale by parts of the shale rock, characterized in that heating elements are put down in the heating channels, which occupy less cross section than these channels, and in the so-formed space between the channel wall and the heating element a filling is placed, which facilitates heat transfer between the heating element and the shale and simultaneously prevents a streaming of the oily product gasified out of the shale from working into the heating element and stopping it.

  6. Recovering uranium from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Wet-process phosphoric acid contains a significant amount of uranium. This uranium totals more than 1,500 tons/yr in current U.S. acid output--and projections put the uranium level at 8,000 tons/yr in the year 2000. Since the phosphoric acid is a major raw material for fertilizers, uranium finds its way into those products and is effectively lost as a resource, while adding to the amount of radioactive material that can contaminate the food chain. So, resource-conservation and environmental considerations both make recovery of the uranium from phosphoric acid desirable. This paper describes the newly developed process for recovering uranium from phosphoric acid by using solvent-extraction technique. After many extractants had been tested, the researchers eventually selected the combination of di (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (DEPA) and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) as the most suitable. The flowscheme of the process is included

  7. METHOD OF RECOVERING URANIUM COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, R.H.

    1957-10-29

    S>The recovery of uranium compounds which have been adsorbed on anion exchange resins is discussed. The uranium and thorium-containing residues from monazite processed by alkali hydroxide are separated from solution, and leached with an alkali metal carbonate solution, whereby the uranium and thorium hydrorides are dissolved. The carbonate solution is then passed over an anion exchange resin causing the uranium to be adsorbed while the thorium remains in solution. The uranium may be recovered by contacting the uranium-holding resin with an aqueous ammonium carbonate solution whereby the uranium values are eluted from the resin and then heating the eluate whereby carbon dioxide and ammonia are given off, the pH value of the solution is lowered, and the uranium is precipitated.

  8. Uranium material removing and recovering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takita, Shin-ichi.

    1997-01-01

    A uranium material removing and recovering device for use in removing surplus uranium heavy metal (UO 2 ) generated in a uranium handling facility comprises a uranium material removing device and a uranium material recovering device. The uranium material removing device comprises an adsorbing portion filled with a uranium adsorbent, a control portion for controlling the uranium adsorbent of the uranium adsorbing portion by a controlling agent, a uranium adsorbing device connected thereto and a jetting device for jetting the adsorbing liquid to equipments deposited with uranium. The recovering device comprises a recovering apparatus for recovering uranium materials deposited with the adsorbent liquid removed by the jetting device and a recovering tank for storing the recovered uranium materials. The device of the present invention can remove surplus uranium simply and safely, mitigate body's load upon removing and recovering operations, facilitate the processing for the exchange of the adsorbent and reduces the radioactive wastes. (T.M.)

  9. Immunoneutralization of endogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 reduces adaptive intestinal growth in diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Bolette; Thulesen, Jesper; Hare, Kristine Juul

    2002-01-01

    in the proximal part of the small intestine (10.84+/-0.44 mm(2)). Antibody treatment had no effect on body weight, blood glucose concentrations and food intake. Thus, blocking of endogenous GLP-2 in a model of adaptive intestinal growth reduces the growth response, providing strong evidence for a physiological......Supraphysiological doses of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) have been shown to induce intestinal growth by increasing villus height and crypt depth and by decreasing apoptosis, but a physiological effect of GLP-2 has not yet been demonstrated. Earlier, we found elevated levels of endogenous GLP-2...... in untreated streptozotocin diabetic rats associated with marked intestinal growth. In the present study, we investigated the role of endogenous GLP-2 for this adaptive response. We included four groups of six rats: (1) diabetic rats treated with saline, (2) diabetic rats treated with non-specific antibodies...

  10. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  11. Commonly consumed and naturally occurring dietary substances affect biomarkers of oxidative stress and DNA damage in healthy rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farombi, E. O.; Hansen, Max; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2004-01-01

    in magnitude to that of the known liver protectant, kolaviron. In rats treated with kolaviron (200 mg/kg body weight), background AAS levels were significantly reduced in both plasma and liver whereas the effect on MDA only reached statistical significance in plasma. Kolaviron was the only extract tested which...

  12. Decreases in renal functional reserve and proximal tubular fluid output in conscious oophorectomized rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Camilla Birch; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Bruun, Jens Meldgaard

    2003-01-01

    Age-dependent glomerulosclerosis with reduced GFR develops earlier among men than among women. Therefore, whether female sex hormones could prevent the age-dependent decrease in GFR was investigated. The kidney function in oophorectomized rats treated with placebo (OOX group), estrogen (OOX+E(2...... effects were prevented with administration of estrogen. Sham-operated rats demonstrated values for renal functional reserve and fractional lithium excretion that were between those observed for the OOX group and the groups treated with sex hormones....

  13. The antidiabetic effect of L-carnitine in rats: the role of nitric oxide system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaghayegh Hajian-Shahri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, the use of L-carnitine in the treatment of diabetes is increasing. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of co-administration of L-arginine (precursor for the synthesis of nitric oxide and nitro-L-arginine (nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor on antidiabetic activity of L-carnitine in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, 50 male rats weighing 180-201g were divided into five groups: (1 non diabetic control rats; (2 untreated diabetic rats; (3 diabetic rats treated with L-carnitine 300 mg/kg (4; diabetic rats treated with L-carnitine 300 mg/kg + L-arginine 300 mg/kg; and (5 diabetic rats treated with L-carnitine (300 mg/kg + nitro-L-arginine (1mg/kg. Type 1 diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 110 mg/kg body weight alloxan. After 30 days, liver malondialdehyde levels, lipid profile, serum glucose, and glycated hemoglobin serum levels were measured. Results: Blood glucose, liver enzymes, glycated hemoglobin, and liver malondialdehyde levels significantly decreased in diabetic rats treated with L-carnitine compared to the untreated diabetic group (P<0.05. The co-administration of L-arginine and L-carnitine led to a significant decrease in glycated hemoglobin levels and serum glucose, in a manner similar to the group received only L-carnitine. Also, L-arginine and nitro-l-arginine had similar effects on liver lipid peroxidation and serum biochemical parameters. Conclusion: The results suggest that the hypoglycemic effect of L-carnitine is mediated independently from nitric oxide pathways. The interaction between L-carnitine and L-arginine may not be synergistic. So, their combined administration is not recommended for the diabetic patients.

  14. Brain inflammation enhances 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-evoked neurotoxicity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goralski, Kerry B.; Renton, Kenneth W.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental Parkinson's disease and Parkinson's disease in humans include a CNS inflammatory component that may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. CNS inflammation produces a loss in cytochrome P450 metabolism and may impair the brain's protection against neurotoxins. We have examined if preexisting inflammation in the brain could increase the toxicity of the dopaminergic toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP + ). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 25 μg) or saline (control) was injected into the left lateral cerebral ventricle. A single injection of MPP + into the median forebrain bundle followed 48 h later and produced a reduction in striatal dopamine content that was dose and time dependant. Two-days after 5 μg of MPP + was administered, a 90% decrease in striatal dopamine content was observed in saline- and LPS-pretreated rats. However, 4 and 7 days after 5 μg MPP + treatment, striatal dopamine recovered up to 70-80% of control values in saline-pretreated rats but remained depressed (80-90%) in rats treated with LPS. These results suggested that CNS inflammation might create an increased risk factor for drug-induced CNS toxicity or chemically mediated Parkinson's disease. The prolonged toxicity of MPP + may be due to a decrease in brain cytochrome P450 metabolism that occurs during inflammation. As a second objective for the study, we examined if the CNS lesion produced by MPP + altered cytochrome P450 metabolic activity in the liver, kidney, and lung. We have demonstrated a novel mechanism whereby the brain pathology produced by MPP + treatment contributes to a reduction in cytochrome P450 metabolism in the kidney but not the liver or lung. Therefore, a chemically evoked CNS disorder with a chronic inflammatory component might have major effects on the renal metabolism of drugs or endogenous substrates

  15. Curcumin inhibits amygdaloid kindled seizures in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DU, Peng; Li, Xin; Lin, Hao-Jie; Peng, Wei-Feng; Liu, Jian-Ying; Ma, Yu; Fan, Wei; Wang, Xin

    2009-06-20

    Curcumin can reduce the severity of seizures induced by kainate acid (KA), but the role of curcumin in amygdaloid kindled models is still unknown. This study aimed to explore the effect of curcumin on the development of kindling in amygdaloid kindled rats. With an amygdaloid kindled Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model and an electrophysiological method, different doses of curcumin (10 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) and 30 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) as low dose groups, 100 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) and 300 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) as high dose groups) were administrated intraperitoneally during the whole kindling days, by comparison with the course of kindling, afterdischarge (AD) thresholds and the number of ADs to reach the stages of class I to V seizures in the rats between control and experimental groups. One-way or two-way ANOVA and Fisher's least significant difference post hoc test were used for statistical analyses. Curcumin (both 100 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) and 300 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1)) significantly inhibited the behavioral seizure development in the (19.80 +/- 2.25) and (21.70 +/- 2.21) stimulations respectively required to reach the kindled state. Rats treated with 100 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) curcumin 30 minutes before kindling stimulation showed an obvious increase in the stimulation current intensity required to evoke AD from (703.3 +/- 85.9) microA to (960.0 +/- 116.5) microA during the progression to class V seizures. Rats treated with 300 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) curcumin showed a significant increase in the stimulation current intensity required to evoke AD from (735.0 +/- 65.2) microA to (867.0 +/- 93.4) microA during the progression to class V seizures. Rats treated with 300 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) curcumin required much more evoked ADs to reach the stage of class both IV (as (199.83 +/- 12.47) seconds) and V seizures (as (210.66 +/- 10.68) seconds). Rats treated with 100 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) curcumin required much more evoked ADs to reach the stage of class V seizures (as (219.56 +/- 18.24) seconds). Our study suggests that curcumin has

  16. Potential Effects of Desalinated Seawater on Arteriosclerosis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lian; Zhang, Li Xia; Zhang, Shao Ping; Kong, Jian; Zhi, Hong; Zhang, Ming; Lu, Kai; Zhang, Hong Wei

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the potential risk of arteriosclerosis caused by desalinated seawater, Wistar rats were provided desalinated seawater over a 1-year period, and blood samples were collected at 0, 90, 180, and 360 days. Blood calcium, magnesium, and arteriosclerosis-related indicators were investigated. Female rats treated with desalinated seawater for 180 days showed lower magnesium levels than the control rats (P seawater for 360 days (P seawater, and no increase in risk of arteriosclerosis was observed. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  17. Fenbendazole treatment may influence lipopolysaccharide effects in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Randy L; Choi, Dong-Young; Kincer, Jeanie F; Cass, Wayne A; Bing, Guoying; Gash, Don M

    2007-10-01

    In evaluating discrepant results between experiments in our laboratory, we collected data that challenge the notion that anthelminthic drugs like FBZ do not alter inflammatory responses. We found that FBZ significantly modulates inflammation in F344 rats intrastriatally injected with LPS. FBZ treatment of LPS-injected rats significantly increased weight loss, microglial activation, and dopamine loss; in addition, FBZ attenuated the LPS-induced loss of astrocytes. Therefore, FBZ treatment altered the effects of LPS injection. Caution should be used in interpreting data collected from rats treated with LPS and FBZ.

  18. Glutamine and ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate supplementation on malate dehydrogenases expression in hepatectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães Filho, Artur; Cunha, Rodrigo Maranguape Silva da; Vasconcelos, Paulo Roberto Leitão de; Guimarães, Sergio Botelho

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the relative gene expression (RGE) of cytosolic (MDH1) and mitochondrial (MDH2) malate dehydrogenases enzymes in partially hepatectomized rats after glutamine (GLN) or ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG) suplementation. One-hundred and eight male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into six groups (n=18): CCaL, GLNL and OKGL and fed calcium caseinate (CCa), GLN and OKG, 0.5 g/Kg by gavage, 30 minutes before laparotomy. CCaH, GLNH and OKGH groups were likewise fed 30 minutes before 70% partial hepatectomy. Blood and liver samples were collected three, seven and 14 days after laparotomy/hepatectomy for quantification of MDH1/MDH2 enzymes using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodology. Relative enzymes expression was calculated by the 2-(ΔΔC)T method using the threshold cycle (CT) value for normalization. MDH1/MDH2 RGE was not different in hepatectomized rats treated with OKG compared to rats treated with CCa. However, MDH1/MDH2 RGE was greater on days 3 (321:1/26.48:1) and 7 (2.12:1/2.48:1) while MDH2 RGE was greater on day 14 (7.79:1) in hepatectomized rats treated with GLN compared to control animals. Glutamine has beneficial effects in liver regeneration in rats by promoting an up-regulation of the MDH1 and MDH2 relative gene expression.

  19. Thrombolytic effects in vivo of nattokinase in a carrageenan-induced rat model of thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianping; Du, Ming; Yang, Xiulin; Chen, Qingquan; Chen, Hong; Lin, Dong-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Nattokinase is a serine protease produced by Bacillus subtilis during the fermentation of the soybean product natto. The fibrinolytic activity and thrombolytic effects of nattokinase have been observed in vitro, but the effect in vivo has still to be researched. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the activity of nattokinase in vivo. To establish a rat model of thrombosis, κ-carrageenan was injected subcutaneously into the toes of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Histological examination confirmed thrombosis. The rats were then treated with varying doses of nattokinase and the resulting thrombolysis was histologically assessed. ELISA was used to determine the levels of the fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products (FDPs) and D-dimer, which are sensitive indices of fibrinolytic activity. Vermis kinase, a known thrombolytic agent, was used as a positive control. Biopsy results revealed partial thrombolysis in the tail vessels of the rats treated with nattokinase or vermis kinase. FDP and D-dimer levels were higher in rats treated with high-dose nattokinase than in those treated with saline. No difference in FDP or D-dimer levels was observed between rats treated with high-dose nattokinase and those treated with vermis kinase. Both the histological and physiological evidence from this study indicate that nattokinase exerts thrombolytic effects in vivo.

  20. Ameliorative Activity of Ethanol Extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus Stem Bark on Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, Basiru O; Ojo, Oluwafemi A; Adeyonu, Oluwatosin; Imiere, Oluwatosin D; Fadaka, Adewale O; Osukoya, Adetutu O

    2017-10-01

    This study sought to investigate the ameliorative effects of ethanol extract Artocarpus heterophyllus (EAH) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The rats were divided into 6 groups, with groups 1 and 2 serving as nondiabetic and diabetic control, respectively; group 3 serving as diabetic rats treated with 5 mg/kg glibenclamide; and groups 4 to 6 were diabetic rats treated with 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg of EAH, respectively. Assays determined were serum insulin, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzyme activities. EAH stem bark reduced fasting blood glucose and lipid peroxidation levels and increased serum insulin levels and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Data obtained demonstrated the ability of EAH stem bark to ameliorate pancreatic β-cell dysfunction in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

  1. Effects of weaning by surrogate mothers (ACI) on tumor development in SD rats treated with methylnitrosourea (MNU) and/or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Katsuhisa; Lu, Huimei; Ishimura, Yoshimasa; Kashiwabara, Shoji; Uesaka, Toshihiro; Katoh, Osamu; Watanabe, Hiromitsu

    2002-09-01

    In this experiment, methylnitrosourea (MNU) was administered, followed by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), to assess effects of surrogate mothering on tumor. One or two day old male SD pups were treated with or without 30 mg/kg body weight of MNU and nursed by SD or ACI surrogate mothers for 5 weeks. When 6-weeks-old they were then treated with 100 ppm MNNG or tap water for 16 weeks. The tumor incidence in the MNNG alone group was significantly lower than with MNU alone or MNU+MNNG (p surrogate mothers after treatment with MNU was increased as compared with the SD mother group. Cumulative development of tumors in the ACI surrogate mother group was also delayed (p mother's milk.

  2. Stress-induced activation of the brainstem Bcl-xL gene expression in rats treated with fluoxetine: correlations with serotonin metabolism and depressive-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkina, Galina T; Kalinina, Tatyana S; Berezova, Inna V; Dygalo, Nikolay N

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying stress-induced depression and antidepressant drug action were shown to involve alterations in serotonergic (5-HT) neurotransmission and expression of genes coding for proteins associated with neurotrophic signaling pathways and cell-survival in the hippocampus and cortex. Expression of these genes in the brainstem containing 5-HT neurons may also be related to vulnerability or resilience to stress-related psychopathology. Here we investigated 5-HT markers and expression of genes for Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and apoptotic proteins in the brainstem in relation to swim stress-induced behavioral despair. We found that anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL gene is sensitive to stress during the course of fluoxetine administration. Responsiveness of this gene to stress appeared concomitantly with an antidepressant-like effect of fluoxetine in the forced swim test. Bcl-xL transcript levels showed negative correlations with duration of immobility in the test and 5-HT turnover in the brainstem. In contrast, BDNF and pro-apoptotic protein Bax mRNA levels were unchanged by either fluoxetine or stress, suggesting specificity of Bcl-xL gene responses to these treatments. We also found that the levels of mRNAs for tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) and 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) were significantly down-regulated following prolonged treatment with fluoxetine, but were not affected by stress. Unlike TPH2 and 5-HTT, 5-HT1A receptor mRNA levels were not altered by fluoxetine but significantly increased in response to swim stress. These data show that long-term fluoxetine treatment leads to changes in 5-HT and Bcl-xL responses to stress associated with antidepressant-like effects of the drug. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibition of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone-Induced Preovulatory Follicles in Rats Treated with a Nonsteroidal Negative Allosteric Modulator of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor1

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, James A.; Campo, Brice; Weaver, Barbara A.; Watts, Julie; Kluetzman, Kerri; Thomas, Richard M.; Bonnet, Béatrice; Mutel, Vincent; Poli, Sonia M.

    2013-01-01

    We previously described a negative allosteric modulator (NAM) of FSHR (ADX61623) that blocked FSH-induced cAMP and progesterone production but did not block estradiol production. That FSHR NAM did not affect FSH-induced preovulatory follicle development as evidenced by the lack of an effect on the number of FSH-dependent oocytes found in the ampullae following ovulation with hCG. A goal is the development of a nonsteroidal contraceptive. Toward this end, a high-throughput screen using human F...

  4. Decreased nitric oxide levels in the hippocampus may play a role in learning and memory deficits in ovariectomized rats treated by a high dose of estradiol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reihaneh Sadeghian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a high estradiol dose on memory and on nitric oxide metabolites in hippocampal tissues were investigated. Sham-Est and OVX-Est Groups were treated with 4 mg/kg of estradiol valerate for 12 weeks. Time latency and path length were significantly higher in the Sham-Est and OVX-Est Groups than in the Sham and OVX Groups, respectively (p<0.001. The animals in the Sham-Est and OVX-Est Groups spent lower time in the target quadrant (Q1 than those of the Sham and OVX Groups during the probe trial test (p<0.05 and <0.001, respectively. Significantly lower nitric oxide metabolite levels in the hippocampi of the Sham-Est and OVX-Est Groups were observed than in the Sham and OVX ones (p<0.001. These results suggest that decreased nitric oxide levels in the hippocampus may play a role in the learning and memory deficits observed after treatment with a high dose of estradiol, although the precise underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated.

  5. POST-RETRIEVAL EXTINCTION ATTENUATES ALCOHOL CUE REACTIVITY IN RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofresí, Roberto U.; Lewis, Suzanne M.; Chaudhri, Nadia; Lee, Hongjoo J.; Monfils, Marie-H.; Gonzales, Rueben A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Conditioned responses to alcohol-associated cues can hinder recovery from alcohol use disorder (AUD). Cue exposure (extinction) therapy (CET) can reduce reactivity to alcohol cues, but its efficacy is limited by phenomena such as spontaneous recovery and reinstatement that can cause a return of conditioned responding after extinction. Using a preclinical model of alcohol cue reactivity in rats, we evaluated whether the efficacy of alcohol CET could be improved by conducting CET during the memory reconsolidation window after retrieval of a cue-alcohol association. METHODS Rats were provided with intermittent access to unsweetened alcohol. Rats were then trained to predict alcohol access based on a visual cue. Next, rats were treated with either standard extinction (n=14) or post-retrieval extinction (n=13). Rats were then tested for long-term memory of extinction and susceptibility to spontaneous recovery and reinstatement. RESULTS Despite equivalent extinction, rats treated with post-retrieval extinction exhibited reduced spontaneous recovery and reinstatement relative to rats treated with standard extinction. CONCLUSIONS Post-retrieval CET shows promise for persistently attenuating the risk to relapse posed by alcohol cues in individuals with AUD. PMID:28169439

  6. 2D and 3D assessment of neuropathology in rat brain after prenatal exposure to methylazoxymethanol, a model for developmental neurotoxicty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, D.M.G. de; Hartgring, S.; Horst, L. van de; Moerkens, M.; Otto, M.; Bos-Kuijpers, M.H.M.; Kaufmann, W.S.H.; Lammers, J.H.C.M.; O'Callaghan, J.P.; Waalkens-Berendsen, I.D.H.; Pakkenberg, B.; Gundersen, H.G.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of a tiered quantitative morphological approach to reveal developmental neurotoxicity, morphometric parameters were measured in the offspring of rats treated with methylazoxymethanol (MAM) during days 13-15 of pregnancy. Treatment was aimed at inhibiting the proliferation

  7. Dithiobiuret toxicity in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    Raising the daily dose of dithiobiuret (DTB) in male rats from 0.5 to 1 to 5 mg/kg shortened the latency to the onset of flaccid muscle tone and associated diminished performance in a treadmill test from 7 to 5 to 3 days, respectively. Concomitant with the development of flaccid muscle tone gastrocnemius muscle contractions elicited by high frequency motor nerve stimulation were lower in peak tension and tended to fade more rapidly in DTB-treated rats than in control rats. Remarkably, rats treated with highly daily doses (10-16 mg/kg) of DTB were resistant to the expected development of DTB-induced flaccid muscle tone, and tetanic contractile abnormalities but a corresponding refractoriness to body weight loss, decreased fed and water intake, diuresis, and depression in water balance was not present. This nonselectivity of the refractory responses supported the results of a histopathological study indicating that DTB-induced neuromuscular toxicity was unlikely to be secondary to effect on other organ systems. It is not known whether the ultimate neurotoxin is DTB or a metabolite. In this regard, two pathways for the metabolism of DTB were proposed based on the results of thin-layer chromatography of urine samples from rats treated with either 14 C- or 35 S-DTB. One pathway involved the reversible oxidation of DTB to the disulfide-containing compound thiuret, and the other involved the replacement of a sulfur atom with oxygen to form monothiobiuret. Thiuret, but not monothiobiuret, possessed comparable toxicity to STB. This further suggested that redox cycling between DTB and thiuret could be an important contributing factor to the toxicity of DTB

  8. Protective effect of curcumin on experimentally induced arthritic rats: detailed histopathological study of the joints and white blood cell count

    OpenAIRE

    Kamarudin, Taty Anna; Othman, Faizah; Mohd Ramli, Elvy Suhana; Md Isa, Nurismah; Das, Srijit

    2012-01-01

    Curcuma longa (turmeric) rhizomes contains curcumin, an active compound which possesses anti-inflammatory effects. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is an accepted experimental animal model of rheumatoid arthritis. The present study aimed to observe the histological changes in the joints of experimental arthritic rats treated with curcumin. Twenty four male Sprague-Dawley (approximately 7 weeks-old) rats were randomly divided into four groups. Three groups were immunized with 150 ?g collagen. ...

  9. Effect of naturally mouldy wheat or fungi administration on metallothioneins level in brain tissues of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasatkova, Anna; Krizova, Sarka; Krystofova, Olga; Adam, Vojtech; Zeman, Ladislav; Beklova, Miroslava; Kizek, Rene

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine level of metallothioneins (MTs) in brain tissues of rats administered by feed mixtures with different content of mouldy wheat or fungi. Selected male laboratory rats of Wistar albino at age of 28 days were used in our experiments. The rats were administered by feed mixtures with different content of vitamins, naturally mouldy wheat or fungi for 28 days. At the very end of the experiment, the animals were put to death and brains were sampled. MT level was determined by differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction. We found that MTs' level in brain tissues from rats administered by standard feed mixtures was significantly higher compared to the level of MTs in rats supplemented by vitamins. Further we studied the effect of supplementation of naturally mouldy wheat on MTs level in rats. In mouldy wheat we detected the presence of following fungi species: Mucor spp., Absidia spp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp. and Fusarium spp. Moreover we also identified and quantified following mycotoxins - deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T2-toxin and aflatoxins. Level of MTs determined in rats treated with 33 or 66% of mouldy wheat was significantly lower compared to control ones. On the other hand rats treated with 100% of mouldy wheat had less MTs but not significantly. Supplementation of vitamins to rats fed by mouldy wheat had adverse effect on MTs level compared to rats with no other supplementation by vitamins. Moreover vitamins supplementation has no effect on MTs level in brain tissues of rats treated or non-treated with Ganoderma lucidum L. Both mycotoxins and vitamins have considerable effect on level of MTs in brain tissues. It can be assumed that the administered substances markedly influence redox metabolism, which could negatively influence numerous biochemical pathways including those closely related with MTs.

  10. The mechanisms underlying the hypolipidaemic effects of Grifola frondosa in the liver of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinrun Ding

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the hypolipidaemic effects of Grifola frondosa and its regulation mechanism involved in lipid metabolism in liver of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. The body weights and serum lipid levels of control rats, of hyperlipidaemic rats and of hyperlipidaemic rats treated with oral Grifola frondosa were determined. mRNA expression and concentration of key lipid metabolism enzymes were investigated. Serum cholesterol, triacylglycerol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were markedly decreased in hyperlipidaemic rats treated with Grifola frondosa compared with untreated hyperlipidaemic rats. mRNA expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR, acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT2, apolipoprotein B (ApoB, fatty acid synthase (FAS and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1 were significantly down-regulated, while expression of cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1 was significantly up-regulated in the livers of treated rats compared with untreated hyperlipidaemic rats. The concentrations of these enzymes also paralleled the observed changes in mRNA expression. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS were used to identify twenty proteins differentially expressed in livers of rats treated with Grifola frondosa compared with untreated hyperlipidemic rats. Of these twenty proteins, seven proteins were down-regulated and thirteen proteins were up-regulated. These findings indicate that the hypolipidaemic effects of Grifola frondosa reflected its modulation of key enzymes involved in cholesterol and triacylglycerol biosynthesis, absorption and catabolic pathways. Grifola frondosa may exert anti-atherosclerotic effects by inhibiting LDL oxidation through down-regulation and up-regulating proteins expression in the liver of rats. Therefore, Grifola frondosa may produce both hypolipidaemic

  11. Edaravone combined with Schwann cell transplantation may repair spinal cord injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-quan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Edaravone has been shown to delay neuronal apoptosis, thereby improving nerve function and the microenvironment after spinal cord injury. Edaravone can provide a favorable environment for the treatment of spinal cord injury using Schwann cell transplantation. This study used rat models of complete spinal cord transection at T 9. Six hours later, Schwann cells were transplanted in the head and tail ends of the injury site. Simultaneously, edaravone was injected through the caudal vein. Eight weeks later, the PKH-26-labeled Schwann cells had survived and migrated to the center of the spinal cord injury region in rats after combined treatment with edaravone and Schwann cells. Moreover, the number of PKH-26-labeled Schwann cells in the rat spinal cord was more than that in rats undergoing Schwann cell transplantation alone or rats without any treatment. Horseradish peroxidase retrograde tracing revealed that the number of horseradish peroxidase-positive nerve fibers was greater in rats treated with edaravone combined withSchwann cells than in rats with Schwann cell transplantation alone. The results demonstrated that lower extremity motor function and neurophysiological function were better in rats treated with edaravone and Schwann cells than in rats with Schwann cell transplantation only. These data confirmed that Schwann cell transplantation combined with edaravone injection promoted the regeneration of nerve fibers of rats with spinal cord injury and improved neurological function.

  12. The combination of donepezil and procyclidine protects against soman-induced seizures in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haug, Kristin Huse; Myhrer, Trond; Fonnum, Frode

    2007-01-01

    Current treatment of nerve agent poisoning consists of prophylactic administration of pyridostigmine and therapy using atropine, an oxime and a benzodiazepine. Pyridostigmine does however not readily penetrate the blood-brain barrier giving ineffective protection of Brain against centrally mediated seizure activity. In this study, we have evaluated donepezil hydrochloride, a partial reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) clinically used for treating Alzheimer's disease, in combination with procyclidine, used in treatment of Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia, as prophylaxis against intoxication by the nerve agent soman. The results demonstrated significant protective efficacy of donepezil (2.5 mg/kg) combined with procyclidine (3 or 6 mg/kg) when given prophylactically against a lethal dose of soman (1.6x LD 50 ) in Wistar rats. No neuropathological changes were found in rats treated with this combination 48 h after soman intoxication. Six hours after soman exposure cerebral AChE activity and acetylcholine (ACh) concentration was 5% and 188% of control, respectively. The ACh concentration had returned to basal levels 24 h after soman intoxication, while AChE activity had recovered to 20% of control. Loss of functioning muscarinic ACh receptors (17%) but not nicotinic receptors was evident at this time point. The recovery in brain AChE activity seen in our study may be due to the reversible binding of donepezil to the enzyme. Donepezil is well tolerated in humans, and a combination of donepezil and procyclidine may prove useful as an alternative to the currently used prophylaxis against nerve agent intoxication

  13. Recovering recyclable materials from shredder residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.; Brockmeier, Norman F.

    1994-02-01

    Each year, about 11 million tons of metals are recovered in the United States from about 10 million discarded automobiles. The recovered metals account for about 75 percent of the total weight of the discarded vehicles. The balance of the material, known as shredder residue, amounts to about three million tons annually and is currently landfilled. The residue contains a diversity of potentially recyclable materials, including polyurethane foams, iron oxides, and certain thermoplastics. This article discusses a process under development at Argonne National Laboratory to separate and recover the recyclable materials from this waste stream. The process consists essentially of two stages. First, a physical separation is used to recover the foams and the metal oxides, followed by a chemical process to extract certain thermoplastics. The status of the technology and the process economics are reviewed here.

  14. Automated monitoring of recovered water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misselhorn, J. E.; Hartung, W. H.; Witz, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Laboratory prototype water quality monitoring system provides automatic system for online monitoring of chemical, physical, and bacteriological properties of recovered water and for signaling malfunction in water recovery system. Monitor incorporates whenever possible commercially available sensors suitably modified.

  15. Swertianlarin, an Herbal Agent Derived from Swertia mussotii Franch, Attenuates Liver Injury, Inflammation, and Cholestasis in Common Bile Duct-Ligated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangjun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Swertianlarin is an herbal agent abundantly distributed in Swertia mussotii Franch, a Chinese traditional herb used for treatment of jaundice. To study the therapeutic effect of swertianlarin on cholestasis, liver injury, serum proinflammatory cytokines, and bile salt concentrations were measured by comparing rats treated with swertianlarin 100 mg/kg/d or saline for 3, 7, or 14 days after bile duct ligation (BDL. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ATL and aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels were significantly decreased in BDL rats treated with swertianlarin for 14 days (P<0.05. The reduced liver injury in BDL rats by swertianlarin treatment for 14 days was further confirmed by liver histopathology. Levels of serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα were decreased by swertianlarin in BDL rats for 3 and 7 days (P<0.05. Moreover, reductions in serum interleukins IL-1β and IL-6 levels were also observed in BDL rats treated with swertianlarin (P<0.05. In addition, most of serum toxic bile salt concentrations (e.g., chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA and deoxycholic acid (DCA in cholestatic rats were decreased by swertianlarin (P<0.05. In conclusion, the data suggest that swertianlarin derived from Swertia mussotii Franch attenuates liver injury, inflammation, and cholestasis in bile duct-ligated rats.

  16. Changes in vascular reactivity induced by acute hyperthyroidism in isolated rat aortae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, H; Iwata, T; Mochizuki, T; Kogo, H

    2000-06-01

    Hyperthyroidism was induced by subcutaneous injections of L-thyroxine (T(4)) (500 mg/kg/day) for 3 days in order to study whether adrenergic and muscarinic receptor-mediated vascular responses alter at an early stage of the disease. T(4) treatment was sufficient to induce a significant degree of thyroid weight loss, tachycardia, cardiac hypertrophy, and an elevation in serum T(4) levels. The tension of aortic ring preparations isolated from rats was measured isometrically to investigate the influence of acute hyperthyroidism. The contractions induced by norepinephrine (NE) were significantly suppressed in aortic rings from rats treated with T(4) compared with control rats. N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), significantly enhanced NE-induced contraction in aortic rings from both control and T(4)-treated rats, and the enhancement was greater in rats treated with T(4) than control rats. The relaxations induced by either acetylcholine (ACh) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were also significantly enhanced by T(4) treatment. L-NOARG abolished the relaxation induced by ACh in aortic rings from both control and T(4)-treated rats. L-NOARG shifted SNP-induced relaxation curves of aortic rings from those of control rats to the left, but not with rats treated with T(4). T(4) treatment showed no influence on the amount of endothelial NOS (eNOS) protein. These results suggest that vascular responses alter at an early stage of hyperthyroidism and that it may be due to a modification in the NO system which is independent from the amount of eNOS protein.

  17. The effect of chronic nitric oxide inhibition on vascular reactivity and blood pressure in pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Hideto Takiuti

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The exact mechanism involved in changes in blood pressure and peripheral vascular resistance during pregnancy is unknown. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the importance of endothelium-derivated relaxing factor (EDRF and its main component, nitric oxide, in blood pressure and vascular reactivity in pregnant rats. DESIGN: Clinical trial in experimentation animals. SETTING: University laboratory of Pharmacology. SAMPLE: Female Wistar rats with normal blood pressure, weight (152 to 227 grams and age (90 to 116 days. INTERVENTION: The rats were divided in to four groups: pregnant rats treated with L-NAME (13 rats; pregnant control rats (8 rats; virgin rats treated with L-NAME (10 rats; virgin control rats (12 rats. The vascular preparations and caudal blood pressure were obtained at the end of pregnancy, or after the administration of L-NAME in virgin rats. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: The caudal blood pressure and the vascular response to acetylcholine in pre-contracted aortic rings, both with and without endothelium, and the effect of nitric oxide inhibition, Nw-L-nitro-arginine methyl-ester (L-NAME, in pregnant and virgin rats. The L-NAME was administered in the drinking water over a 10-day period. RESULTS: The blood pressure decreased in pregnancy. Aortic rings of pregnant rats were more sensitive to acetylcholine than those of virgin rats. After L-NAME treatment, the blood pressure increased and relaxation was blocked in both groups. The fetal-placental unit weight of the L-NAME group was lower than that of the control group. CONCLUSION: Acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation sensitivity was greater in pregnant rats and that blood pressure increased after L-NAME administration while the acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation response was blocked.

