WorldWideScience

Sample records for rat urinary aeroallergen

  1. MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS Epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between chronic exposure to chlorinated drinking water and human cancer, particularly of the urinary bladder. MX (3- chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydrox...

  2. Urinary metabolites of tetrahydronorharman in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiner, B.; Rommelspacher, H.

    1982-01-01

    The metabolism of THN in the rat was studied in vivo by use of /sup 14/C-radiolabelled compound. Structures of major urinary metabolites were determined by exact spectral data. Their concentrations were measured by liquid scintillation counting. It was found that THN is submitted to endogenous transformation, and that the excreted derivatives form three groups of similar concentration: unchanged substance, hydroxylated/conjugated compounds, and aromatic metabolites. Structures and proposed pathways are summed in diagram.

  3. Urinary metabolites of tetrahydronorharman in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, B.; Rommelspacher, H.

    1982-01-01

    The metabolism of THN in the rat was studied in vivo by use of 14 C-radiolabelled compound. Structures of major urinary metabolites were determined by exact spectral data. Their concentrations were measured by liquid scintillation counting. It was found that THN is submitted to endogenous transformation, and that the excreted derivatives form three groups of similar concentration: unchanged substance, hydroxylated/conjugated compounds, and aromatic metabolites. Structures and proposed pathways are summed in diagram

  4. Effect of coffee drinking on cell proliferation in rat urinary bladder epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lina, B A; Rutten, A A; Woutersen, R A

    1993-12-01

    A possible effect of freshly brewed drip coffee on urinary bladder carcinogenesis was investigated in male Wistar rats using cell proliferation in urinary bladder epithelium as the indicator of tumour promotion. Male rats were given either undiluted coffee brew (100% coffee), coffee diluted 10 times (10% coffee) or tap water (controls), as their only source of drinking fluid for 2 or 6 wk. Uracil, known to induce cell proliferation in urinary bladder epithelium, was included in the study as a positive control. In rats receiving 100% coffee, body weights, liquid intake and urinary volume were decreased. Neither histopathological examination of urinary bladder tissue nor the bromodeoxyuridine labelling index revealed biologically significant differences between rats receiving coffee and the tap water controls. Uracil increased the labelling index and induced hyperplasia of the urinary bladder epithelium, as expected. It was concluded that these results produced no evidence that drinking coffee predisposes to tumour development in the urinary bladder.

  5. Microgeographic factors and patterns of aeroallergen sensitisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Andrew W; Tong, Winnie Wy; Christensen, Jenna M; Katelaris, Constance H; Rimmer, Janet; Harvey, Richard J

    2016-10-03

    To examine patterns of airborne allergen (aeroallergen) sensitisation in the Greater Sydney area (Sydney), and their relationships with climate, coastal proximity and environment (urban v regional). Retrospective cross-sectional study of patients who underwent aeroallergen skin prick testing at three Sydney allergy clinics, January 2001 - October 2014. Proportions of patients sensitised to specific aeroallergen types; relationships between sensitisation patterns and climate and geography. Of 1421 patients who met the selection criteria (mean age, 28.3 years [SD, 21.3]; 53.3% were female), 1092 (76.8%) were sensitised to at least one aeroallergen. Those living less than 15 km from the coast were less commonly sensitised to cockroach ( 30 km, 39.7%; P  30 km, 58.1%; P applied to mould, weed and tree aeroallergens. Subtropical grass sensitisation was more common in temperate/warm summer climates (about 50%) than in temperate/hot summer (27.1%) or subtropical climates (15%) (P < 0.001), and less common in urban (36.7%) than in regional areas (54%; P = 0.014). 72.4% of grass-sensitised patients were co-sensitised to both temperate and subtropical grasses. A selected ten-aeroallergen skin prick test panel identified 98.5% of atopic patients in this Sydney sample. Environmental and geographic factors are associated with different patterns of allergic sensitisation in Sydney. Extensive co-sensitisation to subtropical and temperate grasses has implications for immunotherapy in Australia, where most currently available therapies are based on formulations directed at temperate grasses only.

  6. Renal origin of rat urinary epidermal growth factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    The origin of rat urinary epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been investigated. Unilateral nephrectomy decreased the concentration, total output of EGF and EGF/creatinine ratio by approximately 50%, while the output of creatinine was unchanged. Removal of the submandibular glands and duodenal...... Brunner's glands, organs known to produce EGF, had no influence on the output of EGF in urine. Renal clearance of EGF exceeded that of creatinine, and after bilateral nephrectomy or bilateral ligation of the ureters, the concentration of creatinine in serum increased, while the concentration of EGF...

  7. Renal inflammatory response to urinary tract infection in rat neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarepour, M; Moradpoor, H; Emamghorashi, F; Owji, S M; Roodaki, M; Khamoushi, M

    2015-09-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections. Maternal UTI is a risk factor for neonatal UTI. The aim of the present study was to determine the severity of renal inflammation in neonate rats born from mothers with induced UTI. Twelve pregnant rats (Sprague-Dawley) were included in study. The rats were divided into two groups (six rats in each group). In the first group, pyelonephritis was induced in the third trimester of pregnancy and the second group was used as a control group. After delivery, the neonates were divided into three groups based on days after birth (the 1 st, 3 rd and 7 th days after birth). In each group, two neonates of each mother were killed and a midline abdominal incision was made and both kidneys were aseptically removed. On the 7 th day, rat mothers were killed and their kidneys were removed. The preparations were evaluated with a bright field microscope for inflammatory response. Renal pathology showed inflammation in all UTI-induced mothers, but only two cases of neonates (2.1%) showed inflammation in the renal parenchyma. There was no relation between the positive renal culture and the pathological changes. We conclude that neonates with UTI born to UTI-induced mothers showed a lesser inflammatory response.

  8. Renal inflammatory response to urinary tract infection in rat neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zarepour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common bacterial infections. Maternal UTI is a risk factor for neonatal UTI. The aim of the present study was to determine the severity of renal inflammation in neonate rats born from mothers with induced UTI. Twelve pregnant rats (Sprague-Dawley were included in study. The rats were divided into two groups (six rats in each group. In the first group, pyelonephritis was induced in the third trimester of pregnancy and the second group was used as a control group. After delivery, the neonates were divided into three groups based on days after birth (the 1 st, 3 rd and 7 th days after birth. In each group, two neonates of each mother were killed and a midline abdominal incision was made and both kidneys were aseptically removed. On the 7 th day, rat mothers were killed and their kidneys were removed. The preparations were evaluated with a bright field microscope for inflammatory response. Renal pathology showed inflammation in all UTI-induced mothers, but only two cases of neonates (2.1% showed inflammation in the renal parenchyma. There was no relation between the positive renal culture and the pathological changes. We conclude that neonates with UTI born to UTI-induced mothers showed a lesser inflammatory response.

  9. Common indoor and outdoor aero-allergens in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aero-allergens in South Africa that are also encountered around the world are listed in Table I. In addition to this wide range of common aero-allergens, South Africans are also exposed to a full range of food allergens, some of which, e.g. perlemoen (Haliotis midae) and other seafood allergens, are unique to this region.

  10. Variation of nephrotoxicity biomarkers by urinary storage condition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Jung-Min; Han, Young-Hwan; Choi, Su-Jeong; Park, Ju-Seong; Jang, Jeong-Jun; Bae, Re-Ji-Na; Lee, Mi Ju; Kim, Myoung Jun; Lee, Yong-Hoon; Kim, Duyeol; Lee, Hye-Young; Park, Sun-Hee; Park, Cheol-Beom; Kang, Jin Seok; Kang, Jong-Koo

    2014-12-01

    Recently, there has been an increase in the use of several nephrotoxicity biomarkers in preclinical experiments. In addition, it has been indicated that the result may have been influenced by secondary factors, such as sample storage condition or storage period. In this study, we have assessed the variation in urinary nephrotoxicity biomarkers as a result of urine storage conditions and storage period of the urine. Urine was sampled from specific pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley rats (19 weeks old), which were housed individually in hanged stainless steel wire mesh cages. Urine was stored at 20℃, at 4℃, or at -70℃ after sampling. The levels of the biomarkers such as beta-2 microglobulin (B2M), cystatin-C (Cys-C), N-acetyl-β- D-glucosaminidase (NAG), micro albumin (MA), micro protein (MP) were measured at 6, 24, 48 and 144 hr after sampling. The B2M level was significantly decreased at 6, 24, 48, and 144 hr compared to 0 hr at -70℃ (p storage conditions. Taken together, B2M and Cys-C levels were modulated by storage temperature and period. For the enhancement of test accuracy, it is suggested that strict protocols be established for samples to minimize the effects of the storage conditions on the detected levels of biomarkers.

  11. Urinary excretion of furosemide in rats with HgCl sub 2 -induced acute renal damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimura, Akio; Sudoh, Toshiaki; Ohashi, Kyoichi; Ebihara, Akio (Jichi Medical School, Tochigi (Japan))

    1992-01-01

    To examine the influence of mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2})-induced acute renal damage on urinary excretion of furosemide, HgCl{sub 2} or its vehicle along was given intraperitoneally to Wistar rats. The following two experiments were done. Study 1: three percent body weight (b.w.) of 1% NaCl solution or furosemide in 3% b.w. of 1% NaCl solution was given orally before and after HgCl{sub 2} treatment, and an 8-hour urine was collected. Study 2: furosemide was given orally, and blood samples were obtained at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 hours after administration. Urinary excretion of N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase increased, and urine volume and urinary excretions of furosemide and sodium decreased in the HgCl{sub 2}-treated rats. There were significant correlations between the urinary furosemide and its diuretic effects. Regression lines after HgCl{sub 2} were significantly different from those before treatment. The values of absorption as well as elimination rate constant were smaller, while the time to maximum concentration and the elimination half-life were longer in the HgCl{sub 2}-treated rats compared to vehicle-treated animals. These results suggest that the urinary excretion of furosemide and the responsiveness of renal tubular cells to this agent are impaired in rats with HgCl{sub 2}-induced acute renal damage.

  12. Horseradish extract promotes urinary bladder carcinogenesis when administered to F344 rats in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Man; Hasumura, Mai; Imai, Toshio; Takami, Shigeaki; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Ogawa, Kumiko

    2017-07-01

    Horseradish extract (HRE), consisting mainly of a mixture of allyl isothiocyanate and other isothiocyanates, has been used as a food additive. To evaluate the potential hazards of HRE, a 104-week chronic study, a 2-week analysis of cell proliferation in the urinary bladder and a medium-term promotion bioassay of HRE were conducted with administration at concentrations of up to 0.04% HRE in the drinking water to male F344 rats. In the 104-week chronic study with 32 male rats per group, no treatment-related increases in the incidences of neoplastic lesions in any organ, including urinary bladder, were observed, except for simple hyperplasia in the urinary bladder in rats treated with HRE at concentrations of more than 0.01% (5.0 mg kg -1 body weight day -1 ). In the promotion study, HRE treatment after N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine initiation caused a clear increase in papillary or nodular hyperplasia, papilloma, and urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder in the groups given HRE for 13 weeks at doses higher than 0.005%, 0.01%, and 0.04% (2.7, 5.4 and 20.5 mg kg -1 body weight day -1 ), respectively. In the 2-week cell proliferation analysis, treatment with HRE at concentrations greater than 0.005% (3.9 mg kg -1 body weight day -1 ) caused transient increases in 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling indices in the urothelium. Although clear tumor induction was not observed, administration of relatively low-dose HRE increased cell proliferation in the urothelium and exerted obvious promoting effects on rat urinary bladder carcinogenesis. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mode of action of HRE in the rat urinary bladder to facilitate data extrapolation from the present study and provide insights into risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Changes in urinary taurine and hypotaurine excretion after two-thirds hepatectomy in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H. S.; Jörning, G. G.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1998-01-01

    This study followed the time course of urinary taurine and hypotaurine excretion after two-thirds hepatectomy in rats. The excretion of both taurine and hypotaurine was elevated during 18 h following the hepatectomy, with maximal excretion during the first 6 h. Twelve and 24 h after partial

  14. Preferential localization of 3H-pentosanpolysulphate to the urinary tract in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odlind, B.; Tengblad, A.; Dencker, L.

    1987-01-01

    Endogenous glycosaminoglycans probably have a protective effect in the urinary tract, e.g. against stone formation. The synthetic sulphated polysaccharide pentosanpolysulphate (PPS) has been suggested to exert a similar protective effect e.g. by inhibition of crystallization and bacterial anti-adhesion. We have studied the distribution in rats of tritium-labelled PPS. Chromatography showed this material to contain two distinct peaks with approximate molecular weight around 2.700 (60-70%) and 1.000 (30-40%) daltons. PPS was administered orally and intravenously (5 mg/kg b.wt) to Sprague-Dawley rats, which were killed 1 and 4 hours later, respectively, and subjected to whole-body autoradiography. Autoradiograms of sections from intravenously injected rats showed an extensive distribution of radioactivity in the whole animal, with a notable labelling of connective tissues, while bone and cartilage had low activity. There was upper intestine activity, suggesting some hepatic excretion. The most conspicuous finding, however, was the high concentration in urine and a preferential localization of activity corresponding to the lining of the urinary tract (pelvis, ureter, and bladder). The distribution was similar, but the activity lower after oral administration. After vigorous rinsing, with saline, the radioactivity was still retained in the bladder wall. High amount of radioactivity could be rinsed off by 0.5 M saline. Chromatography of the rinsing solution showed presence of both fractions of PPS previously found in the injection solution. No other peak of activity was found. Since PPS of molecular weight 2.700 and 1.000 is preferentially located to the surface epithelium of the urinary tract in rats, the effects of PPS in urinary tract diseases could depend on surface coating of the epithelium and/or urinary concentrations of PPS. (EG)

  15. Effect of fasting on the urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in humans and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Erina; Takahashi, Kei; Shibata, Katsumi

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies showed that the urinary excretion of the water-soluble vitamins can be useful as a nutritional index. To determine how fasting affects urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins, a human study and an animal experiment were conducted. In the human study, the 24-h urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in 12 healthy Japanese adults fasting for a day was measured. One-day fasting drastically decreased urinary thiamin content to 30%, and increased urinary riboflavin content by 3-fold. Other water-soluble vitamin contents did not show significant change by fasting. To further investigate the alterations of water-soluble vitamin status by starvation, rats were starved for 3 d, and water-soluble vitamin contents in the liver, blood and urine were measured during starvation. Urinary excretion of thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B(6) metabolite 4-pyridoxic acid, nicotinamide metabolites and folate decreased during starvation, but that of vitamin B(12), pantothenic acid and biotin did not. As for blood vitamin levels, only blood vitamin B(1), plasma PLP and plasma folate levels decreased with starvation. All water-soluble vitamin contents in the liver decreased during starvation, whereas vitamin concentrations in the liver did not decrease. Starvation decreased only concentrations of vitamin B(12) and folate in the skeletal muscle. These results suggest that water-soluble vitamins were released from the liver, and supplied to the peripheral tissues to maintain vitamin nutrition. Our human study also suggested that the effect of fasting should be taken into consideration for subjects showing low urinary thiamin and high urinary riboflavin.

  16. Determination of tetrahydrophtalimide and 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, urinary metabolites of the fungicide captan, in rats and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Welie, R.T.H.; van Duyn, P; Lamme, E K; Jäger, P; van Baar, B L; Vermeulen, N P

    1991-01-01

    Capillary gas chromatographic (GC) methods using sulphur and mass selective detection for the qualitative and quantitative determination of tetrahydrophtalimide (THPI) and 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA), urinary metabolites of the fungicide captan in rat and humans, were developed.

  17. Biochemical and functional correlates of an increased membrane density of caveolae in hypertrophic rat urinary bladder.

    OpenAIRE

    Shakirova, Yulia; Swärd, Karl; Uvelius, Bengt; Ekman, Mari

    2010-01-01

    Organ hypertrophy is often found to be associated with changes in the expression of caveolins and altered density of caveolae in the membrane. A plethora of signalling intermediaries are associated with caveolae and loss of caveolae has profound effects on contractility of the urinary bladder. We hypothesized that smooth muscle hypertrophy caused by bladder outflow obstruction (BOO) might lead to an altered caveola density with consequences for contractile regulation. Rat BOO for 6weeks cause...

  18. Production of urinary selenium metabolites in the rat following 75SeO32- administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiker, K.W.; Burk, R.F.

    1974-01-01

    Urinary metabolites of 75 Se were studied in male Holtzmann rats fed a Torula yeast diet with either no selenium (basal) or 0.5 ppM selenium (selenium) added as sodium selenite. The animals were anesthetized, a ureter was cannulated, and 20 μCi of 75 SeO 3 2- were injected intraportally. Only a small fraction (1.3 percent) of the injected 75 Se was excreted in 6 h by animals fed the basal diet but 13.3 percent was excreted by animals fed the selenium diet. Paper chromatography showed that both groups excreted mostly inorganic 75 Se in the first 10 min. A decrease in 75 Se excretion followed, and then, 70 min after the collection was started, the selenium diet group had an increase in 75 Se excretion which persisted for the rest of the 6 h and consisted mainly of the organic metabolites trimethylselenonium ion and U-2. 75 Se excretion remained low in the basal diet group. Liver uptake and release of 75 Se in the 1 h following intraperitoneal 75 SeO 3 2- injection was much greater in the selenium diet rats than in the basal diet rats. These results suggest that the greater excretion of 75 Se by rats fed the selenium diet than that by rats fed the basal diet was due to increased production of organic urinary selenium metabolites by the liver. (U.S.)

  19. Protective effect of Urtica dioica methanol extract against experimentally induced urinary calculi in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiying; Li, Ning; Li, Kun; Li, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Renal calculi formation is one of the most common urological disorders. Urinary stone disease is a common disease, which affects 10‑12% of the population in industrialized countries. In males, the highest prevalence of the disease occurs between the age of 20 and 40 years, while in females, the highest incidence of the disease occurs later. Previous studies have shown that long‑term exposure to oxalate is toxic to renal epithelial cells and results in oxidative stress. In the present study, a methanolic extract of aerial parts of Urtica dioica was screened for antiurolithiatic activity against ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride‑induced calcium oxalate renal stones in male rats. In the control rats, ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride administration was observed to cause an increase in urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine levels, as well as an increase in renal calcium and oxalate deposition. Histopathological observations revealed calcium oxalate microcrystal deposits in the kidney sections of the rats treated with ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride, indicating the induction of lithiasis. In the test rats, treatment with the methanolic extract of Urtica dioica was found to decrease the elevated levels of urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine, and significantly decrease the renal deposition of calcium and oxalate. Furthermore, renal histological observations revealed a significant reduction in calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the test rats. Phytochemical analysis of the Urtica dioica extract was also performed using liquid chromatography‑electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection, to determine the chemical composition of the extract. The eight chemical constituents identified in the extract were protocatechuic acid, salicylic acid, luteolin, gossypetin, rutin, kaempferol‑3‑O‑rutinoside, kaempferol‑3‑O‑glucoside and chlorogenic acid. In conclusion

  20. Novel urinary metabolite of d-delta-tocopherol in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiku, S.; Hamamura, K.; Nakamura, T.

    1984-01-01

    A novel metabolite of d-delta-tocopherol was isolated from the urine of rats given d-3,4-[ 3 H 2 ]-delta-tocopherol intravenously. The metabolite was collected from the urine of rats given d-delta-tocopherol in the same manner as that of the labeled compound. It was found that the metabolites consisted of sulfate conjugates. The portion of the major metabolite released with sulfatase was determined to be 2,8-dimethyl-2-(2'-carboxyethyl)-6-chromanol by infrared spectra, nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and mass spectra. The proposed structure was confirmed by comparing the analytical results with those of a synthetically derived compound. As a result of the structural elucidation of this novel metabolite, a pathway for the biological transformation of delta-tocopherol is proposed which is different from that of alpha-tocopherol. A characteristic feature of the pathway is the absence of any opening of the chroman ring throughout the sequence

  1. Effect of thyroparathyroidectomy on urinary acidification in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaladek-Gil F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies we have shown stimulation of renal acid excretion in the proximal tubules of rats with diabetes of short duration, with no important alterations in glomerular hemodynamics; on the other hand, in thyroparathyroidectomized rats (TPTX model, a significant decrease in renal acid excretion, glomerular filtration rate (GFR and renal plasma flow (RPF was detected. Since important changes in the parathyroid hormone-vitamin D-Ca axis are observed in the diabetic state, the present study was undertaken to investigate the renal repercussions of thyroparathyroidectomy in rats previously made diabetic by streptozotocin (45 mg/kg. Four to 6 days after the induction of diabetes (DM, a group of rats were thyroparathyroidectomized (DM + TPTX. Renal functional parameters were evaluated by measuring the inulin and sodium para-aminohippurate clearance on the tenth day. The decrease in the GFR and RPF observed in TPTX was not reversed by diabetes since the same alterations were observed in DM + TPTX. Net acid (NA excretion was unchanged in DM (6.19 ± 0.54, decreased in TPTX (3.76 ± 0.25 and returned to normal levels in DM + TPTX (5.54 ± 0.72 when compared to the control group (6.34 ± 0.14 µmol min-1 kg-1. The results suggest that PTH plays an important vasodilator role regarding glomerular hemodynamics, since in its absence the impairment in GFR and RPF was not reversed by the diabetic state. However, with respect to acid excretion, the presence of diabetes was able to overcome the negative stimulus represented by TPTX.

  2. Our experience with atopy patch tests with aeroallergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celakovská, Jarmila; Ettlerová, Kvetuse; Ettler, Karel; Vanecková, Jaroslava

    2013-01-01

    Aim of our study was to evaluate the importance of atopy patch testing with aeroallergens as a diagnostic method in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. The complet dermatological and allergological examinations were performed in 29 patients; 10 men, 19 women with the average age of 27.8 years, min. 17, max. 57 years; with the median SCORAD 24.2 points, s.d. 13.3 points. Wormwood, grass, dog dander, cat dander, dermatophagoides pharinae, dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and birch pollen were examined in diagnostic procedures. Skin prick tests, specific IgE were examined; the atopy patch tests were performed with aeroallergens for skin prick tests in concentration 1 x skin prick tests. Specific IgE and skin prick tests to one or more tested aeroallergens were positive altogether in 27 patients; atopy patch tests were positive only in one of these patients. For atopy patch testing with aeroallergens the concentration of 1 x skin prick tests is low to confirme the eczematic reaction in patients suffering from allergy to inhallant allergens.

  3. Airway allergy and skin reactivity to aeroallergens in Riyadh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almogren, Adel

    2009-01-01

    To determine the pattern of skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens in patients with asthma and rhinitis (airway allergy) residing in Riyadh region. This is a retrospective cross sectional study based on data analysis of skin prick test results of individuals with clinical diagnosis of airway allergy. Allergy skin prick test result data of 139 Saudi nationals from Riyadh region tested at King Khalid University Hospital between January 2003 and March 2004 was analyzed retrospectively. This group comprised of 53% females and 47% males, with a mean age of 27 +/- 12 years. A set of aeroallergens extracts for both indoor and outdoor allergens including fungal spores was used to test the patients. Seventy-five percent (105) of patients reacted to one or more allergen extracts. The most frequently reacting indoor allergen was house dust mite (77.8%) followed by the cat (33.6%) and cockroach (19.2%). Among the outdoor allergens Prosopis juliflora was tested positive in 72.1%, Bermuda grass in 53.8%, Chenopodium album in 47.1%, Rye grass in 36.5% and Salsola kali in 36.5%. A significant proportion of patients were also found reacting to Moulds (18.2%) and Aspergillus fumigatus (18.2%) extracts. Sensitivity to one or more aeroallergens was common in patients, indicating high level of aeroallergen sensitization in patients with airway allergy residing in Riyadh region. (author)

  4. Effects of seven chemicals on DNA damage in the rat urinary bladder: a comet assay study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Kunio; Yoshida, Toshinori; Takahashi, Naofumi; Matsumoto, Kyomu

    2014-07-15

    The in vivo comet assay has been used for the evaluation of DNA damage and repair in various tissues of rodents. However, it can give false-positive results due to non-specific DNA damage associated with cell death. In this study, we examined whether the in vivo comet assay can distinguish between genotoxic and non-genotoxic DNA damage in urinary bladder cells, by using the following seven chemicals related to urinary bladder carcinogenesis in rodents: N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN), glycidol, 2,2-bis(bromomethyl)-1,3-propanediol (BMP), 2-nitroanisole (2-NA), benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), uracil, and melamine. BBN, glycidol, BMP, and 2-NA are known to be Ames test-positive and they are expected to produce DNA damage in the absence of cytotoxicity. BITC, uracil, and melamine are Ames test-negative with metabolic activation but have the potential to induce non-specific DNA damage due to cytotoxicity. The test chemicals were administered orally to male Sprague-Dawley rats (five per group) for each of two consecutive days. Urinary bladders were sampled 3h after the second administration and urothelial cells were analyzed by the comet assay and subjected to histopathological examination to evaluate cytotoxicity. In the urinary bladders of rats treated with BBN, glycidol, and BMP, DNA damage was detected. In contrast, 2-NA induced neither DNA damage nor cytotoxicity. The non-genotoxic chemicals (BITC, uracil, and melamine) did not induce DNA damage in the urinary bladders under conditions where some histopathological changes were observed. The results indicate that the comet assay could distinguish between genotoxic and non-genotoxic chemicals and that no false-positive responses were obtained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Urinary aminopeptidase activities as early and predictive biomarkers of renal dysfunction in cisplatin-treated rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Quesada

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the fluorimetric determination of alanyl- (Ala, glutamyl- (Glu, leucyl-cystinyl- (Cys and aspartyl-aminopeptidase (AspAp urinary enzymatic activities as early and predictive biomarkers of renal dysfunction in cisplatin-treated rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 8 each group received a single subcutaneous injection of either saline or cisplatin 3.5 or 7 mg/kg, and urine samples were taken at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 14 days after treatment. In urine samples we determined Ala, Glu, Cys and AspAp activities, proteinuria, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG, albumin, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL. Plasma creatinine, creatinine clearance and renal morphological variables were measured at the end of the experiment. CysAp, NAG and albumin were increased 48 hours after treatment in the cisplatin 3.5 mg/kg treated group. At 24 hours, all urinary aminopeptidase activities and albuminuria were significantly increased in the cisplatin 7 mg/kg treated group. Aminopeptidase urinary activities correlated (p0.259 with plasma creatinine, creatinine clearance and/or kidney weight/body weight ratio at the end of the experiment and they could be considered as predictive biomarkers of renal injury severity. ROC-AUC analysis was made to study their sensitivity and specificity to distinguish between treated and untreated rats at day 1. All aminopeptidase activities showed an AUC>0.633. We conclude that Ala, Cys, Glu and AspAp enzymatic activities are early and predictive urinary biomarkers of the renal dysfunction induced by cisplatin. These determinations can be very useful in the prognostic and diagnostic of renal dysfunction in preclinical research and clinical practice.

  6. A Metabonomic Comparison of Urinary Changes in Zucker and GK Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Cai Zhao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To further investigate pathogenesis and pathogenic process of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, we compared the urinary metabolic profiling of Zucker obese and Goto-kakizaki (GK rats by NMR-based metabonomics. Principal component analysis (PCA on urine samples of both models rats indicates markedly elevated levels of creatine/creatinine, dimethylamine, and acetoacetate, with concomitantly declined levels of citrate, 2-ketoglurarate, lactate, hippurate, and succinate compared with control rats, respectively. Simultaneously, compared with Zucker obese rats, the GK rats show decreased levels of trimethylamine, acetate, and choline, as well as increased levels of creatine/creatinine, acetoacetate, alanine, citrate, 2-ketoglutarate, succinate, lactate, and hippurate. This study demonstrates metabolic similarities between the two stages of T2DM, including reduced tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle and increased ketone bodies production. In addition, compared with Zucker obese rats, the GK rats have enhanced concentration of energy metabolites, which indicates energy metabolic changes produced in hyperglycemia stage more than in insulin resistance stage.

  7. Urinary metabonomics study on toxicity biomarker discovery in rats treated with Xanthii Fructus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fang; Cao, Min; Wu, Bin; Li, Xu-zhao; Liu, Hong-yu; Chen, Da-zhong; Liu, Shu-min

    2013-08-26

    Xanthii Fructus (XF) is commonly called "Cang-Erzi" in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and widely used for the treatment of sinusitis, headache, rheumatism, and skin itching. However, the clinical utilization of XF is relatively restricted owing to its toxicity. To discover the characteristic potential biomarkers in rats treated with XF by urinary metabonomics. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) was applied in the study. The total ion chromatograms obtained from control and different dosage groups were distinguishable by a multivariate statistical analysis method. The greatest difference in metabolic profile was observed between high dosage group and control group, and the metabolic characters in rats treated with XF were perturbed in a dose-dependent manner. The metabolic changes in response for XF treatment were observed in urinary samples, which were revealed by orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA), and 10 metabolites could be served as the potential toxicity biomarkers. In addition, the mechanism associated with the damages of lipid per-oxidation and the metabolic disturbances of fatty acid oxidation were investigated. These results indicate that metabonomics analysis in urinary samples may be useful for predicting the toxicity induced by XF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Urinary excretion of creatine and creatinine in gamma irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, S K; Srinivasan, M N; Chuttani, K; Bhatnagar, A; Ghose, A

    1985-06-01

    Dose response relationships of creatine, creatinine excretions and their ratio in 24 hr urine samples have been studied on each individual day upto 4 days after 1-7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation to rats. Creatine excretion reaches the peak on the 2nd day while creatinine excretion reaches the peak on the first day and a plateau is maintained up to the 4th day in each case. Good dose response correlationship is maintained for creatine or creatinine levels up to the 4th day and for creatine creatinine ratio up to the 3rd day. Seperate dose response curves are needed on each individual day for using these parameters for biological dosimetry purpose. Administration of the radioprotectors viz., combination of 5-hydroxytryptophan (HT) and 2-amino-ethylisothiuronium bromide hydrobromide (AET), HT alone and optimum radioprotecting dose of AET before 5 Gy whole body ..gamma..-irradiation have not been of help for reducing creatinineurea. (author).

  9. Urinary excretion of creatine and creatinine in gamma irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, S.K.; Srinivasan, M.N.; Chuttani, K.; Bhatnagar, A.; Ghose, A.

    1985-01-01

    Dose response relationships of creatine, creatinie excretions and their ratio in 24 hr urine samples have been studied on each individual day upto 4 days after 1-7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation to rats. Creatine excretion reaches the peak on the 2nd day while creatinine excretion reaches the peak on the first day and a plateau is maintained upto the 4th day in each case. Good dose response correlationship is maintained for creatine or creatinine levels upto the 4th day and for creatine creatinine ratio upto the 3rd day. Seperate dose response curves are needed on each individual day for using these parameters for biological dosimetry purpose. Administration of the radioprotectors viz., combination of 5-hydroxytryptophan (HT) and 2-amino-ethylisothiuronium bromide hydrobromide (AET), HT alone and optimum radioprotecting dose of AET before 5 Gy whole body γ-irradiation have not been of help for reducing creatinineurea. (author)

  10. An animal model to study lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile dysfunction: the hyperlipidaemic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nadeem U; Phonsombat, Surat; Bochinski, Derek; Carrion, Rafael E; Nunes, Lora; Lue, Tom F

    2007-09-01

    To present evidence that rats fed a high-fat diet could serve as a useful animal model to study both lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and erectile dysfunction (ED), as recent epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between LUTS and ED but the physiological basis behind this relationship is unknown. In all, 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: nine controls were fed a 'normal' diet and 15 were fed a high-fat diet (hyperlipidaemic rats). After 6 months all the rats had bladder and erectile functions evaluated using awake cystometry and cavernosal nerve electrostimulation, respectively. After the functional studies were completed, the penis, prostate and bladder were collected for immunohistochemical analysis. The hyperlipidaemic rats had significantly higher serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein than the controls (P enlargement, bladder overactivity, and ED. This rat model could be a useful research tool for understanding the common causes of LUTS and ED, as well as facilitating the development of preventive measures and better therapies to treat both conditions.

  11. Quantitative evaluation of CART-containing cells in urinary bladder of rats with renovascular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Janiuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent biological advances make it possible to discover new peptides associated with hypertension. The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART is a known factor in appetite and feeding behaviour. Various lines of evidence suggest that this peptide participates not only in control of feeding behaviour but also in the regulation of the cardiovascular and sympathetic systems and blood pressure. The role of CART in blood pressure regulation led us to undertake a study aimed at analysing quantitative changes in CART-containing cells in urinary bladders (UB of rats with renovascular hypertension. We used the Goldblatt model of arterial hypertension (two-kidney, one clip to evaluate quantitative changes. This model provides researchers with a commonly used tool to analyse the renin-angiotensin system of blood pressure control and, eventually, to develop drugs for the treatment of chronic hypertension. The study was performed on sections of urinary bladders of rats after 3-, 14-, 28-, 42 and 91 days from hypertension induction. Immunohistochemical identification of CART cells was performed on paraffin for the UBs of all the study animals. CART was detected in the endocrine cells, especially numerous in the submucosa and muscularis layers, with a few found in the transitional epithelium and only occasionally in serosa. Hypertension significantly increased the number of CART-positive cells in the rat UBs. After 3 and 42 days following the procedure, statistically significantly higher numbers of CART-positive cells were identified in comparison with the control animals. The differences between the hypertensive rats and the control animals concerned not only the number density of CART-immunoreactive cells but also their localization. After a 6-week period, each of the rats subjected to the renal artery clipping procedure developed stable hypertension. CART appeared in numerous transitional epithelium cells. As this study provides novel findings

  12. Effect of water deprivation, desmopressin (DDAVP) infusion, and oral loads of water, Na+ and NH4+ on urinary excretion of epidermal growth factor in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, P E; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1993-01-01

    for urinary EGF we examined the effects of changes in the oral loads of water, Na+ and NH4+ as well as the effect of infusion of the vasopressin analogue, desmopressin (DDAVP) on the endogenous urinary EGF excretion in the rat. Water deprivation for 48 h reduced the urinary excretion of EGF by 25...

  13. Sex dependence of the components and structure of urinary calculi induced by biphenyl administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, M; Yajima, H; Yamamoto, S; Matsushima, T; Ishii, T

    2000-08-01

    To obtain definitive information about the mechanisms of urinary calculus formation and the structural characteristics of the calculi induced by biphenyl administration in rats, with a focus on the sex dependency, the constituents of the urinary calculi were analyzed by HPLC, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP), micro Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (mFT-IR), and ion chromatography (IC), and structural analyses were carried out by microscopy, mFT-IR, and the electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) method. We attempted to account for the appreciably higher incidence of calculi in males than in females. mFT-IR analysis revealed that the biphenyl-induced urinary calculi in male rats are composed mainly of potassium 4-hydroxybiphenyl-o-sulfate (4-HBPOSK), whereas the calculi in female rats are composed mainly of 4-hydroxybiphenyl (4-HBP) and KHSO(4) produced by the hydrolysis of 4-HBPOSK. Observations of photomicrographs and the results of mFT-IR analysis indicated that the calculi in males have a multilayer structure consisting of alternating layers of 4-HBPOSK and calcium phosphate, whereas the calculi in females have no multilayer structure, but open holes in which needle-shaped crystals are present in some places. In view of the results of these analyses, including the EPMA analysis, it appears that calculus formation in males may involve a series of successive and irreversible reactions, whereas calculus formation in females may result from a series of reversible reactions, including the hydrolysis of 4-HBPOSK. It was inferred that the series of irreversible reactions involved in calculus formation in males is relatively more stable than that in the case of females, and thus, a sex difference in the reaction features may be responsible for the observed difference in the incidence of calculus formation.

  14. Rat Urinary Bladder Carcinogenesis by Dual-Acting PPARα+γ Agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin B. Oleksiewicz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite clinical promise, dual-acting activators of PPARα and γ (here termed PPARα+γ agonists have experienced high attrition rates in preclinical and early clinical development, due to toxicity. In some cases, discontinuation was due to carcinogenic effect in the rat urothelium, the epithelial layer lining the urinary bladder, ureters, and kidney pelvis. Chronic pharmacological activation of PPARα is invariably associated with cancer in rats and mice. Chronic pharmacological activation of PPARγ can in some cases also cause cancer in rats and mice. Urothelial cells coexpress PPARα as well as PPARγ, making it plausible that the urothelial carcinogenicity of PPARα+γ agonists may be caused by receptor-mediated effects (exaggerated pharmacology. Based on previously published mode of action data for the PPARα+γ agonist ragaglitazar, and the available literature about the role of PPARα and γ in rodent carcinogenesis, we propose a mode of action hypothesis for the carcinogenic effect of PPARα+γ agonists in the rat urothelium, which combines receptor-mediated and off-target cytotoxic effects. The proposed mode of action hypothesis is being explored in our laboratories, towards understanding the human relevance of the rat cancer findings, and developing rapid in vitro or short-term in vivo screening approaches to faciliate development of new dual-acting PPAR agonist compounds.

  15. The protective effect of Moringa oleifera leaves against cyclophosphamide-induced urinary bladder toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Nevine R; Amin, Hanan Ali; Sultan, Asrar A

    2015-02-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP), an alkylating antineoplastic agent is widely used in the treatment of solid tumors and B-cell malignant disease. It is known to cause urinary bladder damage due to inducing oxidative stress. Moringa oleifera (Mof) is commonly known as drumstick tree. Moringa leaves have been reported to be a rich source of β-carotene, protein, vitamin C, calcium, and potassium. It acts as a good source of natural antioxidants; due to the presence of various types of antioxidant compounds such as ascorbic acid, flavonoids, phenolics and carotenoids. The aim of this work was to test the possible antioxidant protective effects of M. oleifera leaves against CP induced urinary bladder toxicity in rats. Female Wister albino rats were divided into 4 groups. Group I served as control, received orally normal saline, group II received a single dose CP 100mg/kg intraperitoneally, group III and VI both received orally hydroethanolic extract of Mof; 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg respectively daily for a week, 1h before and 4h after CP administration. Rats were sacrificed 24h after CP injection. The bladder was removed, sectioned, and subjected to light, transition electron microscopic studies, and biochemical studies (measuring the parameter of lipid peroxidation; malondialdehyde along with the activities of the antioxidant enzyme reduced glutathione). The bladders of CP treated rats showed ulcered mucosa, edematous, hemorrhagic, and fibrotic submucosa by light microscopy. Ultrastructure observation showed; losing large areas of uroepithelium, extended intercellular gaps, junction complexes were affected as well as damage of mitochondria in the form of swelling and destruction of cristae. Biochemical analysis showed significant elevation of malondialdhyde, while reduced glutathione activity was significantly lowered. From the results obtained in this work, we can say that Moringa leaves play an important role in ameliorating and protecting the bladder from CP toxicity

  16. Rat strains differ in susceptibility to Ureaplasma parvum-induced urinary tract infection and struvite stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Leticia; Reinhard, Mary; O'donell, L J; Stevens, Janet; Brown, Mary B

    2006-12-01

    Individuals with struvite uroliths are susceptible to recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI), sepsis, and renal disease. Unfortunately, little is known about the host-specific factors that predispose to this disease. In order to develop a rodent model that can address this problem, we inoculated female Fischer 344 (F344), Lewis (LEW), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Wistar (WIS) rats with a host-adapted strain of Ureaplasma parvum. Animals were necropsied at 2 weeks postinoculation; 100% of F344, 42% of SD, 10% of LEW, and 10% of WIS rats remained infected. Severe bladder lesions and struvite calculi were seen in 64% of F344 rats; in other rat strains, bladder lesions were mild or absent. F344 rats with struvite uroliths had the highest urinary levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as GRO/KC, interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), and IL-1beta. F344 rats without struvite stones at necropsy had milder bladder lesions and significantly lower urinary levels of proinflammatory cytokines but a more prominent inflammatory response than did other rat strains. Based on our results, struvite stone formation is linked to a robust inflammatory response that does not resolve UTI but instead promotes damage to surrounding tissues.

  17. Rat Strains Differ in Susceptibility to Ureaplasma parvum-Induced Urinary Tract Infection and Struvite Stone Formation▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Leticia; Reinhard, Mary; O'Donell, L. J.; Stevens, Janet; Brown, Mary B.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals with struvite uroliths are susceptible to recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI), sepsis, and renal disease. Unfortunately, little is known about the host-specific factors that predispose to this disease. In order to develop a rodent model that can address this problem, we inoculated female Fischer 344 (F344), Lewis (LEW), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Wistar (WIS) rats with a host-adapted strain of Ureaplasma parvum. Animals were necropsied at 2 weeks postinoculation; 100% of F344, 42% of SD, 10% of LEW, and 10% of WIS rats remained infected. Severe bladder lesions and struvite calculi were seen in 64% of F344 rats; in other rat strains, bladder lesions were mild or absent. F344 rats with struvite uroliths had the highest urinary levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as GRO/KC, interleukin-1α (IL-1α), and IL-1β. F344 rats without struvite stones at necropsy had milder bladder lesions and significantly lower urinary levels of proinflammatory cytokines but a more prominent inflammatory response than did other rat strains. Based on our results, struvite stone formation is linked to a robust inflammatory response that does not resolve UTI but instead promotes damage to surrounding tissues. PMID:16982825

  18. Biofabricated Structures Reconstruct Functional Urinary Bladders in Radiation-injured Rat Bladders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Tetsuya; Shimamura, Mitsuru; Ogawa, Teruyuki; Minagawa, Tomonori; Nagai, Takashi; Silwal Gautam, Sudha; Ishizuka, Osamu

    2018-05-08

    The ability to repair damaged urinary bladders through the application of bone marrow-derived cells is in the earliest stages of development. We investigated the application of bone marrow-derived cells to repair radiation-injured bladders. We used a three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting robot system to biofabricate bone marrow-derived cell structures. We then determined if the biofabricated structures could restore the tissues and functions of radiation-injured bladders. The bladders of female 10-week-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were irradiated with 2-Gy once a week for 5 weeks. Adherent and proliferating bone marrow-derived cells harvested from the femurs of male 17-week-old green fluorescence protein-transfected Tg-SD rats were cultured in collagen-coated flasks. Bone marrow-derived cell spheroids were formed in 96-well plates. Three layers of spheroids were assembled by the bioprinter onto a 9x9 microneedle array. The assembled spheroids were perfusion cultured for 7 days, and then the microneedle array was removed. Two weeks after the last radiation treatment, the biofabricated structures were transplanted into an incision on the anterior wall of the bladders (n=10). Control rats received the same surgery but without the biofabricated structures (sham-structure, n=12). At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, the sham-structure control bladder tissues exhibited disorganized smooth muscle layers, decreased nerve cells, and significant fibrosis with increased presence of fibrosis-marker P4HB-positive cells and hypoxia-marker HIF1α-positive cells. The transplanted structures survived within the recipient tissues, and blood vessels extended within them from the recipient tissues. The bone marrow-derived cells in the structures differentiated into smooth muscle cells and formed smooth muscle clusters. The recipient tissues near the transplanted structures had distinct smooth muscle layers and reconstructed nerve cells, and only minimal fibrosis with decreased presence of P4

  19. Molecular fingerprint of high fat diet induced urinary bladder metabolic dysfunction in a rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Oberbach

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diabetic voiding dysfunction has been reported in epidemiological dimension of individuals with diabetes mellitus. Animal models might provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of this dysfunction to facilitate early diagnosis and to identify new drug targets for therapeutic interventions. METHODS: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats received either chow or high-fat diet for eleven weeks. Proteomic alterations were comparatively monitored in both groups to discover a molecular fingerprinting of the urinary bladder remodelling/dysfunction. Results were validated by ELISA, Western blotting and immunohistology. RESULTS: In the proteome analysis 383 proteins were identified and canonical pathway analysis revealed a significant up-regulation of acute phase reaction, hypoxia, glycolysis, β-oxidation, and proteins related to mitochondrial dysfunction in high-fat diet rats. In contrast, calcium signalling, cytoskeletal proteins, calpain, 14-3-3η and eNOS signalling were down-regulated in this group. Interestingly, we found increased ubiquitin proteasome activity in the high-fat diet group that might explain the significant down-regulation of eNOS, 14-3-3η and calpain. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Thus, high-fat diet is sufficient to induce significant remodelling of the urinary bladder and alterations of the molecular fingerprint. Our findings give new insights into obesity related bladder dysfunction and identified proteins that may indicate novel pathophysiological mechanisms and therefore constitute new drug targets.

  20. Assessment of sensitization to insect aeroallergens among patients with allergic rhinitis in Yazd City, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemanian, Mohammad Hassan; Alizadeh Korkinejad, Narges; Shirkhoda, Shima; Nabavi, Mohammad; Pourpak, Zahra

    2012-09-01

    The frequency of allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis is considerable in general population. Insect aeroallergens are important allergens which can induce airway inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sensitization to insect aeroallergens in allergic rhinitis patients in Yazd as a desert city in Iran.A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 95 allergic rhinitis patients who were referred to allergy clinic of Yazd city. Skin prick tests (SPT) by standard extracts of three insect aeroallergens including Mosquito, Corn moth, Cockroach and two species of mites as common aeroallergens in allergic rhinitis (Dermatophagoid Farina, Dermatophagoid Peteronysinus) were done.SPT results showed that the most common insect aeroallergens were: mosquito (32.6%) followed by corn moth (26.3%) and cockroach (13.7%).The prevalence of SPT positive response to Dermatophagoid Peteronysinus, Dermatophagoid Farina were 8.4% and 7.4%, respectively. These results demonstrated that sensitization to insect aeroallergens was significantly more common compared to mites in patients with allergic rhinitis in Yazd city, a city surrounded by deserts. High prevalence of skin reactivity to mosquito and corn moth as insect aeroallergens in Yazd city with hot and dry climate in contrast to humid regions such as north of Iran, where mites are more frequent, indicates differences in the prevalence of aeroallergen reactivity in various areas with different climates. Our study could highlight the importance of insect aeroallergens for clinicians for better diagnosis and management of patients with allergic rhinitis.

  1. Urinary Excretion of N-Nitroso Compounds in Rats Fed Sodium Nitrite and/or Hot Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Nitrite-treated meat is a reported risk factor for colon cancer. Mice that ingested sodium nitrite (NaNO2) or hot dogs (a nitrite-treated product) showed increased fecal excretion of apparent N-nitroso compounds (ANC). Here, we investigated for the first time whether rats excrete increased amounts of ANC in their urine after they are fed NaNO2 and/or hot dogs. Rats were treated for 7 days with NaNO2 in drinking water or were fed hot dogs. Their 24 h urine samples were analyzed for ANC by thermal energy analysis on days 1–4 after nitrite or hot dog treatment was stopped. For two rats fed 480 mg NaNO2/L drinking water, mean urinary ANC excretion on days 1–4 was 30, 5.2, 2.5, and 0.8 nmol/day, respectively. For two to eight rats/dose given varied NaNO2 doses, mean urinary ANC output on day 1 increased from 0.9 (for no nitrite) to 37 (for 1000 mg NaNO2/L drinking water) nmol ANC/day. Urine samples of four rats fed 40–60% hot dogs contained 12–13 nmol ANC on day 1. Linear regression analysis showed highly significant correlations between urinary ANC excretion on day 1 after stopping treatment and varied (a) NaNO2 level in drinking water for rats fed semipurified or commercials diet and (b) hot dog levels in the diet. Some correlations remained significant up to 4 days after nitrite treatment was stopped. Urinary output of ANC precursors (compounds that yield ANC after mild nitrosation) for rats fed semipurified or commercial diet was 11–17 or 23–48 μmol/day, respectively. Nitrosothiols and iron nitrosyls were not detected in urinary ANC and ANCP. Excretion of urinary ANC was about 60% of fecal ANC excretion for 1 to 2 days after NaNO2 was fed. Administered NaNO2 was not excreted unchanged in rat urine. We conclude that urinary ANC excretion in humans could usefully be surveyed to indicate exposure to N-nitroso compounds. PMID:25183213

  2. Muscarinic and alpha 1-adrenergic receptor binding characteristics of saw palmetto extract in rat lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mayumi; Oki, Tomomi; Sugiyama, Tomomi; Umegaki, Keizo; Uchida, Shinya; Yamada, Shizuo

    2007-06-01

    To elucidate the in vitro and ex vivo effects of saw palmetto extract (SPE) on autonomic receptors in the rat lower urinary tract. The in vitro binding affinities for alpha 1-adrenergic, muscarinic, and purinergic receptors in the rat prostate and bladder were measured by radioligand binding assays. Rats received vehicle or SPE (0.6 to 60 mg/kg/day) orally for 4 weeks, and alpha 1-adrenergic and muscarinic receptor binding in tissues of these rats were measured. Saw palmetto extract inhibited specific binding of [3H]prazosin and [N-methyl-3H]scopolamine methyl chloride (NMS) but not alpha, beta-methylene adenosine triphosphate [2,8-(3)H]tetrasodium salt in the rat prostate and bladder. The binding activity of SPE for muscarinic receptors was four times greater than that for alpha 1-adrenergic receptors. Scatchard analysis revealed that SPE significantly reduced the maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) for each radioligand in the prostate and bladder under in vitro condition. Repeated oral administration of SPE to rats brought about significant alteration in Bmax for prostatic [3H]prazosin binding and for bladder [3H]NMS binding. Such alteration by SPE was selective to the receptors in the lower urinary tract. Saw palmetto extract exerts significant binding activity on autonomic receptors in the lower urinary tract under in vitro and in vivo conditions.

  3. 4-Methoxymethyl-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzyl alcohol as a urinary biomarker for monitoring of metofluthrin, a fluorine-containing pyrethroid, in exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Toshiaki

    2015-02-01

    A fluorine-containing pyrethroid metofluthrin is widely used recently in mosquito repellents. The urinary excretion kinetics of its metabolites was evaluated in rats to establish an optimal biomarker for monitoring metofluthrin exposure of the general population. After metofluthrin had been administered intraperitoneally to rats, the urinary excretion kinetics of the major metofluthrin metabolites was evaluated by moment analysis. The urinary excretion amounts of 4-methoxymethyl-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzyl alcohol were estimated to be proportional to the absorption amounts over a wide exposure range. Urinary 4-methoxymethyl-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzyl alcohol was considered to be an optimal biomarker for metofluthrin exposure.

  4. Characterizing aeroallergens by infrared spectroscopy of fungal spores and pollen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Zimmermann

    Full Text Available Fungal spores and plant pollen cause respiratory diseases in susceptible individuals, such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Aeroallergen monitoring networks are an important part of treatment strategies, but unfortunately traditional analysis is time consuming and expensive. We have explored the use of infrared spectroscopy of pollen and spores for an inexpensive and rapid characterization of aeroallergens.The study is based on measurement of spore and pollen samples by single reflectance attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (SR-ATR FTIR. The experimental set includes 71 spore (Basidiomycota and 121 pollen (Pinales, Fagales and Poales samples. Along with fresh basidiospores, the study has been conducted on the archived samples collected within the last 50 years.The spectroscopic-based methodology enables clear spectral differentiation between pollen and spores, as well as the separation of confamiliar and congeneric species. In addition, the analysis of the scattering signals inherent in the infrared spectra indicates that the FTIR methodology offers indirect estimation of morphology of pollen and spores. The analysis of fresh and archived spores shows that chemical composition of spores is well preserved even after decades of storage, including the characteristic taxonomy-related signals. Therefore, biochemical analysis of fungal spores by FTIR could provide economical, reliable and timely methodologies for improving fungal taxonomy, as well as for fungal identification and monitoring. This proof of principle study shows the potential for using FTIR as a rapid tool in aeroallergen studies. In addition, the presented method is ready to be immediately implemented in biological and ecological studies for direct measurement of pollen and spores from flowers and sporocarps.

  5. Prognostic value of asymptomatic skin sensitization to aeroallergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe

    2004-01-01

    condition affecting 8-30% of the population when using a local standard panel of aeroallergens. Clinically, immediate but not late-phase reactions are induced by allergen challenge. Absent eosinophil stimulation and migration and low IL-5 levels appear to be sentinel mechanisms. Prospective studies show...... positive skin test must be ruled out before allergen avoidance measures are initiated. SUMMARY: Surprisingly few papers exist on asymptomatic skin sensitization epidemiology and immunology, despite the intriguing question as to why symptoms do not develop in IgE-sensitized patients. It is a common...

  6. [Quantitative analysis of urinary ethylene glycol in rats exposed to ethylene oxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, M; Hori, H; Tanaka, I; Akiyama, T; Inoue, N

    1985-03-01

    A gas chromatographic method was used for determining ethylene glycol in urine. The analytical procedure is based on an azeotropic distillation and on esterification with n-butyl boronic acid. The linear calibration curve was obtained up to 500 micrograms/ml of ethylene glycol. The detection limit was estimated to be 10 micrograms/ml and relative standard deviation was 3.5% for 100 micrograms/ml of ethylene glycol. This method was applied to determine the urinary excretion of ethylene glycol in rats exposed to ethylene oxide at various concentrations (from 50 to 500 ppm). The excretion amounts of ethylene glycol were observed to be dependent on the concentration of ethylene oxide exposed.

  7. Allopurinol Protects against Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Injury in Rat Urinary Bladders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hyun Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury results in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and markedly elevates the risk of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS. Allopurinol is an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase (XO and thus can serve as an antioxidant that reduces oxidative stress. Here, a rat model was used to assess the ability of allopurinol treatment to ameliorate the deleterious effects of urinary bladder I/R injury. I/R injury reduced the in vitro contractile responses of longitudinal bladder strips, elevated XO activity in the plasma and bladder tissue, increased the bladder levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, reduced the bladder levels of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK, and decreased and increased the bladder levels of Bcl-2 and Bax, respectively. I/R injury also elevated lipid peroxidation in the bladder. Allopurinol treatment in the I/R injury was generated significantly ameliorating all I/R-induced changes. Moreover, an in situ fluorohistological approach also showed that allopurinol reduces the generation of intracellular superoxides enlarged by I/R injury. Together, the beneficial effects of allopurinol reducing ROS production may be mediated by normalizing the activity of the ERK, JNK, and Bax/Bcl-2 pathways and by controlling TNF-α expression.

  8. NMR-based metabolomics reveals urinary metabolome modifications in female Sprague-Dawley rats by cranberry procyanidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiyan; Tayyari, Fariba; Edison, Arthur S; Su, Zhihua; Gu, Liwei

    2016-08-01

    A (1)H NMR global metabolomics approach was used to investigate the urinary metabolome changes in female rats gavaged with partially purified cranberry procyanidins (PPCP) or partially purified apple procyanidins (PPAP). After collecting 24-h baseline urine, 24 female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into two groups and gavaged with PPCP or PPAP twice using a dose of 250 mg extracts per kilogram body weight. The 24-h urine samples were collected after the gavage. Urine samples were analyzed using (1)H NMR. Multivariate analyses showed that the urinary metabolome in rats was modified after administering PPCP or PPAP compared to baseline urine metabolic profiles. 2D (1)H-(13)C HSQC NMR was conducted to assist identification of discriminant metabolites. An increase of hippurate, lactate and succinate and a decrease of citrate and α-ketoglutarate were observed in rat urine after administering PPCP. Urinary levels of d-glucose, d-maltose, 3-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxypropanoic acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, formate and phenol increased but citrate, α-ketoglutarate and creatinine decreased in rats after administering PPAP. Furthermore, the NMR analysis showed that the metabolome in the urine of rats administered with PPCP differed from those gavaged with PPAP. Compared to PPAP, PPCP caused an increase of urinary excretion of hippurate but a decrease of 3-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxypropanoic acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and phenol. These metabolome changes caused by cranberry procyanidins may help to explain its reported health benefits and identify biomarkers of cranberry procyanidin intake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The urinary excretion of metformin, ceftizoxime and ofloxacin in high serum creatinine rats: Can creatinine predict renal tubular elimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan-Rong; Zhou, Yan; Huang, Jing; Qin, Hong-Yan; Wang, Pei; Wu, Xin-An

    2018-03-01

    The renal excretion of creatinine and most drugs are the net result of glomerular filtration and tubular secretion, and their tubular secretions are mediated by individual transporters. Thus, we hypothesized that the increase of serum creatinine (SCr) levels attributing to inhibiting tubular transporters but not glomerular filtration rate (GFR) could be used to evaluate the tubular excretion of drugs mediated by identical or partial overlap transporter with creatinine. In this work, we firstly developed the creatinine excretion inhibition model with normal GFR by competitively inhibiting tubular transporters, and investigated the renal excretion of metformin, ceftizoxime and ofloxacin in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that the 24-hour urinary excretion of metformin and ceftizoxime in model rats were decreased by 25% and 17% compared to that in control rats, respectively. The uptake amount and urinary excretion of metformin and ceftizoxime could be inhibited by creatinine in renal cortical slices and isolated kidney perfusion. However, the urinary excretion of ofloxacin was not affected by high SCr. These results showed that the inhibition of tubular creatinine transporters by high SCr resulted to the decrease of urinary excretion of metformin and ceftizoxime, but not ofloxacin, which implied that the increase of SCr could also be used to evaluate the tubular excretion of drugs mediated by identical or partial overlap transporter with creatinine in normal GFR rats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Acute Urinary Bladder Distension Triggers ICAM-1-mediated Renal Oxidative Injury via the Norepinephrine–renin–angiotensin II System in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Show-Shing Chen

    2009-08-01

    Conclusion: Acute urinary retention enhances renal sympathetic activity, which causes renal vasoconstriction and increases oxidative stress, adhesion-molecule expression and leukocyte infiltration in the rat kidney via the angiotensin II type 1 receptor pathway.

  11. Biochemical and functional correlates of an increased membrane density of caveolae in hypertrophic rat urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakirova, Yulia; Swärd, Karl; Uvelius, Bengt; Ekman, Mari

    2010-12-15

    Organ hypertrophy is often found to be associated with changes in the expression of caveolins and altered density of caveolae in the membrane. A plethora of signalling intermediaries are associated with caveolae and loss of caveolae has profound effects on contractility of the urinary bladder. We hypothesized that smooth muscle hypertrophy caused by bladder outflow obstruction (BOO) might lead to an altered caveola density with consequences for contractile regulation. Rat BOO for 6 weeks caused a 2.56-fold increase in the number of smooth muscle caveolae per μm membrane. No changes in the expression of caveolin-1 or cavin-1, normalized to β-actin were seen, but membrane area per unit muscle volume dropped to 0.346. Hypertrophy was associated with altered contraction in response to carbachol. The effect on contraction of cholesterol desorption, which disrupts lipid rafts and caveolae, was however not changed. Contraction in response to bradykinin resisted mβcd in control destrusor, but was inhibited by it after 6 weeks of obstruction. It is concluded that rat detrusor hypertrophy leads to an increased number of caveolae per unit membrane area. This change is due to a reduction of membrane area per volume muscle and it does not play a role for cholinergic activation, but promotes contraction in response to bradykinin after long-term obstruction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Wound repair in rat urinary bladder following electrocautery or holmium laser incision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venzi, Giordano; Schmidlin, Franz R.; Gabbiani, Giulio; Delacretaz, Guy P.; Pittet, Brigitte; Leisinger, Hans-Juerg; Iselin, Christoph E.

