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Sample records for rat thyroid transplants

  1. Aspergillus thyroiditis in a renal transplant recipient mimicking subacute thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Y; Atalay, H; Nar, A; Ozbek, O; Turkmen, K; Erekul, S; Turk, S

    2011-04-01

    Fungal pathogens are increasingly encountered after renal transplantation. Aspergillus causes significant morbidity and mortality in transplant patients. Fungal thyroiditis is a rare occurrence owing to unique features of the thyroid gland. Most cases are caused by Aspergillus species and have been described in immunocompromised patients. Presentation may be identical with that of subacute thyroiditis, in which hyperthyroidism features and painful thyroid are the prominent findings. Diagnosis can be ascertained by fine-needle aspiration of thyroid showing branching hyphae of Aspergillus. We describe a renal transplant patient who developed Aspergillus thyroiditis as part of a disseminated infection successfully treated with voriconazole. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Enzymatic and ultrastructural study of lysosomes in rats bearing radiation-induced thyroid follicular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starling, J.R.; Clifton, K.H.; Norback, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation-induced well-differentiated and poorly differentiated follicular thyroid cancers were transplanted into the intrascapular fat pads of male Fisher 144 rats. The tumors grew in the recipient rats and after a time interval were removed and studied along with normal rat thyroids for lysosomal activity and ultrastructural characteristics. Plasma from experimental and control rats was also studied for lysosomal activity. Rats with radiation-induced thyroid carcinoma had a decrease in growth rate compared with normal rats. There was no significant increase in plasma lysosomal enzymes in the experimental rats. Well-differentiated thyroid carcinomatous tissue showed increased total activities of lysosomal enzymes as well as a difference in subcellular distribution compared with normal and poorly differentiated carcinomatous tissue. Electron microscopy of normal and carcinomatous tissue demonstrated the greatest number of lysosomes in the well-differentiated carcinoma and the fewest in the poorly differentiated carcinoma

  3. In Utero Hepatocellular Transplantation in Rats

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    Emma Muñoz-Sáez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work represents a step forward in the experimental design of an in utero hepatocellular transplantation model in rats. We focused on the enrichment optimization of isolated fetal hepatocytes suspension, arranging the surgery methodology of in utero transplantation, monitoring the biodistribution of the transplanted hepatocytes, and assessing the success of the transplants. Rat fetuses have been transplanted at the 17th embryonic day (ED17 with fetal hepatocytes isolated from rats at the end of pregnancy (ED21. We assessed possible differences between lymphocyte population, CD4 positive, CD8 positive, double-positive T-cells, and anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukins 4 and 10 (IL4 and IL10 as well. Cellular viability reached the rates of 90–95%. Transplanted groups had a limited success. Transplanted hepatocytes were not able to pass through the hematoplacental barrier. The hepatocytes injected were primarily located in the liver. There was an upward trend in the whole amount of T CD4 and T CD8 cells. There was an increased IL4 in the transplanted groups observed in the pregnant rats. The possibility to induce tolerance in fetuses with a hepatocyte transplant in utero could be a key point to avoid the immunosuppression treatments which must be undergone by transplanted patients.

  4. Thyroid dysfunction among long-term survivors of bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sklar, C.A.; Kim, T.H.; Ramsay, N.K.

    1982-01-01

    Thyroid function studies were followed serially in 27 long-term survivors (median 33 months) of bone marrow transplantation. There were 15 men and 12 women (median age 13 1/12 years, range 11/12 to 22 6/12 years). Aplastic anemia (14 patients) and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (eight patients) were the major reasons for bone marrow transplantation. Pretransplant conditioning consisted of single-dose irradiation combined with high-dose, short-term chemotherapy in 23 patients, while four patients received a bone marrow transplantation without any radiation therapy. Thyroid dysfunction occurred in 10 of 23 (43 percent) irradiated patients; compensated hypothyroidism (elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone levels only) developed in eight subjects, and two patients had primary thyroid failure (elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone levels and low T4 index). The abnormal thyroid studies were detected a median of 13 months after bone marrow transplantation. The four subjects who underwent transplantation without radiation therapy have remained euthyroid (median follow-up two years). The only variable that appeared to correlate with the subsequent development of impaired thyroid function was the type of graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis employed; the irradiated subjects treated with methotrexate alone had a higher incidence of thyroid dysfunction compared to those treated with methotrexate combined with antithymocyte globulin and prednisone (eight of 12 versus two of 11, p less than 0.05). The high incidence and subtle nature of impaired thyroid function following single-dose irradiation for bone marrow transplantation are discussed

  5. Thallium kinetics in rat cardiac transplant rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barak, J.H.; LaRaia, P.J.; Boucher, C.A.; Fallon, J.T.; Buckley, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    Cardiac transplant rejection is a very complex process involving both cellular and vascular injury. Recently, thallium imaging has been used to assess acute transplant rejection. It has been suggested that changes in thallium kinetics might be a sensitive indicator of transplant rejection. Accordingly, thallium kinetics were assessed in vivo in acute untreated rat heterotopic (cervical) transplant rejection. Male Lewis rats weighing 225-250 g received heterotopic heart transplants from syngeneic Lewis rats (group A; n = 13), or allogeneic Brown Norway rats (group B; n = 11). Rats were imaged serially on the 2nd and the 7th postoperative days. Serial cardiac thallium content was determined utilizing data collected every 150 sec for 2 hr. The data were fit to a monoexponential curve and the decay rate constant (/sec) derived. By day 7 all group B hearts had histological evidence of severe acute rejection, and demonstrated decreased global contraction. Group A hearts showed normal histology and contractility. However, thallium uptakes and washout of the two groups were the same. Peak thallium uptake of group B was +/- 3758 1166 counts compared with 3553 +/- 950 counts in the control group A (P = 0.6395); The 2-hr percentage of washout was 12.1 +/- 1.04 compared with 12.1 +/- 9.3 (P = 1.0000); and the decay constant was -0.00002065 +/- 0.00001799 compared with -0.00002202 +/- 0.00001508 (P = 0.8409). These data indicate that in vivo global thallium kinetics are preserved during mild-to-severe acute transplant rejection. These findings suggest that the complex cellular and extracellular processes of acute rejection limit the usefulness of thallium kinetics in the detection of acute transplant rejection

  6. Valor predicts the thyroid hormones in the evolution the transplant bony marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, C.A.; Carnot, J.; De Castro, R.; Morera, M.L.; Garcia, I.

    1998-01-01

    In this work you values the valor I predict the thyroid hormones in the bony marrow transplant evolution as factors the metabolisms oxidative and the synthesis albumins. The patients received conditioning treatments to the transplant and in the postoperational. The received radiations were 1000 cGy lateral cube, with blocking lung, to those that were subjected 3 sessions irradiation, they are practiced a transplant marrow allogeneic

  7. Flavonoid rutin increases thyroid iodide uptake in rats.

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    Carlos Frederico Lima Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Thyroid iodide uptake through the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS is not only an essential step for thyroid hormones biosynthesis, but also fundamental for the diagnosis and treatment of different thyroid diseases. However, part of patients with thyroid cancer is refractory to radioiodine therapy, due to reduced ability to uptake iodide, which greatly reduces the chances of survival. Therefore, compounds able to increase thyroid iodide uptake are of great interest. It has been shown that some flavonoids are able to increase iodide uptake and NIS expression in vitro, however, data in vivo are lacking. Flavonoids are polyhydroxyphenolic compounds, found in vegetables present in human diet, and have been shown not only to modulate NIS, but also thyroperoxidase (TPO, the key enzyme in thyroid hormones biosynthesis, besides having antiproliferative effect in thyroid cancer cell lines. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of some flavonoids on thyroid iodide uptake in Wistar rats in vivo. Among the flavonoids tested, rutin was the only one able to increase thyroid iodide uptake, so we decided to evaluate the effect of this flavonoid on some aspects of thyroid hormones synthesis and metabolism. Rutin led to a slight reduction of serum T4 and T3 without changes in serum thyrotropin (TSH, and significantly increased hypothalamic, pituitary and brown adipose tissue type 2 deiodinase and decreased liver type 1 deiodinase activities. Moreover, rutin treatment increased thyroid iodide uptake probably due to the increment of NIS expression, which might be secondary to increased response to TSH, since TSH receptor expression was increased. Thus, rutin might be useful as an adjuvant in radioiodine therapy, since this flavonoid increased thyroid iodide uptake without greatly affecting thyroid function.

  8. Prognostic Value of Thyroid Hormone Levels in Patients Evaluated for Liver Transplantation

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    Van Thiel, David H.; Udani, Mahendra; Schade, Robert R.; Sanghvi, Agit; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    The thyroid hormones T4, T3, rT3 and TSH were assayed in 134 adult patients evaluated and accepted as potential liver transplant candidates at the University of Pittsburgh from March, 1981 to December, 1983. The subsequent course of these patients was evaluated with respect to the levels of these hormones obtained at the time of acceptance for transplantation. T4 levels were increased significantly while their T3 levels were reduced (both p < 0.01) in those who survived and were discharged home as compared to either those who died waiting to be transplanted or died following the procedure. As a result, the ratio of T3/T4 was reduced markedly (p < 0.01) in those who were transplanted and survived as compared to those not transplanted or dying following transplantation. Importantly, the rT3 levels clearly separated (p < 0.01) those who would die prior to transplantation from those who would survive to be transplanted. Finally, the ratio rT3/T3 even more clearly separates those who will die prior to transplantation (p < 0.01) from the other two groups. These data suggest that thyroid hormone levels, particularly rT3 levels, might be useful in setting priorities for which patients referred for a transplantation evaluation should be accepted into the program and in determining who among accepted patients should be operated upon in preference to others also accepted and waiting to be transplanted. PMID:2993148

  9. Rosiglitazone attenuates transplant arteriosclerosis after allogeneic aorta transplantation in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onuta, Geanina; Rienstra, Heleen; de Boer, Jan Freark; Boer, Mark Walther; Roks, Anton J. M.; Klatter, Flip A.; Uges, Donald R. A.; Navis, Gerjan; Rozing, Jan; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk

    2007-01-01

    Background. Transplant arteriosclerosis is a leading cause of chronic transplant dysfunction and is characterized by occlusive neointima formation in intragraft arteries. Development of transplant arteriosclerosis is refractory to conventional immunosuppressive drugs and adequate therapy is not

  10. Effect of action of fractioned ionizing radiation in small dose on thyroid gland of rats

    OpenAIRE

    О. О. Prykhodko; V. V. Lizogubov; V. S. Usenko

    2005-01-01

    The effect of fractionated X-irradiation by 0.25 Gy dose to rat thyroid gland was studied . It was shown the decrease of thyrocyte proliferative activity that can induce the late effect of pathogenesis to thyroid land and biochemical pathways that control by thyroid hormones. Additional effect by any mutagenic factor may induce thyroid tumor development.

  11. Islet transplantation in diabetic rats normalizes basal and exercise-induced energy metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, Harmina; Benthem, L.; Suylichem, P.T.R. van; Leest, J. van der; Strubbe, J.H.; Steffens, A.B.

    Transplantation of islets of Langerhans in diabetic rats normalizes resting glucose and insulin levels, but it remains unclear whether islet transplantation restores resting and exercise-induced energy metabolism. Therefore, we compared energy metabolism in islet transplanted rats with energy

  12. Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hypothyroidism in Children and Adolescents Pediatric Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Nodules in Children and Adolescents Thyroiditis Resources Thyroiditis Brochure PDF Thyroiditis FAQs PDF En Español Tiroiditis El folleto de Tiroiditis Tiroiditis, Preguntas Frecuentes (FAQ) Search ...

  13. Dronedarone and Amiodarone Induce Dyslipidemia and Thyroid Dysfunction in Rats

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    Li-Qin Jiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Amiodarone, a thyroid hormone-like molecule, can induce dyslipidemia and thyroid dysfunction. However, the effects of dronedarone on lipid metabolism and of both dronedarone and amiodarone on thyroid function and lipid metabolism remain unknown. Methods: Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (10 in each group: normal control (NC, amiodarone-treated (AMT, dronedarone-treated (DRT, rats treated with amiodarone combined with polyene phosphatidylcholine (AC, and rats treated with dronedarone combined with polyene phosphatidylcholine (DC. Rats were given amiodarone (120 mg/kg/d, dronedarone (120 mg/kg/d, and polyene phosphatidylcholine (200 mg/kg/d for 13 weeks. At the end of weeks 4, 8, 12, and 13, plasma-free triiodothyronine (FT3, free thyroxine (FT4, triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c were determined. At the end of this protocol, rats were sacrificed and the thyroid glands were isolated, weighed, and examined histopathologically. The protein expression of Bcl-2 was measured by immunochemical staining. The mRNA expression of thyroglobulin (Tg, type-1 deiodinase (D1, and thyroid peroxidase (TPO were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: Compared with the NC group, FT3 and FT4 levels in the DRT and DC groups significantly increased at week 4 but declined thereafter. The AMT and AC groups had lower FT3 levels but comparable FT4 levels. The levels of TG, LDL-c, and HDL-c in the NC group were lower than those in the other groups whereas the LDL-c/HDL-c ratio was lowest in the AMT group. Bcl-2 expression significantly increased in the DRT group. The mRNA expression of Tg increased whereas the mRNA expression of D1 decreased. Dronedarone induced hyperthyroidism at the early stage and hypothyroidism at the late stage whereas amiodarone only caused hypothyroidism. Conclusion: Both dronedarone and

  14. Spironolactone ameliorates transplant vasculopathy in renal chronic transplant dysfunction in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waanders, Femke; Rienstra, Heleen; Boer, Mark Walther; Zandvoort, Andre; Rozing, Jan; Navis, Gerjan; van Goor, Harry; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk

    Waanders F, Rienstra H, Walther Boer M, Zandvoort A, Rozing J, Navis G, van Goor H, Hillebrands JL. Spironolactone ameliorates transplant vasculopathy in renal chronic transplant dysfunction in rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 296: F1072-F1079, 2009. First published February 25, 2009;

  15. Effects of Thyroid Dysfunction on Reproductive Hormones in Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Guo, Meng; Hu, Xusong; Weng, Xuechun; Tian, Ye; Xu, Kaili; Heng, Dai; Liu, Wenbo; Ding, Yu; Yang, Yanzhou; Zhang, Cheng

    2018-05-10

    Thyroid hormones (THs) play a critical role in the development of ovarian cells. Although the effects of THs on female reproduction are of great interest, the mechanism remains unclear. We investigated the effects of TH dysregulation on reproductive hormones in rats. Propylthiouracil (PTU) and L-thyroxine were administered to rats to induce hypo- and hyper-thyroidism, respectively, and the reproductive hormone profiles were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian histology was evaluated with H&E staining, and gene protein level or mRNA content was analyzed by western blotting or RT-PCR. The serum levels of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in both rat models were significantly decreased on day 21, although there were no significant changes at earlier time points. There were no significant differences in luteinizing hormone (LH) or progesterone levels between the treatment and the control groups. Both PTU and L-thyroxine treatments downregulated estradiol concentrations; however, the serum testosterone level was increased only in hypothyroid rats at day 21. In addition, the expression levels of FSH receptor, cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein were decreased in both rat models. Moreover, the onset of puberty was significantly delayed in the hypothyroid group. These results provide evidence that TH dysregulation alters reproductive hormone profiles, and that the initiation of the estrous cycle is postponed in hypothyroidism.

  16. Thyroid iodide compartments and their implication in the rat thyroid iodine organification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastiani, P.; Simon, C.

    1982-01-01

    To estimate the relative participation of transported and intrathyroidally generated iodide (internal iodide) in the iodination of newly synthesized and preexisting thyroglobulin (Tg) in the rat thyroid, the specific radioactivities (SRAs) of thyroid iodide, Tg, lysosomal iodine, and plasma hormones were followed for 92 h after radioactive iodide injection in intact or hypophysectomized rats. In control rats, the SRA of Tg and lysosomal iodine reached a maximum at 12 h. However, the SRA of lysosomal iodide was always smaller than that of Tg. In contrast, the SRA of hormonal iodide attained a maximum at 48 h. Thus, newly labeled iodine is endocytosed and mixed inside the lysosomes with older previously iodinated molecules; hormone secretion is mainly due to old labeled iodine (i.e. iodine with a high SRA from 48-96 h). These results are consistent with the presence of least two Tg compartments, with different turnover rates and hormone contents. On the other hand, in hypophysectomized rats, the SRA of Tg, lysosomes, and hormones showed only one maximum, at 24 h. Furthermore, the SRAs of Tg and lysosomes were similar at each time interval. It is inferred that in such rats, the old labeled iodine compartment is strongly reduced, and that inside the lysosomes, newly labeled iodine is predominant. Since in hypophysectomized rats, the recycling of iodide is abolished, it is concluded that in normal rats: 1) transported iodide is organified mainly by direct iodination of newly synthesized Tg, independently of TSH, and 2) internal iodide is organified mainly by delayed iodination of preexisting Tg, this process being TSH dependent

  17. Psycho-emotional state of rats under thyroid dysfunction

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    Demchenko Е.М.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous behavioral activity of white rats and concentration of glutamate, glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid in the neocortex in experimental hyper- and hypothyroidism was investigated. It was found that an excess of thyroid hormones was accompanied by emotional and anxiolytic effects in terms of reducing duration of grooming by 37% and increasing number of transitions and the time spent in the illuminated cross-shaped maze arms (26 % and 35%. Such behavior changes occurred against a background of increasing concentrations of GABA by 52 % (p<0,05 in the cortex of animals with experimental hyperthyroidism. Perhaps, the psycho-emotional state of the organism is modulated by thyroid hormones through the GABA - ergic system of neocortex.

  18. Fetal rat pancreas transplantation in BB rats: immunohistochemical and functional evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yderstræde, Knud Bonnet; Starklint, Henrik; Steinbrüchel, Daniel Andreas

    1993-01-01

    Spontaneously diabetic BB/Wor rats received either a syngeneic fetal pancreas transplant or adult islets. In the former, 4-8 fetal pancreases were transplanted, and in the latter, 3-5000 islets. Transplantation was performed by transferring a blood clot containing the pancreases or islets...... to the renal subcapsular space. Insulin therapy was undertaken postoperatively, except in one experiment with adult islets. Of the fetal pancreas transplanted BB rats, 52% became normoglycaemic, and 21% remained so throughout an observation period of 10 months. Nephrectomy caused a prompt return of diabetes...... that recurrent diabetes is not inevitable following syngeneic fetal pancreas transplantation to spontaneously diabetic BB rats. Recurrent diabetes was only occasionally associated with mononuclear cell infiltration. Transplanted tissue was well-preserved and vascularized; mega-islets were a constant finding....

  19. Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins are regulators of the rat thyroid peroxidase gene in thyroid cells.

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    Christine Rauer

    Full Text Available Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs-1c and -2, which were initially discovered as master transcriptional regulators of lipid biosynthesis and uptake, were recently identified as novel transcriptional regulators of the sodium-iodide symporter gene in the thyroid, which is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis. Based on this observation that SREBPs play a role for thyroid hormone synthesis, we hypothesized that another gene involved in thyroid hormone synthesis, the thyroid peroxidase (TPO gene, is also a target of SREBP-1c and -2. Thyroid epithelial cells treated with 25-hydroxycholesterol, which is known to inhibit SREBP activation, had about 50% decreased mRNA levels of TPO. Similarly, the mRNA level of TPO was reduced by about 50% in response to siRNA mediated knockdown of both, SREBP-1 and SREBP-2. Reporter gene assays revealed that overexpression of active SREBP-1c and -2 causes a strong transcriptional activation of the rat TPO gene, which was localized to an approximately 80 bp region in the intron 1 of the rat TPO gene. In vitro- and in vivo-binding of both, SREBP-1c and SREBP-2, to this region in the rat TPO gene could be demonstrated using gel-shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Mutation analysis of the 80 bp region of rat TPO intron 1 revealed two isolated and two overlapping SREBP-binding elements from which one, the overlapping SRE+609/InvSRE+614, was shown to be functional in reporter gene assays. In connection with recent findings that the rat NIS gene is also a SREBP target gene in the thyroid, the present findings suggest that SREBPs may be possible novel targets for pharmacological modulation of thyroid hormone synthesis.

  20. Isolation, culture and intraportal transplantation of rat marrow stromal cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ping; Wang Jianhua; Yan Zhiping; Li Wentao; Lin Genlai; Hu Meiyu; Wang Yanhong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the tracing and evolution of marrow stromal cell (MSC) after intraportal transplantation into the liver of homogenous rats, and to provide experimental data for MSC differentiation to hepatocyte in vivo. Methods: The MSC was isolated from the leg bone marrow of adult SD rats, and purified by culture-expanded in vitro. Before transplantation, MSC was labeled with DAPI. Then 10 5 MSC were intraportally transplanted into the homogenous rat liver. Rats were killed at 2 hours and 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after transplantation. The cryosection samples of liver and lung were observed under fluorescence microscopy. Results: MSC in vitro culture had high ability of proliferation. Except 4 rats were dead because of abdominal bleeding or infection, other recipients were healthy until sacrificed. The implantation cells were detected by identifying the DAPI labeled MSC in the host livers, but not in the host lungs. Conclusion: Intraportal transplanted MSC could immigrate and survive in the host livers at least for 4 weeks. They could immigrate from the small branches of portal veins to hepatic parenchyma

  1. Endothelin mechanisms in altered thyroid states in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, S; Thompson, E B; Gulati, A

    1993-06-11

    Endothelin (ET) and its receptor characteristics were studied in hyper- and hypo-thyroid states in the rats. Hyperthyroidism was induced by daily administration of thyroxine (0.1 mg/kg i.p.) for 8 weeks, while hypothyrodism was induced by daily administration of methimazole (10 mg/kg i.p.) for 8 weeks. The chronic administration of thyroxine to rats decreased their rate of gain of body weight, increased serum T3 and T4 concentration, blood pressure and heart rate. The chronic administration of methimazole decreased the rate of gain of body weight, serum T3 and T4 concentration, blood pressure and heart rate as compared to vehicle-treated control. Plasma ET-1 levels were found to be similar in control and methimazole-treated rats, while the levels were found to be significantly (P < 0.002) increased in thyroxine-treated rats as compared to control rats. Binding studies showed that [125I]ET-1 bound to a single, high affinity binding site in the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and pituitary. The density (Bmax) and the affinity (Kd) of [125I]ET-1 binding in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus were found to be similar in control, methimazole- and thyroxine-treated rats. The pituitary of thyroxine-treated rats showed a decrease in the binding (34.3% decrease in the density) of [125I]ET-1 as compared to control rats. No difference was observed in the binding of [125I]ET-1 to pituitary membranes from control and methimazole-treated rats. Competition studies showed that the IC50 and Ki values of ET-3 for [125]ET-1 binding were about 8 to 11 times higher than ET-1 in cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and pituitary.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Effect of soybean derivatives (glycine max) on thyroid of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filisetti, T.M.C.C.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of a Brazilian variety soybean and their comercial products on thyroid gland is studied. Soybean derivatives are tested in rats through acute experiments of 3 to 24 hours and semichronic experiments of 16 to 29 days. The autoclaved extract administered after 6 to 24 hours decreases the percentage of iodine ( 131 I) uptake. Semichronic experiments show that the factor found in soybean provokes both an increase or a reduction in percentage of iodine ( 131 I) uptake, depending ou the oeriod of action [pt

  3. [Thyroiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, Camille; Groussin, Lionel

    2013-02-01

    The diagnosis of thyroiditis encompasses a broad spectrum of thyroid disorders. Analysis of signs and symptoms, biochemical changes, neck ultrasound characteristics and radioactive iodine uptake values allows an accurate diagnosis. Recent studies of the whole genome have helped to identify many susceptibility genes for autoimmune thyroiditis. However, none of these genes contribute to a significant increase in risk of developing this thyroiditis. Clinical awareness of the characteristic presentations of exceptional thyroiditis (acute suppurative thyroiditis, Riedel's thyroiditis) is an important issue. Selenium administration seems to be beneficial for reducing the incidence of thyroiditis. Finally, certain drug-induced thyroiditis remains a therapeutic challenge for the physician.

  4. Ionizing radiation influence on thyroid iodine metabolism in hypothyroid rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadol'nik, L.I.; Valentyukevich, O.I.; Netsetskaya, Z.V.

    2005-01-01

    Reduction of inhibition effect mercazalylum on thyroid after irradiation that apparent in decrease of rate hypertrophy, increase of blood thyroid hormone level and increase thyroid concentration of total, protein binding and free iodine was shown. (authors)

  5. DNA measurements on cell nuclei of normal, proliferating and neoplastic thyroid tissues in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christov, K.; Thomas, C.; Sandritter, W.

    1975-01-01

    Nuclear DNA content was measured in 3 normal, 9 hyperplastic and 16 neoplastic rat thyroid glands. Thyroid hyperplasia and tumor growth were induced after treatment of the animals with X rays and methylthiouracil. In the control animals only diploid thyroid epithelial cells were observed. In stages of diffuse and nodular thyroid hyperplasia, the total DNA content per nucleus indicated that most chromosomes were diploid; only a few cells were hyperdiploid. In thyroid adenomas and carcinomas scattering of the diploid region and an increased number of hyperdiploid cells were found. Among the various types of thyroid tumors neither a difference in the number of hyperdiploid cells, nor the typical pattern of the distribution of these cells in a histogram was found. The increased number of hyperdiploid cells in hyperplastic and neoplastic thyroids only suggested an increase in the proportion of cells entering the cell cycle and not an appearance of a neoplastic strain. (author)

  6. DNA measurements on cell nuclei of normal, proliferating and neoplastic thyroid tissues in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christov, K [National Center of Oncology, Academy of Medicine, Sofia-56 (Bulgaria); Thomas, C; Sandritter, W [Freiburg Univ. (F.R. Germany). Pathologisches Inst.

    1975-01-01

    Nuclear DNA content was measured in 3 normal, 9 hyperplastic and 16 neoplastic rat thyroid glands. Thyroid hyperplasia and tumor growth were induced after treatment of the animals with X rays and methylthiouracil. In the control animals only diploid thyroid epithelial cells were observed. In stages of diffuse and nodular thyroid hyperplasia, the total DNA content per nucleus indicated that most chromosomes were diploid; only a few cells were hyperdiploid. In thyroid adenomas and carcinomas scattering of the diploid region and an increased number of hyperdiploid cells were found. Among the various types of thyroid tumors neither a difference in the number of hyperdiploid cells, nor the typical pattern of the distribution of these cells in a histogram was found. The increased number of hyperdiploid cells in hyperplastic and neoplastic thyroids only suggested an increase in the proportion of cells entering the cell cycle and not an appearance of a neoplastic strain.

  7. Review of Surgical Techniques of Experimental Renal Transplantation in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Badri; Haylor, John

    2017-08-01

    Microvascular surgical techniques of renal transplant in rats have evolved over the past 5 decades to achieve successful rat renal transplant; these modifications have included surgical techniques to address the anatomic variations in the renal blood vessels and those to reduce ischemic and operation durations. Here, we review the surgical techniques of renal transplant in rats and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of individual techniques of vascular and ureteric anastomoses. For this review, we performed a systematic literature search using relevant medical subject heading terms and included appropriate publications in the review. Since the first description of a rat model of renal transplant by Bernard Fisher and his colleagues in 1965, which used end-to-side anastomosis between the renal vein and renal artery to the recipient inferior vena cava and aorta, several vascular and ureteric anastomosis techniques have been modified. Vascular anastomosis techniques now include end-to-end anastomosis, use of donor aortic and inferior vena cava conduits, sleeve and cuff anastomoses, and application of fibrin glue. Likewise, restoration of the urinary tract can now be achieved by direct anastomosis of the donor ureter to the recipient bladder, end-to-end anastomosis between the donor and recipient ureters, and donor bladder cuff to the recipient bladder. There are advantages and disadvantages attributable to individual techniques. The range of vascular and ureteric anastomosis techniques that has emerged reflects the need for mastering more than one technique to suit the vascular anatomy of individual animals and to reduce operating time for achieving successful outcomes after renal transplant.

  8. Transplantation of embryonic porcine neocortical tissue into newborn rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Anthony J; Meyer, Morten; Møller Dall, Annette

    2003-01-01

    cavities made in newborn rats. Sacrifice at 3-12.5 weeks posttransplantation revealed healthy looking grafts in several animals. Apparent graft rejection evidenced by areas of necrosis and OX1 reactivity was observed in some of the older transplants. Treatment of nursing mothers or of postweaning newborns...... with cyclosporin A did not appear to promote graft survival. Some transplants grew to extremely large proportions and were characterized by bands of cells and bundles of axons as observed using immunohistochemical staining for pig neurofilament. Neurofilament-positive axons projected from several of the grafts...

  9. Functional assessment of hepatocytes after transplantation into rat spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, R.J.; Fuller, B.J.; Attenburrow, V.D.; Nutt, L.H.; Hobbs, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    The retention of structural integrity and metabolic function by isolated hepatocytes after ectopic transplantation has been investigated in autografted rats. Rats were partially hepatectomized and isolated hepatocytes prepared from the excised liver lobes were implanted into their spleens. Histological examination of the spleens 7 or more weeks after implantation revealed aggregates of hepatocytes in the red pulp. Two tests of biochemical function were applied to the hepatocytes after transplantation. In the first the hepatobiliary imaging agent technetium-99m N-[N'-(2, 6-dimethylphenyl)carbamoylmethyl]iminodiacetic acid (99mTc HIDA), which was shown to be avidly taken up by isolated hepatocytes in vitro, was infused into the tail veins of autograft and control rats. Radioactivity accumulating in the spleens of autografted rats was markedly greater than that in controls implanted with lethally damaged cells or in nontransplanted rats. In the second the presence of bilirubin metabolites was sought in autograft spleens after intravenous infusion of bilirubin. Both mono- and diglucuronides of bilirubin were recovered from the spleens of autograft rats but no conjugates were recovered from the spleens of unoperated controls. We conclude that after autotransplantation isolated hepatocytes retain their morphology and at least some of their functional activities

  10. The morphological study of age-dependent effects in rat thyroids after γ-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuefeng; Guo Lisheng; Tu Kaicheng; Xian Guoliang; Shi Feiman

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the differences in age-related harmful effects of the thyroid gland to ionizing radiation. The infant (0.5 month) and adult rats (2.5,6 and 15 months, respectively) were exposed to single γ-ray neck irradiation (0 Gy, as control, 0.5 Gy, 2 Gy, 4 Gy, 8 Gy, 16 Gy). The structure of irradiated thyroid gland under light and transmission electron microscope were observed at 6 weeks after partial irradiation. Some morphometric parameters were measured under light microscope. The results showed that the infant rat thyroids changed significantly after 0.5 Gy, but the adult thyroids expressed similar response after more than 2 Gy. Analyses of these data and information on pathology suggested that the infant thyroids were more radiosensitive than the adult ones

  11. Intake of Boron, Cadmium, and Molybdenum enhances rat thyroid cell transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Emilia; Fici, Laura; Ronchi, Anna; Marandino, Ferdinando; Rossi, Esther Diana; Caristo, Maria Emiliana; Malandrino, Pasqualino; Russo, Marco; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Vigneri, Riccardo; Moretti, Fabiola

    2017-06-02

    Epidemiologic data in volcanic areas suggest that environmental factors might be involved in the increase of thyroid cancer (TC) incidence. Recent reports indicate that several heavy metals and metalloids are increased in volcanic areas. This study aims to evaluate the combined effect of three of these elements Boron (B), Cadmium (Cd), and Molybdenum (Mo) - all increased in the volcanic area of Mt. Etna, in Italy - on thyroid tumorigenesis in the rat. Female Wistar rats prone to develop thyroid tumors by low-iodine diet and methimazole treatment received ad libitum drinking water supplemented with B, Cd, and Mo at concentrations in the range found in the urine samples of residents of the volcanic area. At 5 and 10 months animals were euthanized, and their thyroid analysed. Statistical analysis was performed with a 2-way unpaired t-test. No toxic effect of the three elements on the growth of the animals was observed. A significant increase of histological features of transformation was observed in thyroid follicular cells of rats treated with B, Cd, and Mo compared with those of control group. These abnormalities were associated with decreased iodine content in the thyroid. This study provides the evidence that slightly increased environmental concentrations of B, Cd, and Mo can accelerate the appearance of transformation marks in the thyroid gland of hypothyroid rats.

  12. Mild Thyroid Hormone Insufficiency During Development Compromises Activity-Dependent Neuroplasticity in the Hippocampus of Adult Male Rats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — behavioral measures of learning and memory in adult offspring of rats treated with thyroid hormone synthesis inhibitor, propylthiouracil. Electrophysiological...

  13. Taurine ameliorated thyroid function in rats co-administered with chlorpyrifos and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akande, Motunrayo Ganiyat; Shittu, Muftau; Uchendu, Chidiebere; Yaqub, Lukuman Surakat

    2016-12-01

    Chlorpyrifos is a widely used organophosphate insecticide for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. Lead is a toxic heavy metal and it is used for domestic and industrial purposes. Taurine is a semi essential amino acid with bioprotective properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of taurine on thyroid function in Wistar rats co-administered with chlorpyrifos and lead. The rats were divided into 5 groups of 10 rats each. The first two groups were administered with distilled water and soya oil (1 ml/kg) respectively. The other groups received taurine (50 mg/kg), chlorpyrifos + lead [chlorpyrifos (4.25 mg/kg, 1/20 median lethal dose] and lead (233.25 mg/kg, 1/20 median lethal dose) and taurine + chlorpyrifos + lead respectively. The treatments were administered once daily by oral gavage for 16 weeks. The rats were euthanized after the completion of the study and the thyroid function and thyroid histoarchitecture were evaluated. The results revealed that co-administration of chlorpyrifos and lead to the rats induced perturbations in thyroid function and this was manifested by reductions in the concentrations of triiodothyronine and thyroxine, increased thyroid stimulating hormone concentration and degeneration of the follicular epithelia of the thyroid gland. Taurine alleviated the perturbations in thyroid function and improved thyroid gland histoarchitecture. The beneficial effects of taurine may be attributed to its ability to protect the body from toxicity and oxidative stress. Taurine may be useful for prophylaxis against disruptions in thyroid function in animals that are exposed to environmental chlorpyrifos and lead.

  14. Establishment of animal model of dual liver transplantation in rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    Full Text Available The animal model of the whole-size and reduced-size liver transplantation in both rat and mouse has been successfully established. Because of the difficulties and complexities in microsurgical technology, the animal model of dual liver transplantation was still not established for twelve years since the first human dual liver transplantation has been made a success. There is an essential need to establish this animal model to lay a basic foundation for clinical practice. To study the physiological and histopathological changes of dual liver transplantation, "Y" type vein from the cross part between vena cava and two iliac of donor and "Y' type prosthesis were employed to recanalize portal vein and the bile duct between dual liver grafts and recipient. The dual right upper lobes about 45-50% of the recipient liver volume were taken as donor, one was orthotopically implanted at its original position, the other was rotated 180° sagitally and heterotopically positioned in the left upper quadrant. Microcirculation parameters, liver function, immunohistochemistry and survival were analyzed to evaluate the function of dual liver grafts. No significant difference in the hepatic microcirculatory flow was found between two grafts in the first 90 minutes after reperfusion. Light and electronic microscope showed the liver architecture was maintained without obvious features of cellular destruction and the continuity of the endothelium was preserved. Only 3 heterotopically positioned graft appeared patchy desquamation of endothelial cell, mitochondrial swelling and hepatocytes cytoplasmic vacuolization. Immunohistochemistry revealed there is no difference in hepatocyte activity and the ability of endothelia to contract and relax after reperfusion between dual grafts. Dual grafts made a rapid amelioration of liver function after reperfusion. 7 rats survived more than 7 days with survival rate of 58.3.%. Using "Y" type vein and bile duct prosthesis, we

  15. Effects of phenobarbital on thyroid hormone contabolism in rat hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatic enzyme inducers such as phenobarbital (PB) decrease circulating thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations in rodents. PB induction of hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes increases thyroid hormones catabolism and biliary elimination. This study examines the catabolism and cl...

  16. Orthotopic Transplantation of Achilles Tendon Allograft in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aynardi, Michael; Zahoor, Talal; Mitchell, Reed; Loube, Jeffrey; Feltham, Tyler; Manandhar, Lumanti; Paudel, Sharada; Schon, Lew; Zhang, Zijun

    2018-01-01

    The biology and function of orthotopic transplantation of Achilles tendon allograft are unknown. Particularly, the revitalization of Achilles allograft is a clinical concern. Achilles allografts were harvested from donor rats and stored at −80 °C. Subcutaneous adipose tissue was harvested from the would-be allograft recipient rats for isolation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs were cultured with growth differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) and applied onto Achilles allografts on the day of transplantation. After the native Achilles tendon was resected from the left hind limb of the rats, Achilles allograft, with or without autologous MSCs, was implanted and sutured with calf muscles proximally and calcaneus distally. Animal gait was recorded presurgery and postsurgery weekly. The animals were sacrificed at week 4, and the transplanted Achilles allografts were collected for biomechanical testing and histology. The operated limbs had altered gait. By week 4, the paw print intensity, stance time, and duty cycle (percentage of the stance phase in a step cycle) of the reconstructed limbs were mostly recovered to the baselines recorded before surgery. Maximum load of failure was not different between Achilles allografts, with or without MSCs, and the native tendons. The Achilles allograft supplemented with MSCs had higher cellularity than the Achilles allograft without MSCs. Deposition of fine collagen (type III) fibers was active in Achilles allograft, with or without MSCs, but it was more evenly distributed in the allografts that were incubated with MSCs. In conclusion, orthotopically transplanted Achilles allograft healed with host tissues, regained strength, and largely restored Achilles function in 4 wk in rats. It is therefore a viable option for the reconstruction of a large Achilles tendon defect. Supplementation of MSCs improved repopulation of Achilles allograft, but large animal models, with long-term follow up and cell tracking, may be required to fully

  17. [Subcutaneous transplants of juvenile rat testicular tissues continue to develop and secret androgen in adult rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhou; Wang, Tong; Cui, Jiangbo; Song, Yajuan; Ma, Xianjie; Su, Yingjun; Peng, Pai

    2017-12-01

    Objective To explore the effects of subcutaneous microenvironment of adult rats on survival, development and androgen secretion of Leydig cells of transplanted juvenile rat testis. Methods Healthy adult SD rats were randomly divided into control group, sham group, castrated group and non-castrated group. Rats in the control group were kept intact, no testis was transplanted subcutaneously after adult recipients were castrated in the sham group; 5-7-day juvenile rat testes were transplanted subcutaneously in the castrated group, with one testis per side; Testes resected from juvenile rats were directly transplanted subcutaneously on both sides of the recipients in the non-castrated group. The grafts were obtained and weighed 4 weeks later. Then the histological features of the grafts were examined by HE staining; the expression and distribution of hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 1 (HSD-17β1) were investigated by immunohistochemistry; and the serum androgen level was determined by ELISA. Results The average mass of grafts obtained from the castrated group was significantly higher than that of the non-castrated group. Immunohistochemistry indicated that Leydig cells were visible in the tissues from both the castrated and non-castrated groups, but the number of HSD-17β1-posotive cells in the castrated group was larger than that in the non-castrated group. ELISA results showed that the serum androgen level was higher in the control group and non-castrated group than in the sham group and castrated group, and compared with the sham group, the serum androgen level in the castrated group was significantly higher. Conclusion The juvenile rat testis subcutaneously transplanted could further develop under the adult recipient rat skin, and the Leydig cells of grafts harbored the ability to produce and secret androgen.