  18. Red maca (Lepidium meyenii reduced prostate size in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio Julio

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have found that consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. This effect seems to be due to aromatic glucosinolate content. Glucosinolates are known for have both antiproliferative and proapoptotic actions. Maca is a cruciferous cultivated in the highlands of Peru. The absolute content of glucosinolates in Maca hypocotyls is relatively higher than that reported in other cruciferous crops. Therefore, Maca may have proapoptotic and anti-proliferative effects in the prostate. Methods Male rats treated with or without aqueous extracts of three ecotypes of Maca (Yellow, Black and Red were analyzed to determine the effect on ventral prostate weight, epithelial height and duct luminal area. Effects on serum testosterone (T and estradiol (E2 levels were also assessed. Besides, the effect of Red Maca on prostate was analyzed in rats treated with testosterone enanthate (TE. Results Red Maca but neither Yellow nor Black Maca reduced significantly ventral prostate size in rats. Serum T or E2 levels were not affected by any of the ecotypes of Maca assessed. Red Maca also prevented the prostate weight increase induced by TE treatment. Red Maca administered for 42 days reduced ventral prostatic epithelial height. TE increased ventral prostatic epithelial height and duct luminal area. These increases by TE were reduced after treatment with Red Maca for 42 days. Histology pictures in rats treated with Red Maca plus TE were similar to controls. Phytochemical screening showed that aqueous extract of Red Maca has alkaloids, steroids, tannins, saponins, and cardiotonic glycosides. The IR spectra of the three ecotypes of Maca in 3800-650 cm (-1 region had 7 peaks representing 7 functional chemical groups. Highest peak values were observed for Red Maca, intermediate values for Yellow Maca and low values for Black Maca. These functional groups correspond among others to benzyl

  19. Cognitive bias in symptomatic and recovered agoraphobics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoler, L S; McNally, R J

    1991-01-01

    Symptomatic agoraphobics, recovered agoraphobics, and normal control subjects completed a series of sentence stems that had either ambiguous or unambiguous meanings, and had either a potentially threatening or a nonthreatening connotation. The written completions made by subjects to these stems were classified as indicating either a biased (i.e. threat-related) or unbiased interpretation of the meaning of the stem, and if a biased interpretation was made, whether the subject indicated efforts at adaptive coping with the perceived threat. Results indicated that symptomatic agoraphobics exhibited strong biases for interpreting information as threatening, relative to normal control subjects. Moreover, recovered agoraphobics resembled symptomatic agoraphobics more than normal control subjects, thus indicating that cognitive biases may persist following cessation of panic attacks and reductions in avoidance behavior. However, recovered agoraphobics also exhibited tendencies to cope adaptively with perceived threats whereas symptomatic agoraphobics did not.

  20. Ergonomic analysis jobs in recovered factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, Gabriela; Zotta, Gastón

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the deep economic crisis in Argentina on 2001, the recovery of companies through to the creation of the Cooperatives Working Self-Management or Factories Recovered by its workers was constituted as one of the ways in which the salaried disobeyed the increasing unemployment. When the companies turn into recovered factories they tend to leave of side practices that have been seen like imposed by the previous organization and not understanding them as a primary condition for the execution of his tasks. Safety and ergonomics are two disciplines that are no longer considered relevant to the daily work. Therefore this investigation aims to revalue, undergo semantic to give back to a place in every organization analyzed. This research developed a self-diagnostic tool for working conditions, and the environment, present in the recovered factories.

  1. Antioxidant and Hypolipidemic Effects of Olive Oil in Normal and Diabetic Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhazza, I. M.

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus manifests itself in a wide variety of complications and the symptoms of the disease are multifactorial. The lipid hydroperoxide level and lipid profile were investigated in plasma of normal and Alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with olive oil for six weeks. Diabetic rats exhibited an increase in the levels of hydroperoxide, cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein (LDL), and a decrease in the level of high density lipoprotein (HDL). The administration of olive oil showed a better profile in the lipid as well as decreases in the concentration of lipid hydroperoxides either in normal or diabetic rats. The results are discussed according to antioxidant property of olive oil. (author)

  2. Effect of glutamine synthetase inhibition on brain and interorgan ammonia metabolism in bile duct ligated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fries, Andreas W; Dadsetan, Sherry; Keiding, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    , and aspartate and incorporation of (15)NH4(+) into these amino acids in brain, liver, muscle, kidney, and plasma were similar in sham and BDL rats treated with saline. Methionine sulfoximine reduced glutamine concentrations in liver, kidney, and plasma but not in brain and muscle; MSO reduced incorporation...... of (15)NH4(+) into glutamine in all tissues. It did not affect alanine concentrations in any of the tissues but plasma alanine concentration increased; incorporation of (15)NH4(+) into alanine was increased in brain in sham and BDL rats and in kidney in sham rats. It inhibited GS in all tissues examined...

  3. Dietary curcumin prevents ocular toxicity of naphthalene in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, U; Saini, M K; Jin, G F; Awasthi, S; Godley, B F; Awasthi, Y C

    2000-06-05

    Administration of naphthalene is known to cause cataract formation in rats and rabbits and naphthalene-initiated cataract is frequently used as a model for studies on senile cataract in humans. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the mechanism of naphthalene-induced cataract. Curcumin, a constituent of turmeric, a spice used in Indian curry dishes, is an effective antioxidant and is known to induce the enzymes of glutathione-linked detoxification pathways in rats. During the present studies, we have examined whether low levels of dietary curcumin could prevent naphthalene-induced opacification of rat lens. The presence of apoptotic cells in lens epithelial cells was also examined by catalytically incorporating labeled nucleotide to DNA with either Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase or by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT), which forms polymeric tail using the principle of TUNEL assay. The results of these studies demonstrated that the rats treated with naphthalene and kept on a diet supplemented with only 0.005% (w/w) curcumin had significantly less opacification of lenses as compared to that observed in rats treated only with naphthalene. Our studies also demonstrate, for the first time, that naphthalene-initiated cataract in lens is accompanied and perhaps preceded by apoptosis of lens epithelial cells and that curcumin attenuates this apoptotic effect of naphthalene.

  4. Method of recovering hydrocarbons from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D.K.; Slusser, M.S.

    1970-11-24

    A method is described for recovering hydrocarbons from an oil-shale formation by in situ retorting. A well penetrating the formation is heated and gas is injected until a pressure buildup within the well is reached, due to a decrease in the conductivity of naturally occurring fissures within the formation. The well is then vented, in order to produce spalling of the walls. This results in the formation of an enlarged cavity containing rubberized oil shale. A hot gas then is passed through the rubberized oil shale in order to retort hydrocarbons and these hydrocarbons are recovered from the well. (11 claims)

  5. Waste heat recovering device for reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, Masanobu; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Mizuno, Hiroyuki; Sekine, Yasuhiro.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable utilization of auxiliary-equipment-cooling water from a non-regenerative heat exchanger as a heat source, as well as prevent radioactive contamination. Constitution: A water warming device for recovering the heat of auxiliary equipment cooling water from a non-regenerative heat exchanger is disposed at the succeeding stage of the heat exchanger. Heat exchange is performed in the water warming device between the auxiliary equipment cooling water and a heat source water set to a higher pressure and recycled through the water warming device. The heat recovered from the auxiliary equipment cooling water is utilized in the heat source water for operating relevant equipments. (Aizawa, K.)

  6. Solid recovered fuels in the steel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepplinger, Werner L; Tappeiner, Tamara

    2012-04-01

    By using waste materials as alternative fuels in metallurgical plants it is possible to minimize the traditionally used reducing agents, such as coke, coal, oil or natural gas. Moreover, by using waste materials in the metallurgical industry it is feasible to recover these materials as far as possible. This also represents another step towards environmental protection because carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced, if the H(2) content of the waste material is greater in comparison with that of the substituted fuel and the effects of global warming can therefore be reduced. In the present article various solid recovered fuels and their applications in the metallurgical industry are detailed.

  7. Lemon juice has protective activity in a rat urolithiasis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oussama Abdelkhalek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of herbal medicines (medicinal plants or phytotherapy has recently gained popularity in Europe and the United States. Nevertheless the exact mechanism of the preventive effects of these products is still far to be clearly established, being its knowledge necessary to successfully apply these therapies to avoid stone formation. Methods The effect of oral lemon juice administration on calcium oxalate urolithiasis was studied in male Wistar rats. Rats were rendered nephrolithic by providing drinking water containing 0.75% ethylene glycol [v/v] (EG and 2% ammonium chloride [w/v] (AC for 10 days. In addition to EG/AC treatment, three groups of rats were also gavage-administered solutions containing 100%, 75% or 50% lemon juice [v/v] (6 μl solution/g body weight. Positive control rats were treated with EG/AC but not lemon juice. Negative control rats were provided with normal drinking water, and were administered normal water by gavage. Each group contained 6 rats. After 10 days, serum samples were collected for analysis, the left kidney was removed and assessed for calcium levels using flame spectroscopy, and the right kidney was sectioned for histopathological analysis using light microscopy. Results Analysis showed that the rats treated with EG/AC alone had higher amounts of calcium in the kidneys compared to negative control rats. This EG/AC-induced increase in kidney calcium levels was inhibited by the administration of lemon juice. Histology showed that rats treated with EG/AC alone had large deposits of calcium oxalate crystals in all parts of the kidney, and that such deposits were not present in rats also treated with either 100% or 75% lemon juice. Conclusion These data suggest that lemon juice has a protective activity against urolithiasis.

  8. Department of Defense Recovering Warrior Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-02

    accessible and available to the Veterans Benefits Administration ( VBA ) as soon as possible381; however, because military service records include health...programs are meeting expectations ........................................... 35 Facilitating Access to Health Care...Enduring RW Mission, Facilitating RW Recovery and Transition, and Facilitating Access to Health Care. SUMMARY 2  DoD Recovering Warrior Task Force

  9. Recovering Parameters of Johnson's SB Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard R. Parresol

    2003-01-01

    A new parameter recovery model for Johnson's SB distribution is developed. This latest alternative approach permits recovery of the range and both shape parameters. Previous models recovered only the two shape parameters. Also, a simple procedure for estimating the distribution minimum from sample values is presented. The new methodology...

  10. Process for recovering oil from shale, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1920-08-20

    A process is described for recovering oil from oil-shale and the like, by the direct action of the hot gases obtained by burning the carbonized shale residue. It is immediately carried out in separate adjacent chambers, through which the feed goes from one to the other intermittently, from the upper to the lower.

  11. Recovering uranium from coal in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    An underground carbonaceous deposit containing other mineral values is burned in situ. The underground hot zone is cooled down to temperature below the boiling point of a leachig solution. The leaching solution is percolated through the residial ash, with the pregnant solution recovered for separation of the mineral values in surface facilities

  12. Applications for Energy Recovering Free Electron Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Neil

    2007-08-01

    The availability of high-power, high-brilliance sources of tunable photons from energy-recovered Free Electron Lasers is opening up whole new fields of application of accelerators in industry. This talk will review some of the ideas that are already being put into production, and some of the newer ideas that are still under development.

  13. Recovering of images degraded by atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guang; Feng, Huajun; Xu, Zhihai; Li, Qi; Chen, Yueting

    2017-08-01

    Remote sensing images are seriously degraded by multiple scattering and bad weather. Through the analysis of the radiative transfer procedure in atmosphere, an image atmospheric degradation model considering the influence of atmospheric absorption multiple scattering and non-uniform distribution is proposed in this paper. Based on the proposed model, a novel recovering method is presented to eliminate atmospheric degradation. Mean-shift image segmentation and block-wise deconvolution are used to reduce time cost, retaining a good result. The recovering results indicate that the proposed method can significantly remove atmospheric degradation and effectively improve contrast compared with other removal methods. The results also illustrate that our method is suitable for various degraded remote sensing, including images with large field of view (FOV), images taken in side-glance situations, image degraded by atmospheric non-uniform distribution and images with various forms of clouds.

  14. Quinacrine enhances carmustine therapy of experimental rat glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, S; Herrera, L A; Ostrosky, P; Sotelo, J

    2001-10-01

    The high rate of mutagenesis in malignant cells has been considered to be a primary factor in the appearance of chemotherapy-resistant cell clones in glioblastomas. Quinacrine binds strongly to deoxyribonucleic acid, preventing mutagenesis. We investigated whether quinacrine could improve carmustine therapy in C6 cell cultures and in C6 malignant gliomas implanted subcutaneously into Wistar rats. A potential chemopreventive effect of quinacrine on acquired resistance to carmustine therapy was studied in vitro and in vivo. Deoxyribonucleic acid damage was measured in cultured C6 cells by using the micronucleus test. Wistar rats with subcutaneously implanted C6 gliomas were treated with carmustine, quinacrine, or carmustine plus quinacrine, using pharmacological schemes similar to those used for human patients. The addition of quinacrine to cultured C6 cells did not modify carmustine-induced cytotoxicity; however, the deoxyribonucleic acid damage in surviving cells was minor, as indicated by the frequency of micronucleated cells. The surviving cells continued to be susceptible to a second exposure to carmustine, in contrast to non-quinacrine-treated control cells, which developed resistance to carmustine in a subsequent exposure (P < 0.05). The rate of tumor remission was higher for glioma-bearing rats treated with quinacrine plus carmustine, compared with rats treated with carmustine alone (P < 0.01). The addition of quinacrine to carmustine therapy increases the antineoplastic effect of the carmustine therapy. Our results suggest that chemical inhibition of mutagenesis in malignant glial cells during chemotherapy prevents the appearance of resistant clones.

  15. Method for recovering uranium from sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwochau, K.; Astheimer, L.; Schenk, H.J.; Schmitz, J.

    1977-04-01

    In view of the augmenting uranium demand for energy supply and of the anticipated depletion of the actually assured and economic uranium resources the possibility of recovering uranium from sea water receives increasing attention. It is the purpose of the present report to give a detailed discussion of fundamental problems involved and a critical survey of hitherto proposed processes of recovery and to recommend some general directives for further work. (orig.) [de

  16. Recovering hydrocarbons with surfactants from lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naae, D.G.; Whittington, L.E.; Ledoux, W.A.; Debons, F.E.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes a method of recovering hydrocarbons from an underground hydrocarbon formation penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production well, which comprises: injecting into the formation through an injection well a surfactant slug comprising about 0.1% to about 10% by weight of surfactants produced from lignin, the surfactants produced by placing lignin in contact with water, converting the lignin into low molecular weight lignin phenols by reducing the lignin in the presence of a reducing agent of carbon monoxide or hydrogen creating a reduction reaction mixture comprising oil soluble lignin phenols, the reduction occurring at a temperature greater than about 200/sup 0/C and a pressure greater than about 100 psi, recovering the oil soluble lignin phenols from the reduction mixture, and converting the lignin phenols into lignin surfactants by a reaction selected from the group consisting of alkoxylation, sulfonation, sulfation, aklylation, sulfomethylation, and alkoxysulfation; injecting into the formation through the injection well a drive fluid to push the surfactant slug towards a production well; and recovering hydrocarbons at the production well.

  17. Induction of cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1A2 suppresses formation of DNA adducts by carcinogenic aristolochic acid I in rats in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dračínská, Helena; Bárta, František; Levová, Kateřina; Hudecová, Alena; Moserová, Michaela; Schmeiser, Heinz H.; Kopka, Klaus; Frei, Eva; Arlt, Volker M.; Stiborová, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Oxidation and reduction of aristolochic acid I (AAI) dictate its (geno)toxicity in vivo. • Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and 1A2 are induced in rats treated with Sudan I and AAI. • Induced CYP1A enzyme activity resulted in decreased AAI-DNA adduct levels in vivo. • CYP1A1 and 1A2 mainly detoxify AAI and attenuate its genotoxicity in vivo. - Abstract: Aristolochic acid I (AAI) is a natural plant alkaloid causing aristolochic acid nephropathy, Balkan endemic nephropathy and their associated urothelial malignancies. One of the most efficient enzymes reductively activating AAI to species forming AAI-DNA adducts is cytosolic NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1. AAI is also either reductively activated or oxidatively detoxified to 8-hydroxyaristolochic acid (AAIa) by microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and 1A2. Here, we investigated which of these two opposing CYP1A1/2-catalyzed reactions prevails in AAI metabolism in vivo. The formation of AAI-DNA adducts was analyzed in liver, kidney and lung of rats treated with AAI, Sudan I, a potent inducer of CYP1A1/2, or AAI after pretreatment with Sudan I. Compared to rats treated with AAI alone, levels of AAI-DNA adducts determined by the 32 P-postlabeling method were lower in liver, kidney and lung of rats treated with AAI after Sudan I. The induction of CYP1A1/2 by Sudan I increased AAI detoxification to its O-demethylated metabolite AAIa, thereby reducing the actual amount of AAI available for reductive activation. This subsequently resulted in lower AAI-DNA adduct levels in the rat in vivo. Our results demonstrate that CYP1A1/2-mediated oxidative detoxification of AAI is the predominant role of these enzymes in rats in vivo, thereby suppressing levels of AAI-DNA adducts.

  18. Reproductive Toxicity of Triptolide in Male House Rat, Rattus rattus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena Singla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the toxic effect of triptolide fed in bait on reproduction of male house rat, Rattus rattus. Feeding of cereal based bait containing 0.2% triptolide to male R. rattus for 5 days in no-choice feeding test, leading to mean daily ingestion of 20.45 mg/kg bw of triptolide, was found effective in significantly (P≤0.05 reducing sperm motility and viability in cauda epididymal fluid by 80.65 and 75.14%, respectively, from that of untreated rats. Pregnancy rates were decreased by 100% in untreated cyclic female rats paired with male rats treated with 0.2% triptolide. Present studies suggest the potential of 0.2% triptolide bait in regulating reproductive output of R. rattus.

  19. Effects of estradiol on worm burden and peripheral leukocytes in Parastrongylus malaysiensis-infected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, A B; Ahmad, R A; Badrul-Munir, M Z

    1994-01-01

    Gonadectomized male laboratory rats were given 0.06 mg/kg estradiol benzoate daily for 14 days before being inoculated with 50 third-stage larvae of Parastrongylus malaysiensis. Hormone treatment was continued until the rats were killed. The numbers of larvae in the brain and of adult worms in the pulmonary area of the rats were determined every 7 days after the inoculation. It was found that the rats treated daily with estradiol benzoate had significantly and consistently higher numbers of larvae and adult worms as compared with the controls. The number of total leukocytes increased significantly after the rats were infected. The results show that estradiol-treated rats become susceptible to P. malaysiensis infection, which may indicate that the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone observed in earlier studies may partly be caused by estradiol that was peripherally aromatized from testosterone.

  20. Cannabis exacerbates depressive symptoms in rat model induced by reserpine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadrawy, Yasser A; Sawie, Hussein G; Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Hosny, Eman N

    2017-05-01

    Cannabis sativa is one of the most widely recreational drugs and its use is more prevalent among depressed patients. Some studies reported that Cannabis has antidepressant effects while others showed increased depressive symptoms in Cannabis users. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the effect of Cannabis extract on the depressive-like rats. Twenty four rats were divided into: control, rat model of depression induced by reserpine and depressive-like rats treated with Cannabis sativa extract (10mg/kg expressed as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol). The depressive-like rats showed a severe decrease in motor activity as assessed by open field test (OFT). This was accompanied by a decrease in monoamine levels and a significant increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in the cortex and hippocampus. Na + ,K + -ATPase activity increased in the cortex and decreased in the hippocampus of rat model. In addition, a state of oxidative stress was evident in the two brain regions. This was indicated from the significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide. No signs of improvement were observed in the behavioral and neurochemical analyses in the depressive-like rats treated with Cannabis extract. Furthermore, Cannabis extract exacerbated the lipid peroxidation in the cortex and hippocampus. According to the present findings, it could be concluded that Cannabis sativa aggravates the motor deficits and neurochemical changes induced in the cortex and hippocampus of rat model of depression. Therefore, the obtained results could explain the reported increase in the depressive symptoms and memory impairment among Cannabis users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Attenuation of arsenic neurotoxicity by curcumin in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Rajesh S.; Sankhwar, Madhu Lata; Shukla, Rajendra K.; Chandra, Ramesh; Pant, Aditya B.; Islam, Fakhrul; Khanna, Vinay K.

    2009-01-01

    In view of continued exposure to arsenic and associated human health risk including neurotoxicity, neuroprotective efficacy of curcumin, a polyphenolic antioxidant, has been investigated in rats. A significant decrease in locomotor activity, grip strength (26%) and rota-rod performance (82%) was observed in rats treated with arsenic (sodium arsenite, 20 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) as compared to controls. The arsenic treated rats also exhibited a decrease in the binding of striatal dopamine receptors (32%) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity (19%) in striatum. Increased arsenic levels in corpus striatum (6.5 fold), frontal cortex (6.3 fold) and hippocampus (7.0 fold) associated with enhanced oxidative stress in these brain regions, as evident by an increase in lipid perioxidation, protein carbonyl and a decrease in the levels of glutathione and activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase with differential effects were observed in arsenic treated rats compared to controls. Simultaneous treatment with arsenic (sodium arsenite, 20 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) and curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) caused an increase in locomotor activity and grip strength and improved the rota-rod performance in comparison to arsenic treated rats. Binding of striatal dopamine receptors and TH expression increased while arsenic levels and oxidative stress decreased in these brain regions in co-treated rats as compared to those treated with arsenic alone. No significant effect on any of these parameters was observed in rats treated with curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) alone compared to controls. A significant protection in behavioral, neurochemical and immunohistochemical parameters in rats simultaneously treated with arsenic and curcumin suggest the neuroprotective efficacy of curcumin.

  2. Esculetin Ameliorates Carbon Tetrachloride-Mediated Hepatic Apoptosis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Sung Chiu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Esculetin (ESC is a coumarin that is present in several plants such as Fraxinus rhynchophylla and Artemisia capillaris. Our previous study found that FR ethanol extract (FREtOH significantly ameliorated rats’ liver function. This study was intended to investigate the protective mechanism of ESC in hepatic apoptosis in rats induced by carbon tetrachloride. Rat hepatic apoptosis was induced by oral administration of CCl4. All rats were administered orally with CCl4 (20%, 0.5 mL/rat twice a week for 8 weeks. Rats in the ESC groups were treated daily with ESC, and silymarin group were treated daily with silymarin. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST as well as the activities of the anti-oxidative enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase in the liver were measured. In addition, expression of liver apoptosis proteins and anti-apoptotic proteins were detected. ESC (100, 500 mg/kg significantly reduced the elevated activities of serum ALT and AST caused by CCl4 and significantly increased the activities of catalase, GPx and SOD. Furthermore, ESC (100, 500 mg/kg significantly decreased the levels of the proapoptotic proteins (t-Bid, Bak and Bad and significantly increased the levels of the anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. ESC inhibited the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. In addition, the levels of activated caspase-9 and activated caspase-3 were significantly decreased in rats treated with ESC than those in rats treated with CCl4 alone. ESC significantly reduced CCl4-induced hepatic apoptosis in rats.

  3. Dietary sucrose and starch affect dysplastic characteristics in carcinogen-induced aberrant crypt foci in rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caderni, G; Lancioni, L; Luceri, C; Giannini, A; Lodovici, M; Biggeri, A; Dolara, P

    1997-03-19

    To study whether dietary carbohydrates affect dysplasia in aberrant crypt foci (ACF), rats treated with 1,2-dimethilhydrazine (DMH) were fed for three months with diets containing 46% sucrose or corn starch. The number of ACF/colon in the two dietary groups was similar (P = 0.58), but ACF were smaller in the starch than in sucrose group (P colon carcinogenesis while sucrose in the diet is detrimental, promoting the dysplasia of preneoplastic lesions like ACF.

  4. Effect of autoclave devitalization on autograft incorporation and bone morphogenetic protein of tibia in Sprague-Dawley rats

    OpenAIRE

    Anak A.G.Y. Asmara; Achmad F. Kamal; Nurjati C. Siregar; Marcel Prasetyo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Heating process with autoclave is one of limb salvage modalities that are widely used. but the results are not satisfying, due to mechanical bone fragility. However, considering this treatment modality is widely accepted in terms of financial, religion and sociocultural aspects, we conducted a on study rats treated with resection and reconstruction with autoclave heating method to assess bone healing by sequential radiology, histopathologic osteoblasts count, and bone morphogeneti...

  5. Hepatocyte growth factor treatment ameliorates diarrhea and bowel inflammation in a rat model of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, L Grier; Schwartz, Marshall Z; Kuenzler, Keith A; Birbe, Ruth

    2004-02-01

    Transfection of the HLA-B27 gene into normal Fischer rats induces phenotypic changes similar to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study investigated the benefits of 2 doses of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on the manifestations of IBD in this rat model. Fischer rats and HLA-B27 rats were divided into 4 groups: Fischer rats treated with saline, HLA-B27 rats treated with saline, HGF at 150 microg/kg/d, and HGF at 300 microg/kg/d. HGF or saline was infused for 14 days via an osmotic pump attached to a catheter in the internal jugular vein. After treatment, rats were evaluated for diarrhea and reduction in gross and microscopic bowel inflammation. Statistics were determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA). A P value diarrhea by 40%, gross inflammation by 41%, and microscopic inflammation by 72% (P diarrhea by 46%, gross inflammation by 45%, and microscopic inflammation by 54% (P < or =.05). HGF administration reduces the clinical manifestations of IBD in this rat model. Similar effects were seen at both doses of HGF administration, implying that there is a plateau above which further increases in HGF levels provides no added benefit. HGF administration may be clinically useful in the management of IBD.

  6. Tamoxifen and estradiol improved locomotor function and increased spared tissue in rats after spinal cord injury: their antioxidant effect and role of estrogen receptor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, Laurivette; Colón, Jennifer M; Santiago, José M; Torrado, Aranza I; Meléndez, Margarita; Segarra, Annabell C; Rodríguez-Orengo, José F; Miranda, Jorge D

    2014-05-02

    17β-Estradiol is a multi-active steroid that imparts neuroprotection via diverse mechanisms of action. However, its role as a neuroprotective agent after spinal cord injury (SCI), or the involvement of the estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-α) in locomotor recovery, is still a subject of much debate. In this study, we evaluated the effects of estradiol and of Tamoxifen (an estrogen receptor mixed agonist/antagonist) on locomotor recovery following SCI. To control estradiol cyclical variability, ovariectomized female rats received empty or estradiol filled implants, prior to a moderate contusion to the spinal cord. Estradiol improved locomotor function at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post injury (DPI), when compared to control groups (measured with the BBB open field test). This effect was ER-α mediated, because functional recovery was blocked with an ER-α antagonist. We also observed that ER-α was up-regulated after SCI. Long-term treatment (28 DPI) with estradiol and Tamoxifen reduced the extent of the lesion cavity, an effect also mediated by ER-α. The antioxidant effects of estradiol were seen acutely at 2 DPI but not at 28 DPI, and this acute effect was not receptor mediated. Rats treated with Tamoxifen recovered some locomotor activity at 21 and 28 DPI, which could be related to the antioxidant protection seen at these time points. These results show that estradiol improves functional outcome, and these protective effects are mediated by the ER-α dependent and independent-mechanisms. Tamoxifen׳s effects during late stages of SCI support the use of this drug as a long-term alternative treatment for this condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Antidiabetic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Carthamus tinctorius L. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Asgary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carthamus tinctorius L. (Compositae has been used in Iranian traditional medicine for treatment of diabetes. In this study, anti-diabetic effect of its hydroalcoholic extract was compared with that of glibenclamide. Methods: Male white Wistar rats were randomly allocated into four groups of six each: nondiabetic control; diabetic control; diabetic treated with hydroalcoholic extract of Carthamus tinctorius (200 mg kg -1 BW; diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide (0.6 mg kg -1 BW. Alloxan was administered (120 mg kg -1 BW, intraperitoneally to induce diabetes. Fasting blood samples were collected three times, before injection of alloxan, two weeks and six weeks after injection of alloxan and fasting blood sugar (FBS, Hb A1C, insulin, cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, VLDL-C, triglyceride, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST were measured each time. Results: FBS, triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL-C and VLDL-C had a meaningful decrease in diabetic rats treated with Carthamus tinctorius and diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide as compared with diabetic rats with no treatment. Insulin level increased significantly in diabetic groups received treatment (glibenclamide or Carthamus tinctorius L in comparison with diabetic group with no treatment. The histological study revealed size of islets of Langerhans enlarged significantly consequentially as compared with diabetic rats with no treatment. The extract appeared non toxic as evidenced by normal levels of AST, ALP and ALT. Effects of administrating glibenclamide or extract of Carthamus tinctorius L on all biochemical parameters discussed above showed no difference and both tend to bring the values to near normal. Conclusion: These results suggested that the hydroalcoholic extract of Carthamus tinctorius possesses beneficial effect on treatment of diabetes.

  8. Recovering a hidden polarization by ghost polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janassek, Patrick; Blumenstein, Sébastien; Elsäßer, Wolfgang

    2018-02-15

    By exploiting polarization correlations of light from a broadband fiber-based amplified spontaneous emission source we succeed in reconstructing a hidden polarization in a ghost polarimetry experiment in close analogy to ghost imaging and ghost spectroscopy. Thereby, an original linear polarization state in the object arm of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration which has been camouflaged by a subsequent depolarizer is recovered by correlating it with light from a reference beam. The variation of a linear polarizer placed inside the reference beam results in a Malus law type second-order intensity correlation with high contrast, thus measuring a ghost polarigram.

  9. Recovering valuable metals from recycled photovoltaic modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Youn Kyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Tran, Tam; Hong, Sung Kil; Kim, Myong Jun

    2014-07-01

    Recovering valuable metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, and Al has become a pressing issue as end-of-life photovoltaic modules need to be recycled in the near future to meet legislative requirements in most countries. Of major interest is the recovery and recycling of high-purity silicon (> 99.9%) for the production of wafers and semiconductors. The value of Si in crystalline-type photovoltaic modules is estimated to be -$95/kW at the 2012 metal price. At the current installed capacity of 30 GW/yr, the metal value in the PV modules represents valuable resources that should be recovered in the future. The recycling of end-of-life photovoltaic modules would supply > 88,000 and 207,000 tpa Si by 2040 and 2050, respectively. This represents more than 50% of the required Si for module fabrication. Experimental testwork on crystalline Si modules could recover a > 99.98%-grade Si product by HNO3/NaOH leaching to remove Al, Ag, and Ti and other metal ions from the doped Si. A further pyrometallurgical smelting at 1520 degrees C using CaO-CaF2-SiO2 slag mixture to scavenge the residual metals after acid leaching could finally produce > 99.998%-grade Si. A process based on HNO3/NaOH leaching and subsequent smelting is proposed for recycling Si from rejected or recycled photovoltaic modules. Implications: The photovoltaic industry is considering options of recycling PV modules to recover metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, Al, and others used in the manufacturing of the PV cells. This is to retain its "green" image and to comply with current legislations in several countries. An evaluation of potential resources made available from PV wastes and the technologies used for processing these materials is therefore of significant importance to the industry. Of interest are the costs of processing and the potential revenues gained from recycling, which should determine the viability of economic recycling of PV modules in the future.

  10. Process and system for recovering energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trichet, J.-C.

    1975-01-01

    The invention concerns a system for heating a room or similar, using a 'dibare' cycle working with a less volatile fluid and a more volatile fluid and employing a coupling between a fractionated separation area working at high pressure and a fractionated mixing zone working at low pressure. The invention relates to the following uses: heating a room or building, drying any material and recovering the thermal discharge from a motive cycle, particularly the recovery of the thermal discharge of an electric nuclear power station to carry out district heating [fr

  11. Apparatus for recovering oil from Posidonien shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1920-04-13

    Equipment for recovering oil from shale and the like, as well as the distilling of coal is characterized in that a number of chambers provided in a known way with upper and lower air supply are arranged open to the receiver of the oil vapors through removable domes which can be attached to the usual oil-vapor carry-off. Arrangement is characterized in that the domes are movable to the side, so that they can be interchangeably attached to the different chambers.

  12. Process for recovering cesium from cesium alum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mein, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    Cesium is recovered from cesium alum, CsAl(SO 4 ) 2 , by an aqueous conversion and precipitation reaction using a critical stoichiometric excess of a water-soluble permanganate to form solid cesium permanganate (CsMnO 4 ) free from cesium alum. The other metal salts remain in solution, providing the final pH does not cause hydroxides of aluminium or iron to form. The precipitate is separated from the residual solution to obtain CsMnO 4 of high purity

  13. Recovering an obstacle using integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Rundell, William

    2009-05-01

    We consider the inverse problem of recovering the shape, location and surface properties of an object where the surrounding medium is both conductive and homogeneous and we measure Cauchy data on an accessible part of the exterior boundary. It is assumed that the physical situation is modelled by harmonic functions and the boundary condition on the obstacle is one of Dirichlet type. The purpose of this paper is to answer some of the questions raised in a recent paper that introduced a nonlinear integral equation approach for the solution of this type of problem.

  14. Long-term storage of recovered krypton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horii, Yuji; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    1983-01-01

    Various storage methods for krypton-85 recovered from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant are under development in many countries. These methods include:(1) direct storage in pressurized cylinders, (2) storage of krypton adsorbed on charcoal or zeolite in pressurized cylinders and (3) immobilization (encapsulation) in zeolite. A krypton storage facility using pressurized cylinders has been constructed in the krypton recovery pilot plant in Tokaimura and other methods are now under development. These three methods are evaluated and the features of the constructed facility are also reported. (author)

  15. Recovering the fine structures in solar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karovska, Margarita; Habbal, S. R.; Golub, L.; Deluca, E.; Hudson, Hugh S.

    1994-01-01

    Several examples of the capability of the blind iterative deconvolution (BID) technique to recover the real point spread function, when limited a priori information is available about its characteristics. To demonstrate the potential of image post-processing for probing the fine scale and temporal variability of the solar atmosphere, the BID technique is applied to different samples of solar observations from space. The BID technique was originally proposed for correction of the effects of atmospheric turbulence on optical images. The processed images provide a detailed view of the spatial structure of the solar atmosphere at different heights in regions with different large-scale magnetic field structures.

  16. Five years post whiplash injury: Symptoms and psychological factors in recovered versus non-recovered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stålnacke Britt-Marie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have focused on the differences between persons who are recovered after whiplash injury and those who suffer from persistent disability. The primary aim of this study was therefore to examine differences in symptoms, psychological factors and life satisfaction between subjects classified as recovered and those with persistent disability five years after whiplash injury based on the Neck Disability Index (NDI. Methods A set of questionnaires was answered by 158 persons (75 men, 83 women to assess disability (NDI, pain intensity (VAS, whiplash-related symptoms (Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire, RPQ, post-traumatic stress (Impact of Event Scale, IES, depression (Beck's depression inventory, BDI and life satisfaction (LiSat-11. The participants were divided into three groups based on the results of the NDI: recovered (34.8%, mild disability (37.3% and moderate/severe disability (27.3%. Results The moderate/severe group reported significantly higher VAS, BDI and IES scores and lower level of physical health and psychological health compared to the mild and the recovered groups. Less significant differences were reported between the mild and the recovered groups. Conclusions The group with the highest disability score reported most health problems with pain, symptoms, depression, post-traumatic stress and decreased life satisfaction. These findings indicate that classifying these subjects into subgroups based on disability levels makes it possible to optimize the management and treatment after whiplash injury.

  17. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM FROM ITS ORES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvanek, P. Jr.

    1959-02-24

    A process is presented for recovering uranium from its ores. The crushed ore is mixed with 5 to 10% of sulfuric acid and added water to about 5 to 30% of the weight of the ore. This pugged material is cured for 2 to 3 hours at 100 to 110 deg C and then cooled. The cooled mass is nitrate-conditioned by mixing with a solution equivalent to 35 pounds of ammunium nitrate and 300 pounds of water per ton of ore. The resulting pulp containing 70% or more solids is treated by upflow percolation with a 5% solution of tributyl phosphate in kerosene at a rate equivalent to a residence time of about one hour to extract the solubilized uranium. The uranium is recovered from the pregnant organic liquid by counter-current washing with water. The organic extractant may be recycled. The uranium is removed from the water solution by treating with ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate. The filtrate from the last step may be recycled for the nitrate-conditioning treatment.