    1999-06-01

    Woundhealing is a complex phenomenon which varies according the type of tissue but is also depending from the type of tissue injury. Electrocautery mainly induces coagulation necrosis while thermal damages induced by the Holmium laser primarily lead to tissue vaporization which may induce less tissue injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the healing process of the Holmium laser induced lesions compared to electrocautery induced lesions in urothelial tissue by assessing the inflammatory response and myofibroblast behavior in sequential healing phases. A surgical wound was created in the urinary rat bladder of 32 rats either by electrocautery or by laser (N=16). The inflammatory response, the total lesion depth and the myofibroblast activity during woundhealing was then analyzed on a qualitative basis on days 0/2/4/8. The overall inflammatory response was comparable in both groups up to days two and four. However, at day eight less cellular inflammatory reaction and less myofibroblast activity was found in the specimen of lesions created by the Holmium laser. These results suggest that wound repair may be a less invasive process after Holmium laser than electrocautery.

  13. Evaluation of the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rat as a model for human disease based on urinary peptidomic profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Siwy

    Full Text Available Representative animal models for diabetes-associated vascular complications are extremely relevant in assessing potential therapeutic drugs. While several rodent models for type 2 diabetes (T2D are available, their relevance in recapitulating renal and cardiovascular features of diabetes in man is not entirely clear. Here we evaluate at the molecular level the similarity between Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats, as a model of T2D-associated vascular complications, and human disease by urinary proteome analysis. Urine analysis of ZDF rats at early and late stages of disease compared to age- matched LEAN rats identified 180 peptides as potentially associated with diabetes complications. Overlaps with human chronic kidney disease (CKD and cardiovascular disease (CVD biomarkers were observed, corresponding to proteins marking kidney damage (eg albumin, alpha-1 antitrypsin or related to disease development (collagen. Concordance in regulation of these peptides in rats versus humans was more pronounced in the CVD compared to the CKD panels. In addition, disease-associated predicted protease activities in ZDF rats showed higher similarities to the predicted activities in human CVD. Based on urinary peptidomic analysis, the ZDF rat model displays similarity to human CVD but might not be the most appropriate model to display human CKD on a molecular level.

  14. Functional, histological structure and mastocytes alterations in rat urinary bladders following acute and [corrected] chronic cyclophosphamide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczak, K; Gil, K; Wyczolkowski, M; Thor, P J

    2010-08-01

    Neurogenic inflammation is linked to urinary bladder overactivity development. Cyclophosphamide (CYP) damages all mucosal defence lines of urinary bladder and induces cystitis with overactivity. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of CYP on rat urinary bladder function, histological structure and mastocytes numbers following acute and chronic CYP treatment. Fourty two female rats were divided into four groups: I (control), II (acute cystitis), III (chronic cystitis), IV (sham group). Acute and chronic cystitis were induced by CYP in single dose and four doses (1(st), 3(rd), 5(th), 7(th) day), respectively. In group I-III the cystometric evaluation was performed. Sections of the bladder were stained with HE and toluidine blue for the detection of mastocytes. The severity of inflammation was examined according to mucosal abrasion, haemorrhage, leukocyte infiltration and oedema. Acute and chronic CYP treatment caused inflammatory macroscopic and microscopic changes (mucosal abrasion, haemorrhage, oedema) and increased infiltration of inflammatory cells in urinary bladder. Acute treatment induced the infiltration of mastocytes within bladder wall contrary to chronic one decrement. Acute treatment caused more severe mucosal abrasion, whereas chronic one revealed more developed haemorrhage changes. Additionally, cystometric evaluation revealed urinary bladder overactivity development in both types of cystitis. Basal pressure and detrusor overactivity index after acute treatment increased considerably in comparison with the increase obtained after chronic one. Our results proved that acute model of CYP-induced cystitis in rats is more credible for further evaluation of neurogenic inflammation response in pathogenesis of overactive bladder as compared to chronic one.

  15. Effects of Orthosiphon grandiflorus, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Phyllanthus amarus extracts on risk factors for urinary calcium oxalate stones in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woottisin, Surachet; Hossain, Rayhan Zubair; Yachantha, Chatchai; Sriboonlue, Pote; Ogawa, Yoshihide; Saito, Seiichi

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the antilithic effect of Orthosiphon grandiflorus, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Phyllanthus amarus extracts on known risk factors for calcium oxalate stones in rats. We divided 30 male Wistar rats into 5 equal groups. Controls were fed a standard diet and the remaining groups received a 3% glycolate diet for 4 weeks to induce hyperoxaluria. One glycolate fed group served as the untreated group and the others were given oral extracts of Orthosiphon grandiflorus, Hibiscus sabdariffa or Phyllanthus amarus at a dose of 3.5 mg daily. We collected 24-hour urine and blood samples. Kidneys were harvested for histological examination. We measured the renal tissue content of calcium and oxalate. The Hibiscus sabdariffa group showed significantly decreased serum oxalate and glycolate, and higher oxalate urinary excretion. The Phyllanthus amarus group showed significantly increased urinary citrate vs the untreated group. Histological examination revealed less CaOx crystal deposition in the kidneys of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Phyllanthus amarus treated rats than in untreated rats. Those rats also had significantly lower renal tissue calcium content than untreated rats. All parameters in the Orthosiphon grandiflorus treated group were comparable to those in the untreated group. Hibiscus sabdariffa and Phyllanthus amarus decreased calcium crystal deposition in the kidneys. The antilithic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa may be related to decreased oxalate retention in the kidney and more excretion into urine while that of Phyllanthus amarus may depend on increased urinary citrate. In contrast, administering Orthosiphon grandiflorus had no antilithic effect. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Urinary cystatin C as a renal biomarker and its immunohistochemical localization in anti-GBM glomerulonephritis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Yuko; Imura, Naoko; Miyamoto, Yohei

    2013-11-01

    The usefulness of urinary cystatin C for the early detection of renal damage in anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) glomerulonephritis rats was investigated and compared to other biomarkers (β2-microglobulin, calbindin, clusterin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), alpha-glutathione S-transferase (GST-α), mu-glutathione S-transferase (GST-μ), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), osteopontin, tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-1 (TIMP-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)). Urinary levels of cystatin C increased in anti-GBM glomerulonephritis rats, whereas the conventional markers, plasma creatinine and UN did not, demonstrating its usefulness for the early detection of renal damage associated with anti-GBM glomerulonephritis. As well as cystatin C, urinary β2-microglobulin, clusterin, GST-α, GST-μ, KIM-1, and NGAL also had the potential to detect renal damage associated with anti-GBM glomerulonephritis. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical localization of cystatin C in the kidney was examined. Cystatin C expression was mainly observed in the proximal renal tubules in anti-GBM glomerulonephritis rats, and its expression barely changed with the progression of glomerulonephritis. Cystatin C expression was also observed in the tubular lumen of the cortex and medulla when glomerulonephritis was marked, which was considered to be characteristic of renal damage. In conclusion, urinary cystatin C, β2-microglobulin, clusterin, GST-α, GST-μ, KIM-1, and NGAL could be useful biomarkers of renal damage in anti-GBM glomerulonephritis rats. Immunohistochemical cystatin C expression in the proximal renal tubules was barely changed by the progression of glomerulonephritis, but it was newly observed in the tubular lumen when renal damage was apparent. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Zea mays L. extracts modify glomerular function and potassium urinary excretion in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, D V O; Xavier, H S; Batista, J E M; de Castro-Chaves, C

    2005-05-01

    Diuretic and uricosuric properties have traditionally been attributed to corn silk, stigma/style of Zea mays L. Although the diuretic effect was confirmed, studies of the plant's effects on renal function or solute excretion were lacking. Thus, we studied the effects of corn silk aqueous extract on the urinary excretion of water, Na+, K+, and uric acid. Glomerular and proximal tubular function and Na+ tubular handling were also studied. Conscious, unrestrained adult male rats were housed in individual metabolic cages (IMC) with continuous urine collection for 5 and 3 h, following two protocols. The effects of 25, 50, 200, 350, and 500 mg/kg body wt. corn silk extract on urine volume plus Na+ and K+ excretions were studied in water-loaded conscious rats (2.5 ml/100 g body wt.) in the IMC for 5 h (Protocol 1). Kaliuresis was observed with doses of 350 (100.42 +/- 22.32-120.28 +/- 19.70 microEq/5 h/100 g body wt.; n = 13) and 500 mg/kg body wt. (94.97+/- 29.30-134.32 +/- 39.98 microEq/5h/100 g body wt.; n = 12; pcorn silk extract on urine volume, Na+, K+ and uric acid excretions, and glomerular and proximal tubular function, were measured respectively by creatinine (Cler) and Li+ (ClLi) clearances and Na+ tubular handling, in water-loaded rats (5 ml/100 g body wt.) in the IMC for 3 h (Protocol 2). Clcr (294.6 +/- 73.2, n = 12, to 241.7 +/- 48.0 microl/ min/100 g body wt.; n = 13; pcorn silk aqueous extract is diuretic at a dose of 500 mg/kg body wt. and kaliuretic at doses of 350 and 500 mg/kg body wt. In water-loaded conscious rats (5.0 ml/100 g body wt.), corn silk aqueous extract is kaliuretic at a dose of 500 mg/kg body wt., but glomerular filtration and filtered load decrease without affecting proximal tubular function, Na+, or uric acid excretion.

  18. Effects of Diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] on the urinary bladder of male Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Merielen Garcia; Cotrim Sartor de Oliveira, Maria Luiza; Lima, Adriano Silva; Camargo, Joao Lauro Viana de

    2006-01-01

    Diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) is a substituted urea herbicide widely used on agricultural crops such as soy, cotton and sugar cane. In a previous long-term study this herbicide exerted carcinogenic activity on the urinary bladder mucosa of male Wistar rats. In general, the genotoxic and mutagenic potentials of Diuron are considered to be negative. The present study aimed to evaluate the mode of action of Diuron on the urinary bladder mucosa of male Wistar rats. Six-week old male Wistar rats were fed pelleted Nuvilab diet mixed with Diuron at 125, 500 and 2500 ppm. As a positive control, 8.3% sodium saccharin (NaS) was fed in the diet. Preceding the sacrifice of the animals at the 20th week, urinary pH was measured and the genotoxic potential of Diuron was evaluated by the comet assay. Histological urothelial lesions in the urinary bladder and in the renal pelvis mucosa, cell proliferation/apoptosis evaluations, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the urinary bladder mucosa were also performed. No DNA changes were found in urothelial or peripheral blood cells, and urinary pH was comparable to controls in all Diuron groups. In the urinary bladder urothelium, the incidence of simple hyperplasia (SH) by light microscopy was significantly increased (7/10; p < 0.005) in the 2500 ppm Diuron group but not at the lower doses. By SEM, three of five animals treated with 2500 ppm Diuron showed urothelial cell necrosis and hyperplasia. In the renal pelvis, the incidence of SH was significantly increased in the Diuron 500 and 2500 ppm and in the NaS 8.3% groups. Cell proliferation was significantly increased in the Diuron 2500 ppm (p < 0.05) and NaS 8.3% (p < 0.05) groups. The results indicate that a high dietary concentration of Diuron is associated with urothelial necrosis and continuous regenerative cell proliferation that leads to urothelial hyperplasia

  19. SMOOTH MYOCYTES AND COLLAGENOUS FIBERS OF THE URINARY BLADDER OF RATS IN DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiya Tokaruk

    2015-12-01

    Ivano-Frankivsk National Medical University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine   Key words: diabetes mellitus; smooth myocytes; collagenous fibers.   Introduction. Diabetes mellitus (DM causes diabetic cystopathy, which is associated with detrusor dysfunction and the content of collagenous fibers. The results of the performed studies are ambiguous and often contradictory, requiring objective data which could be obtained on the basis of the simultaneous determination of relative areas of smooth myocytes and collagenous fibers and their ultrastructural study. Objective: To determine the peculiarities of the structural and metric organization of smooth myocytes and collagenous fibers of the urinary bladder (UB of rats during different stages of DM. Materials and methods. DM was modeled by streptozotocin in Wistar rats. Relative areas of the studied structures were defined on digital images of histological sections of UB stained by Mason using the original automatic way. Smooth myocytes were studied ultrastructurally. Results. During the 14th-28th day of DM development the percent of collagenous fibers area decreases and the percentage of smooth myocytes area of UB wall increases. The expanding of intercellular spaces and the development of vacuolar degeneration of myocytes are observed. During the 42nd-56th days the percentage of collagenous fibers area increases and the percentage of the area of smooth myocytes decreases. Ultrastructurally subsiding of vacuolar dystrophy, short-term baloon dystrophy, the appearance of dark myocytes, moderate karyorrhexis were observed. During the 70th day of the experiment the percentage of collagenous fibers and smooth myocytes areas does not change significantly, most dark myocytes are involutive, there are local fibrosis and myocyte sequestration areas. Conclusions. Ultrastructural changes are characterized by a pronounced polymorphism and have a chronological relationship. Author’s worked out original method of determination of the

  20. Fluoride absorption from the rat urinary bladder: a pH-dependent event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitford, G.M.; Pashley, D.H.; Reynolds, K.E.

    1977-01-01

    Urinary bladder absorption of stable and radiofluoride was studied as a function of pH in anesthetized rats to further evaluate the influence of pH gradients on fluoride transport. Buffered pH values and stable fluoride concentrations ranged from 1.85 to 7.90 and from 0.012 to 8.81 mM, respectively. [ 14 C]inulin served as a marker for solute concentration changes due to water migration or dilution. The results indicate that bladder fluoride absorption is inversely related to pH over the 1.85 to 5.50 range. Mean, 15-min radiofluoride absorption values of 70 percent at pH 1.85, 37 percent at pH 3.95, and 5 percent at pH 5.50 were observed. These fractional absorption values were not significantly influenced by carrier fluoride concentration, the buffers used, or the presence of urine. Above pH 5.50, pH-independent absorption occurs to a slight extent. The results are consistent with a first-order absorptive process which occurs by the nonionic diffusion of hydrogen fluoride

  1. Transcriptional profile of diuron-induced toxicity on the urinary bladder of male Wistar rats to inform mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlaseh, Shadia M; Bailey, Kathryn A; Hester, Susan D; Jones, Carlton; Ren, Hongzu; Cardoso, Ana Paula F; Oliveira, Maria Luiza C S; Wolf, Douglas C; de Camargo, João Lauro V

    2011-08-01

    Diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) is a substituted urea herbicide that induces rat urinary bladder urothelial tumors at high dietary levels (2500 ppm). The specific mode of action and molecular alterations triggered by diuron, however, have not been clarified. The present study evaluated the dose-dependent effects of mucosal alterations and transcriptional changes in the urinary bladder of rats exposed to diuron. Six-week-old male Wistar rats were treated with 0, 60, 125, 1250, and 2500 ppm of diuron in the diet for 20 weeks. Histologic examination showed urothelial hyperplasia present in rats treated with either 1250 or 2500 ppm of diuron but not 60 or 125 ppm. Comprehensive gene expression analyses of urothelial cell RNA were conducted using Affymetrix microarrays. The numbers of differentially expressed transcripts between each treatment group and control increased with diuron dose. Based on similar histology and gene expression responses, the treatment groups were regrouped into a high-dose (1250 and 2500 ppm) and low-dose group (60 and 125 ppm). These data suggest that persistent exposure to high dietary concentrations of diuron induces oxidative stress, increases cellular metabolism, and enhances cell death that is associated with sustained urothelial hyperplasia.

  2. Urinary excretion of epidermal growth factor and Tamm-Horsfall protein in three rat models with increased renal excretion of urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Jørgensen, P E; Torffvit, O

    1997-01-01

    were examined in three groups of rats with increased renal excretion of urine: uninephrectomy, non-osmotic polyuria and diabetic osmotic polyuria. Twenty-four hour urine samples were obtained after 7, 14 and 21 days. The urinary volume per kidney was doubled in uninephrectomy when compared to controls....... There was a seven-fold increase in urinary volume in rats with non-osmotic polyuria and diabetic osmotic polyuria, as compared to controls. Uninephrectomy, non-osmotic polyuria and diabetes all affected the urinary excretion of EGF and THP differently. The EGF excretion in uninephrectomized rats was 60......-80% of that of the controls, whereas THP excretion was unchanged, indicating that EGF excretion varied with renal tissue mass. Non-osmotic polyuria caused a five-fold increase in THP excretion but no change in EGF excretion. THP excretion in the diabetic rats was increased three-fold after 21 days when compared to controls...

  3. [Effects of excess pyridoxine-HCl on growth and urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in weaning rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Itoh, Keiko; Shibata, Katsumi

    2009-04-01

    To determine the tolerable upper intake level of pyridoxine-HCl in humans, we investigated the effects of excess pyridoxine-HCl administration on body weight gain, food intake, tissue weight, and urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in weaning rats. The weaning rats were freely fed ordinary diet containing 0.0007% pyridoxine-HCl (control diet) or the same diet with 0.1%, 0.5%, 0.8% or 1.0% pyridoxine-HCl for 30 days. The body weight gain in the 0.8% and 1.0% groups, and the total food intake in the 1.0% group were significantly lower than those in the control group. The urinary excretion of pantothenic acid in the pyridoxine-HCl added groups were higher than that in the control group, while excessive pyridoxine-HCl intake did not affect the urinary excretion of other water-soluble vitamins. These results showed that the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for pyridoxine-HCl was 0.1% in diet, corresponding to 90 mg/kg body weight/day, and lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level (LOAEL) was 0.5% in diet, corresponding to 450 mg/kg body weight/day.

  4. Activation of muscarinic M-1 cholinoceptors by curcumin to increase contractility in urinary bladder isolated from Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tse-Chou; Lu, Chih-Cheng; Chung, Hsien-Hui; Hsu, Chih-Chieh; Kakizawa, Nozomi; Yamada, Shizuo; Cheng, Juei-Tang

    2010-04-05

    Curcumin is an active principle contained in rhizome of Curcuma longa, and it has been recently mentioned to show affinity to muscarinic M-1 cholinoceptors (M(1)-mAChR). In the present study, we found that curcumin caused a concentration-dependent increase of muscle tone in urinary bladder isolated from Wistar rats. This action was inhibited by pirenzepine at concentration enough to block M(1)-mAChR. In radioligand-binding assay, specific binding of [(3)H]-oxotremorine (OXO-M) in the rat bladder homogenates was also displaced by curcumin in a concentration-dependent manner. In the presence of inhibitors for PLC-PKC pathway, either U73122 (phospholipase C inhibitor) or chelerythrine (protein kinase C inhibitor), curcumin-stimulated contraction in urinary bladder was markedly reduced. In conclusion, the obtained results suggest that curcumin can activate M(1)-mAChR at concentrations lower than to scavenge free radicals to increase of muscle tone in urinary bladder through PLC-PKC pathway.

  5. A biphasic response of urinary prostaglandin E2 excretion to water deprivation in conscious diabetes insipidus Brattleboro rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanters, J K; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Christensen, P

    1989-01-01

    The effects of water deprivation on the urinary excretion rate of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were examined in conscious Brattleboro rats. In order to study the time course of the changes in the PGE2 excretory rate, urine was collected in 6 periods, Control: 0-1 hour (h.). 1: 3-4.5 h., 8-10 h., III: 12......-15 h., IV: 24-28 h. and V: 32-36 h. after removal of water and food. It was found that the PGE2 excretion rate changed in a biphasic pattern. During the first 2 experimental periods it increased. Thereafter it decreased towards the control value. There was an increase in PGE2 excretion with urinary...

  6. Testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia rat and dog as facile models to assess drugs targeting lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    Full Text Available Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH is an age-related disease, affecting a majority of elderly men worldwide. Medical management of BPH is an alternative to surgical treatment of this disease. Currently, α1-adrenergic receptor (α1-AR antagonists are among the first line drugs to treat BPH by reducing the tension of urinary track and thus the obstructive symptoms in voiding. In drug development, old male dogs with spontaneous BPH are considered the golden standard of the animal models. However, old dogs (>6 years are expensive and not all old dogs develop BPH. So it is necessary to develop more accessible animal models for drug efficacy evaluation. Here we describe the development of testosterone-induced BPH models in both rats and young adult dogs and their applications in the in vivo evaluation of α1-AR antagonist. The BPH rats and dogs induced by chronic testosterone treatment have significantly increased micturition frequency and reduced mean voided volume, very similar to the clinical symptoms of BPH patients. Silodosin, an α1-AR antagonist, significantly reduces the urinary frequency and increases the voided volume in BPH model animals in a dose-dependent manner. The results demonstrate that testosterone-induced BPH rat and dog models might provide a more efficient way to evaluate micturition behavior in anti-BPH drug studies.

  7. Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid Ingestion on Temporal Change in Urinary Excretion of Mercapturic Acid in ODS Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Seiji; Kubo, Kazuhiro; Tadokoro, Tadahiro; Saito, Morio

    2007-11-01

    We hypothesized a suppressive mechanism for docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA)-induced tissue lipid peroxidation in which the degradation products, especially aldehydic compounds, are conjugated with glutathione through catalysis by glutathione S-transferases, and then excreted into urine as mercapturic acids. In the present study, ascorbic acid-requiring ODS rats were fed a diet containing DHA (3.6% of total energy) for 31 days. Lipid peroxides including degradation products and their scavengers in the liver and kidney were determined, and the temporal change in the urinary excretion of mercapturic acids was also measured. The activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the oxidation and detoxification of aldehydes, tended to be higher in the liver of DHA-fed rats. The levels of lipid peroxides as measured by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and aldehydic compounds were higher and that of alpha-tocopherol was lower in the liver, and the pattern of temporal changes in the urinary excretion of mercapturic acids was also different between the n-6 linoleic acid and DHA-fed rats. Accordingly, we presume from these results that after dietary DHA-induced lipid peroxidation, a proportion of the lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydic degradation products is excreted into urine as mercapturic acids.

  8. Preliminary studies of urinary metabolic profile in rats after acute total body homogeneous irradiation by 60Co γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huifang; Yang Biao; Guo Yuefeng; Guo Wanlong; Xing Lihong

    2011-01-01

    To detect the metabolic profile of rats urinary by use of 1 h-NMR, the rats were irradiated by 60 Cy γ-rays with a dose of 7 Gy (0.7 Gy/min). And the data was processed by principal components analysis (PCA) and partial least square discriminate analysis (PLS-DA). The results demonstrated that there were obvious differences in urine metabolites before and after irradiation, and the main metabolites included lactate, acetate, succinate, citrate, creatinine, trimethylamine-N-oxide and taurine. The relative content of lactate, acetate, creatinine and trimethylamine-N-oxide increased significantly on the first day following quickly decreasing on the second and third days, but increasing on the fourth day after irradiation. On the first three days after irradiation, the relative content of succinate and citrate had trending down, but had an ascending tendency on the fourth day. The relative content of taurine was basically stable but higher than pre-radiation. In conclusion, 1 H-NMR combined with PCA and PLS-DA provides a good research method to detect the urinary metabolic profile in rats before and after irradiation. (authors)

  9. Synoptic weather types and aeroallergens modify the effect of air pollution on hospitalisations for asthma hospitalisations in Canadian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebbern, Christopher; Cakmak, Sabit

    2015-01-01

    Pollution levels and the effect of air pollution on human health can be modified by synoptic weather type and aeroallergens. We investigated the effect modification of aeroallergens on the association between CO, O 3 , NO 2 , SO 2 , PM 10 , PM 2.5 and asthma hospitalisation rates in seven synoptic weather types. We developed single air pollutant models, adjusted for the effect of aeroallergens and stratified by synoptic weather type, and pooled relative risk estimates for asthma hospitalisation in ten Canadian cities. Aeroallergens significantly modified the relative risk in 19 pollutant-weather type combinations, reducing the size and variance for each single pollutant model. However, aeroallergens did not significantly modify relative risk for any pollutant in the DT or MT weather types, or for PM 10 in any weather type. Thus, there is a modifying effect of aeroallergens on the association between CO, O 3 , NO 2 , SO 2 , PM 2.5 and asthma hospitalisations that differs under specific synoptic weather types. - Highlights: • We model effect modification of aeroallergens on air pollutant–asthma association. • The air pollutant association was modelled in seven synoptic weather types. • Aeroallergens modify CO, O 3 , NO 2 , SO 2 , and PM 2.5 effect on asthma hospitalisations. • Synoptic weather types modify the air pollutant and asthma association. - We identify a modifying effect of aeroallergens on the relationship between air pollutants and hospitalisation rates for asthma, that differs under specific synoptic weather types

  10. Air pollution, aeroallergens and suicidality: a review of the effects of air pollution and aeroallergens on suicidal behavior and an exploration of possible mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragguett, Renee-Marie; Cha, Danielle S; Subramaniapillai, Mehala; Carmona, Nicole E; Lee, Yena; Yuan, Duanduan; Rong, Carola; McIntyre, Roger S

    2017-12-20

    Risk factors for suicide can be broadly categorized as sociodemographic, clinical and treatment. There is interest in environmental risk and protection factors for suicide. Emerging evidence suggests a link between environmental factors in the form of air pollution and aeroallergens in relation to suicidality. Herein, we conducted a systematic review of 15 articles which have met inclusion criteria on the aforementioned effects. The majority of the reviewed articles reported an increased suicide risk alongside increased air pollutants or aeroallergens (i.e. pollen) increase; however, not all environmental factors were explored equally. In specific, studies that were delimited to evaluating particulate matter (PM) reported a consistent association with suicidality. We also provide a brief description of putative mechanisms (e.g. inflammation and neurotransmitter dysregulation) that may mediate the association between air pollution, aeroallergens and suicidality. Available evidence suggests that exposure to harmful air quality may be associated with suicidality. There are significant public health implications which are amplified in regions and countries with greater levels of air pollution and aeroallergens. In addition, those with atopic sensitivity may represent a specific subgroup that is at risk.

  11. Overexpression of Aquaporin-1 and Caveolin-1 in the Rat Urinary Bladder Urothelium Following Bladder Outlet Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Ouck Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose This study was designed to investigate the effect of detrusor overactivity induced by partial bladder outlet obstruction (BOO on the expression of aquaporin 1 (AQP1 and caveolin 1 (CAV1 in the rat urinary bladder, and to determine the role of these molecules in detrusor overactivity. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control (n=30 and experimental (n=30 groups. The BOO group underwent partial BOO, and the control group underwent a sham operation. After 4 weeks, an urodynamic study was performed to measure the contraction interval and contraction pressure. The expression and cellular localization of AQP1 and CAV1 were determined by western blot and immunofluorescence experiments in the rat urinary bladder. Results In cystometrograms, the contraction interval was significantly lower in the BOO group (2.9±1.5 minutes than in the control group (6.7±1.0 minutes (P<0.05. Conversely, the average contraction pressure was significantly higher in the BOO group (21.2±3.3 mmHg than in the control group (13.0±2.5 mmHg (P<0.05. AQP1 and CAV1 were coexpressed in the capillaries, arterioles, and venules of the suburothelial layer. AQP1 and CAV1 protein expression was significantly increased in the BOO rats compared to the control rats (P<0.05. Conclusions Detrusor overactivity induced by BOO causes a significant increase in the expression of AQP1 and CAV1, which were coexpressed in the suburothelial microvasculature. This finding suggests that AQP1 and CAV1 might be closely related to bladder signal activity and may have a functional role in BOO-associated detrusor overactivity.

  12. Excess Vitamin Intake before Starvation does not Affect Body Mass, Organ Mass, or Blood Variables but Affects Urinary Excretion of Riboflavin in Starving Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Aya; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    B-vitamins are important for producing energy from amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of excess vitamin intake before starvation on body mass, organ mass, blood, and biological variables as well as on urinary excretion of riboflavin in rats. Adult rats were fed two types of diets, one with a low vitamin content (minimum vitamin diet for optimum growth) and one with a sufficient amount of vitamins (excess vitamin diet). Body mass, organ mass, and blood variables were not affected by excess vitamin intake before starvation. Interestingly, urinary riboflavin excretion showed a different pattern. Urine riboflavin in the excess vitamin intake group declined gradually during starvation, whereas it increased in the low vitamin intake group. Excess vitamin intake before starvation does not affect body mass, organ mass, or blood variables but does affect the urinary excretion of riboflavin in starving rats.

  13. Excess Vitamin Intake before Starvation does not Affect Body Mass, Organ Mass, or Blood Variables but Affects Urinary Excretion of Riboflavin in Starving Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Moriya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available B-vitamins are important for producing energy from amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of excess vitamin intake before starvation on body mass, organ mass, blood, and biological variables as well as on urinary excretion of riboflavin in rats. Adult rats were fed two types of diets, one with a low vitamin content (minimum vitamin diet for optimum growth and one with a sufficient amount of vitamins (excess vitamin diet. Body mass, organ mass, and blood variables were not affected by excess vitamin intake before starvation. Interestingly, urinary riboflavin excretion showed a different pattern. Urine riboflavin in the excess vitamin intake group declined gradually during starvation, whereas it increased in the low vitamin intake group. Excess vitamin intake before starvation does not affect body mass, organ mass, or blood variables but does affect the urinary excretion of riboflavin in starving rats.

  14. Urinary prostaglandin E and vasopressin excretion in essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1983-01-01

    excretion of prostaglandin E (PGE), immunoreactive arginine vasopressin (iA VP), and kallikrein were determined. PGE was quantitated with a radioimmunoassay having 4.9% cross-reactivity with prostaglandin E (PGE). After 4 weeks on the diet, water consumption and urinary iAVP excretion increased....... Increased water consumption and increased urinary iAVP excretion seem to be early symptoms (after 4 weeks) of EFA deficiency, whereas decreased urine output and decreased urinary PGE excretion occur much later (after 10 weeks). Two energy% linolenate supplementation to a fat-free diet did not change...

  15. Evaluation of the diuretic and urinary electrolyte effects of methanolic extract of Peganum harmala L. in Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad I. Al-Saikhan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of traditional medicines as a diuretic agent has been increasing in recent years. The diuretic activity of a number of plant extracts used as diuretic agents in ethnomedicine has been confirmed in experimental animals. However, despite the widespread use of Peganum harmala in traditional medicine, there is a paucity of data supporting its use as a diuretic agent. Therefore, the present study aimed to envisage the true effect and magnitude of diuresis of methanolic extract of P. harmala (MEPH in comparison with a well-known diuretic drug furosemide using Wistar albino rats. MEPH was administered orally in three different doses (150, 300 and 450 mg/kg to experimentally dehydrated rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg orally was used as a reference drug. The diuretic effect of the MEPH was evaluated by measuring urine volume, urine pH, urinary electrolyte levels, natriuretic and saliuretic effects. The urine volume (in mL measured at 5 h and 24 h and electrolyte excretion (Na+, K+, and Cl− at 24 h duration were measured. The urine output and urinary electrolyte excretion were found to be significantly higher in rats treated with MEPH as compared to normal rats in a dose dependent manner (P < 0.05. The results of our study were comparable to furosemide drug. Based on observed results, we can recommend that P. harmala may be an effective diuretic, however, toxicity studies should be conducted before administration. Keywords: Peganum harmala L., Diuretic, Furosemide, Harmine, Harmaline, Carbonic anhydrase

  16. Radiation induced changes in plasma total protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen in desert rodent and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.; El-Husseini, M.; Saleh, F.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on plasma total protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen was studied in the desert rodent, psammomy obesus obesus and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency. In albino rats kept on high protein diet, the radiation syndrome resulted in urine retention, while in those kept on non-protein diet, such phenomenon was recorded only with the high radiation level of 1170r. Radiation exposure to 780 and 1170r caused remarkable diuresis in psammomys obesus obesus whereas they induced significant urine retention in albino rats. The levels of plasma total protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen were higher in albino rats maintained on high protein diet than in those kept on non-protein diet. Radiation exposure caused an initial drop in plasma total protein nitrogen concentration, concomitant with an initial rise in total urinary nitrogen, radiation exposure of psammomys obesus obesus caused significant increase in the levels of plasma protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen. Psammomys obesus obesus seemed to be more affected by radiation exposure than did the albino rats

  17. Tomato Juice Consumption Modifies the Urinary Peptide Profile in Sprague-Dawley Rats with Induced Hepatic Steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Pozuelo, Gala; González-Barrio, Rocío; Barberá, Gonzalo G; Albalat, Amaya; García-Alonso, Javier; Mullen, William; Mischak, Harald; Periago, María Jesús

    2016-10-26

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disorder in Western countries, with a high prevalence, and has been shown to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), etc. Tomato products contain several natural antioxidants, including lycopene-which has displayed a preventive effect on the development of steatosis and CVD. Accordingly, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of tomato juice consumption on the urinary peptide profile in rats with NAFLD induced by an atherogenic diet and to identify potential peptide biomarkers for diagnosis. Urine samples, collected weekly for four weeks, were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled to a mass spectrometer (MS). A partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was carried out to explore the association between differential peptides and treatments. Among the 888 peptides initially identified, a total of 55 were obtained as potential biomarkers. Rats with steatosis after tomato juice intake showed a profile intermediate between that of healthy rats and that of rats with induced hepatic steatosis. Accordingly, tomato products could be considered as a dietary strategy for the impairment of NAFLD, although further research should be carried out to develop a specific biomarkers panel for NAFLD.

  18. Tomato Juice Consumption Modifies the Urinary Peptide Profile in Sprague-Dawley Rats with Induced Hepatic Steatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gala Martín-Pozuelo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the most common liver disorder in Western countries, with a high prevalence, and has been shown to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD, etc. Tomato products contain several natural antioxidants, including lycopene—which has displayed a preventive effect on the development of steatosis and CVD. Accordingly, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of tomato juice consumption on the urinary peptide profile in rats with NAFLD induced by an atherogenic diet and to identify potential peptide biomarkers for diagnosis. Urine samples, collected weekly for four weeks, were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (CE coupled to a mass spectrometer (MS. A partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA was carried out to explore the association between differential peptides and treatments. Among the 888 peptides initially identified, a total of 55 were obtained as potential biomarkers. Rats with steatosis after tomato juice intake showed a profile intermediate between that of healthy rats and that of rats with induced hepatic steatosis. Accordingly, tomato products could be considered as a dietary strategy for the impairment of NAFLD, although further research should be carried out to develop a specific biomarkers panel for NAFLD.

  19. Urinary composition and postprandial blood changes in H-secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SDG) metabolites in rats do not differ between acute and chronic SDG treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, S E; Thompson, L U

    2000-09-01

    Although chronic exposure to secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SDG) was shown to alter (3)H-SDG metabolite disposition in rats, the proportion of measured radioactivity attributed to known or unknown SDG metabolites was not determined. Using HPLC and GC-MS, two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of acute (1 d) vs. chronic (10 d) SDG treatment on major urinary metabolites of (3)H-SDG in female, Sprague-Dawley rats (70-72-d-old) over a 48-h period and if new urinary metabolites were detectable in rats fed nonradioactive flaxseed or SDG. A third experiment was conducted to determine changes in postprandial blood levels of (3)H-SDG metabolites over a 24-h period with acute or chronic SDG treatment. Regardless of treatment, enterodiol, enterolactone and secoisolariciresinol accounted for 75-80% of urine radioactivity. Four potential new lignan metabolites, two of which were detected in the urine of rats fed nonradioactive flaxseed or SDG, were found. Type of treatment had no effect on levels of individual urinary metabolites of (3)H-SDG. As observed for plasma lignans in women fed flaxseed, blood radioactivity peaked at 9 h and remained high until 24 h in both treatment groups, suggesting that blood lignan kinetics might be similar with flaxseed or SDG consumption and that they were comparable between humans and rats. In conclusion, the main urinary lignan metabolites were enterodiol, enterolactone and secoisolariciresinol. Urinary composition or blood levels of radioactive lignans were not affected by the duration of SDG exposure. Thus, while chronic SDG exposure alters lignan disposition in rats, it does not change the metabolite profile.

  20. Assessment of sensitization to insect aeroallergens among patients with allergic rhinitis in Yazd City, Iran.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hassan Bemanian; Narges Alizadeh Korkinejad; Shima Shirkhoda; Mohammad Nabavi; Zahra Pourpak

    2012-01-01

    The  frequency of  allergic diseases such  as allergic rhinitis is considerable in general population. Insect aeroallergens are important allergens which can induce airway inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sensitization to insect aeroallergens in allergic rhinitis patients in Yazd as a desert city in Iran.A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 95 allergic rhinitis patients who were referred to allergy clinic of Yazd city. Skin prick tests (SPT) by stand...

  1. Comparative Immunohistochemical Analysis of Ochratoxin A Tumourigenesis in Rats and Urinary Tract Carcinoma in Humans; Mechanistic Significance of p-S6 Ribosomal Protein Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Pinder

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is considered to be a possible human urinary tract carcinogen, based largely on a rat model, but no molecular genetic changes in the rat carcinomas have yet been defined. The phosphorylated-S6 ribosomal protein is a marker indicating activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin, which is a serine/threonine kinase with a key role in protein biosynthesis, cell proliferation, transcription, cellular metabolism and apoptosis, while being functionally deregulated in cancer. To assess p-S6 expression we performed immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tumours and normal tissues. Marked intensity of p-S6 expression was observed in highly proliferative regions of rat renal carcinomas and a rare angiosarcoma, all of which were attributed to prolonged exposure to dietary OTA. Only very small OTA-generated renal adenomas were negative for p-S6. Examples of rat subcutaneous fibrosarcoma and testicular seminoma, as well as of normal renal tissue, showed no or very weak positive staining. In contrast to the animal model, human renal cell carcinoma, upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma from cases of Balkan endemic nephropathy, and a human angiosarcoma were negative for p-S6. The combined findings are reminiscent of constitutive changes in the rat tuberous sclerosis gene complex in the Eker strain correlated with renal neoplasms, Therefore rat renal carcinogenesis caused by OTA does not obviously mimic human urinary tract tumourigenesis.

  2. Urinary excretion of biomarkers for radical-induced damage in rats treated with NDMA or diquat and the effects of calcium carbimide co-administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zwart, L L; Vermeulen, N P; Hermanns, R.C.A.; Commandeur, J N; Salemink, P.J.M.; Meerman, J H

    1999-01-01

    The urinary excretion of seven aldehydes, acetone, coproporphyrin III and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) as non-invasive biomarkers of oxidative damage was measured in rats treated with diquat or N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), two compounds causing hepatic damage by different mechanisms.

  3. Glucocorticoid impairs growth of kidney outer medulla and accelerates loop of Henle differentiation and urinary concentrating capacity in rat kidney development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubbe, Jane; Madsen, Kirsten; Nielsen, Finn Thomsen

    2006-01-01

    In the rat, urinary concentrating ability develops progressively during the third postnatal (P) week and nearly reaches adult level at weaning (P21) governed by a rise in circulating glucocorticoid. Elevated extracellular osmolality can lead to growth arrest of epithelial cells. We tested...

  4. PBPK modeling of the cis- and trans-permethrin isomers and their major urinary metabolites in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willemin, Marie-Emilie [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Unité Modèles pour l' Ecotoxicologie et la Toxicologie (METO), Parc ALATA BP2, 60550, Verneuil en Halatte (France); Sorbonne University, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, CNRS, UMR 7338 Biomechanics and Bioengineering, Centre de recherche Royallieu CS 60319,60203 Compiègnee Cedex (France); Desmots, Sophie [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Unité Toxicologie Expérimentale (TOXI), Parc ALATA BP2, 60550, Verneuil en Halatte (France); Le Grand, Rozenn [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Limoges, Service de Pharmacologie et de Toxicologie — Pharmacovigilance, 2, avenue Martin Luther King, 87042 Limoges (France); Lestremau, François [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Unité Innovation pour la Mesure (NOVA), Parc ALATA BP2, 60550, Verneuil en Halatte (France); Zeman, Florence A. [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Unité Modèles pour l' Ecotoxicologie et la Toxicologie (METO), Parc ALATA BP2, 60550, Verneuil en Halatte (France); Leclerc, Eric [Sorbonne University, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, CNRS, UMR 7338 Biomechanics and Bioengineering, Centre de recherche Royallieu CS 60319,60203 Compiègnee Cedex (France); Moesch, Christian [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Limoges, Service de Pharmacologie et de Toxicologie — Pharmacovigilance, 2, avenue Martin Luther King, 87042 Limoges (France); and others

    2016-03-01

    Permethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, is suspected to induce neuronal and hormonal disturbances in humans. The widespread exposure of the populations has been confirmed by the detection of the urinary metabolites of permethrin in biomonitoring studies. Permethrin is a chiral molecule presenting two forms, the cis and the trans isomers. Because in vitro studies indicated a metabolic interaction between the trans and cis isomers of permethrin, we adapted and calibrated a PBPK model for trans- and cis-permethrin separately in rats. The model also describes the toxicokinetics of three urinary metabolites, cis- and trans-3-(2,2 dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-(1-cyclopropane) carboxylic acid (cis- and trans-DCCA), 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) and 4′OH-phenoxybenzoic acid (4′-OH-PBA). In vivo experiments performed in Sprague–Dawley rats were used to calibrate the PBPK model in a Bayesian framework. The model captured well the toxicokinetics of permethrin isomers and their metabolites including the rapid absorption, the accumulation in fat, the extensive metabolism of the parent compounds, and the rapid elimination of metabolites in urine. Average hepatic clearances in rats were estimated to be 2.4 and 5.7 L/h/kg for cis- and trans-permethrin, respectively. High concentrations of the metabolite 4′-OH-PBA were measured in urine compared to cis- and trans-DCCA and 3-PBA. The confidence in the extended PBPK model was then confirmed by good predictions of published experimental data obtained using the isomers mixture. The extended PBPK model could be extrapolated to humans to predict the internal dose of exposure to permethrin from biomonitoring data in urine. - Highlights: • A PBPK model of isomers of permethrin and its urinary metabolites was developed. • A quantitative link was established for permethrin and its biomarkers of exposure. • The bayesian framework allows getting confidence interval on the estimated parameters. • The PBPK model can be extrapolated

  5. PBPK modeling of the cis- and trans-permethrin isomers and their major urinary metabolites in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willemin, Marie-Emilie; Desmots, Sophie; Le Grand, Rozenn; Lestremau, François; Zeman, Florence A.; Leclerc, Eric; Moesch, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Permethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, is suspected to induce neuronal and hormonal disturbances in humans. The widespread exposure of the populations has been confirmed by the detection of the urinary metabolites of permethrin in biomonitoring studies. Permethrin is a chiral molecule presenting two forms, the cis and the trans isomers. Because in vitro studies indicated a metabolic interaction between the trans and cis isomers of permethrin, we adapted and calibrated a PBPK model for trans- and cis-permethrin separately in rats. The model also describes the toxicokinetics of three urinary metabolites, cis- and trans-3-(2,2 dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-(1-cyclopropane) carboxylic acid (cis- and trans-DCCA), 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) and 4′OH-phenoxybenzoic acid (4′-OH-PBA). In vivo experiments performed in Sprague–Dawley rats were used to calibrate the PBPK model in a Bayesian framework. The model captured well the toxicokinetics of permethrin isomers and their metabolites including the rapid absorption, the accumulation in fat, the extensive metabolism of the parent compounds, and the rapid elimination of metabolites in urine. Average hepatic clearances in rats were estimated to be 2.4 and 5.7 L/h/kg for cis- and trans-permethrin, respectively. High concentrations of the metabolite 4′-OH-PBA were measured in urine compared to cis- and trans-DCCA and 3-PBA. The confidence in the extended PBPK model was then confirmed by good predictions of published experimental data obtained using the isomers mixture. The extended PBPK model could be extrapolated to humans to predict the internal dose of exposure to permethrin from biomonitoring data in urine. - Highlights: • A PBPK model of isomers of permethrin and its urinary metabolites was developed. • A quantitative link was established for permethrin and its biomarkers of exposure. • The bayesian framework allows getting confidence interval on the estimated parameters. • The PBPK model can be extrapolated

  6. Effects of excess biotin administration on the growth and urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamura, Hiromi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2007-12-01

    To determine the effects of excess biotin administration on growth and water-soluble vitamin metabolism, weaning rats were fed on a 20% casein diet containing 0.00002% biotin, or same diet with 0.04, 0.08, 0.10, 0.20, 0.50, 0.80 or 1.0% added biotin for 28 days. More than 0.08% biotin administration decreased the food intake and body weight gain compared with the levels in control rats. An accumulation of biotin in such tissues as the liver, brain and kidney increased in a dose-dependent manner, and the both bound and free biotin contents in the liver also increased in a dose-dependent manner. An excess administration of biotin did not affect the urinary excretion of other water-soluble vitamins, suggesting no effect on the metabolism of other water-soluble vitamins. The results of the food intake and body weight gain indicated that the lowest observed adverse effect level for young rats was 79.2 mg/kg body weight/day, while the no observed adverse effect level was 38.4 mg/kg/day. These results suggested immediately setting a tolerable upper intake level for biotin.

  7. Fetal kidney programming by severe food restriction: effects on structure, hormonal receptor expression and urinary sodium excretion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccari, Barbara; Mesquita, Flavia F; Gontijo, Jose A R; Boer, Patricia A

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigates, in 23-day-old and adult male rats, the effect of severe food restriction in utero on blood pressure (BP), and its association with nephron structure and function changes, angiotensin II (AT1R/AT2R), glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptor expression. The daily food supply to pregnant rats was measured and one group (n=15) received normal quantity of food (NF) while the other received 50% of that (FR50%) (n=15). Kidneys were processed to AT1R, AT2R, MR, and GR immunolocalization and for western blotting analysis. The renal function was estimated by creatinine and lithium clearances in 12-week-old offspring. By stereological analyses, FR50% offspring present a reduction of nephron numbers (35%) with unchanged renal volume. Expression of AT1R and AT2R was significantly decreased in FR50% while the expression of GR and MR increased in FR50%. We also verified a pronounced decrease in urinary sodium excretion accompanied by increased BP in 12-week-old FR50% offspring. The current data suggest that changes in renal function are conducive to excess sodium tubule reabsorption, and this might potentiate the programming of adult hypertension. It is plausible to arise in the current study an association between decreasing natriuresis, reciprocal changes in renal AngII and steroid receptors with the hypertension development found in FR50% compared with age-matched NF offspring. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. “Twin peaks”: Searching for 4-hydroxynonenal urinary metabolites after oral administration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Keller

    2015-04-01

    Radioactivity distribution revealed that 48% of the administered radioactivity was excreted into urine and 15% into feces after 24 h, while 3% were measured in intestinal contents and 2% in major organs, mostly in the liver. Urinary radio-HPLC profiles revealed 22 major peaks accounting for 88% of the urinary radioactivity. For identification purpose, HNE and its stable isotope [1,2-13C]-HNE were given at equimolar dose to be able to univocally identify HNE metabolites by tracking twin peaks on HPLC–HRMS spectra. The major peak was identified as 9-hydroxy-nonenoic acid (27% of the urinary radioactivity followed by classical HNE mercapturic acid derivatives (the mercapturic acid conjugate of di-hydroxynonane (DHN-MA, the mercapturic acid conjugate of 4-hydroxynonenoic acid (HNA-MA in its opened and lactone form and by metabolites that are oxidized in the terminal position. New urinary metabolites as thiomethyl and glucuronide conjugates were also evidenced. Some analyses were also performed on feces and gastro-intestinal contents, revealing the presence of tritiated water that could originate from beta-oxidation reactions.

  9. Effect of dietary supplementation on the prognostic value of urinary and serum 8-isoprostaglandin F2α in chemically-induced mammary carcinogenesis in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Białek Sławomir

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of zinc or copper and polyphenolic compounds on the 8-isoprostaglandin F2α concentration in the serum and urine of rats with mammary cancer (adenocarcinoma induced with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]antracene. The research focused on the kinetics of alterations in urinary 8-isoPGF2α at the early stage of carcinogenesis as well as the influence of dietary factors on the process. The impact of selected compounds on the intensity of DMBA - induced carcinogenesis was also assessed. Result and conclusions Administration of DMBA, a compound that inducers mammary tumors in experimental animals, increased the serum and urinary 8-isoPGF2α levels in study rats. In the rat model, diet supplementation with zinc, combined with selected polyphenolic compounds (resveratrol or genistein yielded a statistically significant decrease in the rat serum and urinary biomarker concentration with a simultaneously significant stimulation of carcinogenesis. The results indicate that there is an inverse correlation between the intensity of DMBA-induced carcinogenicity and the level of 8-isoPGF2α in urine and serum of rats.

  10. Vitamin D status, aeroallergen sensitization, and allergic rhinitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, Zahra; Rezaei, Nima; Camargo, Carlos A

    2017-01-02

    The role of vitamin D status in the etiology of allergic diseases is uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of vitamin D status with risk of two main outcomes: aeroallergen sensitization and allergic rhinitis (AR). We performed a systematic review of Medline, Scopus, Science Citation Index, and Google Scholar databases. Studies were included if they reported on prevalent or incident cases of aeroallergen sensitization or AR according to vitamin D status. Quality assessment, data extraction and meta-analysis were performed. A total of 21 observational studies were included. Children with serum 25(OH)D ≥75 nmol/L had significantly reduced odds of aeroallergen sensitization, but neither vitamin D intake in pregnancy nor vitamin D supplementation in infancy were associated with risk of AR. Individuals with serum 25(OH)D ≥75 nmol/L had lower prevalence of AR compared to those with serum 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L (OR; 0.71, 95%CI; (0.56-0.89), p = 0.04). This association was mainly observed in adult men; prevalence of AR was lower in men with serum 25(OH)D ≥75 nmol/L compared to men with serum 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L, while this association was not observed in women. The current literature suggests significant age- and sex-specific relations of vitamin D status to risk of aeroallergen sensitization and AR.

  11. Increasing prevalence of specific IgE to aeroallergens in an adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Nielsen, N H; Madsen, F

    2000-01-01

    E to aeroallergens had increased in an adult general population over an 8-year period. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out in 1990 and 1998. A mailed screening questionnaire on respiratory symptoms sent to random samples of 15- to 41-year-old subjects living in Copenhagen (Denmark) preceded both...

  12. Epicutaneous aeroallergen sensitization in atopic dermatitis infants - determining the role of epidermal barrier impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boralevi, F; Hubiche, T; Léauté-Labrèze, C; Saubusse, E; Fayon, M; Roul, S; Maurice-Tison, S; Taïeb, A

    2008-02-01

    Sensitization to atopens is an early phenomenon that overlaps with the onset of atopic dermatitis (AD) in infancy. Early epidermal barrier impairment may facilitate the epicutaneous penetration of atopens. To correlate transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and aeroallergen sensitization in infants with AD. In this cross-sectional study we enrolled 59 AD children and 30 controls aged 3-12 months. Transepidermal water loss in uninvolved skin, specific immunoglobulin E, atopy patch test (APT) and skin prick tests were performed with respect to seven aeroallergens, i.e., Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, D. farinae, cat, dog, birch pollen, ambrosia, and cockroach. Environmental conditions were assessed by a questionnaire, and the house dust mite (HDM) concentration was determined in dust samples. Eighty-nine percent of AD infants had a positive APT vs one out of eleven controls. AD infants had a significantly higher mean TEWL than controls (27.4 vs 11.1 g/m(2)/h, P cats, and dogs at home. This study confirms the high prevalence of delayed sensitization to indoor and outdoor aeroallergens in AD infants, and shows that the higher the TEWL, the higher the prevalence of sensitization to aeroallergens. These data are in favor of a major role of a constitutive epidermal barrier impairment in determining early atopen sensitization in infants with AD.

  13. Geographical variation in the prevalence of sensitization to common aeroallergens in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newson, R B; van Ree, R; Forsberg, B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Geographical variation in the prevalence of sensitization to aeroallergens may reflect differences in exposure to risk factors such as having older siblings, being raised on a farm or other unidentified exposures. OBJECTIVE: We wanted to measure geographical variation in skin prick te...

  14. Cholinergic activation of neurons in the medulla oblongata changes urinary bladder activity by plasma vasopressin release in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafarchio, Eduardo M; da Silva, Luiz A; Auresco, Luciana C; Ogihara, Cristiana A; Almeida, Roberto L; Giannocco, Gisele; Luz, Maria C B; Fonseca, Fernando L A; Sato, Monica A

    2016-04-05

    The central control of the micturition is dependent on cortical areas and other ascending and descending pathways in the brain stem. The descendent pathways from the pons to the urinary bladder (UB) can be direct or indirect through medullary neurons (MN). Chemical stimulation with l-glutamate of MN known for their involvement in cardiovascular regulation evokes changes in pelvic nerves activities, which innervate the urinary bladder. Different neurotransmitters have been found in medullary areas; nevertheless, their involvement in UB control is few understood. We focused to investigate if cholinergic activation of neurons in the medulla oblongata changes the urinary bladder activity. Carbachol (cholinergic agonist) or atropine (cholinergic antagonist) was injected into the 4thV in anesthetized female Wistar rats and the intravesical pressure (IP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and renal conductance (RC) were recorded for 30 min. Carbachol injection into the 4thV increased IP with peak response at 30 min after carbachol and yielded no changes in MAP, HR and RC. Atropine injection into the 4thV decreased IP and elicited no changes in MAP, HR and RC. Plasma vasopressin levels evaluated by ELISA kit assay increased after carbachol into the 4th V. Intravenous blockade of V1 receptors prior to carbachol into the 4thV abolished the increase in IP evoked by carbachol. Therefore, our findings suggest that cholinergic activation of neurons in the medulla oblongata by carbachol injections into the 4thV increases IP due to plasma vasopressin release, which acts in V1 receptors in the UB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The urinary excretion of epidermal growth factor in the rat is reduced by aprotinin, a proteinase inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, P E; Raaberg, Lasse; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1990-01-01

    in vivo is processed by an aprotinin inhibitable proteinase. EGF is produced in the kidneys as a precursor with a molecular weight of approximately 130 kDa. In rat urine, nanomolar amounts of 6 kDa EGF are excreted per 24 h together with small amounts of high molecular weight forms of EGF. During i...... of immunoreactive EGF in the kidney tissue is increased after aprotinin administration (median amount 0.11 pmol EGF/mg protein versus less than 0.04 pmol EGF/mg protein, P less than 0.001). Neither the creatinine clearance, the total urinary protein output, nor the volume of urine produced was affected by aprotinin....

  16. Tissue vitamin concentrations are maintained constant by changing the urinary excretion rate of vitamins in rats' restricted food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that mild food restriction induces a reduction in tryptophan-nicotinamide conversion, which helps to explain why death secondary to pellagra is pandemic during the hungry season. In this study, we investigated the levels of B-group vitamins in the liver, kidney, blood, and urine in rats that underwent gradual restriction of food intake (80, 60, 40, and 20% restriction vs. ad libitum food intake). No significant differences in the B-group vitamin concentrations (mol/g tissue) in the liver and kidney were observed at any level of food restriction. However, the urine excretion rates exhibited some characteristic phenomena that differed by vitamin. These results show that the tissue concentrations of B-group vitamins were kept constant by changing the urinary elimination rates of vitamins under various levels of food restriction. Only vitamin B12 was the only (exception).

  17. Identification of the urinary metabolites of 4-bromoaniline and 4-bromo-[carbonyl-13C]-acetanilide in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarfe, G B; Nicholson, J K; Lindon, J C; Wilson, I D; Taylor, S; Clayton, E; Wright, B

    2002-04-01

    1. The urinary excretion of 4-bromoaniline and its [carbonyl-(13)C]-labelled N-acetanilide, together with their corresponding metabolites, have been investigated in the rat following i.p. administration at 50 mg kg(-1). 2. Metabolite profiling was performed by reversed-phase HPLC with UV detection, whilst identification was performed using a combination of enzymic hydrolysis and directly coupled HPLC-NMR-MS analysis. The urinary metabolite profile was quantitatively and qualitatively similar for both compounds with little of either excreted unchanged. 3. The major metabolite present in urine was 2-amino-5-bromophenylsulphate, but, in addition, a number of metabolites with modification of the N-acetyl moiety were identified (from both the [(13)C]-acetanilide or produced following acetylation of the free bromoaniline). 4. For 4-bromoacetanilide, N-deacetylation was a major route of metabolism, but despite the detection of the acetanilide following the administration of the free aniline, there was no evidence of reacetylation (futile deacetylation). 5. Metabolites resulting from the oxidation of the acetyl group included a novel glucuronide of an N-glycolanilide, an unusual N-oxanilic acid and a novel N-acetyl cysteine conjugate.