  18. Gene Map of the HLA Region, Graves' Disease and Hashimoto Thyroiditis, and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazuki, Takehiko; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Morishima, Satoko; Morishima, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genomic region spanning about 4 Mb is the most gene dense and the polymorphic stretches in the human genome. A total of the 269 loci were identified, including 145 protein coding genes mostly important for immunity and 50 noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). Biological function of these ncRNAs remains unknown, becoming hot spot in the studies of HLA-associated diseases. The genomic diversity analysis in the HLA region facilitated by next-generation sequencing will pave the way to molecular understanding of linkage disequilibrium structure, population diversity, histocompatibility in transplantation, and associations with autoimmune diseases. The 4-digit DNA genotyping of HLA for six HLA loci, HLA-A through DP, in the patients with Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) identified six susceptible and three resistant HLA alleles. Their epistatic interactions in controlling the development of these diseases are shown. Four susceptible and one resistant HLA alleles are shared by GD and HT. Two HLA alleles associated with GD or HT control the titers of autoantibodies to thyroid antigens. All these observations led us to propose a new model for the development of GD and HT. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from unrelated donor (UR-HSCT) provides a natural experiment to elucidate the role of allogenic HLA molecules in immune response. Large cohort studies using HLA allele and clinical outcome data have elucidated that (1) HLA locus, allele, and haplotype mismatches between donor and patient, (2) specific amino acid substitution at specific positions of HLA molecules, and (3) ethnic background are all responsible for the immunological events related to UR-HSCT including acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), chronic GVHD, graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) effect, and graft failure. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of x irradiation and diet on pituitary/thyroid function in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qassar, I.G.

    1979-01-01

    Rats were maintained on low iodine diet or treated with T 4 . A significant increase in thyroid weight was observed in rats on low iodine diet whereas among rats on normal diet with thyroxine injections, the thyroid was lower in weight than thyroids of control animals. Pituitary weight increased significantly in rats on low iodine diet or T 4 treatment. Labelling index was significantly higher in the group on low iodine diet. A significantly lower labelling index was observed after thyroxine treatment. Where PTU was administered to rats pretreated with either normal diet, normal diet plus T 4 , or maintained on low iodine diet and then exposed to radiation (100 to 400R) to the neck, it was not possible to distinguish the effect of such local radiation on body growth. The pre-radiation treatment did not have any effect on thyroid weight during two weeks post-radiation, suggesting that a four week post-radiation period is essential to elicit radiation effects on the thyroid. Contrary to low iodine treatment, administration of PTU did not result in any increase in pituitary weight in rats maintained on normal diet prior to radiation or in rats maintained on low iodine diet prior to radiation. There was, however, a significant increase in pituitary weight in rats injected with thyroxine prior to radiation (250R or 400R). A significant increase in serum TSH was observed two weeks after radiation and PTU treatment. A lower TSH level was observed, however, in the 250R sub-group (normal diet or T 4 injection) and in the 400R sub-group (low iodine diet). There was a significant difference among sham-irradiated and the three x-irradiated sub-groups maintained on low iodine diet. The results of these studies indicate that local x irradiation with 100 to 400R to the neck may influence thyroid/pituitary function in the rat

  20. Postnatal fate of the ultimobranchial remnants in the rat thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Román, Victoria; Utrilla, José C; Fernández-Santos, José M; Conde, Esperanza; Bernabé, Reyes; Sampedro, Consuelo; Martín-Lacave, Inés

    2013-07-01

    The ultimobranchial follicles (UBFs) are considered embryonic remnants from the ultimobranchial body (UBB). They are follicular structures that vary in size and appearance depending on the age of the rat. The main objective of this article was to study the progressive changes in shape, size, and frequency of the UBFs in the postnatal rat, from birth to old-age. To accomplish that objective, a systematic morphometric and incidental study of the UBF has been carried out in 110 Wistar rats of different ages and both sexes, divided into three groups: 1) young rats (5-90-day-old); 2) adult rats (6-15-month-old), and 3) old rats (18-24-month-old). The glands were serially sectioned and immunostained for calcitonin at five equidistant levels. According to our results, UBFs were observed in all thyroid glands but a more exhaustive sampling was occasionally necessary in male rats. In young rats, immature UBFs predominantly appeared whereas in adult rats, mature UBFs with cystic appearance and variable luminal content prevailed. We frequently found spontaneous anomalous UBFs in old rats, which we have termed as "ultimobranchial cystadenomata." Additionally, in young rats, UBF areas significantly increased with age and they were larger when compared to that of normal thyroid follicles. Likewise, in adult rats, UBFs were significantly larger than normal thyroid follicles but only in female rats. In general, UBFs in females were also significantly larger than those found in male rats. Finally, all these differences related to UBFs together with a higher incidence in females of UB cystadenomata suggest a sexual dimorphism in regard to the destiny of these embryonic remnants during postnatal thyroid development. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Model for the Thyroid Hormones in the Pregnant Rat and Fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A developmental PBPK model is constructed to quantitatively describe the tissue economy of the thyroid hormones (THs), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), in the rat. The model is also used to link maternal (THs) to rat fetal tissues via placental transfer. THs are importan...

  2. Effect of thimerosal on thyroid hormones metabolism in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago U Pantaleão

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mercury seems to exert an inhibitory effect on deiodinases, but there are few studies using Thimerosal (TM as the mercury source. We aimed to elucidate the effect of TM on thyroid hormones peripheral metabolism. Adult Wistar female rats received 0.25 μg or 250 μg TM/100 g BW, IM, twice a week, for a month. We evaluated serum total T3 and T4, D1 activity using 125I-rT3 as tracer, and D2 activity using 125I-T4. NADPH oxidase activity was measured by Amplex-red/HRP method and mRNA levels by real time PCR. Serum T4 was increased and T3 decreased by the greatest dose of TM. Even though D1 activity in pituitary and kidney was reduced by the highest dose of TM, hepatic D1 activity and D1 mRNA levels remained unchanged. D2 activity was also significantly decreased by the highest dose of TM in all CNS samples tested, except cerebellum, but D2 mRNA was unaltered. mRNA levels of the tested NADPH oxidases were not affected by TM and NADPH oxidase activity was either unaltered or decreased. Our results indicate that TM might directly interact with deiodinases, inhibiting their activity probably by binding to their selenium catalytic site, without changes in enzyme expression.

  3. Hemodynamic, Thyroid and Immunomodulatory Effects of Heroin in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail M. Maulood

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Diacetylmorphine (heroin has many effects on the body system; it exerts effects on cardiovascular, immune and endocrine systems. The aim of the this study is to investigate the short-term effects of low and high doses of heroin on systolic blood pressure (SBP, thyroid hormones and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1. The experimental rats were divided into three groups, each with six individuals and the treatments were continued for seven days. SBP significantly reduced by heroin administration in the second dose as compared with the control group. A marked decrease in the serum NO level was also noticed after first (low and second (high dose of administration as compared with control group. The present results also revealed that serum MCP-1 was statistically increased in the second dose of heroin group. Statistical analysis showed that both serum T3 and T4 levels were reduced significantly by heroin administration. In conclusions, for the first time, our findings suggested that diacetylmorphine could affect immune system through MCP-1 elevation. As well as heroin may affect cardiac and liver functions via increasing troponin-T and bilirubin levels.

  4. Effects of thyroid state on respiration of perfused rat and guinea pig hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, L.C.; Wallace, P.G.; Berry, M.N.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of thyroid state on the respiration of the isolated heart were investigated using retrograde perfused rat and guinea pig hearts. In both species, hypothyroidism caused a marked depression in circulating thyroid hormone concentrations and in the respiration of the isolated, retrograde perfused heart. Hypothyroidism was caused by injecting animals with Na 131 I. The effects on myocardial respiration could be attributed to changes in the contraction frequency and in the oxygen consumption per beat, with little contribution from basal respiration. Treatment of animals with thyroxine elevated plasma thyroid hormones to a similar extent in rats and guinea pigs. In the latter, thyroxine treatment was associated with substantial increases in the contraction frequency and the oxygen consumption per beat of the isolated heart. In contrast, only small changes were apparent in the retrograde perfused rat heart, observations that were confirmed in rat hearts perfused at near physiological work loads. It was concluded that rat hearts isolated from normal animals function at near maximal thyroid state, in contrast to the guinea pig heart, which requires higher circulating concentrations of thyroid hormones to attain maximal responses

  5. Endovascular transplantation of stem cells to the injured rat CNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, Johan; Soederman, Mikael; Andersson, Tommy; Holmin, Staffan; Le Blanc, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    Transplantation procedures using intraparenchymal injection of stem cells result in tissue injury in addition to associated surgical risks. Intravenous injection of mesenchymal stem cells gives engraftment to lesions, but the method has low efficiency and specificity. In traumatic brain injuries (TBI), there is a transient breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and an inflammatory response, which increase migration of cells from blood to parenchyma. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the effect of intra-arterial administration on cellular engraftment. Experimental TBI was produced in a rat model. Endovascular technique was used to administer human mesenchymal stem cells in the ipsilateral internal carotid artery. Evaluation of engraftment and side effects were performed by immunohistochemical analysis of the brain and several other organs. The results were compared to intravenous administration of stem cells. Intra-arterial transplantion of mesenchymal stem cells resulted in central nervous system (CNS) engraftment without thromboembolic ischemia. We observed a significantly higher number of transplanted cells in the injured hemisphere after intra-arterial compared to intravenous administration both 1 day (p<0.01) and 5 days (p<0.05) after the transplantation. Some cells were also detected in the spleen but not in the other organs analyzed. Selective intra-arterial administration of mesenchymal stem cells to the injured CNS is a minimally invasive method for transplantation. The method is significantly more efficient than the intravenous route and causes no side effects in the current model. The technique can potentially be used for repeated transplantation to the CNS after TBI and in other diseases. (orig.)

  6. Endovascular transplantation of stem cells to the injured rat CNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, Johan; Soederman, Mikael; Andersson, Tommy; Holmin, Staffan [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neuroradiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Le Blanc, Katarina [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Stem Cell Research, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Immunology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-10-15

    Transplantation procedures using intraparenchymal injection of stem cells result in tissue injury in addition to associated surgical risks. Intravenous injection of mesenchymal stem cells gives engraftment to lesions, but the method has low efficiency and specificity. In traumatic brain injuries (TBI), there is a transient breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and an inflammatory response, which increase migration of cells from blood to parenchyma. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the effect of intra-arterial administration on cellular engraftment. Experimental TBI was produced in a rat model. Endovascular technique was used to administer human mesenchymal stem cells in the ipsilateral internal carotid artery. Evaluation of engraftment and side effects were performed by immunohistochemical analysis of the brain and several other organs. The results were compared to intravenous administration of stem cells. Intra-arterial transplantion of mesenchymal stem cells resulted in central nervous system (CNS) engraftment without thromboembolic ischemia. We observed a significantly higher number of transplanted cells in the injured hemisphere after intra-arterial compared to intravenous administration both 1 day (p<0.01) and 5 days (p<0.05) after the transplantation. Some cells were also detected in the spleen but not in the other organs analyzed. Selective intra-arterial administration of mesenchymal stem cells to the injured CNS is a minimally invasive method for transplantation. The method is significantly more efficient than the intravenous route and causes no side effects in the current model. The technique can potentially be used for repeated transplantation to the CNS after TBI and in other diseases. (orig.)

  7. Features of changes in concentration of pituitary thyroid hormone and thyroid hormones in the blood of two-month rats with experimental hypothyroidism before and after operations with N-(2-methoxybenzoyl)-O-isopropyl-α, β-dehydrothyrozine choline ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khachatryan, T.S.; Topuzyan, V.O.

    2013-01-01

    The features of pituitary thyroid hormone concentration and thyroid hormones in the blood of rats with experimental hypothyroidism before and after injections of N-(2-methoxybenzoyl)-O-isopropyl-α, β-dehydrothyrozine choline ester were investigated. A sharp increase of pituitary thyroid hormone level and a sharp decrease of the level of thyroid hormones in the blood of two-month rats with hypothyroidism have been established. Under the action of N-(2-methoxybenzoyl)-O-isopropyl--α, β-dehydrothyrozine choline ester the decrease of pituitary thyroid hormone concentration and the increase of thyroid hormones level in the rats' blood have been observed and reached their values in intact animals

  8. An accurate method of 131I dosimetry in the rat thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.; Shleien, B.; Telles, N.C.; Chiacchierini, R.P.

    1979-01-01

    An accurate method of thyroid 131 I dosimetry was developed by imploying the dose formulation recommended by the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee. Six-week-old female Long-Evans rats were injected intraperitonealy with 0.5, 1.9, and 5.4 μCi of Na 131 I. The accumulated 131 I activities in the thyroid were precisely determined by integrating the 131 I activities per gram of the thyroid as functions of postinjection time. When the mean thyroid doses derived from this method are compared to those derived from the conventional method, the conventional method over-estimated the doses by 60 to 70%. Similarly, the conventional method yielded effective half-lives of 2.5 to 2.8 days; these estimates were found to be high by factors of 1.4 to 2.0. This finding implies that the biological elimination of iodide from the rat thyroid is much more rapid (up to 2.5 times) that once believed. Results from this study showed that the basic assumption in the conventional method of thyroid 131 I dosimetry in the rat, i.e., that the thyroid iodide retention function is a single exponential, is invalid. Results from this study also demonstrated that variations in animal body weight of 6 to 7-week-old animals and diurnal variation have no significant influence on the mean thyroid doses for a given injected activity of 131 I. However, as expected, variation in iodide content of the animal diets significantly altered the thyroid doses for a given 131 I injected activity

  9. Nitric oxide and thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 contribute to ovarian follicular development in immature hyper- and hypo-thyroid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kaizhi; Sulieman, Fedail Jaafar; Li, Junrong; Wei, Quanwei; Xu, Mulin; Shi, Fangxiong

    2015-03-01

    Thyroid dysfunction can cause ovarian cycle and ovulatory disturbances, however, the molecular link(s) between these two disorders remains largely unknown. In the current study, we examined the roles of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 (TRα1) in these disorders using immature hyper-thyroid (hyper-T) and hypo-thyroid (hypo-T) rats. In comparison to controls, hyper-T rats had higher serum concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), whereas hypo-T rats had lower serum T3 and T4. Serum estradiol (E2) level was decreased in both hyper-T and hypo-T animals and serum E2 in hyper-T rats were lower than in hypo-T rats. We found that neuronal NOS (nNOS) and TRα1 were present in oocytes, granulosa cells and theca cells of all examined rat groups. Ovarian nitric oxide (NO) content and the constitutive NOS (cNOS) activity in hyper-T rats were significantly decreased compared with control or hypo-T rats. Moreover, the number of large antral follicles was reduced in hyper-T rats, and number of primordial follicles was decreased in hypo-T rats compared with control rats. In conclusion, we observed an association between thyroid hormone and NO signaling pathways during the process of ovarian follicular development in immature rats. In hyperthyroidism, thyroid hormones induced an estrogen deficiency that inhibited the function of nNOS, resulting in the inhibition of NO synthesis and suppressed development of large antral follicles, while in hypothyroidism only development of primordial follicles was inhibited. Copyright © 2014 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  10. Fibroblast-mediated in vivo and in vitro growth promotion of tumorigenic rat thyroid carcinoma cells but not normal Fisher rat thyroid follicular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Ohki; Mitsutake, Norisato; Nakayama, Toshiyuki; Nagayama, Yuji

    2009-07-01

    It is known that genetic abnormalities in oncogenes and/or tumor suppressor genes promote carcinogenesis. Numerous recent articles, however, have demonstrated that epithelial-stromal interaction also plays a critical role for initiation and progression of carcinoma cells. Furthermore, ionizing radiation induces alterations in the tissue microenvironments that promote carcinogenesis. There is little or no information on epithelial-stromal interaction in thyroid carcinoma cells. The objective of this study was to determine if epithelial-stromal interaction influenced the growth of thyroid carcinoma cells in vivo and in vitro and to determine if radiation had added or interacting effects. Normal Fisher rat thyroid follicular cells (FRTL5 cells) and tumorigenic rat thyroid carcinoma cells (FRTL-Tc cells) derived from FRTL5 cells were employed. The cells were injected into thyroids or subcutaneously into left flanks of rats alone or in combination with skin-derived fibroblasts. In groups of rats, fibroblasts were irradiated with 0.1 or 4 Gy x-ray 3 days before inoculation. In vitro growth of FRTL-Tc and FRTL-5 cells were evaluated using the fibroblast-conditioned medium and in a co-culture system with fibroblasts. The in vivo experiments demonstrated that FRTL-Tc cells injected intrathyroidally grew faster than those injected subcutaneously, and that admixed fibroblasts enhanced growth of subcutaneous FRTL-Tc tumors, indicating that the intrathyroidal milieu, particularly in the presence of fibroblasts, confer growth-promoting advantage to thyroid carcinoma cells. This in vivo growth-promoting effect of fibroblasts on FRTL-Tc cells was duplicated in the in vitro experiments using the fibroblast-conditioned medium. Thus, our data demonstrate that this effect is mediated by soluble factor(s), is reversible, and is comparable to that of 10% fetal bovine serum. However, normal FRTL5 cells did not respond to the fibroblast-conditioned medium. Furthermore, high- and low

  11. Hypophysectomy abolishes rhythms in rat thyroid hormones but not in the thyroid clock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahrenkrug, J; Georg, B; Hannibal, J

    2017-01-01

    The endocrine body rhythms including the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis seem to be regulated by the circadian timing system, and daily rhythmicity of circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is well established. The circadian rhythms are generated by endogenous clocks in the central bra...

  12. Study on ultrastructural changes in thyroid gland of rats exposed to pulsed electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaoguang; Zeng Guiying; Ren Dongqing; Fang Henghu; Su Xiaoming; Huang Xiaofeng

    2006-01-01

    The work is to observe effects of PEMW (pulse electromagnetic wave) exposure on function and morphology of thyroid gland of rats. At different time points (24, 48, 96 and 192 h) after exposure to PEMW (E=115 kV m -1 , 12000 pulses), radioimmunoassay was performed to observe the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T 4 ) and triiodo- thyronine (T 3 ) in sera of the male Sparague-Dawley rats. Optic microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to observe structural changes of the thyroid gland at the time points. The T 3 , T 4 and TSH in sera increased significantly, reaching a peak at 24 h and decreasing gradually then. Although no obvious changes in the thyroid gland were observed under the optic microscope, some ultrastructural changes in the thyroid gland were found under the TEM. The ultrastructures were obviously changed at 12 h and aggravated until 48 h. In the experimented rats, dilatated endoplasmic reticulum gathered with lots of protein excretion, lipid droplet and heterochromatin gathered under the nucleus membranes were observed in follicular epithelial cells. These changes were palliated at 96 h but not recovered. PEMW can affect levels of hormones in sera and the hazard ultrastructural changes of thyroid gland. Endoplasmic reticulum is the main injured organelle. (authors)

  13. Mechanisms of cardiac transplantation tolerance in syngeneic rat radiation chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, T.M.

    1981-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of adult LEW rats, lethally irradiated (860 R), transplanted with an RT-1 incompatible Wistar Furth (WF) heart or kidney and repopulated on day 2 with a 4:1 mixture of syngeneic thymus and bone marrow cells accept these grafts. In order to look at the ability of animals tolerating WF organ grafts to respond against WF spleen cells in vitro we developed a rat mixed lymphocyte culture. Tolerant animals were tested for the ability to respond to donor antigens and approximately half of the 50 animals tested, were responsive. We attempted to demonstrate suppressor cells which might be responsible for maintaining tolerance in the nonresponders. Neither mixtures at the sensitization or the effector level suggested that tolerance was being maintained by a suppressor cell. An in vivo assay which tested the ability of various cell populations to affect the survival of allogeneic hearts transplanted into sublethally irradiated recipients was then employed. Tolerance is induced using this protocol in a manner similar or identical to tolerance produced by neonatal injection of antigen. This tolerance might be maintained in part by suppressor cells which prevents the generation of clones of cells reactive against the heart donor. The mechanism of tolerance in rats with demonstrable clones of reactive cells remains to be determined

  14. Effects of low-dose fractionated external irradiation on metabolic and structural characteristics of rat thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadolnik, L.; Niatsetskaya, Z. [Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Grodno (Belarus)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The problem of thyroid radiosensitivity to the effect of low dose external ionizing irradiation presently seems to be the least studied, and the experimental findings - the most contradictory. The aim of the work was to study the effects of long-term low-dose fractionated irradiation on the iodide metabolism and structure of the thyroid. Female Wistar rats weighing 140-160 g were irradiated 20 times (5 times a week, for 4 weeks) using a 60 Co installation. The single absorbed doses were 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 Gy and the total ones - 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 Gy, respectively. The animals were decapitated after 1 day, 4 and 24 weeks following the last irradiation. The thyroid tissue was used to assay for thyro-peroxidase (T.P.O.) activity as well as total, protein -bound and free iodide concentrations. Microscopic and morphometric examination of histologic thyroid preparations was carried out. Blood was assayed for thyroxin (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations. After a day following the irradiation, the thyroid showed a pronounced increase in the concentration of total iodide (30.0-54.4%) as well in that of free (32.1-60.8%) and protein-bound ones (24.4-37.4%). The most pronounced iodide concentration elevation was noted in the 0.1 -Gy animals, with thyroid T.P.O. activity being raised by 48.0%. Only the 0.5 Gy-group had 1.4-1.5-fold reduced thyroid hormone levels. Four weeks after the irradiation, studied parameters of irradiated rats were brought back to the control values, except for the 0.5 Gy-group. However, after 24-weeks, the 0.5-and 0.25- irradiated rats experienced a 12-20% thyroid weight elevation in comparison with the control. The thyroid of these animals demonstrated reduced contents of total and free iodide as well as T.P.O. activity by 24.5 and 34.8%. The 0.1 Gy-group had a 1.7-fold increased T.P.O. activity. The concentration of the thyroid hormones was maintained diminished only in the 0.5 Gy -irradiated group. However

  15. Edaravone combined with Schwann cell transplantation may repair spinal cord injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-quan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Edaravone has been shown to delay neuronal apoptosis, thereby improving nerve function and the microenvironment after spinal cord injury. Edaravone can provide a favorable environment for the treatment of spinal cord injury using Schwann cell transplantation. This study used rat models of complete spinal cord transection at T 9. Six hours later, Schwann cells were transplanted in the head and tail ends of the injury site. Simultaneously, edaravone was injected through the caudal vein. Eight weeks later, the PKH-26-labeled Schwann cells had survived and migrated to the center of the spinal cord injury region in rats after combined treatment with edaravone and Schwann cells. Moreover, the number of PKH-26-labeled Schwann cells in the rat spinal cord was more than that in rats undergoing Schwann cell transplantation alone or rats without any treatment. Horseradish peroxidase retrograde tracing revealed that the number of horseradish peroxidase-positive nerve fibers was greater in rats treated with edaravone combined withSchwann cells than in rats with Schwann cell transplantation alone. The results demonstrated that lower extremity motor function and neurophysiological function were better in rats treated with edaravone and Schwann cells than in rats with Schwann cell transplantation only. These data confirmed that Schwann cell transplantation combined with edaravone injection promoted the regeneration of nerve fibers of rats with spinal cord injury and improved neurological function.

  16. Pistacia chinensis: A Potent Ameliorator of CCl4 Induced Lung and Thyroid Toxicity in Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Naz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study protective effect of ethanol extract of Pistacia chinensis bark (PCEB was investigated in rats against CCl4 induced lung and thyroid injuries. PCEB dose dependently inhibited the rise of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, hydrogen peroxide, nitrite, and protein content and restored the levels of antioxidant enzymes, that is, catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, and quinone reductase in both lung and thyroid tissues of CCl4 treated rats. Decrease in number of leukocytes, neutrophils, and hemoglobin and T3 and T4 content as well as increase in monocytes, eosinophils, and lymphocytes count with CCl4 were restored to normal level with PCEB treatment. Histological study of CCl4 treated rats showed various lung injuries like rupture of alveolar walls and bronchioles, aggregation of fibroblasts, and disorganized Clara cells. Similarly, histology of CCl4 treated thyroid tissues displayed damaged thyroid follicles, hypertrophy, and colloidal depletion. However, PCEB exhibited protective behaviour for lungs and thyroid, with improved histological structure in a dose dependant manner. Presence of three known phenolic compounds, that is, rutin, tannin, and gallic acid, and three unknown compounds was verified in thin layer chromatographic assessment of PCEB. In conclusion, P. chinensis exhibited antioxidant activity by the presence of free radical quenching constituents.

  17. Carbamazepine (Tegretol) inhibits in vivo iodide uptake and hormone synthesis in rat thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, S.M.; Alexander, N.M.

    1987-01-01

    Decreased serum concentrations of T3 and T4 occur in patients treated with the anticonvulsant drug carbamazepine (CBZ), but with rare exception, these patients remain euthyroid. The mechanism that accounts for diminished hormone levels is unknown, and our objective was to study the direct effect of CBZ on iodide uptake and hormone synthesis in thyroid glands of CBZ-treated and pair-fed control rats. Chronic ingestion (per os) of CBZ in male rats reduced the four hour thyroid 131I-iodide uptake by approximately 60%. This inhibition occurred after the animals had received sufficient CBZ to attain plasma CBZ concentrations of 0.8 microgram/ml. Continued treatment with CBZ ranging from 560 to 800 mg/kg/day for 14 days did not result in further inhibition of iodide uptake even though the plasma CBZ concentrations had increased 6-20 fold. No inhibition of iodide uptake was apparent when the animals initially received CBZ ranging from 40 to 152 mg/kg body weight for 22 days when there were no detectable levels of plasma CBZ. Overall growth rates of CBZ-treated rats were slightly (6-10%) less than the pair-fed control animals. Plasma T4 concentrations were reduced by 18% (p less than 0.05) in the CBZ-fed animals, while T3 concentrations were diminished by 53% (p less than 0.01). CBZ appeared to alter thyroidal iodide transport because the thyroid:plasma iodide ratios were decreased by 26% in the drug-treated rats. The distribution of radioiodine in thyroidal iodoamino acids was essentially the same in both groups of rats but the absolute quantities of radioiodine were more than 2.5 times greater in the control rats. CBZ failed to inhibit peroxidase-catalyzed iodide and guaiacol oxidation in vitro

  18. Some parameters of thyroid function in Dutch-Miranda rats submitted to chronic treatment of lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankenfeld, T.G.P.; Moura, E.G. de; Rosenthal, D.

    1986-01-01

    Some aspects of thyroid function in rats whose blood lithium levels were maintained are investigated. At therapeutic levels during 1,5 to 2 months. Adult young male rats (isogenic Dutch-Miranda) of the same litter were randomly distributed into paired experimental and control groups of 3 animals. The animals were fed comercial chow and received tap water or LiCl 12,5 mM in distiled water to drink, ad-libitum. At the end of experimental period each animal received an intraperitoneal tracer dosis of I-131 (5-6 uCi), 72 h later their thyroids were removed, weighed and counted to determine the I-131 uptake. The pooled thyroids of each group were homogeneized and supernadant and particulate fractions were separed by centrifugation. TPO activity was determined in the pseudosolubilized particulate feaction. (Author) [pt

  19. Eosinophilic spleen colonies are produced in rat-marrow-transplanted but not in murine-marrow-transplanted mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, L.G.; Kelemen, E.

    1988-01-01

    Differential counts of about 5000 splenic clusters and colonies developing in whole-body-irradiated mice and rats were made, using semi-serial histological sections prepared 9 to 12 d after transplantation with bone marrow haemopoietic cells. The investigated mouse and rat spleens were from syngeneically, allogeneically, or xenogeneically transplanted recipients. Splenic eosinophil clusters were always found when rat eosinophil-producing progenitors were present in the inoculum, whereas murine inocula failed to produce splenic eosinophilic clusters even in the syngeneic mouse. The limiting factor in the production pf splenic eosinophilic clusters was the appropriate donor progenitor/committed stem cell itself. Changes in the percentages of eosinophil clusters with the number of injected cells and with increased doses of irradiation, as well as formation of rat eosinophil colonies in mice, as against mainly clusters in rats, themselves show that regulatory mechanisms of the recipients also play a role. These regulatory mechanisms cannot be attributed to the splenic microenvironment. (author)

  20. Effect of Ecklonia kurome extract on thyroid hormone disorder in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Ecklonia kurome extract on thyroid hormone disorder in rats. Wen-bo ... Results: T3 and T4 serum levels in mice decreased after the administration of EKE. The relative ... mg/kg) group, and various concentrations of ... to the peroxidation of membrane lipids, according .... peripheral tissues by outer ring mono-.

  1. Localisation of the neuropeptide PACAP and its receptors in the rat parathyroid and thyroid glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hannibal, Jens

    2011-01-01

    PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide) is widely distributed neuropeptide acting via three subtypes of receptors, PAC(1), VPAC(1) and VPAC(2). Here we examined the localisation and nature of PACAP-immunoreactive nerves in the rat thyroid and parathyroid glands and defined the ...

  2. Effects of thyroid dysfunction and radiation exposure on some biochemical aspects in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, S.Z.

    2005-01-01

    Radiation exposure effect associated with altered thyroid gland activity was investigated in rats. The results obtained showed that hypothyroidism was associated with low blood levels of free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), high levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), decreased blood malondialdehyde level (MDA), increased glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and hypocalcemia were observed. Hyperthyroidism was accompanied with high blood FT4 and FT3, low TSH levels, increased MDA levels, decreased GSH-Px activity, hypercalcaemia, low albumin level and A/G ratio were recorded. Globulin and vitamin E levels were not affected by the changes of animal thyroid states. In hypothyroid irradiated rats, although significant amelioration was recorded in blood GSH-Px activity and MDA contents, compared to hypothyroid rats, irradiation exaggerated the changes in FT4, FT3, TSH levels and also increased globulin and decreased vitamin E. Irradiation of hyperthyroid rats ameliorated hormones and albumin levels as compared to hyperthyroid rats. Despite of a decrease in blood vitamin E, the changes in MDA levels, GSH-Px activity and Ca levels were nearly similar to those recorded for hyperthyroid rats. According to the data obtained in the present study, it could be concluded that symptoms of hypothyroidism could be intensified by exposure to radiation

  3. Type of sweet flavour carrier affects thyroid axis activity in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pałkowska-Goździk, Ewelina; Bigos, Anna; Rosołowska-Huszcz, Danuta

    2018-03-01

    Non-nutritive sweeteners are the most widely used food additives worldwide. However, their metabolic outcomes are still a matter of controversy and their effect on the thyroid activity, a key regulator of metabolism, has not been previously studied. Therefore, we aim to determine the influence of the sweet type flavour carrier on selected parameters of thyroid axis activity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 105) were divided into 3 groups fed ad libitum for three weeks isocaloric diets (3.76 ± 0.5 kcal/g): two with the same sweet flavour intensity responded to 10% of sucrose (with sucrose-SC-and sucralose-SU) and one non-sweet diet (NS). To evaluate the post-ingested effects, animals were euthanised at fast and 30, 60, 120, 180 min after meal. The results obtained indicate that both the presence and the type of sweet taste flavour carrier affect thyroid axis activity both at fasting and postprandial state. Compared to diet with sucrose which stimulates thyroid axis activity, sucralose addition diminishes thyroid hormone synthesis as thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity, plasma thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3) concentration was lower than in SC and NS while in non-sweet diet the lowest level of hepatic deiodinase type 1 (DIO1) and the highest reverse T3 (rT3) level indicate on altered thyroid hormone peripheral metabolism. Both the presence and the type of sweet flavour carrier have a significant impact on thyroid axis activity. Our findings suggest that this organochlorine sweetener is metabolically active and might exacerbate metabolic disorders via an adverse effect on thyroid hormone metabolism.

  4. Thyroid hormone receptor binds to a site in the rat growth hormone promoter required for induction by thyroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.J.; Brent, G.A.; Warne, R.L.; Larsen, P.R.; Moore, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    Transcription of the rat growth hormone (rGH) gene in pituitary cells is increased by addition of thyroid hormone (T3). This induction is dependent on the presence of specific sequences just upstream of the rGH promoter. The authors have partially purified T3 receptor from rat liver and examined its interaction with these rGH sequences. They show here that T3 receptor binds specifically to a site just upstream of the basal rGH promoter. This binding site includes two copies of a 7-base-pair direct repeat, the centers of which are separated by 10 base pairs. Deletions that specifically remove the T3 receptor binding site drastically reduce response to T3 in transient transfection experiments. These results demonstrate that T3 receptor can recognize specific DNA sequences and suggest that it can act directly as a positive transcriptional regulatory factor

  5. Early effects of external gamma irradiation on iodide metabolism in rat thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niatsetskaya, Z.; Nadolnik, L.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The exposure of the thyroid gland to therapeutic doses of external gamma irradiation is frequently associated with thyroid dysfunction. Although late irradiation effects are well documented, little is still known about the early functional alterations in the thyroid subjected to radiation therapy. The aim of this study was to examine the early effect of single external gamma irradiation on iodide metabolism in the thyroid. The Wistar female rats were irradiated using a 60 Co installation with a constant capacity of 0.64 Gy/min. The doses used were 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 5 Gy. The animals were sacrificed after 24 hours following the irradiation. T he thyroid organ culture was cultivated during 24 h and than was irradiated with a single dose of 5 Gy. The thyroid tissue was assayed for thyro-peroxidase activity and concentrations of total, free and protein -binding iodide. It was shown that the 0.25 Gy irradiation depressed thyroid iodide uptake, which was manifested in decreasing total iodide by 25%. The same tendency was observed after the 0.5 Gy irradiation. In the 1, 2, 5 Gy groups, the concentrations of total and free iodide increased by 26 -34% and 50-68%, accordingly. The level of protein-binding iodide in these groups was within the control values. However, protein-binding/total iodide and protein binding/ free iodide ratios decreased by 17 -41%, suggesting inhibition of thyroglobulin iodination. Thyro-peroxidase (T.P.O.) plays a key role in thyroid hormone synthesis by catalyzing both the iodination of thyroglobulin and the coupling some of the iodo-tyrosyl residues. After 24 hours on irradiation, a 31.5-54% dose-dependent inhibition of T.P.O. activity was shown in the 1, 2 and 5 Gy groups. The irradiation of the rat thyroid organ culture with a single dose of 5 Gy also led to significant inhibition of T.P.O. by 56.91% after 2 hours. We compared the enzyme kinetics of thyro-peroxidase from thyroid microsomal fraction control and

  6. Hypertrophic response of the Association of Thyroid Hormone and Exercise in the Heart of Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Fernanda Rodrigues de, E-mail: nandaeduca@yahoo.com.br; Resende, Elmiro Santos; Lopes, Leandro; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Chagas, Rafaella; Fidale, Thiago; Rodrigues, Poliana [UFU - Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, MG (Brazil)

    2014-02-15

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a component of cardiac remodeling occurring in response to an increase of the activity or functional overload of the heart. Assess hypertrophic response of the association of thyroid hormone and exercise in the rat heart. We used 37 Wistar rats, male, adults were randomly divided into four groups: control, hormone (TH), exercise (E), thyroid hormone and exercise (H + E); the group received daily hormone levothyroxine sodium by gavage at a dose of 20 μg thyroid hormone/100g body weight, the exercise group took swimming five times a week, with additional weight corresponding to 20% of body weight for six weeks; in group H + E were applied simultaneously TH treatment groups and E. The statistics used was analysis of variance, where appropriate, by Tukey test and Pearson correlation test. The T4 was greater in groups TH and H + E. The total weight of the heart was greater in patients who received thyroid hormone and left ventricular weight was greater in the TH group. The transverse diameter of cardiomyocytes increased in groups TH, E and H + E. The percentage of collagen was greater in groups E and H + E Correlation analysis between variables showed distinct responses. The association of thyroid hormone with high-intensity exercise produced cardiac hypertrophy, and generated a standard hypertrophy not directly correlated to the degree of fibrosis.