  18. Recovering energy and materials from hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-12-01

    The tannery industry faces growing environmental concerns because of the high hazardous metal content of its process waste. The formation, during the tanning process, of the highly toxic hexavalent chromium precludes the use of conventional thermal incineration processes. Borge Tannery in Norway, which processes 600 cattle hides per day, has solved the problem by using new PyroArc technology. The PyroArc waste processing plant can treat all of the tannery's production wastes, transforming them into useful products such as fuel gas and re-usable metal. The fuel gas consists mainly of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and nitrogen, and has a calorific value of about 4 MJ/Nm{sub 3}. About 65-70% of the energy content of the source material (waste or biomass) is recovered in the gas, and this is used to produce steam and/or electricity in a gas engine with a capacity of 580 kW. A further 20-25% of the initial energy content is recovered as heat or low-pressure steam. The plant is designed to be self-sufficient in energy (1.5 MW) and to meet the tannery's maximum requirements for hot water and steam. (UK)

  19. Recovering method for high level radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Toshiki

    1998-01-01

    Offgas filters such as of nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities and waste control facilities are burnt, and the burnt ash is melted by heating, and then the molten ashes are brought into contact with a molten metal having a low boiling point to transfer the high level radioactive materials in the molten ash to the molten metal. Then, only the molten metal is evaporated and solidified by drying, and residual high level radioactive materials are recovered. According to this method, the high level radioactive materials in the molten ashes are transferred to the molten metal and separated by the difference of the distribution rate of the molten ash and the molten metal. Subsequently, the molten metal to which the high level radioactive materials are transferred is heated to a temperature higher than the boiling point so that only the molten metal is evaporated and dried to be removed, and residual high level radioactive materials are recovered easily. On the other hand, the molten ash from which the high level radioactive material is removed can be discarded as ordinary industrial wastes as they are. (T.M.)

  20. When will the Antarctic Ozone Hole Recover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Montzka, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early Spring. Antarctic ozone values have been monitored since 1979 using satellite observations from the .TOMS instrument. The severity of the hole has been assessed from TOMS using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole) and by calculating the average size during the September-October period. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations in the collar of the polar lower stratospheric vortex. In this presentation, we show the relationships of halogens and temperature to, both the size and depth of the hole. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international agreements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. Using projections of halogen levels combined with age-of-air estimates, we find that the ozone hole is recovering at an extremely slow rate and that large ozone holes will regularly recur over the next 2 decades. The ozone hole will begin to show first signs of recovery in about 2023, and the hole will fully recover to pre-1980 levels in approximately 2070. This 2070 recovery is 20 years later than recent projections.

  1. The influence of thyroxine and propyl thiouracil on Parastrongylus malaysiensis infection in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, A B; Ahmad, R A; Chang, J S; Ambu, S

    1994-01-01

    Daily intramuscular injection with thyroxine (T4) at a dose of 2.5 micrograms/100 g body weight decreased the larvae and adult worm burden of Parastrongylus malaysiensis in the brain and pulmonary arteries of male Sprague-Dawley albino rats. In contrast, rats treated with propyl thiouracil (PTU), an antithyroid drug, at a dose of 3.75 mg/100 g body weight retained greater numbers of larvae and adult worms. The results may reflect the contrasting immunomodulatory effects of T4 and PTU that influence the susceptibility of the host.

  2. EVALUATION OF CARDIOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF MEDOHAR VATI BY ISOPROTERENOL INDUCED MYOCARDIAL DAMAGE IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Patel Jignasa S; Setty Seema K; Chakraborty Manodeep; Kamath Jagadish V

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective activity of poly herbal formulation Medohar vati in isoproterenol (ISO)- induced myocardial necrosis in rats. Animals were treated with Medohar vati (150 and 300 mg/kg for 21 days) and Carvedilol (10mg/kg for 7 days) to the rats treated with ISO (85 mg/kg, sc) on the 22th and 23rd days. The group only treated with ISO demonstrated elevated level of Lactate dehydrogenasa (LDH), Creatine kinase (CK-MB) and CK- NAC in serum which was r...

  3. The Possible Therapeutic Role of Polyphenyl Constituents in Turmeric and Tamoxifen on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Chemically Induced in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelgawad, M.R.

    2017-01-01

    Tamoxifen is a drug wildly used for the adjuvant therapy in the treatment of women with estrogen receptor-positive breast tumors and has a low incidence of serious side-effects. Feeding turmeric ( Curcuma longa L .) to rats has no apparent side effects; reduced the types of inflammation that can cause liver cell damage, blockage and scarring. Turmeric delay the damage caused by progressive inflammatory liver disease. This study was carried out to study the possible therapeutic effect of polyphenyl constituents in turmeric and tamoxifen on hepatocarcinogenesis in rats chemically induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Thirty five male rats were injected with DEN in a single dose i.p. (200mg/kg), 7 rats were sacrificed after ~6 months for histopathological examination for HCC nodules in different lobes and lobules, many nodules were observed by naked eye with a diameter of about ~2-3mm. The remaining 28 hepatoma (HCC) bearing rats chemically induced were randomized divided into 4 groups (each of 7rats): hepatoma bearing rats receiving the control diet; hepatoma bearing rats (supplemented with 4g/kg (wt/wt) turmeric (~200 μg curcumin /rat/day/4weeks; hepatoma bearing rats treated with 50mg/kg (wt/wt) tamoxifen dissolved in 0.1 ml dimethylsulfoxide and diluted with normal saline and drinking water; hepatoma bearing rats treated with 50mg/kg (wt/wt) tamoxifen in 0.1 ml dimethylsulfoxide and diluted with normal saline and drinking water and supplemented with 4g/ kg (wt/wt) turmeric(~200 μg curcumin /rat/day/4weeks; besides, 7 male rats serves as control group. By the end of the experiment at 4 weeks, rats in each group were sacrificed for examination.

  4. The sensitivity of male rat reproductive organs to monosodium glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitthichai Iamsaard

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to investigate the sensitivity of the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, and sperm acrosome reaction (AR to monosodium L- glutamate (MSG in rats. Materials and methods. Rats were divided into four groups and fed with non-acidic MSG at 0.25, 3 or 6 g/kg body weight for 30 days or without MSG. The morphological changes in the reproductive organs were studied. The plasma testosterone level, epididymal sperm concentration, and sperm AR status were assayed. Results. Compared to the control, no significant changes were discerned in the morphology and weight of the testes, or the histological structures of epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicle. In contrast, significant decreases were detected in the weight of the epididymis, testosterone levels, and sperm concentration of rats treated with 6 g/kg body weight of MSG. The weight loss was evident in the seminal vesicle in MSG-administered rats. Moreover, rats treated with MSG 3 and 6 g/kg exhibited partial testicular damage, characterized by sloughing of spermatogenic cells into the seminiferous tubular lumen, and their plasma testosterone levels were significantly decreased. In the 6 g/kg MSG group, the sperm concentration was significantly decreased compared with the control or two lower dose MSG groups. In AR assays, there was no statistically significant difference between MSG-rats and normal rats. Conclusion. Testicular morphological changes, testosterone level, and sperm concentration were sensitive to high doses of MSG while the rate of AR was not affected. Therefore, the consumption of high dose MSG must be avoided because it may cause partial infertility in male.

  5. Reproductive toxicity of Samanea tubulosa on rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rafaella Luz de Araújo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Samanea tubulosa is a plant used for medicinal and feeding purposes. However, ingestion of S. tubulosa pods has been associated with bovine abortion. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the effects of diet containing 5% of S. tubulosa pod meal on male and female Wistar rats. Diet was administered to male rats (n = 10 for 60 days before mating. Female rats (n = 10 received the treatment for 30 days, during cohabitation and from gestational day (GD 0 to GD20. Treated animals were mated with untreated rats. In male rats, plant consumption caused decreased food consumption and 20% fertility index reduction. Litters from treated males presented lower body weight and crown–rump length. Female rats treated with the plant increased water and food intake and body weight. Decreases in fertility, fecundity and gestation indices and increase of placenta weight and mean number of corpora lutea were found. Thus, owing to the possible general and reproductive toxic effects, long-term consumption of S. tubulosa is not recommended for phytotherapic or food purposes.

  6. Teripang Pasir Meningkatkan Kandungan Antioksidan Superoksida Dismutase pada Pankreas Tikus Diabetes (SEA CUCUMBER INCREASED ANTIOXIDANT SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE IN THE PANCREATIC TISSUE OF DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutik Wresdiyati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High level of blood glucose is an indicator for diabetes mellitus (DM condition. The condition iscaused by low level of insulin secretion or impairement of insulin receptor. The number of DM patientincreases every year. The World Health Organization reported that the number of DM patient in Indonesiawas the 4th highest in the world, after following China, India, and the United States of America, respectively.This study was conducted to analyze the effect of sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra J on the profile ofantioxidant copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD in the pancreatic tissues of diabetic rats. Atotal of 25 male white rats (Sprague Dawley were used in this study. They were divided into five groups;(1 negative control (KN, (2 positive control, diabetic rats (KP, (3 diabetic rats treated with hydrolyzatedprotein of sea cucumber (HDL, (4 diabetic rats treated with concentrated protein of sea cucumber (KST,and (5 diabetic rats treated with isolated protein of sea cucumber (ISL, respectively. Diabetic conditionwas obtained by alloxan injection 110 mg/kg bw. The treatments were done for 28 days. At the end oftreatment period, the rats were sacrificed and pancreatic tissues were collected and fixed in Bouin solution and then processed to paraffin embedding standard method. The tissues were then stained withimmunohistochemical staining techniques using monoclonal antibody of Cu, Zn-SOD. The results showedthat treatment of HDL, KST, and ISL of sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra J increased the content ofantioxidant Cu, Zn-SOD either in Langerhans islets and acinar cells of pancreatic tissues-diabetic rats.The HDL of sea cucumber treatment gave the best effect in increasing the antioxidant content of Cu, Zn-SOD in pancreatic tissue of diabetic rats.

  7. Recovering heat from waste air from stables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    A milk cow gives off 35.7 kW h/d via its body, excreta and urine. 68.4% of this is body heat. Part of this waste heat escapes with the waste air from the cowsheds. The heat can be recovered from the waste air by an air/air heat exchanger. The air is collected and taken to a heat exchanger. In the heat exchanger, fresh air is heated by the waste air, and is distributed over the cowshed by a system of ducts. The heated waste air escapes through a central chimney at the end of the heat exchanger. It is sensible to fit the heat exchanger above the cowshed roof, if there is sufficient space available and the chimney should run upwards from the cowshed. A double heat exchanger makes it possible to allocate each half of the cowshed to half of the heat exchanger.

  8. Process for recovering cesium from cesium alum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mein, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    Cesium is recovered from cesium alum, CsAl(SO 4 ) 2 , by a two-reaction sequence in which the cesium alum is first dissolved in an aqueous hydroxide solution to form cesium alum hydroxide, CsAl(OH) 3 , and potassium sulfate, K 2 SO 4 . Part of the K 2 SO 4 precipitates and is separated from the supernatant solution. In the second reaction, a water-soluble permanganate, such as potassium permanganate, KMnO 4 , is added to the supernatant. This reaction forms a precipitate of cesium permanganate, CsMnO 4 . This precipitate may be separated from the residual solution to obtain cesium permanganate of high purity, which can be sold as a product or converted into other cesium compounds

  9. Process for recovering cesium from pollucite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mein, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    Cesium is recovered from a cesium-bearing mineral such as pollucite by extraction with hydrochloric acid to obtain an extract of cesium chloride and other alkali metal and polyvalent metal chlorides. The iron and aluminum chlorides can be precipitated as the hydroxides and separated from the solution of the alkali metal chlorides to which is added potassium permanganate or other water-soluble permanganate to selectively precipitate cesium permanganate. The cesium precipitate is then separated from the residual solution containing the metal chlorides. The cesium permanganate, which is in a very pure form, can be converted to other cesium compounds by reaction with a reducing agent to obtain cesium carbonate and cesium delta manganese dioxide

  10. Testosterone like Activity of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Mucuna pruriens Seeds and its Effects on Serum Biochemical Metabolites in Immature Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazir Ahmad*, Zia-ur-Rahman1, Nafees Akhtar and Shujait Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone like activity of seeds of Mucuna pruriens and its effects on serum biochemical metabolites in immature male rats were investigated. Forty eight immature male rats were divided into four equal groups. Rats of groups A and B were orally given ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Mucuna pruriens seeds daily at the dose rate of 500 mg/kg body weight, respectively, for 14 days. Rats of group C were injected with testosterone at the dose rate of 2.5 mg/kg body weight daily, while rats of group D served as controls. After 7 days, six rats from each group were euthanized, while the remaining six rats from each group were euthanized after 14 days of treatment. Rats given ethanolic extract gained higher weight compared to controls (P<0.05. Testis weight was the highest in rats treated with testosterone. The effect of treatments on the weight of the liver and the kidneys was non significant. Rats given ethanolic or aqueous extract had higher serum testosterone concentration than controls. Similarly, rats given ethanolic or aqueous extract had higher serum total proteins, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol compared to controls. Moreover, ethanolic extract treated rats also had higher total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol than aqueous extract treated rats. However, differences in serum total proteins, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol between control and testosterone injected rats were non significant. Serum triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and ALT activity did not differ among rats of four groups. Serum AST activity and urea were lower in rats treated with ethanolic or aqueous extract compared to controls. Thus, seeds of Mucuna pruriens had testosterone like activity and increased serum total proteins, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol, with no adverse effects on the serum LDL cholesterol, liver or kidney functions.

  11. Curcumin Alleviates Diabetic Retinopathy in Experimental Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Yu, Jinqiang; Ke, Feng; Lan, Mei; Li, Dekun; Tan, Ke; Ling, Jiaojiao; Wang, Ying; Wu, Kaili; Li, Dai

    2018-03-29

    To investigate the potential protective effects of curcumin on the retina in diabetic rats. An experimental diabetic rat model was induced by a low dose of streptozotocin combined with a high-energy diet. Rats which had blood glucose levels ≥11.6 mmol/L were used as diabetic rats. The diabetic rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: diabetic rats with no treatment (DM), diabetic rats treated with 100 mg/kg curcumin (DM + Cur 100 mg/kg), and diabetic rats treated with 200 mg/kg curcumin (DM + Cur 200 mg/kg). Curcumin was orally administered daily for 16 weeks. After 16 weeks of administration, the rats were euthanized, and eyes were dissected. Retinal histology was examined, and the thickness of the retina was measured. Ultrastructural changes of retinal ganglion cells, inner layer cells, retinal capillary, and membranous disks were observed by electron microscopy. Malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and total antioxidant capacity were measured by ELISA. Expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in retina tissues were examined by immunohistochemical staining and ELISA. Expression levels of Bax and Bcl-2 in retina tissues were determined by immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. Curcumin reduced the blood glucose levels of diabetic rats and decreased diabetes-induced body weight loss. Curcumin prevented attenuation of the retina in diabetic rats and ameliorated diabetes-induced ultrastructure changes of the retina, including thinning of the retina, apoptosis of the retinal ganglion cells and inner nuclear layer cells, thickening of retinal capillary basement membrane and disturbance of photoreceptor cell membranous disks. We also found that curcumin has a strong antioxidative ability in the retina of diabetic rats. It was observed that curcumin attenuated the expression of VEGF in the retina of diabetic rats. We also discovered that curcumin had an antiapoptotic effect by upregulating the expression of Bcl-2 and downregulating

  12. Exenatide Induces Impairment of Autophagy Flux to Damage Rat Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiqiang; Huang, Lihua; Yu, Xiao; Yu, Can; Zhu, Hongwei; Li, Xia; Han, Duo; Huang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to explore the alteration of autophagy in rat pancreas treated with exenatide. Normal Sprague-Dawley rats and diabetes-model rats induced by 2-month high-sugar and high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection were subcutaneously injected with exenatide, respectively, for 10 weeks, with homologous rats treated with saline as control. Meanwhile, AR42J cells, pancreatic acinar cell line, were cultured with exenatide at doses of 5 pM for 3 days. The pancreas was disposed, and several sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Immunohistochemistry was used to measure the expressions of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) and cysteine-aspartic acid protease-3 in rat pancreas, and Western blot was used to test the expressions of GLP-1R, light chain 3B-I and -II, and p62 in rat pancreas and AR42J cells. The data were expressed as mean (standard deviation) and analyzed by unpaired Student's t-test. Exenatide can induce pathological changes in rat pancreas. The GLP-1R, p62, light chain 3B-II, and cysteine-aspartic acid protease-3 in rat pancreas and AR42J cells treated with exenatide were significantly overexpressed. Exenatide can activate and upregulate its receptor, GLP-1R, then impair autophagy flux and activate apoptosis in the pancreatic acinar cell, thus damaging rat pancreas.

  13. The effect of hydro-ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa rhizome and curcumin on total and differential WBC and serum oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers in rat model of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Farzaneh Shakeri; Mohammad Soukhtanloo; Mohammad Hossein Boskabady

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): The effects of Curcuma longa (C. longa) and curcumin on total and differential WBC count and oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers, in rat model of asthma were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Total and differential WBC count in the blood, NO2, NO3, MDA, SOD, CAT and thiol levels in serum were examined in control, asthma, Asthmatic rats treated with C. longa (0.75, 1.50, and 3.00 mg/ml), curcumin (0.15, 0.30, and 0.60 mg/ml), and dexamethasone (1.25 ?g/ml) rats. Results: Total and mo...

  14. Biochemical and histological changes in liver and kidney in male Wistar albino rats following exposure to Solignum®: a permethrincontaining wood preservative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley C. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed to determine the effect of sub-chronic exposure to Solignum®, a permethrin-containing wood preservative on biochemical and histological changes in liver and kidneys of male Wistar albino rats. Thirty-two male rats were randomly divided into four groups: control and three treatment concentrations containing 8 rats each. The treatment groups were exposed to Solignum® at dose rates of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (BW respectively per day orally for four weeks. Data obtained from the study showed a progressive increase in the body weight of rats in control whereas, rats treated with different concentrations (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg BW of Solignum® decreased significantly (≤0.05 especially at the end of the second and fourth week when compared with control. On the other hand, there was a significant decrease in the relative liver weights of rats treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg BW Solignum® while rats treated with 400 mg/kg BW showed a significant increase when compared with control. The relative weight of kidneys in experimental groups increased significantly when compared with control. Biochemical analysis results illustrated that there was a significant increase in marker enzymes namely alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity at the end of the fourth week. Similarly, total bilirubin, serum urea, creatinine and electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Cl- levels increased in a dose dependent manner in treated rats when compared with untreated control group. Serum total protein decreased significantly in experimental rats when compared with control. However, cholesterol and triglycerides showed no significant difference when compared with control. Histopathological examination of hepatocytes in treated rats was characterized by mild periportal inflammatory cells and cytoplasmic degeneration. Furthermore, histopathological examination of rat kidneys revealed inflammatory

  15. Myenteric denervation differentially reduces enteroendocrine serotonin cell population in rats during postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, Luzmarina; Fernandes, Marilda da Cruz; Pereira, Lucieni Cristina Marques da Silva; Freitas, Priscila de; Gama, Patrícia; Alvares, Eliana Parisi

    2006-05-01

    The enteric nervous and enteroendocrine systems regulate different processes in the small intestine. Ablation of myenteric plexus with benzalkonium chloride (BAC) stimulates epithelial cell proliferation, whereas endocrine serotonin cells may inhibit the process. To evaluate the connection between the systems and the influence of myenteric plexus on serotoninergic cells in rats during postnatal development, the ileal plexus was partially removed with BAC. Rats were treated at 13 or 21 days and sacrificed after 15 days. The cell bodies of myenteric neurons were stained by beta NADH-diaphorase to detect the extension of denervation. The number of enteroendocrine cells in the ileum was estimated in crypts and villi in paraffin sections immunostained for serotonin. The number of neurons was reduced by 27.6 and 45% in rats treated on the 13th and 21st days, respectively. We tried to establish a correlation of denervation and the serotonin population according to the age of treatment. We observed a reduction of immunolabelled cells in the crypts of rats treated at 13 days, whereas this effect was seen in the villi of rats denervated at 21 days. These results suggest that the enteric nervous system might control the enteroendocrine cell population and this complex mechanism could be correlated to changes in cell proliferation.

  16. Alternative complement pathway and factor B activities in rats with altered blood levels of thyroid hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitencourt, C.S. [Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Duarte, C.G.; Azzolini, A.E.C.S.; Assis-Pandochi, A.I. [Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-03-02

    Evaluating the activity of the complement system under conditions of altered thyroid hormone levels might help elucidate the role of complement in triggering autoimmune processes. Here, we investigated alternative pathway (AP) activity in male Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g) after altering their thyroid hormone levels by treatment with triiodothyronine (T3), propylthiouracil (PTU) or thyroidectomy. T3 and thyroxine (T4) levels were determined by chemiluminescence assays. Hemolytic assays were performed to evaluate the lytic activity of the AP. Factor B activity was evaluated using factor B-deficient serum. An anti-human factor B antibody was used to measure factor B levels in serum by radial immunodiffusion. T3 measurements in thyroidectomized animals or animals treated with PTU demonstrated a significant reduction in hormone levels compared to control. The results showed a reduction in AP lytic activity in rats treated with increasing amounts of T3 (1, 10, or 50 µg). Factor B activity was also decreased in the sera of hyperthyroid rats treated with 1 to 50 µg T3. Additionally, treating rats with 25 µg T3 significantly increased factor B levels in their sera (P < 0.01). In contrast, increased factor B concentration and activity (32%) were observed in hypothyroid rats. We conclude that alterations in thyroid hormone levels affect the activity of the AP and factor B, which may in turn affect the roles of AP and factor B in antibody production.

  17. Alternative complement pathway and factor B activities in rats with altered blood levels of thyroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitencourt, C.S.; Duarte, C.G.; Azzolini, A.E.C.S.; Assis-Pandochi, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluating the activity of the complement system under conditions of altered thyroid hormone levels might help elucidate the role of complement in triggering autoimmune processes. Here, we investigated alternative pathway (AP) activity in male Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g) after altering their thyroid hormone levels by treatment with triiodothyronine (T3), propylthiouracil (PTU) or thyroidectomy. T3 and thyroxine (T4) levels were determined by chemiluminescence assays. Hemolytic assays were performed to evaluate the lytic activity of the AP. Factor B activity was evaluated using factor B-deficient serum. An anti-human factor B antibody was used to measure factor B levels in serum by radial immunodiffusion. T3 measurements in thyroidectomized animals or animals treated with PTU demonstrated a significant reduction in hormone levels compared to control. The results showed a reduction in AP lytic activity in rats treated with increasing amounts of T3 (1, 10, or 50 µg). Factor B activity was also decreased in the sera of hyperthyroid rats treated with 1 to 50 µg T3. Additionally, treating rats with 25 µg T3 significantly increased factor B levels in their sera (P < 0.01). In contrast, increased factor B concentration and activity (32%) were observed in hypothyroid rats. We conclude that alterations in thyroid hormone levels affect the activity of the AP and factor B, which may in turn affect the roles of AP and factor B in antibody production

  18. Effect of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol glycoside on 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels of the rat erythrocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skliar, M I; Fernandez, M C; Faienza, H; Orsatti, M B; Puche, R C; Boland, R L; Skliar, M I

    1980-12-01

    The erythrocytes of rats treated with 1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or 1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol glycoside showed decreased levels of 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate. The same result has been obtained in vitro, indicating a direct effect of the sterol on the red cell. The glycoside is less active than the free sterol in vivo and more active in vitro. The decreased levels of diphosphoglycerate induced tissue hypoxia as shown by a higher plasma lactate/pyruvate ratio and a three fold increase in plasma erythropoietin concentration.

  19. Self-Recovering Sensor-Actor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kamali

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor-actor networks are a recent development of wireless networks where both ordinary sensor nodes and more sophisticated and powerful nodes, called actors, are present. In this paper we formalize a recently introduced algorithm that recovers failed actor communication links via the existing sensor infrastructure. We prove via refinement that the recovery is terminating in a finite number of steps and is distributed, thus self-performed by the actors. Most importantly, we prove that the recovery can be done at different levels, via different types of links, such as direct actor links or indirect links between the actors, in the latter case reusing the wireless infrastructure of sensors. This leads to identifying coordination classes, e.g., for delegating the most security sensitive coordination to the direct actor-actor coordination links, the least real-time constrained coordination to indirect links, and the safety critical coordination to both direct actor links and indirect sensor paths between actors. Our formalization is done using the theorem prover in the RODIN platform.

  20. Method for chromatographically recovering scandium and yttrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, T.S.; Stoltz, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a method for chromatographically recovering scandium and yttrium from the residue of a sand chlorinator. It comprises: providing a residue from a sand chlorinator, the residue containing scandium, yttrium, sodium, calcium and at least one radioactive metal of the group consisting of radium, thorium and uranium; digesting the residue with an acid to produce an aqueous liquid containing scandium, yttrium, sodium, calcium and at least one radioactive metal of the group consisting of radium, thorium and uranium; feeding the metal containing liquid through a cation exchanger; eluding the cation exchanger with an acid eluant to to produce: a first eluate containing at least half of the total weight of the calcium and sodium in the feed liquid; a second eluate containing at least half of the total weight of the one or more radioactive metals in the feed liquid; a third eluate containing at least half of the yttrium in the feed liquid, and a fourth eluate containing at least half of the weight of the scandium in the feed liquid

  1. Small Sized Drone Fall Recover Mechanism Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIU, Tzu-Heng; CHAO, Fang-Lin; LIOU, Jhen-Yuan

    2017-12-01

    Drones uses four motors to rotate clockwise, counter-clockwise, or change in rotational speed to change its status of motion. The problem of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle turnover causes personal loses and harm local environment. Designs of devices that can let falling drones recover are discussed. The models attempt to change the orientation, so that the drone may be able to improve to the point where it can take off again. The design flow included looking for functional elements, using simplify model to estimate primary functional characteristics, and find the appropriate design parameters. For reducing the complexity, we adopted the simple rotate mechanism with rotating arms to change the fuselage angle and reduce the dependence on the extra-components. A rough model was built to verify structure, and then the concept drawing and prototype were constructed. We made the prototype through the integration of mechanical part and the electronic control circuit. The electronic control module that selected is Arduino-mini pro. Through the Bluetooth modules, user can start the rebound mechanism by the motor control signal. Protections frames are added around each propeller to improve the body rotate problem. Limited by current size of Arduino module, motor and rebound mechanism make the main chassis more massive than the commercial product. However, built-in sensor and circuit miniaturization will improve it in future.

  2. Effect of red maca (Lepidium meyenii) on prostate zinc levels in rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, C; Leiva-Revilla, J; Rubio, J; Gasco, M; Gonzales, G F

    2012-05-01

    Lepidium meyenii (maca) is a plant that grows exclusively above 4000 m in the Peruvian central Andes. Red maca (RM) extract significantly reduced prostate size in rats with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone enanthate (TE). Zinc is an important regulator of prostate function. This study aimed to determine the effect of RM on prostate zinc levels in rats with BPH induced by TE. Also, the study attempted to determine the best marker for the effect of RM on sex accessory glands. Rats treated with RM extract from day 1 to day 14 reversed the effect of TE administration on prostate weight and zinc levels. However, RM administered from day 7 to day 14 did not reduce the effect of TE on all studied variables. Finasteride (FN) reduced prostate, seminal vesicle and preputial gland weights in rats treated with TE. Although RM and FN reduced prostate zinc levels, the greatest effect was observed in TE-treated rats with RM from day 1 to day 14. In addition, prostate weight and zinc levels showed the higher diagnosis values than preputial and seminal vesicle weights. In conclusion, RM administered from day 1 to day 14 reduced prostate size and zinc levels in rats where prostatic hyperplasia was induced with TE. Also, this experimental model could be used as accurately assay to determine the effect of maca obtained under different conditions and/or the effect of different products based on maca. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Phencyclidine increased while isolation rearing did not affect progressive ratio responding in rats: Investigating potential models of amotivation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitai, Nurith; Powell, Susan B; Young, Jared W

    2017-11-22

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating neurodevelopmental disorder affecting 1% of the global population with heterogeneous symptoms including positive, negative, and cognitive. While treatment for positive symptoms exists, none have been developed to treat negative symptoms. Animal models of schizophrenia are required to test targeted treatments and since patients exhibit reduced effort (breakpoints) for reward in a progressive ratio (PR) task, we examined the PR breakpoints of rats treated with the NMDA receptor antagonist phencyclidine or those reared in isolation - two common manipulations used to induce schizophrenia-relevant behaviors in rodents. In two cohorts, the PR breakpoint for a palatable food reward was examined in Long Evans rats after: 1) a repeated phencyclidine regimen; 2) A subchronic phencyclidine regimen followed by drug washout; and 3) post-weaning social isolation. Rats treated with repeated phencyclidine and those following washout from phencyclidine exhibited higher PR breakpoints than vehicle-treated rats. The breakpoint of isolation reared rats did not differ from those socially reared, despite abnormalities of these rats in other schizophrenia-relevant behaviors. Despite their common use for modeling other schizophrenia-relevant behaviors neither phencyclidine treatment nor isolation rearing recreated the motivational deficits observed in patients with schizophrenia, as measured by PR breakpoint. Other manipulations, and negative symptom-relevant behaviors, require investigation prior to testing putative therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Electroacupuncture improves gait locomotion, H-reflex and ventral root potentials of spinal compression injured rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Corona, Carlos; Torres-Castillo, Sergio; Rodríguez-Torres, Erika Elizabeth; Segura-Alegría, Bertha; Jiménez-Estrada, Ismael; Quiroz-González, Salvador

    2017-05-01

    This study explored the effect of electroacupuncture stimulation (EA) on alterations in the Hoffman reflex (H-reflex) response and gait locomotion provoked by spinal cord injury (SCI) in the rat. A compression lesion of the spinal cord was evoked by insufflating a Fogarty balloon located in the epidural space at the T8-9 spinal level of adult Wistar male rats (200-250 gr; n=60). In different groups of SCI rats, EA (frequencies: 2, 50 and 100Hz) was applied simultaneously to Huantiao (GB30), Yinmen (BL37), Jizhong (GV6) and Zhiyang (GV9) acupoints from the third post-injury day until the experimental session. At 1, 2, 3 and 4 post-injury weeks, the BBB scores of the SCI group of rats treated with EA at 50Hz showed a gradual but greater enhancement of locomotor activity than the other groups of rats. Unrestrained gait kinematic analysis of SCI rats treated with EA-50Hz stimulation showed a significant improvement in stride duration, length and speed (p<0.05), whereas a discrete recovery of gait locomotion was observed in the other groups of animals. After four post-injury weeks, the H-reflex amplitude and H-reflex/M wave amplitude ratio obtained in SCI rats had a noticeable enhancement (217%) compared to sham rats (n=10). Meanwhile, SCI rats treated with EA at 50Hz manifested a decreased facilitation of the H-reflex amplitude and H/M amplitude ratio (154%) and a reduced frequency-dependent amplitude depression of the H-reflex (66%). In addition, 50 Hz-EA treatment induced a recovery of the presynaptic depression of the Gs-VRP evoked by PBSt conditioning stimulation in the SCI rat (63.2±8.1%; n=9). In concordance with the latter, it could be suggested that 50 Hz-EA stimulation reduced the hyper-excitability of motoneurons and provokes a partial improvement of the locomotive performance and H reflex responses by a possible recovery of presynaptic mechanisms in the spinal cord of experimentally injured rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of salmon calcitonin on fracture healing in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolin; Luo, Xinle; Yu, Nansheng; Zeng, Bingfang

    2007-01-01

    To explore the effects of salmon calcitonin on the healing process of osteoporotic fractures in ovariectomized rats. We performed this study in The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College, Guangzhou, China, during the period March 2002 to December 2004. We used 120 female adult Wistar rats in this experiment, among which 90 underwent ovariectomy (OVX) and the other 30 had sham-operation. All rats had their left tibias fractured 3 months later. The 90 OVX rats were randomly divided into 3 groups with 30 in each, while the 30 sham-operated rats served as control group. After the fracture the rats had subcutaneous injection of normal saline, salmon calcitonin and estrogen, respectively. X-ray film, histological examination, bone mineral density (BMD) measurement and biomechanics testing were carried out to evaluate the fracture healing. Compared with OVX rats treated with normal saline, the rats with salmon calcitonin had significantly higher BMD values in the left tibia, higher max torque, shear stress of the left tibia 8 weeks after fracture (pnormalization of microstructure of bone trabeculae. Salmon calcitonin can, not only increase BMD in osteoporotic bone, but also enhance the bone biomechanical properties and improve the process of fracture healing in fractured osteoporotic bone.

  6. Effects of salmon calcitonin on fracture healing in ovariectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaolin; Zeng, Bingfang; Luo, Xinle; Yu, Nansheng

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to explore the effects of salmon calcitonin on the healing process of osteoporotic fractures in ovariectomized rats. We performed this study in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhaou Medical College, Guangzhaou, China during the period March 2002 to December 2004. We used 120 female adult Wistar rats in this experiment, among which 90 underwent ovariectomy (OVX) and the other 30 had shamoperation. All rats had their left tibias fractured 3 months later. The 90 OVX rats were randomly divided into 3 groups with 30 in each, while the 30 shamoperated rats served as control group. After the fracture rats had subcutaneous injection of normal saline, salmon calcitonin and estrogen, respectively. X-ray film, histological examination, bone mineral density (BMD) measurement and biomechanics testing were carried out to evaluate the fracture healing. Compared with OVX rats treated normal saline, the rats with salmon calcitonin had significantly higher BMD values in the left tibia, higher max torque, shear stress of the left tibia 8 weeks after fracture (p<0.05), and presented with stronger callus formation, shorter fracture healing time and faster normalization of microstructure of bone trabeculae. Salmon calcitonin can, not only increase in osteoporotic bone biomechanical properties and improve the process of fractured osteoporotic bone. (author)

  7. Combined effect of carcinogenic n-nitrosodimethylamine precursors and fractioned γ-irradiation on tumor development in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galenko, P.M.; Nedopitanskaya, N.N.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of combined action of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and fractioned γ-irradiation on tumor development in rats was investigated. Both the tumor frequency and tumor plurality coefficient have been studied for two types of treatment: precursors of NDMA (amidopyrine and/or sodium nitrite (SN)) alone and the combination 'precursors plus radiation'. Tumor frequency decreased by about 11% after combination of γ-irradiation and precursors in comparison with precursors alone. Nevertheless, treatment with SN and γ-irradiation did not change tumor frequency in comparison with SN alone. Irradiation of rats treated with precursors led to an increased tumor plurality coefficient

  8. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF improves motor recovery in the rat impactor model for spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanjew Dittgen

    Full Text Available Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF improves outcome after experimental SCI by counteracting apoptosis, and enhancing connectivity in the injured spinal cord. Previously we have employed the mouse hemisection SCI model and studied motor function after subcutaneous or transgenic delivery of the protein. To further broaden confidence in animal efficacy data we sought to determine efficacy in a different model and a different species. Here we investigated the effects of G-CSF in Wistar rats using the New York University Impactor. In this model, corroborating our previous data, rats treated subcutaneously with G-CSF over 2 weeks show significant improvement of motor function.

