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Sample records for rat thyroparathyroid complex

  1. [Acid-base homeostasis and the thyro-parathyroid glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuisinier-Gleizes, P; George, A; Thomasset, M; Mathieu, H

    1975-05-12

    Chronic metabolic acidosis entails hyperparathyroidism and osteopathy. In order to elucidate the role of the thyroparathyroids in this bone lesion production the effects of acidic diet for 7 weeks were studied in parathyroidectomized (PTX), thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) and shamoperated (Sh-O) growing rats. In all animals urinary excretion of calcium, phosphate, ammonium and titrable acidity was similarly increased. The rise in hydroxyproline excretion and urinary 85-sr (that was injected previous to acidic feeding) was more marked in PTX and TPTX rats. Moreover, in these animals the serum calcium level was increased, the blood pH was decreased. According to these data, an acidic diet intake that is not sufficient to elicit a fall in blood pH of normal young rats can induce severe acidosis in chronically parathyroidectomized or thyroparathyroidectomized animals; moreover the bone resorption appears more marked. It is concluded that parathyroids are involved in the extra-cellular fluid defense mechanism against acidosis by a no bone resorptive mechanism. We hypothesize that the parathyroids permit the necessary and adequate supply of bicarbonates by the bone to maintain blood pH homeostasis.

  2. Structure and composition of synaptonemal complexes, isolated from rat spermatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyting, C.; Dietrich, A. J.; Redeker, E. J.; Vink, A. C.

    1985-01-01

    Synaptonemal complexes (SCs) (structures involved in chromosome pairing during meiosis) were isolated and purified from rat spermatocytes for the purpose of biochemical and morphological analysis. Spermatocytes were lysed in a medium, containing Triton X-100, EDTA and DTT; the resulting swollen

  3. Bioavailability of a potato chromium complex to the laboratory rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, H.K.

    1985-01-01

    Research objectives were to study the effect of food source, preparation method and chemical form on bioavailability of chromium. Chromium concentration in potatoes was determined and tubers labeled either intrinsically or extrinsically with radioactive chromate. A labeled chromium complexes was isolated from preparations of raw, baked or fried potatoes and chromatographed on gel permeation media. Availability of the potato chromium complex to the rat was examined in three feeding studies. Animals were dosed with radioactive extrinsically or intrinsically labeled potato extract or with chromate. A labeled chromium complex was isolated from gastrointestinal contents of rats and chromatographed. Potato pulp and peel contained 1.63 and 2.70 μg Cr/g tissue respectively. True and apparent absorption from extrinsically labeled feedings were 33.4 +/- 4.7 and 29.8 +/- 11.2% respectively, and no differences existed between absorption from raw and cooked potatoes. Absorption from the extrinsic labeled potatoes differed significantly from absorption of inorganic chromatium. Apparent absorption of raw (11.1 +/- 7.9%) and cooked (-0.7 +/- 2.8%) intrinsically labeled feedings differed significantly. Absorption of inorganic chromium was 17.8% (true) and 11.5% (apparent). Examination of the chromium complex isolated from gastrointestinal tract contents showed enlargement of the complex in the stomach after consumption

  4. The major histocompatibility complex genes impact pain response in DA and DA.1U rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuan; Yao, Fan-Rong; Cao, Dong-Yuan; Li, Li; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Xie, Wen; Zhao, Yan

    2015-08-01

    Our recent studies have shown that the difference in basal pain sensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimulation between Dark-Agouti (DA) rats and a novel congenic DA.1U rats is major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes dependent. In the present study, we further used DA and DA.1U rats to investigate the role of MHC genes in formalin-induced pain model by behavioral, electrophysiological and immunohistochemical methods. Behavioral results showed biphasic nociceptive behaviors increased significantly following the intraplantar injection of formalin in the hindpaw of DA and DA.1U rats. The main nociceptive behaviors were lifting and licking, especially in DA rats (PDA rats were significantly higher than those in DA.1U rats in both phases of the formalin test (PDA rats was significantly higher than that of DA.1U rats (PDA was greater than that in DA.1U rats (PDA rats was significantly higher than that in DA.1U rats in the respective experimental group (PDA and DA.1U rats exhibited nociceptive responses in formalin-induced pain model and DA rats were more sensitive to noxious chemical stimulus than DA.1U rats, indicating that MHC genes might contribute to the difference in pain sensitivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Dinitrosyl iron complexes with glutathione recover rats with experimental endometriosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamian, L V; Burgova, E N; Tkachev, N A; Mikoian, V D; Stepanian, A A; Sonova, M M; Vanin, A F

    2013-01-01

    The effect of binuclear dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNIC) with glutathione on endometrioid tumors in rats with experimental endometriosis has been studied. The latter was induced by an autotransplantation model, where two fragments of endometrium with myometrium (2 x 2 mm) from the left uterine horn was grafted to the inner surface of the anterior abdominal wall. The test animals received intraperitoneal injections of 0.5 ml DNIC-glutathione at the dose of 12.5 micromole per kg daily for 12 days 28 days after operation. The injections resulted in more than a 2-fold decrease in the total volume of both large tumors formed from grafts and small additive tumors formed nearby grafts. The disappearance of the additive tumors was also observed in test animals. The EPR signal with g(av) = 2.03 characteristic of protein bound DNIC with thiol-containing ligands was recorded in livers, graft and additive tumors of test and control animals pointing out intensive generation of nitric oxide in rats with experimental endometriosis. Ribonucleotide reductase activation discovered by doublet the EPR signal at g = 2.0 with 2.3 mT hyperfine structure splitting was found in small tumors. The cytotoxic effect of DNIC-glutathione on endometrioid tumors was suggested to be due to DNIC degradation nearby the tumors induced by iron chelating compounds released from the tumors. The degradation resulted in release of a high amount of nitric oxide molecules and nitrosonium ions from DNICs affecting the tumors by way of the cytotoxic effect.

  6. Dietary arginine silicate inositol complex inhibits periodontal tissue loss in rats with ligature-induced periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundar, Serkan; Eltas, Abubekir; Hakki, Sema S; Malkoc, Sıddık; Uslu, M Ozay; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Komorowski, James; Ozercan, I Hanifi; Akdemir, Fatih; Sahin, Kazim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to induce experimental periodontitis in rats previously fed diets containing arginine silicate inositol (ASI) complex and examine the biochemical, immunological, and radiological effects. Fifty two 8-week-old female Sprague Dawley rats were equally divided into four groups. The control group included those fed a standard rat diet with no operation performed during the experiment. The periodontitis, ASI I, and ASI II groups were subjected to experimental periodontitis induction for 11 days after being fed a standard rat diet alone, a diet containing 1.81 g/kg ASI complex, or a diet containing 3.62 g/kg ASI complex, respectively, for 8 weeks. Throughout the 11-day duration of periodontitis induction, all rats were fed standard feed. The rats were euthanized on the eleventh day, and their tissue and blood samples were collected. In the periodontitis group, elevated tissue destruction parameters and reduced tissue formation parameters were found, as compared to the ASI groups. Levels of enzymes, cytokines, and mediators associated with periodontal tissue destruction were lower in rats fed a diet containing ASI complex after experimental periodontitis. These results indicate that ASI complex could be an alternative agent for host modulation.

  7. Restriction fragment polymorphisms in the major histocompatibility complex of diabetic BB rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastern, W.; Dyrberg, T.; Scholler, J.

    1984-01-01

    DNA isolated from diabetic BB (BB/Hagedorn) rats was examined for restriction fragment length differences within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) as compared with nondiabetic (W-subline) BB rats. Polymorphisms were detected using a mouse class I MHC gene as probe. Specifically, a 2-kb Bam......HI fragment was present in all the nondiabetic rats examined, but absent in the diabetic rats. Similar polymorphisms were observed with various other restriction enzymes, particularly XbaI, HindII, and SacI. There were no polymorphisms detected using either a human DR-alpha (class II antigen heavy chain...

  8. Spontaneous Object Recognition Memory in Aged Rats: Complexity versus Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamiz, Fernando; Gallo, Milagros

    2012-01-01

    Previous work on the effect of aging on spontaneous object recognition (SOR) memory tasks in rats has yielded controversial results. Although the results at long-retention intervals are consistent, conflicting results have been reported at shorter delays. We have assessed the potential relevance of the type of object used in the performance of…

  9. Step training in a rat model for complex aneurysmal vascular microsurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Dan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Microsurgery training is a key step for the young neurosurgeons. Both in vascular and peripheral nerve pathology, microsurgical techniques are useful tools for the proper treatment. Many training models have been described, including ex vivo (chicken wings and in vivo (rat, rabbit ones. Complex microsurgery training include termino-terminal vessel anastomosis and nerve repair. The aim of this study was to describe a reproducible complex microsurgery training model in rats. Materials and methods: The experimental animals were Brown Norway male rats between 10-16 weeks (average 13 and weighing between 250-400g (average 320g. We performed n=10 rat hind limb replantations. The surgical steps and preoperative management are carefully described. We evaluated the vascular patency by clinical assessment-color, temperature, capillary refill. The rats were daily inspected for any signs of infections. The nerve regeneration was assessed by foot print method. Results: There were no case of vascular compromise or autophagia. All rats had long term survival (>90 days. The nerve regeneration was clinically completed at 6 months postoperative. The mean operative time was 183 minutes, and ischemia time was 25 minutes.

  10. Acute lung injury in rat caused by immunoglobulin A immune complexes.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, K J; Wilson, B S; Till, G O; Ward, P A

    1984-01-01

    Mouse IgG and IgA, with reactivity to dinitrophenol conjugated to carrier protein, have been isolated from myeloma proteins by means of a variety of affinity techniques. The IgA was predominantly in the dimeric form. The in vitro and in vivo biological activities of IgA-containing immune complexes were assessed in the rat. IgA-containing immune complexes were demonstrated, in a dose-dependent manner in vitro, to activate neutrophils and to generate O.-2. In addition, these immune complexes sh...

  11. Changing Interdigestive Migrating Motor Complex in Rats under Acute Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal motility disorder is a major clinical manifestation of acute liver injury, and interdigestive migrating motor complex (MMC is an important indicator. We investigated the changes and characteristics of MMC in rats with acute liver injury. Acute liver injury was created by D-galactosamine, and we recorded the interdigestive MMC using a multichannel physiological recorder and compared the indexes of interdigestive MMC. Compared with normal controls, antral MMC Phase I duration was significantly prolonged and MMC Phase III duration was significantly shortened in the rats with acute liver injury. The duodenal MMC cycle and MMC Phases I and IV duration were significantly prolonged and MMC Phase III duration was significantly shortened in the rats with acute liver injury. The jejunal MMC cycle and MMC Phases I and IV duration were significantly prolonged and MMC Phase III duration was significantly shortened in the rats with acute liver injury compared with normal controls. Compared with the normal controls, rats with acute liver injury had a significantly prolonged interdigestive MMC cycle, related mainly to longer MMC Phases I and IV, shortened MMC Phase III, and MMC Phase II characterized by increased migrating clustered contractions, which were probably major contributors to the gastrointestinal motility disorders.

  12. The benzodiazepine/GABA receptor complex during severe ethanol intoxication and withdrawal in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmingsen, R.; Braestrup, C.; Nielsen, M.; Barry, D.I.

    1982-01-01

    The benzodiazepine/GABA (gammaaminobutyric acid) receptor complex was investigated during severe ethanol intoxication and withdrawal in the rat. The intragastric intubation technique was used to establish physical ethanol dependence in the animals. Cerebral cortex from male Wistar rats was studied 1) after 31/2 days of severe ethanol intoxication, 2) during the ethanol withdrawal reaction and 3) in a control group. The effect of GABA-ergic activation by muscimol and THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazole(5,4-c)pyridin-3-01) on 3 H-diazepam binding was unchanged during ethanol intoxication and withdrawal, as was the affinity constant (Ksub(D)) and the maximal number of binding sites (Bsub(max)) for 3 H-flunitrazepam. In conclusion, the benzodiazepine/GABA receptor complex is unlikely to play any causual part in physical ethanol dependence. (author)

  13. Cytochrome P-450 complex formation in rat liver by the antibiotic tiamulin.

    OpenAIRE

    Witkamp, R F; Nijmeijer, S M; van Miert, A S

    1996-01-01

    Tiamulin is a semisynthetic diterpene antibiotic frequently used in farm animals. The drug has been shown to produce clinically important--often lethal--interactions with other compounds. It has been suggested that this is caused by a selective inhibition of oxidative drug metabolism via the formation of a cytochrome P-450 metabolic intermediate complex. In the present study, rats were treated orally for 6 days with tiamulin at two different doses: 40 and 226 mg/kg of body weight. For compari...

  14. The activity state of the branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complex in rat tissues.

    OpenAIRE

    Wagenmakers, A J; Schepens, J T; Veldhuizen, J A; Veerkamp, J H

    1984-01-01

    An assay is described to define the proportion of the branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complex that is present in the active state in rat tissues. Activities are measured in homogenates in two ways: actual activities, present in tissues, by blocking both the kinase and phosphatase of the enzyme complex during homogenization, preincubation, and incubation with 1-14C-labelled branched-chain 2-oxo acid, and total activities by blocking only the kinase during the 5 min preincubation (neces...

  15. Multiple geographic origins of commensalism and complex dispersal history of Black Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, Ken P; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Chinen, Alejandro A; Chesser, R Terry; Ten Have, José; Donnellan, Stephen C; Austin, Jeremy; Frost, Angela; Gonzalez, Jean Paul; Herbreteau, Vincent; Catzeflis, Francois; Soubrier, Julien; Fang, Yin-Ping; Robins, Judith; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Bastos, Amanda D S; Maryanto, Ibnu; Sinaga, Martua H; Denys, Christiane; Van Den Bussche, Ronald A; Conroy, Chris; Rowe, Kevin; Cooper, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The Black Rat (Rattus rattus) spread out of Asia to become one of the world's worst agricultural and urban pests, and a reservoir or vector of numerous zoonotic diseases, including the devastating plague. Despite the global scale and inestimable cost of their impacts on both human livelihoods and natural ecosystems, little is known of the global genetic diversity of Black Rats, the timing and directions of their historical dispersals, and the risks associated with contemporary movements. We surveyed mitochondrial DNA of Black Rats collected across their global range as a first step towards obtaining an historical genetic perspective on this socioeconomically important group of rodents. We found a strong phylogeographic pattern with well-differentiated lineages of Black Rats native to South Asia, the Himalayan region, southern Indochina, and northern Indochina to East Asia, and a diversification that probably commenced in the early Middle Pleistocene. We also identified two other currently recognised species of Rattus as potential derivatives of a paraphyletic R. rattus. Three of the four phylogenetic lineage units within R. rattus show clear genetic signatures of major population expansion in prehistoric times, and the distribution of particular haplogroups mirrors archaeologically and historically documented patterns of human dispersal and trade. Commensalism clearly arose multiple times in R. rattus and in widely separated geographic regions, and this may account for apparent regionalism in their associated pathogens. Our findings represent an important step towards deeper understanding the complex and influential relationship that has developed between Black Rats and humans, and invite a thorough re-examination of host-pathogen associations among Black Rats.

  16. Chronic hypoxia suppresses the CO2 response of solitary complex (SC) neurons from rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Nicole L; Wilkinson, Katherine A; Powell, Frank L; Dean, Jay B; Putnam, Robert W

    2009-09-30

    We studied the effect of chronic hypobaric hypoxia (CHx; 10-11% O(2)) on the response to hypercapnia (15% CO(2)) of individual solitary complex (SC) neurons from adult rats. We simultaneously measured the intracellular pH and firing rate responses to hypercapnia of SC neurons in superfused medullary slices from control and CHx-adapted adult rats using the blind whole cell patch clamp technique and fluorescence imaging microscopy. We found that CHx caused the percentage of SC neurons inhibited by hypercapnia to significantly increase from about 10% up to about 30%, but did not significantly alter the percentage of SC neurons activated by hypercapnia (50% in control vs. 35% in CHx). Further, the magnitudes of the responses of SC neurons from control rats (chemosensitivity index for activated neurons of 166+/-11% and for inhibited neurons of 45+/-15%) were the same in SC neurons from CHx-adapted rats. This plasticity induced in chemosensitive SC neurons by CHx appears to involve intrinsic changes in neuronal properties since they were the same in synaptic blockade medium.

  17. Characterization of solubilized human and rat brain US -endorphin-receptor complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmeste, D.M.; Li, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    Opioid receptors have been solubilized from human striatal and rat whole-brain membranes by use of 3-((3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS). Tritiated human US -endorphin (TH-US /sub h/-EP) binding revealed high-affinity competition by morphine, naloxone, and various US -EP analogues. Lack of high-affinity competition by (+/-)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-(2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)cyclohexyl)benzeneacetamide methanesulfonate (U50-488, Upjohn) indicated that k sites were not labeled by TH-US -/sub h/-EP under these conditions. Affinities were similar in both soluble and membrane preparations except for (Met)enkephalin, which appears to be rapidly degraded by the solubilized extract. Size differences between human and rat solubilized TH-US /sub h/-EP-receptor complexes were revealed by exclusion chromatography.

  18. Preparation and characterization of simvastatin/DMβCD complex and its pharmacokinetics in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Fugen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Simvastatin is poorly bioavailable because it is practically insoluble in water and shows dissolution rate-limited absorption. Solubilizing effects of several β-cyclodextrin (βCD derivatives such as HPβCD, SBEβCD and DMβCD on simvastatin in aqueous solution were investigated using the phase solubility technique. The solubility diagram of simvastatin with each βCD derivative could be classified as AL-type, indicating soluble complex formation of 1:1 stoichiometry. Among the above βCD derivatives DMβCD was found to be the ideal complexing agent for improving drug solubility. The simvastatin complex with DMβCD was prepared using the co-evaporation method and was then characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and in vitro dissolution. Dissolution and pharmacokinetic studies indicated that the simvastatin/DMβCD complex exhibited an increased dissolution rate, rapid absorption, and improved bioavailability in rats compared to free drug. Maximum plasma concentration (cmax and the time to reach it (tmax were 21.86 μg mL−1 and 1.4 h for the drug complex, 8.25 μg mL−1 and 3.0 h for free drug, respectively. Main pharmacokinetic parameters such as tmax, cmax were significantly different (p < 0.01 between the simvastatin complex and free drug. Bioavailability of the simvastatin complex relative to free drug was up to 167.0 %.

  19. Effect of Cyclodextrin Complexation of Curcumin on its Solubility and Antiangiogenic and Anti-inflammatory Activity in Rat Colitis Model

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Vivek R.; Suresh, Sarasija; Devi, Kshama; Yadav, Seema

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to prepare and evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of cyclodextrin (CD) complex of curcumin for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in colitis-induced rat model. Inclusion complexes of curcumin were prepared by common solvent and kneading methods. These complexes were further evaluated for increase in solubility of poorly soluble curcumin. The inclusion complexes were characterized for enhancement in solubility, in vitro dissolution, surface morp...

  20. Cytochrome P-450 complex formation in rat liver by the antibiotic tiamulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkamp, R F; Nijmeijer, S M; van Miert, A S

    1996-01-01

    Tiamulin is a semisynthetic diterpene antibiotic frequently used in farm animals. The drug has been shown to produce clinically important--often lethal--interactions with other compounds. It has been suggested that this is caused by a selective inhibition of oxidative drug metabolism via the formation of a cytochrome P-450 metabolic intermediate complex. In the present study, rats were treated orally for 6 days with tiamulin at two different doses: 40 and 226 mg/kg of body weight. For comparison, another group received 300 mg of triacetyloleandomycin (TAO) per kg, which is equivalent to the 226-mg/kg tiamulin group. Subsequently, microsomal P-450 contents, P-450 enzyme activities, metabolic intermediate complex spectra, and P-450 apoprotein concentrations were assessed. In addition, effects on individual microsomal P-450 activities were studied in control microsomes at different tiamulin and substrate concentrations. In the rats treated with tiamulin, a dose-dependent complex formation as evidenced by its absorption spectrum and an increase in cytochrome P-4503A1/2 contents as assessed by Western blotting (immunoblotting) were found. The effects were comparable to those of TAO. Tiamulin induced microsomal P-450 content, testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylation rate, erythromycin N-demethylation rate, and the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation activity. Other activities were not affected or decreased. When tiamulin was added to microsomes of control rats, the testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylation rate and the erythromycin N-demethylation were strongly inhibited. It is concluded that tiamulin is a potent and selective inducer-inhibitor of cytochrome P-450. Though not belonging to the macrolides, the compound produces an effect on P-450 similar to those of TAO and related compounds.

  1. [The dinitrosyl-iron complexes with cysteine block the development of experimental endometriosis in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgova, E N; Tkachev, N A; Vanin, A F

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that the administration of 0,5 ml of 5 mM aqueous solution of dinitrosyl-iron complexes (DNIC) with cysteine alleviated the development of experimental endometriosis in rats induced by surgical way: the size of endometriomes decreased 1.85 times when the DNIC was added every day during 10 days. The effect was suggested to be due to cytotoxic action of NO molecules and nitrosonium ions (NO+) released from rapidly decomposed DNIC in animal organism on endometriome tissues.

  2. Sex Differences and Laterality in Astrocyte Number and Complexity in the Adult Rat Medial Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    JOHNSON, RYAN T.; BREEDLOVE, S. MARC; JORDAN, CYNTHIA L.

    2008-01-01

    The posterodorsal portion of the medial amygdala (MePD) is sexually dimorphic in several rodent species. In several other brain nuclei, astrocytes change morphology in response to steroid hormones. We visualized MePD astrocytes using glial-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunocytochemistry. We compared the number and process complexity of MePD astrocytes in adult wildtype male and female rats and testicular feminized mutant (TFM) male rats that lack functional androgen receptors (ARs) to determine whether MePD astrocytes are sexually differentiated and whether ARs have a role. Unbiased stereological methods revealed laterality and sex differences in MePD astrocyte number and complexity. The right MePD contained more astrocytes than the left in all three genotypes, and the number of astrocytes was also sexually differentiated in the right MePD, with males having more astrocytes than females. In contrast, the left MePD contained more complex astrocytes than did the right MePD in all three genotypes, and males had more complex astrocytes than females in this hemisphere. TFM males were comparable to wildtype females, having fewer astrocytes on the right and simpler astrocytes on the left than do wildtype males. Taken together, these results demonstrate that astrocytes are sexually dimorphic in the adult MePD and that the nature of the sex difference is hemisphere-dependent: a sex difference in astrocyte number in the right MePD and a sex difference in astrocyte complexity in the left MePD. Moreover, functional ARs appear to be critical in establishing these sex differences in MePD astrocyte morphology. PMID:18853427

  3. The activity state of the branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complex in rat tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenmakers, A J; Schepens, J T; Veldhuizen, J A; Veerkamp, J H

    1984-05-15

    An assay is described to define the proportion of the branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complex that is present in the active state in rat tissues. Activities are measured in homogenates in two ways: actual activities, present in tissues, by blocking both the kinase and phosphatase of the enzyme complex during homogenization, preincubation, and incubation with 1-14C-labelled branched-chain 2-oxo acid, and total activities by blocking only the kinase during the 5 min preincubation (necessary for activation). The kinase is blocked by 5 mM-ADP and absence of Mg2+ and the phosphatase by the simultaneous presence of 50 mM-NaF. About 6% of the enzyme is active in skeletal muscle of fed rats, 7% in heart, 20% in diaphragm, 47% in kidney, 60% in brain and 98% in liver. An entirely different assay, which measures activities in crude tissue extracts before and after treatment with a broad-specificity protein phosphatase, gave similar results for heart, liver and kidney. Advantages of our assay with homogenates are the presence of intact mitochondria, the simplicity, the short duration and the high sensitivity. The actual activities measured indicate that the degradation of branched-chain 2-oxo acids predominantly occurs in liver and kidney and is limited in skeletal muscle in the fed state.

  4. Evaluation of a Non-aqueous Ibuprofen-Phospholipid Complex Formulation in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunhua; Xu, Songlin; Liu, Zhidong; Ding, Lingling; Zhao, Xiaobin; Lee, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a non-aqueous ibuprofen-phospholipid complex was developed to reduce the gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity of ibuprofen. A non-aqueous ibuprofen-phospholipid complex (IBU-PC) was prepared by mixing phosal-35SB and ibuprofen. In vitro release behavior was studied using a dissolution apparatus. Irritation to gastrointestinal (GI) tract and pharmacokinetics of IBU-PC were studied in rats. Rapid release of drug occurred with approximately 85% of ibuprofen released from the composition within the first 30 min. The GI injury in IBU-PC-treated rats was minimal compared to those of Advil Liqui-gels-treated group. There was no significant difference between IBU-PC and Motrin-treated groups. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0~24) of IBU-PC and Motrin were 366±115 and 391±105 μg/h/ml, respectively. The relative bioavailability of IBU-PC was 94.2%. IBU-PC can decrease GI adverse reaction induced by ibuprofen. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  5. Substance P Differentially Modulates Firing Rate of Solitary Complex (SC) Neurons from Control and Chronic Hypoxia-Adapted Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Nicole L.; Powell, Frank L.; Dean, Jay B.; Putnam, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    NK1 receptors, which bind substance P, are present in the majority of brainstem regions that contain CO2/H+-sensitive neurons that play a role in central chemosensitivity. However, the effect of substance P on the chemosensitive response of neurons from these regions has not been studied. Hypoxia increases substance P release from peripheral afferents that terminate in the caudal nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Here we studied the effect of substance P on the chemosensitive responses of solitary complex (SC: NTS and dorsal motor nucleus) neurons from control and chronic hypoxia-adapted (CHx) adult rats. We simultaneously measured intracellular pH and electrical responses to hypercapnic acidosis in SC neurons from control and CHx adult rats using the blind whole cell patch clamp technique and fluorescence imaging microscopy. Substance P significantly increased the basal firing rate in SC neurons from control and CHx rats, although the increase was smaller in CHx rats. However, substance P did not affect the chemosensitive response of SC neurons from either group of rats. In conclusion, we found that substance P plays a role in modulating the basal firing rate of SC neurons but the magnitude of the effect is smaller for SC neurons from CHx adult rats, implying that NK1 receptors may be down regulated in CHx adult rats. Substance P does not appear to play a role in modulating the firing rate response to hypercapnic acidosis of SC neurons from either control or CHx adult rats. PMID:24516602

  6. Substance P differentially modulates firing rate of solitary complex (SC neurons from control and chronic hypoxia-adapted adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Nichols

    Full Text Available NK1 receptors, which bind substance P, are present in the majority of brainstem regions that contain CO2/H(+-sensitive neurons that play a role in central chemosensitivity. However, the effect of substance P on the chemosensitive response of neurons from these regions has not been studied. Hypoxia increases substance P release from peripheral afferents that terminate in the caudal nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS. Here we studied the effect of substance P on the chemosensitive responses of solitary complex (SC: NTS and dorsal motor nucleus neurons from control and chronic hypoxia-adapted (CHx adult rats. We simultaneously measured intracellular pH and electrical responses to hypercapnic acidosis in SC neurons from control and CHx adult rats using the blind whole cell patch clamp technique and fluorescence imaging microscopy. Substance P significantly increased the basal firing rate in SC neurons from control and CHx rats, although the increase was smaller in CHx rats. However, substance P did not affect the chemosensitive response of SC neurons from either group of rats. In conclusion, we found that substance P plays a role in modulating the basal firing rate of SC neurons but the magnitude of the effect is smaller for SC neurons from CHx adult rats, implying that NK1 receptors may be down regulated in CHx adult rats. Substance P does not appear to play a role in modulating the firing rate response to hypercapnic acidosis of SC neurons from either control or CHx adult rats.

  7. cAMP prevents TNF-induced apoptosis through inhibiting DISC complex formation in rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, Rajesh; Xiang, Wenpei; Wang, Yinna; Zhang, Xiaoying; Billiar, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► cAMP blocks cell death induced by TNF and actinomycin D in cultured hepatocytes. ► cAMP blocks NF-κB activation induced by TNF and actinomycin D. ► cAMP blocks DISC formation following TNF and actinomycin D exposure. ► cAMP blocks TNF signaling at a proximal step. -- Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF) is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine that plays a role in immunity and the control of cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. The pleiotropic nature of TNF is due to the formation of different signaling complexes upon the binding of TNF to its receptor, TNF receptor type 1 (TNFR1). TNF induces apoptosis in various mammalian cells when the cells are co-treated with a transcription inhibitor like actinomycin D (ActD). When TNFR1 is activated, it recruits an adaptor protein, TNF receptor-associated protein with death domain (TRADD), through its cytoplasmic death effector domain (DED). TRADD, in turn, recruits other signaling proteins, including TNF receptor-associated protein 2 (TRAF2) and receptor-associated protein kinase (RIPK) 1, to form a complex. Subsequently, this complex combines with FADD and procaspase-8, converts into a death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) to induce apoptosis. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a second messenger that regulates various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, gene expression, and apoptosis. cAMP analogues are reported to act as anti-apoptotic agents in various cell types, including hepatocytes. We found that a cAMP analogue, dibutyryl cAMP (db-cAMP), inhibits TNF + ActD-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes. The protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor KT-5720 reverses this inhibitory effect of cAMP on apoptosis. Cytoprotection by cAMP involves down-regulation of various apoptotic signal regulators like TRADD and FADD and inhibition of caspase-8 and caspase-3 cleavage. We also found that cAMP exerts its affect at the proximal level of TNF signaling by inhibiting the formation of the DISC

  8. cAMP prevents TNF-induced apoptosis through inhibiting DISC complex formation in rat hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, Rajesh [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Xiang, Wenpei [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Family Planning Research Institute, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, People' s Republic of China (China); Wang, Yinna [Vascular Medicine Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 10051-5A BST 3, 3501 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Zhang, Xiaoying [Department of Medicine/Endocrinology Division, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 200 Lothrop St., Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Billiar, Timothy R., E-mail: billiartr@upmc.edu [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP blocks cell death induced by TNF and actinomycin D in cultured hepatocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP blocks NF-{kappa}B activation induced by TNF and actinomycin D. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP blocks DISC formation following TNF and actinomycin D exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP blocks TNF signaling at a proximal step. -- Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF) is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine that plays a role in immunity and the control of cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. The pleiotropic nature of TNF is due to the formation of different signaling complexes upon the binding of TNF to its receptor, TNF receptor type 1 (TNFR1). TNF induces apoptosis in various mammalian cells when the cells are co-treated with a transcription inhibitor like actinomycin D (ActD). When TNFR1 is activated, it recruits an adaptor protein, TNF receptor-associated protein with death domain (TRADD), through its cytoplasmic death effector domain (DED). TRADD, in turn, recruits other signaling proteins, including TNF receptor-associated protein 2 (TRAF2) and receptor-associated protein kinase (RIPK) 1, to form a complex. Subsequently, this complex combines with FADD and procaspase-8, converts into a death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) to induce apoptosis. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a second messenger that regulates various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, gene expression, and apoptosis. cAMP analogues are reported to act as anti-apoptotic agents in various cell types, including hepatocytes. We found that a cAMP analogue, dibutyryl cAMP (db-cAMP), inhibits TNF + ActD-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes. The protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor KT-5720 reverses this inhibitory effect of cAMP on apoptosis. Cytoprotection by cAMP involves down-regulation of various apoptotic signal regulators like TRADD and FADD and inhibition of caspase-8 and caspase-3 cleavage. We also found

  9. Effect of cyclodextrin complexation of curcumin on its solubility and antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory activity in rat colitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vivek R; Suresh, Sarasija; Devi, Kshama; Yadav, Seema

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to prepare and evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of cyclodextrin (CD) complex of curcumin for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in colitis-induced rat model. Inclusion complexes of curcumin were prepared by common solvent and kneading methods. These complexes were further evaluated for increase in solubility of poorly soluble curcumin. The inclusion complexes were characterized for enhancement in solubility, in vitro dissolution, surface morphology, infrared, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray studies. Solubility, phase solubility, and in vitro dissolution studies showed that curcumin has higher affinity for hydroxypropyl-beta-CD (HPbetaCD) than other CDs. HPbetaCD complex of curcumin was further investigated for its antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory activity using chick embryo and rat colitis model. HPbetaCD complex of curcumin proved to be a potent angioinhibitory compound, as demonstrated by inhibition of angiogenesis in chorioallantoic membrane assay. Curcumin- and HPbetaCD-treated rats showed a faster weight gain compared to dextran sulfate solution (DSS) controls. Whole colon length appeared to be significantly longer in HPbetaCD-treated rats than pure curcumin and DSS controls. An additional finding in the DSS-treated rats was the predominance of eosinophils in the chronic cell infiltrate. Decreased mast cell numbers in the mucosa of the colon of CD of curcumin- and pure-curcumin-treated rats was observed. This study concluded that the degree of colitis caused by administration of DSS was significantly attenuated by CD of curcumin. Being a nontoxic natural dietary product, curcumin could be useful in the therapeutic strategy for IBD patients.

  10. Evaluation of Intestinal Absorption and Bioavailability of a Bergenin-Phospholipid Complex Solid Dispersion in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haoshi; Wei, Yue; Xi, Long; Sun, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Tianhong

    2018-05-01

    Bergenin (BN) is a Biopharmaceutics Classification System class IV (BCS IV) drug with poor hydrophilicity and lipophilicity and is potentially eliminated by the efflux function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). These factors may explain its low oral bioavailability. In the present study, a BN-phospholipid complex solid dispersion (BNPC-SD) was prepared by solvent evaporation and characterized based on differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, infrared diffraction, solubility, octanol-water partition coefficient, and in vitro dissolution. To investigate how P-gp can inhibit BN absorption in vivo, the P-gp inhibitor verapamil was co-administered with BNPC-SD to Sprague Dawley rats. By in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion, the membrane permeability of BN from BNPC-SD was higher than that of BN given alone and was improved further by co-administered verapamil. A pharmacokinetics study was done in Sprague Dawley rats, with plasma BN levels estimated by high-performance liquid chromatography. C max and AUC 0 → t values for BN were significantly higher for BNPC-SD than for BN given alone and were increased further by verapamil. Thus, the relative oral bioavailability of BNPC-SD as well as BNPC-SD co-administered with verapamil was 156.33 and 202.46%, respectively, compared with the value for BN given alone. These results showed that BNPC-SD can increase the oral bioavailability of BCS IV drugs.

  11. Modulation of acetylcholine release from rat striatal slices by the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supavilai, P.; Karobath, M.

    1985-02-04

    GABA, THIP and muscimol enhance spontaneous and inhibit electrically induced release of tritium labelled compounds from rat striatal slices which have been pre-labelled with /sup 3/H-choline. Baclofen is inactive in this model. Muscimol can inhibit electrically induced release of tritiated material by approximately 75% with half maximal effects at 2 ..mu..M. The response to muscimol can be blocked by the GABA antagonists bicuculline methobromide, picrotoxin, anisatin, R 5135 and CPTBO (cyclopentylbicyclophosphate). Drugs which act on the benzodiazepine receptor (BR) require the presence of muscimol to be effective and they modulate the effects of muscimol in a bidirectional manner. Thus BR agonists enhance and inverse BR agonists attenuate the inhibitory effects of muscimol on electrically induced release. Ro15-1788, a BR antagonist, does not modulate the inhibitory effects of muscimol but antagonizes the actions of clonazepam, a BR agonist, and of DMCM, an inverse BR agonist. These results demonstrate that a GABA/benzodiazepine receptor complex can modulate acetylcholine release from rat striatal slices in vitro. 24 references, 3 figures, 5 table.

  12. Complex living conditions impair behavioral inhibition but improve attention in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rixt evan der Veen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid adaptation to changes, while maintaining a certain level of behavioral inhibition is an important feature in every day functioning. How environmental context and challenges in life can impact on the development of this quality is still unknown. In the present study, we examined the effect of a complex rearing environment during adolescence on attention and behavioral inhibition in adult male rats. We also tested whether these effects were affected by an adverse early life challenge, maternal deprivation. We found that animals that were raised in large, two floor MarlauTM cages, together with 10 conspecifics, showed improved attention, but impaired behavioral inhibition in the 5-choice serial reaction time task. The early life challenge of 24h maternal deprivation on postnatal day 3 led to a decline in bodyweight during adolescence, but did not by itself influence responses in the 5-choice task in adulthood, nor did it moderate the effects of complex housing. Our data suggest that a complex rearing environment leads to a faster adaptation to changes in the environment, but at the cost of lower behavioral inhibition.

  13. Freud's Rat Man from the perspective of an early-life variant of the Oedipus complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Marvin P

    2009-07-01

    In the spirit of Freud's invitation to other investigators to elaborate on his "Notes Upon a Case of Obsessional Neurosis" (1909), the author offers additional and differing views on the case of the Rat Man (Dr. Ernst Langer). These views have been informed by the evolution of psychoanalysis over the past 100 years, especially by the perspective provided by an early-life variant on the Oedipus complex (Osman 2000). The author postulates that an important reason for the happy conclusion of this analysis, surprising for its brevity, was that it expedited a mourning process that released a primitive bond to the patient's father, and also, in doing so, facilitated the emergence of a less encumbered and more individuated identity. While accomplishing this, constricting bonds to his late sister Katherine and to his mother were loosened as well.

  14. Differential Gene Expression Patterns in Developing Sexually Dimorphic Rat Brain Regions Exposed to Antiandrogenic, Estrogenic, or Complex Endocrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtensteiger, Walter; Bassetti-Gaille, Catherine; Faass, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    -Mix (estrogenic mixture) with 4 estrogenic chemicals (bisphenol A, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate, and butylparaben), a complex mixture, AEP-Mix, containing the components of A-Mix and E-Mix plus paracetamol, and paracetamol alone, were administered by oral gavage to rat dams from...

  15. Reduction of mitochondrial electron transport complex activity is restricted to the ischemic focus after transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Using histochemical methods offering high topographical resolution for evaluation of changes in the ischemic focus and the penumbra, the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes I, II, and IV were examined in rats subjected to 2 h of proximal occlusion of the middle cerebral artery...

  16. Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and ulcerogenic activity of a zinc-diclofenac complex in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H. Santos

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and ulcerogenic activity of a zinc-diclofenac complex (5.5 or 11 mg/kg in male Wistar rats (180-300 g, N = 6 and compared it to free diclofenac (5 or 10 mg/kg and to the combination of diclofenac (5 or 10 mg/kg and zinc acetate (1.68 or 3.5 mg/kg. The carrageenin-induced paw edema and the cotton pellet-induced granulomatous tissue formation models were used to assess the anti-inflammatory activity, and the Hargreaves model of thermal hyperalgesia was used to assess the antinociceptive activity. To investigate the effect of orally or intraperitoneally (ip administered drugs on cold-induced gastric lesions, single doses were administered before exposing the animals to a freezer (-18ºC for 45 min in individual cages. We also evaluated the gastric lesions induced by multiple doses of the drugs. Diclofenac plus zinc complex had the same anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects as diclofenac alone. Gastric lesions induced by a single dose administered per os and ip were reduced in the group treated with zinc-diclofenac when compared to the groups treated with free diclofenac or diclofenac plus zinc acetate. In the multiple dose treatment, the complex induced a lower number of the most severe lesions when compared to free diclofenac and diclofenac plus zinc acetate. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that the zinc-diclofenac complex may represent an important therapeutic alternative for the treatment of rheumatic and inflammatory conditions, as its use may be associated with a reduced incidence of gastric lesions.

  17. Traveling Companions Add Complexity and Hinder Performance in the Spatial Behavior of Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorfman, Alex; Nielbo, Kristoffer Laigaard; Eilam, David

    2016-01-01

    -mate. It was found that the presence of another rat substantially altered the rats' spatial behavior. Lone rats collected the food items faster while traveling a shorter distance, reflecting a higher efficiency of task completion. When accompanied by a partner, however, the rats traveled together, visiting the same......We sought to uncover the impact of the social environment on the spatial behavior of rats. Food-deprived rats were trained in a spatial task of collecting food items from 16 equispaced objects. Following training, they were tested, first alone and then with a similarly-trained cage...... of rats’ natural behavior. Revisiting an object following food depletion implies that searching for food was not the main driving force in the rats' spatial behavior. Specifically, despite food deprivation, rats were more attentive to one another than to the food. This could be adaptive, since foraging...

  18. Vesicular glutamate transporter-immunoreactivities in the vestibular nuclear complex of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jiao; Zhang, Fu-Xing; Pang, You-Wang; Li, Jin-Lian; Li, Yun-Qing

    2006-07-01

    Objective Aims to delineate the distribution profile of three isoforms of vesicular glutamate transporter (VGluT), viz. VGluT1-3, and their cellular localization within vestibular nuclear complex (VNC). Methods Brain sections from normal Sprague-Dawley rats were processed immunohistochemically for VGluT detection, employing avidin-biotinylated peroxidase complex method with 3-3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) as chromogen. Results The whole VNC expressed all of the three transporters that were observed to be localized to the fiber endings. Compared with VGluT1 and VGluT3, VGluT2 demonstrated a relatively homogeneous distribution, with much higher density in VNC. VGluT3 displayed the highest density in lateral vestibular nucleus and group X, contrasting with the sparse immunostained puncta within vestibular medial and inferior nuclei. Conclusion Glutamtatergic pathways participate in the processing of vestibular signals within VNC mainly through the re-uptake of glutamate into synaptic vesicles by VGluT1 and 2, whereas VGluT3 may play a similar role mainly in areas other than medial and inferior nuclei of VNC.

  19. Vesicular glutamate transporter-immunoreactivities in the vestibular nuclear complex of rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao DENG; Fu-Xing ZHANG; You-Wang PANG; Jin-Lian LI; Yun-Qing LI

    2006-01-01

    Objective Aims to delineate the distribution profile of three isoforms of vesicular glutamate transporter (VGluT), viz. VGluT1~3, and their cellular localization within vestibular nuclear complex (VNC). Methods Brain sections from normal Sprague-Dawley rats were processed immunohistochemically for VGluT detection, employing avidinbiotinylated peroxidase complex method with 3-3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) as chromogen. Results The whole VNC expressed all of the three transporters that were observed to be localized to the fiber endings. Compared with VGluT1 and VGluT3, VGluT2 demonstrated a relatively homogeneous distribution, with much higher density in VNC. VGluT3 displayed the highest density in lateral vestibular nucleus and group X, contrasting with the sparse immunostained puncta within vestibular medial and inferior nuclei. Conclusion Glutamtatergic pathways participate in the processing of vestibular signals within VNC mainly through the re-uptake of glutamate into synaptic vesicles by VGluT1 and 2, whereas VGluT3 may play a similar role mainly in areas other than medial and inferior nuclei of VNC.

  20. EFFECT OF POLYPHENOLIC COMPLEX FROM WINE ON RATS ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES ACTIVITY AT X-RAY IRRADIATION LOW DOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. V. Datsyuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the consumption of natural polyphenolic complex from grape wine in drinking water in the daily dose 2.5 ± 1.1 mg polyphenols/kg body mass of rats during the 10 day before exposure to radiation leads to increased of superoxide dismutase and gluthathione reductase activities in peripheral blood on 24 and 48 hours after full body X-ray irradiation (30 cGy. The of catalase, gluthathione peroxidase activities and the of the reactive thiobarbituric acid substances content in total lysates of peripheral blood within 72 hours after exposure are comparable to those in control rats. Marked decreased of catalase and superoxide dismutase activities at 24, 48 and 24 hours, respectively, was observed after exposure to ionizing radiation and increased content of lipid peroxidation products in all above mentioned time points. The decreased of superoxide dismutase and gluthathione peroxidase activities in lysates of rats aorta at 48 hour and increased content of the reactive thiobarbituric acid substances during 72 hours after radiation exposure were observed. The consumption of polyphenolic complex from wine did not change the superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in lysates of aorta rats treated with ionizing radiation, whereas gluthathione reductase and gluthathione peroxidase activities was increased during 72 hours after radiation influence. The content of TBA reactive substances was significantly decreased in lysates of aorta rats that were exposed to radiation and polyphenols of grape wine, compared with those of animals that were exposed to radiation alone.

  1. Unique cell type-specific junctional complexes in vascular endothelium of human and rat liver sinusoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrill Géraud

    Full Text Available Liver sinusoidal endothelium is strategically positioned to control access of fluids, macromolecules and cells to the liver parenchyma and to serve clearance functions upstream of the hepatocytes. While clearance of macromolecular debris from the peripheral blood is performed by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs using a delicate endocytic receptor system featuring stabilin-1 and -2, the mannose receptor and CD32b, vascular permeability and cell trafficking are controlled by transcellular pores, i.e. the fenestrae, and by intercellular junctional complexes. In contrast to blood vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells in other organs, the junctional complexes of LSECs have not yet been consistently characterized in molecular terms. In a comprehensive analysis, we here show that LSECs express the typical proteins found in endothelial adherens junctions (AJ, i.e. VE-cadherin as well as α-, β-, p120-catenin and plakoglobin. Tight junction (TJ transmembrane proteins typical of endothelial cells, i.e. claudin-5 and occludin, were not expressed by rat LSECs while heterogenous immunreactivity for claudin-5 was detected in human LSECs. In contrast, junctional molecules preferentially associating with TJ such as JAM-A, B and C and zonula occludens proteins ZO-1 and ZO-2 were readily detected in LSECs. Remarkably, among the JAMs JAM-C was considerably over-expressed in LSECs as compared to lung microvascular endothelial cells. In conclusion, we show here that LSECs form a special kind of mixed-type intercellular junctions characterized by co-occurrence of endothelial AJ proteins, and of ZO-1 and -2, and JAMs. The distinct molecular architecture of the intercellular junctional complexes of LSECs corroborates previous ultrastructural findings and provides the molecular basis for further analyses of the endothelial barrier function of liver sinusoids under pathologic conditions ranging from hepatic inflammation to formation of liver metastasis.

  2. Relative utilization of fatty acids for synthesis of ketone bodies and complex lipids in the liver of developing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Y Y; Streuli, V L; Zee, P

    1977-04-01

    The regulation of hepatic ketogenesis, as related to the metabolism of fatty acids through oxidative and synthetic pathways, was studied in developing rats. [1-14C] palmitate was used as a substrate to determine the proportions of free fatty acids utilized for the production of ketone bodies, CO2 and complex lipids. Similar developmental patterns of hepatic ketogenesis were obtained by measuring the production of either [14C] acetoacetate from exogenous [1-14C] palmitate or the sum of unlabeled acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate from endogenous fatty acids. The production of total ketone bodies was low during the late fetal stage and at birth, but increased rapidly to a miximum value within 24 hr after brith. The maximal ketogenic capacity appeared to be maintained for the first 10 days of life. 14CO2 production from [1-14C] palmitate increased by two- to fourfold during the suckling period, from its initial low rate seen at birth. The capacity for synthesis of total complex lipids was low at birth and had increased by day 3 to a maximal value, which was comparable to that of adult fed rats. The high lipogenic capacity lasted throughout the remaining suckling period. When ketogenesis was inhibited by 4-pentenoic acid, the rate of synthesis of complex lipids did not increase despite an increase in unutilized fatty acids. During the mid-suckling period, approximately equal amounts of [1-14C] palmitate were utilized for the synthesis of ketone plus CO2 and for complex lipid synthesis. By contrast, in adult fed rats, the incorporation of fatty acids into complex lipids was four times higher than that of ketone plus CO2. These observations suggest that stimulated hepatic ketogenesis in suckling rats results from the rapid oxidation of fatty acids and consequent increased production of acetyl CoA, but not from impaired capacity for synthesis of complex lipids.

  3. Naked mole-rats maintain healthy skeletal muscle and Complex IV mitochondrial enzyme function into old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Elizabeth A; Karapavlovic, Nevena; Rosa, Hannah; Woodmass, Michael; Rygiel, Karolina; White, Kathryn; Turnbull, Douglass M; Faulkes, Chris G

    2016-12-19

    The naked mole-rat (NMR) Heterocephalus glaber is an exceptionally long-lived rodent, living up to 32 years in captivity. This extended lifespan is accompanied by a phenotype of negligible senescence, a phenomenon of very slow changes in the expected physiological characteristics with age. One of the many consequences of normal aging in mammals is the devastating and progressive loss of skeletal muscle, termed sarcopenia, caused in part by respiratory enzyme dysfunction within the mitochondria of skeletal muscle fibers. Here we report that NMRs avoid sarcopenia for decades. Muscle fiber integrity and mitochondrial ultrastructure are largely maintained in aged animals. While mitochondrial Complex IV expression and activity remains stable, Complex I expression is significantly decreased. We show that aged naked mole-rat skeletal muscle tissue contains some mitochondrial DNA rearrangements, although the common mitochondrial DNA deletions associated with aging in human and other rodent skeletal muscles are not present. Interestingly, NMR skeletal muscle fibers demonstrate a significant increase in mitochondrial DNA copy number. These results have intriguing implications for the role of mitochondria in aging, suggesting Complex IV, but not Complex I, function is maintained in the long-lived naked mole rat, where sarcopenia is avoided and healthy muscle function is maintained for decades.

  4. Interactions between iron(III)-hydroxide polymaltose complex and commonly used medications / laboratory studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Felix; Canclini, Camillo; Geisser, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Simple iron salts, such as iron sulphate, often interact with food and other medications reducing bioavailability and tolerability. Iron(III)-hydroxide polymaltose complex (IPC, Maltofer) provides a soluble form of non-ionic iron, making it an ideal form of oral iron supplementation. The physicochemical properties of IPC predict a low potential for interactions. The effects of co-administration with aluminium hydroxide (CAS 21645-51-2), acetylsalicylic acid (CAS 50-78-2), bromazepam (CAS 1812-30-2), calcium acetate (CAS 62-54-4), calcium carbonate (CAS 471-34-1), auranofin (CAS 34031-32-8), magnesium-L-aspartate hydrochloride (CAS 28184-71-6), methyldopa sesquihydrate (CAS 41372-08-1), paracetamol (CAS 103-90-2), penicillamine (CAS 52-67-5), sulfasalazine (CAS 599-79-1), tetracycline hydrochloride (CAS 64-75-5), calcium phosphate (CAS 7757-93-9) in combination with vitamin D3 (CAS 67-97-0), and a multi-vitamin preparation were tested in rats fed an iron-deficient diet. Uptake of iron from radiolabelled IPC with and without concomitant medications was compared. None of the medicines tested had a significant effect on iron uptake. Iron-59 retrieval from blood and major storage organs was 64-76% for IPC alone compared with 59-85% following co-administration with other medications. It is concluded that, under normal clinical conditions, IPC does not interact with these medications.

  5. Inhibition of mitochondrial complex I in cerebral cortex of immature rats following seizures induced by homocysteic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ješina, P.; Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Drahota, Zdeněk; Haugvicová, Renata; Lisá, Věra; Pecinová, Alena; Houštěk, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 31, Suppl.1 (2008), s. 60-60 ISSN 0141-8955. [Annual Symposium of the Society for the Study of Inborn Errors of Metabolism . 02.09.2008-05.09.2008, Lisboa] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/08/0292 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpo1 * immature rats * homocysteic acid-induced seizures * mitochondrial complex I inhibition Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  6. Effect of palladium α-lipoic acid complex on energy in the brain mitochondria of aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan; Nima, Nalin; Veena, Ravindran Kalathil; Janardhanan, Kainoor Krishnankutty; Antonawich, Francis

    2014-01-01

    According to the mitochondrial mutation theory of aging, the impairment of mitochondrial functions and decline of cellular bioenergetics are induced by highly reactive oxygen species (ROS). Supplementation with antioxidants may protect mitochondria against respiration-linked oxidative stress and reduce decay by preserving genomic and structural integrity. Several clinical studies have reported beneficial effects of α-lipoic acid (LA) administration in individuals with Alzheimer's disease, particularly improving their spatial orientation; however, no studies have been reported on the effects of palladium α-lipoic acid (Pd-LA). The current study examined the effects of the Pd-LA complex on mitochondrial energy status in the brains of aged rats. The study used male Wistar rats, some that were older than 24 mo and weighed approximately 350 ± 50 g and some that were younger than 24 mo and weighed approximately 175 ± 25 g. The research team divided the rats into 5 groups of 6 rats. The study was conducted at the Amala Cancer Research Centre in Amala Nagar, Thrissur, Kerala, India. Three groups of rats were controls: (1) young controls administered no solution, (2) aged controls administered 1 mL/kg of a 0.25% solution (PO) of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and (3) positive aged controls treated with LA (7.6 mg/kg, PO) dissolved in an alkaline saline (0.25% NaOH, w/v). Two groups were intervention groups: (1) aged rats treated with 1.2 mg/kg of Pd-LA (PO) and (2) aged rats treated with 23.5 mg/kg of Pd-LA (PO). The research team administered the solutions once daily for 30 d. After 30 d, all animals were sacrificed. The research team evaluated serum transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum urea, and creatinine. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) were determined in the blood samples. Krebs cycle dehydrogenases were evaluated in the brain mitochondria. Furthermore, the activities of the

  7. Purification of rat intestinal receptor for intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Shoji; Itaya, Harutaka; Nakazawa, Osamu; Fukuda, Morimichi.

    1977-01-01

    The intrinsic factor (IF) in a rat gastric mucosal extract was bound efficiently to vitamin B 12 -sepharose without significant change in its nature to produce IF-vitamin B 12 -sepharose. The purification of the intestinal receptor for the IF-vitamin B 12 complex was performed by the affinity chromatography using the IF-vitamin B 12 -sepharose as the affinity adsorbent. As a result of admixing the gastric mucosal extract sample with B 12 -sepharose while stirring for 4 hours, the adsorption was performed without any break through. Further, it was recognized that the B 12 -bound protein purified by the affinity chromatography using B 12 -sepharose was not much changed as compared with that before purification. Furthermore, it was recognized that IF-B 12 -sepharose was able to be made by binding IF with B 12 -sepharose which was made by coupling B 12 with the market-available AH-sepharose. The IF-B 12 -sepharose was washed with buffer solution, and then was loaded with the small intestine mucosal extract. Thereafter, the receptor was eluted by making di-valent cation inert with the buffer solution. After the removal of EDTA in the eluted solution by dialysis, the activity of the receptor was measured. 48.5% of the receptor activity loaded was recovered by the elution with EDTA. The specific activity of the receptor represented by the final amount of B 12 (pg)/the amount of protein (mg) in the purified substance was 335 folds of the original activity. (Iwakiri, K.)

  8. Expression of rat class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alloantigens and hepatocytes and hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.M.; Desai, P.A.; Chakraborty, S.

    1986-01-01

    Altered expression of Class I MHC alloantigens has been reported for murine tumors, and may be associated with the tumorigenic phenotype of tumor cells. To characterize MHC Class I alloantigen expression on a chemically-induced transplantable rat hepatoma cell line, 17X, derived from a (WF x F344) F 1 rat, polyvalent anti-F344 and anti-WF rat alloantisera were first used to immunoprecipitate the rat RT1.A Class I MHC alloantigens expressed on primary (WF x F344) F 1 hepatocyptes in short-term monolayer cultures. Two-dimensional isoelectric focusing and SDS-PAGE of immunoprecipitates from 35 S-methionine-labeled (WF x F344) F 1 hepatocytes clearly resolved the RT1.A/sup u/ (WF) and RT1.A/sup LvI/ (F344) parental alloantigens. Identical radiolabeling and immunoprecipitation failed to detect either parental alloantigen on the 17X hepatoma cells. However, indirect immunofluorescence and immunoblot analyses demonstrated the presence of parental alloantigens on the 17X cells. Immunization of F344 rats but not of WF rats with 17X cells resulted in antibodies cytotoxic for normal (WF X F344) F 1 spleen cells in the presence of complement. These findings indicate that a combination of detection techniques will be necessary to characterize altered alloantigen expression on rat hepatoma cells

  9. Effects of X-ray radiation on complex visual discrimination learning and social recognition memory in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M Davis

    Full Text Available The present report describes an animal model for examining the effects of radiation on a range of neurocognitive functions in rodents that are similar to a number of basic human cognitive functions. Fourteen male Long-Evans rats were trained to perform an automated intra-dimensional set shifting task that consisted of their learning a basic discrimination between two stimulus shapes followed by more complex discrimination stages (e.g., a discrimination reversal, a compound discrimination, a compound reversal, a new shape discrimination, and an intra-dimensional stimulus discrimination reversal. One group of rats was exposed to head-only X-ray radiation (2.3 Gy at a dose rate of 1.9 Gy/min, while a second group received a sham-radiation exposure using the same anesthesia protocol. The irradiated group responded less, had elevated numbers of omitted trials, increased errors, and greater response latencies compared to the sham-irradiated control group. Additionally, social odor recognition memory was tested after radiation exposure by assessing the degree to which rats explored wooden beads impregnated with either their own odors or with the odors of novel, unfamiliar rats; however, no significant effects of radiation on social odor recognition memory were observed. These data suggest that rodent tasks assessing higher-level human cognitive domains are useful in examining the effects of radiation on the CNS, and may be applicable in approximating CNS risks from radiation exposure in clinical populations receiving whole brain irradiation.

  10. Effects of X-ray radiation on complex visual discrimination learning and social recognition memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Catherine M; Roma, Peter G; Armour, Elwood; Gooden, Virginia L; Brady, Joseph V; Weed, Michael R; Hienz, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    The present report describes an animal model for examining the effects of radiation on a range of neurocognitive functions in rodents that are similar to a number of basic human cognitive functions. Fourteen male Long-Evans rats were trained to perform an automated intra-dimensional set shifting task that consisted of their learning a basic discrimination between two stimulus shapes followed by more complex discrimination stages (e.g., a discrimination reversal, a compound discrimination, a compound reversal, a new shape discrimination, and an intra-dimensional stimulus discrimination reversal). One group of rats was exposed to head-only X-ray radiation (2.3 Gy at a dose rate of 1.9 Gy/min), while a second group received a sham-radiation exposure using the same anesthesia protocol. The irradiated group responded less, had elevated numbers of omitted trials, increased errors, and greater response latencies compared to the sham-irradiated control group. Additionally, social odor recognition memory was tested after radiation exposure by assessing the degree to which rats explored wooden beads impregnated with either their own odors or with the odors of novel, unfamiliar rats; however, no significant effects of radiation on social odor recognition memory were observed. These data suggest that rodent tasks assessing higher-level human cognitive domains are useful in examining the effects of radiation on the CNS, and may be applicable in approximating CNS risks from radiation exposure in clinical populations receiving whole brain irradiation.