  7. Body, heart, thyroid gland and skeletal muscle weight changes in rats with altered thyroid status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Tomáš; Zachařová, Gisela; Smerdu, V.; Jirmanová, Isa

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 6 (2001), s. 619-626 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/00/1653 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : thyroid state * skeletal muscles * body and organ weight Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.027, year: 2001

  8. Alternative complement pathway and factor B activities in rats with altered blood levels of thyroid hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitencourt, C.S. [Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Duarte, C.G.; Azzolini, A.E.C.S.; Assis-Pandochi, A.I. [Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-03-02

    Evaluating the activity of the complement system under conditions of altered thyroid hormone levels might help elucidate the role of complement in triggering autoimmune processes. Here, we investigated alternative pathway (AP) activity in male Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g) after altering their thyroid hormone levels by treatment with triiodothyronine (T3), propylthiouracil (PTU) or thyroidectomy. T3 and thyroxine (T4) levels were determined by chemiluminescence assays. Hemolytic assays were performed to evaluate the lytic activity of the AP. Factor B activity was evaluated using factor B-deficient serum. An anti-human factor B antibody was used to measure factor B levels in serum by radial immunodiffusion. T3 measurements in thyroidectomized animals or animals treated with PTU demonstrated a significant reduction in hormone levels compared to control. The results showed a reduction in AP lytic activity in rats treated with increasing amounts of T3 (1, 10, or 50 µg). Factor B activity was also decreased in the sera of hyperthyroid rats treated with 1 to 50 µg T3. Additionally, treating rats with 25 µg T3 significantly increased factor B levels in their sera (P < 0.01). In contrast, increased factor B concentration and activity (32%) were observed in hypothyroid rats. We conclude that alterations in thyroid hormone levels affect the activity of the AP and factor B, which may in turn affect the roles of AP and factor B in antibody production.

  9. Alternative complement pathway and factor B activities in rats with altered blood levels of thyroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitencourt, C.S.; Duarte, C.G.; Azzolini, A.E.C.S.; Assis-Pandochi, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluating the activity of the complement system under conditions of altered thyroid hormone levels might help elucidate the role of complement in triggering autoimmune processes. Here, we investigated alternative pathway (AP) activity in male Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g) after altering their thyroid hormone levels by treatment with triiodothyronine (T3), propylthiouracil (PTU) or thyroidectomy. T3 and thyroxine (T4) levels were determined by chemiluminescence assays. Hemolytic assays were performed to evaluate the lytic activity of the AP. Factor B activity was evaluated using factor B-deficient serum. An anti-human factor B antibody was used to measure factor B levels in serum by radial immunodiffusion. T3 measurements in thyroidectomized animals or animals treated with PTU demonstrated a significant reduction in hormone levels compared to control. The results showed a reduction in AP lytic activity in rats treated with increasing amounts of T3 (1, 10, or 50 µg). Factor B activity was also decreased in the sera of hyperthyroid rats treated with 1 to 50 µg T3. Additionally, treating rats with 25 µg T3 significantly increased factor B levels in their sera (P < 0.01). In contrast, increased factor B concentration and activity (32%) were observed in hypothyroid rats. We conclude that alterations in thyroid hormone levels affect the activity of the AP and factor B, which may in turn affect the roles of AP and factor B in antibody production

  10. Modifications of thyroid hormones secretion and production in newborn rats from hyperthyroic dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, M.F.G.; Neves, E.S.S.; Neves, S.R.S.; Catanho, M.T.J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The onset of fetal thyroid function occurs about 17-18 days after conception in the rat. The maternal hyperthyroidism which occurs during gestation provokes alterations in the rat after its birth; due to this alterations, we decided to analyze the metabolic and hormonal modification in the newborn rats. The hyperthyroidism was induced in normal dams, which were being trated for 2 days with T4 2mg (thyroxine per 100g body wt/day) before mating. Another dam group which was submitted to an inducement of hyperthyroidism maintained the treatment with T4 and six day after gestation were being treated for 9 days. It was seen that the rat which was born from hyperthyroic dams suffered alterations on its T4 and T3 hormone levels concerning the days 10, 20 and 30 after birth. T4 e T3 were performed with Immu chem cooted tube - I 125 RIA KIT .The administration of T4 affected the fetal thyroid function gland to, causing a decrease of both T4 and T3 levels, as was also modifications on their weight and size, even after the birth, indicating that the maternal hyperthyroidism influences on the post-natal life of the rat. The growth is affected throught post-natal life by thyroid hormones, which have a facilitatory influence on GH economy, as opposed to the inhibitory effects on TSH economy. (author). 12 refs., 4 figs

  11. Subretinally transplanted embryonic stem cells rescue photoreceptor cells from degeneration in the RCS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraermeyer, U; Thumann, G; Luther, T; Kociok, N; Armhold, S; Kruttwig, K; Andressen, C; Addicks, K; Bartz-Schmidt, K U

    2001-01-01

    The Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat is an animal model for retinal degeneration such as the age-related macular degeneration. The RCS rat undergoes a progressive retinal degeneration during the early postnatal period. A potential treatment to prevent this retinal degeneration is the transplantation into the subretinal space of cells that would replace functions of the degenerating retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells or may form neurotrophic factors. In this study we have investigated the potential of subretinally transplanted embryonic stem cells to prevent the genetically determined photoreceptor cell degeneration in the RCS rat. Embryonic stem cells from the inner cell mass of the mouse blastocyst were allowed to differentiate to neural precursor cells in vitro and were then transplanted into the subretinal space of 20-day-old RCS rats. Transplanted and sham-operated rats were sacrificed 2 months following cell transplantation. The eyes were enucleated and photoreceptor degeneration was quantified by analyzing and determining the thickness of the outer nuclear layer by light and electron microscopy. In the eyes transplanted with embryonic cells up to 8 rows of photoreceptor cell nuclei were observed, whereas in nontreated control eyes the outer nuclear layer had degenerated completely. Transplantation of embryonic stem cells appears to delay photoreceptor cell degeneration in RCS rats.

  12. Study on iodine levels in thyroids of iodine-supplemented rats by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuefei; Zhang Fang; Xu Qing; Liu Nianqing; Chai Zhifang; Zhao Xueqin; Zuo Aijun

    2003-01-01

    The second generation female Wistar rats that have been treated with iodine-deficient food, after their delivery, are divided into three groups i.e. excessive-iodine (EI), adequate-iodine (AI) and iodine-deficient (ID) according to the KIO 3 concentration in the drinking water (3.0, 0.4, 0 mg/L). In addition, the normal rats with low iodine food and 0.4 mg/L KIO 3 water are used as the control group (C). The iodine content in thyroid and the serum thyroid hormone levels of the third generation rats are measured by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA), and the method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The results indicate that the total thyroxine (TT 4 ) and the free thyroxine (FT 4 ) of the EI, compared with those of the controls, are significantly decreased (p 3 ) evidently increased (p 4 , FT 4 and goiter

  13. INFLUENCE OF IODINATED OIL AND MARGARINE ON THE THYROID SYSTEM OF RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica A. Sturza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency is the most prevalent micronutrient deficiency in the world today. Food fortification is an important compliment to food-based approaches, and iodine fortification of foods as one of the strategies for the control of iodine deficiency. Manufacturing and consumption of sunflower oil fortified with iodine as well as derivative products on it basis is a perspective direction for elimination of alimentary dependent iodine deficiency disorders. The present work examines morphological changes in the thyroid system of rats at the experimental mercatholile-induced hypothyroidism. As well it determines the influence of iodinated oil and margarine on the thyroid system of rats. It specifies the safe value of iodinated oil and margarine for rats. In-vivo study demonstrated the efficacy of fortification of lipid products with iodine under iodine deficiency status.

  14. [Morphological changes in the thyroid gland of rats during various phases of the estral cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliner, L I; Ledovskaia, S M

    1975-08-01

    The functional state of the thyroid gland and the concentration of thyroid hormones in the peripheral blood were studied in 20 mature female albino rats during their estral cycle. Evaluation of the thyroid functional state was made according to data of histological, morphological (the diameter of folliculi, the height of the thyroid epithelium) and histochemical analysis (determination of NAD and NADP-dehydrogenase, succinatedehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, peroxydase, acid and alkaline phosphatase) as well as biochemical determination of iodine bound with protein (IBP) in the blood plasma and investigation of the ratio of the parameters in question under conditions of the sex cycle. The cyclic changes of the morphological state of the thyroid gland attended by the phases of the estral cycle were revealed. The activation of the organ was observed in proestrus and estrus which was evidenced by high levels of activity of the enzymes under study, high concentration of IBP in the blood and increased height of thyreocytes. A decreased function of the thyroid parenchyma was observed at the period of metaestrus-diestrus.

  15. A Transcriptomic Study of Maternal Thyroid Adaptation to Pregnancy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Long Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid disorders are relatively frequently observed in pregnant women. However, the impact of pregnancy on maternal thyroid has not been systematically evaluated. In the present study, using the rat as an animal model, we observed that the weight of maternal thyroid increased by about 18% in late pregnancy. To gain an insight into the molecular mechanisms, we took advantage of RNA-seq approaches to investigate global gene expression changes in the maternal thyroid. We identified a total of 615 differentially expressed genes, most of which (558 genes or 90.7% were up-regulated in late pregnancy compared to the non-pregnant control. Gene ontology analysis showed that genes involved in cell cycle and metabolism were significantly enriched among up-regulated genes. Unexpectedly, pathway analysis revealed that expression levels for key components of the thyroid hormone synthesis pathway were not significantly altered. In addition, by examining of the promoter regions of up-regulated genes, we identified MAZ (MYC-associated zinc finger protein and TFCP2 (transcription factor CP2 as two causal transcription factors. Our study contributes to an increase in the knowledge on the maternal thyroid adaptation to pregnancy.

  16. {sup 131}I-induced changes in rat thyroid gland function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torlak, V.; Capkun, V.; Stanicic, A. [Clinical Hospital Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Zemunik, T. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Medical Biology]. E-mail: tzemunik@bsb.mefst.hr; Modun, D. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Pharmacology; Pesutic-Pisac, V. [Clinical Hospital Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Pathology; Markotic, A. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). School of Medicine. Dept. of Biochemistry; Pavela-Vrancic, M. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Faculty of Natural Sciences. Dept. of Chemistry

    2007-08-15

    Therapeutic doses of {sup 131}I administered to thyrotoxic patients may cause thyroid failure. The present study used a rat model to determine thyroid function after the administration of different doses of {sup 131}I (64-277 {mu}Ci). Thirty male Fisher rats in the experimental group and 30 in the control group (untreated) were followed for 6 months. The animals were 4 months old at the beginning of the experiment and were sacrificed at an age of 9 months. Hormone concentration was determined before {sup 131}I administration (4-month-old animals) and three times following {sup 131}I administration, when the animals were 7, 8, and 9 months old. The thyroid glands were removed and weighed, their volume was determined and histopathological examination was performed at the end of the experiment. Significant differences in serum triiodothyronine and thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration, measured at the age of 7, 8, and 9 months, were found in the experimental group. During aging of the animals, the concentration of thyroxin fell from 64.8 {+-} 8.16 to 55.0 {+-} 6.1 nM in the control group and from 69.4 {+-} 6.9 to 25.4 {+-} 3.2 nM in the experimental group. Thyroid gland volume and weight were significantly lower in the experimental than in the control group. Thyroid glands from the experimental group showed hyaline thickness of the blood vessel wall, necrotic follicles, a strong inflammatory reaction, and peeling of necrotic cells in the follicles. In conclusion, significant differences in hormone levels and histopathological findings indicated prolonged hypothyroidism after {sup 131}I administration to rats, which was not {sup 131}I dose dependent. (author)

  17. Acute rejection after kidney transplantation promotes graft fibrosis with elevated adenosine level in rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingliang Li

    Full Text Available Chronic allograft nephropathy is a worldwide issue with the major feature of progressive allograft fibrosis, eventually ending with graft loss. Adenosine has been demonstrated to play an important role in process of fibrosis. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between adenosine and fibrosis in renal allograft acute rejection in rat.Wistar rats and SD rats were selected as experimental animals. Our study designed two groups. In the allograft transplantation group, kidneys of Wistar rats were orthotopically transplanted into SD rat recipients, the same species but not genetically identical, to induce acute rejection. Kidney transplantations of SD rats to SD rats which were genetically identical were served as the control. We established rat models and detected a series of indicators. All data were analyzed statistically. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.Compared with the control group, levels of adenosine increased significantly in the allograft transplantation group, in which acute rejection was induced (P<0.05. Progressive allograft fibrosis as well as collagen deposition were observed.These findings suggested that level of adenosine was upregulated in acute rejection after kidney allograft transplantation in rat. Acute rejection may promote renal allograft fibrosis via the adenosine signaling pathways.

  18. Effects of Chronic Exposure to Triclosan on Reproductive and Thyroid Endpoints in the Adult Wistar Female Rat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes the results of a long term adult female rat oral exposure to triclosan and includes hormone, estrous cyclicity, thyroid histology and liver...

  19. Efficacy and prospects for cryopreserved thyroid gland transplantation as a method for treatment of different forms of primary hypothyroidism including postradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karachentsev, Yu.I.; Lyakh, I.A.; Khasiev, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    It was established that auto-and allo transplantation of cryopreserved thyroid is a physiologically well grounded technique of treatment and can be an alternative to substitution hormonotherapy of hypothyroidism and can be a main method of treatment in cases when hormone treatment is not effective or is contraindicated.Talking into account the efficiency of cryopreserved thyroid transplantation in patients with primary hypothyroidism,it is possible to predict its positive effect for c postradiation hypothyroidism treatment,if substitution hormonotherapy is not effective

  20. Thyroid hormone uptake by rat hepatocytes in primary culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.P. Krenning (Eric)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractIodide is taken up by the thyroid follicular cell, oxydized and bound to thyroglobulin at the apical membrane facing the colloid in the follicular lumen. Iodinated colloid is subsequently engulfed by the follicular cell and hydrolysed, liberating thyroxine and triiodothyronine from their

  1. On the cells of origin of radiogenic thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, K.H.; Domann, F.E.; Groch, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    A major effort has been devoted to studies of the origins of radiogenic and hormonally-induced cancer at the cellular level in vivo. The studies has provided evidence that the functional thyroid follicules (follicular units, FU) which are formed in grafts of monodispersed rat thyroid cells, and hence the thyroid tumors which later develop in such grafts, are clonal in origin. Transplantation assays indicate that the clonogens comprise 1% of the cells in monodispersed suspensions of normal thyroid tissue. Carcinogenesis studies show that neoplastic initiation of thyroid clonogens by radiation is a commo event. Promotion-progression to cancer from radiation initiated clonogens has, however, been shown to be inversely related to the total grafted thyroid cell number. It is thus important to further define the physiology and population kinetics of the thyroid clonogens under different hormonal conditions both in situ and following transplantion. This report briefly summarizes recent data on (a) local cell-cell and remote hormonal feedback interactions during neoplastic promotion of initiated cells among the progeny of grafted clonogens in multicellular FU; (b) clonogenic cell population kinetics in situ during goitrogenesis and goiter involution; and (c) the reestablishment of the thyroid-hypothalamus-pituitary hormonal feedback system in thyroid cell-grafted thyroidectomized rats and its dependence on the formation of FU by the grafted clonogens. These results support the conclusion that the thyroid gland contains a small sub-population of clonogenic epithelial cells which posess many stem cell-like characteristics. (N.K.)

  2. Effects of early surfactant treatment persisting for one week after lung transplantation in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erasmus, ME; Hofstede, GJH; Petersen, AH; Haagsman, HP; Oetomo, SB; Prop, J

    We investigated whether pulmonary surfactant in rat lung transplants recovered during the first week post-transplantation, along with symptoms of the reimplantation response, and whether this recovery was affected by early surfactant treatment. The severity of pulmonary injury was varied by

  3. Reduction of acute rejection by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells during rat small bowel transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    Full Text Available Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs have shown immunosuppressive activity in transplantation. This study was designed to determine whether BMMSCs could improve outcomes of small bowel transplantation in rats.Heterotopic small bowel transplantation was performed from Brown Norway to Lewis rats, followed by infusion of BMMSCs through the superficial dorsal veins of the penis. Controls included rats infused with normal saline (allogeneic control, isogeneically transplanted rats (BN-BN and nontransplanted animals. The animals were sacrificed after 1, 5, 7 or 10 days. Small bowel histology and apoptosis, cytokine concentrations in serum and intestinal grafts, and numbers of T regulatory (Treg cells were assessed at each time point.Acute cellular rejection occurred soon after transplantation and became aggravated over time in the allogeneic control rats, with increase in apoptosis, inflammatory response, and T helper (Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg-related cytokines. BMMSCs significantly attenuated acute cellular rejection, reduced apoptosis and suppressed the concentrations of interleukin (IL-2, IL-6, IL-17, IL-23, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and interferon (IFN-γ while upregulating IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF-β expression and increasing Treg levels.BMMSCs improve the outcomes of allogeneic small bowel transplantation by attenuating the inflammatory response and acute cellular rejection. Treatment with BMMSCs may overcome acute cellular rejection in small bowel transplantation.

  4. Fetal frontal cortex transplant (14C) 2-deoxyglucose uptake and histology: survival in cavities of host rat brain motor cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, F.R.; Gonzalez, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    Fetal frontal neocortex from 18-day-old rat embryonic brain was transplanted into cavities in 30-day-old host motor cortex. Sixty days after transplantation, 5 of 15 transplanted rats had surviving fetal transplants. The fetal cortex transplants were physically attached to the host brain, completely filled the original cavity, and had numerous surviving cells including pyramidal neurons. Cell lamination within the fetal transplant was abnormal. The ( 14 C) 2-deoxyglucose uptake of all five of the fetal neocortex transplants was less than adjacent cortex and contralateral host motor-sensory cortex, but more than adjacent corpus callosum white matter. The results indicate that fetal frontal neocortex can be transplanted into damaged rat motor cortex. The metabolic rate of the transplants suggests they could be partially functional

  5. Study of a bridge-like bone transplantation in the mandible of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Aizo

    1979-01-01

    A bridge-like bone transplantation using fresh auto-ribs was performed in the mandibles of 161 female rats (Donryu strain, weight 130 g) previously irradiated by means of a betatron (group B, 1000 rad; group C, 2000 rad; group D, 3000 rad). Formation of a bridge-like bone in the transplanted region was studied morphologically and the results were compared with those obtained from non-treated rats (nonirradiated and non-transplanted rats, 5), irradiated and non-transplanted rats (36), and control rats (group A: nonirradiated and transplanted rats, 30) on the 7th, 21st, 35th 49th, 63rd and 90th postoperative days (5 rats per day, totaling 90). All the rats had a favorable prognosis without suppuration or exclusion. In groups B, C, and D, depilation was noted on the skin of the mandible. In group D, incisor teeth were shorter, resulting in abnormal occlusion. Disappearance of reactive inflammation, formation of granulation tissues, resorption of transplanted bone, and new growth of bone appeared later in groups C and D than in groups A and B. New growth of bone in the recipient's was remarkably less in groups C and D than in groups A and B. Formation of a bridge-like bone was observed in all the rats in groups A and B after the 35th postoperative day. However, in groups C and D, new growth of bone from the base of the bridge was small and did not connect with the transplanted bone even on the 90th postoperative day. Consequently, a bridge-like bone was not formed. On every observation day, findings in group A were similar to those in group B, and those in group C were similar to those in group D. Irradiation with 2000 rad or 3000 rad had an effect on formation of a bridge-like bone, but irradiation with 1000 rad had no effect. (Ueda, J.)

  6. Effect of selenium on the thyroid gland antioxidative metabolisms in rat model by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyung Seok; Choi, Jun Hyeok; JUng, Do Young; Kim, Jang Oh; Shin, Ji Hye; Min, Byung In [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Selenium (Se), which is natural materials existing was known as an important component of selenoprotein, one of the important proteins responsible for the redox pump of a living body. Selenium was orally administered to Rat and irradiated with 10 Gy of radiation. Then, the thyroid gland was used as a target organ for 1 day, 7 days and 21 days to investigate the radiation protection effect of selenium (Se) through changes of blood components, thyroid hormones (T3, T4), antioxidant enzyme (GPx) activity and thyroid tissue changes. As a result, there was a significant protective effect of hematopoietic immune system(hemoglobin concentration, neutrophil, platelet)(p<0.05). The activity of Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), the antioxidant enzyme, and the activity of the target organ, thyroid hormone (T3, T4), also showed significant activity changes (p<0.05). In the observation of tissue changes, it was confirmed that there was a protective effect of thyroid cell damage which caused the cell necrosis by radiation treatment. Therefore, it is considered that selenium(Se) can be utilized as a radiation defense agent by inducing immunogenic activity effect of a living body.

  7. Immunodetection of Thyroid Hormone Receptor (Alpha1/Alpha2) in the Rat Uterus and Oviduct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Öner, Jale; Öner, Hakan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the immunolocalization and the existence of thyroid hormone receptors (THR) (alpha1/alpha2) in rat uterus and oviduct. For this purpose 6 female Wistar albino rats found in estrous period were used. Tissue samples fixed in 10% neutral formalin were examined immunohistochemically. Sections were incubated with primary mouse-monoclonal THR (alpha1/alpha2) antibody. In uterus, THR (alpha1/alpha2) immunoreacted strongly with uterine luminal epithelium, endometrial gland epithelium and endometrial stromal cells and, moderately with myometrial smooth muscle. In oviduct, they were observed moderately in the epithelium of the tube and the smooth muscle cells of the muscular layer. In conclusion, the presence of THR in uterus and oviduct suggests that these organs are an active site of thyroid hormones

  8. Thyroid and pancreatic hormones in lethally irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlersova, E.; Ahlers, I.; Praslicka, M.

    1985-01-01

    The concentrations of thyroxine, triiodothyronine and reverse triiodothyronine, glucagon and insulin in the serum or plasma were determined by radioimmunoassay in male rats of the Wistar strain 1, 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours after irradiation with 14.35 Gy (1500R) of X-rays. The irradiated and sham-irradiated rats were starved till examination. The concentrations of thyroxine and triiodothyronine dropped 6 hours after irradiation as compared with controls, the concentration of thyroxine also dropped after 72 hours. The level of reverse triiodothyronine in irradiated rats increased in the terminal period. The level of insulin dropped 24 hours after irradiation, at 72 hours it was higher than that in controls. The concentration of glucagon in irradiated rats increased in the terminal phase of radiation disease. The results document the diverse reaction of hormones in lethally irradiated rats and contribute to a deeper recognition of metabolic imbalance in the course of radiation disease. (author)

  9. Lung transplantation in the rat. III. Functional studies in iso- and allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marck, K.W.; Prop, J.; Wildevuur, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Recently a microsurgical technique for orthotopic left lung transplantation in the rat was developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the operation itself and of an unmodified rejection reaction on the function of the transplanted rat lung. Orthotopic left lung transplantation was performed in 59 rats (34 isografts and 25 allografts). Isografts demonstrated a mean left lung perfusion of 23.1% in the first two postoperative weeks. Seven out of the 10 animals, subjected to a repeated scintigraphy 5-10 weeks later, had an increased graft perfusion, resulting in an almost normal mean left lung perfusion of 34.8%. At that time chest roentgenography revealed a good aeration of the grafts, that at autopsy had a normal aspect. Allografts showed an initial mean left lung perfusion (24.6%) similar to the isografts, which, however, declined sharply a few days later (4.3%). At that time chest roentgenography revealed totally opalescent grafts that at autopsy had the hepatized aspect characteristic of lung allograft rejection. These results of isogeneic and allogeneic lung transplantation in the rat were comparable with those of canine auto- and allotransplantation. For immunogenetic and economical reasons lung transplantation in the rat is a good alternative animal model in lung transplantation research

  10. Oral exposure to dibutyl phthalate exacerbates chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis through oxidative stress in female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yang; Li, Jinquan; Yan, Biao; Zhu, Yuqing; Liu, Xudong; Chen, Mingqing; Li, Dai; Lee, Ching-Chang; Yang, Xu; Ma, Ping

    2017-11-13

    Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) is a common autoimmune disorder. The possible pathogenic role and mechanism of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) in CLT is still controversial. Experiments were conducted after 35-days of oral exposure to the three concentrations of DBP or saline, and three immunizations with thyroglobulin (TG). Healthy female Wistar rats were randomly divided into ten exposure groups (n = 8 each): (A) saline control, (B) 0.5 mg/kg/d DBP, (C) 5 mg/kg/d DBP, (D) 50 mg/kg/d DBP, (E) TG-immunized group, (F) TG- combined with 0.5 mg/kg/d DBP, (G) TG- combined with 5 mg/kg/d DBP, (H) TG- combined with 50 mg/kg/d DBP, (I) TG- combined with 50 mg/kg/d DBP plus 100 mg/kg/d vitamin C; (J) 100 mg/kg/d vitamin C. We showed that oral exposure DBP can aggravate CLT in rats. This deterioration was concomitant with increased thyroid auto antibodies, Th1/Th2 imbalance and Th17 immune response, activated pro-inflammatory and apoptosis pathways, and increased thyroid dysfunction in rats. Our results also suggested that DBP could promote oxidative damage. The study also found that vitamin C reduced the levels of oxidative stress and alleviated CLT. In short, the study showed that DBP exacerbated CLT through oxidative stress.

  11. Correlative link ages between indices of bone metabolism and thyroid hormones in rats with periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Shcherba

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been established that changes in the bone tissue of the jaw are present in all cases where there are at least small pathological inflammatory changes in the mucous membrane of the oral cavity. This suggests a significantly greater pathogenetic relationship between inflammatory changes in the mucosa and changes in the bone part of the periodontal disease. Despite a large number of studies, the molecular mechanisms of the influence of thyroid hormones on the bone metabolism have not been completely studied.  The aim of study: to clarify mechanisms of the periodontitis development in rats with thyroid dysfunction based on a comparative analysis of the correlations between the bone metabolism indices and the concentration of  thyroid stimulating hormone,  free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine. Material and methods: Experimental studies were conducted on male, nonliner, white rats of around 4 months of age.  The experimental animals were divided into the following groups: І – control animals;  ІІ – animals with periodontitis; ІІІ – animals with periodontitis combined with hyperthyroidism; IV – animals with periodontitis combined with hypothyroidism. Total calcium, ionized calcium, phosphorus, osteocalcin concentration and  activity of phosphatases were measured. Correlation analysis was performed between all the studied indices. Coefficient of linear correlation (r and its fidelity (p was calculated that was accordingly denoted in the tables (correlation matrices. The correlation coefficient was significant at p<0.05. Results: The conducted correlative analysis shows that there are different interconnections between the indices of calcium-phosphorus metabolism, bone formation and bone resorption with free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone, in case of the experimental periodontitis combined with thyroid dysfunction. In animals with modelled periodontitis combined with

  12. Hormones of thyroid gland in sera of rats treated with different dose of concentrated potassium iodine solutions

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    Marković Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Potassium iodine (KI is used as a drug therapy for treating numerous diseases such as small-vessel vasculitis, erythema nodosum, vasculitis nodularis, Sweet's syndrome, tuberculosis and granulomatosis, and for iodized salt. At the same time, KI can be harmful. Iodine intake may increase the frequency of thyroiditis in humans, and may induce the occurrence of experimental thyroiditis (ET in animals. Investigations on an experimental model for the examination of thyroiditis in Wistar rats have clearly showed morphological changes in the rat thyroid evoked by KI administration. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of low and high doses of KI on the thyroid gland of Wistar rats and determine the effect on hormone status (T4, T3 and TSH in this rat strain. Methods Two groups of rats from the Wistar strain were treated with a low iodine dose (225 μg/g BW and with a high iodine dose (675 μg/g BW of KI solutions. Untreated nonimmunized animals served as controls. The solution was administrated daily intraperitoneally during the period of 26 consecutive days. Results Monitoring hormone status (TSH, T3 and T4 and morphological changes it was found that therapeutic doses of KI applied in treatment induced the occurrence of experimental thyroiditis (chronic destructive Hashimoto's thyroiditis in humans and cell necrosis in animals not carrying a genetic susceptibility. Significant inflammatory changes were observed in rats treated with a high iodine dose. Conclusion The early iodine induced cell necrosis and inflammation in the nonimmunized animals without genetic susceptibility is a new experimental model of thyroiditis. .

  13. Progression of nephropathy after islet of langerhans transplantation in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Tadeu Spadella

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of islet of Langerhans transplantation (IT on the kidney lesions of rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. Forty-five inbred male Lewis rats were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups: group Gl included 15 non-diabetic control rats (NC, group GIT included 15 alloxan-induced diabetic rats (DC, and group III included 15 alloxan-induced diabetic rats that received pancreatic islet transplantation prepared by nonenzymatic method from normal donor Lewis rats and injected into the portal vein (IT. Each group was further divided into 3 subgroups of 5 rats which were sacrificed at 1, 3, and 6 months of follow-up, respectively. Clinical and laboratorial parameters were recorded in the mentioned periods in the 3 experimental groups. For histology, the kidneys of all rats of each subgroup were studied and 50 glomeruli and 50 tubules of each kidney were analyzed using light microscopy by two different investigators in a double blind study. The results showed progressive glomerular basement membrane thickening (GBMT, mesangial enlargement (ME, and Bowman's capsule thickening (BCT in the 3 experimental groups throughout the follow-up. These alterations were significantly more severe in DC rats at 6 months when compared to NC rats (p < 0.01. However, the degree of GBMT, ME, and BCT observed in DC rats was not statistically different from IT rats at 1, 3, and 6 months. In addition, Armanni-Ebstein lesions of the tubules (AE and tubular lumen protein (PRO observed in DC rats were also observed in IT rats all over the study. These lesions were never present in NC rats. We conclude that IT did not prevent progression of kidney lesions in alloxan-induced diabetic rats within 6 months after transplantation.

  14. Blood flow and blood volume in a transplanted rat fibrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozer, G.M.; Morris, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    Blood flow measurements following i.v. infusion of iodi-antipyrine labelled with 14 C ( 14 C-IAP) and blood volume measurements following i.v. injection of 125 I human serum albumin and 51 Cr-labelled red blood cells were made in a transplanted rat fibrosarcoma for comparison with various normal tissues. The tumour-blood partition co-efficient for 14 C-IAP w as found to be 0.79 ± 0.07 which is similar to most of the normal tissues studied. The solubility of 14 C-IAP in plasma was found to be higher than that in whole blood. Blood flow to tumours 3 was found to be 17.9 ± 4.0 ml blood 100 g tissue -1 xmin -1 . These values were considered to be primarily measurements of nutritive flow. Blood in the tumours was found to occupy around 1% of the tissue space which was similar to that found for normal muscle and skin. There was no direct correlation between % blood volume and blood flow for the different tissues studied. Th haematocrit of blood contained in tumour tissue was calculated to be significantly lower than that of blood contained in the normal tissues. It was suspected that permeability of tumour blood vessel walls to 125 I-HSA could have accounted for this difference. (author). 41 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  15. Role of major histocompatibility complex class II in the development of autoimmune type 1 diabetes and thyroiditis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, N; Hidaka, S; Tanabe, S; Ohya, M; Ishima, M; Takagi, Y; Masui, N; Seino, S

    2012-01-01

    Although the MHC class II ‘u' haplotype is strongly associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in rats, the role of MHC class II in the development of tissue-specific autoimmune diseases including T1D and autoimmune thyroiditis remains unclear. To clarify this, we produced a congenic strain carrying MHC class II ‘a' and ‘u' haplotypes on the Komeda diabetes-prone (KDP) genetic background. The u/u homozygous animals developed T1D similar to the original KDP rat; a/u heterozygous animals did develop T1D but with delayed onset and low frequency. In contrast, none of the a/a homozygous animals developed T1D; about half of the animals with a/u heterozygous or a/a homozygous genotypes showed autoimmune thyroiditis. To investigate the role of genetic background in the development of thyroiditis, we also produced a congenic strain carrying Cblb mutation of the KDP rat on the PVG.R23 genetic background (MHC class II ‘a' haplotype). The congenic rats with homozygous Cblb mutation showed autoimmune thyroiditis without T1D and slight to severe alopecia, a clinical symptom of hypothyroidism such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis. These data indicate that MHC class II is involved in the tissue-specific development of autoimmune diseases, including T1D and thyroiditis. PMID:21918539

  16. Survival of Free and Encapsulated Human and Rat Islet Xenografts Transplanted into the Mouse Bone Marrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Raphael P. H.; Seebach, Jörg D.; Morel, Philippe; Mahou, Redouan; Borot, Sophie; Giovannoni, Laurianne; Parnaud, Geraldine; Montanari, Elisa; Bosco, Domenico; Wandrey, Christine; Berney, Thierry; Bühler, Leo H.; Muller, Yannick D.

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow was recently proposed as an alternative and potentially immune-privileged site for pancreatic islet transplantation. The aim of the present study was to assess the survival and rejection mechanisms of free and encapsulated xenogeneic islets transplanted into the medullary cavity of the femur, or under the kidney capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice. The median survival of free rat islets transplanted into the bone marrow or under the kidney capsule was 9 and 14 days, respectively, whereas that of free human islets was shorter, 7 days (bone marrow) and 10 days (kidney capsule). Infiltrating CD8+ T cells and redistributed CD4+ T cells, and macrophages were detected around the transplanted islets in bone sections. Recipient mouse splenocytes proliferated in response to donor rat stimulator cells. One month after transplantation under both kidney capsule or into bone marrow, encapsulated rat islets had induced a similar degree of fibrotic reaction and still contained insulin positive cells. In conclusion, we successfully established a small animal model for xenogeneic islet transplantation into the bone marrow. The rejection of xenogeneic islets was associated with local and systemic T cell responses and macrophage recruitment. Although there was no evidence for immune-privilege, the bone marrow may represent a feasible site for encapsulated xenogeneic islet transplantation. PMID:24625569

  17. Survival of free and encapsulated human and rat islet xenografts transplanted into the mouse bone marrow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael P H Meier

    Full Text Available Bone marrow was recently proposed as an alternative and potentially immune-privileged site for pancreatic islet transplantation. The aim of the present study was to assess the survival and rejection mechanisms of free and encapsulated xenogeneic islets transplanted into the medullary cavity of the femur, or under the kidney capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice. The median survival of free rat islets transplanted into the bone marrow or under the kidney capsule was 9 and 14 days, respectively, whereas that of free human islets was shorter, 7 days (bone marrow and 10 days (kidney capsule. Infiltrating CD8+ T cells and redistributed CD4+ T cells, and macrophages were detected around the transplanted islets in bone sections. Recipient mouse splenocytes proliferated in response to donor rat stimulator cells. One month after transplantation under both kidney capsule or into bone marrow, encapsulated rat islets had induced a similar degree of fibrotic reaction and still contained insulin positive cells. In conclusion, we successfully established a small animal model for xenogeneic islet transplantation into the bone marrow. The rejection of xenogeneic islets was associated with local and systemic T cell responses and macrophage recruitment. Although there was no evidence for immune-privilege, the bone marrow may represent a feasible site for encapsulated xenogeneic islet transplantation.