  9. The role of estrogen G-protein coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) and sexual experience in sexual incentive motivation in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, W R; Battista, C; Divack, S R; Morales Núñez, N B

    2017-08-01

    Male rats exhibit reductions in sexual motivation following systemic administration of drugs that inhibit the conversion of testosterone to estrogen, which indicates that estrogen signaling plays a role in male rat sexual motivation. Given that estrogen G-protein coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) is expressed in brain areas that are important for male sexual behaviors and endocrine function, the primary aim of the current study was to examine the role that GPR30 plays in sexual motivation in both sexually naïve and sexually experienced male rats. Following the final treatment with either a GPR30 antagonist (G-15) or vehicle control, male rats were placed into the center chamber of a larger three-chambered testing arena that was designed to assess sexual incentive motivation. A sexually receptive stimulus female rat and a stimulus male rat were individually confined to one of the two smaller chambers that were each separated by a perforated partition from the larger end chambers, which test rats had access to. Relative to vehicle treated rats, male rats treated with G-15 exhibited a reduction in the percentage of time spent in the vicinity of a sexually receptive female rat. Although G-15 reduced sexual incentive motivation independent of sexual experience, only sexually-naïve rats treated with G-15 did not exhibit a preference for the sexually receptive stimulus female rat. Collectively, these results indicate that interference with estrogen signaling at GPR30 reduces sexual motivation and that the lack of preference for a sexually receptive female rat over a male rat following G-15 treatment is abrogated by previous sexual experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity is elevated by the suppression of its degradation by clofibric acid in the liver of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Tomoaki; Kudo, Naomi; Mitsumoto, Atsushi; Hibino, Yasuhide; Tsuda, Tadashi; Kawashima, Yoichi

    2007-04-01

    A mechanism by which fibrates control stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) in the liver was studied. Treatment of rats with 2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid (clofibric acid) or feeding of a fat-free diet markedly elevated hepatic activity of SCD. Both the treatment with clofibric acid and the feeding of the fat-free diet caused an increase in the steady-state level of SCD1 mRNA and enhanced transcriptional rate. The half-lives of SCD for control rats, rats treated with clofibric acid rats, and rats fed the fat-free diet were estimated to be 2.0, 3.9, and 1.9 h, respectively. Activity of palmitoyl-CoA chain elongase (PCE) was increased by both clofibric acid treatment and feeding of the fat-free diet as was observed with SCD. Steady-state level of rat fatty acid elongase 2 mRNA was increased by the treatment with clofibric acid or feeding of fat-free diet, although the transcriptional rate was not altered. Different from SCD, PCE was highly stable and its half-life was not changed by either clofibric acid or fat-free diet. These results strongly suggest that the decreased degradation of SCD is responsible for the increase in its activity in addition to increased transcription of SCD1 in the rats treated with clofibric acid.

  11. The Actions of Lyophilized Apple Peel on the Electrical Activity and Organization of the Ventricular Syncytium of the Hearts of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elideth Martínez-Ladrón de Guevara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the effects of lyophilized red delicious apple peel (RDP on the action potentials (APs and the input resistance-threshold current relationship. The experiments were performed on isolated papillary heart muscles from healthy male rats, healthy male rats treated with RDP, diabetic male rats, and diabetic male rats treated with RDP. The preparation was superfused with oxygenated Tyrode’s solution at 37°C. The stimulation and the recording of the APs, the input resistance, and the threshold current were made using conventional electrophysiological methods. The RDP presented no significant effect in normal rats. Equivalent doses in diabetic rats reduced the APD and ARP. The relationship between input resistance and threshold current established an inverse correlation. The results indicate the following: (1 The functional structure of the cardiac ventricular syncytium in healthy rats is heterogeneous, in terms of input resistance and threshold current. Diabetes further accentuates the heterogeneity. (2 As a consequence, conduction block occurs and increases the possibility of reentrant arrhythmias. (3 These modifications in the ventricular syncytium, coupled with the increase in the ARP, are the adequate substrate so that, with diabetes, the heart becomes more arrhythmogenic. (4 RDP decreases the APD, the ARP, and most syncytium irregularity caused by diabetes.

  12. An experimental model of acute encephalopathy after total body irradiation in the rat: effect of liposome-entrapped Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamproglou, Ioannis; Magdelenat, Henri; Boisserie, Gilbert; Baillet, Francois; Mayo, Willy; Fessi, Hatem; Puisieux, Francis; Perderau, Bernard; Colas-Linhart, Nicole; Delattre, Jean-Yves

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an experimental model of acute encephalopathy following total body irradiation in rats and to define the therapeutic effect of liposome-entrapped Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. Methods and Materials: A total of 120 4-month-old rats received 4.5 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) while 120 rats received sham irradiation. A behavioral study based on a conditioning test of negative reinforcement, the one-way avoidance test, was performed 5 hours before irradiation and repeated the following days. Subcutaneous treatment was started 1 hour after irradiation and repeated daily for 2 weeks. In both the irradiated and sham group, three subgroups were defined according to the treatment received: liposome-entrapped Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (0.5 mg/kg), liposomes only, normal saline. Results: This work comprised two consecutive studies. In study A (90 rats) the one-way avoidance test was administered daily from day 0 to day 4 with a recall session at day 14. In study B (validation phase in 150 rats) the behavioral test was performed only from day 0 to day 6. Before irradiation, all rats showed a similar behavioral response. Study A (6 groups of 15 rats): Following TBI, irradiated rats treated with liposomes only or saline demonstrated a significant delay in learning the one-way avoidance test in comparison with sham-irradiated rats (0.05 < p <0.001 depending upon the day of evaluation and the subgroup type). In contrast, irradiated rats treated with liposome-entrapped Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase did not differ from sham-irradiated rats. Study B (6 groups of 25 rats): The results were the same as those in study A, demonstrating a significant delay in the learning of the test in the liposome and saline-treated irradiated rats in comparison with sham-irradiated rats (0.02 < p < 0.001). The irradiated rats, treated with liposome-entrapped Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase did not differ from the sham-irradiated controls. Conclusion: This study indicates that a relatively

  13. Antifungal treatment with carvacrol and eugenol of oral candidiasis in immunosuppressed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chami

    Full Text Available Carvacrol and eugenol, the main (phenolic components of essential oils of some aromatic plants, were evaluated for their therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of experimental oral candidiasis induced by Candida albicans in immunosuppressed rats. This anticandidal activity was analyzed by microbiological and histopathological techniques, and it was compared with that of nystatin, which was used as a positive control. Microbiologically, carvacrol and eugenol significantly (p<0.05 reduced the number of colony forming units (CFU sampled from the oral cavity of rats treated for eight consecutive days, compared to untreated control rats. Treatment with nystatin gave similar results. Histologically, the untreated control animals showed numerous hyphae on the epithelium of the dorsal surface of the tongue. In contrast no hyphal colonization of the epithelium was seen in carvacrol-treated animals, while in rats treated with eugenol, only a few focalized zones of the dorsal surface of the tongue were occupied by hyphae. In the nystatin treated group, hyphae were found in the folds of the tongue mucosa. Thus, the histological data were confirmed by the microbiological tests for carvacrol and eugenol, but not for the nystatin-treated group. Therefore, carvacrol and eugenol could be considered as strong antifungal agents and could be proposed as therapeutic agents for oral candidiasis.

  14. Anti Lithiasis Activity of Avocado (Persea americana Mill Leaves Extract in White Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IETJE WIENTARSIH

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, avocado leaves have been used as traditional medicines for diureticum to cure urolithiasis. This research was to determine anti lithiasis activity of avocado leaves (Persea americana Mill extract on white male rats nefrolithiasis model induced by ethylene glycol. Ethanol extraction method was used to get extract of avogadro leaves. Twenty adult male white rats were divided into 4 different induction treatments i.e. aquadest, ethylene glycol 0.75% and ammonium chloride 2%, and extract of avocado leaves with different levels of 100 and 300 mg/kg bw respectively. Their body weight was measured daily to determine their growth ratio. And at the end of the trial, the kidney was analyzed its calcium level and inhibitory activity to formation of calcium oxalate crystals. The results showed that the amount of calcium level in the kidney of rats treated with extract of avogadro leaves was significantly decreased than that of rats treated with ethylene glycol 0.75% and ammonium chloride 2% (P < 0.05. The extract avocado leaves as a herbal remedy can be recommended as a phytotherapeutic agent especially for preventive action for urolithiasis diseases.

  15. Antioxidant effects of an ozonized theobroma oil formulation on damaged-inflammatory rat skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Y.; Diaz, M.F.; Hernandez, F.; Gila, D.; Ga, G.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a cosmetic formulation elaborated with ozonized theobroma oil may exert beneficial effects in the restoring of the antioxidant activity on the skin of rats previously irradiated with ultraviolet light. 0.5 g of the formulation was applied on the skin of rats for five days. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activity were determined in a homogenate of rat skin. Malondialdehyde (MDA), conjugated dienes (CD) and total hydroperoxide (THP) content were determined as biomarkers of oxidative stress. Using these parameters, antioxidant and oxidant activity, redox index and oxidative stress grade were determined. The total antioxidant activity was significantly increased while the redox index, total oxidant activity and oxidative stress grade decreased significantly in damaged rats treated with the formulation. These results show the antioxidant properties of the cosmetic formulation due to the stimulation of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and GPx, preventing skin injury induced by ultraviolet irradiation. (Author).

  16. Low glucose utilization and neurodegenerative changes caused by sodium fluoride exposure in rat's developmental brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chunyang; Zhang, Shun; Liu, Hongliang; Guan, Zhizhong; Zeng, Qiang; Zhang, Cheng; Lei, Rongrong; Xia, Tao; Wang, Zhenglun; Yang, Lu; Chen, Yihu; Wu, Xue; Zhang, Xiaofei; Cui, Yushan; Yu, Linyu; Wang, Aiguo

    2014-03-01

    Fluorine, a toxic and reactive element, is widely prevalent throughout the environment and can induce toxicity when absorbed into the body. This study was to explore the possible mechanisms of developmental neurotoxicity in rats treated with different levels of sodium fluoride (NaF). The rats' intelligence, as well as changes in neuronal morphology, glucose absorption, and functional gene expression within the brain were determined using the Morris water maze test, transmission electron microscopy, small-animal magnetic resonance imaging and Positron emission tomography and computed tomography, and Western blotting techniques. We found that NaF treatment-impaired learning and memory in these rats. Furthermore, NaF caused neuronal degeneration, decreased brain glucose utilization, decreased the protein expression of glucose transporter 1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein, and increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the rat brains. The developmental neurotoxicity of fluoride may be closely associated with low glucose utilization and neurodegenerative changes.

  17. Anti-ischemic effect of curcumin in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Pradeep K; Khanna, Vinay K; Ali, Mohd M; Khan, Mohd Y; Srimal, Rikhab C

    2008-06-01

    Turmeric has been in use since ancient times as a condiment and due to its medicinal properties. Curcumin, the yellow colouring principle in turmeric, is polyphenolic and major active constituent. Besides anti-inflammatory, thrombolytic and anticarcinogenic activities, curcumin also possesses strong antioxidant property. In view of the novel combination of properties, neuroprotective efficacy of curcumin was studied in rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model. Rats were subjected to 2 h of focal ischemia followed by 72 h of reperfusion. They were pre-treated with curcumin (100 mg/kg, po) for 5 days prior to MCAO and for another 3 days after MCAO. The parameters studied were behavioural, biochemical and histological. Treatment with curcumin could significantly improve neurobehavioral performance compared to untreated ischemic rats as judged by its effect on rota-rod performance and grid walking. A significant inhibition in lipid peroxidation and an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in corpus striatum and cerebral cortex was observed following treatment with curcumin in MCAO rats as compared to MCAO group. Intracellular calcium levels were decreased following treatment with curcumin in MCAO rats. Histologically, a reduction in the infarct area from 33% to 24% was observed in MCAO rats treated with curcumin. The study demonstrates the protective efficacy of curcumin in rat MCAO model.

  18. In vivo correlation of olive leaves extract on some oxidative stress markers in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M.R. Afify

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus type two (T2DM is one of the most extensive diseases in the world. Herbal therapy remains a possible adjunct therapy to sustain better glycemic control and reduce complications arising from diabetes. In order to evaluate the curative impacts of olive leaf extract (OLE on streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats, twenty-four Wistar male adult rats were divided into four equal groups; control, diabetic control (45 mg/kg STZ, normal rats treated with OLE (17.8 mg/kg b.wt., and diabetic rats treated with OLE (45 mg/kg STZ + 17.8 mg/kg b.wt.. The OLE extract was investigated for in vitro antioxidant activity using the DPPH• assay. The phenolic, tannin, and flavonoid contents were determined. The activity of GPX, SOD, and GSH in RBC lysate, CAT in plasma and MDA in serum were measured. The OLE prevented the decrease in GSH and kept MDA around the normal range in the treated diabetic rats. The current study suggests that OLE might be used safely to ameliorate T2DM and its accompanying oxidative stress.

  19. Perfluorononanoic acid-induced apoptosis in rat spleen involves oxidative stress and the activation of caspase-independent death pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Xuemei; Feng, Yixing; Wang, Jianshe; Dai, Jiayin

    2010-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA)-induced apoptosis has been reported in many cell types. However, minimal information on its mode of action is available. This study explored the possible involvement of apoptotic signaling pathways in a nine-carbon-chain length PFAA-perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA)-induced splenocyte apoptosis. After a 14-day exposure to PFNA, rat spleens showed dose-dependent levels of apoptosis. The production of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines was significantly increased and decreased, respectively. However, protein levels of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD), caspase 8 and caspase 3, which are involved in inflammation-related and caspase-dependent apoptosis, were discordant. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha (PPARα) and PPARγ genes expression was up-regulated in rats treated with 3 or 5 mg/kg/day of PFNA, and the level of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) increased concurrently in rats treated with the highest dose. Moreover, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and Bcl-2 protein levels were dramatically decreased in spleens after treatment with 3 and 5 mg/kg/day of PFNA. However, protein levels of Bax were unchanged. Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), an initiator of caspase-independent apoptosis, was significantly increased in all PFNA-dosed rats. Thus, oxidative stress and the activation of a caspase-independent apoptotic signaling pathway contributed to PFNA-induced apoptosis in rat splenocytes.

  20. The effect of substituents in the aromatic ring on carcinogenicity of N-nitrosomethylaniline in F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger-Koepke, M B; Reuber, M D; Iype, P T; Lijinsky, W; Michejda, C J

    1983-01-01

    N-Nitroso-N-methylaniline (NMA) and N-nitroso-N-methyl-4-fluoroaniline (p-F-NMA), both non-mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium and N-nitroso-N-methyl-4-nitroaniline (p-NO2-NMA), a potent mutagen, were tested for carcinogenicity in F344 rats. NMA was shown to induce a high level of tumors in the upper gastrointestinal tract, particularly in the esophagus. Male rats treated with NMA died with tumors at a slightly higher rate than females, although the final tumor yield was the same. Most of the rats treated with p-F-NMA also developed tumors of the esophagus, but they died less rapidly than the NMA treated rats, indicating that p-F-NMA is a slightly weaker carcinogen than NMA. The powerful, directly acting mutagen, p-NO2-NMA did not appear to induce tumors at all since its tumor spectrum was essentially identical to that of the untreated control rats. Thus, the carcinogenic activities of NMA and its substituted analogs do not appear to correlate with bacterial mutagenesis assays. Additionally, NMA, p-F-NMA and N-nitroso-N-methyl-4-bromoaniline, the last a strong mutagen in S. typhimurium, were shown not to induce sister chromatid exchanges in CHO cells and in a clone of a CHO:liver cell hybrid which had previously been shown to be sensitive to chemical agents which require metabolic activation.

  1. Effect of alterations in glomerular charge on deposition of cationic and anionic antibodies to fixed glomerular antigens in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, S; Baker, P; Pritzl, P; Couser, W G

    1985-07-01

    Reduction of the negative charge of the glomerular capillary wall alters its charge- and size-selective properties. To investigate the effect of alteration in glomerular charge properties on antibody localization, we prepared cationic and anionic fractions of antibodies to subepithelial and glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antigens, and compared their deposition in normal rats and rats treated with protamine sulfate or aminonucleoside of puromycin to reduce capillary wall charge. IgG antibodies were eluted from kidneys of rats with active Heymann's nephritis (AICN), passive Heymann's nephritis (PHN), or anti-GBM nephritis (NTN), separated into cationic and anionic fractions, and radiolabeled with iodine 125 or iodine 131. Relative antibody content of each fraction was determined by incubation with an excess of glomerular antigen. Varying amounts of cationic and anionic IgG eluted from kidneys of rats with AICN or PHN were injected into 24 normal or protamine sulfate-treated rats. Glomerular binding of all antibodies was highly correlated with IgG delivery to the kidney. The ratio of cationic to anionic antibody deposited in the glomeruli of normal rats after 4 hours was 1.08 +/- 0.07 for AICN eluate and 0.37 +/- 0.04 for PHN eluate. The ratios were not significantly different in animals pretreated with protamine sulfate (1.15 +/- 0.06 and 0.44 +/- 0.06, respectively; P greater than 0.05). Varying amounts of cationic and anionic IgG eluted from kidneys of rats with NTN were injected into 10 normal rats and four rats treated with aminonucleoside of puromycin. Glomerular binding of antibody was again highly correlated with IgG delivery to the kidney. The ratio of cationic to anionic antibody deposited in the glomeruli of normal rats after 1 hour was 1.03 +/- 0.06, and was not significantly altered in rats treated with aminonucleoside of puromycin (1.05 +/- 0.03, P greater than 0.5). Proteinuria in PHN rats was also unaffected by treatment with protamine sulfate for

  2. Vascular filtration function in galactose-fed versus diabetic rats: The role of polyol pathway activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, G.; Tilton, R.G.; Speedy, A.; Chang, K.; Province, M.A.; Kilo, C.; Williamson, J.R. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (USA))

    1990-07-01

    These studies were undertaken to assess the effects of increased galactose (v increased glucose) metabolism via the polyol pathway on vascular filtration function in the kidneys, eyes, nerves, and aorta. Quantitative radiolabeled tracer techniques were used to assess glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and regional tissue vascular clearance of plasma 131I-bovine serum albumin (BSA) in five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats: nondiabetic controls, streptozotocin-diabetic rats, nondiabetic rats fed a 50% galactose diet, diabetic rats treated with sorbinil (an aldose reductase inhibitor), and galactose-fed rats treated with sorbinil. Sorbinil was added to the diet to provide a daily dose of approximately .2 mmol/kg body weight. After 2 months of diabetes or galactose ingestion, albumin clearance was increased twofold to fourfold in the eye (anterior uvea, choroid, and retina), sciatic nerve, aorta, and kidney; GFR was increased approximately twofold and urinary excretion of endogenous albumin and IgG were increased approximately 10-fold. Sorbinil treatment markedly reduced or completely prevented all of these changes in galactose-fed, as well as in diabetic rats. These observations support the hypothesis that increased metabolism of glucose via the sorbitol pathway is of central importance in mediating virtually all of the early changes in vascular filtration function associated with diabetes in the kidney, as well as in the eyes, nerves, and aorta. On the other hand, renal hypertrophy in diabetic rats and polyuria, hyperphagia, and impaired weight gain in galactose-fed and in diabetic rats were unaffected by sorbinil and therefore are unlikely to be mediated by increased polyol metabolism.

  3. Vascular filtration function in galactose-fed versus diabetic rats: The role of polyol pathway activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugliese, G.; Tilton, R.G.; Speedy, A.; Chang, K.; Province, M.A.; Kilo, C.; Williamson, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    These studies were undertaken to assess the effects of increased galactose (v increased glucose) metabolism via the polyol pathway on vascular filtration function in the kidneys, eyes, nerves, and aorta. Quantitative radiolabeled tracer techniques were used to assess glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and regional tissue vascular clearance of plasma 131I-bovine serum albumin (BSA) in five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats: nondiabetic controls, streptozotocin-diabetic rats, nondiabetic rats fed a 50% galactose diet, diabetic rats treated with sorbinil (an aldose reductase inhibitor), and galactose-fed rats treated with sorbinil. Sorbinil was added to the diet to provide a daily dose of approximately .2 mmol/kg body weight. After 2 months of diabetes or galactose ingestion, albumin clearance was increased twofold to fourfold in the eye (anterior uvea, choroid, and retina), sciatic nerve, aorta, and kidney; GFR was increased approximately twofold and urinary excretion of endogenous albumin and IgG were increased approximately 10-fold. Sorbinil treatment markedly reduced or completely prevented all of these changes in galactose-fed, as well as in diabetic rats. These observations support the hypothesis that increased metabolism of glucose via the sorbitol pathway is of central importance in mediating virtually all of the early changes in vascular filtration function associated with diabetes in the kidney, as well as in the eyes, nerves, and aorta. On the other hand, renal hypertrophy in diabetic rats and polyuria, hyperphagia, and impaired weight gain in galactose-fed and in diabetic rats were unaffected by sorbinil and therefore are unlikely to be mediated by increased polyol metabolism

  4. Effects of Tribulus terrestris on endocrine sensitive organs in male and female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino-Andrade, Anderson J; Morais, Rosana N; Spercoski, Katherinne M; Rossi, Stefani C; Vechi, Marina F; Golin, Munisa; Lombardi, Natália F; Greca, Cláudio S; Dalsenter, Paulo R

    2010-01-08

    Investigate the possible effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT) on endocrine sensitive organs in intact and castrated male rats as well as in a post-menopausal rat model using ovariectomized females. Three different dose levels of TT (11, 42 and 110 mg/kg/day) were administered to castrated males for 7 days and to intact males and castrated females for 28 days. In addition to TT treatment, all experiments also included a group of rats treated with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). In experiments using castrated males and females we also used testosterone and 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol, respectively, as positive controls for androgenicity and estrogenicity. Neither DHEA nor TT was able to stimulate androgen sensitive tissues like the prostate and seminal vesicle in both intact and castrated male rats. In addition, administration of TT to intact male rats for 28 days did not change serum testosterone levels as well as did not produce any quantitative change in the fecal excretion of androgenic metabolites. However, a slight increase in the number of homogenization-resistant spermatids was observed in rats treated with 11 mg/kg/day of TT extract. In ovariectomized females, TT did not produce any stimulatory effects in uterine and vaginal epithelia. Tribulus terrestris was not able to stimulate endocrine sensitive tissues such as the prostate, seminal vesicle, uterus and vagina in Wistar rats, indicating lack of androgenic and estrogenic activity in vivo. We also showed a positive effect of TT administration on rat sperm production, associated with unchanged levels of circulating androgens. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Controlled-release levodopa methyl ester/benserazide-loaded nanoparticles ameliorate levodopa-induced dyskinesia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang X

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Xinxin Yang1*, Ruiyuan Zheng2*, Yunpeng Cai2, Meiling Liao2, Weien Yuan1,2, Zhenguo Liu11Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital (affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 2School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China*Xinxin Yang and Ruiyuan Zheng contributed equally to this workBackground: Levodopa remains the most effective drug in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. However, long-term administration of levodopa induces motor complications, such as levodopa-induced dyskinesia. The mechanisms underlying levodopa-induced dyskinesia are not fully understood.Methods: In this study, we prepared levodopa methyl ester (LDME/benserazide-loaded nanoparticles, which can release LDME and benserazide in a sustained manner. Dyskinesia was induced in rats by repeated administration of levodopa then treated with LDME plus benserazide or the same dose of LDME/benserazide-loaded nanoparticles. Apomorphine-induced rotations and abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs were measured on treatment days 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20. In addition, the levels of phosphorylated dopamine- and cyclic adenosine monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2, and ΔfosB were determined by Western blot. Tau levels were determined by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Dynorphin levels in the striatum and cortex of rats were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: Over the course of levodopa treatment, the rats developed abnormal AIMs, classified as locomotive, axial, orolingual, and forelimb dyskinesia. The degree of reduction of apomorphine-induced rotations was comparable in dyskinetic rats treated with LDME plus benserazide or LDME/benserazide-loaded nanoparticles. The axial, limb, and orolingual (ALO AIMs of dyskinetic rats treated with LDME/benserazide-loaded nanoparticles were 14 ± 2.5, 9 ± 2.0, and 10 ± 2.1 on treatment days 10, 15, and 20

  6. Obesity-resistant S5B rats showed great cocaine conditioned place preference than the obesity-prone OM rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K..; Kim, R.; Cho, J.; Michaelides, M.; Anderson, B.J.; Primeaux, S.D.; Bray, G.A.; Wang, G.-J.; Robinson, J.K.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-12-01

    Dopamine (DA) and the DA D2 receptor (D2R) are involved in the rewarding and conditioned responses to food and drug rewards. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are genetically prone and S5B/P rats are genetically resistant to obesity when fed a high-fat diet. We hypothesized that the differential sensitivity of these two rat strains to natural rewards may also be reflected in sensitivity to drugs of abuse. Therefore, we tested whether OM and S5B/P rats showed a differential preference to cocaine using conditioned place preference (CPP). To also evaluate whether there is specific involvement of the D2R in this differential conditioning sensitivity, we then tested whether the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differentially affect the effects of cocaine in the two strains. OM and S5B/P rats were conditioned with cocaine (5 or 10 mg/kg) in one chamber and saline in another for 8 days. Rats were then tested for cocaine preference. The effects of BC (0.5, 1, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg) on cocaine preference were then assessed in subsequent test sessions. OM rats did not show a significant preference for the cocaine-paired chamber on test day. Only the S5B/P rats showed cocaine CPP. Later treatment with only the highest dose of BC resulted in reduced cocaine CPP in S5B/P rats when treated with 5 mg/kg cocaine and in OM rats treated with 10 mg/kg cocaine. Our results indicated that obesity-resistant S5B rats showed greater cocaine CPP than the obesity-prone OM rats. These findings do not support a theory of common vulnerability for reinforcer preferences (food and cocaine). However, they show that BC reduced cocaine conditioning effects supporting at least a partial regulatory role of D2R in conditioned responses to drugs.

  7. Green tea polyphenols change the profile of inflammatory cytokine release from lymphocytes of obese and lean rats and protect against oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, N; Bolin, A P; Otton, R

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether green tea polyphenols (GT) modulate some functional parameters of lymphocytes from obese rats. Male Wistar rats were treated with GT by gavage (12 weeks/5 days/week; 500 mg/kg of body weight) and obesity was induced by cafeteria diet (8 weeks). Lymphocytes were obtained from mesenteric lymph nodes for analyses. In response to the cafeteria diet we observed an increase in activity of the metabolic enzyme hexokinase, ROS production, MnSOD, CuZnSOD and GR enzyme activities and proliferation capacity of the cells (baseline), whereas IL-10 production was decreased. Obese rats treated with GT decreased cell proliferation (under ConA stimulation). Hexokinase and G6PDH activity, ROS production and MnSOD, CuZnSOD, GPx and GR enzymes remained increased, accompanied by an increase in Nrf2 mRNA level. There was a decrease in pro-inflammatory IL-2, IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α cytokines that were accompanied by a decrease in the mRNA level of TRL4 while IL-10 production was increased in obese rats treated with GT. GT treatment of lean rats showed similar results to that of obese rats treated with GT, indicating that the effects of GT are independent of diet. Foxp3 and IRF4 mRNA levels were increased by GT. In conclusion, cafeteria diet modulated the function of lymphocytes from lymph nodes, increasing ROS production and decreasing anti-inflammatory IL-10, which could contribute to the inflammatory state in obesity. GT reduced ROS production, improving the redox status and reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine production by lymphocytes, suggesting that GT treatment may be driving lymphocytes to a more anti-inflammatory than pro-inflammatory microenvironment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Agglomeration and Deposition Behaviour of Solid Recovered Fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Nedergaard; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Nielsen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    Waste derived fuels such as Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) are increasingly being used in the cement industry as a means to reduce cost [1]. SRF is produced by separating the combustible fraction from industrial or municipal solid waste (MSW). The recovered fraction has a higher content of combustibl...

  9. 33 CFR 385.20 - Restoration Coordination and Verification (RECOVER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... applying system-wide models and tools; and evaluating modifications to the Plan. RECOVER is not a policy... accordance with § 385.31, RECOVER shall conduct credible scientific assessments of hydrological, water... available science and that the results are provided for external peer review, as appropriate, and are made...

  10. Projecting recovered paper supply in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Howard; Ken Skog; Peter J. Ince

    2002-01-01

    The use of recovered paper has an influence on the amount of timber harvested as well as the feasibility of expanded recycling programs. During the 1990’s markets and prices for recovered materials have fluctuated widely. There are a number of factors driving these market changes including economic conditions domestically and internationally. The objective of this...

  11. On the recovering of a coupled nonlinear Schroedinger potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Gulmaro Corona [Area de Analisis Matematico y sus Aplicaciones, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Atzcapotzalco, DF (Mexico)]. E-mail: ccg@hp9000a1.uam.mx

    2000-04-28

    We establish a priori conditions for a Gel'fand-Levitan (GL) integral using some results of the Fredholm theory. As consequence, we obtain a recovering formula for the potential of the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations. The remarkable fact is that the recovering formula is given in terms of the solutions of a classical GL-integral equation. (author)

  12. Evaluation of an automated struvite reactor to recover phosphorus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study we attempted to develop a reactor system to recover phosphorus by struvite precipitation, and which can be installed anywhere in the field without access to a laboratory. A reactor was developed that can run fully automated and recover up to 93% of total phosphorus (total P). Turbidity and conductivity ...

  13. Effects of acute postnatal exposure to 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl on sperm function and hormone levels in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ping-Chi; Guo, Yueliang Leon; Li, Mei-Hui

    2004-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are considered potential endocrine disruptors due to their ability to act as estrogens, antiestrogens and goitrogens. The aim of this study is to ascertain whether acute postnatal treatment with 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (CB 77) affects sperm function and hormone levels in adult rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received CB 77 by ip injection of 2 or 20 mg/kg at day 21 and sacrificed at day 112. At day 112, right and left testis weights were significantly increased, whereas sperm count, motility, total motile sperm count, curvilinear velocity, average path velocity, straight-line velocity, and beat-cross frequency for motile sperm were significantly decreased in rats treated with 20 mg/kg CB 77. Sperm-oocyte penetration rate was significantly reduced in rats treated with either 2 or 20 mg/kg CB 77. There was high sperm acrosome reaction rate (ARR) in the 20 mg/kg CB 77-treated rats. There was a significant increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone level in the 20 mg/kg CB 77 group. However, no changes were seen in serum testosterone, thyroid hormones, or prolactin concentrations at day 112. In summary, this study showed that postnatal exposure to CB 77 might affect spermatogenesis, motility, ARR, and ability of fertilizing oocytes in mature rats. These results suggest that the sperm functions may be more susceptible or adapt less readily than the thyroid functions to endocrine disruption caused by dioxin-like PCB congeners.

  14. Chronic aerobic exercise training alleviates myocardial fibrosis in aged rats through restoring bioavailability of hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Liu, Hong-Mei; Xia, Ting; Liu, Jian-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Ze

    2018-06-02

    Age-related fibrosis is attenuated by aerobic exercise; however, little is known concerning the underlying molecular mechanism. To address this question, aged rats were given moderate-intensity exercise for 12 weeks. After exercise in aged rats, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels in plasma and heart increased 39.8% and 90.9%, respectively. Exercise upregulated expression of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) in heart of aged rats. Furthermore, aged rats were given moderate-intensity exercise for 12 weeks or treated with NaHS (intraperitoneal injection of 0.1 ml/kg/day of 0.28 mol/l NaHS). After exercise in aged rats, Masson-trichrome staining area decreased 34.8% and myocardial hydroxyproline levels decreased 29.6%. Exercise downregulated expression of collagen-I and α-SMA in heart of aged rats. Exercise in aged rats reduced malondialdehyde levels in plasma and heart and 3-nitrotyrosine in heart. Exercise in aged rats reduced mRNA and protein expression of CHOP, GRP78, and XBP1. Exercise also reduced mRNA and protein expression of IL-6 and MCP-1 and suppressed activation of JNK in aging heart. Similar effects were demonstrated in aged rats treated with NaHS. Collectively, exercise restored bioavailability of hydrogen sulfide in the heart of aged rats, which partly explained the benefits of exercise against myocardial fibrosis of aged population.

  15. Recovering method for solid waste and facility therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omura, Yutaka

    1998-01-01

    When recovering solid wastes in a dry-type storage vessel, a crusher is hoisted down from a cask, and the crusher is operated to crush the solid wastes while holding them. The crushed wastes are temporarily stored at the upper portion of the crusher, and recovered as crushed wastes. In this case, the crusher is turned down, and a shielding vessel is laid the recover downwardly to temporary store the crushed wastes in the shielding vessel. Then, the crusher and the shielding vessel are turned 180deg to contain the crushed wastes into the shielding vessel. With such procedures, the stored solid wastes can be recovered reliably, the stored solid wastes can be reduced in the size, and efficiency of recovering operation can be improved. (T.M.)

  16. Intracolonic hydrogen sulfide lowers blood pressure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasova, Lenka; Dobrowolski, Leszek; Jurkowska, Halina; Wróbel, Maria; Huc, Tomasz; Ondrias, Karol; Ostaszewski, Ryszard; Ufnal, Marcin

    2016-11-30

    Research suggests that hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is an important biological mediator involved in various physiological processes including the regulation of arterial blood pressure (BP). Although H 2 S is abundant in the colon, the effects of gut-derived H 2 S on the circulatory system have not yet been investigated. We studied the effects of intracolonic administration of Na 2 S, a H 2 S donor, on systemic hemodynamics. Hemodynamics were recorded in anesthetized, normotensive Wistar Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats at baseline and after intracolonic injection of either saline (controls) or Na 2 S·9H 2 O saline solution at a dose range of 10-300 mg/kg of BW. The H 2 S donor produced a significant, dose-dependent decrease in mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), which lasted several times longer than previously reported after parenteral infusions (>90 min). The effect was more pronounced in hypertensive than in normotensive rats. The Na 2 S-induced decrease in MABP was reduced by pretreatment with glibenclamide, an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive potassium-channels. Na 2 S did not affect mesenteric vein blood flow. Rats treated with Na 2 S showed increased portal blood levels of thiosulfate and sulfane sulfur, products of H 2 S oxidation. In contrast, rats treated with neomycin, an antibiotic, showed significantly decreased levels of thiosulfate and sulfane sulfur, and a tendency for greater hypotensive response to Na 2 S. The H 2 S donor decreased heart rate but did not affect ECG morphology and QTc interval. In conclusion the gut-derived H 2 S may contribute to the control of BP and may be one of the links between gut microbiota and hypertension. Furthermore, gut-derived H 2 S may be a therapeutic target in hypertension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Endothelin receptor antagonists influence cardiovascular morphology in uremic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabokov, A V; Amann, K; Wessels, S; Münter, K; Wagner, J; Ritz, E

    1999-02-01

    In is generally held that renal failure results in blood pressure (BP)-independent structural changes of the myocardium and the vasculature. The contribution, if any, of endothelin (ET) to these changes has been unknown. We morphometrically studied random samples of the left ventricle myocardium and small intramyocardial arteries in subtotally (5/6) nephrectomized (SNx) male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with either the selective ETA receptor antagonist BMS182874 (30 mg/kg/day) or the nonselective ETA/ETB receptor antagonist Ro46-2005 (30 mg/kg/day) in comparison with either sham-operated rats, untreated SNx, or SNx rats treated with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor trandolapril (0.1 mg/kg/day). Eight weeks later, systolic BP was lower in trandolapril-treated SNx compared with untreated SNx animals. No decrease in BP was seen following either ET receptor antagonist at the dose used. A significantly increased volume density of the myocardial interstitium was found in untreated SNx rats as compared with sham-operated controls. Such interstitial expansion was prevented by trandolapril and either ET receptor antagonist. SNx caused a substantial increase in the wall thickness of small intramyocardial arteries. The increase was prevented by trandolapril or BMS182874 treatment. The arteriolar wall:lumen ratio was significantly lower in all treated groups when compared with untreated SNx. In contrast, only trandolapril, but not the ET receptor antagonists, attenuated thickening of the aortic media in SNx animals. The ETA-selective and ETA/ETB-nonselective receptor antagonists appear to prevent development of myocardial fibrosis and structural changes of small intramyocardial arteries in experimental chronic renal failure. This effect is independent of systemic BP.