  11. Effects of X-Ray Radiation on Complex Visual Discrimination Learning and Social Recognition Memory in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Catherine M.; Roma, Peter G.; Armour, Elwood; Gooden, Virginia L.; Brady, Joseph V.; Weed, Michael R.; Hienz, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    The present report describes an animal model for examining the effects of radiation on a range of neurocognitive functions in rodents that are similar to a number of basic human cognitive functions. Fourteen male Long-Evans rats were trained to perform an automated intra-dimensional set shifting task that consisted of their learning a basic discrimination between two stimulus shapes followed by more complex discrimination stages (e.g., a discrimination reversal, a compound discrimination, a compound reversal, a new shape discrimination, and an intra-dimensional stimulus discrimination reversal). One group of rats was exposed to head-only X-ray radiation (2.3 Gy at a dose rate of 1.9 Gy/min), while a second group received a sham-radiation exposure using the same anesthesia protocol. The irradiated group responded less, had elevated numbers of omitted trials, increased errors, and greater response latencies compared to the sham-irradiated control group. Additionally, social odor recognition memory was tested after radiation exposure by assessing the degree to which rats explored wooden beads impregnated with either their own odors or with the odors of novel, unfamiliar rats; however, no significant effects of radiation on social odor recognition memory were observed. These data suggest that rodent tasks assessing higher-level human cognitive domains are useful in examining the effects of radiation on the CNS, and may be applicable in approximating CNS risks from radiation exposure in clinical populations receiving whole brain irradiation. PMID:25099152

  12. Effect of isologous and autologous insulin antibodies on in vivo bioavailability and metabolic fate of immune-complexed insulin in Lou/M rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arquilla, E.R.; McDougall, B.R.; Stenger, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    The in vivo bioavailability, distribution, and metabolic fate of 125I-labeled insulin complexed to isologous and autologous antibodies were studied in inbred Lou/M rats. There was an impaired bioavailability of the 125I-insulin bound to the isologous and autologous antibodies. Very little of the 125I-insulin in these immune complexes could bind to insulin receptors on hepatocytes or renal tubular cells and be degraded, because the amounts of 125I from degraded 125I-insulin in the blood or secreted into the stomach were markedly attenuated in both cases for at least 30 min after injection. There was a simultaneous accumulation of 125I-insulin immune complexes in the liver and the kidneys of Lou/M rats injected with 125I-insulin complexed with isologous antibodies or when insulin-immunized Lou/M rats were injected with 125I-insulin during the same interval. The impaired bioavailability of immune-complexed insulin and altered distribution of radioactivity due to the accumulation of immune complexes in the liver and kidney were also observed in previous experiments in which Lewis rats were injected with xenogenic guinea pig and homologous insulin antibodies. These observations are therefore submitted as evidence that the Lou/M rat is a valid model in which to study the bioavailability of insulin immune complexed to isologous, homologous, and xenogenic antibodies and the metabolic fate of the respective insulin-antibody immune complexes

  13. Synthesis, biological evaluation and biodistribution of the 99mTc-Garenoxacin complex in artificially infected rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Qaiser Shah; Aakif Ullah Khan; Muhammad Rafiullah Khan

    2011-01-01

    The labeling of garenoxacin (GXN) with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) using different concentrations of GXN, sodium pertechnetate (Na 99m TcO 4 ), stannous chloride dihydrate (SnCl 2 · 2H 2 O) at different pH was investigated and evaluated in terms of in-vitro stability in saline, serum, binding with multi-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MDRSA) and penicillin-resistant Streptococci (PRSC) and its biodistribution in artificially MDRSA and PRSC infected rats. 99m Tc-GXN complex with 97.45 ± 0.18% radiochemical stability was prepared by mixing 3 mg of GXN with 3 mCi of Na 99m TcO 4 in the presence of 150 μL of SnCl 2 · 2H 2 O (1 μg/μL in 0.01 N HCl) at a pH 5.6. The radiochemical stability of the complex was evaluated in normal saline up to 240 min of reconstitution. It was observed that the complex showed maximum RCP values after 30 min of the reconstitution and remained more than 90% up to 240 min. The complex showed radiochemical stability in normal saline at 37 deg C up to 16 h with a 17.80% de-tagging. The complex showed saturated in-vitro binding with living MDRSA and PRSC as compared to the insignificant binding with heat killed MDRSA and PRSC. Biodistribution behavior of the complex was assessed in artificially infected with living and heat killed MDRSA and PRSC rats. It was observed that the accumulation of the complex in the infected (live MDRSA and PRSC) tissue of the rats was almost five fold than in the inflamed and normal tissue. The high radiochemical stability in normal saline at room temperature, promising in-vitro stability in serum at 37 deg C, saturated in-vitro binding with living MDRSA and PRSC, specific biodistribution behavior and high infected (target) to normal (non-target) tissue and low inflamed (non-target) to normal (non-target) tissue ratios we recommend 99m Tc-GXN complex for in-vivo localization of infection caused by MDRSA and PRSC effective stains. (author)

  14. Radiocharacterization of the 99mTc-rufloxacin complex and biological evaluation in Staphylococcus aureus infected rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Qaiser Shah; Muhammad Rafiullah Khan

    2011-01-01

    99m Tc-rufloxacin ( 99m Tc-RUN) complex was prepared by reaction of different amounts of reduced sodium pertechnetate with different amount of Rufloxacin (RUN) antibiotic for the in vivo scintigraphic localization of the Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infectious foci in Male Wister Rats (MWR) model. The 99m Tc-RUN complex was radiochemically and biologically characterized in terms of radiochemical stability in saline, serum, in vitro binding with S. aureus and biodistribution in artificially infected with S. aureus MWR. The 99m Tc-RUN complex showed stability more than 90% up to 240 min in normal saline with a maximum stability value of 98.10 ± 0.18% at 30 min after reconstitution. At 37 deg C the complex showed in vitro permanence in serum up to 16 h with 13.90% side products during incubation. The 99m Tc-RUN complex showed saturated in vitro binding with S. aureus at different intervals with a maximum uptake value of 71.50%. Infected to normal muscle, infected to inflamed and inflamed to normal muscles ratios were approximately 6.04, 4.31 and 1.40. Based on the stability of the complex in saline, serum, in vitro binding with S. aureus and biodistribution results, the 99m Tc-RUN complex is recommended for in vivo scintigraphic localization of the S. aureus in vivo infectious foci in human. (author)

  15. Effect of complex polyphenols and tannins from red wine on DNA oxidative damage of rat colon mucosa in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannelli, L; Testa, G; De Filippo, C; Cheynier, V; Clifford, M N; Dolara, P

    2000-10-01

    Dietary polyphenols have been reported to have a variety of biological actions, including anti-carcinogenic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study we have evaluated the effect of an oral treatment with complex polyphenols and tannins from red wine and tea on DNA oxidative damage in the rat colon mucosa. Isolated colonocytes were prepared from the colon mucosa of rats treated for ten days with either wine complex polyphenols (57.2 mg/kg/d) or thearubigin (40 mg/kg/d) by oral gavage. Colonocyte oxidative DNA damage was analysed at the single cell level using a modification of the comet assay technique. The results show that wine complex polyphenols and tannins induce a significant decrease (-62% for pyrimidine and -57% for purine oxidation) in basal DNA oxidative damage in colon mucosal cells without affecting the basal level of single-strand breaks. On the other hand, tea polyphenols, namely a crude extract of thearubigin, did not affect either strand breaks or pyrimidine oxidation in colon mucosal cells. Our experiments are the first demonstration that dietary polyphenols can modulate in vivo oxidative damage in the gastrointestinal tract of rodents. These data support the hypothesis that dietary polyphenols might have both a protective and a therapeutic potential in oxidative damage-related pathologies.

  16. Evaluation of the In Vivo and In Vitro Effects of Fructose on Respiratory Chain Complexes in Tissues of Young Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto António Macongonde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by fructose and fructose-1-phosphate accumulation in tissues and biological fluids of patients. This disease results from a deficiency of aldolase B, which metabolizes fructose in the liver, kidney, and small intestine. We here investigated the effect of acute fructose administration on the activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH, and malate dehydrogenase (MDH in cerebral cortex, liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle of male 30-day-old Wistar rats. The rats received subcutaneous injection of sodium chloride (0.9%; control group or fructose solution (5 μmol/g; treated group. One hour later, the animals were euthanized and the cerebral cortex, liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle were isolated and homogenized for the investigations. Acute fructose administration increased complex I-III activity in liver. On the other hand, decreased complexes II and II-III activities in skeletal muscle and MDH in kidney were found. Interestingly, none of these parameters were affected in vitro. Our present data indicate that fructose administration elicits impairment of mitochondrial energy metabolism, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of the HFI patients.

  17. Effect of Complexation with Arabinogalactan on Pharmacokinetics of “Guest” Drugs in Rats: For Example, Warfarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Khvostov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A pharmacokinetic study of the warfarin (WF : arabinogalactan (AG complex with the 1 : 10 mass ratio after its intragastric introduction to Wistar rats at a dose of 5 mg/kg (WF dose in the complex was 0.5 mg/kg once a day for three days was conducted. It was found that Cmax, T1/2, and AUC of WF in the complex form were lower than after the introduction of blank WF at the same dose, but its elimination (Cl, MRT was much faster. Significant accumulation (Cmin and an abrupt increase in plasma concentration after the third introduction were observed for blank WF, whereas the complex showed a much more moderate increase in concentration at this point. However, despite obvious differences in pharmacokinetic parameters, the efficacies of both agents were virtually identical; the complex differed from blank WF by only 15%. This value is rather insignificant and does not impair its anticoagulant activity. Thus, we can conclude that introduction of the WF : AG complex is safe in terms of reduction of the bleeding risk and accumulation.

  18. Gastroprotection studies of Schiff base zinc (II) derivative complex against acute superficial hemorrhagic mucosal lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbabapour, Shahram; Gwaram, Nura Suleiman; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Hadi, A Hamid A; Majid, Nazia Abdul

    2013-01-01

    The study was carried out to assess the gastroprotective effect of the zinc (II) complex against ethanol-induced acute hemorrhagic lesions in rats. The animals received their respective pre-treatments dissolved in tween 20 (5% v/v), orally. Ethanol (95% v/v) was orally administrated to induce superficial hemorrhagic mucosal lesions. Omeprazole (5.790×10(-5) M/kg) was used as a reference medicine. The pre-treatment with the zinc (II) complex (2.181×10(-5) and 4.362×10(-5) M/kg) protected the gastric mucosa similar to the reference control. They significantly increased the activity levels of nitric oxide, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione and prostaglandin E2, and decreased the level of malondialdehyde. The histology assessments confirmed the protection through remarkable reduction of mucosal lesions and increased the production of gastric mucosa. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis indicated that the complex might induced Hsp70 up-regulation and Bax down-regulation. The complex moderately increased the gastroprotectiveness in fine fettle. The acute toxicity approved the non-toxic characteristic of the complex (<87.241×10(-5) M/kg). The gastroprotective effect of the zinc (II) complex was mainly through its antioxidant activity, enzymatic stimulation of prostaglandins E2, and up-regulation of Hsp70. The gastric wall mucus was also a remarkable protective mechanism.

  19. Modulation of the major histocompatibility complex by neural stem cell-derived neurotrophic factors used for regenerative therapy in a rat model of stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Chongran

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between functional improvements in ischemic rats given a neural stem cell (NSC transplant and the modulation of the class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC mediated by NSC-derived neurotrophins was investigated. Methods The levels of gene expression of nerve growth factor (NGF, brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3 were assayed from cultures of cortical NSC from Sprague-Dawley rat E16 embryos. The levels of translated NGF in spent culture media from NSC cultures and the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF of rats with and without NGF injection or NSC transplant were also measured. Results We found a significant increase of NGF, BDNF and NT-3 transcripts and NGF proteins in both the NSC cultures and the CSF of the rats. The immunochemical staining for MHC in brain sections and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of CSF were carried out in sham-operated rats and rats with surgically induced focal cerebral ischemia. These groups were further divided into animals that did and did not receive NGF administration or NSC transplant into the cisterna magna. Our results show an up-regulation of class I MHC in the ischemic rats with NGF and NSC administration. The extent of caspase-III immunoreactivity was comparable among three arms in the ischemic rats. Conclusion Readouts of somatosensory evoked potential and the trap channel test illustrated improvements in the neurological function of ischemic rats treated with NGF administration and NSC transplant.

  20. Complex interaction between circadian rhythm and diet on bile acid homeostasis in male rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, Hannah M; Oosterman, Johanneke E; de Goede, Paul; de Vries, Emmely M; Foppen, Ewout; Koehorst, Martijn; Groen, Albert K; Boelen, Anita; Romijn, Johannes A; la Fleur, Susanne E; Soeters, Maarten R; Kalsbeek, A.

    2017-01-01

    Desynchronization between the master clock in the brain, which is entrained by (day) light, and peripheral organ clocks, which are mainly entrained by food intake, may have negative effects on energy metabolism. Bile acid metabolism follows a clear day/night rhythm. We investigated whether in rats

  1. Complex interaction between circadian rhythm and diet on bile acid homeostasis in male rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, Hannah M.; Oosterman, Johanneke E.; de Goede, Paul; de Vries, Emmely M.; Foppen, Ewout; Koehorst, Martijn; Groen, Albert K.; Boelen, Anita; Romijn, Johannes A.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Soeters, Maarten R.; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2017-01-01

    Desynchronization between the master dock in the brain, which is entrained by (day) light, and peripheral organ clocks, which are mainly entrained by food intake, may have negative effects on energy metabolism. Bile add metabolism follows a clear day/night rhythm. We investigated whether in rats on

  2. Hippocampus, Perirhinal Cortex, and Complex Visual Discriminations in Rats and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Jena B.; Broadbent, Nicola J.; Velu, Priya D.; Squire, Larry R.; Clark, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Structures in the medial temporal lobe, including the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex, are known to be essential for the formation of long-term memory. Recent animal and human studies have investigated whether perirhinal cortex might also be important for visual perception. In our study, using a simultaneous oddity discrimination task, rats with…

  3. Acute treatment with docosahexaenoic acid complexed to albumin reduces injury after a permanent focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany N Eady

    Full Text Available Docosahexaenoic acid complexed to albumin (DHA-Alb is highly neuroprotective after temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo, but whether a similar effect occurs in permanent MCAo is unknown. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (270-330 g underwent permanent MCAo. Neurological function was evaluated on days 1, 2 and 3 after MCAo. We studied six groups: DHA (5 mg/kg, Alb (0.63 or 1.25 g/kg, DHA-Alb (5 mg/kg+0.63 g/kg or 5 mg/kg+1.25 g/kg or saline. Treatment was administered i.v. at 3 h after onset of stroke (n = 7-10 per group. Ex vivo imaging of brains and histopathology were conducted on day 3. Saline- and Alb-treated rats developed severe neurological deficits but were not significantly different from one another. In contrast, rats treated with low and moderate doses of DHA-Alb showed improved neurological score compared to corresponding Alb groups on days 2 and 3. Total, cortical and subcortical lesion volumes computed from T2 weighted images were reduced following a moderate dose of DHA-Alb (1.25 g/kg by 25%, 22%, 34%, respectively, compared to the Alb group. The total corrected, cortical and subcortical infarct volumes were reduced by low (by 36-40% and moderate doses (by 34-42% of DHA-Alb treatment compared to the Alb groups. In conclusion, DHA-Alb therapy is highly neuroprotective in permanent MCAo in rats. This treatment can provide the basis for future therapeutics for patients suffering from ischemic stroke.

  4. Effect of complex polyphenols and tannins from red wine (WCPT) on chemically induced oxidative DNA damage in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalini, C; Lodovici, M; Briani, C; Paganelli, G; Remy, S; Cheynier, V; Dolara, P

    1999-08-01

    Flavonoids are polyphenolic antioxidants occurring in vegetables and fruits as well as beverages such as tea and wine which have been thought to influence oxidative damage. We wanted to verify whether a complex mixture of wine tannins (wine complex polyphenols and tannins, WCPT) prevent chemically-induced oxidative DNA damage in vivo. Oxidative DNA damage was evaluated by measuring the ratio of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (80HdG)/ 2-deoxyguanosine (2dG) x 10(-6) in hydrolyzed DNA using HPLC coupled with electrochemical and UV detectors. We treated rats with WCPT (57 mg/kg p.o.) for 14 d, a dose 10-fold higher than what a moderate wine drinker would be exposed to. WCPT administration significantly reduced the ratio of 80HdG/2dG x 10(-6) in liver DNA obtained from rats treated with 2-nitropropane (2NP) relative to controls administered 2NP only (33. 3 +/- 2.5 vs. 44.9 +/- 3.2 x 10(-6) 2dG; micro +/- SE; p<0.05). On the contrary, pretreatment with WCPT for 10 d did not protect the colon mucosa from oxidative DNA damage induced by 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). 2NP and DMH are hepatic and colon carcinogens, respectively, capable of inducing oxidative DNA damage. WCPT have protective action against some types of chemically-induced oxidative DNA damage in vivo.

  5. Radioprotective action of beta-carotin and vitamin A, C and E complexes at reproductive system and indices of antioxidant system in male rat blood and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vereshchako, G.G.; Konoplya, E.F.; Khodosovskaya, A.M.; Rutkovskaya, Zh.A.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of total irradiation in low dose at the state of rat mail reproductive system, lipid peroxidation processes and antioxidant system in rat blood and liver tissues as well as radioprotective capacity of beta-carotin with vitamin A, C and E complexes were investigated. It was established that injection of this substances to rat's organism one day before irradiation in 1.0 Gy dose led to normalization of spermatogenic cells number, increase of nucleic acids content in testes and significant improvement of antioxidant status of blood and liver tissue. (authors)

  6. A rat model system to study complex disease risks, fitness, aging, and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Lauren Gerard; Britton, Steven L; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2012-02-01

    The association between low exercise capacity and all-cause morbidity and mortality is statistically strong yet mechanistically unresolved. By connecting clinical observation with a theoretical base, we developed a working hypothesis that variation in capacity for oxygen metabolism is the central mechanistic determinant between disease and health (aerobic hypothesis). As an unbiased test, we show that two-way artificial selective breeding of rats for low and high intrinsic endurance exercise capacity also produces rats that differ for numerous disease risks, including the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular complications, premature aging, and reduced longevity. This contrasting animal model system may prove to be translationally superior relative to more widely used simplistic models for understanding geriatric biology and medicine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Complexity of the influence of gangliosides on histamine release from human basophils and rat mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C; Svendsen, U G; Thastrup, Ole

    1987-01-01

    The influence of exogenous addition of gangliosides on histamine release from human basophils and rat mast cells was examined in vitro. Gangliosides dose-dependently inhibited histamine release, and this inhibition was dependent on the ganglioside sialic acid content, since GT1b, having 3 sialic...... was reflected in the sensitivity of the cells to extracellular calcium, since inhibition of the release could be counteracted by increasing the extracellular concentration of calcium....

  8. Iron complexation to histone deacetylase inhibitors SAHA and LAQ824 in PEGylated liposomes can considerably improve pharmacokinetics in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Tu, Sheng; Steffen, Dana; Xiong, May

    2014-01-01

    The formulation of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) is challenging due to poor water solubility and rapid elimination of drugs in vivo. This study investigated the effects of complexing iron (Fe3+) to the HDACi suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and LAQ824 (LAQ) prior to their encapsulation into PEGylated liposomes, and investigated whether this technique could improve drug solubility, in vitro release and in vivo pharmacokinetic (PK) properties. METHODS. The reaction stoichiometry, binding constants and solubility were measured for Fe complexes of SAHA and LAQ. The complexes were passively encapsulated into PEGylated liposomes and characterized by size distribution, zeta-potential, encapsulation efficiency (EE), and in vitro drug release studies. PC-3 cells were used to verify the in vitro anticancer activity of the formulations. In vivo pharmacokinetic properties of liposomal LAQ-Fe (L-LAQ-Fe) was evaluated in rats. RESULTS. SAHA and LAQ form complexes with Fe at 1:1 stoichiometric ratio, with a binding constant on the order of 104 M-1. Fe complexation improved the aqueous solubility and the liposomal encapsulation efficiency of SAHA and LAQ (29-35% EE, final drug concentration > 1 mM). Liposomal encapsulated complexes (L-HDACi-Fe) exhibited sustained in vitro release properties compared to L-HDACi but cytotoxicity on PC-3 cells was comparable to free drugs. The PK of L-LAQ-Fe revealed 15-fold improvement in the plasma t1/2 (12.11 h)and 211-fold improvement in the AUC∞ (105.7 µg·h/ml) compared to free LAQ (0.79 h, 0.5 µg·h/ml). Similarly, the plasma t1/2 of Fe was determined to be 11.83 h in a separate experiment using radioactive Fe-59. The majority of Fe-59 activity was found in liver and spleen of rats and correlates with liposomal uptake by the mononuclear phagocyte system. CONCLUSIONS. We have demonstrated that encapsulation of Fe complexes of HDACi into PEGylated liposomes can improve overall drug aqueous solubility, in vitro release and in

  9. The Adaptive Nature of the Bone-Periodontal Ligament-Cementum Complex in a Ligature-Induced Periodontitis Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hyun Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The novel aspect of this study involves illustrating significant adaptation of a functionally loaded bone-PDL-cementum complex in a ligature-induced periodontitis rat model. Following 4, 8, and 15 days of ligation, proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and RANKL, a mineral resorption indicator (TRAP, and a cell migration and adhesion molecule for tissue regeneration (fibronectin within the complex were localized and correlated with changes in PDL-space (functional space. At 4 days of ligation, the functional space of the distal complex was widened compared to controls and was positively correlated with an increased expression of TNF-α. At 8 and 15 days, the number of RANKL(+ cells decreased near the mesial alveolar bone crest (ABC but increased at the distal ABC. TRAP(+ cells on both sides of the complex significantly increased at 8 days. A gradual change in fibronectin expression from the distal PDL-secondary cementum interfaces through precementum layers was observed when compared to increased and abrupt changes at the mesial PDL-cementum and PDL-bone interfaces in ligated and control groups. Based on our results, we hypothesize that compromised strain fields can be created in a diseased periodontium, which in response to prolonged function can significantly alter the original bone and apical cementum formations.

  10. Assessing complexity of skin blood flow oscillations in response to locally applied heating and pressure in rats: Implications for pressure ulcer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Fuyuan; O'Brien, William D.; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of local heating on the complexity of skin blood flow oscillations (BFO) under prolonged surface pressure in rats. Eleven Sprague-Dawley rats were studied: 7 rats underwent surface pressure with local heating (△t=10 °C) and 4 rats underwent pressure without heating. A pressure of 700 mmHg was applied to the right trochanter area of rats for 3 h. Skin blood flow was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry. The loading period was divided into nonoverlapping 30 min epochs. For each epoch, multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MDFA) was utilized to compute DFA coefficients and complexity of endothelial related metabolic, neurogenic, and myogenic frequencies of BFO. The results showed that under surface pressure, local heating led to a significant decrease in DFA coefficients of myogenic frequency during the initial epoch of loading period, a sustained decrease in complexity of myogenic frequency, and a significantly higher degree of complexity of metabolic frequency during the later phase of loading period. Surrogate tests showed that the reduction in complexity of myogenic frequency was associated with a loss of nonlinearity whereas increased complexity of metabolic frequency was associated with enhanced nonlinearity. Our results indicate that increased metabolic activity and decreased myogenic response due to local heating manifest themselves not only in magnitudes of metabolic and myogenic frequencies but also in their structural complexity. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using complexity analysis of BFO to monitor the ischemic status of weight-bearing skin and risk of pressure ulcers.

  11. 99mTc(CO)3-tosufloxacin dithiocarbamate complexation and radiobiological evaluation in male Wister rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Qaiser Shah; Muhammad Rafiullah Khan

    2011-01-01

    In the current investigation tosufloxacin (TSN) was derivatized to its dithiocarbamate (TSND) derivative and its radiolabeling with technetium-99m using [ 99m Tc(CO) 3 (H 2 O) 3 ] + precursor. The labeled TSND ( 99m Tc(CO) 3 -TSND) was radiochemically characterized in saline and serum and biologically its in vitro binding with Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) and biodistribution in male Wister rats (MWR) artificially infected with live and heat killed P. mirabilis. Radiochemically a stable radio-tricarbonyl TSND complex was observed with a maximum stability of 98.15 ± 0.32% and it remained more than 90% up to 4 h after reconstitution. The stability decreased to 91.00 ± 0.30% from 98.15 ± 0.32% within 4 h. In serum at 37 deg C the growth of some unwanted side product decreased the stability by 15.65% within 16 h. The complex showed saturated in vitro binding with P. mirabilis up to 78.50% (90 min). In MWR infected with live P. mirabilis the percent (%) uptake of the complex in blood, liver, spleen, stomach, intestines and kidneys were almost similar to the MWR infected with heat killed. However, the % accumulation of the complex in the infected muscle was six times higher than in the inflamed and normal muscle in MWR infected with live P. mirabilis. On the basis of immovability of the 99m Tc(CO) 3 -TSND complex in normal saline, in vitro permanence in serum, saturated in vitro binding with P. mirabilis and six fold uptake in the infected muscle of the MWR infected with live P. mirabilis as compared to the normal muscle, the suitability of the 99m Tc(CO) 3 -TSND complex is established as a promising infection radiotracer. (author)

  12. Inhibition of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 Attenuates Salt-Induced Hypertension and Kidney Injury in Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikash; Wollner, Clayton; Kurth, Theresa; Bukowy, John D; Cowley, Allen W

    2017-10-01

    The goal of the present study was to explore the protective effects of mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1) inhibition by rapamycin on salt-induced hypertension and kidney injury in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats. We have previously demonstrated that H 2 O 2 is elevated in the kidneys of SS rats. The present study showed a significant upregulation of renal mTORC1 activity in the SS rats fed a 4.0% NaCl for 3 days. In addition, renal interstitial infusion of H 2 O 2 into salt-resistant Sprague Dawley rats for 3 days was also found to stimulate mTORC1 activity independent of a rise of arterial blood pressure. Together, these data indicate that the salt-induced increases of renal H 2 O 2 in SS rats activated the mTORC1 pathway. Daily administration of rapamycin (IP, 1.5 mg/kg per day) for 21 days reduced salt-induced hypertension from 176.0±9.0 to 153.0±12.0 mm Hg in SS rats but had no effect on blood pressure salt sensitivity in Sprague Dawley treated rats. Compared with vehicle, rapamycin reduced albumin excretion rate in SS rats from 190.0±35.0 to 37.0±5.0 mg/d and reduced the renal infiltration of T lymphocytes (CD3 + ) and macrophages (ED1 + ) in the cortex and medulla. Renal hypertrophy and cell proliferation were also reduced in rapamycin-treated SS rats. We conclude that enhancement of intrarenal H 2 O 2 with a 4.0% NaCl diet stimulates the mTORC1 pathway that is necessary for the full development of the salt-induced hypertension and kidney injury in the SS rat. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Effects of phospholipid complexes of total flavonoids from Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) leaves on experimental atherosclerosis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kexia; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Meiyu; Gu, Liqiang; Liu, Ziying; Jia, Jingming; Chen, Xiaohui

    2016-09-15

    The total flavonoids from Persimmon leaves (PLF), extracted from the leaves of Diospyros kaki L. Dispryosl and Ebenaceae, is reported to possess many beneficial health effects. However, the oral bioavailability of PLF is relatively low due to its poor solubility. In the present study, the phospholipid complexes of total flavonoids from Persimmon leaves (PLF-PC) was prepared to enhance the oral bioavailability of PLF and to evaluate its antiatherosclerotic properties in atherosclerosis rats in comparison to PLF. A HPLC-MS method was developed and validated for the determination of quercetin and kaempferol in rats plasma to assess the oral bioavailability of PLF-PC. The effect of PLF (50mg/kg/d) and PLF-PC (equivalent to PLF 50mg/kg/d) on atherosclerosis rats induced by excessive administration of vitamin D (600,000IU/kg) and cholesterol (0.5g/kg/d) was assessed after orally administered for 4 weeks. The relative bioavailabilities of quercetin and kaempferol in PLF-PC relative to PLF were 242% and 337%, respectively. The levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) in serum were measured by an automatic biochemistry analyzer. The morphological changes of aorta were observed with optical microscopy. According to the levels of biochemical parameters in serum and the morphological changes of aorta, PLF-PC showed better therapeutic efficacy compared to PLF. Thus, PLF-PC holds a promising potential for increasing the oral bioavailability of PLF. Moreover, PLF-PC exerts better therapeutic potential in the treatment of atherosclerotic disease than PLF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rats

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    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  15. A Phospholipid-Protein Complex from Krill with Antioxidative and Immunomodulating Properties Reduced Plasma Triacylglycerol and Hepatic Lipogenesis in Rats

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    Marie S. Ramsvik

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake of marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs can change the plasma profile from atherogenic to cardioprotective. In addition, there is growing evidence that proteins of marine origin may have health benefits. We investigated a phospholipid-protein complex (PPC from krill that is hypothesized to influence lipid metabolism, inflammation, and redox status. Male Wistar rats were fed a control diet (2% soy oil, 8% lard, 20% casein, or diets where corresponding amounts of casein and lard were replaced with PPC at 3%, 6%, or 11% (wt %, for four weeks. Dietary supplementation with PPC resulted in significantly lower levels of plasma triacylglycerols in the 11% PPC-fed group, probably due to reduced hepatic lipogenesis. Plasma cholesterol levels were also reduced at the highest dose of PPC. In addition, the plasma and liver content of n-3 PUFAs increased while n-6 PUFAs decreased. This was associated with increased total antioxidant capacity in plasma and increased liver gene expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (Sod2. Finally, a reduced plasma level of the inflammatory mediator interleukin-2 (IL-2 was detected in the PPC-fed animals. The present data show that PPC has lipid-lowering effects in rats, and may modulate risk factors related to cardiovascular disease progression.

  16. Increasing antioxidant protection during mebendazole and AKβ vitamin complex treatment of experimental trichinellosis in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tolstoy, V.A.; Lytvynets, Andrej; Langrová, I.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2009), s. 145-150 ISSN 0440-6605 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : AKβ vitamin complex * lipid peroxidation process * mebendazole * Trichinella spiralis Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines Impact factor: 0.951, year: 2009

  17. Acupuncture suppresses reinstatement of morphine-seeking behavior induced by a complex cue in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bong Hyo; Lim, Sung Chul; Jeon, Hyeon Jeong; Kim, Jae Su; Lee, Yun Kyu; Lee, Hyun Jong; In, Sunghyun; Kim, Hee Young; Yoon, Seong Shoon; Yang, Chae Ha

    2013-08-26

    Morphine causes physical and psychological dependence for individuals after repeated-use. Above all, our previous study showed that acupuncture attenuated reinstatement of morphine-seeking behavior induced by pharmacological cue. In this study, we investigated whether acupuncture could suppress the reinstatement of morphine-seeking behavior induced by the combination of environmental and pharmacological cues and the possible neuronal involvement. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to self-administer morphine (1.0 mg/kg) for 3 weeks. Following the withdrawal phase (7 days), the effects of acupuncture on reinstatement of morphine-seeking behavior were investigated. For the investigation of neuronal involvement, the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline and the GABAB receptor antagonist SCH 50911 were pre-treated. Morphine-seeking behavior induced by combination of re-exposure to the operant chamber and morphine injection was suppressed perfectly by acupuncture at SI5, but not at the control acupoint LI5 and this effect was blocked by pre-treatment with the GABA receptor antagonists. This study suggests that acupuncture at SI5 can be considered as a predominant therapy for the reinstatement of morphine-seeking behavior in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preparation and biodistribution of [201Tl](III)vancomycin complex in normal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalilian, A.R.; Hosseini, M.A.; Karimian, A.; Saddadi, F.; Sadeghi, M.

    2006-01-01

    Thallium-201 (T 1/2 = 3.04 days) in Tl + form was converted to Tl 3+ cation in presence of O 3 in 6 M HCl controlled by RTLC/gel electrophoresis methods. The final evaporated activity was reacted with vancomycin (VAN) in water to yield [ 201 Tl](III)VAN. The best results were obtained at room temperature in water after 30 min with a radiochemical yield >99%, after mixing the reactants followed by SPE purification using Si Sep-Pak. The studies showed that thallic ion is mostly incorporated into vancomycin with a radiochemical purity of more than 98 ± 1% by RTLC. A specific activity of about 4.14·10 10 Bq/mmol was obtained. Radiochemical purity and stability of 201 Tl-VAN in the preparation and in presence of human serum was determined up to 5.5 days. Biodistribution study of 201 Tl(III)-vancomycin in normal rats was performed up to 52 h. (authors)

  19. Complex neural codes in rat prelimbic cortex are stable across days on a spatial decision task

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    Nathaniel J. Powell

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The rodent prelimbic cortex has been shown to play an important role in cognitive processing, and has been implicated in encoding many different parameters relevant to solving decision-making tasks. However, it is not known how the prelimbic cortex represents all these disparate variables, and if they are simultaneously represented when the task requires it. In order to investigate this question, we trained rats to run the Multiple-T Left Right Alternate (MT-LRA task and recorded multi-unit ensembles from their prelimbic regions. Significant populations of cells in the prelimbic cortex represented the strategy controlling reward receipt on a given lap, whether the animal chose to go right or left on a given lap, and whether the animal made a correct decision or an error on a given lap. These populations overlapped in the cells recorded, with several cells demonstrating differential firing to all three variables. The spatial and strategic firing patterns of individual prelimbic cells were highly conserved across several days of running this task, indicating that each cell encoded the same information across days.

  20. Preliminary studies on gene therapy with TGF β1 antisense gene/liposome complexes and adenovirus transfer vector in RPF rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunjie; Wang Dewen; Zhang Zhaoshan; Gao Yabing; Xiong Chengqi; Long Jianyin; Wang Huixin; Peng Ruiyun; Cui Xuemei

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To observed the efficiency of gene therapy with TGF β1 antisense gene/liposome complexes and adenovirus transfer vector in RPF rats. Methods: TGFβ1 sense and antisense gene expression vectors and adenovirus transfer vector were introduced into rat bronchus by way of intratracheal instillation. Results: At day 1.5 after TGFβ1 sense and antisense gene transfer, PCR amplification using neo gene-specific primer from lung tissue DNA was all positive. After day 5.5, 67% (2/3) of lung tissue DNA was positive. RNA dot blot hybridization indicated that TGFβ1 mRNA content of lung tissue transfected with pMAMneo-antiTGFβ1 gene decreased. Detection of lung hydroxyproline (Hyp) content after day 35 of gene transfer showed that even in lung of rats received pMAMneo-AntiTGFβ1 lipid complexes it raised remarkably (P 9 pfu/ml were instilled into bronchus at 0.5 ml per rat. After day 2 day 6, the lung tissues of all six rats (three per each group )expressed the transfected luciferase gene by luminometer. Conclusion: Cationic lipid-mediated TGFβ1 antisense gene therapy was a simple and easy method. It can slow down the course of pathogenesis of lung fibrosis. Replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus-mediated gene therapy of lung diseases is a good and efficient method

  1. Bisphosphonates Inhibit Pain, Bone Loss, and Inflammation in a Rat Tibia Fracture Model of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liping; Guo, Tian-Zhi; Hou, Saiyun; Wei, Tzuping; Li, Wen-Wu; Shi, Xiaoyou; Clark, J David; Kingery, Wade S

    2016-10-01

    Bisphosphonates are used to prevent the bone loss and fractures associated with osteoporosis, bone metastases, multiple myeloma, and osteogenesis deformans. Distal limb fractures cause regional bone loss with cutaneous inflammation and pain in the injured limb that can develop into complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Clinical trials have reported that antiresorptive bisphosphonates can prevent fracture-induced bone loss, inhibit serum inflammatory cytokine levels, and alleviate CRPS pain. Previously, we observed that the inhibition of inflammatory cytokines or adaptive immune responses attenuated the development of pain behavior in a rat fracture model of CRPS, and we hypothesized that bisphosphonates could prevent pain behavior, trabecular bone loss, postfracture cutaneous cytokine upregulation, and adaptive immune responses in this CRPS model. Rats underwent tibia fracture and cast immobilization for 4 weeks and were chronically administered either subcutaneously perfused alendronate or oral zoledronate. Behavioral measurements included hindpaw von Frey allodynia, unweighting, warmth, and edema. Bone microarchitecture was measured by microcomputed tomography, and bone cellular activity was evaluated by static and dynamic histomorphometry. Spinal cord Fos immunostaining was performed, and skin cytokine (tumor necrosis factor, interleukin [IL]-1, IL-6) and nerve growth factor (NGF) levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Skin and sciatic nerve immunoglobulin levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Rats with tibia fractures developed hindpaw allodynia, unweighting, warmth, and edema, increased spinal Fos expression and trabecular bone loss in the lumbar vertebra and bilateral distal femurs as measured by microcomputed tomography, increased trabecular bone resorption and osteoclast surface with decreased bone formation rates, increased cutaneous inflammatory cytokine and NGF expression, and elevated immunocomplex deposition in skin and nerve

  2. Synthesis of the 99mTc(CO)3-trovafloxacin dithiocarbamate complex and biological characterization in artificially methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infected rats model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Qaiser Shah; Muhammad Rafiullah Khan

    2011-01-01

    Synthesis of the 99m Tc(CO) 3 -trovafloxacin dithiocarbamate ( 99m Tc(CO) 3 -TVND) complex and biological characterization in artificially Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infected rats model was assessed. The suitability of the complex was evaluated and compared with 99m TcN-TVND, in terms of radiochemical immovability in saline, in vitro permanence in serum, in vitro binding with S. aureus and biodistribution in Male Sprague-Dawley rats (MSDR). After 30 min of the reconstitution both the complexes showed maximum radiochemical stabilities in saline and remain more than 90% stable up to 120 min. However the 99m Tc(CO) 3 -TVND showed to some extent higher stability than 99m TcN-TVND complex. In serum 1.75% less de-tagging was observed than 99m TcN-TVND complex. Both the complexes showed saturated in vitro binding with S. aureus and no significant difference were observed between the uptakes. Six fold uptakes were noted in the infected muscle as compared to the inflamed and normal muscles of the MDSR. The uptake of the 99m Tc(CO) 3 -TVND in infected muscle of the MSDR was 2.25% high as compared to the 99m TcN-TVND complex. Based on radiochemical stabilities in saline, serum, in vitro binding with MRSA and significantly higher uptake in the infected muscle, we recommend both the complexes for in vivo investigation of the MRSA infection in human. (author)

  3. Long-Term Supplementation with Beta Serum Concentrate (BSC, a Complex of Milk Lipids, during Post-Natal Brain Development Improves Memory in Rats

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    Jian Guan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that the supplementation of ganglioside-enriched complex-milk-lipids improves cognitive function and that a phospholipid-enriched complex-milk-lipid prevents age-related cognitive decline in rats. This current study evaluated the effects of post-natal supplementation of ganglioside- and phospholipid-enriched complex-milk-lipids beta serum concentrate (BSC on cognitive function in young rats. The diet of male rats was supplemented with either gels formulated BSC (n = 16 or blank gels (n = 16 from post-natal day 10 to day 70. Memory and anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated using the Morris water maze, dark–light boxes, and elevated plus maze tests. Neuroplasticity and white matter were measured using immunohistochemical staining. The overall performance in seven-day acquisition trials was similar between the groups. Compared with the control group, BSC supplementation reduced the latency to the platform during day one of the acquisition tests. Supplementation improved memory by showing reduced latency and improved path efficiency to the platform quadrant, and smaller initial heading error from the platform zone. Supplemented rats showed an increase in striatal dopamine terminals and hippocampal glutamate receptors. Thus BSC supplementation during post-natal brain development improved learning and memory, independent from anxiety. The moderately enhanced neuroplasticity in dopamine and glutamate may be biological changes underlying the improved cognitive function.

  4. The influence of a selenium-chromium-lipid complex obtained from Chlorella vulgaris on the energy metabolism in rats with experimental diabetes

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    O. Y. Lukashiv

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the leading roles in treating diabetes mellitus belongs to chrome ions therapy (III, especially in the complex with selenium (IV. Currently selenium is obtained from unicellular algae, which contain biologically active substances and which are capable of accumulating exogenous microelements. By incubating unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris Biej. in the conditions of aquaculture with sodium selenite (IV and chromium (III chloride, we obtained a biologically active lipid substance which contains selenium and chromium. The substance was tested for the impact on energy metabolism of animals exposed to experimentally induced diabetes mellitus. The diabetes was caused by modeling obesity of the animals with further injection of streptozotocin in the amount of 65 mg/kg and nicotinamide at the dose of 230 mg/kg. The rats were intragastrically injected with 1 ml of 1% starch solution which contained a selenium-chrome-lipid complex extracted from the Chlorella containing 0.6 µg of selenium, 1.05 µg of chrome and 0.5 mg of lipids for prophylactic, therapeutic and prophylactic-therapeutic purposes; the other group of rats for therapeutic purposes was injected with starch solution with the same composition of microelements in inorganic form – sodium selenite (IV and chromium chloride (III. This paper presents the results of our study of the impact of organic and inorganic compounds of chrome and selenium on the energetic metabolism of rats exposed to experimental diabetes mellitus. The analysis determined that in the rats’ organism, the selenium-chrome-lipid complex from the Chlorella improved the indicators of the energetic metabolism – in the group of rats which received it for therapeutic purposes, we observed an up to 7.5 fold increase in the activity of succinate dehydrogenase compared to the rats which did not receive therapeutic treatment. The increase in the activity of succinate dehydrogenase corresponded to the increase in the

  5. Effect of self-assembled peptide–mesenchymal stem cell complex on the progression of osteoarthritis in a rat model

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    Kim JE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ji Eun Kim,1 Sang Mok Lee,2 Soo Hyun Kim,1 Phil Tatman,3 Albert O Gee,4 Deok-Ho Kim,3,5 Kyung Eun Lee,6 Youngmee Jung,1 Sang Jun Kim21Biomaterials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, South Korea; 2Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea; 3Department of Bioengineering, 4Department of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, 5Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine and Center for Cardiovascular Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 6Advanced Analysis Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, South KoreaPurpose: To evaluate the efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs encapsulated in self-assembled peptide (SAP hydrogels in a rat knee model for the prevention of osteoarthritis (OA progression.Materials and methods: Nanostructured KLD-12 SAPs were used as the injectable hydrogels. Thirty-three Sprague Dawley rats were used for the OA model. Ten rats were used for the evaluation of biotin-tagged SAP disappearance. Twenty-three rats were divided into four groups: MSC (n=6, SAP (n=6, SAP-MSC (n=6, and no treatment (n=5. MSCs, SAPs, and SAP-MSCs were injected into the knee joints 3 weeks postsurgery. Histologic examination, immunofluorescent staining, measurement of cytokine levels, and micro-computed tomography analysis were conducted 6 weeks after injections. Behavioral studies were done to establish baseline measurements before treatment, and repeated 3 and 6 weeks after treatment to measure the efficacy of SAP-MSCs.Results: Concentration of biotinylated SAP at week 1 was not significantly different from those at week 3 and week 6 (P=0.565. Bone mineral density was significantly lower in SAP-MSC groups than controls (P=0.002. Significant differences in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling staining between the control group and all other groups were observed. Caspase-8, tissue inhibitor of

  6. Sensory processing of deep tissue nociception in the rat spinal cord and thalamic ventrobasal complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikandar, Shafaq; West, Steven J; McMahon, Stephen B; Bennett, David L; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2017-07-01

    Sensory processing of deep somatic tissue constitutes an important component of the nociceptive system, yet associated central processing pathways remain poorly understood. Here, we provide a novel electrophysiological characterization and immunohistochemical analysis of neural activation in the lateral spinal nucleus (LSN). These neurons show evoked activity to deep, but not cutaneous, stimulation. The evoked responses of neurons in the LSN can be sensitized to somatosensory stimulation following intramuscular hypertonic saline, an acute model of muscle pain, suggesting this is an important spinal relay site for the processing of deep tissue nociceptive inputs. Neurons of the thalamic ventrobasal complex (VBC) mediate both cutaneous and deep tissue sensory processing, but in contrast to the lateral spinal nucleus our electrophysiological studies do not suggest the existence of a subgroup of cells that selectively process deep tissue inputs. The sensitization of polymodal and thermospecific VBC neurons to mechanical somatosensory stimulation following acute muscle stimulation with hypertonic saline suggests differential roles of thalamic subpopulations in mediating cutaneous and deep tissue nociception in pathological states. Overall, our studies at both the spinal (lateral spinal nucleus) and supraspinal (thalamic ventrobasal complex) levels suggest a convergence of cutaneous and deep somatosensory inputs onto spinothalamic pathways, which are unmasked by activation of muscle nociceptive afferents to produce consequent phenotypic alterations in spinal and thalamic neural coding of somatosensory stimulation. A better understanding of the sensory pathways involved in deep tissue nociception, as well as the degree of labeled line and convergent pathways for cutaneous and deep somatosensory inputs, is fundamental to developing targeted analgesic therapies for deep pain syndromes. © 2017 University College London. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals

  7. Lactate up-regulates the expression of lactate oxidation complex-related genes in left ventricular cardiac tissue of rats.

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    Daniele Gabriel-Costa

    Full Text Available Besides its role as a fuel source in intermediary metabolism, lactate has been considered a signaling molecule modulating lactate-sensitive genes involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism. Even though the flux of lactate is significantly high in the heart, its role on regulation of cardiac genes regulating lactate oxidation has not been clarified yet. We tested the hypothesis that lactate would increase cardiac levels of reactive oxygen species and up-regulate the expression of genes related to lactate oxidation complex.Isolated hearts from male adult Wistar rats were perfused with control, lactate or acetate (20mM added Krebs-Henseleit solution during 120 min in modified Langendorff apparatus. Reactive oxygen species (O2●-/H2O2 levels, and NADH and NADPH oxidase activities (in enriched microsomal or plasmatic membranes, respectively were evaluated by fluorimetry while SOD and catalase activities were evaluated by spectrophotometry. mRNA levels of lactate oxidation complex and energetic enzymes MCT1, MCT4, HK, LDH, PDH, CS, PGC1α and COXIV were quantified by real time RT-PCR. Mitochondrial DNA levels were also evaluated. Hemodynamic parameters were acquired during the experiment. The key findings of this work were that lactate elevated cardiac NADH oxidase activity but not NADPH activity. This response was associated with increased cardiac O2●-/H2O2 levels and up-regulation of MCT1, MCT4, LDH and PGC1α with no changes in HK, PDH, CS, COXIV mRNA levels and mitochondrial DNA levels. Lactate increased NRF-2 nuclear expression and SOD activity probably as counter-regulatory responses to increased O2●-/H2O2.Our results provide evidence for lactate-induced up-regulation of lactate oxidation complex associated with increased NADH oxidase activity and cardiac O2●-/H2O2 driving to an anti-oxidant response. These results unveil lactate as an important signaling molecule regulating components of the lactate oxidation complex in

  8. Regional-dependent intestinal permeability and BCS classification: elucidation of pH-related complexity in rats using pseudoephedrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairstein, Moran; Swissa, Rotem; Dahan, Arik

    2013-04-01

    Based on its lower Log P value relative to metoprolol, a marker for the low/high-permeability (P(eff)) class boundary, pseudoephedrine was provisionally classified as BCS low-permeability compound. On the other hand, following oral administration, pseudoephedrine fraction dose absorbed (F(abs)) and systemic bioavailability approaches 100%. This represents a challenge to the generally recognized P(eff)-F(abs) correlation. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the underlying mechanisms behind the confusion in pseudoephedrine's BCS classification. Pseudoephedrine's BCS solubility class was determined, and its physicochemical properties and intestinal permeability were thoroughly investigated, both in vitro and in vivo in rats, considering the complexity of the whole of the small intestine. Pseudoephedrine was found to be unequivocally a high-solubility compound. All of the permeability studies revealed similar phenomenon; at any given intestinal segment/pH, the permeability of metoprolol was higher than that of pseudoephedrine, however, as the intestinal region becomes progressively distal, and the pH gradually increases, pseudoephedrine's permeability rises above that of metoprolol in the former segment. This unique permeability pattern likely explains pseudoephedrine's complete absorption. In conclusion, pseudoephedrine is a BCS Class I compound; no discrepancy between P(eff) and F(abs) is involved in its absorption. Rather, it reflects the complexity behind P(eff) when considering the whole of the intestine. We propose to allow high-permeability classification to drugs with P(eff) that matches/exceeds the low/high class benchmark anywhere throughout the intestinal tract and not restricted necessarily to the jejunum.

  9. Hydroxytyrosol and its complex forms (secoiridoids) modulate aorta and heart proteome in healthy rats: Potential cardio-protective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Úrsula; Rubió, Laura; López de Las Hazas, Maria-Carmen; Herrero, Pol; Nadal, Pedro; Canela, Núria; Pedret, Anna; Motilva, Maria-José; Solà, Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is the major phenolic compound in virgin olive oil (VOO) in both free and complex forms (secoiridoids; SEC). Proteomics of cardiovascular tissues such as aorta or heart represents a promising tool to uncover the mechanisms of action of phenolic compounds in healthy animals. Twelve female Wistar rats were separated into three groups: a standard diet and two diets supplemented in phenolic compounds (HT and SEC) adjusted to 5 mg/kg/day during 21 days. Proteomic analyses of aorta and heart tissues were performed by nano-LC and MS. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used to generate interaction networks. HT or SEC modulated aorta and heart proteome compared to the standard diet. The top-scored networks were related to Cardiovascular System. HT and SEC downregulated proteins related to proliferation and migration of endothelial cells and occlusion of blood vessels in aorta and proteins related to heart failure in heart tissue. SEC showed higher fold change values compared to HT, attributed to higher concentration of HT detected in heart tissue. Changes at proteomic level in cardiovascular tissues may partially account for the underlying mechanisms of VOO phenols cardiovascular protection being the SEC effects higher than free HT. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Role of the parabrachial complex in the cardiorespiratory response evoked from hypothalamic defense area stimulation in the anesthetized rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Casares, Amelia; López-González, Manuel Víctor; Peinado-Aragonés, Carlos Antonio; Lara, José Pablo; González-Barón, Salvador; Dawid-Milner, Marc Stefan

    2009-07-07

    To analyze the role of parabrachial complex (PBc) in the modulation of cardiorespiratory response evoked from the hypothalamic defense area (HDA), cardiorespiratory changes were analyzed in spontaneously breathing anesthetised rats in response to electrical stimulation of the HDA (1 ms pulses, 30-50 microA, 100 Hz for 5 s) before and after the microinjection of muscimol (50 nl, 0.25 nmol, 5 s) within the PBc. HDA stimulation evoked an inspiratory facilitatory response, consisting of an increase in respiratory rate (pHDA stimulation (pHDA stimulation. The respiratory response persisted unchanged. Finally, extracellular recording of putative neurons from these regions were obtained during HDA stimulation to confirm functional interaction between HDA and parabrachial regions. 105 pontine cells were recorded during HDA stimulation, 57 from the lPB and 48 from the mPB-KF. In mPB-KF 34/48 (71%) and in lPB 38/57 (67%) cells were influenced from HDA. The results indicate that neurons from different regions of the PBc have an important function in mediating the cardiorespiratory response evoked from the HDA. The possible mechanisms involved in these interactions are discussed.

  11. Differential numbers of foci of lymphocytes within the brains of Lewis rats exposed to weak complex nocturnal magnetic fields during development of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persinger, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    To discern if specific structures of the rat brain contained more foci of lymphocytes following induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and exposures to weak, amplitude-modulated magnetic fields for 6 min once per hour during the scotophase, the residuals between the observed and predicted values for the numbers of foci for 320 structures were obtained. Compared to the brains of sham-field exposed rats, the brains of rats exposed to 7-Hz 50 nT (0.5 mG) amplitude-modulated fields showed more foci within hippocampal structures and the dorsal central grey of the midbrain while those exposed to 7-Hz 500 nT (5 mG) fields showed greater densities within the hypothalamus and optic chiasm. The brains of rats exposed to either the 50 nT or 500 nT amplitude-modulated 40-Hz fields displayed greater densities of foci within the midbrain structures related to rapid eye movement. Most of the enhancements of infiltrations within the magnetic field-exposed rats occurred in structures within periventricular or periaqueductal regions and were both frequency- and intensity-dependent. The specificity and complexity of the configurations of the residuals of the numbers of infiltrated foci following exposures to the different fields suggest that the brain itself may be a "sensory organ" for the detection of these stimuli.

  12. Expression of vesicular glutamate transporters in peripheral vestibular structures and vestibular nuclear complex of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F X; Pang, Y W; Zhang, M M; Zhang, T; Dong, Y L; Lai, C H; Shum, D K Y; Chan, Y S; Li, J L; Li, Y Q

    2011-01-26

    Glutamate transmission from vestibular end organs to central vestibular nuclear complex (VNC) plays important role in transferring sensory information about head position and movements. Three isoforms of vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) have been considered so far the most specific markers for glutamatergic neurons/cells. In this study, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 were immunohistochemically localized to axon terminals in VNC and somata of vestibular primary afferents in association with their central and peripheral axon endings, and VGLUT1 and VGLUT3 were co-localized to hair cells of otolith maculae and cristae ampullaris. VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 defined three subsets of Scarpa's neurons (vestibular ganglionic neurons): those co-expressing VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 or expressing only VGLUT2, and those expressing neither. In addition, many neurons located in all vestibular subnuclei were observed to contain hybridized signals for VGLUT2 mRNA and a few VNC neurons, mostly scattered in medial vestibular nucleus (MVe), displayed VGLUT1 mRNA labelling. Following unilateral ganglionectomy, asymmetries of VGLUT1-immunoreactivity (ir) and VGLUT2-ir occurred between two VNCs, indicating that the VNC terminals containing VGLUT1 and/or VGLUT2 are partly of peripheral origin. The present data indicate that the constituent cells/neurons along the vestibular pathway selectively apply VGLUT isoforms to transport glutamate into synaptic vesicles for glutamate transmission. © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Basal membrane complex architecture is disrupted during posterior subcapsular cataract formation in Royal College of Surgeons rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies detailing the development of posterior subcapsular cataracts (PSC) in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats have shown that aberrant fiber-end migration underlies the structural compromise. This investigation was conducted to examine the distribution of select basal membrane complex (BMC) components and to assess the intravitreal levels of specific cytokines during PSC formation. Methods Lenses from 52 RCS dystrophic rats (RCS/Lav) and 28 genetically matched control animals (RCS-rdy+/Lav) from 2 to 8 weeks old were used. After enucleation, vitreous was collected for eventual cytokine level analyses; lenses were then removed and processed for immunocytochemical localization of actin, cadherin, β integrin, vinculin, and cell nuclei. Results At 2–3 weeks postnatal, dystrophic lenses showed normal BMC distribution of actin, cadherin, and vinculin; however β integrin distribution was altered as compared to controls. By 4–6 weeks of age, F-actin was visible as bright foci arranged in a “rosette” pattern around fiber-end profiles. Concurrently, vinculin was rearranged into a diffuse pattern within the BMC. Cadherin delineated the fiber ends in dystrophic lenses until 5 weeks postnatal, after which it displayed diffuse cytoplasmic staining with more definitive labeling at the BMC periphery. β integrin was initially distributed as punctuate spots at 2–3 weeks postnatal; however, by 4–6 weeks it was co-localized with F-actin around the periphery of fiber ends. The distribution of F-actin, cadherin, and β integrin components did not undergo further changes after 6 weeks of age; however, vinculin was present predominantly at the periphery of the BMC in 7–8-week-old dystrophic lenses. Intravitreal cytokine levels were assessed for interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and interferon (IFN)-γ. Levels of IL-1α, IL-4, TNF, and IFN-γ demonstrated a similar pattern, with concentrations increasing from 2 to 6

  14. Treatment with albumin-hydroxyoleic acid complex restores sensorimotor function in rats with spinal cord injury: Efficacy and gene expression regulation.

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    Gerardo Avila-Martin

    Full Text Available Sensorimotor dysfunction following incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI is often characterized by paralysis, spasticity and pain. Previously, we showed that intrathecal (i.t. administration of the albumin-oleic acid (A-OA complex in rats with SCI produced partial improvement of these symptoms and that oral 2-hydroxyoleic acid (HOA, a non-hydrolyzable OA analogue, was efficacious in the modulation and treatment of nociception and pain-related anxiety, respectively. Here we observed that intrathecal treatment with the complex albumin-HOA (A-HOA every 3 days following T9 spinal contusion injury improved locomotor function assessed with the Rotarod and inhibited TA noxious reflex activity in Wistar rats. To investigate the mechanism of action of A-HOA, microarray analysis was carried out in the spinal cord lesion area. Representative genes involved in pain and neuroregeneration were selected to validate the changes observed in the microarray analysis by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Comparison of the expression between healthy rats, SCI rats, and SCI treated with A-HOA rats revealed relevant changes in the expression of genes associated with neuronal morphogenesis and growth, neuronal survival, pain and inflammation. Thus, treatment with A-HOA not only induced a significant overexpression of growth and differentiation factor 10 (GDF10, tenascin C (TNC, aspirin (ASPN and sushi-repeat-containing X-linked 2 (SRPX2, but also a significant reduction in the expression of prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES and phospholipases A1 and A2 (PLA1/2. Currently, SCI has very important unmet clinical needs. A-HOA downregulated genes involved with inflammation and upregulated genes involved in neuronal growth, and may serve to promote recovery of function after experimental SCI.

  15. GABAergic Neurons in the Rat Medial Septal Complex Express Relaxin-3 Receptor (RXFP3 mRNA

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    Hector Albert-Gascó

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The medial septum (MS complex modulates hippocampal function and related behaviors. Septohippocampal projections promote and control different forms of hippocampal synchronization. Specifically, GABAergic and cholinergic projections targeting the hippocampal formation from the MS provide bursting discharges to promote theta rhythm, or tonic activity to promote gamma oscillations. In turn, the MS is targeted by ascending projections from the hypothalamus and brainstem. One of these projections arises from the nucleus incertus in the pontine tegmentum, which contains GABA neurons that co-express the neuropeptide relaxin-3 (Rln3. Both stimulation of the nucleus incertus and septal infusion of Rln3 receptor agonist peptides promotes hippocampal theta rhythm. The Gi/o-protein-coupled receptor, relaxin-family peptide receptor 3 (RXFP3, is the cognate receptor for Rln3 and identification of the transmitter phenotype of neurons expressing RXFP3 in the septohippocampal system can provide further insights into the role of Rln3 transmission in the promotion of septohippocampal theta rhythm. Therefore, we used RNAscope multiplex in situ hybridization to characterize the septal neurons expressing Rxfp3 mRNA in the rat. Our results demonstrate that Rxfp3 mRNA is abundantly expressed in vesicular GABA transporter (vGAT mRNA- and parvalbumin (PV mRNA-positive GABA neurons in MS, whereas ChAT mRNA-positive acetylcholine neurons lack Rxfp3 mRNA. Approximately 75% of Rxfp3 mRNA-positive neurons expressed vGAT mRNA (and 22% were PV mRNA-positive, while the remaining 25% expressed Rxfp3 mRNA only, consistent with a potential glutamatergic phenotype. Similar proportions were observed in the posterior septum. The occurrence of RXFP3 in PV-positive GABAergic neurons gives support to a role for the Rln3-RXFP3 system in septohippocampal theta rhythm.

  16. α-MSH Influences the Excitability of Feeding-Related Neurons in the Hypothalamus and Dorsal Vagal Complex of Rats

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    Hong-Zai Guan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH is processed from proopiomelanocortin (POMC and acts on the melanocortin receptors, MC3 and MC4. α-MSH plays a key role in energy homeostasis. In the present study, to shed light on the mechanisms by which α-MSH exerts its anorectic effects, extracellular neuronal activity was recorded in the hypothalamus and the dorsal vagal complex (DVC of anesthetized rats. We examined the impact of α-MSH on glucose-sensing neurons and gastric distension (GD sensitive neurons. In the lateral hypothalamus (LHA, α-MSH inhibited 75.0% of the glucose-inhibited (GI neurons. In the ventromedial nucleus (VMN, most glucose-sensitive neurons were glucose-excited (GE neurons, which were mainly activated by α-MSH. In the paraventricular nucleus (PVN, α-MSH suppressed the majority of GI neurons and excited most GE neurons. In the DVC, among the 20 GI neurons examined for a response to α-MSH, 1 was activated, 16 were depressed, and 3 failed to respond. Nineteen of 24 GE neurons were activated by α-MSH administration. Additionally, among the 42 DVC neurons examined for responses to GD, 23 were excited (GD-EXC and 19 were inhibited (GD-INH. Fifteen of 20 GD-EXC neurons were excited, whereas 11 out of 14 GD-INH neurons were suppressed by α-MSH. All these responses were abolished by pretreatment with the MC3/4R antagonist, SHU9119. In conclusion, the activity of glucose-sensitive neurons and GD-sensitive neurons in the hypothalamus and DVC can be modulated by α-MSH.

  17. Effect of IgG subclasses on in vivo bioavailability and metabolic fate of immune-complexed insulin in Lewis rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arquilla, E.R.; Stenger, D.; McDougall, B.; Ulich, T.R.