  18. Macrophage depletion and Schwann cell transplantation reduce cyst size after rat contusive spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee-Shuan; Funk, Lucy H; Lee, Jae K; Bunge, Mary Bartlett

    2018-04-01

    Schwann cell transplantation is a promising therapy for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI) and is currently in clinical trials. In our continuing efforts to improve Schwann cell transplantation strategies, we sought to determine the combined effects of Schwann cell transplantation with macrophage depletion. Since macrophages are major inflammatory contributors to the acute spinal cord injury, and are the major phagocytic cells, we hypothesized that transplanting Schwann cells after macrophage depletion will improve cell survival and integration with host tissue after SCI. To test this hypothesis, rat models of contusive SCI at thoracic level 8 were randomly subjected to macrophage depletion or not. In rat subjected to macrophage depletion, liposomes filled with clodronate were intraperitoneally injected at 1, 3, 6, 11, and 18 days post injury. Rats not subjected to macrophage depletion were intraperitoneally injected with liposomes filled with phosphate buffered saline. Schwann cells were transplanted 1 week post injury in all rats. Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was injected at thoracic level 5 to evalute axon regeneration. The Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor test, Gridwalk test, and sensory test using von Frey filaments were performed to assess functional recovery. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect glial fibrillary acidic protein, neurofilament, and green fluorescent protein (GFP), and also to visulize BDA-labelled axons. The GFP labeled Schwann cell and cyst and lesion volumes were quantified using stained slides. The numbers of BDA-positive axons were also quantified. At 8 weeks after Schwann cell transplantation, there was a significant reduction in cyst and lesion volumes in the combined treatment group compared to Schwann cell transplantation alone. These changes were not associated, however, with improved Schwann cell survival, axon growth, or locomotor recovery. Although combining Schwann cell transplantation with macrophage

  19. Macrophage depletion and Schwann cell transplantation reduce cyst size after rat contusive spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee-Shuan; Funk, Lucy H.; Lee, Jae K.; Bunge, Mary Bartlett

    2018-01-01

    Schwann cell transplantation is a promising therapy for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI) and is currently in clinical trials. In our continuing efforts to improve Schwann cell transplantation strategies, we sought to determine the combined effects of Schwann cell transplantation with macrophage depletion. Since macrophages are major inflammatory contributors to the acute spinal cord injury, and are the major phagocytic cells, we hypothesized that transplanting Schwann cells after macrophage depletion will improve cell survival and integration with host tissue after SCI. To test this hypothesis, rat models of contusive SCI at thoracic level 8 were randomly subjected to macrophage depletion or not. In rat subjected to macrophage depletion, liposomes filled with clodronate were intraperitoneally injected at 1, 3, 6, 11, and 18 days post injury. Rats not subjected to macrophage depletion were intraperitoneally injected with liposomes filled with phosphate buffered saline. Schwann cells were transplanted 1 week post injury in all rats. Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was injected at thoracic level 5 to evalute axon regeneration. The Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor test, Gridwalk test, and sensory test using von Frey filaments were performed to assess functional recovery. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect glial fibrillary acidic protein, neurofilament, and green fluorescent protein (GFP), and also to visulize BDA-labelled axons. The GFP labeled Schwann cell and cyst and lesion volumes were quantified using stained slides. The numbers of BDA-positive axons were also quantified. At 8 weeks after Schwann cell transplantation, there was a significant reduction in cyst and lesion volumes in the combined treatment group compared to Schwann cell transplantation alone. These changes were not associated, however, with improved Schwann cell survival, axon growth, or locomotor recovery. Although combining Schwann cell transplantation with macrophage

  20. Macrophage depletion and Schwann cell transplantation reduce cyst size after rat contusive spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee-Shuan Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwann cell transplantation is a promising therapy for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI and is currently in clinical trials. In our continuing efforts to improve Schwann cell transplantation strategies, we sought to determine the combined effects of Schwann cell transplantation with macrophage depletion. Since macrophages are major inflammatory contributors to the acute spinal cord injury, and are the major phagocytic cells, we hypothesized that transplanting Schwann cells after macrophage depletion will improve cell survival and integration with host tissue after SCI. To test this hypothesis, rat models of contusive SCI at thoracic level 8 were randomly subjected to macrophage depletion or not. In rat subjected to macrophage depletion, liposomes filled with clodronate were intraperitoneally injected at 1, 3, 6, 11, and 18 days post injury. Rats not subjected to macrophage depletion were intraperitoneally injected with liposomes filled with phosphate buffered saline. Schwann cells were transplanted 1 week post injury in all rats. Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA was injected at thoracic level 5 to evalute axon regeneration. The Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor test, Gridwalk test, and sensory test using von Frey filaments were performed to assess functional recovery. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect glial fibrillary acidic protein, neurofilament, and green fluorescent protein (GFP, and also to visulize BDA-labelled axons. The GFP labeled Schwann cell and cyst and lesion volumes were quantified using stained slides. The numbers of BDA-positive axons were also quantified. At 8 weeks after Schwann cell transplantation, there was a significant reduction in cyst and lesion volumes in the combined treatment group compared to Schwann cell transplantation alone. These changes were not associated, however, with improved Schwann cell survival, axon growth, or locomotor recovery. Although combining Schwann cell transplantation with

  1. Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Aloe vera on Antioxidant Status and Thyroid Functions in Female Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sherbiny, E. M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research is to evaluate the antioxidant status and thyroid functions of female albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) when exposed to 3.0 Gy of gamma ray (dose rats = 0.696 Gy/min.) as s single dose and the role of 0.25 ml Aloe vera whole leaf juice filtrate/kg body weight against the damage caused by gamma irradiation. Total number of 50 female albino rats were equally divided into 5 groups; normal control group, irradiated group, Aloe vera administered group, irradiated rats followed by Aloe vera administration for 1 week and the 5th group is the irradiated rats followed by Aloe vera administration for 2 weeks starting from 24 h post-irradiation. Total antioxidant capacity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were measured in serum of all groups. The results of this study revealed that 3.0 Gy of gamma irradiation resulted in a highly significant reduction in serum total antioxidant capacity (39.89%), highly significant increase in TBARs (29.19%) and a significant increase in serum T3 and T4 levels (8.21 and 25.51%, respectively) compared to control group. There was a non-significant change in serum total anti-oxidant capacity and TBARs, and a highly significant decrease in serum T3 and T4 levels (31.00 and 36.57%) in rats administered Aloe vera alone. Concerning rats administered Aloe vera whole leaf juice filtrate post-irradiation, serum total anti-oxidant capacity and TBARs were restored to the normal levels after 2 weeks. Serum levels of T3 and T4 (represent thyroid functions) were restored to the normal levels after 1 week and found to be inhibited (20.41 and 22.62%, respectively) after 2 weeks of administration. (author)

  2. The Effect of Tamoxifen Administration and γ-Irradiation on Thyroid Hormones Levels in Rats Bearing Mammary Tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelgawad, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Breast Cancer is the most common malignancy among women in most developed and developing regions of the world, in female, tamoxifen acting as an oestrogen antagonist on the breast. Thyroid hormones can stimulate the proliferation in vitro of certain tumor cell lines. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of tamoxifen and/ or irradiation treatment on thyroid hormones in rats' mammary tumours. Forty-two female Sprague-Dawely rats randomly divided into seven groups' proliferation (6 rats each). Control group, normal rats supplemented with tamoxifen for 3 weeks, normal rats exposed to a single dose 3Gy γ-rays, rats treated with Dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) dissolved in corn oil (30ppm) sc and followed for 6 months until breast cancer occurrence, breast cancer bearing rats supplemented with tamoxifen for 3 weeks twice a day, breast cancer bearing rats exposed to a single dose 3Gy γ-rays, breast cancer bearing rats exposed to a single dose 3Gy γ-rays and supplemented with tamoxifen for 3 weeks twice a day. At the end of the experiment, mammary tumours and control rats were sacrificed after 3 weeks from different treatments and serum thyroid hormones and estradiol (E2) levels were assayed using commercial kits. Results show T4 and E2 levels not triiodothyronine (T3) were altered in different experimental groups. It could be concluded that γ-irradiation promote the expression of neoplastic potential by affecting both E2 and thyroid hormones and tamoxifen may alter the thyroid hormones. Tamoxifen administration and γ-irradiation may have worth effects on thyroxin (T4) and E2 levels. It is recommended to further studies towards the bystander effect of γ-rays exposure and tamoxifen treatment on the tissue culture and molecular biology scale.

  3. Radioimmunoassay for thyroid hormones determination on rats progeny with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Maria F.G.; Danda, Karina P.N.; Luna, Taciana F.; Souza, Grace M.; Catanho, Maria T.J.A.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Moura, Egberto G.

    2002-01-01

    The onset of fetal thyroid function occurs about 17-18 days after conception in the rat. The maternal hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism which occur during gestation provokes alteration, the hormonal modification in the newborn rats was analyzed. The hypothyroidism was induced in normal dams, which were being treated for 7 days with methimazole (in the of 0,03 % in drinking water) before mating. The hyperthyroidism was induced in normal dams, which were being treated for 2 days with T 4 (2μg per 100 g body wt/day) before mating. It was seen that the rat which was born from hypothyroid or hyperthyroid dams suffered alteration on its T 4 levels concerning the days 10,20,30 and 60 after birth. The administration of methimazole or thyroxine affects the fetal thyroid gland function, causing alteration of both T 4 levels, even after the birth, indicating that the maternal hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism influence on the post-natal life of the rat. (author)

  4. Hepatocyte transplants improve liver function and encephalopathy in portacaval shunted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Wieslawa Agnieszka; Stasiak, Anna; Maksymowicz, Michał; Kobos, Jozef; Unzeta, Mercedes; Mussur, Miroslaw

    2014-07-01

    Rats with portacaval shunt (PCS) are useful experimental models of human hepatic encephalopathy in chronic liver dysfunction. We have previously shown that PCS modifies amine neurotransmitter systems in the CNS and increases voluntary alcohol intake by rats. Hepatocyte transplantation, used in acute liver failure, has recently also been applied to chronic liver diseases, which prompted us to investigate whether the altered brain amine system and the drinking behavior in long-term shunted rats could be normalized by hepatocyte transplants. Hepatocytes, isolated from syngeneic donors by collagenase digestion, were injected (3 × 10(6) cells/rat) into the pancreatic tail region, 6 months after PCS. Hepatic function was evaluated by measuring urine urea and plasma L-histidine concentrations. A free choice test with two bottles (tap water and 10% ethyl alcohol) was performed for 3 days to assess the rats' preference for alcohol. The rats were euthanized 2 months posttransplantation. Brain histamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels were measured by radioenzymatic assay and by HPLC-EC, respectively, N-tele-methylhistamine by GC/MS while MAOA and MAOB activities by isotopic procedures. Portacaval shunt rats with hepatocyte transplants gave more urea than before transplantation, with lower plasma L-His levels and higher body weight versus the PCS counterparts. Also, those rats consumed less alcohol. The CNS amines and 5-HIAA concentrations, as well as MAO-B activity, being abnormally high in untreated PCS rats, significantly reduced after PCS hepatocyte treatment. The results support the therapeutic values of hepatocyte transplants in chronic liver diseases and the temporary character of PCS-exerted CNS dysfunctions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Neonatal exposure to bisphenol A alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Marina O; Bourguignon, Nadia S; Arocena, Paula; Rosa, Matías; Libertun, Carlos; Lux-Lantos, Victoria

    2018-03-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a component of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins and polystyrene found in many common products. Several reports revealed potent in vivo and in vitro effects. In this study we analyzed the effects of the exposure to BPA in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in female rats, both in vivo and in vitro. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected sc from postnatal day 1 (PND1) to PND10 with BPA: 500 μg 50 μl -1 oil (B500), or 50 μg 50 μl -1 (B50), or 5 μg 50 μl -1 (B5). Controls were injected with 50 μl vehicle during the same period. Neonatal exposure to BPA did not modify TSH levels in PND13 females, but it increased them in adults in estrus. Serum T4 was lower in B5 and B500 with regards to Control, whereas no difference was seen in T3. No significant differences were observed in TRH, TSHβ and TRH receptor expression between groups. TSH release from PPC obtained from adults in estrus was also higher in B50 with regard to Control. In vitro 24 h pre-treatment with BPA or E 2 increased basal TSH as well as prolactin release. On the other hand, both BPA and E 2 lowered the response to TRH. The results presented here show that the neonatal exposure to BPA alters the hypothalamic pituitary-thyroid axis in adult rats in estrus, possibly with effects on the pituitary and thyroid. They also show that BPA alters TSH release from rat PPC through direct actions on the pituitary. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of the ingestion of soybeans derivatives (Glycine max) on rat thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filisetti, T.M.C.C.

    1978-01-01

    Soybean derivatives were tested in rat through acute experiments of 3 to 24 hours and two semichronic experiments of 16 and 29 days. The acute essay were realized with Total Extract (TEs) obtained from Defated Soybean Flour by precipitation in an aqueous medium and posteriorly in acetone. The percentage of iodine ( 131 I) uptake by 100 gr. of rat was decreased by the Total Autoclaved Extract administered by gastric tube after 6 and 24 hours. The Total Extract, without previous autoclaving showed effect on the gland after 6 hours and lost its activity 24 hours after its administration. TEs obtained from Comercial Soybean Products as: Proteic Concentrate, Tosted Flour and Milk also provoked a decrease in percentage of iodine ( 131 I) uptake after 24 hours by 100 gr. of rat. The semichronic experiments were realized with Soybean fraction products, which were incorporated to experimental diet. The first of 16 days, showed a reduction in percentage of iodide ( 131 I) uptake by 10mg of thyroid and an increase of the triiodothyronine-binding capacity of rat serm. In the second of 29 days an increase was observed in the percentage of iodine ( 131 I) uptake by 10mg of thyroid, caused by the factor in study and no alteration of seric hormones. The thyroid hormones and their precursors were also assayed and an increase of monoiodotyrosine (MIT), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) was noted, as well as a decrease of diiodotyrosine (DIT) and inorganic iodine. An increase in the MIT/DIT ratio and decrease in T 3 /T 4 ratio, were observed. In preliminary physicochemical tests, the fraction sephadex G-25 showed a positive reaction for ninhidrin, Molish and flavenoids [pt

  7. Rhesus monkey neural stem cell transplantation promotes neural regeneration in rats with hippocampal lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-juan Ye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhesus monkey neural stem cells are capable of differentiating into neurons and glial cells. Therefore, neural stem cell transplantation can be used to promote functional recovery of the nervous system. Rhesus monkey neural stem cells (1 × 105 cells/μL were injected into bilateral hippocampi of rats with hippocampal lesions. Confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that green fluorescent protein-labeled transplanted cells survived and grew well. Transplanted cells were detected at the lesion site, but also in the nerve fiber-rich region of the cerebral cortex and corpus callosum. Some transplanted cells differentiated into neurons and glial cells clustering along the ventricular wall, and integrated into the recipient brain. Behavioral tests revealed that spatial learning and memory ability improved, indicating that rhesus monkey neural stem cells noticeably improve spatial learning and memory abilities in rats with hippocampal lesions.

  8. Experimental treatment of diabetic mice with microencapsulated rat islet cells transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yun; Xue Yilong; Li Yanling; Li Xinjian

    2006-01-01

    To observe treatment effects of diabetic mice with microcapsulated and non-microcapsulated rat islet cell transplantation, pancreas of SD rat was perfused with collagenase through cloledchus, and then the pancreatic tissues were isolated and digested. Histopaque-1077 was used to purify the digested pancreas. Islet cells were collected and implanted into the peritoneal cavity of diabetic mice. The isolated islets had a response upon glucose stimulation. When the microcapsulated islets and non- microcapsulated islets were transplanted into diabetic mices the high blood glucose level could be decreased to normal. The normal blood glucose level in the diabetic mice transpanted with microcapsulated islets could be maintained for over 30 days,but it could be mainlained only for 2-3 days in the diabetic mice transplanted with non-microcapsulated islets. Thus it is believed that microcapsulated islet cell transplantation exerts good effect on diabetic mice and the microcapsules possessed good immunoisolating function. (authors)

  9. Cytomegalovirus-enhanced development of transplant arteriosclerosis in the rat; effect of timing of infection and recipient responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrands, JL; van Dam, JG; Onuta, G; Klatter, FA; Grauls, G; Bruggeman, CA; Rozing, J

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is put forward as a risk factor for transplant arteriosclerosis (TA). In this article, we studied CMV-enhanced development of TA in rats in different donor/recipient combinations in relation to the timing of infection. Recipient rats transplanted with an aortic allograft (BN to

  10. Taurine Ameliorates Renal Oxidative Damage and Thyroid Dysfunction in Rats Chronically Exposed to Fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedara, Isaac A; Ojuade, Temini Jesu D; Olabiyi, Bolanle F; Idris, Umar F; Onibiyo, Esther M; Ajeigbe, Olufunke F; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-02-01

    Excessive exposure to fluoride poses several detrimental effects to human health particularly the kidney which is a major organ involved in its elimination from the body. The influence of taurine on fluoride-induced renal toxicity was investigated in a co-exposure paradigm for 45 days using five groups of eight rats each. Group I rats received normal drinking water alone, group II rats were exposed to sodium fluoride (NaF) in drinking water at 15 mg/L alone, group III received taurine alone at a dose of 200 mg/kg group IV rats were co-administered with NaF and taurine (100 mg/kg), while group V rats were co-administered with NaF and taurine (200 mg/kg). Administration of taurine significantly reversed the fluoride-mediated decrease in absolute weight and organo-somatic index of the kidney in the exposed rats. Taurine significantly prevented fluoride-induced elevation in plasma urea and creatinine levels in the exposed rats. Moreover, taurine restored fluoride-mediated decrease in the circulatory concentrations of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and the ratio of triiodothyronine to thyroxine. Taurine ameliorated fluoride-mediated decrease in renal antioxidant status by significantly enhancing the antioxidant enzyme activities as well as glutathione level in the exposed rats. Additionally, taurine inhibited fluoride-induced renal oxidative damage by markedly decreasing the hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde levels as well as improved the kidney architecture in the treated rats. Collectively, taurine protected against fluoride-induced renal toxicity via enhancement of thyroid gland function, renal antioxidant status, and histology in rats.

  11. Evidence of a bigenomic regulation of mitochondrial gene expression by thyroid hormone during rat brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Rohit Anthony; Pathak, Amrita; Mohan, Vishwa; Babu, Satish; Pal, Amit; Khare, Drirh; Godbole, Madan M.

    2010-01-01

    Hypothyroidism during early mammalian brain development is associated with decreased expression of various mitochondrial encoded genes along with evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction. However, in-spite of the similarities between neurological disorders caused by perinatal hypothyroidism and those caused by various genetic mitochondrial defects we still do not know as to how thyroid hormone (TH) regulates mitochondrial transcription during development and whether this regulation by TH is nuclear mediated or through mitochondrial TH receptors? We here in rat cerebellum show that hypothyroidism causes reduction in expression of nuclear encoded genes controlling mitochondrial biogenesis like PGC-1α, NRF-1α and Tfam. Also, we for the first time demonstrate a mitochondrial localization of thyroid hormone receptor (mTR) isoform in developing brain capable of binding a TH response element (DR2) present in D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA. These results thus indicate an integrated nuclear-mitochondrial cross talk in regulation of mitochondrial transcription by TH during brain development.

  12. The specific binding of the thyroid hormones to matrix isolated from rat liver nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, B.D.; Albrecht, C.F.; Wium, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Specific binding sites for the thyroid hormones have been demonstrated in the liver nuclear matrix, a structural framework of the nucleus. When labelled 3,5,3'-tri-iodo-L-thyronine ([ 125 l]T 3 ) is injected into rats, 5% of the total nucleus bound T 3 is bound to the matrix after 1 hour. However, when either isolated nuclei or isolated nuclear matrices were incubated with[ 125 l]T 3 in vitro, a 3- to 7- fold greater number of specific T 3 binding sites were revealed in the nuclear matrix. The properties of the matrix-associated thyroid hormone binding sites were investigated in vitro. These binding sites showed limited capacity and high affinity for T 3 ; the equilibrium association constant (K(a)) was 1,3X10 M -1 and the binding capacity was 20,2 fmol T 3 per 100 μg matrix protein

  13. Evidence of a bigenomic regulation of mitochondrial gene expression by thyroid hormone during rat brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Rohit Anthony; Pathak, Amrita; Mohan, Vishwa; Babu, Satish; Pal, Amit; Khare, Drirh [Department of Endocrinology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014 (India); Godbole, Madan M., E-mail: madangodbole@yahoo.co.in [Department of Endocrinology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014 (India)

    2010-07-02

    Hypothyroidism during early mammalian brain development is associated with decreased expression of various mitochondrial encoded genes along with evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction. However, in-spite of the similarities between neurological disorders caused by perinatal hypothyroidism and those caused by various genetic mitochondrial defects we still do not know as to how thyroid hormone (TH) regulates mitochondrial transcription during development and whether this regulation by TH is nuclear mediated or through mitochondrial TH receptors? We here in rat cerebellum show that hypothyroidism causes reduction in expression of nuclear encoded genes controlling mitochondrial biogenesis like PGC-1{alpha}, NRF-1{alpha} and Tfam. Also, we for the first time demonstrate a mitochondrial localization of thyroid hormone receptor (mTR) isoform in developing brain capable of binding a TH response element (DR2) present in D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA. These results thus indicate an integrated nuclear-mitochondrial cross talk in regulation of mitochondrial transcription by TH during brain development.

  14. Effect of environmental temperature on radioiodine uptake by the thyroid gland of rats during ontogenetic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samel, M.

    1975-01-01

    Radioiodine uptake by the thyroid gland of young rats, aged 1 to 30 days, was studied at nest temperature (35degC) and at the temperature of the animal room (24degC). In animals younger than two weeks 131 I uptake was significantly lower at 24degC than at nest temperature. In older animals, these temperature differences did not result in significantly different uptake values. It is suggested that short-term cold does not activate the pituitary-thyroid gland axis in younger animals with unstable body temperature, and that functional changes in the circulatory system might be responsible for the differences observed in 131 I uptake. (author)

  15. Combination of edaravone and neural stem cell transplantation repairs injured spinal cord in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y Y; Peng, C G; Ye, X B

    2015-12-29

    This study sought to observe the effect of the combination of edaravone and neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation on the repair of complete spinal cord transection in rats. Eighty adult female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used to establish the injury model of complete spinal cord transection at T9. Animals were divided randomly into four groups (N = 20 each): control, edaravone, transplantation, and edaravone + transplantation. The recovery of spinal function was evaluated with the Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) rating scale on days 1, 3, and 7 each week after the surgery. After 8 weeks, the BBB scores of the control, edaravone, transplantation, and combination groups were 4.21 ± 0.11, 8.46 ± 0.1, 8.54 ± 0.13, and 11.21 ± 0.14, respectively. At 8 weeks after surgery, the spinal cord was collected; the survival and transportation of transplanted cells were observed with PKH-26 labeling, and the regeneration and distribution of spinal nerve fibers with fluorescent-gold (FG) retrograde tracing. Five rats died due to the injury. PKH-26-labeled NSCs had migrated into the spinal cord. A few intact nerve fibers and pyramidal neurons passed the injured area in the transplantation and combination groups. The numbers of PKH-26-labeled cells and FG-labeled nerve fibers were in the order: combination group > edaravone group and transplantation group > control group (P edaravone can enhance the survival and differentiation of NSCs in injured areas; edaravone with NSC transplantation can improve the effectiveness of spinal cord injury repair in rats.

  16. Study of morbidity in orthotopic small intestine transplantation with Wistar rats: experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    LEE André Dong Won; GAMA-RODRIGUES Joaquim; GALVÃO Flávio H.; WAITZBERG Dan L.

    2002-01-01

    Background - Transplantation of the small intestine is a surgical procedure currently under investigation for its possible application in the treatment of patients with short bowel syndrome, aiming at the reintroduction of an oral diet. Aim - To define the morbidity and mortality of intestinal transplantation in small animals using microsurgery. Intra and postoperative morbidity and mortality were studied in Wistar rats submitted to orthotopic intestinal allotransplantation. Material and Meth...

  17. Role of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis in rat thyroid toxicity caused by excess fluoride and/or iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongliang; Hou, Changchun; Zeng, Qiang; Zhao, Liang; Cui, Yushan; Yu, Linyu; Wang, Lingzhi; Zhao, Yang; Nie, Junyan; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Aiguo

    2016-09-01

    Excess fluoride and iodide coexist in drinking water in many regions, but few studies have investigated the single or interactive effects on thyroid in vivo. In our study, Wistar rats were exposed to excess fluoride and/or iodide through drinking water for 2 or 8 months. The structure and function of the thyroid, cells apoptosis and the expression of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) pathway-related factors were analyzed. Results demonstrated that excess fluoride and/or iodide could change thyroid follicular morphology and alter thyroid hormone levels in rats. After 8 months treatment, both single and co-exposure of the two microelements could raise the thyroid cells apoptosis. However, the expressions of IRE1-related factors were only increased in fluoride-alone and the combined groups. In conclusion, thyroid structure and thyroid function were both affected by excess fluoride and/or iodide. IRE1-induced apoptosis were involved in this cytotoxic process caused by fluoride or the combination of two microelements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of chronic estradiol treatment on the thyroid gland structure and function of ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgendy Mohamed S

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogen therapy is widely used nowadays in women to treat many postmenopausal symptoms but it may have some undesirable effects due to multiple organs affection. So, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of chronic estradiol treatment on the structure and function of the thyroid gland in ovarictomized rats as a model simulating menopause. Findings Thirty adult female Wistar rats divided into three groups were used in this study; the first group was sham-operated, while the second and third groups were ovariectomized. The first and second groups were injected with olive oil while the third group was injected with estradiol dipropionate daily for three months, after that; hormonal assay for T3, T4, TSH and specimens of the thyroid were taken and processed to be examined by light and electron microscopy. The results of this study revealed that serum levels of T3 and T4 decreased in ovariectomized animals and significantly increased after estradiol treatment, while TSH increased in ovariectomized animals and decreased with estradiol treatment. Histological and morphometric study in ovariectomized group revealed marked accumulation of colloid in follicular lumens with decreased epithelial height in addition to increased connective tissue amount. After estradiol treatment the follicles became smaller in size, having small amount of colloid with increased epithelial height in addition to decreased connective tissue content. Ultrastructural study supported these results in addition to the presence of large amount of intracytoplasmic colloid vesicles after estradiol treatment. Conclusion Low estrogen level may lead to mild thyroidal hypofunction while estradiol treatment may lead to hyperactivity so it should be used very cautiously in the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms to avoid its undesirable stimulatory effect on the thyroid.

  19. The Effect of Alcoholic Extract of Physalis alkekengi on Serum Concentration of Thyroid Hormones in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Shekar-Foroosh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are different factors which are effective on maintaining homeostasis, especially by pituitary-thyroid axis hormones. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of Physalis alkekengi plant extract belonging to Solanaceae family on the concentration of the pituitary-thyroid axis hormones.Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on five groups (n=10 of male Wistar rats (with mean weight 210±5g. The control group did not receive any substances, while the reference group received 0.2 ml normal saline daily and the experimental groups received maximum (0.4 g/kg, moderate (0.2 g/kg, and minimum (0.1 g/kg intraperitoneal (IP doses of the alcoholic extract for 14 days. At the end of this period, blood samples were drawn and the results were analyzed by SPSS-11.5 software.Results: The results of statistical analysis showed significant increases in plasma concentrations of thyroxin (T4 and triiodothyronine (T3 in the maximum dose group (p<0.05 with no significant changes in plasma concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH.Conclusion: Increases in T3 and T4 levels with no changes in TSH concentration indicate hyperthyroidism euthyroidism in which the levels of thyroid hormones increase while the amount of TSH remains constant. These changes could be due to plasma proteins increase including albumin, which are probably induced by physaline and alkaloids existing in Physalis alkekengi. So, these drug doses do not seem to bring about pathological changes in the pituitary-thyroid axis.

  20. Behavioral Evaluation of hMSC-GFP+ Transplantation in an Hemiparkinson Experimental Model in Wistar Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Paola Alcázar Arzuza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of hMSCs-GFP+ transplantation was evaluated in an experimental model of Parkinson's disease (PD in 27 Wistar rats, or in three experimental groups: control (CON  n=7, injured (LES n=10 and transplanted (LES+T n=10. In order to evaluate the influence of the transplantation on the motor behavior, one month after the injury, rotation behavior induced by apomorphine, neurological test, transversal bar and SNpc cells positive to TH were developed. Using the Anova test, there was a decrease in the number of turns in transplanted animals (p=0.005 as well as in the neurological test (p=0.0004 and in the transverse bar that lead to this group in an intermediate position regarding LES and CON groups. There is a possible recovery of the transplantation-mediated nigroestriatal pathway of hMSC-GFP +.

  1. Differential expression of proteoglycans in tissue remodeling and lymphangiogenesis after experimental renal transplantation in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen Rienstra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic transplant dysfunction explains the majority of late renal allograft loss and is accompanied by extensive tissue remodeling leading to transplant vasculopathy, glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. Matrix proteoglycans mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and play key roles in tissue remodeling. The aim of this study was to characterize differential heparan sulfate proteoglycan and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan expression in transplant vasculopathy, glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis in renal allografts with chronic transplant dysfunction. METHODS: Renal allografts were transplanted in the Dark Agouti-to-Wistar Furth rat strain combination. Dark Agouti-to-Dark Agouti isografts and non-transplanted Dark Agouti kidneys served as controls. Allograft and isograft recipients were sacrificed 66 and 81 days (mean after transplantation, respectively. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan (collXVIII, perlecan and agrin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (versican expression, as well as CD31 and LYVE-1 (vascular and lymphatic endothelium, respectively expression were (semi- quantitatively analyzed using immunofluorescence. FINDINGS: Arteries with transplant vasculopathy and sclerotic glomeruli in allografts displayed pronounced neo-expression of collXVIII and perlecan. In contrast, in interstitial fibrosis expression of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan versican dominated. In the cortical tubular basement membranes in both iso- and allografts, induction of collXVIII was detected. Allografts presented extensive lymphangiogenesis (p<0.01 compared to isografts and non-transplanted controls, which was associated with induced perlecan expression underneath the lymphatic endothelium (p<0.05 and p<0.01 compared to isografts and non-transplanted controls, respectively. Both the magnitude of lymphangiogenesis and perlecan expression correlated with severity of interstitial fibrosis and impaired graft function

  2. Effects of postnatal administration of diethylstilbestrol on puberty and thyroid function in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae-Ho; Kim, Tae Sung; Kang, Il Hyun; Kang, Tae Seok; Moon, Hyun Ju; Han, Soon-Young

    2009-10-01

    To examine the effects of diethylstilbestrol (DES) on male pubertal development and thyroid function, juvenile male Sprague-Dawley rats were given DES daily by oral intubation at doses of 10, 20 and 40 microg/kg/day from postnatal day 33 for 20 days. Prepuce separation was significantly delayed at the dose of 20 microg/kg/day and above in the DES-treated rats. DES treatment induced a significant reduction in the weights of testes, epididymides, the ventral prostate, seminal vesicles plus coagulating glands and fluid, levator ani bulbocavernosus muscles, Cowper's glands and the glans penis. The weights of the liver and adrenals increased in the DES-treated animals. DES caused a dose-dependent reduction in germ cells; in particular the spermatids were mainly affected. The serum levels of testosterone and luteinizing hormone were significantly reduced in the DES-treated groups, but that of estradiol decreased. No differences were observed in the serum thyroxine levels of the control and DES-treated groups. In microscopic observation of the DES-treated animals, degeneration of germ cells and tubular atrophy in the testis were noted, but there were no microscopic changes in the thyroid. These results indicate that DES affected the pubertal development of juvenile male rats and that its mode of action may be related to alterations in hormone levels.

  3. Etanercept blocks inflammatory responses orchestrated by TNF-α to promote transplanted cell engraftment and proliferation in rat liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Preeti; Kapoor, Sorabh; Kumaran, Vinay; Joseph, Brigid; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2014-01-01

    Engraftment of transplanted cells is critical for liver-directed cell therapy but most transplanted cells are rapidly cleared from liver sinusoids by proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines/receptors after activation of neutrophils or Kupffer cells. To define whether TNF-α served roles in cell-transplantation-induced hepatic inflammation, we used TNF-α antagonist, etanercept, for studies in syngeneic rat hepatocyte transplantation systems. After cell transplantation, multiple cytokines/chemokines/receptors were overexpressed, whereas etanercept prior to cell transplantation essentially normalized these responses. Moreover, ETN downregulated cell transplantation-induced intrahepatic release of secretory cytokines, such as high mobility group box 1. These effects of etanercept decreased cell transplantation-induced activation of neutrophils but not of Kupffer cells. Transplanted cell engraftment improved by several-fold in etanercept-treated animals. These gains in cell engraftment were repeatedly realized after pretreatment of animals with etanercept before multiple cell transplantation sessions. Transplanted cell numbers did not change over time indicating absence of cell proliferation after etanercept alone. By contrast, in animals preconditioned with retrorsine and partial hepatectomy, cell transplantation after etanercept pretreatment significantly accelerated liver repopulation compared with control rats. We concluded that TNF-α played a major role in orchestrating cell transplantation-induced inflammation through regulation of multiple cytokines/chemokines/receptor expression. As TNF-α antagonism by etanercept decreased transplanted cell clearance, improved cell engraftment and accelerated liver repopulation, this pharmacological approach to control hepatic inflammation will help optimize clinical strategies for liver cell therapy. PMID:24844924

  4. Action of specific thyroid hormone receptor α(1) and β(1) antagonists in the central and peripheral regulation of thyroid hormone metabolism in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beeren, Hermina C; Kwakkel, Joan; Ackermans, Mariëtte T; Wiersinga, Wilmar M; Fliers, Eric; Boelen, Anita

    2012-12-01

    The iodine-containing drug amiodarone (Amio) and its noniodine containing analogue dronedarone (Dron) are potent antiarrhythmic drugs. Previous in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that the major metabolite of Amio, desethylamiodarone, acts as a thyroid hormone receptor (TR) α(1) and β(1) antagonist, whereas the major metabolite of Dron debutyldronedarone acts as a selective TRα(1) antagonist. In the present study, Amio and Dron were used as tools to discriminate between TRα(1) or TRβ(1) regulated genes in central and peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism. Three groups of male rats received either Amio, Dron, or vehicle by daily intragastric administration for 2 weeks. We assessed the effects of treatment on triiodothyronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4)) plasma and tissue concentrations, deiodinase type 1, 2, and 3 mRNA expressions and activities, and thyroid hormone transporters monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), monocarboxylate transporter 10 (MCT10), and organic anion transporter 1C1 (OATP1C1). Amio treatment decreased serum T(3), while serum T(4) and thyrotropin (TSH) increased compared to Dron-treated and control rats. At the central level of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, Amio treatment decreased hypothalamic thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) expression, while increasing pituitary TSHβ and MCT10 mRNA expression. Amio decreased the pituitary D2 activity. By contrast, Dron treatment resulted in decreased hypothalamic TRH mRNA expression only. Upon Amio treatment, liver T(3) concentration decreased substantially compared to Dron and control rats (50%, p<0.01), but liver T(4) concentration was unaffected. In addition, liver D1, mRNA, and activity decreased, while the D3 activity and mRNA increased. Liver MCT8, MCT10, and OATP1C1 mRNA expression were similar between groups. Our results suggest an important role for TRα1 in the regulation of hypothalamic TRH mRNA expression, whereas TRβ plays a dominant role in pituitary and liver thyroid

  5. Preservation of visual cortical function following retinal pigment epithelium transplantation in the RCS rat using optical imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gias, Carlos; Jones, Myles; Keegan, David; Adamson, Peter; Greenwood, John; Lund, Ray; Martindale, John; Johnston, David; Berwick, Jason; Mayhew, John; Coffey, Peter

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent of cortical functional preservation following retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) transplantation in the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat using single-wavelength optical imaging and spectroscopy. The cortical responses to visual stimulation in transplanted rats at 6 months post-transplantation were compared with those from age-matched untreated dystrophic and non-dystrophic rats. Our results show that cortical responses were evoked in non-dystrophic rats to both luminance changes and pattern stimulation, whereas no response was found in untreated dystrophic animals to any of the visual stimuli tested. In contrast, a cortical response was elicited in most of the transplanted rats to luminance changes and in many of those a response was also evoked to pattern stimulation. Although the transplanted rats did not respond to high spatial frequency information we found evidence of preservation in the cortical processing of luminance changes and low spatial frequency stimulation. Anatomical sections of transplanted rat retinas confirmed the capacity of RPE transplantation to rescue photoreceptors. Good correlation was found between photoreceptor survival and the extent of cortical function preservation determined with optical imaging techniques. This study determined the efficacy of RPE transplantation to preserve visual cortical processing and established optical imaging as a powerful technique for its assessment.

  6. Exposure to non-ionizing radiation provokes changes in rat thyroid morphology and expression of HSP-90

    OpenAIRE

    Misa-Agustiño, Maria J; Jorge-Mora, Teresa; Jorge-Barreiro, Francisco J; Suarez-Quintanilla, Juan; Moreno-Piquero, Eduardo; Ares-Pena, Francisco J; López-Martín, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Non-ionizing radiation at 2.45 GHz may modify the morphology and expression of genes that codify heat shock proteins (HSP) in the thyroid gland. Diathermy is the therapeutic application of non-ionizing radiation to humans for its beneficial effects in rheumatological and musculo-skeletal pain processes. We used a diathermy model on laboratory rats subjected to maximum exposure in the left front leg, in order to study the effects of radiation on the nearby thyroid tissue. Fifty-six rats were i...

  7. Positive effects of bFGF modified rat amniotic epithelial cells transplantation on transected rat optic nerve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Xin Xie

    Full Text Available Effective therapy for visual loss caused by optic nerve injury or diseases has not been achieved even though the optic nerve has the regeneration potential after injury. This study was designed to modify amniotic epithelial cells (AECs with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF gene, preliminarily investigating its effect on transected optic nerve.A human bFGF gene segment was delivered into rat AECs (AECs/hbFGF by lentiviral vector, and the gene expression was examined by RT-PCR and ELISA. The AECs/hbFGF and untransfected rat AECs were transplanted into the transected site of the rat optic nerve. At 28 days post transplantation, the survival and migration of the transplanted cells was observed by tracking labeled cells; meanwhile retinal ganglion cells (RGCs were observed and counted by employing biotin dextran amine (BDA and Nissl staining. Furthermore, the expression of growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43 within the injury site was examined with immunohistochemical staining.The AECs/hbFGF was proven to express bFGF gene and secrete bFGF peptide. Both AECs/hbFGF and AECs could survive and migrate after transplantation. RGCs counting implicated that RGCs numbers of the cell transplantation groups were significantly higher than that of the control group, and the AECs/hbFGF group was significantly higher than that of the AECs group. Moreover GAP-43 integral optical density value in the control group was significantly lower than that of the cell transplantation groups, and the value in the AECs/hbFGF group was significantly higher than that of the AECs group.AECs modified with bFGF could reduce RGCs loss and promote expression of GAP-43 in the rat optic nerve transected model, facilitating the process of neural restoration following injury.