  18. Use of a specific cholecystokinin receptor antagonist (L-364,718) to determine the role of cholecystokinin on feeding and body weight in rats with obstructive jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangoku, A; Doi, R; Chowdhury, P; Pasley, J N; McKay, D W; Rayford, P L

    1992-01-01

    We conducted a study to examine the role of cholecystokinin in feeding behavior and weight change in rats with obstructive jaundice. Daily food and water intake, body weight, and short-term food intake were determined in two groups of rats with surgically induced obstructive jaundice and in control rats. One group of rats with obstructive jaundice was given L-364,718, a selective cholecystokinin receptor antagonist. Plasma bilirubin and cholecystokinin levels were measured in each rat before and 7 days after surgery. Daily food intake and body weight were decreased in obstructive jaundice rats compared with control rats during the first week after surgery (P less than .05); however, obstructive jaundice rats treated with L-364,718 had increased food intake and body weight (P less than .05). Short-term food intake measured for 30 minutes and 120 minutes in food-deprived obstructive jaundice rats was decreased when compared with control rats (P less than .05), but the obstructive jaundice rats given L-364,718 had increased short-term food intake (P less than .05). Water intake was similar between the two groups of rats. Plasma levels of cholecystokinin and bilirubin were increased in obstructive jaundice rats with and without L-364,718 treatment (P less than .05). The results support the concept that endogenously elevated levels of plasma cholecystokinin play an important role in decreased food intake and subsequent loss of body weight in rats with obstructive jaundice.

  19. Dose-dependent effects of dihydrotestosterone in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Qin; Prabhu, Anjali; Xu, Shujing; Manigrasso, Michaele B.; Maric, Christine

    2009-01-01

    We recently reported that castration exacerbates albuminuria, glomerulosclerosis, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis associated with diabetic renal disease. The aim of the present study was to examine whether these effects of castration can be attenuated with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) supplementation. The study was performed in castrated male Sprague-Dawley, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with 0 mg/day DHT (DHT0), 0.75 mg/day DHT (DHT0.75), or 2.0 mg/day DHT (DHT2.0) for 14 wk. Tre...

  20. Galactagogue effects of Musa x paradisiaca flower extract on lactating rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Azizah; Omar, Muhammad Nor; Ngah, Nurziana

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the potential of Musa x paradisiaca (M. x paradisiaca) flower extracts in promoting milk production of lactating rats and its effects on growth of the suckling pups. Galactagogue activity was evaluated in terms of quantity of milk produced from the rats treated with petroleum ether, ethanol or water extracts of the flower. Lactating rats (n = 5) of Spraque Dawley with six pups each were administered with the extracts in the amount of 500 mg/kg body weight, while the control rats were given an equivalent amount of distilled water. The rats were daily administered via oral feeding starting from Day 5 until Day 14 and the performance of milk production was measured along the experimental period by weight-suckle-weight method. Results were statistically analyzed using SPSS by means of ANOVA at 0.05 and was expressed as their mean?standard deviation. The rates of pups' growth were measured as the weight gain along the experimental period. The rats treated with aqueous extract produced higher milk than control and ethanol groups. Aqueous extract was identified to increase milk production by 25%, while petroleum ether extract by 18%. The mean of yields produced by the rats during suckling period for aqueous, petroleum ether, ethanol and control were 4.62±2.45, 4.37±1.93, 3.65±1.89 and 3.69±1.79, respectively. Growth rates of pups for the rats treated with control, aqueous, ethanol extract and petroleum ether were (1.85±0.49), (1.78±0.56), (1.65±0.46) and (1.56±0.42) g/pup, respectively. The present study reveals the potential of M. x paradisiaca flower to enhance milk production of nursing mothers which could be exploited for commercialization of the isolated extract. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Resveratrol Improves Cognitive Impairment by Regulating Apoptosis and Synaptic Plasticity in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyan Tian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To investigate the effects of resveratrol on cognitive impairment in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats and to explore the mechanisms of that phenomenon. Methods: Sixty healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control group (Con group, n = 15, Res group (normal Sprague Dawley rats treated with resveratrol, n = 15, diabetes mellitus group (DM group, n = 15 and DM + Res group (diabetic rats treat with resveratrol, n = 15. Streptozotocin (STZ was injected intraperitoneally to establish the diabetic model. One week after diabetic model induction, the animals in the Res group and the DM + Res group received resveratrol intraperitoneally once a day for consecutive 4 weeks. The Morris water maze test was applied to assess the effect of resveratrol on learning and memory. To explore the mechanisms of resveratrol on cognition, we detected the protein expression levels of Caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bax, NMDAR1 (N-Methyl-d-Aspartate receptor and BDNF (Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor via western blotting analysis. Results: Resveratrol has no obvious effect on normal SD rats. Compared to Con group, cognitive ability was significantly impaired with increased expression of Caspase-3, Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2, NMDAR1 and BDNF in diabetic rats. By contrast, resveratrol treatment improved the cognitive decline. Evidently, resveratrol treatment reversed diabetes-induced changes of protein expression. Conclusions: Resveratrol significantly ameliorates cognitive decline in STZ-induced diabetic model rats. The potential mechanism underlying the protective effect could be attributed to the inhibition of hippocampal apoptosis through the Bcl-2, Bax and Caspase-3 signaling pathways and improvement of synaptic dysfunction. BDNF may also play an indispensable role in this mechanism.

  2. Toxicological evaluation of ethanolic extract of Anacyclus pyrethrum in albino wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuttan Sujith

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the sub chronic toxicity of ethanolic extract of Anacyclus pyrethrum (A. pyrethrum in albino wistar rats. Methods: In sub chronic toxicity study ethanolic extract of A. pyrethrum prepared in 2%v/v tween 80 was administered to rats at the dose of 1 000 mg/kg per day for 90 days by oral gavage. A control group received only 2%v/v tween 80. During study period the rats were observed for changes body weight. At the end of dosing period rats relative organ weight of the liver, kidney, brain, lungs and spleen in rats treated with A. pyrethrum extract and control group were examined and also rats were subjected to haematological, biochemical and histopathological examination. Results: The administration of ethanolic extract of A. pyrethrum had no effect on body weight, growth and survival. There was no significant difference in the relative organ weight of the liver, kidney, brain, lungs and spleen in rats treated with A. pyrethrum extract and control group. In the present study, all the haematological and biochemical parameters at the end of dosing and observation period did not reveal difference between drug treated and control groups. Studies on histopathological examination of vital organs showed normal architecture suggesting no evidence of pathological lesions. Conclusions: The studies on sub chronic toxicity reveals that no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects on oral administration of extract. The findngs of the study indicate that ethanolic extract of A. pyrethrum had no treatment related toxicological abnormalities and can be considerd as safe for long-term treatment.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of bisphenol A in neonatal and adult Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerge, Daniel R.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Vanlandingham, Michelle; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    2010-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic products and epoxy resin-based food can liners. The presence of BPA in urine of > 90% of Americans aged 6-60 suggests ubiquitous and frequent exposure. The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure serum pharmacokinetics of aglycone (active) and conjugated (inactive) BPA in adult and neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats by oral and injection routes. Deuterated BPA was used to avoid issues of background contamination. Linear pharmacokinetics were observed in adult rats treated orally in the range of 0-200 μg/kg bw. Evidence for enterohepatic recirculation of conjugated, but not aglycone, BPA was observed in adult rats. Significant inverse relationships were observed between postnatal age and measures of internal exposures to aglycone BPA and its elimination. In neonatal rats treated orally, internal exposures to aglycone BPA were substantially lower than from subcutaneous injection. The results reinforce the critical role for first-pass Phase II metabolism of BPA in gut and liver after oral exposure that attenuates internal exposure to the aglycone form in rats of all ages. The internal exposures to aglycone BPA observed in adult and neonatal rats following a single oral dose of 100 μg/kg bw are inconsistent with effects mediated by classical estrogen receptors based on binding affinities. However, an impact on alternative estrogen signaling pathways that have higher receptor affinity cannot be excluded in neonatal rats. These findings emphasize the importance of matching aglycone BPA internal dosimetry with receptor affinities in experimental animal studies reporting toxicity.

  4. Sustained glucagon-like peptide 1 expression from encapsulated transduced cells to treat obese diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moralejo, Daniel; Yanay, Ofer; Kernan, Kelly; Bailey, Adam; Lernmark, Ake; Osborne, William

    2011-04-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are two prevalent chronic diseases that have become a major public health concern in industrialized countries. T2D is characterized by hyperglycemia and islet beta cell dysfunction. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) promotes β cell proliferation and neogenesis and has a potent insulinotropic effect. Leptin receptor deficient male rats are obese and diabetic and provide a model of T2D. We hypothesized that their treatment by sustained expression of GLP-1 using encapsulated cells may prevent or delay diabetes onset. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) retrovirally transduced to secrete GLP-1 were seeded into TheraCyte(TM) encapsulation devices, implanted subcutaneously and rats were monitored for diabetes. Rats that received cell implants showed mean plasma GLP-1 level of 119.3 ± 10.2pM that was significantly elevated over control values of 32.4 ± 2.9pM (P<0.001). GLP-1 treated rats had mean insulin levels of 45.9 ± 2.3ng/ml that were significantly increased over control levels of 7.3±1.5ng/ml (P<0.001). In rats treated before diabetes onset elevations in blood glucose were delayed and rats treated after onset became normoglycemic and showed improved glucose tolerance tests. Untreated diabetic rats possess abnormal islet structures characterized by enlarged islets with α-cell infiltration and multifocal vacuolization. GLP-1 treatment induced normalization of islet structures including a mantle of α-cells and increased islet mass. These data suggest that encapsulated transduced cells may offer a potential long term treatment of patients. Copyright © 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Daconate Herbicide Toxicity on Lipid Peroxidation And Antioxidant Enzymes in Blood of Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, S.M.F.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of daconate herbicide on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme systems was investigated in rats after one and two weeks post-treatment. Animals were treated daily with an oral dose of 18 mg/kg body weight or 90 mg/kg body weight daconate for one and two consecutive weeks. Lipid peroxide content, as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), was determined in blood of rats as indication for cytotoxicity. Blood glutathion (GSH), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (γ GT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were estimated as indication of antioxidant status. Also, daconate effect on peroxidase action of catalase in rats was studied using 14 C -formate. The results revealed significant elevation in TBARS level and γ GT activity accompanied by reduced level of GSH content and SOD activity after treatment of rats with a daily oral dose of 90 mg/kg for one and two weeks and also in rats treated with 18 mg/kg daconate for two weeks. Rats treated with daconate at the dose level of 18 mg/kg for one week revealed non-appreciable changes in the tested parameters of blood as compared to the control ones. Radioactivities eliminated in both the expired air and in urine were reduced at the dose level of 90 mg/kg after one and two weeks, while it were reduced only after two weeks at the dose level of 18 mg/kg daconate. The data revealed that daconate had a marked effect on the activities of catalase enzyme in blood and liver of treated rats

  6. Evaluation of efficacy of mineral oil, charcoal, and smectite in a rat model of equine cantharidin toxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, H J; Holbrook, T C; Gilliam, L L; Njaa, B L; Panciera, R J; Pope, C N; Payton, M E

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of orally administered therapeutics for the treatment of cantharidin intoxication has not been evaluated in controlled studies. To develop a model of acute cantharidin intoxication in laboratory rats and to evaluate in this model the relative efficacy of 3 gastrointestinal therapies used to treat equine cantharidin toxicosis. Sixty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats. A blinded, randomized, controlled study was performed on rats surgically implanted with telemetry transmitters for evaluating heart rate, locomotor activity, and body temperature. Orogastric administration of cantharidin was performed within 15 seconds before administration of mineral oil, activated charcoal, or smectite. Negative control groups received therapeutic agents alone. Urine was collected for cantharidin analysis. Rats were sacrificed 24 hours after intoxication, and tissues were collected for histopathologic evaluation. Data analysis included ANOVA procedures and contingency tables. Six of 8 cantharidin-intoxicated rats treated with mineral oil died; bradycardia and hypothermia developed in the animals of this group 0-8 hours after intoxication. Rats treated with mineral oil had higher urine cantharidin concentrations than rats receiving cantharidin alone or with smectite (P = .04). The most severe hypothermia (30.6°C ± 1.0) developed in rats administered mineral oil at 4-8 hours after intoxication, whereas those treated with charcoal (35.2°C ± 0.8) had mean body temperatures higher than all other treatment groups (P = .03). Survival times in the charcoal (P = .16) and smectite (P = .12) treatment groups were not statistically different from negative controls. Mineral oil is often used in the treatment of equine cantharidin toxicosis. Our findings suggest that mineral oil increases cantharidin absorption, worsening morbidity and fatality in rats. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  7. [Effect of heijiang pill on radiation skin ulcer in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Yang, Yang; Xu, Yong-Mei

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between single dosage of 60Co radiation and the degree of radiation-induced skin ulcers, and to evaluate the curative effect of Heijiang Pill (HJP) on skin ulcer induced by various dosages of radiation in rats. Sixty-six Wistar female rats were randomly divided into three groups, the blank control group (n = 6) and the two radiation groups, each 30 rats, with their right hind leg exposed respectively to 60 Gy and 40 Gy of 60 Co radiation. The time of emergence and degree of skin ulcer were recorded. Then rats in the two radiation groups were subdivided into the HJP group, the Ethacridine group and the model group, 10 in each group, they received corresponding treatment after ulceration, and the incidence, pathology, cure rate and cure time of skin ulcer were observed in the 90 days of observation. The incidence of skin ulcer was higher and occurred earlier in rats radiated with 60 Gy than that with 40 Gy (P ulcer healing rate in rats treated with HJP was higher than that treated with Ethacridine (P cure time in the HJP group was shorter (P ulcers. HJP can effectively cure radiation skin ulcer, and the effect is especially significant on the ulcer induced by low dose radiation.

  8. Borax counteracts genotoxicity of aluminum in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkez, Hasan; Geyikoğlu, Fatime; Tatar, Abdulgani

    2013-10-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of borax (BX) on genotoxicity induced by aluminum (Al) in rat liver, using liver micronucleus assay as an indicator of genotoxicity. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into six groups and each group had four animals. Aluminum chloride (AlCl₃; 5 mg/kg b.w.) and BX (3.25 and 13 mg/kg b.w.) were injected intraperitoneally to rats. Besides, animals were also treated with Al for 4 consecutive days followed by BX for 10 days. Rats were anesthetized after Al and BX injections and the hepatocytes were isolated for counting the number of micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs). AlCl₃ was found to significantly (p < 0.05) increase the number of MNHEPs. Rats treated with BX, however, showed no increase in MNHEPs. Moreover, simultaneous treatments with BX significantly modulated the genotoxic effects of AlCl₃ in rats. It can be concluded that BX has beneficial influences and has the ability to antagonize Al toxicity.

  9. Increased Dietary Leucine Reduces Doxorubicin-Associated Cardiac Dysfunction in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago M. Fidale

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiotoxicity is one of the most significant adverse effects of the oncologic treatment with doxorubicin, which is responsible for a substantial morbid and mortality. The occurrence of heart failure with ventricular dysfunction may lead to severe cardiomyopathy and ultimately to death. Studies have focused on the effects of leucine supplementation as a strategy to minimize or revert the clinical condition of induced proteolysis by several clinical onsets. However, the impact of leucine supplementation in heart failure induced by doxorubicin is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of leucine supplementation on the cardiotoxicity in the heart of rats treated with doxorubicin. Rats treated with a 7.5 mg/kg cumulative dose of doxorubicin for 14 days presented a dilatation of the left ventricle (LV, and a reduction of the ejection fraction (FE. The 5% supplementation of leucine in the rats' food prevented the malfunctioning of the LV when administered with doxorubicin. Some alterations in the extracellular matrix remodeling were confirmed by the increase of collagen fibers in the doxorubicin group, which did not increase when the treatment was associated with leucine supplementation. Leucine attenuates heart failure in this experimental model with doxorubicin. Such protection is followed by the maintenance of interstitial collagen fibers.

  10. Comparative Hepatotoxicity of Fluconazole, Ketoconazole, Itraconazole, Terbinafine, and Griseofulvin in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoza, Star; Moyo, Ishmael; Ncube, Denver

    2017-01-01

    Oral ketoconazole was recently the subject of regulatory safety warnings because of its association with increased risk of inducing hepatic injury. However, the relative hepatotoxicity of antifungal agents has not been clearly established. The aim of this study was to compare the hepatotoxicity induced by five commonly prescribed oral antifungal agents. Rats were treated with therapeutic oral doses of griseofulvin, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and terbinafine. After 14 days, only ketoconazole had significantly higher ALT levels ( p = 0.0017) and AST levels ( p = 0.0008) than the control group. After 28 days, ALT levels were highest in the rats treated with ketoconazole followed by itraconazole, fluconazole, griseofulvin, and terbinafine, respectively. The AST levels were highest in the rats treated with ketoconazole followed by itraconazole, fluconazole, terbinafine, and griseofulvin, respectively. All drugs significantly elevated ALP levels after 14 days and 28 days of treatment ( p terbinafine, and griseofulvin. However, histopathological changes revealed that fluconazole was the most hepatotoxic, followed by ketoconazole, itraconazole, terbinafine, and griseofulvin, respectively. Given the poor correlation between liver enzymes and the extent of liver injury, it is important to confirm liver injury through histological examination.

  11. Comparative Hepatotoxicity of Fluconazole, Ketoconazole, Itraconazole, Terbinafine, and Griseofulvin in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Star Khoza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral ketoconazole was recently the subject of regulatory safety warnings because of its association with increased risk of inducing hepatic injury. However, the relative hepatotoxicity of antifungal agents has not been clearly established. The aim of this study was to compare the hepatotoxicity induced by five commonly prescribed oral antifungal agents. Rats were treated with therapeutic oral doses of griseofulvin, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and terbinafine. After 14 days, only ketoconazole had significantly higher ALT levels (p=0.0017 and AST levels (p=0.0008 than the control group. After 28 days, ALT levels were highest in the rats treated with ketoconazole followed by itraconazole, fluconazole, griseofulvin, and terbinafine, respectively. The AST levels were highest in the rats treated with ketoconazole followed by itraconazole, fluconazole, terbinafine, and griseofulvin, respectively. All drugs significantly elevated ALP levels after 14 days and 28 days of treatment (p<0.0001. The liver enzyme levels suggested that ketoconazole had the highest risk in causing liver injury followed by itraconazole, fluconazole, terbinafine, and griseofulvin. However, histopathological changes revealed that fluconazole was the most hepatotoxic, followed by ketoconazole, itraconazole, terbinafine, and griseofulvin, respectively. Given the poor correlation between liver enzymes and the extent of liver injury, it is important to confirm liver injury through histological examination.

  12. Serum Biochemical, Histopathology and SEM Analyses of the Effects of the Indian Traditional Herb Wattakaka Volubilis Leaf Extract on Wistar Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Velmani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study investigated the protective effect of Wattakaka (W. volubilis leaf extract against streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (with six rats in each group and were fed ad libitum. The rats were fasted for sixteen hours before diabetes was induced by injecting a single dose of 90 mg/kg body weight of STZ in 0.9-percent normal saline through an intraperitoneal route. The five groups were as follows: Group 1: normal control (saline-treated, Group 2: untreated diabetic rats, Groups 3 and 4: diabetic rats treated orally with petroleum ether cold maceration extract (PEME of W. volubilis (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, and Group 5: diabetic rats treated orally with metformin (250 mg/kg body weight. All rats received treatment for 21 days. For the STZ-induced diabetic rats, the blood-glucose, α-amylase, total protein and alanine transaminase (ALT levels were measured on days 7,14 and 21 of the treatment with PEME of W. volubilis and the treatment with metformin. Histopathological changes in the liver were examined with hematoxylin-eosin staining. Morphological changes in the liver were also examined with glutaraldehyde fixation. Results: The treatments with PEME of W. volubilis and with metformin in experimental rats by oral injections for 21 days produced reductions in the levels of serum biochemical markers. Histopathology and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the administrations of PEME of W. volubilis and of metformin suppressed the generation of abnormal liver cells in the STZ-treated rats. Conclusion: These results suggest that both PEME of W. volubilis and metformin have a protective effect against STZ-induced diabetes.

  13. A metabolomics approach to evaluate the effects of shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) treatment in undernourished young rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molz, Patrícia; Ellwanger, Joel Henrique; Eliete Iochims dos Santos, Carla; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; Campos, Deivis de; Corbellini, Valeriano Antonio; Prá, Daniel; Putzke, Marisa Terezinha Lopes; Franke, Silvia Isabel Rech

    2014-01-01

    Undernourishment is characterized by a decrease of the metabolic rate as a result of lack of nutrients important to life. Shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) can be an alternative to reverse undernourishment. The aim of this study was to explore the metabolic changes and consequent elemental concentrations found in undernourished rats and undernourished rats treated with shiitake mushroom (n = 12 rats each group). To determine the elemental concentration, blood samples were analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). For metabolomics, blood samples were tested under Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicated that the supplementation with shiitake mushroom in undernourished rats altered the composition of blood proteins, elements and volume. Several strong correlations were observed between the elemental concentrations and metabolic parameters

  14. A metabolomics approach to evaluate the effects of shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) treatment in undernourished young rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molz, Patrícia [Nutrition Course, Department of Physical Education and Health, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Graduate Program in Health Promotion, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Ellwanger, Joel Henrique [Biological Sciences Course, Department of Biology and Pharmacy, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Eliete Iochims dos Santos, Carla; Dias, Johnny Ferraz [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Physics Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Campos, Deivis de [Biological Sciences Course, Department of Biology and Pharmacy, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Corbellini, Valeriano Antonio [Graduate Program in Health Promotion, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Prá, Daniel [Graduate Program in Health Promotion, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Biological Sciences Course, Department of Biology and Pharmacy, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Putzke, Marisa Terezinha Lopes [Biological Sciences Course, Department of Biology and Pharmacy, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Franke, Silvia Isabel Rech, E-mail: silviafr@unisc.br [Nutrition Course, Department of Physical Education and Health, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Graduate Program in Health Promotion, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    Undernourishment is characterized by a decrease of the metabolic rate as a result of lack of nutrients important to life. Shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) can be an alternative to reverse undernourishment. The aim of this study was to explore the metabolic changes and consequent elemental concentrations found in undernourished rats and undernourished rats treated with shiitake mushroom (n = 12 rats each group). To determine the elemental concentration, blood samples were analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). For metabolomics, blood samples were tested under Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicated that the supplementation with shiitake mushroom in undernourished rats altered the composition of blood proteins, elements and volume. Several strong correlations were observed between the elemental concentrations and metabolic parameters.

  15. Lifelong consumption of sodium selenite: gender differences on blood-brain barrier permeability in convulsive, hypoglycemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, F Burcu; Akgul, Sibel; Oztas, Baria

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of hypoglycemia and induced convulsions on the blood-brain barrier permeability in rats with or without lifelong administration of sodium selenite. There is a significant decrease of the blood-brain barrier permeability in three brain regions of convulsive, hypoglycemic male rats treated with sodium selenite when compared to sex-matched untreated rats (p0.05). The blood-brain barrier permeability of the left and right hemispheres of untreated, moderately hypoglycemic convulsive rats of both genders was better than their untreated counterparts (peffect against blood-brain barrier permeability during convulsions and that the effects of sodium selenite are gender-dependent.

  16. Protective effect of Kombucha tea on brain damage induced by transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Kabiri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of Kombucha on cerebral damage induced by ischemia in rats (n=99. Cerebral infarct volume in the ischemic rats received Kombucha solution showed no significance alteration. However, the permeability of blood-brain barrier significantly decreased in both ischemic rats received 15 mg/kg Kombucha tea and Sham group. In addition, brain water content in the ischemic groups treated with Kombucha solution was significantly higher than the Sham group, although right hemispheres in all of the treated groups illustrated higher brain water content than the left ones. Brain anti-oxidant capacity elevated in the ischemic rats treated with Kombucha and in the Sham group. Brain and plasma malondialdehyde concentrations significantly decreased in both of the ischemic groups injected with Kombucha. The findings suggest that Kombucha tea could be useful for the prevention of cerebral damage.

  17. Mechanical lifter for recovering highly viscous oil and bitumens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhmanov, R N; Akhunov, A M; Asfandiyarov, Kh A; Maksutov, R A

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical lifter is described for recovering highly viscous oil and bitumens. The lifter differs from the known and has significant advantages over them. The lifter was made and tested on a stand well.

  18. Transuranium element recovering method for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todokoro, Akio; Kihara, Yoshiyuki; Okada, Hisashi

    1998-01-01

    Spent fuels are dissolved in nitric acid, the obtained dissolution liquid is oxidized by electrolysis, and nitric acid of transuranium elements are precipitated together with nitric acid of uranium elements from the dissolution solution and recovered. Namely, the transuranium elements are oxidized to an atomic value level at which nitric acid can be precipitated by an oxidizing catalyst, and cooled to precipitate nitric acid of transuranium elements together with nitric acid of transuranium elements, accordingly, it is not necessary to use a solvent which has been used so far upon recovering transuranium elements. Since no solvent waste is generated, a recovery method taking the circumstance into consideration can be provided. Further, nitric acid of uranium elements and nitric acid of transuranium elements precipitated and recovered together are dissolved in nitric acid again, cooled and only uranium elements are precipitated selectively, and recovered by filtration. The amount of wastes can be reduced to thereby enabling to mitigate control for processing. (N.H.)

  19. Spermicidal and contraceptive properties of azauirachtin-A on rats and the possible amelioration effects of some antioxidants on their sexual efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebashy, M.I.A.; Mazen, G.M.A.; Amer, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to evaluate the spermicidal properties of azadirachtin-A to immobilize (in male) and kill (in female) spermatozoa of rats. Also, the ability of coenzyme Q10 or taurine or their mixture to improve anti-fertility action of azadirachtin-A and to ameliorate perturbation in fertility of normal rats. The obtained results revealed that normal sperms, testosterone, testis and ovary GSH and GPx, estradiol and progesterone were declined significantly in azadirachtin-A rats. On the other hand, azadirachtin-A caused significant elevation in the total number of abnormal sperm, sperm malformed head or tail, head and tail and serum lipid peroxidation (malonaldehyde) in comparison to the normal control rats. The administration of coenzyme Q10 or taurine led to correction in all previous parameters and the maximum ameliorating effects were exhibited in the rats treated with the mixture of coenzyme Q10 and taurine depending on certain mechanisms

  20. Prophylactic action of Alpha-tocopherol against Gamma irradiation changes in total lipid and phospholipid contents of brain cerebral hemispheres in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdy, A M; Helen, N S; Roushdy, H M [National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt)

    1987-12-31

    Male albino rats were intraperitoneally injected with Gamma tocopherol (vitamin E) at 10 mg/100 g animal body weight, 2 hr, before irradiation exposure. exposure. Rats were then exposed to a whole body dose of gamma irradiation at 7 Gy. Rats were sacrificed 1, 3, 7 and 10 days post irradiation. The two cerebral hemispheres were taken to determine the phospholipids and total lipid contents. whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 7 Gy caused a significant decrease in the levels of both phospholipids and total lipid contents in the cerebral hemispheres on the 3 rd, 7 Th, and 10 Th days post-irradiation, the decrease was insignificant on the 1 st day post exposure. The variations were less pronounced in rats treated with vitamin E. The results obtained were discussed in view of the relevant literature. 2 tabs.

  1. Oxidative Stress Parameters and Erythrocyte Membrane Adenosine Triphosphatase Activities in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats Administered Aqueous Preparation of Kalanchoe Pinnata Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Nikhil; Sparks, Jean; Omoruyi, Felix O

    2016-01-01

    reduced food consumption in the diabetic rats treated with K. pinnata preparationSerum glucose levels were reduced in diabetic rats treated with K. pinnata preparationSerum catalase activity was significantly (P < 0.05) increased in diabetic rats treated with K. pinnata preparationWe also noted a significant (P < 0.05) increase in Mg(2+) ATPase activity in the RBC membranes of diabetic rats treated with K. pinnata preparationOverall, the consumption of aqueous preparation of K. pinnata lowered oxidative stress often associated with diabetes and improved availability of cellular magnesium through an increase in magnesium ATPase pump in the RBC membrane.

  2. Toxicological evaluation of Cladophora glomerata Kützing and Microspora floccosa Thuret in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahprathanchai, Prannapus; Saenphet, Kanokporn; Peerapornpisal, Yuwadee; Aritajat, Salika

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of Cladophora glomerata and Microspora floccosa ethanolic extracts in rats. Acute toxicity was tested with a single oral administration of the extract at a dose of 25 g/kg bd wt. Mortality, behavior, amount of food intake, body weight, and any abnormalities of the visceral organs, were observed. The results showed that the extract caused neither mortality, nor abnormalities. Subchronic toxicity was tested by administering the extract at doses of 0.5 g/kg and 1.0 g/kg for 60 days. Differences in body weight, hematology and blood biochemistry (alanine aminotransferase, ALT; aspartate aminotransferase, AST; blood urea nitrogen, BUN and creatinine, Cre) were not detected among the control and treatment groups. Although the packed cell volume of the male rats treated with 1.0 g/kg extract was significantly lower than the controls (p< or =0.05), the level was in the standard range for rat hematocrit.

  3. Histological assessment of ovaries and uterus of rats subjected to nandrolone decanoate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerez, Juliana Rubira; Frei, Fernando; Camargo, Isabel Cristina Cherici

    2005-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of nandrolone decanoate on the ovaries and uterus of adult females rats. This drug was administered intraperitoneally, at one, two and three doses of 3 mg nandrolone decanoate/kg of body weight, respectively, in the first, second and third week of treatment. The females of the control group received a physiological solution. The rats treated with nandrolone decanoate showed estral acyclicity and there was destruction of follicular units and an absence of corpus luteum in the ovaries. In the uterus, the drug promoted morphological alterations, characterized by vacuolated epithelium and endometrial stroma fibrosis. Ovary, uterus and pituitary weights were not affected by the steroid treatment. Nandrolone decanoate affects the sexual cycle and promotes histological alterations in the ovaries and uterus of adult female rats.

  4. EFFICACY OF INTRAPERITONEAL INTERFERON-α ADMINISTRATION FOR TREATMENT OF ENDOMETRIOSIS IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Pavlov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The article presents the results of intraperitoneal administration of recombinant rat interferon-α to twenty Wistar rats with experimentally induced endometriosis. The following criteria of treatment efficiency were applied: presence of ectopic endometrium in transplanted segments of cornu uteri, proliferative activity of endometrioid cells, features of vascularization and leucocyte infiltration within endometrial foci. It was shown that local application of interferon-α caused regression of endometrioid epithelial heterotopias in 50 per cent of the cases. If endometrioid epithelium was retained, its proliferative activity did significantly drop under interferon-α application. In all transplants derived from rats treated with interferon-α, the degree of vascularization is reduced, accompanied by increased leucocytic infiltration (due to lymphocytes, along with decreased contents of macrophages within leucocytic infiltrates.

  5. Pyrochemical investigations into recovering plutonium from americium extraction salt residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, K.W.; West, M.H.

    1987-05-01

    Progress into developing a pyrochemical technique for separating and recovering plutonium from spent americium extraction waste salts has concentrated on selective chemical reduction with lanthanum metal and calcium metal and on the solvent extraction of americium with calcium metal. Both techniques are effective for recovering plutonium from the waste salt, although neither appears suitable as a separation technique for recycling a plutonium stream back to mainline purification processes. 17 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Recovering heavy rare earth metals from magnet scrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Ryan T.; McCallum, Ralph W.; Jones, Lawrence L.

    2017-08-08

    A method of treating rare earth metal-bearing permanent magnet scrap, waste or other material in a manner to recover the heavy rare earth metal content separately from the light rare earth metal content. The heavy rare earth metal content can be recovered either as a heavy rare earth metal-enriched iron based alloy or as a heavy rare earth metal based alloy.

  7. Balanites aegyptiaca ameliorates insulin secretion and decreases pancreatic apoptosis in diabetic rats: Role of SAPK/JNK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanin, Kamel M A; Mahmoud, Mohamed O; Hassan, Hossam M; Abdel-Razik, Abdel-Razik H; Aziz, Lourin N; Rateb, Mostafa E

    2018-06-01

    SAPK-JNK pathway performs a significant role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Balanites aegyptiaca (BA) is used as an anti-diabetic agent in folk medicine however its hypoglycemic mechanism is not fully elucidated. The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of crude extract, butanol, and dichloromethane fractions from BA on the stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK-JNK) pathway in experimental diabetic rats. Six groups of male Wistar rats were included: normal control, diabetic, diabetic rats treated with crude, butanol or dichloromethane fraction from BA (50 mg/kg BW) and diabetic rats treated with gliclazide as a reference drug for one month. Our results suggested a protective role of treatment of diabetic rats with BA against oxidative stress-induced SAPK-JNK pathway. Moreover, BA treatment produced a reduction in plasma glucose, HbA 1c , lactic acid, lipid profile, malondialdehyde levels and produced an increase in insulin, reduced glutathione levels, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities compared with untreated diabetic rats. Moreover, it decreased apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1, protein 53 and increased insulin receptor substrate 1 in rat pancreas while it increased glucose transporter 4 in rat muscle. Analysis of BA extracts by LC-HRMS revealed the presence of different saponins with reported hypoglycemic effect. In conclusion, BA exerted hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, insulinotropic and antioxidant effects. Additionally, it reduced apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells and increased glucose uptake in muscle. These results suggest that the hypoglycemic effect of BA is due to the inhibition of the SAPK-JNK pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. The potential osteogenic effects of systemic lep tin and insulin administration in streptozotocin-induced diabetic female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gad, Hayam I.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of leptin administration on some biochemical parameters of bone turnover in diabetic rats using either leptin alone or a combination of leptin and insulin. The study was carried out on 32 female Wistar rats supplied by Medical College animal house at King Khalid Hospital, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the period from March to December 2006. Rats were divided into 4 groups (8 rats each), controls, non-treated diabetic, leptin-treated diabetic and leptin plus insulin-treated diabetic rats. After induction of diabetes by 6 weeks, treatment with leptin either alone or combined with insulin was continued for 2 weeks more. At the end of treatment, serum samples were taken to measure levels of bone alkaline phosphate (BAP), alkaline phosphates, osteocalcin, insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), parathyroid hormone (PTH), glucose, creatinine, calcium, calcium ions (Ca2+), and phosphorous using enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and spectrophotometric methods. Body weight and urinary calcium excretion were also measured. Combined leptin and insulin treatment produced a significant increase of serum BAP and a decrease of urinary calcium and serum glucose as compared to rats treated by leptin only, and a significant increase of BAP, alkaline phosphates, IGF-1, and glucose and a decrease in osteocalcin as compared to control rats. Positive correlations were detected between serum IGF-1 levels and each of BAP, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin in diabetic rats treated by leptin, and those with leptin plus insulin. Combined leptin plus insulin treatment can offer extra gain of bone formation over leptin treatment alone. Confirmation of these preliminary observations must await careful long-term studies of bone turnover experimental diabetes. (author)

  9. Effects of Gladiolus dalenii on the Stress-Induced Behavioral, Neurochemical, and Reproductive Changes in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fotsing

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Gladiolus dalenii is a plant commonly used in many regions of Cameroon as a cure for various diseases like headaches, epilepsy, schizophrenia, and mood disorders. Recent studies have revealed that the aqueous extract of G. dalenii (AEGD exhibited antidepressant-like properties in rats. Therefore, we hypothesized that the AEGD could protect from the stress-induced behavioral, neurochemical, and reproductive changes in rats. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the effect of the AEGD on behavioral, neurochemical, and reproductive characteristics, using female rats subjected to chronic immobilization stress. The chronic immobilization stress (3 h per day for 28 days was applied to induce female reproductive and behavioral impairments in rats. The immobilization stress was provoked in rats by putting them separately inside cylindrical restrainers with ventilated doors at ambient temperature. The plant extract was given to rats orally everyday during 28 days, 5 min before induction of stress. On a daily basis, a vaginal smear was made to assess the duration of the different phases of the estrous cycle and at the end of the 28 days of chronic immobilization stress, the rat’s behavior was assessed in the elevated plus maze. They were sacrificed by cervical disruption. The organs were weighed, the ovary histology done, and the biochemical parameters assessed. The findings of this research revealed that G. dalenii increased the entries and the time of open arm exploration in the elevated plus maze. Evaluation of the biochemical parameters levels indicated that there was a significant reduction in the corticosterone, progesterone, and prolactin levels in the G. dalenii aqueous extract treated rats compared to stressed rats whereas the levels of serotonin, triglycerides, adrenaline, cholesterol, glucose estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were significantly increased in the stressed rats treated with, G. dalenii

  10. Antioxidant activity of citrullus colocynthis pulp extract in the RBC's of alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallak, M.; Jaliah, B.I.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory showed that Citrullus colocynthis pulp seedless extract have antihyperglycemic and insulinotropic effects in alloxan induced diabetes. Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the mechanism of damage of red blood cells and anaemia in diabetic patients. So the current study was carried out to investigate the protective role of citrullus colocynthis against oxidative stress in the RBC's of alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods: Rats were divided into four groups each of ten rats, the first group was normal non diabetic rats given normal saline orally and was named control group, the second group was diabetic rats given normal saline orally and were named normal saline treated-diabetic rats, the third and fourth group were diabetic rats treated with the pulp extract or glibenclamide (a positive control) orally. Evaluations were made for haematological parameters in the blood and for lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress enzymes activities in the RBC's of all experimental rats. Results: The diabetic rats had a significant decrease (p<0.05) in total erythrocytes count and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and a normal Haemoglobin (Hb) value in the blood. They also showed decreased levels of Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) and decreased activities of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) in the RBC's hemolysate. On other hand, oral administration of citrullus colocynthis or glibenclamide alleviated these altered parameters in the treated rats, they resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) in the in total erythrocytes count and PCV (Haematocrit) values in the blood and caused a significant decreased levels of TBARS and increased activities of SOD and CAT in the RBC's of those diabetic treated rats when compared to diabetic rats given normal saline. The effect was more profound in citrullus colocynthis treated diabetic rats. Conclusion: Citrullus colocynthis pulp extract possesses a potent antioxidant property

  11. Protective effects of a coumarin derivative in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucolo, Claudio; Ward, Keith W; Mazzon, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Drago, Filippo

    2009-08-01

    Retinal microvascular cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. The endothelial effects of cloricromene, a novel coumarin derivative, on diabetic retinopathy induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in the rat were investigated. Cloricromene (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally) was administered daily in diabetic rats, and 60 days later eyes were enucleated for localization of nitrotyrosine, ICAM-1, VEGF, ZO-1, occludin, claudin-5, and VE-cadherin by immunohistochemical analysis. The effect of treatment was also evaluated by TNFalpha, ICAM-1, VEGF, and eNOS protein levels measurement in the retina with the respective ELISA kits. Blood-retinal barrier (BRB) integrity was also evaluated by Evans blue. Increased amounts of cytokines, adhesion molecule, and nitric oxide synthase were observed in retina. Cloricromene treatment significantly lowered retinal TNFalpha, ICAM-1, VEGF, and eNOS. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis for VEGF, ICAM-1, nitrotyrosine (a marker of peroxynitrite), and tight junctions revealed positive staining in the retina from STZ-treated rats. The degree of staining for VEGF, ICAM-1, nitrotyrosine, and tight junctions was markedly reduced in tissue sections obtained from diabetic rats treated with cloricromene. Treatment with cloricromene suppressed diabetes-related BRB breakdown by 45%. This study provides the first evidence that the new coumarin derivative cloricromene attenuates the degree of inflammation preserving the BRB in diabetic rats.