  18. Effects of Saw Palmetto Extract on Urodynamic Parameters, Bladder Muscarinic and Purinergic Receptors and Urinary Cytokines in Rats with Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrin, Sweety; Masuda, Eiji; Kugaya, Haruna; Osano, Ayaka; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Shizuo

    2014-01-01

    To clarify the effect of saw palmetto extract (SPE), a phytotherapeutic agent, on urodynamic parameters, bladder muscarinic and purinergic receptors, and urinary cytokines in rats with cystitis induced by cyclophosphamide (CYP). Saw palmetto extract (60 mg/kg per day) was administered orally twice a day for 7 days to rats. The urodynamic parameters in CYP (150 mg/kg i.p.)-treated rats were monitored by a cystometric method under anesthesia. The muscarinic and purinergic receptors in the bladder and submaxillary gland were measured by radioreceptor assays using [N-methyl-(3) H] scopolamine chloride([(3) H]NMS) and αβ-methylene-ATP [2,8-(3) H] tetrasodium salt ([(3) H]αβ-MeATP), respectively. Urinary cytokines (interleukin-1β [IL-1β], IL-6 and L-17) were measured with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits. Micturition interval and micturition volume were significantly decreased and the frequency of micturition and basal pressure were significantly increased in the CYP-treated rats compared with sham-operated rats. Orally administered SPE significantly increased the micturition interval and micturition volume and decreased the frequency of micturition and basal pressure. The maximal number of sites (Bmax ) for the specific binding of [(3) H]NMS and [(3) H]αβ-MeATP was significantly decreased in the bladder. The decrease in receptors was attenuated by repeated treatment with SPE. An elevation in urinary cytokine (IL-1β and IL-17) levels were seen, and this increase was effectively suppressed by SPE treatment. Saw palmetto extract attenuates the alteration of urodynamic parameters, pharmacologically relevant receptors, and urinary cytokines in CYP-treated rats. Therefore, SPE may be a potential therapeutic agent for improving the clinical symptoms of cystitis. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Long-lasting, distinct changes in central opioid receptor and urinary bladder functions in models of schizophrenia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekesi, Orsolya; Tuboly, Gabor; Szucs, Maria; Birkas, Erika; Morvay, Zita; Benedek, Gyorgy; Horvath, Gyongyi

    2011-07-01

    Ketamine treatments and social isolation of rats reflect certain features of schizophrenia, among them altered pain sensitivity. To study the underlying mechanisms of these phenomena, rats were either housed individually or grouped for 33 days after weaning, and treated with either ketamine or saline for 14 days. After one month re-socialization, the urinary bladder capacity by ultrasound examination in the anesthetized animals, and changes of μ-opioid receptors by saturation binding experiments using a specific μ-opioid agonist [(3)H]DAMGO were determined. G-protein signaling was investigated in DAMGO-stimulated [(35)S]GTPγS functional assays. Ketamine treatment significantly decreased the bladder volume and isolation decreased the receptor density in cortical membranes. Among all groups, the only change in binding affinity was an increase induced by social isolation in the cortex. G-protein signaling was significantly decreased by either ketamine or social isolation in this tissue. Ketamine treatment, but not housing, significantly increased μ-opioid receptor densities in hippocampal membranes. Both ketamine and isolation increased the efficacy, while the potency of signaling was decreased by any treatment. Ketamine increased the receptor density and G-protein activation; while isolation decreased the efficacy of G-protein signaling in hippocampal membranes. The changes in the co-treated group were similar to those of the isolated animals in most tests. The distinct changes of opioid receptor functioning in different areas of the CNS may, at least partially, explain the augmented nociceptive threshold and morphine potency observed in these animals. Changes in the relative urinary bladder suggest a detrusor hyperreflexia, another sign of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of early changes induced by diuron in the rat urinary bladder using different processing methods for scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Rafaela Marono; Ferragut Cardoso, Ana Paula; da Rocha, Mitscheli Sanches; Nascimento E Pontes, Merielen Garcia; de Camargo, João Lauro Viana; de Oliveira, Maria Luiza Cotrim Sartor

    2015-07-03

    Diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] is a substituted urea herbicide carcinogenic to the rat urinary bladder at high dietary levels. The suggested non-genotoxic mode of action (MOA) of diuron encompasses cytotoxicity and necrosis followed by regenerative hyperplasia. Prenecrotic swollen cells as observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been reported as early morphological alterations, putatively related to diuron cytotoxicity. However, these changes were not observed in a previous SEM study conducted in this laboratory. This study evaluated whether these early alterations are actually due to diuron cytotoxicity or artifacts related to different processing methods used for SEM analysis. Male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum with basal diet, 7.1% sodium saccharin (NaS) or 2.500ppm diuron for seven days or 15 weeks. The urinary bladders were processed for histological and labeling indices examinations and for SEM using two different processing methods. The incidence of simple hyperplasia after 15 weeks of exposure to diuron or to NaS was significantly increased. By SEM, the incidences and severity of lesions were significantly increased in the diuron group independently of exposure time. The different SEM processing methods used allowed for visualization of swollen superficial cells after seven days of diuron exposure. Probably the absence these cells in a previous study was due to the use very few animals. Our results support the hypothesis that the swollen cell is an early key event due to diuron-induced cytotoxicity and is the result of a degenerative process involved in the non-genotoxic carcinogenic mode of action of high doses of diuron. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of early changes induced by diuron in the rat urinary bladder using different processing methods for scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fava, Rafaela Marono; Ferragut Cardoso, Ana Paula; Sanches da Rocha, Mitscheli; Nascimento e Pontes, Merielen Garcia; Viana de Camargo, João Lauro; Cotrim Sartor de Oliveira, Maria Luiza

    2015-01-01

    Diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] is a substituted urea herbicide carcinogenic to the rat urinary bladder at high dietary levels. The suggested non-genotoxic mode of action (MOA) of diuron encompasses cytotoxicity and necrosis followed by regenerative hyperplasia. Prenecrotic swollen cells as observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been reported as early morphological alterations, putatively related to diuron cytotoxicity. However, these changes were not observed in a previous SEM study conducted in this laboratory. This study evaluated whether these early alterations are actually due to diuron cytotoxicity or artifacts related to different processing methods used for SEM analysis. Male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum with basal diet, 7.1% sodium saccharin (NaS) or 2.500 ppm diuron for seven days or 15 weeks. The urinary bladders were processed for histological and labeling indices examinations and for SEM using two different processing methods. The incidence of simple hyperplasia after 15 weeks of exposure to diuron or to NaS was significantly increased. By SEM, the incidences and severity of lesions were significantly increased in the diuron group independently of exposure time. The different SEM processing methods used allowed for visualization of swollen superficial cells after seven days of diuron exposure. Probably the absence these cells in a previous study was due to the use very few animals. Our results support the hypothesis that the swollen cell is an early key event due to diuron-induced cytotoxicity and is the result of a degenerative process involved in the non-genotoxic carcinogenic mode of action of high doses of diuron

  2. Urinary Metabolomic Study of Chlorogenic Acid in a Rat Model of Chronic Sleep Deprivation Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-ni Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The urinary metabolomic study based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS had been developed to investigate the possible antidepressant mechanism of chlorogenic acid (CGA in a rat model of sleep deprivation (SD. According to pattern recognition analysis, there was a clear separation among big platform group (BP, sleep deprivation group (SD, and the CGA (model + CGA, and CGA group was much closer to the BP group by showing a tendency of recovering towards BP group. Thirty-six significantly changed metabolites related to antidepressant by CGA were identified and used to explore the potential mechanism. Combined with the result of the classic behavioral tests and biochemical indices, CGA has significant antidepressant effects in a rat model of SD, suggesting that the mechanism of action of CGA might be involved in regulating the abnormal pathway of nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism; glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism; glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism; and arginine and proline metabolism. Our results also show that metabolomics analysis based on GC-MS is a useful tool for exploring biomarkers involved in depression and elucidating the potential therapeutic mechanisms of Chinese medicine.

  3. Hydrophobic Sand Is a Non-Toxic Method of Urine Collection, Appropriate for Urinary Metal Analysis in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica F. Hoffman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophobic sand is a relatively new method of urine collection in the rodent, comparable to the established method using a metabolic cage. Urine samples are often used in rodent research, especially for biomarkers of health changes after internal contamination from embedded metals, such as in a model of a military shrapnel wound. However, little research has been done on the potential interference of hydrophobic sand with urine metal concentrations either by contamination from the sand particulate, or adsorption of metals from the urine. We compare urine collected from rats using the metabolic cage method and the hydrophobic sand method for differences in metal concentration of common urinary metals, and examine physical properties of the sand material for potential sources of contamination. We found minimal risk of internal contamination of the rat by hydrophobic sand, and no interference of the sand with several common metals of interest (cobalt, strontium, copper, and manganese, although we advise caution in studies of aluminum in urine.

  4. Urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins increases in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats without decreases in liver or blood vitamin content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Eri; Sano, Mitsue; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2012-01-01

    It is thought that the contents of water-soluble vitamins in the body are generally low in diabetic patients because large amounts of vitamins are excreted into urine. However, this hypothesis has not been confirmed. To investigate this hypothesis, diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats (6 wk old) by streptozotocin treatment, and they were then given diets containing low, medium or sufficient vitamins for 70 d. The contents of 6 kinds of B-group vitamins, namely vitamin B₁, vitamin B₂, vitamin B₆, vitamin B₁₂, folate and biotin, were determined in the urine, blood and liver. No basic differences among the dietary vitamin contents were observed. The urinary excretion of vitamins was higher in diabetic rats than in control rats. The blood concentrations of vitamin B₁₂ and folate were lowered by diabetes, while, those of vitamin B₁, vitamin B₂, vitamin B₆, and biotin were not. All liver concentrations of vitamins were increased in diabetic rats above those in control rats. These results showed that streptozotocin-induced diabetes increased urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins, though their blood and liver concentrations were essentially maintained in the rats.

  5. Swimming: Effects on Stress Urinary Incontinence and the Expression of Nerve Growth Factor in Rats Following Transabdominal Urethrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il Gyu Ko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeStress urinary incontinence (SUI commonly occurs in women, and it has an enormous impact on quality of life. Surgery, drugs, and exercise have been recommended for the treatment of this disease. Among these, exercise is known to be effective for the relief of symptoms of SUI; however, the efficacy and underlying mechanisms of the effect of exercise on SUI are poorly understood. We investigated the effect of swimming the symptom of SUI in relation to the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF in rats.MethodsTransabdominal urethrolysis was used to induce SUI, in Sprague-Dawley rats. The experimental groups were divided into the following three groups: sham-operation group, transabdominal urethrolysis-induced group, and transabdominal urethrolysis-induced and swimming group. The rats in the swimming group were forced to swim for 30 minutes once daily starting 2 weeks after SUI induction and continuing for 4 weeks. For this study, determination of abdominal leak point pressure and immunohistochemistry for NGF in the urethra and in the neuronal voiding centers (medial preoptic nucleus [MPA], ventrolateral periaqueductal gray [vlPAG], pontine micturition center [PMC], and spinal cord [L4-L5] were performed.ResultsTransabdominal urethrolysis significantly reduced the abdominal leak point pressure, thereby contributing to the induction of SUI. Abdominal leak point pressure, however, was significantly improved by swimming. The expression of NGF in the urethra and in the neuronal voiding centers (MPA, vlPAG, PMC, and L4-L5 relating to micturition was enhanced by the induction of SUI. Swimming, however, significantly suppressed SUI-induced NGF expression.ConclusionsSwimming alleviated symptoms of transabdominal urethrolysis-induced SUI, as assessed by an increase in abdominal leak point pressure. The underlying mechanisms of these effects of swimming might be ascribed to the inhibitory effect of swimming on NGF expression.

  6. Effects of electroacupuncture at BL33 on detrusor smooth muscle activity in a rat model of urinary retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxu; Liu, Kun; Zhi, Mujun; Mo, Qian; Gao, Xinyan; Liu, Zhishun

    2017-12-01

    Detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) underactivity may lead to urinary retention (UR). Electroacupuncture (EA) at BL33 may be effective in improving DSM contractions. This study aimed to investigate: (1) the effect of EA at BL33; and (2) the effect of different manipulation methods at BL33 on the modulation of DSM contractions in UR rats. 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetised with urethane and modelled by urethral outlet obstruction. First, 2 Hz EA at BL33, SP6 and LI4 wasrandomly applied to the UR rats for 5 min to observe the immediate effects (n=10); second, manual acupuncture (MA) (n=10) and 100 Hz EA (n=10) were applied with the same programme. DSM electromyography (EMG) and cystometrogram data were evaluated. (1) 2 Hz EA at BL33 and SP6 significantly increased DSM discharging frequency (0.80±0.10 Hz, P0.05). Compared with SP6, EA at BL33 had greater positive effects on DSM discharging frequency, duration of discharging, and duration of voiding (all P<0.05). (2) No statistically significant differences were shown between MA, 2 Hz EA and 100 Hz EA interventions when stimulating at BL33, SP6 or LI4. EA at BL33 improved DSM contractions to a greater degree than EA at SP6 or LI4. There were no differences in effect when stimulating using 2 Hz EA, 100 Hz EA and MA. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. A study on the effect of the internal exposure to "2"1"0Po on the excretion of urinary proteins in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadi, Baki; Li, Chunsheng; Ko, Raymond; Daka, Joseph; Yusuf, Hamdi; Wyatt, Heather; Surette, Joel; Priest, Nick; Hamada, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the feasibility of a noninvasive urine specimen for the detection of proteins as indicators of internal exposure to ionizing radiation. Three groups of rats (five in each group) were intravenously injected with 1601 ± 376, 10,846 ± 591 and 48,467 ± 2812 Bq of "2"1"0Po in citrate form. A sham-exposed control group of five rats was intravenously injected with sterile physiological saline. Daily urine samples were collected over 4 days following injection. Purification and pre-concentration of urinary proteins were carried out by ultrafiltration using a 3000 Da molecular weight cutoff membrane filter. The concentration of common urinary proteins, namely albumin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Urinary excretion of albumin decreased dose-dependently (p < 0.05) 96 h post-injection relative to the control group. In contrast, no statistically significant effects were observed for other proteins tested. The dose-dependent decrease in urinary excretion of albumin observed in this study underscores the need for further research, which may lead to the discovery of new biomarkers that would reflect the changes in the primary target organs for deposition of "2"1"0Po. (orig.)

  8. A study on the effect of the internal exposure to {sup 210}Po on the excretion of urinary proteins in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadi, Baki; Li, Chunsheng; Ko, Raymond; Daka, Joseph [Health Canada, National Internal Radiation Assessment Section, Radiation Protection Bureau, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Yusuf, Hamdi [Carleton University, Department of Chemistry, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Wyatt, Heather; Surette, Joel; Priest, Nick [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Hamada, Nobuyuki [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Nuclear Technology Research Laboratory, Radiation Safety Research Center, Komae, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    This study was designed to assess the feasibility of a noninvasive urine specimen for the detection of proteins as indicators of internal exposure to ionizing radiation. Three groups of rats (five in each group) were intravenously injected with 1601 ± 376, 10,846 ± 591 and 48,467 ± 2812 Bq of {sup 210}Po in citrate form. A sham-exposed control group of five rats was intravenously injected with sterile physiological saline. Daily urine samples were collected over 4 days following injection. Purification and pre-concentration of urinary proteins were carried out by ultrafiltration using a 3000 Da molecular weight cutoff membrane filter. The concentration of common urinary proteins, namely albumin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Urinary excretion of albumin decreased dose-dependently (p < 0.05) 96 h post-injection relative to the control group. In contrast, no statistically significant effects were observed for other proteins tested. The dose-dependent decrease in urinary excretion of albumin observed in this study underscores the need for further research, which may lead to the discovery of new biomarkers that would reflect the changes in the primary target organs for deposition of {sup 210}Po. (orig.)

  9. Synoptic weather types and aeroallergens modify the effect of air pollution on hospitalisations for asthma hospitalisations in Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbern, Christopher; Cakmak, Sabit

    2015-09-01

    Pollution levels and the effect of air pollution on human health can be modified by synoptic weather type and aeroallergens. We investigated the effect modification of aeroallergens on the association between CO, O3, NO2, SO2, PM10, PM2.5 and asthma hospitalisation rates in seven synoptic weather types. We developed single air pollutant models, adjusted for the effect of aeroallergens and stratified by synoptic weather type, and pooled relative risk estimates for asthma hospitalisation in ten Canadian cities. Aeroallergens significantly modified the relative risk in 19 pollutant-weather type combinations, reducing the size and variance for each single pollutant model. However, aeroallergens did not significantly modify relative risk for any pollutant in the DT or MT weather types, or for PM10 in any weather type. Thus, there is a modifying effect of aeroallergens on the association between CO, O3, NO2, SO2, PM2.5 and asthma hospitalisations that differs under specific synoptic weather types. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Excess Vitamin Intake before Starvation does not Affect Body Mass, Organ Mass, or Blood Variables but Affects Urinary Excretion of Riboflavin in Starving Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Moriya, Aya; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    B-vitamins are important for producing energy from amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of excess vitamin intake before starvation on body mass, organ mass, blood, and biological variables as well as on urinary excretion of riboflavin in rats. Adult rats were fed two types of diets, one with a low vitamin content (minimum vitamin diet for optimum growth) and one with a sufficient amount of vitamins (excess vitamin diet). Body mass, organ ma...

  11. PPARa and PPAR¿ coactivation rapidly induces Egr-1 in the nuclei of the dorsal and ventral urinary bladder and kidney pelvis urothelium of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerod, Frederikke Lihme; Svendsen, Jette Eldrup; Hinley, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    in the dorsal and ventral bladder urothelium, arguing against involvement of urinary solids. Egr-1 induction sometimes occurred in a localized fashion, indicating physiological microheterogeneity in the urothelium. The rapid kinetics supported that Egr-1 induction occurred as a result of pharmacological...... activation of PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma, which are coexpressed at high levels in the rat urothelium. Finally, our demonstration of a nuclear localization supports that the Egr-1 induced by PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma coactivation in the rat urothelium may be biologically active....

  12. Eight hours of nocturnal 915 MHz radiofrequency identification (RFID) exposure reduces urinary levels of melatonin and its metabolite via pineal arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Sun; Paik, Man-Jeong; Lee, Yu Hee; Lee, Yun-Sil; Choi, Hyung Do; Pack, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Nam; Ahn, Young Hwan

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of whole-body exposure to the 915 MHz radiofrequency identification (RFID) on melatonin biosynthesis and the activity of rat pineal arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT). Rats were exposed to RFID (whole-body specific absorption rate, 4 W/kg) for 8 h/day, 5 days/week, for weeks during the nighttime. Total volume of urine excreted during a 24-h period was collected after RFID exposure. Urinary melatonin and 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (6-OHMS) was measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. AANAT enzyme activity was measured using liquid biphasic dif-13 fusion assay. Protein levels and mRNA expression of AANAT was 14 measured by Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase 15 chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, respectively. Eight hours of nocturnal RFID exposure caused a significant reduction in both urinary melatonin (p = 0. 003) and 6-OHMS (p = 0. 026). Activity, protein levels, and mRNA expression of AANAT were suppressed by exposure to RFID (p RFID exposure can cause reductions in the levels of both urinary melatonin and 6-OHMS, possibly due to decreased melatonin biosynthesis via suppression of Aanat gene transcription in the rat pineal gland.

  13. Hypersensitivity to aeroallergens in adult patients with atopic dermatitis develops due to the different immunological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samochocki, Zbigniew; Owczarek, Witold; Rujna, Paweł; Raczka, Alicja

    2007-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a disease with a complex pathomechanism, it is very difficult to establish the exact factors which can either trigger or exacerbate the disease. Knowledge of the mechanisms involved in AD development can be increased by, among others, applying new diagnostic tests and careful assessment of the results obtained. The aim of this study was to determine the allergic mechanisms of hypersensitivity to selected aeroallergens in patients with AD. The study comprised 109 AD patients. In all the patients the total IgE level was measured and atopy patch tests and skin prick tests were performed. We also assessed the presence of specific IgE against house dust mite, birch-tree, mixed grass pollen and cat dander. The highest incidence of positive results was found for house dust mite allergens, irrespective of the test employed. Analysing hypersensitivity to all the examined allergens we revealed the presence of allergic mechanisms in 85.3% of the patients. In 30.2% of the examined individuals we proved a type I immunological response, in 45.9% -- both types I and IV in 9.2% -- only type IV in one patient. In 14.7% of the patients the results of all the tests performed were negative. Analysing hypersensitivity to particular aeroallergens, negative test results to house dust mite were observed in 25.8% of the patients. The percentage of positive results for birch pollen, grass pollen and cat dander were 45.0, 44.1 and 53.2, respectively. Analysis of the results showed that allergic reactions to the same aeroallergens may develop via different mechanisms. We also revealed that the coexistence of various mechanisms involved in the development of hypersensitivity to a particular aeroallergen may occur in individual patients.

  14. Role of offending out-door aero-allergen and CD14 C(-159)T ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Child- hood-onset and adult-onset of asthma showed significant difference in allergen sensitivity as well as genetic background with respect to CD14 polymorphism. Keywords: Asthma, aero-allergen, skin prick test, total IgE, CD14 gene polymorphism. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v17i4.18. Cite as: Dutta S, Mondal P, ...

  15. Evaluation of Urinary Tryptophan Metabolite Levels in Non-diabetic Compared to Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Elena OLAR

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common metabolic disorders in animals. Thus, currently, it is imperative to introduce non-invasive, economical and rapid methods for the investigation of diabetes in animals. In this study, the urine samples collected from 10 non-diabetic and 10 streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were investigated by the spectrofluorimetric technique. Emission spectra for the urine samples were obtained following an excitation wavelength of 280 and 400 nm. The investigated fluorophores were mainly tryptophan metabolites, and significant differences resulted between the mean heights of the emission bands attributed to these fluorophore compounds in diabetic compared to non-diabetic rats. The shape of the spectral windings after the utilization of these two excitation wavelengths was almost similar for diabetic and non-diabetic rats; however, there were some discriminatory elements between the two types of investigated samples. In conclusion, the obtained urine fluorescence spectra allow a clear differentiation between diabetic and non-diabetic rats.

  16. Climate change, aeroallergens, natural particulates, and human health in Australia: state of the science and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, Paul John; Bennett, Charmian Margaret

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this article is to systematically review and assess what is known about the impacts of climate change on aeroallergens and other naturally derived particulates, and the associated human health impacts, and to examine responses to these in Australia, focusing on adaptation. Prior research was searched using several general and discipline-specific research databases. The review concludes that whereas there is little original research on the impacts of climate change on aeroallergens and other naturally derived particulates in Australia, or the human health consequences of these, research from overseas suggests that these impacts may be adverse and of considerable magnitude. More research is required to assess the impacts of climate change on these airborne particles and associated diseases in Australia and other parts of the Asia-Pacific. There are important policy implications of this review. There is a need for enhanced monitoring of the atmospheric environment and associated health conditions in Australia. Education about climate change and human health in general, and air quality and related diseases specifically, is required for the community, health professionals, and others. Improvements are needed in the preparedness of infrastructure, such as health care facilities and early warning systems, particularly for aeroallergens, and all of these adaptive policy responses require further research.

  17. Regulation of aeroallergen immunity by the innate immune system: laboratory evidence for a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Anthony A

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, it has become increasingly clear that innate responses to microbes are mediated largely by toll-like receptors (TLRs), which recognize a diverse family of molecules produced by viruses, bacteria and fungi. This article will present evidence that TLRs also play a dominant role in innate responses to non-infectious immunostimulatory materials present in house dust extracts (HDEs) and the living environments they represent. However, our investigations challenge the commonly held view that microbial products in ambient air protect against the allergic march by promoting protective Th1 biased responses to inspired aeroallergens. Instead, all HDEs studied to date have preferentially promoted the development of Th2 biased airway hypersensitivities when used as adjuvants for intranasal (i.n.) vaccination. In contrast, daily low dose i.n. HDE delivery was found to promote the development of aeroallergen tolerance. This article will review these experimental findings as evidence to propose a new paradigm by which airborne TLR ligands and other stimulants of innate immunity may influence aeroallergen specific immunity and the genesis of allergic respiratory diseases.

  18. The role of urinary pH in o-phenylphenol-induced cytotoxicity and chromosomal damage in the bladders of F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, S; Hasegawa, L; Eastmond, D A

    2016-04-01

    o-Phenylphenol (OPP) is a widely used fungicide and antibacterial agent that at high doses has been shown to cause bladder cancer in male F344 rats. The mechanisms underlying OPP-induced bladder carcinogenicity remain unclear but it has been proposed that a non-enzymatic pH-dependent autoxidation of phenylhydroquinone (PHQ), a primary metabolite of OPP, may be a key step in OPP-induced rat bladder carcinogenesis. To investigate this mechanism and to provide insights into the potential human health relevance of OPP-induced cancer, a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted. In human lymphoblastoid TK-6 cells and rat bladder epithelial NBT-II cells, strong increases in cytotoxicity were seen at a constant concentration of PHQ by increasing the buffer pH as well as by increasing concentrations of PHQ at a constant pH. In in vivo studies, male rats were administered OPP (4,000 and 8,000 ppm) in a diet supplemented with either 1% ammonium chloride or 3% sodium bicarbonate to produce acidic and alkaline urinary pH, respectively. Significant increases in cell proliferation as detected by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation and micronucleus formation were seen in the bladder cells of OPP-treated rats with neutral or alkaline urinary pH but not in animals with the acidified urine. The results from these in vitro and in vivo studies provide support for the autoxidation hypothesis of bioactivation, and provide additional evidence that urinary pH can significantly influence the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of this important agent. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. [Effects of excess nicotinic acid on growth and the urinary excretion of B-group vitamins and the metabolism of tryptophan in weaning rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Kurata, Kaori; Shibata, Katsumi

    2009-04-01

    To determine the tolerable upper intake level of nicotinic acid in humans, we investigated the effects of excess nicotinic acid administration on body weight gain, food intake, and urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins and the metabolism of tryptophan in weaning rats. The weaning rats were freely fed a niacin-free 20% casein diet (control diet) or the same diet with 0.1%, 0.3% or 0.5% nicotinic acid for 23 days. The excess nicotinic acid intake did not affect body weight gain, food intake, serotonin contents in the brain, stomach and small intestine, or the urinary excretions of water-soluble vitamins. Although excess nicotinic acid did not affect the upper part of the tryptophan-nicotinamide pathway, 0.5% nicotinic acid diet increased the urinary excretion of quinolinic acid. The diet containing more than 0.3% nicotinic acid also increased the urinary excretion of nicotinic acid, which is usually below the limit of detection. As determined from the results of body weight gain and food intake as indices for apparent adverse effects, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for nicotinic acid was 0.5% in diet, corresponding to 450 mg/kg body weight/day. As judged from in increase of urinary quinolinic acid and nicotinic acid as indices of metabolic change, NOAEL was 0.1% in diet, corresponding to 90 mg/kg body weight/day, and the lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level (LOAEL) was 0.3% in diet, corresponding to 270 mg/kg body weight/day.

  20. A 10-year retrospective study of alterative aeroallergens sensitization spectrum in urban children with allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang LF

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Li-Fen Yang,1,* Liang-Ming Cai,1,* Ming Li,2,* Jin-Tao Liu,3 Zhao-Ni Wang,1 Wei-Hao Wang,4 Qin-tai Yang,4 Zhuang-Gui Chen1,5 1Department of Pediatrics Intensive Care Unit and Respiratory Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pulmonary Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Population and Quantitative Health Science, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA; 4Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 5Institution of Respiratory Diseases of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: To investigate the alterative spectrum and trends of aeroallergens sensitization in children with allergic rhinitis (AR in Guangzhou, China in the past 10 years.Participants and methods: In this retrospective study, 4,111 children with complaints of nasal hyper-reactivity who visited the Pediatric Department and/or Otolaryngology Department from January 2007 to November 2016 were enrolled. Serum specific immunoglobulin E was measured and positive detection was made in 3,328 patients, who were, therefore, diagnosed with AR. Positive rates and trends of different aeroallergens sensitization were assessed. The tendency of positive rates changing over the years, and the difference and trends in positive rate of aeroallergen sensitization that occurred in subgroups of gender, age, and season were determined and analyzed with logistic regression.Results: The percentage of detected common aeroallergens in AR children was (from high to low 81.07%, 34.44%, 14.72%, 11.81%, 6.04%, and 3.70% for house dust mites (HDMs, cat–dog dander, cockroach, mold mixture, tree pollen mixture, and herb pollen mixture

  1. [Effects of excess vitamin B1 or vitamin B2 on growth and urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in weaning rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Kuzuya, Mako; Satoh, Shiori; Shibata, Katsumi

    2009-04-01

    To determine the tolerable upper intake levels of vitamin B(1) and vitamin B(2) in humans, we investigated the effects of excess thiamin or riboflavin administration on body weight gain, food intake, tissue weights, and urinary excretion of B-group vitamins in weaning rats. The weaning rats were freely fed ordinary diet containing 0.0006% thiamin-HCl or the same diet with 0.006%, 0.03%, 0.18% or 1.0% thiamin-HCl for 30 days, or the diet containing 0.0006% riboflavin or the same diet with 0.1%, 0.5 or 1.0% riboflavin for 22 days. Mild diarrhea was seen only in the rats fed with 1.0% thiamin-HCl diet. Excess thiamin-HCl or riboflavin did not affect body weight gains, food intake or tissue weights. The urinary excretions of water-soluble vitamins also did not differ among the diets. These results clearly showed that feeding a diet containing up to 1.0% thiamin-HCl or 1.0% riboflavin did not induce apparent adverse effects, and the no-observed-adverse-effect-levels (NOAELs) for thiamin-HCl and riboflavin in rats might be 1.0% in diet, corresponding to 900 mg/kg body weight/day.

  2. Can Spinal Bupivacaine Analgesia Treatment Make a Difference on Urinary Bladder Healing According to the Intramuscular Pethidine Analgesia Treatment in Rats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeswim Senayli

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We designed a study to compare the healing levels found with intramuscular pethidine with those found with intrathecal local anesthetic treatments. The urinary bladder is suggested to be the most useful tissue in the evaluation of the effects of the drugs. Nineteen male, Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200–300 g were used in this study. A sagittal section was made in the urinary bladder after suitable anesthesia and laparotomy. Bladders were closed with 5-0 plain catguts 5 min later. There were nine rats in the control group and pethidine (0.5 g/kg was administered intramuscularly in the gluteal muscle region to treat pain after the operations. There were 11 rats in the study group and each received a spinal injection of 0.25% bupivacaine after the operation. Rats were followed for 7 days to define pain. Specimens, particularly the incised region of the bladder, were evaluated for inflammation and fibrosis. Grading scales were used for this purpose. Statistical analyses of the data were performed using the Chi-square test. Statistical analyses were nonsignificant for inflammation (p ≤ 0.151 and nonsignificant for fibrosis (p ≤ 0.105. The treatments may have the same effects on organ healing mechanisms. Statistical difference is not shown in this study, but use of other combinations of pain treatments to evaluate the healing may demonstrate which of these possibilities is true.

  3. Estrous cycle dependent fluctuations of regulatory neuropeptides in the lower urinary tract of female rats upon colon-bladder cross-sensitization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Qing Pan

    Full Text Available Co-morbidity of bladder, bowel, and non-specific pelvic pain symptoms is highly prevalent in women. Little evidence is present on modulation of pelvic pain syndromes by sex hormones, therefore, the objective of this study was to clarify the effects of hormonal fluctuations within the estrous cycle on regulatory neuropeptides in female rats using a model of neurogenic bladder dysfunction. The estrous cycle in female rats (Sprague-Dawley, 230-250 g was assessed by vaginal smears and weight of uterine horns. Neurogenic bladder dysfunction was induced by a single inflammatory insult to the distal colon. Protein expression of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP, substance P (SP, nerve growth factor (NGF, and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the pelvic organs, sensory ganglia and lumbosacral spinal cord was compared in rats in proestrus (high estrogen vs diestrus (low estrogen. Under normal physiological conditions, concentration of SP and CGRP was similar in the distal colon and urinary bladder during all phases of the estrous cycle, however, acute colitis induced a significant up-regulation of CGRP content in the colon (by 63% and urinary bladder (by 54%, p≤0.05 to control of rats in proestrus. These changes were accompanied by a significant diminution of CGRP content in L6-S2 DRG after colonic treatment, likely associated with its release in the periphery. In rats with high estrogen at the time of testing (proestrus, experimental colitis caused a significant up-regulation of BDNF colonic content from 26.1±8.5 pg/ml to 83.4±32.5 pg/ml (N = 7, p≤0.05 to control and also induced similar effects on BDNF in the urinary bladder which was also up-regulated by 5-fold in rats in proestrus (p≤0.05 to respective control. Our results demonstrate estrous cycle dependent fluctuations of regulatory neuropeptides in the lower urinary tract upon colon-bladder cross-sensitization, which may contribute to pain fluctuations in female patients

  4. Fate of 1-aminoproline and urinary excretion of 1-aminoprolyl hydrazone of pyridoxal in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Hideaki; Moritoki, Keiko; Ogawa, Tadashi; Sasaoka, Kei

    1977-01-01

    1-Aminoproline-U- 14 C was administered to rats by intraperitoneal injection. The radioactivity was distributed in all the tissues examined. Among them, kidney, lung, liver and spleen had high specific activity. The radioactivity in the tissues and blood decreased rapidly as a function of time, except in brain. About 80% of the radioactivity administered was excreted in urine within 24 hr. Besides intact 1-aminoproline, several radioactive compounds were detected in the urine sample, and one of them was identified as 1-aminopropyl hydrazone of pyridoxal. (auth.)

  5. Study of urinary metabolites of perlolyrine in rats by stable isotope tracing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Ganghua

    2000-01-01

    After oral administration of perlolyrine and [2- 15 N] perlolyrine, urines of rats were hydrolyzed with glucuronidase, basified with NaHCO 3 -Na 2 CO 3 , and extracted with ethyl ether-iso-propyl alcohol etc. The organic phases (neutral and basic fractions) were concentrated for TMS derivatives. The aqueous phase were acidified with sulfuric acid, taken to dryness and extracted with methanol (water soluble acidic fractions) and concentrated for TMS derivatives. The TMS derivatives were determined by GC-MS. Perlolyrine and one metabolite were found from the neutral and basic fractions, and two different metabolites were found from the water soluble acidic fractions. It is proposed that the major metabolic pathways of perlolyrine are the hydroxylation of perlolyrine and the oxidation of its hydrox ylmethyl group

  6. Bladder instillation of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide alters the muscle contractions in rat urinary bladder via a protein kinase C-related pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, T.I.; Chen, W.J.; Liu, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli is a common cause of urinary tract infection. We determined the effects of intravesical instillation of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) on muscle contractions, protein kinase C (PKC) translocation, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in rat urinary bladder. The contractions of the isolated rat detrusor muscle evoked by electrical field stimulations were measured short-term (1 h) or long-term (24 h) after intravesical instillation of LPS. One hour after LPS intravesical instillation, bladder PKC-α translocation from cytosolic fraction to membrane fraction and endothelial (e)NOS protein was elevated, and detrusor muscle contractions were significantly increased. PKC inhibitors chelerythrine and Ro32-0432 inhibited this LPS-enhanced contractile response. Application of PKC activator β-phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate enhanced the muscle contractions. Three hours after intravesical instillation of LPS, iNOS mRNA was detected in the bladder. Immunoblotting study also demonstrated that the induction of iNOS proteins is detected in bladder in which LPS was instilled. 24 h after intravesical instillation of LPS, PKC-α translocation was impaired in the bladder; LPS did not affect PKC-δ translocation. Muscle contractions were also decreased 24 h after LPS intravesical instillation. Aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor, blocked the decrease in PKC-α translocation and detrusor contractions induced by LPS. These results indicate that there are different mechanisms involved in the alteration of urinary bladder contractions after short-term and long-term treatment of LPS; an iNOS-regulated PKC signaling may participate in causing the inhibition of muscle contractions in urinary bladder induced by long-term LPS treatment

  7. Cuminum cyminum extract attenuates scopolamine-induced memory loss and stress-induced urinary biochemical changes in rats: a noninvasive biochemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppula, Sushruta; Choi, Dong Kug

    2011-07-01

    Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Apiaceae), cumin, is a popular spice with a long history of medicinal use to treat various symptoms such as diarrhea, flatulence, gynecological, and respiratory diseases. To date, no scientific investigation was reported regarding memory-enhancing and antistress activity of cumin fruits. The present study deals with the memory-enhancing and antistress activities and further the antioxidant status via lipid peroxidation inhibition. Antistress activity was evaluated by inducing stress via forced swimming and the urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were estimated as biomarkers. Memory-enhancing activity was studied by conditioned avoidance response using Cook's pole climbing apparatus in normal and scopolamine-induced amnestic rats. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay was used to evaluate the lipid peroxidation. Daily administration of cumin at doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight 1 h prior to induction of stress inhibited the stress-induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose-dependent manner without altering the levels in normal control groups. The cognition, as determined by the acquisition, retention, and recovery in rats, was observed to be dose-dependent. The extract also produced significant lipid peroxidation inhibition in comparison with known antioxidant ascorbic acid in both rat liver and brain. This study provides scientific support for the antistress, antioxidant, and memory-enhancing activities of cumin extract and substantiates that its traditional use as a culinary spice in foods is beneficial and scientific in combating stress and related disorders.

  8. Evidence for inhibitory nicotinic and facilitatory muscarinic receptors in cholinergic nerve terminals of the rat urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, G T; de Groat, W C

    1992-02-01

    Cholinergic prejunctional modulatory receptors on parasympathetic nerves in the rat urinary bladder were studied by measuring 3H-acetylcholine (ACh) release in muscle strips from the bladder body. Electrical field stimulation markedly increased 3H-ACh overflow in strips preloaded with 3H-choline. Oxotremorine (1 microM), an M2 receptor agonist and DMPP (10 microM) a nicotinic (N) receptor agonist decreased the release of ACh (50% and 55% respectively); whereas McN-A 343 (50 microM) an M1 receptor agonist increased the release (33%), indicating the presence of three types of modulatory receptors. The anticholinesterase agent, physostigmine in concentrations of 1, 5 and 25 microM and neostigmine (5 microM) increased ACh release (44-710%). However a low concentration of physostigmine (0.05 microM) decreased release. Pirenzepine, an M1 muscarinic antagonist or atropine blocked the increased ACh release in physostigmine-treated strips, but in normal strips pirenzepine did not change release and atropine increased release. McN-A 343 or prolonged application (15 min) of DMPP increased ACh release (376% and 391% respectively) in physostigmine-treated strips. The response to McN-A 343 was blocked by pirenzepine. d-Tubocurarine (DTC), a nicotinic receptor blocker, enhanced ACh release in the presence of physostigmine but proved to be ineffective in normal preparations. These findings suggest that all three cholinergic receptors (M1 facilitatory, N inhibitory and M2 inhibitory) are activated by endogenous ACh in physostigmine treated preparations whereas only M2-inhibitory receptors are activated in normal preparations. It will be important in future studies to determine whether M1 and M2 mechanisms can also be activated under more physiological conditions in the bladder and whether they are present at other cholinergic synapses.

  9. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) increases urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in intact and uninephrectomized (UNX) rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentin, J.P.; Ribstein, J.; Mimran, A.

    1990-01-01

    Previous experimental observations have suggested that ANP increases the transcapillary shift of water and albumin. The present studies were conducted in anesthetized euvolemic rats 6 weeks after UNX or sham operation. The effect of iv infusion of 103-126 hANP was assessed on GFR and ERPF ( 99 Tc.DTPA and 131 I-hippuran clearances), and UAE (nephelemetric method). ANP infusion was associated with no change in mean arterial pressure during the low dose (LD) and a 30 mm Hg decrease during the high dose (HD). ANP induced a dose-dependent and reversible increase in UNaV. Both proximal (as assessed by lithium excretion) and distal reabsorption of sodium were decreased by ANP. GFR was altered whereas ERPF decreased only during HD-AMP; filtration fraction (FF) dose-dependently increased in response to ANP. UAE increased dose-dependently and to a similar extent in both groups in response to ANP. The increase in UAE was readily reversible after discontinuation of ANP. There was a positive correlation between changes in UAE and changes in FF induced by ANP. These results indicate that ANP has a potent albuminuric effect. The simultaneous increase in UAE and FF, which could explain the effect of ANP on proximal tubular handling of sodium, may result from an ANP-induced rise in intraglomerular capillary pressure and/or an increase in glomerular permeability to albumin

  10. Air pollution, aeroallergens and admissions to pediatric emergency room for respiratory reasons in Turin, northwestern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bono

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Air pollution can cause respiratory symptoms or exacerbate pre-existing respiratory diseases, especially in children. This study looked at the short-term association of air pollution concentrations with Emergency Room (ER admissions for respiratory reasons in pediatric age (0–18 years. Methods Daily number of ER admissions in a children’s Hospital, concentrations of urban-background PM2.5, NO2, O3 and total aeroallergens (Corylaceae, Cupressaceae, Gramineae, Urticaceae, Ambrosia, Betula were collected in Turin, northwestern Italy, for the period 1/08/2008 to 31/12/2010 (883 days. The associations between exposures and ER admissions were estimated, at time lags between 0 and 5 days, using generalized linear Poisson regression models, adjusted for non-meteorological potential confounders. Results In the study period, 21,793 ER admissions were observed, mainly (81 % for upper respiratory tract infections. Median air pollution concentrations were 22.0, 42.5, 34.1 μg/m3 for urban-background PM2.5, NO2, and O3, respectively, and 2.9 grains/m3 for aeroallergens. We found that ER admissions increased by 1.3 % (95 % CI: 0.3-2.2 % five days after a 10 μg/m3 increase in NO2, and by 0.7 % (95 % CI: 0.1-1.2 % one day after a 10 grains/m3 increase in aeroallergens, while they were not associated with PM2.5 concentrations. ER admissions were negatively associated with O3 and aeroallergen concentrations at some time lags, but these association shifted to the null when meteorological confounders were adjusted for in the models. Conclusions Overall, these findings confirm adverse short-term health effects of air pollution on the risk of ER admission in children and encourage a careful management of the urban environment to health protection.

  11. Investigations of nephrotoxicity caused by ionic and non-ionic contrast media in rats with previously damaged and not previously damaged kidneys and special view to urinary enzyme determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmeister, R.

    1988-01-01

    In this study ionic (meglumine amidotrizoate) and non-ionic contrast media (SHH 340 AB, Iohexol, Iopromide, Iosimide and Iopamidol) were tested for their nephrotoxicity in rats. During the experiment detections of urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and urinary enzymes as well as histological examinations of the kidneys were carried out for the diagnosis of acute renal damage. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that rats are not very sensitive to non-ionic contrast media with regard to kidney damage and determinations of urinary enzymes are valuable for the diagnosis of contrast media induced acute kidney damage in living animals. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Diuron-induced rat urinary bladder carcinogenesis: mode of action and human relevance evaluations using the International Programme on Chemical Safety framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rocha, Mitscheli Sanches; Arnold, Lora L; De Oliveira, Maria Luiza Cotrim Sartor; Catalano, Shadia M Ihlaseh; Cardoso, Ana Paula Ferragut; Pontes, Merielen G N; Ferrucio, Bianca; Dodmane, Puttappa R; Cohen, Samuel M; De Camargo, João Lauro V

    2014-05-01

    Diuron, a high volume substituted urea herbicide, induced high incidences of urinary bladder carcinomas and low incidences of kidney pelvis papillomas and carcinomas in rats exposed to high doses (2500 ppm) in a 2-year bioassay. Diuron is registered for both occupational and residential uses and is used worldwide for more than 30 different crops. The proposed rat urothelial mode of action (MOA) for this herbicide consists of metabolic activation to metabolites that are excreted and concentrated in the urine, leading to cytotoxicity, urothelial cell necrosis and exfoliation, regenerative hyperplasia, and eventually tumors. We show evidence for this MOA for diuron using the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) conceptual framework for evaluating an MOA for chemical carcinogens, and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and IPCS framework for assessing human relevance.

  13. Uric Acid or 1-Methyl Uric Acid in the Urinary Bladder Increases Serum Glucose, Insulin, True Triglyceride, and Total Cholesterol Levels in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Balasubramanian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In animals deprived of food for a long period, a drop in the fat mass below 5% of the total body mass results in an increase in blood glucocorticoids and uric acid levels, followed by foraging activity. Since the glucocorticoids increase the uric acid excretion, an increase in the level of uric acid in the bladder urine could be the signal for this feeding behaviour and subsequent fat storage. Accumulation of fat is associated with hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, and hypercholesterolaemia as seen in the metabolic syndrome or hibernation. It is hypothesized that uric acid or its structurally related compound, 1-methyl uric acid (one of the metabolites of the methyl xanthines namely caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine present in coffee, tea, cocoa, and some drugs, can act on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels. In rats, perfusion of the urinary bladder with saturated aqueous solution of uric acid or 1-methyl uric acid results in a significant increase in the serum levels of glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol in comparison with perfusion of the bladder with distilled water at 20, 40, and 80 min. The uric acid or the 1-methyl uric acid acts on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the serum glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels.

  14. Response of plasma and urinary uric acid, creatine and creatinine to dietary protein deficiency and/or whole body gamma-irradiation in desert rodent and albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.M.; El-Husseini, M.; Saleh, F.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of whole body gamma-irradiation on the levels of plasma and urinary uric acid, creatine and creatinine was studied in the desert rodent, Psammomys obesus and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency. In albino rats, the levels of uric acid in plasma and urine were higher in the animals kept on high protein diets than in those maintained on non-protein ones. Radiation exposure caused a significant increase in uric acid concentration both in plasma and urine of albino rats, whereas in Psammomys obesus obesus, it exerted a significant drop in uric acid concentration in blood paralleling a marked rise in the daily uric acid excretion in the urine, especially with the high radiation level of 1170 r. Creatinine concentrations in plasma and urine of albino rats were higher than the corresponding values in Psammomys obesus obesus. Radiation exposure in general caused an increase in the creatinine concentration in blood and a decrease in its concentration in urine. Plasma creatine was shown to increase due to the effect of radiation exposure. This runs in parallel with the increase in the excretion of creatine in urine. Creatinuria observed in whole body irradiation is obviously caused by a defect in the ability of skeletal muscle to take up creatine from blood. Such abnormality could be the result of direct damage to the muscle caused by incident radiation

  15. Response of plasma and urinary uric acid, creatine and creatinine to dietary protein deficiency and/or whole body gamma-irradiation in desert rodent and albino rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roushdy, H M; El-Husseini, M; Saleh, F [National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt)

    1985-01-01

    The effect of whole body gamma-irradiation on the levels of plasma and urinary uric acid, creatine and creatinine was studied in the desert rodent, Psammomys obesus and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency. In albino rats, the levels of uric acid in plasma and urine were higher in the animals kept on high protein diets than in those maintained on non-protein ones. Radiation exposure caused a significant increase in uric acid concentration both in plasma and urine of albino rats, whereas in Psammomys obesus obesus, it exerted a significant drop in uric acid concentration in blood paralleling a marked rise in the daily uric acid excretion in the urine, especially with the high radiation level of 1170 r. Creatinine concentrations in plasma and urine of albino rats were higher than the corresponding values in Psammomys obesus obesus. Radiation exposure in general caused an increase in the creatinine concentration in blood and a decrease in its concentration in urine. Plasma creatine was shown to increase due to the effect of radiation exposure. This runs in parallel with the increase in the excretion of creatine in urine. Creatinuria observed in whole body irradiation is obviously caused by a defect in the ability of skeletal muscle to take up creatine from blood. Such abnormality could be the result of direct damage to the muscle caused by incident radiation.

  16. A urinary metabonomics analysis of long-term effect of acetochlor exposure on rats by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longxue; Wang, Maoqing; Chen, Shuhong; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Yang

    2016-03-01

    The study was to assess the long-term toxic effects of acetochlor on rats. Two different doses (42.96 and 107.4 mg/kg body weight/day) of acetochlor were administered to Wistar rats through their food for over 24 weeks. Rat urine samples were collected at two time-points for the measurements of the metabonomics profiles with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MSMS). The results of clinical chemistry and histopathology suggested that long-term use of acetochlor in rats caused liver and kidney damage, and dysfunction of antioxidant system. The urinary metabonomics analysis indicated that the high and low-dose exposure of acetochlor could cause alterations of these metabonomics in urine in the rat. Significant changes of the levels of hippuric acid (0.403-fold decrease), citric acid (0.430-fold decrease), pantothenic acid (0.486-fold decrease), uracil (0.419-fold decrease), β-Alanine (0.325-fold decrease), nonanedioic acid (0.445-fold decrease), L-tyrosine (0.410-fold decrease), D-glucuronic acid (8.389-fold increase) and 2-ethyl-6-methyl-N-methyl-2-chloro-acetanilide in urine were observed. In addition, it may interfere with the fatty acid synthesis, the pyrimidine degradation and pantothenate biosynthesis. The level of 2-ethyl-6-methyl-N-methyl-2-chloro-acetanilide is detected in all treated groups which is not found in the control groups, indicating which can be used as an early, sensitive marker of acetochlor exposure in rat. This study illustrates the important utility of metabonomics approaches to understand the toxicity of long-term exposure of acetochlor. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. DIMETHYLARSINIC ACID ALTERS EXPRESSION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AND DNA REPAIR GENES IN A DOSE DEPENDENT MANNER IN THE TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM OF THE URINARY BLADDER FROM FEMALE F344 RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dose-dependent alteration of oxidative stress and DNA repair gene expression by Dimethylarsinic acid [DMA(V)] in transitional epithelium of urinary bladder from female F344 rats.Arsenic (As) is a major concern as millions of people are at risk from drinking arsenic contaminat...

  18. Aeroallergen and food IgE sensitization and local and systemic inflammation in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patelis, A; Janson, C; Borres, M P; Nordvall, L; Alving, K; Malinovschi, A

    2014-03-01

    We recently reported an independent association between IgE sensitization to food allergens and increased airway inflammation, assessed by fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), in a population-based study (J Allergy Clin Immunol, 130, 2012, 397). Similar studies have not been performed in populations with asthma. The aim of the present study was to investigate the allergic sensitization profile in asthmatics and examine FeNO, airway responsiveness and blood eosinophilia in relation to type and degree of IgE sensitization. FeNO, airway responsiveness, blood eosinophil count (B-Eos) and IgE sensitization to food allergens and aeroallergens were determined in 408 subjects with asthma, aged 10-34 years. Asthmatics had higher prevalence of IgE sensitization against all allergens than controls (P < 0.001). Mite, pollen, furry animal, mould and food sensitizations were each associated with increased FeNO, airway responsiveness and B-Eos in asthmatics. IgE sensitization to mould, furry animals and food allergens was independently related to FeNO (all P < 0.05) after adjustment for age, sex, height, smoking history and medication. IgE sensitization to mould (P < 0.001) and furry animals (P = 0.02) was related to airway responsiveness in a similar model. Finally, IgE sensitization to mould (P = 0.001), furry animals (P < 0.001) and food allergens (P < 0.001) was independently related to B-Eos. Independent effects of IgE sensitization to aeroallergens (furry animals and mould) and food allergens were found on both local and systemic markers of inflammation in asthma. The finding regarding food IgE sensitization is novel, and a clinical implication might be that even food sensitization must be assessed to fully understand inflammation patterns in asthma. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Respiratory infections in adults with atopic disease and IgE antibodies to common aeroallergens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aino Rantala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atopic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis and asthma, are common diseases with a prevalence of 30-40% worldwide and are thus of great global public health importance. Allergic inflammation may influence the immunity against infections, so atopic individuals could be susceptible to respiratory infections. No previous population-based study has addressed the relation between atopy and respiratory infections in adulthood. We assessed the relation between atopic disease, specific IgE antibodies and the occurrence of upper and lower respiratory infections in the past 12 months among working-aged adults. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A population-based cross-sectional study of 1008 atopic and non-atopic adults 21-63 years old was conducted. Information on atopic diseases, allergy tests and respiratory infections was collected by a questionnaire. Specific IgE antibodies to common aeroallergens were measured in serum. Adults with atopic disease had a significantly increased risk of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI; including acute bronchitis and pneumonia with an adjusted risk ratio (RR 2.24 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43, 3.52 and upper respiratory tract infections (URTI; including common cold, sinusitis, tonsillitis, and otitis media with an adjusted RR 1.55 (1.14, 2.10. The risk of LRTIs increased with increasing level of specific IgE (linear trend P = 0.059. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new evidence that working-aged adults with atopic disease experience significantly more LRTIs and URTIs than non-atopics. The occurrence of respiratory infections increased with increasing levels of specific IgE antibodies to common aeroallergens, showing a dose-response pattern with LRTIs. From the clinical point of view it is important to recognize that those with atopies are a risk group for respiratory infections, including more severe LRTIs.

  20. Meteorological factors, aeroallergens and asthma-related visits in Kuwait : A 12-month retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafar A Qasem

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of asthma in many countries has been related to weather factors and aeroallergen concentrations , but this has not been studied in Kuwait. We evaluated the effect of meteorological factors and the occurrence of aerobiologicals on the number of asthma cases in Kuwait.The number of daily asthma visits to the allergy center and emergency department at Al-Sabha Hospital for 1 year were examined on a monthly basis for correlation with major metereological factors (temperature , relative humidity , rain , wind speed and direction). Spore and pollen counts were collected hourly. Results: A total of 4353 patients received asthma treatment during the year. The highest pollen count was in the month of September with a maximum relative humidity of 47% and no precipitation , but with a high mean temperature of 39.7 0 C. . Pollen counts were higher in the late summer (September) and occurred with a high patient visit to the allergy center. Fungal spore counts were significantly higher in early winter (December). The high fungal spore count seemed related to with high relative humidity and high precipitation with a low mean average temperature of 19.7 0 C. The increase number of patients with bronchial asthma visiting an emergency clinic during December was significantly associated with high aerial counts for fungal spores (P<.03) , and the months of September and October were more significant for pollen.This study indicates that meteorological factors , aeroallergen concentrations and asthma related visits are interrelated. The results may prove useful in the generation of hypotheses and development of designs for more comprehensive , individual-based epidemiological studies (Author).

  1. DIFFERENTIAL MODULATION OF CANCER-RELATED MOLECULAR NETWORKS IN HUMAN AND RAT URINARY BLADDER CELLS EXPOSED TO TRIVALENT ARSENICALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic (As) is classified as a known human carcinogen with primary targets of urinary bladder (UB), skin and lung. The most prevalent source of As exposure in humans is drinking water contaminated with inorganic As (iAs), and millions of people worldwide are exposed to drinking ...

  2. Chronic restraint stress in rats causes sustained increase in urinary corticosterone excretion without affecting cerebral or systemic oxidatively generated DNA/RNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Anders; Maigaard, Katrine; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2013-01-01

    acids, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo), respectively, in rats subjected to chronic restraint stress. To reliably collect 24h urine samples, the full 3-week restraint stress paradigm was performed in metabolism cages. We further determined frontal...... and Tnf). The metabolism cage housing in itself did not significantly influence a range of biological stress markers. In the restraint stress group, there was a sustained 2.5 fold increase in 24h corticosterone excretion from day 2 after stress initiation. However, neither whole-body nor cerebral measures......Increased oxidatively generated damage to nucleic acids (DNA/RNA) may be a common mechanism underlying accelerated aging in psychological stress states and mental disorders. In the present study, we measured the urinary excretion of corticosterone and markers of systemic oxidative stress on nucleic...

  3. Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with nerve signals involved in bladder control, causing urinary incontinence. Risk factors Factors that increase your risk of developing urinary incontinence include: Gender. Women are more likely to have ...

  4. Urinary incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss of bladder control; Uncontrollable urination; Urination - uncontrollable; Incontinence - urinary ... and take out yourself. Bladder nerve stimulation. Urge incontinence and urinary frequency can sometimes be treated by electrical nerve ...

  5. Resveratrol improves urinary dysfunction in rats with chronic prostatitis and suppresses the activity of the stem cell factor/c-Kit signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Jiang, Jiang; He, Yi; Wang, Wei; Shen, Chen; Yang, Bo

    2017-08-01

    Chronic prostatitis (CP) is a common urological disorder, with bladder voiding dysfunction being the primary clinical manifestation. Resveratrol is polyphenolic compound isolated from numerous plants, with widely‑reported anti-inflammatory properties. The present study aimed to investigate whether resveratrol may improve overactive bladder in rats with CP and to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Furthermore, the potential pharmacological synergy between resveratrol and solifenacin was also investigated as a potential treatment for CP. Following the successful establishment of a rat model of CP by subcutaneously injecting DPT vaccine, rats were treated with resveratrol or a combination of resveratrol + solifenacin. Bladder pressure and volume tests were performed to investigate the effect of resveratrol and solifenacin on urinary dysfunction in rats with chronic prostatitis. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining were used to examine the expression of c‑Kit receptor, stem cell factor (SCF), AKT and phosphorylated‑AKT (p‑AKT) in the bladder tissue. The results of the bladder pressure and volume test indicated that the maximum capacity of the bladder, residual urine volume and maximum voiding pressure in the control group were 0.57 ml, 0.17 ml and 29.62 cm H2O, respectively. These values were increased by 71, 27 and 206% in rats in the CP group compared with the control group. Following treatment with resveratrol, the results in the resveratrol group were reduced by 25.77, 44.23 and 13.32% compared with the CP group. The results of western blot analysis, immunohistochemical staining and immunofluorescence labeling demonstrate that the protein expression of SCF, c‑Kit and p‑AKT in the bladder of rats in the CP group was 4.32, 6.13 and 6.31 times higher compared with the control group, respectively. Following treatment with resveratrol, protein expression was significantly reduced. However, no significant differences

  6. Extract Against Toxic Sodium The Protective Role of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins Nitrites and Gamma Irradiation Induced Histological Changes in Intestine and Urinary Bladder of Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El- Azeem, M.G.; El-Nashar, D.E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (a grape seed extract) possess a broad spectrum of biological activities. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of gamma radiation exposure and toxic sodium nitrites induced oxidative stress on the intestine and urinary bladder histologically and also to evaluate the possible protective role of proanthocyanidins. Seventy adult male albino rats, each weighing 95-105 g were used and divided into 7 groups as follows: The first group represents the control group. The second experimental group were exposed to 7 Gy gamma-rays as a single dose and sacrificed on the 7th day. The third experimental group received by a stomach tube daily 50 mg/kg b.wt of sodium nitrite for 4 weeks. The fourth experimental group received proanthocyanidins, Grape seed extracts (antioxidant) (100 mg/kg) body wt.) daily for seven days before irradiation and the continued for 14 days post irradiation. The fifth group of animals received grape seed extract after being exposed to gamma radiation for two weeks, while the sixth experimental group received the same antioxidant for seven days before and after received sodium nitrite (50 mg/kg) daily for 4 weeks. Finally, the seventh experimental groups was treated with the same antioxidant in same dose and time after received sodium nitrite for 4 weeks. The animals were then sacrificed on the end of each experimental duration. The results revealed that both gamma-radiation and sodium nitrite induced different histological changes in the intestine and urinary bladder of irradiated and sodium nitrite received animals. The effect of gamma radiation exposure showed marked degeneration of intestinal villi, vaculation in the lining epithelium cells and karyolytic nuclei. In addition, using sodium nitrite lead to necrosis of intestinal glandular cells. The effect of gamma radiation on urinary bladder was presented by, hyperplasia and vaculation of mucosal epithelium, congestion of blood capillaries. Rats from nitrite

  7. Sensitisation to aeroallergens among asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents living in a poor region in the Northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarinho, E C S; Mariano, J; Sarinho, S W; Medeiros, D; Rizzo, J A; Almerinda R, S; Solé, D

    2009-01-01

    To assess the kind and frequency of sensitisation to aeroallergens (skin prick test - SPT) of asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents (13-14 years old) living in the city of Caruaru, Northeast of Brazil, and to analyse their exposure to some environmental factors. A case-control study was conducted with asthmatic (50) and non-asthmatic (150) adolescents diagnosed by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) written questionnaire. All were submitted to SPT with aeroallergens (house dust mites, cat and dog epithelium, cockroaches, moulds and grass) and completed a questionnaire to evaluate their environmental exposure. There were no significant differences between groups regarding gender, age, number of siblings and environmental exposure. Asthmatic subjects exhibited a higher frequency of positive SPTs than non-asthmatic subjects (54.0% vs 33.3%, p=0.009) mainly due to Periplaneta americana (34.0% vs 12.7%, p=0.0007 respectively) and Canis familiaris (20.0% vs 8.7%, p=0.029). Although sensitisation to aeroallergens was high among non-asthmatic adolescents, asthma was associated with parental history of atopic disease and sensitisation to P. americana and Canis familiaris but not to D. pteronyssinus showing that local studies are mandatory for the tailoring of appropriate management of allergic diseases.