  8. Study on the induction of thyroid tumors in rats using x irradiation in conjunction with a goitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahler, P.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of acute localized thyroid x irradiation and chronic goitrogen administration, separately or combined, on thyroid tumor formation in mature female rats was studied. In the first experiment, the radiation doses were 0, 80, 160, 320, or 640 rads, and the dosages of goitrogen were 0, 4, or 40 parts per million (ppM) of 1 methyl - 2 mercaptoimidazole (MMI). The incidence of rats with thyroid tumors in any treated group receiving 0 or 4 ppM MMI was not significantly greater than the incidence in the nontreated control group. However, the incidence in any of the 40 ppM MMI groups was significantly greater than that in the nontreated control group. At all the radiation doses other than 80 rads, the incidence was significantly greater than that in the non-irradiated group. No significant difference was seen in the incidence of rats with thyroid tumors on the basis of radiation dose. The incidence was so high at 80 rads that there was little margin for further increase by increasing the radiation dose. The mean serum thyroxine levels at 40 ppM MMI, 4 ppM MMI, and 0 ppM MMI were 1.9, 3.5, and 3.7 μg/100 ml, respectively. No markedeffect of thyroid irradiation on mean serum thyroxine levels was seen. In the second experiment, rats receiving 200 ppM MMI and thyroid irradiation were sacrificed at 7-1/2 months after treatment. Nearly all rats in the 0 and 80 rad groups and all in the 160, the 320, and the 640 rad groups had thyroid tumors. In the third experiment, serum T 4 levels were measured in treated rats. Rats receiving 640 rads + 0 ppM MMI showed a slight decrease in serum T 4 , while no change in serum T 4 levels was seen in rats receiving 0 rads + 4 ppM MMI or 640 rads + 4 ppM MMI. All rats receiving 40 ppM MMI, regardless of radiation dose, showed decreased serum T 4 levels

  9. Thyroid hormone modulates food intake and glycemia via ghrelin secretion in Zucker fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, K; Joharapurkar, A; Dhanesha, N; Patel, V; Kshirsagar, S; Raval, P; Raval, S; Jain, M R

    2014-10-01

    Hyperthyroidism is known to increase food intake and central administration of thyroid hormone shows acute orexigenic effects in rodents. We investigated whether T3 influences appetite and glucose homeostasis by modulating circulating ghrelin, an important orexigenic hormone, in Zucker fatty rats. The acute anorectic effects of T3 and ghrelin mimetic MK-0677 were studied in rats trained for fasting induced food intake. The serum concentration of T3, ghrelin, glucose, triglycerides, and liver glycogen were estimated. The involvement of sympathetic nervous system was evaluated by conducting similar experiments in vagotomized rats. T3 increased food intake and glucose in rats over 4 h, with increase in serum T3 and decrease in liver glycogen. T3 treatment was associated with increase in serum ghrelin. An additive effect on appetite and glucose was observed when T3 (oral) was administered with central (intracerebroventricular) administration of a ghrelin mimetic, MK-0677. Ghrelin antagonist, compound 8a, antagonized the hyperglycemic and hyperphagic effects of T3. In vagotomized rats, T3 did not show increase in appetite as well as glucose. Serum ghrelin levels were unchanged in these animals after T3 treatment. However, T3 showed increase in serum triglyceride levels indicating its peripheral lipolytic effect, in vagotomized as well as sham treated animals. To conclude, acute orexigenic and hyperglycemic effects of T3 are associated with ghrelin secretion and activity. This effect seems to be mediated via vagus nerves, and is independent of glucoregulatory hormones. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and triglyceride turnover in eu- and hypo-thyroid rats and rats on a hypocaloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dory, L; Krause, B R; Roheim, P S

    1981-08-01

    Lipid and lipoprotein concentration, and triglyceride turnover were studied in control, thyroidectomized, and pair-fed control rats (pair-fed to match the food intake of the thyroidectomized rats). Thyroidectomy induced a significant increase in plasma cholesterol (and low density lipoprotein) concentrations and a decrease in plasma triglyceride (and very low density lipoprotein) concentrations. Changes in similar direction but of smaller magnitude were observed in the plasma of the pair-fed control rats. To further investigate triglyceride metabolism in these three groups of animals, triglyceride turnover was studied in fasted, unrestrained, and unanesthetized rats, following injection of [2-3H]glycerol. Peak incorporation of [2-3H]glycerol into plasma triglyceride occurred in all three groups of animals at 25 min after precursor administration, although the maximal incorporation was substantially lower in the thyroidectomized group than in either of the control groups. Thereafter, plasma triglyceride radioactivity decayed monoexponentially with a half-life of 24 +/- 1 min for both normal and pair-fed control rats, compared with the half-life of 41 +/- 3 min observed in the thyroidectomized rats. The calculated apparent fractional catabolic rates were thus 0.029 min-1 for both control groups and only 0.017 min-1 for the thyroidectomized animals. The apparent total catabolic rates of plasma triglyceride were 299 +/- 11, 138 +/- 11, and 48 +/- 4 micrograms triglyceride . min-1 for the normal controls, pair-fed controls, and thyroidectomized rats, respectively. These data further emphasize the importance of thyroid hormones in regulating plasma lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and, specifically, indicate that hypothyroidism results in a reduction of triglyceride secretion into, and the removal from, circulation. Furthermore, evidence was presented that the decreased caloric intake of the hypothyroid animals cannot, in itself, account for this observation.

  11. Red palm oil supplementation does not increase blood glucose or serum lipids levels in Wistar rats with different thyroid status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauchová, H; Vokurková, M; Pavelka, S; Vaněčková, I; Tribulová, N; Soukup, T

    2018-01-05

    Red palm oil (RPO) is a rich natural source of antioxidant vitamins, namely carotenes, tocopherols and tocotrienols. However, it contains approximately 50 % saturated fatty acids the regular consumption of which could negatively modify lipid profile. The aim of our study was to test whether 7 weeks of RPO supplementation (1 g/kg body weight/day) would affect blood glucose and lipid metabolism in adult male Wistar rats with altered thyroid status. We induced hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in rats by oral administration of either methimazole or mixture of thyroid hormones. Different thyroid status (EU - euthyroid, HY - hypothyroid and HT - hyperthyroid) was characterized by different serum thyroid hormones levels (total and free thyroxine and triiodothyronine), changes in the activity of a marker enzyme of thyroid status - liver mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and altered absolute and relative heart weights. Fasting blood glucose levels were higher in HT rats in comparison with EU and HY rats, but the changes caused by RPO supplementation were not significant. The achievement of the HY status significantly increased serum levels of total cholesterol, as well as with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol: 2.43+/-0.15, 1.48+/-0.09, 0.89+/-0.08 mmol/l, compared to EU: 1.14+/-0.06, 0.77+/-0.06, 0.34+/-0.05 mmol/l and HT: 1.01+/-0.06, 0.69+/-0.04, 0.20+/-0.03 mmol/l, respectively. RPO supplementation did not increase significantly levels of blood lipids but tended to increase glutathione levels in the liver. In conclusion, RPO supplementation did not induce the presumed deterioration of glucose and lipid metabolism in rats with three well-characterized alterations in thyroid status.

  12. Interleukin-1 beta inhibits rat thyroid cell function in vivo and in vitro by an NO-independent mechanism and induces hypothyroidism and accelerated thyroiditis in diabetes-prone BB rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, J I; Rasmussen, A K; Karlsen, A E

    1996-01-01

    Interleukin-1 beta has been implicated as a pathogenic factor in the development of autoimmune thyroiditis. When given for 5 days to normal non-diabetes-prone Wistar Kyoto rats, it decreased plasma concentrations of total tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine and increased plasma TSH. These effects were...

  13. Changes in some Hematological Parameters and Thyroid Hormones in Rats Exposed to Pulsed Electromagnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Abiad, N.M.; Marzook, E.A.; EI-Aragi, G.M.

    2007-01-01

    In the present study pulsed electromagnetic spectrum was used to evaluate the effect of exposure on some biochemical and hematological parameters in male albino rats. Three groups of rats (10 each) were exposed to 10, 15, 20 pulses of electromagnetic spectrum 3 times per week for 3 weeks, the unexposed group was considered as the control group. At the end of experiment, serum levels of thyroid hormones triiodothryronine and thyroxine (T 3 ,T 4 ) and some hematological parameters were estimated. The hematological studies revealed that exposure to electromagnetic spectrum induced significant reduction in red blood cell count(RBC),and also in hemoglobin concentration(Hb), while reticulocytic count(Ret.) was elevated in the three exposed groups, platelets count was increased only on the second exposed group, while leukocytic count (WBC's), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MGH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were not affected, lymphocytic count was decreased only on the second exposed group, the impairment of thyroid functions was noticed by elevation of T 3 and T 4 in the three exposed groups

  14. Time course of myosin heavy chain transitions in neonatal rats: importance of innervation and thyroid state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, G. R.; McCue, S. A.; Zeng, M.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1999-01-01

    During the postnatal period, rat limb muscles adapt to weight bearing via the replacement of embryonic (Emb) and neonatal (Neo) myosin heavy chains (MHCs) by the adult isoforms. Our aim was to characterize this transition in terms of the six MHC isoforms expressed in skeletal muscle and to determine the importance of innervation and thyroid hormone status on the attainment of the adult MHC phenotype. Neonatal rats were made hypothyroid via propylthiouracil (PTU) injection. In normal and PTU subgroups, leg muscles were unilaterally denervated at 15 days of age. The MHC profiles of plantaris (PLN) and soleus (Sol) muscles were determined at 7, 14, 23, and 30 days postpartum. At day 7, the Sol MHC profile was 55% type I, 30% Emb, and 10% Neo; in the PLN, the pattern was 60% Neo and 25% Emb. By day 30 the Sol and PLN had essentially attained an adult MHC profile in the controls. PTU augmented slow MHC expression in the Sol, whereas in the PLN it markedly repressed IIb MHC by retaining neonatal MHC expression. Denervation blunted the upregulation of IIb in the PLN and of Type I in the Sol and shifted the pattern to greater expression of IIa and IIx MHCs in both muscles. In contrast to previous observations, these findings collectively suggest that both an intact thyroid and innervation state are obligatory for the attainment of the adult MHC phenotype, particularly in fast-twitch muscles.

  15. Craniofacial growth in a whole rat head transplant: how does a non-functional head grow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Y; Hirabayashi, S; Harii, K

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate factors intrinsic to the regulation of craniofacial bone growth, we have developed a new experimental model in which the whole head of an infant rat is transplanted to the body of an isohistogenic rat by means of microvascular anastomosis. In our model, the transplanted head has neither scars nor any moving soft tissue that could modify growth around facial bones. Using this model, we evaluated the growth pattern of the craniofacial complex by means of serial roentgenographic cephalometrics. Ten transplantations were performed using 10-day-old rats as donors and 8-week-old rats as recipients. Cephalograms were taken from the lateral direction at 10, 20, 30, and 40 days after transplantation. Several reference points were selected to analyze the growth pattern. In the present study, we conclude that the size and form of the bony complex are mainly determined genetically. There is craniofacial skeletal growth in the absence of muscle function and brain growth. Further, both the nasal cartilage and the sutures appear to be autonomous growth centers having intrinsic growth potential. Genetic or epigenetic information plays an important role at the skeletal level, but it also affects the muscles through the medium of the muscular tonus responsible for posture and other related phenomena.

  16. Islet graft survival and function: concomitant culture and transplantation with vascular endothelial cells in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoming; Xue, Wujun; Li, Yang; Feng, Xinshun; Tian, Xiaohui; Ding, Chenguang

    2011-12-15

    Human islet transplantation is a great potential therapy for type I diabetes. To investigate islet graft survival and function, we recently showed the improved effects after co-culture and co-transplantation with vascular endothelial cells (ECs) in diabetic rats. ECs were isolated, and the viability of isolated islets was assessed in two groups (standard culture group and co-culture group with ECs). Then streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were divided into four groups before islet transplantation as follows: group A with infusion of islet grafts; group B with combined vascular ECs and islet grafts; groups C and D as controls with single ECs infusion and phosphate-buffered saline injection, respectively. Blood glucose and insulin concentrations were measured daily. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor was investigated by immunohistochemical staining. The mean microvascular density was also calculated. More than 90% of acridine orange-propidium iodide staining positive islets demonstrated normal morphology while co-cultured with ECs for 7 days. Compared with standard control, insulin release assays showed a significantly higher simulation index in co-culture group except for the first day (Ptransplantation, there was a significant difference in concentrations of blood glucose and insulin among these groups after 3 days (Pislet group (P=0.04). Co-culture with ECs in vitro could improve the survival and function of isolated rat islet, and co-transplantation of islets with ECs could effectively prolong the islet graft survival in diabetic rats.

  17. Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) induced thyroid disruption by enhancement of hepatic thyroid hormone influx and degradation in male Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yufeng; Zhang, Haijun; Geng, Ningbo; Xing, Liguo; Fan, Jingfeng; Luo, Yun; Song, Xiaoyao; Ren, Xiaoqian; Wang, Feidi; Chen, Jiping

    2018-06-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are known to disturb thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis in rodents. However, the mechanism remains to be fully characterized. In this study, male Sprague Dawley rats received SCCPs (0, 1, 10, or 100mg/kg/day) via gavage once a day for consecutive 28days. Plasma and hepatic TH concentrations, thyrocyte structure, as well as thyroid and hepatic mRNA and protein levels of genes associated with TH homeostasis were examined. Moreover, we performed molecular docking to predict interactions between constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), a key regulator in xenobiotic-induced TH metabolism, with different SCCP molecules. Exposure to SCCPs significantly decreased the circulating free thyroxine (T 4 ) and triiodothyronine (T 3 ) levels, but increased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels by a feedback mechanism. Decreased hepatic T 4 and increased hepatic T 3 levels were also seen after 100mg/kg/day SCCPs exposure. SCCPs didn't show any significant effects on the expression of thyroid TH synthesis genes or thyrocyte structure. However, stimulation effects were observed for mRNA and protein levels of hepatic uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase (UGT) 1A1 and organic anion transporter 2, suggesting an accelerated TH metabolism in rat liver. The increased cytochrome P450 2B1 but not 1A1 mRNA and protein levels indicated that the CAR signaling was activated by SCCPs exposure. According to docking analysis, SCCPs form hydrophobic interactions with CAR and the binding affinity shows dependency on chlorine content. Overall, our data showed that CAR implicated enhancement of hepatic TH influx and degradation could be the main cause for SCCPs induced TH deficiency in male rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of amiodarone and dronedarone administration in rats on thyroid hormone-dependent gene expression in different cardiac components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoykov, I.; van Beeren, H. C.; Moorman, A. F. M.; Christoffels, V. M.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Bakker, O.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In view of their different actions on thyroid hormone receptor (TR) isoforms we set out to investigate whether amiodarone (AM) and dronedarone (Dron) have different and/or component-specific effects on cardiac gene expression. DESIGN: Rats were treated with AM or Dron and the expression

  19. EFFECTS OF AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE ON LIVER ENZYMES AND THE THYROID AXIS OF RATS PRETREATED WITH PCB126.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonium perchlorate and 3,3,4,4,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) are environmental contaminants that are known to disturb thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis by well defined modes of action that lead to hypothyroidism in the rat. PCB126 increases phase II conjugation of T4 by induc...

  20. Effect of some natural products on the level of thyroid related hormones in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh Idris, A. S. A.

    2011-03-01

    This study was designed based on the basis of interesting information derived from traditional medicine about the uses of three plants i.e (moringa Oleifera, citrus aurantifolia and coriandrum sativum). These plants are used in Sudanese folkloric medicine to treat many diseases such as thyroid, cancer, diabetics and inflammations. This study was designed to evaluate biological activity of these previously mentioned plants and investigate the effect of different concentrations of their extracts on the level of thyroid hormones of male and females swiss wistar rats. Further studies were performed to investigate the potentiality of moringa as a useful agent for the regulation of hyperthyroidism. The three plant sample were collected purchased from different locations in Sudan and identified and authenticated by Mr. Yahia Suleiman technical herbarium at medicinal and Aromatic Plant Research Institute (MAPRA) at National Center of Research, Khartoum, Sudan. A voucher specimen was deposited at herbarium of MAPRI. The plants under investigation were successively extracted at room temperature with petroleum ether, ethy 1 acetate and ethanol using shaker apparatus. Fifty seven adult swiss wister rats of 3-4 months of age, weighing 70-150g were used in this research study. Animals were divided into groups has received dose of extract, equivalent to 200 mg/kg/day for 10 days. In the pilot studies, 30 rats were divided into nine groups to estimate the effect of the extracts (moringa oleifera, citrus aurantifolia and coriandrum) on T3 and T4 and TSH hormones level in the normal and treated rats. The extracts of coriandrum sativum seeds was the most active as it has reduced the level of thyroid hormones than the other extract by decreasing T3 and T4 hormones while TSH level undetectable values this could be due to the absence of the TSH level in rats serum or could be attributed to the method used since the method is specific for human samples not rats. Consequently the 80

  1. Effect of some natural products on the level of thyroid related hormones in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheikh Idris, A. S. A. [Sudan Academy of Sciences, Atomic Energy Council, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2011-03-15

    This study was designed based on the basis of interesting information derived from traditional medicine about the uses of three plants i.e (moringa Oleifera, citrus aurantifolia and coriandrum sativum). These plants are used in Sudanese folkloric medicine to treat many diseases such as thyroid, cancer, diabetics and inflammations. This study was designed to evaluate biological activity of these previously mentioned plants and investigate the effect of different concentrations of their extracts on the level of thyroid hormones of male and females swiss wistar rats. Further studies were performed to investigate the potentiality of moringa as a useful agent for the regulation of hyperthyroidism. The three plant sample were collected purchased from different locations in Sudan and identified and authenticated by Mr. Yahia Suleiman technical herbarium at medicinal and Aromatic Plant Research Institute (MAPRA) at National Center of Research, Khartoum, Sudan. A voucher specimen was deposited at herbarium of MAPRI. The plants under investigation were successively extracted at room temperature with petroleum ether, ethy 1 acetate and ethanol using shaker apparatus. Fifty seven adult swiss wister rats of 3-4 months of age, weighing 70-150g were used in this research study. Animals were divided into groups has received dose of extract, equivalent to 200 mg/kg/day for 10 days. In the pilot studies, 30 rats were divided into nine groups to estimate the effect of the extracts (moringa oleifera, citrus aurantifolia and coriandrum) on T3 and T4 and TSH hormones level in the normal and treated rats. The extracts of coriandrum sativum seeds was the most active as it has reduced the level of thyroid hormones than the other extract by decreasing T3 and T4 hormones while TSH level undetectable values this could be due to the absence of the TSH level in rats serum or could be attributed to the method used since the method is specific for human samples not rats. Consequently the 80

  2. Thyroid hormones effects on oxidative stress and cardiac remodeling in the right ventricle of infarcted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corssac, Giana B; de Castro, Alexandre L; Tavares, Angela V; Campos, Cristina; Fernandes, Rafael O; Ortiz, Vanessa D; Siqueira, Rafaela; Fernandes, Tânia Regina G; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Araujo, Alex Sander R

    2016-02-01

    Right ventricle (RV) dysfunction post-myocardial infarction (MI) was associated with a worsened prognosis. In this scenario, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are related with the progression from MI to heart failure. Previous work showed that thyroid hormones (TH) are cardioprotective after MI. This study aims to investigate the effect of T3 and T4 administration on oxidative stress and angiogenesis parameters in the RV after MI. Wistar rats were allocated into four groups: Sham-operated (SHAM), infarcted (AMI), sham-operated + TH (SHAMT), and infarcted+TH (AMIT). The treated groups received T3 (2 μg/100g/day) and T4 (8 μg/100g/day) by gavage for 26 days. After this, echocardiographic analysis was performed and the RV was collected to western blot and biochemical analysis. Infarcted treated rats showed RV hypertrophy compared with AMI and SHAMT. Hydrogen peroxide levels were decrease and SOD activity and expression were increased in the infarcted treated rats. Besides that, the hormonal administration increased eNOS expression and prevented the reduction of VEGF levels in AMIT rats. In conclusion, TH seems to improve oxidative stress parameters, to promote physiological hypertrophy and to increase the expression of proteins involved with angiogenesis in the right heart. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Neuroprotective and behavioral efficacy of intravenous transplanted adipose stem cells in experimental Parkinsonian rat models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Nakhaeifard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson's disease is a deficiency of dopamine in the striatum, characterized by bradykinesis, rigidity and resting tremor. Adipose tissue-Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs have many advantages for cell therapy because of the easy availability and pluripotency without ethical problems. In this research, the effects of ADSCs transplantation on motor impairment of rat Parkinsonian models were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Parkinson model was constructed by the unilateral lesion of striatum of male Wistar rats using 20µg of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA as lesion group. Cell and α-MEM (α-minimal essential medium groups were lesioned animals that received intravenous injection of 3×106 cells suspended in medium and medium repectively. All rats were evaluated behaviorally with rotarod and apomorphine-induced rotation tests, at 4 and 8 weeks after cell transplantation. Results: Lesion and α-MEM groups showed increased contralateral turns while cell group significantly ameliorated both in rotarod and apomorphine-induced rotation tests. There was a significant difference of contralateral turns between cell and lesioned groups at 8 weeks after transplantation. Lesioned rats showed significant decrease of staying on the rod as compared to control, but in cell group there was a significant increase in comparision with the lesioned animals. Conclusion: ADSCs injected intravenously promote functional recovery in Parkinsonian rats.

  4. Thymus transplantation and disease prevention in the diabetes-prone Bio-Breeding rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiou, H.M.; Bellgrau, D.

    1989-01-01

    Bio-Breeding rat T lymphocytes proliferate poorly in response to alloantigen. Transplantation of Bio-Breeding rats with fetal thymus tissue from diabetes resistant rats leads to an improvement in the T cell proliferative response, but only if the thymus contains bone marrow-derived, radiation-resistant thymic antigen presenting cells of the diabetes-resistant phenotype. The current study provides evidence that thymus transplantation leading to the restoration of Bio-Breeding T cell proliferative function can also significantly reduce the incidence of insulitis and prevent the development of diabetes. It appears that a defect in the bone marrow-derived thymic APC population contributes to an abnormal maturation of Bio-Breeding T lymphocytes which in turn predisposes animals to insulitis and diabetic disease

  5. Differential effects of fasting vs food restriction on liver thyroid hormone metabolism in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, E M; van Beeren, H C; Ackermans, M T; Kalsbeek, A; Fliers, E; Boelen, A

    2015-01-01

    A variety of illnesses that leads to profound changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) are axis collectively known as the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). NTIS is characterized by decreased tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) and inappropriately low TSH serum concentrations, as well as altered hepatic thyroid hormone (TH) metabolism. Spontaneous caloric restriction often occurs during illness and may contribute to NTIS, but it is currently unknown to what extent. The role of diminished food intake is often studied using experimental fasting models, but partial food restriction might be a more physiologically relevant model. In this comparative study, we characterized hepatic TH metabolism in two models for caloric restriction: 36 h of complete fasting and 21 days of 50% food restriction. Both fasting and food restriction decreased serum T4 concentration, while after 36-h fasting serum T3 also decreased. Fasting decreased hepatic T3 but not T4 concentrations, while food restriction decreased both hepatic T3 and T4 concentrations. Fasting and food restriction both induced an upregulation of liver D3 expression and activity, D1 was not affected. A differential effect was seen in Mct10 mRNA expression, which was upregulated in the fasted rats but not in food-restricted rats. Other metabolic pathways of TH, such as sulfation and UDP-glucuronidation, were also differentially affected. The changes in hepatic TH concentrations were reflected by the expression of T3-responsive genes Fas and Spot14 only in the 36-h fasted rats. In conclusion, limited food intake induced marked changes in hepatic TH metabolism, which are likely to contribute to the changes observed during NTIS. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  6. Rat enterohepatic circulation and intestinal distribution of enterally infused thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiStefano, J.J. III; Sternlicht, M.; Harris, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    The enterohepatic circulation (recycling), intestinal (gut) distribution, metabolism, and excretion of enterally infused thyroid hormones were studied in the intact rat under approximately normal physiological steady state conditions. Rats with 7-day osmotic minipumps implanted ip received constant intraduodenal infusions to steady state of very small trace doses of either 125I-labeled T3 (T3*) or T4 (T4*). Enterohepatic and other pathways remained open to normal function, and in particular, there was no biliary diversion or ligation. Complete feces and urine were collected daily, to assess daily distributions of radioactivity and establishment of the steady state, which occurred by day 3. On day 7, rats were anesthetized, blood was sampled, whole intestine and minipumps were removed, and the gut was separated into six segments. Fecal samples and the contents of each gut section were homogenized, ethanol extracted, evaporated, and reconstituted in NaOH for quantitative aqueous chromatography along with infusate, urine, and plasma samples, on Sephadex G-25 columns. No T3* or T4* was found in urine, but feces contained 39% of the T3* infused and 36% of the T4* infused in steady state. Statistically significant amounts of both T3* and T4* in systemic plasma on day 7 clearly indicated absorption of the hormones from the intestine, distinctly demonstrating an enterohepatic circulation of T3 and T4 under experimental conditions closely approximating the physiological steady state. This also establishes the intestine (with its contents) as an exchangeable hormone pool, physiologically internal to the system regulating thyroid hormones and their distribution. Gut contents contained 52 times more T3* and 4.34 times more T4* than corresponding plasma pools in steady state

  7. Comparison of therapeutic characteristics of islet cell transplantation simultaneous with pancreatic mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in rats with Type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsal, Ilknur Ozturk; Ginis, Zeynep; Pinarli, Ferda Alparslan; Albayrak, Aynur; Cakal, Erman; Sahin, Mustafa; Delibasi, Tuncay

    2015-06-01

    Although, pancreas islet call transplantation is a new, promising method for type 1 diabetic patients, it remains as an experimental procedure applied in selected patients. The present study aimed to investigate effect of pancreatic mesenchymal stem cell transplantation simultaneous with islet cell transplantation on islet liveliness and thus on the treatment of diabetes in type 1 diabetic rats. The study used Wistar Albino Rats and was performed in a total of four groups [control (G1), mesenchymal stem cell (G2), islet (G3) and islet + mesencymal stem cell (G4)] each including 8 rats. Blood glucose level of the rats, in which diabetes model has been created using streptozotocin, was measured after 72 h. Blood samples were obtained from the rats 30 days after transplantation and then, their livers and pancreases were kept in 10% formaldehyde and the experiment was ended. Following staining with H&E, they were morphologically evaluated under a light microscope. Change in mean blood glucose level was statistically significant in G3 and G4 versus G1 and G2 (p = 0.001, p islet cells in the pancreases of the rats was higher in G4; difference between the groups was statistically significant (p Transplantation of islet cells together with mesenchymal stem cells showed beneficial effects in terms of prolonging survival of islet grafts suggesting that transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells together with islet cells during clinical islet transplantation may be beneficial in increasing the number of noninsulin-dependent patients in Type 1 diabetes.

  8. Optimal Route for Mesenchymal Stem Cells Transplantation after Severe Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Newborn Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Yoon Ahn

    Full Text Available Recently, we showed that intracerebroventricular (IC transplantation of human umbilical cord blood (UCB-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs significantly attenuates posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH and brain damage after severe IVH in newborn rats. This study was performed to determine the optimal route for transplanting MSCs for severe IVH by comparing IC transplantation, intravenous (IV transplantation, and IV transplantation plus mannitol infusion. Severe IVH was induced by injecting 100 uL of blood into each ventricle of Sprague-Dawley rats on postnatal day 4 (P4. After confirming severe IVH with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI at P5, human UCB-derived MSCs were transplanted at P6 by an IC route (1×105, an IV route (5×105, or an IV route with mannitol infused. Follow-up brain MRIs and rotarod tests were performed. At P32, brain tissue samples were obtained for biochemical and histological analyses. Although more MSCs localized to the brain after IC than after IV delivery, both methods were equally effective in preventing PHH; attenuating impaired rotarod test; increasing the number of TUNEL-positive cells, inflammatory cytokines, and astrogliosis; and reducing corpus callosal thickness and myelin basic protein expression after severe IVH regardless of mannitol co-infusion. Despite the superior delivery efficacy with IC than with the IV route, both IC and IV transplantation of MSCs had equal therapeutic efficacy in protecting against severe IVH. These findings suggest that the less invasive IV route might be a good alternative for clinically unstable, very preterm infants that cannot tolerate a more invasive IC delivery of MSCs.

  9. Could Cells from Your Nose Fix Your Heart? Transplantation of Olfactory Stem Cells in a Rat Model of Cardiac Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron McDonald

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the hypothesis that multipotent olfactory mucosal stem cells could provide a basis for the development of autologous cell transplant therapy for the treatment of heart attack. In humans, these cells are easily obtained by simple biopsy. Neural stem cells from the olfactory mucosa are multipotent, with the capacity to differentiate into developmental fates other than neurons and glia, with evidence of cardiomyocyte differentiation in vitro and after transplantation into the chick embryo. Olfactory stem cells were grown from rat olfactory mucosa. These cells are propagated as neurosphere cultures, similar to other neural stem cells. Olfactory neurospheres were grown in vitro, dissociated into single cell suspensions, and transplanted into the infarcted hearts of congeneic rats. Transplanted cells were genetically engineered to express green fluorescent protein (GFP in order to allow them to be identified after transplantation. Functional assessment was attempted using echocardiography in three groups of rats: control, unoperated; infarct only; infarcted and transplanted. Transplantation of neurosphere-derived cells from adult rat olfactory mucosa appeared to restore heart rate with other trends towards improvement in other measures of ventricular function indicated. Importantly, donor-derived cells engrafted in the transplanted cardiac ventricle and expressed cardiac contractile proteins.

  10. INSULIN-SECRETION BY RAT ISLET ISOGRAFTS OF A DEFINED ENDOCRINE VOLUME AFTER TRANSPLANTATION TO 3 DIFFERENT SITES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANSUYLICHEM, PTR; STRUBBE, JH; HOUWING, H; WOLTERS, GHJ; VANSCHILFGAARDE, R

    1992-01-01

    We have analysed the graft function of rat islet isografts of identical and well-defined endocrine volumes after transplantation to three different sites (kidney, liver and spleen). Graft endocrine mass was determined by measuring the total islet volume prior to transplantation and was chosen to be

  11. Insulin secretion by rat islet isografts of a defined endocrine volume after transplantation to three different sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suylichem, P.T.R. van; Strubbe, J.H.; Houwing, H.; Wolters, G.H.J.; Schilfgaarde, R. van

    1992-01-01

    We have analysed the graft function of rat islet isografts of identical and well-defined endocrine volumes after transplantation to three different sites (kidney, liver and spleen). Graft endocrine mass was determined by measuring the total islet volume prior to transplantation and was chosen to be

  12. Improvement of Heart Failure by Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Transplantation in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi Tousi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi; Faghihi, Mahdieh; Nobakht, Maliheh; Molazem, Mohammad; Kalantari, Elham; Darbandi Azar, Amir; Aboutaleb, Nahid

    2016-07-06

    Background: Recently, stem cells have been considered for the treatment of heart diseases, but no marked improvement has been recorded. This is the first study to examine the functional and histological effects of the transplantation of human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSCs) in rats with heart failure (HF). Methods: This study was conducted in the years 2014 and 2015. 35 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into 5 equal experimental groups (7 rats each) as 1- Control 2- Heart Failure (HF) 3- Sham 4- Culture media 5- Stem Cell Transplantation (SCT). Heart failure was induced using 170 mg/kg/d of isoproterenol subcutaneously injection in 4 consecutive days. The failure confirmed by the rat cardiac echocardiography on day 28. In SCT group, 3×10 6 cells in 150 µl of culture media were transplanted to the myocardium. At the end, echocardiographic and hemodynamic parameters together with histological evaluation were done. Results: Echocardiography results showed that cardiac ejection fraction in HF group increased from 58/73 ± 9% to 81/25 ± 6/05% in SCT group (p value < 0.001). Fraction shortening in HF group was increased from 27/53 ± 8/58% into 45/55 ± 6/91% in SCT group (p value < 0.001). Furthermore, hAMSCs therapy significantly improved mean diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, left ventricular systolic pressure, rate pressure product, and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure compared to those in the HF group, with the values reaching the normal levels in the control group. A marked reduction in fibrosis tissue was also found in the SCT group (p value < 0.001) compared with the animals in the HF group. Conclusion: The transplantation of hAMSCs in rats with heart failure not only decreased the level of fibrosis but also conferred significant improvement in heart performance in terms of echocardiographic and hemodynamic parameters.

  13. Comparison of the Ovary and Kidney as Sites for Islet Transplantation in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakose, M; Pinarli, F A; Arslan, M S; Boyuk, G; Boztok, B; Albayrak, A; Ulus, A T; Cakal, E; Delibasi, T

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the most commonly used site for clinical islet transplantation is the liver although it is far from being an ideal site. Low oxygen tension and the induction of an inflammatory response impair islet implantation and lead to significant early loss of islet. The present study aimed to investigate and compare the efficacy of islet transplantation to the ovary and kidney subcapsule in diabetic rats. The study was performed with 3 groups of rats (control, ovary, and kidney subcapsule) including 6 Sprague female rats each. Diabetes model was created with the use of streptozotocin, and blood glucose levels of the rats were measured after 72 hours. Thirty days after the transplantation, blood samples were obtained from the rats, and then pancreas, kidney, and ovary specimens were fixed in 10% formaldehyde and the experiment completed. After staining with hematoxylin and eosin, the tissue samples were morphologically evaluated by a specialist histopathologist. Changes in mean blood glucose and C-peptide levels were statistically significant in the ovary and kidney subcapsule groups. Histologic examination revealed that granulosus insulin-bearing cells were detected in the islet grafts of both ovary and kidney subcapsule groups. The renal subcapsule group had inflammation signs on histologic examination. The islet cells of both ovary and renal subcapsule groups had no vacuolization. We showed that the ovary might be a new site for islet transplantation. Further research should be done on whether the initial results of this study can be reproduced in larger numbers of animal models and eventually in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Expression of neuropeptide W in rat stomach mucosa: regulation by nutritional status, glucocorticoids and thyroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminos, Jorge E; Bravo, Susana B; García-Rendueles, María E R; Ruth González, C; Garcés, Maria F; Cepeda, Libia A; Lage, Ricardo; Suárez, Miguel A; López, Miguel; Diéguez, Carlos

    2008-02-07

    Neuropeptide W (NPW) is a recently identified neuropeptide that binds to G-protein-coupled receptor 7 (GPR7) and 8 (GPR8). In rodent brain, NPW mRNA is confined to specific nuclei in hypothalamus, midbrain and brainstem. Expression of NPW mRNA has also been confirmed in peripheral organs such as stomach. Several reports suggested that brain NPW is implicated in the regulation of energy and hormonal homeostasis, namely the adrenal and thyroid axes; however the precise physiological role and regulation of peripheral NPW remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of nutritional status on the regulation of NPW in stomach mucosa. Our results show that in this tissue, NPW mRNA and protein expression is negatively regulated by fasting and food restriction, in all the models we studied: males, females and pregnant females. Next, we examined the effect of glucocorticoids and thyroid hormones on NPW mRNA expression in the stomach mucosa. Our data showed that NPW expression is decreased in this tissue after glucocorticoid treatment or hyperthyroidism. Conversely, hypothyroidism induces a marked increase in the expression of NPW in rat stomach. Overall, these data indicate that stomach NPW is regulated by nutritional and hormonal status.

  15. Moderate perinatal thyroid hormone insufficiency alters visual system function in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, William K; Degn, Laura; George, Barbara Jane; Gilbert, Mary E

    2018-04-21

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is critical for many aspects of neurodevelopment and can be disrupted by a variety of environmental contaminants. Sensory systems, including audition and vision are vulnerable to TH insufficiencies, but little data are available on visual system development at less than severe levels of TH deprivation. The goal of the current experiments was to explore dose-response relations between graded levels of TH insufficiency during development and the visual function of adult offspring. Pregnant Long Evans rats received 0 or 3 ppm (Experiment 1), or 0, 1, 2, or 3 ppm (Experiment 2) of propylthiouracil (PTU), an inhibitor of thyroid hormone synthesis, in drinking water from gestation day (GD) 6 to postnatal day (PN) 21. Treatment with PTU caused dose-related reductions of serum T4, with recovery on termination of exposure, and euthyroidism by the time of visual function testing. Tests of retinal (electroretinograms; ERGs) and visual cortex (visual evoked potentials; VEPs) function were assessed in adult offspring. Dark-adapted ERG a-waves, reflecting rod photoreceptors, were increased in amplitude by PTU. Light-adapted green flicker ERGs, reflecting M-cone photoreceptors, were reduced by PTU exposure. UV-flicker ERGs, reflecting S-cones, were not altered. Pattern-elicited VEPs were significantly reduced by 2 and 3 ppm PTU across a range of stimulus contrast values. The slope of VEP amplitude-log contrast functions was reduced by PTU, suggesting impaired visual contrast gain. Visual contrast gain primarily reflects function of visual cortex, and is responsible for adjusting sensitivity of perceptual mechanisms in response to changing visual scenes. The results indicate that moderate levels of pre-and post-natal TH insufficiency led to alterations in visual function of adult rats, including both retinal and visual cortex sites of dysfunction. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Study of Salvia Officinalis Hydroethanolic Extract on Serum Thyroid Hormone Levels in Hypothyroid Male Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mirazi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Medicinal plants are widely used throughout the world. Hypothyroid-ism is an important hormonal disease that causes some disorders in body organs. Salvia offi-cinalis has been known as a medicinal plant since ancient times. In this study the Salvia offi-cinalis extract (SOE effects on thyroid hormones and TSH in hypothyroid rats have been investigated. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study the SOE extract was prepared and 40 male rats were randomly divided in five groups. Control, propylthiouracil (PTU in 4 groups + SOE. The animals were induced hypothyroidism by administration of PTU 0.1% orally in tap water for 14 days. The blood samples were collected and T3 & T4 and TSH hormones were analyzed. Hypothyroid groups were divided into 4 groups and received (PTU+ SOE 40 mg/kg +levothyroxine sodium, 15mcg/kg, orally in tap water and LV+ SOE. All test groups were treated with SOE and levothyroxine sodium for one week. The blood samples were col-lected and for T3 & T4 and TSH hormones were analyzed at the end of the 3rd week. All data were expressed as mean ± SEM and all statistical procedures were performed by MANOVA test.Results: Our results showed that the T3 & T4 plasma levels in hypothyroid animals treated by SOE had significant differences (P<0.05 compared with the control group. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the SOE has stimulatory effect on thyroid gland func-tion and raises plasma T3 & T4 levels.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 19 (4:27-35

  17. Therapeutic Potential of Date Palm Pollen for Testicular Dysfunction Induced by Thyroid Disorders in Male Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram M El-Kashlan

    Full Text Available Hyper- or hypothyroidism can impair testicular function leading to infertility. The present study was designed to examine the protective effect of date palm pollen (DPP extract on thyroid disorder-induced testicular dysfunction. Rats were divided into six groups. Group I was normal control. Group II received oral DPP extract (150 mg kg(-1, group III (hyperthyroid group received intraperitoneal injection of L-thyroxine (L-T4, 300 μg kg(-1; i.p., group IV received L-T4 plus DPP extract, group V (hypothyroid group received propylthiouracil (PTU, 10 mg kg(-1; i.p. and group VI received PTU plus DPP extract. All treatments were given every day for 56 days. L-T4 or PTU lowered genital sex organs weight, sperm count and motility, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and testosterone (T, testicular function markers and activities of testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD. Moreover, L-T4 or PTU increased estradiol (E2 serum level, testicular oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptotic markers. Morphometric and histopathologic studies backed these observations. Treatment with DPP extract prevented LT4- or PTU induced changes. In addition, supplementation of DPP extract to normal rats augmented sperm count and motility, serum levels of LH, T and E2 paralleled with increased activities of 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD as well as testicular antioxidant status. These results provide evidence that DPP extract may have potential protective effects on testicular dysfunction induced by altered thyroid hormones.