  12. Influence of estrogen replacement and aging on the expression of nerve growth factor in the urethra of female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchi, Eliana V M; Jármy-Di Bella, Zsuzsanna I K; Castro, Rodrigo A; Takano, Claudia C; Simões, Manuel J; Girão, Manoel J B C; Sartori, Marair G F

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the urethra of adult female rats in different hormonal status using immunohistochemical assay. Forty-eight rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Rodentia, Mammalia) from the CEDEME-UNIFESP laboratory animal facility were used in the study. Rats were divided into four groups: group A, 12 non-neutered rats; group B, 12 oophorectomized rats; group C, 12 castrated rats treated with 17β-estradiol for 30 days; and group D, 12 aging rats. Animals were killed by lethal injection and their urethra was removed. NGF expression was evaluated by means of immunohistochemistry using mouse monoclonal primary IgG antibody anti-NGF diluted 1:600, and read under 400× magnification. Digital analysis of the images was done by Imagelab software. The intensity of the dark brown color was used as a measure of NGF cytoplasmatic expression, and was used to quantify the percentage of epithelial and muscular layer cells showing this neurotrophin. After oophorectomy, rats showed a significant increase in NGF expression in the periurethral muscular layer. Compared with oophorectomized rats, NGF expression increased in the epithelial layer and diminished in the periurethral smooth muscle following estrogen administration. In 18-month-old rats, NGF expression was diminished in both epithelial and muscular layers. Hormonal status led to significant differences in NGF protein expression in urethral epithelium and periurethral smooth muscle. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Therapeutic effect of bone marrow transplantation plue previous blood transfusion on rats with total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yongtang; Ran Xinze; Wei Shuqing

    1988-01-01

    Therapeutic effect of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and blood transfusion on different groups of rats subjected to various doses of total body irradiation (TBI) was studied. In the control group, 80 rats that received TBI of 8,9,10,11 and 12 Gy died between 3∼14 days. In the second group, 67 rats that received the same doses of irradiation were treated with BMT. Except that 8 rats died from lung hemorrhages at 4∼6 days after TBI. 85% of these animals (500/59) showed hemopoietic engraftment. The survival rates of 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 Gy subgroups at 90 days after BMT were 90%, 56%, 56%, 25% and 0% respectively. In the third group, 82 rats receive TBI and blood transfusion prior to BMT. Except that 8 rats subjected to 11∼12 Gy irradiation died from lung hemorrhage at 4∼6 days after BMT, 97% of these animals (72/74) showed hemopoietic engraftment. The 90-day survival rates of 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 Gy subgroups were 93%, 80%, 80%, 60% and 6% respectively. The 90-day survival rate of 50 rats subjected to 9∼11 Gy TBI and treated with blood transfusion and BMT, was 72%, while that 47 rats treated simply with BMT was only 42%. These results showed clearly that previous blood transfusion could increase the rate of hemopoietic engraftment, reduce the incidence if rejection, and raise the survival rate

  14. Effect of opium on glucose metabolism and lipid profiles in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghian, Saeed; Boroumand, Mohammad Ali; Sotoudeh-Anvari, Maryam; Rabbani, Shahram; Sheikhfathollahi, Mahmood; Abbasi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    This experimental study was performed to determine the impact of opium use on serum lipid profile and glucose metabolism in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. To determine the effect of opium, 20 male rats were divided into control (n = 10) and opium-treated (n = 10) groups. After diabetes induction, the animals were investigated for daily glucose measurements for 35 days. Serum lipid profile and haemoglobin A1c (HbA(1c)) were assayed at the baseline (before induction of diabetes) and at 35-day follow-up. The glycaemia levels in the rats treated with opium were similar to the levels measured in the control rats (544.8 +/- 62.2 mg/dl v. 524.6 +/- 50.0 mg/dl, P = 0.434). In addition, there was no difference between the opium-treated rats and control rats in HbA(1c) (6.5 +/- 0.5% v. 6.6 +/- 0.2%, P = 0.714). Compared to the control rats, the serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride and lipoprotein (a) in the test animals were similar. Opium use has no significant effect on glucose metabolism and serum lipid profile in rats with induced diabetes.

  15. Chronic administration of sildenafil improves erectile function in a rat model of chronic renal failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuz, Nilgun; Kol, Arif; Ipekci, Tumay; Ates, Erhan; Baykal, Asli; Usta, Mustafa F

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between erectile dysfunction (ED) and chronic renal failure (CRF) has been reported in several studies. This study aimed to investigate whether the chronic use of sildenafil could enhance the erectile capacity in CRF-induced rats. In addition, we assessed the effect of that treatment on certain molecules, which have been suggested to play crucial roles in erectile physiology and CRF-related ED as well. Three groups of animals were utilized: (1) age-matched control rats, (2) CRF-induced rats, (3) CRF-induced rats treated with chronic administration of sildenafil (5 mg kg−1 p.o. for 6 weeks [treatment started after 6 weeks of CRF induction]). At 3 months, all animals underwent cavernosal nerve stimulation (CNS) to assess erectile function. Penile tissue advanced glycation end products (AGE's)/5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, malondialdehyde (MDA), cGMP (ELISA), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and neuronal NOS (nNOS) (Western blot) analyses were performed in all rat groups. CRF-induced rats had a significant decrease in erectile function when compared to control rats (P chronic sildenafil administration on erectile function in CRF-induced rats. PMID:25652632

  16. Effect of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. fruit extract on cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megala, Jayaraman; Geetha, Arumugam

    2015-10-01

    The edible fruits of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. are traditionally used for various gastric complications in India. Here, we investigated the antiulcer activity of hydroalcoholic fruit extract of P. dulce (HAEPD) by applying cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer model in rats. Duodenal ulcer was induced in male albino Wistar rats by oral administration of cysteamine @ 420 mg/kg body wt. as a single dose. The rats were pre-administered orally with HAEPD @ 200 mg/kg body wt. for 30 days prior to ulcer induction. Rats pre-administered with ranitidine @ 30 mg/kg body wt. served as reference drug control. Ulcer score, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glycoproteins, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione levels were measured in the duodenum. Rats pre-administered with the HAEPD showed significantly reduced ulcer score comparable to that of ranitidine pretreated rats. The co-administration of HAEPD lowered the TBARS level and also restored the levels of glycoproteins, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Histopathological observations confirmed the presence of inflammation, necrosis and hemorrhagic spots in the duodenum of ulcer control rats which were significantly reduced due to HAEPD treatment. No abnormal alterations were observed in normal rats treated with HAEPD at the dosage studied. The results demonstrated antioxidant and cytoprotective nature of P. dulce, and thereby its significant anti ulcer property.

  17. Method of recovering phosphoric acid type decontaminating electrolytes by electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takashi; Wada, Koichi; Kobayashi, Toshio.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To recoving phosphoric acid type highly concentrated decontaminating liquid used for the electrolytic decontamination of contaminated equipments, components, etc in nuclear power plants or the like through electrodeposition by diaphragm electrolysis. Method: Before supplying phosphoric acid decontaminating liquid at high concentration used in the electrolytic decontaminating step to an electrodeposition recovering tank, phosphoric acid in the decontaminating electrolyte is extracted with solvents and decomposed liquid extracts (electrolyte reduced with the phosphoric acid component) are supplied to the cathode chamber of the electrodeposition recovering tank, where phosphoric acid is back-extracted with water from the solvents after extraction of phosphoric acid. Then, the back-extracted liquids (aqueous phosphoric acid solution scarcely containing metal ions) are sent to the anode chamber of the electrodeposition recovering tank. Metal ions in the liquid are captured by electrodeposition in the cathode chamber, as well as phosphoric acid in the liquids is concentrated to the initial concentration of the electrolyte in the anode chamber for reuse as the decontaminating electrolyte. As the phosphoric acid extracting agent used in the electrodeposition recovering step for the decontaminating electrolyte, water-insoluble and non-combustible tributyl phosphate (TBP) is most effective. (Horiuchi, T.)

  18. Boron neutron capture therapy of intracerebral rat gliosarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joel, D.D.; Fairchild, R.G.; Laissue, J.A.; Saraf, S.K.; Kalef-Ezra, J.A.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1990-01-01

    The efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for the treatment of intracerebrally implanted rat gliosarcomas was tested. Preferential accumulation of 10B in tumors was achieved by continuous infusion of the sulfhydryl borane dimer, Na4(10)B24H22S2, at a rate of 45-50 micrograms of 10B per g of body weight per day from day 11 to day 14 after tumor initiation (day 0). This infusion schedule resulted in average blood 10B concentrations of 35 micrograms/ml in a group of 12 gliosarcoma-bearing rats and 45 micrograms/ml in a group of 10 similar gliosarcoma-bearing rats treated by BNCT. Estimated tumor 10B levels in these two groups were 26 and 34 micrograms/g, respectively. On day 14, boron-treated and non-boron-treated rats were exposed to 5.0 or 7.5 MW.min of radiation from the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor that yielded thermal neutron fluences of approximately 2.0 x 10(12) or approximately 3.0 x 10(12) n/cm2, respectively, in the tumors. Untreated rats had a median postinitiation survival time of 21 days. Reactor radiation alone increased median postinitiation survival time to 26 (5.0 MW.min) or 28 (7.5 MW.min) days. The 12 rats that received 5 MW.min of BNCT had a median postinitiation survival time of 60 days. Two of these animals survived greater than 15 months. In the 7.5 MW.min group, the median survival time is not calculable since 6 of the 10 animals remain alive greater than 10 months after BNCT. The estimated radiation doses to tumors in the two BNCT groups were 14.2 and 25.6 Gy equivalents, respectively. Similar gliosarcoma-bearing rats treated with 15.0 or 22.5 Gy of 250-kilovolt peak x-rays had median survival times of only 26 or 31 days, respectively, after tumor initiation

  19. Combined effect of carcinogenic n-nitrosodimethylamine precursors and fractioned {gamma}-irradiation on tumor development in rats.; Kombinirovannoe vliyanie predshestvennikov kantserogennogo N-nitrozodimetilamina i fraktsionirovannogo {gamma}-oblucheniya na vozniknovenie opukholej u krys.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galenko, P M [Yinstitut Eksperimental` noyi Patologyiyi, Onkologyiyi yi Radyiobyiologyiyi, Natsyional` na Akademyiya Nauk Ukrayini, Kyiv (Ukraine); Nedopitanskaya, N N [Yinstitut Zdorov` ya, Myinyisterstvo Okhoroni Zdorov` ya, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    1996-12-01

    The influence of combined action of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and fractioned {gamma}-irradiation on tumor development in rats was investigated. Both the tumor frequency and tumor plurality coefficient have been studied for two types of treatment: precursors of NDMA (amidopyrine and/or sodium nitrite (SN)) alone and the combination `precursors plus radiation`. Tumor frequency decreased by about 11% after combination of {gamma}-irradiation and precursors in comparison with precursors alone. Nevertheless, treatment with SN and {gamma}-irradiation did not change tumor frequency in comparison with SN alone. Irradiation of rats treated with precursors led to an increased tumor plurality coefficient.

  20. GSK-3β inhibitor TWS119 attenuates rtPA-induced hemorrhagic transformation and activates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway after acute ischemic stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Mingchang; Wang, Yuefei; Li, Qian; Deng, Gang; Wan, Jieru; Yang, Qingwu; Chen, Qianxue; Wang, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a devastating complication for patients with acute ischemic stroke who are treated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). It is associated with high morbidity and mortality, but no effective treatments are currently available to reduce HT risk. Therefore, methods to prevent HT are urgently needed. In this study, we used TWS119, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), to evaluate the role of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in recombinant tPA (rtPA)-induced HT. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of ischemic stroke and then were administered rtPA, rtPA combined with TWS119, or vehicle at 4 h. The animals were sacrificed 24 h after infarct induction. Rats treated with rtPA showed evident HT, had more severe neurologic deficit, brain edema, and blood-brain barrier breakdown, and had larger infarction volume than did the vehicle group. Rats treated with TWS119 had significantly improved outcomes compared with those of rats treated with rtPA alone. In addition, Western blot analysis showed that TWS119 increased the protein expression of β-catenin, claudin-3, and ZO-1 while suppressing the expression of GSK-3β. These results suggest that TWS119 reduces rtPA-induced HT and attenuates blood-brain barrier disruption, possibly through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. This study provides a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent tPA-induced HT after acute ischemic stroke.

  1. Mothers recovering from cocaine addiction: factors affecting parenting skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyer, S M

    2001-01-01

    To identify factors that may influence parenting by mothers who are recovering from cocaine addiction. Exploratory descriptive, with in-depth unstructured interviews. Interviews were conducted in the woman's home or in a treatment center. A convenience sample of 11 women recovering from cocaine addiction who were mothers of children 3 years of age and younger. A content analysis was used to analyze the interview data. Two themes, personal/psychologic factors and environmental/contextual factors, and four subthemes emerged. They identify issues that may affect parenting by mothers being treated for cocaine addiction. Subthemes included low self-esteem, difficulty developing a maternal identity, isolation from friends and family, and chronic life stress. This study provides a better understanding of the sources contributing to vulnerability in the parenting role for mothers recovering from cocaine addiction and will assist nurses in providing care for these mothers and their children.

  2. Methods for recovering metals from electronic waste, and related systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Tedd E; Parkman, Jacob A; Diaz Aldana, Luis A; Clark, Gemma; Dufek, Eric J; Keller, Philip

    2017-10-03

    A method of recovering metals from electronic waste comprises providing a powder comprising electronic waste in at least a first reactor and a second reactor and providing an electrolyte comprising at least ferric ions in an electrochemical cell in fluid communication with the first reactor and the second reactor. The method further includes contacting the powders within the first reactor and the second reactor with the electrolyte to dissolve at least one base metal from each reactor into the electrolyte and reduce at least some of the ferric ions to ferrous ions. The ferrous ions are oxidized at an anode of the electrochemical cell to regenerate the ferric ions. The powder within the second reactor comprises a higher weight percent of the at least one base metal than the powder in the first reactor. Additional methods of recovering metals from electronic waste are also described, as well as an apparatus of recovering metals from electronic waste.

  3. A theoretical framework for understanding recovered memory experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Chris R

    2012-01-01

    If recovered memory experiences appear counter-intuitive, this is in part due to misconceptions about trauma and memory, and to a failure to adopt a comprehensive model of memory that distinguishes personal semantic memory, autobiographical event memory, and memory appraisal. Memory performance is generally superior when events, including traumas, are central to identity. Prolonged trauma in childhood, however, can produce severe identity disturbances that may interfere with the encoding and later retrieval of personal semantic and autobiographical event information. High levels of emotion either at encoding or recall can also interfere with the creation of coherent narrative memories. For example, high levels of shock and fear when memories are recovered unexpectedly may lead to the experience of vivid flashbacks. Memory appraisals may also influence the sense that an event has been forgotten for a long time. Recovered memories, although unusual, do not contradict what we know about how memory works.

  4. Toxicological evaluation of silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate in rats following 28 days of repeated oral exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guangqiu; Tang, Song; Li, Shibin; Lu, Haoliang; Wang, Yanwu; Zhao, Peng; Li, Bin; Zhang, Jiehong; Peng, Liang

    2017-02-01

    The increasing application of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been raising concerns about their potential adverse effects to human and the environment. However, the knowledge on the systemic toxicity of AgNPs in mammalian systems is still limited. The present study investigated the toxicity of PVP-coated AgNPs in rats treated with repeated oral administration, and compared that with equivalent dose of AgNO 3 . Specifically, one hundred male and female rats were orally administrated with particulate or ionic forms of silver (Ag) separately at doses of 0.5 and 1 mg kg -1 body weight daily for 28 days. The results reveal no significant toxic effects of AgNPs and AgNO 3 up to 1 mg kg -1 body weight, with respect to the body weight, organ weight, food intake, and histopathological examination. Ag distribution pattern in organs of rats treated with AgNPs was similar to that of AgNO 3 treated rats, showing liver and kidneys are the main target organs followed by testis and spleen. The total Ag contents in organs were significantly lower in the AgNPs treated rats than those in the AgNO 3 treated rats. However, the comparisons between AgNPs and AgNO 3 treatments further indicated more potent of AgNPs in biochemical and hematological parameters in rats, including red blood cell count (RBC), platelet count (PLT), white blood cell count (WBC) and aspartate transaminase (AST). Results of this study suggested that particulate Ag at least partially contributed to the observed toxicity of AgNPs, and both ionic and particulate Ag should be taken into consideration in toxicological evaluation of AgNPs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 609-618, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Short-term treatment with VEGF receptor inhibitors induces retinopathy of prematurity-like abnormal vascular growth in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Ayuki; Nakahara, Tsutomu; Mori, Asami; Ushikubo, Hiroko; Sakamoto, Kenji; Ishii, Kunio

    2016-02-01

    Retinal arterial tortuosity and venous dilation are hallmarks of plus disease, which is a severe form of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). In this study, we examined whether short-term interruption of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signals leads to the formation of severe ROP-like abnormal retinal blood vessels. Neonatal rats were treated subcutaneously with the VEGF receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors, KRN633 (1, 5, or 10 mg/kg) or axitinib (10 mg/kg), on postnatal day (P) 7 and P8. The retinal vasculatures were examined on P9, P14, or P21 in retinal whole-mounts stained with an endothelial cell marker. Prevention of vascular growth and regression of some preformed capillaries were observed on P9 in retinas of rats treated with KRN633. However, on P14 and P21, density of capillaries, tortuosity index of arterioles, and diameter of veins significantly increased in KRN633-treated rats, compared to vehicle (0.5% methylcellulose)-treated animals. Similar observations were made with axitinib-treated rats. Expressions of VEGF and VEGFR-2 were enhanced on P14 in KRN633-treated rat retinas. The second round of KRN633 treatment on P11 and P12 completely blocked abnormal retinal vascular growth on P14, but thereafter induced ROP-like abnormal retinal blood vessels by P21. These results suggest that an interruption of normal retinal vascular development in neonatal rats as a result of short-term VEGFR inhibition causes severe ROP-like abnormal retinal vascular growth in a VEGF-dependent manner. Rats treated postnatally with VEGFR inhibitors could serve as an animal model for studying the mechanisms underlying the development of plus disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Polyphenol-Rich Extract of Syzygium cumini Leaf Dually Improves Peripheral Insulin Sensitivity and Pancreatic Islet Function in Monosodium L-Glutamate-Induced Obese Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Jonas R.; França, Lucas M.; Chagas, Vinicyus T.; Gaspar, Renato S.; dos Santos, Kayque A.; Gonçalves, Luciana M.; Sloboda, Deborah M.; Holloway, Alison C.; Dutra, Richard P.; Carneiro, Everardo M.; Cappelli, Ana Paula G.; Paes, Antonio Marcus de A.

    2016-01-01

    Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (Myrtaceae) has been traditionally used to treat a number of illnesses. Ethnopharmacological studies have particularly addressed antidiabetic and metabolic-related effects of extracts prepared from its different parts, especially seed, and pulp-fruit, however. there is a lack of studies on phytochemical profile and biological properties of its leaf. As there is considerable interest in bioactive compounds to treat metabolic syndrome and its clustered risk factors, we sought to characterize the metabolic effects of hydroethanolic extract of S. cumini leaf (HESc) on lean and monosodium L-glutamate (MSG)-induced obese rats. HPLC-MS/MS characterization of the HESc polyphenolic profile, at 254 nm, identified 15 compounds pertaining to hydrolysable tannin and flavanol subclasses. At 60 days of age, both groups were randomly assigned to receive HESc (500 mg/kg) or vehicle for 30 days. At the end of treatment, obese+HESc exhibited significantly lower body weight gain, body mass index, and white adipose tissue mass, compared to obese rats receiving vehicle. Obese rats treated with HESc showed a twofold increase in lipolytic activity in the periepididymal fat pad, as well as, brought triglyceride levels in serum, liver and skeletal muscle back to levels close those found in lean animals. Furthermore, HESc also improved hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in obese+HESc rats, which resulted in partial reversal of glucose intolerance, as compared to obese rats. HESc had no effect in lean rats. Assessment of ex vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion showed HESc potentiated pancreatic function in islets isolated from both lean and obese rats treated with HESc. In addition, HESc (10–1000 μg/mL) increased glucose stimulated insulin secretion from both isolated rat islets and INS-1E β-cells. These data demonstrate that S. cumini leaf improved peripheral insulin sensitivity via stimulating/modulating β-cell insulin release, which was associated

  7. Glomerular Epithelial Cells-Targeted Heme Oxygenase-1 Over Expression in the Rat: Attenuation of Proteinuria in Secondary But Not Primary Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsaves, Vassilios; Makri, Panagiota; Detsika, Maria G; Tsirogianni, Alexandra; Lianos, Elias A

    2016-01-01

    Induction of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in glomerular epithelial cells (GEC) in response to injury is poor and this may be a disadvantage. We, therefore, explored whether HO-1 overexpression in GEC can reduce proteinuria induced by puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) or in anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody (Ab)-mediated glomerulonephritis (GN). HO-1 overexpression in GEC (GECHO-1) of Sprague-Dawley rats was achieved by targeting a FLAG-human (h) HO-1 using transposon-mediated transgenesis. Direct GEC injury was induced by a single injection of PAN. GN was induced by administration of an anti-rat GBM Ab and macrophage infiltration in glomeruli was assessed by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis, which was also used to assess glomerular nephrin expression. In GECHO-1 rats, FLAG-hHO-1 transprotein was co-immunolocalized with nephrin. Baseline glomerular HO-1 protein levels were higher in GECHO-1 compared to wild type (WT) rats. Administration of either PAN or anti-GBM Ab to WT rats increased glomerular HO-1 levels. Nephrin expression markedly decreased in glomeruli of WT or GECHO-1 rats treated with PAN. In anti-GBM Ab-treated WT rats, nephrin expression also decreased. In contrast, it was preserved in anti-GBM Ab-treated GECHO-1 rats. In these, macrophage infiltration in glomeruli and the ratio of urine albumin to urine creatinine (Ualb/Ucreat) were markedly reduced. There was no difference in Ualb/Ucreat between WT and GECHO-1 rats treated with PAN. Depending on the type of injury, HO-1 overexpression in GEC may or may not reduce proteinuria. Reduced macrophage infiltration and preservation of nephrin expression are putative mechanisms underlying the protective effect of HO-1 overexpression following immune injury. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Polyphenol-rich extract of Syzygium cumini leaf dually improves peripheral insulin sensitivity and pancreatic islet function in monosodium L-glutamate-induced obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Rodrigues Sanches

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels (Myrtaceae has been traditionally used to treat a number of illnesses. Ethnopharmacological studies have particularly addressed antidiabetic and metabolic-related effects of extracts prepared from its different parts, especially seed and pulp-fruit, however there is a lack of studies on phytochemical profile and biological properties of its leaf. As there is considerable interest in bioactive compounds to treat metabolic syndrome and its clustered risk factors, we sought to characterize the metabolic effects of hydroethanolic extract of S. cumini leaf (HESc on lean and monosodium L-glutamate (MSG-induced obese rats. HPLC-MS/MS characterization of the HESc polyphenolic profile, at 254 nm, identified 15 compounds pertaining to hydrolysable tannin and flavanol subclasses. At 60 days of age, both groups were randomly assigned to receive HESc (500 mg/kg or vehicle for 30 days. At the end of treatment, obese+HESc exhibited significantly lower body weight gain, body mass index, and white adipose tissue mass, compared to obese rats receiving vehicle. Obese rats treated with HESc showed a 2-fold increase in lipolytic activity in the periepididymal fat pad, as well as, brought triglyceride levels in serum, liver and skeletal muscle back to levels close those found in lean animals. Furthermore, HESc also improved hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in obese+HESc rats, which resulted in partial reversal of glucose intolerance, as compared to obese rats. HESc had no effect in lean rats. Assessment of ex vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion showed HESc potentiated pancreatic function in islets isolated from both lean and obese rats treated with HESc. In addition, HESc (10 – 1000 ug/mL increased glucose stimulated insulin secretion from both isolated rat islets and INS-1E beta cells. These data demonstrate that S. cumini leaf improved peripheral insulin sensitivity via stimulating/modulating beta cell insulin release

  9. Report: Protective effects of rice bran oil in haloperidol-induced tardive dyskinesia and serotonergic responses in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Noreen; Haleem, Muhammad Abdul; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2016-07-01

    Effect of administration of Rice bran oil (RBO) was evaluated on haloperidol elicited tardive dyskinesia in rats. Albino Wistar rats treated with haloperidol in drinking water at a dose of 0.2mg/kg/day and RBO by oral tubes at a dose of 0.4 mL/day for 5 weeks. Motor coordination, VCMs and 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetraline)[8-OH-DPAT] _syndrome were monitored. Striatal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-EC). Rats treated with haloperidol orally at a dose of for a period of 5 weeks developed VCMs, which increased progressively as the treatment continued for 5 weeks. Motor coordination impairment started after the 1st week and was maximally impaired after 3 weeks and gradually returned to the 1st week value. Co-administration of RBO prevented haloperidol_induced VCMs as well impairment of motor coordination. The intensity of 8-OH-DPAT_induced syndrome and decreased 5-HT metabolism were greater in water + haloperidol treated animals than RBO + haloperidol treated animals. The present study suggested that involvement of free radical in the development of TD and point to RBO as a possible therapeutic option to treat this hyperkinetic motor disorder.

  10. Effects of B Vitamins Overload on Plasma Insulin Level and Hydrogen Peroxide Generation in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wuping; Zhai, Mingzhu; Zhou, Qian; Qian, Chengrui; Jiang, Changyu

    2017-08-31

    It has been reported that nicotinamide-overload induces oxidative stress associated with insulin resistance, the key feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to investigate the effects of B vitamins in T2DM. Glucose tolerance tests were carried out in adult Sprague-Dawley rats treated with or without cumulative doses of B vitamins. More specifically, insulin tolerance tests were also carried out in adult Sprague-Dawley rats treated with or without cumulative doses of Vitamin B3. We found that cumulative Vitamin B1 and Vitamin B3 administration significantly increased the plasma H₂O₂ levels associated with high insulin levels. Only Vitamin B3 reduced muscular and hepatic glycogen contents. Cumulative administration of nicotinic acid, another form of Vitamin B3, also significantly increased plasma insulin level and H₂O₂ generation. Moreover, cumulative administration of nicotinic acid or nicotinamide impaired glucose metabolism. This study suggested that excess Vitamin B1 and Vitamin B3 caused oxidative stress and insulin resistance.

  11. Hepatoprotective activity of Eugenia jambolana Lam. in carbon tetrachloride treated rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisodia, S.S.; Bhatnagar, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the hepatoprotective effects of the methanolic seed extract of Eugenia jambolana Lam. (Myrtaceae), in Wistar albino rats treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Materials and Methods: Liver damage in rats treated with CCl4 (1ml/kg/Bw, administered subcutaneously, on alternate days for one week) was studied by assessing parameters such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) and bilirubin (total and direct). The effect of co-administration of Eugenia jambolana Lam. (doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p. o.) on the above parameters was investigated. These biochemical observations were supplemented by weight and histological examination of liver sections. Liv.52® was used as positive control. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA, followed by Scheff's/Dunnett's test. Results: Administration of Eugenia jambolana Lam. (doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p. o.) significantly prevented carbon tetrachloride induced elevation of serum SGOT, SGPT, ALP, ACP and bilirubin (total and direct) level. Histological examination of the liver section revealed hepatic regeneration, after administration of various doses of Eugenia jambolana Lam. The results were comparable to that of Liv.52®. Conclusion: The study suggests preventive action of Eugenia jambolana Lam. in carbon tetrachloride induced liver toxicity. Hepatic cell regeneration process was dose dependent. PMID:20177577

  12. Process for recovering uranium from wet process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrih, R.Z.; Rickard, S.; Carrington, F.

    1982-01-01

    A process for recovering uranium from phosphoric acid solutions uses an acidified alkali metal carbonate solution for the second-stage strip of uranyl uranium from the ion-exchange solution. The stripped solution is then recycled to the ion-exchange circuit. In the first stripping stage the ion-exchange solution containing the recovered uranyl uranium and an inert organic diluent is stripped with ammonium carbonate, producing a slurry of ammonium uranyl tricarbonate. The second strip, with a solution of 50-200 grams per litre of sodium carbonate eliminates the problems of inadequate removal of phosphorus, iron and vanadium impurities, solids accumulation, and phase separation in the strip circuit

  13. Recovering metal values hydrometallurgically from spent dry battery cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabah, M. A.; Barakat, M. A.; Mahrous, Y. Sh.

    1999-12-01

    A hydro-pyrometallurgical method was used to recover metal values from spent dry battery cells. Water-soluble ingredients were filtered, and solid residue was sorted by magnetic separation and water flotation. Parameters affecting the recovery efficiency were also studied. Results revealed that metallic parts, carbon rods, and paper were safely recovered; pure NH4Cl, MnO2, and ZnCl2 salts were obtained. Maximum recovery efficiencies reached 93 percent for manganese and 99.5 percent for zinc and NH4.

  14. Beam position monitor for energy recovered linac beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Thomas; Evtushenko, Pavel

    2017-06-06

    A method of determining the beam position in an energy recovered linac (ERL). The method makes use of in phase and quadrature (I/Q) demodulation techniques to separate the pickup signal generated by the electromagnetic fields generated by the first and second pass beam in the energy recovered linac. The method includes using analog or digital based I/Q demodulation techniques in order to measure the relative amplitude of the signals from a position sensitive beam pickup such as a button, strip line or microstripline beam position monitor.

  15. Genotoxicity, mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of carotenoids extracted from ionic liquid in multiples organs of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larangeira, Paula Martins; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera; da Silva, Victor Hugo Pereira; de Moura, Carolina Foot Gomes; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2016-11-01

    The ionic liquid or melted salt 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium is an alternative process to extract natural pigments, such as carotenoids. Lycopene represents 80-90% of total of carotenoids presents in tomatoes and it has been widely studied due its potent antioxidant action. The aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxicity, mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of carotenoids extracted from ionic liquid using experimental model in vivo. For this purpose, a total of 20 male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups (n=5), as follows: control group; received a corresponding amount of corn oil for 7days by intragastric gavage (i.g.), ionic liquid group, received 10mgkg -1 body weight for 7days by gavage; 10mg carotenoids group, received 10mgkg -1 bw dissolved in corn oil for 7days by gavage and 500mg carotenoids group, received 500mgkg -1 bw dissolved in corn oil for 7days by gavage. Rat liver treated with ionic liquid exhibited moderate histopathological changes randomly distributed in the parenchyma, such as cytoplasmic eosinophilia, apoptotic bodies, inflammatory infiltrate and focal necrosis. DNA damage was found in peripheral blood and liver cells of rats treated with ionic liquid or carotenoids at 500mg. An increase of micronucleated cells and 8-OhDG immunopositive cells were also detected in rats treated with carotenoids at 500mg. In summary, our results demonstrate that recommended dose for human daily intake of carotenoids extracted by ionic liquid did not induce genotoxicity, mutagenicity and cytotoxicity in multiple organs of rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of whole body x-ray irradiation on induction by phenobarbital of rat liver glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitny-Szlachto, S.; Szyszko, A. (Wojskowy Inst. Higieny i Epidemiologii, Warsaw (Poland))

    1979-01-01

    In rats treated with phenobarbital (3x100 mg/kg, i.p.), liver G-6-P dehydrogenase activity increased by 70% in the cytosol and in the 9.000xg supernatant, and only by 20% in microsomes. Moreover, the phenobarbital treatment increased rat liver GSSG reductase activity by 30%. On the other hand, activity of the liver microsomal G-6-P dehydrogenase was found to increase by some 20% in whole body irradiated, both control and phenobarbital treated rats. In rats irradiated with 600 R prior to the first dose of the inducer there was not noted any increase in G-6-P dehydrogenase of the 9.000xg supernatant, and increase in the cytosol activity dropped to 38%. Thus, induction of the soluble liver G-6-P dehydrogenase by phenobarbital has turned out to be radiosensitive, whereas phenobarbital induction of GSSG reductase was unaffected by irradiation.