    1987-01-01

    The bioavailability, distribution, and metabolic fate of 125 I-labeled insulin complexed to antibodies in guinea pig antiserum, purified guinea pig IgG1, IgG2, a mixture of IgG1 and IgG2, and homologous Lou/m rat antiserum were studied in inbred Lewis rats. 125 I-insulin complexed to purified guinea pig IgG2 antibodies was rapidly cleared from the blood and sequestered in increasing amounts with time in the liver. Large amounts of the 125 I-insulin complexed to guinea pig IgG1 antibodies remained in the blood for at least 30 min. The bioavailability of 125 I-insulin bound to IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies was inhibited for at least 30 min because significantly less was available for rapid binding to insulin receptors on hepatocytes and renal tubular cells and its subsequent rapid degradation. The bioavailability of 125 I-insulin was further decreased when bound to antibodies in native guinea pig antiserum or a mixture of IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies compared with the 125 I-insulin complexed to either purified IgG1 or IgG2 antibodies alone. The 125 I-insulin bound to antibodies in native guinea pig antiserum or a mixture of IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies was distributed in vivo in a manner reflecting the relative concentrations of the IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies present. The bioavailability, distribution, and metabolic fate of 125 I-insulin in immune complexes prepared with homologous Lou/m rat insulin antiserum was qualitatively similar to that observed with immune complexes prepared with guinea pig insulin antiserum. It appears that the Lewis rat can be used as an in vivo model to study the bioavailability,distribution,and metabolic fate of insulin bound to xenogenic or homologous insulin antibodies

  18. Transport and biotransformation of the new cytostatic complex cis-diammineplatinum(II)-chlorocholylglycinate (Bamet-R2) by the rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, R I; Monte, M J; El-Mir, M Y; Villanueva, G R; Marin, J J

    1998-09-01

    Rat liver uptake and bile output of the cytostatic complex cis-diammineplatinum(II)-chlorocholylglycinate (Bamet-R2) were studied. Up to 100 microM, Bamet-R2 uptake by rat hepatocytes in primary culture followed saturation kinetics (Vmax = 0.65 +/- 0.12 nmol/5 min per mg protein; K(M) = 45.2 +/- 10.7 microM). Bamet-R2 uptake was lower than that of cholylglycinate (CG) but higher than that of cisplatin. Replacement of 116 mM NaCl by 116 mM choline chloride did not significantly reduce Bamet-R2 uptake. Addition of 500 microM CG, cholic acid, estrone sulfate, or ouabain to 50 microM Bamet-R2-containing incubation media inhibited Bamet-R2 uptake. No liver biotransformation of Bamet-R2 occurred, as indicated by HPLC analysis of bile collected from anesthetized rats after intravenous administration of the drug. Bamet-R2 uptake and secretion into bile by isolated rat livers exceeded those of cisplatin but were lower than those of CG. Differences between Bamet-R2 and CG were more marked for bile output than for liver uptake. Thus, higher Bamet-R2 than CG or cisplatin liver content was found. Co-administration of Bamet-R2 and CG revealed that CG induced a slight reduction in Bamet-R2 uptake and a marked inhibition in Bamet-R2 bile output. By contrast, Bamet-R2 had no effect on CG on either liver uptake or bile output. In sum, the present data indicate that Bamet-R2 is efficiently taken up and secreted into bile by the rat liver by mechanisms shared in part by natural bile acids.

  19. Proteomic screen for multiprotein complexes in synaptic plasma membrane from rat hippocampus by blue native gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuanwen; Xie, Chunliang; Jin, Qihui; Liu, Mingjun; He, Quanyuan; Cao, Rui; Lin, Yong; Li, Jianglin; Li, Yan; Chen, Ping; Liang, Songping

    2009-07-01

    Neuronal synapses are specialized sites for information exchange between neurons. Many diseases, such as addiction and mood disorders, likely result from altered expression of synaptic proteins, or altered formation of synaptic complexes involved in neurotransmission or neuroplasticity. A detailed description of native multiprotein complexes in synaptic plasma membranes (PM) is therefore essential for understanding biological mechanisms and disease processes. For the first time in this study, two-dimensional Blue Native/SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, combined with tandem mass spectrometry, was used to screen multiprotein complexes in synaptic plasma membranes from rat hippocampus. As a result, 514 unique proteins were identified, of which 36% were integral membrane proteins. In addition, 19 potentially novel and known heterooligomeric multiprotein complexes were found, such as the SNARE and ATPase complexes. A potentially novel protein complex, involving syntaxin, synapsin I and Na+/K+ ATPase alpha-1, was further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence staining. As demonstrated here, Blue Native-PAGE is a powerful tool for the separation of hydrophobic membrane proteins. The combination of Blue Native-PAGE and mass spectrometry could systematically identify multiprotein complexes.

  20. INTEGRATED QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF CHANGES IN NEURO-ENDOCRINE-IMMUNE COMPLEX AND METABOLISM IN RATS EXPOSED TO ACUTE COLD-IMMOBILIZATION STRESS

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    Sydoruk O Sydoruk

    2016-09-01

        Abstracts Background. It is known that the reaction of the neuroendocrine-immune complex to acute and chronic stress are different. It is also known about sex differences in stress reactions. Previously we have been carry out integrated quantitative estimation of neuroendocrine and immune responses to chronic restraint stress at male rats. The purpose of this study - to carry out integrated quantitative estimation of neuroendocrine, immune and metabolic responses to acute stress at male and female rats. Material and research methods. The experiment is at 58 (28 male and 30 female white rats Wistar line weighing 170-280 g (Mean=220 g; SD=28 g. The day after acute (water immersion restraint stress determined HRV, endocrine, immune and metabolic parameters as well as gastric mucosa injuries and comparing them with parameters of intact animals. Results. Acute cold-immobilization stress caused moderate injuries the stomach mucosa as erosions and ulcers. Among the metabolic parameters revealed increased activity Acid Phosphatase, Asparagine and Alanine Aminotranspherase as well as Creatinephosphokinase. It was also found to reduce plasma Testosterone as well as serum Potassium and Phosphate probably due to increased Parathyrine and Mineralocorticoid activity and Sympathotonic shift of sympatho-vagal balance. Integrated quantitative measure manifestations of Acute Stress as mean of modules of Z-Scores makes for 10 metabolic parameters 0,75±0,10 σ and for 8 neuro-endocrine parameters 0,40±0,07 σ. Among immune parameters some proved resistant to acute stress factors, while 10 significant suppressed and 12 activated. Integrated quantitative measure poststressory changes makes 0,73±0,08 σ. Found significant differences integrated status intact males and females, whereas after stress differences are insignificant. Conclusion. The approach to integrated quantitative assessment of neuroendocrine-immune complex and metabolism may be useful for testing the

  1. Isolation, purification, and partial characterization of a membrane-bound Cl-/HCO3--activated ATPase complex from rat brain with sensitivity to GABAAergic ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzikov, Sergey A

    2017-02-07

    This study describes the isolation and purification of a protein complex with [Formula: see text]-ATPase activity and sensitivity to GABA A ergic ligands from rat brain plasma membranes. The ATPase complex was enriched using size-exclusion, affinity, and ion-exchange chromatography. The fractions obtained at each purification step were subjected to SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), which revealed four subunits with molecular mass ∼48, 52, 56, and 59 kDa; these were retained at all stages of the purification process. Autoradiography revealed that the ∼52 and 56 kDa subunits could bind [ 3 H]muscimol. The [Formula: see text]-ATPase activity of this enriched protein complex was regulated by GABA A ergic ligands but was not sensitive to blockers of the NKCC or KCC cotransporters.

  2. Liposome-encapsulated EF24-HPβCD inclusion complex: a preformulation study and biodistribution in a rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agashe, H.; Lagisetty, P.; Sahoo, K.; Bourne, D.; Grady, B.; Awasthi, V.

    2011-01-01

    3,5-Bis(2-fluorobenzylidene)-4-piperidone (EF24) is an anti-proliferative diphenyldifluoroketone analog of curcumin with more potent activity. The authors describe a liposome preparation of EF24 using a “drug-in-CD-in liposome” approach. An aqueous solution of EF24 and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) inclusion complex (IC) was used to prepare EF24 liposomes. The liposome size was reduced by a combination of multiple freeze–thaw cycles. Co-encapsulation of glutathione inside the liposomes conferred them with the capability of labeling with imageable radionuclide Tc-99m. Phase solubility analysis of EF24-HPβCD mixture provided k 1:1 value of 9.9 M −1 . The enhanced aqueous solubility of EF24 (from 1.64 to 13.8 mg/mL) due to the presence of HPβCD helped in the liposome preparation. About 19% of the EF24 IC was encapsulated inside the liposomes (320.5 ± 2.6 nm) by dehydration–rehydration technique. With extrusion technique, the size of 177 ± 6.5 nm was obtained without any effect on encapsulation efficiency. The EF24-liposomes were evaluated for anti-proliferative activity in lung adenocarcinoma H441 and prostate cancer PC-3 cells. The EF24-liposomes demonstrated anti-proliferative activity superior to that of plain EF24 at 10 μM dose. When injected in rats, the Tc-99m-labeled EF24-liposomes cleared from blood with an α-t 1/2 of 21.4 min and β-t 1/2 of 397 min. Tissue radioactivity counting upon necropsy showed that the majority of clearance was due to the uptake in liver and spleen. The results suggest that using “drug-in-CD-in liposome” approach is a feasible strategy to formulate an effective parenteral preparation of EF24. In vitro studies show that the liposomal EF24 remains anti-proliferative, while presenting an opportunity to image its biodistribution.

  3. Liposome-encapsulated EF24-HPβCD inclusion complex: a preformulation study and biodistribution in a rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agashe, H.; Lagisetty, P.; Sahoo, K.; Bourne, D.; Grady, B.; Awasthi, V.

    2011-06-01

    3,5-Bis(2-fluorobenzylidene)-4-piperidone (EF24) is an anti-proliferative diphenyldifluoroketone analog of curcumin with more potent activity. The authors describe a liposome preparation of EF24 using a "drug-in-CD-in liposome" approach. An aqueous solution of EF24 and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) inclusion complex (IC) was used to prepare EF24 liposomes. The liposome size was reduced by a combination of multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Co-encapsulation of glutathione inside the liposomes conferred them with the capability of labeling with imageable radionuclide Tc-99m. Phase solubility analysis of EF24-HPβCD mixture provided k 1:1 value of 9.9 M-1. The enhanced aqueous solubility of EF24 (from 1.64 to 13.8 mg/mL) due to the presence of HPβCD helped in the liposome preparation. About 19% of the EF24 IC was encapsulated inside the liposomes (320.5 ± 2.6 nm) by dehydration-rehydration technique. With extrusion technique, the size of 177 ± 6.5 nm was obtained without any effect on encapsulation efficiency. The EF24-liposomes were evaluated for anti-proliferative activity in lung adenocarcinoma H441 and prostate cancer PC-3 cells. The EF24-liposomes demonstrated anti-proliferative activity superior to that of plain EF24 at 10 μM dose. When injected in rats, the Tc-99m-labeled EF24-liposomes cleared from blood with an α- t 1/2 of 21.4 min and β- t 1/2 of 397 min. Tissue radioactivity counting upon necropsy showed that the majority of clearance was due to the uptake in liver and spleen. The results suggest that using "drug-in-CD-in liposome" approach is a feasible strategy to formulate an effective parenteral preparation of EF24. In vitro studies show that the liposomal EF24 remains anti-proliferative, while presenting an opportunity to image its biodistribution.

  4. Liposome-encapsulated EF24-HP{beta}CD inclusion complex: a preformulation study and biodistribution in a rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agashe, H; Lagisetty, P; Sahoo, K; Bourne, D [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences (United States); Grady, B [School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering (United States); Awasthi, V [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences (United States)

    2011-06-15

    3,5-Bis(2-fluorobenzylidene)-4-piperidone (EF24) is an anti-proliferative diphenyldifluoroketone analog of curcumin with more potent activity. The authors describe a liposome preparation of EF24 using a 'drug-in-CD-in liposome' approach. An aqueous solution of EF24 and hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HP{beta}CD) inclusion complex (IC) was used to prepare EF24 liposomes. The liposome size was reduced by a combination of multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Co-encapsulation of glutathione inside the liposomes conferred them with the capability of labeling with imageable radionuclide Tc-99m. Phase solubility analysis of EF24-HP{beta}CD mixture provided k{sub 1:1} value of 9.9 M{sup -1}. The enhanced aqueous solubility of EF24 (from 1.64 to 13.8 mg/mL) due to the presence of HP{beta}CD helped in the liposome preparation. About 19% of the EF24 IC was encapsulated inside the liposomes (320.5 {+-} 2.6 nm) by dehydration-rehydration technique. With extrusion technique, the size of 177 {+-} 6.5 nm was obtained without any effect on encapsulation efficiency. The EF24-liposomes were evaluated for anti-proliferative activity in lung adenocarcinoma H441 and prostate cancer PC-3 cells. The EF24-liposomes demonstrated anti-proliferative activity superior to that of plain EF24 at 10 {mu}M dose. When injected in rats, the Tc-99m-labeled EF24-liposomes cleared from blood with an {alpha}-t{sub 1/2} of 21.4 min and {beta}-t{sub 1/2} of 397 min. Tissue radioactivity counting upon necropsy showed that the majority of clearance was due to the uptake in liver and spleen. The results suggest that using 'drug-in-CD-in liposome' approach is a feasible strategy to formulate an effective parenteral preparation of EF24. In vitro studies show that the liposomal EF24 remains anti-proliferative, while presenting an opportunity to image its biodistribution.

  5. Liposome-encapsulated EF24-HP{beta}CD inclusion complex: a preformulation study and biodistribution in a rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agashe, H.; Lagisetty, P.; Sahoo, K.; Bourne, D. [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences (United States); Grady, B. [School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering (United States); Awasthi, V., E-mail: vawasthi@ouhsc.edu [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences (United States)

    2011-06-15

    3,5-Bis(2-fluorobenzylidene)-4-piperidone (EF24) is an anti-proliferative diphenyldifluoroketone analog of curcumin with more potent activity. The authors describe a liposome preparation of EF24 using a 'drug-in-CD-in liposome' approach. An aqueous solution of EF24 and hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HP{beta}CD) inclusion complex (IC) was used to prepare EF24 liposomes. The liposome size was reduced by a combination of multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Co-encapsulation of glutathione inside the liposomes conferred them with the capability of labeling with imageable radionuclide Tc-99m. Phase solubility analysis of EF24-HP{beta}CD mixture provided k{sub 1:1} value of 9.9 M{sup -1}. The enhanced aqueous solubility of EF24 (from 1.64 to 13.8 mg/mL) due to the presence of HP{beta}CD helped in the liposome preparation. About 19% of the EF24 IC was encapsulated inside the liposomes (320.5 {+-} 2.6 nm) by dehydration-rehydration technique. With extrusion technique, the size of 177 {+-} 6.5 nm was obtained without any effect on encapsulation efficiency. The EF24-liposomes were evaluated for anti-proliferative activity in lung adenocarcinoma H441 and prostate cancer PC-3 cells. The EF24-liposomes demonstrated anti-proliferative activity superior to that of plain EF24 at 10 {mu}M dose. When injected in rats, the Tc-99m-labeled EF24-liposomes cleared from blood with an {alpha}-t{sub 1/2} of 21.4 min and {beta}-t{sub 1/2} of 397 min. Tissue radioactivity counting upon necropsy showed that the majority of clearance was due to the uptake in liver and spleen. The results suggest that using 'drug-in-CD-in liposome' approach is a feasible strategy to formulate an effective parenteral preparation of EF24. In vitro studies show that the liposomal EF24 remains anti-proliferative, while presenting an opportunity to image its biodistribution.

  6. Biochemical indicators of nephrotoxicity in blood serum of rats treated with novel 4-thiazolidinone derivatives or their complexes with polyethylene glycol-containing nanoscale polymeric carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Kоbylinska

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect of new synthetic 4-thiazolidinone derivatives (potential anticancer compounds denoted as 3882, 3288 and 3833 and doxorubicin (positive control in free form and in their complexes with synthetic polyethylene glycol-containing nanoscale polymeric carrier on the biochemical indicators of nephrotoxicity in blood serum of rats. The concentration of total protein, urea, creatinine, glucose, ions of sodium, potassium, calcium, iron and chloride was measured. It was found that after injection of the investigated compounds, the concentration of sodium cations and chloride anions in blood serum was increased compared with control (untreated animals. Doxorubicin’s injection was accompanied by a decrease in the concentration of iron cations. The concentration of total protein, urea and creatinine decreased under the influence of the studied compounds. Complexation of these аntineoplastic substances with a synthetic polymeric nanocarrier lowered the concentration of the investigated metabolites substantially compared to the effect of these compounds in free form. The normalization of concentration of total protein, urea and creatinine in blood serum of rats treated with complexes of the studied compounds with the polymeric carrier comparing with increased concentration of these indicators at the introduction of such compounds in free form was found.

  7. Neuroprotective Effects of Kolaviron, a Biflavonoid Complex of Garcinia kola, on Rats Hippocampus against Methamphetamine-Induced Neurotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Ijomone, Omamuyovwi M.; Nwoha, Polycarp U.; Olaibi, Olayemi K.; Obi, Augustine U.; Alese, Margaret O.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the protective effects of kolaviron on brain weight and behavioural performance and the histology of the hippocampus of adult Wistar rats following methamphetamine challenge.Materials and Methods: Twenty four adult Wistar rats weighing between 150-200 g, randomly assigned into four groups of six each (Groups A, B, C, D) were used for this research. Group A served as control, while groups B and C were given single dose methamphetamine (10 mg/kg) intraperitoneally after grou...

  8. In vivo binding and autoradiographic imaging of (+)-3-[125I]Iodo-MK-801 to the NMDA receptor-channel complex in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.E.; Burns, H.D.; Thorpe, H.H.; Waisi Eng; Ransom, R.; Solomon, H.

    1992-01-01

    Radioiodinated (+)-3-Iodo-MK-801 is a high affinity radioligand for the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-channel complex. We have demonstrated in vivo localization in the CNS of rat which is stereoselective and blocked by coinjection of unlabeled MK-801. Autoradiography indicates localization in vivo which is in concordance with in vitro autoradiographic studies. These results indicate that radioiodinated (+)-3-Iodo-MK-801 is a useful probe for in vitro and in vivo autoradiographic studies and suggest that radioligands for the NMDA receptor may be developed which will provide in vivo images of receptor distribution in man. (author)

  9. Ferrous sulfate, but not iron polymaltose complex, aggravates local and systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toblli JE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Jorge E Toblli, Gabriel Cao, Margarita Angerosa Laboratory of Experimental Medicine, Hospital Alemán, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina Background and aims: Iron deficiency is common in inflammatory bowel disease, yet oral iron therapy may worsen the disease symptoms and increase systemic and local oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of oral ferrous sulfate and iron polymaltose complex on inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in colitic rats.Methods: Animals were divided into four groups with ten animals each. Rats of three groups received dextran sodium sulfate to induce colitis and animals of two of these groups received 5 mg iron/kg of body weight a day, as ferrous sulfate or iron polymaltose complex, for 7 days. Gross colon anatomy, histology of colon and liver, stainings of L-ferritin, Prussian blue, hepcidin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6, as well serum levels of liver enzymes, inflammatory markers, and iron markers, were assessed.Results: Body weight, gross anatomy, crypt injury and inflammation scores, inflammatory parameters in liver and colon, as well as serum and liver hepcidin levels were not significantly different between colitic animals without iron treatment and colitic animals treated with iron polymaltose complex. In contrast, ferrous sulfate treatment caused significant worsening of these parameters. As opposed to ferrous sulfate, iron polymaltose complex caused less or no additional oxidative stress in the colon and liver compared to colitic animals without iron treatment.Conclusion: Iron polymaltose complex had negligible effects on colonic tissue erosion, local or systemic oxidative stress, and local or systemic inflammation, even at high therapeutic doses, and may thus represent a valuable oral treatment of iron deficiency in inflammatory bowel disease. Keywords: preclinical, oral iron treatment, tolerability, colonic tissue erosion

  10. ANP promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells by NPRA/PGRMC1/EGFR complex and improves ovary functions of PCOS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qin; Li, Yulin; Zhang, Dandan; Cui, Xinyuan; Dai, Kuixing; Yang, Yu; Liu, Shuai; Tan, Jichun; Yan, Qiu

    2017-10-26

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complicated reproductive endocrine disease characterized by polycystic ovaries, hyperandrogenism and anovulation. It is one of the main causes of infertility. RU486 is an antagonist of progesterone receptor, and most commonly used as a contraceptive. However, whether RU486 is correlated with PCOS remains unclear. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a small peptide with natriuretic and diuretic functions, and its availability to be used in PCOS treatment is unknown. Here, we showed that the serum ANP level was lower in PCOS patients than that in healthy women, and it was also decreased in the serum and ovarian tissues of RU486-induced PCOS rats compared with the control rats. We also found that RU486 inhibited the proliferation and promoted the apoptosis of human KGN ovarian granulosa cells by downregulating progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1). Meantime, ANP promoted the proliferation and inhibited the apoptosis of KGN cells through upregulating ANP receptor A (NPRA). The promotive effects of ANP on ovarian functions were mediated through the formation of an NPRA/PGRMC1/EGFR complex, which further activated MAPK/ERK signaling and transcription factor AP1. Moreover, ANP treatment reversed the PCOS symptoms, and improved the fertility of RU486-induced PCOS rats. Collectively, these findings highlight that RU486 is associated with the pathogenesis of PCOS, and ANP treatment may be a promising therapeutic option for PCOS.

  11. Comparative study of c-Fos expression in rat dorsal vagal complex and nucleus ambiguus induced by different durations of restraint water-immersion stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Yu; Cao, Guo-Hong; Zhu, Wen-Xing; Cui, Xi-Yun; Ai, Hong-Bin

    2009-06-30

    Restraint water-immersion stress (RWIS) of rats induces vagally-mediated gastric dysfunction. The present work explored the effects of different durations of RWIS on neuronal activities of the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) and the nucleus ambiguous (NA) in rats. Male Wistar rats were exposed to RWIS for 0, 30, 60, 120, or 180 min. Then, a c-Fos immunoperoxidase technique was utilized to assess neuronal activation. Resumptively, c-Fos expression in DVC and NA peaked at 60 min of stress, subsequently decreased gradually with increasing durations of RWIS. Interestingly, the most intense c-Fos expression was observed in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) during the stress, followed by NA, nucleus of solitary tract (NTS) and area postrema (AP). The peak of c-Fos expression in caudal DMV appeared at 120 min of the stress, slower than that in rostral and intermediate DMV. The c-Fos expression in intermediate and caudal NTS was significantly more intense than that in rostral NTS. These results indicate that the neuronal hyperactivity of DMV, NA, NTS and AP, the primary center that control gastric functions, especially DMV and NA, may play an important role in the disorders of gastric motility and secretion induced by RWIS.

  12. Role of major histocompatibility complex class II in the development of autoimmune type 1 diabetes and thyroiditis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, N; Hidaka, S; Tanabe, S; Ohya, M; Ishima, M; Takagi, Y; Masui, N; Seino, S

    2012-01-01

    Although the MHC class II ‘u' haplotype is strongly associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in rats, the role of MHC class II in the development of tissue-specific autoimmune diseases including T1D and autoimmune thyroiditis remains unclear. To clarify this, we produced a congenic strain carrying MHC class II ‘a' and ‘u' haplotypes on the Komeda diabetes-prone (KDP) genetic background. The u/u homozygous animals developed T1D similar to the original KDP rat; a/u heterozygous animals did develop T1D but with delayed onset and low frequency. In contrast, none of the a/a homozygous animals developed T1D; about half of the animals with a/u heterozygous or a/a homozygous genotypes showed autoimmune thyroiditis. To investigate the role of genetic background in the development of thyroiditis, we also produced a congenic strain carrying Cblb mutation of the KDP rat on the PVG.R23 genetic background (MHC class II ‘a' haplotype). The congenic rats with homozygous Cblb mutation showed autoimmune thyroiditis without T1D and slight to severe alopecia, a clinical symptom of hypothyroidism such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis. These data indicate that MHC class II is involved in the tissue-specific development of autoimmune diseases, including T1D and thyroiditis. PMID:21918539

  13. Complex plastic changes in the neuropeptide Y system during ethanol intoxication and withdrawal in the rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olling, J D; Ulrichsen, J; Christensen, D Z

    2009-01-01

    and NPY-stimulated [(35)S]GTPgammaS functional binding. Rats received intragastric ethanol repeatedly for 4 days, and the NPY system was studied in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), CA3, CA1, and piriform cortex (PirCx) and neocortex (NeoCx) during intoxication, peak withdrawal (16 hr), late withdrawal...

  14. Influence of physiologically active complex isolated from human amnion on lipid peroxide oxidation state and antioxidant activity of blood in rats after irradiation in different doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borshchevs'ka, M.Yi.; Popov, V.V.; Abramova, L.P.; Kuz'myinova, Yi.A.

    1995-01-01

    The authors have studied the influence of physiologically active complex isolated from human amnion on the state of lipid peroxide oxidation according to diene conjugate and malonic dialdehyde amount and antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase and glutationperoxidase) in the blood of the rats exposed to single total irradiation in different doses (4 and 6 Gy) was studied. Definite changes of peroxide process intensity and reduction of the enzymes activity were shown to be observed in the blood of experimental animals even at long terms after the radiation exposure. Under the background of radiation exposure, administration of physiologically active complex isolated from human amnion produced protective effect on antioxidant enzyme activity which promoted normalization of peroxidation processes within the post-radiation period

  15. Vitamin B complex attenuated heat hyperalgesia following infraorbital nerve constriction in rats and reduced capsaicin in vivo and in vitro effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopruszinski, Caroline M; Reis, Renata C; Bressan, Elisangela; Reeh, Peter W; Chichorro, Juliana G

    2015-09-05

    Vitamins of the B complex attenuate some neuropathic pain sensory aspects in various animal models and in patients, but the mechanisms underlying their effects remain to be elucidated. Herein it was investigated if the treatment with a vitamin B complex (VBC) reduces heat hyperalgesia in rats submitted to infraorbital nerve constriction and the possibility that TRPV1 receptors represent a target for B vitamins. In the present study, the VBC refers to a combination of vitamins B1, B6 and B12 at low- (18, 18 and 1.8mg/kg, respectively) or high- (180, 180 and 18mg/kg, respectively) doses. Acute treatment of rats with either the low- or the high-doses combination reduced heat hyperalgesia after nerve injury, but the high-doses combination resulted in a long-lasting effect. Repeated treatment with the low-dose combination reduced heat hyperalgesia on day four after nerve injury and showed a synergist effect with a single injection of carbamazepine (3 or 10mg/kg), which per se failed to modify the heat threshold. In naïve rats, acute treatment with the high-dose of VBC or B1 and B12 vitamins independently reduced heat hyperalgesia evoked by capsaicin (3µg into the upper lip). Moreover, the VBC, as well as, each one of the B vitamins independently reduced the capsaicin-induced calcium responses in HEK 293 cells transiently transfected with the human TRPV1 channels. Altogether, these results indicate that B vitamins can be useful to control heat hyperalgesia associated with trigeminal neuropathic pain and that modulation of TRPV1 receptors may contribute to their anti-hyperalgesic effects. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. The effects of chromium complex and level on glucose metabolism and memory acquisition in rats fed high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Kazim; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Orhan, Cemal; Agca, Can A; Sahin, Nurhan; Guvenc, Mehmet; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Staniek, Halina; Hayirli, Armagan

    2011-11-01

    Conditions in which glucose metabolism is impaired due to insulin resistance are associated with memory impairment. It was hypothesized that supplemental chromium (Cr) may alleviate insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes and consequently improve memory acquisition, depending upon its source and level. In a complete randomized design experiment, male Wistar rats (n=60; weighing 200-220 g) were fed either normal (8%, normal diet (ND)) or high-fat (40%, high-fat diet (HFD)) diet and supplemented with Cr as either chromium-glycinate (CrGly) or chromium-acetate (CrAc) at doses of 0, 40, or 80 μg/kg body weight (BW) via drinking water from 8 to 20 weeks of age. Feeding HFD induced type 2 diabetes, as reflected by greater glucose/insulin ratio (2.98 vs. 2.74) comparing to feeding ND. Moreover, HFD rats had greater BW (314 vs. 279 g) and less serum (53 vs. 68 μg/L) and brain (14 vs. 24 ng/g) Cr concentrations than ND rats. High-fat diet caused a 32% reduction in expressions of glucose transporters 1 and 3 (GLUTs) in brain tissue and a 27% reduction in mean percentage time spent in the target quadrant and a 38% increase in spatial memory acquisition phase (SMAP) compared with ND. Compared with supplemental Cr as CrAc, CrGly was more effective to ameliorate response variables (i.e., restoration of tissue Cr concentration, enhancement of cerebral GLUTs expressions, and reduction of the glucose/insulin ratio and SMAP) in a dose-response manner, especially in rats fed HFD. Supplemental Cr as CrGly may have therapeutic potential to enhance insulin action and alleviate memory acquisition in a dose-dependent manner, through restoring tissue Cr reserve and enhancing cerebral GLUTs expressions.

  17. Voxel Scale Complex Networks of Functional Connectivity in the Rat Brain: Neurochemical State Dependence of Global and Local Topological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Schwarz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Network analysis of functional imaging data reveals emergent features of the brain as a function of its topological properties. However, the brain is not a homogeneous network, and the dependence of functional connectivity parameters on neuroanatomical substrate and parcellation scale is a key issue. Moreover, the extent to which these topological properties depend on underlying neurochemical changes remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated both global statistical properties and the local, voxel-scale distribution of connectivity parameters of the rat brain. Different neurotransmitter systems were stimulated by pharmacological challenge (d-amphetamine, fluoxetine, and nicotine to discriminate between stimulus-specific functional connectivity and more general features of the rat brain architecture. Although global connectivity parameters were similar, mapping of local connectivity parameters at high spatial resolution revealed strong neuroanatomical dependence of functional connectivity in the rat brain, with clear differentiation between the neocortex and older brain regions. Localized foci of high functional connectivity independent of drug challenge were found in the sensorimotor cortices, consistent with the high neuronal connectivity in these regions. Conversely, the topological properties and node roles in subcortical regions varied with neurochemical state and were dependent on the specific dynamics of the different functional processes elicited.

  18. Complexation as an approach to entrap cationic drugs into cationic nanoparticles administered intranasally for Alzheimer's disease management: preparation and detection in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafy, Amira S; Farid, Ragwa M; ElGamal, Safaa S

    2015-01-01

    Complexation was investigated as an approach to enhance the entrapment of the cationic neurotherapeutic drug, galantamine hydrobromide (GH) into cationic chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs) for Alzheimer's disease management intranasally. Biodegradable CS-NPs were selected due to their low production cost and simple preparation. The effects of complexation on CS-NPs physicochemical properties and uptake in rat brain were examined. Placebo CS-NPs were prepared by ionic gelation, and the parameters affecting their physicochemical properties were screened. The complex formed between GH and chitosan was detected by the FT-IR study. GH/chitosan complex nanoparticles (GH-CX-NPs) were prepared by ionic gelation, and characterized in terms of particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, in vitro release and stability for 4 and 25 °C for 3 months. Both placebo CS-NPs and GH-CX-NPs were visualized by transmission electron microscopy. Rhodamine-labeled GH-CX-NPs were prepared, administered to male Wistar rats intranasally, and their delivery to different brain regions was detected 1 h after administration using fluorescence microscopy and software-aided image processing. Optimized placebo CS-NPs and GH-CX-NPs had a diameter 182 and 190 nm, and a zeta potential of +40.4 and +31.6 mV, respectively. GH encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity were 23.34 and 9.86%, respectively. GH/chitosan complexation prolonged GH release (58.07% ± 6.67 after 72 h), improved formulation stability at 4 °C in terms of drug leakage and particle size, and showed insignificant effects on the physicochemical properties of the optimized placebo CS-NPs (p > 0.05). Rhodamine-labeled GH-CX-NPs were detected in the olfactory bulb, hippocampus, orbitofrontal and parietal cortices. Complexation is a promising approach to enhance the entrapment of cationic GH into the CS-NPs. It has insignificant effect on the physicochemical properties of CS-NPs. GH-CX-NPs were successfully

  19. DWI and complex brain network analysis predicts vascular cognitive impairment in spontaneous hypertensive rats undergoing executive function tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier eLópez-Gil

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The identification of biomarkers of vascular cognitive impairment is urgent for its early diagnosis. The aim of this study was to detect and monitor changes in brain structure and connectivity, and to correlate them with the decline in executive function. We examined the feasibility of early diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging to predict cognitive impairment before onset in an animal model of chronic hypertension: Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Cognitive performance was tested in an operant conditioning paradigm that evaluated learning, memory and behavioral flexibility skills. Behavioral tests were coupled with longitudinal diffusion weighted imaging acquired with 126 diffusion gradient directions and 0.3 mm3 isometric resolution at 10, 14, 18, 22, 26 and 40 weeks after birth. Diffusion weighted imaging was analyzed in 2 different ways, by regional characterization of diffusion tensor imaging indices, and by assessing changes in structural brain network organization based on Q-Ball tractography. Already at the first evaluated times, diffusion tensor imaging scalar maps revealed significant differences in many regions, suggesting loss of integrity in white and grey matter of spontaneously hypertensive rats when compared to normotensive control rats. In addition, graph theory analysis of the structural brain network demonstrated a significant decrease of hierarchical modularity, global and local efficacy, with predictive value as shown by regional 3-fold cross validation study. Moreover, these decreases were significantly correlated with the behavioral performance deficits observed at subsequent time points, suggesting that the diffusion weighted imaging and connectivity studies can unravel neuroimaging alterations even overt signs of cognitive impairment become apparent.

  20. Biodistribution and excretion of radioactivity after the administration of 166Ho-chitosan complex (DW-166HC) into the prostate of rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Seung Kyoo; Ryu, Jei Man; Bae, Eun Jeong; Shin, Dong Hyuk; Shigematsu, Akiyo; Hatori, Yasuhiko; Nishigaki, Junko; Kwak, Cheol; Lee, Sang Eun; Park, Kyong Bae

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the fate of the 166 Ho-chitosan complex (DW-166HC) in rats by examining its absorption, distribution and excretion after administration into the prostate. About 100 μCi of DW-166HC [containing 0.1875 mg of Ho(NO 3 ) 3 .5H 2 O and 0.25 mg of chitosan] was administered intraprostatically. The level of radioactivity in blood, urinary and faecal excretion, and radioactivity distribution were examined. To determine the effect of chitosan in DW-166HC, 166 Ho nitrate alone [0.1875 mg of Ho(NO 3 ) 3 .5H 2 O] was administered into the prostate of male rats, and radioactivity distribution was examined using whole-body autoradiography. After administration of DW-166HC into the prostate, cumulative urinary and faecal excretion over the period 0-72 h was 0.35% and 0.11%, respectively. The radioactivity at the administration site was extremely high at all time points up to 144 h (>98% of injected dose). The small amount of radioactivity which did transfer from the administration site distributed mainly to the liver, spleen, kidney cortex and bone. Compared with the DW-166HC group, the group that received 166 Ho nitrate alone displayed three- to fourfold higher levels of radioactivity in the main tissues, including liver, spleen, kidney cortex and bone, at 24 h after administration (P<0.05). (orig.)

  1. Processing of spatial and non-spatial information in rats with lesions of the medial and lateral entorhinal cortex: Environmental complexity matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodo, Christophe; Sargolini, Francesca; Save, Etienne

    2017-03-01

    The entorhinal-hippocampal circuitry has been suggested to play an important role in episodic memory but the contribution of the entorhinal cortex remains elusive. Predominant theories propose that the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) processes spatial information whereas the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) processes non spatial information. A recent study using an object exploration task has suggested that the involvement of the MEC and LEC spatial and non-spatial information processing could be modulated by the amount of information to be processed, i.e. environmental complexity. To address this hypothesis we used an object exploration task in which rats with excitotoxic lesions of the MEC and LEC had to detect spatial and non-spatial novelty among a set of objects and we varied environmental complexity by decreasing the number of objects or amount of object diversity. Reducing diversity resulted in restored ability to process spatial and non-spatial information in MEC and LEC groups, respectively. Reducing the number of objects yielded restored ability to process non-spatial information in the LEC group but not the ability to process spatial information in the MEC group. The findings indicate that the MEC and LEC are not strictly necessary for spatial and non-spatial processing but that their involvement depends on the complexity of the information to be processed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis of 99mTcV ≡ N-Pazufloxacin dithiocarbamate complex and biological evaluation in Wister rats artificially infected with Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Qaiser Shah; Muhammad Rafiullah Khan

    2011-01-01

    99m Tc ≡ N-Pazufloxacin dithiocarbamate ( 99m Tc ≡ N-PZN) complex was synthesized through the [ 99m Tc ≡ N] 2+ core and its aptness was radiochemically and biologically evaluated in terms of radiochemical purity (RCP) in saline, in vitro stability in serum, in vitro bacterial uptake and percent in vivo uptake in male Wister rats (MWR) artificially infected with alive and heat killed Escherichia coli (E. coli). The 99m Tc ≡ N-PZN complex showed more than 90% RCP up to 4 h after reconstitution in normal saline at room temperature with a maximum RCP value of 98.40 ± 0.28% (at 30 min). At 37 deg C in serum the complex showed stable behaviour up to 4 h with the appearance of 15.95% undesirable by products within 16 h of the incubation. The complex showed saturated in vitro binding with E. coli with a maximum uptake of 74.25 ± 0.50% (at 90 min). Normal biodistribution behaviour was noted with a sixfold higher accumulation in the muscle of the MWR, artificially infected with live E. coli as compared to the MWR infected with heat killed E. coli, inflamed and normal muscle. The high RCP in saline, elevated in vitro stability in serum, saturated in vitro binding with E. coli and the sixfold higher accumulation in the infected (live) muscle of the MWR as compared to the inflamed and normal muscle, recognized the aptness of the 99m Tc ≡ N-PZND complex as a prospective E. coli in vivo infection radiotracer. (author)

  3. Studies on the mechanisms of activation of potassium efflux and receptor-cytoskeleton association by aggregated immunoglobulin E-receptor complexes on rat basophilic leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrecque, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    Evidence for the activation of an outwardly-directed K + permeability pathway was obtained by studying changes in plasma membrane potential that result from the aggregation of immunoglobulin E-complexes on rat basophilic leukemia cells. With the potential-sensitive dye, bisoxonol, we observe that activation by multivalent antigen causes membrane depolarization that is followed by a return towards the resting potential that we term repolarization. The depolarization response may reflect a Ca 2+ influx pathway, and it exhibits the same antigen-dose dependence and temperature dependence as the degranulation response. The polarization phase of the membrane potential response is selectively inhibited by the K + channel blockers quinidine and Ba 2+ in parallel with their inhibition of the degranulation response, suggesting an important role for a K + efflux pathway in antigen-stimulated degranulation. 86 Rb + efflux measurements were used to characterize the K + permeability pathways responsible for the repolarization response

  4. Chemopreventive evaluation of a Schiff base derived copper (II) complex against azoxymethane-induced colorectal cancer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajrezaie, Maryam; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Gwaram, Nura Suleiman; Golbabapour, Shahram; Najihussien, Abdrabuh; Almagrami, Amel Abdullah; Zahedifard, Maryam; Rouhollahi, Elham; Karimian, Hamed; Fani, Somaye; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    Based on the potential of Schiff base compounds to act as sources for the development of cancer chemotherapeutic agents, this in vivo study was performed to investigate the inhibitory properties of the synthetic Schiff base compound Cu(BrHAP)2 on colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF). This study involved five groups of male rats. The negative control group was injected with normal saline once a week for 2 weeks and fed 10% Tween 20 for 10 weeks, the cancer control group was subcutaneously injected with 15 mg/kg azoxymethane once per week for two consecutive weeks, the positive control group was injected with 15 mg/kg azoxymethane once per week for two consecutive weeks and 35 mg/kg 5-fluorouracil (injected intra-peritoneally) for 4 weeks, and the experimental groups were first injected with 15 mg/kg azoxymethane once per week for two consecutive weeks and then fed 2.5 or 5 mg/kg of the Schiff base compound once a day for 10 weeks. Application of the Schiff base compound suppressed total colonic ACF formation by up to 72% to 74% (P<0.05) when compared with the cancer control group. Analysis of colorectal specimens revealed that treatments with the Schiff base compound decreased the mean crypt scores in azoxymethane-treated rats. Significant elevations of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities and a reduction in the level of malondialdehyde were also observed. Histologically, all treatment groups exhibited significant decreases in dysplasia compared to the cancer control group (P<0.05). Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated down-regulation of the PCNA protein. Comparative western blot analysis revealed that COX-2 and Bcl2 were up-regulated and Bax was down-regulated compared with the AOM control group. The current study demonstrated that the Cu(BrHAP)2 compound has promising chemoprotective activities that are evidenced by significant decreases in the numbers of ACFs in azoxymethane-induced colon cancer.

  5. Electroencephalographic changes in the lateral septum complex following systemic administration of DES-TYR1 -[alpha]-endorphin, Des-Tyr1-[gamma]-endorphin and haloperidol in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, I.J.A.; Wied, D. de

    1982-01-01

    The influence of systemically administered Des-Tyr1-α-endorphin (DTαE), Des-Tyr1-γ-endorphin (DTγE) and haloperidol on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity of the lateral septum complex (LSC) and the frontal cortex was studied in male rats. DTαE (2 μg) significantly increased whereas DTγE (10 μg)

  6. Quantification of extracellular levels of corticosterone in the basolateral amygdaloid complex of freely-moving rats: a dialysis study of circadian variation and stress-induced modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchez, Gaëlle; Millan, Mark J; Rivet, Jean-Michel; Billiras, Rodolphe; Boulanger, Raphaël; Gobert, Alain

    2012-05-03

    Corticosterone influences emotion and cognition via actions in a diversity of corticolimbic structures, including the amygdala. Since extracellular levels of corticosterone in brain have rarely been studied, we characterized a specific and sensitive enzymatic immunoassay for microdialysis quantification of corticosterone in the basolateral amygdaloid complex of freely-moving rats. Corticosterone levels showed marked diurnal variation with an evening (dark phase) peak and stable, low levels during the day (light phase). The "anxiogenic agents", FG7142 (20 mg/kg) and yohimbine (10 mg/kg), and an environmental stressor, 15-min forced-swim, induced marked and sustained (1-3 h) increases in dialysis levels of corticosterone in basolateral amygdaloid complex. They likewise increased dialysis levels of dopamine and noradrenaline, but not serotonin and GABA. As compared to basal corticosterone levels of ~200-300 pg/ml, the elevation provoked by forced-swim was ca. 20-fold and this increase was abolished by adrenalectomy. Interestingly, stress-induced rises of corticosterone levels in basolateral amygdaloid complex were abrogated by combined but not separate administration of the corticotrophin releasing factor(1) (CRF(1)) receptor antagonist, CP154,526, and the vasopressin(1b) (V(1b)) receptor antagonist, SSR149,415. Underpinning their specificity, they did not block forced-swim-induced elevations in dopamine and noradrenaline. In conclusion, extracellular levels of corticosterone in the basolateral amygdaloid complex display marked diurnal variation. Further, they are markedly elevated by acute stressors, the effects of which are mediated (in contrast to concomitant elevations in levels of monoamines) by co-joint recruitment of CRF(1) and V(1b) receptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Studies on the distribution of platinum in tumour-bearing rats after the administration of platinum co-ordination complexes used in cancer chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeisler, R.; Lux, F.; Beck, W.

    1979-01-01

    Platinum co-ordination complexes like dichlorodiamineplatinum(II) (DDP) feature broad spectrum antitumour activity which, however, is marred by a certain toxicity related especially to renal tubular damage. The activity of such drugs depends on the chemical structure of the complexes, with changes in the ligands resulting in changes in their antitumour activity and toxicity. Assessments of the biological and toxicological effects of recently synthesized complexes must include distribution studies of platinum in the body. It is demonstrated that instrumental neutron activation analysis can be used for these studies because of its accuracy, precision and the low detection limit for platinum (approximately equal to 2 ng), when a standardized method is used. The time-dependent retention of platinum was determined in blood, liver, kidneys and cells of ascitic Walker 256 carcinosarcoma in tumour-bearing rats and controls after the administration of the cis-Pt(Gly-Gly-0Et) 2 Cl 2 complex. Two series of experiments, one with the therapeutic amount of the drug (80 mg/kg body weight) and one low-dose experiment with 1/100 of this amount, were carried out. The results of both experiments are discussed with regard to changes in the platinum concentration with time (0-48 h) in the different samples. From the data a selective uptake of the drug by the tumour cells, causing their destruction, is deduced. Because this drug has shown excellent antitumour activity, this observed selectivity suggests promise for its application in cancer chemotherapy, although platinum retention is still found in the kidneys, which might cause renal tubular damage. This latter aspect requires further clinical research to evaluate fully its effects. (author)

  8. Regulation of hepatic branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) regulates branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism at the level of branched chain alpha-ketoacid (BCKA) catabolism. It has been demonstrated that the activity of hepatic BCKDC is markedly decreased in type 2 diabetic animal...

  9. The Mr 30,000-33,000 major protein components of the lateral elements of synaptonemal complexes of the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, H.

    1999-01-01

    Synaptonemal complexes (SCs) are intranuclear structures which are formed during meiotic prophase between homologous chromosomes. The SC consists of two protein-rich axes, either of which is found at the basis of one of the homologous chromosomes. These axes, called lateral elements (LEs),

  10. Coping with stress in rats and mice : Differential peptidergic modulation of the amygdala-lateral septum complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, J.M.; Everts, H.G J; de Ruiter, A.J.H.; de Boer, S.F.; Bohus, B.G J

    1998-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the parvicellular vasopressin (VP) system originating from the medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). The vasopressinergic fibers of these nuclei innervate a number of limbic brain areas including the septum-hippocampal complex.

  11. Phospho-eNOS Ser-1176 is associated with the nucleoli and the Golgi complex in C6 rat glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinz, Franz-Josef; Herberg, Natalie; Arnhold, Stefan; Addicks, Klaus; Bloch, Wilhelm

    2007-06-29

    Enzymatic activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is controlled by posttranslational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and subcellular localization. For example, N-terminal fatty acid modifications target eNOS to the Golgi complex where it becomes phosphorylated. We show here by immunofluorescence analysis that phospho-eNOS Ser-1176 is enriched in the perinuclear region of interphase C6 rat glioma cells. Confocal double immunofluorescence microscopy with the Golgi marker protein 58K revealed that phospho-eNOS Ser-1176 is associated with the Golgi complex. Surprisingly, we observed several spots in the nucleus of C6 cells that were positive for phospho-eNOS Ser-1176. Confocal double immunofluorescence analysis with the nucleolus marker protein fibrillarin revealed that within the nucleus phospho-eNOS Ser-1176 is exclusively associated with the nucleoli. It is known that in mitotic cells nucleoli are lost during prophase and rebuild during telophase. In agreement with this, we find no nucleoli-like distribution of phospho-eNOS Ser-1176 in metaphase and anaphase C6 glioma cells. Our finding that phospho-eNOS Ser-1176 is selectively associated with the nucleoli points to a so far unknown role for eNOS in interphase glioma cells.

  12. (/sup 3/H)MK-801 labels a site on the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel complex in rat brain membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, E H; Knight, A R; Woodruff, G N

    1988-01-01

    The potent noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist (/sup 3/H)MK-801 bound with nanomolar affinity to rat brain membranes in a reversible, saturable, and stereospecific manner. The affinity of (/sup 3/H)MK-801 was considerably higher in 5 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.4) than in previous studies using Krebs-Henseleit buffer. (/sup 3/H)MK-801 labels a homogeneous population of sites in rat cerebral cortical membranes with KD of 6.3 nM and Bmax of 2.37 pmol/mg of protein. This binding was unevenly distributed among brain regions, with hippocampus greater than cortex greater than olfactory bulb = striatum greater than medulla-pons, and the cerebellum failing to show significant binding. Detailed pharmacological characterization indicated (/sup 3/H)MK-801 binding to a site which was competitively and potently inhibited by known noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists, such as phencyclidine, thienylcyclohexylpiperidine (TCP), ketamine, N-allylnormetazocine (SKF 10,047), cyclazocine, and etoxadrol, a specificity similar to sites labelled by (/sup 3/H)TCP. These sites were distinct from the high-affinity sites labelled by the sigma receptor ligand (+)-(/sup 3/H)SKF 10,047. (/sup 3/H)MK-801 binding was allosterically modulated by the endogenous NMDA receptor antagonist Mg2+ and by other active divalent cations. These data suggest that (/sup 3/H)MK-801 labels a high-affinity site on the NMDA receptor channel complex, distinct from the NMDA recognition site, which is responsible for the blocking action of MK-801 and other noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists.

  13. Encapsulation of rat bone marrow stromal cells using a poly-ion complex gel of chitosan and succinylated poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumastuti, Yuni; Shibasaki, Yoshiaki; Hirohara, Shiho; Kobayashi, Mime; Terada, Kayo; Ando, Tsuyoshi; Tanihara, Masao

    2017-03-01

    Encapsulation of stem cells into a three-dimensional (3D) scaffold is necessary to achieve tissue regeneration. Prefabricated 3D scaffolds, such as fibres or porous sponges, have limitations regarding homogeneous cell distribution. Hydrogels that can encapsulate cells such as animal-derived collagen gels need adjustment of the pH and/or temperature upon cell mixing. In this report, we fabricated a poly-ion complex (PIC) hydrogel of chitosan and succinylated poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly) and assessed its effect on cell viability after encapsulation of rat bone marrow stromal cells. PIC hydrogels were obtained successfully with a concentration of each precursor as low as 3.0-3.8 mg/ml. The maximum gelation and swelling ratios were achieved with an equal molar ratio (1:1) of anionic and cationic groups. Using chitosan acetate as a cationic precursor produced a PIC hydrogel with both a significantly greater gelation ratio and a better swelling ratio than chitosan chloride. Ammonium succinylated poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly) as an anionic precursor gave similar gelation and swelling ratios to those of sodium succinylated poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly). Cell encapsulation was also achieved successfully by mixing rat bone marrow stromal cells with the PIC hydrogel simultaneously during its formation. The PIC hydrogel was maintained in the culture medium for 7 days at 37°C and the encapsulated cells survived and proliferated in it. Although it is necessary to improve its functionality, this PIC hydrogel has the potential to act as a 3D scaffold for cell encapsulation and tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Corticofugal projections induce long-lasting effects on somatosensory responses in the trigeminal complex of the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel eNunez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The sensory information flow at subcortical relay stations is controlled by the action of topographic connections from the neocortex. To determinate the functional properties of the somatosensory corticofugal projections to the principal (Pr5 and caudal spinal (Sp5C trigeminal nuclei, we performed unitary recordings in anesthetized rats. To examine the effect of these cortical projections we used tactile stimulation of the whisker and electrical stimulation of somatosensory cortices. Corticofugal anatomical projections to Pr5 and Sp5C nuclei were detected by using retrograde fluorescent tracers. Neurons projecting exclusively to Pr5 were located in the cingulate cortex while neurons projecting to both Sp5C and Pr5 nuclei were located in the somatosensory and insular cortices (>75% of neurons. Physiological results indicated that primary somatosensory cortex produced a short-lasting facilitating or inhibiting effects (< 5 minutes of tactile responses in Pr5 nucleus through activation of NMDA glutamatergic or GABAA receptors since effects were blocked by iontophoretically application of APV and bicuculline, respectively. In contrast, stimulation of secondary somatosensory cortex did not affect most of the Pr5 neurons; however both cortices inhibited the nociceptive responses in the Sp5C nucleus through activation of glycinergic or GABAA receptors because effects were blocked by iontophoretically application of strychnine and bicuculline, respectively. These and anatomical results demonstrated that the somatosensory cortices projects to Pr5 nucleus to modulate tactile responses by excitatory and inhibitory actions, while projections to the Sp5C nucleus control nociceptive sensory transmission by only inhibitory effects. Thus, somatosensory cortices may modulate innocuous and noxious inputs simultaneously, contributing to the perception of specifically tactile or painful sensations.

  15. Chemoprevention of Colonic Aberrant Crypt Foci by Novel Schiff Based Dichlorido(4-Methoxy-2-{[2-(Piperazin-4-Ium-1-Yl)Ethyl]Iminomethyl}Phenolate)Cd Complex in Azoxymethane-Induced Colorectal Cancer in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajrezaie, Maryam; Shams, Keivan; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Karimian, Hamed; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Emtyazjoo, Mozhgan; Zahedifard, Maryam; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2015-01-01

    Schiff-based complexes as a source of cancer chemotherapeutic compounds have been subjected to the variety of anticancer studies. The in-vitro analysis confirmed the CdCl2(C14H21N3O2) complex possess cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction properties in colon cancer cells, so lead to investigate the inhibitory efficiency of the compound on colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Five groups of adult male rats were used in this study: Vehicle, cancer control, positive control groups and the groups treated with 25 and 50 mg/kg of complex for 10 weeks. The rats in vehicle group were injected subcutaneously with 15 mg/kg of sterile normal saline once a week for 2 weeks and orally administered with 5% Tween-20 (5 ml/kg) for 10 weeks, other groups were injected subcutaneously with 15 mg/kg azoxymethane once a week for 2 weeks. The rats in positive groups were injected intra-peritoneally with 35 mg/kg 5-Flourouracil four times in a month. Administration of the complex suppressed total colonic ACF formation up to 73.4% (P < 0.05). The results also showed that treatment with the complex significantly reduced the level of malondialdehyde while increasing superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Furthermore, the down-regulation of PCNA and Bcl2 and the up-regulation of Bax was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. PMID:26201720

  16. Elevated levels of mitochonrial respiratory complexes activities and ATP production in 17-β-estradiol-induced prolactin-secretory tumor cells in male rats are inhibited by melatonin in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao-Qiang; Yang, Quan-Hui; Xu, Rong-Kun; Xu, Jian-Ning

    2013-01-01

    Our earlier studies indicate that melatonin inhibits the proliferation of prolactinoma and induces apoptosis of pituitary prolactin-secreting tumor in rats. Melatonin has also been shown to induce apoptosis and to reduce the production of ATP in breast tumor cells. This study analyzed the levels of the four mitochondrial respiratory complexes and the production of ATP and also the effects of melatonin treatment of prolactinoma. In the in vivo study, mitochondria were harvested from control pituitaries or prolactinoma collected from the pituitaries of melatonin- and 17-β-estradiol (E2)-treated male rats. In the in vitro study, prolactinoma cells mitochondria were harvested. Activities of the four mitochondrial respiratory complexes were assayed using fluorometer. ATP production of prolactinoma cells was estimated using bioluminescent methods. Elevated levels of four mitochondrial respiratory complexes activities and ATP production were recorded in prolactinoma cells. Moreover, in both in vivo and in vitro studies, melatonin inhibited the activities of mitochondrial respiratory complexes and the production of ATP in prolactinoma cells. There is a link between mitochondrial function increase and tumorigenesis. Melatonin induces apoptosis of pituitary prolactin-secreting tumor of rats via the induction of mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibition of energy metabolism.

  17. Unilateral vestibular deafferentation-induced changes in calcium signaling-related molecules in the rat vestibular nuclear complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumura, Chisako; Horii, Arata; Mitani, Kenji; Kitahara, Tadashi; Uno, Atsuhiko; Kubo, Takeshi

    2007-03-23

    Inquiries into the neurochemical mechanisms of vestibular compensation, a model of lesion-induced neuronal plasticity, reveal the involvement of both voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCC) and intracellular Ca(2+) signaling. Indeed, our previous microarray analysis showed an up-regulation of some calcium signaling-related genes such as the alpha2 subunit of L-type calcium channels, calcineurin, and plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase 1 (PMCA1) in the ipsilateral vestibular nuclear complex (VNC) following unilateral vestibular deafferentation (UVD). To further elucidate the role of calcium signaling-related molecules in vestibular compensation, we used a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to confirm the microarray results and investigated changes in expression of these molecules at various stages of compensation (6 h to 2 weeks after UVD). We also investigated the changes in gene expression during Bechterew's phenomenon and the effects of a calcineurin inhibitor on vestibular compensation. Real-time PCR showed that genes for the alpha2 subunit of VGCC, PMCA2, and calcineurin were transiently up-regulated 6 h after UVD in ipsilateral VNC. A subsequent UVD, which induced Bechterew's phenomenon, reproduced a complete mirror image of the changes in gene expressions of PMCA2 and calcineurin seen in the initial UVD, while the alpha2 subunit of VGCC gene had a trend to increase in VNC ipsilateral to the second lesion. Pre-treatment by FK506, a calcineurin inhibitor, decelerated the vestibular compensation in a dose-dependent manner. Although it is still uncertain whether these changes in gene expression are causally related to the molecular mechanisms of vestibular compensation, this observation suggests that after increasing the Ca(2+) influx into the ipsilateral VNC neurons via up-regulated VGCC, calcineurin may be involved in their synaptic plasticity. Conversely, an up-regulation of PMCA2, a brain-specific Ca(2+) pump, would increase an efflux of Ca

  18. Differential gene expression patterns in developing sexually dimorphic rat brain regions exposed to antiandrogenic, estrogenic, or complex endocrine disruptor mixtures: glutamatergic synapses as target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtensteiger, Walter; Bassetti-Gaille, Catherine; Faass, Oliver; Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Christiansen, Sofie; Rehrauer, Hubert; Georgijevic, Jelena Kühn; Hass, Ulla; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Schlumpf, Margret

    2015-04-01

    The study addressed the question whether gene expression patterns induced by different mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) administered in a higher dose range, corresponding to 450×, 200×, and 100× high-end human exposure levels, could be characterized in developing brain with respect to endocrine activity of mixture components, and which developmental processes were preferentially targeted. Three EDC mixtures, A-Mix (anti-androgenic mixture) with 8 antiandrogenic chemicals (di-n-butylphthalate, diethylhexylphthalate, vinclozolin, prochloraz, procymidone, linuron, epoxiconazole, and DDE), E-Mix (estrogenic mixture) with 4 estrogenic chemicals (bisphenol A, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate, and butylparaben), a complex mixture, AEP-Mix, containing the components of A-Mix and E-Mix plus paracetamol, and paracetamol alone, were administered by oral gavage to rat dams from gestation day 7 until weaning. General developmental endpoints were not affected by EDC mixtures or paracetamol. Gene expression was analyzed on postnatal day 6, during sexual brain differentiation, by exon microarray in medial preoptic area in the high-dose group, and by real-time RT-PCR in medial preoptic area and ventromedial hypothalamus in all dose groups. Expression patterns were mixture, sex, and region specific. Effects of the analgesic drug paracetamol, which exhibits antiandrogenic activity in peripheral systems, differed from those of A-Mix. All mixtures had a strong, mixture-specific impact on genes encoding for components of excitatory glutamatergic synapses and genes controlling migration and pathfinding of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, as well as genes linked with increased risk of autism spectrum disorders. Because development of glutamatergic synapses is regulated by sex steroids also in hippocampus, this may represent a general target of ECD mixtures.