  18. Retrograde tracing of fluorescent gold after autogenous nerve transplantation on spinal cord injured in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, X; Liu, W; Ding, Ming

    2016-01-01

    , the transplantation group using autologous sural nerve graft to repair spinal cord injury period and non-transplantation group was only exposed incision without treatment. In the 4, 6 and 8 weeks after operation, the retrograde tracing of FG Fluoro-Gold was performed to discover the recovery of the axial plasma......Objective To investigate the changes of the fluorescent gold retrograde tracing autogenous nerve transplantation on spinal cord injured in rats. Methods The animals were divided into two groups, with modified Allen impact method to establish model of spinal cord injury. After 4 weeks.......01). Conclusion After spinal cord injury, autologous nerve graft was repaired and survived well and promote the recovery of spinal cord injury segment shaft pulp transportation function....

  19. Simultaneous bone marrow and composite tissue transplantation in rats treated with nonmyeloablative conditioning promotes tolerance1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong; Ramsey, Deborah M.; Wu, Shengli; Bozulic, Larry D.; Ildstad, Suzanne T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Approaches to safely induce tolerance in vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) with chimerism through bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are currently being pursued. However, the VCA were historically performed sequentially after donor chimerism was established. Delayed VCA is not clinically applicable due to the time constraints associated with procurement from deceased donors. A more clinically relevant approach to perform both the BMT and VCA simultaneously was evaluated. Methods WF (RT1Au) rats were treated with a short course of immunosuppressive therapy (anti-αβ-TCR mAb, FK-506, and anti-lymphocyte serum). One day prior to BMT, rats were treated with varying doses of total body irradiation (TBI) followed by transplantation of heterotopic osteomyocutaneous flaps from hind limbs of ACI (RT1Aabl) rats. Results 80% of rats conditioned with 300 cGy TBI and 40% of rats receiving 400 cGy TBI accepted the VCA. Mixed chimerism was detected in peripheral blood at one month post-VCA, but chimerism was lost in all transplant recipients by 4 months. The majority of peripheral donor cells originated from the BMT and not the VCA. Acceptors of VCA were tolerant of a donor skin graft challenge and no anti-donor antibodies were detectable, suggesting a central deletional mechanism for tolerance. Regulatory T cells (Treg) from spleens of acceptors more potently suppressed lymphocyte proliferation than Treg from rejectors in the presence of donor stimulator cells. Conclusions These studies suggest that simultaneous BMT and VCA may establish indefinite allograft survival in rats through Treg-mediated suppression and thymic deletion of alloreactive T cells. PMID:23250336

  20. The interrelationships of thyroid and growth hormones: effect of growth hormone releasing hormone in hypo- and hyperthyroid male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, A W; Shulman, D; Root, J; Diamond, F

    1986-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and the thyroid hormones interact in the hypothalamus, pituitary and peripheral tissues. Thyroid hormone exerts a permissive effect upon the anabolic and metabolic effects of GH, and increases pituitary synthesis of this protein hormone. GH depresses the secretion of thyrotropin and the thyroid hormones and increases the peripheral conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine. In the adult male rat experimental hypothyroidism produced by ingestion of propylthiouracil depresses the GH secretory response to GH-releasing hormone in vivo and in vitro, reflecting the lowered pituitary stores of GH in the hypothyroid state. Short term administration of large amounts of thyroxine with induction of the hyperthyroid state does not affect the in vivo GH secretory response to GH-releasing hormone in this animal.

  1. Effect of altered thyroid states on the distribution of intraperitoneally injected cadmium-109 in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, S.J.

    1975-01-01

    Metals bind to proteins in the blood and are transported in this bound state. The synthesis of proteins is altered in disease states. There may be an increase, a decrease, or a change in the protein fraction makeup, depending on the type and severity of the disease. Total protein synthesis is increased in hyperthyroidism; decreased in hypothyroidism. These changes alter the uptake and distribution of minerals and metals. This study was designed to determine the effect of altered thyroid states on the distribution of cadmium, a toxic environmental pollutant, in rats. The main experiment consisted of injecting rats with Cd-109 after 15 days of drug pretreatment for induction of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Cadmium levels in the samples were expressed as percentage of activity per organ (P) and percentage of activity per gram of tissue (A). The results showed that drug treatment affected organ weights. Hypothyroid livers weighed significantly less than hyperthyroid and euthyroid livers. Kidney and spleen weights of all three treatment groups were significantly different from each other. Those of hypothyroid rats weighed the least; those of hyperthyroid rats weighed the most. Expressed as P values, livers of the three treatment groups were not different, but hyperthyroid kidneys and spleens had significantly higher levels of cadmium. The A values of hypothyroid livers, kidneys, and spleens were higher than those of the other two treatment groups. Bone, muscle, testes, and blood samples showed extensive variability, and for this reason statistical analyses were not run. There were trends, but it was evident that the overall treatment effects on cadmium levels in these tissues were negligible

  2. Therapeutic effect of bone marrow transplantation plue previous blood transfusion on rats with total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yongtang; Ran Xinze; Wei Shuqing

    1988-01-01

    Therapeutic effect of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and blood transfusion on different groups of rats subjected to various doses of total body irradiation (TBI) was studied. In the control group, 80 rats that received TBI of 8,9,10,11 and 12 Gy died between 3∼14 days. In the second group, 67 rats that received the same doses of irradiation were treated with BMT. Except that 8 rats died from lung hemorrhages at 4∼6 days after TBI. 85% of these animals (500/59) showed hemopoietic engraftment. The survival rates of 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 Gy subgroups at 90 days after BMT were 90%, 56%, 56%, 25% and 0% respectively. In the third group, 82 rats receive TBI and blood transfusion prior to BMT. Except that 8 rats subjected to 11∼12 Gy irradiation died from lung hemorrhage at 4∼6 days after BMT, 97% of these animals (72/74) showed hemopoietic engraftment. The 90-day survival rates of 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 Gy subgroups were 93%, 80%, 80%, 60% and 6% respectively. The 90-day survival rate of 50 rats subjected to 9∼11 Gy TBI and treated with blood transfusion and BMT, was 72%, while that 47 rats treated simply with BMT was only 42%. These results showed clearly that previous blood transfusion could increase the rate of hemopoietic engraftment, reduce the incidence if rejection, and raise the survival rate

  3. S-Adenosylmethionine attenuates bile duct early warm ischemia reperfusion injury after rat liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong; Chu, Hongpeng; Cao, Guojun; Du, Xiaolong; Min, Xiaobo; Wan, Chidan

    2018-03-01

    Warm ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) plays a key role in biliary complication, which is a substantial vulnerability of liver transplantation. The early pathophysiological changes of IRI are characterized by an excessive inflammatory response. S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) is an important metabolic intermediate that modulates inflammatory reactions; however, its role in bile duct warm IRI is not known. In this study, male rats were treated with or without SAM (170 μmol/kg body weight) after orthotopic autologous liver transplantation. The histopathological observations showed that bile duct injury in the IRI group was more serious than in the SAM group. The alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and direct bilirubin (DBIL) levels in the serum of the IRI group were significantly increased compared to the SAM group (P liver and bile duct tissues, down-regulated TNF-α levels and up-regulated IL-10 expression in bile duct tissues compared to the IRI group (P livers were much higher compared to those in SAM-treated rats at 24 h after liver transplantation (P bile ducts against warm IRI by suppressing oxidative stress, inflammatory reactions and apoptosis of biliary epithelial cells after liver transplantation.α. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Exposure to non-ionizing radiation provokes changes in rat thyroid morphology and expression of HSP-90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misa-Agustiño, Maria J; Jorge-Mora, Teresa; Jorge-Barreiro, Francisco J; Suarez-Quintanilla, Juan; Moreno-Piquero, Eduardo; Ares-Pena, Francisco J; López-Martín, Elena

    2015-09-01

    Non-ionizing radiation at 2.45 GHz may modify the morphology and expression of genes that codify heat shock proteins (HSP) in the thyroid gland. Diathermy is the therapeutic application of non-ionizing radiation to humans for its beneficial effects in rheumatological and musculo-skeletal pain processes. We used a diathermy model on laboratory rats subjected to maximum exposure in the left front leg, in order to study the effects of radiation on the nearby thyroid tissue. Fifty-six rats were individually exposed once or repeatedly (10 times in two weeks) for 30 min to 2.45 GHz radiation in a commercial chamber at different non-thermal specific absorption rates (SARs), which were calculated using the finite difference time domain technique. We used immunohistochemistry methods to study the expression of HSP-90 and morphological changes in thyroid gland tissues. Ninety minutes after radiation with the highest SAR, the central and peripheral follicles presented increased size and the thickness of the peripheral septa had decreased. Twenty-four hours after radiation, only peripheral follicles radiated at 12 W were found to be smaller. Peripheral follicles increased in size with repeated exposure at 3 W power. Morphological changes in the thyroid tissue may indicate a glandular response to acute or repeated stress from radiation in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Further research is needed to determine if the effect of this physical agent over time may cause disease in the human thyroid gland. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  5. Exposure to non-ionizing radiation provokes changes in rat thyroid morphology and expression of HSP-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misa-Agustiño, Maria J; Jorge-Mora, Teresa; Jorge-Barreiro, Francisco J; Suarez-Quintanilla, Juan; Moreno-Piquero, Eduardo; Ares-Pena, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    Non-ionizing radiation at 2.45 GHz may modify the morphology and expression of genes that codify heat shock proteins (HSP) in the thyroid gland. Diathermy is the therapeutic application of non-ionizing radiation to humans for its beneficial effects in rheumatological and musculo-skeletal pain processes. We used a diathermy model on laboratory rats subjected to maximum exposure in the left front leg, in order to study the effects of radiation on the nearby thyroid tissue. Fifty-six rats were individually exposed once or repeatedly (10 times in two weeks) for 30 min to 2.45 GHz radiation in a commercial chamber at different non-thermal specific absorption rates (SARs), which were calculated using the finite difference time domain technique. We used immunohistochemistry methods to study the expression of HSP-90 and morphological changes in thyroid gland tissues. Ninety minutes after radiation with the highest SAR, the central and peripheral follicles presented increased size and the thickness of the peripheral septa had decreased. Twenty-four hours after radiation, only peripheral follicles radiated at 12 W were found to be smaller. Peripheral follicles increased in size with repeated exposure at 3 W power. Morphological changes in the thyroid tissue may indicate a glandular response to acute or repeated stress from radiation in the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis. Further research is needed to determine if the effect of this physical agent over time may cause disease in the human thyroid gland. PMID:25649190

  6. The Effect of Maternal Thyroid Disorders (Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism During Pregnancy and Lactation on Skin Development in Wistar Rat Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Amerion

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Previous studies have shown that thyroid hormones are necessary for normal development of many organs and because of the importance of skin as the largest and the most important organ in human body protection in spite of external environment, the study of thyroid hormones effects on skin development is considerable. In this survey we have tried to study the effects of maternal hypothyroidism on skin development in fetus during pregnancy and lactation by immunohistochemistry technique.   Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into 4 groups, hypothyroids, hyperthyroids, hypothyroids are treated with levothyroxin and a control group. The rat mothers were exposed to PTU with 50 mg/lit dosage and levothyroxin with 1 mg/lit dosage and PTU and levothyroxin simultaneously and with the same dosage respectively in hypothyroid, hyperthyroid and treated hypothyroids with levothyroxin groups. After 14 days, blood sample was taken from mothers, and if thyroid hormones level had change well, mating was allowed. After pregnancy and delivery, 1th day dorsal skin (as the sample for pregnancy assay and 10th day skin (as for lactation assay was used for immunohystochemical and morphometric studies. Results: In this study it was observed that maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy and lactation causes significant increase in laminin expression, in most areas of skin, and maternal hyperthyroidism during pregnancy and lactation causes significant decrease in laminin expression. Also significant decrease was observed in hair follicles number and epidermis thickness in hypothyroidism groups. Conclusion: This study showed maternal hypothyroidism causes significant decrease in epidermis thickness and hair follicles number and it causes less hair in fetus. Also maternal hypothyroidism causes large changes in laminin expression in different parts of skin. At the same time,maternal hyperthyroidism causes opposite results. In fact, thyroid hormones

  7. Thyroid hormone uptake and T4 derived T3 formation in different skeletal muscle types of normal and hyperthyroid rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeveld, C. van; Kassenaar, A.A.H.

    1978-01-01

    In this study hind-limb perfusion was used to investigate conversion of T 4 to T 3 in skeletal muscle tissue. For this purpose the rats were depleted of thyroid hormones by thyroid ablation with 0.75 mCi 131 I and were perfused 2 weeks later, when the skeletal muscle tissue consumed oxygen at a normal rate due to one subcutaneous dose of 10 μg T 3 /100 g b. w. 3 days before the perfusion experiments were started. T 4 * of high specific activity (> 2000 μCi/μg) was added to the perfusate. In the muscle (mixed type) a mean T 4 → T 3 conversion of 2% (range 0.5-3.9) was found after 120 min of perfusion. T 3 generation from T 4 in skeletal muscle did not correspond with T 3 muscle uptake. This observation makes a significant overestimation of T 3 by selective uptake of a small contamination of T 3 * in the T 4 * preparation highly improbable. In red muscle the T 4 and T 3 uptake was about 50 % higher than in white muscle. The observed Tetracsup(c) and T 3 sup(c) were significantly higher in red than in white muscle. The uptake of thyroid hormones by both muscle types was not changed in hyperthyroid rats. The Tetrac and T 3 formation from T 4 , however, was increased in red muscles of hyperthyroid rats. The results show that thyroid hormone metabolism can vary markedly depending upon the type of muscle studied and they present a basis for a better understanding of clinical and biochemical evidence for a different susceptibility of red and white muscle fibers to thyroid hormones. (Abbreviations: *= 125 I; **= 131 I; T 3 sup(c)=T 4 derived T 3 ; Tetracsup(c)=T 4 derived Tetrac) (author)

  8. Histological and functional benefit following transplantation of motor neuron progenitors to the injured rat spinal cord.

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    Sharyn L Rossi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Motor neuron loss is characteristic of cervical spinal cord injury (SCI and contributes to functional deficit.In order to investigate the amenability of the injured adult spinal cord to motor neuron differentiation, we transplanted spinal cord injured animals with a high purity population of human motor neuron progenitors (hMNP derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs. In vitro, hMNPs displayed characteristic motor neuron-specific markers, a typical electrophysiological profile, functionally innervated human or rodent muscle, and secreted physiologically active growth factors that caused neurite branching and neuronal survival. hMNP transplantation into cervical SCI sites in adult rats resulted in suppression of intracellular signaling pathways associated with SCI pathogenesis, which correlated with greater endogenous neuronal survival and neurite branching. These neurotrophic effects were accompanied by significantly enhanced performance on all parameters of the balance beam task, as compared to controls. Interestingly, hMNP transplantation resulted in survival, differentiation, and site-specific integration of hMNPs distal to the SCI site within ventral horns, but hMNPs near the SCI site reverted to a neuronal progenitor state, suggesting an environmental deficiency for neuronal maturation associated with SCI.These findings underscore the barriers imposed on neuronal differentiation of transplanted cells by the gliogenic nature of the injured spinal cord, and the physiological relevance of transplant-derived neurotrophic support to functional recovery.

  9. Effects of thyroid hormones on calcium contents and 45Ca exchange in rat skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everts, M.E.; Clausen, T.

    1986-01-01

    In 4-wk-old rats, pretreatment with L-triiodothyronine (T3) increased calcium content by 100% and the 30-min 45 Ca uptake by 64% in the soleus, whereas the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle showed no significant change. The stimulation of 45 Ca uptake was resistant to dantrolene and methoxyverapamil (D600) and could not be attributed to altered permeability of the plasma membrane to calcium, but appears to reflect increased net accumulation of calcium in intracellular pools. The stimulating effect of high K0 (20 mM) on 45 Ca uptake was more pronounced in soleus than in EDL and could be suppressed by dantrolene and D600. The results indicate that the effects of T3 on calcium content and 45 Ca exchange are primarily exerted on muscles containing a large proportion of slow-twitch, oxidative fibers. In soleus muscle from hyperthyroid rats the stimulating effects of high K0 on 45 Ca uptake and lactate production were, respectively, 3.4 and 4.5 times larger than in those obtained from controls. These observations further support the earlier proposed idea [C. van Hardeveld and T. Clausen. Am. J. Physiol. 247 (Endocrinol. Metab. 10): E421-E430, 1984] that the metabolic effects of thyroid hormone depend on the availability of cellular as well as extracellular calcium

  10. Effects of thyroid hormones on calcium contents and 45Ca exchange in rat skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everts, M.E.; Clausen, T.

    1986-09-01

    In 4-wk-old rats, pretreatment with L-triiodothyronine (T3) increased calcium content by 100% and the 30-min /sup 45/Ca uptake by 64% in the soleus, whereas the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle showed no significant change. The stimulation of /sup 45/Ca uptake was resistant to dantrolene and methoxyverapamil (D600) and could not be attributed to altered permeability of the plasma membrane to calcium, but appears to reflect increased net accumulation of calcium in intracellular pools. The stimulating effect of high K0 (20 mM) on /sup 45/Ca uptake was more pronounced in soleus than in EDL and could be suppressed by dantrolene and D600. The results indicate that the effects of T3 on calcium content and /sup 45/Ca exchange are primarily exerted on muscles containing a large proportion of slow-twitch, oxidative fibers. In soleus muscle from hyperthyroid rats the stimulating effects of high K0 on /sup 45/Ca uptake and lactate production were, respectively, 3.4 and 4.5 times larger than in those obtained from controls. These observations further support the earlier proposed idea (C. van Hardeveld and T. Clausen. Am. J. Physiol. 247 (Endocrinol. Metab. 10): E421-E430, 1984) that the metabolic effects of thyroid hormone depend on the availability of cellular as well as extracellular calcium.

  11. Transplantation of dedifferentiated fat cell-derived micromass pellets contributed to cartilage repair in the rat osteochondral defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Manabu; Matsumoto, Taro; Kikuta, Shinsuke; Ohtaki, Munenori; Kano, Koichiro; Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Saito, Shu; Nagaoka, Masahiro; Tokuhashi, Yasuaki

    2018-03-20

    Mature adipocyte-derived dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells possesses the ability to proliferate effectively and the potential to differentiate into multiple linages of mesenchymal tissue; similar to adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of DFAT cell transplantation on cartilage repair in a rat model of osteochondral defects. Full-thickness osteochondral defects were created in the knees of Sprague-Dawley rats bilaterally. Cartilage-like micromass pellets were prepared from green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled rat DFAT cells and subsequently transplanted into the affected right knee of these rats. Defects in the left knee were used as a control. Macroscopic and microscopic changes of treated and control defects were evaluated up to 12 weeks post-treatment with DFAT cells. To observe the transplanted cells, sectioned femurs were immunostained for GFP and type II collagen. DFAT cells formed micromass pellets expressing characteristics of immature cartilage in vitro. In the DFAT cell-transplanted limbs, the defects were completely filled with white micromass pellets as early as 2 weeks post-treatment. These limbs became smooth at 4 weeks. Conversely, the defects in the control limbs were still not repaired by 4 weeks. Macroscopic ICRS scores at 2 and 4 weeks were significantly higher in the DFAT cells-transplanted limbs compared to those of the control limbs. The modified O'Driscol histological scores for the DFAT cell-transplanted limbs were significantly higher than those of the control limbs at corresponding time points. GFP-positive DAFT cells were detected in the transplanted area at 2 weeks but hardly visible at 12 weeks post-operation. Transplantation of DFAT cell-derived micromass pellets contribute to cartilage repair in a rat osteochondral defect model. DFAT cell transplantation may be a viable therapeutic strategy for the repair of osteochondral injuries. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by

  12. The effects of whole-body irradiation on the serum levels and kinetics of thyroid hormones in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of a single whole-body dose of X-rays on the serum levels and kinetics of thyroid hormones in rats were studied. The influence of radiation-induced anorexia was monitored by using pair fed control groups. A dose of 800 rad caused a reduction in T 4 levels and 750 rad had a similar effect on T 3 ; in each case the control group showed a smaller reduction. The kinetic results indicated that, in the control groups, the early reduction in hormone concentrations was caused by decreased production, whereas, in the irradiated groups, it was caused by a change in the distribution of the hormone; however the continuing reduction in hormone levels in the irradiated rats appeared to result from decreased production. The results suggest that the thyroid system may play an active part in the early metabolic changes which follow whole-body irradiation. (author)

  13. Effect of intravenous transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on neurotransmitters and synapsins in rats with spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoqiang; Wu, Bilian; Lin, Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated, purified and cultured in vitro by Percoll density gradient centrifugation combined with the cell adherence method. Passages 3–5 bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were transplanted into rats with traumatic spinal cord injury via the caudal vein. Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scores indicate that neurological function of experimental rats was significantly improved over transplantation time (1–5 weeks). Expressions of choline acetyltransferase, glutamic acid decarboxylase and synapsins in the damaged spinal cord of rats was significantly increased after transplantation, determined by immunofluorescence staining and laser confocal scanning microscopy. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells that had migrated into the damaged area of rats in the experimental group began to express choline acetyltransferase, glutamic acid decarboxylase and synapsins, 3 weeks after transplantation. The Basso-Beattie- Bresnahan scores positively correlated with expression of choline acetyltransferase and synapsins. Experimental findings indicate that intravenously transplanted bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells traverse into the damaged spinal cord of rats, promote expression of choline acetyltransferase, glutamic acid decarboxylase and synapsins, and improve nerve function in rats with spinal cord injury. PMID:25657678

  14. Short- and long-term follow-up of thyroid dysfunction after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation without the use of preparative total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubert, M E; Socié, G; Gluckman, E; Aractingi, S; Espérou, H; Devergie, A; Ribaud, P; Parquet, N; Schlageter, M H; Beressi, J P; Rain, J D; Vexiau, P

    1997-08-01

    We studied the incidence and potential prognostic value of thyroid abnormalities after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) without total body irradiation (TBI) conditioning. 77 consecutive patients who received a chemotherapy-alone-based conditioning regimen pretransplant were included. Free serum thyroxine (FT4), free serum triiodothyronine (FT3) and serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels were assayed before and 3 and 14 months after BMT. Patients were classified in three categories: normal thyroid profile if FT3 and FT4 were within the normal range and TSH was normal or low, peripheral thyroid insufficiency (PTI) if TSH was >4 mIU/l, or an 'euthyroid sick syndrome' (ETS) if FT3 and/or FT4 were low and TSH was normal or low. The incidence of thyroid dysfunction at 3 months was 57%, and 29% at 14 months. This was mostly due to the occurrence of ETS which was more frequent at 3 months (48%, 29/61) than at 14 months (19%, 9/48). Furthermore, at 3 months, survival was significantly lower in the ETS group (34.5%) than in the euthyroid group (96.2%), or in the PTI group (83.3%) (P < 0.0001). PTI was observed even in the absence of TBI in 11 patients (14%) and was equally distributed at 3 months (n = 6) and 14 months (n = 5). In conclusion, thyroid dysfunction is not a rare complication even without pretransplant TBI conditioning regimen. Hypothyroidism prevalence was 10%, and ETS, which was more frequently observed, displayed a dismal predictive value at 3 months.

  15. Effect of deltamethrin on transmission of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and thyroid hormones in adult male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-kader, S.M.; Abdel-Rahman, M.

    2005-01-01

    The oral administration of 1/5 LD 5 0 of deltamethrin for 15 days produced an increase in GABA content and a decrease in Cl - ions concentration in all tested brain areas (cerebellum, pons + medulla oblongata, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of adult male albino rats, almost at most time intervals. Deltamethrin also resulted in a significant decrease in serum TSH and increase in T 3 and T 4 levels in the treated rats. From the present results, it was found that deltamethrin decreased the passage of Cl - ions in the cells which might be, in part, due to a decrease of the transmission of GABA and an increase of the circulating thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine and thyroxine). Accordingly, deltamethrin may act as GABA antagonist and may act on the hypothalamus pituitary thyroid axis. In conclusion the elevation of thyroid hormones as well as the decrease in both CL - ions and GABA transmission which could be all together responsible for the impairment of motor activity, hyper excitability and seizure that occurred in rats treated with the pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin

  16. Binding of triiodothyronine to rat liver nuclear matrix. influence of thyroid hormones on the phosphorylation of nuclear matrix proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adylova, A.T.; Atakhanova, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    The interaction of thyroid hormones with rat liver nuclear matrix proteins was investigated. It was shown that the nuclear matrix contains sites that bind triiodothyronine with high affinity (K = 1.07.10 9 M -1 ) and limited capacity (the maximum binding capacity is equal to 28 /SUP a/ .5 fmoles of triiodothyronine per 100 ug protein). Electrophoretic identification of the matrix proteins that bind triiodothyronine was performed. The molecular weight of the main triiodothyronine-binding fraction is 50,000-52,000. It was shown that the administration of triiodothyronine to thyroidectomized rats stimulates the phosphorylation of all the protein fractions of the nuclear matrix

  17. Application of cell sheet technology to bone marrow stromal cell transplantation for rat brain infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Masaki; Shichinohe, Hideo; Houkin, Kiyohiro; Kuroda, Satoshi

    2017-02-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) transplantation enhances functional recovery after cerebral infarct, but the optimal delivery route is undetermined. This study was aimed to assess whether a novel cell-sheet technology non-invasively serves therapeutic benefits to ischemic stroke. First, the monolayered cell sheet was engineered by culturing rat BMSCs on a temperature-responsive dish. The cell sheet was analysed histologically and then transplanted onto the ipsilateral neocortex of rats subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion at 7 days after the insult. Their behaviours and histology were compared with those in the animals treated with direct injection of BMSCs or vehicle over 4 weeks post-transplantation. The cell sheet was 27.9 ± 8.0 μm thick and was composed of 9.8 ± 2.4 × 10 5 cells. Cell sheet transplantation significantly improved motor function when compared with the vehicle-injected animals. Histological analysis revealed that the BMSCs were densely distributed to the neocortex adjacent to the cerebral infarct and expressed neuronal phenotype in the cell sheet-transplanted animals. These findings were almost equal to those for the animals treated with direct BMSC injection. The attachment of the BMSC sheet to the brain surface did not induce reactive astrocytes in the adjacent neocortex, although direct injection of BMSCs profoundly induced reactive astrocytes around the injection site. These findings suggest that the BMSCs in cell sheets preserve their biological capacity of migration and neural differentiation. Cell-sheet technology may enhance functional recovery after ischaemic stroke, using a less invasive method. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Surgical Anatomy and Microvascular Surgical Technique Relevant to Experimental Renal Transplant in Rat Employing Aortic and Inferior Venacaval Conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Badri Man; Haylor, John

    2017-11-15

    Rat models of renal transplant are used to investigate immunologic processes and responses to therapeutic agents before their translation into routine clinical practice. In this study, we have described details of rat surgical anatomy and our experiences with the microvascular surgical technique relevant to renal transplant by employing donor inferior vena cava and aortic conduits. For this study, 175 rats (151 Lewis and 24 Fisher) were used to establish the Fisher-Lewis rat model of chronic allograft injury at our institution. Anatomic and technical details were recorded during the period of training and establishment of the model. A final group of 12 transplanted rats were studied for an average duration of 51 weeks for the Lewis-to-Lewis isografts (5 rats) and 42 weeks for the Fisher-to-Lewis allografts (7 rats). Functional measurements and histology confirmed the diagnosis of chronic allograft injury. Mastering the anatomic details and microvascular surgical techniques can lead to the successful establishment of an experimental renal transplant model.

  19. Repair effect of transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on liver injury in severe burned rats and its mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hao; Zhou Yubo; Zhang Ying; Qin Yonggang; Guo Li; Yin Fei; Meng Chunyang; Yang Xiaoyu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the repair effect of transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on liver injury in severe burned rats, and to clarify its mechanism. Methods: The BMSCs of rats were isolated, cultured, amplified, identified, and labeled in vitro. 30 Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control group (n=10), model group (n=10) and cell therapy group (n=10). The burned rat model was established. The BMSCs labeled by chlormethyl-benzamidodialkylcarbocyanine (CM-Dil) were transplanted into the rats in cell therapy group by retro-orbital intravenous injection and the saline was injected into the rats in model group. The general status of all rats were observed. The liver tissues of rats were obtained 2 weeks after transplantation, and the pathohistological changes were observed and the pathohistological scores were detected; the apoptotic rate of liver cells was detected by TUNEL method; the engraftment of BMSCs in liver tissues of the rats was observed under laser scanning confocal microscope. Results: 2 weeks after transplantation, the rats in model group were obviously malaise dispirited and the rats in cell therapy group showed obviously better, and the body weight of the rats in cell therapy group was higher than that in model group (P<0.05). The pathohistological results showed the normal liver lobules of the rats in model group disappeared, and the liver cords disordered, and some liver sinusoids dilated and congested, lymphocytes infiltrated with occasional focal aggregating, and cell edema was found, cytoplasm loose and steatosis were seen in liver tissue. However, the pathohistological changes of liver tissue of the rats in cell therapy group were significantly better than those in model group. The pathohistological score of the rats in cell therapy group was significantly lower than that in model group (P<0.05). The TUNEL staining results showed that there were lots of apoptotic liver cells in liver tissue of the rats in

  20. Effect of transplantation of muscle tissue in rats from the same litter on total number of flavins and FAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Kobylnik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Riboflavin is a member of redox enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation and energy generation. Important role of this vitamin is in reproductive function. Exchange of transformation of riboflavin in animal tissues and cells of microorganisms include reactions that lead to synthesis and subsequent collapse of FMN and FAD. It is involved in enhancing antitumor activity of many anticancer drugs, as well as activation of the immune system to kill tumor cells. Issues of transport of riboflavin and its derivatives in animals have been studied enough. Investigations of changes of the balance of riboflavin and its metabolites in muscular tissues before transplantation in rats from one litter and at operation without replanting were conducted, based on the Udenfriend method of flavin determination. Transplantation in the experiment was carried out on white non-linear male rats weighing 180–300 g. Animals were taken out of the experiment by passing electric current through the medulla. Belly muscular tissue was taken from donor rats of the same litter, and that tissue was sewn to homological muscular tissue of the recipient. The same procedure was carried out with femoral muscular tissue. In the course of operation without replanting the same manipulations have been made except for transplantation stage (for determination of the effect of surgical intervention. Tissue not subject to any surgical intervention served as a control. Parameters of the study were measured on the first, third and seventh days after transplantation. Transplantation of muscular tissue caused no changes in total flavin amount. Content of RF + FMN after transplantation of muscular tissue in rats of the same litter decreased in femoral muscular tissue of the recipient. Transplantation of muscular tissues in rats from the same litter lead to increase in FAD amount in femoral muscular tissue of the donor and recipient on the third day of the experiment. Transplantation of femoral

  1. P38/TRHr-Dependent Regulation of TPO in Thyroid Cells Contributes to the Hypothyroidism of Triclosan-Treated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Triclosan, as an antimicrobial agent and a potential endocrine disruptor, has been used extensively in diverse products, resulting in widespread human exposure. In recent years, studies suggest that triclosan could disturb thyroid functions and decline thyroid hormones (THs. Methods: To verify our hypothesis that the MAPK pathway may function significantly in triclosan-induced hypothyroidism, Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with triclosan for 31 consecutive days; Nthy-ori 3-1 cells were treated with triclosan in the presence/absence of NAC, inhibitors (SB203580 and SB202474, or TRHr siRNA. Tissues and/or cells were analyzed by several techniques including transmission electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, gene silencing, western blot, and real-time PCR. Results: Triclosan led to histopathologic changes in the thyroid and decreases in triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4. Triclosan stimulated ROS production and oxidative stress occurrence, thereby activating the p38 pathway in vivo and in vitro. Thyrotropin releasing hormone receptor (TRHr was induced when the p38 pathway was activated, and was suppressed when that pathway was inhibited. Moreover, thyroid peroxidase (TPO was restrained and modulated by the p38/TRHr pathway after triclosan treatment. Furthermore, deiodinase 3 (D3 and hepatic enzymes (Ugt2b1, CYP1a1, CYP1a2, CYP2b1, CYP3a1, and Sult1e1 were also induced by triclosan. Conclusion: Taken together, p38/TRHr-dependent regulation of TPO in thyroid cells contributes to the hypothyroidism of triclosan-treated rats.

  2. Modulation of Radiation Injury in Pregnant Rats by Bone Marrow Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, E.M.; Abd Rabu, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    This Work aims to point out the influence of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in protection of irradiated pregnant rats and suppression of oxidative stress. BMT was administered to rats, 1 h post gamma irradiation at the dose level of 2 Gy given at the 7th or 14th day of gestation. Rats were examined after 20 days from gestation to detect the physiological parameters of the mother and number of implantation sites and resorption as well as length of foetuses and tails. Pregnant rats irradiated at the 7th and 14th day of gestation showed reduction in live foetuses and length of foetuses and their tails and significant decrease in erythrocytes (RBCs), leucocytes (WBCs), haemoglobin content (Hb), and hematocrit percentage (Ht). Irradiation-induced an elevation in aldosterone and a drop in calcium (Ca). Glutathione levels showed significant decreases in blood while the content of serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) showed significant increases. Lipid profile exhibited an increase in the concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL-C) with a significant decrease in high lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-C) in both groups. BMT to irradiated pregnant rats induced significant amelioration in radiation- induced changes. BMT was shown to be effective in reducing physiological disorders and oxidative stress in pregnant rats reflected on minimizing embryonic injuries

  3. Hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis disruption in rats with breast cancer is related to an altered endogenous oxytocin/insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera-González, María Pilar; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; de Saavedra, Jose Manuel Arias; Sánchez-Agesta, Rafael; Mayas, María Dolores; Martínez-Martos, Jose Manuel

    2011-06-01

    Associations of breast cancer with diseases of the thyroid have been repeatedly reported, but the mechanism underlying this association remains to be elucidated. It has been reported that oxytocin (OXT) attenuates the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) release in response to thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) and decreased plasma levels of TSH as well as the thyroid hormones by an effect mediated by the central nervous system. Oxytocinase (IRAP) is the regulatory proteolytic enzyme reported to hydrolyze OXT. Changes in IRAP activity have been reported in both human breast cancer and N-methyl-nitrosourea (NMU)-induced rat mammary tumours. Here, we measure IRAP activity fluorometrically using cystyl-β-naphthylamide as the substrate, in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis together with the circulating levels of OXT, and its relationship with circulating levels of TSH and free thyroxine (fT4), as markers of thyroid function in control rats and rats with breast cancer induced by NMU. We found decreased thyroid function in rats with breast cancer induced by NMU, supported by the existence of lower serum circulating levels of both TSH and fT4 than their corresponding controls. Concomitantly, we found a decrease of hypothalamic IRAP activity and an increase in circulating levels of OXT. We propose that breast cancer increases OXT pituitary release by decreasing its hypothalamic catabolism through IRAP activity, probably due to the alteration of the estrogenic endocrine status. Thus, high circulating levels of OXT decreased TSH release from the pituitary, and therefore, of thyroid hormones from the thyroid, supporting the association between breast cancer and thyroid function disruption.

  4. Isolated rat dental pulp cell culture and transplantation with an alginate scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Shiro; Kumabe, Shunji; Iwai, Yasutomo

    2006-05-01

    Many studies have been conducted on tissue stem cells in the field of regenerative medicine, and cultured dental pulp mesenchymal cells have been reported to secrete dentin matrix. In the present study we used alginate as a scaffold to transplant subcultured rat dental-pulp-derived cells subcutaneously into the back of nude mice. We found that when beta-glycerophosphate was added to the culture medium, the mRNA of the dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) gene coding dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and dentin phosphoprotein (DPP) was expressed, and an increase in alkaline phosphatase, an early marker of odontoblast differentiation, was also demonstrated. Six weeks after implantation, subcutaneous formation of radiopaque calcified bodies was observed in situ. Immunohistochemical and fine structure studies identified expression of type I collagen, type III collagen, and DSP in the mineralizing transplants, and isolated odontoblast-like cells began to form dentin-like hard tissue formation. Scattered autolyzing apoptotic cells were also observed in the transplants. The study showed that subcultured rat dental-pulp-derived cells actively differentiate into odontoblast-like cells and induce calcification in an alginate scaffold.

  5. Immunological tolerance induced by galectin-1 in rat allogeneic renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gaosi; Tu, Weiping; Xu, Chengyun

    2010-06-01

    The existed literatures indicated that galectin-1 has anti-inflammatory effects and plays a pivotal role in autoimmune diseases. Present study was to identify the roles of galectin-1 in acute animal renal allograft rejection. Rat acute rejection models were erected by allogeneic renal transplantation. Galectin-1 injection was performed in different concentrations in renal recipients post-transplantation. Recipient survivals, CD8+ T cell proliferation, production of IFN-gamma, levels of serum CD30, enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent spot assay (ELISPOT) and immunohistochemistry were observed or tested 7days after renal transplantation. Galectin-1 injection can prolong the recipient animal survival, reduce the serum levels of IFN-gamma, soluble CD30, percentage of CD8+ T cell subset, CD8+ T cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and IFN-gamma ELISPOT frequency for allograft recipients. The therapeutic effects of galectin-1 injection on recipient rats were dose-dependent. Galectin-1 plays an important role in CD8+ T cell-mediated renal rejection by inducing immunological tolerance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. TRANSPLANTATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stage ... renal artery thrombosis, renal vein thrombosis, ureteric leak or stenosis ... alternative organ source for patients with end-stage renal disease. Kidney ... status.27,28 Post-transplant acute tubular necrosis is caused by ischaemic injury to the ...