  17. Phosphorus uptake by potato from fertilizers recovered from anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field experiments were conducted in the Columbia Basin of South Central Washington to assess the yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum) in response to application of phosphorus enriched materials recovered from anaerobic digestion of manure. The treatments were comprised of four rates (0, 56, 112 and ...

  18. A probabilistic model to recover individual genomes from metagenomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Dröge (Johannes); A. Schönhuth (Alexander); A.C. McHardy (Alice)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractShotgun metagenomics of microbial communities reveal information about strains of relevance for applications in medicine, biotechnology and ecology. Recovering their genomes is a crucial but very challenging step due to the complexity of the underlying biological system and technical

  19. Thermoset composite recycling: Properties of recovered glass fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauson, Justine; Fraisse, Anthony; Toncelli, C.

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of glass fiber thermoset polymer composite is a challenging topic and a process able to recover the glass fibers original properties in a limited cost is still under investigation. This paper focuses on the recycling technique separating the glass fiber from the matrix material. Four...

  20. Physical activity level among children recovering from severe acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babirekere-Iriso, Esther; Rytter, Maren Johanne Heilskov; Namusoke, Hanifa

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the level and predictors of physical activity at discharge among children recovering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM). METHODS: We conducted a prospective study among 69 children 6 - 59 months of age admitted with SAM for nutritional rehabilitation at Mulago National...

  1. Method for recovering or recirculating stable nitroxide radicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeres, Andre; Van Doren, Hendrik Arend; Bleeker, Ido Pieter; Gotlieb, Kornelis Fester.

    1996-01-01

    The invention relates fo a method for recovering stable nitroxide radicals, wherein at least a part of a reaction mixt. consisting of a soln. or suspension, or a filtrate or supernatant of a suspension, in which stable nitroxide radicals are present in non-solid form, is subjected to an azeotropic

  2. Genomovirus Genomes Recovered from Echinothrips americanus Sampled in Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraberger, Simona; Polston, Jane E.; Capobianco, Heather M.; Alcalá-Briseño, Ricardo I.; Fontenele, Rafaela S.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Four genomovirus genomes were recovered from thrips (Echinothrips americanus) collected in Florida, USA. These represent four new species which are members of the Gemycircularvirus (n = 2), Gemyduguivirus (n = 1), and Gemykibivirus (n = 1) genera. This is the first record, to our knowledge, of genomoviruses associated with a phytophagous insect. PMID:28546499

  3. 26 CFR 1.1336-1 - Basis of recovered property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... benefits by reason of the basis determined under subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, that it would be... recovered it has an unadjusted basis of $100. After $70 depreciation has been allowed on A, an allocation is sought which would give A an unadjusted basis of $60. Since this is less than the depreciation which is...

  4. Evaluation of an automated struvite reactor to recover phosphorus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-03

    Apr 3, 2015 ... A reactor was developed that can run fully automated and recover up to 93% ..... uncertainty. This technique will work best when the concentration of ... Ken Jack at the School of Chemical Engineering to help build the reactor ...

  5. Return to Education for Recovering Drug Addicts: The Soilse Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This article is an account of a return to education course set up to cater to the needs of recovering heroin addicts in a Dublin rehabilitation project in the summer of 2008. It begins with a brief outline of the HSE Soilse rehabilitation and recovery programme and the rationale for seeking association with the Department of Adult and Community…

  6. Autoradiographic demonstration of glucocorticoid receptors in the intermediate lobe of the rat pituitary transplanted to the anterior eye chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruehle, H.J.; Schnabel, C.; Lausch, A.

    1989-01-01

    The neurointermediate lobe of adult male Wistar rats was syngeneic transplanted to the anterior eye chamber. The recipient rats were adrenalectomized 19 days after grafting and injected with (3H)corticosterone 5 days later. After a survival time of 60 min, autoradiograms were prepared by thaw-mount technique and quantitatively evaluated by silver grain counting. Beside the classical targets, anterior pituitary and hippocampal stratum pyramidale, the intraocular transplants showed a nuclear accumulation of radioactivity. This was abolished in rats treated for competition with an excess of unlabelled corticosterone prior to tracer application. No such receptor binding was found in the normotopic intermediate lobe and in the diaphragm studied as a non-target reference. Thus, this study confirmed that the glucocorticoid receptor gene is expressed of the tissue is grafted into an ectopic site. (author)

  7. Effect of epidermal growth factor against radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang-wook; Jung, Kwon Il; Kim, Yeun Wha B.S.; Jung, Heun Don; Kim, Hyun Sook; Hong, Joon Pio

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We tested the efficacy of oral recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) against radiation-induced oral mucositis in a rat model. Methods and Materials: Each of 35 Sprague-Dawley rats, 7 to 8 weeks of age and weighing 178 ± 5 grams, was irradiated once in the head region with 25 Gy, using a 4-MV therapeutic linear accelerator at a rate of 2 Gy/min. The irradiated rats were randomly divided into four groups: those receiving no treatment (Group 1), those treated with vehicle only three times per day (Group 2), and those treated with 50 μg/mL (Group 3), or 100 μg/mL (Group 4) rhEGF three times per day. Results: Rats were monitored for survival rate and daily activity, including hair loss, sensitivity, and anorexia. We found that survival rate and oral intake were significantly increased and histologic changes were significantly decreased in the rhEGF-treated rats. There was no difference, however, between rats treated with 50 μg/mL or 100 μg/mL rhEGF. Conclusion: These findings suggest that orally administered rhEGF decreased radiation-induced oral mucositis in rats

  8. Pioglitazone reverses down-regulation of cardiac PPARγ expression in Zucker diabetic fatty rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, Theo; Jazbutyte, Virginija; Arias-Loza, Paula Anahi; Segerer, Stephan; Lichtenwald, Margit; Law, Marilyn P.; Schaefers, Michael; Ertl, Georg; Neyses, Ludwig

    2005-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) plays a critical role in peripheral glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism, and inhibits cardiac hypertrophy in non-diabetic animal models. The functional role of PPARγ in the diabetic heart, however, is not fully understood. Therefore, we analyzed cardiac gene expression, metabolic control, and cardiac glucose uptake in male Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF fa/fa) and lean ZDF rats (+/+) treated with the high affinity PPARγ agonist pioglitazone or placebo from 12 to 24 weeks of age. Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia as well as lower cardiac PPARγ, glucose transporter-4 and α-myosin heavy chain expression levels were detected in diabetic ZDF rats compared to lean animals. Pioglitazone increased body weight and improved metabolic control, cardiac PPARγ, glut-4, and α-MHC expression levels in diabetic ZDF rats. Cardiac [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake was not detectable by micro-PET studies in untreated and pioglitazone treated ZDF fa/fa rats but was observed after administration of insulin to pioglitazone treated ZDF fa/fa rats. PPARγ agonists favorably affect cardiac gene expression in type-2 diabetic rats via activation and up-regulation of cardiac PPARγ expression whereas improvement of impaired cardiac glucose uptake in advanced type-2 diabetes requires co-administration of insulin

  9. Neutrophils Infiltrate the Spinal Cord Parenchyma of Rats with Experimental Diabetic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L. Newton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal glial cell activation and cytokine secretion have been implicated in the etiology of neuropathic pain in a number of experimental models, including diabetic neuropathy. In this study, streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic rats were either untreated or treated with gabapentin (50 mg/kg/day by gavage for 2 weeks, from 6 weeks after STZ. At 8 weeks after STZ, hypersensitivity was confirmed in the untreated diabetic rats as a reduced response threshold to touch, whilst mechanical thresholds in gabapentin-treated diabetic rats were no different from controls. Diabetes-associated thermal hypersensitivity was also ameliorated by gabapentin. We performed a cytokine profiling array in lumbar spinal cord samples from control and diabetic rats. This revealed an increase in L-selectin, an adhesion molecule important for neutrophil transmigration, in the spinal cord of diabetic rats but not diabetic rats treated with gabapentin. Furthermore, we found an increase in the number of neutrophils present in the parenchyma of the spinal cord, which was again ameliorated in gabapentin-treated diabetic rats. Therefore, we suggest that dysregulated spinal L-selectin and neutrophil infiltration into the spinal cord could contribute to the pathogenesis of painful diabetic neuropathy.

  10. In vivo micro-CT analysis of bone remodeling in a rat calvarial defect model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umoh, Joseph U; Holdsworth, David W [Pre-Clinical Imaging Research Centre, Robarts Research Institute, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, PO Box 5015, 100 Perth Drive, London, ON N6A 5K8 (Canada); Sampaio, Arthur V; Underhill, T Michael [Laboratory of Molecular Skeletogenesis, Department of Cellular and Physiological Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Welch, Ian [Animal Care and Veterinary Services, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Pitelka, Vasek; Goldberg, Harvey A [CIHR Group in Skeletal Development and Remodelling, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada)], E-mail: jumoh@imaging.robarts.ca, E-mail: asampaio@interchange.ubc.ca, E-mail: tunderhi@interchange.ubc.ca, E-mail: iwelch@uwo.ca, E-mail: vasek.pitelka@schulich.uwo.ca, E-mail: hagoldbe@uwo.ca, E-mail: david.holdsworth@imaging.robarts.ca

    2009-04-07

    The rodent calvarial defect model is commonly used to investigate bone regeneration and wound healing. This study presents a micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) methodology for measuring the bone mineral content (BMC) in a rat calvarial defect and validates it by estimating its precision error. Two defect models were implemented. A single 6 mm diameter defect was created in 20 rats, which were imaged in vivo for longitudinal experiments. Three 5 mm diameter defects were created in three additional rats, which were repeatedly imaged ex vivo to determine precision. Four control rats and four rats treated with bone morphogenetic protein were imaged at 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks post-surgery. Scan parameters were 80 kVp, 0.45 mA and 180 mAs. Images were reconstructed with an isotropic resolution of 45 {mu}m. At 6 weeks, the BMC in control animals (4.37 {+-} 0.66 mg) was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that in treated rats (11.29 {+-} 1.01 mg). Linear regression between the BMC and bone fractional area, from 20 rats, showed a strong correlation (r{sup 2} = 0.70, p < 0.0001), indicating that the BMC can be used, in place of previous destructive analysis techniques, to characterize bone growth. The high precision (2.5%) of the micro-CT methodology indicates its utility in detecting small BMC changes in animals.

  11. Blood and tissue tocopherol levels in rats following intraperitoneally administered alpha-tocopheryl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, C D; Greenwood, C E; Jeejeebhoy, K N

    1990-01-01

    The correction or maintenance of blood and tissue alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc) levels by intraperitoneally administered all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (alpha-Tac) was compared with RRR- alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc) in vitamin E-depleted and control rats. Rats received 1.3 TE vitamin E daily for 7 days. alpha-Tac was detected in plasma of one-third of alpha-Tac-treated rats 24 hr after the first treatment, although not in subsequent samplings. Both alpha-Tac and alpha-Toc increased tocopherol levels in plasma and liver of E-deprived rats, while little or no change was observed in adipose tissue and brain. Similarly, control rats treated with alpha-Tac or alpha-Toc had significantly greater (p less than 0.05) plasma and liver alpha-Toc levels at day 3 and day 7 than did saline-treated rats. There was no significant difference in adipose alpha-Toc levels among treatment groups of control rats. The results of this study suggest that alpha-Tac is rapidly hydrolyzed to its biologically active alcohol form and results in similar effects to that of intraperitoneally administered alpha-Toc.

  12. In vivo effects of Faizol Ubat Batuk, a herbal product on aminopyrine metabolism in rat hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abas Hj Hussin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional medicines, in particular herbal products, have been used abundantly over the years in curing several diseases. Pharmacological interactions of herbal products with modern drugs, however, remain to some extent unknown. Herein, we examined whether co-administration of Faizol Ubat Batuk (FUB, a mixture of aqueous extract of different plants, modifies the metabolism of aminopyrine, a conventional analgesic drug, in rat liver. We used rat hepatocytes outfitted by collagenase perfusion technique. Determination of aminopyrine n-demethylase activity was performed using the Nash colorimetric method, by measuring the amount of formaldehyde produced. Compared to control treatment, FUB significantly increased the hepatic metabolism of aminopyrine in healthy adult male rats. In contrast, the hepatic metabolism of aminopyrine in adult female rats was decreased. Besides, a biphasic effect in n-demethylase activity was observed in young male rats treated with FUB. In a subsequent experiment, FUB did not change the metabolism of aminopyrine in streptozotocin (STZ-diabetic adult male rats. In conclusion, administration of FUB could affect phase I aminopyrine metabolism in rat heptocytes. In addition, the effects of FUB on hepatic n-demethylase activity were gender and disease dependent.

  13. Locally Applied Valproate Enhances Survival in Rats after Neocortical Treatment with Tetanus Toxin and Cobalt Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk-Matthias Altenmüller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In neocortical epilepsies not satisfactorily responsive to systemic antiepileptic drug therapy, local application of antiepileptic agents onto the epileptic focus may enhance treatment efficacy and tolerability. We describe the effects of focally applied valproate (VPA in a newly emerging rat model of neocortical epilepsy induced by tetanus toxin (TeT plus cobalt chloride (CoCl2. Methods. In rats, VPA ( or sodium chloride (NaCl ( containing polycaprolactone (PCL implants were applied onto the right motor cortex treated before with a triple injection of 75 ng TeT plus 15 mg CoCl2. Video-EEG monitoring was performed with intracortical depth electrodes. Results. All rats randomized to the NaCl group died within one week after surgery. In contrast, the rats treated with local VPA survived significantly longer (. In both groups, witnessed deaths occurred in the context of seizures. At least of the rats surviving the first postoperative day developed neocortical epilepsy with recurrent spontaneous seizures. Conclusions. The novel TeT/CoCl2 approach targets at a new model of neocortical epilepsy in rats and allows the investigation of local epilepsy therapy strategies. In this vehicle-controlled study, local application of VPA significantly enhanced survival in rats, possibly by focal antiepileptic or antiepileptogenic mechanisms.

  14. Exercise aggravates cardiovascular risks and mortality in rats with disrupted nitric oxide pathway and treated with recombinant human erythropoietin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meziri, Fayçal; Binda, Delphine; Touati, Sabeur; Pellegrin, Maxime; Berthelot, Alain; Touyz, Rhian M; Laurant, Pascal

    2011-08-01

    Chronic administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) can generate serious cardiovascular side effects such as arterial hypertension (HTA) in clinical and sport fields. It is hypothesized that nitric oxide (NO) can protect from noxious cardiovascular effects induced by chronic administration of rHuEPO. On this base, we studied the cardiovascular effects of chronic administration of rHuEPO in exercise-trained rats treated with an inhibitor of NO synthesis (L-NAME). Rats were treated or not with rHuEPO and/or L-NAME during 6 weeks. During the same period, rats were subjected to treadmill exercise. The blood pressure was measured weekly. Endothelial function of isolated aorta and small mesenteric arteries were studied and the morphology of the latter was investigated. L-NAME induced hypertension (197 ± 6 mmHg, at the end of the protocol). Exercise prevented the rise in blood pressure induced by L-NAME (170 ± 5 mmHg). However, exercise-trained rats treated with both rHuEPO and L-NAME developed severe hypertension (228 ± 9 mmHg). Furthermore, in these exercise-trained rats treated with rHuEPO/L-NAME, the acetylcholine-induced relaxation was markedly impaired in isolated aorta (60% of maximal relaxation) and small mesenteric arteries (53%). L-NAME hypertension induced an internal remodeling of small mesenteric arteries that was not modified by exercise, rHuEPO or both. Vascular ET-1 production was not increased in rHuEPO/L-NAME/training hypertensive rats. Furthermore, we observed that rHuEPO/L-NAME/training hypertensive rats died during the exercise or the recovery period (mortality 51%). Our findings suggest that the use of rHuEPO in sport, in order to improve physical performance, represents a high and fatal risk factor, especially with pre-existing cardiovascular risk.

  15. Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant on serotonin transporter expression in rats with post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ya-Nan; Feng, Li-Juan; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Jiang, Kui; Zhang, Mao-Jun; Gu, Yi-Xin; Wang, Bang-Mao; Gao, Jia; Wang, Ze-Lan; Wang, Yu-Ming

    2018-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant (LGG-s) on the expression of serotonin transporter (SERT) in rats with post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS). METHODS Campylobacter jejuni 81-176 (1010 CFU/mL) was used to induce intestinal infection to develop a PI-IBS model. After evaluation of the post-infectious phase by biochemical tests, DNA agarose gel electrophoresis, abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) test, and the intestinal motility test, four PI-IBS groups received different concentrations of LGG-s for 4 wk. The treatments were maintained for 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 or 4.0 wk during the experiment, and the colons and brains were removed for later use each week. SERT mRNA and protein levels were detected by real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. RESULTS The levels of SERT mRNA and protein in intestinal tissue were higher in rats treated with LGG-s than in control rats and PI-IBS rats gavaged with PBS during the whole study. Undiluted LGG-s up-regulated SERT mRNA level by 2.67 times compared with the control group by week 2, and SERT mRNA expression kept increasing later. Double-diluted LGG-s was similar to undiluted-LGG-s, resulting in high levels of SERT mRNA. Triple-diluted LGG-s up-regulated SERT mRNA expression level by 6.9-times compared with the control group, but SERT mRNA expression decreased rapidly at the end of the second week. At the first week, SERT protein levels were basically comparable in rats treated with undiluted LGG-s, double-diluted LGG-s, and triple-diluted LGG-s, which were higher than those in the control group and PBS-treated PI-IBS group. SERT protein levels in the intestine were also comparable in rats treated with undiluted LGG-s, double-diluted LGG-s, and triple-diluted LGG-s by the second and third weeks. SERT mRNA and protein levels in the brain had no statistical difference in the groups during the experiment. CONCLUSION LGG-s can up-regulate SERT mRNA and protein levels in intestinal tissue but

  16. Effects of taurine on oxidative-antioxidative status of renal tissue in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yingjian; Tu Xiaowen; Yin Qiuxia; Hu Chenjing

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of taurine on the oxidative-antioxidative status of renal tissue in diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetic models of rat were induced with streptozotocin. Half of the models (n=7) were treated with taurine for 4 weeks. Blood glucose, uric acid and MDA, 24h urinary albumin and renal cortical homogenate MDA, SOD, GSH-Px contents were determined with appropriate laboratory technics in 1) diabetic rats without taurine treatment, n=7 2) diabetic rats treated with taurine, n=7 and 3) control rats, n=7. Results: There were no significant differences between the blood glucose levels in the two groups of diabetic rats. Blood uric acid and 24h urinary albumin contents in the untreated diabetic rats were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01). However, in the taurine treated rats, the blood uric acid levels approximated to those in the controls, with decreased but still higher than normal 24h urinary albumin contents. In the untreated rats, the renal cortical SOD and GSH-Px activities were about the same as those in control rats but there were significantly higher levels of blood and cortical MDA contents (P<0.01). With taurine treatment, the SOD and GSH-Px activities were significantly higher than those in the two other groups (P<0.05); the MDA contents were lower than those in non-treated rats (P<0.05), but still higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Taurine could enhance the anti-oxidative capability and attenuated the oxidative stress in diabetic rats renal tissue with partial protection of renal function. (authors)

  17. Subchronic toxicity studies of t-butyl alcohol in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindamood, C; Farnell, D R; Giles, H D; Prejean, J D; Collins, J J; Takahashi, K; Maronpot, R R

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of t-butyl alcohol, an important commodity chemical, an additive to unleaded gasoline, and a contaminant of drinking water. Ninety-day toxicity studies were conducted in B6C3F1 mice and Fischer 344 (F344) rats of both sexes using dosed water. Dose levels of t-butyl alcohol were 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4% (w/v). Lethality was observed at the 4% level of both sexes and species. Weight-gain depression was present in all dose levels of male rats; 4% female rats; 1, 2, and 4% male mice; and 2 and 4% female mice. Water consumption was increased at lower dose levels in male rats and decreased in the higher dose levels of both sexes of rats and female mice. Clinical signs in rats were ataxia in both sexes and hypoactivity in males. Clinical signs in mice were ataxia, abnormal posture, and hypoactivity. In rats, urine volumes were reduced, in association with crystalluria. Gross lesions at necropsy were urinary tract calculi, renal pelvic and ureteral dilatation, and thickening of the urinary bladder mucosa. Microscopic lesions were hyperplasia of transitional epithelia and inflammation of the urinary bladder. In male rats treated with t-butyl alcohol, microscopic renal changes were suggestive of alpha-2 mu-globulin nephropathy. No-effect levels for the urinary tract lesions were 1% in male rats and mice (803.7 mg/kg/day for the male rats and 1565.8 mg/kg/day for the male mice) and 2% in female rats and mice (1451.5 mg/kg/day for the female rats and 4362.9 mg/kg/day for the female mice). The results indicate that in rodents the urinary tract is the target organ for t-butyl alcohol toxicity, and males are more sensitive to t-butyl alcohol toxicity than females.

  18. Involvement of sensory neurons in bone defect repair in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henmi, Akiko; Nakamura, Megumi; Echigo, Seishi; Sasano, Yasuyuki

    2011-01-01

    We investigated bone repair in sensory-denervated rats, compared with controls, to elucidate the involvement of sensory neurons. Nine-week-old male Wistar rats received subcutaneous injections of capsaicin to denervate sensory neurons. Rats treated with the same amount of vehicle served as controls. A standardized bone defect was created on the parietal bone. We measured the amount of repaired bone with quantitative radiographic analysis and the mRNA expressions of osteocalcin and cathepsin K with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Quantitative radiographic analysis showed that the standard deviations and coefficients of variation for the amount of repaired bone were much higher in the capsaicin-treated group than in the control group at any time point, which means that larger individual differences in the amount of repaired bone were found in capsaicin-treated rats than controls. Furthermore, radiographs showed radiolucency in pre-existing bone surrounding the standardized defect only in the capsaicin-treated group, and histological observation demonstrated some multinuclear cells corresponding to the radiolucent area. Real-time PCR indicated that there was no significant difference in the mRNA expression levels of osteocalcin and cathepsin K between the control group and the capsaicin-treated group. These results suggest that capsaicin-induced sensory denervation affects the bone defect repair. (author)

  19. Effect of gold nanoparticles on postoperative peritoneal adhesions in rats

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    Amir Hooshang Mohammadpour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Abdominal adhesions are one of the most important problems, occurring after intra-abdominal surgery in more than 90% of cases. This condition is the leading cause of bowel obstruction, infertility, and abdominal/pelvic pain. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs have been shown to be non-toxic and exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and antioxidant activities. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of intraperitoneal lavage with GNP solutions on the development of postoperative peritoneal adhesion (PPA. Materials and Methods:In the current experimental study, thirty-five male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to seven groups of five rats. After a standardized peritoneal injury, GNP solutions in different concentrations (1, 2.5, 5, 10, 50 and 100 ng/ml were locally administered through nebulization; normal saline (NS was administered to the control group. Two weeks later, the rats were sacrificed and cecum and peritoneal samples were harvested for histopathological assessment. Blood samples were obtained to determine serum concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Results: The rats treated with GNPs had significantly lower microscopic and macroscopic peritoneal adhesion scores, compared to the control group (P

  20. Photobiomodulation laser improves the early repair process of hypothyroid rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzêda e Silva, V. D.; Rodriguez, T. T.; Xavier, F. C. A.; dos Santos, J. N.; Vasconcelos, R. M.; Ramalho, L. M. P.

    2018-04-01

    Delay in wound healing has been observed in the hypothyroidism disfunction. Laser light can modulate various biological phenomena acting on different cell types. However, there are few reports in the literature regarding the effects of laser on wound healing of hypothyroid models. This study aimed to evaluate the differences in reepithelialization process of cutaneous wounds on hypothyroid and euthyroid rats treated with laser phototherapy. Forty-eight rats were divided into two main groups: euthyroid (EU) and hypothyroid (HYPO). Hypothyroidism was induced by Thyroidectomy. Each group was divided into subgroups: control (without laser) and laser groups. Standard surgical wound was created on the dorsum of each rat. The irradiation protocols (λ660 nm, 40 mW, CW; 10 J/cm2) was carried out immediately after wounding and repeated every 24h during 3 and 7 days. After animal death, specimens were taken, routinely processed, cut, stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and underwent histological analysis. Three days after the surgery, it was possible to observe initial reepithelialization in more advanced stages in the wound area of the irradiated hypothyroid group when compared to control hypothyroid group (p<0.05). No significant difference was found in the experimental period of 7 days among the groups. It was concluded that the laser light did influence reepithelialization process on hypothyroid rats in early stages of healing process.

  1. Acute and subacute effects of tobacco alkaloids, tobacco-specific nitrosamines and phenethyl isothiocyanate on N'-nitrosonornicotine metabolism in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyroller, Stefan; Zwickenpflug, Wolfgang; Thalheim, Charlotte; Richter, Elmar

    2005-01-01

    N'-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) was the first tobacco-specific nitrosamine (TSNA) identified as carcinogen in tobacco smoke, but no data exist on in vivo interactions between NNN and other tobacco alkaloids, TSNA or phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) which have been demonstrated in various studies on 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). Acute effects on NNN metabolism were tested in male Fischer F344 rats injected s.c. with 30 nmol/kg body weight (bw) [5- 3 H]NNN either alone or simultaneously with 15 μmol/kg bw nicotine, nornicotine, anatabine, or anabasine, 150 μmol/kg bw cotinine, 3 μmol/kg bw myosmine, or 300 nmol/kg bw of either N'-nitrosoanatabine or N'-nitrosoanabasine. Another group of rats was fed a diet supplemented with PEITC at 1 μmol/g diet starting 24 h before NNN treatment. Within 24 h more than 80% and about 10% of the radioactivity was excreted with urine and feces, respectively. Urinary metabolites were separated by reversed-phase radio-HPLC and identified by co-chromatography with UV standards. In two sets of experiments with control rats treated with NNN only, 4-hydroxy-4-(3-pyridyl)butanoic acid (hydroxy acid, 44.4/44.8%), 4-oxo-4-(3-pyridyl)butanoic acid (keto acid, 32.4/31.5%), NNN-N-oxide (5.0/3.8%), 4-(3-pyridyl)butane-1,4-diol (diol, 1.1/1.0%) and norcotinine (2.3/1.0%) were consistently detected besides unmetabolised NNN (4.7/3.3%). Co-treatment with nicotine, cotinine, nornicotine and PEITC shifted the contribution of the two major metabolites significantly in favor of hydroxy acid (108-113% of control) as compared to keto acid (86-90% of control). The same treatments also increased norcotinine (135-170% of control). These changes are consistent with a decreased metabolic activation of NNN. In subacute studies rats received NNN in drinking water for 4 weeks at a daily dose of 30 nmol/kg bw with or without nornicotine at 15 μmol/kg bw or myosmine at 3 μmol/kg bw. On the last day of the experiment all rats received [5- 3 H

  2. Cerveau isolé and pretrigeminal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernicki, B; Gandolfo, G; Glin, L; Gottesmann, C

    1984-01-01

    Cortical and hippocampal EEG activity was analysed in 14 cerveau isole and 8 pretrigerninal rats. In the acute stage, waking EEG patterns were absent in the cerveau isole, whereas sleep EEG patterns were absent in the pretrigeminal preparations. However, already on the second day the EEG waking-sleep cycle recovered in the majority of rats. Paradoxically, stimuli directed to the caudal part of preparations evoked stronger cortical and hippocampal EEG arousal than olfactory and visual stimuli. The behavior of the caudal part was observed in 25 preparations. Although in abortive form, the rats did show some locomotor and grooming behavior, and could be fed orally. The peripheral events of paradoxical sleep appeared only on the fourth or fifth day of survival of the cerveau isole rats. It is concluded that the activity of the isolated cerebrum of the rat is similar to that of cat preparations, but that functions of the caudal neuraxis are superior in rats.

  3. Molecular mechanisms of the antiglycative and cardioprotective activities of Psidium guajava leaves in the rat diabetic myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soman, Sowmya; Rajamanickam, Chellam; Rauf, Arun A; Madambath, Indira

    2016-12-01

    Antiglycative potential of Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) leaves has been established. However, the molecular basis of its antiglycative potential remains unknown. The ethyl acetate fraction of P. guajava leaves (PGEt) was evaluated to determine the cardioprotective effect and its mechanism of action compared to quercetin. After the induction of diabetes by streptozotocin (55 mg/kg body weight), PGEt and quercetin (50 mg/kg body weight) was administered for 60 days. Rats were grouped as follows: Group C: Control, Group D: Diabetic, Group D + E: Diabetic rats treated with PGEt, Group D + Q: Diabetic rats treated with quercetin. The antiglycative potential was evaluated by assaying glycosylated haemoglobin, serum fructosamine and advanced glycation end product levels. The differential receptor for advanced glycation end products and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) protein levels was determined by western blot and the transcript level changes of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and TGF-β1 in heart tissue were assessed by RT-PCR analysis. Glycated haemoglobin and serum fructosamine levels were found to be enhanced in diabetic rats when compared with control. Administration of PGEt significantly reduced the glycated haemoglobin and fructosamine levels to a larger extent than quercetin treated diabetic rats. PGEt reduced the translocation of NFκB from cytosol to nucleus when compared with diabetic rats. Expression of TGF-β1, CTGF and BNP was downregulated in PGEt treated groups compared with diabetic controls. Administration of PGEt ameliorated diabetes associated changes in the myocardium to a greater extent than quercetin.

  4. Hippocampal Proteome of Rats Subjected to the Li-Pilocarpine Epilepsy Model and the Effect of Carisbamate Treatment

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    José Eduardo Marques-Carneiro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In adult rats, the administration of lithium–pilocarpine (LiPilo reproduces most clinical and neuropathological features of human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. Carisbamate (CRS possesses the property of modifying epileptogenesis in this model. Indeed, about 50% of rats subjected to LiPilo status epilepticus (SE develop non-convulsive seizures (NCS instead of motor seizures when treated with CRS. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unknown. The aim of this study was to perform a proteomic analysis in the hippocampus of rats receiving LiPilo and developing motor seizures or NCS following CRS treatment. Fifteen adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were used. SE was induced by LiPilo injection. CRS treatment was initiated at 1 h and 9 h after SE onset and maintained for 7 days, twice daily. Four groups were studied after video-EEG control of the occurrence of motor seizures: a control group receiving saline (CT n = 3 and three groups that underwent SE: rats treated with diazepam (DZP n = 4, rats treated with CRS displaying NCS (CRS-NCS n = 4 or motor seizures (CRS-TLE n = 4. Proteomic analysis was conducted by 2D-SDS-PAGE. Twenty-four proteins were found altered. In the CRS-NCS group, proteins related to glycolysis and ATP synthesis were down-regulated while proteins associated with pyruvate catabolism were up-regulated. Moreover, among the other proteins differentially expressed, we found proteins related to inflammatory processes, protein folding, tissue regeneration, response to oxidative stress, gene expression, biogenesis of synaptic vesicles, signal transduction, axonal transport, microtubule formation, cell survival, and neuronal plasticity. Our results suggest a global reduction of glycolysis and cellular energy production that might affect brain excitability. In addition, CRS seems to modulate proteins related to many other pathways that could significantly participate in the epileptogenesis-modifying effect observed.

  5. Alterations in the Interplay between Neurons, Astrocytes and Microglia in the Rat Dentate Gyrus in Experimental Models of Neurodegeneration

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    Daniele Lana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus is negatively affected by aging and neurodegenerative diseases leading to impaired learning and memory abilities. A diverse series of progressive modifications in the intercellular communication among neurons, astrocytes and microglia occur in the hippocampus during aging or inflammation. A detailed understanding of the neurobiological modifications that contribute to hippocampal dysfunction may reveal new targets for therapeutic intervention. The current study focussed on the interplay between neurons and astroglia in the Granule Layer (GL and the Polymorphic Layer (PL of the Dentate Gyrus (DG of adult, aged and LPS-treated rats. In GL and PL of aged and LPS-treated rats, astrocytes were less numerous than in adult rats. In GL of LPS-treated rats, astrocytes acquired morphological features of reactive astrocytes, such as longer branches than was observed in adult rats. Total and activated microglia increased in the aged and LPS-treated rats, as compared to adult rats. In the GL of aged and LPS-treated rats many neurons were apoptotic. Neurons decreased significantly in GL and PL of aged but not in rats treated with LPS. In PL of aged and LPS-treated rats many damaged neurons were embraced by microglia cells and were infiltrated by branches of astrocyte, which appeared to be bisecting the cell body, forming triads. Reactive microglia had a scavenging activity of dying neurons, as shown by the presence of neuronal debris within their cytoplasm. The levels of the chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1 increased in hippocampal homogenates of aged rats and rats treated with LPS, and CX3CL1 immunoreactivity colocalized with activated microglia cells. Here we demonstrated that in the DG of aged and LPS-treated rats, astrocytes and microglia cooperate and participate in phagocytosis/phagoptosis of apoptotic granular neurons. The differential expression/activation of astroglia and the alteration of their intercommunication may be responsible for

  6. Evaluation of the Effects of Curcumin on Palm Inflammation and Level of Acute Phase Proteins in Arthritic Rats

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    F. Aghaei Borashan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesRheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory disease which is characterized by joint swelling, and synovial inflammation. C reactive protein (CRP and ceruloplasmin (CP are identified as important biomarkers of RA and various inflammatory diseases. Curcumin, a widely used yellow color spice is the most active component of Curcuma longa L (Turmeric. Curcumin contains potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The goal of this study is evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin on arthritic palm of rats and levels of the CRP and CP in the blood samples of arthritis induced male albino Wistar rats.Methods Arthritis was induced by subcutaneous injection of Freund’s Complete Adjuvant (FCA into the palm of right rear foot of 8 different male albino Wistar rats. The rats were randomly divided into five groups after the injection. These groups were as follow: Group Ι, control normal rats Group II, carrier arthritic rats Group III, arthritic rats which were given 30mg/ kg of curcumin orally seven days prior to FCA injectionGroup IV, arthritic rats treated with 30mg/kg of curcumin Group V, arthritic rats treated with 3 mg/kg of indomethacin.All the groups except group III received oral treatment with curcumin seven days after FCA injection and the treatment was continued fourteen days thereafter. The rear foot thicknesses of all the rats were measured on days 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 after FCA injection. The rats were destroyed after 20th day and their blood samples were collected.ResultsThe results of this study indicate that curcumin significantly decreases swelling of the rats rear foot (p<0.05, and levels of the CRP and CP as compared to carrier arthritic rats (p<0.05. One-way variance analysis by ANOVA program and post test analysis by Tukey were used for analysis of the collected data. ConclusionEvaluation of the results of this experiment supports the anti-inflammatory, and possibly anti

  7. Evaluation of the Effects of Curcumin on Palm Inflammation and Level of Acute Phase Proteins in Arthritic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Aghaei Borashan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory disease which is characterized by joint swelling, and synovial inflammation. C reactive protein (CRP and ceruloplasmin (CP are identified as important biomarkers of RA and various inflammatory diseases. Curcumin, a widely used yellow color spice is the most active component of Curcuma longa L (Turmeric. Curcumin contains potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The goal of this study is evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin on arthritic palm of rats and levels of the CRP and CP in the blood samples of arthritis induced male albino Wistar rats.

     

    Methods

    Arthritis was induced by subcutaneous injection of Freund’s Complete Adjuvant (FCA into the palm of right rear foot of 8 different male albino Wistar rats. The rats were randomly divided into five groups after the injection. These groups were as follow:

    Group Ι, control normal rats

    Group II, carrier arthritic rats

    Group III, arthritic rats which were given 30mg/ kg of curcumin orally seven days prior to FCA injection

    Group IV, arthritic rats treated with 30mg/kg of curcumin

    Group V, arthritic rats treated with 3 mg/kg of indomethacin.