  19. Targeting the D1-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex reduces L-dopa-induced dyskinesia in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned Parkinson’s rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song L

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Lu Song,1,* Zhanzhao Zhang,2,* Rongguo Hu,1 Jie Cheng,1 Lin Li,1 Qinyi Fan,1 Na Wu,1 Jing Gan,1 Mingzhu Zhou,1 Zhenguo Liu11Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital, 2Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai 9th People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa remains the most effective therapy for Parkinson’s disease (PD, but its long-term administration is associated with the development of debilitating motor complications known as L-dopa-induced dyskinesia (LID. Enhanced function of dopamine D1 receptor (D1R and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR is believed to participate in the pathogenesis of LID. Given the existence of physical and functional interactions between D1R and NMDAR, we explored the effects of uncoupling D1R and NMDA GluN1 (GluN1 interaction on LID by using the Tat-conjugated interfering peptide (Tat-D1-t2. In this study, we demonstrated in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA-lesioned PD rat model that intrastriatal injection of Tat-D1-t2 alleviated dyskinetic behaviors and downregulated the phosphorylation of DARPP-32 at Thr34 induced by levodopa. Moreover, we also showed intrastriatal administration of Tat-D1-t2 elicited alterations in membranous GluN1 and D1R expression. These findings indicate that D1R/GluN1 complexes may be a molecular target with therapeutic potential for the treatment of dyskinesia in Parkinson’s patients.Keywords: 6-hydroxydopamine, Parkinson’s disease, dyskinesia, L-dopa, D1 receptor, NMDA, protein–protein interaction

  20. The preBötzinger complex as a hub for network activity along the ventral respiratory column in the neonate rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourévitch, Boris; Mellen, Nicholas

    2014-09-01

    In vertebrates, respiratory control is ascribed to heterogeneous respiration-modulated neurons along the Ventral Respiratory Column (VRC) in medulla, which includes the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC), the putative respiratory rhythm generator. Here, the functional anatomy of the VRC was characterized via optical recordings in the sagittaly sectioned neonate rat hindbrain, at sampling rates permitting coupling estimation between neuron pairs, so that each neuron was described using unitary, neuron-system, and coupling attributes. Structured coupling relations in local networks, significantly oriented coupling in the peri-inspiratory interval detected in pooled data, and significant correlations between firing rate and expiratory duration in subsets of neurons revealed network regulation at multiple timescales. Spatially averaged neuronal attributes, including coupling vectors, revealed a sharp boundary at the rostral margin of the preBötC, as well as other functional anatomical features congruent with identified structures, including the parafacial respiratory group and the nucleus ambiguus. Cluster analysis of attributes identified two spatially compact, homogenous groups: the first overlapped with the preBötC, and was characterized by strong respiratory modulation and dense bidirectional coupling with itself and other groups, consistent with a central role for the preBötC in respiratory control; the second lay between preBötC and the facial nucleus, and was characterized by weak respiratory modulation and weak coupling with other respiratory neurons, which is congruent with cardiovascular regulatory networks that are found in this region. Other groups identified using cluster analysis suggested that networks along VRC regulated expiratory duration, and the transition to and from inspiration, but these groups were heterogeneous and anatomically dispersed. Thus, by recording local networks in parallel, this study found evidence for respiratory regulation at

  1. Spectroscopic studies and thermal analysis of mononuclear metal complexes with moxifloxacin and 2,2‧-bipyridine and their effects on acute lung injury induced by hydrochloric acid in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hamid, S. M. Abd; El-Demerdash, R. S.; Arafat, H. F. H.; Sadeek, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    The article describes the interaction of Y(III), Zr(IV), La(III), Ce(IV) and U(VI) with moxifloxacin hydrochloride and 2,2‧-bipyridine. Characterization of complexes was made by elemental analyses, molar conductivity, magnetic moment measurements and spectral measurements e.g. IR, UV-Vis., 1H NMR and mass as well as thermal analyses (TG and DTG). The molar conductivity shows that the complexes are electrolytes nature. Spectroscopic investigation of the solid complexes studied here indicate that moxifloxacin hydrochloride and 2,2‧-bipyridine are coordinated to the metal ions in a neutral bidentate manner. After complete characterization, the chemical formulae of the complexes were established. The calculated bond length and force constant, F(Udbnd O), in the uranyl complex are 1.756 Å and 637.90 Nm-1, respectively. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were determined using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger equations. Establishment of hydrochloric acid that induce acute lung injury (ALI) in rats by intratracheal administration through damaging the alveolar epithelium and activation of the neutrophil and subsequent oxidative stress by increasing malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and neutrophil, which were confirmed by histopathological investigation while decreasing in antioxidant enzymes and lymphocytes. Whereas treatment with mixed-ligand metal complexes significantly decrease MDA, TNF-α and neutrophils and increase antioxidant and lymphocytes.

  2. Model studies for evaluating the neurobehavioral effects of complex hydrocarbon solvents. II. Neurobehavioral effects of white spirit in rat and human

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.H.C.M.; Emmen, H.H.; Muijser, H.; Hoogendijk, E.M.G.; McKee, R.H.; Owen, D.E.; Kulig, B.M.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of hydrocarbon solvents and to establish a working model for extrapolating animal test data to humans, studies were conducted which involved inhalation exposure of rats and humans to white spirit (WS). The specific objectives of these studies were to evaluate

  3. Subcutaneous administration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II/IGF binding protein-2 complex stimulates bone formation and prevents loss of bone mineral density in a rat model of disuse osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Cheryl A.; Johnstone, Edward W.; Turner, Russell T.; Evans, Glenda L.; John Ballard, F. John; Doran, Patrick M.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2002-01-01

    Elevated serum levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) and a precursor form of IGF-II are associated with marked increases in bone formation and skeletal mass in patients with hepatitis C-associated osteosclerosis. In vitro studies indicate that IGF-II in complex with IGFBP-2 has high affinity for bone matrix and is able to stimulate osteoblast proliferation. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of the IGF-II/IGFBP-2 complex to increase bone mass in vivo. Osteopenia of the femur was induced by unilateral sciatic neurectomy in rats. At the time of surgery, 14-day osmotic minipumps containing vehicle or 2 microg IGF-II+9 microg IGFBP-2/100g body weight/day were implanted subcutaneously in the neck. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were taken the day of surgery and 14 days later using a PIXImus small animal densitometer. Neurectomy of the right hindlimb resulted in a 9% decrease in right femur BMD (Ploss in BMD was completely prevented by treatment with IGF-II/IGFBP-2. On the control limb, there was no loss of BMD over the 14 days and IGF-II/IGFBP-2 treatment resulted in a 9% increase in left femur BMD (Ploss of BMD associated with disuse osteoporosis and stimulate bone formation in adult rats. Furthermore, they provide proof of concept for a novel anabolic approach to increasing bone mass in humans with osteoporosis.

  4. Repeated exposure to cat urine induces complex behavioral, hormonal, and c-fos mRNA responses in Norway rats ( Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Baofa; Gu, Chen; Lu, Yi; Hegab, Ibrahim M.; Yang, Shengmei; Wang, Aiqin; Wei, Wanhong

    2017-08-01

    Prey species show specific adaptations that allow recognition, avoidance, and defense against predators. This study was undertaken to investigate the processing of a chronic, life-threatening stimulus to Norway rats ( Rattus norvegicus). One hundred forty-four Norway rats were tested by repeated presentation of cat urine for 1 h at different days in a defensive withdrawal apparatus. Rats exposed to urine for short periods showed significantly larger defensive behavioral and medial hypothalamic c-fos messenger RNA (mRNA) responses than other groups. These defensive responses habituated shortly after the presentation of cat urine. Serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone increased significantly when animals were repeatedly exposed to cat urine. However, the hormonal responses took longer to habituate than the behavioral and molecular responses did. We conclude that the behavioral and c-fos mRNA responses are "primed" for habituation to repeated exposures to cat urine, while the hormonal responses show "resistance." The results support our hypothesis that the strongest anti-predator responses at three levels would occur during short-term exposure to cat urine and that these responses would subsequently disappear on prolonged exposure. This study assists understanding the way in which the different levels of defensive responses are integrated and react during chronic stress.

  5. Subcutaneous administration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II/IGF binding protein-2 complex stimulates bone formation and prevents loss of bone mineral density in a rat model of disuse osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Cheryl A.; Johnstone, Edward W.; Turner, Russell T.; Evans, Glenda L.; John Ballard, F. John; Doran, Patrick M.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2002-01-01

    Elevated serum levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) and a precursor form of IGF-II are associated with marked increases in bone formation and skeletal mass in patients with hepatitis C-associated osteosclerosis. In vitro studies indicate that IGF-II in complex with IGFBP-2 has high affinity for bone matrix and is able to stimulate osteoblast proliferation. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of the IGF-II/IGFBP-2 complex to increase bone mass in vivo. Osteopenia of the femur was induced by unilateral sciatic neurectomy in rats. At the time of surgery, 14-day osmotic minipumps containing vehicle or 2 microg IGF-II+9 microg IGFBP-2/100g body weight/day were implanted subcutaneously in the neck. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were taken the day of surgery and 14 days later using a PIXImus small animal densitometer. Neurectomy of the right hindlimb resulted in a 9% decrease in right femur BMD (P<0.05 vs. baseline). This loss in BMD was completely prevented by treatment with IGF-II/IGFBP-2. On the control limb, there was no loss of BMD over the 14 days and IGF-II/IGFBP-2 treatment resulted in a 9% increase in left femur BMD (P<0.05). Bone histomorphometry indicated increases in endocortical and cancellous bone formation rates and in trabecular thickness. These results demonstrate that short-term administration of the IGF-II/IGFBP-2 complex can prevent loss of BMD associated with disuse osteoporosis and stimulate bone formation in adult rats. Furthermore, they provide proof of concept for a novel anabolic approach to increasing bone mass in humans with osteoporosis.

  6. Complexity in differentiating the expression of truncated or matured forms of MMP-2 and MMP-9 through zymography in rat brain tissues after acute ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mustafa; Shuaib, Ashfaq

    2013-05-30

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of ischaemic stroke. In particular, the mature forms of MMPs 2 and 9 have similar sizes and share gelatine as a common substrate. Both MMPs are upregulated in ischaemic stroke and play detrimental roles during stroke pathogenesis. Throughout this study, we demonstrated that pro-MMP-2 and pro-MMP-9 from ischaemic rat brain tissue homogenate is detected either through immunoblotting or zymography because of the remarkable size difference between these enzymes (72 versus 95 kDa, respectively). However, the mature MMP-2 and MMP-9 cannot be discriminated through zymography because of the almost identical sizes of these forms (66 and 67 kDa, respectively). The use of gelatine zymography on ischaemic rat brain tissue homogenate revealed a 65-kDa MMP band, corresponding to the heterogeneous band of mature MMP-2 and/or MMP-9. Furthermore, we also detected mature MMPs of 65 kDa generated from both recombinant human MMP-2 and MMP-9. Using a pull down assay in rat brain tissue homogenate with gelatine-agarose beads, we showed increased activities for both the pro and mature forms of MMP-2 and MMP-9. However, we could not determine the origin of the respective mature MMPs from the heterogeneous band. Thus, in this study, we demonstrated that the identification and quantification of mature MMP-2 and MMP-9 could not be achieved using zymography alone. Therefore, the development of a reliable technique to identify and measure the respective MMPs is needed to test new stroke therapies targeting MMP-2 and MMP-9. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Anti-nucleosome antibodies complexed to nucleosomal antigens show anti-DNA reactivity and bind to rat glomerular basement membrane in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramers, C; Hylkema, M N; van Bruggen, M C; van de Lagemaat, R; Dijkman, H B; Assmann, K J; Smeenk, R J; Berden, J H

    1994-01-01

    Histones can mediate the binding of DNA and anti-DNA to the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). In ELISA histone/DNA/anti-DNA complexes are able to bind to heparan sulfate (HS), an intrinsic constituent of the GBM. We questioned whether histone containing immune complexes are able to bind to the GBM, and if so, whether the ligand in the GBM is HS. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) complexed to nucleosomal antigens and noncomplexed mAbs were isolated from culture supernatants of four IgG anti-nuclear mAbs. All noncomplexed mAbs showed strong anti-nucleosome reactivity in ELISA. One of them showed in addition anti-DNA reactivity in noncomplexed form. The other three mAbs only showed anti-DNA reactivity when they were complexed to nucleosomal antigens. After renal perfusion a fine granular binding of complexed mAbs to the glomerular capillary wall and activation of complement was observed in immunofluorescence, whereas noncomplexed mAbs did not bind. Immuno-electron microscopy showed binding of complexes to the whole width of the GBM. When HS in the GBM was removed by renal heparinase perfusion the binding of complexed mAb decreased, but did not disappear completely. We conclude that anti-nucleosome mAbs, which do not bind DNA, become DNA reactive once complexed to nucleosomal antigens. These complexed mAbs can bind to the GBM. The binding ligand in the GBM is partly, but not solely, HS. Binding to the GBM of immune complexes containing nucleosomal material might be an important event in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis. Images PMID:8040312

  8. Exposure to high- and low-light conditions in an open-field test of anxiety increases c-Fos expression in specific subdivisions of the rat basolateral amygdaloid complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Matthew W; Bouwknecht, J Adriaan; Spiga, Francesca; Shekhar, Anantha; Lowry, Christopher A

    2006-12-11

    Anxiety states and anxiety-related behaviors appear to be regulated by a distributed and highly interconnected system of forebrain structures including the basolateral amygdaloid complex (basolateral amygdala). Despite a wealth of research examining the role of the basolateral amygdala in anxiety-related behaviors and anxiety states, the specific subdivisions of the basolateral amygdala that are involved in responses to anxiogenic stimuli have not been examined. In this study, we investigated the effects of exposure to a novel open-field environment, with either low- or high-levels of illumination, on expression of the protein product of the immediate-early gene c-Fos in subdivisions of the rat basolateral amygdala. The subdivisions studied included the lateral, ventrolateral and ventromedial parts of the lateral amygdaloid nucleus, the anterior, posterior and ventral parts of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus and the anterior and posterior part of the basomedial amygdaloid nucleus. Small increases in the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive cells were observed in several, but not all, of the subdivisions of the basolateral amygdala studied following exposure of rats to either the high- or low-light conditions, compared to home cage or handled control groups. Open-field exposure in both the high- and low-light conditions resulted in a marked increase in c-Fos expression in the anterior part of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus compared to either home cage or handled control groups. These findings point toward anatomical and functional heterogeneity within the basolateral amygdaloid complex and an important role of the anterior part of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus in the neural mechanisms underlying physiological or behavioral responses to this anxiety-related stimulus.

  9. N-cadherin in adult rat cardiomyocytes in culture. II. Spatio-temporal appearance of proteins involved in cell-cell contact and communication. Formation of two distinct N-cadherin/catenin complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertig, C M; Butz, S; Koch, S; Eppenberger-Eberhardt, M; Kemler, R; Eppenberger, H M

    1996-01-01

    The spatio-temporal appearance and distribution of proteins forming the intercalated disc were investigated in adult rat cardiomyocytes (ARC). The 'redifferentiation model' of ARC involves extensive remodelling of the plasma membrane and of the myofibrillar apparatus. It represents a valuable system to elucidate the formation of cell-cell contact between cardiomyocytes and to assess the mechanisms by which different proteins involved in the cell-cell adhesion process are sorted in a precise manner to the sites of function. Appearance of N-cadherin, the catenins and connexin43 within newly formed adherens and gap junctions was studied. Here first evidence is provided for a formation of two distinct and separable N-cadherin/catenin complexes in cardiomyocytes. Both complexes are composed of N-cadherin and alpha-catenin which bind to either beta-catenin or plakoglobin in a mutually exclusive manner. The two N-cadherin/catenin complexes are assumed to be functionally involved in the formation of cell-cell contacts in ARC; however, the differential appearance and localization of the two types of complexes may also point to a specific role during ARC differentiation. The newly synthesized beta-catenin containing complex is more abundant during the first stages in culture after ARC isolation, while the newly synthesized plakoglobin containing complex progressively accumulates during the morphological changes of ARC. ARC formed a tissue-like pattern in culture whereby the new cell-cell contacts could be dissolved through Ca2+ depletion. Presence of cAMP and replenishment of Ca2+ content in the culture medium not only allowed reformation of cell-cell contacts but also affected the relative protein ratio between the two N-cadherin/catenin complexes, increasing the relative amount of newly synthesized beta-catenin over plakoglobin at a particular stage of ARC differentiation. The clustered N-cadherin/catenin complexes at the plasma membrane appear to be a prerequisite for the

  10. Evaluation of an automated spike-and-wave complex detection algorithm in the EEG from a rat model of absence epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauquier, Sebastien H; Lai, Alan; Jiang, Jonathan L; Sui, Yi; Cook, Mark J

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this prospective blinded study was to evaluate an automated algorithm for spike-and-wave discharge (SWD) detection applied to EEGs from genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS). Five GAERS underwent four sessions of 20-min EEG recording. Each EEG was manually analyzed for SWDs longer than one second by two investigators and automatically using an algorithm developed in MATLAB®. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for the manual (reference) versus the automatic (test) methods. The results showed that the algorithm had specificity, sensitivity, PPV and NPV >94%, comparable to published methods that are based on analyzing EEG changes in the frequency domain. This provides a good alternative as a method designed to mimic human manual marking in the time domain.

  11. [Effect of damage integrity rat brain synaptic membranes on the functional activity GABA(A)-receptor/Cl(-)-ionophore complex in the CNC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebrov, I G; Kalinina, M V

    2013-01-01

    Functional activity of the CGABA(A)-receptor/Cl(-) ionophore complex was investigated the muscimol-stimulated entry of the radioactive isotope 36Cl(-) in synaptoneurosomes in changing the structure and permeability of neuronal membranes. Integrity of the membranes was damaged by removal of Ca(+2) and Mg(+2) from the incubation medium and by the method of freezing-thawing synaptoneurosomes. In both cases, an increase in basal 36Cl(-) entry into synaptoneurosomes, indicating increased nonspecific permeability of neuronal membranes, and decreased activity the CABA(A)-receptor/Cl(-) ionophore complex. The conclusion about the relationship of processes damage neuronal membranes and reducing the inhibitory processes in the epileptic focus.

  12. Dietary avocado oil supplementation attenuates the alterations induced by type I diabetes and oxidative stress in electron transfer at the complex II-complex III segment of the electron transport chain in rat kidney mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Sámano-García, Carlos Alberto; Calderón-Cortés, Elizabeth; Pérez-Hernández, Ismael H; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Orozco, Alain R; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2013-06-01

    Impaired complex III activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in mitochondria have been identified as key events leading to renal damage during diabetes. Due to its high content of oleic acid and antioxidants, we aimed to test whether avocado oil may attenuate the alterations in electron transfer at complex III induced by diabetes by a mechanism related with increased resistance to lipid peroxidation. 90 days of avocado oil administration prevented the impairment in succinate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity caused by streptozotocin-induced diabetes in kidney mitochondria. This was associated with a protection against decreased electron transfer through high potential chain in complex III related to cytochromes c + c1 loss. During Fe(2+)-induced oxidative stress, avocado oil improved the activities of complexes II and III and enhanced the protection conferred by a lipophilic antioxidant against damage by Fe(2+). Avocado oil also decreased ROS generation in Fe(2+)-damaged mitochondria. Alterations in the ratio of C20:4/C18:2 fatty acids were observed in mitochondria from diabetic animals that not were corrected by avocado oil treatment, which yielded lower peroxidizability indexes only in diabetic mitochondria although avocado oil caused an augment in the total content of monounsaturated fatty acids. Moreover, a protective effect of avocado oil against lipid peroxidation was observed consistently only in control mitochondria. Since the beneficial effects of avocado oil in diabetic mitochondria were not related to increased resistance to lipid peroxidation, these effects were discussed in terms of the antioxidant activity of both C18:1 and the carotenoids reported to be contained in avocado oil.

  13. Data on effects of rotenone on calcium retention capacity, respiration and activities of respiratory chain complexes I and II in isolated rat brain mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina Rekuviene

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Rotenone decreases ischemia-induced injury by inhibiting mitochondrial permeability transition in mature brains” (Rekuviene et al., 2017 [1]. Data in this article present the direct effects of rotenone on calcium retention capacity (CRC in isolated normal cortex and cerebellum mitochondria, effects of rotenone intravenous infusion on leak and phosphorylating respiration rates of isolated cortex and cerebellum mitochondria, on activities of respiratory chain complexes I and II in freezed-thawed/sonicated cortex and cerebellum mitochondria after brain ischemia. In addition, detailed experimental procedures of isolation of brain mitochondria, measurements of CRC, respiration, activities of respiratory chain complexes and H2O2 generation in cortex and cerebellum mitochondria are described.

  14. Sustained deficiency of mitochondrial complex I activity during long periods of survival after seizures induced in immature rats by homocysteic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Ješina, Pavel; Haugvicová, Renata; Lisý, Václav; Houštěk, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2010), s. 394-403 ISSN 0197-0186 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/05/2015; GA ČR GA309/08/0292; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : homocysteic acid-induced seizures * mitochondrial complex I activity * persisting decrease Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.601, year: 2010

  15. The combined effect of complex mixes of poisons on the organism of white rats in 30-day round-the-clock inhalation and measures of biological prevention

    OpenAIRE

    MIRZAKARIMOVA MALOKHAT ABDUVAKHIDOVNA

    2016-01-01

    The direction of “biological prevention” in the field of hygiene of the environment, which is understood as the complex of measures directed to the increase in resistance of individual person and population to exposure of harmful factors of the industrial and ambient environment, are increasingly being developed over the last years. For biopreventive maintenance only the means are used harmless at long application in preventive effective dosage. In this context in the industrial towns for res...

  16. Comparison of fMRI BOLD response patterns by electrical stimulation of the ventroposterior complex and medial thalamus of the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai-Feng Yang

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the functional connectivity of the lateral and medial thalamocortical pain pathways by investigating the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD activation patterns in the forebrain elicited by direct electrical stimulation of the ventroposterior (VP and medial (MT thalamus. An MRI-compatible stimulation electrode was implanted in the VP or MT of α-chloralose-anesthetized rats. Electrical stimulation was applied to the VP or MT at various intensities (50 µA to 300 µA and frequencies (1 Hz to 12 Hz. BOLD responses were analyzed in the ipsilateral forelimb region of the primary somatosensory cortex (iS1FL after VP stimulation and in the ipsilateral cingulate cortex (iCC after MT stimulation. When stimulating the VP, the strongest activation occurred at 3 Hz. The stimulation intensity threshold was 50 µA and the response rapidly peaked at 100 µA. When stimulating the MT, The optimal frequency for stimulation was 9 Hz or 12 Hz, the stimulation intensity threshold was 100 µA and we observed a graded increase in the BOLD response following the application of higher intensity stimuli. We also evaluated c-Fos expression following the application of a 200-µA stimulus. Ventroposterior thalamic stimulation elicited c-Fos-positivity in few cells in the iS1FL and caudate putamen (iCPu. Medial thalamic stimulation, however, produced numerous c-Fos-positive cells in the iCC and iCPu. The differential BOLD responses and c-Fos expressions elicited by VP and MT stimulation indicate differences in stimulus-response properties of the medial and lateral thalamic pain pathways.

  17. Distribution of nuclease attack sites and complexity of DNA in the products of post-irradiation degradiation of rat thymus chromatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonareva, N.B.; Zhivotovsky, B.D.; Hanson, K.P.

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of nuclease attack sites in chromatin has been studied on the basis of the quantitative relationship of the single- and double-stranded fragments of various lengths in the products of post-irradiation degradation of chromatin (PDN). It has been shown that in irradiated thymocytes internucleosome degradation of chromatin occurs and the products of the enzymic digestion of chromatin derive from randomly distributed genome areas accumulate. Analysis of the reassociation curves has not shown any differences in the complexity of the PDN fractions and total DNA. (author)

  18. Using Gene Ontology to describe the role of the neurexin-neuroligin-SHANK complex in human, mouse and rat and its relevance to autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sejal; Roncaglia, Paola; Lovering, Ruth C

    2015-06-06

    People with an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) display a variety of characteristic behavioral traits, including impaired social interaction, communication difficulties and repetitive behavior. This complex neurodevelopment disorder is known to be associated with a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Neurexins and neuroligins play a key role in synaptogenesis and neurexin-neuroligin adhesion is one of several processes that have been implicated in autism spectrum disorders. In this report we describe the manual annotation of a selection of gene products known to be associated with autism and/or the neurexin-neuroligin-SHANK complex and demonstrate how a focused annotation approach leads to the creation of more descriptive Gene Ontology (GO) terms, as well as an increase in both the number of gene product annotations and their granularity, thus improving the data available in the GO database. The manual annotations we describe will impact on the functional analysis of a variety of future autism-relevant datasets. Comprehensive gene annotation is an essential aspect of genomic and proteomic studies, as the quality of gene annotations incorporated into statistical analysis tools affects the effective interpretation of data obtained through genome wide association studies, next generation sequencing, proteomic and transcriptomic datasets.

  19. Chronic administration during early adulthood does not alter the hormonally-dependent disruptive effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) on complex behavior in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsauer, Peter J; Sutton, Jessie L

    2014-02-01

    This study examined whether chronic Δ(9)-THC during early adulthood would produce the same hormonally-dependent deficits in learning that are produced by chronic Δ(9)-THC during adolescence. To do this, either sham-operated (intact) or ovariectomized (OVX) female rats received daily saline or 5.6 mg/kg of Δ(9)-THC i.p. for 40 days during early adulthood. Following chronic administration, and a drug-free period to train both a learning and performance task, acute dose-effect curves for Δ(9)-THC (0.56-10 mg/kg) were established in each of the four groups (intact/saline, intact/THC, OVX/saline and OVX/THC). The dependent measures of responding under the learning and performance tasks were the overall response rate and the percentage of errors. Although the history of OVX and chronic Δ(9)-THC in early adulthood did not significantly affect non-drug or baseline behavior under the tasks, acute administration of Δ(9)-THC produced both rate-decreasing and error-increasing effects on learning and performance behavior, and these effects were dependent on their hormone condition. More specifically, both intact groups were more sensitive to the rate-decreasing and error-increasing effects of Δ(9)-THC than the OVX groups irrespective of chronic Δ(9)-THC administration, as there was no significant main effect of chronic treatment and no significant interaction between chronic treatment (saline or Δ(9)-THC) and the dose of Δ(9)-THC administered as an adult. Post mortem examination of 10 brain regions also indicated there were significant differences in agonist-stimulated GTPγS binding across brain regions, but no significant effects of chronic treatment and no significant interaction between the chronic treatment and cannabinoid signaling. Thus, acute Δ(9)-THC produced hormonally-dependent effects on learning and performance behavior, but a period of chronic administration during early adulthood did not alter these effects significantly, which is contrary to what we

  20. Immunohistochemical characterisation and localisation of cannabinoid CB1 receptor protein in the rat vestibular nucleus complex and the effects of unilateral vestibular deafferentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, John C; Zheng, Yiwen; Liu, Ping; Darlington, Cynthia L; Smith, Paul F

    2004-09-24

    CB1 receptor expression has been reported to be low in the brainstem compared with the forebrain, and low in the vestibular nucleus complex (VNC) compared with other regions in the brainstem. However, a frequent effect of cannabis is dizziness and loss of balance. This may be due to the activation of cannabinoid receptors in the central vestibular pathways. We used immunohistochemistry to study the distribution of CB1 receptor protein in the VNC, and Western blotting to measure CB1 receptor expression in the VNC following unilateral vestibular deafferentation (UVD); the hippocampal CA1, CA2/3 and dentate gyrus (DG) regions were also analysed for comparison. This study confirms a previous electrophysiological demonstration that CB1 receptors exist in significant densities in the VNC and are likely to contribute to the neurochemical control of the vestibular reflexes. Nonetheless, CB1 receptor expression did not change significantly in the VNC during vestibular compensation. In addition, despite some small but significant changes in CB1 receptor expression in the CA2/3 and the DG following UVD, in no case were these differences statistically significant in comparison to both control groups.

  1. Cell-specific expression of calcineurin immunoreactivity within the rat basolateral amygdala complex and colocalization with the neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitermann, Randy J; Sajdyk, Tammy J; Urban, Janice H

    2012-10-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) produces potent anxiolytic effects via activation of NPY Y1 receptors (Y1r) within the basolateral amygdaloid complex (BLA). The role of NPY in the BLA was recently expanded to include the ability to produce stress resilience and long-lasting reductions in anxiety-like behavior. These persistent behavioral effects are dependent upon activity of the protein phosphatase, calcineurin (CaN), which has long been associated with shaping long-term synaptic signaling. Furthermore, NPY-induced reductions in anxiety-like behavior persist months after intra-BLA delivery, which together indicate a form of neuronal plasticity had likely occurred. To define a site of action for NPY-induced CaN signaling within the BLA, we employed multi-label immunohistochemistry to determine which cell types express CaN and if CaN colocalizes with the Y1r. We have previously reported that both major neuronal cell populations in the BLA, pyramidal projection neurons and GABAergic interneurons, express the Y1r. Therefore, this current study evaluated CaN immunoreactivity in these cell types, along with Y1r immunoreactivity. Antibodies against calcium-calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) and GABA were used to identify pyramidal neurons and GABAergic interneurons, respectively. A large population of CaN immunoreactive cells displayed Y1r immunoreactivity (90%). Nearly all (98%) pyramidal neurons displayed CaN immunoreactivity, while only a small percentage of interneurons (10%) contained CaN immunoreactivity. Overall, these anatomical findings provide a model whereby NPY could directly regulate CaN activity in the BLA via activation of the Y1r on CaN-expressing, pyramidal neurons. Importantly, they support BLA pyramidal neurons as prime targets for neuronal plasticity associated with the long-term reductions in anxiety-like behavior produced by NPY injections into the BLA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. MS-377, a selective sigma receptor ligand, indirectly blocks the action of PCP in the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor ion-channel complex in primary cultured rat neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, Jun-ichi; Yamamoto, Hideko; Yamamoto, Toshifumi; Sagi, Naoki; Horikomi, Kazutoshi; Sora, Ichiro

    2002-02-22

    MS-377 ((R)-(+)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-[4-(2-methoxyethyl)piperazin-1-yl]methyl-2-pyrrolidinone L-tartrate) is a antipsychotic agent that binds to sigma-1 receptor. MS-377 showed anti-dopaminergic and anti-serotonergic activities and antagonistic action against phencyclidine (PCP)-induced behaviors in an animal model. These anti-psychotic activities of MS-377 are attributable to association with sigma-1 receptor. However, the mechanism by which the sigma-1 receptor ligands exact those numerous effects remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of MS-377 on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor ion-channel complex in primary cultured rat neuronal cells. First, we examined the effect of MS-377 on NMDA-induced Ca2+ influx with fura-2/ AM loaded cells. MS-377 showed no effects on the basal Ca2+ concentration and NMDA-induced Ca2+ influx by itself PCP and SKF-10047 reduced the NMDA-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Pre-incubation of 1 microM MS-377 was found to significantly block the reduction by PCP or SKF-10047 of the NMDA-induced Ca2+ influx. Second, the effect of MS-377 on [3H]MK-801 intact cell binding was examined. PCP, haloperidol and (+)-pentazocine inhibited [3H]MK-801 binding, although MS-377 showed no effect by itself Pre-treatment of MS-377 markedly reversed the inhibition of [3H]MK-801 binding by PCP in a dose-dependent manner. These effects of MS-377 may depend on its affinity for the sigma-1 receptor, because MS-377 is a selective sigma-1 receptor ligand without any affinity for NMDA receptor ion-channel complex. These observations suggest that the MS-377 indirectly modulated the NMDA receptor ion-channel complex, and the anti-psychotic activities of MS-377, in part, are attributable to such on action via sigma-1 receptor.

  3. Luminol-and lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence with rat liver microsomes. Kinetics and influence of ascorbic acid, glutathione, dimethylsulfoxide, N-t-butyl-a-phenyl-nitrone, copper-ions and a copper complex, catalase, superoxide dismutase, hexobarbital and aniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, W; Karge, E; Kretzschmar, M; Rost, M; Schulze, H P; Dargel, R; Reinemann, C; Rein, H

    1996-07-01

    For the investigation of luminol (LM)-and lucigenin (LC)-amplified chemiluminescence (CL) in rat liver microsomes using both a liquid-scintillation counter (LKB/Wallac 1219 Rackbeta) and a Berthold luminometer (AutoLumat LB 953) optimal incubation mixtures and conditions and basic kinetics have been established. Whereas calibration curves for both LM- and LC-CL are performed with hydrogenperoxide (LC quantum yield is 6.25 fold higher as that of LM), distinct differences were revealed with microsomes, indicating that different reactive oxygen species (ROS) are determined: Both LM- and LC-CL follow the kinetics of enzymatic reactions in terms of dependence on protein and NADPH or NADH concentration, time course, temperature etc., but with differences. LM-CL does not work without addition of Fe2+, whereas LC-CL does. Both copper ions and copper bound in a complex abolish CL, LC-CL being much more sensitive. Isolated cytochrome P-450 (P450) and NADPH P450 reductase from liver of pheno-barbital treated rats alone proved to be inactive in LM-and LC-CL production, whereas te combination 1:1 without and with addition of lipid was highly active in both LM-and LC-CL. Ascorbic acid and glutathione as scavengers diminish both LM- and LC-CL in concentrations higher then 10(5). Dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO) was ineffective in LM-CL up to concentrations of 0.2 M, the very high concentration of 2 M diminished LM-CL only to 1/3. LC-CL was diminished starting at concentrations of 100 mM and at 2 M only 10% of maximum LC-CL was observed. The trap substance N-t-butyl-a-phenylnitrone (BNP) also diminished LC-CL more effectively than LM-CL. Clearcut differences were revealed by the addition of catalase and superoxide dismutase: both enzymes diminished LM-CL only, without any influence on LC-CL. Hexobarbital, a potent uncoupler of P450, enhances LM-CL fivefold, whereas LC-CL is barely influenced. Aniline (without uncoupling capability) decreased both LM-and LC-CL increasingly with increasing

  4. Comparative effect of carotenoid complex from golden neo-life ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: The immunomodulatory effect of Carotenoid complex from Golden Neo-Life Dynamite (GNLD) and carrot extracted Carotenoid was assessed using 24 albino Wistar rats. The rats were assigned to 4 groups of 6 rats each consisting of group 1(control group treated with distilled water), group 2 (treated with olive oil) ...

  5. Deep brain stimulation of the center median-parafascicular complex of the thalamus has efficient anti-parkinsonian action associated with widespread cellular responses in the basal ganglia network in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouve, Loréline; Salin, Pascal; Melon, Christophe; Kerkerian-Le Goff, Lydia

    2010-07-21

    The thalamic centromedian-parafascicular (CM/Pf) complex, mainly represented by Pf in rodents, is proposed as an interesting target for the neurosurgical treatment of movement disorders, including Parkinson's disease. In this study, we examined the functional impact of subchronic high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of Pf in the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned hemiparkinsonian rat model. Pf-HFS had significant anti-akinetic action, evidenced by alleviation of limb use asymmetry (cylinder test). Whereas this anti-akinetic action was moderate, Pf-HFS totally reversed lateralized neglect (corridor task), suggesting potent action on sensorimotor integration. At the cellular level, Pf-HFS partially reversed the dopamine denervation-induced increase in striatal preproenkephalin A mRNA levels, a marker of the neurons of the indirect pathway, without interfering with the markers of the direct pathway (preprotachykinin and preprodynorphin). Pf-HFS totally reversed the lesion-induced changes in the gene expression of cytochrome oxidase subunit I in the subthalamic nucleus, the globus pallidus, and the substantia nigra pars reticulata, and partially in the entopeduncular nucleus. Unlike HFS of the subthalamic nucleus, Pf-HFS did not induce per se dyskinesias and directly, although partially, alleviated L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA)-induced forelimb dyskinesia. Conversely, L-DOPA treatment negatively interfered with the anti-parkinsonian effect of Pf-HFS. Altogether, these data show that Pf-DBS, by recruiting a large basal ganglia circuitry, provides moderate to strong anti-parkinsonian benefits that might, however, be affected by L-DOPA. The widespread behavioral and cellular outcomes of Pf-HFS evidenced here demonstrate that CM/Pf is an important node for modulating the pathophysiological functioning of basal ganglia and related disorders.

  6. High resolution crystal structure of rat long chain hydroxy acid oxidase in complex with the inhibitor 4-carboxy-5-[(4-chlorophenyl)sulfanyl]-1, 2, 3-thiadiazole. Implications for inhibitor specificity and drug design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhi-wei; Vignaud, Caroline; Jaafar, Adil; Lévy, Bernard; Guéritte, Françoise; Guénard, Daniel; Lederer, Florence; Mathews, F. Scott (CNRS-UMR); (WU-MED)

    2012-05-24

    Long chain hydroxy acid oxidase (LCHAO) is responsible for the formation of methylguanidine, a toxic compound with elevated serum levels in patients with chronic renal failure. Its isozyme glycolate oxidase (GOX), has a role in the formation of oxalate, which can lead to pathological deposits of calcium oxalate, in particular in the disease primary hyperoxaluria. Inhibitors of these two enzymes may have therapeutic value. These enzymes are the only human members of the family of FMN-dependent L-2-hydroxy acid-oxidizing enzymes, with yeast flavocytochrome b{sub 2} (Fcb2) among its well studied members. We screened a chemical library for inhibitors, using in parallel rat LCHAO, human GOX and the Fcb2 flavodehydrogenase domain (FDH). Among the hits was an inhibitor, CCPST, with an IC{sub 50} in the micromolar range for all three enzymes. We report here the crystal structure of a complex between this compound and LCHAO at 1.3 {angstrom} resolution. In comparison with a lower resolution structure of this enzyme, binding of the inhibitor induces a conformational change in part of the TIM barrel loop 4, as well as protonation of the active site histidine. The CCPST interactions are compared with those it forms with human GOX and those formed by two other inhibitors with human GOX and spinach GOX. These compounds differ from CCPST in having the sulfur replaced with a nitrogen in the five-membered ring as well as different hydrophobic substituents. The possible reason for the {approx}100-fold difference in affinity between these two series of inhibitors is discussed. The present results indicate that specificity is an issue in the quest for therapeutic inhibitors of either LCHAO or GOX, but they may give leads for this quest.

  7. Conditions and limits of serum LH radioimmunoassay in normal, hypophysectomised or castred rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, M.; Boucher, D.; Thieblot, L.

    1976-01-01

    Serum LH was measured by radioimmunoassay (NIAMD Kits) free and linked hormones were separated by double antibodies method. Influence of concentration on antibody-hormone complex is studied. Hypophysectomised rats serum does not modify results. The standard (rat LH-RPl) has the same action as serum LH. Rat serum LH contents are measured in normal or castred rats [fr

  8. Complexity explained

    CERN Document Server

    Erdi, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.

  9. Complex chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Gon; Kim, Jae Sang; Kim, Jin Eun; Lee, Boo Yeon

    2006-06-01

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  10. Structure of the vitreoretinal border region in spontaneously diabetic BB rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, S

    1993-01-01

    The morphology of the vitreoretinal border region, also termed the inner limiting membrane, was examined in spontaneously diabetic rats (BB rats), in non-diabetes-prone rats (WB rats) and in Buffalo rats (BUF rats) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM......). This was performed in order to visualize a possible increase in thickness of the lamina densa or in the whole vitreoretinal border region complex with duration of diabetes. The median thickness of the lamina densa in the three groups varied between 34 and 68 nm. In BB rats the thickness decreased with age...... and duration of diabetes. In WB rats the lamina densa thickened up to the 9th month and then decreased to the level of the young rats. In BUF rats the lamina densa decreased in thickness with age. The median thickness of the whole vitreoretinal border region varied between: BB rats: 84 and 126 nm (SEM) and 68...

  11. treated rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... nucleus, bizarre segmentation; (I) shows hypersegmentation, bizarre segmentation of neutrophils in the shape of ring nucleus with polychromatophilic RBCs. 1998; Muller and Tobin, 1980). The current study shows that rats administered C. edulis hydro-ethanol extract, orally for 28 days, developed anemia, ...

  12. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  13. Technetium complexation by macrocyclic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fan Yu.

    1983-01-01

    Research in nuclear medicine are directed towards the labelling of biological molecules, however, sup(99m)Tc does not show sufficient affinity for these molecules. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of macrocyclic compounds to bind strongly technetium in order to be used as complexation intermediate. The reducing agents used were a stannous complex and sodium dithionite. Cryptates and polyesters are not good complexing agents. They form two complexes: a 2:1 sandwich complex or 3:2 and a 1:1 complex. Cyclams are good complexing agents for technetium their complexations strength was determined by competition with pyrophosphate, gluconate and DTPA. Using the method of ligand exchange, the oxidation state of technetium in the Tc-cyclam complex was IV or V. They are 1:1 cationic complexes, the complex charge is +1. The biodistribution in rats of labelling solutions containing (cyclam 14 ane N 4 ) C 12 H 25 shows a good urinary excretion without intoxication risks [fr

  14. Communication complexity and information complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratov, Denis

    Information complexity enables the use of information-theoretic tools in communication complexity theory. Prior to the results presented in this thesis, information complexity was mainly used for proving lower bounds and direct-sum theorems in the setting of communication complexity. We present three results that demonstrate new connections between information complexity and communication complexity. In the first contribution we thoroughly study the information complexity of the smallest nontrivial two-party function: the AND function. While computing the communication complexity of AND is trivial, computing its exact information complexity presents a major technical challenge. In overcoming this challenge, we reveal that information complexity gives rise to rich geometrical structures. Our analysis of information complexity relies on new analytic techniques and new characterizations of communication protocols. We also uncover a connection of information complexity to the theory of elliptic partial differential equations. Once we compute the exact information complexity of AND, we can compute exact communication complexity of several related functions on n-bit inputs with some additional technical work. Previous combinatorial and algebraic techniques could only prove bounds of the form theta( n). Interestingly, this level of precision is typical in the area of information theory, so our result demonstrates that this meta-property of precise bounds carries over to information complexity and in certain cases even to communication complexity. Our result does not only strengthen the lower bound on communication complexity of disjointness by making it more exact, but it also shows that information complexity provides the exact upper bound on communication complexity. In fact, this result is more general and applies to a whole class of communication problems. In the second contribution, we use self-reduction methods to prove strong lower bounds on the information

  15. Mechanistic Studies of the Anti-Ulcerogenic Activity and Acute Toxicity Evaluation of Dichlorido-Copper(II-4-(2-5-Bromo-benzylideneaminoethyl Piperazin-1-ium Phenolate Complex against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamid A. Hadi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The compound dichlorido-copper(II-4-(2-5-bromobenzylideneaminoethyl piperazin-1-ium phenolate (CuLBS was synthesized, characterized and screened for acute toxicity and protective activity against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Gross microscopic lesions, biochemical and immunological parameters and histochemcial staining of glycogen storage were taken into consideration. Oral administration of CuLBS (30 and 60 mg/Kg for two weeks dose-dependently flattened gastric mucosa, significantly increased gastric mucus and total acidity, compared with control group (P < 0.01. Serum levels of liver enzymes aspartate (AST and alanine transaminases (ALT, pro-inflammatory (IL-6 and TNF-α and anti-inflammatory (IL-10 cytokines in the rats exposed to ethanol induced ulceration have been altered. Administration of CuLBS showed considerable (P < 0.05 protection against ulceration by modulating the acute alterations of cytokines AST, ALT and stomach glycogen. Interestingly, CuLBS did not interfere with the natural release of nitric oxide. CuLBS alone (60 mg/Kg did not exhibit any ulcerogenic effect as assessed using Adami’s scoring scale. An acute toxicity study showed that rats treated with CuLBS (1,000 and 2,000 mg/Kg manifested no abnormal signs. These findings therefore, suggested that the gastroprotective activity of CuLBS might contribute in modulating the inflammatory cytokine-mediated oxidative damage to gastric mucosa.

  16. Determination of Non-Transferrin Bound Iron, Transferrin Bound Iron, Drug Bound Iron and Total Iron in Serum in a Rats after IV Administration of Sodium Ferric Gluconate Complex by Simple Ultrafiltration Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometric Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali K. Matta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, sensitive and specific ultrafiltration inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI, transferrin bound iron (TBI, drug bound iron (DI and total iron (TI in the same rat serum sample after intravenous (IV administration of iron gluconate nanoparticles in sucrose solution (Ferrlecit®. Ultrafiltration with a 30 kDa molecular cut-off filter was used for sample cleanup. Different elution solvents were used to separate each form of iron from sample serum. Isolated fractions were subjected to inductively-coupled mass spectrometric analysis after microwave digestion in 4% nitric acid. The reproducibility of the method was evaluated by precision and accuracy. The calibration curve demonstrated linearity from 5–500 ng/mL with a regression (r2 of more than 0.998. This method was effectively implemented to quantify rat pharmacokinetic study samples after intravenous administration of Ferrlecit®. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic (PK study of Ferrlecit in rats. The colloidal iron followed first order kinetics with half-life of 2.2 h and reached background or pre-dose levels after 12 h post-dosing. The drug shown a clearance of 0.31 mL/min/kg and volume of distribution of 0.05 L/kg. 19.4 ± 2.4 mL/h/kg.

  17. Complexity Plots

    KAUST Repository

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Complexity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, William H K.

    2016-01-01

    A complex system consists of many interacting parts, generates new collective behavior through self organization, and adaptively evolves through time. Many theories have been developed to study complex systems, including chaos, fractals, cellular automata, self organization, stochastic processes, turbulence, and genetic algorithms.

  19. Evaluation of hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin in the treatment of aldicarb poisoning in rats : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Verster

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyclodextrins are ring-shaped oligosaccharides with a hydrophilic exterior and a hydrophobic interior. The interior cavity is capable of complexing fat-soluble molecules small enough to fit inside. Sprague-Dawley rats were used to evaluate the efficacy of hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin as treatment of aldicarb poisoning in rats. Survival times in the majority of rats dosed with aldicarb and receiving intravenous cyclodextrin were longer compared with the control rats only dosed with aldicarb per os.

  20. Managing Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maylath, Bruce; Vandepitte, Sonia; Minacori, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    and into French. The complexity of the undertaking proved to be a central element in the students' learning, as the collaboration closely resembles the complexity of international documentation workplaces of language service providers. © Association of Teachers of Technical Writing.......This article discusses the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing project to date- a project involving translation from Danish and Dutch into English and editing into American English alongside a project involving writing, usability testing, and translation from English into Dutch...

  1. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  2. Pulpal responses to cavity preparation in aged rat molars

    OpenAIRE

    Kawagishi, Eriko; Nakakura-Ohshima, Kuniko; Nomura, Shuichi; Ohshima, Hayato; 大島, 勇人

    2006-01-01

    The dentin-pulp complex is capable of repair after tooth injuries including dental procedures. However, there are few available data concerning aged changes in pulpal reactions to such injuries. The present study aimed to clarify the capability of defense of aged pulp by investigating the responses of odontoblasts and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-positive cells to cavity preparation in aged rat molars (300-360 d) and comparing the results with those in young adult rats (100...

  3. On redistribution of alimentary vitamin E within irradiated rat tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranich, A.V.; Chajkina, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    The data were presented concerning the content of lipopigments, vitamin E and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the brain and liver of rats. Excess vitamin E delivered with food was shown to be bound in tissues into complex with MDA. It was suggested that it was a labile form that reserves vitamin E. Irradiation of rats caused impairment of these complex and release of vitamin E, as well a decrease in the lipopigment fluorescence and increase in the MDA content

  4. RatMap--rat genome tools and data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Greta; Johnson, Per; Andersson, Lars; Klinga-Levan, Karin; Gómez-Fabre, Pedro M; Ståhl, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    The rat genome database RatMap (http://ratmap.org or http://ratmap.gen.gu.se) has been one of the main resources for rat genome information since 1994. The database is maintained by CMB-Genetics at Goteborg University in Sweden and provides information on rat genes, polymorphic rat DNA-markers and rat quantitative trait loci (QTLs), all curated at RatMap. The database is under the supervision of the Rat Gene and Nomenclature Committee (RGNC); thus much attention is paid to rat gene nomenclature. RatMap presents information on rat idiograms, karyotypes and provides a unified presentation of the rat genome sequence and integrated rat linkage maps. A set of tools is also available to facilitate the identification and characterization of rat QTLs, as well as the estimation of exon/intron number and sizes in individual rat genes. Furthermore, comparative gene maps of rat in regard to mouse and human are provided.

  5. Softball Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jim

    1977-01-01

    The Parks and Recreation Department of Montgomery, Alabama, has developed a five-field softball complex as part of a growing community park with facilities for camping, golf, aquatics, tennis, and picnicking. (MJB)

  6. Lecithin Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Food Science and Engineering, Xinyang College of Agriculture and ... Results: The UV and IR spectra of the complex showed an additive effect of polydatin-lecithin, in which .... Monochromatic Cu Ka radiation (wavelength =.

  7. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Prefrontal Cortex Enhances Complex Verbal Associative Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerruti, Carlo; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2009-01-01

    The remote associates test (RAT) is a complex verbal task with associations to both creative thought and general intelligence. RAT problems require not only lateral associations and the internal production of many words but a convergent focus on a single answer. Complex problem-solving of this sort may thus require both substantial verbal…

  8. Complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Freitag, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    The guiding principle of this presentation of ``Classical Complex Analysis'' is to proceed as quickly as possible to the central results while using a small number of notions and concepts from other fields. Thus the prerequisites for understanding this book are minimal; only elementary facts of calculus and algebra are required. The first four chapters cover the essential core of complex analysis: - differentiation in C (including elementary facts about conformal mappings) - integration in C (including complex line integrals, Cauchy's Integral Theorem, and the Integral Formulas) - sequences and series of analytic functions, (isolated) singularities, Laurent series, calculus of residues - construction of analytic functions: the gamma function, Weierstrass' Factorization Theorem, Mittag-Leffler Partial Fraction Decomposition, and -as a particular highlight- the Riemann Mapping Theorem, which characterizes the simply connected domains in C. Further topics included are: - the theory of elliptic functions based on...

  9. Subgroup complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    This book is intended as an overview of a research area that combines geometries for groups (such as Tits buildings and generalizations), topological aspects of simplicial complexes from p-subgroups of a group (in the spirit of Brown, Quillen, and Webb), and combinatorics of partially ordered sets. The material is intended to serve as an advanced graduate-level text and partly as a general reference on the research area. The treatment offers optional tracks for the reader interested in buildings, geometries for sporadic simple groups, and G-equivariant equivalences and homology for subgroup complexes.

  10. Complex manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Morrow, James

    2006-01-01

    This book, a revision and organization of lectures given by Kodaira at Stanford University in 1965-66, is an excellent, well-written introduction to the study of abstract complex (analytic) manifolds-a subject that began in the late 1940's and early 1950's. It is largely self-contained, except for some standard results about elliptic partial differential equations, for which complete references are given. -D. C. Spencer, MathSciNet The book under review is the faithful reprint of the original edition of one of the most influential textbooks in modern complex analysis and geometry. The classic

  11. Rat Genome Database (RGD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Rat Genome Database (RGD) is a collaborative effort between leading research institutions involved in rat genetic and genomic research to collect, consolidate,...

  12. Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of  deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...

  13. The local effect of octreotide on mechanical pain sensitivity is more sensitive in DA rats than DA.1U rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fan-Rong; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Guo, Yuan; Zhao, Yan

    2016-02-01

    A recent study by the authors indicated that major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are associated with the differences in basal pain sensitivity and in formalin model between Dark-Agouti (DA) and novel congenic DA.1U rats, which have the same genetic background as DA rats except for the u alleles of MHC. The objective of the present study is to investigate whether there is a difference in the pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) model and local analgesic effect of octreotide (OCT) between DA and DA.1U rats. The hindpaw mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and heat withdrawal latency (HWL) were observed. The C unit firings of the tibial nerve evoked by non-noxious and noxious toe movements were recorded by electrophysiological methods in normal and PIA models in DA and DA.1U rats before and after local OCT administration. The expression of somatostatin receptor 2A (SSTR2A) was observed by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrate that DA rats have a higher mechanical sensitivity than DA.1U rats after PIA. Local OCT administration significantly elevated MWT in DA rats under normal and PIA sate, but not in DA.1U rats. The electrophysiological experiments showed OCT significantly attenuated the firings of C units evoked by non-noxious and noxious stimulation in DA rats more than those in DA.1U rats both in normal and PIA states. In addition, the expression of SSTR2A in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord was significantly higher in DA than in DA.1U rats. All of the findings suggest a higher local analgesic effect of OCT in DA rats than DA.1U rats, which might be associated with the MHC genes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Managing Complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  15. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Flanigan, Francis J

    2010-01-01

    A caution to mathematics professors: Complex Variables does not follow conventional outlines of course material. One reviewer noting its originality wrote: ""A standard text is often preferred [to a superior text like this] because the professor knows the order of topics and the problems, and doesn't really have to pay attention to the text. He can go to class without preparation."" Not so here-Dr. Flanigan treats this most important field of contemporary mathematics in a most unusual way. While all the material for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course is covered, discussion

  16. Influence of vitamin b-12 complex injection (eldervit-12) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To assess the effect of vitamin B-12 complex injection on the nephrotoxicity of gentamicin. Design: Experimental study using a pre-validated model. Subject: Adult Swiss albino rats weighing 140-214g, Generic gentamicin sulphate injection and Vitamin B-12complex injection containing 2500mcg ...

  17. Immature rats show ovulatory defects similar to those in adult rats lacking prostaglandin and progesterone actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez-Criado Jose E

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gonadotropin-primed immature rats (GPIR constitute a widely used model for the study of ovulation. Although the equivalence between the ovulatory process in immature and adult rats is generally assumed, the morphological and functional characteristics of ovulation in immature rats have been scarcely considered. We describe herein the morphological aspects of the ovulatory process in GPIR and their response to classical ovulation inhibitors, such as the inhibitor of prostaglandin (PG synthesis indomethacin (INDO and a progesterone (P receptor (PR antagonist (RU486. Immature Wistar rats were primed with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG at 21, 23 or 25 days of age, injected with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG 48 h later, and sacrificed 16 h after hCG treatment, to assess follicle rupture and ovulation. Surprisingly, GPIR showed age-related ovulatory defects close similar to those in adult rats lacking P and PG actions. Rats primed with eCG at 21 or 23 days of age showed abnormally ruptured corpora lutea in which the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC was trapped or had been released to the ovarian interstitum, invading the ovarian stroma and blood and lymphatic vessels. Supplementation of immature rats with exogenous P and/or PG of the E series did not significantly inhibit abnormal follicle rupture. Otherwise, ovulatory defects were practically absent in rats primed with eCG at 25 days of age. GPIR treated with INDO showed the same ovulatory alterations than vehicle-treated ones, although affecting to a higher proportion of follicles. Blocking P actions with RU486 increased the number of COC trapped inside corpora lutea and decreased ovulation. The presence of ovulatory defects in GPIR, suggests that the capacity of the immature ovary to undergo the coordinate changes leading to effective ovulation is not fully established in Wistar rats primed with eCG before 25 days of age.

  18. Complex dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carleson, Lennart

    1993-01-01

    Complex dynamics is today very much a focus of interest. Though several fine expository articles were available, by P. Blanchard and by M. Yu. Lyubich in particular, until recently there was no single source where students could find the material with proofs. For anyone in our position, gathering and organizing the material required a great deal of work going through preprints and papers and in some cases even finding a proof. We hope that the results of our efforts will be of help to others who plan to learn about complex dynamics and perhaps even lecture. Meanwhile books in the field a. re beginning to appear. The Stony Brook course notes of J. Milnor were particularly welcome and useful. Still we hope that our special emphasis on the analytic side will satisfy a need. This book is a revised and expanded version of notes based on lectures of the first author at UCLA over several \\Vinter Quarters, particularly 1986 and 1990. We owe Chris Bishop a great deal of gratitude for supervising the production of cour...

  19. The resting electrocardiogram of t. cruzi-infected rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo B. Bestetti

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available A total of 125 rats were infected with the Colômbia strain of T. cruzi (2000 parasites/g shortly after weaning. Of these, 58 survived the acute phase and were used in the present experiment. Twenty eight similar but not infected rats served as controls. All rats were submitted to the resting ECG When they were 6 months old. Classic and 3 precordial leads were employed in order to record the ECG as completely as possible. Electrocardiographic changes similar to those found in human chronic Chagas' heart disease and not previously described in this model were found in 44% of the T. cruzi-infected rats: left axis deviation (22%, right axis deviation (7%, lengthened and bizarre QRS complex (14% and abnormal J point elevation (3%. On the basis of these results, we believe that the resting ECG constitutes a valuable tool for studying experimental chronic Chagas' heart disease in rats.

  20. Cosmic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  1. Complex mixtures biostudies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of the project is to identify potential adverse biological activities associated with human exposures to complex organic mixtures (COM) from energy-related industries. Studies to identify the influence of chemical class fractions from a COM on the initiating activity of a known carcinogen, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), demonstrated that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic compound (NPAC) fractions were the most effective inhibitors of initiation. In an effort to determine the contribution of BaP to the initiating activity of the COM, binding of radiolabeled BaP to mouse skin DNA was measured. Results indicated that binding of BaP to DNA decreased in the presence of the COM so that at initiating COM doses, BaP binding was near the limit detection. Addition of unlabeled BaP to the COM at an amount similar to that originally present in the COM did not significantly increase the binding. Studies to determine the rates of disappearance of carcinogenic PAH from the site of application on the skin indicated that half-lives for PAH differed by a factor of about 2. Analytical methods developed to identify PAH from COM which covalently bind to DNA demonstrated that the lower level of detection is approximately 200 picograms. Developmental studies demonstrated that both pregnant rats and mice treated dermally with a high-boiling COM developed fetuses with major malformations including cleft palate, small lungs, edema, and sagittal suture hemorrhages. 3 figures, 5 tables

  2. Immunology taught by rats

    OpenAIRE

    Klenerman, P; Barnes, EJ

    2017-01-01

    Immunology may be best taught by viruses, and possibly by humans, but the rats of New York City surprisingly also have plenty to offer. A survey published in 2014 of the pathogens carried by rats trapped in houses and parks in Manhattan identified a huge burden of infectious agents in these animals, including several novel viruses. Among these are Norway rat hepaciviruses (NrHVs), which belong to the same family as hepatitis C virus (HCV). NrHVs were found in rat livers, raising the possibili...

  3. Intelligence-Augmented Rat Cyborgs in Maze Solving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipeng Yu

    Full Text Available Cyborg intelligence is an emerging kind of intelligence paradigm. It aims to deeply integrate machine intelligence with biological intelligence by connecting machines and living beings via neural interfaces, enhancing strength by combining the biological cognition capability with the machine computational capability. Cyborg intelligence is considered to be a new way to augment living beings with machine intelligence. In this paper, we build rat cyborgs to demonstrate how they can expedite the maze escape task with integration of machine intelligence. We compare the performance of maze solving by computer, by individual rats, and by computer-aided rats (i.e. rat cyborgs. They were asked to find their way from a constant entrance to a constant exit in fourteen diverse mazes. Performance of maze solving was measured by steps, coverage rates, and time spent. The experimental results with six rats and their intelligence-augmented rat cyborgs show that rat cyborgs have the best performance in escaping from mazes. These results provide a proof-of-principle demonstration for cyborg intelligence. In addition, our novel cyborg intelligent system (rat cyborg has great potential in various applications, such as search and rescue in complex terrains.

  4. Intelligence-Augmented Rat Cyborgs in Maze Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yipeng; Pan, Gang; Gong, Yongyue; Xu, Kedi; Zheng, Nenggan; Hua, Weidong; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Wu, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Cyborg intelligence is an emerging kind of intelligence paradigm. It aims to deeply integrate machine intelligence with biological intelligence by connecting machines and living beings via neural interfaces, enhancing strength by combining the biological cognition capability with the machine computational capability. Cyborg intelligence is considered to be a new way to augment living beings with machine intelligence. In this paper, we build rat cyborgs to demonstrate how they can expedite the maze escape task with integration of machine intelligence. We compare the performance of maze solving by computer, by individual rats, and by computer-aided rats (i.e. rat cyborgs). They were asked to find their way from a constant entrance to a constant exit in fourteen diverse mazes. Performance of maze solving was measured by steps, coverage rates, and time spent. The experimental results with six rats and their intelligence-augmented rat cyborgs show that rat cyborgs have the best performance in escaping from mazes. These results provide a proof-of-principle demonstration for cyborg intelligence. In addition, our novel cyborg intelligent system (rat cyborg) has great potential in various applications, such as search and rescue in complex terrains.