  7. Radiogenic neoplasia in thyroid and mammary clonogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, K.H.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed rat thyroid and mammary clonogen transplantation systems for the study of radiogenic cancer induction at the target cell level in vivo. The epithelial cell populations of both glands contain small subpopulations of cells which are capable of giving rise to monoclonal glandular structures when transplanted and stimulated with appropriate hormones. During the end of the last grant year and the first half of the current grant year, we have completed analyses and summarized for publication: investigations on the relationship between grafted thyroid cell number and the rapidity and degree of reestablishment of the thyroid-hypothalamicpituitary axis in thyroidectomized rats maintained on a normal diet or an iodine deficient diet; studies of the persistence of, and the differentiation potential and functional characteristics of, the TSH- (thyrotropin-) responsive sub-population of clonogens during goitrogenesis, the plateau-phase of goiter growth, and goiter involution; studies of changes in the size of the clonogen sub-population during goitrogenesis, goiter involution and the response to goitrogen rechallenge; and the results of the large carcinogenesis experiment on the nature of the grafted thyroid cell number-dependent suppression of promotion/progression to neoplasia in grafts of radiation-initiated thyroid cells. We are testing new techniques for the culture, cytofluorescent analysis and characterization mammary epithelial cells and of clonogens in a parallel project, and plan to apply similar technology to the thyroid epithelial cells and clonogen population. Data from these studies will be used in the design of future carcinogenesis experiments on neoplastic initiation by high and low LET radiations and on cells interactions during the neoplastic process

  8. Investigations on the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on the function and structure of the thyroid gland of adult and perinatal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, W.T. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that PCB may cause alterations in thyroid structure and thyroxine metabolism. The administration of PCB to rats results in an enlargement of the thyroid gland, lowered serum thyroxine concentration, and increased conjugation and excretion of thyroxine-glucuronide in the bile. These findings suggest that some of the metabolic alterations produced by intoxication with PCB may be related to alterations in thyroid structure and function. Therefore, the objectives of this investigation were: (a) to evaluate the acute, subchronic and delayed effects of PCB on the structure and function of the thyroid gland in adult Osborne-Mendel rats; (b) to compare the changes produced by PCB with those produced by iodide excess and deficiency, and thyrotropin and thyroxine administration; (c) to investigate the fine structural changes and hormonal alterations in thyroid glands of perinatal rats exposed in utero and by the milk to PCB; and (d) to determine the alterations in the biliary excretion of 125 I-thyroxine and fine structural changes in thyroid glands of the glucuronyltransferase deficient homozygous Gunn rat exposed to PCB

  9. Thyroid function in post-weaning rats whose dams were fed a low-protein diet during suckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos C.F.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the thyroid and pituitary hormone levels in post-weaning rats whose dams were fed a low-protein diet during suckling (21 days. The dams and pups were divided into 2 groups: a control group fed a diet containing 22% protein that supplies the necessary amount of protein for the rat and is the usual content of protein in most commercial rat chow, and a diet group fed a low-protein (8% diet in which the protein was substituted by an isocaloric amount of starch. After weaning all dams and pups received the 22% protein diet. Two hours before sacrifice of pups aged 21, 30 and 60 days, a tracer dose (0.6 µCi of 125I was injected (ip into each animal. Blood and thyroid glands of pups were collected for the determination of serum T4, T3 and TSH and radioiodine uptake. Low protein diet caused a slight decrease in radioiodine uptake at 21 days, and a significant decrease in T3 levels (128 ± 14 vs 74 ± 9 ng/dl, P<0.05, while T4 levels did not change and TSH was increased slightly. At 30 days, T3 and TSH did not change while there was a significant increase in both T4 levels (4.8 ± 0.3 vs 6.1 ± 0.2 µg/dl, P<0.05 and in radioiodine uptake levels (0.34 ± 0.02 vs 0.50 ± 0.03%/mg thyroid, P<0.05. At 60 days serum T3, T4 and TSH levels were normal, but radioiodine uptake was still significantly increased (0.33 ± 0.02 vs 0.41 ± 0.03%/mg thyroid, P<0.05. Thus, it seems that protein malnutrition of the dams during suckling causes hypothyroidism in the pups at 21 days that has a compensatory mechanism increasing thyroid function after refeeding with a 22% protein diet. The radioiodine uptake still remained altered at 60 days, when all the hormonal serum levels returned to the normal values, suggesting a permanent change in the thyroid function

  10. The role of melatonin in radiation induced biochemical disturbances in brain and thyroid gland in adult male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Kader, S.M.; EI-Sherbiny, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation induced changes in adult male albino male rats before and after melatonin administration were monitored to detect some biochemical changes in brain and thyroid gland. The parameters monitored were dopamine (DA), norepinephdne (NE) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in brain and triiodothyronine (T 3 ) thyroxine (T 4 ) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in serum of irradiated adult male albino rats before and after intraperitoneal injection of melatonin. Results indicated that 6.0 Gy whole body γ-irradiated rats showed gradual and significant decrease in DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas under investigation (cerebellum, pons+medulla oblongata, corpus striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus). The maximum effect of whole body γ-irradiation was observed after 21 days. Moreover, gradual and significant decrease in serum T 3 and T 4 levels were recorded after γ-irradiation. However, TSH level showed significant elevation throughout the experimental period. Melatonin at a dose level of 15 mg/kg b.wt. was intraperitoneally injected daily 30 minutes after 6.0 Gy whole body γ-irradiation, ameliorated DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas compared to those measured in irradiated rats. Moreover, melatonin gradually attenuated the effect of γ-irradiation on serum T 3 and T 4 levels to reach nearly the control level at day 21 after melatonin injection. However, melatonin ameliorated the elevated TSH level induced by γ-irradiation to reach its corresponding control value at day 21

  11. Some thoughts on stem cells and carcinogenesis. The thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, K.H.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to consider the hypothesis that cancer frequently originates from stem cells. Using the spleen transplantation assay where stem cells were transplanted in the spleen of mice lethally irradiated by ionizing radiation, the author undertook a study aimed at defining the risk of radiogenic cancer per susceptible cells with use of rat radiogenic mammary and thyroid cancers because of the high incidences of these cancers in a-bomb survivors. Measured were the number of cancer-susceptible cells initially present in the tissue, the number of such cells that survived at a given dose and the number of cancers that developed per surviving cell. Thyroid cell differentiation and proliferation in rats transplanted with thyroid cells were enhanced by thyroidectomy and low iodine diet. Further, the relationship between the low LET radiation dose and thyroid clonogen survival was also investigated. Data showed that follicular-unit-forming clonogens fulfilled the criteria of stem cells and thus cancer origin from stem cells is likely a widespread phenomenon. (K.H.)

  12. MRI evaluation of frequent complications after intra-arterial transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namestnikova, D.; Gubskiy, I.; Gabashvili, A.; Sukhinich, K.; Melnikov, P.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Soloveva, A.; Vitushev, E.; Chekhonin, V.; Gubsky, L.; Yarygin, K.

    2017-08-01

    Intra-arterial transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is an effective delivery route for treatment of ischemic brain injury. Despite significant therapeutic effects and targeted cells delivery to the brain infraction, serious adverse events such as cerebral embolism have been reported and may restrict potential clinical applications of this method. In current study, we evaluate potential complications of intra-arterial MSCs administration and determine the optimum parameters for cell transplantation. We injected SPIO-labeled human MSCs via internal carotid artery with different infusion parameters and cell dose in intact rats and in rats with the middle cerebral occlusion stroke model. Cerebrovascular complications and labeled cells were visualized in vivo using MRI. We have shown that the incidence of cerebral embolic events depends on such parameters as cell dose, infusion rate and maintenance of blood flow in the internal carotid artery (ICA). Optimal parameters were considered to be 5×105 hMSC in 1 ml of PBS by syringe pump with velocity 100 μ/min and maintenance of blood flow in the ICA. Obtained data should be considered before planning experiments in rats and, potentially, can help in planning clinical trials in stroke patients.

  13. Androgen-mediated development of irradiation-induced thyroid tumors in rats: dependence on animal age during interval of androgen replacement in castrated males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, C.; Oslapas, R.; Nayyar, R.; Paloyan, E.

    1986-01-01

    When male Long-Evans rats at age 8 weeks were radiation treated (40 microCi Na131I), thyroid follicular adenomas and carcinomas were observed at age 24 months with a high incidence of 94%. Castration of males prior to irradiation significantly reduced this tumor incidence to 60%. When testosterone (T) was replaced in castrated, irradiated male rats, differentially increased incidences of thyroid tumors occurred. Immediate (age 2-6 mo) or early (age 6-12 mo) T replacement at approximate physiologic levels led to thyroid follicular tumor incidences of 100 and 82%, respectively, whereas intermediate (12-18 mo) or late (18-24 mo) T treatment led to only 70 and 73% incidences, respectively. Continuous T replacement (2-24 mo) in castrated irradiated male rats raised thyroid tumor incidence to 100%. Since elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is a reported requisite for development of radiation-associated thyroid tumors, the effects of T on serum TSH levels were examined. Mean serum TSH values in all irradiated animal groups were significantly elevated above age-matched nonirradiated animals at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Serum TSH levels were higher in continuous T-replaced irradiated castrates than in intact, irradiated males, whereas such intact male TSH levels were greater than those for irradiated castrates without T treatment. Interval T replacement in castrated male rats was associated with increased serum TSH levels during the treatment interval and with lowered TSH levels after discontinuation of T treatment, particularly in irradiated rats. However, when irradiated, castrated males received late T replacement (age 18-24 mo), there was no elevation of TSH at the end of the treatment interval. An indirect effect of T via early stimulation of TSH may be partly responsible for the high incidence of irradiation-induced thyroid tumors in rats

  14. Age dependency in the absorption of radioactive Iodine (131I) in the thyroid and total body of newborn, pubertal and adult fischer 344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Yumiko; Endo, Satoru; Fujimoto, Nariaki; Kamiya, Kenji; Ohtaki, Megu; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Takada, Jun; Hoshi, Masaharu

    1998-01-01

    In this study, activities of 131 I in the thyroid, total body and blood were measured for rats of three different ages to estimate the movement of 131 I in the body, the absorbed doses were calculated in the thyroid and total body under the exposed condition of iodine deficiency and sufficiency, and the standard curves for the determination of absorbed doses in the thyroid and total body were obtained for rats of newborn, pubertal and adult. Authors used female rats of Fisher 344 strain in this experiment and set up twelve experimental group of different ages (1, 4 and 9 weeks old), and divided each age group into one standard diet (SD) group and three iodine deficient diet (IDD) groups. Rats were intravenously injected once with 131 I in 0.9% saline with the activity of 0.38, 1.03 and 9.42 kBq per g weight. In the thyroid and total body, the absorbed dose values increased in an injected activity-dependent manner, and those of 1-week-old rats were significantly higher than those of 4- and 9-weeks old rats. The absorbed dose values in IDD-treated groups were higher than those in the SD-treated groups. The speed of 131 I accumulation into the thyroid and that of 131 I excretion from the body was slow in 1-week-old groups. The data also showed that most of injected 131 I distributed in the thyroid and blood in 4- and 9-week-old groups but not in the 1-week-old group, indicating that 131 I is pooled in certain tissues or organs except the thyroid in rats of the 1-week-old group at which the development of the thyroid has not been completed. Standard curves were obtained for the estimation of absorbed doses in the thyroid and total body on the bases of injected activity of 131 I for each age group of rats. These standard curves are to be used in the carcinogenesis experiment which compare the effectiveness of internal with external irradiation under the condition of iodine deficiency or sufficiency in the rats of different ages. (K.H.)

  15. Radiogenic neoplasia in thyroid and mammary clonogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, K.H.

    1993-01-01

    The induction of cancer by ionizing radiation is a matter of great practical importance to the nuclear industry, to national defense, to radiological medicine and to the general public. It is increasingly apparent that carcinogenesis is one of the leading dose-limiting effects of radiation exposure (Co90). Quantitative information at the cellular level is essential to an understanding of the mechanisms of radiogenic neoplastic initiation and the stages of promotion and progression to overt neoplasia. We have developed two experimental models, the rat thyroid and rat mammary clonogen transplant systems, for the quantitative study of radiation carcinogenesis at the cellular level in vivo (C185). The most important steps taken or completed during the current grant year include: (a) demonstration of the high age-dependent radiosensitivity of prepubertal rat mammary clonogens to radiogenic damage which may influence their susceptibility to neoplastic initiation, and (b) demonstration of the feasibility of using a molecular test for clonogenicity in which Simple Sequence Repeats in the DNA serve as identifying signals of the genotypic origin of the cells. We have also (c) set up a large carcinogenesis experiment to test the effect of close intercellular contact in thyroid glands in situ on promotion-progression of radiogenically initiated clonogens, (d) achieved considerable further concentration of thyroid clonogens, and (e) begun to explore whether thyroid cells can be induced to give rise to three dimensional multicellular structures in culture in reconstituted basement membrane. These are discussed in this report

  16. The effects of female sex steroids on the development of autoimmune thyroiditis in thymectomized and irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.A.; Young, P.R.; Penhale, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Female PVG/c strain rats are more susceptible to induction of autoimmune thyroiditis initiated by thymectomy and irradiation (Tx-X) than similarly treated males. Pre-pubertal ovariectomy further augmented susceptibility. Administration of oestrogen or progesterone to groups of 4 weeks old ovariectomized Tx-X animals over a period of 15 weeks significantly altered induction of this condition. Oestrogen administered repeatedly at dose levels of 1 μg and 10 μg/100 g body weight resulted in partial suppression of thyroiditis with a corresponding change in the incidence of antibodies to thyroglobulin. Oestrogen administered by a single implantation had a suppressive effect on the development of autoimmunity in ovariectomized Tx-X females. Oestrogen given by either of these procedures also reduced the incidence of thyroiditis and autoantibody induction in orchidectomized male Tx-X rats. In contrast, repeated administration of progesterone at a dose of 250 mg and 1,500 μg/100 g body weight appeared to augment levels of autoimmunity. It is concluded that the differential susceptibility to the induction of autoimmunity by thymectomy and irradiation is the direct consequence of sex hormonal influences. The higher incidence of the disease in the female would appear to be determined by the balance between the activity of oestrogen and progesterone which would further appear to have antagonistic influences in this particular situation. (UK)

  17. Effects of repeated potassium iodide administration on genes involved in synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormone in adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebsir, Dalila; Manens, Line; Grison, Stephane; Lestaevel, Philippe; Ebrahimian, Teni; Suhard, David; Phan, Guillaume; Dublineau, Isabelle; Tack, Karine; Benderitter, Marc; Pech, Annick; Jourdain, Jean-Rene; Souidi, Maâmar

    2018-02-26

    A single dose of potassium iodide (KI) is recommended to reduce the risk of thyroid cancer during nuclear accidents. However in case of prolonged radioiodine exposure, more than one dose of KI may be necessary. This work aims to evaluate the potential toxic effect of repeated administration of KI. Adult Wistar rats received an optimal dose of KI 1 mg/kg over a period of 1, 4 or 8 days. hormonal status (TSH, FT4) of treated rats was unaffected. Contrariwise, a sequential Wolff-Chaikoff effect was observed, resulting in a prompt decrease of NIS and MCT8 mRNA expression (-58% and -26% respectively), followed by a delayed decrease of TPO mRNA expression (-33%) in conjunction with a stimulation of PDS mRNA expression (+62%). we show for the first time that repeated administration of KI at 1 mg/kg/24h doesn't cause modification of thyroid hormones level, but leads to a reversible modification of the expression of genes involved in the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Vitex agnus-castus essential oil affects thyroid C cells and bone metabolism in middle-aged male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Jasmina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ageing in men is accompanied by an increased occurrence of osteoporosis, but traditional hormonal replacement therapy elevates the risk of developing endocrine cancer. Vitex agnus-castus L. (Vac essential oil is commonly used as an alternative therapy for ageing symptoms in both men and women. It is known that calcitonin (CT, thyroid C cell hormone, inhibits bone resorption. The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the influence of Vac essential oil administration on the immunohistomorphometric features of thyroid C cells and bone metabolism in 16-month-old male Wistar rats. The first group of animals (n=8 was treated subcutaneously (s.c. with 60 mg/kg of Vac essential oil once a day for 3 weeks. Control animals (n=8 received sterile olive oil s.c. by the same schedule. After Vac treatment significant increases (p<0.05 were found in the volume of C cells (by 10% and serum CT level (by 27% compared with the controls. Serum osteocalcin (OC and calcium (Ca2+ levels were 31% and 8% lower (p<0.05 respectively, in comparison with the control group. These are the first experimental results suggesting that Vac essential oil stimulates thyroid C cells activity and decreases bone turnover in middle-aged male rats. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173009

  19. Monitoring embryonic stem cell transplantation into rat corpus cavernosum using optical imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jung Joon; Moon, Sung Min; Le, Uyenchi N.; Park, Kwang Sung; Lee, Hyun Suk; Song, Ho Cheon; Bom, Hee Seung; Han, Ha Jae

    2005-01-01

    The conventional method for the analysis of stem cell transplantation depends on postmortem histology. Here, we have sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a longitudinal monitoring of transplanted cell survival in living animals, by employing optical imaging techniques. Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC) were obtained from American Type Culture Collection (ES-E14TG2a). Mouse ES cells were cultured in the DMEM (Gibco-BRL, Gaithersburg, MD) supplemented with 3.7 g/L sodium bicarbonate, 1 % penicillin and streptomycin, 1.7 mM L-glutamine, 0.1mM β-mercaptoethanol 5 ng/mL mouse leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and 15% fetal bovine serum (FBS) with or without a feeder layer and cultured for five days in standard medium plus LIF. ESCs were then transfected (MOI=100) overnight with Ad-CMV-Fluc. Our experimental Sprague-Dawley rats (n=7) were given with different numbers of ESCs 6) expressing Fluc into corpus cavernosum. In cell cultures, firefly luciferase activity correlated linearly with cell numbers from 10 5 to 5x10 6 (r2=0.95). In living animal imaging, imaging signal activity correlated linearly with cell numbers injected from 10 5 to 5x10 6 at each time point (r2=0.62 ∼ 0.98), In all three groups of rats, imaging signal was detected in rat genital area from the 2nd day to the 47th day after cellular injection. Adenovirus mediated transient expression of firefly luciferase reporter gene in ESCs was feasible to monitor cell survival over a month after transplantation. The locations, magnitude, and survival duration of the ESCs were noninvasively monitored with a bioluminescence optical imaging system

  20. Canonical transient receptor potential channel 2 (TRPC2): old name-new games. Importance in regulating of rat thyroid cell physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnquist, Kid; Sukumaran, Pramod; Kemppainen, Kati; Löf, Christoffer; Viitanen, Tero

    2014-11-01

    In addition to the TSH-cyclic AMP signalling pathway, calcium signalling is of crucial importance in thyroid cells. Although the importance of calcium signalling has been thoroughly investigated for several decades, the nature of the calcium channels involved in signalling is unknown. In a recent series of investigations using the well-studied rat thyroid FRTL-5 cell line, we showed that these cells exclusively express the transient receptor potential canonical 2 (TRPC2) channel. Our results suggested that the TRPC2 channel is of significant importance in regulating thyroid cell function. These investigations were the first to show that thyroid cells express a member of the TRPC family of ion channels. In this review, we will describe the importance of the TRPC2 channel in regulating TSH receptor expression, thyroglobulin maturation, intracellular calcium and iodide homeostasis and that the channel also regulates thyroid cell proliferation.

  1. Role of cholangiocyte bile Acid transporters in large bile duct injury after rat liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Long; Zhao, Lijin; Li, Dajiang; Liu, Zipei; Chen, Geng; Tian, Feng; Li, Xiaowu; Wang, Shuguang

    2010-07-27

    The pathogenesis of nonanastomotic strictures with a patent hepatic artery remains to be investigated. This study focuses on the role of cholangiocyte bile acid transporters in bile duct injury after liver transplantation. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups (n=20 for each): the sham-operated group (Sham), the transplant group with 1-hr donor liver cold preservation (CP-1h), and the transplant group with 12-hr donor liver cold preservation (CP-12h). Bile was collected for biochemical analysis. The histopathologic evaluation of bile duct injury was performed and the cholangiocyte bile acid transporters apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT), ileal lipid binding protein (ILBP), and Ostalpha/Ostbeta were investigated. RESULTS.: The immunohistochemical assay suggested that ASBT and ILBP were expressed exclusively on large bile duct epithelial cells, whereas Ostalpha and Ostbeta were expressed on both small and large bile ducts. Western blot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the expression levels of these transporters dramatically decreased after transplantation. It took seven to 14 days for ILBP, Ostalpha, and Ostbeta to recover, whereas ASBT recovered within 3 days and even reached a peak above the normal level seven days after operation. In the CP-12h group, the ratios of the ASBT/ILBP, ASBT/Ostalpha and ASBT/Ostbeta expression levels were correlated with the injury severity scores of large but not small bile ducts. The results suggest that the unparallel alteration of cholangiocyte bile acid transporters may play a potential role in large bile duct injury after liver transplantation with prolonged donor liver preservation.

  2. Study of morbidity in orthotopic small intestine transplantation with Wistar rats: experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEE André Dong Won

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background - Transplantation of the small intestine is a surgical procedure currently under investigation for its possible application in the treatment of patients with short bowel syndrome, aiming at the reintroduction of an oral diet. Aim - To define the morbidity and mortality of intestinal transplantation in small animals using microsurgery. Intra and postoperative morbidity and mortality were studied in Wistar rats submitted to orthotopic intestinal allotransplantation. Material and Method - The animals were divided into three groups: group A (37 donor animals, group B (37 recipient animals, and group C (10 control animals. Group B was divided into three subgroups according to survival time. Subgroup TI consisted of animals that died during surgery or due to causes directly related to surgical intervention, subgroup T2 consisted of animals that died between the 4th and 29th postoperative day, and subgroup T3 consisted of animals that survived after 30 days. Transplanted animals were evaluated in terms of surgical technique used (vascular and intestinal anastomosis, graft quality, surgical time, and clinical parameters. The animals that died by the 29th postoperative day were submitted to autopsy and the remaining ones were sacrificed after 30 days. Result - There was a high rate of complication of a surgical nature. Early mortality rate, i.e., mortality up to the third postoperative day, was 54% with vascular anastomosis being the major cause of death. Surgical time was evaluated in a restricted and homogeneous group and showed a strong prognostic value in terms of successful transplantation. Clinical parameters such as weight loss, reduction of ingestion, reduction of motor activity and diarrhea were directly correlated with acute rejection. Conclusion - The experimented intestinal transplant is a procedure companied by considerable morbidity and mortality due to surgical complications in postoperative period, vascular anastomosis and

  3. Pubertal Development and Thyroid Function in Intact Juvenile Rats Exposed to 3-Nitro-1,2,4-Trazol-5-One (NTO), February-June 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    vivo effects on androgen-dependent tissues in young rats (i.e., prochloraz) similar to the effects of NTO in the present study have feminized male...the potential to interact with the endocrine system in vivo by identifying effects on pubertal development and thyroid function in the intact juvenile...estrogen or thyroid active compound under the test conditions. The observed testicular toxicity and the effects on the androgen-dependent reproductive

  4. Aspergillus thyroiditis: first antemortem case diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration culture in a pediatric stem cell transplant patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, S M; Becktell, K D; Muller, W J; Schneiderman, J

    2015-12-01

    Aspergillus thyroiditis (AT) has historically been considered a postmortem diagnosis in immunocompromised patients; most have disseminated disease. This report summarizes the clinical challenge of diagnosing AT. It also highlights the value of the early use of thyroid fine-needle aspiration culture and the need for a high index of suspicion to reach the final diagnosis before disease dissemination. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The Effect of KIO3 and KI Salt towards Iodium Levels (I2 in Urine, Malondialdehyde (MDA and Histological Thyroid Gland of The Goitrogenic Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanif Mahdi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Goitrogenic a substance that can inhibit the taking of iodine by the thyroid gland, so that the concentration of iodine in the thyroid to be low., is characterized by the inflammation in the gland thyroid area caused an excessive of free radicals. An excessive of free radicals in the body cause oxidative stress, That increasing the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA as an indicator of lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of urinary iodine excretion levels (EIU. The treated to give KIO3 and KI salt was intended to determine the level of supplementation of iodine (I2, the level of MDA in serum and histological rat thyroid gland. MDA levels are determined through a TBA test (Thio Barbituric acid, meanwhile the histological of the rat thyroid gland was determined by Hematoxylen-Eosin staining (HE. The results showed the KIO3 and KI salt was significantly (p<0.05 reduce levels of MDA in the serum of treatment with KIO3 salt (33.62% and KI salt (37,02% and improving histological of the thyroid gland rats.

  6. Tumor oxygenation in a transplanted rat rhabdomyosarcoma during fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zywietz, Friedrich; Reeker, Wolfram; Kochs, Eberhard

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the changes in tumor oxygenation in the course of a fractionated radiation treatment extending over 4 weeks. Methods and Materials: Rhabdomyosarcomas R1H of the rat were irradiated with 60 Co-γ-rays with a total dose of 60 Gy, given in 20 fractions over 4 weeks. Oxygen partial pressure (pO 2 ) in tumors was measured at weekly intervals using polarographic needle probes in combination with a microprocessor-controlled device (pO 2 -Histograph/KIMOC). The pO 2 measurements were carried out in anesthetized animals under mechanical ventilation and in respiratory and hemodynamic steady state. Tumor pO 2 values were correlated to the arterial oxygen pressure p a O 2 , arterial pCO 2 , and pH determined with a blood gas analyzer. Results: Tumor oxygenation did not change significantly during the 3 weeks of irradiation (up to 45 Gy), from a median pO 2 of 23 ± 2 mmHg in untreated controls to 19 ± 4 mmHg after the third week. The decrease of the number of pO 2 values between 0 and 5 mmHg indicated that an improved oxygenation in the tumors occurred. However, with increasing radiation dose (fourth week, 60 Gy) a significant decrease in tumor oxygenation to a median pO 2 of 8 ± 2 mmHg and a rapid increase in the frequency of pO 2 values (35 ± 4%) between 0 and 5 mmHg was found. Conclusion: Improved oxygenation in rhabdomyosarcomas R1H was only present in the early phase of the fractionated irradiation. Radiation doses above 45 Gy led to a considerable decrease of tumor oxygenation in the later phase of irradiation

  7. Lack of a differential radiation response for proliferative and non-proliferative rat thyroid cells (FRTL-5) in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosing, J.W.; Giese, W.L.; Mulcahy, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    FRTL-5 rat thyroid epithelial cells maintain normal thyroid function and morphology in vitro, exhibit an absolute requirement for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) for proliferation and display radiation dose response characteristics indistinguishable from those of rat thyroid epithelial cells in vivo. In TSH-free medium cells remain in a non-proliferative, yet viable, state for prolonged periods of time and respond to TSH re-stimulation by a return to exponential growth. Flow cytometric analysis using two-step acridine orange (AO) staining revealed an accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle accompanied by a pronounced reduction in red fluorescence (indicative of RNA content) in FRTL-5 cells cultured in the absence of TSH. The response of proliferative and non-proliferative FRTL-5 cells to single dose, split dose and fractionated radiation was compared to determine whether proliferative status was an important response determinant. The response of FRTL-5 cells was not influenced by proliferative status at the time of irradiation. Additionally, dose response was not altered by variable (12 hr-8 days) non-proliferative intervals before or after irradiation. As revealed by split dose experiments, the rate and extent of sublethal damage repair was likewise similar for proliferative and non-proliferative cells. Multifraction experiments employing three fractions separated by 6 hr intervals indicate that non-proliferative FRTL-5 cells completely repair sublethal damage between fractions. These results indicate that the radiation response of FRTL-5 cells is not influenced by the proliferative status of the cells prior to or post-irradiation

  8. Synergistic acceleration of thyroid hormone degradation by phenobarbital and the PPARα agonist WY14643 in rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieneke, N.; Neuschaefer-Rube, F.; Bode, L.M.; Kuna, M.; Andres, J.; Carnevali, L.C.; Hirsch-Ernst, K.I.; Pueschel, G.P.

    2009-01-01

    Energy balance is maintained by controlling both energy intake and energy expenditure. Thyroid hormones play a crucial role in regulating energy expenditure. Their levels are adjusted by a tight feedback-controlled regulation of thyroid hormone production/incretion and by their hepatic metabolism. Thyroid hormone degradation has previously been shown to be enhanced by treatment with phenobarbital or other antiepileptic drugs due to a CAR-dependent induction of phase II enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism. We have recently shown, that PPARα agonists synergize with phenobarbital to induce another prototypical CAR target gene, CYP2B1. Therefore, it was tested whether a PPARα agonist could enhance the phenobarbital-dependent acceleration of thyroid hormone elimination. In primary cultures of rat hepatocytes the apparent half-life of T3 was reduced after induction with a combination of phenobarbital and the PPARα agonist WY14643 to a larger extent than after induction with either compound alone. The synergistic reduction of the half-life could be attributed to a synergistic induction of CAR and the CAR target genes that code for enzymes and transporters involved in the hepatic elimination of T3, such as OATP1A1, OATP1A3, UGT1A3 and UGT1A10. The PPARα-dependent CAR induction and the subsequent induction of T3-eliminating enzymes might be of physiological significance for the fasting-induced reduction in energy expenditure by fatty acids as natural PPARα ligands. The synergism of the PPARα agonist WY14643 and phenobarbital in inducing thyroid hormone breakdown might serve as a paradigm for the synergistic disruption of endocrine control by other combinations of xenobiotics.

  9. Combination of low-energy shock-wave therapy and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation to improve the erectile function of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Hai-Bo; Chen, Wen-Tao; Chen, Feng-Zhi; Wang, Tao; Luo, Jin-Tai; Yue, Min; Lin, Ji-Hong; Wei, An-Yang

    2017-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation and low-energy shock-wave therapy (LESWT) have emerged as potential and effective treatment protocols for diabetic erectile dysfunction. During the tracking of transplanted stem cells in diabetic erectile dysfunction models, the number of visible stem cells was rather low and decreased quickly. LESWT could recruit endogenous stem cells to the cavernous body and improve the microenvironment in diabetic cavernous tissue. Thus, we deduced that LESWT might benefit transplanted stem cell survival and improve the effects of stem cell transplantation. In this research, 42 streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were randomized into four groups: the diabetic group (n = 6), the LESWT group (n = 6), the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation group (n = 15), and the combination of LESWT and BMSC transplantation group (n = 15). One and three days after BMSC transplantation, three rats were randomly chosen to observe the survival numbers of BMSCs in the cavernous body. Four weeks after BMSC transplantation, the following parameters were assessed: the surviving number of transplanted BMSCs in the cavernous tissue, erectile function, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and penile immunohistochemical assessment. Our research found that LESWT favored the survival of transplanted BMSCs in the cavernous body, which might be related to increased stromal cell-derived factor-1 expression and the enhancement of angiogenesis in the diabetic cavernous tissue. The combination of LESWT and BMSC transplantation could improve the erectile function of diabetic erectile function rats more effectively than LESWT or BMSC transplantation performed alone.

  10. OSI-027 modulates acute graft-versus-host disease after liver transplantation in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Xiao; Xue, Fei; Chen, Wei; Liang, Chao; Liu, Hao; Ma, Tao; Xia, Xuefeng; Hu, Liqiang; Bai, Xueli; Liang, Tingbo

    2017-09-01

    Despite its rarity (1%-2%), acute graft-versus-host disease after liver transplantation (LT-aGVHD) has a high mortality rate (85%). A gradual decrease in regulatory T cells (Tregs) correlates with disease progression in a rat LT-GVHD model, and treatments which increase Tregs exert therapeutic effects on LT-aGVHD. In this study, LT-aGVHD model rats were treated with rapamycin (RAPA), OSI-027, or an equal quantity of vehicle. Rats treated with OSI-027 survived longer (>100 days) than those in the RAPA (70 ± 8 days) or control (24 ± 3 days) groups. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the Treg ratios in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the OSI-027 group were higher than those in the RAPA or control groups. The proportions of donor-derived lymphocytes in the OSI-027 group were lower than those in the RAPA or control groups. Hematoxylin-eosin staining of skin tissue demonstrated less severe lymphocyte infiltration in the OSI-027 group than that in the RAPA or control groups. In vitro, OSI-027 induced differentiation of CD4 + CD25 - T cells into CD4 + CD25 + forkhead box P3 + Tregs. Furthermore, injection of OSI-027-induced donor-derived CD4 + CD25 + T cells into the peripheral blood of LT-aGVHD model rats prevented LT-aGVHD. Thus, OSI-027 is implicated as a novel method for the treatment of LT-aGVHD. Liver Transplantation 23 1186-1198 2017 AASLD. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  11. Effects of thyroid status on presynaptic. cap alpha. 2-adrenoceptor and. beta. -adrenoceptor binding in the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atterwill, C.K.; Bunn, S.J.; Atkinson, D.J. (Development Neurobiology Unit, London (UK). Inst. of Neurology); Smith, S.L.; Heal, D.J. (Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford (UK))

    1984-01-01

    The effect of thyroid status on noradrenergic synaptic function in the mature brain was examined by measuring presynaptic ..cap alpha..2- and postsynaptic ..beta..-adrenoceptors. Repeated triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) administration to rats (100..mu..g/kg x 14 days hyperthyroid) caused an 18% increase in striatal ..beta..-adrenoceptors as shown by (/sup 3/H)-dihydroalprenolol binding with no change in membranes from cerebral cortex or hypothalamus. In contrast, hypothyroidism (propylthiouracil, PTU x 14 days) produced significant 12% and 30% reductions in striatal and hypothalamic ..beta..-adrenoceptors respectively with no change in the cerebral cortex. Presynaptic ..cap alpha..2-adrenoceptor function was measured in the two dysthyroid states using the clonidine-induced hypoactivity model. Experimental hyperthyroidism increased the degree of clonidine-induced hypoactivity, and suggests increased presynaptic ..cap alpha..2-adrenoceptor function compared with control rats, whereas hypothyroidism suppressed presynaptic ..cap alpha..2-adrenoceptor function. These results show firstly that changes of thyroid status in the mature rat may produce homeostatic alterations at central noradrenergic synapses as reflected by changes in pre- and postsynaptic adrenoceptor function. Secondly, there appear to be T/sub 3/-induced changes in ..beta..-adrenoceptors in the striatum where changes in dopaminergic neuronal activity have previously been demonstrated.

  12. Effects of thyroid status on presynaptic α2-adrenoceptor and β-adrenoceptor binding in the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atterwill, C.K.; Bunn, S.J.; Atkinson, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of thyroid status on noradrenergic synaptic function in the mature brain was examined by measuring presynaptic α2- and postsynaptic β-adrenoceptors. Repeated triiodothyronine (T 3 ) administration to rats (100μg/kg X 14 days hyperthyroid) caused an 18% increase in striatal β-adrenoceptors as shown by [ 3 H]-dihydroalprenolol binding with no change in membranes from cerebral cortex or hypothalamus. In contrast, hypothyroidism (propylthiouracil, PTU X 14 days) produced significant 12% and 30% reductions in striatal and hypothalamic β-adrenoceptors respectively with no change in the cerebral cortex. Presynaptic α2-adrenoceptor function was measured in the two dysthyroid states using the clonidine-induced hypoactivity model. Experimtal hyperthyroidism increased the degree of clonidine-induced hypoactivity, and suggests increased presynaptic α2-adrenoceptor function compared with control rats, whereas hypothyroidism suppressed presynaptic α2-adrenoceptor function. These results show firstly that changes of thyroid status in the mature rat may produce homeostatic alterations at central noradrenergic synapses as reflected by changes in pre- and postsynaptic adrenoceptor function. Secondly, there appear to be T 3 -induced changes in β-adrenoceptors in the striatum where changes in dopaminergic neuronal activity have previously been demonstrated. (Author)

  13. Small-for-Size Liver Transplantation Increases Pulmonary Injury in Rats: Prevention by NIM811

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinlong Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary complications after liver transplantation (LT often cause mortality. This study investigated whether small-for-size LT increases acute pulmonary injury and whether NIM811 which improves small-for-size liver graft survival attenuates LT-associated lung injury. Rat livers were reduced to 50% of original size, stored in UW-solution with and without NIM811 (5 μM for 6 h, and implanted into recipients of the same or about twice the donor weight, resulting in half-size (HSG and quarter-size grafts (QSG, respectively. Liver injury increased and regeneration was suppressed after QSG transplantation as expected. NIM811 blunted these alterations >75%. Pulmonary histological alterations were minimal at 5–18 h after LT. At 38 h, neutrophils and monocytes/macrophage infiltration, alveolar space exudation, alveolar septal thickening, oxidative/nitrosative protein adduct formation, and alveolar epithelial cell/capillary endothelial apoptosis became overt in the lungs of QSG recipients, but these alterations were mild in full-size and HSG recipients. Liver pretreatment with NIM811 markedly decreased pulmonary injury in QSG recipients. Hepatic TNFα and IL-1β mRNAs and pulmonary ICAM-1 expression were markedly higher after QSG transplantation, which were all decreased by NIM811. Together, dysfunctional small-for-size grafts produce toxic cytokines, leading to lung inflammation and injury. NIM811 decreased toxic cytokine formation, thus attenuating pulmonary injury after small-for-size LT.

  14. Degenerative changes and cell death in long-living homo- and heterotopic transplants from embryonic germ layers of rat neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, E S; Otellin, V A

    2003-09-01

    Morphological study of allotransplants of rat embryonic neocortex 14-18 months after transplantation into the neocortex, lateral cerebral ventricle, and sciatic nerve of adult animals revealed death of nerve and glial cells in the delayed postoperation period independently on the site of transplantation. After heterotopic transplantation the count of degenerated neurons was 2 times higher that after homotopic transplantation. In heterotopic transplants a considerable number of grafted neurons underwent reversible and irreversible degenerative changes accompanied by their premature aging. Neuronal death is probably determined by insufficiency of trophic influence from afferent structures and target tissues. We hypothesized that antiapoptotic preparations can be used for prevention of transplanted cell death. It was also found that degeneration of neurons was associated with impaired vascularization of transplants and pronounced immune reaction of the recipient in late posttransplantation period. Transplantation of embryonic brain structures can serve as a model system in studies concerning involutive and pathological processes in the central nervous system and in the search for factors improving survival of neurons.