  8. Hypersensitivity to aeroallergens in patients with recurrent vulvovaginitis of undetermined etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Sami; Caliskaner, Zafer; Karaayvaz, Mehmet; Dede, Murat; Gulec, Mustafa

    2007-08-01

    Recent findings show that the vaginal mucosa can develop an allergic response to environmental allergens and there is a strong association between atopy and some recurrent vulvovaginal infections. In this study, we investigated prospectively the rate of atopy in patients with recurrent vulvovaginitis of undetermined etiology (RVV). After being investigated by a gynecologist, 35 patients with RVV who were considered as undetermined etiology formed the study group. The control group consisted of 150 healthy females. Study and control groups were investigated for atopy by means of skin prick test for common aeroallergens. Associated allergic disease and familial atopy history of the subjects were recorded. The rate of atopy (11/35; 31.4% vs 9/150; 6%) was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the study group than in the controls. Familial history of atopy was significantly more frequent in the study group than in the controls (10/35; 28.6% vs 8/150; 5.3%, P < 0.05). RVV in atopics is more associated with seasonal rhinitis than in nonatopics (5/11; 45.4% vs 2/24; 8.3%, P < 0.05). We concluded that a significant number of RVV is associated with atopy. Although the exact mechanism(s) of this relationship remains to be investigated atopy might be a causative and/or contributing factor in the pathogenesis of RVV.

  9. Modulation of gene expression and cell-cycle signaling pathways by the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib (Iressa) in rat urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; Liu, Pengyuan; Van den Bergh, Francoise; Zellmer, Victoria; James, Michael; Wen, Weidong; Grubbs, Clinton J; Lubet, Ronald A; You, Ming

    2012-02-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor Iressa has shown strong preventive efficacy in the N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine (OH-BBN) model of bladder cancer in the rat. To explore its antitumor mechanism, we implemented a systems biology approach to characterize gene expression and signaling pathways in rat urinary bladder cancers treated with Iressa. Eleven bladder tumors from control rats, seven tumors from rats treated with Iressa, and seven normal bladder epithelia were profiled by the Affymetrix Rat Exon 1.0 ST Arrays. We identified 713 downregulated and 641 upregulated genes in comparing bladder tumors versus normal bladder epithelia. In addition, 178 genes were downregulated and 96 genes were upregulated when comparing control tumors versus Iressa-treated tumors. Two coexpression modules that were significantly correlated with tumor status and treatment status were identified [r = 0.70, P = 2.80 × 10(-15) (bladder tumor vs. normal bladder epithelium) and r = 0.63, P = 2.00 × 10(-42) (Iressa-treated tumor vs. control tumor), respectively]. Both tumor module and treatment module were enriched for genes involved in cell-cycle processes. Twenty-four and twenty-one highly connected hub genes likely to be key drivers in cell cycle were identified in the tumor module and treatment module, respectively. Analysis of microRNA genes on the array chips showed that tumor module and treatment module were significantly associated with expression levels of let-7c (r = 0.54, P = 3.70 × 10(-8) and r = 0.73, P = 1.50 × 10(-65), respectively). These results suggest that let-7c downregulation and its regulated cell-cycle pathway may play an integral role in governing bladder tumor suppression or collaborative oncogenesis and that Iressa exhibits its preventive efficacy on bladder tumorigenesis by upregulating let-7 and inhibiting the cell cycle. Cell culture study confirmed that the increased expression of let-7c decreases Iressa-treated bladder tumor cell

  10. Urinary metabolomic profiling in rats exposed to dietary di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) using ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xinwen; Zhang, Yunbo; Dong, Jin; Zhao, Yue; Guo, Jipeng; Wang, Zhanju; Liu, Mingqi; Na, Xiaolin; Wang, Cheng

    2017-07-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is an omnipresent environmental chemical with widespread nonoccupational human exposure through multiple ways. Although considerable efforts have been invested to investigate mechanisms of DEHP toxicity, the key metabolic biomarkers of DEHP toxicity remain to be identified. The aim of this study was to assess the urinary metabonomics of dietary DEHP in rats using the technique of ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS). Fourteen female Wistar rats were divided into two groups and given increasing dietary doses of DEHP for 30 consecutive days. The urinary metabolite profile was studied using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) enabled clusters to be clearly separated. Eleven principal urinary metabolites were identified as contributing to the clusters. The clusters in the positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode were xanthurenic acid, kynurenic acid, nonate, N6-methyladenosine, and L-isoleucyl-L-proline. The clusters in the negative ESI mode were hippuric acid, tetrahydrocortisol, citric acid, phenylpropionylglycine, cPA(18:2(9Z, 12Z)/0:0), and LysoPC(14:1(9Z)). The urinary metabonomic changes indicated that exposure to dietary DEHP can affect energy-related metabolism, liver and renal function, fatty acid metabolism, and cause DNA damage in rats. The findings of this study on the urinary metabolites and metabolic pathways of DEHP may form the basis for future studies on the mechanisms of toxicity of this commonly found environmental chemical.

  11. High salt loading induces urinary storage dysfunction via upregulation of epithelial sodium channel alpha in the bladder epithelium in Dahl salt-sensitive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Yamamoto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate whether high salt intake affects bladder function via epithelial sodium channel (ENaC by using Dahl salt-resistant (DR and salt-sensitive (DS rats. Bladder weight of DR + high-salt diet (HS, 8% NaCl and DS + HS groups were significantly higher than those of DR + normal-salt diet (NS, 0.3% NaCl and DS + NS groups after one week treatment. We thereafter used only DR + HS and DS + HS group. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in DS + HS group than in DR + HS group after the treatment period. Cystometrogram showed the intercontraction intervals (ICI were significantly shorter in DS + HS group than in DR + HS group during infusion of saline. Subsequent infusion of amiloride significantly prolonged ICI in DS + HS group, while no intra-group difference in ICI was observed in DR + HS group. No intra- or inter-group differences in maximum intravesical pressure were observed. Protein expression levels of ENaCα in the bladder were significantly higher in DS + HS group than in DR + HS group. ENaCα protein was localized at bladder epithelium in both groups. In conclusion, high salt intake is considered to cause urinary storage dysfunction via upregulation of ENaC in the bladder epithelium with salt-sensitive hypertension, suggesting that ENaC might be a candidate for therapeutic target for urinary storage dysfunction.

  12. Induction of glutathione S-transferase placental form positive foci in liver and epithelial hyperplasia in urinary bladder, but no tumor development in male Fischer 344 rats treated with monomethylarsonic acid for 104 weeks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jun; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Salim, Elsayed I.; Wei Min; Doi, Kenichiro; Yoshida, Kaoru; Endo, Ginji; Morimura,; Fukushima, Shoji

    2003-01-01

    The carcinogenicity of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), a major metabolite of inorganic arsenics in human and experimental animals, was investigated in male Fischer 344 rats. A total of 129 rats at 10 weeks of age were randomly divided into three groups and received drinking water containing MMA(V) at doses of 0 (Control), 50, and 200 ppm ad libitum for 104 weeks. No significant differences were found between the control and the MMA(V)-treated groups regarding clinical signs, mortality, hematological, and serum biochemistry findings. Quantitative analysis of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci in liver revealed a significant increase of numbers and areas in the 200 ppm MMA(V)-treated group. In the urinary bladder MMA(V) induced simple hyperplasia and significantly elevated the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive index in the urothelium. A variety of tumors developed in rats of all groups, including the controls, but all were histologically similar to those known to occur spontaneously in F344 rats and there were no significant differences among the groups. Thus, it could be concluded that, under the present experimental conditions, MMA(V) induced lesions in the liver and urinary bladder, but did not cause tumor development in male F344 rats even after 2 years exposure

  13. The effect of dietary administration of Disperse Blue 1 on the urinary system of the Fischer 344 rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, C M; Squire, R A

    1986-04-01

    Disperse Blue 1 (containing 50% lignosulphonate dispersants) was fed to Fischer 344 rats at dietary levels of 0.01 and 0.1% for 19 months and at 1.0% for 6 months. Fischer 344 rats were also given the dye by gavage at 1 g/kg for 1-3 days or in the diet at 0.5 or 1% for 4 days, and corresponding dietary levels of the colouring without dispersant were also fed for 4 days. Bladders and kidneys were examined after the 1-4 day treatments, in animals dying or killed from month 6 to termination (19 months) in the chronic study and in those killed at wk 5, 9 and 17. At the latter three times, autoradiography following injection of tritiated thymidine showed increased DNA synthesis in the urothelium of high-dose rats, but no other increased labelling in any group. Bladder lesions were seen only at the 1.0% level, epithelial erosion with adhering dye particles being seen by day 4, calculi and hyperplasia by wk 5 and squamous metaplasia by wk 9. The calculi contained more dye in males than in females and more calcium in females. By month 6, dye particles were embedded in the bladder wall, with some evidence of histiocyte accumulation in their vicinity. Two papillomas and one carcinoma, but no leiomyosarcomas, were diagnosed. The earliest tumours, two papillomas, were detected at wk 17. Tumour incidence following surgical removal of calculus was about double that in rats not subjected to surgery and the incidence of normal bladders at month 19 was higher in the latter group. Compound-related effects in the kidneys--inflammation, pelvic epithelial hyperplasia and tubular degeneration and regeneration with interstitial fibrosis--were seen only in the high-dose group. Dye present in the tubules and renal pelvis persisted in many rats for a year after cessation of treatment.

  14. A HILIC-UHPLC-MS/MS untargeted urinary metabonomics combined with quantitative analysis of five polar biomarkers on osteoporosis rats after oral administration of Gushudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; Huang, Yue; Sun, Jinghan; Wen, Yongqing; Qin, Feng; Zhao, Longshan; Xiong, Zhili

    2018-01-01

    A HILIC-UHPLC-MS/MS untargeted urinary metabonomic method combined with quantitative analysis of five potential polar biomarkers in rat urine was developed and validated, to further understand the anti-osteoporosis effect of Gushudan(GSD) and its mechanism on prednisolone-induced osteoporosis(OP) rats in this study. The metabolites were separated and identified on Waters BEH HILIC (2.1mm×100mm, 1.7μm) column using the Waters ACQUITY™ ultra performance liquid chromatography system (Waters Corporation, Milford, USA) coupled with a Micromass Quattro Micro™ API mass spectrometer (Waters Corp, Milford, MA, USA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify potential biomarkers. Primary potential polar biomarkers including creatinine, taurine, betaine, hypoxanthine and cytosine, which were related to energy metabolism, lipid metabolism and amino acid metabolism, were found in the untargeted metabonomic research. Moreover, these targeted biomarkers were further separated and quantified in multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) with positive ionization mode, using tinidazole as internal standard (I.S.). Good linearities (r>0.99) were obtained for all the analytes with the low limit of quantification from 1.00 to 12.8μg/mL. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the intra-day and inter-day precisions were within 15.0% and the accuracy ranged from -14.3% to 13.5%. The recovery was more than 85.0%. And the validated method was successfully applied to investigate the urine samples of the control group, prednisolone-induced osteoporosis model group and Gushudan-treatment group in rats. Compared to the control group, the level of creatinine, taurine, betaine, hypoxanthine and cytosine in the model group revealed a significant decrease trend (p<0.05), while the Gushudan-treatment group showed no statistically differences by an independent sample t-test. This paper provided a better understanding of the therapeutic effect and mechanism of GSD on prednisolone

  15. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections > A-Z Health Topics Urinary tract infections (PDF, ... Embed Subscribe To receive Publications email updates Submit Urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are most often caused ...

  16. Study of the correlation between blood cholinesterases activity, urinary dialkyl phosphates, and the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in rats exposed to disulfoton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Gonçalves Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates (OPs are widely used as pesticides, and its urinary metabolites as well as the blood cholinesterases (ChEs activity have been reported as possible biomarkers for the assessment of this pesticide exposure. Moreover, the OPs can induce mutagenesis, and the bone marrow micronucleus test is an efficient way to assess this chromosomal damage. This paper reports a study carried out to verify the correlation among the disulfoton exposure, blood ChEs activity, urinary diethyl thiophosphate (DETP, and diethyl dithiophosphate (DEDTP, as well as micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs frequency. Four groups of rats (n=12 were exposed to disulfoton at 0, 2.8, 4.7, and 6.6 mg kg-1 body weight. The blood ChEs activity, urinary DETP and DEDTP concentrations, and MNPCEs frequency were determined. It was observed that the plasmatic and erythrocytary ChEs activity decreased from 2.9% to 0.5% and from 35.9 to 3.3%, respectively, when the disulfoton dose was increased from 0 to 6.6 mg kg-1 (correlation of 0.99. Urinary DETP and DEDTP concentrations, as well as the MNPCEs frequency, increased from 0 to 6.58 µg mL-1, from 0 to 0.04 µg mL-1, and from 0 to 1.4%, respectively, when the disulfoton dose was increased from 0 to 6.58 mg kg-1 body weight.Os organofosforados (OPs são amplamente usados como praguicidas e a atividade da colinesterase sanguínea bem como os metabólitos urinários desses praguicidas têm sido reportados como biomarcadores eficazes para avaliar casos de exposição. Além disso, os OPs podem induzir mutagênese e o teste de micronúcleo de medula óssea é uma boa alternativa para avaliar os danos cromossômicos. Esse artigo reporta um estudo sobre a correlação entre a exposição a dissulfoton, a atividade da colinesterase sanguínea, a excreção urinária de dietil tiofosfato e dietil ditiofosfato e a frequência de micronúcleos em eritrócitos policromáticos. Quatro grupos de ratos (n=12 foram expostos a

  17. Toxic effects of a horseradish extract and allyl isothiocyanate in the urinary bladder after 13-week administration in drinking water to F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasumura, Mai; Imai, Toshio; Cho, Young-Man; Ueda, Makoto; Hirose, Masao; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Ogawa, Kumiko

    2011-01-01

    Subchronic toxicity of a horseradish extract (HRE), consisting mainly of a mixture of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and other isothiocyanates, was investigated with administration at concentrations of 0, 0.0125, 0.025 and 0.05% of HRE in drinking water for 13 weeks to male and female F344 rats. For comparison, treatment with 0.0425% of AITC was similarly performed. Body weight gain was reduced in the 0.05% HRE and AITC males as compared to the 0% controls, and the cause was considered at least partly related to decreased water consumption due to the acrid smell of the test substance and decreased food consumption. Serum biochemistry demonstrated increased urea nitrogen in 0.025 and 0.05% HRE and AITC males and 0.0125-0.05% HRE and AITC females, along with decreased total cholesterol in 0.0125-0.05% HRE females. On histopathological assessment, papillary/nodular hyperplasia of bladder mucosa was observed in 0.05% HRE and AITC males and females, in addition to simple mucosal hyperplasia found in all treated groups. Based on the above findings, no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAELs) were estimated to be below 0.0125% of HRE for both males and females, corresponding to 9.4 and 8.0 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively, and there appeared to be comparable toxicological properties of HRE to AITC, such as the inductive effect of significant proliferative lesions in the urinary bladder.

  18. Applications of Micro-CT scanning in medicine and dentistry: Microstructural analyses of a Wistar Rat mandible and a urinary tract stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latief, F. D. E.; Sari, D. S.; Fitri, L. A.

    2017-08-01

    High-resolution tomographic imaging by means of x-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT) has been widely utilized for morphological evaluations in dentistry and medicine. The use of μCT follows a standard procedure: image acquisition, reconstruction, processing, evaluation using image analysis, and reporting of results. This paper discusses methods of μCT using a specific scanning device, the Bruker SkyScan 1173 High Energy Micro-CT. We present a description of the general workflow, information on terminology for the measured parameters and corresponding units, and further analyses that can potentially be conducted with this technology. Brief qualitative and quantitative analyses, including basic image processing (VOI selection and thresholding) and measurement of several morphometrical variables (total VOI volume, object volume, percentage of total volume, total VOI surface, object surface, object surface/volume ratio, object surface density, structure thickness, structure separation, total porosity) were conducted on two samples, the mandible of a wistar rat and a urinary tract stone, to illustrate the abilities of this device and its accompanying software package. The results of these analyses for both samples are reported, along with a discussion of the types of analyses that are possible using digital images obtained with a μCT scanning device, paying particular attention to non-diagnostic ex vivo research applications.

  19. Effect of castration on renal glycosaminoglycans and their urinary excretion in male and female rats with chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, C.C.S.; Tovar, A.M.F.; Guimarães, M.A.M.; Bregman, R.

    2013-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) participate in a variety of processes in the kidney, and evidence suggests that gender-related hormones participate in renal function. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship of GAGs, gender, and proteinuria in male and female rats with chronic renal failure (CRF). GAGs were analyzed in total kidney tissue and 24-h urine of castrated (c), male (M), and female (F) Wistar control (C) rats (CM, CMc, CF, CFc) and after 30 days of CRF induced by 5/6 nephrectomy (CRFM, CRFMc, CRFF, CRFFc). Total GAG quantification and composition were determined using agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, respectively. Renal GAGs were higher in CF compared to CM. CRFM presented an increase in renal GAGs, heparan sulfate (HS), and proteinuria, while castration reduced these parameters. However, CRFF and CRFFc groups showed a decrease in renal GAGs concomitant with an increase in proteinuria. Our results suggest that, in CRFM, sex hormones quantitatively alter GAGs, mainly HS, and possibly the glomerular filtration barrier, leading to proteinuria. The lack of this response in CRFMc, where HS did not increase, corroborates this theory. This pattern was not observed in females. Further studies of CRF are needed to clarify gender-dependent differences in HS synthesis

  20. Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Why does urinary incontinence affect more women than men? Women have unique health events, such as pregnancy, ... urge incontinence, urine leakage usually happens after a strong, sudden urge to urinate and before you can ...

  1. Studies on the pathogenesis in iron deficiency anemia Part 1. Urinary iron excretion in iron deficiency anemia patients and rats in various iron states

    OpenAIRE

    中西,徳彦

    1991-01-01

    In the "iron excretion test" , urinary iron excretion after injection of saccharated iron oxide has been reported to be accelerated in relapsing idiopathic iron deficiency anemia. To determine the relevance of urinary iron excretion to clinical factors other than iron metabolism, 15 clinical parameters were evaluated. The serum creatinine level was positively and the serum albumin level was negatively correlated with urinary iron excretion, showing coefficients of r=0.97,-0.86 respectively, a...

  2. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... and disorders: physiology of micturition, voiding dysfunction, urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, and painful bladder syndrome. In: Lobo ...

  3. Urinary metabonomics study of the hepatoprotective effects of total alkaloids from Corydalis saxicola Bunting on carbon tetrachloride-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats using 1H NMR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fang; Zheng, Hua; Yang, Zheng-Teng; Cheng, Bang; Wu, Jin-Xia; Liu, Xu-Wen; Tang, Chao-Ling; Lu, Shi-Yin; Chen, Zhao-Ni; Song, Fang-Ming; Ruan, Jun-Xiang; Zhang, Hong-Ye; Liang, Yong-Hong; Song, Hui; Su, Zhi-Heng

    2017-06-05

    Chronic liver injury has been shown to cause liver fibrosis due to the sustained pathophysiological wound healing response of the liver, and eventually progresses to cirrhosis. The total alkaloids of Corydalis saxicola Bunting (TACS), a collection of important bioactive ingredients derived from the traditional Chinese folk medicine Corydalis saxicola Bunting (CS), have been reported to have protective effects on the liver. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms need further elucidation. In this study, the urinary metabonomics and the biochemical changes in rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced chronic liver injury due to treatment TACS or administration of the positive control drug-bifendate were studied via proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) analysis. Partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) suggested that metabolic perturbation caused by CCl 4 damage was recovered with TACS and bifendate treatment. A total of seven metabolites including 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, dimethylamine, taurine, phenylacetylglycine, creatinine and hippurate were considered as potential biomarkers involved in the development of CCl 4 -induced chronic liver injury. According to pathway analysis using identified metabolites and correlation network construction, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, gut microbiota metabolism and taurine and hypotaurine metabolism were recognized as the most affected metabolic pathways associated with CCl 4 chronic hepatotoxicity. Notably, the changes in 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, taurine and hippurate during the process of CCl 4 -induced chronic liver injury were significantly restored by TACS treatment, which suggested that TACS synergistically mediated the regulation of multiple metabolic pathways including the TCA cycle, gut microbiota metabolism and taurine and hypotaurine metabolism. This study could bring valuable insight to evaluating the efficacy of TACS intervention therapy, help deepen the understanding of the

  4. Modulation of the release of ( sup 3 H)norepinephrine from the base and body of the rat urinary bladder by endogenous adrenergic and cholinergic mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somogyi, G.T.; de Groat, W.C. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Modulation of (3H)NE release was studied in rat urinary bladder strips prelabeled with (3H)NE. (3H)NE uptake occurred in strips from the bladder base and body, but was very prominent in the base where the noradrenergic innervation is most dense. Electrical field stimulation markedly increased (3H)NE outflow from the superfused tissue. The quantity of (3H)NE release was approximately equal during three consecutive periods of stimulation. Activation of presynaptic muscarinic receptors by 1.0 microM oxotremorine reduced (3H)NE release to 46% of the control. Atropine (1 microM) blocked the effect of oxotremorine and increased the release to 147% of predrug control levels. Activation of presynaptic alpha-2 adrenoceptors by 1 microM clonidine reduced (3H)NE release to 55% of control. Yohimbine blocked the action of clonidine and increased the release to 148% of control. The release of (3H)NE from the bladder base and body was increased by both 1 microM atropine (to 167% and 174% of control, respectively) and 1 microM yohimbine (to 286% and 425% of control, respectively). Atropine and yohimbine administered in combination had similar facilitatory effects as when administered alone. We conclude that the release of (3H)NE from adrenergic nerve endings in electrically stimulated bladder strips is modulated via endogenous transmitters acting on both muscarinic and alpha-2 adrenergic presynaptic receptors and that the latter provide the most prominent control.

  5. Urinary Tract Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... related to the urinary tract health of women: Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) and Urinary Incontinence (UI). For information on a range of urinary tract health issues for women, men, and children, visit the National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information ...

  6. Urinary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2011. [4] Mevcha A, Drake MJ. Etiology and management of urinary retention in women. Indian Journal of Urology. 2010;26(2):230–235. August ... 30 a.m. to 5 p.m. eastern time, M-F Follow Us NIH… Turning Discovery Into ... Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition ...

  7. In vivo fluorescence imaging of an orthotopic rat bladder tumor model indicates differential uptake of intravesically instilled near-infrared labeled 2-deoxyglucose analog by neoplastic urinary bladder tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Daqing; Davis, Carole A.; Hurst, Robert E.; Slaton, Joel W.

    2017-02-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most expensive cancers to manage due to frequent recurrences requiring life-long surveillance and treatment. A near-infrared labeled 2-deoxy-d-glucose probe IRDye800CW-DG targeting glucose metabolism pathway has shown to enhance the sensitivity of diagnosing several types of cancers as tested on tumor models not including bladder tumor. This pilot study has explored differential uptake of intravesically administered IRDye800CW-DG in an orthotopic rat bladder tumor model. Twenty-five female Fischer rats were randomly grouped to four conditions: no-tumor-control (n=3), no-tumor-control intravesically instilled with IRDye800CWDG (n=6), rats bearing GFP-labeled AY-27 rat bladder urothelial cell carcinoma cells and washed with saline (n=5), and rats bearing AY-27 tumors and intravesically instilled with IRDye800CW-DG (n=11). Near-infrared fluorescence was measured from the opened bladder wall of anesthetized rat at an excitation wavelength of 750nm and an emission wavelength of 776nm, by using an in-house fluorescence imaging system. There is no statistically significant difference of the peak fluorescence intensity among the no-tumor-control bladders (n=3), the no-tumorcontrol bladders instilled with IRDye800CW-DG (n=6), and the GFP-labeled AY-27 treated bladders washed by saline (n=5). When compared to that of the no-tumor-control bladders instilled with IRDye800CW-DG (n=6), the fluorescence intensity of GFP-labeled AY-27 treated bladders instilled with IRDye800CW-DG and with histology confirmed neoplastic bladder tissue (n=11) was remarkably more intense (3.34 fold of over the former) and was also statistically significant (pbladder tissues suggests the potential for cystoscopy-adaptation to enhance diagnosis and guiding surgical management of flat urinary bladder cancer.

  8. High Salt Intake Promotes Urinary Loss of Vitamin D Metabolites by Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats in a Space Flight Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry-Palmer, M.; Cephas, S.; Sayavongsa, P.; Clark, T.; Arnaud, S. B.

    2004-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolism in the Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rat, a model of salt-induced hypertension, differs from that in the Dahl salt-resistant (R) rat. We have demonstrated that female S rats are more vulnerable than female R rats to decreases in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D) concentrations during hind limb unloading (a space flight model). We report here on the response of the vitamin D endocrine system of S and R rats to hind limb unloading during high salt intake. Dahl female rats (9.7-week-old) were tail-suspended (hind limb unloaded) for 28 days, while fed a diet containing twice the salt in standard rat chow (2 % sodium chloride). Control rats were fed the same diet, but were not hind limb unloaded. Vitamin D metabolites were analyzed by HPLC and radioimmunoassay kits from Diasorin.

  9. Urinary catheter - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladder catheter - infants; Foley catheter - infants; Urinary catheter - neonatal ... A urinary catheter is a small, soft tube placed in the bladder. This article addresses urinary catheters in babies. WHY IS ...

  10. Simultaneous analysis of naphthols, phenanthrols, and 1-hydroxypyrene in urine as biomarkers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure: intraindividual variance in the urinary metabolite excretion profiles caused by intervention with {beta}-naphthoflavone induction in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elovaara, Eivor; Mikkola, Jouni [Laboratory of Toxicokinetics and Metabolism, Department of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, 00250, Helsinki (Finland); Vaeaenaenen, Virpi [Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, 00250, Helsinki (Finland)

    2003-04-01

    Two fluorimetric HPLC methods are described for the quantification of naphthols, phenanthrols and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) in urine specimens obtained from male Wistar rats exposed to naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were given intraperitoneally, either alone (1.0 mmol/kg body weight) or as an equimolar mixture (0.33 mmol/kg), using the same dosages for repeated treatments on week 1 and week 2. Between these treatments, PAH-metabolizing activities encoded by aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-controlled genes were induced in the rats with {beta}-naphthoflavone ({beta}NF). Chromatographic separation of five phenanthrols (1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 9-isomers) was accomplished using two different RP C-18 columns. Despite selective detection (programmable wavelengths), the quantification limits in the urine ranged widely: 1-OHP (0.18 {mu}g/l) Urinary disposition increased differentially in {beta}NF-induced rats: naphthols, 9-phenanthrol (1- to-2-fold); 2-, 3-, and 4-phenanthrols (4- to 5-fold); 1-phenanthrol and 1-OHP (over 11-fold). The OH-metabolites were analyzed before and after enzymatic hydrolysis ({beta}-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase). The percentage excreted as a free phenol in urine varied for 1-OHP (2-11%), 1-naphthol (36-51%), 2-naphthol (59-65%), and the phenanthrols (29-94%). 1-Naphthyl- and 1-pyrenyl {beta}-d-glucuronide served as measures for the completeness of enzymatic hydrolysis. Characteristic differences observed in the urinary disposition of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene are described, as well as important factors (dose, metabolic capacity, relative urinary output) associated with biomarker validation

  11. Aeroallergens in dairy barns near Cooperstown, New York and Rochester, Minnesota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.R.; Swanson, M.C.; Fernandez-Caldas, E.; Reed, C.E.; May, J.J.; Pratt, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    We sampled atmospheric barn air using a volumetric air sampler in ten barns near Cooperstown, NY and six barns near Rochester, MN, and, with radioimmunoassays, measured allergens of Aspergillus fumigatus, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, Micropolyspori faeni, short ragweed, rye grass group I pollen, Alternaria (Alt-1), Dermatophagoides sp. Lepidoglyphus destructor, common insect allergen, mouse urine, rat urine, and cattle epithelium. The most abundant allergen present was A. fumigatus followed by L. destructor. This study provides initial data on barn aerobiology and demonstrates for the first time the abundance of L. destructor allergens in North American dairy barns. More comprehensive study of barns, poultry houses, confinement houses for swine, and other agricultural environments from various geographic locations is needed to define the allergen levels to which millions of farm workers are exposed each day. While most of the allergens were expected, the presence of airborne allergens reactive with antisera to Dermatophagoides suggests indirectly that substantial amounts of pyroglyphid mites are present in some barns

  12. Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate concentrations changes in rat spinal cord associated with the activation of urinary bladder afferents. A microdialysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Jeová Nina

    2016-01-01

    To determine adenosine 5'-triphosphate levels in the interstice of spinal cord L6-S1 segment, under basal conditions or during mechanical and chemical activation of urinary bladder afferents. A microdialysis probe was transversally implanted in the dorsal half of spinal cord L6-S1 segment in female rats. Microdialysate was collected at 15 minutes intervals during 135 minutes, in anesthetized animals. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate concentrations were determined with a bioluminescent assay. In one group of animals (n=7) microdialysate samples were obtained with an empty bladder during a 10-minutes bladder distension to 20 or 40cmH2O with either saline, saline with acetic acid or saline with capsaicin. In another group of animals (n=6) bladder distention was performed and the microdialysis solution contained the ectonucleotidase inhibitor ARL 67156. Basal extracellular adenosine triphosphate levels were 110.9±35.34fmol/15 minutes, (mean±SEM, n=13), and bladder distention was associated with a significant increase in adenosine 5'-triphosphate levels which was not observed after bladder distention with saline solution containing capsaicin (10µM). Microdialysis with solution containing ARL 67156 (1mM) was associated with significantly higher extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate levels and no further increase in adenosine 5'-triphosphate was observed during bladder distension. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate was present in the interstice of L6-S1 spinal cord segments, was degraded by ectonucleotidase, and its concentration increased following the activation of bladder mechanosensitive but not of the chemosensitive afferents fibers. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate may originate either from the central endings of bladder mechanosensitive primary afferent neurons, or most likely from intrinsic spinal neurons, or glial cells and its release appears to be modulated by capsaicin activated bladder primary afferent or by adenosine 5'-triphosphate itself. Determinar as concentra

  13. Relationships between aeroallergen levels and hospital admissions for asthma in the Brussels-Capital Region: a daily time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Ariane; Cox, Bianca; Bruffaerts, Nicolas; Hoebeke, Lucie; Packeu, Ann; Hendrickx, Marijke; De Cremer, Koen; Bladt, Sandrine; Brasseur, Olivier; Van Nieuwenhuyse, An

    2018-04-11

    Outdoor pollen grain and fungal spore concentrations have been associated with severe asthma exacerbations at the population level. The specific impact of each taxon and the concomitant effect of air pollution on these symptoms have, however, still to be better characterized. This study aimed to investigate the short-term associations between ambient concentrations of various aeroallergens and hospitalizations related to asthma in the Brussels-Capital Region (Belgium), an area recording especially high rates of admissions. Based on administrative records of asthma hospitalizations and regular monitoring of 11 tree/herbaceous pollen taxa and 2 fungal spore taxa, daily time series analyses covering the 2008-2013 period were performed. Effects up to 6 days after exposure were captured by combining quasi-Poisson regression with distributed lag models, adjusting for seasonal and long-term trends, day of the week, public holidays, mean temperature and relative humidity. Effect modification by age and air pollution (PM, NO 2 , O 3 ) was tested. A significant increase in asthma hospitalizations was observed for an interquartile range increase in grass (5.9%, 95% CI: 0.0, 12.0), birch (3.2%, 95% CI: 1.1, 5.3) and hornbeam (0.7%, 95% CI: 0.2, 1.3) pollen concentrations. For several taxa including grasses, an age modification effect was notable, the hospitalization risk tending to be higher in individuals younger than 60 years. Air pollutants impacted the relationships too: the risk appeared to be stronger for grass and birch pollen concentrations in case of high PM 10 and O 3 concentrations respectively. These findings suggest that airborne grass, birch and hornbeam pollen are associated with severe asthma exacerbations in the Brussels region. These compounds appear to act in synergy with air pollution and to more specifically affect young and intermediate age groups. Most of these life-threatening events could theoretically be prevented with improved disease diagnosis

  14. Evaluation of the Frequency of Food and Aeroallergens in Patients with Eczema and Urticaria in Province of Bushehr: Based on Skin Prick Test Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokrollah Farrokhi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years frequency of skin allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis (eczema and urticaria is reported to be high in the region. Identification of reactive allergens in different areas are very important in the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of common allergens in patients with skin allergies in province of Bushehr with regards to eczema and urticaria. Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 234 patients with urticarial and eczema were enrolled. The participants reacted to at least one allergen with SPT. Skin prick test with standard inhaled and food was performed on patients according to the herbal geography of the area. Results: Among 837 patients referred to allergy clinic, 91 patients had eczema and 143 had urticaria. The frequency of both eczema and urticaria was significantly higher in females than in males. The most common food allergens in patients with eczema were almond (56.6%, walnut (47.7% and soybean (46.1%. And in patients with urticaria were almond (58%, walnut (53.1% and tomato (48.2%. Also, aeroallergens in the subjects were house dust mite (HDM (63.7%, Russian thistle (57.7% and Alternaria alternara (51.6%. Meanwhile, the common aeroallergens in the patients were HDM (66.4%, Russian thistle (52.4% and date palm (51%. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that almond and walnut are important food allergens in participants with eczema and urticaria. Moreover, SPT reactivity was positive with aeroallergens such as HDM and weeds.

  15. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ... topic for: Kids Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting View more Partner Message ...

  16. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ... topic for: Kids Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting View more About Us ...

  17. Genital and Urinary Tract Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... conditions > Genital and urinary tract defects Genital and urinary tract defects E-mail to a friend Please fill ... and extra fluids. What problems can genital and urinary tract defects cause? Genital and urinary tract defects affect ...

  18. Glucagon-like peptide-1 acutely affects renal blood flow and urinary flow rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats despite significantly reduced renal expression of GLP-1 receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronn, Jonas; Jensen, Elisa P; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J

    2017-01-01

    to increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and increased renal blood flow (RBF). In hypertensive animal models, GLP-1 has been reported both to increase and decrease MAP. The aim of this study was to examine expression of renal GLP-1 receptors in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and to assess the effect......Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone increasing postprandial insulin release. GLP-1 also induces diuresis and natriuresis in humans and rodents. The GLP-1 receptor is extensively expressed in the renal vascular tree in normotensive rats where acute GLP-1 treatment leads...... in the kidney from SHR. However, acute intrarenal infusion of GLP-1 increased MAP, RBF, dieresis, and natriuresis without affecting heart rate in both rat strains. These results suggest that the acute renal effects of GLP-1 in SHR are caused either by extrarenal GLP-1 receptors activating other mechanisms (e...

  19. [Male urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, T.A. de; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2008-01-01

    *Urinary incontinence in males is gaining increasingly more attention. *Male urinary incontinence can be classified as storage incontinence due to overactive bladder syndrome or stress incontinence due to urethral sphincter dysfunction. *Most patients benefit from the currently available treatment

  20. Urinary incontinence products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003973.htm Urinary incontinence products To use the sharing features on this ... There are many products to help you manage urinary incontinence . You can decide which product to choose based ...

  1. Glucagon-like peptide-1 acutely affects renal blood flow and urinary flow rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats despite significantly reduced renal expression of GLP-1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronn, Jonas; Jensen, Elisa P; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Holst, Jens Juul; Sorensen, Charlotte M

    2017-12-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone increasing postprandial insulin release. GLP-1 also induces diuresis and natriuresis in humans and rodents. The GLP-1 receptor is extensively expressed in the renal vascular tree in normotensive rats where acute GLP-1 treatment leads to increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and increased renal blood flow (RBF). In hypertensive animal models, GLP-1 has been reported both to increase and decrease MAP. The aim of this study was to examine expression of renal GLP-1 receptors in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and to assess the effect of acute intrarenal infusion of GLP-1. We hypothesized that GLP-1 would increase diuresis and natriuresis and reduce MAP in SHR. Immunohistochemical staining and in situ hybridization for the GLP-1 receptor were used to localize GLP-1 receptors in the kidney. Sevoflurane-anesthetized normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats and SHR received a 20 min intrarenal infusion of GLP-1 and changes in MAP, RBF, heart rate, dieresis, and natriuresis were measured. The vasodilatory effect of GLP-1 was assessed in isolated interlobar arteries from normo- and hypertensive rats. We found no expression of GLP-1 receptors in the kidney from SHR. However, acute intrarenal infusion of GLP-1 increased MAP, RBF, dieresis, and natriuresis without affecting heart rate in both rat strains. These results suggest that the acute renal effects of GLP-1 in SHR are caused either by extrarenal GLP-1 receptors activating other mechanisms (e.g., insulin) to induce the renal changes observed or possibly by an alternative renal GLP-1 receptor. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  2. Kidneys and Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Kidneys and Urinary Tract KidsHealth / For Teens / Kidneys and Urinary Tract What's ... a sign of diabetes . What the Kidneys and Urinary Tract Do Although the two kidneys work together to ...

  3. Urinary schistosomiasis epidemiological survey of urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... knowledge about the infection and 12% of the children that reported having blood in their urine ... urinary schistosomiasis on economic condition and the ..... Medicine for the Tropics (3rd edition) Edward Arnold: Educational.

  4. The prevalence of positive reactions in the atopy patch test with aeroallergens and food allergens in subjects with atopic eczema: a European multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsow, U; Laifaoui, J; Kerschenlohr, K; Wollenberg, A; Przybilla, B; Wüthrich, B; Borelli, S; Giusti, F; Seidenari, S; Drzimalla, K; Simon, D; Disch, R; Borelli, S; Devillers, A C A; Oranje, A P; De Raeve, L; Hachem, J-P; Dangoisse, C; Blondeel, A; Song, M; Breuer, K; Wulf, A; Werfel, T; Roul, S; Taieb, A; Bolhaar, S; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C; Brönnimann, M; Braathen, L R; Didierlaurent, A; André, C; Ring, J

    2004-12-01

    The atopy patch test (APT) was proposed to evaluate IgE-mediated sensitizations in patients with atopic eczema (AE). The prevalence and agreement with clinical history and specific IgE (sIgE) of positive APT reactions was investigated in six European countries using a standardized method. A total of 314 patients with AE in remission were tested in 12 study centers on clinically uninvolved, non-abraded back skin with 200 index of reactivity (IR)/g of house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, cat dander, grass, and birch pollen allergen extracts with defined major allergen contents in petrolatum. Extracts of egg white, celery and wheat flour with defined protein content were also patch tested. APT values were evaluated at 24, 48, and 72 h according to the European Task Force on Atopic Dermatitis (ETFAD) guidelines. In addition, skin-prick test (SPT) and sIgE and a detailed history on allergen-induced eczema flares were obtained. Previous eczema flares, after contact with specific allergens, were reported in 1% (celery) to 34% (D. pteronyssinus) of patients. The frequency of clear-cut positive APT reactions ranged from 39% with D. pteronyssinus to 9% with celery. All ETFAD intensities occured after 48 and 72 h. Positive SPT (16-57%) and elevated sIgE (19-59%) results were more frequent. Clear-cut positive APT with all SPT and sIgE testing negative was seen in 7% of the patients, whereas a positive APT without SPT or sIgE for the respective allergen was seen in 17% of the patients. APT, SPT and sIgE results showed significant agreement with history for grass pollen and egg white (two-sided Pr > /Z/ atopic controls, no positive APT reaction was seen. Aeroallergens and food allergens are able to elicit eczematous skin reactions after epicutaneous application. As no gold standard for aeroallergen provocation in AE exists, the relevance of aeroallergens for AE flares may be evaluated by APT in addition to SPT and sIgE. The data may contribute to the international

  5. Urinary metabonomics study in a rat model in response to protein-energy malnutrition by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zeming; Li, Min; Zhao, Chunxia; Zhou, Jia; Chang, Yuwei; Li, Xiang; Gao, Peng; Lu, Xin; Li, Yousheng; Xu, Guowang

    2010-11-01

    Systematic studies were performed on the biological perturbations in metabolic phenotype responding to protein-energy malnutrition through global metabolic profiling analysis, in combination with pattern recognition. The malnutrition rat model was established through five weeks of strict diet restriction, and the metabonome data obtained from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were integrated to approximate the comprehensive metabolic signature. Principal component analysis and orthogonal projection to latent structure analysis were used for the classification of metabolic phenotypes and discovery of differentiating metabolites. The perturbations in the urine profiles of malnourished rats were marked by higher levels of creatine, threitol, pyroglutamic acid, gluconic acid and kynurenic acid, as well as decreased levels of succinic acid, cis-aconitic acid, citric acid, isocitric acid, threonic acid, trimethylglycine, N-methylnicotinic acid and uric acid. The alterations in these metabolites were associated with perturbations in energy metabolism, carbohydrate, amino acid, and fatty acid metabolism, purine metabolism, cofactor and vitamin metabolism, in response to protein and energy malnutrition. Our findings show the integration of GC-MS and LC-MS techniques for untargeted metabolic profiling analysis was promising for nutriology.

  6. Retrograde and transganglionic transport of horseradish peroxidase-conjugated cholera toxin B subunit, wheatgerm agglutinin and isolectin B4 from Griffonia simplicifolia I in primary afferent neurons innervating the rat urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H F; Shortland, P; Park, M J; Grant, G

    1998-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated and compared the ability of the cholera toxin B subunit, wheat germ agglutinin and isolectin B4 from Griffonia simplicifolia I conjugated to horseradish peroxidase, to retrogradely and transganglionically label visceral primary afferents after unilateral injections into the rat urinary bladder wall. Horseradish peroxidase histochemical or lectin-immunofluorescence histochemical labelling of bladder afferents was seen in the L6-S1 spinal cord segments and in the T13-L2 and L6-S1 dorsal root ganglia. In the lumbosacral spinal cord, the most intense and extensive labelling of bladder afferents was seen when cholera toxin B subunit-horseradish peroxidase was injected. Cholera toxin B subunit-horseradish peroxidase-labelled fibres were found in Lissauer's tract, its lateral and medial collateral projections, and laminae I and IV-VI of the spinal gray matter. Labelled fibres were numerous in the lateral collateral projection and extended into the spinal parasympathetic nucleus. Labelling from both the lateral and medial projections extended into the dorsal grey commissural region. Wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase labelling produced a similar pattern but was not as dense and extensive as that of cholera toxin B subunit-horseradish peroxidase. The isolectin B4 from Griffonia simplicifolia I-horseradish peroxidase-labelled fibres, on the other hand, were fewer and only observed in the lateral collateral projection and occasionally in lamina I. Cell profile counts showed that a larger number of dorsal root ganglion cells were labelled with cholera toxin B subunit-horseradish peroxidase than with wheat germ agglutinin- or isolectin B4-horseradish peroxidase. In the L6-S1 dorsal root ganglia, the majority (81%) of the cholera toxin B subunit-, and almost all of the wheat germ agglutinin- and isolectin B4-immunoreactive cells were RT97-negative (an anti-neurofilament antibody that labels dorsal root ganglion neurons with

  7. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  8. Role of the chronic bacterial infection in urinary bladder carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgy, N.A.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to determine whether or not bacterial infection of the urinary bladder had a role in urinary bladder carcinogenesis. To investigate this proposition, four separate studies were conducted. The first study developed an experimental animal model where bacterial infection of the urinary bladder could be introduced and maintained for a period in excess of one year. The method of infection, inoculation of bacteria (Escherichia coli type 04) subserosally into the vesical wall, successfully caused persistent infection in the majority of animals. In the second study the temporal effects of bacterial infection on the induction of urothelial ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and 3 H-thymidine uptake and DNA synthesis were examined. Bacterial infection of the urinary bladder induced urothelial ODC with a peak in enzyme activity 6 hr after infection. 3 H-Thymidine uptake and DNA synthesis peaked 48 hr after infection and coincided with the urothelial hyperplasia that occurred in response to the infection. In the third study the specific bladder carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) was given to rats concurrent with the urinary bacterial infection. In the fourth study rats were administered sodium nitrate and either dibutylamine or piperazine in the drinking water. The infected group developed bladder tumors while none were detected in the non-infected rats. From these studies it may be concluded that bacterial infection may have a significant role in the process of urinary bladder carcinogenesis

  9. Aeroallergen analyses and their clinical relevance. I. Immunochemical quantification of allergens by RAST-inhibition, Mab-ELISA, basophil histamine release, and counter current immuno electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, C R; Abrahamsen, L; Stahl Skov, P

    1991-01-01

    The aim was to compare IgE and IgG4 RAST-inhibition assay (RI), monoclonal antibody ELISA (Mab-ELISA), counter current immuno electrophoresis (CCIE) and histamine release from basophil leukocytes (HR) for allergen quantification with special reference to aeroallergen detection. As components......-U/ml) than IgE-RI (2*10(3) SQ-U/ml). The ranges of allergen detection limits for the Mab-ELISA were equal for cat and Derm. pter. (10-10(2) SQ-U/ml). The range of allergen detection limits for CCIE, assaying dog were 10(4)-10(5) SQ-U/ml. The ranges of allergen detection limits for HR were equal for cat...

  10. A Preliminary Urinary Metabolomics Study of Sprague-Dawley Rats after Short-term Ketamine Administration by Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug abuse has become a global problem. The mass spectrometry-based metabolic consequences of ketamine administration in anesthesia and therapy have been well studied, but to the best of our knowledge, metabolomic studies of ketamine abuse based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy are still lacking. In this study, twenty Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly assigned into two groups: a control group (n = 10 and a ketamine group (n = 10. The animals in the ketamine group received intraperitoneal injections of ketamine twice daily at 12-h intervals at progressively increasing doses over a period of 9 days, while the control group received an equal volume of saline. The urine samples were collected for 24 h at days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 for the metabolomics study. The metabolic changes in urine after short-term ketamine administration were analyzed by proton NMR coupled with multivariate statistical analysis. The results indicated that short-term ketamine exposure led to significant alterations of the metabolites in the urine of the rats. Specifically, 1,3,7-trimethyluric acid, 1,3-dimethyluric acid, acetoacetic acid, acetylglycine, creatine, sarcosine, dimethylglycine, glycine, and theobromine were significantly increased in the urine. Significant changes were also found in metabolites related to antioxidant and energy metabolism, including acetoacetic acid, succinate, 1,3,7-trimethyluric acid, 1,3-dimethyluric acid, creatine, and taurine. Our findings indicated that short-term ketamine administration leads to disorder of energy metabolism and oxidative stress. In addition, the modified metabolites identified could serve as the new biological markers and potential biological indices reflecting the underlying mechanism of ketamine abuse.

  11. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... urinary tract infection, or UTI, you're probably thinking about peeing quite a lot. Why? Because it ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ...

  12. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals ... Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Urinary Tract ...

  13. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ... Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Urinary Tract ...

  14. Short-term effect of acute and repeated urinary bladder inflammation on thigmotactic behaviour in the laboratory rat [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/56e

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary H Morland

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the non-sensory components of the pain experience is crucial to developing effective treatments for pain conditions. Chronic pain is associated with increased incidence of anxio-depressive disorders, and patients often report feelings of vulnerability which can decrease quality of life. In animal models of pain, observation of behaviours such as thigmotaxis can be used to detect such affective disturbances by exploiting the influence of nociceptive stimuli on the innate behavioural conflict between exploration of a novel space and predator avoidance behaviour. This study investigates whether acute and repeated bladder inflammation in adult female Wistar rats increases thigmotactic behaviour in the open field paradigm, and aims to determine whether this correlates with activation in the central amygdala, as measured by c-Fos immunoreactivity. Additionally, up-regulation of inflammatory mediators in the urinary bladder was measured using RT-qPCR array featuring 92 transcripts to examine how local mediators change under experimental conditions. We found acute but not repeated turpentine inflammation of the bladder increased thigmotactic behaviour (decreased frequency of entry to the inner zone in the open field paradigm, a result that was also observed in the catheter-only instrumentation group. Decreases in locomotor activity were also observed in both models in turpentine and instrumentation groups. No differences were observed in c-Fos activation, although a general increased in activation along the rostro-caudal axis was seen. Inflammatory mediator up-regulation was greatest following acute inflammation, with CCL12, CCL7, and IL-1β significantly up-regulated in both conditions when compared to naïve tissue. These results suggest that acute catheterisation, with or without turpentine inflammation, induces affective alterations detectable in the open field paradigm accompanied by up-regulation of multiple inflammatory mediators.

  15. Integration of ¹H NMR and UPLC-Q-TOF/MS for a comprehensive urinary metabonomics study on a rat model of depression induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Mei Jia

    Full Text Available Depression is a type of complex psychiatric disorder with long-term, recurrent bouts, and its etiology remains largely unknown. Here, an integrated approach utilizing (1H NMR and UPLC-Q-TOF/MS together was firstly used for a comprehensive urinary metabonomics study on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS treated rats. More than twenty-nine metabolic pathways were disturbed after CUMS treatment and thirty-six potential biomarkers were identified by using two complementary analytical technologies. Among the identified biomarkers, nineteen (10, 11, 16, 17, 21-25, and 27-36 were firstly reported as potential biomarkers of CUMS-induced depression. Obviously, this paper presented a comprehensive map of the metabolic pathways perturbed by CUMS and expanded on the multitude of potential biomarkers that have been previously reported in the CUMS model. Four metabolic pathways, including valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis; phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis; tryptophan metabolism; synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies had the deepest influence in the pathophysiologic process of depression. Fifteen potential biomarkers (1-2, 4-6, 15, 18, 20-23, 27, 32, 35-36 involved in the above four metabolic pathways might become the screening criteria in clinical diagnosis and predict the development of depression. Moreover, the results of Western blot analysis of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (DDC and indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO in the hippocampus of CUMS-treated rats indicated that depletion of 5-HT and tryptophan, production of 5-MT and altered expression of DDC and IDO together played a key role in the initiation and progression of depression. In addition, none of the potential biomarkers were detected by NMR and LC-MS simultaneously which indicated the complementary of the two kinds of detection technologies. Therefore, the integration of (1H NMR and UPLC-Q-TOF/MS in metabonomics study provided an approach to identify

  16. Urinary retention in women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary retention in women. Urinary retention in women is often transient and of no known cause. ... stones, constipation, urethral cancer, uterine fibroids ... present with abnormal bladder function secondary to ... (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or myelography ... full blood count, urea, electrolytes and creatinine can ...

  17. Urinary retention in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juma, Saad

    2014-07-01

    This review is a summary of the most pertinent published studies in the literature in the last 18 months that address cause, diagnosis, and management of urinary retention in women. Symptoms, uroflow, and pressure-flow studies have a low predictive value for and do not correlate with elevated postvoid residual urine (PVR). Anterior and posterior colporrhaphy do not cause de-novo bladder outlet obstruction in the majority of patients with elevated PVR, and the cause of elevated PVR may be other factors such as pain or anxiety causing abnormal relaxation of the pelvic floor and contributing to voiding difficulty. The risk of urinary retention in a future pregnancy after mid-urethral sling (MUS) is small. The risk of urinary tract infection and urinary retention after chemodenervation of the bladder with onabotulinumtoxin-A (100 IU) in patients with non-neurogenic urge incontinence is 33 and 5%, respectively. There is a lack of consensus among experts on the timing of sling takedown in the management of acute urinary retention following MUS procedures. There has been a significant progress in the understanding of the causation of urinary retention. Important areas that need further research (basic and clinical) are post-MUS and pelvic organ prolapse repair urinary retention and obstruction, and urinary retention owing to detrusor underactivity.

  18. Cold stress induces lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Tetsuya; Ishizuka, Osamu; Nishizawa, Osamu

    2013-07-01

    Cold stress as a result of whole-body cooling at low environmental temperatures exacerbates lower urinary tract symptoms, such as urinary urgency, nocturia and residual urine. We established a model system using healthy conscious rats to explore the mechanisms of cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity. In this review, we summarize the basic findings shown by this model. Rats that were quickly transferred from room temperature (27 ± 2°C) to low temperature (4 ± 2°C) showed detrusor overactivity including increased basal pressure and decreased voiding interval, micturition volume, and bladder capacity. The cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity is mediated through a resiniferatoxin-sensitve C-fiber sensory nerve pathway involving α1-adrenergic receptors. Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 channels, which are sensitive to thermal changes below 25-28°C, also play an important role in mediating the cold stress responses. Additionally, the sympathetic nervous system is associated with transient hypertension and decreases of skin surface temperature that are closely correlated with the detrusor overactivity. With this cold stress model, we showed that α1-adrenergic receptor antagonists have the potential to treat cold stress-exacerbated lower urinary tract symptoms. In addition, we showed that traditional Japanese herbal mixtures composed of Hachimijiogan act, in part, by increasing skin temperature and reducing the number of cold sensitive transient receptor potential melastatin channels in the skin. The effects of herbal mixtures have the potential to treat and/or prevent the exacerbation of lower urinary tract symptoms by providing resistance to the cold stress responses. Our model provides new opportunities for utilizing animal disease models with altered lower urinary tract functions to explore the effects of novel therapeutic drugs. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  19. Prolonged use of indwelling urinary catheter following acute urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.O. Bello

    prolonged use of urinary catheters following acute urinary retention secondary to benign prostate enlarge- ment (BPE) and urethral ... indwelling urinary catheter for >3 months following acute urinary retention due to BPE or USD. The study .... the major health-care financing strategy in Nigeria and accounts for more than ...

  20. [Urinary incontinence and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffieux, X

    2009-12-01

    The goal of the current study was to systematically review the literature concerning urinary incontinence and pregnancy, in order to develop recommendations for clinical practice. The prevalence of urinary stress incontinence and overactive bladder symptoms increase with gestational age during pregnancy (from the first to the third trimester), and decrease during the third months following delivery. Obstetrics factors (position during delivery, length of the second part of the labour, forceps, episiotomy, epidural or pudendal anaesthesia) do not modify the risk of post-partum or long term urinary incontinence. At short term follow-up, caesarean delivery is associated with a lower rate of post-partum urinary incontinence. At long term follow-up, data are lacking. Non elective caesarean section is not associated with a decrease in the rate of post-partum or long-term urinary incontinence. Elective caesarean section and systematic episiotomy are not recommended methods for the prevention of post-partum urinary incontinence (grade B), even in "high risk" women. Pelvic floor muscle therapy is the first line treatment for prenatal or post-partum urinary incontinence (grade A). Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys two ureters (say: ... Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting View more ... & Terms of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web ...

  2. Urinary Tract Infections (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections KidsHealth / For Teens / Urinary Tract Infections What's ... especially girls — visit a doctor. What Is a Urinary Tract Infection? A bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is ...

  3. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections ( ... Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made ...

  4. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections ( ... Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made ...

  5. Origin of Urinary Oxalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ross P.; Knight, John; Assimos, Dean G.

    2007-04-01

    Urinary oxalate is mostly derived from the absorption of ingested oxalate and endogenous synthesis. The breakdown of vitamin C may also contribute small amounts to the urinary oxalate pool. The amount of oxalate absorbed is influenced by the oxalate content of the diet, the concentrations of divalent cations in the gut, the presence of oxalate-degrading organisms, transport characteristics of the intestinal epithelium, and other factors associated with the intestinal environment. Knowledge of pathways associated with endogenous oxalate synthesis is limited. Urinary oxalate excretion can be modified using strategies that limit dietary oxalate absorption and the ingestion of oxalogenic substrates such as hydroxyproline.

  6. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and Bowel Why is it important to begin urologic care in infancy and ...

  7. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... Craig JC. Long-term antibiotics for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2011;(3):CD001534. PMID: ...

  8. What is Urinary Incontinence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Causes of urinary incontinence For women, thinning and drying of the skin in the vagina or urethra, ... make some changes in your diet. Alcohol, caffeine, foods high in acid (such as tomato or grapefruit) ...

  9. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Wesnes, Stian Langeland; Rørtveit, Guri; Bø, Kari; Hunskår, Steinar

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate incidence and prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy, and associated risk factors.Method: The data collection was conducted as part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. We present questionnaire data about urinary incontinence obtained from 43,279 women (response rate 45%) by week 30. We report data on any incontinence in addition to type, frequency and amount of incontinence. Po...

  10. Aeroallergen analyses and their clinical relevance. I. Immunochemical quantification of allergens by RAST-inhibition, Mab-ELISA, basophil histamine release, and counter current immuno electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, C R; Abrahamsen, L; Stahl Skov, P

    1991-01-01

    of indoor aeroallergens, cat, dog, and Derm. pter. allergen extracts were selected for the experiments. To evaluate unspecific interference, these allergens were compared mutually and with Cladosporium herbarum. Allergen extracts in varying dilutions were mixed with crushed glass fibre filter materials......, eluted, recovered by centrifugation, and allergen concentration quantified by the assays. Equal sensitivity was found for both IgE- and IgG4-RI assaying cat allergen (in the range 5-50 SQ-U/ml) and dog allergen (in the range 10(2)-10(3) SQ-U/ml). The IgG4-RI assaying Derm. pter. was more sensitive (50 SQ......-U/ml) than IgE-RI (2*10(3) SQ-U/ml). The ranges of allergen detection limits for the Mab-ELISA were equal for cat and Derm. pter. (10-10(2) SQ-U/ml). The range of allergen detection limits for CCIE, assaying dog were 10(4)-10(5) SQ-U/ml. The ranges of allergen detection limits for HR were equal for cat...