  5. Development of acute hydrocephalus does not change brain tissue mechanical properties in adult rats, but in juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pong, Alice C; Jugé, Lauriane; Bilston, Lynne E; Cheng, Shaokoon

    2017-01-01

    Regional changes in brain stiffness were previously demonstrated in an experimental obstructive hydrocephalus juvenile rat model. The open cranial sutures in the juvenile rats have influenced brain compression and mechanical properties during hydrocephalus development and the extent by which closed cranial sutures in adult hydrocephalic rat models affect brain stiffness in-vivo remains unclear. The aims of this study were to determine changes in brain tissue mechanical properties and brain structure size during hydrocephalus development in adult rat with fixed cranial volume and how these changes were related to brain tissue deformation. Hydrocephalus was induced in 9 female ten weeks old Sprague-Dawley rats by injecting 60 μL of a kaolin suspension (25%) into the cisterna magna under anaesthesia. 6 sham-injected age-matched female SD rats were used as controls. MR imaging (9.4T, Bruker) was performed 1 day before and then at 3 days post injection. T2-weighted anatomical MR images were collected to quantify ventricle and brain tissue cross-sectional areas. MR elastography (800 Hz) was used to measure the brain stiffness (G*, shear modulus). Brain tissue in the adult hydrocephalic rats was more compressed than the juvenile hydrocephalic rats because the skulls of the adult hydrocephalic rats were unable to expand like the juvenile rats. In the adult hydrocephalic rats, the cortical gray matter thickness and the caudate-putamen cross-sectional area decreased (Spearman, P hydrocephalus is complex and is not solely dependent on brain tissue deformation. Further studies on the interactions between brain tissue stiffness, deformation, tissue oedema and neural damage are necessary before MRE can be used as a tool to track changes in brain biomechanics in hydrocephalus.

  6. RatMap—rat genome tools and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Greta; Johnson, Per; Andersson, Lars; Klinga-Levan, Karin; Gómez-Fabre, Pedro M.; Ståhl, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    The rat genome database RatMap (http://ratmap.org or http://ratmap.gen.gu.se) has been one of the main resources for rat genome information since 1994. The database is maintained by CMB–Genetics at Göteborg University in Sweden and provides information on rat genes, polymorphic rat DNA-markers and rat quantitative trait loci (QTLs), all curated at RatMap. The database is under the supervision of the Rat Gene and Nomenclature Committee (RGNC); thus much attention is paid to rat gene nomenclature. RatMap presents information on rat idiograms, karyotypes and provides a unified presentation of the rat genome sequence and integrated rat linkage maps. A set of tools is also available to facilitate the identification and characterization of rat QTLs, as well as the estimation of exon/intron number and sizes in individual rat genes. Furthermore, comparative gene maps of rat in regard to mouse and human are provided. PMID:15608244

  7. SWEEP Project RAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Madsen, Søren; Petersen, L. B.

    This report presents the results from the design analyses made for the clustered suction caisson used as foundation for a Riser Access Tower (RAT). The RAT is intended built next to the K15-FA-1 Platform in the Dutch Sector of the North Sea....

  8. Colon of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstroem, C.G.; Rosengren, J.-E.; Fork, F.-T.

    1979-01-01

    The anatomy and radiologic appearance of the colon in rats are described on the basis of 300 animals treated with carcinogenic agents and 40 normal rats. The macroscopic and microscopic appearance of the mucosa varies in the different parts of the colon. Lymphoid plaques are normal structures. The results justify a new anatomic nomenclature. (Auth.)

  9. Visual Categorization of Natural Movies by Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinken, Kasper; Vermaercke, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Visual categorization of complex, natural stimuli has been studied for some time in human and nonhuman primates. Recent interest in the rodent as a model for visual perception, including higher-level functional specialization, leads to the question of how rodents would perform on a categorization task using natural stimuli. To answer this question, rats were trained in a two-alternative forced choice task to discriminate movies containing rats from movies containing other objects and from scrambled movies (ordinate-level categorization). Subsequently, transfer to novel, previously unseen stimuli was tested, followed by a series of control probes. The results show that the animals are capable of acquiring a decision rule by abstracting common features from natural movies to generalize categorization to new stimuli. Control probes demonstrate that they did not use single low-level features, such as motion energy or (local) luminance. Significant generalization was even present with stationary snapshots from untrained movies. The variability within and between training and test stimuli, the complexity of natural movies, and the control experiments and analyses all suggest that a more high-level rule based on more complex stimulus features than local luminance-based cues was used to classify the novel stimuli. In conclusion, natural stimuli can be used to probe ordinate-level categorization in rats. PMID:25100598

  10. Visual categorization of natural movies by rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinken, Kasper; Vermaercke, Ben; Op de Beeck, Hans P

    2014-08-06

    Visual categorization of complex, natural stimuli has been studied for some time in human and nonhuman primates. Recent interest in the rodent as a model for visual perception, including higher-level functional specialization, leads to the question of how rodents would perform on a categorization task using natural stimuli. To answer this question, rats were trained in a two-alternative forced choice task to discriminate movies containing rats from movies containing other objects and from scrambled movies (ordinate-level categorization). Subsequently, transfer to novel, previously unseen stimuli was tested, followed by a series of control probes. The results show that the animals are capable of acquiring a decision rule by abstracting common features from natural movies to generalize categorization to new stimuli. Control probes demonstrate that they did not use single low-level features, such as motion energy or (local) luminance. Significant generalization was even present with stationary snapshots from untrained movies. The variability within and between training and test stimuli, the complexity of natural movies, and the control experiments and analyses all suggest that a more high-level rule based on more complex stimulus features than local luminance-based cues was used to classify the novel stimuli. In conclusion, natural stimuli can be used to probe ordinate-level categorization in rats. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3410645-14$15.00/0.

  11. Genome Sequencing Reveals Loci under Artificial Selection that Underlie Disease Phenotypes in the Laboratory Rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atanur, Santosh S.; Diaz, Ana Garcia; Maratou, Klio; Sarkis, Allison; Rotival, Maxime; Game, Laurence; Tschannen, Michael R.; Kaisaki, Pamela J.; Otto, Georg W.; Ma, Man Chun John; Keane, Thomas M.; Hummel, Oliver; Saar, Kathrin; Chen, Wei; Guryev, Victor; Gopalakrishnan, Kathirvel; Garrett, Michael R.; Joe, Bina; Citterio, Lorena; Bianchi, Giuseppe; McBride, Martin; Dominiczak, Anna; Adams, David J.; Serikawa, Tadao; Flicek, Paul; Cuppen, Edwin; Hubner, Norbert; Petretto, Enrico; Gauguier, Dominique; Kwitek, Anne; Jacob, Howard; Aitman, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of inbred laboratory rat strains have been developed for a range of complex disease phenotypes. To gain insights into the evolutionary pressures underlying selection for these phenotypes, we sequenced the genomes of 27 rat strains, including 11 models of hypertension, diabetes, and

  12. Lectins binding during alloxan-induced diabetes in rat soleus muscle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Membrane structural changes of soleus muscle of alloxan-diabetic rats were detected with a panel of six biotinylated lectins. Samples of muscles were obtained from normal and diabetic rats. The biotinylated lectins in staining were detected by avidin-peroxidase complex. Lectin stainning of soleus muscle cryostat sections ...

  13. Rats, cities, people, and pathogens: a systematic review and narrative synthesis of literature regarding the ecology of rat-associated zoonoses in urban centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himsworth, Chelsea G; Parsons, Kirbee L; Jardine, Claire; Patrick, David M

    2013-06-01

    Urban Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) are the source of a number of pathogens responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in cities around the world. These pathogens include zoonotic bacteria (Leptospira interrogans, Yersina pestis, Rickettsia typhi, Bartonella spp., Streptobacillus moniliformis), viruses (Seoul hantavirus), and parasites (Angiostrongylus cantonensis). A more complete understanding of the ecology of these pathogens in people and rats is critical for determining the public health risks associated with urban rats and for developing strategies to monitor and mitigate those risks. Although the ecology of rat-associated zoonoses is complex, due to the multiple ways in which rats, people, pathogens, vectors, and the environment may interact, common determinants of human disease can still be identified. This review summarizes the ecology of zoonoses associated with urban rats with a view to identifying similarities, critical differences, and avenues for further study.

  14. Thallium kinetics in rat cardiac transplant rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barak, J.H.; LaRaia, P.J.; Boucher, C.A.; Fallon, J.T.; Buckley, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    Cardiac transplant rejection is a very complex process involving both cellular and vascular injury. Recently, thallium imaging has been used to assess acute transplant rejection. It has been suggested that changes in thallium kinetics might be a sensitive indicator of transplant rejection. Accordingly, thallium kinetics were assessed in vivo in acute untreated rat heterotopic (cervical) transplant rejection. Male Lewis rats weighing 225-250 g received heterotopic heart transplants from syngeneic Lewis rats (group A; n = 13), or allogeneic Brown Norway rats (group B; n = 11). Rats were imaged serially on the 2nd and the 7th postoperative days. Serial cardiac thallium content was determined utilizing data collected every 150 sec for 2 hr. The data were fit to a monoexponential curve and the decay rate constant (/sec) derived. By day 7 all group B hearts had histological evidence of severe acute rejection, and demonstrated decreased global contraction. Group A hearts showed normal histology and contractility. However, thallium uptakes and washout of the two groups were the same. Peak thallium uptake of group B was +/- 3758 1166 counts compared with 3553 +/- 950 counts in the control group A (P = 0.6395); The 2-hr percentage of washout was 12.1 +/- 1.04 compared with 12.1 +/- 9.3 (P = 1.0000); and the decay constant was -0.00002065 +/- 0.00001799 compared with -0.00002202 +/- 0.00001508 (P = 0.8409). These data indicate that in vivo global thallium kinetics are preserved during mild-to-severe acute transplant rejection. These findings suggest that the complex cellular and extracellular processes of acute rejection limit the usefulness of thallium kinetics in the detection of acute transplant rejection

  15. Satiety in the obese Zucker rat: effects of carbohydrate type and acarbose (Bay g 5421).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, C A; Vasselli, J R

    1989-09-01

    Despite the obese Zucker rat's hyperphagia on carbohydrate diets such as laboratory chow, this laboratory has found that its satiety response to glucose and other simple sugars is comparable to that of its lean control rat. To further investigate carbohydrate satiety in the Zucker rat, the short-term feeding behavior of obese and lean rats was observed following intragastric infusions (7.2 kcal in 10 ml) of corn starch and the starch hydrolysates Polycose and dextrin. There were no reliable between-genotype differences in the feeding inhibitory effects of Polycose and dextrin. However, in obese rats, the satiety effect of corn starch was delayed and reduced compared to that observed in lean rats (p less than 0.04). To modify the effect of corn starch, rats were administered 0.2 or 0.6 mg/infusion of the carbohydrate digestive inhibitor acarbose (Bay g 5421). Acarbose significantly reduced the satiety effect of corn starch in lean rats (p less than 0.001), and further attenuated satiety in obese rats (p less than 0.02). Since secretion of pancreatic amylase, the enzyme that initiates starch digestion, is decreased in obese rats, this result suggests that alterations of digestive and/or absorptive processes may underlie the obese rat's impaired satiety response to complex carbohydrate.

  16. Dithiobiuret metabolism in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, K.D.; Porter, W.R.; Peterson, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Our main objective was to describe the metabolism of dithiobiuret (DTB) in the adult, male rat. Based on the thin-layer chromatographic analysis of urine from animals treated with [ 14 C] or [ 35 S] labeled DTB, two pathways for metabolism are proposed. One pathway is reversible and involves the oxidation of DTB to thiuret and the reduction of thiuret back to DTB. The other pathway consists of the desulfurization of DTB to monothiobiuret. The liver appears to desulfurate DTB because DTB-derived [35S] was eliminated from the liver more rapidly than [ 14 C]. The liver was the only tissue where the elimination kinetics of [ 35 S] and [ 14 C] DTB were different. DTB-derived radioactivity in urine that co-chromatographed with DTB, monothiobiuret, thiuret and sulfate was quantitated along with that of three uncharacterized metabolites. The presence of these unknown metabolites suggests that DTB metabolism is complex. The present study is the first description of the metabolic fate of DTB in the rat and serves as a starting point for determining whether DTB neurotoxicity is caused by the parent compound or a metabolite

  17. City rats: insight from rat spatial behavior into human cognition in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaski, Osnat; Portugali, Juval; Eilam, David

    2011-09-01

    The structure and shape of the urban environment influence our ability to find our way about in the city. Understanding how the physical properties of the environment affect spatial behavior and cognition is therefore a necessity. However, there are inherent difficulties in empirically studying complex and large-scale urban environments. These include the need to isolate the impact of specific urban features and to acquire data on the physical activity of individuals. In the present study, we attempted to overcome the above obstacles and examine the relation between urban environments and spatial cognition by testing the spatial behavior of rats. This idea originated from the resemblance in the operative brain functions and in the mechanisms and strategies employed by humans and other animals when acquiring spatial information and establishing an internal representation, as revealed in past studies. Accordingly, we tested rats in arenas that simulated a grid urban layout (e.g. Manhattan streets) and an irregular urban layout (e.g. Jerusalem streets). We found that in the grid layout, rat movement was more structured and extended over a greater area compared with their restricted movement in the irregular layout. These movement patterns recall those of humans in respective urban environments, illustrating that the structure and shape of the environment affect spatial behavior similarly in humans and rats. Overall, testing rats in environments that simulate facets of urban environments can provide new insights into human spatial cognition in urban environments.

  18. Individually reared rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraeuchi, K.; Gentsch, C.; Feer, H.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of social isolation in rats on postsynaptic alpha 1 - and beta-adrenergic receptors, on the cAMP generating system and on the presynaptic uptake mechanism in the central noradrenergic system was examined in different brain regions. Rearing rats in isolation from the 19th day of life for 12 weeks leads in all regions to a general tendency for a reduction in 3 H-DHA binding, to an enhanced 3 H-WB4101 binding and to a decreased responsiveness of the noradrenaline sensitive cAMP generating system. These changes reach significance only in the pons-medulla-thallamusregion. Isolated rats showed an increased synaptosomal uptake of noradrenaline, most pronounced and significant in the hypothalamus. Our data provide further support for a disturbance in central noradrenergic function in isolated rats. (author)

  19. A new organellar complex in rat sympathetic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt S Ramer

    Full Text Available Membranous compartments of neurons such as axons, dendrites and modified primary cilia are defining features of neuronal phenotype. This is unlike organelles deep to the plasma membrane, which are for the most part generic and not related directly to morphological, neurochemical or functional specializations. However, here we use multi-label immunohistochemistry combined with confocal and electron microscopy to identify a very large (approximately 6 microns in diameter, entirely intracellular neuronal organelle which occurs singly in a ubiquitous but neurochemically distinct and morphologically simple subset of sympathetic ganglion neurons. Although usually toroidal, it also occurs as twists or rods depending on its intracellular position: tori are most often perinuclear whereas rods are often found in axons. These 'loukoumasomes' (doughnut-like bodies bind a monoclonal antibody raised against beta-III-tubulin (SDL.3D10, although their inability to bind other beta-III-tubulin monoclonal antibodies indicate that the responsible antigen is not known. Position-morphology relationships within neurons and their expression of non-muscle heavy chain myosin suggest a dynamic structure. They associate with nematosomes, enigmatic nucleolus-like organelles present in many neural and non-neural tissues, which we now show to be composed of filamentous actin. Loukoumasomes also separately interact with mother centrioles forming the basal body of primary cilia. They express gamma tubulin, a microtubule nucleator which localizes to non-neuronal centrosomes, and cenexin, a mother centriole-associated protein required for ciliogenesis. These data reveal a hitherto undescribed organelle, and depict it as an intracellular transport machine, shuttling material between the primary cilium, the nematosome, and the axon.

  20. Chronic stress does not impair liver regeneration in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper J; Knudsen, Anders Riegels; Wiborg, Ove

    2015-01-01

    a 70 % partial hepatectomy (PHx). The animals were evaluated on postoperative day 2 or 4. Blood samples were collected to examine circulating markers of inflammation and liver cell damage. Additionally, liver tissues were sampled to evaluate liver weight and regeneration rate. RESULTS: None......BACKGROUND: Although wound healing is a simple regenerative process that is critical after surgery, it has been shown to be impaired under psychological stress. The liver has a unique capacity to regenerate through highly complex mechanisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects...... of chronic stress, which may induce a depression-like state, on the complex process of liver regeneration in rats. METHODS: Twenty rats were included in this study. The animals received either a standard housing protocol or were subjected to a Chronic Mild Stress (CMS) stress paradigm. All rats underwent...

  1. Reduced Incidence of Slowly Progressive Heymann Nephritis in Rats Immunized With a Modified Vaccination Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpad Z. Barabas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A slowly progressive Heymann nephritis (SPHN was induced in three groups of rats by weekly injections of a chemically modified renal tubular antigen in an aqueous medium. A control group of rats received the chemically unmodified version of the antigen in an aqueous solution. One group of SPHN rats were pre- and post-treated with weekly injections of IC made up of rKF3 and rarKF3 IgM antibody at antigen excess (MIC (immune complexes [ICs] containing sonicated ultracentrifuged [u/c] rat kidney fraction 3 [rKF3] antigen and IgM antibodies specific against the antigen, at slight antigen excess. One group of SPHN rats were post-treated with MIC 3 weeks after the induction of the disease and one group of SPHN animals received no treatment. The control group of rats received pre- and post-treatment with sonicated u/c rKF3.

  2. Zinc-enriched boutons in rat spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D; Danscher, G; Jo, S M

    2000-01-01

    The rat spinal cord reveals a complex pattern of zinc-enriched (ZEN) boutons. As a result of in vivo exposure to selenide ions, nanosized clusters of zinc selenide are created in places where zinc ions are present, including the zinc-containing synaptic vesicles of ZEN boutons. The clusters can...

  3. Histochemical demonstration of mercury induced changes in rat neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danscher, G; Schrøder, H D

    1979-01-01

    A histochemical method modified for ultrastructural studies of mercury induced changes is described. Rat neurons from areas known to be influenced by mercury are used as examples. The histochemical reaction, suggested to be caused by polymercury sulphide complexes, is localized to "dense bodies......" where it is visible 14 days after initiation of peroral mercury treatment (20 mg HgCl2/l drinking water)....

  4. Microarray Analysis of the Developing Rat Mandible

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hideo KABURAGI; Naoyuki SUGANO; Maiko OSHIKAWA; Ryosuke KOSHI; Naoki SENDA; Kazuhiro KAWAMOTO; Koichi ITO

    2007-01-01

    To analyze the molecular events that occur in the developing mandible, we examined the expression of 8803 genes from samples taken at different time points during rat postnatal mandible development.Total RNA was extracted from the mandibles of 1-day-old, 1-week-old, and 2-week-old rats. Complementary RNA (cRNA) was synthesized from cDNA and biotinylated. Fragmented cRNA was hybridized to RGU34A GeneChip arrays. Among the 8803 genes tested, 4344 were detectable. We identified 148 genes with significantly increased expression, and 19 genes with significantly decreased expression. A comprehensive analysis appears to be an effective method of studying the complex process of development.

  5. Studying antioxidant, radioprotective and antibacterial actions of iron complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamilov, E.N.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text: It was investigated regulation of the malone dialdehyde consent ration in the action of the chemical agents and radiation on the white rats liver tissue at participation of dittsiklopenthadienil-Fe and Fe-ru tinate, and it was also investigated the biological activity of some complexes of iron on some Gram positive bacteria strains of the genius of Basillus

  6. Styling antioxidant, radioprotective and antibacterial actions of iron complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamilov, E.N.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text: It was investigated regulation of the malone dialdehyde consent ration in the action of the chemical agents and radiation on the white rats liver tissue at participation of dittsiklopenthadienil-Fe and Fe-ru tinate, and it was also investigated the biological activity of some complexes of iron on some Gram positive bacteria strains of the genius of Basillus

  7. Complex analysis and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Alessandro

    1993-01-01

    The papers in this wide-ranging collection report on the results of investigations from a number of linked disciplines, including complex algebraic geometry, complex analytic geometry of manifolds and spaces, and complex differential geometry.

  8. Complex Systems: An Introduction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 9. Complex Systems: An Introduction - Anthropic Principle, Terrestrial Complexity, Complex Materials. V K Wadhawan. General Article Volume 14 Issue 9 September 2009 pp 894-906 ...

  9. Optimization and Characterization of Magnetic Nano Particle - Vesicular Stomatitis Virus complexes for Therapy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Wille, Florian

    2017-01-01

    This thesis describes the complex formation of oncolytic viral particles (VSV) and magnetic nanoparticles (MNP). Surface decoration of the complexes with hyaluronic acid resulted in reduced antibody mediated inactivation in vitro and prolonged circulation time in vivo. First in vivo results of intra-tumoral complex application in HCC bearing rats revealed a higher viral titer compared to naked VSV particles and the ability to visualize these complexes by MRI. Diese Arbeit beschreibt die K...

  10. Differential cardiac effects in rats exposed to atmospheric ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of this study demonstrate that atmospheric smog generated from both isoprene and toluene cause cardiac effects in rats. In addition, it appears that smog from toluene is more toxic in terms of cardiac arrhythmogenicity. Smog, which is a complex mixture of particulate matter and gaseous irritants (ozone, sulfur dioxide, reactive aldehydes), as well as components which react with sunlight to form secondary pollutants, has recently been linked to increased risk of adverse cardiac responses. The components, and therefore health effects, of atmospheric smog are determined by the fuel used to generate them. In this study we examined the difference between isoprene- and toluene-generated smog in causing cardiac effects in rats and hypothesized that both atmospheres would cause cardiac electrical and functional changes in rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were exposed to either atmospheric smog generated by the USEPA’s mobile reaction chamber using either isoprene or toluene, or filtered air for four hours. One day later, rats were anesthetized and left ventricular functional responses to dobutamine were measured using a Millar probe and arrhythmia sensitivity to aconitine. Baseline left ventricular pressure (LVP) was lower in toluene-exposed animals but not isoprene when compared to air. Increases in LVP with increasing doses of dobutamine were impaired only in toluene-exposed rats. Both isoprene and toluene impaired the rate of ventri

  11. A microcontroller-based implantable nerve stimulator used for rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Hong; Zheng, Zheng; Wang, Yan; Ren, Chaoshi

    2005-01-01

    A microcontroller-based stimulator that can be flexible programmed after it has been implanted into a rat was studied. Programmability enables implanted stimulators to generate customized, complex protocols for experiments. After implantation, a coded light pulse train that contains information of specific identification will unlock a certain stimulator. If a command that changing the parameters is received, the microcontroller will update its flash memory after it affirms the commands. The whole size of it is only 1.6 cubic centimeters, and it can work for a month. The devices have been successfully used in animal behavior experiments, especially on rats.

  12. Impaired Mitochondrial Respiratory Functions and Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbuswamy K. Prabu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown a tissue-specific increase in oxidative stress in the early stages of streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. In this study, we investigated oxidative stress-related long-term complications and mitochondrial dysfunctions in the different tissues of STZ-induced diabetic rats (>15 mM blood glucose for 8 weeks. These animals showed a persistent increase in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively production. Oxidative protein carbonylation was also increased with the maximum effect observed in the pancreas of diabetic rats. The activities of mitochondrial respiratory enzymes ubiquinol: cytochrome c oxidoreductase (Complex III and cytochrome c oxidase (Complex IV were significantly decreased while that of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I and succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex II were moderately increased in diabetic rats, which was confirmed by the increased expression of the 70 kDa Complex II sub-unit. Mitochondrial matrix aconitase, a ROS sensitive enzyme, was markedly inhibited in the diabetic rat tissues. Increased expression of oxidative stress marker proteins Hsp-70 and HO-1 was also observed along with increased expression of nitric oxide synthase. These results suggest that mitochondrial respiratory complexes may play a critical role in ROS/RNS homeostasis and oxidative stress related changes in type 1 diabetes and may have implications in the etiology of diabetes and its complications.

  13. Radiolabeling of gemifloxacin with technetium-99m and biological evaluation in artificially Streptococcus pneumoniae infected rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Qaiser Shah; Muhammad Rafiullah Khan

    2011-01-01

    In the current investigation complexation of the gemifloxacin (GIN) with technetium-99 m ( 99m Tc) and its biological evaluation in artificially Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) infected rats was assessed as potential S. pneumoniae infection radiotracer. Radiochemically the 99m Tc-GIN complex was further analyzed in terms of stability in saline, in vitro stability in serum at 37 deg C, in vitro binding with S. pneumoniae and biodistribution in artificially S. pneumoniae (living and heat killed) infected rats. The complex was found 97.25 ± 0.25% radiochemically stable in saline at 30 min after reconstitution. The stability of the 99m Tc-GIN complex was decreased to 90.50 ± 0.20% within 240 min after reconstitution. In serum the 99m Tc-GIN complex showed stable profile with the appearance of 18.85% free tracer within 16 h of incubation. The 99m Tc-GIN complex showed saturated in vitro binding with S. pneumoniae after different intervals. Almost five fold uptake was observed in living S. pneumoniae infected muscle of the rats as compared to the inflamed and normal muscle. No significant difference in the uptake of heat killed S. pneumoniae infected, inflamed and normal muscles of the rats. The high RCP yield in saline, in vitro permanence in serum, in vitro binding with living S. pneumoniae and biodistribution in artificially S. pneumoniae infected rats we recommend the 99m Tc-GIN as potential S. pneumoniae infection radiotracer. (author)

  14. Effects of MK-801 upon local cerebral glucose utilization in conscious rats and in rats anaesthetised with halothane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurumaji, A.; McCulloch, J.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg i.v.), a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, upon local cerebral glucose utilization were examined in conscious, lightly restrained rats and in rats anaesthetised with halothane in nitrous oxide by means of the quantitative autoradiographic [14C]-2-deoxyglucose technique. In the conscious rats, MK-801 produced a heterogenous pattern of altered cerebral glucose utilization with significant increases being observed in 12 of the 28 regions of gray matter examined and significant decreases in 6 of the 28 regions. Pronounced increases in glucose use were observed after MK-801 in the olfactory areas and in a number of brain areas in the limbic system (e.g., hippocampus molecular layer, dentate gyrus, subicular complex, posterior cingulate cortex, and mammillary body). In the cerebral cortices, large reductions in glucose use were observed after administration of MK-801, whereas in the extrapyramidal and sensory-motor areas, glucose use remained unchanged after MK-801 administration in conscious rats. In the halothane-anaesthetised rats, the pattern of altered glucose use after MK-801 differed qualitatively and quantitatively from that observed in conscious rats. In anaesthetised rats, significant reductions in glucose use were noted after MK-801 in 10 of the 28 regions examined, with no area displaying significantly increased glucose use after administration of the drug. In halothane-anaesthetised rats, MK-801 failed to change the rates of glucose use in the olfactory areas, the hippocampus molecular layer, and the dentate gyrus

  15. Structure of the vitreoretinal border region in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR rats)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen

    1993-01-01

    Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, spontaneously hypertensive rats, SHR rats, ultrastructure......Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, spontaneously hypertensive rats, SHR rats, ultrastructure...

  16. Adult neurogenesis and its anatomical context in the hippocampus of three mole-rat species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmgard eAmrein

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae are small to medium sized, long-lived and strictly subterranean rodents that became valuable animal models as a result of their longevity and diversity in social organization. The formation and integration of new hippocampal neurons in adult mammals (adult hippocampal neurogenesis, AHN correlates negatively with age and positively with habitat complexity. Here we present quantitative data on AHN in wild-derived mole-rats of one year and older, and briefly describe its anatomical context including markers of neuronal function (calbindin and parvalbumin. Solitary Cape mole-rats (Georychus capensis, social highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae, and eusocial naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber were assessed. Compared to other rodents, the hippocampal formation in mole-rats is small, but shows a distinct cytoarchitecture in the dentate gyrus and CA1. Distributions of the calcium-binding proteins differ from those seen in rodents; e.g., calbindin in CA3 of naked mole-rats distributes similar to the pattern seen in early primate development, and calbindin staining extends into the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of Cape mole-rats. Proliferating cells and young neurons are found in low numbers in the hippocampus of all three mole-rat species. Resident granule cell numbers are low as well. Proliferating cells expressed as a percentage of resident granule cells are in the range of other rodents, while the percentage of young neurons is lower than that observed in surface dwelling rodents. Between mole-rat species, we observed no difference in the percentage of proliferating cells. The percentages of young neurons are high in social highveld and naked mole-rats, and low in solitary Cape mole-rats. The findings support that proliferation is regulated independently of average life expectancy and habitat. Instead, neuronal differentiation reflects species-specific demands, which appear lower in subterranean

  17. Adult neurogenesis and its anatomical context in the hippocampus of three mole-rat species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrein, Irmgard; Becker, Anton S; Engler, Stefanie; Huang, Shih-Hui; Müller, Julian; Slomianka, Lutz; Oosthuizen, Maria K

    2014-01-01

    African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae) are small to medium sized, long-lived, and strictly subterranean rodents that became valuable animal models as a result of their longevity and diversity in social organization. The formation and integration of new hippocampal neurons in adult mammals (adult hippocampal neurogenesis, AHN) correlates negatively with age and positively with habitat complexity. Here we present quantitative data on AHN in wild-derived mole-rats of 1 year and older, and briefly describe its anatomical context including markers of neuronal function (calbindin and parvalbumin). Solitary Cape mole-rats (Georychus capensis), social highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae), and eusocial naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) were assessed. Compared to other rodents, the hippocampal formation in mole-rats is small, but shows a distinct cytoarchitecture in the dentate gyrus and CA1. Distributions of the calcium-binding proteins differ from those seen in rodents; e.g., calbindin in CA3 of naked mole-rats distributes similar to the pattern seen in early primate development, and calbindin staining extends into the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of Cape mole-rats. Proliferating cells and young neurons are found in low numbers in the hippocampus of all three mole-rat species. Resident granule cell numbers are low as well. Proliferating cells expressed as a percentage of resident granule cells are in the range of other rodents, while the percentage of young neurons is lower than that observed in surface dwelling rodents. Between mole-rat species, we observed no difference in the percentage of proliferating cells. The percentages of young neurons are high in social highveld and naked mole-rats, and low in solitary Cape mole-rats. The findings support that proliferation is regulated independently of average life expectancy and habitat. Instead, neuronal differentiation reflects species-specific demands, which appear lower in subterranean rodents.

  18. Rat bite fever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaastra, W.; Boot, R.G.A.; Ho, H.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Rat bite fever (RBF) is a bacterial zoonosis for which two causal bacterial species have been identified: Streptobacillis moniliformis and Spirillum minus. Haverhill fever (HF) is a form of S. moniliformis infection believed to develop after ingestion of contaminated food or water. Here the

  19. Complex differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Fangyang

    2002-01-01

    The theory of complex manifolds overlaps with several branches of mathematics, including differential geometry, algebraic geometry, several complex variables, global analysis, topology, algebraic number theory, and mathematical physics. Complex manifolds provide a rich class of geometric objects, for example the (common) zero locus of any generic set of complex polynomials is always a complex manifold. Yet complex manifolds behave differently than generic smooth manifolds; they are more coherent and fragile. The rich yet restrictive character of complex manifolds makes them a special and interesting object of study. This book is a self-contained graduate textbook that discusses the differential geometric aspects of complex manifolds. The first part contains standard materials from general topology, differentiable manifolds, and basic Riemannian geometry. The second part discusses complex manifolds and analytic varieties, sheaves and holomorphic vector bundles, and gives a brief account of the surface classifi...

  20. Proteomic profiling of the rat hypothalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedroso Amanda P

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hypothalamus plays a pivotal role in numerous mechanisms highly relevant to the maintenance of body homeostasis, such as the control of food intake and energy expenditure. Impairment of these mechanisms has been associated with the metabolic disturbances involved in the pathogenesis of obesity. Since rodent species constitute important models for metabolism studies and the rat hypothalamus is poorly characterized by proteomic strategies, we performed experiments aimed at constructing a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE profile of rat hypothalamus proteins. Results As a first step, we established the best conditions for tissue collection and protein extraction, quantification and separation. The extraction buffer composition selected for proteome characterization of rat hypothalamus was urea 7 M, thiourea 2 M, CHAPS 4%, Triton X-100 0.5%, followed by a precipitation step with chloroform/methanol. Two-dimensional (2-D gels of hypothalamic extracts from four-month-old rats were analyzed; the protein spots were digested and identified by using tandem mass spectrometry and database query using the protein search engine MASCOT. Eighty-six hypothalamic proteins were identified, the majority of which were classified as participating in metabolic processes, consistent with the finding of a large number of proteins with catalytic activity. Genes encoding proteins identified in this study have been related to obesity development. Conclusion The present results indicate that the 2-DE technique will be useful for nutritional studies focusing on hypothalamic proteins. The data presented herein will serve as a reference database for studies testing the effects of dietary manipulations on hypothalamic proteome. We trust that these experiments will lead to important knowledge on protein targets of nutritional variables potentially able to affect the complex central nervous system control of energy homeostasis.

  1. Complex and symplectic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Medori, Costantino; Tomassini, Adriano

    2017-01-01

    This book arises from the INdAM Meeting "Complex and Symplectic Geometry", which was held in Cortona in June 2016. Several leading specialists, including young researchers, in the field of complex and symplectic geometry, present the state of the art of their research on topics such as the cohomology of complex manifolds; analytic techniques in Kähler and non-Kähler geometry; almost-complex and symplectic structures; special structures on complex manifolds; and deformations of complex objects. The work is intended for researchers in these areas.

  2. Effect of complex polyphenols on colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caderni, G; Remy, S; Cheynier, V; Morozzi, G; Dolara, P

    1999-06-01

    Complex polyphenols and tannins from wine (WCPT) are being considered increasingly as potential cancer chemopreventive agents, since epidemiological studies suggest that populations consuming a high amount of polyphenols in the diet may have a lower incidence of some types of cancer. We studied the effect of WCPT on a series of parameters related to colon carcinogenesis in rats. WCPT were administered to F344 rats at a dose of 14 or 57 mg/kg/d, mixed with the diet. The higher dose is about ten times the exposure to polyphenols of a moderate drinker of red wine. In rats treated with WCPT, we measured fecal bile acids and long chain fatty acids, colon mucosa cell proliferation, apoptosis and, after administration of colon carcinogens, the number and size of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and nuclear aberrations. Colon mucosa proliferation was not varied by chronic administration (90 d) of WCPT (14 or 57 mg/kg/d). The highest dose of WCPT decreased the number of cells in the colon crypts, but did not increase apoptosis. WCPT (57 mg/kg) administered before or after the administration of azoxymethane (AOM) did not vary the number or multiplicity of ACF in the colon. The number of nuclear aberrations (NA) in colon mucosa was studied after administration of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo (4,5-f)quinoline (IQ), colon-specific carcinogens which require metabolic activation. The effect of DMH and IQ was not varied by pre-feeding WCPT (57 mg/kg) for 10 d. Similarly, the levels of total, secondary bile acids and long chain fatty acids did not varied significantly in animals fed WCPT for 90 d. WCPT administration does not influence parameters related to colon carcinogenesis in the rat.

  3. Physiological covalent regulation of rat liver branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, R.A.; Powell, S.M.; Paxton, R.; Gillim, S.E.; Nagae, H.

    1985-01-01

    A radiochemical assay was developed for measuring branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase activity of Triton X-100 extracts of freeze-clamped rat liver. The proportion of active (dephosphorylated) enzyme was determined by measuring enzyme activities before and after activation of the complex with a broad-specificity phosphoprotein phosphatase. Hepatic branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase activity in normal male Wistar rats was 97% active but decreased to 33% active after 2 days on low-protein (8%) diet and to 13% active after 4 days on the same diet. Restricting protein intake of lean and obese female Zucker rats also caused inactivation of hepatic branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. Essentially all of the enzyme was in the active state in rats maintained for 14 days on either 30 or 50% protein diets. This was also the case for rats maintained on a commercial chow diet (minimum 23% protein). However, maintaining rats on 20, 8, and 0% protein diets decreased the percentage of the active form of the enzyme to 58, 10, and 7% of the total, respectively. Fasting of chow-fed rats for 48 h had no effect on the activity state of hepatic branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase, i.e., 93% of the enzyme remained in the active state compared to 97% for chow-fed rats. However, hepatic enzyme of rats maintained on 8% protein diet was 10% active before starvation and 83% active after 2 days of starvation. Thus, dietary protein deficiency results in inactivation of hepatic branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex, presumably as a consequence of low hepatic levels of branched-chain alpha-ketoacids

  4. Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.

    2002-01-18

    Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.

  5. Photocytotoxic lanthanide complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Among many applications of lanthanides, gadolinium complexes are used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents in clinical radiology and luminescent lanthanides for bioanalysis, imaging and sensing. The chemistry of photoactive lanthanide complexes showing biological applications is of recent origin.

  6. ComplexRec 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    a single step in the user's more complex background need. These background needs can often place a variety of constraints on which recommendations are interesting to the user and when they are appropriate. However, relatively little research has been done on these complex recommendation scenarios....... The ComplexRec 2017 workshop addressed this by providing an interactive venue for discussing approaches to recommendation in complex scenarios that have no simple one-size-fits-all-solution....

  7. Hypothalamic Energy Metabolism Is Impaired By Doxorubicin Independently Of Inflammation In Non-tumour-bearing Rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, Barbara M M; Lira, Fabio Santos; Pimentel, Gustavo Duarte; Rosa Neto, José Cesar; Esteves, Andrea Maculano; Oyama, Lila Missae; de Souza, Cláudio Teodoro; Gonçalves, Cinara Ludvig; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Rodrigues, Bruno; dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-01-01

    We sought to explore the effects of doxorubicin on inflammatory profiles and energy metabolism in the hypothalamus of rats. To investigate these effects, we formed two groups: a control (C) group and a Doxorubicin (DOXO) group. Sixteen rats were randomly assigned to either the control (C) or DOXO groups. The hypothalamus was collected. The levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and energy metabolism (malate dehydrogenase, complex I and III activities) were analysed in the hypothala...

  8. [Modification of red cell membranes with perftoran in papaine emphysema in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoirova, N I; Arifkhanov, S I; Rakhmatullaev, Kh U; Tadzhikhodzhaev, Iu Kh

    2006-01-01

    Papaine emphysema model on 75 mongrel mature white male rats (10 intact rats were control) was used to study the size, form, surface architechtonics, deformability and state of membrane-receptor erythrocyte complex before and after perftoran intraperitoneal administration. Perftoran emulsion produced a membrane-modulating effect with recovery of hormonal reception sensitivity, PHA-, cAMP-receptor systems as well as restoration of erythrocytic normocytosis and diskocytosis.

  9. Preventive and Therapeutic Effects of Propolis in Gamma Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, R.G.; El-Shahat, A.N.

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is known to stimulate the generation of oxygen radicals which destabilize organic molecules resulting in a decrease of the system's antioxidant potential. Propolis (bee glue) is a complex mixture of natural substances that exhibits a broad spectrum of biological activities. As the possibility exists that it may exert a radio protections role, the present study aimed to examine the preventive and therapeutic effects of propolis on the gamma irradiation-induced changes in antioxidant status and certain biochemical parameters. HPLC chromatography for analysis of propolis showed that the number of identified phenols was 6 compounds (natural antioxidants). Male albino rats were exposed to 6 Gy of gamma radiation. The efficiency of propolis was evaluated when propolis was administered orally to rats at a dose of 200 mg/kg as follow: non-irradiated rats received orally propolis extract for 6 weeks (positive control) and rats received orally propolis extract for 3 weeks before or after gamma irradiation. The obtained results revealed that propolis given to rats before gamma irradiation protect the hazardous effects of gamma irradiation. In addition, administration of propolis to gamma irradiated rats caused significant enhancement in hepatic antioxidant enzymes (glutathion reductase; GR and catalase; CAT) and total antioxidant capacity associated with a remarkable decrease in the level of lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Also, it significantly reduced the changes induced by gamma irradiation in the serum levels of glucose and liver enzymes; aminotransferases (AST, ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). In addition, a significant improvement was observed in the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein- cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). In conclusion, the positive results obtained in the gamma irradiated rats given propolis indicated that propolis could be considered as effective

  10. Dysfunction in fatty acid amide hydrolase is associated with depressive-like behavior in Wistar Kyoto rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod, K Yaragudri; Xie, Shan; Psychoyos, Delphine; Hungund, Basalingappa L; Cooper, Thomas B; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz M

    2012-01-01

    While the etiology of depression is not clearly understood at the present time, this mental disorder is thought be a complex and multifactorial trait with important genetic and environmental contributing factors. The role of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in depressive behavior was examined in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat strain, a genetic model of depression. Our findings revealed selective abnormalities in the eCB system in the brains of WKY rats compared to Wistar (WIS) rats. Immunoblot analysis indicated significantly higher levels of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in frontal cortex and hippocampus of WKY rats with no alteration in the level of N-arachidonyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine specific phospholipase-D (NAPE-PLD). Significantly higher levels of CB1 receptor-mediated G-protein coupling and lower levels of anandamide (AEA) were found in frontal cortex and hippocampus of WKY rats. While the levels of brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) were significantly lower in frontal cortex and hippocampus of WKY rats compared to WIS rats, pharmacological inhibition of FAAH elevated BDNF levels in WKY rats. Inhibition of FAAH enzyme also significantly increased sucrose consumption and decreased immobility in the forced swim test in WKY rats. These findings suggest a critical role for the eCB system and BDNF in the genetic predisposition to depressive-like behavior in WKY rats and point to the potential therapeutic utility of eCB enhancing agents in depressive disorder.

  11. Dysfunction in fatty acid amide hydrolase is associated with depressive-like behavior in Wistar Kyoto rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Yaragudri Vinod

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While the etiology of depression is not clearly understood at the present time, this mental disorder is thought be a complex and multifactorial trait with important genetic and environmental contributing factors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The role of the endocannabinoid (eCB system in depressive behavior was examined in Wistar Kyoto (WKY rat strain, a genetic model of depression. Our findings revealed selective abnormalities in the eCB system in the brains of WKY rats compared to Wistar (WIS rats. Immunoblot analysis indicated significantly higher levels of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH in frontal cortex and hippocampus of WKY rats with no alteration in the level of N-arachidonyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine specific phospholipase-D (NAPE-PLD. Significantly higher levels of CB1 receptor-mediated G-protein coupling and lower levels of anandamide (AEA were found in frontal cortex and hippocampus of WKY rats. While the levels of brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF were significantly lower in frontal cortex and hippocampus of WKY rats compared to WIS rats, pharmacological inhibition of FAAH elevated BDNF levels in WKY rats. Inhibition of FAAH enzyme also significantly increased sucrose consumption and decreased immobility in the forced swim test in WKY rats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest a critical role for the eCB system and BDNF in the genetic predisposition to depressive-like behavior in WKY rats and point to the potential therapeutic utility of eCB enhancing agents in depressive disorder.

  12. Complex Correspondence Principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, Carl M.; Meisinger, Peter N.; Hook, Daniel W.; Wang Qinghai

    2010-01-01

    Quantum mechanics and classical mechanics are distinctly different theories, but the correspondence principle states that quantum particles behave classically in the limit of high quantum number. In recent years much research has been done on extending both quantum and classical mechanics into the complex domain. These complex extensions continue to exhibit a correspondence, and this correspondence becomes more pronounced in the complex domain. The association between complex quantum mechanics and complex classical mechanics is subtle and demonstrating this relationship requires the use of asymptotics beyond all orders.

  13. Uranium thiolate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leverd, Pascal C.

    1994-01-01

    This research thesis proposes a new approach to the chemistry of uranium thiolate complexes as these compounds are very promising for various uses (in bio-inorganic chemistry, in some industrial processes like oil desulphurization). It more particularly addresses the U-S bond or more generally bonds between polarizable materials and hard metals. The author thus reports the study of uranium organometallic thiolates (tricyclo-penta-dienic and mono-cyclo-octa-tetraenylic complexes), and of uranium homoleptic thiolates (tetra-thiolate complexes, hexa-thiolate complexes, reactivity of homoleptic thiolate complexes) [fr

  14. Laughing rats are optimistic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Rygula

    Full Text Available Emotions can bias human decisions- for example depressed or anxious people tend to make pessimistic judgements while those in positive affective states are often more optimistic. Several studies have reported that affect contingent judgement biases can also be produced in animals. The animals, however, cannot self-report; therefore, the valence of their emotions, to date, could only be assumed. Here we present the results of an experiment where the affect-contingent judgement bias has been produced by objectively measured positive emotions. We trained rats in operant Skinner boxes to press one lever in response to one tone to receive a food reward and to press another lever in response to a different tone to avoid punishment by electric foot shock. After attaining a stable level of discrimination performance, the animals were subjected to either handling or playful, experimenter-administered manual stimulation - tickling. This procedure has been confirmed to induce a positive affective state in rats, and the 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalisations (rat laughter emitted by animals in response to tickling have been postulated to index positive emotions akin to human joy. During the tickling and handling sessions, the numbers of emitted high-frequency 50-kHz calls were scored. Immediately after tickling or handling, the animals were tested for their responses to a tone of intermediate frequency, and the pattern of their responses to this ambiguous cue was taken as an indicator of the animals' optimism. Our findings indicate that tickling induced positive emotions which are directly indexed in rats by laughter, can make animals more optimistic. We demonstrate for the first time a link between the directly measured positive affective state and decision making under uncertainty in an animal model. We also introduce innovative tandem-approach for studying emotional-cognitive interplay in animals, which may be of great value for understanding the emotional

  15. Heterogeneous stock rat: a unique animal model for mapping genes influencing bone fragility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Imranul; Koller, Daniel L; Sun, Qiwei; Roeder, Ryan K; Cañete, Toni; Blázquez, Gloria; López-Aumatell, Regina; Martínez-Membrives, Esther; Vicens-Costa, Elia; Mont, Carme; Díaz, Sira; Tobeña, Adolf; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto; Whitley, Adam; Strid, Pernilla; Diez, Margarita; Johannesson, Martina; Flint, Jonathan; Econs, Michael J; Turner, Charles H; Foroud, Tatiana

    2011-05-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that skeletal mass, structure and biomechanical properties vary considerably among 11 different inbred rat strains. Subsequently, we performed quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis in four inbred rat strains (F344, LEW, COP and DA) for different bone phenotypes and identified several candidate genes influencing various bone traits. The standard approach to narrowing QTL intervals down to a few candidate genes typically employs the generation of congenic lines, which is time consuming and often not successful. A potential alternative approach is to use a highly genetically informative animal model resource capable of delivering very high resolution gene mapping such as Heterogeneous stock (HS) rat. HS rat was derived from eight inbred progenitors: ACI/N, BN/SsN, BUF/N, F344/N, M520/N, MR/N, WKY/N and WN/N. The genetic recombination pattern generated across 50 generations in these rats has been shown to deliver ultra-high even gene-level resolution for complex genetic studies. The purpose of this study is to investigate the usefulness of the HS rat model for fine mapping and identification of genes underlying bone fragility phenotypes. We compared bone geometry, density and strength phenotypes at multiple skeletal sites in HS rats with those obtained from five of the eight progenitor inbred strains. In addition, we estimated the heritability for different bone phenotypes in these rats and employed principal component analysis to explore relationships among bone phenotypes in the HS rats. Our study demonstrates that significant variability exists for different skeletal phenotypes in HS rats compared with their inbred progenitors. In addition, we estimated high heritability for several bone phenotypes and biologically interpretable factors explaining significant overall variability, suggesting that the HS rat model could be a unique genetic resource for rapid and efficient discovery of the genetic determinants of bone fragility. Copyright

  16. LEW.1WR1 RATS DEVELOP AUTOIMMUNE DIABETES SPONTANEOUSLY AND IN RESPONSE TO ENVIRONMENTAL PERTURBATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordes, John P.; Leif, Jean H.; Woda, Bruce A.; Flanagan, Joan F.; Greiner, Dale L.; Kislauskis, Edward H.; Tirabassi, Rebecca S.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a new rat model of autoimmune diabetes that arose in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) congenic LEW rat. Spontaneous diabetes in LEW.1WR1 rats (RT1u/u/a) occurs with a cumulative frequency of ∼2% at a median age of 59 days. The disease is characterized by hyperglycemia, glycosuria, ketonuria and polyuria. Both sexes are affected, and islets of acutely diabetic rats are devoid of beta cells whereas alpha and delta cell populations are spared. The peripheral lymphoid phenotype is normal, including the fraction of ART2+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). We tested the hypothesis that the expression of diabetes would be increased by immunological perturbation of innate or adaptive immunity. Treatment of young rats with depleting anti-ART2.1 mAb increased the frequency of diabetes to 50%. Treatment with the toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) ligand polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid increased the frequency of diabetes to 100%. All diabetic rats exhibited end-stage islets. The LEW.1WR1 rat is also susceptible to collagen-induced arthritis but is free of spontaneous thyroiditis. The LEW.1WR1 rat provides a new model for studying autoimmune diabetes and arthritis in an animal with a genetic predisposition to both disorders that can be amplified by environmental perturbation. PMID:16123363

  17. Characterization of Bromadiolone Resistance in a Danish Strain of Norway Rats, Rattus norvegicus, by Hepatic Gene Expression Profiling of VKORC1 and Calumenin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette Drude; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Fredholm, Merete

    2007-01-01

    Anticoagulant agents, such as warfarin and bromadiolone, are used to control populations of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). The anticoagulants compromise the blood-coagulation process by inhibiting the vitamin K2,3 epoxide reductase enzyme complex (VKOR). Mutations in the VKORC1 gene, encoding...... (with an Y139C-VKORC1 mutation), we compared VKORC1 and calumenin liver gene expression between resistant and anticoagulant-susceptible rats upon saline and bromadiolone-administration. Additionally, we established the effect of bromadiolone on VKORC1 and calumenin expression in the two rat strains....... Bromadiolone had no effect on gene expression in resistant rats but significantly induced calumenin expression in susceptible rats. Calumenin expression was similar between resistant and susceptible rats upon saline administration but two-fold lower in resistant rats upon bromadiolone-treatment. These results...

  18. Characterization of RNA interference in rat PC12 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thonberg, Håkan; Schéele, Camilla C; Dahlgren, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    strand of the siRNA guides a multi-protein complex, RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), to cleave target mRNA. Although the exact function and composition of RISC is still unclear, it has been shown to include several proteins of the Argonaute protein family. Here we report of a robust system...... of the rat Golgi-ER protein 95 kDa (GERp95), an Argonaute family protein, by siRNA methodology. After GERp95-ablation, sequential knockdown of NPY by siRNA was shown to be impaired. Thus, we report that the GERp95 protein is functionally required for RNAi targeting NPY in rat PC12 cells....

  19. Combined effect of formaldehyde and gamma-irradiation. Vitamin complex effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban'kovskij, A.A.; El'chaninova, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Combined inhalation effect of formaldehyde and gamma-irradiation on the activities of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases in rat lung tissue was studied. The possibility of fitting the parameters studied by the vitamin PP, A and E and complex was shown. At investigation of white rats in conditions of formaldehyde inhalation in concentration 10 mg/m 3 and gamma-irradiation by dose 0.25 Gy the changes of activities of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases in the rat lung tissue were detected. An injection of PP, A and E vitamin complex after combined effect of formaldehyde and gamma-irradiation contributes to normalization of studied parameters. The K(C -1 ) constant is reduced. On this basis it is proposed that in such conditions formaldehyde stabilizes membranes and protects important metabolic processes against damages. Thus, vitamin complex is capable to level a toxic combined effect of formaldehyde and gamma-irradiation. 9 refs., 1 tab

  20. ACTH radioimmunocytochemistry (RICH) on rat anterior pituitary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappay, G.; Karteszi, M.; Makara, G.B.

    1979-01-01

    Radioimmunocytochemistry (RICH) was applied to detect corticotrophs in adult rat pituitaries and 8-day-old anterior pituitary monolayers by incubating sections and cultures with 125 I-ACTH-anti ACTH immune complexes. After incubations autoradiography was made. In comparison, 'conventional' immunostaining was carried out on adjacent sections and parallel cultures. It has been established that RICH is suitable for detection of corticotrophs. (orig.) [de

  1. Differences in Anticipatory Behaviour between Rats (Rattus norvegicus Housed in Standard versus Semi-Naturalistic Laboratory Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Joanna Makowska

    Full Text Available Laboratory rats are usually kept in relatively small cages, but research has shown that they prefer larger and more complex environments. The physiological, neurological and health effects of standard laboratory housing are well established, but fewer studies have addressed the sustained emotional impact of a standard cage environment. One method of assessing affective states in animals is to look at the animals' anticipatory behaviour between the presentation of a cue signalling the arrival of a reward and the arrival of that reward. The primary aim of this study was to use anticipatory behaviour to assess the affective state experienced by female rats a reared and housed long-term in a standard laboratory cage versus a semi-naturalistic environment, and b before and after treatment with an antidepressant or an anxiolytic. A secondary aim was to add to the literature on anticipatory behaviour by describing and comparing the frequency and duration of individual elements of anticipatory behaviour displayed by rats reared in these two systems. In all experiments, total behavioural frequency was higher in standard-housed rats compared to rats from the semi-naturalistic condition, suggesting that standard-housed rats were more sensitive to rewards and experiencing poorer welfare than rats reared in the semi-naturalistic environment. What rats did in anticipation of the reward also differed between housing treatments, with standard-housed rats mostly rearing and rats from the semi-naturalistic condition mostly sitting facing the direction of the upcoming treat. Drug interventions had no effect on the quantity or form of anticipatory behaviour, suggesting that the poorer welfare experienced by standard-housed rats was not analogous to depression or anxiety, or alternatively that the drug interventions were ineffective. This study adds to mounting evidence that standard laboratory housing for rats compromises rat welfare, and provides further

  2. Differences in Anticipatory Behaviour between Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Housed in Standard versus Semi-Naturalistic Laboratory Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, I Joanna; Weary, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory rats are usually kept in relatively small cages, but research has shown that they prefer larger and more complex environments. The physiological, neurological and health effects of standard laboratory housing are well established, but fewer studies have addressed the sustained emotional impact of a standard cage environment. One method of assessing affective states in animals is to look at the animals' anticipatory behaviour between the presentation of a cue signalling the arrival of a reward and the arrival of that reward. The primary aim of this study was to use anticipatory behaviour to assess the affective state experienced by female rats a) reared and housed long-term in a standard laboratory cage versus a semi-naturalistic environment, and b) before and after treatment with an antidepressant or an anxiolytic. A secondary aim was to add to the literature on anticipatory behaviour by describing and comparing the frequency and duration of individual elements of anticipatory behaviour displayed by rats reared in these two systems. In all experiments, total behavioural frequency was higher in standard-housed rats compared to rats from the semi-naturalistic condition, suggesting that standard-housed rats were more sensitive to rewards and experiencing poorer welfare than rats reared in the semi-naturalistic environment. What rats did in anticipation of the reward also differed between housing treatments, with standard-housed rats mostly rearing and rats from the semi-naturalistic condition mostly sitting facing the direction of the upcoming treat. Drug interventions had no effect on the quantity or form of anticipatory behaviour, suggesting that the poorer welfare experienced by standard-housed rats was not analogous to depression or anxiety, or alternatively that the drug interventions were ineffective. This study adds to mounting evidence that standard laboratory housing for rats compromises rat welfare, and provides further scientific support for

  3. The in vivo behavior of copper-64-labeled azamacrocyclic complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones-Wilson, Teresa M.; Deal, Kim A.; Anderson, Carolyn J.; McCarthy, Deborah W.; Kovacs, Zoltan; Motekaitis, Ramunas J.; Sherry, A. Dean; Martell, Arthur E.; Welch, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    The use of copper radioisotopes in imaging and therapy applications has created a greater need for bifunctional chelates (BFCs) for complexing copper radioisotopes to biomolecules. It has been demonstrated that the charge and lipophilicity of the Cu-BFC complex has a significant effect on the in vivo behavior of the radiolabeled Cu-BFC-biomolecule conjugate. To evaluate the effects of charge, stability, and macrocyclic backbone size on the biological behavior of 64 Cu complexes, a series of macrocyclic 64 Cu complexes have been prepared, and the biodistributions of these agents were evaluated in normal Sprague-Dawley rats. Two macrocyclic backbones, dodecane and tetradecane, were evaluated; cyclen, DOTA, and DO2A were dodecane backbone derivatives, and cyclam, TETA, and et-cyclam were tetradecane backbone derivatives. The biodistributions of the 64 Cu-labeled complexes correlated with differences in the size of the macrocycle backbone and the formal charge of the complex. All compounds showed uptake and clearance through the liver and kidneys; however, the positively charged 64 Cu complexes showed significantly higher uptake in both of these organs than did the negatively charged or neutral complexes. 64 Cu-TETA, a negatively charged complex with the tetradecane backbone, had the most efficient clearance by 24 hours' postinjection. These data suggest that negatively charged complexes may have more favorable clearance properties when used as BFCs

  4. Simplicial complexes of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Jonsson, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    A graph complex is a finite family of graphs closed under deletion of edges. Graph complexes show up naturally in many different areas of mathematics, including commutative algebra, geometry, and knot theory. Identifying each graph with its edge set, one may view a graph complex as a simplicial complex and hence interpret it as a geometric object. This volume examines topological properties of graph complexes, focusing on homotopy type and homology. Many of the proofs are based on Robin Forman's discrete version of Morse theory. As a byproduct, this volume also provides a loosely defined toolbox for attacking problems in topological combinatorics via discrete Morse theory. In terms of simplicity and power, arguably the most efficient tool is Forman's divide and conquer approach via decision trees; it is successfully applied to a large number of graph and digraph complexes.

  5. On Complex Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwer Khurshid

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this paper, it is shown that a complex multivariate random variable  is a complex multivariate normal random variable of dimensionality if and only if all nondegenerate complex linear combinations of  have a complex univariate normal distribution. The characteristic function of  has been derived, and simpler forms of some theorems have been given using this characterization theorem without assuming that the variance-covariance matrix of the vector  is Hermitian positive definite. Marginal distributions of  have been given. In addition, a complex multivariate t-distribution has been defined and the density derived. A characterization of the complex multivariate t-distribution is given. A few possible uses of this distribution have been suggested.

  6. Cobalt(III) complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    e, 40 µM complex, 10 hrs after dissolution, f, 40 µM complex, after irradiation dose 15 Gy. and H-atoms result in reduction of Co(III) to Co. (II). 6. It is interesting to see in complex containing multiple ligands what is the fate of electron adduct species formed by electron addition. Reduction to. Co(II) and intramolecular transfer ...

  7. Complex Systems and Dependability

    CERN Document Server

    Zamojski, Wojciech; Sugier, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Typical contemporary complex system is a multifaceted amalgamation of technical, information, organization, software and human (users, administrators and management) resources. Complexity of such a system comes not only from its involved technical and organizational structure but mainly from complexity of information processes that must be implemented in the operational environment (data processing, monitoring, management, etc.). In such case traditional methods of reliability analysis focused mainly on technical level are usually insufficient in performance evaluation and more innovative meth

  8. Lanthanide complexes with pivaloylacetone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliseeva, S.V.; Chugarov, N.V.; Kuz'mina, N.P.; Martynenko, L.I.; Nichiporuk, R.V.; Ivanov, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Complexes Ln(pa) 3 ·2H 2 O (Ln=La, Gd, Lu, Hpa - pivaloylacetone) are synthesized and investigated by the methods of element, IR spectroscopic and thermal analyses. Behaviour of the complexes during heating in vacuum is compared with such one for acetylacetonates and dipivaloylmethanates. Structure of the complexes in solution is studied by 1 H NMR and MALDI-MS [ru

  9. Tubuloglomerular feedback in Dahl rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, F M; Leyssac, P P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1998-01-01

    in both Dahl-S and salt-resistant Dahl rats on high- and low-salt diets. TGF was investigated in the closed-loop mode with a videometric technique, in which the response in late proximal flow rate to perturbations in Henle flow rate was measured. All Dahl rats showed a similar compensatory response...

  10. Neutron radiography of osteopetrotic rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, B.; Renard, G.; Le Gall, J.; Laporte, A.

    1983-01-01

    The osteopetrotic disease is characterized by bone and cartilage tissue coexistence in the medullary space of long bones. The authors have studied ''congenital osteopetrosis'' of ''op'' rats. Comparing radiography, neutrography and histology, the evolution of the ''osteopetrotic disease'' and the healing of the ill rats by a single injection of bone marrow from normal animals is shown. (Auth.)