    All the groups except group III received oral treatment with curcumin seven days after FCA injection and the treatment was continued fourteen days thereafter. The rear foot thicknesses of all the rats were measured on days 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 after FCA injection. The rats were destroyed after 20th day and their blood samples were collected.

     

    Results

    The results of this study indicate that curcumin significantly decreases swelling of the rats rear foot (p<0.05, and levels of the CRP and CP as compared to carrier arthritic rats (p<0.05.

    One-way variance analysis

  8. Effects of long-term microgravitation exposure on cell respiration of the rat musculus soleus fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselova, O M; Ogneva, I V; Larina, I M

    2011-07-01

    Cell respiration of the m. soleus fibers was studied in Wistar rats treated with succinic acid and exposed to microgravitation for 35 days. The results indicated that respiration rates during utilization of endogenous and exogenous substrates and the maximum respiration rate decreased in animals subjected to microgravitation without succinate treatment. The respiration rate during utilization of exogenous substrate did not increase in comparison with that on endogenous substrates. Succinic acid prevented the decrease in respiration rate on endogenous substrates and the maximum respiration rate. On the other hand, the respiration rate on exogenous substrates was reduced in vivarium control rats receiving succinate in comparison with intact control group. That could indicate changed efficiency of complex I of the respiratory chain due to reciprocal regulation of the tricarbonic acid cycle.

  9. biochemical studies on toxicological aspects of sevin pesticide in gamma irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afifi, E.A.A.; Osman, H.F.

    2009-01-01

    this study was carried out to investigate the toxic effect of daily oral administration of 28 mg/kg of the carbamate insecticide(sevin) and/ or whole body gamma irradiation at dose levels of 30.0 Gy and 6.0 Gy for consecutive 4 weeks on male albino rats which produced several alterations in blood biochemical components. results revealed significant increases in the liver, kidney and spleen relative weights, total leucocytic counts , haematocrit values, hemoglobin concentration, cholesterol,triglycerides and glucose levels. on the other hand significant decreases in whole body weights,red blood cells counts and blood hemoglobin content were recorded for rats treated with sevin alone,sevin +3 Gy and 6 Gy gamma irradiation treatment.using radioimmunoassay technique revealed that ,serum levels of triiodothyronine was significantly increased, while thyroxine hormone was significantly decreased at all different experimental periods and doses

  10. Glutamate co-transmission from developing medial nucleus of the trapezoid body - Lateral superior olive synapses is cochlear dependent in kanamycin-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Ho [Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering (ITREN), Dankook University, San 29, Anseo-dong, Cheonan-si, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Pradhan, Jonu [Department of Nanobio Medical Science, Dankook University, San 29, Anseo-dong, Cheonan-si, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Maskey, Dhiraj; Park, Ki Sup [Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Dankook University, San 29, Anseo-dong, Cheonan-si, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Hwa [Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, 50, Irwon-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Myung-Whan [Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, Dankook University, San 29, Anseo-dong, Cheonan-si, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myeung Ju, E-mail: mjukim99@dankook.ac.kr [Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Dankook University, San 29, Anseo-dong, Cheonan-si, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Seung Cheol, E-mail: ansil67@hanmail.net [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Dankook University, San 29, Anseo-dong, Cheonan-si, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Glutamate co-transmission is enhanced in kanamycin-treated rats. {yields} VGLUT3 expression is increased in kanamycin-treated rats. {yields} GlyR expression is decreased in kanamycin-treated rats. {yields} GlyR, VGLUT3 expression patterns are asymmetric in unilaterally cochlear ablated rat. -- Abstract: Cochlear dependency of glutamate co-transmission at the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) - the lateral superior olive (LSO) synapses was investigated using developing rats treated with high dose kanamycin. Rats were treated with kanamycin from postnatal day (P) 3 to P8. A scanning electron microscopic study on P9 demonstrated partial cochlear hair cell damage. A whole cell voltage clamp experiment demonstrated the increased glutamatergic portion of postsynaptic currents (PSCs) elicited by MNTB stimulation in P9-P11 kanamycin-treated rats. The enhanced VGLUT3 immunoreactivities (IRs) in kanamycin-treated rats and asymmetric VGLUT3 IRs in the LSO of unilaterally cochlear ablated rats supported the electrophysiologic data. Taken together, it is concluded that glutamate co-transmission is cochlear-dependent and enhanced glutamate co-transmission in kanamycin-treated rats is induced by partial cochlear damage.

  11. Aging and the Disposition and Toxicity of Mercury in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Christy C.; Joshee, Lucy; Zalups, Rudolfs K.

    2014-01-01

    Progressive loss of functioning nephrons, secondary to age-related glomerular disease, can impair the ability of the kidneys to effectively clear metabolic wastes and toxicants from blood. Additionally, as renal mass is diminished, cellular hypertrophy occurs in functional nephrons that remain. We hypothesize that these nephrons are exposed to greater levels of nephrotoxicants, such as inorganic mercury (Hg2+), and thus are at an increased risk of becoming intoxicated by these compounds. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the effects of aging on the disposition and renal toxicity of Hg2+ in young adult and aged Wistar rats. Paired groups of animals were injected (i.v.) with either a 0.5 μmol • kg−1 non-nephrotoxic or a 2.5 μmol • kg−1 nephrotoxic dose of mercuric chloride (HgCl2). Plasma creatinine and renal biomarkers of proximal tubular injury were greater in both groups of aged rats than in the corresponding groups of young adult rats. Histologically, evidence of glomerular sclerosis, tubular atrophy, interstitial inflammation and fibrosis were significant features of kidneys from aged animals. In addition, proximal tubular necrosis, especially along the straight segments in the inner cortex and outer stripe of the outer medulla was a prominent feature in the renal sections from both aged and young rats treated with the nephrotoxic dose of HgCl2. Our findings indicate 1) that overall renal function is significantly impaired in aged rats, resulting in chronic renal insufficiency and 2) the disposition of HgCl2 in aging rats is significantly altered compared to that of young rats. PMID:24548775

  12. Hydrogen sulfide accelerates wound healing in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoguang; Li, Wei; Chen, Qingying; Jiang, Yuxin; Lu, Xiaohua; Zhao, Xue

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the role of hydrogen sulfide on wound healing in diabetic rats. Experimental diabetes in rats was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (in 0.1 mol/L citrate buffer, Ph 4.5) at dose of 70 mg/kg. Diabetic and age-matched non-diabetic rats were randomly assigned to three groups: untreated diabetic controls (UDC), treated diabetic administrations (TDA), and non-diabetic controls (NDC). Wound Healing Model was prepared by making a round incision (2.0 cm in diameter) in full thickness. Rats from TDA receive 2% sodium bisulfide ointment on wound, and animals from UDC and NDC receive control cream. After treatment of 21 days with sodium bisulfide, blood samples were collected for determination of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), antioxidant effects. Granulation tissues from the wound were processed for histological examination and analysis of western blot. The study indicated a significant increase in levels of VEGF and ICAM-1 and a decline in activity of coagulation in diabetic rats treated with sodium bisulfide. Sodium bisulfide treatment raised the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expression, and decreased tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) protein expression in diabetic rats. The findings in present study suggested that hydrogen sulfide accelerates the wound healing in rats with diabetes. The beneficial effect of H2S may be associated with formation of granulation, anti-inflammation, antioxidant, and the increased level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).

  13. Aging and the disposition and toxicity of mercury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Christy C; Joshee, Lucy; Zalups, Rudolfs K

    2014-05-01

    Progressive loss of functioning nephrons, secondary to age-related glomerular disease, can impair the ability of the kidneys to effectively clear metabolic wastes and toxicants from blood. Additionally, as renal mass is diminished, cellular hypertrophy occurs in functional nephrons that remain. We hypothesize that these nephrons are exposed to greater levels of nephrotoxicants, such as inorganic mercury (Hg(2+)), and thus are at an increased risk of becoming intoxicated by these compounds. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the effects of aging on the disposition and renal toxicity of Hg(2+) in young adult and aged Wistar rats. Paired groups of animals were injected (i.v.) with either a 0.5μmol·kg(-1) non-nephrotoxic or a 2.5μmol·kg(-1) nephrotoxic dose of mercuric chloride (HgCl2). Plasma creatinine and renal biomarkers of proximal tubular injury were greater in both groups of aged rats than in the corresponding groups of young adult rats. Histologically, evidence of glomerular sclerosis, tubular atrophy, interstitial inflammation and fibrosis were significant features of kidneys from aged animals. In addition, proximal tubular necrosis, especially along the straight segments in the inner cortex and outer stripe of the outer medulla was a prominent feature in the renal sections from both aged and young rats treated with the nephrotoxic dose of HgCl2. Our findings indicate 1) that overall renal function is significantly impaired in aged rats, resulting in chronic renal insufficiency and 2) the disposition of HgCl2 in aging rats is significantly altered compared to that of young rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ethical dilemma of recovering organs before donor death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Umair; Khalil, Sarwat

    2011-08-01

    Organ transplant has had a momentous effect in improving global health over the years. However, there exists a sizeable discrepancy between the supply and demand of organs, especially in developing countries, where lack of expertise, financial constraints, and inadequate transplant facilities have been obstacles. According to current practice, donors must be dead before unpaired vital organs can be recovered. Equal health warrants needs-based health care for everyone. Recovering viable organs from donors while they are alive, but with death inevitable, may be significant to persons on waiting lists. Future policies in organ transplantation must be made after thorough consideration of all aspects of donation and dealing with the inequalities of health care. These pose a challenge for medicolegal and ethical organizations.

  15. Recovering and recycling uranium used for production of molybdenum-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Sean Douglas; May, Iain; Copping, Roy; Dale, Gregory Edward

    2017-12-12

    A processes for recycling uranium that has been used for the production of molybdenum-99 involves irradiating a solution of uranium suitable for forming fission products including molybdenum-99, conditioning the irradiated solution to one suitable for inducing the formation of crystals of uranyl nitrate hydrates, then forming the crystals and a supernatant and then separating the crystals from the supernatant, thus using the crystals as a source of uranium for recycle. Molybdenum-99 is recovered from the supernatant using an adsorbent such as alumina. Another process involves irradiation of a solid target comprising uranium, forming an acidic solution from the irradiated target suitable for inducing the formation of crystals of uranyl nitrate hydrates, then forming the crystals and a supernatant and then separating the crystals from the supernatant, thus using the crystals as a source of uranium for recycle. Molybdenum-99 is recovered from the supernatant using an adsorbent such as alumina.

  16. Recovering from conflict in romantic relationships: a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Jessica E; Kuo, Sally I-Chun; Steele, Ryan D; Simpson, Jeffry A; Collins, W Andrew

    2011-03-01

    This study adopted a developmental perspective on recovery from conflict in romantic relationships. Participants were 73 young adults (target participants), studied since birth, and their romantic partners. A novel observational coding scheme was used to evaluate each participant's degree of conflict recovery, operationalized as the extent to which the participant disengaged from conflict during a 4-min "cool-down" task immediately following a 10-min conflict discussion. Conflict recovery was systematically associated with developmental and dyadic processes. Targets who were rated as securely attached more times in infancy recovered from conflict better, as did their romantic partners. Concurrently, having a romantic partner who displayed better recovery predicted more positive relationship emotions and greater relationship satisfaction. Prospectively, target participants' early attachment security and their partners' degree of conflict recovery interacted to predict relationship stability 2 years later, such that having a partner who recovered from conflict better buffered targets with insecure histories.

  17. The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model for viral marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Siti Suhaila; Akil, Ku Azlina Ku; Chulan, Majdah; Sharif, Noorzila

    2017-11-01

    Viral marketing is a marketing strategy utilizes social media to spread information about a product or services provided. It is the most powerful way to share information in a short amount of time. The objective of this study is to investigate the dynamic of viral marketing within a time duration in the point of view of mathematics. This study used the epidemiological model known as Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR). The model consists of a system of three differential equations with three state variables namely susceptible (S), infected (I) and recovered (R). It considers a case of SIR model with demography. Numerical experiments have been performed. The results show that viral marketing reaches its peak within two days. The online messages shared will become higher if the initial number of the infected individual has been increased.

  18. Quality standards and requirements for solid recovered fuels: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamme, Sabine; Geiping, Julia

    2012-04-01

    The utilization of solid recovered fuels (SRF) for energy recovery has been increasing steadily in recent years, and this development is set to continue. In order to use SRF efficiently, it is necessary to define quality standards and introduce targeted quality assurance measures. SRF can be used both in mono-incineration and in co-incineration systems, for instance in power generation and cement plants; but as quality requirements differ, it is necessary to unambiguously define the term 'solid recovered fuel'. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the origin, development and the current status of quality assurance for SRF. The basic principles of quality assurance for SRF are explained with reference to the development of the German RAL Quality Assurance System and in addition specifications that have emerged from European standardization work of CEN/TC 343 are analysed.

  19. Process for recovering tritium from molten lithium metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroni, Victor A.

    1976-01-01

    Lithium tritide (LiT) is extracted from molten lithium metal that has been exposed to neutron irradiation for breeding tritium within a thermonuclear or fission reactor. The extraction is performed by intimately contacting the molten lithium metal with a molten lithium salt, for instance, lithium chloride - potassium chloride eutectic to distribute LiT between the salt and metal phases. The extracted tritium is recovered in gaseous form from the molten salt phase by a subsequent electrolytic or oxidation step.

  20. Process for recovering oil from shale and other bituminous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1918-08-23

    A process for recovering oil from shale and other bituminous minerals in rotary retorts heated from outside and flushed with water vapor or other oxygen-free gases is characterized by the fact that all kinds of minerals are carbonized, and that during the carbonization process the temperature of the superheated steam or gases is about 50/sup 0/ C higher than the temperature of the carbonized mineral.

  1. Preventive effects of garlic (Allium sativum) on oxidative stress and histopathology of cardiac tissue in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, R; Mohaddes, G; Mohammadi, M; Alihemmati, A; Badalzadeh, R; Ghaznavi, R; Ghyasi, R; Mohammadi, Sh

    2015-12-01

    Since some complications of diabetes mellitus may be caused or exacerbated by an oxidative stress, the protective effects of garlic (Allium sativum) were investigated in the blood and heart of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, garlic, diabetic, and diabetic+garlic. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) in male rats. Rats were fed with raw fresh garlic homogenate (250 mg/kg) six days a week by gavage for a period of 6 weeks. At the end of the 6th week blood samples and heart tissues were collected and used for determination of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA) and histological evaluation. Induction of diabetes increased MDA levels in blood and homogenates of heart. In diabetic rats treated with garlic, MDA levels decreased in blood and heart homogenates. Treatment of diabetic rats with garlic increased SOD, GPX and CAT in blood and heart homogenates. Histopathological finding of the myocardial tissue confirmed a protective role for garlic in diabetic rats. Thus, the present study reveals that garlic may effectively modulate antioxidants status in the blood and heart of streptozotocin induced-diabetic rats.

  2. Beneficial effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on glomerulosclerosis rats via the down-regulation of the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin: a comparative study between ATRA and benazepril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peng; Qin, Yuan Han; Pei, Juan; Lei, Feng Ying; Hu, Bo; Lu, Ling

    2010-08-01

    Although ATRA is a potent renoprotective agent, relatively little is known regarding the mechanisms of its action. The present study was designed to further elucidate the mechanisms of ATRA's action to GS rats and compare that with the beneficial effect of benazepril. Male SD rats weighting 160 to 200g were used in this study. GS was induced by unilateral nephrectomy and intravenous injection of adriamycin (6mg/kg). They were divided randomly 20 ones per group into GS group, GS treated with ATRA (20mg/kg/day) group, and GS treated with benazepril (10mg/kg/day) group. The other 20 ones were taken as sham-operation group, injected normal saline into caudal vein. 12weeks later, all rats were subjected to sacrifice. As expected, the GS group exhibited significant lower serum TP and Alb, and higher BUN, Cr and proteinuria than those of the sham group. Administration of ATRA or benazepril did ameliorate these above disorders of biochemical parameters in GS rats. Extensive renal damage was observed in the GS group, such as mononuclear infiltration, mesangial proliferation, focal segment glomerular sclerosis, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. The pathological changes in both ATRA and benazepril group were alleviated remarkably. Semiquantitative GSI was used to evaluate the degree of GS in all groups. GSI was significantly higher in the GS group than in sham group. GSI decreased from 21.9+/-6.7 in the GS group to 6.9+/-2.8 in the ATRA group and 7.0+/-2.7 in benazepril group respectively. However, no significant difference in GSI between rats treated with ATRA and rats treated with benazepril was found. RT-PCR analysis revealed the renal expression of alpha-SMA mRNA was induced substantially in GS group as compared to sham group, which could be offset completely by ATRA or benazepril administration. However, expression level of alpha-SMA mRNA in GS rats treated with ATRA was identical to that in GS rats treated with benazepril. We also examined immunohistochemical staining

  3. New arrangement for the air cleanup system to recover tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Masabumi; Takahashi, Kohsaku; Munakata, Kenzo; Fukada, Satoshi; Kotoh, Kenji; Takeishi, Toshiharu

    1997-01-01

    At present, the standard arrangement of the air cleanup system responsible for emergency tritium recovery from room air is a catalytic oxidation bed with a heater followed by an adsorption bed with a cooler. One disadvantage of this arrangement is that trouble with the heater or the cooler could result in a loss of capacity to recover tritium. Another disadvantage of the catalyst-adsorption-bed arrangement is that tritiated water must be recovered with a high decontamination factor after dilution with a large amount of water vapor in the working atmosphere. The performance of a new arrangement for the air cleanup system, which consists of a precious metal catalyst bed preceded by an adsorption bed without heating equipment, is discussed. According to calculations, most of the tritium released to the room air is recovered in the catalyst bed through oxidation, adsorption, and isotope exchange reaction when the new arrangement is applied. The adsorption bed placed before the catalyst bed dehumidifies the process gas to such a degree that the oxidation reaction of tritium in the catalyst bed is not hindered by water vapor. 15 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  4. Methods for recovering precious metals from industrial waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canda, L.; Heput, T.; Ardelean, E.

    2016-02-01

    The accelerated rate of industrialization increases the demand for precious metals, while high quality natural resources are diminished quantitatively, with significant operating costs. Precious metals recovery can be successfully made from waste, considered to be secondary sources of raw material. In recent years, concerns and interest of researchers for more increasing efficient methods to recover these metals, taking into account the more severe environmental protection legislation. Precious metals are used in a wide range of applications, both in electronic and communications equipment, spacecraft and jet aircraft engines and for mobile phones or catalytic converters. The most commonly recovered precious metals are: gold from jewellery and electronics, silver from X- ray films and photographic emulsions, industrial applications (catalysts, batteries, glass/mirrors), jewellery; platinum group metals from catalytic converters, catalysts for the refining of crude oil, industrial catalysts, nitric acid manufacturing plant, the carbon-based catalyst, e-waste. An important aspect is the economic viability of recycling processes related to complex waste flows. Hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical routes are the most important ways of processing electrical and electronic equipment waste. The necessity of recovering precious metals has opened new opportunities for future research.

  5. Recovering low-turbidity cutting liquid from silicon slurry waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tzu-Hsuan; Shih, Yu-Pei

    2014-04-30

    In order to recover a low-turbidity polyalkylene glycol (PAG) liquid from silicon slurry waste by sedimentation, temperatures were adjusted, and acetone, ethanol or water was used as a diluent. The experimental results show that the particles in the waste would aggregate and settle readily by using water as a diluent. This is because particle surfaces had lower surface potential value and weaker steric stabilization in PAG-water than in PAG-ethanol or PAG-acetone solutions. Therefore, water is the suggested diluent for recovering a low-turbidity PAG (sedimentation. After 50 wt.% water-assisted sedimentation for 21 days, the solid content of the upper liquid reduced to 0.122 g/L, and the turbidity decreased to 44 NTU. The obtained upper liquid was then vacuum-distillated to remove water. The final recovered PAG with 0.37 NTU had similar viscosity and density to the unused PAG and could be reused in the cutting process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of biliary conjugates of 4,4'-methylenedianiline in male versus female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kan; Cole, Richard B.; Santa Cruz, Vicente; Blakeney, Ernest W.; Kanz, Mary F.; Dugas, Tammy R.

    2008-01-01

    4,4'-Methylenedianiline (4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane; DAPM) is an aromatic diamine used in the production of numerous polyurethane foams and epoxy resins. Previous studies in rats revealed that DAPM initially injures biliary epithelial cells of the liver, that the toxicity is greater in female than in male rats, and that the toxic metabolites of DAPM are excreted into bile. Since male and female rats exhibit differences in the expression of both phase I and phase II enzymes, our hypothesis was that female rats either metabolize DAPM to more toxic metabolites or have a decreased capacity to conjugate metabolites to less toxic intermediates. Our objective was thus to isolate, characterize, and quantify DAPM metabolites excreted into bile in both male and female bile duct-cannulated Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were gavaged with [ 14 C]-DAPM, and the collected bile was subjected to reversed-phase HPLC with radioisotope detection. Peaks eluting from HPLC were collected and analyzed using electrospray MS and NMR spectroscopy. HPLC analysis indicated numerous metabolites in both sexes, but male rats excreted greater amounts of glutathione and glucuronide conjugates than females. Electrospray MS and NMR spectra of HPLC fractions revealed that the most prominent metabolite found in bile of both sexes was a glutathione conjugate of an imine metabolite of a 4'-nitroso-DAPM. Seven other metabolites were identified, including acetylated, cysteinyl-glycine, glutamyl-cysteine, glycine, and glucuronide conjugates. While our prior studies demonstrated increased covalent binding of DAPM in the liver and bile of female compared to male rats, in these studies, SDS-PAGE with autoradiography revealed 4-5 radiolabeled protein bands in the bile of rats treated with [ 14 C]-DAPM. In addition, these bands were much more prominent in female than in male rats. These studies thus suggest that a plausible mechanism for the increased sensitivity of female rats to DAPM toxicity may be decreased

  7. Dronedarone and Amiodarone Induce Dyslipidemia and Thyroid Dysfunction in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Qin Jiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Amiodarone, a thyroid hormone-like molecule, can induce dyslipidemia and thyroid dysfunction. However, the effects of dronedarone on lipid metabolism and of both dronedarone and amiodarone on thyroid function and lipid metabolism remain unknown. Methods: Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (10 in each group: normal control (NC, amiodarone-treated (AMT, dronedarone-treated (DRT, rats treated with amiodarone combined with polyene phosphatidylcholine (AC, and rats treated with dronedarone combined with polyene phosphatidylcholine (DC. Rats were given amiodarone (120 mg/kg/d, dronedarone (120 mg/kg/d, and polyene phosphatidylcholine (200 mg/kg/d for 13 weeks. At the end of weeks 4, 8, 12, and 13, plasma-free triiodothyronine (FT3, free thyroxine (FT4, triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c were determined. At the end of this protocol, rats were sacrificed and the thyroid glands were isolated, weighed, and examined histopathologically. The protein expression of Bcl-2 was measured by immunochemical staining. The mRNA expression of thyroglobulin (Tg, type-1 deiodinase (D1, and thyroid peroxidase (TPO were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: Compared with the NC group, FT3 and FT4 levels in the DRT and DC groups significantly increased at week 4 but declined thereafter. The AMT and AC groups had lower FT3 levels but comparable FT4 levels. The levels of TG, LDL-c, and HDL-c in the NC group were lower than those in the other groups whereas the LDL-c/HDL-c ratio was lowest in the AMT group. Bcl-2 expression significantly increased in the DRT group. The mRNA expression of Tg increased whereas the mRNA expression of D1 decreased. Dronedarone induced hyperthyroidism at the early stage and hypothyroidism at the late stage whereas amiodarone only caused hypothyroidism. Conclusion: Both dronedarone and

  8. Oral administration of O-2 lean, an anti-obesity herbal composition increased 5-HT metabolism, decreased food intake and body weight in overweight rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, F.; Akhtar, N.; Haleem, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Feeding behavior is complex processes controlled by the neruroendocrine system.5-HT play an important role in regulation of energy balance by suppressing food intake. Depletion of brain serotonin increase feeding behavior and develop obesity. Many serotoninergic compounds are available in market for the management of body weight. 02-Lean is an anti-obesity herbal formulation prepared by combination of different herbs. Oral administration of aqueous suspension of 02-Lean caused a significant decrease in body weight, food intake, and increase in whole brain 5-HT 5HIAA, tryptophan and plasma tryptophan in over weight rats treated with 0.096g/2ml 02-Lean in comparison to control group. (author)

  9. Neutron activation analysis of maltenes recovered from EUROBITUM simulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impens, N

    2006-01-01

    According to the present Belgian reference scenario, Eurobitum bituminised radioactive waste has to be disposed off in a deep underground repository in a stable geological formation such as Boom Clay. This waste originated mainly from mixtures of nuclear fuel decladding slurries and waste concentrates from the nuclear fuel cycle. Even though safety assessment studies up till present do not show that this waste is unacceptable for deep underground disposal, a final decision about the disposal of the bituminised waste has not been taken so far, and alternative solutions are still conceivable. To support the decision-making we investigate methods to recondition this bituminised waste. We continued studying a room temperature re-treatment method for Eurobitum. The aim of the method is the stabilisation and minimisation of final waste, and the free release of recovered materials. The method comprises the recovery of maltenes and water soluble salts. The recovery of maltenes is performed by dissolving the complete bitumen matrix with a 'solvent', followed by the precipitation of the asphaltenes by addition of a so-called 'nonsolvent'. The 'solvent' is a 50 percent aromatic blend of Shellsol A150 and Shellsol H, whereas the 'nonsolvent' is aliphatic Shellsol T. The recovered maltenes represent 40 % wt of the waste, as shown in the inner pie chart. Part of the maltenes could not be recovered and remain in the asphaltene matrix, as can be seen from the difference between the inner and outer pie chart, representing the real composition and the weight fractions after separation, respectively. A second step of the room temperature re-treatment method covers the complete removal of the water soluble (nitrate) salts, and is described in the main reference and references therein. Application of the room temperature re-treatment method results in a final waste that consists of water insoluble salts embedded in an asphaltene matrix which is less sensitive towards radiolysis than

  10. α-Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors Modulate Kisspeptin Effects on Prolactin: Role in Estradiol-Induced Prolactin Surge in Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Nayara S S; Araujo-Lopes, Roberta; Henriques, Patricia C; Lopes, Felipe E F; Gusmao, Daniela O; Coimbra, Candido C; Franci, Celso R; Reis, Adelina M; Szawka, Raphael E

    2017-06-01

    Kisspeptin (Kp) regulates prolactin (PRL) in an estradiol-dependent manner. We investigated the interaction between ovarian steroid receptors and Kp in the control of PRL secretion. Intracerebroventricular injections of Kp-10 or Kp-234 were performed in ovariectomized (OVX) rats under different hormonal treatments. Kp-10 increased PRL release and decreased 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels in the median eminence (ME) of OVX rats treated with estradiol (OVX+E), which was prevented by tamoxifen. Whereas these effects of Kp-10 were absent in OVX rats, they were replicated in OVX rats treated with selective agonist of estrogen receptor (ER)α, propylpyrazole triol, but not of ERβ, diarylpropionitrile. Furthermore, the Kp-10-induced increase in PRL was two times higher in OVX+E rats also treated with progesterone (OVX+EP), which was associated with a reduced expression of both tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and Ser40-phosphorylated TH in the ME. Kp-10 also reduced dopamine levels in the ME of OVX+EP rats, an effect blocked by the progesterone receptor (PR) antagonist RU486. We also determined the effect of Kp antagonism with Kp-234 on the estradiol-induced surges of PRL and luteinizing hormone (LH), using tail-tip blood sampling combined with ultrasensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Kp-234 impaired the early phase of the PRL surge and prevented the LH surge in OVX+E rats. Thus, we provide evidence that Kp stimulation of PRL release requires ERα and is potentiated by progesterone via PR activation. Moreover, alongside its essential role in the LH surge, Kp seems to play a role in the peak phase of the estradiol-induced PRL surge. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  11. Effects of prolonged agmatine treatment in aged male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushaidhi, M; Zhang, H; Liu, P

    2013-03-27

    Increasing evidence suggests that altered arginine metabolism contributes to cognitive decline during ageing. Agmatine, decarboxylated arginine, has a variety of pharmacological effects, including the modulation of behavioural function. A recent study demonstrated the beneficial effects of short-term agmatine treatment in aged rats. The present study investigated how intraperitoneal administration of agmatine (40mg/kg, once daily) over 4-6weeks affected behavioural function and neurochemistry in aged Sprague-Dawley rats. Aged rats treated with saline displayed significantly reduced exploratory activity in the open field, impaired spatial learning and memory in the water maze and object recognition memory relative to young rats. Prolonged agmatine treatment improved animals' performance in the reversal test of the water maze and object recognition memory test, and significantly suppressed age-related elevation in nitric oxide synthase activity in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. However, this prolonged supplementation was unable to improve exploratory activity and spatial reference learning and memory in aged rats. These findings further demonstrate that exogenous agmatine selectively improves behavioural function in aged rats. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prolactin and aging: X-irradiated and estrogen-induced rat mammary tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, A.; Naito, M.; Watanabe, H.; Yokoro, K.

    1984-01-01

    Both sexes of inbred WF rats at either 8 or 28-60 weeks of age were exposed to 200 rad whole-body radiation, 2.5 or 5.0 mg 17 beta-estradiol (E2), or both agents The female rats treated with E2 alone or with both X-rays and E2 at 8 weeks of age showed a high incidence of mammary carcinomas (MCA), a large increase in pituitary weight, and a rise in serum prolactin (PRL) levels. However, the same treatments to males did not induce MCA despite a moderate increase in both pituitary weight and serum PRL. Ovariectomy prior to E2 treatment failed to modify the occurrence of MCA or pituitary tumors. When X-rays and E2 were given to female rats at 28-60 weeks of age, pituitary weight, serum PRL levels, and the incidence of MCA were unaffected. When the E2 pellet was kept for the first 24 weeks and withdrawn during the last 12 weeks, the incidence of MCA, pituitary weight, and serum PRL was low. It was concluded that: 1) the pituitary glands of young female rats were susceptible to E2 treatment but were insensitive in older females, and 2) the occurrence of MCA in female rats appeared to be promoted by elevated PRL levels secreted by E2-induced pituitary tumors. Mammary tissue of male rats was less sensitive to PRL levels in the development of MCA

  13. Impact of three endocrine disruptors, Bisphenol A, Genistein and Vinclozolin on female rat enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedeon, K; Berdal, A; Babajko, A

    2016-06-28

    Concerns about the potential adverse effectsof endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been increasingover the last three decades. BisphenolA (BPA), genistein (G) and vinclozolin (V) arethree widely used EDs sharing similar effects.Since populations are exposed to many diverseEDs simultaneously, we demonstratedrecently their impact alone or combined onmale rat tooth enamel. The purpose of thisstudy was therefore to assess their effects onfemale rat tooth enamel in order to understandwhy they are differentially sensitive. Ratswere exposed daily in utero and after birth tolow doses of EDs during the critical fetal andsuckling periods when amelogenesis takesplace. Enamel of rats exposed to EDs presentedopaque areas of hypomineralization. Theproportion of affected rats was the highestin the groups of rats treated with BPA aloneand higher in males than in females (in all thegroups). Comparison of enamel key gene expressionlevels showed modulations of Klk4and Enamelin in males but no significant variationsin females. These findings show thatfemale rats are less affected than males bythe three EDs chosen in this study and suggestthat enamel hypomineralization may differbetween males and females.

  14. The Use of Statin Substitutes to Improve the Lipid Profile in Liver Dysfunctional Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, M.M.; Michael, M.I.

    2010-01-01

    More attention has been drawn to different strategies for prevention of cardiovascular associated with liver dysfunction. The aim of the present study is to compare between statin and free fat- milk supplemented with multivitamins in hyperlipidaemic male rats with or without liver dysfunction induced by CCl4. The animals were allocated to 7 equal experimental groups (16 rats each): control group, hypercholesterolemic group, hypercholestero-lemic-statin group, hypercholesterolemic-free fat milk-multivitamins group, hypercholesterolemic-CCl4 group, hypercholesterolemic-CCl4-statin group, and hypercholesterolemic-CCl4- fat-free milk-multivita-mins group. After one month half of the rats of each group were decapitated and the rest of the animals were decapitated after two months. Lipid profile, relative liver weight, liver function, CPK and LDH were determined. The effectiveness of statin drug in the management of blood lipids was confirmed without improving or worsening liver functions. Meanwhile, this effectiveness worsened in hypercholesterolemic rats treated with CCl4 as compared to hypercholesterolemic group. Administration of fat-free milk with multivitamins, as an alternative remedy for statin drug, has improved lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats and it revealed no changes in liver enzymes in hypercholesterolemic rats with liver dysfunction indicating the favorable use of them as hypolipotropic agent without affecting liver metabolism

  15. The effect of N-stearoylethanolamine on plasma lipid composition in rats with experimental insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Onopchenko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A model of insulin resistance (IR, induced by prolonged high fat diet with high content of saturated fats was used to investigate the effect of N-stearoylethanolamine (NSE on the composition of free fatty acids (FFA, plasma lipoprotein spectrum and content of proinflammatory cytokine TNFα in rats. The results of this work showed a rise in the content of monounsaturated fatty acids (18:1 n-9 and a reduction in the level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (20:4 n-6 in plasma of rats with experimental IR. These findings are accompanied by the increased TNFα production and significant changes in plasma lipoprotein profile of rats with the fat overload. Particularly, a decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol level and increased low-density (LDL and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL cholesterol level were detected. The NSE administration to obese rats with IR restored the content of mono- and polyunsaturated FFA, increased HDL cholesterol content and reduced LDL cholesterol level. In addition, the IR rats treated with NSE showed normalization in the serum TNFα level. Our results showed the restoration of plasma lipid profile under NSE administration in rats with obesity-induced IR. Considering the fact that plasma lipid composition displays the lipid metabolism in general, the NSE actions may play a significant role in the prevention of IR-associated complications.

  16. Protein synthesis is essential not only for consolidation but also for maintenance and post-retrieval reconsolidation of acrobatic motor skill in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ji-Yun; Li, Bao-Ming

    2009-05-28

    It has been reported that consolidation of motor skill, a type of non-declarative memories, requires protein synthesis, as hippocampus-dependent declarative memory does. However, little is known about the importance of protein synthesis in maintenance and especially post-retrieval reconsolidation of acrobatic motor skill. Here, we show that protein synthesis is essential not only for the consolidation but also for the maintenance and reconsolidation of a rotarod-running skill. Intra-ventricle infusion of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin 0 h but not 2 h post-training caused a severe deficit in the acquisition of the rotarod-running skill. Protein synthesis inhibition (PSI) also caused a deficit in the maintenance of the rotarod-running skill, as well-trained rats demonstrated a deficit in the rotarod-running performance upon treatment with anisomycin. Similarly, PSI impaired the post-retrieval reconsolidation of the rotarod-running skill: well-trained rats treated with anisomycin 0 h but not 0.5, 2 and 4 h after the task performance exhibited amnesia for the running skill later on. Interestingly, rats treated with anisomycin 6 and 12 h post-retrieval exhibited amnesia for the running skill. Thus, protein synthesis is essential not only for the consolidation but also for the maintenance and post-retrieval reconsolidation of rotarod-running acrobatic motor skill.

  17. Protein synthesis is essential not only for consolidation but also for maintenance and post-retrieval reconsolidation of acrobatic motor skill in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Ji-Yun

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been reported that consolidation of motor skill, a type of non-declarative memories, requires protein synthesis, as hippocampus-dependent declarative memory does. However, little is known about the importance of protein synthesis in maintenance and especial