  11. Urinary incontinence in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yoshitaka; Brown, Heidi W.; Brubaker, Linda; Cornu, Jean Nicolas; Daly, J. Oliver; Cartwright, Rufus

    2018-01-01

    Urinary incontinence symptoms are highly prevalent among women, have a substantial effect on health-related quality of life and are associated with considerable personal and societal expenditure. Two main types are described: stress urinary incontinence, in which urine leaks in association with physical exertion, and urgency urinary incontinence, in which urine leaks in association with a sudden compelling desire to void. Women who experience both symptoms are considered as having mixed urinary incontinence. Research has revealed overlapping potential causes of incontinence, including dysfunction of the detrusor muscle or muscles of the pelvic floor, dysfunction of the neural controls of storage and voiding, and perturbation of the local environment within the bladder. A full diagnostic evaluation of urinary incontinence requires a medical history, physical examination, urinalysis, assessment of quality of life and, when initial treatments fail, invasive urodynamics. Interventions can include non-surgical options (such as lifestyle modifications, pelvic floor muscle training and drugs) and surgical options to support the urethra or increase bladder capacity. Future directions in research may increasingly target primary prevention through understanding of environmental and genetic risks for incontinence. PMID:28681849

  12. Pediatric urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blickman, J.G.

    1991-02-06

    Acute urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important cause of morbidity in children and may be complicated by congenital urinary tract abnormalities of a functional or anatomic nature which, predispose to recurrent UTI's that in turn may lead to renal failure and hypertension. Early radiologic and ultrasonographic investigations may reveal these anatomic anomalies in particular because the urinary tract, specifically in children, is not readily accessible to adequate clinical examinations Excretory urography (EU) has been considered as the 'gold standard' of upper urinary tract visualization, while the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) was thought to be the preferential method of imaging of the lower urinary tract. Recently, major technical advances have altered this commonly accepted diagnostic workup. Although ultrasonography, radio-nuclide scanning and urodynamics have become important contributors to the understanding of pathophysiology of UTI's their value and place in assessment of the sequence of imaging has not been comprehensively studied. This thesis deals about the optimization of the choice and the order of the different imaging techniques used in the evaluation of children, younger than six year with UTI. (author). 243 refs.; 23 figs.; 8 tabs.

  13. Fasting and Urinary Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results: The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  14. Pediatric urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blickman, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    Acute urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important cause of morbidity in children and may be complicated by congenital urinary tract abnormalities of a functional or anatomic nature which, predispose to recurrent UTI's that in turn may lead to renal failure and hypertension. Early radiologic and ultrasonographic investigations may reveal these anatomic anomalies in particular because the urinary tract, specifically in children, is not readily accessible to adequate clinical examinations Excretory urography (EU) has been considered as the 'gold standard' of upper urinary tract visualization, while the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) was thought to be the preferential method of imaging of the lower urinary tract. Recently, major technical advances have altered this commonly accepted diagnostic workup. Although ultrasonography, radio-nuclide scanning and urodynamics have become important contributors to the understanding of pathophysiology of UTI's their value and place in assessment of the sequence of imaging has not been comprehensively studied. This thesis deals about the optimization of the choice and the order of the different imaging techniques used in the evaluation of children, younger than six year with UTI. (author). 243 refs.; 23 figs.; 8 tabs

  15. Urinary Tract and How It Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... VUR) The Urinary Tract & How It Works The Urinary Tract & How It Works On this page: What is ... a person produces? Clinical Trials What is the urinary tract and how does it work? The urinary tract ...

  16. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Lains Mota

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training, surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence.

  17. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence. PMID:28124522

  18. Urinary Exertion Of Calcium By Urinary Stone Disease Patients And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To compare the urinary excretion of calcium by subjects in a known area of high incidence of urinary stone disease, and a known area of low incidence, 12 adult male patients with idiopathic calcigerous urinary stone disease in south-East Nigeria and 55 similar patients from Scotland, United Kingdom were analyzed ...

  19. Reoperation for urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss Hansen, Margrethe; Lose, Gunnar; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    for urinary incontinence (retropubic midurethral tape, transobturator tape, urethral injection therapy, Burch colposuspension, pubovaginal slings, and miscellaneous operations). Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for factors......BACKGROUND: The synthetic midurethral slings were introduced in the 1990s and were rapidly replaced the Burch colposuspension as the gold standard treatment for urinary incontinence. It has been reported that the retropubic midurethral tape has an objective and subjective cure rate of 85% at 5...... years of follow-up, but the rate of reoperation after retropubic midurethral tape at the long-term follow-up is less well described. The existing literature specifies an overall lifetime rate of reoperation of about 8-9% after an initial operation for urinary incontinence. There are, however...

  20. Upper urinary tract tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Nordling, Jørgen; Balslev, Ingegerd

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomography urography (CTU) is used widely in the work-up of patients with symptoms of urinary tract lesions. Preoperative knowledge of whether a tumor is invasive or non-invasive is important for the choice of surgery. So far there are no studies about the distinction...... of invasive and non-invasive tumors in ureter and renal pelvis based on the enhancement measured with Hounsfield Units. PURPOSE: To examine the value of CTU using split-bolus technique to distinguish non-invasive from invasive urothelial carcinomas in the upper urinary tract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients...... obtained at CTU could distinguish between invasive and non-invasive lesions. No patients had a CTU within the last year before the examination that resulted in surgery. CONCLUSION: A split-bolus CTU cannot distinguish between invasive and non-invasive urothelial tumors in the upper urinary tract...

  1. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & ... KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary ...

  2. Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stress Urinary Incontinence Special Procedures What is stress urinary incontinence (SUI)? What causes SUI? What nonsurgical treatment options may help with SUI? What are the surgical treatment options for SUI? What factors are considered when deciding which SUI surgery is ...

  3. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an infection somewhere in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? ... bladder, your brain tells you it's time to find a bathroom. Once you're ready to pee, ...

  4. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is ...

  5. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting View more Partner ... All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and ...

  6. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibi...

  7. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ready to pee, you relax a set of muscles at the bottom of your bladder. That lets ... topic for: Kids Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting View more About Us ...

  8. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting View more ... Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  9. Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007376.htm Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures To use the sharing features ... are types of surgeries that help control stress urinary incontinence . This is urine leakage that happens when you ...

  10. Urinary albumin in space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2002-01-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody...... radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity)....

  11. Imaging of the Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day urinary urgency—the inability to delay urination urinary incontinence—the accidental loss of urine blockage of urine ... can use several different imaging techniques depending on factors such as the ... urinary tract symptoms. Conventional Radiology X-ray machines have ...

  12. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) ... How Do I Know if I Have a UTI? You may notice signs of a urinary tract ...

  13. Kidneys and urinary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, G

    1993-12-31

    Nuclear medicine studies, through primarily concerned with the functional aspects of the organ, can also provide useful information about the anatomy. An understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the kidneys and urinary system greatly helps in the interpretation of data from radionuclide studies 9 figs, 3 tabs

  14. Kidneys and urinary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, G.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear medicine studies, through primarily concerned with the functional aspects of the organ, can also provide useful information about the anatomy. An understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the kidneys and urinary system greatly helps in the interpretation of data from radionuclide studies

  15. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  16. The female urinary microbiome in urgency urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Meghan M; Zilliox, Michael J; Rosenfeld, Amy B; Thomas-White, Krystal J; Richter, Holly E; Nager, Charles W; Visco, Anthony G; Nygaard, Ingrid E; Barber, Matthew D; Schaffer, Joseph; Moalli, Pamela; Sung, Vivian W; Smith, Ariana L; Rogers, Rebecca; Nolen, Tracy L; Wallace, Dennis; Meikle, Susan F; Gai, Xiaowu; Wolfe, Alan J; Brubaker, Linda

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the urinary microbiota in women who are planning treatment for urgency urinary incontinence and to describe clinical associations with urinary symptoms, urinary tract infection, and treatment outcomes. Catheterized urine samples were collected from multisite randomized trial participants who had no clinical evidence of urinary tract infection; 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing was used to dichotomize participants as either DNA sequence-positive or sequence-negative. Associations with demographics, urinary symptoms, urinary tract infection risk, and treatment outcomes were determined. In sequence-positive samples, microbiotas were characterized on the basis of their dominant microorganisms. More than one-half (51.1%; 93/182) of the participants' urine samples were sequence-positive. Sequence-positive participants were younger (55.8 vs 61.3 years old; P = .0007), had a higher body mass index (33.7 vs 30.1 kg/m(2); P = .0009), had a higher mean baseline daily urgency urinary incontinence episodes (5.7 vs 4.2 episodes; P urinary incontinence episodes, -4.4 vs -3.3; P = .0013), and were less likely to experience urinary tract infection (9% vs 27%; P = .0011). In sequence-positive samples, 8 major bacterial clusters were identified; 7 clusters were dominated not only by a single genus, most commonly Lactobacillus (45%) or Gardnerella (17%), but also by other taxa (25%). The remaining cluster had no dominant genus (13%). DNA sequencing confirmed urinary bacterial DNA in many women with urgency urinary incontinence who had no signs of infection. Sequence status was associated with baseline urgency urinary incontinence episodes, treatment response, and posttreatment urinary tract infection risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Adrenergic blockade in diabetic and uninephrectomized rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Jørgensen, P E

    1999-01-01

    The present study reports on the effects of adrenergic blocking agents on the renal growth and on the renal content and urinary excretion of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic or uninephrectomized rats. Diabetic and uninephrectomized rats were allocated to groups...... treated with either saline or adrenergic antagonists and compared to controls and sham-operated controls, respectively. 24-hour urine samples were obtained on days 7, 14, and 21 and renal tissue samples on day 21. The 24-hour urinary excretion of EGF from controls and saline-treated diabetic rats...... was comparable. In adrenergic antagonist treated diabetic rats, it was reduced by at least 40% throughout the study period. Uninephrectomy caused a 50% reduction in the urinary excretion of EGF. This was not influenced by treatment with an adrenergic antagonist. After 3 weeks, saline-treated diabetic rats had...

  18. Urinary Incontinence in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Neki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary Incontinence (UI is dened any involuntary leakage of urine. It is twice as common in women as in men and affects at least 1 in 3 older women. It is not a normal result of aging. Rather it is a medical problem that is often curable and should be treated. Urine is stored in the bladder and emptied via the urethra. During urination, muscles of the bladder wall contract, forcing urine from the bladder into the urethra. Sphincter muscles surrounding the urethra relax thus releasing urine from the body. Incontinence occurs if bladder muscles suddenly contract or sphincter muscles are not strong enough to contain urine. The diagnosis of geriatric urinary incontinence includes evaluation for overow incontinence, functional incontinence and stress incontinence. The treatment goal should be realistic and aim to improve the patient's functional status and quality of life. Best treatment outcomes can only be achieved by a holistic treatment approach.

  19. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesnes, Stian Langeland; Rortveit, Guri; Bø, Kari; Hunskaar, Steinar

    2007-04-01

    To investigate incidence and prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy and associated risk factors. The data collection was conducted as part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. We present questionnaire data about urinary incontinence obtained from 43,279 women (response rate 45%) by week 30. We report data on any incontinence, in addition to type, frequency, and amount of incontinence. Potential risk factors were investigated by logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of incontinence increased from 26% before pregnancy to 58% in week 30. The corresponding figures for nulliparous women were 15% and 48%, and for parous women 35% and 67%. The cumulative incidence was 46%. Stress urinary incontinence was the most common type of incontinence in week 30 of pregnancy, experienced by 31% of nulliparous and 42% of parous women. The majority of pregnant women had leakage less than once per week and droplets only, both before and during pregnancy. Parity was a strong and significant risk factor for incontinence in adjusted analyses both before pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.4-2.7 for primiparous and OR 3.3, 95% CI 3.1-3.5 for multiparous women) and during pregnancy (ORs 2.0, 95% CI 1.9-2.1 and 2.1, 95% CI 2.0-2.2, respectively). Age and body mass index were weaker, but still statistically significant, risk factors. The prevalence of urinary incontinence increases substantially during pregnancy. Incontinence both before and during pregnancy seems to be associated with parity, age, and body mass index. II.

  20. Managing urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Saadeh, Sermin A.; Mattoo, Tej K.

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. Presence of pyuria and bacteriuria in an appropriately collected urine sample are diagnostic of UTI. The risk of UTI is increased with an underlying urological abnormality such as vesicoureteral reflux, constipation, and voiding dysfunction. Patients with acute pyelonephritis are at risk of renal scarring and subsequent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria with and without FSGS, pregnancy-related complications and even end-sta...

  1. Analysis of pathogenic factors of Proteus mirabilis isolated from urinary tract infection

    OpenAIRE

    室谷,勝久

    1991-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis has several pathogenic factors such as adherent ability to urinary tract epitherial cells, urease, motility and resistance to urine. The pathogenic activities of clinically isolated P. mirabilis were analyzed. Higher pathogenic strains (No. 25 and No. 30) which had morphologically different pili but had a higher density of pili showed strong adherent activity to bladder epithelial cells of mouse and rat. These strains also showed a clear chemotaxis to urinary tract tissue ex...

  2. Neonatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  3. Can Urinary Catheterization Before Birth Reduce Postpartum Urinary Retention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet B. Şentürk

    2016-04-01

    Results: The time to first micturition was determined to be shorter in the group where urinary catheterization was applied before birth, the PUR rate was lower and the amount of residual urine was less (p0.05. Conclusion: Urinary catheterization before birth reduces the rate of PUR.

  4. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  5. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting View more Partner Message About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  6. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? ...

  7. Urinary tract trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.E. (Sunnybrook Medical Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1983-09-01

    From a practical point of view, a woman who has blunt injury to the pelvic area with hematuria from the lower urinary tract, has a contused or ruptured bladder. In a man, such a situation calls for retrograde urethrography to determine if the injury is in the urethra or the bladder because the two organs are investigated differently. In both sexes, such injuries are usually associated with pelvic fractures. Massive bladder displacement and severe hemorrhage should alert one to the need for pelvic angiography to find and embolize the bleeding site within the first 24 hours after injury. For blunt trauma to the upper urinary tract an intravenous urogram with tomography is still the main examination. However, a normal intravenous urogram does not exclude serious injury. Therefore, if signs or symptoms persist, a computerized tomographic (CT) examination should be performed if available. Otherwise, a radionuclide study is advisable. Non-excretion on intravenous urography with tomography calls for selective renal arteriography to delineate the etiology. There can be serious renal trauma in the absence of hematuria, which may occur with renal pedicle injury or avulsion of the ureter. Minor forniceal ruptures may occasionally mask severe posterior renal lacerations.

  8. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Taskesen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent conditions in children. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to serious kidney problems that could threaten the life of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of urinary tract infection is important. In older children, urinary tract infections may cause obvious symptoms such as stomach ache and disuria. In infants and young children, UTIs may be harder to detect because of less specific symptoms. Recurrences are common in children with urinary abnormalities such as neurogenic bladder, vesicourethral reflux or those with very poor toilet and hygiene habits. This article reviews the diagnostic approach and presents the current data related to the roles of radiologic imaging, surgical correction and antibiotic prophylaxis of UTIs in children. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(2.000: 57-69

  9. New method for quality testing of food proteins for the maintenance metabolism. 1. Studies of urinary /sup 15/N excretion by /sup 15/N-labelled young rats fed with various proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergner, H; Bergner, U; Adam, K [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Tierproduktion und Veterinaermedizin

    1978-05-01

    Over a period of 7 days 38 Wistar rats received supplements of /sup 15/N in the form of ammonium acetate added to a casein methionine diet. From the 8th day groups of 4 or 5 rats were fed different protein diets (115 kcal per kg body weight sup(0.75)) over a 5-day period. The relationship between /sup 15/N excreted via urine and the quantity of N absorbed from the food protein was used for determining the protein quality under conservation conditions. The following order of protein quality was found: fish meal, casein, wheat, whole egg, soybean, yeast, pea, and gelatin.

  10. New method for quality testing of food proteins for the maintenance metabolism. I. Studies of urinary /sup 15/N excretion by /sup 15/N-labelled young rats fed with various proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergner, H; Bergner, U; Adam, K [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Tierproduktion und Veterinaermedizin

    1978-05-01

    Over a period of 7 days 38 Wistar rats received supplements of /sup 15/N in the form of ammonium acetate added to a casein methionine diet. From the 8th day groups of 4 or 5 rats were fed different protein diets (115 kcal per kg body weight sup(0.75)) over a 5-day period. The relationship between /sup 15/N excreted via urine and the quantity of N absorbed from the food protein was used for determining the protein quality under conservation conditions. The following order of protein quality was found: fish meal, casein, wheat, whole egg, soybean, yeast, pea, and gelatin.

  11. Urinary Retention Associated with Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Takeru; Ohta, Hirotsugu; Yokota, Akira; Yarimizu, Shiroh; Nishizawa, Shigeru

    Patients often exhibit urinary retention following a stroke. Various neuropathological and animal studies have implicated the medulla oblongata, pons, limbic system, frontal lobe as areas responsible for micturition control, although the exact area responsible for urinary retention after stroke is not clear. The purpose of this study was to identify the stroke area responsible for urinary retention by localizing the areas where strokes occur. We assessed 110 patients with cerebral infarction and 27 patients with cerebral hemorrhage (78 men, 59 women; mean age, 73.0 years) who had been admitted to our hospital between October, 2012 and September, 2013. We used computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate the stroke location, and evaluated whether post-stroke urinary retention occurred. Twelve (8.8%) of the 137 patients (7 men, 5 women; mean age, 78.8 years) exhibited urinary retention after a stroke. Stroke occurred in the right/left dominant hemisphere in 7 patients; nondominant hemisphere in 1; cerebellum in 3; and brainstem in 1. Strokes in the dominant hemisphere were associated with urinary retention (P = 0.0314), particularly in the area of the insula (P < 0.01). We concluded that stroke affecting the insula of the dominant hemisphere tends to cause urinary retention.

  12. [Urinary tract infections in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michno, Mikolaj; Sydor, Antoni

    Review of urinary tract infections in adults including etiology, pathogenesis, classification and the most important therapeutic recommendations. Urinary tract infections are still a common clinical problem occurring more often in sexually active women, pregnancy, elderly , after catherization of a urinary bladder and urological surgery as well as in the co-existence of diabetes or nephrolithiasis. Due to the anatomical differences, women suffer more often than men. The main etiological factor is Escherichia coli, even though it plays a lesser role in the complicated infections, than in non-complicated ones. Apart from that, the infections may also be caused by atypical microbes, viruses and fungi. Relapses as well as reinfections are typical features of urinary tract infections and in some cases prolonged infections can spread from lower to upper urinary tract contributing to pyelonephritis, urosepsis or even death. These long-term infections can progress in a hidden, insidious, oligosymptomatic or asymptomatic manner leading to irreversible, progressive deterioration of renal function. They can also mask other diseases such as tuberculosis or neoplasms of the urinary tract, which leads to the delayed diagnosis and treatment. Diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections is a complex problem, often requiring specialized procedures as well as hospitalization. The choice of a therapy is determined by the type of infection, general condition, age and coexisting diseases. Rapid diagnosis and implementation of proper pharmacotherapy may shorten the time of treatment and hospitalization, preventing serious complications and reinfections.

  13. The urinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornbury, J.R.; Weiss, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    Introduction of new methods and enhancement of traditional radiologic methods have greatly influenced the use of imaging to diagnose and treat patients who have urinary tract disease. In the past, plain films of the abdomen and excretory urography were the starting point in the diagnostic imaging process. Today, either computed tomography (CT) or ultrasonography may be requested initially. Choosing the appropriate method has become more complex because of the variety that confronts the physician. If physicians think critically about the selection of patients before requesting an imaging examination, they can improve their use of such examinations. First, the physician must hypothesize a differential diagnosis. Particularly important is the action of linking the use of the diagnostic test to the choice of treatment. The following paragraphs present the most frequently used (or most useful) examinations for the specific diagnostic problem situations that are discussed subsequently

  14. Preventing urinary incontinence in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Diane K; Cardozo, Linda; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich

    2013-10-01

    This review examines the evidence to date, analyzes specific risk factors and assesses the ability to prevent urinary incontinence in women, while providing clinical recommendations. More extraordinary risk factors such as ethnicity and race, mixed and fecal incontinence, iatrogenic and neurogenic factors should be discussed in a follow-up report. Studies have revealed that certain factors place women at risk for developing urinary incontinence, including age, obesity, diabetes, pregnancy and delivery, high-impact physical exercise factors and estrogen deficiency. Healthcare providers should screen women who are at risk for developing urinary incontinence and institute specific interventions, specifically behavioral and even rehabilitative techniques, to prevent this prevalent and distressing condition.

  15. Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Urinary Incontinence During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balik, Gülşah; Güven, Emine Seda G; Tekin, Yeşim B; Şentürk, Şenol; Kağitci, Mehmet; Üstüner, Işık; Mete Ural, Ülkü; Şahin, Figen K

    2016-05-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) can frequently be seen in pregnant women. Pregnancy and delivery have been considered as risk factors in the occurrence of pelvic floor dysfunction and determinants of LUTS. The main associated risk factor is parity. In the present study, we aim to determine the frequency of LUTS and urinary incontinence (UI) during pregnancy and the associated risk factors. This prospective study was carried out in a total of 250 women during their 28- and 40-gestational week checks. The Urinary Distress Inventory-6, the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7, and International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form were used to determine LUTS and its effect on quality of life. The mean age and gestational age of the participants were 29.41 ± 5.70 year (range 18-44) and 35.45 ± 2.98 weeks (range 28-40), respectively. The prevalence of LUTS was 81.6%. The prevalence of UI during pregnancy was 37.2%. Stress urinary incontinence, urge urinary incontinence and mixed urinary incontinence were diagnosed as 15.6, 4.8 and 16.8%, respectively. We found that advanced age, smoking and multiparity were risk factors associated with incontinence. Incontinence reduced pregnant women's quality of life. Lower urinary tract symptoms are commonly seen among pregnant women and these symptoms negatively affect the quality of life of pregnant women. Advanced age, smoking and multiparity were risk factors associated with urinary incontinence and LUTS. Obstetricians should be on the lookout for individual urological problems in pregnancy. Resolving any urological issues and cessation of smoking for the affected individuals will help alleviate the problem. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Survey of risk factors urinary tract infection

    OpenAIRE

    A Dehghani; M zahedi; M moezzi; M dafei; H Falahzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Women are very susceptible to urinary tract infections and pregnancy raises the risk of urinary tract infection. In general, little information on the risk factors of urinary tract infection in pregnancy is underway. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy is an important risk factor for pregnancy dire consequences. The purpose of this study is to find risk factors associated with urinary tract infection in pregnant women. Methods: The study was observational and retrospective ...

  17. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... urinary tract infection, or UTI, you're probably thinking about peeing quite a lot. Why? Because it ... you have a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill ...

  18. URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN ADULTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Infection of the urinary tract (UTI) is frequently encountered in clinical practice — in the USA these ... Asymptomatic UTI is identified when organisms can be isolated in appropriate numbers .... Pregnancy ... men, so pre-treatment urine culture is.

  19. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Illnesses & Injuries Relax & Unwind People, Places & Things That Help Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for ... ll never want to have one again! To help keep those bacteria out of your urinary tract, ...

  20. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract Troubles Girls are more likely than boys to get a UTI. That's because their urethras are much shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get ...

  1. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These things happen because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary ... shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get up into the bladder more easily ...

  2. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. Ahhh! That feels better. Urinary Tract Troubles Girls are more likely than boys to get a ... away properly, they stay on your skin. In girls, this means they can grow near the opening ...

  3. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... five to six times a day but never think twice about? Answer: Pee! But if you have ... urinary tract infection, or UTI, you're probably thinking about peeing quite a lot. Why? Because it ...

  4. Urinary incontinence surgery - female - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... activities, such as golfing, playing tennis, bowling, running, biking, weight lifting, gardening or mowing, and vacuuming for ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Urinary Incontinence Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  5. [Ultrasound of the urinary system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Grau, A; Herzog, R; Díaz-Rodriguez, N; Segura-Cabral, J M

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound techniques are able to provide a fairly complete examination of the urinary system, achieving a high sensitivity in relevant-pathology detection, especially in the kidney, bladder and prostate. Early detection of pathologies such as tumors or urinary tract obstructions, sometimes even before their clinical manifestation, has improved their management and prognosis in many cases. This, added to its low cost and harmlessness, makes ultrasound ideal for early approaches and follow-up of a wide number of urinary system pathologies. In this article, the ultrasound characteristics of the main urinary system pathologies that can be diagnosed by this technique, are reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of whole body gamma-irradiation and/or dietary protein deficiency on the levels of plasma non-protein nitrogen and amino acids; plasma and urinary ammonia and urea in desert rodent and albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.M.; El-Husseini, M.; Saleh, F.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation exposure on the levels of non-protein nitrogen (N.P.N.) and amino acids in plasma; ammonia and urea in plasma and urine was studied in the desert rodent, Psammomys obesus obesus and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency, N.P.N. and amino acids in plasma were shown to increase by irradiation exposure. The effect of radiation on blood ammonia was less marked, but it caused a significant increase in ammonia excretion in urine. Radiation exposure in albino rats caused a marked increase in urea concentration in plasma of animals fed the high protein diet and irradiated at 780 r. In urine, the tested radiation levels caused an initial increase in urea concentration followed by a subsequent decrease. In psammomys, radiation exposure exerted a little effect on the plasma urea level, whereas significant increase in the daily urea excretion was recorded. It seems that urea level in plasma is more stabilized in psammomys than in albino rats

  7. Urinary tract infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedberry-Ross, Sherry; Pohl, Hans G

    2008-03-01

    Urinary tract infections can be a significant source of morbidity in the pediatric population. The mainstay of evaluating urinary tract infections in children has been physical examination, urinalysis and culture, and renal and bladder sonography and contrast cystography. However, novel clinical paradigms now consider the importance of various risk factors, such as bacterial virulence and antibiotic-resistance patterns, elimination disorders, and the role of innate immunity and inflammation in determining the likelihood of renal cortical scarring.

  8. Controversies in urinary iodine determinations

    OpenAIRE

    Soldin, Offie Porat

    2002-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) is associated with increased prevalence of goiter, increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, and is the world’s leading cause of intellectual deficits. Iodine nutritional status of a population is assessed by measurements of urinary iodine concentrations which are also used to define, indicate, survey and monitor iodine deficiency and consequently its treatment. Several methods are available for urinary iodine determination. Discussed here are some of the limitat...

  9. Análise dos Vasos do Trato Urinário Inferior de Ratas Durante e Após a Prenhez Analysis of Urinary Tract Vessels during and after Pregnancy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente Kosmiskas

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: estudar as variações da anatomia vascular de ratas, avaliando o número de vasos da uretra proximal e distal, da junção vésico-uretral e da bexiga, durante e após a prenhez. Métodos: trinta ratas, com teste positivo de acasalamento, foram divididas aleatoriamente em três grupos contendo 10 animais cada, a saber: GI - ratas no 10º dia de prenhez; GII - ratas no 20º dia de prenhez; GIII - ratas no 5º dia de puerpério; um grupo controle (GIV era composto de 10 ratas na fase de estro. Foram contados os vasos sangüíneos em quatro lâminas, por animal, coradas pelo método do tricrômico de Masson, com ocular de integração de 25 pontos, acoplada a microscopia de luz, com objetiva de 40 X. As regiões estudadas foram uretra proximal e distal, junção vésico-uretral e bexiga. Resultados: não houve variação significativa no número de vasos da bexiga, da junção vésico-uretral e da uretra proximal nas ratas durante a gestação ou em relação ao grupo controle. Na uretra distal, o número de vasos no grupo controle foi 13,7, sendo significativamente menor do que nos grupos com prenhez (20,5 a 24,4 vasos. Conclusões: as ratas prenhes apresentaram maior número de vasos na uretra distal do que aquelas em estro. Nos demais locais estudados não houve diferenças entre os grupos.Purpose: to evaluate the variations in vascular anatomy by assessing the number of vessels of the proximal and distal urethra, of the vesicourethral canal and of the bladder, during and after pregnancy in rats. Method: thirty female rats, with a positive test for pregnancy, were divided into three groups of 10 animals each: GI - rats on the 10th day of pregnancy; GII - rats on the 20th day of pregnancy; GIII - rats on the 5th day of puerperium; a control group (GIV composed of 10 rats in the estrous phase. The vessels were stained by the method of Masson and counted with a 25-dot integration ocular, coupled to a light microscope, with an objective

  10. Artificial urinary sphincter implantation: an important component of complex surgery for urinary tract reconstruction in patients with refractory urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Liao, Limin

    2018-01-08

    We review our outcomes and experience of artificial urinary sphincter implantation for patients with refractory urinary incontinence from different causes. Between April 2002 and May 2017, a total of 32 patients (median age, 40.8 years) with urinary incontinence had undergone artificial urinary sphincter placement during urinary tract reconstruction. Eighteen patients (56.3%) were urethral injuries associated urinary incontinence, 9 (28.1%) had neurogenic urinary incontinence and 5 (15.6%) were post-prostatectomy incontinence. Necessary surgeries were conducted before artificial urinary sphincter placement as staged procedures, including urethral strictures incision, sphincterotomy, and augmentation cystoplasty. The mean follow-up time was 39 months. At the latest visit, 25 patients (78.1%) maintained the original artificial urinary sphincter. Four patients (12.5%) had artificial urinary sphincter revisions. Explantations were performed in three patients. Twenty-four patients were socially continent, leading to the overall success rate as 75%. The complication rate was 28.1%; including infections (n = 4), erosions (n = 4), and mechanical failure (n = 1). The impact of urinary incontinence on the quality of life measured by the visual analogue scale dropped from 7.0 ± 1.2 to 2.2 ± 1.5 (P urinary sphincter implantation in our center are unique, and the procedure is an effective treatment as a part of urinary tract reconstruction in complicated urinary incontinence cases with complex etiology.

  11. Radioimmunoassay for urinary albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, J.; Floyd, M.; Cannon, D.C.; Kahan, B.

    1978-01-01

    We describe a rapid, sensitive, and precise radioimmunoassay for urinary albumin (U/sub alb/). Aliquots of diluted urine were incubated at room temperature for 1 h with 125 I-labelled albumin and a rabbit antiserum monospecifid for human albumin. Phase separation was effected by the double-antibody technique. The dose-response curve was linear in the range of 15.6 to 10,000 ng, equivalent to 4 to 3000 mg/liter of urine. The limit of sensitivity was 16 ng of albumin. The coefficient of assay variation was 4.8%, both at 44 mg/liter and at 1304 mg/liter. A displacement curve obtained with a serially diluted urine sample of high albumin concentration was completely superimposable with the curve for which human albumin was used as a standard. In 26 normal individuals the range for U/sub alb/ was 2.2 to 12.6 mg/24 h, and for albumin clearance (C/sub alb/), 1.8 x 10 -5 --19.6 x 10 -5 ml/min. After renal homografts in 25 patients, U/sub alb/ ranged from 16.9 to 9928 mg/24 h, and C/sub alb/ from 2.7 x 10 -4 to 1.7 x 10 -1 ml/min. Both increased U/sub alb/ and C/sub alb/ correlated well with the severity of renal homograft rejection

  12. Leiomyoma of urinary bladder with bladder stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farouk, K.; Gondal, M.; Khan, A.

    2008-01-01

    Leiomyoma of the urinary bladder is a rare benign mesenchymal tumour. We describe here a case of leiomyoma of the urinary bladder in a 65-year-old gentleman who presented with haematuria, passage of clots and combined obstructive and irritative urinary symptoms. The investigations revealed a vesical calculus and a mass on the left lateral wall of the urinary bladder. Cystolitholapaxy and transurethral resection of the tumour was performed. Histopathological report of the resected tumour revealed a leiomyoma of the urinary bladder. So far, a leiomyoma of the urinary bladder and a concomitant vesical calculus have not been described in literature. (author)

  13. Anatomical features of the urethra and urinary bladder catheterization in female mice and rats. An essential translational tool Características anatômicas da cateterização da uretra e bexiga de camundongos e ratos fêmeas. Instrumento essencial na pesquisa pré clínica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Oliveira Reis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To present fundamental anatomical aspects and technical skills necessary to urethra and urinary bladder catheterization in female mice and rats. METHODS: Urethral and bladder catheterization has been widely utilized for carcinogenesis and cancer research and still remains very useful in several applications: from toxicological purposes as well as inflammatory and infectious conditions to functional aspects as bladder dynamics and vesicoureteral reflux, among many others. RESULTS: Animal models are in the center of translational research and those involving rodents are the most important nowadays due to several advantages including human reproducibility, easy handling and low cost. CONCLUSIONS: Although technical and anatomical pearls for rodent urethral and bladder access are presented as tackles to the advancement of lower urinary tract preclinical investigation in a broaden sight, restriction to female animals hampers the male microenvironment, demanding future advances.OBJETIVO: Apresentar aspectos anatômicos fundamentais e habilidades técnicas necessárias para cateterismo da uretra e bexiga em ratos e camundongos fêmeas. MÉTODOS: Cateterismo vesical tem sido amplamente utilizado na pesquisa do câncer e carcinogênese, além de várias outras aplicações, desde fins toxicológicos, condições inflamatórias e infecciosas até aspectos funcionais como a dinâmica vesical e refluxo vesico-ureteral, entre muitos outros. RESULTADOS: Os modelos animais estão no centro da investigação de translação e os roedores são os mais importantes devido a várias vantagens, incluindo reprodutibilidade humana, o fácil manuseio e baixo custo. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar de permitir o desenvolvimento da investigação pré-clínica do trato urinário inferior, o modelo se restringe aos animais do sexo feminino, de modo que avanços futuros são necessários.

  14. The histological and histometrical effects of Urtica dioica extract on rat?s prostate hyperplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Moradi, Hamid Reza; Erfani Majd, Naeem; Esmaeilzadeh, Saleh; Fatemi Tabatabaei, Sayed Reza

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in human that gradual overgrowth of the prostate gland leads to impinge on the urethra with impairment in urinary function. Numerous plants improve uncontrolled growth of the prostate gland and improve urinary tract symptoms associated with BPH. In this study, 25 healthy adult male Wistar rats were divided randomly in five groups: G1 (Control group) received ordinary feed without any treatment, G2 received 10 mg kg-1 testosterone subcutan...

  15. Bladder Infection (Urinary Tract Infection - UTI) in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Urinary Tract & How It Works Bladder Infection (Urinary Tract Infection—UTI) in Adults View or Print All ... Bladder infections are the most common type of urinary tract infection (UTI), but any part of your urinary ...

  16. Urinary incontinence - tension-free vaginal tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/007377.htm Urinary incontinence - tension-free vaginal tape To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Placement of tension-free vaginal tape is surgery to help control stress urinary ...

  17. Urinary Incontinence: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor, or surgery. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Start Here Urinary Incontinence (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Urinary Tract Health (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) ...

  18. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as a marker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanoh, T.; Fukuda, M.; Onozuka, H.; Kinouchi, T.; Ohnishi, Y. (Tokyo Metropolitan Research Laboratory of Public Health (Japan))

    1993-08-01

    The concentrations of pollutants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), originating from automobile emissions are high in areas around urban arterial roads. To investigate the possibility of using urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-POH) a metabolite of pyrene, as a marker for estimating the amount of human exposure to PAHs, both an animal experiment and an ecological correlation study were conducted. Rats were exposed to one of two sources of PAH: diesel engine emissions containing particulate matter and NO2 at average concentrations of 4.20 mg/m3 and 2.90 ppm, respectively, or, for the control group, air having the respective average concentrations of 0.01 mg/m3 and 0.02 ppm. The concentration of pyrene was 36 ng/mg in the particulate matter in the diluted diesel engine exhaust and 9.0 ng/g in the feed to the rats. Urinary 1-POH levels in the rats of the exposure group increased remarkably over those of the control group, 2.4 times as much by the 2nd week of exposure and 5.6 times by the 4th and 8th weeks. The ecological correlation study was conducted in 1988 and 1989 in two area of Tokyo along arterial roads (Meguro and Itabashi Wards) and in one suburban area (Higashiyamato City) to measure urinary 1-POH levels in elementary school children who lived in those areas. Urinary samples were collected in October in 1988, as well as in January, May, and July in 1989. Throughout the period of investigation, the schoolchildren in the highly NOx-polluted Meguro and Itabashi Wards showed significantly higher urinary 1-POH levels than the children in the less-polluted Higashiyamato City by a factor of 1.1-1.6. These results suggest that the urinary 1-POH level could be used as a good marker for estimating the amount of exposure of residents to PAHs.

  19. Urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick in acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Møller; Novovic, Srdan; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer

    2010-01-01

    In acute pancreatitis (AP), rapid diagnosis and early treatment are of importance for clinical outcome. Urinary trypsinogen-2 has been suggested as a promising diagnostic marker; however, studies using the urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick test (UTDT) have provided varying results.......In acute pancreatitis (AP), rapid diagnosis and early treatment are of importance for clinical outcome. Urinary trypsinogen-2 has been suggested as a promising diagnostic marker; however, studies using the urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick test (UTDT) have provided varying results....

  20. Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Tom P. V. M.; Klijn, Aart J.; Vijverberg, Marianne A. W.

    2012-01-01

    Up to 10% of school-age children suffer from recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) and/or urinary incontinence. Lower urinary tract problems are, together with asthma, the most important chronic disease of the pediatric age group. Diagnosis must discriminate among those children with functional

  1. Kidneys and Urinary Tract (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Kidneys and Urinary Tract KidsHealth / For Parents / Kidneys and Urinary Tract What's ... Los riñones y las vías urinarias Kidneys and Urinary Tract Basics Our bodies produce several kinds of wastes, ...

  2. Methionine metabolism after portacaval shunt in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, L.E.; Steele, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of portacaval shunt (PCS) on methionine metabolism in the rat was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to PCS and maintained on an 18% casein diet. Growth curves of operated rats were similar to controls. PCS rats excreted more urinary 35 SO 4 and less [ 35 S]taurine than controls after intraperitoneal injection of 0.3 mmol/100 g [ 35 S]methionine or [ 35 S]cysteine. Total urinary taurine excretion was similar in PCS and control rats after a methionine or cysteine load; however, under basal conditions PCS rats had higher urinary taurine levels than controls, indicating that PCS may cause the taurine pool to be expanded. Hepatic methionine, S-adenosylmethionine, and cysteine pools were significantly decreased in PCS rats, while S-adenosylhomocysteine levels were unchanged. Relative rates of transsulfuration in PCS and control rats were studied by following the decrease in the 3 H-to- 35 S ratio in liver protein after injection of [methyl-3H]methionine and [ 35 S]methionine, and no difference in flux of 35 S from [ 35 S]methionine to [ 35 S]cysteine was found. Similarly, total hepatic activities of methionine adenosyltransferase, cystathionine synthase, and cystathionine gamma-lyase were unchanged in PCS rats. These results indicate that altered methionine metabolism in PCS rats is not explained by changes in conversion of methionine to cysteine via the transsulfuration pathway

  3. The Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract (GSPE on Urinary Sodium Excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsum Ozkan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: While various hormones and mediators reduce the urinary excretion of Na, other mediators such as nitric oxide (NO increase Na excretion. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE is a molecule that has an antioxidant effect by increasing NO levels. Our study was intended to evaluate the effect of GSPE on Na excretion. Material and Method: Fourteen rats were divided into control and GSPE groups. The control group was given 1 cm3 milk by gavage for one week, while the GSPE group was given 100 mg/kg GSPE. Seventh-day urines were collected from rats monitored over 24 h in a metabolic cage. Urinary Na excretion at the end of 24 h was investigated and the experiment concluded. Results: There was no difference between the control and GSPE groups in terms of weight, solid and liquid food intake and urine volumes. 24-hour urinary Na excretion was higher in the GSPE group (1.43±0.30 g/day compared to the control group (1.37±0.29 g/day, although the difference was not statistically significant. Na excretion was positively correlated with solid food intake (p=0.029, r=0.583  and urine volume (p<0.001, r=0.806. Discussion: Our study shows, for the first time in the literature, that GSPE increases  urinary Na excretion in healthy rats,  though not to a statistically significant extent, and that solid food intake and urine volume affect Na excretion. We think that it will be useful for the effect of GSPE on urinary Na excretion in hypertensive rats with impaired Na excretion and balance to be evaluated in future studies.

  4. Effects of three commonly-used diuretics on the urinary proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xundou; Zhao, Mindi; Li, Menglin; Jia, Lulu; Gao, Youhe

    2014-06-01

    Biomarker is the measurable change associated with a physiological or pathophysiological process. Unlike blood which has mechanisms to keep the internal environment homeostatic, urine is more likely to reflect changes of the body. As a result, urine is likely to be a better biomarker source than blood. However, since the urinary proteome is affected by many factors, including diuretics, careful evaluation of those effects is necessary if urinary proteomics is used for biomarker discovery. Here, we evaluated the effects of three commonly-used diuretics (furosemide, F; hydrochlorothiazide, H; and spirolactone, S) on the urinary proteome in rats. Urine samples were collected before and after intragastric administration of diuretics at therapeutic doses and the proteomes were analyzed using label-free liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Based on the criteria of P≤0.05, a fold change ≥2, a spectral count ≥5, and false positive rate (FDR) ≤1%, 14 proteins (seven for F, five for H, and two for S) were identified by Progenesis LC-MS. The human orthologs of most of these 14 proteins are stable in the healthy human urinary proteome, and ten of them are reported as disease biomarkers. Thus, our results suggest that the effects of diuretics deserve more attention in future urinary protein biomarker studies. Moreover, the distinct effects of diuretics on the urinary proteome may provide clues to the mechanisms of diuretics. Copyright © 2014. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Effects of Three Commonly-used Diuretics on the Urinary Proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xundou Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomarker is the measurable change associated with a physiological or pathophysiological process. Unlike blood which has mechanisms to keep the internal environment homeostatic, urine is more likely to reflect changes of the body. As a result, urine is likely to be a better biomarker source than blood. However, since the urinary proteome is affected by many factors, including diuretics, careful evaluation of those effects is necessary if urinary proteomics is used for biomarker discovery. Here, we evaluated the effects of three commonly-used diuretics (furosemide, F; hydrochlorothiazide, H; and spirolactone, S on the urinary proteome in rats. Urine samples were collected before and after intragastric administration of diuretics at therapeutic doses and the proteomes were analyzed using label-free liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS. Based on the criteria of P ⩽ 0.05, a fold change ⩾2, a spectral count ⩾5, and false positive rate (FDR ⩽1%, 14 proteins (seven for F, five for H, and two for S were identified by Progenesis LC–MS. The human orthologs of most of these 14 proteins are stable in the healthy human urinary proteome, and ten of them are reported as disease biomarkers. Thus, our results suggest that the effects of diuretics deserve more attention in future urinary protein biomarker studies. Moreover, the distinct effects of diuretics on the urinary proteome may provide clues to the mechanisms of diuretics.

  6. Can low urinary tract symptoms influence postprostatectomy urinary incontinence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienza, Antonio; Hevia, Mateo; Merino, Imanol; Diez-Caballero, Fernando; Rosell, David; Pascual, Juan I; Zudaire, Juan J; Robles, José E

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze what kind of urinary symptoms patients have before receiving treatment by radical prostatectomy (RP), and to evaluate their influence on urinary incontinence (UI). Between 2002 and 2012, 758 consecutive patients underwent RP for clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa). Surgery was carried out by open retropubic RP in 545 (73.1%) of patients and laparoscopic RP in 201 (27%) by 5 surgeons who were excluded from data collection and analysis. The following symptoms were collected from the last urological check-ups or pre-operative consultation and classified as: storage symptoms, voiding symptoms, post micturition symptoms, history of acute urinary retention, benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment, history of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). A total of 661 patients were included on analysis: 136 (20.6%) patients reported low urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), 162 (24.5%) were considered incontinent after RP, and 45 (33.1%) of them reported LUTS before surgery. Postprostatectomy urinary incontinence (PPUI) was significantly different in patients with LUTS (117 [22.3%] vs. 45 [33.1%], P=0.009). The presence of any LUTS influence significantly in the appearance of PPUI (OR=1.72 [95% CI: 1.14-2.6), P=0.01). TURP is independently influential in PPUI (OR=6.13 [95% CI: 1.86-20.18], P=0.003). A patient with LUTS before surgery has an increased risk of 70% or even 200% to suffer PPUI and a patient who received treatment by TURP is 6 times at higher risk of PPUI. In conclusion, patients with LUTS are likely to present PPUI. History of TURP is influential by itself over PPUI. A good preoperative consultation is important to assess continence status and to create realistic expectations to patients before RP.

  7. Urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformations in children: A retrospective study of 34 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila Chahed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the association of urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation is not rare, their management poses challenges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between urolithiasis and malformations of the urinary system. There were 34 patients (19 males and 15 females with a mean age of 4.8 years (range, 2 months to 14 years. All patients had urinary lithiasis with a urinary tract malformation. Abdominal pain was the most frequent clinical symptom (38%. Urinary infection was found in 7 patients (21% and macroscopic haematuria was present in 10 patients (29%. The most frequent urinary tract malformations were megaureter (8 cases, uretero-pelvic junction obstruction (7 cases and vesico-ureteric reflux (8 cases, but its malformative origin could not be confirmed. Treatment consisted of lithiasis extraction in 32 cases associated with specific treatment of the uropathy in 27 cases. Postoperative outcome was uneventful in all cases. In fact, urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation association is not rare. Indeed, 9-34% of urinary lithiasis are noted to be associated with urinary tract malformation. Positive diagnosis relies specifically on kidney ultrasound, intravenous urography, and urethrocystography. Treatment depends on the type of urinary tract malformation, localisation and size of the urinary lithiasis. Conclusion: In conclusion, urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation association is a frequent eventuality. Surgical intervention is the usual mode of treatment.

  8. Urinary tract infections in women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common bacterial infections in women, with ... Acute cystitis refers to symptomatic infection of the bladder in the lower ... lungs in a patient with pneumonia.4. Risk factors ... use of antimicrobial agents for community-acquired UTIs has resulted in the emergence of antimicrobial resistance.

  9. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For ... Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  10. Drug-induced urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsakiris, Peter; Oelke, Matthias; Michel, Martin C.

    2008-01-01

    Physiological urinary continence depends on many factors that are potentially vulnerable to adverse drug effects, which may lead to incontinence. In principle, drugs could cause incontinence by lowering bladder outlet resistance and/or by increasing intravesical pressure, which disrupts the normal

  11. Gas in the urinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, F.J.; Peka, J. de la; Perez, S.; Rodriguez, M.; Sahagun, E.

    1996-01-01

    The causes of gas in the urinary tract and the radiologic procedures employed to detect it are reviewed. The value of each in determining the diagnosis and extension of the pathological process is discussed. The characteristic images of this disorder as represented by the different techniques, are presented. (Author) 18 refs,

  12. Urinary glicosaminoglycans levels in women with urinary tract infection and non urinary tract infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasaribu, H. P.; Hanifa, A.; Tala, R. Z.; Ardiansyah, E.; Simanjuntak, R. Y.; Effendy, I. H.

    2018-03-01

    UTI is an infection that occurs in the urinary tract due to the proliferation of a microorganism. Female is fourteen times more vulnerable to UTI than male, because their urethra is shorter. Bladder epithelium is coated with a thin layer of glycosaminoglycans which act as a non-specific anti-adherence factor and nonspecific defense mechanisms against infection and can be found in the urine. An analytic study with cross sectional approach was conducted in 46 patients (23 with UTI and 23 non UTI) from June 2016 to determine differences in levels of urinary glycosaminoglycans between two groups. Urine samples were taken and tested for UTI and non UTI strips test. Laboratory examination of urine GAGs levels using ELISA kit for Human Glycosaminoglycans, then tabulated and analyzed using SPSS. The result showed no significant differences in the characteristics of women between two groups. There are significant differences in the mean levels of urinary GAGs in women with UTI compared with Non-UTI (69.74 ± 21.34; 21.39 ± 2.61 mg/l; p UTI incidence, with low odds ratio values and no significant difference in the mean of urinary glicosaminoglycans level based on sexual status.

  13. Urinary Soluble CD163 in Active Renal Vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Vincent P; Wong, Limy; Kennedy, Claire; Elliot, Louise A; O'Meachair, Shane; Coughlan, Alice Marie; O'Brien, Eoin C; Ryan, Michelle M; Sandoval, Diego; Connolly, Emma; Dekkema, Gerjan J; Lau, Jiaying; Abdulahad, Wayel H; Sanders, Jan-Stephan F; Heeringa, Peter; Buckley, Colm; O'Brien, Cathal; Finn, Stephen; Cohen, Clemens D; Lindemeyer, Maja T; Hickey, Fionnuala B; O'Hara, Paul V; Feighery, Conleth; Moran, Sarah M; Mellotte, George; Clarkson, Michael R; Dorman, Anthony J; Murray, Patrick T; Little, Mark A

    2016-09-01

    A specific biomarker that can separate active renal vasculitis from other causes of renal dysfunction is lacking, with a kidney biopsy often being required. Soluble CD163 (sCD163), shed by monocytes and macrophages, has been reported as a potential biomarker in diseases associated with excessive macrophage activation. Thus, we hypothesized that urinary sCD163 shed by crescent macrophages correlates with active glomerular inflammation. We detected sCD163 in rat urine early in the disease course of experimental vasculitis. Moreover, microdissected glomeruli from patients with small vessel vasculitis (SVV) had markedly higher levels of CD163 mRNA than did those from patients with lupus nephritis, diabetic nephropathy, or nephrotic syndrome. Both glomeruli and interstitium of patients with SVV strongly expressed CD163 protein. In 479 individuals, including patients with SVV, disease controls, and healthy controls, serum levels of sCD163 did not differ between the groups. However, in an inception cohort, including 177 patients with SVV, patients with active renal vasculitis had markedly higher urinary sCD163 levels than did patients in remission, disease controls, or healthy controls. Analyses in both internal and external validation cohorts confirmed these results. Setting a derived optimum cutoff for urinary sCD163 of 0.3 ng/mmol creatinine for detection of active renal vasculitis resulted in a sensitivity of 83%, specificity of 96%, and a positive likelihood ratio of 20.8. These data indicate that urinary sCD163 level associates very tightly with active renal vasculitis, and assessing this level may be a noninvasive method for diagnosing renal flare in the setting of a known diagnosis of SVV. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  14. Urinary NGAL deficiency in recurrent urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Catherine S; Johnson, Kathryn; Patel, Viral; Wax, Rebecca; Rodig, Nancy; Barasch, Jonathan; Bachur, Richard; Lee, Richard S

    2017-06-01

    Children with recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTI) often show no identifiable cause of their infections. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is known to be upregulated within the uroepithelium and kidney of patients with UTI and exhibits a localized bacteriostatic effect through iron chelation. We hypothesize that some patients with rUTI without an identifiable cause of their recurrent infections have locally deficient NGAL production. We therefore explored whether a lack of NGAL production may be a factor in the pathogenesis of rUTI. Patients seen in the urology clinic for rUTI who were tract, or other reasons that predispose to UTI, such as neurogenic bladder, the need for intermittent catheterization, or unrepaired posterior urethral valves. Control patients were healthy children enrolled from the emergency department with no history of UTI or renal dysfunction, normal urinalysis at the time of enrollment, and presenting no diagnosis associated with increased NGAL levels, such as acute kidney injury or infection. NGAL was measured by immunoblot. Fifteen cases and controls were enrolled. Median urinary NGAL levels were significantly decreased in rUTI patients compared with controls [15 (14-29) ng/ml vs 30 (27-61) ng/ml; p = 0.002)] Although comparatively diminished, measurable NGAL levels were present in all patients with rUTI. Urinary NGAL is significantly decreased in patients with compared with patients without rUTI. These data suggest that some patients with rUTI may be predisposed to UTI because of a relative local deficiency in urinary NGAL production.

  15. Major Odorants Released as Urinary Volatiles by Urinary Incontinent Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Young Sa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, volatile urinary components were collected using three different types of samples from patients suffering from urinary incontinence (UI: (1 urine (A; (2 urine + non-used pad (B; and (3 urine + used pad (C. In addition, urine + non-used pad (D samples from non-patients were also collected as a reference. The collection of urinary volatiles was conducted with the aid of a glass impinger-based mini-chamber method. Each of the four sample types (A through D was placed in a glass impinger and incubated for 4 hours at 37 °C. Ultra pure air was then passed through the chamber, and volatile urine gas components were collected into Tedlar bags at the other end. These bag samples were then analyzed for a wide range of VOCs and major offensive odorants (e.g., reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs, carbonyls, trimethylamine (TMA, ammonia, etc.. Among the various odorants, sulfur compounds (methanethiol and hydrogen sulfide and aldehydes (acetaldehyde, butylaldehyde, and isovaleraldehyde were detected above odor threshold and predicted to contribute most effectively to odor intensity of urine incontinence.

  16. [Urinary tract infection in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herráiz, Miguel Angel; Hernández, Antonio; Asenjo, Eloy; Herráiz, Ignacio

    2005-12-01

    Urinary tract infections, asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB), acute cystitis (AC) and acute pyelonephritis (AP), are favored by the morphological and functional changes involved in pregnancy. AB increases the risk of preterm labor, low birth weight and AP. AB should be detected by uroculture (other methods are not sufficiently effective) and treated early. Approximately 80% of cases are caused by Escherichia coli. The risks and effectiveness of the distinct antibiotic regimens should be evaluated: fosfomycin trometamol in monotherapy or as short course therapy is safe and effective for the treatment of AB and AC. AP is the most frequent cause of hospital admission for medical reasons in pregnant women and can lead to complications in 10% of cases, putting the lives of the mother and fetus at risk. Currently outpatient treatment of AP is recommended in selected cases. Adequate follow-up of pregnant women with urinary tract infections is required due to frequent recurrence.

  17. The menopause and urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldspang, Anders; Mommsen, Søren

    1994-01-01

    The objective was to study the possible role of the menopause in adult female urinary incontinence (UI) etiology, using a cross-sectional population study comprising a random sample of adult females and self-reported data based on postal questionnaires. The study group comprised 915 women who...... prevalence in 1987 of episodes of stress and urge urinary incontinence; prevalence of menopause and exposure to childbirth, gynecologic surgery, cystitis and obesity as indicated by body mass index more than 29; prevalence relative risks, as indicated by odds ratio of UI conditional on menopause and other...... the year of final menstruation. The findings suggest perimenopausal processes rather than the menopause in general to be responsible for an increased risk of developing UI. The elevation of UI prevalence in the perimenopause may reflect the adjustment of the female continence mechanism to function...

  18. Epitheloid hemangioendothelioma of urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narmada P Gupta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Epitheloid hemangioendothelioma is an uncommon vascular neoplasm and has an unpredictable clinical behavior. It is characterized by round or spindle-shaped endothelial cells with cytoplasmic vacuolation. Most often, epitheloid hemangioendothelioma arise from the soft tissues of the upper and lower extremities and it has borderline malignant potential. We describe the first reported case of epitheloid hemangioendothelioma in the urinary bladder, which was treated by transurethral resection. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry.

  19. Treatment of stress urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Rasmussen, W

    1990-01-01

    This review presents reported cure and improvement rates of stress urinary incontinence in women obtained by different treatment modalities. Apart from the urodynamic findings, histological and histochemical changes of the pelvic floor may be clinically relevant to treatment in the future. Long......-term cure and improvement rates achieved by non-surgical treatment (physiotherapy, biofeedback, bladder training, electrostimulation) are commented on. These rates range from 40-60% for physiotherapy and electrostimulation but are considerably less after biofeedback and bladder training. Pharmacotherapy...

  20. Urinary tract infections in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, A; Levancini, M

    2001-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are very common during pregnancy. Escherichia coli is the most common pathogen isolated from pregnant women. Ampicillin should not be used because of its high resistance to Escherichia coli. Pyelonephritis can cause morbidity and can be life-threatening to both mother and fetus. Second and third-generation cephalosporins are recommended for treatment, administered initially intravenously during hospitalization. Cultures and the study of virulence factors of uropathogenic Escherichia coli are recommended for the adequate management of pyelonephritis. The lower genital tract infection associated with pyelonephritis is responsible for the failure of antibiotic treatment. Asymptomatic bacteriuria can evolve into cystitis or pyelonephritis. All pregnant women should be routinely screened for bacteriuria using urine culture, and should be treated with nitrofurantoin, sulfixosazole or first-generation cephalosporins. Recurrent urinary infection should be treated with prophylactic antibiotics. Pregnant women who develop urinary tract infections with group B streptococcal infection should be treated with prophylactic antibiotics during labour to prevent neonatal sepsis. Preterm delivery is frequent. Evidence suggests that infection plays a role in the pathogenesis of preterm labour. Experimental models in pregnant mice support the theory that Escherichia coli propagated by the transplacental route, involving bacterial adhesins, induces preterm delivery, but this has not been demonstrated in humans. Ascending lower genital tract infections are the most probable cause of preterm delivery, but this remains to be proved.

  1. Urinary tract infections during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Jennifer; Briggs, Gerald G; McKeown, Anna; Bustillo, Gerardo

    2004-10-01

    To provide a comprehensive review of urinary tract infections (UTIs) during pregnancy. All aspects of UTIs, including epidemiology, pathogenesis, resistance, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, were reviewed. MEDLINE (1966-August 2003) and Cochrane Library searches were performed using the key search terms urinary tract infection, pyelonephritis, cystitis, asymptomatic bacteriuria, and resistance. All article abstracts were evaluated for relevance. Only articles pertaining to pregnancy were included. The majority of published literature were review articles; the number of original clinical studies was limited. UTIs are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. They are characterized by the presence of significant bacteria anywhere along the urinary tract. Pyelonephritis is the most common severe bacterial infection that can lead to perinatal and maternal complications including premature delivery, infants with low birth weight, fetal mortality, preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and transient renal insufficiency. Enterobacteriaceae account for 90% of UTIs. The common antibiotics used are nitrofurantoin, cefazolin, cephalexin, ceftriaxone, and gentamicin. Therapeutic management of UTIs in pregnancy requires proper diagnostic workup and thorough understanding of antimicrobial agents to optimize maternal outcome, ensure safety to the fetus, and prevent complications that lead to significant morbidity and mortality in both the fetus and the mother.