  11. The three-kidney rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provoost, A.P.; Van Aken, M.

    1984-01-01

    In contrast to the numerous research into the adaption of renal function when nephons are lost, much less attention has been paid to the effects of an extra kidney. Through the availability of inbred rat strains, techniques to transplant rat kidneys, and methods to measure total and individual kidney function repeatedly in the same animal, it became possible to study the renal function in rats with three kidneys. Adult male rats of a highly inbred Wistar strain were used. Nine recipients of a third kidney (3-K) were compared with 5 sham operated control (2-K) rats. The total GFR, as measured by the plasma clearance of Cr-5l EDTA, was taken 1,3,6,9, and 15 weeks after operation. The contribution of each kidney to the total renal function was determined by a Tc-99m DTPA scan performed at weeks 10 and 16. After transplantation the total GFR of 3-K rats was, in general, not different from the value before transplantation or from that of 2-K rats. The lack of increase of the GFR of 3-K rats was not the result of a non-functioning graft

  12. Induction of passive Heymann nephritis in complement component 6-deficient PVG rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, S Timothy; Tran, Giang T; Killingsworth, Murray C; Carter, Nicole; Power, David A; Paizis, Kathy; Boyd, Rochelle; Hodgkinson, Suzanne J; Hall, Bruce M

    2007-07-01

    Passive Heymann nephritis (PHN), a model of human membranous nephritis, is induced in susceptible rat strains by injection of heterologous antisera to rat renal tubular Ag extract. PHN is currently considered the archetypal complement-dependent form of nephritis, with the proteinuria resulting from sublytic glomerular epithelial cell injury induced by the complement membrane attack complex (MAC) of C5b-9. This study examined whether C6 and MAC are essential to the development of proteinuria in PHN by comparing the effect of injection of anti-Fx1A antisera into PVG rats deficient in C6 (PVG/C6(-)) and normal PVG rats (PVG/c). PVG/c and PVG/C6(-) rats developed similar levels of proteinuria at 3, 7, 14, and 28 days following injection of antisera. Isolated whole glomeruli showed similar deposition of rat Ig and C3 staining in PVG/c and PVG/C6(-) rats. C9 deposition was abundant in PVG/c but was not detected in PVG/C6(-) glomeruli, indicating C5b-9/MAC had not formed in PVG/C6(-) rats. There was also no difference in the glomerular cellular infiltrate of T cells and macrophages nor the size of glomerular basement membrane deposits measured on electron micrographs. To examine whether T cells effect injury, rats were depleted of CD8+ T cells which did not affect proteinuria in the early heterologous phase but prevented the increase in proteinuria associated with the later autologous phase. These studies showed proteinuria in PHN occurs without MAC and that other mechanisms, such as immune complex size, early complement components, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, disrupt glomerular integrity and lead to proteinuria.

  13. Phospholyl-uranium complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradoz, Philippe

    1993-01-01

    After having reported a bibliographical study on penta-methylcyclopentadienyl uranium complexes, and a description of the synthesis and radioactivity of uranium (III) and (IV) boron hydrides compounds, this research thesis reports the study of mono and bis-tetramethyl-phospholyl uranium complexes comprising chloride, boron hydride, alkyl and alkoxide ligands. The third part reports the comparison of structures, stabilities and reactions of homologue complexes in penta-methylcyclopentadienyl and tetramethyl-phospholyl series. The last part addresses the synthesis of tris-phospholyl uranium (III) and (IV) complexes. [fr

  14. Nuclear weapons complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezendes, V.S.

    1991-03-01

    In this book, GAO characterizes DOE's January 1991 Nuclear Weapons Complex Reconfiguration Study as a starting point for reaching agreement on solutions to many of the complex's safety and environmental problems. Key decisions still need to be made about the size of the complex, where to relocate plutonium operations, what technologies to use for new tritium production, and what to do with excess plutonium. The total cost for reconfiguring and modernizing the complex is still uncertain, and some management issues remain unresolved. Congress faces a difficult task in making test decisions given the conflicting demands for scarce resources in a time of growing budget deficits and war in the Persian Gulf

  15. Conducting metal dithiolate complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underhill, A. E.; Ahmad, M. M.; Turner, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound......Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound...

  16. Complex stimulation of peripheral nerve regeneration after deferred neurorrhaphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov A.N.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to study the complex stimulation effect including skin autotransplantation and electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve on microcircular, electrophysiological and morphological changes after deferred neurorrhaphy in rats. Material and methods. The experiment was performed in 50 albino rats divided into control, comparative and experimental groups. In the experimental group, on the background of deferred neurorrhaphy, skin autotransplantation and electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve had been carried out. In the comparative group only deferred neurorrhaphy was performed. Research methods included laser doppler flowmetry, electroneuromyography and morphological analysis of the operated nerve. Results. Complex stimulation including skin autotransplantation and direct action of electrical pulses on the sciatic nerve after its deferred neurorrhaphy causes restoration of bloodstream in the operated limb, promotes intensification of restoration of nerve fibers. Conclusion. Intensification of sciatic nerve regeneration after deferred neurorrhaphy in rats under the influence of complex stimulation including full-thickness skin graft autotransplantation and direct action of electrical pulses substantiates experimentally appropriateness of clinical testing of the given method for treatment of patients with peripheral nerve injuries.

  17. Do rats have orgasms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaus, James G.; Scardochio, Tina; Parada, Mayte; Gerson, Christine; Quintana, Gonzalo R.; Coria-Avila, Genaro A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although humans experience orgasms with a degree of statistical regularity, they remain among the most enigmatic of sexual responses; difficult to define and even more difficult to study empirically. The question of whether animals experience orgasms is hampered by similar lack of definition and the additional necessity of making inferences from behavioral responses. Method Here we define three behavioral criteria, based on dimensions of the subjective experience of human orgasms described by Mah and Binik, to infer orgasm-like responses (OLRs) in other species: 1) physiological criteria that include pelvic floor and anal muscle contractions that stimulate seminal emission and/or ejaculation in the male, or that stimulate uterine and cervical contractions in the female; 2) short-term behavioral changes that reflect immediate awareness of a pleasurable hedonic reward state during copulation; and 3) long-term behavioral changes that depend on the reward state induced by the OLR, including sexual satiety, the strengthening of patterns of sexual arousal and desire in subsequent copulations, and the generation of conditioned place and partner preferences for contextual and partner-related cues associated with the reward state. We then examine whether physiological and behavioral data from observations of male and female rats during copulation, and in sexually-conditioned place- and partner-preference paradigms, are consistent with these criteria. Results Both male and female rats display behavioral patterns consistent with OLRs. Conclusions The ability to infer OLRs in rats offers new possibilities to study the phenomenon in neurobiological and molecular detail, and to provide both comparative and translational perspectives that would be useful for both basic and clinical research. PMID:27799081

  18. Do rats have orgasms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Pfaus

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although humans experience orgasms with a degree of statistical regularity, they remain among the most enigmatic of sexual responses; difficult to define and even more difficult to study empirically. The question of whether animals experience orgasms is hampered by similar lack of definition and the additional necessity of making inferences from behavioral responses. Method: Here we define three behavioral criteria, based on dimensions of the subjective experience of human orgasms described by Mah and Binik, to infer orgasm-like responses (OLRs in other species: 1 physiological criteria that include pelvic floor and anal muscle contractions that stimulate seminal emission and/or ejaculation in the male, or that stimulate uterine and cervical contractions in the female; 2 short-term behavioral changes that reflect immediate awareness of a pleasurable hedonic reward state during copulation; and 3 long-term behavioral changes that depend on the reward state induced by the OLR, including sexual satiety, the strengthening of patterns of sexual arousal and desire in subsequent copulations, and the generation of conditioned place and partner preferences for contextual and partner-related cues associated with the reward state. We then examine whether physiological and behavioral data from observations of male and female rats during copulation, and in sexually-conditioned place- and partner-preference paradigms, are consistent with these criteria. Results: Both male and female rats display behavioral patterns consistent with OLRs. Conclusions: The ability to infer OLRs in rats offers new possibilities to study the phenomenon in neurobiological and molecular detail, and to provide both comparative and translational perspectives that would be useful for both basic and clinical research.

  19. Dimercaptosuccinic acid-Tc99m: Preparation and biodistribution in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smal, F.; Englebienne, P.

    1976-01-01

    Owing to the juxtaposition of 4 ligands (2 SH groups + 2 COOH groups), dimercaptosuccinic acid has a strong chelating capacity which suits it for technetium 99 m labelling. The study is carried out in 2 stages: preparation and stability of the dimercaptosuccinic acid - stannous chloride complex (DMSA-Sn); biodistribution of DMSA-Sn-Tc99m complex in rats as a function of the following parameters: pH, relative stannous chloride and dimercaptosuccinic acid concentrations, TcO 4 volume added, injection time after labelling. The strong activity uptake obtained in rat kidneys represents a considerable step forward in the radioisotopic kidney examination and offers the prospect of clinical use [fr

  20. Physicochemical and biological properties of new steroid metal complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, R.

    1980-04-01

    The aim of this investigation was to prepare stable steroid metal chelates by chemical conversion of the natural steroid hormones testerone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) and estradiol and to characterize these by means of their spectroscopic and other physico-chemical properties. In addition, various measuring techniques for the qualitative and quantitative study of complex stabilities and hydrolytic properties were employed. The distribution of some tritiated steroid metal complexes in the tissues of rats was tested using whole animal autoradiography, mainly with a view to identifying whether selective concentration occurs in certain organs. (orig.) [de

  1. The academic rat race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier; Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2012-01-01

    : an increased pressure to produce articles (in peer-reviewed journals) has created an unbalanced emphasis on the research criterion at the expense of the latter two. More fatally, this pressure has turned academia into a rat race, leading to a deep change in the fundamental structure of academic behaviour......, and entailing a self-defeating and hence counter-productive pattern, where more publications is always better and where it becomes increasingly difficult for researchers to keep up with the new research in their field. The article identifies the pressure to publish as a problem of collective action. It ends up...

  2. Visual Complexity: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donderi, Don C.

    2006-01-01

    The idea of visual complexity, the history of its measurement, and its implications for behavior are reviewed, starting with structuralism and Gestalt psychology at the beginning of the 20th century and ending with visual complexity theory, perceptual learning theory, and neural circuit theory at the beginning of the 21st. Evidence is drawn from…

  3. Complexity in Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierschynski, Jarek; Louie, Belinda; Pughe, Bronwyn

    2015-01-01

    One of the key requirements of Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in English Language Arts is that students are able to read and access complex texts across all grade levels. The CCSS authors emphasize both the limitations and lack of accuracy in the current CCSS model of text complexity, calling for the development of new frameworks. In response…

  4. Method of complex scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braendas, E.

    1986-01-01

    The method of complex scaling is taken to include bound states, resonances, remaining scattering background and interference. Particular points of the general complex coordinate formulation are presented. It is shown that care must be exercised to avoid paradoxical situations resulting from inadequate definitions of operator domains. A new resonance localization theorem is presented

  5. Is dense codeswitching complex?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorleijn, M.

    In this paper the question is raised to what extent dense code switching can be considered complex. Psycholinguistic experiments indicate that code switching involves cognitive costs, both in production and comprehension, a conclusion that could indicate that code switching is indeed complex. In

  6. Complex conductivity of soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revil, A.; Coperey, A.; Shao, Z.; Florsch, N.; Fabricus, I.L.; Deng, Y.; Delsman, J.R.; Pauw, P.S.; Karaoulis, M.; Louw, P.G.B. de; Baaren, E.S. van; Dabekaussen, W.; Menkovic, A.; Gunnink, J.L.

    2017-01-01

    The complex conductivity of soils remains poorly known despite the growing importance of this method in hydrogeophysics. In order to fill this gap of knowledge, we investigate the complex conductivity of 71 soils samples (including four peat samples) and one clean sand in the frequency range 0.1 Hz

  7. Orally administered nicotine induces urothelial hyperplasia in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodmane, Puttappa R.; Arnold, Lora L.; Pennington, Karen L.; Cohen, Samuel M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Rats and mice orally administered with nicotine tartrate for total of 4 weeks. • No treatment-related death or whole body toxicity observed in any of the groups. • Urothelium showed simple hyperplasia in treated rats and mice. • No significant change in BrdU labeling index or SEM classification of urothelium. - Abstract: Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for multiple human cancers including urinary bladder carcinoma. Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture containing chemicals that are known carcinogens in humans and/or animals. Aromatic amines a major class of DNA-reactive carcinogens in cigarette smoke, are not present at sufficiently high levels to fully explain the incidence of bladder cancer in cigarette smokers. Other agents in tobacco smoke could be excreted in urine and enhance the carcinogenic process by increasing urothelial cell proliferation. Nicotine is one such major component, as it has been shown to induce cell proliferation in multiple cell types in vitro. However, in vivo evidence specifically for the urothelium is lacking. We previously showed that cigarette smoke induces increased urothelial cell proliferation in mice. In the present study, urothelial proliferative and cytotoxic effects were examined after nicotine treatment in mice and rats. Nicotine hydrogen tartrate was administered in drinking water to rats (52 ppm nicotine) and mice (514 ppm nicotine) for 4 weeks and urothelial changes were evaluated. Histopathologically, 7/10 rats and 4/10 mice showed simple hyperplasia following nicotine treatment compared to none in the controls. Rats had an increased mean BrdU labeling index compared to controls, although it was not statistically significantly elevated in either species. Scanning electron microscopic visualization of the urothelium did not reveal significant cytotoxicity. These findings suggest that oral nicotine administration induced urothelial hyperplasia (increased cell proliferation), possibly due to a

  8. Leading healthcare in complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    Healthcare institutions and providers are in complexity. Networks of interconnections from relationships and technology create conditions in which interdependencies and non-linear dynamics lead to surprising, unpredictable outcomes. Previous effective approaches to leadership, focusing on top-down bureaucratic methods, are no longer effective. Leading in complexity requires leaders to accept the complexity, create an adaptive space in which innovation and creativity can flourish and then integrate the successful practices that emerge into the formal organizational structure. Several methods for doing adaptive space work will be discussed. Readers will be able to contrast traditional leadership approaches with leading in complexity. They will learn new behaviours that are required of complexity leaders, along with challenges they will face, often from other leaders within the organization.

  9. A New Experimental Polytrauma Model in Rats: Molecular Characterization of the Early Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Weckbach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The molecular mechanisms of the immune response after polytrauma are highly complex and far from fully understood. In this paper, we characterize a new standardized polytrauma model in rats based on the early molecular inflammatory and apoptotic response. Methods. Male Wistar rats (250 g, 6–10/group were anesthetized and exposed to chest trauma (ChT, closed head injury (CHI, or Tib/Fib fracture including a soft tissue trauma (Fx + STT or to the following combination of injuries: (1 ChT; (2 ChT + Fx + STT; (3 ChT + CHI; (4 CHI; (5 polytrauma (PT = ChT + CHI + Fx + STT. Sham-operated rats served as negative controls. The inflammatory response was quantified at 2 hours and 4 hours after trauma by analysis of “key” inflammatory mediators, including selected cytokines and complement components, in serum and bronchoalveolar (BAL fluid samples. Results. Polytraumatized (PT rats showed a significant systemic and intrapulmonary release of cytokines, chemokines, and complement anaphylatoxins, compared to rats with isolated injuries or selected combinations of injuries. Conclusion. This new rat model appears to closely mimic the early immunological response of polytrauma observed in humans and may provide a valid basis for evaluation of the complex pathophysiology and future therapeutic immune modulatory approaches in experimental polytrauma.

  10. A New Experimental Polytrauma Model in Rats: Molecular Characterization of the Early Inflammatory Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckbach, Sebastian; Perl, Mario; Heiland, Tim; Braumüller, Sonja; Stahel, Philip F.; Flierl, Michael A.; Ignatius, Anita; Gebhard, Florian; Huber-Lang, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Background. The molecular mechanisms of the immune response after polytrauma are highly complex and far from fully understood. In this paper, we characterize a new standardized polytrauma model in rats based on the early molecular inflammatory and apoptotic response. Methods. Male Wistar rats (250 g, 6–10/group) were anesthetized and exposed to chest trauma (ChT), closed head injury (CHI), or Tib/Fib fracture including a soft tissue trauma (Fx + STT) or to the following combination of injuries: (1) ChT; (2) ChT + Fx + STT; (3) ChT + CHI; (4) CHI; (5) polytrauma (PT = ChT + CHI + Fx + STT). Sham-operated rats served as negative controls. The inflammatory response was quantified at 2 hours and 4 hours after trauma by analysis of “key” inflammatory mediators, including selected cytokines and complement components, in serum and bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid samples. Results. Polytraumatized (PT) rats showed a significant systemic and intrapulmonary release of cytokines, chemokines, and complement anaphylatoxins, compared to rats with isolated injuries or selected combinations of injuries. Conclusion. This new rat model appears to closely mimic the early immunological response of polytrauma observed in humans and may provide a valid basis for evaluation of the complex pathophysiology and future therapeutic immune modulatory approaches in experimental polytrauma. PMID:22481866

  11. The effect of prenatal exposure to diazepam on aspects of postnatal development and behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, N; Grimm, V E

    1982-01-01

    In the present study the effects of chronic treatment of pregnant rats with diazepam on the physical and behavioral development of their offspring were investigated. Rats that were diazepam-exposed prenatally were compared to age-matched controls in terms of the following: number of littermates; birth weight and weight gain until weaning: motor development and coordination; simple motor learning; open field activity; performance on learning tasks of varying complexity; retention of these tasks. Nulliparous Wistar rats were injected s.c. for 16 days of their pregnancy was either 2.5, 5, of 10 mg/kg diazepam or an equal volume of vehicle. Prenatal diazepam treatment did not alter litter size, birth weight, or the righting reflex, but seemed to retard early motor development transiently. Diazepam pups showed longer latencies and less rearing in the open field. There were no differences between animals exposed to drug and vehicle in simple motor learning or in acquiring a simple successive discrimination task. However, there were significant dose-dependent differences on a complex six-choice simultaneous discrimination learning task, the diazepam-exposed rats making more errors and taking more time to reach the goal. A significant difference was seen again between diazepam- and vehicle-exposed rats on the retention test 10 days later. The results indicate that diazepam administered to pregnant rats has long-range effects on the behavior of the offspring, some becoming manifest even in maturity.

  12. The Rat Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephen Haywood

    Dear Muriel, Being an animal, you are probably more familiar with rats than most of us. Yet it seems to me that our Community (not just ATLAS) is stuck in a huge "rat race". I am somewhat mystified as to how we have got ourselves into this and I wonder whether you or your readers could explain this - I give my own observations below. In HEP and ATLAS specifically, we are all working long hours and we are all becoming exhausted. There are people at Point 1 who are working day and night, every day of the week; there are people writing software who send emails round the clock, including weekends. It is one thing to have bursts of activity which require us to put in some longer hours, but in ATLAS, the bursts last months or years. I have been on ATLAS 14 years and it has felt like one endless rush. Why do we do this? We are all highly motivated, we love our work and want to succeed individually and collectively. We are parts of various teams, and we do not want to let the side down. We worked hard at school an...

  13. Palaeo-poo: date from rat scats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, S.; Department of Geography.

    1997-01-01

    AMS dating has allowed a detailed study of the stratigraphy of stick-nest rat (Leporillus spp.) middens. The results of multiple dates on apparently the same layers of the middens show that the taphonomy of the midden is complex. Nevertheless, the information recovered from this source is an exciting addition to understanding arid ecosystems. Information about the local and regional vegetation, possible CO 2 -induced changes in stomata, distribution of mammals and their predator-prey relations has been recovered from the middens. Palaeoecological information coming from the arid zone has been limited but this source provides a breakthrough in providing direct and detailed ecological information. This helps contextualise the late Holocene increase in arid zone archaeological site visibility. It emphasises the pattern of arid zone mammal losses. It provides important corroborating evidence to other palaeoecological records. It is emphasised that the deposits containing pollen and macrofossils are datable using radiocarbon but there are some serious problems in providing ecological information from stick-nest rat middens

  14. Selenophene transition metal complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Carter James [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1994-07-27

    This research shows that selenophene transition metal complexes have a chemistry that is similar to their thiophene analogs. Selenophene coordination has been demonstrated and confirmed by molecular structure in both the η5- and the η1(Se)-coordination modes. The reaction chemistry of selenophene complexes closely resembles that of the analogous thiophene complexes. One major difference, however, is that selenophene is a better donor ligand than thiophene making the selenophene complexes more stable than the corresponding thiophene complexes. The 77Se NMR chemical shift values for selenophene complexes fall within distinct regions primarily depending on the coordination mode of the selenophene ligand. In the final paper, the C-H bond activation of η1(S)-bound thiophenes, η1(S)-benzothiophene and η1(Se)-bound selenophenes has been demonstrated. The deprotonation and rearrangement of the η1(E)-bound ligand to the carbon bound L-yl complex readily occurs in the presence of base. Reprotonation with a strong acid gives a carbene complex that is unreactive towards nucleophilic attack at the carbene carbon and is stable towards exposure to air. The molecular structure of [Cp(NO)(PPh3)Re(2-benzothioenylcarbene)]O3SCF3 was determined and contains a Re-C bond with substantial double bond character. Methyl substitution for the thienylcarbene or selenylcarbene gives a carbene that rearranges thermally to give back the η1(E)-bound complex. Based on these model reactions, a new mechanism for the H/D exchange of thiophene over the hydrodesulfurization catalyst has been proposed.

  15. Matrix Gla Protein is Involved in Crystal Formation in Kidney of Hyperoxaluric Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Lu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Matrix Gla protein (MGP is a molecular determinant regulating vascular calcification of the extracellular matrix. However, it is still unclear how MGP may be invovled in crystal formation in the kidney of hyperoxaluric rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the hyperoxaluric group and control group. Hyperoxaluric rats were administrated by 0.75% ethylene glycol (EG for up to 8 weeks. Renal MGP expression was detected by the standard avidin-biotin complex (ABC method. Renal crystal deposition was observed by a polarizing microscope. Total RNA and protein from the rat kidney tissue were extracted. The levels of MGP mRNA and protein expression were analyzed by the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and Western blot. Results: Hyperoxaluria was induced successfully in rats. The MGP was polarly distributed, on the apical membrane of renal tubular epithelial cells, and was found in the ascending thick limbs of Henle's loop (cTAL and the distal convoluted tubule (DCT in hyperoxaluric rats, its expression however, was present in the medullary collecting duct (MCD in stone-forming rats. Crystals with multilaminated structure formed in the injurious renal tubules with lack of MGP expression.MGP mRNA expression was significantly upregulated by the crystals' stimulations. Conclusion: Our results suggested that the MGP was involved in crystals formation by the continuous expression, distributing it polarly in the renal tubular cells and binding directly to the crystals.

  16. Study of complex modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastrnak, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    This eighteen-month study has been successful in providing the designer and analyst with qualitative guidelines on the occurrence of complex modes in the dynamics of linear structures, and also in developing computer codes for determining quantitatively which vibration modes are complex and to what degree. The presence of complex modes in a test structure has been verified. Finite element analysis of a structure with non-proportional dumping has been performed. A partial differential equation has been formed to eliminate possible modeling errors

  17. Nuclear weapons complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezendes, V.S.

    1992-04-01

    In addition to long-standing safety and environmental problems plaguing the nuclear weapons complex, this paper reports that the Department of Energy (DOE) faces a major new challenge-how to reconfigure the weapons complex to meet the nation's defense needs in the 21st century. Key decisions still need to be made about the size of the complex; where, if necessary, to relocate various operations; what technologies to use for new tritium production; and what to do with excess weapons-grade material. The choices confronting DOE and Congress are difficult given the conflicting demands for limited resources

  18. Managing complex child law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Idamarie Leth

    2017-01-01

    The article reports the findings of a qualitative study of Danish legal regulation of the public initial assessment of children and young persons and municipal practitioners’ decision-making under this regulation. The regulation mirrors new and complex relations between families and society...... in the form of 7 individual vignette interviews with municipal mid-level managers and professional consultants in five Danish municipalities. The study finds that the regulation is more complex than it looks, and that the complexity is handled through simplifying decision-making patterns that can be seen...

  19. Serotonin metabolism in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutte, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    The metabolism of serotonin in rat brain was studied by measuring specific activities of tryptophan in plasma and of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid and tryptophan in the brain after intravenous injection of tritiated tryptophan. For a detailed analysis of the specific activities, a computer simulation technique was used. It was found that only a minor part of serotonin in rat brain is synthesized from tryptophan rapidly transported from the blood. It is suggested that the brain tryptophan originates from brain proteins. It was also found that the serotonin in rat brain is divided into more than one metabolic compartment

  20. Rats track odour trails accurately using a multi-layered strategy with near-optimal sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Adil Ghani; Sarangi, Manaswini; Bhalla, Upinder Singh

    2012-02-28

    Tracking odour trails is a crucial behaviour for many animals, often leading to food, mates or away from danger. It is an excellent example of active sampling, where the animal itself controls how to sense the environment. Here we show that rats can track odour trails accurately with near-optimal sampling. We trained rats to follow odour trails drawn on paper spooled through a treadmill. By recording local field potentials (LFPs) from the olfactory bulb, and sniffing rates, we find that sniffing but not LFPs differ between tracking and non-tracking conditions. Rats can track odours within ~1 cm, and this accuracy is degraded when one nostril is closed. Moreover, they show path prediction on encountering a fork, wide 'casting' sweeps on encountering a gap and detection of reappearance of the trail in 1-2 sniffs. We suggest that rats use a multi-layered strategy, and achieve efficient sampling and high accuracy in this complex task.

  1. Cerebrovascular gene expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grell, Anne-Sofie; Frederiksen, Simona Denise; Edvinsson, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is a hemodynamic disorder and one of the most important and well-established risk factors for vascular diseases such as stroke. Blood vessels exposed to chronic shear stress develop structural changes and remodeling of the vascular wall through many complex mechanisms. However......, the molecular mechanisms involved are not fully understood. Hypertension-susceptible genes may provide a novel insight into potential molecular mechanisms of hypertension and secondary complications associated with hypertension. The aim of this exploratory study was to identify gene expression differences......, the identified genes in the middle cerebral arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats could be possible mediators of the vascular changes and secondary complications associated with hypertension. This study supports the selection of key genes to investigate in the future research of hypertension-induced end...

  2. Indicators: Physical Habitat Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical habitat complexity measures the amount and variety of all types of cove at the water’s edge in lakes. In general, dense and varied shoreline habitat is able to support more diverse communities of aquatic life.

  3. Several complex variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Topics discussed include the elementary of holomorphic functions of several complex variables; the Weierstrass preparation theorem; meromorphic functions, holomorphic line bundles and divisors; elliptic operators on compact manifolds; hermitian connections; the Hodge decomposition theorem. ( author)

  4. Power grid complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Shengwei; Zhang, Xuemin [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, BJ (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Cao, Ming [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences

    2011-07-01

    ''Power Grid Complexity'' introduces the complex system theory known as self-organized criticality (SOC) theory and complex network theory, and their applications to power systems. It studies the network characteristics of power systems, such as their small-world properties, structural vulnerability, decomposition and coordination strategies, and simplification and equivalence methods. The book also establishes four blackout models based on SOC theory through which the SOC of power systems is studied at both the macroscopic and microscopic levels. Additionally, applications of complex system theory in power system planning and emergency management platforms are also discussed in depth. This book can serve as a useful reference for engineers and researchers working with power systems. (orig.)

  5. Statistical electromagnetics: Complex cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, H.W.L.

    2008-01-01

    A selection of the literature on the statistical description of electromagnetic fields and complex cavities is concisely reviewed. Some essential concepts, for example, the application of the central limit theorem and the maximum entropy principle, are scrutinized. Implicit assumptions, biased

  6. Complex and unpredictable Cardano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekert, Artur

    2008-08-01

    This purely recreational paper is about one of the most colorful characters of the Italian Renaissance, Girolamo Cardano, and the discovery of two basic ingredients of quantum theory, probability and complex numbers.

  7. Coxeter-like complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Babson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the Coxeter complex associated to a Coxeter system (W,S, we introduce a simplicial regular cell complex Δ(G,S with a G-action associated to any pair (G,S where G is a group and S is a finite set of generators for G which is minimal with respect to inclusion. We examine the topology of Δ(G,S, and in particular the representations of G on its homology groups. We look closely at the case of the symmetric group S n minimally generated by (not necessarily adjacent transpositions, and their type-selected subcomplexes. These include not only the Coxeter complexes of type A, but also the well-studied chessboard complexes.

  8. Physical Sciences Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This 88,000 square foot complex is used to investigate basic physical science in support of missile technology development. It incorporates office space, dedicated...

  9. Life: Complexity and Diversity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tinual increase in the diversity of life over evolutionary time. Ways of ... Centre for Ecological. Scienc'es .... plants evolved flowers to attract pollinators and reward them with .... with the evolving complexity of their interactions in communi- ties.

  10. Complex Flow Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-05-01

    This report documents findings from a workshop on the impacts of complex wind flows in and out of wind turbine environments, the research needs, and the challenges of meteorological and engineering modeling at regional, wind plant, and wind turbine scales.

  11. Complexity for Artificial Substrates (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loke, L.H.L.; Jachowski, N.R.; Bouma, T.J.; Ladle, R.J.; Todd, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Physical habitat complexity regulates the structure and function of biological communities, although the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. Urbanisation, pollution, unsustainable resource exploitation and climate change have resulted in the widespread simplification (and loss)

  12. Photocytotoxic lanthanide complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 ... complexes showing photoactivated DNA cleavage activity and cytotoxicity in cancer cells. .... considerable importance for their selectivity in killing.

  13. Complex Networks IX

    CERN Document Server

    Coronges, Kate; Gonçalves, Bruno; Sinatra, Roberta; Vespignani, Alessandro; Proceedings of the 9th Conference on Complex Networks; CompleNet 2018

    2018-01-01

    This book aims to bring together researchers and practitioners working across domains and research disciplines to measure, model, and visualize complex networks. It collects the works presented at the 9th International Conference on Complex Networks (CompleNet) 2018 in Boston, MA in March, 2018. With roots in physical, information and social science, the study of complex networks provides a formal set of mathematical methods, computational tools and theories to describe prescribe and predict dynamics and behaviors of complex systems. Despite their diversity, whether the systems are made up of physical, technological, informational, or social networks, they share many common organizing principles and thus can be studied with similar approaches. This book provides a view of the state-of-the-art in this dynamic field and covers topics such as group decision-making, brain and cellular connectivity, network controllability and resiliency, online activism, recommendation systems, and cyber security.

  14. Role of CC chemokines (macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, RANTES) in acute lung injury in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bless, N M; Huber-Lang, M; Guo, R F

    2000-01-01

    The role of the CC chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1 beta), monocyte chemotactic peptide-1 (MCP-1), and RANTES, in acute lung inflammatory injury induced by intrapulmonary deposition of IgG immune complexes injury in rats was determined. Rat MIP-1 beta, MCP-1, and RANTES...... were cloned, the proteins were expressed, and neutralizing Abs were developed. mRNA and protein expression for MIP-1 beta and MCP-1 were up-regulated during the inflammatory response, while mRNA and protein expression for RANTES were constitutive and unchanged during the inflammatory response....... Treatment of rats with anti-MIP-1 beta Ab significantly decreased vascular permeability by 37% (p = 0.012), reduced neutrophil recruitment into lung by 65% (p = 0.047), and suppressed levels of TNF-alpha in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids by 61% (p = 0.008). Treatment of rats with anti-rat MCP-1 or anti...

  15. A quantitative magnetic resonance histology atlas of postnatal rat brain development with regional estimates of growth and variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Evan; Badea, Alexandra; Watson, Charles; Johnson, G Allan

    2013-05-01

    There has been growing interest in the role of postnatal brain development in the etiology of several neurologic diseases. The rat has long been recognized as a powerful model system for studying neuropathology and the safety of pharmacologic treatments. However, the complex spatiotemporal changes that occur during rat neurodevelopment remain to be elucidated. This work establishes the first magnetic resonance histology (MRH) atlas of the developing rat brain, with an emphasis on quantitation. The atlas comprises five specimens at each of nine time points, imaged with eight distinct MR contrasts and segmented into 26 developmentally defined brain regions. The atlas was used to establish a timeline of morphometric changes and variability throughout neurodevelopment and represents a quantitative database of rat neurodevelopment for characterizing rat models of human neurologic disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Effects of herbal mixture extracts on obesity in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yin Chien

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of three herbal mixture extracts on obesity induced by high-fat diet (HFD in rats. The prescriptions—Pericarpium citri reticulatae and Fructus crataegi—were used as matrix components and mixed with Ampelopsis grossedentata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG to form T1, T2, and T3 complexes, respectively. Results revealed that HFD feeding significantly increased body weight gain, fat deposition, plasma lipid profiles, hepatic lipid accumulation, and hepatic vacuoles formation, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin in rats. Only the T1 complex showed the tendency, although not significantly so, for decreased HFD-induced body weight gain. T1 and T3 complexes significantly reduced HFD-induced fat deposition, and plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Only the T1 complex significantly increased HFD-reduced adiponectin levels in plasma, but decreased HFD-increased triglyceride content in liver tissues. All complexes effectively inhibited HFD-induced vacuoles formation. The content of dihydromyricetin, salvianolic acid B, and EGCG in T1, T2, and T3 complexes was 18.25 ± 0.07%, 22.20 ± 0.10%, and 18.86 ± 0.04%, respectively. In summary, we demonstrated that herbal mixture extracts, especially T1 complex, exhibit antiobesity activity in HFD-fed rats.

  17. Provability, complexity, grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Beklemishev, Lev; Vereshchagin, Nikolai

    1999-01-01

    The book contains English translations of three outstanding dissertations in mathematical logic and complexity theory. L. Beklemishev proves that all provability logics must belong to one of the four previously known classes. The dissertation of M. Pentus proves the Chomsky conjecture about the equivalence of two approaches to formal languages: the Chomsky hierarchy and the Lambek calculus. The dissertation of N. Vereshchagin describes a general framework for criteria of reversability in complexity theory.

  18. Conversation, coupling and complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Abney, Drew; Bahrami, Bahador

    We investigate the linguistic co-construction of interpersonal synergies. By applying a measure of coupling between complex systems to an experimentally elicited corpus of joint decision dialogues, we show that interlocutors’ linguistic behavior displays increasing signature of multi-scale coupling......, known as complexity matching, over the course of interaction. Furthermore, we show that stronger coupling corresponds with more effective interaction, as measured by collective task performance....

  19. Advances in network complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Dehmer, Matthias; Emmert-Streib, Frank

    2013-01-01

    A well-balanced overview of mathematical approaches to describe complex systems, ranging from chemical reactions to gene regulation networks, from ecological systems to examples from social sciences. Matthias Dehmer and Abbe Mowshowitz, a well-known pioneer in the field, co-edit this volume and are careful to include not only classical but also non-classical approaches so as to ensure topicality. Overall, a valuable addition to the literature and a must-have for anyone dealing with complex systems.

  20. Electrospun complexes - functionalised nanofibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, T.; Wolf, M.; Dreyer, B.; Unruh, D.; Krüger, C.; Menze, M. [Leibniz University Hannover, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry (Germany); Sindelar, R. [University of Applied Science Hannover, Faculty II (Germany); Klingelhöfer, G. [Gutenberg-University, Institute of Inorganic and Analytic Chemistry (Germany); Renz, F., E-mail: renz@acd.uni-hannover.de [Leibniz University Hannover, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Here we present a new approach of using iron-complexes in electro-spun fibres. We modify poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by replacing the methoxy group with Diaminopropane or Ethylenediamine. The complex is bound covalently via an imine-bridge or an amide. The resulting polymer can be used in the electrospinning process without any further modifications in method either as pure reagent or mixed with small amounts of not functionalised polymer resulting in fibres of different qualities (Fig. 1).

  1. Beta-endorphin in genetically hypoprolactinemic rat: IPL nude rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, H.; Sabbagh, I.; Abou-Samra, A.B.; Bertrand, J.

    1986-01-01

    Beta-endorphin has been reported to regulate not only stress- and suckling-induced but also basal prolactin secretion. In the aim to better evaluate the endogenous beta-endorphin-prolactin interrelation, the authors measured beta-endorphin levels in a new rat strain, genetically hypoprolactinemic and characterized by a total lack of lactation: IPL nude rat. Beta-endorphin was measured using a specific anti-h-β endorphin in plasma and extracts of anterior and neurointermediate lobes of the pituitary, hypothalamus and brain. Pituitary extracts were also chromatographed on Sephadex G50 column. Results obtained showed that in IPL nude females on diestrus and males, the beta-endorphin contents of the neurointermediate lobe was significantly lower than in normal rats, while the values found in the other organs and plasma were similar. However, elution pattern of the anterior pituitary extracts from male rats showed greater immunoactivity eluting as I 125 h-beta-endorphin than in normal rat; this was not the case for the female rat. These results are consistent with a differential regulation of beta-endorphin levels of anterior and neurointermediate lobe by catecholamines. Moreover they suggest that PRL secretion was more related to neurointermediate beta-endorphin. 40 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  2. Beta-endorphin in genetically hypoprolactinemic rat: IPL nude rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, H.; Sabbagh, I.; Abou-Samra, A.B.; Bertrand, J.

    1986-01-20

    Beta-endorphin has been reported to regulate not only stress- and suckling-induced but also basal prolactin secretion. In the aim to better evaluate the endogenous beta-endorphin-prolactin interrelation, the authors measured beta-endorphin levels in a new rat strain, genetically hypoprolactinemic and characterized by a total lack of lactation: IPL nude rat. Beta-endorphin was measured using a specific anti-h-..beta.. endorphin in plasma and extracts of anterior and neurointermediate lobes of the pituitary, hypothalamus and brain. Pituitary extracts were also chromatographed on Sephadex G50 column. Results obtained showed that in IPL nude females on diestrus and males, the beta-endorphin contents of the neurointermediate lobe was significantly lower than in normal rats, while the values found in the other organs and plasma were similar. However, elution pattern of the anterior pituitary extracts from male rats showed greater immunoactivity eluting as I/sup 125/ h-beta-endorphin than in normal rat; this was not the case for the female rat. These results are consistent with a differential regulation of beta-endorphin levels of anterior and neurointermediate lobe by catecholamines. Moreover they suggest that PRL secretion was more related to neurointermediate beta-endorphin. 40 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  3. MANAGEMENT OF SPORT COMPLEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian STAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The actuality of the investigated theme. Nowadays, human evolution, including his intellectual development, proves the fact that especially the creation manpower and the employment was the solution of all life’s ambitions in society. So, the fact is that in reality, man is the most important capital of the society. Also, in an individual’s life, the practice of sport plays a significant role and that’s why the initiation, the launch and the management of sports complexes activity reveal the existence of specific management features that we will identify and explain in the current study. The aim of the research refers to the elaboration of a theoretical base of the management of the sport complexes, to the pointing of the factors that influence the efficient existence and function of a sport complex in our country and to the determination of the responsibilities that have a manager who directs successfully the activity of the sport complexes. The investigation is based on theoretical methods, such as: scientific documentation, analysis, synthesis, comparison and on empirical research methods, like: study of researched literature and observation. The results of the research indicate the fact that the profitability of a sport complex must assure a particular structure to avoid the bankruptcy risk and also, that the administration of the sport complexes activity must keep in view the reliable functions of the contemporaneous management.

  4. Organotin complexes with phosphines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passos, B. de F.T.; Jesus Filho, M.F. de; Filgueiras, C.A.L.; Abras, A.

    1988-01-01

    A series of organotin complexes was prepared involving phosphines bonded to the organotin moiety. The series include derivatives of SnCl x Ph 4-x (where x varied from zero to four with the phosphines Ph 3 P, (Ph 2 P)CH 2 , (Ph 2 P) 2 (CH 2 ) 2 , cis-(Ph 2 P)CH 2 , and CH 3 C(CH 2 PPh 2 ) 3 . A host of new complexes was obtained, showing different stoichiometries, bonding modes, and coordination numbers around the tin atom. These complexes were characterized by several different chemical and physical methods. The 119 Sn Moessbauer parameters varied differently. Whereas isomer shift values did not great variation for each group of complexs with the same organotin parent (SnCl x Ph 4-x ), reflecting a small change in s charge distribution on the Sn atom upon complexation, quadrupole splitting results varied widely, however, when the parent organotin compound was wholly symmetric (SnCl 4 and SnPPh 4 ), the complexes also tended to show quadrupole splitting values approaching zero. (author)

  5. Engagement of the Rat Hindlimb Motor Cortex across Natural Locomotor Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiovanna, Jack; Dominici, Nadia; Friedli, Lucia; Rigosa, Jacopo; Duis, Simone; Kreider, Julie; Beauparlant, Janine; van den Brand, Rubia; Schieppati, Marco; Micera, Silvestro; Courtine, Grégoire

    2016-10-05

    Contrary to cats and primates, cortical contribution to hindlimb locomotor movements is not critical in rats. However, the importance of the motor cortex to regain locomotion after neurological disorders in rats suggests that cortical engagement in hindlimb motor control may depend on the behavioral context. To investigate this possibility, we recorded whole-body kinematics, muscle synergies, and hindlimb motor cortex modulation in freely moving rats performing a range of natural locomotor procedures. We found that the activation of hindlimb motor cortex preceded gait initiation. During overground locomotion, the motor cortex exhibited consistent neuronal population responses that were synchronized with the spatiotemporal activation of hindlimb motoneurons. Behaviors requiring enhanced muscle activity or skilled paw placement correlated with substantial adjustment in neuronal population responses. In contrast, all rats exhibited a reduction of cortical activity during more automated behavior, such as stepping on a treadmill. Despite the facultative role of the motor cortex in the production of locomotion in rats, these results show that the encoding of hindlimb features in motor cortex dynamics is comparable in rats and cats. However, the extent of motor cortex modulations appears linked to the degree of volitional engagement and complexity of the task, reemphasizing the importance of goal-directed behaviors for motor control studies, rehabilitation, and neuroprosthetics. We mapped the neuronal population responses in the hindlimb motor cortex to hindlimb kinematics and hindlimb muscle synergies across a spectrum of natural locomotion behaviors. Robust task-specific neuronal population responses revealed that the rat motor cortex displays similar modulation as other mammals during locomotion. However, the reduced motor cortex activity during more automated behaviors suggests a relationship between the degree of engagement and task complexity. This relationship

  6. On the presence of prostatic secretion protein in rat seminal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstroem, E.; Pousette, A.; Bjoerk, P.; Hoegberg, B.; Carlstroem, K.; Sundelin, B.; Gustafsson, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The copulating plug collected from the tip of the penis from rats immediately after decapitation contains a protein very similar and probably identical to PSP (prostatic secretion protein); this protein has earlier been purified from rat prostatic cytosol and characterized. The protein present in the copulating plug interacts with [3H]estramustine and binds to the antibody raised against rat PSP. The concentration of the protein in the copulating plug is 400 ng/mg of total protein, when measured using the radioimmunoassay technique developed earlier for measurement of PSP in rat prostate. The [3H]estramustine-protein complex formed in a preparation of the copulating plug has an apparent molecular weight of about 50,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of about 3S when analyzed using sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The complex was retained on Concanavalin-A Sepharose indicating that the protein is a glycoprotein. Binding of the complex was also observed on hydroxylapatite and DEAE-Sephadex columns, from which it was eluted at 0.18 M KCl. Light microscope autoradiograms of rat sperms incubated with 125I-labeled PSP indicated that PSP is bound to all parts of the sperms. A macromolecule interacting with the PSP-antibodies is also present in human seminal fluid but at a concentration considerably lower than in rat seminal fluid. The present study shows that a macromolecule probably identical to prostatic secretion protein is present in the copulating plug from the rat. The biological role of this protein in normal male fertility is discussed

  7. Intramitochondrial autonomy in rat tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, M.; Rajwade, M.S.; Satav, J.G.; Katyare, S.S.; Fatterpaker, P.; Sreenivasan, A.

    1974-01-01

    The biogenesis of mitochondria in rat liver and their protein turnover has been investigated using 1- 14 C leucine. The results indicate that intramitochondrial autonomy exists both with respect to their genesis and turnover. (M.G.B.)

  8. Autoshaping in micrencephalic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, L.H.; Oakley, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    An autoshaping procedure in which the illumination of a lever was predictive of food reinforcement was used to compare learning in rats with micrencephaly induced by irradiation on the 16th day of gestation and in sham-irradiated controls. Both groups showed equivalent levels of lever-directed activity, and the micrencephalic animals differentiated as well as the control animals between the predictive lever and a nonpredictive lever. The micrencephalic animals were able to redistribute their lever-directed activity when the significance of the levers was reversed and did so more readily than the control animals. Results support the claim that association learning survives either traumatic or developmental neocortical damage and have implications for remedial procedures following both head injury and developmental cerebral pathology in humans

  9. Autoshaping in micrencephalic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, L H; Oakley, D A

    1989-06-01

    An autoshaping procedure in which the illumination of a lever was predictive of food reinforcement was used to compare learning in rats with micrencephaly induced by irradiation on the 16th day of gestation and in sham-irradiated controls. Both groups showed equivalent levels of lever-directed activity, and the micrencephalic animals differentiated as well as the control animals between the predictive lever and a nonpredictive lever. The micrencephalic animals were able to redistribute their lever-directed activity when the significance of the levers was reversed and did so more readily than the control animals. Results support the claim that association learning survives either traumatic or developmental neocortical damage and have implications for remedial procedures following both head injury and developmental cerebral pathology in humans.

  10. Distribution of heparin-/sup 67/Ga in tumor-bearing rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, T; Ando, A; Sanada, S [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Paramedicine; Ando, I; Hisada, K

    1976-06-01

    Heparin is a kind of acidic mucopolysaccharide. The distribution of heparin-/sup 67/Ga complex in tumor-bearing rats was investigated by administering it to rats into which Yoshida sarcoma had been transplanted subcutaneously. These rats were sacrificed at 10 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour and 3 hours after injection. Radioactivity of the tumor, blood, muscle, liver, kidney, spleen and urine were measured with a well-type scintillation counter. Retention values in these organs and excretion rates in the urine were calculated. Excretion rates (%/dose) of heparin-/sup 67/Ga in 10 min., 30 min., 1 hour, and 3 hours were 38.2%, 67.5%, 79.5% and 78.0%, respectively. From these facts, it was thought that heparin-/sup 67/Ga complex was not suitable for tumor scanning, but that this compound might be a suitable agent for the renal function test.

  11. Toxicological evaluation of complex industrial wastes: Implications for exposure assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMarini, D.M.; Gallagher, J.E.; Houk, V.S.; Simmons, J.E.

    1990-07-01

    We evaluated a variety of short-term bioassays to construct a battery of tests that could be used for assessing the biological effects of potentially hazardous complex industrial wastes. Ten samples were studied for hepatotoxicity; these samples and an additional five were studied for mutagenicity. Although the data are limited to these samples, the results suggest that the Salmonella assay (strain TA98) or a prophage-induction assay (both in the presence of S9) in combination with determination of relative liver weight and levels of a set of serum enzymes in rats may provide a battery of tests suitable to characterize complex industrial wastes for mutagenic and hepatotoxic potential. The biological activities exhibited by the wastes were not readily predicted by the chemical profiles of the wastes, emphasizing the importance of characterizing potentially hazardous complex industrial wastes by both chemical and biological means. DNA from liver, lung, and bladder of rats exposed to some of the wastes was analyzed by the 32P-postlabeling technique for the presence of DNA adducts. A waste that produced mutagenic urine produced a DNA adduct in bladder DNA. The implications of this approach for assessment of exposure to complex hazardous waste mixtures are discussed.

  12. Biokinetics of radiotellurium in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Y.; Sahoo, S.K.; Kim, S.; Homma-Takeda, S.; Watanabe, Y.; Inaba, J.

    2003-01-01

    Radiotellurium is present in the environment primarily due to its release during nuclear reactor accidents. Little is known of tellurium metabolism in juveniles, although the element is relatively abundant and has a number of industrial uses. A biokinetic study of radiotellurium in rats was done using gamma-ray counting. Wistar strain rats were used to determine the uptake of H 2 123 Te m O 3 by the whole-body retention of juvenile rats and the conceptus in relation to its gestational stages, by measurements in the placenta, fetal membranes, fetal fluid, and fetus. The whole-body retention of 123 Te m in juvenile rats was higher than that of adult rats. The relative concentration in the placenta and fetal membranes was higher than in the fetus. No activity was observed in the fetal fluid. These results indicate that the placenta and fetal membranes play significant roles as barriers to the transfer of 123 Te m into the fetus. The ratio, relative concentration in fetus/relative concentration in mother (C F /C M ), was calculated. The C F /C M ratio was dependent on the stage of gestation and ranged from 0.2 to 0.5. A little 123 Te m was transferred to the suckling rats through the mother's milk when the isotope was administered intravenously to the mother. (author)

  13. Evidence supporting oral sensitivity to complex carbohydrates independent of sweet taste sensitivity in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Y Q Low

    Full Text Available Compared to simple sugars, complex carbohydrates have been assumed invisible to taste. However, two recent studies proposed that there may be a perceivable taste quality elicited by complex carbohydrates independent of sweet taste. There is precedent with behavioural studies demonstrating that rats are very attracted to complex carbohydrates, and that complex carbohydrates are preferred to simple sugars at low concentrations. This suggests that rats may have independent taste sensors for simple sugars and complex carbohydrates. The aim of this paper is to investigate oral sensitivities of two different classes of complex carbohydrates (a soluble digestible and a soluble non-digestible complex carbohydrate, and to compare these to other caloric and non-nutritive sweeteners in addition to the prototypical tastes using two commonly used psychophysical measures. There were strong correlations between the detection thresholds and mean intensity ratings for complex carbohydrates (maltodextrin, oligofructose (r = 0.94, P 0.05. However, moderate correlations were observed between perceived intensities of complex carbohydrates and sweeteners (r = 0.48-0.61, P < 0.05. These data provide evidence that complex carbohydrates can be sensed in the oral cavity over a range of concentrations independent of sweet taste sensitivity at low concentrations, but with partial overlap with sweet taste intensity at higher concentrations.

  14. Studies on polyaspartamide gadolinium complexes as potential magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Guoping; Liu Maili; Li Liyun

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: A series of polyaspartamide gadolinium complexes containing pyridoxamine groups were studied as the potential magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents for liver enhancement. Methods: These polyaspartamide gadolinium complexes were prepared and evaluated by relaxivity, acute toxicity studies and magnetic resonance imaging of the liver in rats. Results: These polyaspartamide gadolinium complexes have higher relaxation effectiveness than that of the clinically used gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and possess the low intravenous acute toxicities to Institute for Cancer Research (ICR) mice. Magnetic resonance imaging of the liver in rats indicated that they greatly enhance the contrast of magnetic resonance images and provide prolonged intravascular duration in the liver. Conclusion: These results indicated that the polyaspartamide gadolinium complexes containing pyridoxamine groups could be considered as the appropriate MRI contrast agents for liver enhancement

  15. Differences in both glycosylation and binding properties between rat and mouse liver prolactin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascols, O; Cherqui, G; Munier, A; Picard, J; Capeau, J

    1994-05-01

    To investigate whether glycanic chains of prolactin receptors (PRL-R) play a role in hormone binding activity, comparison was made of rat and mouse liver solubilized receptors with respect to both their affinity for the hormone and their glycosylation properties. As compared with rat receptors, mouse receptors exhibited a 2-fold higher affinity for human growth hormone (hGH), the hormone being bound by both tissues with a lactogenic specificity. Along with this increased affinity, mouse receptors had a 2 lower M(r) relative to rat receptors (62 kDa versus 64 kDa as measured on hGH cross-linked receptors). These differences could be ascribed to different glycosylation properties of the receptors from the two species, as supported by the followings. 1) After treatment with endoglycosidase F (endo F), rat and mouse PRL-R no longer exhibited any difference in their M(r) (54 kDa for both cross-linked receptors). 2) Neuraminidase treatment increased by 37% the binding of hGH to mouse receptors, but was ineffective on the hormone-binding to rat receptors. Conversely, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), another sialic acid specific probe, decreased hGH binding to rat receptors by 25%, but had no effect on this process for mouse ones. 3) Marked differences were observed in the recoveries of rat and mouse hormone-receptor (HR) complexes from ricin-1- (RCA1-), concanavalin A- (ConA-) and WGA-immobilized lectins. These differences were reduced (RCA1 and ConA) or abolished (WGA) after rat and mouse receptor desialylation by neuraminidase, a treatment which decreased the M(r) of both receptors by 2 kDa. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the PRL-R from rat and mouse liver contain biantennary N-linked oligosaccharidic chains with distinct type of sialylation, which may account for their differential hormone-binding affinities.

  16. Tryptophan depletion affects compulsive behaviour in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merchán, A; Navarro, S V; Klein, A B

    2017-01-01

    investigated whether 5-HT manipulation, through a tryptophan (TRP) depletion by diet in Wistar and Lister Hooded rats, modulates compulsive drinking in schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) and locomotor activity in the open-field test. The levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin and its metabolite were......-depleted HD Wistar rats, while the LD Wistar and the Lister Hooded rats did not exhibit differences in SIP. In contrast, the TRP-depleted Lister Hooded rats increased locomotor activity compared to the non-depleted rats, while no differences were found in the Wistar rats. Serotonin 2A receptor binding...

  17. Membrane attack complex of complement is not essential for immune mediated demyelination in experimental autoimmune neuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Giang T; Hodgkinson, Suzanne J; Carter, Nicole M; Killingsworth, Murray; Nomura, Masaru; Verma, Nirupama D; Plain, Karren M; Boyd, Rochelle; Hall, Bruce M

    2010-12-15

    Antibody deposition and complement activation, especially membrane attack complex (MAC) formation are considered central for immune mediated demyelination. To examine the role of MAC in immune mediated demyelination, we studied experimental allergic neuritis (EAN) in Lewis rats deficient in complement component 6 (C6) that cannot form MAC. A C6 deficient Lewis (Lewis/C6-) strain of rats was bred by backcrossing the defective C6 gene, from PVG/C6- rats, onto the Lewis background. Lewis/C6- rats had the same C6 gene deletion as PVG/C6- rats and their sera did not support immune mediated haemolysis unless C6 was added. Active EAN was induced in Lewis and Lewis/C6- rats by immunization with bovine peripheral nerve myelin in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), and Lewis/C6- rats had delayed clinical EAN compared to the Lewis rats. Peripheral nerve demyelination in Lewis/C6- was also delayed but was similar in extent at the peak of disease. Compared to Lewis, Lewis/C6- nerves had no MAC deposition, reduced macrophage infiltrate and IL-17A, but similar T cell infiltrate and Th1 cytokine mRNA expression. ICAM-1 and P-selectin mRNA expression and immunostaining on vascular endothelium were delayed in Lewis C6- compared to Lewis rats' nerves. This study found that MAC was not required for immune mediated demyelination; but that MAC enhanced early symptoms and early demyelination in EAN, either by direct lysis or by sub-lytic induction of vascular endothelial expression of ICAM-1 and P-selectin. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hypoxia targeting copper complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearling, J.L.

    1998-11-01

    The importance and incidence of tumour hypoxia, its measurement and current treatments available, including pharmacological and radiopharmacological methods of targeting hypoxia, are discussed. A variety of in vitro and in vivo methods for imposing hypoxia have been developed and are reviewed. Copper, its chemistry, biochemistry and radiochemistry, the potential for use of copper radionuclides and its use to date in this field is considered with particular reference to the thiosemicarbazones. Their biological activity, metal chelation, in vitro and in vivo studies of their radiocopper complexes and the potential for their use as hypoxia targeting radiopharmaceuticals is described. The reduction of the copper(II) complex to copper(l), its pivotal importance in their biological behaviour, and the potential for manipulation of this to effect hypoxia selectivity are described. An in vitro method for assessing the hypoxia selectivity of radiopharmaceuticals is reported. The rapid deoxygenation and high viability of a mammalian cell culture in this system is discussed and factors which may affect the cellular uptake of a radiopharmaceutical are described. The design, synthesis and complexation with copper and radiocopper of a range of bis(thiosemicarbazones) is reported. Synthesis of these compounds is simple giving high yields of pure products. The characteristics of the radiocopper complexes ( 64 Cu) including lipophilicity and redox activity are reported (reduction potentials in the range -0.314 - -0.590 V). High cellular uptakes of the radiocopper complexes of the ligands, in hypoxic and normoxic EMT6 and CHO320 cells, were observed. Extremes of selectivity are shown ranging from the hypoxia selective 64 Cu(II)ATSM to normoxic cell selective 64 Cu(II)GTS. The selectivities observed are compared with the physico chemical characteristics of the complexes. A good correlation exists between selectivity of the complex and its Cu(II)/Cu(I) reduction potential, with hypoxia

  19. Complexity and Dynamical Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrence Deacon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We argue that a critical difference distinguishing machines from organisms and computers from brains is not complexity in a structural sense, but a difference in dynamical organization that is not well accounted for by current complexity measures. We propose a measure of the complexity of a system that is largely orthogonal to computational, information theoretic, or thermodynamic conceptions of structural complexity. What we call a system’s dynamical depth is a separate dimension of system complexity that measures the degree to which it exhibits discrete levels of nonlinear dynamical organization in which successive levels are distinguished by local entropy reduction and constraint generation. A system with greater dynamical depth than another consists of a greater number of such nested dynamical levels. Thus, a mechanical or linear thermodynamic system has less dynamical depth than an inorganic self-organized system, which has less dynamical depth than a living system. Including an assessment of dynamical depth can provide a more precise and systematic account of the fundamental difference between inorganic systems (low dynamical depth and living systems (high dynamical depth, irrespective of the number of their parts and the causal relations between them.

  20. The Orion complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goudis, C.

    1982-01-01

    This work deals with some of the most typical complexes of interstellar matter and presents a holistic view of the well studied complexes in Orion, built on information derived from various branches of modern astrophysics. A wealth of published data is presented in the form of photographs, contour maps, diagrams and numerous heavily annotated tables. Chapter 1, which is concerned with the large scale view of the Orion region, outlines the morphology of the area and examines in particular the nature of Barnard's Loop and the associated filamentary structure in addition to the origin of the I Orion OB association. Chapter 2 focuses on the Great Orion Nebula (M42 or NGC 1976) and the small H II region to the north (M43 or NGC 1982). Chapter 3 examines the Orion Complex as a whole, i.e. the H II regions M42 and M43, the associated molecular clouds OMC 1 and OMC 2 and their interrelations. Chapter 4 contains a discussion of the empirical models introduced to attempt to explain certain aspects of this very complex region, and chapter 5 investigates the second prominent H II region and molecular cloud complex, NGC 2024 (Orion B, W12). (Auth.)

  1. Complexity of Economical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Pavlos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study new theoretical concepts are described concerning the interpretation of economical complex dynamics. In addition a summary of an extended algorithm of nonlinear time series analysis is provided which is applied not only in economical time series but also in other physical complex systems (e.g. [22, 24]. In general, Economy is a vast and complicated set of arrangements and actions wherein agents—consumers, firms, banks, investors, government agencies—buy and sell, speculate, trade, oversee, bring products into being, offer services, invest in companies, strategize, explore, forecast, compete, learn, innovate, and adapt. As a result the economic and financial variables such as foreign exchange rates, gross domestic product, interest rates, production, stock market prices and unemployment exhibit large-amplitude and aperiodic fluctuations evident in complex systems. Thus, the Economics can be considered as spatially distributed non-equilibrium complex system, for which new theoretical concepts, such as Tsallis non extensive statistical mechanics and strange dynamics, percolation, nonGaussian, multifractal and multiscale dynamics related to fractional Langevin equations can be used for modeling and understanding of the economical complexity locally or globally.