  2. URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Margieva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of diagnosing and treating urinary tract infections and their role in development of renal injury are being actively discussed by scientists and practicing pediatricians. The article presents the most recent data on etiological factors, pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of this disease. It provides recommendations on diagnosis and management of patients depending on their age. The article presents a discussion of antibacterial therapy course duration and indications for anti-relapse treatment. The study demonstrates that intravenous antibacterial therapy must be launched immediately in neonates in the event of pyretic fever; empirical antibacterial therapy must be launched immediately in older children after diagnosis of the urinary tract infection has been confirmed; subsequently, treatment ought to be corrected depending on the results of a bacteriological trial, sensitivity to antibiotics and effectiveness of the prescribed antibiotic. Along with normalization of urination rhythm and water intake schedule, antibacterial preventive therapy might be considered, if effective, in the event of recurrent nature of the urinary tract infection. 

  3. Adenomyosis and urinary system symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Gultekin Adanas; Yavuz, Arzu

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to investigate the presence and incidence of overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome in patients diagnosed with adenomyosis and to evaluate the impacts of urinary symptoms on the quality of life of the patients. A total of 108 individuals including 50 patients with adenomyosis and 58 controls who were admitted to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Bursa, Cekirge State Hospital and Derince Training and Research Hospital between April 2015 and December 2015 were included. The Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6) and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7) were used to evaluate symptoms. Irritative urinary symptoms such as nocturia and frequency were seen more frequently in the adenomyosis group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.035). Overactive bladder symptoms were more common in the adenomyosis group (p = 0.0001). Our study showed that symptoms of urinary tract symptoms are common in patients with adenomyosis, which adversely affect the quality of life. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Resveratrol improves prostate fibrosis during progression of urinary dysfunction in chronic prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi; Zeng, Hui-Zhi; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Jia-Shu; Duan, Xingping; Zeng, Xiao-Na; Gong, Feng-Tao; Liu, Qi; Yang, Bo

    2017-09-01

    We investigated whether prostate fibrosis was associated with urinary dysfunction in chronic prostatitis (CP) and whether resveratrol improved urinary dysfunction and the underlying molecular mechanism. Rat model of CP was established via subcutaneous injections of DPT vaccine and subsequently treated with resveratrol. Bladder pressure and volume tests investigated the effect of resveratrol on urinary dysfunction in CP rats. Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining examined the expression level of C-kit/SCF and TGF-β/Wnt/β-catenin. Compared to the control group, the maximum capacity of the bladder, residual urine volume and maximum voiding pressure, the activity of C-kit/SCF and TGF-β/Wnt/β-catenin pathways were increased significantly in the CP group. Resveratrol treatment significantly improved these factors. CP induced significantly prostate fibrosis, which exhibits a close relationship with urinary dysfunction. Resveratrol improved fibrosis, which may be associated with the suppression of C-kit/SCF and TGF-β/Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Neuromodulation of the neural circuits controlling the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Parag N; Roy, Roland R; Zhong, Hui; Gerasimenko, Yury P; Taccola, Giuliano; Edgerton, V Reggie

    2016-11-01

    The inability to control timely bladder emptying is one of the most serious challenges among the many functional deficits that occur after a spinal cord injury. We previously demonstrated that electrodes placed epidurally on the dorsum of the spinal cord can be used in animals and humans to recover postural and locomotor function after complete paralysis and can be used to enable voiding in spinal rats. In the present study, we examined the neuromodulation of lower urinary tract function associated with acute epidural spinal cord stimulation, locomotion, and peripheral nerve stimulation in adult rats. Herein we demonstrate that electrically evoked potentials in the hindlimb muscles and external urethral sphincter are modulated uniquely when the rat is stepping bipedally and not voiding, immediately pre-voiding, or when voiding. We also show that spinal cord stimulation can effectively neuromodulate the lower urinary tract via frequency-dependent stimulation patterns and that neural peripheral nerve stimulation can activate the external urethral sphincter both directly and via relays in the spinal cord. The data demonstrate that the sensorimotor networks controlling bladder and locomotion are highly integrated neurophysiologically and behaviorally and demonstrate how these two functions are modulated by sensory input from the tibial and pudental nerves. A more detailed understanding of the high level of interaction between these networks could lead to the integration of multiple neurophysiological strategies to improve bladder function. These data suggest that the development of strategies to improve bladder function should simultaneously engage these highly integrated networks in an activity-dependent manner. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. [Male Urinary Incontinence--a Taboo Issue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozomara-Hocke, Marko; Hermanns, Thomas; Poyet, Cédric

    2016-03-02

    Male urinary incontinence is an underestimated and frequently not broached issue. The urinary incontinence is divided into stress-, urge incontinence and hybrid forms as well as overflow incontinence. The fact that there are increasingly more men over 60 means that the prevalence of the urinary incontinence is up to 40%, and urinary incontinence will increasingly gain importance in daily routine practice. Many investigations and therapies can be realized by the general practitioner. Already simple therapy approaches can lead to a considerable clinical improvement of male urinary incontinence. If the initial therapy fails or pathological results (i. e. microhaematuria, recurrent urinary tract infections, raised residual urine and so on) are found, the patient should be referred to a urologist.

  7. Drug calculations for urinary incontinence in women

    OpenAIRE

    Nuttall, Dilyse

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 3–6 million people are affected by urinary incontinence in the UK, and women are most commonly affected (NHS Choices, 2015). Causes of urinary incontinence vary but urge incontinence is usually caused by over-activity of the bladder's detrusor muscles, and stress incontinence is caused by muscle damage or weakness (NHS Choices, 2015). The management of urinary incontinence may require pharmacological treatment in conjunction with pelvic floor and bladder training exercises (Joint...

  8. Pharmacological effects of saw palmetto extract in the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mayumi; Ito, Yoshihiko; Fujino, Tomomi; Abe, Masayuki; Umegaki, Keizo; Onoue, Satomi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Yamada, Shizuo

    2009-03-01

    Saw palmetto extract (SPE), an extract from the ripe berries of the American dwarf palm, has been widely used as a therapeutic remedy for urinary dysfunction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in Europe. Numerous mechanisms of action have been proposed for SPE, including the inhibition of 5alpha-reductase. Today, alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists and muscarinic cholinoceptor antagonists are commonly used in the treatment of men with voiding symptoms secondary to BPH. The improvement of voiding symptoms in patients taking SPE may arise from its binding to pharmacologically relevant receptors in the lower urinary tract, such as alpha(1)-adrenoceptors, muscarinic cholinoceptors, 1,4-dihyropyridine receptors and vanilloid receptors. Furthermore, oral administration of SPE has been shown to attenuate the up-regulation of alpha(1)-adrenoceptors in the rat prostate induced by testosterone. Thus, SPE at clinically relevant doses may exert a direct effect on the pharmacological receptors in the lower urinary tract, thereby improving urinary dysfunction in patients with BPH and an overactive bladder. SPE does not have interactions with co-administered drugs or serious adverse events in blood biochemical parameters, suggestive of its relative safety, even with long-term intake. Clinical trials (placebo-controlled and active-controlled trials) of SPE conducted in men with BPH were also reviewed. This review should contribute to the understanding of the pharmacological effects of SPE in the treatment of patients with BPH and associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).

  9. Fetal MRI of the urinary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoermann, Marcus; Brugger, Peter C.; Balassy, Csilla; Witzani, Linde; Prayer, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    The assessment of the urinary system is typically performed by ultrasound. Nevertheless, an ultrasound may be inconclusive in fetuses with renal diseases that result in anhydramnios or oligohydramnios. In such cases, and in other cases in which ultrasound is limited, further investigation with MR should be considered. In the following article, we will provide an overview of the most commonly encountered disorders of the urinary system and their appearance on fetal MR imaging. Fetal MR imaging can accurately diagnose a wide variety of urinary tract disorders and must be seen as a valuable complementary tool to ultrasound in the assessment of the urinary system, particularly in cases of inconclusive ultrasound findings

  10. Frailty and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suskind, Anne M

    2017-09-01

    The incidence of both frailty and lower urinary tract symptoms, including urinary incontinence, overactive bladder, underactive bladder, and benign prostatic hyperplasia, increases with age. However, our understanding of the relationship between frailty and lower urinary tract symptoms, both in terms of pathophysiology and in terms of the evaluation and management of such symptoms, is greatly lacking. This brief review will summarize definitions and measurement tools associated with frailty and will also review the existing state of the literature on frailty and lower urinary tract symptoms in older individuals.

  11. Fetal MRI of the urinary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoermann, Marcus [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: marcus.hoermann@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Balassy, Csilla [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    The assessment of the urinary system is typically performed by ultrasound. Nevertheless, an ultrasound may be inconclusive in fetuses with renal diseases that result in anhydramnios or oligohydramnios. In such cases, and in other cases in which ultrasound is limited, further investigation with MR should be considered. In the following article, we will provide an overview of the most commonly encountered disorders of the urinary system and their appearance on fetal MR imaging. Fetal MR imaging can accurately diagnose a wide variety of urinary tract disorders and must be seen as a valuable complementary tool to ultrasound in the assessment of the urinary system, particularly in cases of inconclusive ultrasound findings.

  12. Water metabolism and modification of tritium excretion in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimasa, Y.; Akita, Y.

    1982-01-01

    1. The intake and excretion of tritium were studied in rats exposed to tritiated water vapor. The metabolism of tritium was also investigated in rats given single administrations of tritiated water and in rats given daily administrations (per os or i.p.). The results were essentially in accord with those reported previously. 2. Amounts of drinking water consumed and urine excreted by rats drinking water with 0.15% saccharin were 1.5 to 2 times higher than in rats drinking tap water. The tritium activity in various tissues of rats drinking water with 0.15% saccharin decreased to about half of that of rats drinking tap water. A similar tendency was observed also in rats drinking beer. The diuretic agent sodium acetazolamide also enhanced the urinary excretion of tritium. (author)

  13. Urinary Proteolytic Activation of Renal Epithelial Na+ Channels in Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hong; Liu, Xuefei; Sharma, Neeru M; Li, Yulong; Pliquett, Rainer U; Patel, Kaushik P

    2016-01-01

    One of the key mechanisms involved in renal Na(+) retention in chronic heart failure (CHF) is activation of epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaC) in collecting tubules. Proteolytic cleavage has an important role in activating ENaC. We hypothesized that enhanced levels of proteases in renal tubular fluid activate ENaC, resulting in renal Na(+) retention in rats with CHF. CHF was produced by left coronary artery ligation in rats. By immunoblotting, we found that several urinary serine proteases were significantly increased in CHF rats compared with sham rats (fold increases: furin 6.7, prostasin 23.6, plasminogen 2.06, and plasmin 3.57 versus sham). Similar increases were observed in urinary samples from patients with CHF. Whole-cell patch clamp was conducted in cultured renal collecting duct M-1 cells to record Na(+) currents. Protease-rich urine (from rats and patients with CHF) significantly increased the Na(+) inward current in M-1 cells. Two weeks of protease inhibitor treatment significantly abrogated the enhanced diuretic and natriuretic responses to ENaC inhibitor benzamil in rats with CHF. Increased podocyte lesions were observed in the kidneys of rats with CHF by transmission electron microscopy. Consistent with these results, podocyte damage markers desmin and podocin expressions were also increased in rats with CHF (increased ≈2-folds). These findings suggest that podocyte damage may lead to increased proteases in the tubular fluid, which in turn contributes to the enhanced renal ENaC activity, providing a novel mechanistic insight for Na(+) retention commonly observed in CHF. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Urinary proteolytic activation of renal epithelial Na+ channels in chronic heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hong; Liu, Xuefei; Sharma, Neeru M.; Li, Yulong; Pliquett, Rainer U; Patel, Kaushik P.

    2015-01-01

    One of the key mechanisms involved in renal Na+ retention in chronic heart failure (CHF) is activation of epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC) in collecting tubules. Proteolytic cleavage has an important role in activating ENaC. We hypothesized that enhanced levels of proteases in renal tubular fluid activate ENaC resulting in renal Na+ retention in rats with CHF. CHF was produced by left coronary artery ligation in rats. By immunoblotting, we found that several urinary serine proteases were significantly increased in CHF rats compared to sham rats (fold increases: furin 6.7, prostasin 23.6, plasminogen 2.06 and plasmin 3.57 vs. sham). Similar increases were observed in urinary samples from patients with CHF. Whole-cell patch-clamp was conducted in cultured renal collecting duct M-1 cells to record Na+ currents. Protease-rich urine (from rats and patients with CHF) significantly increased the Na+ inward current in M-1 cells. Two weeks of protease inhibitor treatment significantly abrogated the enhanced diuretic and natriuretic responses to ENaC inhibitor benzamil in rats with CHF. Increased podocyte lesions were observed in the kidneys of rats with CHF by transmission electron microscopy. Consistent with these results, podocyte damage markers desmin and podocin expressions were also increased in rats with CHF (increased ~2 folds). These findings suggest that podocyte damage may lead to increased proteases in the tubular fluid which in turn contributes to the enhanced renal ENaC activity, providing a novel mechanistic insight for Na+ retention commonly observed in CHF. PMID:26628676

  15. Tumorigenicity of sodium ascorbate in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S M; Anderson, T A; de Oliveira, L M; Arnold, L L

    1998-06-15

    Sodium ascorbate, like other sodium salts such as saccharin, glutamate, and bicarbonate, produces urinary alterations when fed at high doses to rats, which results in mild superficial urothelial cytotoxicity and regeneration but not tumors in a standard 2-year bioassay. Sodium saccharin was shown to produce a low incidence of bladder tumors in rats if administered in a two-generation bioassay. In the present study, we evaluated sodium ascorbate in a two-generation bioassay that involved feeding to the male and female parental F344 rats for 4 weeks before mating, feeding the dams during gestation and lactation, and then feeding the weaned (at 28 days of age) male F1 generation rats for the remainder of their lifetime (up to 128 weeks of the experiment). Dietary levels of 1.0, 5.0, and 7.0% sodium ascorbate were tested. At 5.0 and 7.0% sodium ascorbate, there was an increase in urinary bladder urothelial papillary and nodular hyperplasia and the induction of a few papillomas and carcinomas. There was a dose-responsive increase in renal pelvic calcification and hyperplasia and inhibition of the aging nephropathy of rats even at the level of 1% sodium ascorbate. Because the short-term urothelial effects of sodium ascorbate in rats are inhibited by treatments producing urinary acidification to pH sodium ascorbate to evaluate the long-term effects. The combination of 7.0% sodium ascorbate plus 2.78% NH4Cl in the diet was toxic, and the group was terminated early during the course of the experiment. The group fed 5.0% sodium ascorbate plus 2.04% NH4Cl showed complete inhibition of the urothelial effects of sodium ascorbate and significant inhibition of its renal effects. We also demonstrated the presence of a calcium phosphate-containing urinary precipitate in rats fed sodium ascorbate at all doses, in a dose-responsive manner. The formation of the precipitate was inhibited by coadministration with NH4Cl. The proliferative effects of sodium ascorbate on the male rat

  16. urinary tract infections in symptomatic pregnant women attending

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    bacterial infections in the elderly but also the most common and ... For pregnant women, urinary tract infection is the most common ... causing arthropathy in children. Urinary tract ... resistance in our environment, resistance such as β-. Urinary ...

  17. Urinary Incontinence Surgery: When Other Treatments Aren't Enough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development of overactive bladder, which could include urge incontinence Urinary tract infection Difficult or painful intercourse Talk with ... article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/urinary-incontinence/in-depth/urinary-incontinence-surgery/ART-20046858 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal ...

  18. Pattern and Risk Factors of Urinary Bladder Neoplasms in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It poses biologic and clinical challenges. ... Conclusion: There is significant relationship between urinary schistosomal infestation and the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder among Sudanese patients. Keywords: Urinary Bladder, Transitional Cell Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  19. Subchronic toxicity studies of t-butyl alcohol in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindamood, C; Farnell, D R; Giles, H D; Prejean, J D; Collins, J J; Takahashi, K; Maronpot, R R

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of t-butyl alcohol, an important commodity chemical, an additive to unleaded gasoline, and a contaminant of drinking water. Ninety-day toxicity studies were conducted in B6C3F1 mice and Fischer 344 (F344) rats of both sexes using dosed water. Dose levels of t-butyl alcohol were 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4% (w/v). Lethality was observed at the 4% level of both sexes and species. Weight-gain depression was present in all dose levels of male rats; 4% female rats; 1, 2, and 4% male mice; and 2 and 4% female mice. Water consumption was increased at lower dose levels in male rats and decreased in the higher dose levels of both sexes of rats and female mice. Clinical signs in rats were ataxia in both sexes and hypoactivity in males. Clinical signs in mice were ataxia, abnormal posture, and hypoactivity. In rats, urine volumes were reduced, in association with crystalluria. Gross lesions at necropsy were urinary tract calculi, renal pelvic and ureteral dilatation, and thickening of the urinary bladder mucosa. Microscopic lesions were hyperplasia of transitional epithelia and inflammation of the urinary bladder. In male rats treated with t-butyl alcohol, microscopic renal changes were suggestive of alpha-2 mu-globulin nephropathy. No-effect levels for the urinary tract lesions were 1% in male rats and mice (803.7 mg/kg/day for the male rats and 1565.8 mg/kg/day for the male mice) and 2% in female rats and mice (1451.5 mg/kg/day for the female rats and 4362.9 mg/kg/day for the female mice). The results indicate that in rodents the urinary tract is the target organ for t-butyl alcohol toxicity, and males are more sensitive to t-butyl alcohol toxicity than females.

  20. Urinary catheterization in medical wards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmanmoh Bhatia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims : The study aims to determine the: 1. frequency of inappropriate catheterization in medical wards and the reasons for doing it. 2. various risk factors associated with inappropriate catheterization, catheter associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI and bacterial colonization on Foley′s catheters (BCFC. Settings and Design: Hospital-based prospective study. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty five patients admitted consecutively in the medical wards of a tertiary care hospital, who underwent catheterization with a Foley′s catheter, at admission, have been included in the study. Patient profiles were evaluated using the following parameters: age, sex, diagnosis, functional status, mental status, indication, duration and place of catheterization, development of BCFC and CAUTI. Statistical tests used: Chi-square test. Results: Thirty-six out of 125 (28.8% patients included were inappropriately catheterized. BCFC developed in 52.8% and 22.4% were diagnosed with a CAUTI. The most frequent indication for inappropriate catheterization was urinary incontinence without significant skin breakdown (27.8%. The risk factors for inappropriate catheterization were female sex (RR=1.29, 95% CI=0.99, 1.69, P60 years (RR=0.65, 95% CI=0.48, 0.89, P3 days (RR=0.62, 95% CI=0.43, 0.89, P60 years (RR=0.47, 95% CI=0.25, 0.90, P3 days (RR=0.24, 95% CI=0.10, 0.58, P< 0.01. Conclusions : Inappropriate catheterization is highly prevalent in medical wards, especially in patients with urinary incontinence. The patients catheterized in the medical emergency and female patients in particular are at high risk. Careful attention to these factors can reduce the frequency of inappropriate catheterization and unnecessary morbidity.

  1. URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sivalingam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections frequently affect pregnant mothers. This problem causes significant morbidity and healthcare expenditure. Three common clinical manifestations of UTIs in pregnancy are: asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute cystitis and acute pyelonephritis. Escherichia coli remains the most frequent organism isolated in UTIs. All pregnant mothers should be screened for UTIs in pregnancy and antibiotics should be commenced without delay. Urine culture and sensitivity is the gold standard in diagnosing UTIs. Without treatment, asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy is associated with preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, maternal hypertension, pre-eclampsia and anaemia. Acute pyelonephritis can lead to maternal sepsis. Recurrent UTIs in pregnancy require prophylactic antibiotic treatment.

  2. [The Kock continent urinary diversion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, S D; Skinner, D G; Lieskovsky, G

    1989-07-01

    The continent ileal reservoir as conceived by Kock produces a low-pressure, high-capacity reservoir with continent and nonrefluxing valves constructed from ileum. From August 1982 through March 1988, 531 patients underwent continent urinary diversion via a Kock reservoir at our institution. Of these, 39 males had a Kock bladder substitution, while the rest underwent cutaneous Kock diversion. Early complications occurred in 16% of all patients, and there was an operative mortality rate of 1.9%. Surgical modifications of nipple fixation, which are discussed in detail in this paper, help to reduce late complications to less than 10%. Patient satisfaction with both procedures remains excellent.

  3. Dahl salt-sensitive rats develop hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism when fed a standard diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Cephas, Stacy; Sayavongsa, Phouyong; Doherty, Akins; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2005-01-01

    The Dahl salt-sensitive rat (S), a model for salt-sensitive hypertension, excretes protein-bound 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) into urine when fed a low salt diet. Urinary 25-OHD increases during high salt intake. We tested the hypothesis that continuous loss of 25-OHD into urine would result in low plasma 25-OHD concentration in mature S rats raised on a standard diet. Dahl S and salt-resistant (R) male rats were raised to maturity (12-month-old) on a commercial rat diet (1% salt) and switched to 0.3% (low) or 2% (high) salt diets 3 weeks before euthanasia. Urine (24 h) was collected at the end of the dietary treatments. Urinary 25-OHD and urinary 25-OHD binding activity of S rats were three times that of R rats, resulting in lower plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations in S rats than in R rats (P D concentrations than those fed 0.3% salt (P = 0.002). S rats excreted more calcium into urine than R rats (P D and high plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and PTH concentrations seen in the mature S rats have also been reported for elderly patients with low-renin (salt-induced) hypertension. An implication of this study is that low vitamin D status may occur with age in salt-sensitive individuals, even when salt intake is normal.

  4. Undertreatment of urinary incontinence in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning-van Beest, F.J.A.; Sturkenboom, M.C.; Bemelmans, B.L.H.; Herings, R.M.C.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the urinary incontinence guidelines that are issued by the Dutch College of General Practitioners, treatment guidelines are related to the type of incontinence. It is unknown whether treatment of urinary incontinence in general practice complies with these guidelines. OBJECTIVE: To

  5. Villous adenoma of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar Pal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Villous adenoma is a known entity in the gastrointestinal tract, but very rare in the urinary tract. It is a benign tumor with excellent prognosis, but its progression to adenocarcinoma is not established. Here, we report an additional case of villous adenoma of the urinary bladder.

  6. Urinary Incontinence: Management and Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebling, Tomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Urinary incontinence, defined as the involuntary leakage of urine, is a common health problem in both women and men. Children may also suffer from this condition. Management and treatment of urinary incontinence depends primarily on the specific type of incontinence and the underlying problem causing the leakage for a given patient. Because…

  7. Herpes zoster-induced acute urinary retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Ben; Harvey, Martyn

    2013-06-01

    Urinary retention is a common acute presentation for men in their later decades. Potential contributing pathologies are numerous. We report an unusual case of acute urinary retention requiring catheterisation secondary to sacral herpes zoster reactivation (S2-4) in an 88-year-old man with minimal preceding obstructive symptoms. © 2013 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  8. Prevalence of urinary tract infection and vesicoureteral reflux in children with lower urinary tract dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Batavia, Jason P; Ahn, Jennifer J; Fast, Angela M; Combs, Andrew J; Glassberg, Kenneth I

    2013-10-01

    Lower urinary tract dysfunction is a common pediatric urological problem that is often associated with urinary tract infection. We determined the prevalence of a urinary tract infection history in children with lower urinary tract dysfunction and its association, if any, with gender, bowel dysfunction, vesicoureteral reflux and specific lower urinary tract conditions. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of children diagnosed with and treated for lower urinary tract dysfunction, noting a history of urinary tract infection with or without fever, gender, bowel dysfunction and vesicoureteral reflux in association with specific lower urinary tract conditions. Of the 257 boys and 366 girls with a mean age of 9.1 years 207 (33%) had a urinary tract infection history, including 88 with at least 1 febrile infection. A total of 64 patients underwent voiding cystourethrogram/videourodynamics, which revealed reflux in 44 (69%). In 119 of the 207 patients all infections were afebrile and 18 underwent voiding cystourethrogram/videourodynamics, which revealed reflux in 5 (28%). A urinary tract infection history was noted in 53% of girls but only 5% of boys (p infection history than patients with idiopathic detrusor overactivity disorder or primary bladder neck dysfunction (each p urinary tract dysfunction have a much higher urinary tract infection incidence than males. This association was most often noted for lower urinary tract conditions in which urinary stasis occurs, including detrusor underutilization disorder and dysfunctional voiding. Reflux was found in most girls with a history of febrile infections. Since reflux was identified in more than a quarter of girls with only afebrile infections who were evaluated for reflux, it may be reasonable to perform voiding cystourethrogram or videourodynamics in some of them to identify reflux. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lymphoma of the urinary bladder (LUB is rare. Aims. To review the literature on LUB. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results. LUB can be either primary or secondary. The tumour has female predominance; most cases occur in middle-age women. Secondary LUB occurs in 10% to 25% of leukemias/lymphomas and in advanced-stage systemic lymphoma. Less than 100 cases have been reported. MALT typically affects adults older than 60 years; 75% are female. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is also common and may arise from transformation of MALT. LUB presents with haematuria, dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia, and abdominal or back pain. Macroscopic examination of LUBs show large discrete tumours centred in the dome or lateral walls of the bladder. Positive staining of LUB varies by the subtype of lymphoma; B-cell lymphomas are CD20 positive. MALT lymphoma is positively stained for CD20, CD19, and FMC7 and negatively stained for CD5, CD10, and CD11c. LUB stains negatively with Pan-keratin, vimentin, CK20, and CK7. MALT lymphoma exhibits t(11; 18(q21: 21. Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the MALT type of LUB with no recurrence. Conclusions. LUB is diagnosed by its characteristic morphology and immunohistochemical characteristics. Radiotherapy is a useful treatment.

  10. Effects of diuretics on urinary proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xundou

    2015-01-01

    Biomarker is the measurable change associated with a physiological or pathophysiological process. Unlike blood which has mechanisms to keep the internal environment homeostatic, urine is more likely to reflect changes of the body. As a result, urine is likely to be a better biomarker source than blood. However, since the urinary proteome is affected by many factors, including diuretics, careful evaluation of those effects is necessary if urinary proteomics is used for biomarker discovery. The human orthologs of most of these 14 proteins affected are stable in the healthy human urinary proteome, and 10 of them are reported as disease biomarkers. Thus, our results suggest that the effects of diuretics deserve more attention in future urinary protein biomarker studies. Moreover, the distinct effects of diuretics on the urinary proteome may provide clues to the mechanisms of diuretics.

  11. Urinary C-type natriuretic peptide excretion: a potential novel biomarker for renal fibrosis during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangaralingham, S Jeson; Heublein, Denise M; Grande, Joseph P; Cataliotti, Alessandro; Rule, Andrew D; McKie, Paul M; Martin, Fernando L; Burnett, John C

    2011-11-01

    Renal aging is characterized by structural changes in the kidney including fibrosis, which contributes to the increased risk of kidney and cardiac failure in the elderly. Studies involving healthy kidney donors demonstrated subclinical age-related nephropathy on renal biopsy that was not detected by standard diagnostic tests. Thus there is a high-priority need for novel noninvasive biomarkers to detect the presence of preclinical age-associated renal structural and functional changes. C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) possesses renoprotective properties and is present in the kidney; however, its modulation during aging remains undefined. We assessed circulating and urinary CNP in a Fischer rat model of experimental aging and also determined renal structural and functional adaptations to the aging process. Histological and electron microscopic analysis demonstrated significant renal fibrosis, glomerular basement membrane thickening, and mesangial matrix expansion with aging. While plasma CNP levels progressively declined with aging, urinary CNP excretion increased, along with the ratio of urinary to plasma CNP, which preceded significant elevations in proteinuria and blood pressure. Also, CNP immunoreactivity was increased in the distal and proximal tubules in both the aging rat and aging human kidneys. Our findings provide evidence that urinary CNP and its ratio to plasma CNP may represent a novel biomarker for early age-mediated renal structural alterations, particularly fibrosis. Thus urinary CNP could potentially aid in identifying subjects with preclinical structural changes before the onset of symptoms and disease, allowing for the initiation of strategies designed to prevent the progression of chronic kidney disease particularly in the aging population.

  12. Survey of risk factors urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dehghani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Women are very susceptible to urinary tract infections and pregnancy raises the risk of urinary tract infection. In general, little information on the risk factors of urinary tract infection in pregnancy is underway. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy is an important risk factor for pregnancy dire consequences. The purpose of this study is to find risk factors associated with urinary tract infection in pregnant women. Methods: The study was observational and retrospective analysis was carried on in the winter of which 310 pregnant women participated in 11 health centers in Shahrekord. Of these 155 cases (patients and 155 controls (healthy that were matched for age Information required from the health records of pregnant women and complete Czech list of researcher whose validity was confirmed by experts were gathered. Information needed by pregnant women health records and complete list researcher was collected. Czech list contains a number of possible risk factors for illness and demographic characteristics of the study participants was Statistical analysis software spss version 16 by using chi square tests and logistic regression and t analysis was performed. Results: Among the variables vomiting (p = 0/00 a history of urinary tract infection in a previous pregnancy (P =.001, CI = 1.508-4.408, OR = 2.578 abortion own history (P =.014, CI = 1.165 -3.847, OR = 2.117, respectively, the most important risk factors for urinary tract infection in pregnant women were determined. Conclusion: Prevention and treatment of vomiting in pregnancy prevention of urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Prevention of abortion can play an important role in the prevention of urinary tract infection and its complications in pregnancy. The study also revealed a number of factors can have an impact on urinary tract infection in pregnancy that has not been enough attention and it is necessary that more attention be placed on health programs and

  13. Alterations in sulfur and nitrogen metabolism in rats with portacaval shunts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of portacaval shunt (PCS) on methionine and cysteine metabolism was investigated. PCS rats excreted more urinary [ 35 S]sulfate and less [ 35 S]taurine than controls after injection of [ 35 S]methionine of [ 35 S]cysteine. Total urinary taurine excretion was unchanged. Under basal conditions PCS rats excreted more taurine than controls. Relative rates of transsulfuration in PCS and control rats were studied, and no difference in flux of 35 S from methionine to cysteine was found. Total hepatic activities of three transsulfuration pathway enzymes were also unchanged after PCS. In contrast, hepatic activities of three cysteine-oxidizing enzymes were depressed after PCS, suggesting that changes in hepatic metabolism after PCS are selective. PCS rats fed a high (60%) casein diet ate less and took longer to recover their preoperative body weight than controls. All PCS rats had higher plasma ammonia and urinary orotic acid levels than controls. Increasing dietary protein elevated plasma ammonia and urinary orotic acid to a greater extent in PCS rats. After injection of [ 35 S]methionine or [ 35 S]cysteine, urinary 35 S and [ 35 S]sulfate excretion increased and [ 35 S]taurine an total taurine excretion decreased in all rats fed 60% casein, but the effect was greater in PCS rats. Changes in cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase activity in rats fed a high protein diet was examined. Activity decreased 95% in rats fed diets containing between 18 and 75% casein. The effect was observed after feeding a 60% casein diet for 2 days and was reversed when rats were refed an 18% casein diet

  14. Irradiation effects on the adrenal gland of rats undergoing inanition stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.S.; Chaturvedi, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of total body x-irradiation was studied on rats under inanition stress. In response to irradiation an increase in the activity of cortex and medulla was noted in inanition stress administered rats rather than in the normally fed animals. Similarly, rising levels of urinary catecholamines and 5-hydroxytryptamine were observed in the starved animals after irradiation. (author)

  15. Autonomic receptors in urinary tract: Sex and age differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latifpour, J.; Kondo, S.; O'Hollaren, B.; Morita, T.; Weiss, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    As age and sex affect the function of the lower urinary tract, we studied the characteristics of adrenergic and cholinergic receptors in various parts of lower urinary tract smooth muscle of young (6 months) and old (4 1/2-5 years) male and female rabbits. Saturation experiments performed with [3H]prazosin, [3H]yohimbine, [3H]dihydroalprenolol and [3H]quinuclidinyl benzylate in rabbit bladder base, bladder dome and urethra indicate the presence of regional, sex- and age-related differences in the density of alpha-1, alpha-2, and beta adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors. Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor density is considerably higher in the female than in the male urethra of both age groups, whereas the higher density of beta adrenergic receptors in the female than in the male bladder base is observed only in the younger animals. The density of muscarinic receptors is higher in bladder dome than in bladder base or urethra in young rabbits of both sexes. In the old animals, the density of muscarinic receptors in bladder base increases to the level observed in bladder dome. Inhibition experiments with selective adrenergic agonists and antagonists indicate that the pharmacological profiles of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in the urethra and beta adrenergic receptors in the bladder dome and bladder base are similar in both sexes and at both ages. Beta-2 adrenergic receptors are shown to be predominant in bladder base and bladder dome of rabbits. Parallel studies in rabbit urethra, adult rat cortex and neonatal rat lung show that the urethral alpha-2 adrenergic receptors are of the alpha-2A subtype

  16. Association of urinary cadmium and myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, Charles J.; Frithsen, Ivar L.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of individuals 45-79 years old in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-1994) (NHANES III). Myocardial infarction was determined by electrocardiogram (ECG). Our sample included 4912 participants, which when weighted represented 52,234,055 Americans. We performed adjusted logistic regressions with the Framingham risk score, pack-years of smoking, race-ethnicity, and family history of heart attack, and diabetes as covariates. Urinary cadmium ≥0.88 μg/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.86 (95% CI 1.26-2.75) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 μg/g creatinine. This result supports the hypothesis that cadmium is associated with coronary heart disease. When logistic regressions were done by gender, women, but not men, showed a significant association of urinary cadmium with myocardial infarction. Women with urinary cadmium ≥0.88 μg/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.80 (95% CI 1.06-3.04) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 μg/g creatinine. When the analysis was restricted to never smokers (N=2187) urinary cadmium ≥0.88 μg/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.85 (95% CI 1.10-3.14) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 μg/g creatinine

  17. Urinary Biomarkers of Brain Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manxia An

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers are the measurable changes associated with a physiological or pathophysiological process. Unlike blood, urine is not subject to homeostatic mechanisms. Therefore, greater fluctuations could occur in urine than in blood, better reflecting the changes in human body. The roadmap of urine biomarker era was proposed. Although urine analysis has been attempted for clinical diagnosis, and urine has been monitored during the progression of many diseases, particularly urinary system diseases, whether urine can reflect brain disease status remains uncertain. As some biomarkers of brain diseases can be detected in the body fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and blood, there is a possibility that urine also contain biomarkers of brain diseases. This review summarizes the clues of brain diseases reflected in the urine proteome and metabolome.

  18. Urinary tract infection in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, L.; Janko, V.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in children which can be a source of significant morbidity. For as yet unknown reasons a minority of UTIs in children progress to renal scarring, hypertension and renal insufficiency. Clinical presentation of UTI in children may be nonspecific, and the appropriateness of certain diagnostic tests remains controversial. The diagnostic work-up should be tailored to uncover functional and structural abnormalities such as dysfunctional voiding, vesicoureteral reflux and obstructive uropathy. A more aggressive work-up is recommended for patients at greater risk for pyelonephritis and renal scarring, including infants less than one year of age. Early sequential (intravenous treatment followed by oral antibiotics) antibacterial therapy is recommended to prevent renal scarring. Routine antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended, it may be used in patients with higher grade reflux, obstructive uropathy or recurring UTI who are at greater risk for subsequent infections and complications. (author)

  19. Outcome of Mainz II Pouch Urinary Diversion after Radical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bladder cancer is one of the options of continent urinary diversion following radical ... II pouch urinary diversion for muscle‑invasive bladder cancer in our institution ... immunotherapy.[2]. Following RC, there is a need for urinary diversion. Internal urinary diversion by ureterosigmoidostomy was introduced decades ago,.

  20. Effects of repeated extracorporeal shock wave in urinary biochemical markers of rats Avaliação dos fatores bioquímicos urinários de risco para nefrolitíase em ratos submetidos à aplicação repetida de ondas de choque eletro-hidráulicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Carvalho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To access the effect of repeated extracorporeal shock wave (ESW on urinary biochemical markers METHODS: 20 rats were assigned for ESW (Direx Tripter X1® - 14 KV to one of two groups: G1 (n=10 one ESW; G2 (n=10 two ESWs within a 14-day interval. Within the twenty-four hour period before and after the application of shock waves, the animals were placed in metabolic cages for 24 hour urine collection. The ph, creatinine, sodium, potassium, chlorides, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, oxalates, alkaline phosphatase and citrates were measured. Twenty-four hours after the material was collected for urinary determination, the animals underwent nephrectomy of the kidney submitted to the ESW applications and were, then, sacrificed. The kidneys were processed for hispatological examination. RESULTS: Small variations in the biochemical markers were found in both groups, with no significant differences between the values obtained either prior to or following the ESW applications, except for citrate and alkaline phosphatase. Citraturia decreased significantly in group 2, following the second ESWL application (24.8 ± 3.0 mg/day after the first ESWL vs. 15.3 ± 2.2 mg/day after the second ESWL; p OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos renais das ondas de choque eletro-hidráulicas (OCEH, utilizando como parâmetros marcadores bioquímicos urinários. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 20 ratos machos, EPM - Wistar, distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: G1 (n=10 Animais submetidos a uma sessão de OCEH. G2 (n=10 Animais submetidos a duas sessões de OCEH separadas por um intervalo de 14 dias. Para coleta da urina os animais foram mantidos em gaiolas metabólicas 24 horas antes e depois da aplicação das OCEH. Foram medidos o pH, a creatinina, sódio, potássio, cloretos, cálcio, magnésio, fósforo, oxalato, fosfatase alcalina e citrato. Vinte e quatro horas após a coleta da urina os animais foram submetidos à nefrectomia do rim envolvido no experimento e, em

  1. Urinary Tract Infections in the Older Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2016-08-01

    Urinary infection is the most common bacterial infection in elderly populations. The high prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in both men and women is benign and should not be treated. A diagnosis of symptomatic infection for elderly residents of long-term care facilities without catheters requires localizing genitourinary findings. Symptomatic urinary infection is overdiagnosed in elderly bacteriuric persons with nonlocalizing clinical presentations, with substantial inappropriate antimicrobial use. Residents with chronic indwelling catheters experience increased morbidity from urinary tract infection. Antimicrobial therapy is selected based on clinical presentation, patient tolerance, and urine culture results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A study on urinary radiologic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young San; Park, Hong Jun; Cheung, Hwan

    1984-01-01

    The Roentgenographic examination of the urinary diseases has become an important part of the diagnostic method for the detection of diseases in human being nowadays. We are concerned about the urinary roentgenography and anatomy and pathology for the diagnostic of the urinary diseases. Be based on the proceeding statement, we have to obtain with the diagnostic effects in proper for the diagnostic exposures. In addition to, we'd like to stress on the radiological anatomy and for the technologist and also discuss about pathological aspect

  3. [Urinary incontinence in degenerative spinal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Riggo, J; Benčo, M; Kolarovszki, B; Lupták, J; Svihra, J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of urinary incontinence in patients with chronic degenerative spinal disease and to identify factors affecting the occurrence and changes in urinary incontinence after surgery. The group evaluated comprised 214 patients undergoing surgery for degenerative spinal disease at our department between January 1 and December 31, 2008. The patients were categorised according to the type of their degenerative disease (cervical disc herniation, lumbar disc herniation, spinal stenosis, spinal instability or olisthesis) and the spine level involved (cervical or lumbar spine). The symptoms of urinary incontinence included leakage of urine and non-obstructive chronic urinary retention developing in association with the manifestation of vertebrogenic disorder. Patients with diseases known to increase the risk of incontinence were not included in the study. Based on a retrospective analysis of the patients' clinical notes, the occurrence of urinary incontinence in each type of degenerative spinal disease was assessed. The effect of gender, age, body mass index (BMI), neurological status and spinal disease type on the development of incontinence was statistically evaluated. The efficacy of surgical treatment was assessed on the basis of the patients' subjective complaints at the first follow-up one month after surgery. The data were evaluated by the statistical programme InSTAT (analysis of variance ANOVA, t-test). All tests were two-sided; a 0.05 level of statistical significance was used. Of the 214 patients with degenerative spinal disease, 27 (12.6%) had urinary incontinence. A higher risk of developing incontinence was found in women (p = 0.008) and in patients with radicular weakness (p = 0.023). The patients with urinary incontinence had their BMI significantly lower than patients without this disorder (p = 0.019). Age had no effect. The differences in the occurrence of urinary incontinence amongst the different types of

  4. Adult female urinary incontinence and childhood bedwetting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldspang, Anders; Mommsen, S.

    1994-01-01

    A cross-sectional random population sample of women 30 to 59 years old was sent a questionnaire on urinary incontinence and, among other things, childhood bedwetting. Among 2,613 responders 17.0% reported prevalent urinary incontinence (14.7% stress provoked, 8.3% associated with urge, 6.8% stress...... and urge overlap, 2.2% occurring especially during sleep and 3.9% occurring especially when anxious), and 6.5% reported childhood bedwetting after age 5 years and 3.3% after age 10 years. Childhood bedwetting was associated with prevalent urge urinary incontinence (p ... during sleep (p anxiety (p

  5. Urinary retention associated with herpes zoster infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, L M; Fowler, J F; Owen, L G; Callen, J P

    1993-01-01

    Herpes zoster infection particularly involving the sacral dermatomes has been associated with bladder and bowel dysfunction, most commonly urinary retention. We report two patients who developed acute urinary retention, one of whom also had constipation, within days of herpes zoster skin lesions of the S2-S4 dermatomes. Herpes zoster is a reversible cause of neurogenic bladder and bowel dysfunction and should be considered in a patient that presents with acute urinary retention and/or constipation. Sensory abnormalities and flaccid detrusor paralysis are most likely involved in the pathogenesis.

  6. Urinary calprotectin and posttransplant renal allograft injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepel, Martin; Borst, Christoffer; Bistrup, Claus

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Current methods do not predict the acute renal allograft injury immediately after kidney transplantation. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of urinary calprotectin for predicting immediate posttransplant allograft injury. METHODS: In a multicenter, prospective-cohort study of 144...... incipient renal transplant recipients, we postoperatively measured urinary calprotectin using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after 4 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. RESULTS: We observed a significant inverse association of urinary calprotectin...... concentrations and eGFR 4 weeks after transplantation (Spearman r = -0.33; Prelative risk, 4.3; P

  7. Clinical implications of the microbiome in urinary tract diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiergeist, Andreas; Gessner, André

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to outline and evaluate the most recent literature on the role of the microbiome in urinary tract diseases. High throughput molecular DNA sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes enabled the analysis of complex microbial communities inhabiting the human urinary tract. Several recent studies have identified bacterial taxa of the urinary microbiome to impact urinary tract diseases including interstitial cystitis, urgency urinary incontinence or calcium oxalate stone formation. Furthermore, treatment of urinary tract infections by antibiotics globally impacts community profiles of the intestinal microbiota and might indirectly influence human health. Alternative treatment options like application of probiotics for the treatment of urinary tract infections are currently under investigation. The urinary microbiome and its relationship to urinary tract diseases is currently under comprehensive investigation. Further studies are needed to shed light on the role of commensal microbiota for urinary tract infections.

  8. Synthesis of 125 I - Salicyl Hydroxamic Acid for Urinary Bladder Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, I.T.; Abou EL Zahab, M.; Hamed, M.

    2015-01-01

    Salicylhydroxamic acid is a salicylate derivative. Radiolabeling of Salicyl hydroxamic acid ( SHA ) with iodine-125 may have considerable interest for imaging of urinary bladder. This study is aimed to optimize the radiolabeling yield of Salicyl hydroxamic with radio iodine (125-123) using chloramine - T (CAT) as an oxidizing agent with respect to factors that affect the reaction conditions such as SHA amount, CAT amount, reaction time and ph of the reaction mixture. In - vitro stability of the radiolabeled complex was checked and it was found to be stable for up to 24 h. 125 I-SHA was injected via intravenous administration routes into normal male Sprague – Dawley rats. Bio - distribution studies have revealed that 125 I-SHA was excreted in urine with extent that it could give a clear image for urinary bladder especially if the bladder it tightly closed. The amount of 125 I - Salicyl hydroxamic excreted was increased in case of giving potassium bicarbonate to rat before injection of 125 I-SHA. The result of biodistribution study of 125 I - SHA in experimental animal suggest ed the possibility of using 123 I-SHA to image the urinary bladder

  9. Pathophysiology of nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms in older patients with urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys, Marie-Astrid; Decalf, Veerle; Kumps, Candy; Petrovic, Mirko; Goessaert, An-Sofie; Everaert, Karel

    2017-11-01

    To explore the mismatch between functional bladder capacity and nocturnal urine production, and to study the pathophysiology of an increased nocturnal urine production in older patients with urinary incontinence. The present prospective observational study included adults aged ≥65 years with urinary incontinence. Participants completed questionnaires, frequency volume charts and renal function profiles. The nocturnal lower urinary tract symptom index was defined as nocturnal urine output/maximum voided volume; the nocturnal polyuria index as nocturnal/24 h urine output. The median age (n = 95) was 74 years (69-79), 87% were women and 73% had nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms (nocturnal urinary incontinence or nocturia ≥2). Participants with nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms had a significantly higher nocturnal urine output (809 mL vs 650 mL; P = 0.001) and no significant difference in maximum voided volume (350 mL vs 437 mL; P = 0.079) compared with participants without nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms. Participants (nocturnal polyuria index >33% [n = 56], nocturnal polyuria index >40% [n = 42], nocturnal lower urinary tract symptom index >1.87 [n = 51]) showed higher night-time diuresis rates, free water and sodium clearance compared with during the daytime. Controls (nocturnal polyuria index ≤33% [n = 26], nocturnal polyuria index ≤40% [n = 40], nocturnal lower urinary tract symptom index ≤1.87 [n = 44]) had no circadian rhythm in their diuresis rate or sodium clearance, but more nocturnal free water clearance compared with during the daytime. The majority of older adults with urinary incontinence present nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms. An increased nocturnal sodium diuresis seems to be the only mechanism differentiating patients with nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms from controls. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  10. Factors Associated with Urinary Stress Incontinence in Primiparas

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Ling Chou; Fang-Ping Chen; Li-Fen Teng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate obstetric and maternal risk factors for stress urinary incontinence in primiparas. Materials and Methods: From January 2001 to August 2002, 378 primiparas were interviewed about stress urinary incontinence 1 year after delivery. The association between symptoms of urinary stress incontinence and obstetric factors was assessed. Results: Twenty-four (6%) primiparas had urinary stress incontinence after delivery. Maternal age was positively associated with urinary st...

  11. [Feasibility of using connective tissue prosthesis for autoplastic repair of urinary bladder wall defects (an experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyumentseva, N V; Yushkov, B G; Medvedeva, S Y; Kovalenko, R Y; Uzbekov, O K; Zhuravlev, V N

    2016-12-01

    Experiments on laboratory rats have shown the feasibility of autoplastic repair of urinary bladder wall defects using a connective-tissue capsule formed as the result of an inflammatory response to the presence of a foreign body. The formation of connective tissue prosthesis is characterized by developing fibrous connective tissue, ordering of collagen fibers, reducing the number of cells per unit area with a predominance of more mature cells - fibroblasts. With increasing time of observation, connective tissue prostheses were found to acquire a morphological structure similar to that of the urinary bladder wall. By month 12, the mucosa, the longitudinal and circular muscle layers were formed. The proposed method of partial autoplastic repair of urinary bladder wall is promising, has good long-term results, but requires further experimental studies.

  12. urinary tract infections amongst pregnant women attending

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) constitutes a major health problem in pregnant women due to their relatively short urethra, which ... the urine samples of pregnant women prior to treatment. ... Of 500 asymptomatic pregnant women screened, 433.

  13. Pediatric urinary incontinence: Classification, evaluation, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.J. Schaeffer

    tinuous incontinence refers to constant leakage of urine and can occur even in .... evaluation of pediatric urinary incontinence and guide which tests, if any, should ..... ments taken during bladder filling and storage include the maximal bladder ...

  14. Diagnostic performance of screening methods for urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care ... for urinary schistosomiasis in a school-based control programme, in Ibadan, Nigeria ... and visual examination were the most specific with values of 96.1 and 96.0% respectively.

  15. Management of Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are a common occurrence in paediatrics. ... Ceftriaxone, ampicillin, cefotaxime and gentamycin are the recommended parenteral antibiotics, ... and/or oral medication) and hydration status (in the case of.

  16. Neutron activation analysis of urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souka, N.; Souka, S.; Sanad, W.; Abdel-Rassoul, A.A.

    1974-01-01

    Urinary calculi resulting from disorders in the urinary system are mostly composed of uric acid, urates, calcium oxalate, alkaline earth phosphates (Ca and Mg), triple phosphate (magnesium ammonium phosphate), calcium carbonate, cystine, xanthine, and traces of proteins. The determination of these macro-constituents has been carried out by different analytical procedures. No attempts however, have been reported regarding the determination of trace elements in urinary stones, apart from that of Herring et al., who investigated the consumption of strontium by urolithiasis patients. The present work is a non-destructive neutron activation analysis of urinary calculi, to search the variation in concentration of certain trace elements with the chemical composition of the calculus

  17. Radiological examination of the urinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudmundsen, T.E.; Vinje, B.; Bloerstad, Oe.; Pedersen, H.K.

    1992-01-01

    Procedures for imaging the urinary tract have been recorded in six Norwegian hospitals for the last 24 years. For three of the hospitals, data were collected from 1965 to 1989, and for the other three from 1966, 1971 and 1975, respectively. There was a significant reduction in the number of intravenous pyelograms, voiding cystograms, and renal angiograms, but the number of retrograde pyelograms and plain radiographs of the urinary tract remained constant. Computed tomography of the urinary tract increased during the first years, but after the introduction of ultrasonography, the number of computed tomograms decreased. Ultrasonographic examinations of the urinary tract are still rapidly increasing, and seem to have replaced some of the other imaging techniques. The present results should be taken into consideration when planning the health care for the future. (au)

  18. Neuropeptides in Lower Urinary Tract (LUT) Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arms, Lauren; Vizzard, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous neuropeptide/receptor systems including vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P, neurokinin A, bradykinin, and endothelin-1 are expressed in the lower urinary tract (LUT) in both neural and non-neural (e.g., urothelium) components. LUT neuropeptide immunoreactivity is present in afferent and autonomic efferent neurons innervating the bladder and urethra and in the urothelium of the urinary bladder. Neuropeptides have tissue-specific distributions and functions in the LUT and exhibit neuroplastic changes in expression and function with LUT dysfunction following neural injury, inflammation and disease. LUT dysfunction with abnormal voiding including urinary urgency, increased voiding frequency, nocturia, urinary incontinence and pain may reflect a change in the balance of neuropeptides in bladder reflex pathways. LUT neuropeptide/receptor systems may represent potential targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21290237

  19. Investigation of urinary neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of urinary neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) for early diagnosis of acute kidney ... African Journal of Urology ... Demographic and clinical data including surgical procedure were recorded in Excel and analyzed by ...

  20. Streptococcus pneumoniae urinary tract infection in pedeatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougnet, Richard; Sapin, Jeanne; De Parscau, Loïc; Pougnet, Laurence

    2017-06-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae infections in children are most often lung infections or meningitis. Urinary tract infections are much rarer. We present the case of a urinary tract infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. The clinical picture was classical. The urine culture showed the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in urine (10 4 UFC/mL; with 2 × 10 4 leucocytes/mL). The literature mentions a few cases of such infections. In some studies, the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in urine of children is less than 1%. Those children mostly present abnormalities of urinary tract. In our case, urinary ultrasound scan have shown the presence of an ectopic kidney in this child. The discussion between the clinician and the biologist has contributed to the discovery of this renal anomaly.

  1. Effect of zeolite nano-materials and artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) leaf extract on increase in urinary clearance of systematically absorbed nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekshah, R E; Mahjub, R; Rastgarpanah, M; Ghorbani, M; Partoazar, A R; Mehr, S E; Dehpour, A R; Dorkoosh, F A

    2012-12-01

    Nicotine, the main pharmacologically active component in tobacco and cigarette, has some toxic effects and also high potential for addiction. In this study, the effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and zeolite nano-materials on urinary excretion of nicotine and consequently elimination of systematically absorbed nicotine was investigated. A simple, valid and highly sensitive high performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for determination of nicotine in rat urine according to guidelines for bioanalysis.It was found that nano-zeolites can cause increase in urinary concentration of nicotine due to its high surface adsorption. Artichoke leaf extract can cause increase in urinary excretion of nicotine in longer post administration times. It was observed that co-administration of nanozeolites and the leaf extract has the synergetic effect on increasing the urinary excretion of nicotine. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Endometrioid carcinoma of the upper urinary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Jagdeesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report a second case of endometrioid carcinoma of the upper urinary tract presenting 17 years after hysterectomy for high grade adenocarcinoma of ovary. A 51-year-old nullipara presented to us with a complaint of hematuria. After complete work up, she underwent right radical nephro-ureterectomy with bladder cuff excision. The histology showed endometrioid carcinoma of upper urinary tract without any evidence of endometriosis.

  3. Bariatric Surgery and Urinary Stone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevahir Ozer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major public health problem and has been suggested to play a role in the etiology of urinary tract stone disease. Furthermore, the increasingly widespread use of surgery in the treatment of obesity also is related with urinary stone disease. In daily practice, patients to whom obesity surgery has been planned or who have undergone obesity surgery are seen more frequently. This review aims to highlight the urological evaluation and management of this patient group.

  4. [Mechanisms of urinary tract sterility maintenance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okrągła, Emilia; Szychowska, Katarzyna; Wolska, Lidia

    2014-06-02

    Physiologically, urine and the urinary tract are maintained sterile because of physical and chemical properties of urine and the innate immune system's action. The urinary tract is constantly exposed to the invasion of microorganisms from the exterior environment, also because of the anatomical placement of the urethra, in the vicinity of the rectum. Particularly vulnerable to urinary tract infections (UTI) are women (an additional risk factor is pregnancy), but also the elderly and children. The main pathogens causing UTI are bacteria; in 70-95% of cases it is the bacterium Escherichia coli. Infections caused by viruses and fungi are less common and are associated with decreased immunity, pharmacotherapy, or some diseases. Bacteria have evolved a number of factors that facilitate the colonization of the urinary tract: the cover and cell membrane antigens O and K1, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), fimbriae, pile and cilia. On the other hand, the human organism has evolved mechanisms to hinder colonization of the urinary tract: mechanisms arising from the anatomical structure of the urinary tract, the physicochemical properties of the urine and the activity of the innate immune system, also known as non-specific, which isolates and destroys pathogens using immunological processes, and the mechanisms for release of antimicrobial substances such as Tamm-Horsfall protein, mucopolysaccharides, immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, lactoferrin, lipocalin, neutrophils, cytokines and antimicrobial peptides. This review aims to analyze the state of knowledge on the mechanisms to maintain the sterility of the urinary tract used by the human organism and bacterial virulence factors to facilitate the colonization of the urinary tract.

  5. Urinary diversion after cystectomy: An Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Jain

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Radical cystectomy remains the standard treatment for muscle-invasive carcinoma bladder. Various methods have been described for the urinary diversion. In the last 150 years urinary diversion has evolved from cutaneous ureterostomy to the orthotopic neobladder. Especially during the last 20 years, much advancement has been made. We hereby have reviewed the current approaches being used at different centers in India. We have also analyzed the evolution of diversion from conduit to the orthotopic substitution at our center.

  6. Mechanisms of urinary tract sterility maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Okrągła

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Physiologically, urine and the urinary tract are maintained sterile because of physical and chemical properties of urine and the innate immune system’s action. The urinary tract is constantly exposed to the invasion of microorganisms from the exterior environment, also because of the anatomical placement of the urethra, in the vicinity of the rectum. Particularly vulnerable to urinary tract infections (UTI are women (an additional risk factor is pregnancy, but also the elderly and children. The main pathogens causing UTI are bacteria; in 70-95% of cases it is the bacterium Escherichia coli. Infections caused by viruses and fungi are less common and are associated with decreased immunity, pharmacotherapy, or some diseases. Bacteria have evolved a number of factors that facilitate the colonization of the urinary tract: the cover and cell membrane antigens O and K1, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, fimbriae, pile and cilia. On the other hand, the human organism has evolved mechanisms to hinder colonization of the urinary tract: mechanisms arising from the anatomical structure of the urinary tract, the physicochemical properties of the urine and the activity of the innate immune system, also known as non-specific, which isolates and destroys pathogens using immunological processes, and the mechanisms for release of antimicrobial substances such as Tamm-Horsfall protein, mucopolysaccharides, immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, lactoferrin, lipocalin, neutrophils, cytokines and antimicrobial peptides. This review aims to analyze the state of knowledge on the mechanisms to maintain the sterility of the urinary tract used by the human organism and bacterial virulence factors to facilitate the colonization of the urinary tract.

  7. Transgenic animal model for studying the mechanism of obesity-associated stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Lin, Guiting; Lee, Yung-Chin; Reed-Maldonado, Amanda B; Sanford, Melissa T; Wang, Guifang; Li, Huixi; Banie, Lia; Xin, Zhengcheng; Lue, Tom F

    2017-02-01

    To study and compare the function and structure of the urethral sphincter in female Zucker lean (ZL) and Zucker fatty (ZF) rats and to assess the viability of ZF fats as a model for female obesity-associated stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Two study arms were created: a ZL arm including 16-week-old female ZL rats (ZUC-Lepr fa 186; n = 12) and a ZF arm including 16-week-old female ZF rats (ZUC-Lepr fa 185; n = 12). I.p. insulin tolerance testing was carried out before functional study. Metabolic cages, conscious cystometry and leak point pressure (LPP) assessments were conducted. Urethral tissues were harvested for immunofluorescence staining to check intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) and sphincter muscle (smooth muscle and striated muscle) composition. The ZF rats had insulin resistance, a greater voiding frequency and lower LPP compared with ZL rats (P Obesity impairs urethral sphincter function via IMCL deposition and leads to atrophy and distortion of urethral striated muscle. The ZF rats could be a consistent and reliable animal model in which to study obesity-associated SUI. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Urinary incontinence in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichman, Gina; De Boe, Veerle; Braeckman, Johan; Michielsen, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Owing to evolution in treatment, the average life expectancy of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) has increased. This has been followed by an increase in urological complications such as urinary incontinence. As stress incontinence occurs during exercise, it may have a negative effect on the implementation of respiratory physiotherapy. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of urinary incontinence and its effect on the quality of life and physiotherapy in a population with CF. Questionnaires were used to determine the prevalence of incontinence in patients of the Cystic Fibrosis Clinic of the University Hospital in Brussels. Two different surveys were used, depending on the age of the patients (incontinence were emphasized. Questionnaires were completed by 122 participants aged 6-59 years, showing an overall prevalence of 27% for urinary incontinence. Mainly adults reported urinary incontinence, with a prevalence of 11% in men and 68% in women aged 12 and above. The amount of urinary leakage was usually only a few drops and it was mainly triggered by coughing. Many of the participants had never mentioned this symptom to anyone. Doctors' and physical therapists' attention should be drawn to the fact that urinary incontinence is part of the complication spectrum of CF. A quarter of the study population refrained from coughing up phlegm and from physiotherapy. It is important to actively question and inform about this problem, to enable its detection and treatment.

  9. [A prophylactic program for strain urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnicka, Grazyna; Iwanowicz-Palus, Grazyna J; Bień, Agnieszka M

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to work out a prophylactic program for strain urinary incontinence. Analysis of literature on the subject and results of own investigations presented in the first part of the paper indicate that the program of prophylaxis of strain urinary incontinence should primarily include: (1) Preparation of the medical staff (nurses, midwives) for propagating health education among women on prevention of strain urinary incontinence. (2) Preparation of adequate educational materials in the form of brochures, leaflets, information posters about symptoms, causes and prophylaxis of urinary incontinence indicating health care institutions available to all women when the disease is suspected or already present. (3) Propagation of problems connected with strain urinary incontinence in the mass media providing information to a wide audience in order to make people realize the significance of this social problem and break stereotypes associated with this disease of "shame". (4) Preparation of sets of exercises for the muscles of the base of the pelvis to be performed during pregnancy, confinement and menopause to maintain their proper function. (5) Indicating factors predisposing to strain urinary incontinence with focus on possibilities of their reduction or elimination.

  10. Urinary incontinence: the role of menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trutnovsky, Gerda; Rojas, Rodrigo Guzman; Mann, Kristy Pamela; Dietz, Hans P

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of menopause and hormone therapy on the symptoms and signs of stress urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. Records of women who attended a tertiary urogynecological unit were reviewed retrospectively. A standardized interview included evaluations of symptoms, menopause age (ie, time since last menstrual period or onset of menopausal symptoms), current or previous hormone use, and visual analogue scales for bother. Multichannel urodynamics, including urethral pressure profilometry and determination of abdominal leak point pressure, was performed. Of 382 women seen during the inclusion period, 62% were postmenopausal. Current systemic or local hormone use was reported by 7% and 6%, respectively. Two hundred eighty-eight women (76%) reported symptoms of stress urinary incontinence, with a mean bother of 5.7, and 273 women (72%) reported symptoms of urge urinary incontinence, with a mean bother of 6.4. On univariate analysis, symptoms and bother of urge incontinence were significantly related to menopause age, whereas this relationship was not found for stress incontinence. After calendar age was controlled for, length of menopause showed no significant relationship with any symptom or sign of urinary incontinence. Hormone deficiency after menopause is unlikely to play a major role in urinary incontinence.

  11. Congenital anomalies of the urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Hans G; Belman, A Barry

    2014-01-01

    The upper urinary tract forms as a consequence of the reciprocal inductive signals between the metanephric mesenchyme and ureteric bud. A clue to the timing of events leading to an abnormality of the upper urinary tract can be the presence also of associated anomalies of internal genitalia since separation of these systems occurs at about the 10th week of gestation. Prenatal sonography has facilitated the detection of urological abnormalities presenting with hydronephrosis. Hydronephrosis suggests obstruction, but by itself cannot be equated with it. Instead, further radiographic imaging is required to delineate anatomy and function. Now, moreover, non-surgical management of CAKUT should be considered whenever possible. Despite the widespread use of prenatal screening sonography that usually identifies the majority of congenital anomalies of the urinary tract, many children still present with febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). Regardless of the etiology for the presentation, the goal of management is preservation of renal function through mitigation of the risk for recurrent UTI and/or obstruction. In the past many children underwent surgical repair aimed at normalization of the appearance of the urinary tract. Today, management has evolved such that in most cases surgical reconstruction is performed only after a period of observation - with or without urinary prophylaxis. The opinions presented in this section are not espoused by all pediatric urologists but represent instead the practice that has evolved at Children's National Medical Center (Washington DC) based significantly on information obtained by nuclear renography, in addition to sonography and contrast cystography.

  12. Renal alterations in prediabetic rats with periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Carla Cruvinel Pontes; Holmstrup, Palle; Buschard, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Periodontitis was shown to have an impact on glucose levels in prediabetic and diabetic rats. The Zucker fatty rat (ZFR) is a well-characterized model of prediabetes presenting with impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and moderate hypertension. The aim...... IValpha1, fibronectin, and nephrin. Urinary albumin excretion and creatinine clearance were also evaluated. RESULTS: In prediabetic ZFRs, periodontitis was associated with kidney hypertrophy (P = 0.03) and a tendency for increased glomerular volume (P = 0.06). In lean littermates, elevated fibronectin m...

  13. [Urinary tract infection in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Geraldo; Marcolin, Alessandra Cristina; Quintana, Silvana Maria; Cavalli, Ricardo Carvalho

    2008-02-01

    Several factors cause urinary tract infection (UTI) to be a relevant complication of the gestational period, aggravating both the maternal and perinatal prognosis. For many years, pregnancy has been considered to be a factor predisposing to all forms of UTI. Today, it is known that pregnancy, as an isolated event, is not responsible for a higher incidence of UTI, but that the anatomical and physiological changes imposed on the urinary tract by pregnancy predispose women with asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) to become pregnant women with symptomatic UTI. AB affects 2 to 10% of all pregnant women and approximately 30% of these will develop pyelonephritis if not properly treated. However, a difficult-to-understand resistance against the identification of AB during this period is observed among prenatalists. The diagnosis of UTI is microbiological and it is based on two urine cultures presenting more than 10(5) colonies/mL urine of the same germ. Treatment is facilitated by the fact that it is based on an antibiogram, with no scientific foundation for the notion that a pre-established therapeutic scheme is an adequate measure. For the treatment of pyelonephritis, it is not possible to wait for the result of culture and previous knowledge of the resistance profile of the antibacterial agents available for the treatment of pregnant women would be the best measure. Another important variable is the use of an intravenous bactericidal antibiotic during the acute phase, with the possibility of oral administration at home after clinical improvement of the patient. At our hospital, the drug that best satisfies all of these requirements is cefuroxime, administered for 10-14 days. Third-generation cephalosporins do not exist in the oral form, all of them involving the inconvenience of parenteral administration. In view of their side effects, aminoglycosides are considered to be inadequate for administration to pregnant women. The inconsistent insinuation of contraindication of

  14. Radioimmunoassay of human urinary kallikrein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goering, W.

    1980-01-01

    Using a human urinary kallikrein, purified by means of Trasylol sepharose, it has been possible to develop a radioimmunoassay of kallikrein capable of detecting the substance down to a concentration of 0.5 ng/ml. The specific activity of the tracer labelled with 125-iodine using the Chloramine-T method was 30-70 nCi/ng of kallikrein. The antiserum titres for the antikallikrein serum were 1:20.000 up to 1:50.000. Human urine, submandibular and parotid salivae as well as pancreatic secretion in this RIA reacted in the same manner as the kallikrein standard solution. The kallikrein content in urine, as determined by the RIA was between 0 and 300 ng/ml, in the saliva between 400 and 2.000 ng/ml, and in the pancreatic juice between 300 and 12.000 ng/ml. Using human serum, only an incomplete immunological cross-reaction could be achieved. In human liquor as well as in animal preparation, no cross-reacting substances could be detected. (orig.) [de

  15. Urinary Peptide Levels in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mungli Prakash

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peptide levels in urine are found to be decreased in renal failure. In the current study urinary peptide levels were determined in chronic renal failure (CRF patients. Method: 86 CRF patients and 80 healthy controls were selected for the study. Urinary proteins and peptide levels were determined by spectrophotometer based Lowry and Bradford methods. Urinary creatinine levels were determined by clinical chemistry analyzer. Results: There was significant decrease in urinary peptide levels in CRF patients and Urinary % peptides were significantly decreased in CRF patients as compared to healthy controls. Urinary % peptides correlated negatively with proteinuria. Conclusion: we have found decrease in urinary peptides and % urinary peptides in CRF patients and possibly measurement of % urinary peptides may possibly serve as better indicator in early detection of impairment in renal function.

  16. Urinary acidification and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate in women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Mathiasen, Helle; Hansen, A B

    1994-01-01

    Urinary acidification ability, acid-base status and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate were evaluated in 10 women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney (MSK) and in 10 healthy women. Patients with MSK had higher fasting urine pH compared to normal controls (p ... in the mechanism of hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia in patients with medullary sponge kidney.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  17. Evaluation of reticulated gelatin-hibiscus-propolis against intestinal commensal species commonly associated with urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olier, Maïwenn; Sekkal, Soraya; Harkat, Cherryl; Eutamene, Hélène; Theodorou, Vassilia

    2017-05-01

    Reticulated gelatin (RG), hibiscus and propolis (RGHP) is a medical device that can reduce the bacterial adherence to epithelial cultured cells and invasion by enteropathogens, thus gathering relevant properties to decrease the risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs). We aimed at evaluating in Wistar rats the efficacy of RGHP, RG and vehicle against intestinal commensals commonly involved in UTIs. Animals received orally (with supplemental Na 2 CO 3 ): RGHP 1540 mg/day/rat; RG 500 mg/day/rat or vehicle. RGHP significantly reduced fecal Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. levels without affecting other targeted Enterobacteriaceae. The antagonistic property of RGHP was confirmed in streptomycin-pretreated rats highly colonized with a human commensal E. coli strain with uropathogenic potential. RGHP may decrease the risk of UTIs by reducing colonization by opportunistic uropathogens.

  18. Synthesis of 99mTc-oxybutynin for M3-receptor-mediated imaging of urinary bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustapha, M.E.; Benha University, Benha; Motaleb, M.A.; Ibrahim, I.T.

    2011-01-01

    Radiolabeling of oxybutynin, a muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor antagonist agent with 99m Tc is of considerable interest for imaging of urinary bladder. This study is aimed to optimize radiolabeling yield of oxybutynin with 99m Tc using SnCl 2 x 2H 2 O as a reducing agent with respect to factors that affect the reaction conditions such as oxybutynin amount, stannous chloride amount, reaction time and pH of the reaction mixture. In vitro stability of the radiolabeled complex was checked and it was found to be stable for up to 8 h. 99m Tc-oxybutynin was injected via subcutaneous and intravenous administration routes into normal Sprague-Dawley rats. Biodistribution studies have revealed that 99m Tc-oxybutynin exhibits high affinity and specificity for the muscarinic M 3 subtype located on the smooth muscle of urinary bladder relative to the M 1 and M 2 subtypes of the G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. In vivo uptake of subcutaneous 99m Tc-oxybutynin in urinary bladder was 19.6 ± 0.42% ID at 0.5 h, whereas in intravenous administration route the accumulation in the urinary bladder was found to be 9.4 ± 0.31% ID at 0.5 h post injection. Administration of cold oxybutynin effectively blocked urinary bladder uptake and further confirms the high specificity of this complex for the M 3 receptor. (author)

  19. [Effect of vitamin sufficiency on adaptation syndrome in growing rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorova, Iu S; Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Kosheleva, O V; Zorin, S N; Selifanov, A V; Mazo, V K

    2014-01-01

    The influence of vitamin supply of growing male -Wistar rats (n=21) with an initial body weight 53,5±0,9 g on their resistance to a single distress induced by the electric shock has been investigated. Control rats within 21 days received a complete semisynthetic diet,providingadequate amounts of vitamins. Combined vitamin deficiency in experimental rats was caused by 5-fold decrease of vitamin mixture amount in the feed and the total vitamin E exclusion from the mixture. On the 21st day, one day before the end of the experiment, both groups of rats were subjected to stress impact (electrocutaneous irritation on paws, 0,4 mA for 8 sec) and then animals were placed in metabolic cages to collect urine. By the end of the experiment, the animals with the combined vitamin deficiency lag behind in growth. Vitamin B2, A, B1 and E liver content decreased in experimental rats by 1,6, 2,3, 4,4 and 15 fold accordingly. Retinol plasma concentration was significantly reduced by 18%, α-tocopherol level - by 5 fold, urinary excretionof riboflavin and 4-pyridoxic acid (vitamin B6 metabolite) was significantly reduced by 6,5 and 2,46 times accordingly. MDA blood plasma concentration and the urinary ratio of oxidized and not oxidized form of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy-guanosine did not differ in both groups of rats. Urinary excretion of stress biomarker corticosterone in rats with combined vitamin deficit was 2,5-fold higher than in control rats. Thus, reducing of vitamins supply resulted in an increase of urine corticosterone in stressed rats, that characterized the intensity of general adaptation syndrome. This fact shows the importance of optimal sufficiency with vitamins in nonspecific (general) resistance to stress.

  20. The Burden of Urinary Incontinence and Urinary Bother Among Elderly Prostate Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Ryan P.; Marshall, Lynn M.; Wang, Patty Y.; Bauer, Douglas C.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Parsons, J. Kellogg

    2014-01-01

    Background Data describing urinary health in elderly, community-dwelling prostate cancer (PCa) survivors are limited. Objective To elucidate the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms, urinary bother, and incontinence in elderly PCa survivors compared with peers without PCa. Design, setting, and participants A cross-sectional analysis of 5990 participants in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Research Group, a cohort study of community-dwelling men ≥65 yr. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis We characterized urinary health using self-reported urinary incontinence and the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUA-SI). We compared urinary health measures according to type of PCa treatment in men with PCa and men without PCa using multivariate log-binomial regression to generate prevalence ratios (PRs). Results and limitations At baseline, 706 men (12%) reported a history of PCa, with a median time since diagnosis of 6.3 yr. Of these men, 426 (60%) reported urinary incontinence. In adjusted analyses, observation (PR: 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15–3.21; p = 0.01), surgery (PR: 4.68; 95% CI, 4.11–5.32; p incontinence. Daily incontinence risk increased with time since diagnosis independently of age. Observation (PR: 1.33; 95% CI, 1.00–1.78; p = 0.05), surgery (PR: 1.25; 95% CI, 1.10–1.42; p = 0.0008), and ADT (PR: 1.50; 95% CI, 1.26–1.79; p urinary incontinence, which rose with increasing survivorship duration. Observation, surgery, and ADT were each associated with increased urinary bother. These data suggest a substantially greater burden of urinary health problems among elderly PCa survivors than previously recognized. PMID:23587870

  1. The nature of immune responses to urinary tract infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Soman N.; Miao, Yuxuan

    2016-01-01

    The urinary tract is constantly exposed to microorganisms that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract, but generally the urinary tract resists infection by gut microorganisms. This resistance to infection is mainly ascribed to the versatility of the innate immune defences in the urinary tract as the adaptive immune responses are limited, particularly when only the lower urinary tract is infected. In recent years, as the strengths and weaknesses of the immune system of the urinary tract have emerged and as the virulence attributes of uropathogens are recognized, several potentially effective and unconventional strategies to contain or prevent urinary tract infections have emerged. PMID:26388331

  2. Lithium increases ammonium excretion leading to altered urinary acid-base buffer composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepiccione, Francesco; Altobelli, Claudia; Capasso, Giovambattista; Christensen, Birgitte Mønster; Frische, Sebastian

    2017-11-24

    Previous reports identify a voltage dependent distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) secondary to lithium (Li + ) salt administration. This was based on the inability of Li + -treated patients to increase the urine-blood (U-B) pCO 2 when challenged with NaHCO 3 and, the ability of sodium neutral phosphate or Na 2 SO 4 administration to restore U-B pCO 2 in experimental animal models. The underlying mechanisms for the Li + -induced dRTA are still unknown. To address this point, a 7 days time course of the urinary acid-base parameters was investigated in rats challenged with LiCl, LiCitrate, NaCl, or NaCitrate. LiCl induced the largest polyuria and a mild metabolic acidosis. Li + -treatment induced a biphasic response. In the first 2 days, proper urine volume and acidification occurred, while from the 3rd day of treatment, polyuria developed progressively. In this latter phase, the LiCl-treated group progressively excreted more NH 4 + and less pCO 2 , suggesting that NH 3 /NH 4 + became the main urinary buffer. This physiological parameter was corroborated by the upregulation of NBCn1 (a marker of increased ammonium recycling) in the inner stripe of outer medulla of LiCl treated rats. Finally, by investigating NH 4 + excretion in ENaC-cKO mice, a model resistant to Li + -induced polyuria, a primary role of the CD was confirmed. By definition, dRTA is characterized by deficient urinary ammonium excretion. Our data question the presence of a voltage-dependent Li + -induced dRTA in rats treated with LiCl for 7 days and the data suggest that the alkaline urine pH induced by NH 3 /NH 4 + as the main buffer has lead to the interpretation dRTA in previous studies.

  3. Imaging of urinary bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidekov, G.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Primary bladder neoplasms account for 2%-6% of all tumors, with urinary bladder cancer ranked as the fourth most common cancer in males. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common subtype of urothelial tumour accounting for approximately 90% of all urothelial cancers. It is typically observed in men aged 50-70 years with history of smoking or occupational exposure to carcinogens. Most urothelial neoplasms are low-grade papillary tumors, with high incidence of recurrence, requires rigorous follow-up but have a relatively good prognosis. Other bladder neoplasm include squamous cell carcinoma accounts for 2%-15% mainly according to geographic location; adenocarcinoma - less than 2% /both occurring in the context of chronic bladder infection and irritation/; mesenchymal tumors in 5%, with the most common examples being rhabdomyosarcoma in children and leiomyosarcoma in adults. More rare mesenchymal tumors include paraganglioma, lymphoma, leiomyoma and solitary fibrous tumor which have no specific typical imaging findings to be differentiated. Multidetector computed tomography urography is an efficient tool for diagnosis and follow-up in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and it can be considered the primary radiologic method for detection, staging and assessment of the entire urothelium regarding the multicentric nature of TCC. MRI is rapidly expanding modality of choice especially in locally staging the tumor and in controversies. Accurate TNM staging is primordial in choosing treatment and prognosis for patients with bladder carcinoma. Correct interpretation and classification of the tumour is helpful for the urologists to determine further management in these cases. The learning objectives of the presentation are: to illustrate the spectrum of CT and MRI findings and to assess their clinical value in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and some other bladder neoplasm; to discuss the TNM staging based on the imaging findings; to be

  4. Biofabrication and biomaterials for urinary tract reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsawy MM

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Moustafa M Elsawy,1–3 Achala de Mel1 1Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, Royal Free Hospital, NHS Trust, University College London (UCL, 2Division of Reconstructive Urology, University College London Hospitals (uclh, London, UK; 3Urology Department, School of Medicine, Alexandria, University, Alexandria, EgyptAbstract: Reconstructive urologists are constantly facing diverse and complex pathologies that require structural and functional restoration of urinary organs. There is always a demand for a biocompatible material to repair or substitute the urinary tract instead of using patient’s autologous tissues with its associated morbidity. Biomimetic approaches are tissue-engineering tactics aiming to tailor the material physical and biological properties to behave physiologically similar to the urinary system. This review highlights the different strategies to mimic urinary tissues including modifications in structure, surface chemistry, and cellular response of a range of biological and synthetic materials. The article also outlines the measures to minimize infectious complications, which might lead to graft failure. Relevant experimental and preclinical studies are discussed, as well as promising biomimetic approaches such as three-dimensional bioprinting. Keywords: reconstruction, biofunctionalization, tissue engineering, urinary tract

  5. Urinary infection before and after prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourmand Gholamreza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of pre and post prostatectomy related urinary tract in-fection and its correlation with peri-operative events, we studied 120 patients who underwent pros-tatectomy due to benign prostatic hypertrophy from September 2005 to September 2006. Urine cultures were performed before the operations, after a week, and three months later. Data including prostate volume, prostatic specific antigen (PSA, post voiding residue (PVR and histopathological reports as well as the duration of urinary leak, bladder irrigation, hospitalization, and catheterization were studied. The mean age of the studied patients was 70.5 ± 8 years. Significant preoperative bac-teriuria was revealed in 18 (15% patients of whom 14(77% patients developed negative cultures following the operation. Postoperative bacteriuria was detected in 9(7.5% patients who negative urine cultures preoperatively. Pre and post operative micro-organisms were different in the majority of the cases. The mean PSA was higher in patients with a positive history of infection. Following prostatectomy, patients with positive urine cultures had significantly longer urinary leakage, cathe-terization, and hospital stays compared with those who remained culture negative. We conclude that the incidence of positive urine culture pri-prostatectomy for BPH can be improved by appropriate antibiotic therapy, and the risk factors for postoperative urinary infection include preoperative infec-tion, prolonged urinary leakage, catheterization, and hospital stay. The elevated PSA may be a risk factor.

  6. Lower urinary tract development and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouly, Hila Milo; Lu, Weining

    2013-01-01

    Congenital Anomalies of the Lower Urinary Tract (CALUT) are a family of birth defects of the ureter, the bladder and the urethra. CALUT includes ureteral anomalies such as congenital abnormalities of the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) and ureterovesical junction (UVJ), and birth defects of the bladder and the urethra such as bladder-exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC), prune belly syndrome (PBS), and posterior urethral valves (PUV). CALUT is one of the most common birth defects and is often associated with antenatal hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), urinary tract obstruction, urinary tract infections (UTI), chronic kidney disease and renal failure in children. Here, we discuss the current genetic and molecular knowledge about lower urinary tract development and genetic basis of CALUT in both human and mouse models. We provide an overview of the developmental processes leading to the formation of the ureter, bladder, and urethra, and different genes and signaling pathways controlling these developmental processes. Human genetic disorders that affect the ureter, bladder and urethra and associated gene mutations are also presented. As we are entering the post-genomic era of personalized medicine, information in this article may provide useful interpretation for the genetic and genomic test results collected from patients with lower urinary tract birth defects. With evidence-based interpretations, clinicians may provide more effective personalized therapies to patients and genetic counseling for their families. PMID:23408557

  7. Urinary YKL-40 as a Candidate Biomarker for Febrile Urinary Tract Infection in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Hee; Chung, Mi Hae; Bin, Joong Hyun; Cho, Kyoung Soon; Lee, Juyoung; Suh, Jin Soon

    2018-01-01

    Given that YKL-40 is a known marker of inflammation, we sought to determine its association with urinary tract infection (UTI) in febrile children. In total, 44 children aged 0 to 24 months with febrile UTI and 35 age- and sex-matched controls with fever from other causes were enrolled in the study. ELISA was performed to determine the level of YKL-40 in urine collected from each child. The ratio of urinary YKL-40 to creatinine (Cr) was higher in the children with a UTI than in the controls (PUTI was 0.88 for the urinary YKL-40/Cr ratio, 0.86 for pyuria, and 0.71 for positive nitrite on urinalysis. We applied a cut-off value of 125.23 pg/mg to urinary YKL-40/Cr for detecting UTI. Eight of nine children in the control group with pyuria had urinary YKL-40/Cr levels lower than 125.23 pg/mg, and the one child in the UTI group without pyuria or positive nitrite had a urinary YKL-40/Cr level greater than 125.23 pg/mg. Determining the levels of urinary YKL-40/Cr may help identify true cases of UTI in febrile young children, especially when they have pyuria but not nitrite, or have neither pyuria nor nitrite in the urine. © The Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine

  8. Bladder rupture caused by postpartum urinary retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas-García, Omar Felipe; Rico, Hugo; Gorbea-Sanchez, Viridiana; Herrerias-Canedo, Tomas

    2008-08-01

    Postpartum bladder rupture is an uncommon surgical emergency and a diagnostic challenge. A primigravida delivered a healthy newborn without complications at 39.4 weeks of gestation. The patient was admitted 80 hours postpartum with abdominal pain, oliguria, hematuria, and pain that worsened during the previous 4 hours. An inserted Foley catheter drained only a small amount of urine, and serum creatinine was elevated (3.5 mg/dL). A laparotomy was performed and revealed a 10-cm hole in the urinary bladder. The bladder was repaired and the patient was discharged 15 days after surgery. The follow-up cystoscopy revealed adequate healing of the bladder. Urinary retention can lead to serious complications, including bladder rupture. Postpartum bladder rupture due to urinary retention should be ruled out if there is a history of abdominal pain, oliguria, and elevated of serum creatinine.

  9. [Urinary infection by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Emerging yeast?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhihal, B; Elhalimi, M; Ghfir, B; Mostachi, A; Lyagoubi, M; Aoufi, S

    2015-12-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a commensal yeast of the digestive, respiratory and genito-urinary tract. It is widely used as a probiotic for the treatment of post-antibiotic diarrhea. It most often occurs in immunocompromised patients frequently causing fungemia. We report the case of an adult diabetic patient who had a urinary tract infection due to S. cerevisiae. The disease started with urination associated with urinary frequency burns without fever. The diagnosis was established by the presence of yeasts on direct examination and positivity of culture on Sabouraud-chloramphenicol three times. The auxanogramme gallery (Auxacolor BioRad(®)) allowed the identification of S. cerevisiae. The patient was put on fluconazole with good outcome. This observation points out that this is an opportunistic yeast in immunocompromised patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection Prevention bundle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zarkotou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI are among the most common healthcare-associated infections, and potentially lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Multifaceted infection control strategies implemented as bundles can prevent nosocomial infections associated with invasive devices such as CAUTIs. The components of the CAUTI bundle proposed herein, include appropriate indications for catheterization and recommendations for the procedures of catheter insertion and catheter maintenance and care. Avoiding unnecessary urinary catheter use is the most effective measure for their prevention. To minimize the risk of CAUTI, urinary catheters should be placed only when a clinical valid indication is documented and they should be removed as soon as possible; alternatives to catheterization should also be considered. Aseptic insertion technique, maintenance of closed drainage system and strict adherence to hand hygiene are essential for preventing CAUTI. The successful implementation of the bundle requires education and training for all healthcare professionals and evaluation of surveillance data.

  11. Radiology of trauma to kidney and lower urinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorph, S.

    1995-01-01

    The contents are trauma to kidney, imaging of kidney trauma, management of renal trauma, delayed complications, trauma to the lower urinary tract, trauma to urinary bladder, radiologic diagnosis, ethiology of blunt bladder injury, urethal injury (6 refs.)

  12. Evaluation of Screening Methods for the Detection of Urinary Tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2000-05-30

    screening testsfor urinary tract infection was donefrom March 20 to May 30, 2000. A cross sectional study ... the diagnosis of urinary tract infection on the basis of pyuria alone. The minimum number of ..... infection Complicating. Pregnancy J.

  13. Assessment of plasma and urinary transforming growth factor beta 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    kidneys, causes early inflammatory lesions. The ... groups, while urinary TGF- β1 levels were significantly high in SLE patients either with active or ... highly significant negative correlation with serum creatinine, urinary albumin, anti dsDNA and ...

  14. Herpes Zoster‑Induced Acute Urinary Retention: Two Cases and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-04

    Apr 4, 2018 ... physiotherapy with infrared light (830 nm) led to successful recovery of the micturition reflex in ... The patient was treated with indwelling urinary catheter, oral .... urinary retention but not incontinence was observed. Ghatak and ...

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of community-acquired urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M.S. Barry

    2017-04-28

    Apr 28, 2017 ... incontinence, Haematuria, turbid urine and fever with flank pain. Urinary infection ..... update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Euro- ... from patients with urinary tract infection in Messalata Central Hospital,.

  16. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of organisms causing urinary tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of organisms causing urinary tract infection in ... out on bacterial isolates from the urine of febrile children with sickle cell anemia ... of childhood urinary tract infections (UTI) in this environment are resistant to ...

  17. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of organisms causing urinary tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Objective: The knowledge of antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of common etiological ... of childhood urinary tract infections (UTI) in this environment are resistant to most ... causing urinary tract infection in children with sickle.

  18. Childhood urinary tract infection in Benin City: pathogens and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Childhood urinary tract infection in Benin City: pathogens and antimicrobial ... of bacterial isolates implicated in urinary tract infection (UTI) amongst children was ... There is also an emerging resistance of common pathogens to azithromycin ...

  19. Minimally Invasive Treatment of Male Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; Gravas, Stavros; Fitzpatrick, John M.

    2008-01-01

    During the past decade, increasing numbers of minimally invasive treatments for managing male lower urinary tract symptoms caused by urinary tract obstruction have been positioned. On one hand, transurethral needle ablation and transurethral microwave thermotherapy bridge the gap between medical

  20. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions KidsHealth / For Parents / Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions What's in this article? ...

  1. Lower urinary tract symptoms after subtotal versus total abdominal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Møller, Lars Mikael Alling; Gimbel, Helga

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common after hysterectomy and increase after menopause. We aimed to compare subtotal with total abdominal hysterectomy regarding LUTS, including urinary incontinence (UI) subtypes, 14 years after hysterectomy. Main results from...

  2. Urinary tract infection in women - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by bacteria that enter the urethra and travel to the bladder. ... BATHING AND HYGIENE To prevent future urinary tract infections, ... believe make infections more likely. Change your pad each time ...

  3. Urinary Tract Infection in Febrile Children with Sickle Cell Anaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Nigeria. Children with this disease have increased tendency to develop frequent and severe infections especially of the urinary tract, bones and lungs. The prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) has however not been reported in this part ...

  4. Radiology of trauma to kidney and lower urinary tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorph, S [Herlev University Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    The contents are trauma to kidney, imaging of kidney trauma, management of renal trauma, delayed complications, trauma to the lower urinary tract, trauma to urinary bladder, radiologic diagnosis, ethiology of blunt bladder injury, urethal injury (6 refs.).

  5. Bladder Control Problems: Medications for Treating Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... control problems, including how they work to treat urinary incontinence and possible side effects. By Mayo Clinic Staff ... a look at medications commonly prescribed to treat urinary incontinence and their possible side effects. Keep in mind ...

  6. Estimation of the 24-h urinary protein excretion based on the estimated urinary creatinine output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubukata, Masamitsu; Takei, Takashi; Nitta, Kosaku

    2016-06-01

    The urinary protein/creatinine ratio [Up/Ucr (g/gCr)] has been used in the clinical management of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, a discrepancy is often noted between the Up/Ucr and 24-h urinary protein excretion [24hUp (g/day)] in patients with extremes of muscle mass. We examined devised a method for precise estimation of the 24-h urinary protein excretion (E-24hUp) based on estimation of 24-h urinary creatinine output (E-24hCr). Three parameters, spot Up/Ucr, 24hUP and E-24hUp (=Up/Ucr × E-24hCr), were determined in 116 adult patients with CKD. The correlations among the groups were analyzed. There was a significant correlation between the Up/Ucr and 24hUp (p high urinary protein group (>3.5 g/day). There was a significant correlation between the Up/Ucr and 24hUp in the low (p = 0.04) and high urinary protein (p = 0.01) groups, whereas the correlation coefficient was lower in the intermediate urinary protein (p = 0.07) group. Thus, we found a significant correlation between 24hUp and E-24hUp in the study population overall (p high urinary protein group (p < 0.001). We conclude that a poor correlation exists between the Up/Ucr and 24hUp in patients with intermediate urinary protein excretion levels. The recommended parameter for monitoring proteinuria in such patients may be the E-24hUp, which is calculated using the E-24hCr.

  7. Longer Duration of Urinary Catheterization Increases Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection in PICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Kahoru; Furuichi, Mihoko; Ito, Kenta; Morikawa, Yoshihiko; Watanabe, Ichiro; Shimizu, Naoki; Horikoshi, Yuho

    2018-06-13

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections account for 30% of healthcare-associated infections. To date, few studies have addressed pediatric catheter-associated urinary tract infection in PICUs. The aim of our study was to assess the risk of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in relation to the duration of catheterization in the PICU. Retrospective cohort study. PICU at a tertiary children's hospital. Our study was conducted between April 2012 and June 2015 at Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center in Japan. Children in the PICU with an urethral catheter were included. Catheter-associated urinary tract infection cases were defined according to the National Healthcare Safety Network criteria. The patients' demographic data and isolated organisms were reviewed. Duration of catheterization and the catheter-associated urinary tract infection occurrence rate were analyzed. None. Among 1,890 catheterizations, 23 catheter-associated urinary tract infection cases were identified. The overall occurrence rate was 2.35/1,000 catheter-days. Among the patients with catheter-associated urinary tract infection, 13 were boys. The median age was 11 months (interquartile range, 7-35 mo), and the median duration of catheterization was 7 days (interquartile range, 5-12 d). The isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli (26.5%), Enterococcus faecalis (17.6%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (11.8%). Two species were isolated in each of 11 cases (47.8%). Each additional day of catheterization increased the risk of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.10, and odds ratio adjusted for contact precaution status and surgical procedures was 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.09). Longer duration of catheterization increased the risk of catheter-associated urinary tract infection by 5% each day at the PICU. Prompt removal of the urethral catheter is strongly recommended whenever feasible.

  8. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections in Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, L R; Phair, J P; Seki, Masafumi; Hamilton, H B; Nefzger, M D

    1964-08-19

    The present study was conducted at ABCC on a sample of Hiroshima residents systematically seleced for determining the influence on general health status of exposure to the atomic bomb of 1945. A survey for urinary infections was taken on persons in the sample examined in the ABCC clinic over a 1-year period: approximately 3000 women and 2000 men. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of urinary infection and to study the relation between bacteriuria and various aspects of the general examination, particularly blood pressure. In addition, the rates of urinary tract infection in the clinic were compared with the rates of chronic pyelonephritis at autopsy. Results showed that infections were much more common in women than in men and rose with age in both sexes. The greatest increase in the prevalence was found in women age 60 years and over was due to coliform bacteria in all but a few instances. There was no difference in hematuria, glycosuria, diabetes, serum cholesterol, blood groups, electrocardiograms, audiometry, vibrometry, hemoglobin levels or height-weight ratios. Blood pressure is higher in infected women as compared with noninfected women and the finding of higher rates for cardiac enlargement suggests that this small difference in blood pressures may have biological significance. However, the data do not permit a conclusion as to whether the urinary infections were responsible for the higher blood pressure levels, or whether the higher blood pressure levels increased the frequency of detectable infection. The difference between the clinical rates of urinary infection in men and women, and the pathological diagnosis of pyelonephritis in the same population, supports a previous suggestion that much of what is called pyelonephritis at autopsy is not due to urinary tract infection. 27 references, 2 figures, 10 tables.

  9. VIRAL ETIOLOGY OF RECURRENT URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Ibishev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Recurrent urinary tract infection is an actual problem of modern urology.Objective. Complex investigation of urinary tract infections including viral etiology for chronic recurrent cystitis in womenMaterials and methods. The study included 31 women with recurrent infection of urinary tract. Inclusion criteria were the presence of lower urinary tract symptoms caused by infection, severe recurrent course, the lack of anatomical and functional disorders of the urinary tract, the absence of bacterial pathogens during the study, taking into account the culture of aerobic and anaerobic culturing techniques.Results. The analysis of the clinical manifestations, the dominant in the study group were pain and urgency to urinate at 100% and 90% of women surveyed, respectively, and less frequent urination were recorded in 16.1% of patients. In general clinical examination of urine in all cases identified leukocyturia and 90% of the hematuria. By using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR in midstream urine of all examined was verified 10 types of human papilloma virus (HPV with the predominance of 16 and 18 types . Considering the presence of recurrent infectious and inflammatory processes of the urinary tract, cystoscopy with bladder biopsy was performed for all patients. When histomorphological biopsies of all patients surveyed noted the presence of the specific characteristics of HPV: papillary hyperplasia with squamous koilocytosis, pale cytoplasm and shrunken kernels. When analyzing the results of PCR biopsy data corresponded with the results of PCR in midstream urine in all biopsies was detected HPV.Conclusions. Human papillomavirus infection may be involved in the development of viral cystitis. In the etiological structure of viral cystitis, both highly oncogenic and low oncogenic HPV types can act.

  10. MRI study on urinary abnormalities of fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ming; Zhang Yuzhen; Wang Qiuyan; Zhang Zhongyang; Li Yuhua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To illustrate the important complemental function of MRI in dignosing the urinary abnormalities of the fetus by analyzing MR features. Methods: MRI findings in 34 fetal urinary abnormalities were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Upper urinary tract dilatation was found in 12 cases: one case presented obstructed right renal dysplasia and was on the follow-up, postnatal MR imaging proved the duplex anomaly in one case, one case showed left PUJO on postnatal US imaging and prepared to surgery, 7 cases were normal on postnatal US imaging, 2 cases were lost to follow up. Bilateral urinary anomalies were found in 7 cases: Muhicystic renal dysplasia (n=3), Combined horseshoe kidney in 2 fetuses and bilateral renal aplasia in one case. Bilateral renal dysplasia was diagnosed in 2 cases, one was still bom and proved by autopsy and the other was lost to follow up. The case of bilateral renal agenesis displayed the appearance of sirenomelia on general specimen. The case of right renal agenesis associated contralateral kidney dyspalsia (n=1) was lost to follow up. MR imaging showed low signal intensity of lung and oligohydramnios in the bilateral anomalies. Unilateral urinary anomalies was found in 15 cases, including 9 cases of unilateral renal dysplasia. Two fetuses were aborted and 3 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR. One was lost to follow up; 3 cases were on the follow-up. There were 4 cases of unilateral renal agenesis, two fetuses were aborted and 2 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR imaging. The case of ectopic kidney was proved with postnatal US imaging. One case of urachal cyst was aborted without autopsy. In the unilateral anomalies, the volume of amniotic fluid was normal, and the fetal lung presented homogenious high signal intensity. Conclusion: As a complemental method, MRI is of great value in displaying and dignosing the urinary abnormalities of fetus. (authors)

  11. Secondary or Transient Pseudohypoaldosteronism Associated With Urinary Tract Anomaly and Urinary Infection: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Krishnappa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyponatremia with hyperkalemia in infancy is a rare presentation, but may be due to aldosterone deficiency or end organ resistance to its action. There are few cases associating this condition with urinary tract infections or anatomic abnormalities that predispose to infection. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion in diagnosing secondary pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA due to its often atypical presentation. We describe ten month-old infant who presented with this condition and was found to have urinary tract infection complicating unilateral urinary tract anomaly, which may have strong association with renal tubular resistance to aldosterone.

  12. Does the Urinary Microbiome Play a Role in Urgency Urinary Incontinence and Its Severity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstens, Lisa; Asquith, Mark; Davin, Sean; Stauffer, Patrick; Fair, Damien; Gregory, W. Thomas; Rosenbaum, James T.; McWeeney, Shannon K.; Nardos, Rahel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Traditionally, the urinary tract has been thought to be sterile in the absence of a clinically identifiable infection. However, recent evidence suggests that the urinary tract harbors a variety of bacterial species, known collectively as the urinary microbiome, even when clinical cultures are negative. Whether these bacteria promote urinary health or contribute to urinary tract disease remains unknown. Emerging evidence indicates that a shift in the urinary microbiome may play an important role in urgency urinary incontinence (UUI). The goal of this prospective pilot study was to determine how the urinary microbiome is different between women with and without UUI. We also sought to identify if characteristics of the urinary microbiome are associated with UUI severity. Methods: We collected urine from clinically well-characterized women with UUI (n = 10) and normal bladder function (n = 10) using a transurethral catheter to avoid bacterial contamination from external tissue. To characterize the resident microbial community, we amplified the bacterial 16S rRNA gene by PCR and performed sequencing using Illumina MiSeq. Sequences were processed using the workflow package QIIME. We identified bacteria that had differential relative abundance between UUI and controls using DESeq2 to fit generalized linear models based on the negative binomial distribution. We also identified relationships between the diversity of the urinary microbiome and severity of UUI symptoms with Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: We successfully extracted and sequenced bacterial DNA from 95% of the urine samples and identified that there is a polymicrobial community in the female bladder in both healthy controls and women with UUI. We found the relative abundance of 14 bacteria significantly differed between control and UUI samples. Furthermore, we established that an increase in UUI symptom severity is associated with a decrease in microbial diversity in women with UUI

  13. Urinary Tract Infection and Bacteriuria in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Alexander P; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2015-11-01

    Bacteriuria during pregnancy may be classified as asymptomatic bacteriuria, infections of the lower urinary tract (cystitis), or infections of the upper urinary tract (pyelonephritis). Lower tract bacteriuria is associated with an increased risk of developing pyelonephritis in pregnancy, which is itself associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Pregnant women should be screened for the presence of bacteriuria early in pregnancy. All bacteriuria in pregnancy should be treated, and antimicrobial choice in pregnancy should reflect safety for both the mother and the fetus. After treatment of bacteriuria, patients should be followed closely due to risk of recurrent bacteriuria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Urinary capillariosis in six dogs from Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mariacher

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Canine urinary capillariosis is caused by the nematode Pearsonema plica. P. plica infection is seldomly detected in clinical practice mainly due to diagnostic limitations. This report describes six cases of urinary capillariosis in dogs from Italy. Recurrent cystitis was observed in one dog, whereas another patient was affected by glomerular amyloidosis. In the remaining animals, the infection was considered an incidental finding. Immature eggs of the parasite were observed with urine sediment examination in 3/6 patients. Increased awareness of the potential pathogenic role of P. plica. and clinical disease presentation could help identify infected animals.

  15. Urinary Tract Infection and Neurogenic Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Maxim J; Seed, Patrick; Ross, Sherry S; Borawski, Kristy M

    2015-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequent, recurrent, and lifelong for patients with neurogenic bladder and present challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Patients often present without classic symptoms of UTI but with abdominal or back pain, increased spasticity, and urinary incontinence. Failure to recognize and treat infections can quickly lead to life-threatening autonomic dysreflexia or sepsis, whereas overtreatment contributes to antibiotic resistance, thus limiting future treatment options. Multiple prevention methods are used but evidence-based practices are few. Prevention and treatment of symptomatic UTI requires a multimodal approach that focuses on bladder management as well as accurate diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dacher, Jean-Nicolas [University of Rouen, Quant-IF Laboratory, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rouen (France); Rouen University Hospital Charles Nicolle, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); UFR Medecine Pharmacie de Rouen, Laboratoire Quant-If, Rouen (France); Hitzel, Anne; Vera, Pierre [University of Rouen, Quant-IF Laboratory, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rouen (France); CRLCC Henri Becquerel, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rouen (France); Avni, Fred E. [Free University of Brussels, Department of Radiology, Erasmus Hospital, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    This article is focused on the controversial topic of imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection. A review of the recent literature illustrates the complementary roles of ultrasound, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. The authors stress the key role of ultrasound which has recently been debated. The commonly associated vesicoureteric reflux has to be classified as congenital or secondary due to voiding dysfunction. A series of frequently asked questions are addressed in a second section. The proposed answers are not the product of a consensus but should rather be considered as proposals to enrich the ongoing debate concerning the evaluation of urinary tract infection in children. (orig.)

  17. Modelling Creep (Relaxation of the Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravkovic Nebojsa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We first present the results of an experiment in which the passive properties of the urinary bladder were investigated using strips of rabbit bladder. Under the assumption that the urinary bladder had orthopaedic characteristics, the strips were taken in the longitudinal and in the circumferential directions. The material was subjected to uniaxial tension, and stress-stretch curves were generated for various rates of deformation. We found that the rates did not have a significantly effect on the passive response of the material. Additionally, the stress-stretch dependence during relaxation of the material when exposed to isometric conditions was determined experimentally.

  18. Imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacher, Jean-Nicolas; Hitzel, Anne; Vera, Pierre; Avni, Fred E.

    2005-01-01

    This article is focused on the controversial topic of imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection. A review of the recent literature illustrates the complementary roles of ultrasound, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. The authors stress the key role of ultrasound which has recently been debated. The commonly associated vesicoureteric reflux has to be classified as congenital or secondary due to voiding dysfunction. A series of frequently asked questions are addressed in a second section. The proposed answers are not the product of a consensus but should rather be considered as proposals to enrich the ongoing debate concerning the evaluation of urinary tract infection in children. (orig.)

  19. Imaging of the urinary tract in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslaksen, A.; Hunskaar, S.; Hoeisaeter, P.Aa.

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses the indications for imaging of the urinary tract from the general practitioners' point of view. Urography should be used in the control of patients with previous attacks of ureteral colic, in patients presenting macroscopic hematuria and as a preoperative investigation prior to extracorporal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Ultrasound should be chosen in patients with microscopic hematuria and non-specific abdominal pain. Computerized tomography should be used in cases with non-specific findings using urography and ultrasound. There are no indications for imaging in women with recurrent urinary tract infection, in men with benign prostatic hypertrophy and in the evaluation of hypertension. 14 refs., 5 tabs

  20. Urinary tract infections in women with urogynaecological symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakeman, Marielle M. E.; Roovers, Jan-Paul W. R.

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are common in the field of urogynaecology. Women with persistent urinary symptoms seem more likely to have bacteriuria despite negative cultures. In this review, we will give an overview of the recent insights on the relationship between urinary tract infection and

  1. Urinary incontinence in pregnant women and their quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaöz, Semra; Talas, Melek S; Atabekoğlu, Cem S

    2010-12-01

    The aim was to investigate the prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy and the related risk factors as well as to assess its influence on the quality of life. Although urinary incontinence is common during pregnancy and can have a substantial impact on quality of life, women rarely seek help for this symptom. This study was designed as a cross-sectional and descriptive survey. A total of 393 pregnant women participated in the study between March and June 2007. The data was collected using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form and Wagner's quality of life scale. Potential risk factors were investigated through logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of urinary incontinence was 27% (106/393). Factors significantly associated with urinary incontinence included age group, parity, previous urinary incontinence, constipation, urinary incontinence in mother and sister, previous urinary incontinence during pregnancy and postpartum. According to the results of our study, urinary incontinence is common in women during pregnancy. The quality of life of pregnant women was found to be either unaffected or affected very little by urinary incontinence. This study reveals that the prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy is very high. The findings will help increase the awareness of health care workers involved in the care of pregnant women about urinary incontinence and aid the design of more intensive education programmes directed towards the prevention of urinary incontinence during pregnancy. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Effective Factors on Urinary Incontinence in Natural Menopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Shohani; V Carson; Sayehmiri; Shohani

    2015-01-01

    Background Urinary tract infections and urinary incontinence are common urogenital problems affecting 7 - 10% of menopausal women. Objectives The primary objective of this study was to quantify effective factors on urinary incontinence in a cohort of menopausal women. Patients and Methods A sample of 150 menopausal women (natural menopause for at least 12 months) were recruited fro...

  3. Urinary incontinence after surgery for pelvic organ prolapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensen, E.J.M.; Withagen, M.I.J.; Kluivers, K.B.; Milani, A.L.; Vierhout, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: This study focused on the changes in urinary incontinence (UI) rates pre- and postoperatively and identified risk factors which predict the presence of symptoms of urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) or stress urinary incontinence (SUI) after surgery for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) without

  4. Prevalence of Urinary Incontinence During Pregnancy and Associated Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç, Ayten

    2017-07-04

    To investigate the prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy and associated risk factors. The study is a cross-sectional and descriptive study. A questionnaire was conducted with a total of 750 pregnant women about their urinary incontinence complaints between April and December 2013. The prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy was 300 in 750 (40%). Stress urinary incontinence was the most common type of incontinence during pregnancy. 41.7% of nulliparous women, 38% of primipara women, and 20.3% of multipara women experienced urinary incontinence. Among women reporting UI, 29.3% experienced leakage a few times a day and the amount of leakage was generally (59.7%) moderate. Factors significantly associated with urinary incontinence included age group, gestational age, parity, previous urinary incontinence, constipation, mode of delivery at last childbirth, previous urinary tract infection, body mass index during pregnancy. But on multivariable analysis, the risk factors for urinary incontinence during pregnancy were previous urinary tract infection (OR = 3.8, 95%CI 1.5-9.3), constipation (OR 3.1, 95%CI 1.7-5.6) and gestational age (OR 0.5, 95%CI 0.3-0.9). As a result of this study, urinary incontinence is a common condition during pregnancy. Results would help the design of more intensive training programs to prevent incontinence during pregnancy by increasing the awareness about urinary incontinence of healthcare staff engaging in the care of pregnant women. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Mitrofanoff Urinary Diversion: A Report of Three Cases | Mugalo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of life in patients with urinary incontinence or irreparable urethral stricturing can be improved by diversion with construction of catheterizable urinary stomas. We report our experience with three patients who required urinary diversion and underwent the Mitrafanoff procedure. The cases involved an eight year old ...

  6. Giant urinary bladder calculus: Case report | Otieno | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A vertical calculus weighing more than 100 g is categorised as a giant urinary bladder stone. Giant urinary bladder stones are very rare and very few cases have been reported in English literature and only one case from Africa. This is a case report of a patient with a giant urinary bladder calculus presenting as a rectal ...

  7. CASE REPORT: A GIANT URINARY BLADDER STONE IN A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A vesical calculus weighing more than 100g is categorized as a giant urinary bladder stone. Male preponderance for urinary bladder calculi is well known. A rare case of a giant urinary bladder calculus weighing 1200g and occurring in a female patient is reported. The stone was removed by open vesicolithotomy.

  8. Anatomy and histology of the lower urinary tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pradidarcheep, Wisuit; Wallner, Christian; Dabhoiwala, Noshir F.; Lamers, Wouter H.

    2011-01-01

    The function of the lower urinary tract is basically storage of urine in the bladder and the at-will periodic evacuation of the stored urine. Urinary incontinence is one of the most common lower urinary tract disorders in adults, but especially in the elderly female. The urethra, its sphincters, and

  9. Urinary tract infections in symptomatic pregnant women attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Several notable human pathogens cause urinary tract infections. Several factors are known to predispose an individual to developing urinary tract infections; one of the factors is pregnancy. Therefore, this research set out to determine the bacteriologic profile of urinary tract infection and the susceptibility pattern ...

  10. Pattern of presentation and management of benign upper urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Upper urinary tract obstruction is a common cause of severe symptoms, recurrent urinary tract infection and deterioration or complete loss of renal function when intervention is not timely. Objective: To document the pattern of presentation and the management options for the benign upper urinary tract ...

  11. Methodologic issues in the measurement of urinary renin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C.W. Roksnoer (Lodi); K. Verdonk (Koen); I.M. Garrelds (Ingrid); J.M. van Gool (Jeanette); R. Zietse (Bob); E.J. Hoorn (Ewout); A.H.J. Danser (Jan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground and objectives Alge et al. recently reported that urinary renin may be a prognostic biomarker for AKI after cardiac surgery. However, their urinary renin levels far exceeded published plasma renin levels, whereas normally, urinary renin is,10%of plasma renin. This result

  12. Urinary Tract Infections in Children : EAU/ESPU Guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, Raimund; Dogan, Hasan S.; Hoebeke, Piet; Kocvara, Radim; Nijman, Rien J. M.; Radmayr, Christian; Tekgul, Serdar

    Context: In 30% of children with urinary tract anomalies, urinary tract infection (UTI) can be the first sign. Failure to identify patients at risk can result in damage to the upper urinary tract. Objective: To provide recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, and imaging of children presenting

  13. Urinary paracetamol and time-to-pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarr, Melissa M; Grantz, Katherine L; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Maisog, José M; Honda, Masato; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2016-09-01

    Is preconception urinary paracetamol (acetaminophen) associated with time-to-pregnancy (TTP)? Higher urinary paracetamol concentrations among male partners were associated with a longer TTP. Paracetamol is a commonly used analgesic among women and men of all ages. As metabolites of select chemicals used in the manufacturing of polyurethane foam, dyes and various industrial products, as well as a common medicinal product, paracetamol and its primary metabolite p-aminophenol, are ubiquitous in the environment. Studies investigating the relationship between adult urinary concentrations of paracetamol and TTP are lacking. This prospective cohort included 501 couples discontinuing contraception for the purposes of attempting conception during the years 2005-2009 and residing in Michigan or Texas, USA. Total urinary paracetamol, its metabolite para-aminophenol (p-aminophenol), and a summary measure of both urinary biomarkers were quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Female partners used the Clearblue® digital home test to confirm pregnancy. Cox's proportional odds models for discrete survival time were used to estimate fecundability odds ratios (FORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), urinary creatinine, preconception smoking status, race/ethnicity and household income. Models were further adjusted for hypothyroidism and hypertension as an attempt to account for possible indications of paracetamol medication use. FOR estimates paracetamol as a continuous and variable or categorized into quartiles. In light of TTP being a couple-dependent outcome, models were first performed for females and males, modeled separately, and then modeled for couples with each partner's concentrations being adjusted for the other. Among the 501 enrolled couples, 347 (69%) had an human chorionic gonadotrophin confirmed pregnancy. Urinary concentrations

  14. Metabolism of methylphenidate in dog and rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egger, H.; Bartlett, F.; Dreyfuss, R.; Karliner, J.

    1981-01-01

    The urinary metabolites of methylphenidate in the dog and rat were investigated. After oral administration of 14C-labeled methylphenidate, approximately 86% and 63% of the dose was recovered in the urine of the dog and rat, respectively. Less than 1% of the dose was excreted as unchanged drug. Metabolism involved oxidation, hydrolysis, and conjugation processes. The primary hydrolytic product was alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetic acid (24%, dog; 35-40%, rat). The primary metabolites of oxidation were methyl 6-oxo-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate (3%, dog; 1.5%, rat) and the glucuronide of alpha-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-piperidineacetic acid (10%, rat). The former also underwent extensive biotransformation, including: 1) hydrolysis to the lactam acid (27%, dog; 7-10%, rat) and subsequent carboxylic acid O-glucuronidation (15%, dog); or 2) hydroxylation at the 5-position (1%, dog; 2%, rat) and subsequent hydrolysis (4%, dog; 15-17%, rat); or 3) 5-O-glucuronidation (12%, dog). Additional minor metabolites from methyl-6-oxo-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate were the phenolic O-glucuronide of methyl alpha-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-6-oxo-2-piperidineacetate (1%, dog), and the 4-O-glucuronide of methyl 4-hydroxy-6-oxo-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate (1%, dog), and the taurine amide conjugate of alpha-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-6-oxo-2-piperidineacetic acid (1%, dog). Additional products from methylphenidate conjugation included methyl 1-carbamoyl-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate (1%, dog or rat) and its carboxylic acid hydrolysis product (1%, rat). The chirality of the major metabolites isolated from dog urine showed that metabolism was partially stereoselective in all investigated cases, except in the formation of alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetic acid

  15. Effects of taurine on oxidative-antioxidative status of renal tissue in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yingjian; Tu Xiaowen; Yin Qiuxia; Hu Chenjing

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of taurine on the oxidative-antioxidative status of renal tissue in diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetic models of rat were induced with streptozotocin. Half of the models (n=7) were treated with taurine for 4 weeks. Blood glucose, uric acid and MDA, 24h urinary albumin and renal cortical homogenate MDA, SOD, GSH-Px contents were determined with appropriate laboratory technics in 1) diabetic rats without taurine treatment, n=7 2) diabetic rats treated with taurine, n=7 and 3) control rats, n=7. Results: There were no significant differences between the blood glucose levels in the two groups of diabetic rats. Blood uric acid and 24h urinary albumin contents in the untreated diabetic rats were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01). However, in the taurine treated rats, the blood uric acid levels approximated to those in the controls, with decreased but still higher than normal 24h urinary albumin contents. In the untreated rats, the renal cortical SOD and GSH-Px activities were about the same as those in control rats but there were significantly higher levels of blood and cortical MDA contents (P<0.01). With taurine treatment, the SOD and GSH-Px activities were significantly higher than those in the two other groups (P<0.05); the MDA contents were lower than those in non-treated rats (P<0.05), but still higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Taurine could enhance the anti-oxidative capability and attenuated the oxidative stress in diabetic rats renal tissue with partial protection of renal function. (authors)

  16. BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS IN NORMAL AND STONE FORMING RATS TREATED WITH THE RIPE KERNEL JUICE OF PLANTAIN (MUSA PARADISIACA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, V. Kalpana; Baskar, R.; Varalakshmi, P.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of Musa paradisiaca stem kernel juice was investigated in experimental urolithiatic rats. Stone forming rats exhibited a significant elevation in the activities of two oxalate synthesizing enzymes - Glycollic acid oxidase and Lactate dehydrogenase. Deposition and excretion of stone forming constituents in kidney and urine were also increased in these rats. The enzyme activities and the level of crystalline components were lowered with the extract treatment. The extract also reduced the activities of urinary alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, r-glutamyl transferase, inorganic pyrophosphatase and β-glucuronidase in calculogenic rats. No appreciable changes were noticed with leucine amino peptidase activity in treated rats. PMID:22556626

  17. Urinary infection caused by Micrococcus subgroup 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Helen

    1973-01-01

    The laboratory findings and clinical presentations in urinary infections in 23 nurses, 10 caused by Micrococcus subgroup 3 and 13 by Escherichia coli, were studied, and the symptoms and possible predisposing factors compared. There were no important differences between the two groups. The infections caused by Micrococcus subgroup 3 were symptomatically severe, as were those caused by Escherichia coli. PMID:4593863

  18. Leech in urinary bladder causing hematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Shadrul; Das Choudhary, Mrigen Kumar; Islam, Kabirul

    2008-02-01

    To estimate efficacy of normal saline in the management of hematuria caused by accidental entry of a leech per urethra into the urinary bladder. An intervention study was carried out in the Department of Pediatric Surgery of Sylhet MAG Osmani Medical College between January 1998 and December 2003. A total of 43 boys (mean age 8 years, SD+/-2.6) were enrolled. In all cases, a leech had entered the urinary bladder through the urethra causing hematuria. All patients were equipped with a self-retaining Foley catheter. They were managed by infusing 50ml of normal saline into the urinary bladder through the catheter that was then clamped for 3h. After removing the catheter, in all cases the whole leech was spontaneously expelled intact, dead or alive, within 2-24h during the subsequent act of micturition. Hematuria gradually diminished to a clear flow within the next 6h in 27 cases, 12h in 14 cases and 24h in two cases. All patients were followed up for 2 weeks, and none developed recurrent hematuria. Catheterization and irrigation of the urinary bladder with normal saline is a relatively simple, safe and inexpensive method of removing the leech and controlling hematuria.