  2. Complexes and imagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Verena

    2014-11-01

    Fantasies as imaginative activities are seen by Jung as expressions of psychic energy. In the various descriptions of active imagination the observation of the inner image and the dialogue with inner figures, if possible, are important. The model of symbol formation, as Jung describes it, can be experienced in doing active imagination. There is a correspondence between Jung's understanding of complexes and our imaginations: complexes develop a fantasy life. Complex episodes are narratives of difficult dysfunctional relationship episodes that have occurred repeatedly and are internalized with episodic memory. This means that the whole complex episode (the image for the child and the image for the aggressor, connected with emotions) is internalized and can get constellated in everyday relationship. Therefore inner dialogues do not necessarily qualify as active imaginations, often they are the expression of complex-episodes, very similar to fruitless soliloquies. If imaginations of this kind are repeated, new symbols and new possibilities of behaviour are not found. On the contrary, old patterns of behaviour and fantasies are perpetuated and become cemented. Imaginations of this kind need an intervention by the analyst. In clinical examples different kinds of imaginations are discussed. © 2014, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  3. Algorithmic Relative Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cerra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Information content and compression are tightly related concepts that can be addressed through both classical and algorithmic information theories, on the basis of Shannon entropy and Kolmogorov complexity, respectively. The definition of several entities in Kolmogorov’s framework relies upon ideas from classical information theory, and these two approaches share many common traits. In this work, we expand the relations between these two frameworks by introducing algorithmic cross-complexity and relative complexity, counterparts of the cross-entropy and relative entropy (or Kullback-Leibler divergence found in Shannon’s framework. We define the cross-complexity of an object x with respect to another object y as the amount of computational resources needed to specify x in terms of y, and the complexity of x related to y as the compression power which is lost when adopting such a description for x, compared to the shortest representation of x. Properties of analogous quantities in classical information theory hold for these new concepts. As these notions are incomputable, a suitable approximation based upon data compression is derived to enable the application to real data, yielding a divergence measure applicable to any pair of strings. Example applications are outlined, involving authorship attribution and satellite image classification, as well as a comparison to similar established techniques.

  4. Effects of white spirits on rat brain 5-HT receptor functions and synaptic remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Henrik Rye; Plenge, P.; Jørgensen, O.S.

    2001-01-01

    Previously, inhalation exposure to different types of white spirit (i.e. complex mixtures of aliphatic, aromatic, alkyl aromatic, and naphthenic hydrocarbons) has been shown to induce neurochemical effects in rat brains. Especially, the serotonergic system was involved at the global, regional, an...

  5. Neural mechanisms of female sexual behavior in the rat; comparison with male ejaculatory control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veening, J.G.; Coolen, L.M.; Gerrits, P.O.

    2014-01-01

    The sequential organization of sexual behavior of the female rat is described, eventually leading to the lordotic posture, shown during mating. A complex set of signals: olfactory, cutaneous sensory as well as genitosensory, is guiding the female to this specific posture, eventually. Genitosensory

  6. Neural mechanisms of female sexual behavior in the rat; comparison with male ejaculatory control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veening, J.G.; Coolen, L. M.; Gerrits, P.O.

    The sequential organization of sexual behavior of the female rat is described, eventually leading to the lordotic posture, shown during mating. A complex set of signals: olfactory, cutaneous sensory as well as genitosensory, is guiding the female to this specific posture, eventually. Genitosensory

  7. Selenium in the central nervous system of the rat after exposure to L-selenomethionine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Henning; Thorlacius-Ussing, O.

    1990-01-01

    in the anterior pituitary of rats exposed to sodium selenite (Thorlacius-Ussing and Danscher 1985). This histochemical method demonstrates complexes of exogenous selenium and endogenous metal. In the central nervous system and the anterior pituitary, selenium is suggested to form bonds with zinc (Danscher 1984...

  8. Successful oxime therapy one hour after soman intoxication in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, O.L.; Kepner, L.A.

    1978-01-01

    The bisquarternary mono-oxime HI-6, and to a lesser extent HS-6, caused functional recovery of neuromuscular transmission in vivo and in vitro when given 60 min after soman, i.e. when the soman-cholinesterase (AChE) complex is said to be fully 'aged'. Atropinised rats, with the tracheas intubated,

  9. Nuclear weapons complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peach, J.D.

    1991-02-01

    In this paper, GAO provides its views on DOE's January 1991 Nuclear Weapons Complex Reconfiguration Study. GAO believes that DOE's new reconfiguration study provides a starting point for reaching agreement on solutions to many of the complex's problems. Key decisions still need to be made about the size of the complex, where to relocate plutonium operations, what technologies should be used for new tritium production, and what to do with excess plutonium. The total cost for reconfiguring and modernizing is still uncertain and some management issues remain unresolved. Congress faces a difficult task in making these decisions given the conflicting demands for scare resources in a time of growing budget deficits and war in the Persian Gulf

  10. Can Complexity be Planned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Koutny

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The long accepted complexity invariance of human languages has become controversial within the last decade. In investigations of the problem, both creole and planned languages have often been neglected. After a presentation of the scope of the invariance problem and the proposition of the natural to planned language continuum, this article will discuss the contribution of planned languages. It will analyze the complexity of Esperanto at the phonological, morphological, syntactic and semantic levels, using linguistic data bases. The role of the L2 speech community and development of the language will also be taken into account when discussing the endurance of the same level of simplicity of this planned international language. The author argues that complexity can be variable and to some extent planned and maintained.

  11. Introduction to complex plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonitz, Michael; Ludwig, Patrick; Horing, Norman

    2010-01-01

    Complex plasmas differ from traditional plasmas in many ways: these are low-temperature high pressure systems containing nanometer to micrometer size particles which may be highly charged and strongly interacting. The particles may be chemically reacting or be in contact with solid surfaces, and the electrons may show quantum behaviour. These interesting properties have led to many applications of complex plasmas in technology, medicine and science. Yet complex plasmas are extremely complicated, both experimentally and theoretically, and require a variety of new approaches which go beyond standard plasma physics courses. This book fills this gap presenting an introduction to theory, experiment and computer simulation in this field. Based on tutorial lectures at a very successful recent Summer Institute, the presentation is ideally suited for graduate students, plasma physicists and experienced undergraduates. (orig.)

  12. Introduction to Complex Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bonitz, Michael; Ludwig, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Complex plasmas differ from traditional plasmas in many ways: these are low-temperature high pressure systems containing nanometer to micrometer size particles which may be highly charged and strongly interacting. The particles may be chemically reacting or be in contact with solid surfaces, and the electrons may show quantum behaviour. These interesting properties have led to many applications of complex plasmas in technology, medicine and science. Yet complex plasmas are extremely complicated, both experimentally and theoretically, and require a variety of new approaches which go beyond standard plasma physics courses. This book fills this gap presenting an introduction to theory, experiment and computer simulation in this field. Based on tutorial lectures at a very successful recent Summer Institute, the presentation is ideally suited for graduate students, plasma physicists and experienced undergraduates.

  13. BRAND program complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androsenko, A.A.; Androsenko, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    A description is given of the structure, input procedure and recording rules of initial data for the BRAND programme complex intended for the Monte Carlo simulation of neutron physics experiments. The BRAND complex ideology is based on non-analogous simulation of the neutron and photon transport process (statistic weights are used, absorption and escape of particles from the considered region is taken into account, shifted readouts from a coordinate part of transition nucleus density are applied, local estimations, etc. are used). The preparation of initial data for three sections is described in detail: general information for Monte Carlo calculation, source definition and data for describing the geometry of the system. The complex is to be processed with the BESM-6 computer, the basic programming lan-- guage is FORTRAN, volume - more than 8000 operators

  14. Synchronization in complex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenas, A.; Diaz-Guilera, A.; Moreno, Y.; Zhou, C.; Kurths, J.

    2007-12-12

    Synchronization processes in populations of locally interacting elements are in the focus of intense research in physical, biological, chemical, technological and social systems. The many efforts devoted to understand synchronization phenomena in natural systems take now advantage of the recent theory of complex networks. In this review, we report the advances in the comprehension of synchronization phenomena when oscillating elements are constrained to interact in a complex network topology. We also overview the new emergent features coming out from the interplay between the structure and the function of the underlying pattern of connections. Extensive numerical work as well as analytical approaches to the problem are presented. Finally, we review several applications of synchronization in complex networks to different disciplines: biological systems and neuroscience, engineering and computer science, and economy and social sciences.

  15. Simulation in Complex Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Tamke, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This paper will discuss the role of simulation in extended architectural design modelling. As a framing paper, the aim is to present and discuss the role of integrated design simulation and feedback between design and simulation in a series of projects under the Complex Modelling framework. Complex...... performance, engage with high degrees of interdependency and allow the emergence of design agency and feedback between the multiple scales of architectural construction. This paper presents examples for integrated design simulation from a series of projects including Lace Wall, A Bridge Too Far and Inflated...... Restraint developed for the research exhibition Complex Modelling, Meldahls Smedie Gallery, Copenhagen in 2016. Where the direct project aims and outcomes have been reported elsewhere, the aim for this paper is to discuss overarching strategies for working with design integrated simulation....

  16. Modeling Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Boccara, Nino

    2010-01-01

    Modeling Complex Systems, 2nd Edition, explores the process of modeling complex systems, providing examples from such diverse fields as ecology, epidemiology, sociology, seismology, and economics. It illustrates how models of complex systems are built and provides indispensable mathematical tools for studying their dynamics. This vital introductory text is useful for advanced undergraduate students in various scientific disciplines, and serves as an important reference book for graduate students and young researchers. This enhanced second edition includes: . -recent research results and bibliographic references -extra footnotes which provide biographical information on cited scientists who have made significant contributions to the field -new and improved worked-out examples to aid a student’s comprehension of the content -exercises to challenge the reader and complement the material Nino Boccara is also the author of Essentials of Mathematica: With Applications to Mathematics and Physics (Springer, 2007).

  17. The multitalented Mediator complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsten, Jonas O P; Zhu, Xuefeng; Gustafsson, Claes M

    2013-11-01

    The Mediator complex is needed for regulated transcription of RNA polymerase II (Pol II)-dependent genes. Initially, Mediator was only seen as a protein bridge that conveyed regulatory information from enhancers to the promoter. Later studies have added many other functions to the Mediator repertoire. Indeed, recent findings show that Mediator influences nearly all stages of transcription and coordinates these events with concomitant changes in chromatin organization. We review the multitude of activities associated with Mediator and discuss how this complex coordinates transcription with other cellular events. We also discuss the inherent difficulties associated with in vivo characterization of a coactivator complex that can indirectly affect diverse cellular processes via changes in gene transcription. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Modeling Complex Time Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Svatos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze complexity of time limits we can find especially in regulated processes of public administration. First we review the most popular process modeling languages. There is defined an example scenario based on the current Czech legislature which is then captured in discussed process modeling languages. Analysis shows that the contemporary process modeling languages support capturing of the time limit only partially. This causes troubles to analysts and unnecessary complexity of the models. Upon unsatisfying results of the contemporary process modeling languages we analyze the complexity of the time limits in greater detail and outline lifecycles of a time limit using the multiple dynamic generalizations pattern. As an alternative to the popular process modeling languages there is presented PSD process modeling language, which supports the defined lifecycles of a time limit natively and therefore allows keeping the models simple and easy to understand.

  19. Large erupted complex odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijeev Vasudevan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are a heterogeneous group of jaw bone lesions, classified as odontogenic tumors which usually include well-diversified dental tissues. Odontoma is a term introduced to the literature by Broca in 1867. Trauma, infection and hereditary factors are the possible causes of forming this kind of lesions. Among odontogenic tumors, they constitute about 2/3 of cases. These lesions usually develop slowly and asymptomatically, and in most cases they do not cross the bone borders. Two types of odontoma are recognized: compound and complex. Complex odontomas are less common than the compound variety in the ratio 1:2.3. Eruption of an odontoma in the oral cavity is rare. We present a case of complex odontoma, in which apparent eruption has occurred in the area of the right maxillary second molar region.

  20. Alanine water complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, Vanesa; Sanz, M Eugenia; Peña, Isabel; Mata, Santiago; Cabezas, Carlos; López, Juan C; Alonso, José L

    2014-04-10

    Two complexes of alanine with water, alanine-(H2O)n (n = 1,2), have been generated by laser ablation of the amino acid in a supersonic jet containing water vapor and characterized using Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. In the observed complexes, water molecules bind to the carboxylic group of alanine acting as both proton donors and acceptors. In alanine-H2O, the water molecule establishes two intermolecular hydrogen bonds forming a six-membered cycle, while in alanine-(H2O)2 the two water molecules establish three hydrogen bonds forming an eight-membered ring. In both complexes, the amino acid moiety is in its neutral form and shows the conformation observed to be the most stable for the bare molecule. The microsolvation study of alanine-(H2O)n (n = 1,2) can be taken as a first step toward understanding bulk properties at a microscopic level.

  1. Philosophy of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The domain of nonlinear dynamical systems and its mathematical underpinnings has been developing exponentially for a century, the last 35 years seeing an outpouring of new ideas and applications and a concomitant confluence with ideas of complex systems and their applications from irreversible thermodynamics. A few examples are in meteorology, ecological dynamics, and social and economic dynamics. These new ideas have profound implications for our understanding and practice in domains involving complexity, predictability and determinism, equilibrium, control, planning, individuality, responsibility and so on. Our intention is to draw together in this volume, we believe for the first time, a comprehensive picture of the manifold philosophically interesting impacts of recent developments in understanding nonlinear systems and the unique aspects of their complexity. The book will focus specifically on the philosophical concepts, principles, judgments and problems distinctly raised by work in the domain of comple...

  2. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...... of parameter spaces into structurally stable domains, and a description of the bifurcations. For this reason, the talk will focus on these questions for complex polynomial vector fields.......The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...

  3. The organization of the Golgi complex and microtubules in skeletal muscle is fiber type-dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ralston, E; Lu, Z; Ploug, Thorkil

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal muscle has a nonconventional Golgi complex (GC), the organization of which has been a subject of controversy in the past. We have now examined the distribution of the GC by immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy in whole fibers from different rat muscles, both innervated a...

  4. Complex manifolds in relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaherty, E.J. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Complex manifold theory is applied to the study of certain problems in general relativity. The first half of the work is devoted to the mathematical theory of complex manifold. Then a brief review of general relativity is given. It is shown that any spacetime admits locally an almost Hermitian structure, suitably modified to be compatible with the indefinite metric of spacetime. This structure is integrable if and only if the spacetime admits two geodesic and shearfree null congruences, thus in particular if the spacetime is type D vacuum or electrified. The structure is ''half-integrable'' in a suitable sense if and only if the spacetime admits one geodesic and shearfree null congruence, thus in particular for all algebraically special vacuum spacetimes. Conditions for the modified Hermitian spacetime to be Kahlerian are presented. The most general metric for such a modified Kahlerian spacetime is found. It is shown that the type D vacuum and electrified spacetimes are conformally related to modified Kahlerian spacetimes by a generally complex conformal factor. These latter are shown to possess a very rich structure, including the existence of Killing tensors and Killing vectors. A new ''explanation'' of Newman's complex coordinate transformations is given. It is felt to be superior to previous ''explanations'' on several counts. For example, a physical interpretation in terms of a symmetry group is given. The existence of new complex coordinate transformations is established: Nt is shown that any type D vacuum spacetime is obtainable from either Schwarzschild spacetime or ''C'' spacetime by a complex coordinate transformation. Finally, some related topics are discussed and areas for future work are outlined. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  5. Locus coeruleus lesions and PCOS: role of the central and peripheral sympathetic nervous system in the ovarian function of rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Zafari Zangeneh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder associated with ovulatory dysfunction”. “Autonomic and central nervous systems play important roles in the regulation of ovarian physiology”. The noradrenergic nucleus locus coeruleus (LC plays a central role in the regulation of the sympathetic nervous system and synaptically connected to the preganglionic cell bodies of the ovarian sympathetic pathway and its activation is essential to trigger spontaneous or induced LH surges. This study evaluates sympathetic outflow in central and peripheral pathways in PCO rats. Objective: Our objectives in this study were (1 to estimate LC activity in rats with estradiol valerate (EV-induced PCO; (2 to antagonized alpha2a adrenoceptor in systemic conditions with yohimbine. Materials and Methods: Forty two rats were divided into two groups: 1 LC and yohimbine and 2 control. Every group subdivided in two groups: eighteen rats were treated with estradiol valerate for induction of follicular cysts and the remainders were sesame oil groups. Results: Estradiol concentration was significantly augmented by the LC lesion in PCO rats (p<0.001, while LC lesion could not alter serum concentrations of LH and FSH, like yohimbine. The morphological observations of ovaries of LC lesion rats showed follicles with hyperthecosis, but yohimbine reduced the number of cysts, increased corpus lutea and developed follicles. Conclusion: Rats with EV-induced PCO increased sympathetic activity. LC lesion and yohimbine decreased the number of cysts and yohimbine increased corpus lutea and developed follicles in PCO rats.

  6. Complex quantum groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabant, B.; Schlieker, M.

    1993-01-01

    The complex quantum groups are constructed. They are q-deformations of the real Lie groups which are obtained as the complex groups corresponding to the Lie algebras of type A n-1 , B n , C n . Following the ideas of Faddeev, Reshetikhin and Takhtajan Hopf algebras of regular functionals U R for these complexified quantum groups are constructed. One has thus in particular found a construction scheme for the q-Lorentz algebra to be identified as U(sl q (2,C). (orig.)

  7. Complex function theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sarason, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Complex Function Theory is a concise and rigorous introduction to the theory of functions of a complex variable. Written in a classical style, it is in the spirit of the books by Ahlfors and by Saks and Zygmund. Being designed for a one-semester course, it is much shorter than many of the standard texts. Sarason covers the basic material through Cauchy's theorem and applications, plus the Riemann mapping theorem. It is suitable for either an introductory graduate course or an undergraduate course for students with adequate preparation. The first edition was published with the title Notes on Co

  8. Complex matrix model duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.W.

    2010-11-01

    The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 non-critical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of half-BPS operators in N=4 super- Yang-Mills. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich- Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

  9. Resilience and Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two key concepts: resilience and complexity. The first is understood as an emergent property of the latter, and their inter-relatedness is discussed using a three tier approach. First, by exploring the discourse of each concept, next, by analyzing underlying relationships and...... robust. Robustness is a property of simple or complicated systems characterized by predictable behavior, enabling the system to bounce back to its normal state following a perturbation. Resilience, however, is an emergent property of complex adaptive systems. It is suggested that this distinction...

  10. Theories of computational complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Calude, C

    1988-01-01

    This volume presents four machine-independent theories of computational complexity, which have been chosen for their intrinsic importance and practical relevance. The book includes a wealth of results - classical, recent, and others which have not been published before.In developing the mathematics underlying the size, dynamic and structural complexity measures, various connections with mathematical logic, constructive topology, probability and programming theories are established. The facts are presented in detail. Extensive examples are provided, to help clarify notions and constructions. The lists of exercises and problems include routine exercises, interesting results, as well as some open problems.

  11. Planning Complex Projects Automatically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Andrea L.; Stottler, Richard H.; Maher, Timothy P.

    1995-01-01

    Automated Manifest Planner (AMP) computer program applies combination of artificial-intelligence techniques to assist both expert and novice planners, reducing planning time by orders of magnitude. Gives planners flexibility to modify plans and constraints easily, without need for programming expertise. Developed specifically for planning space shuttle missions 5 to 10 years ahead, with modifications, applicable in general to planning other complex projects requiring scheduling of activities depending on other activities and/or timely allocation of resources. Adaptable to variety of complex scheduling problems in manufacturing, transportation, business, architecture, and construction.

  12. Complex matrix model duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.W.

    2010-11-15

    The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 non-critical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of half-BPS operators in N=4 super- Yang-Mills. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich- Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

  13. Nonlinear dynamics and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert; Fu, Xilin

    2014-01-01

    This important collection presents recent advances in nonlinear dynamics including analytical solutions, chaos in Hamiltonian systems, time-delay, uncertainty, and bio-network dynamics. Nonlinear Dynamics and Complexity equips readers to appreciate this increasingly main-stream approach to understanding complex phenomena in nonlinear systems as they are examined in a broad array of disciplines. The book facilitates a better understanding of the mechanisms and phenomena in nonlinear dynamics and develops the corresponding mathematical theory to apply nonlinear design to practical engineering.

  14. Complex/Symplectic Mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Wu-yen; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC; Tomasiello, Alessandro; /Stanford U., ITP

    2005-10-28

    We construct a class of symplectic non-Kaehler and complex non-Kaehler string theory vacua, extending and providing evidence for an earlier suggestion by Polchinski and Strominger. The class admits a mirror pairing by construction. Comparing hints from a variety of sources, including ten-dimensional supergravity and KK reduction on SU(3)-structure manifolds, suggests a picture in which string theory extends Reid's fantasy to connect classes of both complex non-Kaehler and symplectic non-Kaehler manifolds.

  15. Complex logistics audit system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Marková

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex logistics audit system is a tool for realization of logistical audit in the company. The current methods for logistics auditare based on “ad hok” analysis of logisticsl system. This paper describes system for complex logistics audit. It is a global diagnosticsof logistics processes and functions of enterprise. The goal of logistics audit is to provide comparative documentation for managementabout state of logistics in company and to show the potential of logistics changes in order to achieve more effective companyperformance.

  16. Simulations with complex measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markham, J.K.; Kieu, T.D.

    1997-01-01

    A method is proposed to handle the sign problem in the simulation of systems having indefinite or complex-valued measures. In general, this new approach, which is based on renormalisation blocking, is shown to yield statistical errors smaller that the crude Monte Carlo method using absolute values of the original measures. The improved method is applied to the 2D Ising model with temperature generalised to take on complex values. It is also adapted to implement Monte Carlo Renormalisation Group calculations of the magnetic and thermal critical exponents. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  17. Population Structure of Rat-Derived Pneumocystis carinii in Danish Wild Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Robert J.; Settnes, Osvald P.; Lodal, Jens

    2000-01-01

    The rat model of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is frequently used to study human P. carinii infection, but there are many differences between the rat and human infections. We studied naturally acquired P. carinii in wild rats to examine the relevance of the rat model for human infection. P. cari...

  18. Toxicological evaluation of complex industrial wastes: Implications for exposure assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMarini, D.M.; Gallagher, J.E.; Houk, V.S.; Simmons, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    A variety of short-term bioassays to construct a battery of tests that could be used for assessing the biological effects of potentially hazardous complex industrial wastes were evaluated. Ten samples were studied for hepatotoxicity: These samples and an additional five were studied for mutagenicity. Although the data are limited to these samples, the results suggest that the Salmonella assay (either TA98 or TA100) or a prophage-induction assay (both in the presence of S9) in combination with determination of relative liver weight and levels of a set of serum enzymes in rats would provide a battery of tests suitable to characterize complex industrial wastes for mutagenic and hepatotoxic potential. The biological activities exhibited by the wastes were not readily predicted by the chemical profiles of the wastes, emphasizing the importance of characterizing potentially hazardous complex industrial wastes by both chemical and biological means.

  19. Mistura com excesso enantiomérico de 50% (S75-R25 de bupivacaína complexada com ciclodextrinas e anestesia por via subaracnóidea em ratos Mezcla con exceso enantiomérico de 50% (S75-R25 de bupivacaina con complejo de ciclodextrinas y anestesia por vía subaracnoidea en ratones Complexation of 50% enantiomeric excess (S75-R25 bupivacaine with cyclodextrins and spinal block anesthesia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Ribeiro de Araujo

    2006-10-01

    concentraciones de HP-beta-CD y la temperatura. Fueron determinadas las constantes de afinidad (K por la HP-beta-CD y los parámetros termodinámicos para los complejos. Los bloqueos motor y sensitivo fueron evaluados en ratones, a través de la administración subaracnoidea de las formulaciones en la concentración clínica de 0,5%. RESULTADOS: La formación de complejos de inclusión se observó a través del aumento de la solubilidad acuosa del AL bajo diferentes temperaturas y concentraciones de HP-beta-CD. Las pruebas in vivo mostraron que S50-R50HP-beta-CD y S75-R25HP-beta-CD redujeron la latencia (p BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In order to prolong the action and reduce systemic toxicity, formulations of local anesthetic (LA complexed with cyclodextrins (CD have been developed. This study determined the physical-chemical characterization and evaluated the effects of inclusion complexes of racemic bupivacaine (S50-R50 and 50% enantiomeric excess (S75-R25 bupivacaine with hydroxypropil-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD in rats, and comparing them with the solutions currently used in the clinical practice. METHODS: Inclusion complexation of S75-R25 with HP-beta-CD (equimolar ratio 1:1 was characterized by phase-solubility studies varying the concentrations of HP-beta-CD and the temperature. Affinity constants (K for HP-beta-CD and the thermodynamic parameters for complexation were determined. Motor and sensitive anesthesias were evaluated through the subarachnoid administration of the formulations in the concentration of 0.5%. RESULTS: Inclusion complexation was observed through the increase in aqueous solubility of LA in different temperatures and concentrations of HP-beta-CD. The in vivo tests demonstrated that S50-R50HP-beta-CD and S75-R25HP-beta-CD reduced latency (p < 0.001 without changing the recovery time of the motor block, time for maximal effect, and total effect of the drugs. Besides, both formulations increased the intensity (1.5 times, p < 0.001 and prolonged the

  20. Qubit Complexity of Continuous Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Papageorgiou, A; Traub, J. F

    2005-01-01

    .... The authors show how to obtain the classical query complexity for continuous problems. They then establish a simple formula for a lower bound on the qubit complexity in terms of the classical query complexity...

  1. Prediction of Biomolecular Complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Vangone, Anna

    2017-04-12

    Almost all processes in living organisms occur through specific interactions between biomolecules. Any dysfunction of those interactions can lead to pathological events. Understanding such interactions is therefore a crucial step in the investigation of biological systems and a starting point for drug design. In recent years, experimental studies have been devoted to unravel the principles of biomolecular interactions; however, due to experimental difficulties in solving the three-dimensional (3D) structure of biomolecular complexes, the number of available, high-resolution experimental 3D structures does not fulfill the current needs. Therefore, complementary computational approaches to model such interactions are necessary to assist experimentalists since a full understanding of how biomolecules interact (and consequently how they perform their function) only comes from 3D structures which provide crucial atomic details about binding and recognition processes. In this chapter we review approaches to predict biomolecular complexesBiomolecular complexes, introducing the concept of molecular dockingDocking, a technique which uses a combination of geometric, steric and energetics considerations to predict the 3D structure of a biological complex starting from the individual structures of its constituent parts. We provide a mini-guide about docking concepts, its potential and challenges, along with post-docking analysis and a list of related software.

  2. Real and complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Apelian, Christopher; Taft, Earl; Nashed, Zuhair

    2009-01-01

    The Spaces R, Rk, and CThe Real Numbers RThe Real Spaces RkThe Complex Numbers CPoint-Set Topology Bounded SetsClassification of Points Open and Closed SetsNested Intervals and the Bolzano-Weierstrass Theorem Compactness and Connectedness Limits and Convergence Definitions and First Properties Convergence Results for SequencesTopological Results for Sequences Properties of Infinite SeriesManipulations of Series in RFunctions: Definitions and Limits DefinitionsFunctions as MappingsSome Elementary Complex FunctionsLimits of FunctionsFunctions: Continuity and Convergence Continuity Uniform Continuity Sequences and Series of FunctionsThe DerivativeThe Derivative for f: D1 → RThe Derivative for f: Dk → RThe Derivative for f: Dk → RpThe Derivative for f: D → CThe Inverse and Implicit Function TheoremsReal IntegrationThe Integral of f: [a, b] → RProperties of the Riemann Integral Further Development of Integration TheoryVector-Valued and Line IntegralsComplex IntegrationIntroduction to Complex Integrals Fu...

  3. Automatic Complexity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1989-01-01

    One way to analyse programs is to to derive expressions for their computational behaviour. A time bound function (or worst-case complexity) gives an upper bound for the computation time as a function of the size of input. We describe a system to derive such time bounds automatically using abstract...

  4. Complexity and ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Giraldo, Luis Jair

    2002-01-01

    The present article examines the transformation that the construction of the theoretical body of ecology as a science has been going through since it first appeared in the XIX century within the logic of classical science until recent developments comprised within complex systemic. Mainly departing from the analysis from thermodynamics of irreversible phenomena

  5. Supporting complex search tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    , is fragmented at best. The workshop addressed the many open research questions: What are the obvious use cases and applications of complex search? What are essential features of work tasks and search tasks to take into account? And how do these evolve over time? With a multitude of information, varying from...

  6. Managing Complex Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, John C.; Webster, Robert L.; Curry, Jeanie A.; Hammond, Kevin L.

    2011-01-01

    Management commonly engages in a variety of research designed to provide insight into the motivation and relationships of individuals, departments, organizations, etc. This paper demonstrates how the application of concepts associated with the analysis of complex systems applied to such data sets can yield enhanced insights for managerial action.

  7. benzimidazole metal complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    aUnité de Recherche de Chimie de l'Environnement et Moléculaire Structurale, Université des Frères. Mentouri .... determine the quantum chemical parameters for the title ..... retical study of benzazole thioether and its zinc complex.

  8. COMPLEXITY AND UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Lemes Martins Pereira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization affects different countries on the globe, has positive effects mainly related to access to communication, which promotes the exchange of ideas, information, products and quality of life. However, extends numerous negative aspects such as marginalization, economic dependencies, political, cultural, scientific, educational accentuate social inequalities and cultural conflicts and territorial. In this article it is a dialogue with authors (Cunha 2009; BARNETT 2005; MORIN 1999, 2006, among others, who understand these changes in society from the contemporary world as conceived as the "Complexity era" or "supercomplexity". To understand and cope with this reality, they propose a paradigm that is able to overcome the fragmentation and reductionism of knowledge and to relate the multiple approaches and visions to meet the complexity of reality. Although this paper presents proposals to the aforementioned authors point to education and the university found in this tangle of interconnected global transformations, given the need to be subject to act in a complex reality that requires critical and self-critical professionals, able to think about their own ability to think, understand and act within this complex context.

  9. (VI) ML6 Complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A geometric analysis revealed that beta-(C-H) and alpha-(C-C) can occupy the seventh and eighth coordination sites in the title Fischer carbene complexes as agostic interactions, which allows classifying the carbene as a η3 ligand in these cases. This theory was supported by the relative energies of the conformers and an ...

  10. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Mobs, Esma Anais

    2016-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark blue line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  11. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Christiane Lefèvre

    2008-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark grey line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  12. Nature, computation and complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, P-M; Ellis, G F R

    2016-01-01

    The issue of whether the unfolding of events in the world can be considered a computation is explored in this paper. We come to different conclusions for inert and for living systems (‘no’ and ‘qualified yes’, respectively). We suggest that physical computation as we know it exists only as a tool of complex biological systems: us. (paper)

  13. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. It causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, legs, or feet. It may happen ... move the affected body part The cause of CRPS is unknown. There is no specific diagnostic test. ...

  14. Prediction of Biomolecular Complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Vangone, Anna; Oliva, Romina; Cavallo, Luigi; Bonvin, Alexandre M. J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Almost all processes in living organisms occur through specific interactions between biomolecules. Any dysfunction of those interactions can lead to pathological events. Understanding such interactions is therefore a crucial step in the investigation of biological systems and a starting point for drug design. In recent years, experimental studies have been devoted to unravel the principles of biomolecular interactions; however, due to experimental difficulties in solving the three-dimensional (3D) structure of biomolecular complexes, the number of available, high-resolution experimental 3D structures does not fulfill the current needs. Therefore, complementary computational approaches to model such interactions are necessary to assist experimentalists since a full understanding of how biomolecules interact (and consequently how they perform their function) only comes from 3D structures which provide crucial atomic details about binding and recognition processes. In this chapter we review approaches to predict biomolecular complexesBiomolecular complexes, introducing the concept of molecular dockingDocking, a technique which uses a combination of geometric, steric and energetics considerations to predict the 3D structure of a biological complex starting from the individual structures of its constituent parts. We provide a mini-guide about docking concepts, its potential and challenges, along with post-docking analysis and a list of related software.

  15. COMPLEX PROMOTIONSIN RETAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yusupova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex promotions used by retailers introduce to the consumers several rules that must be satisfied in order to get some benefits and usually refer to multiple products (e.g. “buy two, get one free”. Rules of complex promotions can be quite sophisticated and complicated themselves. Since diversity of complex promotions limited only by marketers’ imagination we can observe broad variety of promotions’ rules and representa¬tions of those rules in retailers’ commercials. Such diversification makes no good for fellow scientist who’s trying to sort all type of promotions into the neatly organized classification. Although we can simple add every single set of rules offered by retailers as a separate form of sales promotion it seems not to be the best way of dealing with such a problem. The better way is to realize that mechanisms underlying that variety of promotions are basically the same, namely changes in demand or quantity demanded. Those two concepts alone provide powerful insight into classification of complex promotions and allow us to comprehend the variety of promotions offered by marketers nowadays.

  16. Uranyl complexes of glutathione

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzotto, A [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Padua (Italy). Lab. di Chimica e Tecnologia dei Radioelementi

    1977-01-01

    Dioxouranium(VI) complexes of the tripeptide glutathione having different molar ratios were prepared and studied by IR, PMR, electronic absorption and circular dichroism spectra. The results indicate that coordination occurs at the carboxylato groups, acting as monodentate ligands, whereas no significant interaction with the amino and sulfhydrylic groups takes place.

  17. Complexity and formative experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Strieder

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The contemporaneity is characterized by instability and diversity calling into question certainties and truths proposed in modernity. We recognize that the reality of things and phenomena become effective as a set of events, interactions, retroactions and chances. This different frame extends the need for revision of the epistemological foundations that sustain educational practices and give them sense. The complex thinking is an alternative option for acting as a counterpoint to classical science and its reductionist logic and knowledge compartmentalization, as well as to answer to contemporary epistemological and educational challenges. It aims to associate different areas and forms of knowledge, without, however merge them, distinguishing without separating the several disciplines and instances of the realities. This study, in theoretical references, highlights the relevance of complex approaches to support formative experiences because also able to produce complexities in reflections about educational issues. We conclude that formative possibilities from complexity potentialize the resignification of human’s conception and the understanding of its singularity in interdependence; The understanding that pedagogical and educational activities is a constant interrogation about the possibilities of knowing the knowledge and reframe learning, far beyond knowing its functions and utilitarian purposes; and, as a formative possibility, places us on the trail of responsibility, not as something eventual, but present and indicative of freedom to choose to stay or go beyond.

  18. pyridine-carboxamide complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of the solution was reduced by slow evaporation. The prod- uct was ... Data collection, data reduction, structure solu- ... and a selection of bond lengths and angles are shown in. Table 2. ...... Zn(II) complexes featuring a disulfide bridge and H-.

  19. Complexity driven photonics

    KAUST Repository

    Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Disorder and chaos are ubiquitous phenomena that are mostly unwanted in applications. On the contrary, they can be exploited to create a new technology. In this talk I will summarize my research in this field, discussing chaotic energy harvesting, nonlinear stochastic resonance and complex nanolasers.

  20. Unifying Complexity and Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Da-Guan

    2013-04-01

    Complex systems, arising in many contexts in the computer, life, social, and physical sciences, have not shared a generally-accepted complexity measure playing a fundamental role as the Shannon entropy H in statistical mechanics. Superficially-conflicting criteria of complexity measurement, i.e. complexity-randomness (C-R) relations, have given rise to a special measure intrinsically adaptable to more than one criterion. However, deep causes of the conflict and the adaptability are not much clear. Here I trace the root of each representative or adaptable measure to its particular universal data-generating or -regenerating model (UDGM or UDRM). A representative measure for deterministic dynamical systems is found as a counterpart of the H for random process, clearly redefining the boundary of different criteria. And a specific UDRM achieving the intrinsic adaptability enables a general information measure that ultimately solves all major disputes. This work encourages a single framework coving deterministic systems, statistical mechanics and real-world living organisms.

  1. (II) COMPLEX COMPOUND

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    electrochemical sensors, as well as in various chromatographic ... were carried out using Jenway pH meter Model 3320 and a conductivity ... Figure 1: the proposed molecular structure of the copper (II) Schiff base complex. M = Cu (II) or Mn (II).

  2. Complexity driven photonics

    KAUST Repository

    Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Disorder and chaos are ubiquitous phenomena that are mostly unwanted in applications. On the contrary, they can be exploited to create a new technology. In this talk I will summarize my research in this field, discussing chaotic energy harvesting, nonlinear stochastic resonance and complex nanolasers.

  3. The Colletotrichum acutatum complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Cannon, P.F.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Colletotrichum acutatum is known as an important anthracnose pathogen of a wide range of host plants worldwide. Numerous studies have reported subgroups within the C. acutatum species complex. Multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis (ITS, ACT, TUB2, CHS-1, GAPDH, HIS3) of 331 strains previously

  4. Architecture of Intermodal Complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.; Herneoja, Aulikki; Österlund, Toni; Markkanen, Piia

    This paper focuses on the conception and design of architecture as the work of producing media about buildings and other environmental artifacts. I approach
    the questions regarding simplicity and complexity through "interdependence" and "intermodality." I believe the two concepts offer more

  5. unsymmetrical Schiff base complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the effect of the substitutional groups of the Schiff base on the oxidation and reduction potentials, we used ... Electrochemistry of these complexes showed that the presence of electron .... a solution of the ligand (1 mmol) in methanol (15 mL).

  6. Management of complex fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Hans Staby; Andersen, Peder; Hoff, Ayoe

    2013-01-01

    , including taking into account the response of the fishermen to implemented management measures. To demonstrate the use of complex management models this paper assesses a number of second best management schemes against a first rank optimum (FRO), an ideal individual transferable quotas (ITQ) system...

  7. Herding Complex Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ruf, Sebastian F.; Egersted, Magnus; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2018-01-01

    the ability to drive a system to a specific set in the state space, was recently introduced as an alternative network control notion. This paper considers the application of herdability to the study of complex networks. The herdability of a class of networked

  8. The hamstring muscle complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Made, A. D.; Wieldraaijer, T.; Kerkhoffs, G. M.; Kleipool, R. P.; Engebretsen, L.; van Dijk, C. N.; Golanó, P.

    2015-01-01

    The anatomical appearance of the hamstring muscle complex was studied to provide hypotheses for the hamstring injury pattern and to provide reference values of origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, musculotendinous junction (MTJ) length as well as width and length of a tendinous

  9. Symmetry in Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze a few interrelated concepts about graphs, such as their degree, entropy, or their symmetry/asymmetry levels. These concepts prove useful in the study of different types of Systems, and particularly, in the analysis of Complex Networks. A System can be defined as any set of components functioning together as a whole. A systemic point of view allows us to isolate a part of the world, and so, we can focus on those aspects that interact more closely than others. Network Science analyzes the interconnections among diverse networks from different domains: physics, engineering, biology, semantics, and so on. Current developments in the quantitative analysis of Complex Networks, based on graph theory, have been rapidly translated to studies of brain network organization. The brain's systems have complex network features—such as the small-world topology, highly connected hubs and modularity. These networks are not random. The topology of many different networks shows striking similarities, such as the scale-free structure, with the degree distribution following a Power Law. How can very different systems have the same underlying topological features? Modeling and characterizing these networks, looking for their governing laws, are the current lines of research. So, we will dedicate this Special Issue paper to show measures of symmetry in Complex Networks, and highlight their close relation with measures of information and entropy.

  10. Light in complex dielectrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurmans, F.J.P.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis the properties of light in complex dielectrics are described, with the two general topics of "modification of spontaneous emission" and "Anderson localization of light". The first part focuses on the spontaneous emission rate of an excited atom in a dielectric host with variable

  11. Typical Complexity Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Typical Complexity Numbers. Say. 1000 tones,; 100 Users,; Transmission every 10 msec. Full Crosstalk cancellation would require. Full cancellation requires a matrix multiplication of order 100*100 for all the tones. 1000*100*100*100 operations every second for the ...

  12. Life: Complexity and Diversity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 4. Life : Complexity and Diversity Growing Larger. Madhav Gadgil. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 4 April 1996 pp 15-22. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/04/0015-0022 ...

  13. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Haffner, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark grey line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  14. Complexity measures of music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, April; Mahmoodi, Korosh; West, Bruce J.

    2018-03-01

    We present a technique to search for the presence of crucial events in music, based on the analysis of the music volume. Earlier work on this issue was based on the assumption that crucial events correspond to the change of music notes, with the interesting result that the complexity index of the crucial events is mu ~ 2, which is the same inverse power-law index of the dynamics of the brain. The search technique analyzes music volume and confirms the results of the earlier work, thereby contributing to the explanation as to why the brain is sensitive to music, through the phenomenon of complexity matching. Complexity matching has recently been interpreted as the transfer of multifractality from one complex network to another. For this reason we also examine the mulifractality of music, with the observation that the multifractal spectrum of a computer performance is significantly narrower than the multifractal spectrum of a human performance of the same musical score. We conjecture that although crucial events are demonstrably important for information transmission, they alone are not suficient to define musicality, which is more adequately measured by the multifractality spectrum.

  15. DOPA, norepinephrine, and dopamine in rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, E; Richter, Erik; Christensen, N J

    1989-01-01

    We studied the effect of unilateral sympathectomy on rat quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscle concentrations of endogenous dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), dopamine (DA), and norepinephrine (NE) and assessed the relationships between these catecholamines in several rat tissues. Catecholamines were...

  16. Influencing of resorption and side-effects of salicylic acid by complexing with β-cyclodextrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szejtli, J.; Gerloczy, A.; Sebestyen, G.; Fonagy, A.

    1981-01-01

    After oral administration of 14 C-labelled salicylic acid and its β-cyclodextrin complex to rats, the radioactivity level of the blood reached its maximum during the first 2 h. The blood level obtained with the complex is somewhat but not significantly lower than with free acid. Since the resorption of cyclodextrin is a considerably slower process, it is very likely that the resorption of salicylic acid takes place in the form of free acid after dissociation of the complex. The urinary excretion cumulative curves showed that the free salicylic acid was completely excreted, while about 10% of the salicylic acid administered in the form of complex is lost. The cyclodextrin complex formation increased the pK values of all hydroxybenzoic acids. Direct observations revealed that complex formation decreased the stomach-irritating effect of salicylic acid. The ratio of radioactivity was nearly the same in the organs of animals treated by both free salicylic and cyclodextrin complex. (author)

  17. Cadmium toxcity in the pregnant rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.G.; Hitchcock, B.B.; King, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    Iron-deficient and normal pregnant rats were assigned to groups that either received a dose of cadmium (0.025, 0.050, or 0.100 mmole) plus 8 μCi of /sup 115m/Cd on day 18 of gestation or served as a nondosed group. Animals were either sacrificed 3 days after the dosing or allowed to litter (nondosed and 0.100 mmole cadmium groups only); pups and dams were sacrificed at 14 days of age. Viability of iron-deficient dams and fetuses and pups from iron-deficient dams was affected by the 0.100 mmole cadmium dose to a greater degree than was that in comparable normal animals. Although calculated amounts of cadmium deposited in the dam's liver, kidney, blood, tibia, and fetuses were greater in iron-deficient than in normal animals at all doses, differences were not significant except in the amount of cadmium accumulated in the placenta at the highest cadmium doses. Total deposition in the placentas/litter was similar for normal and iron-deficient groups at each dose level. The decreased viability may have been due to the dam's decreased food intake; blockage of nutrients, especially minerals, by cadmium--protein complexes in the placenta; or hormonal interruptions of pregnancy by steroid--cadmium complexes

  18. False Context Fear Memory in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sarah; Holmes, Nathan M.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2015-01-01

    Four experiments used rats to study false context fear memories. In Experiment 1, rats were pre-exposed to a distinctive chamber (context A) or to a control environment (context C), shocked after a delay in a second chamber (context B) and tested either in B or A. Rats pre-exposed to A froze just as much as control rats in B but more than control…

  19. Water Associated Zero Maze: A novel rat test for long term traumatic re-experiencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad eRitov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Often, freezing and startle behaviors in the context of a previously experienced stress are taken as an indication of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD-like symptoms in rats. However, PTSD is characterized by large individual variations of symptoms. In order to take into consideration the complex and long term distinctive variations in effects of trauma exposure additional behavioral measures are required.The current study used a novel behavioral test, the Water Associated Zero Maze (WAZM. This test was planned to enable a formation of an association between the context of the maze and an underwater trauma or swim stress in order to examine the impact of exposure to the context which immediately precedes a stressful or a traumatic experience on rat's complex behavior. Rats were exposed to the WAZM and immediately after to an underwater trauma or short swim. One month later rats were re-exposed to the context of the WAZM while their behavior was video recorded. Furthermore, c-Fos expression in the amygdala was measured 90 min after this exposure.The results of the current study indicate that the WAZM can be used to discern behavioral changes measured a long time after the actual traumatic or stressful events. Furthermore, the behavioral changes detected were accompanied by changes of c-Fos expression in the amygdala of exposed rats. We suggest that the WAZM can be used to model traumatic memories re-experiencing in rodent models of human stress-related pathologies such as PTSD.

  20. Age-related audiovisual interactions in the superior colliculus of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M; Piché, M; Lepore, F; Guillemot, J-P

    2016-04-21

    It is well established that multisensory integration is a functional characteristic of the superior colliculus that disambiguates external stimuli and therefore reduces the reaction times toward simple audiovisual targets in space. However, in a condition where a complex audiovisual stimulus is used, such as the optical flow in the presence of modulated audio signals, little is known about the processing of the multisensory integration in the superior colliculus. Furthermore, since visual and auditory deficits constitute hallmark signs during aging, we sought to gain some insight on whether audiovisual processes in the superior colliculus are altered with age. Extracellular single-unit recordings were conducted in the superior colliculus of anesthetized Sprague-Dawley adult (10-12 months) and aged (21-22 months) rats. Looming circular concentric sinusoidal (CCS) gratings were presented alone and in the presence of sinusoidally amplitude modulated white noise. In both groups of rats, two different audiovisual response interactions were encountered in the spatial domain: superadditive, and suppressive. In contrast, additive audiovisual interactions were found only in adult rats. Hence, superior colliculus audiovisual interactions were more numerous in adult rats (38%) than in aged rats (8%). These results suggest that intersensory interactions in the superior colliculus play an essential role in space processing toward audiovisual moving objects during self-motion. Moreover, aging has a deleterious effect on complex audiovisual interactions. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Myoelectric activity of the small intestine during morphine dependence and withdrawal in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuperman, D.A.; Sninsky, C.A.; Lynch, D.F.

    1987-01-01

    The authors investigated (1) the effect of morphine dependence on the migrating myoelectric complex (MMC) of the small intestine, (2) whether bacterial overgrowth developed in morphine-dependent rats, and (3) the effect of naloxone and methylbromide naltrexone, a peripheral opioid antagonist, on the MMC in morphine-naive and morphine-dependent rats. They also evaluated intestinal motility during naloxone-induced withdrawal in animals pretreated with clonidine. Intestinal myoelectric activity was monitored by four indwelling electrodes in unanesthetized, fasted rats. D-[ 14 C]xylose breath tests were performed before and after morphine-pellet implantation to evaluate the presence of bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine. Naloxone had no effect on myoelectric activity of the small intestine in morphine-naive rats. Cycling activity fronts were present in morphine-dependent animals, but there was a significant prolongation of activity front periodicity and slowing of the propagation velocity. No significant increase in 14 CO 2 excretion was noted in the morphine-dependent rats. They conclude from their studies that (1) myoelectric activity of the small intestine develops incomplete tolerance to morphine; (2) bacterial overgrowth is not a feature of morphine dependence in the rat; (3) alterations of intestinal myoelectric activity are a component of the opiate withdrawal syndrome, and they appear at least partially mediated by a peripheral mechanism that can be suppressed by an α 2 -adrenergic agonist

  2. Interdependency between mechanical parameters and afferent nerve discharge in remodeled diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rat intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Yang, Jian; Liao, Donghua; Gregersen, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal disorders are very common in diabetic patients, but the pathogenesis is still not well understood. Peripheral afferent nerves may be involved due to the complex regulation of gastrointestinal function by the enteric nervous system. We aimed to characterize the stimulus-response function of afferent fibers innervating the jejunum in the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) type 2 diabetic rat model. A key question is whether changes in afferent firing arise from remodeled tissue or from adaptive afferent processes. Seven 32-week-old male GK rats and seven age-matched normal Wistar rats were studied. Firing from mesenteric afferent nerves was recorded in excised jejunal segments of seven GK rats and seven normal Wistar rats during ramp test, stress relaxation test, and creep test. The circumferential stress-strain, spike rate increase ratio (SRIR), and single unit firing rates were calculated for evaluation of interdependency of the mechanical stimulations and the afferent nerve discharge. Elevated sensitivity to mechanical stimuli was found for diabetic nerve bundles and single unit activity ( P <0.05). The stress relaxed less in the diabetic intestinal segment ( P <0.05). Linear association between SRIR and the thickness of circumferential muscle layer was found at high stress levels as well as for SRIR and the glucose level. Altered viscoelastic properties and elevated mechanosensitivity were found in the GK rat intestine. The altered nerve signaling is related to muscle layer remodeling and glucose levels and may contribute to gastrointestinal symptoms experienced by diabetic patients.

  3. Myoelectric activity of the small intestine during morphine dependence and withdrawal in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuperman, D.A.; Sninsky, C.A.; Lynch, D.F.

    1987-04-01

    The authors investigated (1) the effect of morphine dependence on the migrating myoelectric complex (MMC) of the small intestine, (2) whether bacterial overgrowth developed in morphine-dependent rats, and (3) the effect of naloxone and methylbromide naltrexone, a peripheral opioid antagonist, on the MMC in morphine-naive and morphine-dependent rats. They also evaluated intestinal motility during naloxone-induced withdrawal in animals pretreated with clonidine. Intestinal myoelectric activity was monitored by four indwelling electrodes in unanesthetized, fasted rats. D-(/sup 14/C)xylose breath tests were performed before and after morphine-pellet implantation to evaluate the presence of bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine. Naloxone had no effect on myoelectric activity of the small intestine in morphine-naive rats. Cycling activity fronts were present in morphine-dependent animals, but there was a significant prolongation of activity front periodicity and slowing of the propagation velocity. No significant increase in /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ excretion was noted in the morphine-dependent rats. They conclude from their studies that (1) myoelectric activity of the small intestine develops incomplete tolerance to morphine; (2) bacterial overgrowth is not a feature of morphine dependence in the rat; (3) alterations of intestinal myoelectric activity are a component of the opiate withdrawal syndrome, and they appear at least partially mediated by a peripheral mechanism that can be suppressed by an ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic agonist.

  4. Momordica charantia polysaccharides mitigate the progression of STZ induced diabetic nephropathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raish, Mohammad; Ahmad, Ajaz; Jan, Basit L; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Ansari, Mushtaq Ahmad; Mohsin, Kazi; Jenoobi, Fahad Al; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah

    2016-10-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) has become a primary cause of end-stage kidney disease. Several complex dynamics converge together to accelerate the advancement of DN. The present investigation was postulated to explore the mechanism of reno-protective nature of Momordica Charantia polysaccharides (MCP) by evaluating the anti-hyperglycemic, anti-lipidemic as well as markers for oxidative stress and antioxidant proficiency in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The oral administration of MCP showed a significant normalization in the levels of kidney function test in the STZ-induced diabetic rats. The levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urea protein and creatinine increased by 316.58%, 195.14% and 800.97% respectively, in STZ-induced diabetic rats when compared with normal rats. MCP treatment also illustrated a significant improvement in glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase levels, with a significant decline in MDA in diabetic kidneys. Immunoblots of heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and Nrf2 of MCP treated diabetic rats showed a significant up-regulation of HO-1 and Nrf2 protein. Histological and ultra-structural observations also reveal that MCP efficiently protects the kidneys from hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative damage. These findings illustrate that the reno-protective nature of MCP mitigates the progression of STZ induced DN in rats by suppression of oxidative stress and amelioration of the HO-1/Nrf2 pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. EFFECT OF ETHANOL ON HEPATOBILIARY TRANSPORT OF CATIONIC DRUGS - A STUDY IN THE ISOLATED-PERFUSED RAT-LIVER, RAT HEPATOCYTES AND RAT MITOCHONDRIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEEN, H; MEIJER, DKF; Merema, M.T.

    The effect of ethanol on the hepatic uptake of various cationic drugs was studied in isolated perfused rat livers, isolated rat hepatocytes and isolated rat liver mitochondria. In isolated rat hepatocytes and in isolated perfused rat livers, the uptake of the model organic cation

  6. The serotonin transporter knockout rat : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, Jocelien; Cools, Alexander; Ellenbroek, Bart A.; Cuppen, E.; Homberg, Judith; Kalueff, Allan V.; LaPorte, Justin L.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter dicusses the most recent data on the serotonin transporter knock-out rat, a unique rat model that has been generated by target-selected N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) driven mutagenesis. The knock-out rat is the result of a premature stopcodon in the serotonin transporter gene, and the

  7. Tuberculosis Detection by Giant African Pouched Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Durgin, Amy; Mahoney, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, operant discrimination training procedures have been used to teach giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis (TB) in human sputum samples. This article summarizes how the rats are trained and used operationally, as well as their performance in studies published to date. Available data suggest that pouched rats, which can…

  8. 99mTc(CO)3-Garenoxacin dithiocarbamate synthesis and biological evolution in rats infected with multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus and penicillin-resistant Streptococci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Qaiser Shah; Aakif Ullah Khan; Muhammad Rafiullah Khan

    2011-01-01

    99m Tc(CO) 3 -Garenoxacin dithiocarbamate ( 99m Tc(CO) 3 -GXND) complex was synthesized and biologically characterized in rats artificially infected with multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MDRSA) and penicillin-resistant Streptococci (PRSC). The characteristics of the 99m Tc(CO) 3 -GXND complex was assessed in terms of radiochemical stability in saline, serum, in vitro binding with live and heat killed MDRSA and PRSC and biodistribution in rats artificially infected with MDRSA and PRSC. The complex showed maximum radiochemical stability at 30 min and remained more than 90% stable up to 240 min in normal saline after reconstitution. The complex was found stable in serum at 37 deg C up to 16 h. The complex showed in vitro saturated binding with living MDRSA and PRSC. In rats infected with living MDRSA and PRSC the complex showed five higher up take in the infected muscle as compared to the inflamed and normal muscle. No significant difference in uptake of the complex in rats infected with heat killed MDRSA and PRSC was observed. The disappearance of the complex from the blood and appearance in the urinary system confirm the normal biological route of biodistribution and excretion. The high values of the radiochemical stability in normal saline, serum, saturated in vitro binding with living MDRSA and PRSC and significant infected to normal muscles ratios, the 99m Tc(CO) 3 -GXND complex is recommended for the localization of soft tissue infection caused by living MDRSA and PRSC. (author)

  9. RNaseT2 knockout rats exhibit hippocampal neuropathology and deficits in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkevicius, Kerstin W; Morrison, Thomas R; Kulkarni, Praveen; Cagliostro, Martha K Caffrey; Iriah, Sade; Malmberg, Samantha; Sabrick, Julia; Honeycutt, Jennifer A; Askew, Kim L; Trivedi, Malav; Ferris, Craig F

    2018-05-10

    RNASET2 deficiency in humans is associated with infant cystic leukoencephalopathy, which causes psychomotor impairment, spasticity, and epilepsy. A zebrafish mutant model suggests that loss of RNASET2 function leads to neurodegeneration due to the accumulation of non-degraded RNA in the lysosomes. The goal of this study was to characterize the first rodent model of RNASET2 deficiency. The brains of 3- and 12-month-old RNaseT2 knockout rats were studied using multiple magnetic resonance imaging modalities and behavioral tests. While T1 and T2 weighted images of RNaseT2 knockout rats exhibited no evidence of cystic lesions, the prefrontal cortex and hippocampal complex were enlarged in knockout animals. Diffusion weighted imaging showed altered anisotropy and putative gray matter changes in the hippocampal complex of the RNaseT2 knockout rats. Immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) showed the presence of hippocampal neuroinflammation. Decreased levels of lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2) and elevated acid phosphatase and β-N-Acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) activities indicated that the RNASET2 knockout rats likely had altered lysosomal function and potential defects in autophagy. Object recognition tests confirmed the RNaseT2 knockout rats exhibited memory deficits. However, the Barnes maze, and balance beam and rotarod tests, indicated there were no differences in spatial memory or motor impairments, respectively. Overall, patients with RNASET2 deficiency exhibited a more severe neurodegeneration phenotype than was observed in the RNaseT2 knockout rats. However, the vulnerability of the knockout rat hippocampus as evidenced by neuroinflammation, altered lysosomal function, and cognitive defects indicates this is still a useful in vivo model to study RNASET2 function. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Multiparameter rodent chronic model for complex evaluation of alcoholism-mediated metabolic violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayakhmetova, Ganna M; Bondarenko, Larysa B; Kovalenko, Valentina M; Kharchenko, Olga I; Bohun, Larisa I; Omelchenko, Yuliya O

    2015-01-01

    Despite of the wide spectrum of alcoholism experimental models, the majority of them are very specialized on the short list of investigated parameters and could not provide reproduction of complex metabolic changes in the rats. The aim of the present study was to estimate whether rats selected by high alcohol preference, allowed free access to 15% alcohol for 150 days, develop simultaneous multilevel disturbances of cell macromolecules structure, metabolism and oxidative/nitrosative stress. Wistar albino male rats were divided into groups: I - rats selected by preferences to alcohol were used for chronic alcoholism modeling by replacing water with 15% ethanol (150 days), II - control. Contents of amino acids in serum, liver mRNA CYP2E1 and CYP3A2 expression, DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation levels, the reduced glutathione content, superoxide dismutase, catalase, iNOS and cNOS activities were evaluated. In serum of ethanol-treated rats contents of aspartic acid, serine, glycine, alanine and valine were decreased whereas contents of histidine, methionine and phenylalanine were increased. Liver CYP2E1, CYP3A2 mRNA expression, DNA fragmentation levels significantly elevated. Level of cNOS in ethanol-treated rat's hepatocytes was within the normal limits, whereas iNOS activity was raised 1.6 times. Liver pro- and anti-oxidant system alterations were shown. Rats' chronic 15% alcohol consumption (150 days) led solely to complex metabolomic changes at different levels, which simultaneously characterized cell macromolecules structure, metabolism, and oxidative/nitrosative stress. Rodent model of chronic alcoholism in the proposed modification could be an adequate and reasonably priced tool for further preclinical development and testing of pharmacotherapeutic agents.

  11. Teratology studies in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Mariline; Allais, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The rat is the rodent species of choice for the regulatory safety testing of xenobiotics, such as medicinal products, food additives, and other chemicals. Many decades of experience and extensive data have accumulated for both general and developmental toxicology investigations in this species. The high fertility and large litter size of the rat are advantages for teratogenicity testing. The study designs are well defined in the regulatory guidelines and are relatively standardized between testing laboratories across the world. Teratology studies address maternal- and embryo-toxicity following exposure during the period of organogenesis. This chapter describes the design and conduct of a teratology study in the rat in compliance with the regulatory guidelines. The procedures for the handling and housing of the pregnant animals, the caesarean examinations and the sampling of fetuses for morphological examinations are described. The utility and design of preliminary studies and the inclusion of satellite animals in the main study for toxicokinetic sampling are discussed.

  12. Complexes Tickling the $ubject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Gildersleeve

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article continues my earlier work of reading Jung with Lacan. This article will develop Zizek’s work on Lacan’s concept of objet petit a by relating it to a phenomenological interpretation of Jung. I use a number of different examples, including Zizek’s interpretation of Francis Bacon, Edvard Munch, Hans Holbein and Johann Gottlieb Fichte, to describe the objet petit a and its relationship to a phenomenological interpretation of complexes. By integrating other Lacanian concepts, such as subject, drive, fantasy, jouissance, gaze, desire, and ego as well as the imaginary, symbolic and Real, this work also highlights how Hegel and Heidegger can elucidate the relationship between objet petit a and complexes. Jung’s transcendent function and the Rosarium Philosophorum also elucidate the relationship between Jung and Lacan.