  19. Evaluation of measures of urinary albumin excretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gansevoort, Ronald T.; Brinkman, Jacoline; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; De Jong, Paul E.; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2006-01-01

    Albuminuria has recently drawn much attention as a valuable risk marker for cardiovascular and renal disease progression. Albuminuria can be measured and expressed in several ways: 1) in a spot morning urine sample as urinary albumin concentration (mg/liter) or albumin:creatinine ratio (mg/mmol) and

  20. Urinary Tract Infection in Children: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Hamid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common paediatric infections. By the time children are 5 years old, about 8% of girls and about 1-2% of boys have had at least one episode of UTI. UTIs are caused mainly by colonic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella and Proteus. However, any organism that gains access to the urinary tract system may cause infection, including fungi (Candida species and viruses. In some instances, UTI results in recognition of an important underlying structural abnormality of the urinary tract. The febrile infant or child with clinically significant bacteriuria and no other site of infection to explain the fever, even in the absence of systemic symptoms has UTI. Signs and symptoms of UTIs vary depending on the child's age and on which part of the urinary tract is infected. The diagnosis of UTI is based on routine microscopic examination and culture of a properly collected urine specimen. Imaging studies are done in selected patients to identify anatomic abnormalities. Most cases of uncomplicated UTI respond readily to outpatient antibiotic treatment without further sequelae. All patients should have close follow-up to evaluate response to antibiotics and to prevent the development of long term complication.

  1. Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common occurrence in children. The management and laboratory diagnosis of these infections pose unique challenges that are not encountered in adults. Important factors, such as specimen collection, urinalysis interpretation, culture thresholds, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, require special consideration in children and will be discussed in detail in the following review. PMID:27053673

  2. A Comprehensive Mapping of Urinary Schistosomiasis Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Comprehensive Mapping of Urinary Schistosomiasis Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Kano State, Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about ...

  3. Surgery versus physiotherapy for stress urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labrie, J.; Berghmans, B.L.; Fischer, K.; Milani, A.L.; Wijk, I. van; Smalbraak, D.J.; Vollebregt, A.; Schellart, R.P.; Graziosi, G.C.; Ploeg, J.M. van der; Brouns, J.F.; Tiersma, E.S.; Groenendijk, A.G.; Scholten, P.; Mol, B.W.; Blokhuis, E.E.; Adriaanse, A.H.; Schram, A.; Roovers, J.P.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Vaart, C.H. van der

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physiotherapy involving pelvic-floor muscle training is advocated as first-line treatment for stress urinary incontinence; midurethral-sling surgery is generally recommended when physiotherapy is unsuccessful. Data are lacking from randomized trials comparing these two options as initial

  4. Surgery versus Physiotherapy for Stress Urinary Incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labrie, Julien; Berghmans, Bary L. C. M.; Fischer, Kathelijn; Milani, Alfredo L.; van der Wijk, Ileana; Smalbraak, Dina J. C.; Vollebregt, Astrid; Schellart, Rene P.; Graziosi, Giuseppe C. M.; van der Ploeg, J. Marinus; Brouns, Joseph F. G. M.; Tiersma, E. Stella M.; Groenendijk, Annette G.; Scholten, Piet; Mol, Ben Willem; Blokhuis, Elisabeth E.; Adriaanse, Albert H.; Schram, Aaltje; Roovers, Jan-Paul W. R.; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L. M.; van der Vaart, Carl H.

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundPhysiotherapy involving pelvic-floor muscle training is advocated as first-line treatment for stress urinary incontinence; midurethral-sling surgery is generally recommended when physiotherapy is unsuccessful. Data are lacking from randomized trials comparing these two options as initial

  5. Asymptomatic urinary tract infection among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A good proportion of pregnant women patronize traditional birth homes in Nigeria for ante-natal care. This study aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors, and susceptibility profile of etiologic agents of urinary tract infection among ante-natal attendees in a traditional birth home in Benin City, Nigeria.

  6. The colon shuffle : A modified urinary diversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R. P.; Mertens, L. S.; Meinhardt, W.; Verwaal, V. J.; Dik, P.; Horenblas, S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To assess the results of a urinary diversion in patients who already have a colostomy or simultaneously require a (rectum) colon resection. The diversion is created from the distal part of the transected colon with a simultaneously created new colostomy contra-laterally (if necessary). This

  7. Antimicrobial Stewardship and Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian M. Abbo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infections encountered in ambulatory and long-term care settings in the United States. Urine samples are the largest single category of specimens received by most microbiology laboratories and many such cultures are collected from patients who have no or questionable urinary symptoms. Unfortunately, antimicrobials are often prescribed inappropriately in such patients. Antimicrobial use, whether appropriate or inappropriate, is associated with the selection for antimicrobial-resistant organisms colonizing or infecting the urinary tract. Infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant organisms are associated with higher rates of treatment failures, prolonged hospitalizations, increased costs and mortality. Antimicrobial stewardship consists of avoidance of antimicrobials when appropriate and, when antimicrobials are indicated, use of strategies to optimize the selection, dosing, route of administration, duration and timing of antimicrobial therapy to maximize clinical cure while limiting the unintended consequences of antimicrobial use, including toxicity and selection of resistant microorganisms. This article reviews successful antimicrobial stewardship strategies in the diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections.

  8. Arsenic and urinary bladder cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luster, Michael I.; Simeonova, Petia P.

    2004-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that a close association exists between the elevated levels of arsenic in drinking water and the incidence of certain cancers, including transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder. We have employed in vitro and in vivo models to examine the effects of sodium arsenite on the urinary bladder epithelium. Mice exposed to 0.01% sodium arsenite in drinking water demonstrated hyperproliferation of the bladder uroepithelium within 4 weeks after initiating treatment. This occurred in the absence of amorphous precipitates and was accompanied by the accumulation of trivalent arsenite (iAs 3+ ), and to a lesser extent dimethylarsenic (DMA), arsenate (iAs 5+ ), and monomethylarsenic (MMA) in bladder tissue. In contrast to the bladder, urinary secretion was primarily in the form of DMA and MMA. Arsenic-induced cell proliferation in the bladder epithelium was correlated with activation of the MAP kinase pathway, leading to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase activity, AP-1 activation, and expression of AP-1-associated genes involved in cell proliferation. Activation of the MAP kinase pathway involved both epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor-dependent and -independent events, the latter involving Src activation. Studies summarized in this review suggest that arsenic accumulates in urinary bladder epithelium causing activation of specific signaling pathways that lead to chronic increased cell proliferation. This may play a non-epigenetic role in carcinogenesis by increasing the proliferation of initiated cells or increasing the mutational rate

  9. Problems in severe bilateral urinary tract anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens

    1989-01-01

    function. There were two deaths. Five children have severe and two a moderate reduction of renal function; twenty good renal function. There were ten nephrectomies and four heminephrectomies. Seven patients had a temporary and eight a permanent urinary diversion. However, four of the latter were later...

  10. Neural Control of the Lower Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groat, William C.; Griffiths, Derek; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes anatomical, neurophysiological, pharmacological, and brain imaging studies in humans and animals that have provided insights into the neural circuitry and neurotransmitter mechanisms controlling the lower urinary tract. The functions of the lower urinary tract to store and periodically eliminate urine are regulated by a complex neural control system in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral autonomic ganglia that coordinates the activity of smooth and striated muscles of the bladder and urethral outlet. The neural control of micturition is organized as a hierarchical system in which spinal storage mechanisms are in turn regulated by circuitry in the rostral brain stem that initiates reflex voiding. Input from the forebrain triggers voluntary voiding by modulating the brain stem circuitry. Many neural circuits controlling the lower urinary tract exhibit switch-like patterns of activity that turn on and off in an all-or-none manner. The major component of the micturition switching circuit is a spinobulbospinal parasympathetic reflex pathway that has essential connections in the periaqueductal gray and pontine micturition center. A computer model of this circuit that mimics the switching functions of the bladder and urethra at the onset of micturition is described. Micturition occurs involuntarily in infants and young children until the age of 3 to 5 years, after which it is regulated voluntarily. Diseases or injuries of the nervous system in adults can cause the re-emergence of involuntary micturition, leading to urinary incontinence. Neuroplasticity underlying these developmental and pathological changes in voiding function is discussed. PMID:25589273

  11. Medical Prescription Pitfalls of Uncomplicated Urinary Tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The aim of this evaluation was to identify pitfalls in medical prescriptions of uncomplicated urinary tract infections in government healthcare facilities in Zambia. Design: This was a cross sectional and government healthcare facilities were conveniently sampled. Main outcome measures: Rate of compliance to ...

  12. Granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph von Klot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With only 16 cases reported in the literature, the mostly benign granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder is exceptionally rare. We present the case of a 68-year old patient with one of these lesions demonstrating our histological findings including several immunohistochemical stainings used to differentiate between other more common entities.

  13. Urinary growth hormone excretion in acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Lindholm, J; Vandeweghe, M

    1993-01-01

    The biochemical assessment of disease activity in acromegaly still presents a problem, especially in treated patients with mild clinical symptoms. We therefore examined the diagnostic value of the measurement of urinary growth hormone (GH) excretion in seventy unselected patients with acromegaly...

  14. Urinary Incontinence: Causes and Methods of Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebling, Tomas L.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the third of a multi-part series offering the most timely educational information, innovative approaches, products and technology solutions as well as coping and stigma-fighting approaches available on the subject of incontinence. Here, the author introduces the types and physiology of urinary incontinence. The author also…

  15. Febrile urinary tract infections: pyelonephritis and urosepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneeberger, Caroline; Holleman, Frits; Geerlings, Suzanne E.

    2016-01-01

    Complicated infections of the urinary tract (UTI) including pyelonephritis and urosepsis are also called febrile UTI. This review describes insights from the literature on this topic since July 2014. Recent studies regarding risk factors and consequences of febrile UTI confirmed existing knowledge.

  16. Dramatic elevation in urinary amino terminal titin fragment excretion quantified by immunoassay in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients and in dystrophin deficient rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alan S; Majchrzak, Mark J; Smith, Courtney M; Gagnon, Robert C; Devidze, Nino; Banks, Glen B; Little, Sean C; Nabbie, Fizal; Bounous, Denise I; DiPiero, Janet; Jacobsen, Leslie K; Bristow, Linda J; Ahlijanian, Michael K; Stimpson, Stephen A

    2017-07-01

    Enzyme-linked and electrochemiluminescence immunoassays were developed for quantification of amino (N-) terminal fragments of the skeletal muscle protein titin (N-ter titin) and qualified for use in detection of urinary N-ter titin excretion. Urine from normal subjects contained a small but measurable level of N-ter titin (1.0 ± 0.4 ng/ml). A 365-fold increase (365.4 ± 65.0, P = 0.0001) in urinary N-ter titin excretion was seen in Duchene muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients. Urinary N-ter titin was also evaluated in dystrophin deficient rodent models. Mdx mice exhibited low urinary N-ter titin levels at 2 weeks of age followed by a robust and sustained elevation starting at 3 weeks of age, coincident with the development of systemic skeletal muscle damage in this model; fold elevation could not be determined because urinary N-ter titin was not detected in age-matched wild type mice. Levels of serum creatine kinase and serum skeletal muscle troponin I (TnI) were also low at 2 weeks, elevated at later time points and were significantly correlated with urinary N-ter titin excretion in mdx mice. Corticosteroid treatment of mdx mice resulted in improved exercise performance and lowering of both urinary N-ter titin and serum skeletal muscle TnI concentrations. Low urinary N-ter titin levels were detected in wild type rats (3.0 ± 0.6 ng/ml), while Dmd mdx rats exhibited a 556-fold increase (1652.5 ± 405.7 ng/ml, P = 0.002) (both at 5 months of age). These results suggest that urinary N-ter titin is present at low basal concentrations in normal urine and increases dramatically coincident with muscle damage produced by dystrophin deficiency. Urinary N-ter titin has potential as a facile, non-invasive and translational biomarker for DMD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Proposed mechanistic description of dose-dependent BDE-47 urinary elimination in mice using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emond, Claude, E-mail: claude.emond@umontreal.ca [BioSimulation Consulting Inc., Newark, DE (United States); Departments of Environmental and Occupational Health, Medicine Faculty, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Sanders, J. Michael, E-mail: sander10@mail.nih.gov [National Cancer Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wikoff, Daniele, E-mail: dwikoff@toxstrategies.com [ToxStrategies, Austin, TX (United States); Birnbaum, Linda S., E-mail: birnbaumls@niehs.nih.gov [National Cancer Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used in a wide variety of consumer applications as additive flame retardants. In North America, scientists have noted continuing increases in the levels of PBDE congeners measured in human serum. Some recent studies have found that PBDEs are associated with adverse health effects in humans, in experimental animals, and wildlife. This laboratory previously demonstrated that urinary elimination of 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) is saturable at high doses in mice; however, this dose-dependent urinary elimination has not been observed in adult rats or immature mice. Thus, the primary objective of this study was to examine the mechanism of urinary elimination of BDE-47 in adult mice using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. To support this objective, additional laboratory data were collected to evaluate the predictions of the PBPK model using novel information from adult multi-drug resistance 1a/b knockout mice. Using the PBPK model, the roles of mouse major urinary protein (a blood protein carrier) and P-glycoprotein (an apical membrane transporter in proximal tubule cells in the kidneys, brain, intestines, and liver) were investigated in BDE-47 elimination. The resulting model and new data supported the major role of m-MUP in excretion of BDE-47 in the urine of adult mice, and a lesser role of P-gp as a transporter of BDE-47 in mice. This work expands the knowledge of BDE-47 kinetics between species and provides information for determining the relevancy of these data for human risk assessment purposes. - Highlights: • We report the first study on PBPK model on flame retardant in mice for BDE-47. • We examine mechanism of urinary elimination of BDE-47 in mice using a PBPK model. • We investigated roles of m-MUP and P-gp as transporters in urinary elimination.

  18. Urinary exosomes: a novel means to non-invasively assess changes in renal gene and protein expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Spanu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In clinical practice, there is a lack of markers for the non-invasive diagnosis and follow-up of kidney disease. Exosomes are membrane vesicles, which are secreted from their cells of origin into surrounding body fluids and contain proteins and mRNA which are protected from digestive enzymes by a cell membrane. METHODS: Toxic podocyte damage was induced by puromycin aminonucleoside in rats (PAN. Urinary exosomes were isolated by ultracentrifugation at different time points during the disease. Exosomal mRNA was isolated, amplified, and the mRNA species were globally assessed by gene array analysis. Tissue-specific gene and protein expression was assessed by RT-qPCR analysis and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Gene array analysis of mRNA isolated from urinary exosomes revealed cystatin C mRNA as one of the most highly regulated genes. Its gene expression increased 7.5-fold by day 5 and remained high with a 1.9-fold increase until day 10. This was paralleled by a 2-fold increase in cystatin C mRNA expression in the renal cortex. Protein expression in the kidneys also dramatically increased with de novo expression of cystatin C in glomerular podocytes in parts of the proximal tubule and the renal medulla. Urinary excretion of cystatin C increased approximately 2-fold. CONCLUSION: In this proof-of-concept study, we could demonstrate that changes in urinary exosomal cystatin C mRNA expression are representative of changes in renal mRNA and protein expression. Because cells lining the urinary tract produce urinary exosomal cystatin C mRNA, it might be a more specific marker of renal damage than glomerular-filtered free cystatin C.

  19. Validity of urinary monoamine assay sales under the "spot baseline urinary neurotransmitter testing marketing model".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Marty; Stein, Alvin; Uncini, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Spot baseline urinary monoamine assays have been used in medicine for over 50 years as a screening test for monoamine-secreting tumors, such as pheochromocytoma and carcinoid syndrome. In these disease states, when the result of a spot baseline monoamine assay is above the specific value set by the laboratory, it is an indication to obtain a 24-hour urine sample to make a definitive diagnosis. There are no defined applications where spot baseline urinary monoamine assays can be used to diagnose disease or other states directly. No peer-reviewed published original research exists which demonstrates that these assays are valid in the treatment of individual patients in the clinical setting. Since 2001, urinary monoamine assay sales have been promoted for numerous applications under the "spot baseline urinary neurotransmitter testing marketing model". There is no published peer-reviewed original research that defines the scientific foundation upon which the claims for these assays are made. On the contrary, several articles have been published that discredit various aspects of the model. To fill the void, this manuscript is a comprehensive review of the scientific foundation and claims put forth by laboratories selling urinary monoamine assays under the spot baseline urinary neurotransmitter testing marketing model.

  20. Urinary YKL-40 as a Candidate Biomarker for Febrile Urinary Tract Infection in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Hee; Chung, Mi Hae; Bin, Joong Hyun; Cho, Kyoung Soon; Lee, Juyoung

    2018-01-01

    Background Given that YKL-40 is a known marker of inflammation, we sought to determine its association with urinary tract infection (UTI) in febrile children. Methods In total, 44 children aged 0 to 24 months with febrile UTI and 35 age- and sex-matched controls with fever from other causes were enrolled in the study. ELISA was performed to determine the level of YKL-40 in urine collected from each child. Results The ratio of urinary YKL-40 to creatinine (Cr) was higher in the children with a UTI than in the controls (Purinary YKL-40/Cr ratio, 0.86 for pyuria, and 0.71 for positive nitrite on urinalysis. We applied a cut-off value of 125.23 pg/mg to urinary YKL-40/Cr for detecting UTI. Eight of nine children in the control group with pyuria had urinary YKL-40/Cr levels lower than 125.23 pg/mg, and the one child in the UTI group without pyuria or positive nitrite had a urinary YKL-40/Cr level greater than 125.23 pg/mg. Conclusions Determining the levels of urinary YKL-40/Cr may help identify true cases of UTI in febrile young children, especially when they have pyuria but not nitrite, or have neither pyuria nor nitrite in the urine. PMID:29071817

  1. [S1 Herpes zoster localization: acute urinary retention in woman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Marco; Mastrocinque, Giuseppe; Romeo, Salvatore; Giammanco, Giovanni; Melloni, Darwin

    2011-01-01

    Acute urinary retention in women is rare. The varicella-zoster virus causes inflammatory lesions of the sensory-root ganglions, meninges and, less frequently, spinal cord. Herpes zoster has been reported to affect, although rarely, lower urinary tract innervations, and acute urinary retention can be thought to occur in the presence of sacral dermatome involvement. Usually it is located in S2-4 dermatome and the prognosis for acute urinary retention is benign resolving in about 20 days. We present a case in which the S1 dermatome was involved and acute urinary retention developed. After 10 days of specific therapy and self-catheterization the problem resolved.

  2. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1% individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8% at the second screening, (P <0.001. Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8% adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1% individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6% individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3% individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5% individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6% of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6% individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1% of them. Asymp- tomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9% of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6% of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8% indivi- duals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8% individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01 and (P <0.001, respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  3. Chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition exacerbates renal dysfunction in cirrhotic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graebe, M.; Brond, L.; Christensen, S.

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated sodium balance and renal tubular function in cirrhotic rats with chronic blockade of the nitric oxide (NO) system. Rats were treated with the nonselective NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) starting on the day of common bile duct ligation...... (CBL). Three weeks of daily sodium balance studies showed that CBL rats developed sodium retention compared with sham-operated rats and that l-NAME treatment dose dependently deteriorated cumulative sodium balance by reducing urinary sodium excretion. Five weeks after CBL, renal clearance studies were...

  4. Role of the collecting duct in the exaggerated natriuresis of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco, L.L.; DiBona, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    To carry out a comparative examination of exaggerated natriumresis in the kidneys with essential hypertonia, 2 rat populations consisting of 11 spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and, for controlling, 9 Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY), were chosen. In rats of the same age and weight, there was a significant arterial difference in the blood pressure. After the intravenous administration of isotonic NaCl, the urinary flow rate and sodium excretion are increased. The end-distal tubule-microinjection showed the 14 C-inulin recovery while that of 22 Na was significantly higher in SHR than in WKY. (APR) [de

  5. Comparison of plutonium systemic distribution in rats and dogs with published data in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Dunstana R; Weber, Waylon; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Guilmette, Raymond A

    2014-11-01

    This manuscript compares the behavior of monomeric (239)Pu(4+)-citrate injected intravenously in rats and dogs with a comparison of available humans' data. The experimental design for these two studies consisted of eight groups sacrificed at predetermined time-points post exposure. All organs and tissues as well as daily urinary and fecal excretion were analyzed. Liver and skeleton were the organs with the highest (239)Pu uptake in both species; 76% in dogs and 70% in rats at 24 hours (h) post IV administration. By the end of the study (28 days, d), the activity in skeleton and liver was 85% in dogs and 65% in rats. The urinary excretion function seems to be similar for rats, dogs and humans but the daily fecal to urinary excretion ratio differs between species. A rapid clearance from the liver of rats was observed compared to dogs. Skeleton-to-liver ratios are variable between species. Urinary and fecal excretion patterns for dogs are consistent with human data, indicating that dogs seem to represent better the (239)Pu behavior in humans. The data confirm that the better animal model to evaluate the efficacy of (239)Pu chelating compounds is the canine model.

  6. Urinary trypsin inhibitor - an experimental and clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berling, B.M.

    1991-01-01

    The urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI) is an acid stable proteinase inhibitor present in blood and urine. It was purified from urine using affinity chromatography, ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. Two forms of UTI were present in urine, A and B. A radioimmunoassay for measurement of UTI in urine and plasma was performed. The normal level of UTI in plasma and serum was about 2 mg/l. The normal excretion in urine was about 8 mg per 24 hours. The plasma and urine levels of UTI were studied in patients with acute pancreatitis and in patients undergoing cholecystectomy. Uremic patients had a marked increase of UTI in plasma compatible with decreased glomerular filtration. In samples from healthy persons as well as from patients only inhibitor A was found. Inhibitor B has recently been renamed bikunin because of its two Kunitz-type inhibiting domains. Inhibitor A might be called tetrakunin. Radioactively labeled UTI (inhibitor A) was injected intravenously in three male volunteers. The plasma half-life of 125 I UTI was 2 hours. Free biologically active inhibitor was found in the urine during the first four hours after injection. The organ distribution of intravenously injected 125 I UTI was studied in rats. Fifteen minutes after injection the major part of the radioactivity was found in the kidneys, suggesting that the kidneys are the primary site of UTI metabolism. Using immunohistochemical techniques UTI was found in the proximal tubules of the normal human kidney further indicating the tubular reabsorption and methabolisms of UTI

  7. Effects of chronic fructose overload on renal dopaminergic system: alteration of urinary L-dopa/dopamine index correlates to hypertension and precedes kidney structural damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukavina Mikusic, Natalia L; Kouyoumdzian, Nicolás M; Del Mauro, Julieta S; Cao, Gabriel; Trida, Verónica; Gironacci, Mariela M; Puyó, Ana M; Toblli, Jorge E; Fernández, Belisario E; Choi, Marcelo R

    2018-01-01

    Insulin resistance induced by a high-fructose diet has been associated to hypertension and renal damage. The aim of this work was to assess alterations in the urinary L-dopa/dopamine ratio over three time periods in rats with insulin resistance induced by fructose overload and its correlation with blood pressure levels and the presence of microalbuminuria and reduced nephrin expression as markers of renal structural damage. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups: control (C) (C4, C8 and C12) with tap water to drink and fructose-overloaded (FO) rats (FO4, FO8 and FO12) with a fructose solution (10% w/v) to drink for 4, 8 and 12 weeks. A significant increase of the urinary L-dopa/dopamine ratio was found in FO rats since week 4, which positively correlated to the development of hypertension and preceded in time the onset of microalbuminuria and reduced nephrin expression observed on week 12 of treatment. The alteration of this ratio was associated to an impairment of the renal dopaminergic system, evidenced by a reduction in renal dopamine transporters and dopamine D1 receptor expression, leading to an overexpression and overactivation of the enzyme Na + , K + -ATPase with sodium retention. In conclusion, urinary L-dopa/dopamine ratio alteration in rats with fructose overload positively correlated to the development of hypertension and preceded in time the onset of renal structural damage. This is the first study to propose the use of the urinary L-dopa/dopamine index as marker of renal dysfunction that temporarily precedes kidney structural damage induced by fructose overload. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Are lower urinary tract symptoms in children associated with urinary symptoms in their mothers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Ariane S; Fraga, Luis Gustavo A; Salomão, Bruno A; Oliveira, Júlia B; Seixas, Camila L; Veiga, Maria Luiza; Netto, José Murillo B; Barroso, Ubirajara

    2017-06-01

    The association between parents who suffered daytime incontinence as children and children who are incontinence has been reported. However, the association of lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction in children and urinary symptoms in mothers has not been studied. To test the hypothesis that the children of mothers with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are more likely to have urinary symptoms. A cross-sectional multicenter study was conducted in two cities in Brazil. Children/adolescents of 5-17 years of age and their mothers were interviewed. Children with neurological problems, previously detected urinary tract abnormalities or who refused to sign the informed consent or assent form were excluded. The DVSS questionnaire was used to evaluate the presence of LUTS in the children and the ICIQ-OAB questionnaire was used to evaluate their mothers. Constipation in the children was investigated using the ROME III criteria. A total of 827 mother-child pairs were included, with 414 of the children (50.06%) being male. Mean age was 9.1 ± 2.9 years for the children and 35.9 ± 6.5 years for the mothers. Urinary symptoms (occurring at least once or twice a week) were present in 315 children (38.1%), incontinence in 114 (13.8%) and urinary urgency in 141 (17%). Of the mothers, 378 (45.7%) had at least one LUTS, with 103 (12.5%) having incontinence and 153 (18.5%) urgency. According to the DVSS, the overall prevalence of LUT dysfunction was 9.1%. The children's DVSS scores were significantly associated with the mothers' ICIQ-OAB scores (p urinary symptoms were 2.5 times more likely to have a child with LUT dysfunction (95%CI: 1.52-4.17; p factors of the presence of LUT dysfunction in the child. Children of mothers with incontinence and urinary urgency were also more likely to have incontinence and urgency. Mothers with typical symptoms of overactive bladder are more likely to have a child with LUT dysfunction. This correlation is also positive for the isolated symptoms

  9. Effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitcomb EL

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Emily L Whitcomb1, Leslee L Subak21Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Orange County-Irvine Medical Center, Irvine, CA, USA; 2University of California San Francisco, UCSF Departments of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, and Urology, and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, SF Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this research was review the epidemiology of the association of obesity and urinary incontinence, and to summarize the published data on the effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence.Methods: A literature review of the association between urinary incontinence and overweight/obesity in women was performed. Case series and clinical trials reporting the effect of surgical, behavioral, and/or pharmacological weight loss on urinary incontinence are summarized.Results: Epidemiological studies demonstrate that obesity is a strong and independent risk factor for prevalent and incident urinary incontinence. There is a clear dose-response effect of weight on urinary incontinence, with each 5-unit increase in body mass index associated with a 20%–70% increase in risk of urinary incontinence. The maximum effect of weight on urinary incontinence has an odds ratio of 4–5. The odds of incident urinary incontinence over 5–10 years increase by approximately 30%–60% for each 5-unit increase in body mass index. There appears to be a stronger association between increasing weight and prevalent and incident stress incontinence (including mixed incontinence than for urge incontinence. Weight loss studies indicate that both surgical and nonsurgical weight loss leads to significant improvements in prevalence, frequency, and/or symptoms of urinary incontinence.Conclusion: Epidemiological studies document overweight and obesity as important risk factors for urinary incontinence. Weight loss by both surgical and more conservative

  10. Diuron-induced rat bladder epithelial cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rocha, Mitscheli S; Arnold, Lora L; Pennington, Karen L; Muirhead, David; Dodmane, Puttappa R; Anwar, Muhammad M; Battalora, Michael; De Camargo, João Lauro V; Cohen, Samuel M

    2012-12-01

    Diuron, a substituted urea herbicide, is carcinogenic to the rat urinary bladder at high dietary levels (2500 ppm). To further elucidate the mode of action, this study aimed to determine the time course and sequence of bladder cytotoxic and proliferative changes induced by diuron treatment of male Wistar rats. Rats were randomized into two groups (control and 2500 ppm diuron) and treated for 28 days. Ten rats from each group were terminated on each of study days 1, 3, 7, or 28. Scanning electron micro scopy (SEM) showed urothelial cell swelling beginning on day 1, and by day 28, showed extensive necrosis, exfoliation and piling up of cells suggestive of hyperplasia. No difference in the bromo deoxyuridine labeling index was detected. In a second experiment, rats were randomized into control and diuron-treated groups and treated for 7 days or 8 weeks. After 7 days, transmission electron microscopy showed cell degenerative changes and distention of the cytoplasm, organelles, and nuclei characteristic of cytolysis. This resulted in protrusion of the superficial cells into the lumen, corresponding to the cell swelling observed previously by SEM. After 8 weeks, bladders in the diuron-treated group showed an increased incidence of simple hyperplasia by light microscopy (6/10, p diuron exposure in rats.

  11. Segmental Urethral Dosimetry and Urinary Toxicity in Patients With No Urinary Symptoms Before Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Carys; Keyes, Mira; Liu, Mitchell; Moravan, Veronika

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether segmental urethral dosimetry is predictive for the degree of urinary morbidity after prostate brachytherapy in patients with no urinary symptoms before prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between May 2000 and November 2005, 1,107 patients underwent iodine-125 monotherapy with urethral sparing techniques. A total of 166 patients fulfilled the selection criteria: baseline (International Prostate Symptom Score) IPSS ≤5, no androgen deprivation therapy, and prostate ultrasound planning volumes (PUTV) <45 mL. The median follow-up was 44 months. Urinary morbidity was defined by maximum increase in IPSS, time to IPSS resolution, maximum Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score, time to RTOG resolution, and urinary retention. Surrogate deviated urethra was contoured and doses calculated at the base, mid-prostate, apex, and urogenital diaphragm. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to evaluate urethral and prostate dosimetry, age, PUTV, and number of needles for their association with urinary morbidity. Results: Urethral dose was fairly constant in all urethra segments except prostate base, where the variation in does was large. On multivariate analysis, higher urethral base D50, V100, and larger PUTV were predictive for higher maximum increase in IPSS. Higher urethral base V100 and larger PUTV predicted for prolonged IPSS resolution. Higher urethral base D50 and larger needle number predicted for longer RTOG resolution. Higher urethral base V100 predicted for RTOG ≥2 toxicity. Conclusions: Radiation dose to the urethral base, larger PUTV, and needle number, predicted for increased urinary toxicity after prostate brachytherapy. Correlation between urinary morbidity and urethral base dosimetry may reflect a large variation in urethral dose observed at the prostate base

  12. [Urinary ascites, uroperitoneum and urinary peritonitis in children: management of nine case reports in Madagascar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raherinantenaina, F; Rambel, A H; Rakotosamimanana, J; Rajaonanahary, T M A; Rajaonera, T; Rakototiana, F A; Hunald, F A; Andriamanarivo, M L; Rantomalala, H Y H; Rakoto Ratsimba, H N

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the frequency of urinary peritonitis in children and to highlight its terms of management in a country with limited resources. We retrospectively observed nine case reports of urinary peritonitis collected in surgical reanimation service at the CHU of Antananarivo, from 1st January 2009 to 31 December 2012. Urinary peritonitis accounts 0.5% of all pediatric abdominal emergencies and 5% of pediatric urological emergencies collected in our service during study period. Three etiologies were traumatic bladder rupture, one bladder iatrogenic rupture, four secondary to obstructive uropathy and one other after cystolithotomy. We found a new case of posttraumatic transverse rupture of the bladder neck. Among obstructive uropathy observed, there were two cases of posterior urethral valves and two cases of ureteralpelvic junction obstruction. Clinical expression was dominated by fever, with abdominal distention and defense. In majority of cases, etiological diagnosis was made intraoperatively. The surgical treatment by laparotomy was performed under cover of systemic antibiotic therapy. Evolution was complicated with sepsis in three cases and acute renal failure in both cases. Surgical follow-up without complication were observed in four cases. A child has died to septic shock and multivisceral failure. Unlike urinary ascites resulting a transperitoneal extravasation of urine, uroperitoneum was a fistula between adominal cavity and content of the urinary tract. Urinary ascites was a rare cause of peritonitis. In contrast, uroperitoneum caused peritonitis quickly. Urinary peritonitis was a rare entity but severe prognosis in children. In majority of cases, etiological diagnosis was made intraoperatively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Calcium-deficiency assessment and biomarker identification by an integrated urinary metabonomics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Calcium deficiency is a global public-health problem. Although the initial stage of calcium deficiency can lead to metabolic alterations or potential pathological changes, calcium deficiency is difficult to diagnose accurately. Moreover, the details of the molecular mechanism of calcium deficiency remain somewhat elusive. To accurately assess and provide appropriate nutritional intervention, we carried out a global analysis of metabolic alterations in response to calcium deficiency. Methods The metabolic alterations associated with calcium deficiency were first investigated in a rat model, using urinary metabonomics based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical analysis. Correlations between dietary calcium intake and the biomarkers identified from the rat model were further analyzed to confirm the potential application of these biomarkers in humans. Results Urinary metabolic-profiling analysis could preliminarily distinguish between calcium-deficient and non-deficient rats after a 2-week low-calcium diet. We established an integrated metabonomics strategy for identifying reliable biomarkers of calcium deficiency using a time-course analysis of discriminating metabolites in a low-calcium diet experiment, repeating the low-calcium diet experiment and performing a calcium-supplement experiment. In total, 27 biomarkers were identified, including glycine, oxoglutaric acid, pyrophosphoric acid, sebacic acid, pseudouridine, indoxyl sulfate, taurine, and phenylacetylglycine. The integrated urinary metabonomics analysis, which combined biomarkers with regular trends of change (types A, B, and C), could accurately assess calcium-deficient rats at different stages and clarify the dynamic pathophysiological changes and molecular mechanism of calcium deficiency in detail. Significant correlations between calcium intake and two biomarkers, pseudouridine (Pearson

  14. Effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Emily L; Subak, Leslee L

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this research was review the epidemiology of the association of obesity and urinary incontinence, and to summarize the published data on the effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence. Methods A literature review of the association between urinary incontinence and overweight/obesity in women was performed. Case series and clinical trials reporting the effect of surgical, behavioral, and/or pharmacological weight loss on urinary incontinence are summarized. Results Epidemiological studies demonstrate that obesity is a strong and independent risk factor for prevalent and incident urinary incontinence. There is a clear dose-response effect of weight on urinary incontinence, with each 5-unit increase in body mass index associated with a 20%–70% increase in risk of urinary incontinence. The maximum effect of weight on urinary incontinence has an odds ratio of 4–5. The odds of incident urinary incontinence over 5–10 years increase by approximately 30%–60% for each 5-unit increase in body mass index. There appears to be a stronger association between increasing weight and prevalent and incident stress incontinence (including mixed incontinence) than for urge incontinence. Weight loss studies indicate that both surgical and nonsurgical weight loss leads to significant improvements in prevalence, frequency, and/or symptoms of urinary incontinence. Conclusion Epidemiological studies document overweight and obesity as important risk factors for urinary incontinence. Weight loss by both surgical and more conservative approaches is effective in reducing urinary incontinence symptoms and should be strongly considered as a first line treatment for overweight and obese women with urinary incontinence. PMID:24198645

  15. Urinary tract infection in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Mora, Natalia; Pachón Díaz, Jerónimo; Cordero Matía, Elisa

    2017-04-01

    Infectious complications remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality among transplant recipients. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infectious complication in kidney transplant recipients with a reported incidence from 25% to 75%, varies widely likely due to differences in definition, diagnostic criteria, study design, and length of observation. We sought reviews the incidence and importance of urinary tract infection on graft survival, the microbiology with special emphasis on multidrug resistant microorganisms, the therapeutic management of UTI and the prophylaxis of recurrent UTI among solid organ transplant recipients, highlighting the need for prospective clinical trials to unify the clinical management in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  16. [Women's strategies for coping with urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delarmelindo, Rita de Cássia Altino; Parada, Cristina Maria Garcia de Lima; Rodrigues, Rosalina Aparecida Partezani; Bocchi, Silvia Cristina Mangini

    2013-04-01

    This article is part of a more comprehensive qualitative study which used grounded theory and symbolic interactionism as theoretical and methodological frameworks, resulting in the theoretical model entitled, Between suffering and hope: rehabilitation of urinary incontinence as an intervenient component. In order to communicate all the knowledge produced, part of this model is presented, and it refers to the process of coping with urinary incontinence by women without perspectives of access to surgical treatment after failure of conservative procedures. When interrelating the components (categories and subcategories) of these women's experience in order to compare and analyze them to understand their interaction, moral and psychosocial vulnerability were noticed within the experience of the group, which makes them susceptible to health risks and to compromise of their quality of life, observed in the movement of the group's experience. Research is needed to further understand experiences in which there are barriers to surgical treatment due to physicians' disbelief in its effectiveness.

  17. Clinical observation of radiation urinary bladder disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yuke; Liu Libo; Zhang Haiying; Liang Shuo; Chen Dawei; Wu Zhenfeng; Dong Lihua; Lu Xuejun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Clinical characteristic, diagnosis and treatment of radiation urinary bladder disease induced by radiation therapy for cancers in the pelvis were inquired into for providing diagnostic basis. Methods: Statistical analysis for the clinical cases was carried out. Results: The incidence of radiation bladder diseases induced by radiation therapy of cervix cancer are about 0.8%-2.96%, with an average of 2.14%. Radiation bladder disease is divided into acute radiation cystitis, chronic radiation cystitis and radiation vesical fistula. Chronic radiation cystitis is seen most often in the clinic and its main clinical symptom is painless macroscopic hematuria, which is again subdivided into slight and severe degrees. Diagnosis should include history of exposure to radiation, which dose exceed the dose threshold, and typical clinical characteristics. Conclusion: The characteristics, types and diagnostic basis of radiation urinary bladder disease analyzed in this study can provide the reference for drawing up diagnostic standard

  18. Imaging in childhood urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccabona, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common query in pediatric radiology. Imaging for and after UTI is still a heavily debated topic with different approaches, as thorough evidence to decide upon a definite algorithm is scarce. This review article tries to address the clinical rational of the various approaches (general imaging, top-down or bottom-up, selected and individualized imaging concepts…), describes the available imaging modalities and the respective findings in imaging children with UTI, and proposes an imaging algorithm for the work-up of children during and after UTI discussing the "pros and cons" of the different attitudes. In summary, imaging by US is generally considered for all infants and children with a febrile or complicated (upper) UTI, particularly without previously known urinary tract anatomy. The further work-up (searching for renal scarring and assessment of vesico-ureteric reflux) is then decided according to these initial findings as well as the clinical presentation, course, and scenario.

  19. An association between urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Mahasakpan, Pranee; Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot

    2011-01-01

    Excessive urinary calcium excretion is the major risk of urinary stone formation. Very few population studies have been performed to determine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and urinary stone disease. This population-based study examined an association between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and prevalence of urinary stones in persons aged 15 years and older, who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in the Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. A total of 6748 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in 2009. To test a correlation between urinary excretion of cadmium and calcium, we measured urinary calcium content in 1492 persons, who lived in 3 villages randomly selected from the 12 contaminated villages. The rate of urinary stones significantly increased from 4.3% among persons in the lowest quartile of urinary cadmium to 11.3% in the highest quartile. An increase in stone prevalence with increasing urinary cadmium levels was similarly observed in both genders. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a positive association between urinary cadmium levels and stone prevalence, after adjusting for other co-variables. The urinary calcium excretion significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both genders, after adjusting for other co-variables. Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium might increase the risk of urinary stone formation in this environmentally exposed population. - Research highlights: → Excessive calciuria is the major risk of urinary stone formation. → We examine cadmium-exposed persons for urinary cadmium, calcium, and stones. → The rate of urinary stones increases with increasing urinary cadmium. → Urinary calcium excretion increases with increasing urinary cadmium. → Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium may increase the risk of urinary stones.

  20. Evaluation of Musa (Paradisiaca Linn. cultivar)--"Puttubale" stem juice for antilithiatic activity in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, K V; Bharathi, K; Srinivasan, K K

    1993-10-01

    The fresh juice of Musa stem (Puttubale) was tested for its antilithiatic activity. Zinc discs were implanted in the urinary bladder of albino rats to induce urolithiasis. The stones formed were mainly of magnesium ammonium phosphate with traces of calcium oxalate. Musa stem juice (3 mL/rat/day orally) was found to be effective in reducing the formation and also in dissolving the pre-formed stones.

  1. Effect of magnesium deficiency on renal magnesium and calcium transport in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Carney, S L; Wong, N L; Quamme, G A; Dirks, J H

    1980-01-01

    Recollection of micropuncture experiments were performed on acutely thyroparathyroidectomized rats rendered magnesium deficient by dietary deprivation. Urinary magnesium excretion fell from a control of 15 to 3% of the filtered load after magnesium restriction. The loop of Henle, presumably the thick ascending limb, was the major modulator for renal magnesium homeostasis. The transport capacity for magnesium, however, was less in deficient rats than control animals. Absolute magnesium reabsor...

  2. The Assessment of Urinary Metabolites in Children with Urinary Tract Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Nain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the association between urinary tract infection (UTI and urinary metabolites. Material and Method: Eighty children aged below 14 years old who were following for recurrent UTI were enrolled into the study. Urinary calcium (Uca, oxalate (Uox, citrate (Ucit and cysteine (Ucis levels were studied in 24 hours urine samples. Hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria and hypocitraturia were identified according to the reference values. The positivity of sodium nitroprussid test was accepted as cystinuria. The results were compared between patients and control groups involving thirty children. The patients were divided into two subgroups according to the presence of renal scarring (RS on radionuclide scan. The similar comparisons were made between the subgroups. Results: There was no significant difference between the ratios of hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia and cystinuria in patient and control groups (p> 0.05. Uox/Ucr levels were significantly increased in patients compared to controls (p= 0.001 whereas Uca/Ucr and Ucit/Ucr levels were similar among study groups (p= 0. 082 and p= 0.466. There was no significant difference between RS (- and RS ( groups for hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia and cystinuria (p> 0.05. Discussion: The increase in urinary excretion of oxalate might be a risk factor for UTI. There was no evidence regarding that urinary metabolic abnormalities such as hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia and cystinuria have affected the development of RS in the setting of UTI.

  3. Can urinary nitrite results be used to conduct antimicrobial option for urinary tract infection in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahyar, Abolfazl; Ayazi, Parviz; Froozesh, Mahta; Daneshi-Kohan, Mohammad-Mahdi; Barikani, Ameneh

    2012-06-01

    This study was performed to determine the relationship between urinary nitrite results and bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs in urinary tract infection of children. In a cross-section study 119 children younger than 12 years with urinary tract infection were evaluated in Qazvin children's hospital. Patients were divided into negative and positive nitrite groups depending on urinary nitrite test result. Rates of antibiotic resistance in the two groups were compared. Sixty seven patients were in the negative nitrite group and 52 in the positive nitrite group. Resistance rates to ceftriaxone, trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, gentamicin, amikacin, nalidixic acid, cephalothin and nitrofurantoin in the nitrite negative group were 7.5%, 31.3%, 50.7%, 11.9%, 9%, 3%, 14.9% and 11.9%, respectively. These values in the nitrite positive group were 21.2%, 28.8%, 63.5%, 7.7%, 5.8%, 1.9%, 9.6%, and 3.8%, respectively (P>0.05). This study showed that there is no correlation between urinary nitrite results and bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs. Therefore, it seems that physicians should not adjust antibiotic therapy for UTI based on nitrite results.

  4. Could Urinary Tract Infection Cause Female Stress Urinary Incontinence? A Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Fatemeh; Motaghed, Zahra; Abbaszadeh, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI), the most common type of urinary incontinence (UI), is usually defined as leakage of urine during movement or activity which puts pressure on the bladder, such as coughing, sneezing, running or heavy lifting. It is reported in most countries that 15% to 40% of women struggle with SUI and its severe implications for daily life, including social interactions, sexuality, and psychological wellbeing. The aim of our study was to assess the relationship between urinary tract infection and the severity of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). This research was a cross-sectional study conducted in a public urology clinic in Tehran. The study population was all females with complaints of SUI who visited the clinic during 2014. We compared Valsalva leak point pressure (VLPP) in two groups of patients, with and without history of urinary tract infection (UTI). According to the findings of our study, the mean VLPP was 83.10 cm H2O in the group with UTI history, and 81.29 cm H2O in those without history of UTI. The difference in VLPP between the two groups was not significant (P < 0.05), even after controlling for confounding variables including age, body mass index, history of hysterectomy and number of deliveries. Our study did not confirm a significant relationship between UTI and severity of SUI as measured by VLPP. A decisive opinion would require extensive future studies by prospective methods.

  5. Effects of Arginase Inhibition in Hypertensive Hyperthyroid Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Isabel; Manuel Moreno, Juan; Jimenez, Rosario; Quesada, Andrés; Montoro-Molina, Sebastian; Vargas-Tendero, Pablo; Wangensteen, Rosemary; Vargas, Félix

    2015-12-01

    This study analyzed the effects of chronic administration of N[omega]-hydroxy-nor-l-arginine (nor-NOHA), an inhibitor of arginase, on the hemodynamic, oxidative stress, morphologic, metabolic, and renal manifestations of hyperthyroidism in rats. Four groups of male Wistar rats were used: control, nor-NOHA-treated (10 mg/kg/day), thyroxine (T4)-treated (75 μg/rat/day), and thyroxine- plus nor-NOHA-treated rats. All treatments were maintained for 4 weeks. Body weight, tail systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) were recorded weekly. Finally, morphologic, metabolic, plasma, and renal variables were measured. Arginase I and II protein abundance and arginase activity were measured in aorta, heart, and kidney. The T4 group showed increased arginase I and II protein abundance, arginase activity, SBP, HR, plasma nitrates/nitrites (NOx), brainstem and urinary isoprostanes, proteinuria and cardiac and renal hypertrophy in comparison to control rats. In hyperthyroid rats, chronic nor-NOHA prevented the increase in SBP and HR and decreased proteinuria in association with an increase in plasma NOx and a decrease in brainstem and urinary isoprostanes. In normal rats, nor-NOHA treatment did not significantly change any hemodynamic, morphologic, or renal variables. Acute nor-NOHA administration did not affect renal or systemic hemodynamic variables in normal or T4-treated rats. Hyperthyroidism in rats is associated with the increased expression and activity of arginase in aorta, heart, and kidney. Chronic arginase inhibition with nor-NOHA suppresses the characteristic hemodynamic manifestations of hyperthyroidism in association with a reduced oxidative stress. These results indicate an important role for arginase pathway alterations in the cardiovascular and renal abnormalities of hyperthyroidism. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Comparison of Mucosal, Subcutaneous and Intraperitoneal Routes of Rat Leptospira Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilber, Anne-Laure; Belli, Patrick; Grezel, Delphine; Artois, Marc; Kodjo, Angeli; Djelouadji, Zoheira

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis found worldwide that is caused by a spirochete. The main reservoirs of Leptospira, which presents an asymptomatic infection, are wild rodents, including the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus). Experimental studies of the mechanisms of its renal colonization in rats have previously used an intraperitoneal inoculation route. However, knowledge of rat-rat transmission requires the use of a natural route of inoculation, such as a mucosal or subcutaneous route. We investigated for the first time the effects of subcutaneous and mucosal inoculation routes compared to the reference intraperitoneal route during Leptospira infection in adult rats. Infection characteristics were studied using Leptospira renal isolation, serology, and molecular and histological analyses. Leptospira infection was asymptomatic using each inoculation route, and caused similar antibody production regardless of renal colonization. The observed renal colonization rates were 8 out of 8 rats, 5 out of 8 rats and 1 out of 8 rats for the intraperitoneal, mucosal and subcutaneous inoculation routes, respectively. Thus, among the natural infection routes studied, mucosal inoculation was more efficient for renal colonization associated with urinary excretion than the subcutaneous route and induced a slower-progressing infection than the intraperitoneal route. These results can facilitate understanding of the infection modalities in rats, unlike the epidemiological studies conducted in wild rats. Future studies of other natural inoculation routes in rat models will increase our knowledge of rat-rat disease transmission and allow the investigation of infection kinetics. PMID:27031867

  7. Mechanism of potassium depletion during chronic metabolic acidosis in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scandling, J.D.; Ornt, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    Pair-fed rats on a normal K diet were given either 1.5% NH 4 Cl or water for 4 days. The acid-fed animals developed metabolic acidosis, negative K balance, and K depletion. Urinary Na excretion and urinary flow were not different between the groups beyond the first day. After the 4 days, isolated kidneys from animals in each of these groups were perfused at normal pH and bicarbonate concentrations. Urinary K excretion was similar between the groups despite the potassium depletion in the acid-fed animals. In contrast, isolated kidneys from animals with comparable K depletion induced by dietary K restriction readily conserved K. Sodium excretion and urinary flow were similar among the three groups of isolated kidneys. Plasma aldosterone concentrations were greater in the acid-fed rats after the 4 days of NH 4 Cl ingestion than in the control animals. Adrenalectomized rats were treated with either normal (4 μg/day) or high (22 μg/day) aldosterone replacement while ingesting NH 4 Cl for 4 days. Only in the presence of high aldosterone replacement did the acid-fed adrenalectomized animals develop K depletion. The authors conclude that chronic metabolic acidosis stimulates aldosterone secretion, and that aldosterone maintains the inappropriately high urinary potassium excretion and K depletion seen in this acid-base disorder

  8. Management of urinary tract infections in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgman, D E

    1994-06-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most frequent complications of pregnancy. When the lower UTIs of asymptomatic bacteriuria and cystitis are not eradicated, the subsequent risk of the development of pyelonephritis is increased. The associated decreased maternal morbidity and fetal prematurity are the goals of a screening and treatment program for pregnant women. This clinical article presents information on the etiology, incidence, diagnosis, and management of asymptomatic bacteriuria and cystitis. Nursing implications regarding teaching are included.

  9. Chlamydia and Male Lower Urinary Tract Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young-Suk; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Of the chlamydia species that can cause infections in humans, C. trachomatis is responsible for lower urinary tract diseases in men and women. C. trachomatis infections are prevalent worldwide, but current research is focused on females, with the burden of disease and infertility sequelae considered to be a predominantly female problem. However, a role for this pathogen in the development of male urethritis, epididymitis, and orchitis is widely accepted. Also, it can cause complications such ...

  10. Diagnosis of pediatric urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Daw Tsai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is the second common infection in children. The diagnosis of UTI in infants and children can be difficult. Good history taking and physical examination are corner stones of good care of UTI. In addition, this article reviewed current evident on the methods of urine specimen collection and various diagnostic criteria to reach the diagnosis of UTI. Asian Guideline for UTI in children is highlighted to increase consensus of the diagnosis of UTI.

  11. Diagnosis of pediatric urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Jeng-Daw Tsai; Chun-Chen Lin; Stephan S. Yang

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the second common infection in children. The diagnosis of UTI in infants and children can be difficult. Good history taking and physical examination are corner stones of good care of UTI. In addition, this article reviewed current evident on the methods of urine specimen collection and various diagnostic criteria to reach the diagnosis of UTI. Asian Guideline for UTI in children is highlighted to increase consensus of the diagnosis of UTI.

  12. Urinary porphyrin excretion in hepatitis C infection

    OpenAIRE

    Vogeser, Michael; Jacob, Karl; Zachoval, Reinhart

    1999-01-01

    A high prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in porphyria cutanea tarda in some populations suggests a close link between viral hepatitis and alteration of porphyrin metabolism. Moreover, there is evidence of a role of porphyrinopathies in hepatocarcinogenesis. The aim of our study was to obtain data on the prevalence and patterns of heme metabolism alterations in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Urinary porphyrin excretion was prospectively studied in 100 consecutive ou...

  13. Managing lower urinary tract symptoms in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Kenneth R; Aning, Jonathan J

    2016-04-01

    Male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common and increase in prevalence with age. Up to 90% of men aged 50 to 80 may suffer from troublesome LUTS. Men may attend expressing direct concern about micturition, describing one or more LUTS and the related impact on their quality of life. Frequently men may present for other medical or urological reasons such as concern regarding their risk of having prostate cancer or erectile dysfunction but on taking a history bothersome LUTS are identified. Men may present late in the community with urinary retention: the inability to pass urine. A thorough urological history is essential to inform management. It is important to determine whether men have storage or voiding LUTS or both. All patients must have a systematic comprehensive examination including genitalia and a digital rectal examination. Investigations performed in primary care should be guided by the history and examination findings, taking into account the impact of the LUTS on the individual's quality of life. Current NICE guidelines recommend the following to be performed at initial assessment: frequency volume chart (FVC); urine dipstick to detect blood, glucose, protein, leucocytes and nitrites; and prostate specific antigen. Men should be referred for urological review if they have: bothersome LUTS which have not responded to conservative management or medical therapy; LUTS in association with recurrent or persistent UTIs; urinary retention; renal impairment suspected to be secondary to lower urinary tract dysfunction; or suspected urological malignancy. All patients not meeting criteria for immediate referral to urology can be managed initially in primary care. Based on history, examination and investigation findings an individualised management plan should be formulated. Basic lifestyle advice should be given regarding reduction or avoidance of caffeinated products and alcohol. The FVC should guide advice regarding fluid intake management and all

  14. [Urinary incontinence 6 months after childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Viñaspre Hernández, Regina; Rubio Aranda, Encarnación; Tomás Aznar, Concepción

    2013-08-17

    Urinary incontinence initiated before and right after delivery and persisting 3 months after delivery tends to become chronic. We intended to estimate the persistence of urinary incontinence 6 months postpartum and to analyse the different factors associated with it. Follow-up study 6 months after delivery of women presenting urinary incontinence symptoms in gestation or in the first 2 months of postpartum. The dependent variable was the persistence and the independent variables were grouped in obstetric and non-obstetric. Odds ratio (OR) were calculated with their confidence interval at 95% (IC 95%) in the bivariate analysis. The variables that showed an important risk of persistence of incontinence were used to perform a multivariate model of logistic regression. The persistence of incontinence 6 months after delivery was 21.4% (CI 95% 16-26.7). The risk of persistence increased with the Kristeller maneuver (OR 7.89, CI 95% 3.04-20.49), not weight recovery (OR 3.64, CI 95% 1.10-12.02), not practising pelvic floor muscle exercises in postpartum (OR 9.36, CI 95% 2.71-32.33), appearance of incontinence after delivery (OR 6.66, CI 95% 2.37-18.68) and the weight of the newborn>3.5 kg (OR 6.76, CI 95% 2.54-18.03), all of them explaining 58% of the variability of persistence. 21.4% of women with urinary incontinence caused by pregnancy/delivery will continue to have it 6 months postpartum. An important part of this persistence is associated with some factors easy to modify. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Lígia da Silva Leroy; Adélia Lúcio; Maria Helena Baena de Moraes Lopes

    2016-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence (UI) and its characteristics. METHOD: This was a case-control study with 344 puerperal women (77 cases and 267 controls) with up to 90 days postpartum. In a single session, participants were given a questionnaire with sociodemographic and clinical data and two others that assessed urine leakage, leakage situations, and type of UI. RESULTS: Stress UI was present in 45.5% of the women, incidents of urine...

  16. Primary posterior perineal herniation of urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurumboor Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary perineal hernia is a rare clinical condition wherein herniation of viscera occurs through pelvic diaphragm. They are usually mistaken for sciatic hernia, rectal prolapse or other diseases in the perineum. Correct identification of the type of hernia by imaging is crucial for planning treatment. We present a case of primary posterior herniation of urinary bladder and rectal wall through levator ani repaired laparoscopically using a mesh repair.

  17. Leishmania (infantum) chagasi in canine urinary sediment

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, Ivete Lopes de; Batista, Joilson Ferreira; Alves, Leucio Camara

    2015-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is difficult to diagnosis, mainly due to the presence of asymptomatic animals, the diversity of clinical symptoms and the difficulty in obtaining diagnostic evidence of high sensitivity and specificity. The purpose of this study was to diagnose CVL in urinary sediment of 70 dogs of different breeds, sexes and ages from the veterinary hospital of the Federal University of Piauí and Zoonosis Control Center of Teresina, Brazil. The serological tests were TR DP...

  18. Giant Leiomyosarcoma of the Urinary Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, José G A; Klojda, Carlos A B; Araújo, Claudio P De; Pires, Lucas A S; Babinski, Marcio A

    2016-05-01

    The bladder leiomyosarcoma is a rare and agressive mesenchymal tumour, and adult women of reproductive age have a higher incidence of developing the bladder leiomyosarcoma. The pathophysiology of the disease is not certain, and its main symptoms are hematuria, dysuria and abdominal pain. There are not a considerable amount of cases described in the literature. We report a case of a giant leiomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder in a 31-year-old woman.

  19. The surgical opportunity in urinary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo Filho, J.S. de.

    1983-01-01

    The surgical opportunity in urinary tuberculosis was performed in two hundred and five patients at the Clinical Hospital of the University of de State of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), in the period of 1962 to 1982. Clinical, radiological and pathological findings of ten cases of pionephrosis submitted to nephrectomy, and two cases of vesical enlargement by coloncystoplasty were related. Excretory urograms constitutes the most important radiological exam in reaching a diagnosis, followed by retrograde urograms. (author)

  20. Assessment of infective urinary tract disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixt, R.; Stokland, E.

    1998-01-01

    Urinary tracts infection (UTI) is common in children, particularly in the youngest age groups. There is a risk for progressive deterioration of renal function in these children if aggravating factors such as gross reflux and/or outflow obstruction of the urinary tract are present. In this review the pros and cons of available scintigrafic and radiological imaging techniques for the work-up of these children are presented. Ultrasound can be used in the acute phase to exclude obstruction but can not reliably show transient or permanent parenchymal lesions. The presence of reflux can be established with X-ray or direct nuclide cystography. The X-ray technique gives good morphological information and has a grading system with prognostic relevance. Both techniques are invasive and great care must be taken to keep the radiation burden down with the X-ray technique. Indirect nuclide cystography following a renographic study is non-invasive but has a lower sensitivity than direct techniques. More experience is needed with the indirect technique to evaluate the consequences of its apparently low sensitivity. Urography has a limited place in the acute work-up of urinary tract infection but can be used to look for renal scarring 1-2 years after an acute pyelonephritis. The 99m Tc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan can be used during the acute UTI to show pyelonephritic lesions with good accuracy and/or during the follow-up after six months to show permanent lesions. The acute DMSA scan can be omitted