  13. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...... or meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...

  14. THO/TREX complex

    KAUST Repository

    Dö ll, Stefanie; Kuhlmann, Markus; Rutten, Twan; Mette, Michael F.; Scharfenberg, Sarah; Petridis, Antonios; Berreth, Dorothee-Carina; Mock, Hans-Peter

    2017-01-01

    Secondary metabolites are involved in the plant stress response. Among these are scopolin and its active form scopoletin, which are coumarin derivatives associated with reactive oxygen species scavenging and pathogen defence. Here we show that scopolin accumulation can be induced in the root by osmotic stress and in the leaf by low-temperature stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. A genetic screen for altered scopolin levels in A. thaliana revealed a mutant compromised in scopolin accumulation in response to stress; the lesion was present in a homologue of THO1 coding for a subunit of the THO/TREX complex. The THO/TREX complex contributes to RNA silencing, supposedly by trafficking precursors of small RNAs. Mutants defective in THO, AGO1, SDS3 and RDR6 were impaired with respect to scopolin accumulation in response to stress, suggesting a mechanism based on RNA silencing such as the trans-acting small interfering RNA pathway, which requires THO/TREX function.

  15. Complexity is simple!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, William; Montero, Miguel

    2018-02-01

    In this note we investigate the role of Lloyd's computational bound in holographic complexity. Our goal is to translate the assumptions behind Lloyd's proof into the bulk language. In particular, we discuss the distinction between orthogonalizing and `simple' gates and argue that these notions are useful for diagnosing holographic complexity. We show that large black holes constructed from series circuits necessarily employ simple gates, and thus do not satisfy Lloyd's assumptions. We also estimate the degree of parallel processing required in this case for elementary gates to orthogonalize. Finally, we show that for small black holes at fixed chemical potential, the orthogonalization condition is satisfied near the phase transition, supporting a possible argument for the Weak Gravity Conjecture first advocated in [1].

  16. The medial patellofemoral complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Alexander E; Tanaka, Miho J

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the current understanding of the medial patellofemoral complex, including recent anatomic advances, evaluation of indications for reconstruction with concomitant pathology, and surgical reconstruction techniques. Recent advances in our understanding of MPFC anatomy have found that there are fibers that insert onto the deep quadriceps tendon as well as the patella, thus earning the name "medial patellofemoral complex" to allow for the variability in its anatomy. In MPFC reconstruction, anatomic origin and insertion points and appropriate graft length are critical to prevent overconstraint of the patellofemoral joint. The MPFC is a crucial soft tissue checkrein to lateral patellar translation, and its repair or reconstruction results in good restoration of patellofemoral stability. As our understanding of MPFC anatomy evolves, further studies are needed to apply its relevance in kinematics and surgical applications to its role in maintaining patellar stability.

  17. Polystochastic Models for Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Iordache, Octavian

    2010-01-01

    This book is devoted to complexity understanding and management, considered as the main source of efficiency and prosperity for the next decades. Divided into six chapters, the book begins with a presentation of basic concepts as complexity, emergence and closure. The second chapter looks to methods and introduces polystochastic models, the wave equation, possibilities and entropy. The third chapter focusing on physical and chemical systems analyzes flow-sheet synthesis, cyclic operations of separation, drug delivery systems and entropy production. Biomimetic systems represent the main objective of the fourth chapter. Case studies refer to bio-inspired calculation methods, to the role of artificial genetic codes, neural networks and neural codes for evolutionary calculus and for evolvable circuits as biomimetic devices. The fifth chapter, taking its inspiration from systems sciences and cognitive sciences looks to engineering design, case base reasoning methods, failure analysis, and multi-agent manufacturing...

  18. Rhodium thioacetate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranovskij, I.B.; Golubnichaya, M.A.; Mazo, G.Ya.

    1976-01-01

    Thioacetato-complexes of rhodium(II) were prepared by the reaction of thioacetic acid with rhodium(II) carboxylates. Diamagnetic compounds of the type Rh 2 (CH 3 COS) 4 2A, where A=H 2 O, Py, N 2 H 4 .HCl, Thio, KNCS, DMSO, CH 3 CN, CsCl, or CH 3 COSH, were isolated. Their infrared spectra were recorded, and the principal vibrational wavenumbers assigned. The X-ray electron spectra confirm that rhodium is divalent. The thioacetato-complexes are dimeric, with a metal-metal bond. [Rh(NH 3 ) 5 (CH 3 COS)]I 2 was prepared, and its properties studied. The significant decrease in the strength of the bonds formed by the axial ligands with rhodium is due to the strong trans-influence of the covalent rhodium-rhodium sigma-bond

  19. Complex conductivity of soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revil, A.; Coperey, A.; Shao, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The complex conductivity of soil remains poorly known despite the growing importance of this method in hyrogeophysics. In order to fill this gap of knowledge, we investigate the complex conductivity of 71 soils samples (including 4 peat samples) and one clean sand in the frequency range 0.1 Hertz...... to 45 kHz. The soil samples are saturated with 6 different NaCl brines with conductivities (0.031, 0.53, 1.15, 5.7, 14.7, and 22 S m-1, NaCl, 25°C) in order to determine their intrinsic formation factor and surface conductivity. This dataset is used to test the predictions of the dynamic Stern...

  20. Modeling Complex Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreckenberg, M

    2004-01-01

    This book by Nino Boccara presents a compilation of model systems commonly termed as 'complex'. It starts with a definition of the systems under consideration and how to build up a model to describe the complex dynamics. The subsequent chapters are devoted to various categories of mean-field type models (differential and recurrence equations, chaos) and of agent-based models (cellular automata, networks and power-law distributions). Each chapter is supplemented by a number of exercises and their solutions. The table of contents looks a little arbitrary but the author took the most prominent model systems investigated over the years (and up until now there has been no unified theory covering the various aspects of complex dynamics). The model systems are explained by looking at a number of applications in various fields. The book is written as a textbook for interested students as well as serving as a comprehensive reference for experts. It is an ideal source for topics to be presented in a lecture on dynamics of complex systems. This is the first book on this 'wide' topic and I have long awaited such a book (in fact I planned to write it myself but this is much better than I could ever have written it!). Only section 6 on cellular automata is a little too limited to the author's point of view and one would have expected more about the famous Domany-Kinzel model (and more accurate citation!). In my opinion this is one of the best textbooks published during the last decade and even experts can learn a lot from it. Hopefully there will be an actualization after, say, five years since this field is growing so quickly. The price is too high for students but this, unfortunately, is the normal case today. Nevertheless I think it will be a great success! (book review)

  1. On convex complexity measures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubeš, P.; Jukna, S.; Kulikov, A.; Pudlák, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 411, 16-18 (2010), s. 1842-1854 ISSN 0304-3975 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : boolean formula * complexity measure * combinatorial rectangle * convexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.838, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304397510000885

  2. Complexity in Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Cristopher David

    The study of chaos has shown us that deterministic systems can have a kind of unpredictability, based on a limited knowledge of their initial conditions; after a finite time, the motion appears essentially random. This observation has inspired a general interest in the subject of unpredictability, and more generally, complexity; how can we characterize how "complex" a dynamical system is?. In this thesis, we attempt to answer this question with a paradigm of complexity that comes from computer science, we extract sets of symbol sequences, or languages, from a dynamical system using standard methods of symbolic dynamics; we then ask what kinds of grammars or automata are needed a generate these languages. This places them in the Chomsky heirarchy, which in turn tells us something about how subtle and complex the dynamical system's behavior is. This gives us insight into the question of unpredictability, since these automata can also be thought of as computers attempting to predict the system. In the culmination of the thesis, we find a class of smooth, two-dimensional maps which are equivalent to the highest class in the Chomsky heirarchy, the turning machine; they are capable of universal computation. Therefore, these systems possess a kind of unpredictability qualitatively different from the usual "chaos": even if the initial conditions are known exactly, questions about the system's long-term dynamics are undecidable. No algorithm exists to answer them. Although this kind of unpredictability has been discussed in the context of distributed, many-degree-of -freedom systems (for instance, cellular automata) we believe this is the first example of such phenomena in a smooth, finite-degree-of-freedom system.

  3. Complex Business Negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Lindholst, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Most scholars agree that engaging in preparation and planning is key to a negotiation’s effectiveness but research has largely focused solely on what happens at the negotiation table, rather than in preparation for it. This thesis addresses the balance by clarifying which preparation and planning activities are undertaken to conduct a complex business negotiation. It examines not only what activities are conducted, but also by whom, and when. One important question for both pra...

  4. Volatile uranyl hexafluoroacetoacetonate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dines, M.B.; Hall, R.B.; Kaldor, A.; Kramer, G.M.; Maas, E.T. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A composition of matter is described, characterized by the formula UO 2 (CF 3 COCHCOCF 3 ).L where L is a ligand selected from isopropanol, ethanol, isobutanol, tert-butanol, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, acetone, dimethylformamide, n-propanol and ethyl acetate. A process for producing the complex comprises reacting uranyl chloride with a hexafluoroacetylacetonate dissolved in a ligand L: experimental details are given. (U.K.)

  5. Operational Shock Complexity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-26

    Theory : Recommendations For The National Strategy To Defeat Terrorism.” Student Issue Paper, Center for Strategic Leadership , US Army War College, July...Lens of Complexity Theory : Recommendations For The National Strategy To Defeat Terrorism.” (Student Issue Paper, Center for Strategic Leadership , US...planners managed to cause confusion in the enemy’s internal model by operating in an unexpected manner. 140 Glenn E. James, “Chaos Theory : The

  6. Engineering Complex Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIKOS, ANTONIOS G.; HERRING, SUSAN W.; OCHAREON, PANNEE; ELISSEEFF, JENNIFER; LU, HELEN H.; KANDEL, RITA; SCHOEN, FREDERICK J.; TONER, MEHMET; MOONEY, DAVID; ATALA, ANTHONY; VAN DYKE, MARK E.; KAPLAN, DAVID; VUNJAK-NOVAKOVIC, GORDANA

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes the views expressed at the third session of the workshop “Tissue Engineering—The Next Generation,” which was devoted to the engineering of complex tissue structures. Antonios Mikos described the engineering of complex oral and craniofacial tissues as a “guided interplay” between biomaterial scaffolds, growth factors, and local cell populations toward the restoration of the original architecture and function of complex tissues. Susan Herring, reviewing osteogenesis and vasculogenesis, explained that the vascular arrangement precedes and dictates the architecture of the new bone, and proposed that engineering of osseous tissues might benefit from preconstruction of an appropriate vasculature. Jennifer Elisseeff explored the formation of complex tissue structures based on the example of stratified cartilage engineered using stem cells and hydrogels. Helen Lu discussed engineering of tissue interfaces, a problem critical for biological fixation of tendons and ligaments, and the development of a new generation of fixation devices. Rita Kandel discussed the challenges related to the re-creation of the cartilage-bone interface, in the context of tissue engineered joint repair. Frederick Schoen emphasized, in the context of heart valve engineering, the need for including the requirements derived from “adult biology” of tissue remodeling and establishing reliable early predictors of success or failure of tissue engineered implants. Mehmet Toner presented a review of biopreservation techniques and stressed that a new breakthrough in this field may be necessary to meet all the needs of tissue engineering. David Mooney described systems providing temporal and spatial regulation of growth factor availability, which may find utility in virtually all tissue engineering and regeneration applications, including directed in vitro and in vivo vascularization of tissues. Anthony Atala offered a clinician’s perspective for functional tissue

  7. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners....

  8. Fluorido complexes of technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariappan Balasekaran, Samundeeswari

    2013-01-01

    Fluorine chemistry has received considerable interest during recent years due to its significant role in the life sciences, especially for drug development. Despite the great nuclear medicinal importance of the radioactive metal technetium in radiopharmaceuticals, its coordination chemistry with the fluorido ligand is by far less explored than that of other ligands. Up to now, only a few technetium fluorides are known. This thesis contains the synthesis, spectroscopic and structural characterization of novel technetium fluorides in the oxidation states ''+1'', ''+2'', ''+4'' and ''+6''. In the oxidation state ''+6'', the fluoridotechnetates were synthesized either from nitridotechnetic(VI) acid or from pertechnetate by using reducing agent and have been isolated as cesium or tetraethylammonium salts. The compounds were characterized spectroscopically and structurally. In the intermediate oxidation state ''+4'', hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) was known for long time and studied spectroscopically. This thesis reports novel and improved syntheses and solved the critical issues of early publications such as the color, some spectroscopic properties and the structure of this key compound. Single crystal analyses of alkali metal, ammonium and tetramethylammonium salts of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) are presented. In aqueous alkaline solutions, the ammonium salt of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) undergoes hydrolysis and forms an oxido-bridged dimeric complex. It is the first step hydrolysis product of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) and was characterized by spectroscopic and crystallographic methods. Low-valent technetium fluorides with the metal in the oxidation states of ''+2'' or ''+1'' are almost unknown. A detailed description of the synthesis and characterization of pentafluoridonitrosyltechnetate(II) is presented. The complex was isolated as alkali metal salts, and spectroscopic as well as structural features of the complexes are presented. Different salts of the trans

  9. Arithmetic of Complex Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Herbert

    1989-01-01

    It was the aim of the Erlangen meeting in May 1988 to bring together number theoretists and algebraic geometers to discuss problems of common interest, such as moduli problems, complex tori, integral points, rationality questions, automorphic forms. In recent years such problems, which are simultaneously of arithmetic and geometric interest, have become increasingly important. This proceedings volume contains 12 original research papers. Its main topics are theta functions, modular forms, abelian varieties and algebraic three-folds.

  10. Complex concentrate pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokken, R.O.; Scheele, R.D.; Strachan, D.M.; Toste, A.P.

    1991-03-01

    After removal of the transuranics (TRU) by the TRUEX process, complex concentrate waste will be grouted for final storage. The purpose of this project, conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is to support a future decision to grout the complexant waste without destruction of the organic contents. It has been demonstrated that grouts with acceptable parameters for the Transportable Grout Facility can be made using actual waste. The acceptability of these grouts from a regulatory view seems to be less of a problem than previously. None of the organics found in the waste have been found on the EPA hazardous chemicals list. Two potential problems with the processing of the complex concentrate wastes were identified during the use of the TRUEX process on samples of several milliliters. One was the amount of foam that is generated during acid addition to the alkaline waste. Some of this foam appears to be of a waxy nature but does redissolve when the waste is strongly acid. The second potential problem is that noticeable amounts of NO x gases are generated. No quantitative measure of the NO x gas generation was made. The problem relates to processing the waste in B-plant where there are no facilities to handle NO x gases. 5 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Predictive Surface Complexation Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverjensky, Dimitri A. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

    2016-11-29

    Surface complexation plays an important role in the equilibria and kinetics of processes controlling the compositions of soilwaters and groundwaters, the fate of contaminants in groundwaters, and the subsurface storage of CO2 and nuclear waste. Over the last several decades, many dozens of individual experimental studies have addressed aspects of surface complexation that have contributed to an increased understanding of its role in natural systems. However, there has been no previous attempt to develop a model of surface complexation that can be used to link all the experimental studies in order to place them on a predictive basis. Overall, my research has successfully integrated the results of the work of many experimentalists published over several decades. For the first time in studies of the geochemistry of the mineral-water interface, a practical predictive capability for modeling has become available. The predictive correlations developed in my research now enable extrapolations of experimental studies to provide estimates of surface chemistry for systems not yet studied experimentally and for natural and anthropogenically perturbed systems.

  12. Control of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Albertos, Pedro; Blanke, Mogens; Isidori, Alberto; Schaufelberger, Walter; Sanz, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    The world of artificial systems is reaching complexity levels that es­ cape human understanding. Surface traffic, electricity distribution, air­ planes, mobile communications, etc. , are examples that demonstrate that we are running into problems that are beyond classical scientific or engi­ neering knowledge. There is an ongoing world-wide effort to understand these systems and develop models that can capture its behavior. The reason for this work is clear, if our lack of understanding deepens, we will lose our capability to control these systems and make they behave as we want. Researchers from many different fields are trying to understand and develop theories for complex man-made systems. This book presents re­ search from the perspective of control and systems theory. The book has grown out of activities in the research program Control of Complex Systems (COSY). The program has been sponsored by the Eu­ ropean Science Foundation (ESF) which for 25 years has been one of the leading players in stimula...

  13. [VGKC-complex antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2013-04-01

    Various antibodies are associated with voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs). Representative antibodies to VGKCs were first identified by radioimmunoassays using radioisotope-labeled alpha-dendrotoxin-VGKCs solubilized from rabbit brain. These antibodies were detected only in a proportion of patients with acquired neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome). VGKC antibodies were also detected in patients with Morvan's syndrome and in those with a form of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. Recent studies indicated that the "VGKC" antibodies are mainly directed toward associated proteins (for example LGI-1 and CASPR-2) that complex with the VGKCs themselves. The "VGKC" antibodies are now commonly known as VGKC-complex antibodies. In general, LGI-1 antibodies are most commonly detected in patients with limbic encephalitis with syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. CASPR-2 antibodies are present in the majority of patients with Morvan's syndrome. These patients develop combinations of CNS symptoms, autonomic dysfunction, and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability. Furthermore, VGKC-complex antibodies are tightly associated with chronic idiopathic pain. Hyperexcitability of nociceptive pathways has also been implicated. These antibodies may be detected in sera of some patients with neurodegenerative diseases (for example, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease).

  14. [Complex posttraumatic stress disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Tamar; Kotler, Moshe

    2007-11-01

    The characteristic symptoms resulting from exposure to an extreme trauma include three clusters of symptoms: persistent experience of the traumatic event, persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma and persistent symptoms of increased arousal. Beyond the accepted clusters of symptoms for posttraumatic stress disorder exists a formation of symptoms related to exposure to extreme or prolonged stress e.g. childhood abuse, physical violence, rape, and confinement within a concentration camp. With accumulated evidence of the existence of these symptoms began a trail to classify a more complex syndrome, which included, but was not confined to the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This review addresses several subjects for study in complex posttraumatic stress disorder, which is a complicated and controversial topic. Firstly, the concept of complex posttraumatic stress disorder is presented. Secondly, the professional literature relevant to this disturbance is reviewed and finally, the authors present the polemic being conducted between the researchers of posttraumatic disturbances regarding validity, reliability and the need for separate diagnosis for these symptoms.

  15. Voluntary Sleep Loss in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonk, Marcella; Krueger, James M.; Davis, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Animal sleep deprivation (SDEP), in contrast to human SDEP, is involuntary and involves repeated exposure to aversive stimuli including the inability of the animal to control the waking stimulus. Therefore, we explored intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), an operant behavior, as a method for voluntary SDEP in rodents. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with electroencephalography/electromyography (EEG/EMG) recording electrodes and a unilateral bipolar electrode into the lateral hypothalamus. Rats were allowed to self-stimulate, or underwent gentle handling-induced SDEP (GH-SDEP), during the first 6 h of the light phase, after which they were allowed to sleep. Other rats performed the 6 h ICSS and 1 w later were subjected to 6 h of noncontingent stimulation (NCS). During NCS the individual stimulation patterns recorded during ICSS were replayed. Results: After GH-SDEP, ICSS, or NCS, time in nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep increased. Further, in the 24 h after SDEP, rats recovered all of the REM sleep lost during SDEP, but only 75% to 80% of the NREM sleep lost, regardless of the SDEP method. The magnitude of EEG slow wave responses occurring during NREM sleep also increased after SDEP treatments. However, NREM sleep EEG slow wave activity (SWA) responses were attenuated following ICSS, compared to GH-SDEP and NCS. Conclusions: We conclude that ICSS and NCS can be used to sleep deprive rats. Changes in rebound NREM sleep EEG SWA occurring after ICSS, NCS, and GH-SDEP suggest that nonspecific effects of the SDEP procedure differentially affect recovery sleep phenotypes. Citation: Oonk M, Krueger JM, Davis CJ. Voluntary sleep loss in rats. SLEEP 2016;39(7):1467–1479. PMID:27166236

  16. The influence of vibrissal somatosensory processing in rat superior colliculus on prey capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, P D N; Gouvêa, T S; de Oliveira, S R; Vautrelle, N; Redgrave, P; Comoli, E

    2011-03-10

    The lateral part of intermediate layer of superior colliculus (SCl) is a critical substrate for successful predation by rats. Hunting-evoked expression of the activity marker Fos is concentrated in SCl while prey capture in rats with NMDA lesions in SCl is impaired. Particularly affected are rapid orienting and stereotyped sequences of actions associated with predation of fast moving prey. Such deficits are consistent with the view that the deep layers of SC are important for sensory guidance of movement. Although much of the relevant evidence involves visual control of movement, less is known about movement guidance by somatosensory input from vibrissae. Indeed, our impression is that prey contact with whiskers is a likely stimulus to trigger predation. Moreover, SCl receives whisker and orofacial somatosensory information directly from trigeminal complex, and indirectly from zona incerta, parvicelular reticular formation and somatosensory barrel cortex. To better understand sensory guidance of predation by vibrissal information we investigated prey capture by rats after whisker removal and the role of superior colliculus (SC) by comparing Fos expression after hunting with and without whiskers. Rats were allowed to hunt cockroaches, after which their whiskers were removed. Two days later they were allowed to hunt cockroaches again. Without whiskers the rats were less able to retain the cockroaches after capture and less able to pursue them in the event of the cockroach escaping. The predatory behaviour of rats with re-grown whiskers returned to normal. In parallel, Fos expression in SCl induced by predation was significantly reduced in whiskerless animals. We conclude that whiskers contribute to the efficiency of rat prey capture and that the loss of vibrissal input to SCl, as reflected by reduced Fos expression, could play a critical role in predatory deficits of whiskerless rats. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bacterial Flora Changes in Conjunctiva of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Type I Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Fei, Yuda; Qin, Yali; Luo, Dan; Yang, Shufei; Kou, Xinyun; Zi, Yingxin; Deng, Tingting; Jin, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The microbiota of both humans and animals plays an important role in their health and the development of disease. Therefore, the bacterial flora of the conjunctiva may also be associated with some diseases. However, there are no reports on the alteration of bacterial flora in conjunctiva of diabetic rats in the literature. Therefore, we investigated the changes in bacterial flora in bulbar conjunctiva of rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type I diabetes. A high dose of STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected into Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to induce type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The diabetic rats were raised in the animal laboratory and at 8 months post-injection of STZ swab samples were taken from the bulbar conjunctiva for cultivation of aerobic bacteria. The bacterial isolates were identified by Gram staining and biochemical features. The identified bacteria from both diabetic and healthy rats were then compared. The diabetic and healthy rats had different bacterial flora present in their bulbar conjunctiva. In total, 10 and 8 bacterial species were found in the STZ and control groups, respectively, with only three species (Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus gallinarum and Escherichia coli) shared between the two groups. Gram-positive bacteria were common in both groups and the most abundant was Enterococcus faecium. However, after the development of T1DM, the bacterial flora in the rat bulbar conjunctiva changed considerably, with a reduced complexity evident. STZ-induced diabetes caused alterations of bacterial flora in the bulbar conjunctiva in rats, with some bacterial species disappearing and others emerging. Our results indicate that the conjunctival bacterial flora in diabetic humans should be surveyed for potential diagnostic markers or countermeasures to prevent eye infections in T1DM patients.

  18. Physical Confirmation and Comparative Genomics of the Rat Mammary carcinoma susceptibility 3 Quantitative Trait Locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saasha Le

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human breast and rat mammary cancer susceptibility are complex phenotypes where complete sets of risk associated loci remain to be identified for both species. We tested multiple congenic rat strains to physically confirm and positionally map rat Mammary carcinoma susceptibility 3 (Mcs3—a mammary cancer resistance allele previously predicted at Rattus norvegicus chromosome 1 (RNO1. The mammary cancer susceptible Wistar Furth (WF strain was the recipient, and the mammary cancer resistant Copenhagen (Cop strain was the RNO1-segment donor for congenics. Inbred WF females averaged 6.3 carcinogen-induced mammary carcinomas per rat. Two WF.Cop congenic strains averaged 2.8 and 3.4 mammary carcinomas per rat, which confirmed Mcs3 as an independently acting allele. Two other WF.Cop congenic strains averaged 6.6 and 8.1 mammary carcinomas per rat, and, thus, did not contain Mcs3. Rat Mcs3 was delimited to 27.8 Mb of RNO1 from rs8149408 to rs105131702 (RNO1:143700228-171517317 of RGSC 6.0/rn6. Human genetic variants with p values for association to breast cancer risk below 10−7 had not been reported for Mcs3 orthologous loci; however, human variants located in Mcs3-orthologous regions with potential association to risk (10−7 < p < 10−3 were listed in some population-based studies. Further, rat Mcs3 contains sequence orthologous to human 11q13/14—a region frequently amplified in female breast cancer. We conclude that Mcs3 is an independently acting mammary carcinoma resistance allele. Human population-based, genome-targeted association studies interrogating Mcs3 orthologous loci may yield novel breast cancer risk associated variants and genes.

  19. Rat bite fever without fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehle, P; Dubuis, O; So, A; Dudler, J

    2003-09-01

    Rat bite fever is a rarely reported acute febrile bacterial illness caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus following a rat bite. It is classically characterised by abrupt onset of fever with rigors, myalgias, headache, and the appearance of a generalised maculopapular petechial skin rash. Polyarthritis complicates the course of the disease in up to 50% of infected patients, and numerous hurdles can make the diagnosis particularly difficult in the absence of fever or rash, as in the present case. A high degree of awareness is necessary to make the correct diagnosis in such cases. Diagnosis has important prognostic implications as the disease is potentially lethal, but easily treatable.

  20. Complexity Leadership: A Theoretical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, Ali; Balci, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Complex systems are social networks composed of interactive employees interconnected through collaborative, dynamic ties such as shared goals, perspectives and needs. Complex systems are largely based on "the complex system theory". The complex system theory focuses mainly on finding out and developing strategies and behaviours that…

  1. Baroreflexes of the rat. IV. ADN-evoked responses at the NTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaorui; Dworkin, Barry R

    2007-12-01

    In a long-term (7-21 days) neuromuscular blocked (NMB) rat preparation, using precise single-pulse aortic depressor nerve (ADN) stimulation and stable chronic evoked response (ER) recordings from the dorsal-medial solitary nucleus (dmNTS), two different response patterns were observed: continuous and discrete. For the continuous pattern, activity began approximately 3 ms after the stimulus and persisted for 45 ms; for the discrete pattern, two complexes were separated by a gap from approximately 17 to 25 ms. The early complex was probably transmitted via A-fibers: it had a low stimulus current threshold and an average conduction velocity (CV) of 0.58-5.5 m/s; the high threshold late (HTL) complex had a CV = 0.26-0.58 m/s. The average stimulus amplitude-ER magnitude transduction curves for the A and HTL complexes were sigmoidal. For individual rats, in the linear range, mean r2 = 0.96 +/- 0.03 for both complexes. The average stimulus amplitude vs. the systolic blood pressure change (delta sBP) transduction curve was also approximately linear; however, for individual rats, the relationship was not consistently reliable: mean r2 = 0.48 +/- 0.19. Approximately 90% of recording sites had respiratory, and 50% had cardiac synchronism. The NMB preparation is useful for studying central baroreflex mechanisms that operate on time scales of days or weeks, such as adaptation and other kinds of neural plasticity.

  2. Outer brain barriers in rat and human development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøchner, Christian B; Holst, Camilla Bjørnbak; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Complex barriers at the brain's surface, particularly in development, are poorly defined. In the adult, arachnoid blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier separates the fenestrated dural vessels from the CSF by means of a cell layer joined by tight junctions. Outer CSF-brain barrier provides...... diffusion restriction between brain and subarachnoid CSF through an initial radial glial end feet layer covered with a pial surface layer. To further characterize these interfaces we examined embryonic rat brains from E10 to P0 and forebrains from human embryos and fetuses (6-21st weeks post...

  3. Multifractal characterization of cerebrovascular dynamics in newborn rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, A.N.; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O.V.; Lychagov, V.V.; Abdurashitov, A.S.; Pavlova, O.N.; Sindeeva, O.A.; Sindeev, S.S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the cerebrovascular dynamics in newborn rats using the wavelet-based multifractal formalism in order to reveal effective markers of early pathological changes in the macro- and microcirculation at the hidden stage of the development of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). We demonstrate that the singularity spectrum estimated with the wavelet-transform modulus maxima (WTMM) technique allows clear characterization of a reduced complexity of blood flow dynamics and changes of the correlation properties at the transformation of normal physiological processes into pathological dynamics that are essentially different at the level of large and small blood vessels

  4. Nonlinear system analysis of renal autoregulation in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chon, K H; Chen, Y M; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1998-01-01

    We compared the dynamic characteristics in renal autoregulation of blood flow of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats (SDR) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), using both linear and nonlinear systems analysis. Linear analysis yielded only limited information about the differences in dynamics......, NMSE are significantly higher in SHR than SDR, suggesting a more complex nonlinear system in SHR. The contribution of the third-order kernel in describing the dynamics of renal autoregulation in arterial blood pressure and blood flow was found to be important. Moreover, we have identified the presence...

  5. Photoaffinity labeling of rat liver ribosomes by N-(2-Nitro-4-azidobenzoyl)puromycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, H.; Stahl, J.; Bielka, H.

    1979-01-01

    N-(2-nitro-4-azidobenzoyl)-[ 3 H]puromycin (NAB-puromycin) was synthesized as a photoreactive derivative of puromycin in order to detect ribosomal proteins located near the peptidyltransferase centre of rat liver ribosomes. Irradiation of ribosome-NAB-puromycin complexes leads to covalent attachment of the affinity label to proteins of the large ribosomal subunit, in particular to proteins L28/29, and, to a somewhat lower extent, to proteins L4, L6, L10 and L24. The results are discussed in the light of earlier studies performed with other affinity labels that attacked the peptidyltransferase region of rat liver ribosomes. (author)

  6. Complex Neutrosophic Subsemigroups and Ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Gulistan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we study the idea of complex neutrosophic subsemigroups. We define the Cartesian product of complex neutrosophic subsemigroups, give some examples and study some of its related results. We also define complex neutrosophic (left, right, interior ideal in semigroup. Furthermore, we introduce the concept of characteristic function of complex neutrosophic sets, direct product of complex neutrosophic sets and study some results prove on its.

  7. Transition Complexity of Incomplete DFAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the transition complexity of regular languages based on the incomplete deterministic finite automata. A number of results on Boolean operations have been obtained. It is shown that the transition complexity results for union and complementation are very different from the state complexity results for the same operations. However, for intersection, the transition complexity result is similar to that of state complexity.

  8. The Effect of Infliximab on Intestinal Anastomosis Healing in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Karaköse

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal anastomosis healing is a complex physiological process in which many local and systemic factors play a role. One of the significant cytokines in this process is TNF-α. Infliximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody which binds to TNF-α with high affinity. Although this agent is used in ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, intestinal surgery may be required in these patients. In this study it was aimed to determine whether or not there was any negative effect of preoperative single dose infliximab treatment on intestinal anastomosis healing. Two groups of 10 rats were formed. One of these groups was administered with a single dose of infliximab 8 mg/kg as a 20-minute intravenous infusion from the femoral vein. Four days after the infusion, a full layer incision was made to the colon and anastomosis was applied to all the rats. At 7 days after anastomosis, the subjects were sacrificed. The anastomosis segment was removed and the bursting pressure was measured. Tissue samples were taken from this segment for hydroxyproline concentration and histopathological examination. A blood sample was taken to measure TNF-α values. No statistically significant difference was determined between the groups in terms of bursting pressure, tissue hydroxyproline concentration or histopathological scoring. A single dose of 8 mg/kg infliximab administered 4 days preoperatively was not found to have any negative effect on intestinal anastomosis healing in rats.

  9. The Stigma Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescosolido, Bernice A.; Martin, Jack K.

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, research on stigma has continued. Building on conceptual and empirical work, the recent period clarifies new types of stigmas, expansion of measures, identification of new directions, and increasingly complex levels. Standard beliefs have been challenged, the relationship between stigma research and public debates reconsidered, and new scientific foundations for policy and programs suggested. We begin with a summary of the most recent Annual Review articles on stigma, which reminded sociologists of conceptual tools, informed them of developments from academic neighbors, and claimed findings from the early period of “resurgence.” Continued (even accelerated) progress has also revealed a central problem. Terms and measures are often used interchangeably, leading to confusion and decreasing accumulated knowledge. Drawing from this work but focusing on the past 14 years of stigma research (including mental illness, sexual orientation, HIV/AIDS, and race/ethnicity), we provide a theoretical architecture of concepts (e.g., prejudice, experienced/received discrimination), drawn together through a stigma process (i.e., stigmatization), based on four theoretical premises. Many characteristics of the mark (e.g., discredited, concealable) and variants (i.e., stigma types and targets) become the focus of increasingly specific and multidimensional definitions. Drawing from complex and systems science, we propose a stigma complex, a system of interrelated, heterogeneous parts bringing together insights across disciplines to provide a more realistic and complicated sense of the challenge facing research and change efforts. The Framework Integrating Normative Influences on Stigma (FINIS) offers a multilevel approach that can be tailored to stigmatized statuses. Finally, we outline challenges for the next phase of stigma research, with the goal of continuing scientific activity that enhances our understanding of stigma and builds

  10. Treatment of diabetic rats with encapsulated islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Ian R; Yanay, Ofer; Waldron, Lanaya; Gilbert, Merle; Fuller, Jessica M; Tupling, Terry; Lernmark, Ake; Osborne, William R A

    2008-12-01

    Immunoprotection of islets using bioisolator systems permits introduction of allogeneic cells to diabetic patients without the need for immunosuppression. Using TheraCyte immunoisolation devices, we investigated two rat models of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), BB rats and rats made diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ) treatment. We chose to implant islets after the onset of diabetes to mimic the probable treatment of children with T1DM as they are usually diagnosed after disease onset. We encapsulated 1000 rat islets and implanted them subcutaneously (SQ) into diabetic biobreeding (BB) rats and STZ-induced diabetic rats, defined as two or more consecutive days of blood glucose>350 mg/dl. Rats were monitored for weight and blood glucose. Untreated BB rats rapidly lost weight and were euthanized at >20% weight loss that occurred between 4 and 10 days from implantation. For period of 30-40 days following islet implantation weights of treated rats remained steady or increased. Rapid weight loss occurred after surgical removal of devices that contained insulin positive islets. STZ-treated rats that received encapsulated islets showed steady weight gain for up to 130 days, whereas untreated control rats showed steady weight loss that achieved >20% at around 55 days. Although islet implants did not normalize blood glucose, treated rats were apparently healthy and groomed normally. Autologous or allogeneic islets were equally effective in providing treatment. TheraCyte devices can sustain islets, protect allogeneic cells from immune attack and provide treatment for diabetic-mediated weight loss in both BB rats and STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  11. Effects of piracetam on chronic epilepsy in childhood rats and quantitative effects on content of acetylcholine and activity of cholinacetyltranslase in hippocampus in learning-memory complex animal model%吡拉西坦影响幼年大鼠慢性癫痫与学习记忆复合动物模型脑海马乙酰胆碱含量和胆碱乙酰转移酶活性变化的量效作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张少丹; 余明; 裴林; 李海滨

    2005-01-01

    能障碍的良好复合模型,应用4.8g/L吡拉西坦后可增加模型大鼠脑海马乙酰胆碱含量及胆碱乙酰转移酶、乙酰胆碱脂酶活性,改善学习和记忆能力,但2.4 g/L吡拉西坦效果不明显.%BACKGROUND: Cholinergic system projected in brain and hippocampal structure is relevant with learning and memory. Piracetam acts on protecting and repairing cerebral neural cell, resisting cerebral functional injury due to physical and chemical factors and improving learning-memory capacity.OBJECTIVE: Chronic epilepsy in childhood animal and learning-memory complex animal model were self-prepared to observe the changes in content of acetylcholine and activity of cholinacetyltranslase in cerebral hippocampus and the intervention of piracetam.DESIGN: Randomized control experiment and non-blind evaluation were designed.SETTING: Department of Pediatrics of Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University and Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Hebei Medical UniversityMATERIALS: The experiment was performed in Hebei Medical University and College of Life Sciences of Hebei Normal University from July to December 2004, in which, 50 Wistar childhood rats of clean grade and either sex were employed.METHODS: Coriamyrthin injection was administrated muscularly to duplicated chronic epileptic grand mal model in rats. Muscular injection was repeated once every three days. During modeling, those with general paroxysmal convulsion with posterior extremities standing or falling with standing or general stiffness-paroxysmal attack continuously for 3 times, the injection was changed to be once every 14 days. Ten rats were selected to be in normal control without modeling. The rest 40 rats after 3 months of modeling were randomized into 4 groups, named piracetam of 2.4 g/'L group (Group A), piracetam of 4.8 g/L group (Group B), dilantin 6 g/L +piracetam 4.8 g/L group (Group C) and model group (Group D), 10 rats in each. In each group, gastric infusion was

  12. Organization of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsak, Maksim

    Many large complex systems can be successfully analyzed using the language of graphs and networks. Interactions between the objects in a network are treated as links connecting nodes. This approach to understanding the structure of networks is an important step toward understanding the way corresponding complex systems function. Using the tools of statistical physics, we analyze the structure of networks as they are found in complex systems such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, and numerous industrial and social networks. In the first chapter we apply the concept of self-similarity to the study of transport properties in complex networks. Self-similar or fractal networks, unlike non-fractal networks, exhibit similarity on a range of scales. We find that these fractal networks have transport properties that differ from those of non-fractal networks. In non-fractal networks, transport flows primarily through the hubs. In fractal networks, the self-similar structure requires any transport to also flow through nodes that have only a few connections. We also study, in models and in real networks, the crossover from fractal to non-fractal networks that occurs when a small number of random interactions are added by means of scaling techniques. In the second chapter we use k-core techniques to study dynamic processes in networks. The k-core of a network is the network's largest component that, within itself, exhibits all nodes with at least k connections. We use this k-core analysis to estimate the relative leadership positions of firms in the Life Science (LS) and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sectors of industry. We study the differences in the k-core structure between the LS and the ICT sectors. We find that the lead segment (highest k-core) of the LS sector, unlike that of the ICT sector, is remarkably stable over time: once a particular firm enters the lead segment, it is likely to remain there for many years. In the third chapter we study how

  13. Magnox waste storage complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This article looks at the design and construction of British Nuclear Fuel Limited's (BNFL) Magnox waste storage complex by Costain Engineering Limited. Magnox swarf from fuel decanning is stored underwater in specially designed silos. Gas processing capabilities from Costain Engineering Limited and the experience of BNFL combined in this project to provide the necessary problem-solving skills necessary for this waste storage upgrading and extension project. A retrofitted inerting facility was fitted to an existing building and a new storage extension was fitted, both without interrupting reprocessing operations at Sellafield. (UK)

  14. Computability, complexity, logic

    CERN Document Server

    Börger, Egon

    1989-01-01

    The theme of this book is formed by a pair of concepts: the concept of formal language as carrier of the precise expression of meaning, facts and problems, and the concept of algorithm or calculus, i.e. a formally operating procedure for the solution of precisely described questions and problems. The book is a unified introduction to the modern theory of these concepts, to the way in which they developed first in mathematical logic and computability theory and later in automata theory, and to the theory of formal languages and complexity theory. Apart from considering the fundamental themes an

  15. Complex adaptive systems ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2003-01-01

    In the following, I will analyze two articles called Complex Adaptive Systems EcologyI & II (Molin & Molin, 1997 & 2000). The CASE-articles are some of the more quirkyarticles that have come out of the Molecular Microbial Ecology Group - a groupwhere I am currently making observational studies....... They are the result of acooperation between Søren Molin, professor in the group, and his brother, JanMolin, professor at Department of Organization and Industrial Sociology atCopenhagen Business School. The cooperation arises from the recognition that bothmicrobial ecology and sociology/organization theory works...

  16. Complexity in Managing Modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Sun, Hongyi

    2011-01-01

    In general, the phenomenon of managing modularization is not well known. The cause-effect relationships between modularization and realized benefits are complex and comprehensive. Though a number of research works have contributed to the study of the phenomenon of efficient and effective...... modularization management it is far from clarified. Recognizing the need for further empirical research, we have studied 40 modularity cases in various companies. The studies have been designed as long-term studies leaving time for various types of modularization benefits to emerge. Based on these studies we...... have developed a framework to support the heuristic and iterative process of planning and realizing modularization benefits....

  17. Procuring complex performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, A.; Roehrich, J.; Frederiksen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    the transition process. Design/methodology/approach – A multiple, longitudinal case study method is used to examine the transition towards PCP. The study deploys rich qualitative data sets by combining semi-structured interviews, focus group meetings and organisational reports and documents. Findings...... and relational challenges they need to master when facing higher levels of performance and infrastructural complexity. Originality/value – The study adds to the limited empirical and conceptual understanding on the nature of long-term public-private interactions in PCP. It contributes through a rare focus...

  18. Complex photonic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersma, D.S.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss in detail the optical properties of complex photonic structures, in particular those with a dominating disorder component. We will focus on their general transport properties, as well as on their use as light sources (random lasers). The basis for the theory of multiple light scattering in random systems will be explained as a tutorial introduction to the topic, including the explicit calculation of the effect of coherent backscattering. We will discuss various structures that go beyond regular disordered ones, in particular Levy glasses, liquid crystals, and quasicrystals, and show examples of their optical properties both from a conceptual and practical point of view.

  19. Fluorido complexes of technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariappan Balasekaran, Samundeeswari

    2013-07-04

    Fluorine chemistry has received considerable interest during recent years due to its significant role in the life sciences, especially for drug development. Despite the great nuclear medicinal importance of the radioactive metal technetium in radiopharmaceuticals, its coordination chemistry with the fluorido ligand is by far less explored than that of other ligands. Up to now, only a few technetium fluorides are known. This thesis contains the synthesis, spectroscopic and structural characterization of novel technetium fluorides in the oxidation states ''+1'', ''+2'', ''+4'' and ''+6''. In the oxidation state ''+6'', the fluoridotechnetates were synthesized either from nitridotechnetic(VI) acid or from pertechnetate by using reducing agent and have been isolated as cesium or tetraethylammonium salts. The compounds were characterized spectroscopically and structurally. In the intermediate oxidation state ''+4'', hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) was known for long time and studied spectroscopically. This thesis reports novel and improved syntheses and solved the critical issues of early publications such as the color, some spectroscopic properties and the structure of this key compound. Single crystal analyses of alkali metal, ammonium and tetramethylammonium salts of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) are presented. In aqueous alkaline solutions, the ammonium salt of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) undergoes hydrolysis and forms an oxido-bridged dimeric complex. It is the first step hydrolysis product of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) and was characterized by spectroscopic and crystallographic methods. Low-valent technetium fluorides with the metal in the oxidation states of ''+2'' or ''+1'' are almost unknown. A detailed description of the synthesis and characterization of pentafluoridonitrosyltechnetate(II) is presented. The

  20. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students...... resulting in new material stemming from and focusing on practical application of a systemic approach. The outcome is a coherent and flexible approach named systemic planning. The inclusion of both the theoretical and practical aspects of systemic planning makes this book a key resource for researchers...

  1. Dismounted Complex Blast Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Romney C; Fleming, Mark; Forsberg, Jonathan A; Gordon, Wade T; Nanos, George P; Charlton, Michael T; Ficke, James R

    2012-01-01

    The severe Dismounted Complex Blast Injury (DCBI) is characterized by high-energy injuries to the bilateral lower extremities (usually proximal transfemoral amputations) and/or upper extremity (usually involving the non-dominant side), in addition to open pelvic injuries, genitourinary, and abdominal trauma. Initial resuscitation and multidisciplinary surgical management appear to be the keys to survival. Definitive treatment follows general principals of open wound management and includes decontamination through aggressive and frequent debridement, hemorrhage control, viable tissue preservation, and appropriate timing of wound closure. These devastating injuries are associated with paradoxically favorable survival rates, but associated injuries and higher amputation levels lead to more difficult reconstructive challenges.

  2. The Frankenstein Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Boris Brorman

    2016-01-01

    In his polemic essay Boris Brorman Jensen raises the issue of a perceived academic reluctance to acknowledge the impact of real-world pragmatics on the architectural expression of built architecture. “One might claim that parts of architectural academia suffer from a Frankenstein complex that seems...... to feed a certain academic fear of dealing with the messiness of the real world. This professional fear that the political, social, technical, economic and legal realities will fundamentally weaken and compromise pure architectural thinking rests on the misperception that architecture is not, essentially...

  3. Complex performance in construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bougrain, Frédéric; Forman, Marianne; Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer

    To fulfil the expectations of demanding clients, new project-delivery mechanisms have been developed. Approaches focusing on performance-based building or new procurement processers such as new forms of private-public partnerships are considered as solutions improving the overall performance...... to the end users. This report summarises the results from work undertaken in the international collaborative project “Procuring and Operating Complex Products and Systems in Construction” (POCOPSC). POCOPSC was carried out in the period 2010-2014. The project was executed in collaboration between CSTB...

  4. Anticancer effects of saponin and saponin–phospholipid complex of Panax notoginseng grown in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Thu Dang Kim; Hai Nguyen Thanh; Duong Nguyen Thuy; Loi Vu Duc; Thu Vu Thi; Hung Vu Manh; Patcharee Boonsiri; Tung Bui Thanh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo of saponin–phospholipid complex of Panax notoginseng. Methods: The in vitro cytotoxic effect of saponins extract and saponin–phospholipid complex against human lung cancer NCI-H460 and breast cancer cell lines BT474 was examined using MTS assay. For in vivo evaluation of antitumor potential, saponin and saponin–phospholipid complex were administered orally in rats induced mammary carcinogenesis by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)a...

  5. Induced Chronic Prostatitis in Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly, compared with reference group (176.1 ± 12.1 pg/ml), IL-1β level of prostate tissues of high-dose PCS ..... Fig 1: Effect of PCS extract on the histomorphology of prostate tissues in rats. ... involved with cellular recruitment, fever, acute.

  6. Isolating Lysosomes from Rat Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Paul R

    2016-04-01

    This protocol describes the generation of a fraction enriched in lysosomes from rat liver. The lysosomes are rapidly isolated using density-gradient centrifugation with gradient media that retain the osmolarity of the lysosomes such that they are functional and can be used in in vitro assays. © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  7. CCl4 cirrhosis in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Nielsen, A; Poulsen, H E; Hansen, B A

    1991-01-01

    Cirrhosis of the rat liver was induced by a 12 week individualized CCl4/phenobarbital treatment. After treatment, all surviving animals (81%) showed cirrhosis of the liver. The cirrhosis induced was irreversible when evaluated 24 weeks after cessation of treatment. Quantitative liver function...

  8. Whiskers aid anemotaxis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan S W; Graff, Matthew M; Bresee, Chris S; Man, Yan B; Hartmann, Mitra J Z

    2016-08-01

    Observation of terrestrial mammals suggests that they can follow the wind (anemotaxis), but the sensory cues underlying this ability have not been studied. We identify a significant contribution to anemotaxis mediated by whiskers (vibrissae), a modality previously studied only in the context of direct tactile contact. Five rats trained on a five-alternative forced-choice airflow localization task exhibited significant performance decrements after vibrissal removal. In contrast, vibrissal removal did not disrupt the performance of control animals trained to localize a light source. The performance decrement of individual rats was related to their airspeed threshold for successful localization: animals that found the task more challenging relied more on the vibrissae for localization cues. Following vibrissal removal, the rats deviated more from the straight-line path to the air source, choosing sources farther from the correct location. Our results indicate that rats can perform anemotaxis and that whiskers greatly facilitate this ability. Because air currents carry information about both odor content and location, these findings are discussed in terms of the adaptive significance of the interaction between sniffing and whisking in rodents.

  9. Acute renal failure in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederholm, C.; Almen, T.; Bergquist, D.; Golman, K.; Takolander, R.; Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus

    1989-01-01

    It was demonstrated in rats that renal injury which follows transient renal hypoxia is potentiated by the contrast media metrizoate, ioxaglate, iopamidol and iohexol. Intravenous injection of 1 g I/kg of all four media alone to 82 rats caused no significant increase in serum urea 1, 3 and 7 days later. The percentage increase of serum urea is given in median values and interquartile range (in parentheses). Bilateral renal arterial occlusion alone for 40 minutes in 42 rats increased serum urea one day later by 40% (20-130). Intravenous injection of the media followed in one hour by bilateral renal arterial occlusion for 40 minutes in 104 rats caused serum urea to increase one day later by 130% (70-350) after metrizoate, by 220% (50-380) after ioxaglate, by 290 % (60-420) after iopamidol and by 160% (50-330) after iohexol. There were no significant differences between the potentiating effects of the various media on ischemic renal failure. (orig.)

  10. August rats are more resistant to arrhythmogenic effect of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion than Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkina, L M; Kirillina, T N; Pshennikova, M G; Arkhipenko, Yu V

    2002-06-01

    As differentiated from Wistar rats, myocardial ischemia and reperfusion produce no ventricular fibrillation in August rats. Pretreatment with nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nw-nitro-L-arginine increased mortality rate in August rats with acute myocardial infarction from 20 to 40%. Under these conditions mortality rate in Wistar rats increased from 50 to 71%. Interstrain differences in the resistance of these animals to the arrhythmogenic effect of ischemia are probably associated with higher activity of the nitric oxide system in August rats compared to Wistar rats.

  11. Toxicology and metabolism of nickel compounds. Progress report, December 1, 1975--November 30, 1976. [Tests made with rats and hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

    1976-08-15

    The toxicology and metabolism of nickel compounds (NiCl/sub 2/, Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/, NiS, Ni powder, and Ni(CO)/sub 4/) were investigated in rats and hamsters. Triethylenetetramine (TETA) and d-penicillamine are more effective than other chelating agents (Na-diethyldithiocarbamate, CaNa/sub 2/-versenate, diglycylhistidine-N-methylamide and ..cap alpha..-lipoic acid) as antidotes for acute Ni(II)-toxicity in rats. The antidotal efficacy of triethylenetetramine (TETA) in acute Ni(II)-toxicity is mediated by rapid reduction of the plasma concentration of Ni(II), consistent with renal clearance of the TETA-Ni complex at a rate more than twenty times greater than the renal clearance of non-chelated Ni(II). Fischer rats are more susceptible than other rat strains (Wistar-Lewis, Long-Evans and NIH-Black) to induction of erythrocytosis after an intrarenal injection of Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/, and elucidation of the serial pathologic changes that occur in rats after an intrarenal injection of Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/. When amorphous nickel monosulfide (NiS) and nickel subsulfide (Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/) were administered by im injection to randomly selected Fischer rats in equivalent amounts under identical conditions, NiS did not induce any tumors whereas Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/ induced sarcomas in almost all of the rats.

  12. Effect of sodium channel blocker, pilsicainide hydrochloride, on net inward current of atrial myocytes in thyroid hormone toxicosis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Munesada; Sunagawa, Masanori; Shimabukuro, Michio; Higa, Namio; Takasu, Nobuyuki; Kosugi, Tadayoshi

    2005-07-01

    To investigate effect of pilsicainide hydrochloride (pilsicainide) on electrocardiogram (ECG) signals and action potentials (APs) of atrial myocytes, levo-thyroxine (T4, 500 microg/kg body weight) was daily injected into peritoneal cavity of Sprague-Dawley rats for 14 days. T4-treatment significantly shortened RR interval, P wave, and QRS complex durations on ECG. Although pilsicainide did not affect the heart rate, P wave and corrected QT interval (QTc) was increased in T4-treated rats. AP recordings revealed that AP durations at 20%, 50%, and 90% repolarization were significantly shortened and maximal rate of rise (Max dV/dt) was significantly increased in T4-treated rat atrial cells. Pilsicainide significantly decreased AP amplitude (APA) and Max dV/dt in both control and T4-treated rat atrial cells. Concentration-inhibition study demonstrated that pilsicainide significantly inhibited net inward current of T4-treated rats at lower concentration (IC50 of 29.2 microg/mL) than that of control rats (133 microg/mL). In conclusion, pilsicainide could decrease the conduction velocity in T4-treated rat atrium by decreasing the Max dV/dt and net inward current, which could be a possible treatment of thyrotoxicosis-induced arrhythmia.

  13. Herding Complex Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ruf, Sebastian F.

    2018-04-12

    The problem of controlling complex networks is of interest to disciplines ranging from biology to swarm robotics. However, controllability can be too strict a condition, failing to capture a range of desirable behaviors. Herdability, which describes the ability to drive a system to a specific set in the state space, was recently introduced as an alternative network control notion. This paper considers the application of herdability to the study of complex networks. The herdability of a class of networked systems is investigated and two problems related to ensuring system herdability are explored. The first is the input addition problem, which investigates which nodes in a network should receive inputs to ensure that the system is herdable. The second is a related problem of selecting the best single node from which to herd the network, in the case that a single node is guaranteed to make the system is herdable. In order to select the best herding node, a novel control energy based herdability centrality measure is introduced.

  14. Complexity in language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alexander; Lappin, Shalom

    2013-01-01

    Learning theory has frequently been applied to language acquisition, but discussion has largely focused on information theoretic problems-in particular on the absence of direct negative evidence. Such arguments typically neglect the probabilistic nature of cognition and learning in general. We argue first that these arguments, and analyses based on them, suffer from a major flaw: they systematically conflate the hypothesis class and the learnable concept class. As a result, they do not allow one to draw significant conclusions about the learner. Second, we claim that the real problem for language learning is the computational complexity of constructing a hypothesis from input data. Studying this problem allows for a more direct approach to the object of study--the language acquisition device-rather than the learnable class of languages, which is epiphenomenal and possibly hard to characterize. The learnability results informed by complexity studies are much more insightful. They strongly suggest that target grammars need to be objective, in the sense that the primitive elements of these grammars are based on objectively definable properties of the language itself. These considerations support the view that language acquisition proceeds primarily through data-driven learning of some form. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  15. Dynamics in Complex Coacervates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sarah

    Understanding the dynamics of a material provides detailed information about the self-assembly, structure, and intermolecular interactions present in a material. While rheological methods have long been used for the characterization of complex coacervate-based materials, it remains a challenge to predict the dynamics for a new system of materials. Furthermore, most work reports only qualitative trends exist as to how parameters such as charge stoichiometry, ionic strength, and polymer chain length impact self-assembly and material dynamics, and there is little information on the effects of polymer architecture or the organization of charges within a polymer. We seek to link thermodynamic studies of coacervation phase behavior with material dynamics through a carefully-controlled, systematic study of coacervate linear viscoelasticity for different polymer chemistries. We couple various methods of characterizing the dynamics of polymer-based complex coacervates, including the time-salt superposition methods developed first by Spruijt and coworkers to establish a more mechanistic strategy for comparing the material dynamics and linear viscoelasticity of different systems. Acknowledgment is made to the Donors of the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund for support of this research.

  16. River rating complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert R.

    2016-01-01

    Accuracy of streamflow data depends on the veracity of the rating model used to derive a continuous time series of discharge from the surrogate variables that can readily be collected autonomously at a streamgage. Ratings are typically represented as a simple monotonic increasing function (simple rating), meaning the discharge is a function of stage alone, however this is never truly the case unless the flow is completely uniform at all stages and in transitions from one stage to the next. For example, at some streamflow-monitoring sites the discharge on the rising limb of the hydrograph is discernably larger than the discharge at the same stage on the falling limb of the hydrograph. This is the so-called “loop rating curve” (loop rating). In many cases, these loops are quite small and variation between rising- and falling-limb discharge measurements made at the same stage are well within the accuracy of the measurements. However, certain hydraulic conditions can produce a loop that is large enough to preclude use of a monotonic rating. A detailed data campaign for the Mississippi River at St. Louis, Missouri during a multi-peaked flood over a 56-day period in 2015 demonstrates the rating complexity at this location. The shifting-control method used to deal with complexity at this site matched all measurements within 8%.

  17. Diminished hormonal responses to exercise in trained rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galbo, H; Richter, Erik; Holst, J J

    1977-01-01

    Male rats (120 g) either were subjected to a 12-wk physical training program (T rats) or were sedentary controls (C rats). Subsequently the rats were killed at rest or after a 45- or 90-min forced swim. At rest, T rats had higher liver and muscle glycogen concentrations but lower plasma insulin...

  18. Dithiobiuret toxicity in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    Raising the daily dose of dithiobiuret (DTB) in male rats from 0.5 to 1 to 5 mg/kg shortened the latency to the onset of flaccid muscle tone and associated diminished performance in a treadmill test from 7 to 5 to 3 days, respectively. Concomitant with the development of flaccid muscle tone gastrocnemius muscle contractions elicited by high frequency motor nerve stimulation were lower in peak tension and tended to fade more rapidly in DTB-treated rats than in control rats. Remarkably, rats treated with highly daily doses (10-16 mg/kg) of DTB were resistant to the expected development of DTB-induced flaccid muscle tone, and tetanic contractile abnormalities but a corresponding refractoriness to body weight loss, decreased fed and water intake, diuresis, and depression in water balance was not present. This nonselectivity of the refractory responses supported the results of a histopathological study indicating that DTB-induced neuromuscular toxicity was unlikely to be secondary to effect on other organ systems. It is not known whether the ultimate neurotoxin is DTB or a metabolite. In this regard, two pathways for the metabolism of DTB were proposed based on the results of thin-layer chromatography of urine samples from rats treated with either 14 C- or 35 S-DTB. One pathway involved the reversible oxidation of DTB to the disulfide-containing compound thiuret, and the other involved the replacement of a sulfur atom with oxygen to form monothiobiuret. Thiuret, but not monothiobiuret, possessed comparable toxicity to STB. This further suggested that redox cycling between DTB and thiuret could be an important contributing factor to the toxicity of DTB

  19. Sexual dimorphism in hybrids rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Pinos, Helena; Fernández, Rosa; Collado, Paloma; Pasaro, Eduardo; Segovia, Santiago; Guillamon, Antonio

    2006-12-06

    Laboratory rat strains descend from Wistar rats as a consequence of artificial selection. Previously we reported that the medial posterior division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTMP) was sexually dimorphic in Wistar and Long-Evans strains while the medial anterior division (BSTMA) and the locus coeruleus (LC) only showed sex differences in the ancestor Wistar strain. The lateral posterior division (BSTLP) was isomorphic in both strains. The present work studies the number of neurons in the BSTMP, BSTMA, BSTLP and LC of male and female Wistar and Long-Evans rats (F(0)) and their hybrid F(1) and F(2) generations. The BSTMP is sexually dimorphic in the F(0), F(1) and F(2) generations while sex differences in the LC are only seen in F(0) Wistar rats but not in the F(0) Long-Evans or the F(1) and F(2) hybrid generations. Sex differences in the BSTMA are seen in F(0) Wistar but not in F(0) Long-Evans rats and completely disappear in the F(2) generations. The number of neurons in the LC of both males and females decreased in heterozygotic individuals (F(1)) but increased in homozygotic (F(2)). However, the number of neurons in the BSTMP changes significantly over the generations, although the ratio of neurons (female/male) is stable and unaffected in homo- or heterozygosis. Thus, the mechanism that regulates the neuronal female/male ratio would be different from the one that controls the number of neurons. The facts that sex differences in the BSTMP are not affected by homo- or heterozygosis and that they are seen in several mammalian orders suggest the existence of a "fixed" type of brain sex differences in the Mammalia Class.

  20. Shapes of interacting RNA complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Benjamin Mingming; Reidys, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Shapes of interacting RNA complexes are studied using a filtration via their topological genus. A shape of an RNA complex is obtained by (iteratively) collapsing stacks and eliminating hairpin loops.This shape-projection preserves the topological core of the RNA complex and for fixed topological...... genus there are only finitely many such shapes. Our main result is a new bijection that relates the shapes of RNA complexes with shapes of RNA structures. This allows to compute the shape polynomial of RNA complexes via the shape polynomial of RNA structures. We furthermore present a linear time uniform...... sampling algorithm for shapes of RNA complexes of fixed topological genus....