  15. Functional, electrophysiological recoveries of rats with sciatic nerve lesions following transplantation of elongated DRG cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayawansa, Samantha; Zhang, Jun; Shih, Chung-Hsuan; Tharakan, Binu; Huang, Jason H

    2016-04-01

    Functional data are essential when confirming the efficacy of elongated dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells as a substitute for autografting. We present the quantitative functional motor, electrophysiological findings of engineered DRG recipients for the first time. Elongated DRG neurons and autografts were transplanted to bridge 1-cm sciatic nerve lesions of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Motor recoveries of elongated DRG recipients (n=9), autograft recipients (n=9), unrepaired rats (n=9) and intact rats (n=6) were investigated using the angle board challenge test following 16 weeks of recovery. Electrophysiology studies were conducted to assess the functional recovery at 16 weeks. In addition, elongated DRGs were subjected to histology assessments. At threshold levels (35° angle) of the angle board challenge test, the autograft recipients', DRG recipients' and unrepaired group's performances were equal to each other and were less than the intact group (pDRG recipients' performance was similar to both the intact group and the autograft nerve recipients, and was better (pDRG constructs had intact signal transmission when recorded over the lesion, while the unrepaired rats did not. It was observed that elongated DRG neurons closely resembled an autograft during histological assessments. Performances of autograft and elongated DRG construct recipients were similar. Elongated DRG neurons should be further investigated as a substitute for autografting.

  16. Modified sleeve anastomosis for reconstruction of the hepatic artery in rat liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Dahmen, Uta; Dirsch, Olaf; Shen, Kai; Gu, Yanli; Broelsch, Christoph Erich

    2002-01-01

    End-to-end sleeve anastomosis between a donor common hepatic artery and a recipient proper hepatic artery was proven to be the most physiological and simple method for hepatic rearterialization in rat liver transplantation. Current technical variants of the sleeve technique, however, are hampered by the high rate of bleeding from the anastomotic site. This report deals with a technical modification which inhibits postoperative bleeding efficiently. The procedure consisted of a guiding suture, as previously described in other technical variants, and a modified fixing suture. Instead of using a single stitch to fix the feeding vessel with the receiving vessel, a running suture between the edge of the donor common hepatic artery and the adventitia of the recipient proper hepatic artery was performed to avoid a possible backflow. The patency rate of 91% was as high as reported by others using a sleeve technique, which was also reflected in the histomorphological picture, being indistinguishable from normal liver histology. This technical modification simplified the procedure of reconstructing the hepatic artery and could contribute to a wider use of the arterialized liver transplantation model in rats. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Combined Microencapsulated Islet Transplantation and Revascularization of Aortorenal Bypass in a Diabetic Nephropathy Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqiang He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Revascularization of aortorenal bypass is a preferred technique for renal artery stenosis (RAS in diabetic nephropathy (DN patients. Restenosis of graft vessels also should be considered in patients lacking good control of blood glucose. In this study, we explored a combined strategy to prevent the recurrence of RAS in the DN rat model. Methods. A model of DN was established by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Rats were divided into 4 groups: SR group, MIT group, Com group, and the untreated group. The levels of blood glucose and urine protein were measured, and changes in renal pathology were observed. The expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 in graft vessels was assessed by immunohistochemical staining. Histopathological staining was performed to assess the pathological changes of glomeruli and tubules. Results. The levels of urine protein and the expression of MCP-1 in graft vessels were decreased after islet transplantation. The injury of glomerular basement membrane and podocytes was significantly ameliorated. Conclusions. The combined strategy of revascularization and microencapsulated islet transplantation had multiple protective effects on diabetic nephropathy, including preventing atherosclerosis in the graft vessels and alleviating injury to the glomerular filtration barrier. This combined strategy may be helpful for DN patients with RAS.

  18. Coronary blood flow and thallium 201 uptake in rejecting rat heart transplantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsland, J.; Hwang, K.; Driscoll, R.; Carr, E.A.; Wright, J.R.; Curran-Everett, D.C.; Carroll, M.; Krasney, E.; Krasney, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of rejection on coronary flow (CAF) in heart allografts are unclear, although previous evidence with cardiac imaging agents indicates impaired flow during advanced rejection. The purpose of this study was to measure CAF in heterotopically placed heart grafts. Lewis rats (LEW) received grafts from either syngeneic Lewis rats (LEW/LEW group) or allogeneic ACI rats (ACI/LEW group). CAF was measured in both the transplanted and native hearts with radiolabeled microspheres. Rejection was measured histologically (grades 0 [absent] to 4+ [severe]). In addition systemic blood pressure and cardiac outputs of the native hearts were determined with microspheres. Different animals were studied during relatively early (4 days) and late (6 days) rejection. Among the 4-day animals a cyclosporine-treated group was included (ACI/LEW CyA). In 6-day rats CAF in allografts was lower (0.56 +/- .06 ml/gm/min) compared with syngeneic grafts (1.72 +/- 0.4 ml/gm/min) (p less than 0.05). The CAF in the native hearts did not differ significantly but was higher than in the grafts in both groups. Heart rates were reduced in allografts (p less than 0.05). It is interesting that arterial pressure and cardiac output were significantly lower in animals bearing allogeneic than syngeneic grafts. In rats studied at 4 days graft CAF was lower than in the native heart in both the LEW/LEW and ACI/LEW groups, but there was no significant difference in behavior between groups. The same was true for a cyclosporine-treated group. Graft heart rates were similar in all 4-day rats

  19. Effects of forced swimming stress on thyroid function, pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone and hypothalamus thyrotropin releasing hormone expression in adrenalectomy Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiuyan; Liu, Aihua; Ma, Yanan; Wang, Anyi; Guo, Xinhong; Teng, Weiping; Jiang, Yaqiu

    2016-11-01

    In order to study the impact that is imposed on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis of adrenalectomy male Wistar rats by stress caused by swimming, the blood level of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), the expression of TSHβ mRNA at the pituitary and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) expression at the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were measured. A total of 50 male Wistar rats of 6-8 weeks of age and with an average weight of 190-210 grams were randomly divided into the following two groups: The surgical (without adrenal glands) and non-surgical (adrenalectomy) group. These two groups were then divided into the following five groups, according to the time delay of sacrifice following forced swim (10 min, 2 h, 12 h and 24 h) and control (not subjected to swimming) groups. A bilateral adrenalectomy animal model was established. Serum TSH in the blood was measurement by chemiluminescent immunoassay, and cerebrum tissue were excised for the measurement of TRH expression using an immunohistochemistry assay. In addition, pituitaries were excised for the extraction of total RNA. Finally, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed for quantitation of TSHβ. Following swimming, the serum T3, T4 and TSH, the TSHβ mRNA expression levels in the pituitary and the TRH expression in the PVN of the surgical group were gradually increased. In the non-surgical group, no significant differences were observed in the serum T3, T4 and TSH levels compared with the control group. The TSHβ mRNA expression at the pituitary showed a similar result. Furthermore, the TRH expression at PVN was gradually increased and stress from swimming could increase the blood T4, T3 and TSH levels, TSHβ mRNA expression at the pituitary and TRH expression at the PVN in adrenalectomy Wistar rats. Moreover, the index in the surgical group changed significantly compared with the non-surgical group. In conclusion, the results

  20. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange studies of the rat thyroid transcription factor 1 homeodomain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, Gennaro; Fogolari, Federico; Damante, Giuseppe; Formisano, Silvestro; Tell, Gianluca; Leonardi, Antonio; Di Lauro, Roberto; Viglino, Paolo

    1997-01-01

    The 1 H NMR solution structure of the rat thyroid transcription factor 1 homeodomain (TTF-1 HD) showed that the molecule folds like classical homeodomains. The C-terminal extension of helix III (fragment 51-59) appeared to adopt a helical geometry, albeit not as rigid as the preceding portion, but the hydrogen-deuterium exchange of backboneamides and the NOE data provided evidence of a discontinuity between the two moieties of helix III at the highly conserved fragmentAsn 51 -His 52 -Arg 53 .Analysis of quantitative measurements of isotope exchange rates allows one to recognize the general occurrence, in that region of HD motifs, of opposite effects to helix III stability. Asparagine, histidine and arginine residues occur most frequently at the beginning and end of protein helices.In TTF-1 HD a local fluctuation is observed in the fragment 51-53 which either kinks or tightens the α-helix. A search through the protein structure database reveals that the three most common variants of HD fragments 51-53 are often involved in helices and, frequently, in helix initiation or termination. For homeodomains in general, the nature of the fragment 51-53 may be related to the conformational dynamics of their DNA-recognition helix (helix III). Besides the specific results on fragment 51-53, the complete isotope exchange analysis of TTF-1 HD data shows that the partially solvent-exposed recognition helix is stabilized by hydrophobic interactions, like most of the structured regions of the molecule. Hydrophobic stabilization of the contacting regions meets the requirements of a DNA-interaction mechanism which, as shown with other DNA-protein complexes, should entail negative heat capacity variations due to changes in solvent exposure of the nonpolar protein surface

  1. The effects of subchronic acrylamide exposure on gene expression, neurochemistry, hormones, and histopathology in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis of male Fischer 344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowyer, J.F.; Latendresse, J.R.; Delongchamp, R.R.; Muskhelishvili, L.; Warbritton, A.R.; Thomas, M.; Tareke, E.; McDaniel, L.P.; Doerge, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is an important industrial chemical that is neurotoxic in rodents and humans and carcinogenic in rodents. The observation of cancer in endocrine-responsive tissues in Fischer 344 rats has prompted hypotheses of hormonal dysregulation, as opposed to DNA damage, as the mechanism for tumor induction by AA. The current investigation examines possible evidence for disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis from 14 days of repeated exposure of male Fischer 344 rats to doses of AA that range from one that is carcinogenic after lifetime exposure (2.5 mg/kg/d), an intermediate dose (10 mg/kg/d), and a high dose (50 mg/kg/d) that is neurotoxic for this exposure time. The endpoints selected include: serum levels of thyroid and pituitary hormones; target tissue expression of genes involved in hormone synthesis, release, and receptors; neurotransmitters in the CNS that affect hormone homeostasis; and histopathological evaluation of target tissues. These studies showed virtually no evidence for systematic alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and do not support hormone dysregulation as a plausible mechanism for AA-induced thyroid cancer in the Fischer 344 rat. Specifically, there were no significant changes in: 1) mRNA levels in hypothalamus or pituitary for TRH, TSH, thyroid hormone receptor α and β, as well 10 other hormones or releasing factors; 2) mRNA levels in thyroid for thyroglobulin, thyroid peroxidase, sodium iodide symporter, or type I deiodinases; 3) serum TSH or T3 levels (T4 was decreased at high dose only); 4) dopaminergic tone in the hypothalamus and pituitary or importantly 5) increased cell proliferation (Mki67 mRNA and Ki-67 protein levels were not increased) in thyroid or pituitary. These negative findings are consistent with a genotoxic mechanism of AA carcinogenicity based on metabolism to glycidamide and DNA adduct formation. Clarification of this mechanistic dichotomy may be useful in human cancer risk

  2. Radiogenic neoplasia in thyroid and mammary clonogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, K.H.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed rat thyroid and mammary clonogen transplantation systems for the study of radiogenic cancer induction at the target cell level in vivo. The epithelial cell populations of both glands contain small subpopulations of cells which are capable of giving rise to monoclonal glandular structures when transplanted and stimulated with appropriate hormones. Previous results indicated that these clonogens are the precursor cells of radiogenic cancer, and that initiation, is common event at the clonegenic cell level. Detailed information on the physiologic control of clonogen proliferation, differentiation, and total numbers is thus essential to an understanding of the carcinogenic process. We report here studies on investigations on the relationships between grafted thyroid cell number and the rapidity and degree of reestablishment of the thyroid-hypothalamus-pituitary feedback axis in thyroidectomized rats maintained on a normal diet or an iodine deficient diet; studies of the persistence of, and the differentiation potential and functional characteristics of, the TSH-(thyrotropin-) responsive sub- population of clonogens during goitrogenesis, the plateau-phase of goiter growth, and goiter involution; studies of changes in the size of the clonogen sub-population during goitrogenesis, goiter involution and the response to goitrogen rechallenge; and a large carcinogenesis experiment on the nature of the grafted thyroid cell number-dependent suppression of promotion/progression to neoplasia in grafts of radiation-initiated thyroid cells. Data from these studies will be used in the design of future carcinogenesis experiments on neoplastic initiation by high and low LET radiations and on cell interactions during the neoplastic process

  3. Transplantation of endothelial progenitor cells ameliorates vascular dysfunction and portal hypertension in carbon tetrachloride-induced rat liver cirrhotic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Masaharu; Nakamura, Toru; Torimura, Takuji; Iwamoto, Hideki; Masuda, Hiroshi; Koga, Hironori; Abe, Mitsuhiko; Hashimoto, Osamu; Ueno, Takato; Sata, Michio

    2013-01-01

    In cirrhosis, sinusoidal endothelial cell injury results in increased endothelin-1 (ET-1) and decreased nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, leading to portal hypertension. However, the effects of transplanted endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) on the cirrhotic liver have not yet been clarified. We investigated whether EPC transplantation reduces portal hypertension. Cirrhotic rats were created by the administration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4) ) twice weekly for 10 weeks. From week 7, rat bone marrow-derived EPCs were injected via the tail vein in this model once a week for 4 weeks. Endothelial NOS (eNOS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and caveolin expressions were examined by Western blots. Hepatic tissue ET-1 was measured by a radioimmunoassay (RIA). Portal venous pressure, mean aortic pressure, and hepatic blood flow were measured. Endothelial progenitor cell transplantation reduced liver fibrosis, α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells, caveolin expression, ET-1 concentration and portal venous pressure. EPC transplantation increased hepatic blood flow, protein levels of eNOS and VEGF. Immunohistochemical analyses of eNOS and isolectin B4 demonstrated that the livers of EPC-transplanted animals had markedly increased vascular density, suggesting reconstitution of sinusoidal blood vessels with endothelium. Transplantation of EPCs ameliorates vascular dysfunction and portal hypertension, suggesting this treatment may provide a new approach in the therapy of portal hypertension with liver cirrhosis. © 2012 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. NCI, NHLBI/PBMTC First International Conference on Late Effects after Pediatric Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Endocrine Challenges--Thyroid Dysfunction, Growth Impairment, Bone Health, & Reproductive Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Christopher C.; Gracia, Clarisa R.; Sanders, Jean E.; Cheng, Edward Y.; Baker, K. Scott; Pulsipher, Michael A.; Petryk, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The endocrine system is highly susceptible to damage by high-dose chemotherapy and/or irradiation prior to hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) during childhood. The specific endocrine organs most affected by HCT include the thyroid gland, the pituitary, and the gonads. In addition, hormones that support development and stability of the skeletal system are also affected. Insufficiency of thyroid hormone is one of the most common late sequelae of HCT, and occurs more often in young children. Deficiency in the pituitary’s production of growth hormone is a problem of unique concern to the pediatric population. The reproductive risks of HCT depend on the patient’s gender and pubertal status at the time of HCT. Pubertal or gonadal failure frequently occurs, especially in females. Infertility risks for both genders remain high, while methods of fertility preservation are limited in all but post-pubertal males. Bone health post-HCT can be compromised by low bone mineral density as well as avascular necrosis, but the data on both problems in the pediatric HCT population are limited. In this paper, the current state of knowledge, gaps in that knowledge, and recommendations for future research are addressed in detail for each of these systems. PMID:22005649

  5. Functional exploration of the thyroid gland on the rat at the third day after a spinal section at high level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnius-Delord, C.; Caine, S.; Tanche, M.; Rinaldi, R.

    1969-01-01

    We have studied on animals having two different diets, the one with iodine, the other without iodine, the influence of a spinal section at high level on the thyroid fixation, this latter being measured after an injection of iodine 131 carried out 72 h after the section. In this case, and for all animals, our results show an increase of the thyroid fixation with regard to the control animals. However this increase is not significant; only is significant the difference between the rates of fixation for the injections carried out 15 mn and 24 h after section and these measured 48 h and 72 h after section. Concerning the hormonal discharge, it is always significantly decreased with regard to the controls, as we had found it for the animals treated 15 mn, 24 h and 48 h after section. We have also entered upon a study of the thyroid fixation and of the hormonal discharge on rats subjected to a simple laminectomy at level where are effected the spinal sections. Yet the results obtained have not permitted us to display significant differences between the control animals and the animals subjected to such an operation. (authors) [fr

  6. Study on the induction of thyroid tumors in rats using x irradiation in conjunction with a goitrogen. [1 methyl--2 mercaptoimidazole (methimazole)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahler, P.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of acute localized thyroid x irradiation and chronic goitrogen administration, separately or combined, on thyroid tumor formation in mature female rats was studied. In the first experiment, the radiation doses were 0, 80, 160, 320, or 640 rads, and the dosages of goitrogen were 0, 4, or 40 parts per million (ppM) of 1 methyl - 2 mercaptoimidazole (MMI). The incidence of rats with thyroid tumors in any treated group receiving 0 or 4 ppM MMI was not significantly greater than the incidence in the nontreated control group. However, the incidence in any of the 40 ppM MMI groups was significantly greater than that in the nontreated control group. At all the radiation doses other than 80 rads, the incidence was significantly greater than that in the non-irradiated group. No significant difference was seen in the incidence of rats with thyroid tumors on the basis of radiation dose. The incidence was so high at 80 rads that there was little margin for further increase by increasing the radiation dose. The mean serum thyroxine levels at 40 ppM MMI, 4 ppM MMI, and 0 ppM MMI were 1.9, 3.5, and 3.7 ..mu..g/100 ml, respectively. No markedeffect of thyroid irradiation on mean serum thyroxine levels was seen. In the second experiment, rats receiving 200 ppM MMI and thyroid irradiation were sacrificed at 7-1/2 months after treatment. Nearly all rats in the 0 and 80 rad groups and all in the 160, the 320, and the 640 rad groups had thyroid tumors. In the third experiment, serum T/sub 4/ levels were measured in treated rats. Rats receiving 640 rads + 0 ppM MMI showed a slight decrease in serum T/sub 4/, while no change in serum T/sub 4/ levels was seen in rats receiving 0 rads + 4 ppM MMI or 640 rads + 4 ppM MMI. All rats receiving 40 ppM MMI, regardless of radiation dose, showed decreased serum T/sub 4/ levels.

  7. Ephedra-Treated Donor-Derived Gut Microbiota Transplantation Ameliorates High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Hua; Kim, Bong-Soo; Han, Kyungsun; Kim, Hojun

    2017-05-23

    Changes in gut microbiota (GM) are closely associated with metabolic syndrome, obesity, type 2 diabetes and so on. Several medicinal herbs, including Ephedra sinica (Es), have anti-obesity effects that ameliorate metabolic disorders. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Es maintains its anti-obesity effect through Es-altered gut microbiota (EsM) transplantation. GM was isolated from cecal contents of Es treated and untreated rats following repeated transplants into obese rats via oral gavage over three weeks. High-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obese rats transplanted with EsM lost significant body weight, epididymal fat, and perirenal fat weight, but no remarkable changes were observed in abdominal fat, liver, cecum weight and food efficiency ratio. In addition, treatment with EsM also significantly lowered the fasting blood glucose, serum insulin level, and insulin resistance index. Meanwhile, EsM transplantation significantly reduced gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Rats treated with EsM also showed changed GM composition, especially blautia, roseburia and clostridium, significantly reduced the level of endotoxin and markedly increased the acetic acid in feces. Overall, our results demonstrated that EsM ameliorates HFD-induced obesity and related metabolic disorders, like hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, and is strongly associated with modulating the distribution of GM, enterogenous endotoxin and enteral acetic acid.

  8. Deficits in Beam-Walking After Neonatal Motor Cortical Lesions are not Spared by Fetal Cortical Transplants in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Swenson, R. S.; Danielsen, E. H.; Klausen, B. S.; Erlich, E.; Zimmer, J.; Castro, A. J.

    1989-01-01

    Adult rats that sustained unilateral motor cortical lesions at birth demonstrated deficits in traversing an elevated narrow beam. These deficits, manifested by hindlimb slips off the edge of the beam, were not spared in animals that received fetal cortical transplants into the lesion cavity immediately after lesion placement.

  9. Development of a New Technique for Reconstruction of Hepatic Artery during Liver Transplantation in Sprague-Dawley Rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingmu Liu

    Full Text Available Sleeve anastomosis is the most common technique used to rearterialize orthotopic liver transplants (OLT. However, this technique has a number of disadvantages, including difficulty of performance of the technique visually unaided. We herein describe a novel rearterialized OLT model in the rat.Forty-six male Sprague Dawley rats (300-400 g were used as donors and recipients. Based on Kamada's cuff technique, the new model involved performing a modified "sleeve" anastomosis between the celiac trunk of the donor and common hepatic artery of the recipient to reconstruct blood flow to the hepatic artery. An additional ten male Sprague Dawley rats underwent liver transplantation without artery reconstruction. Liver grafts were retrieved from the two groups and histological examination was performed following surgery.Total mean operating times were ~42 minutes for the donor liver extraction and 57 minutes for the recipient transplantation. Graft preparation took an additional 15 minutes and the time to fix the arterial bracket was ~3 minutes. During transplantation, the anhepatic phase lasted 18 ± 2.5 min and the artery reconstruction only required ~3 minutes. The patency rate was 94.44% and the 4-week survival rate was 90%. Histology indicated obvious fibrosis in the liver grafts without artery reconstruction, while normal histology was observed in the arterialized graft.This new method allows for the surgical procedure to be performed visually unaided with good survival and patency rates and represents an alternative model investigating OLT in rats.

  10. Detection of acute renal allograft rejection by analysis of renal tissue proteomics in rat models of renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Yong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the diagnosis of renal allograft rejection requires a renal biopsy. Clinical management of renal transplant patients would be improved if rapid, noninvasive and reliable biomarkers of rejection were available. This study is designed to determine whether such protein biomarkers can be found in renal-graft tissue proteomic approach. Orthotopic kidney transplantations were performed using Fisher (F344 or Lewis rats as donors and Lewis rats as recipients. Hence, there were two groups of renal transplant models: one is allograft (from F344 to Lewis rats; another is syngrafts (from Lewis to Lewis rats serving as control. Renal tissues were collected 3, 7 and 14 days after transplantation. As many as 18 samples were analyzed by 2-D Electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS. Eleven differentially expressed proteins were identified between groups. In conclusion, proteomic technology can detect renal tissue proteins associated with acute renal allograft rejection. Identification of these proteins as diagnostic markers for rejection in patients′ urine or sera may be useful and non-invasive, and these proteins might serve as novel therapeutic targets that also help to improve the understanding of mechanism of renal rejection.

  11. Effects of estradiol benzoate on 5'-iodothyronine deiodinase activities in female rat anterior pituitary gland, liver and thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbôa P.C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little information on the possible effects of estrogen on the activity of 5'-deiodinase (5'-ID, an enzyme responsible for the generation of T3, the biologically active thyroid hormone. In the present study, anterior pituitary sonicates or hepatic and thyroid microsomes from ovariectomized (OVX rats treated or not with estradiol benzoate (EB, 0.7 or 14 µg/100 g body weight, sc, for 10 days were assayed for type I 5'-ID (5'-ID-I and type II 5'-ID (5'-ID-II, only in pituitary activities. The 5'-ID activity was evaluated by the release of 125I from deiodinated 125I rT3, using specific assay conditions for type I or type II. Serum TSH and free T3 and free T4 were measured by radioimmunoassay. OVX alone induced a reduction in pituitary 5'-ID-I (control = 723.7 ± 67.9 vs OVX = 413.9 ± 26.9; P<0.05, while the EB-treated OVX group showed activity similar to that of the normal group. Thyroid 5'-ID-I showed the same pattern of changes, but these changes were not statistically significant. Pituitary and hepatic 5'-ID-II did not show major alterations. The treatment with the higher EB dose (14 µg, contrary to the results obtained with the lower dose, had no effect on the reduced pituitary 5'-ID-I of OVX rats. However, it induced an important increment of 5'-ID-I in the thyroid gland (0.8 times higher than that of the normal group: control = 131.9 ± 23.7 vs ovx + EB 14 µg = 248.0 ± 31.2; P<0.05, which is associated with increased serum TSH (0.6-fold vs OVX, P<0.05 but normal serum free T3 and free T4. The data suggest that estrogen is a physiological stimulator of anterior pituitary 5'-ID-I and a potent stimulator of the thyroid enzyme when employed at high doses

  12. Comparison Between the Effects of the Alcholic Extract of Mellissia Officinalis and Atorvastatin on Serum Levels of Thyroid Hormones in Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats

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    Ali Zarei

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of unsaturated fats reduces the serum level of lipids and leptin. Thyroid hormones and leptin play pivotal roles in metabolism and their amounts are inter-related. This study was done to compare the effects of Mellissia officinalis extract and atorvastatin on the serum levels of thyroid hormones in hypercholesterolemia rats.Materials and Methods: Consumption of unsaturated fats reduces the serum level of lipids and leptin. Thyroid hormones and leptin play pivotal roles in metabolism and their amounts are inter-related. This study was done to compare the effects of Mellissia officinalis extract and atorvastatin on the serum levels of thyroid hormones in hypercholesterolemia rats.Results: The results showed that in experimental groups receiving the plant extract and atorvastatin, the concentration of thyroid hormones increased, whereas the amount of the thyroid-stimulating hormone showed a significant decrease (p<0.05.Conclusion: Mellissia officinalis extract decreases TSH but it increases T3 and T4. Further studies are required for applying this extract to the treatment of hyperthyroidism.

  13. Thyroid Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beats. All of these activities are your body's metabolism. Thyroid problems include Goiter - enlargement of the thyroid gland Hyperthyroidism - when your thyroid gland makes more thyroid hormones ...

  14. They live in the land down under: thyroid function and basal metabolic rate in the Blind Mole Rat, Spalax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avivi, Aaron; Nevo, Eviatar; Cohen, Keren; Sotnichenko, Nick; Hercbergs, Aleck; Band, Mark; Davis, Paul J; Ellis, Martin; Ashur-Fabian, Osnat

    2014-01-01

    The Israeli blind subterranean mole rat (Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies) lives in sealed underground burrows under extreme, hypoxic conditions. The four Israeli Spalax allospecies have adapted to different climates, the cool-humid (Spalax galili, 2 n = 52 chromosomes), semihumid (S. golani, 2 n = 54) north regions, warm-humid (S. carmeli, 2 n = 58) central region and the warm-dry S. judaei, 2 n = 60) southern regions. A dramatic interspecies decline in basal metabolic rate (BMR) from north to south, even after years of captivity, indicates a genetic basis for this BMR trait. We examined the possibility that the genetically-conditioned interspecies BMR difference was expressed via circulating thyroid hormone. An unexpected north to south increase in serum free thyroxine (FT4) and total 3, 5, 3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) (p BMR measurements. The increases in serum FT4 and T3 were symmetrical, so that the T3:FT4 ratio - interpretable as an index of conversion of T4 to T3 in nonthyroidal tissues - did not support relative decrease in production of T3 as a contributor to BMR. Increased north-to-south serum FT4 and T3 levels also correlated negatively with hemoglobin/hematocrit. North-to-south adaptations in spalacids include decreased BMR and hematocrit/hemoglobin in the face of increasing thyroid hormone levels, arguing for independent control of hormone secretion and BMR/hematocrit/hemoglobin. But the significant inverse relationship between thyroid hormone levels and BMR/hematocrit/hemoglobin is also consistent with a degree of cellular resistance to thyroid hormone action that protects against hormone-induced increase in oxygen consumption in a hostile, hypoxic environment.

  15. Transplantation of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood promotes functional recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, L.P.; Iglesias, D.; Nicola, F.C.; Steffens, D.; Valentim, L.; Witczak, A.; Zanatta, G.; Achaval, M.; Pranke, P.; Netto, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Cell transplantation is a promising experimental treatment for spinal cord injury. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood in promoting functional recovery when transplanted after a contusion spinal cord injury. Female Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were submitted to spinal injury with a MASCIS impactor and divided into 4 groups: control, surgical control, spinal cord injury, and one cell-treated lesion group. Mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood of human male neonates were transplanted in two experiments: a) 1 h after surgery, into the injury site at a concentration of 5 x 10 6 cells diluted in 10 µL 0.9% NaCl (N = 8-10 per group); b) into the cisterna magna, 9 days after lesion at a concentration of 5 x 10 6 cells diluted in 150 µL 0.9% NaCl (N = 12-14 per group). The transplanted animals were immunosuppressed with cyclosporin-A (10 mg/kg per day). The BBB scale was used to evaluate motor behavior and the injury site was analyzed with immunofluorescent markers to label human transplanted cells, oligodendrocytes, neurons, and astrocytes. Spinal cord injury rats had 25% loss of cord tissue and cell treatment did not affect lesion extension. Transplanted cells survived in the injured area for 6 weeks after the procedure and both transplanted groups showed better motor recovery than the untreated ones (P < 0.05). The transplantation of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood promoted functional recovery with no evidence of cell differentiation

  16. Transplantation of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood promotes functional recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, L.P. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Neurociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Iglesias, D. [Laboratório de Hematologia e Células-Tronco, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Nicola, F.C. [Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Steffens, D. [Laboratório de Hematologia e Células-Tronco, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Valentim, L.; Witczak, A.; Zanatta, G. [Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Achaval, M. [Departamento de Ciências Morfológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Pranke, P. [Laboratório de Hematologia e Células-Tronco, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Netto, C.A. [Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2011-12-23

    Cell transplantation is a promising experimental treatment for spinal cord injury. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood in promoting functional recovery when transplanted after a contusion spinal cord injury. Female Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were submitted to spinal injury with a MASCIS impactor and divided into 4 groups: control, surgical control, spinal cord injury, and one cell-treated lesion group. Mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood of human male neonates were transplanted in two experiments: a) 1 h after surgery, into the injury site at a concentration of 5 x 10{sup 6} cells diluted in 10 µL 0.9% NaCl (N = 8-10 per group); b) into the cisterna magna, 9 days after lesion at a concentration of 5 x 10{sup 6} cells diluted in 150 µL 0.9% NaCl (N = 12-14 per group). The transplanted animals were immunosuppressed with cyclosporin-A (10 mg/kg per day). The BBB scale was used to evaluate motor behavior and the injury site was analyzed with immunofluorescent markers to label human transplanted cells, oligodendrocytes, neurons, and astrocytes. Spinal cord injury rats had 25% loss of cord tissue and cell treatment did not affect lesion extension. Transplanted cells survived in the injured area for 6 weeks after the procedure and both transplanted groups showed better motor recovery than the untreated ones (P < 0.05). The transplantation of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood promoted functional recovery with no evidence of cell differentiation.

  17. Eicosapentenoic Acid Attenuates Allograft Rejection in an HLA-B27/EGFP Transgenic Rat Cardiac Transplantation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Xie, Lin; Kato, Ken; Zhu, Ping; Ochiya, Takahiro; Nagahara, Yukitoshi; Hu, Xiang; Li, Xiao-Kang

    2012-01-01

    The development of an animal model bearing definite antigens is important to facilitate the evaluation and modulation of specific allo-antigen responses after transplantation. In the present study, heterotopic cardiac transplantation was performed from F344/EGFPTg and F344/HLA-B27Tg rats to F344 rats. The F344 recipients accepted the F344/EGFPTg transplants, whereas they rejected the cardiac tissue from the F344/HLA-B27Tg rats by 39.4 ± 6.5 days, due to high production of anti-HLA-B27 IgM- and IgG-specific antibodies. In addition, immunization of F344 rats with skin grafts from F344/HLA-B27Tg rats resulted in robust production of anti- HLA-B27 IgM and IgG antibodies and accelerated the rejection of a secondary cardiac allograft (7.4 ± 1.9 days). Of interest, the F344 recipients rejected cardiac grafts from double transgenic F344/HLA-B27&EGFPTg rats within 9.0 ± 3.2 days, and this was associated with a significant increase in the infiltration of lymphocytes by day 7, suggesting a role for cellular immune rejection. Eicosapentenoic acid (EPA), one of the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oil, could attenuate the production of anti-HLA IgG antibodies and B-cell proliferation, significantly prolonging double transgenic F344HLA-B27&EGFPTg to F344 rat cardiac allograft survival (36.1 ± 13.6 days). Moreover, the mRNA expression in the grafts was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), revealing an increase in the expression of the HO-1, IL-10, TGF-β, IDO, and Foxp3 genes in the EPA-treated group. Hence, our data indicate that HLA-B27 and/or GFP transgenic proteins are useful for establishing a unique animal transplantation model to clarify the mechanism underlying the allogeneic cellular and humoral immune response, in which the transplant antigens are specifically presented. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that EPA was effective in the treatment of rat cardiac allograft rejection and may allow the development of

  18. Fluoride toxicity and status of serum thyroid hormones, brain histopathology, and learning memory in rats: a multigenerational assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Piler Mahaboob; Rai, Puja; Begum, Shabana

    2011-12-01

    High-fluoride (100 and 200 ppm) water was administered to rats orally to study the fluoride-induced changes on the thyroid hormone status, the histopathology of discrete brain regions, the acetylcholine esterase activity, and the learning and memory abilities in multigeneration rats. Significant decrease in the serum-free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) levels and decrease in acetylcholine esterase activity in fluoride-treated group were observed. Presence of eosinophilic Purkinje cells, degenerating neurons, decreased granular cells, and vacuolations were noted in discrete brain regions of the fluoride-treated group. In the T-maze experiments, the fluoride-treated group showed poor acquisition and retention and higher latency when compared with the control. The alterations were more profound in the third generation when compared with the first- and second-generation fluoride-treated group. Changes in the thyroid hormone levels in the present study might have imbalanced the oxidant/antioxidant system, which further led to a reduction in learning memory ability. Hence, presence of generational or cumulative effects of fluoride on the development of the offspring when it is ingested continuously through multiple generations is evident from the present study.

  19. Transplantation of ES cells to Parkinson model rat irradiated with carbon ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaji, Motoki; Okauchi, Takashi; Nagai, Yuji; Nojima, Kumie

    2003-01-01

    The present study was designed to make better Parkinson model animal and evaluate the transplantation treatment with ES cell. In the first year, we irradiated left striatum of adult rats with charged carbon particles (290 MeV/nucleon, 5 mm spread-out Bragg peak, 100 Gy) for purpose of making Parkinson model rats. At 4, 8, 12 weeks after the irradiation, we performed the rotation test to methamphetamine and the autoradiography on dopamine D2 receptor and transporter using 11 C-raclopride and 11 C-PE2I to measure the effects of the irradiation. As a result, the number of rotation increased and the distributions of dopamine D2 receptor and transporter in the striatum decreased during the time after the irradiation. These results suggested that the secondary neural damage due to the vascular degeneration caused the progressive destruction of dopamine system. To make more stable Parkinson model rats, we need to use smaller collimator and develop the accurate stereotactic irradiation system in the further research. (author)

  20. Characterization of thyroid hormone effects on Na-K pump and membrane potential of cultured rat skeletal myotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodie, C.; Sampson, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of thyroid hormone on the Na-K pump and resting membrane potential (EM) of rat skeletal myotubes in culture. Myotubes were obtained from fetal (19-21 day) or neonatal rats (1-2 day) by serial trypsinization and maintained in culture for up to 10 days. Cells were treated with T4 or T3 on day 6 or 7, and measurements were made of EM, [ 3 H]ouabain binding, and ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb uptake at various times thereafter. Hormone treatment increased the values of all three variables within 24 h, plateau levels being attained by 48-72 h. Cycloheximide and actinomycin D totally blocked the effects of thyroid hormone when added together to the cells, thus suggesting that protein synthesis is necessary for the effects of these hormones. Scatchard analysis showed that the new receptors have lower ouabain affinity than those in control. Blockade of spontaneously occurring action potentials with tetrodotoxin, which blocks voltage-dependent Na channels, or Na/H antiporter with amiloride, abolished the hormone effects seen after 24 h and significantly reduced those obtained after 48 h of hormone treatment. The results demonstrate that thyroid hormone-induced increased amount and activity of the electrogenic Na-K pump in cultured myotubes occurs, at least in part, in response to an initial effect to increase Na influx. Moreover, the findings are consistent with the concept that the Na-K pump plays an important role in regulation of EM in this preparation

  1. Effects of a Model Inducer, Phenobarbital, on Thyroid Hormone Glucuronidation in Rat Hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In vivo, hepatic enzyme inducers such as phenobarbital (PB) decrease circulating thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations. This decrease in circulating TH occurs in part through extrathyroidal mechanisms. Specifically, through the induction of hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes...

  2. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells transplantation promotes cutaneous wound healing of severe burned rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingying Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Severe burns are a common and highly lethal trauma. The key step for severe burn therapy is to promote the wound healing as early as possible, and reports indicate that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC therapy contributes to facilitate wound healing. In this study, we investigated effect of human umbilical cord MSCs (hUC-MSCs could on wound healing in a rat model of severe burn and its potential mechanism. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham, burn, and burn transplanted hUC-MSCs. GFP labeled hUC-MSCs or PBS was intravenous injected into respective groups. The rate of wound closure was evaluated by Image Pro Plus. GFP-labeled hUC-MSCs were tracked by in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI, and human-specific DNA expression in wounds was detected by PCR. Inflammatory cells, neutrophils, macrophages, capillaries and collagen types I/III in wounds were evaluated by histochemical staining. Wound blood flow was evaluated by laser Doppler blood flow meter. The levels of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, VEGF, collagen types I/III in wounds were analyzed using an ELISA. RESULTS: We found that wound healing was significantly accelerated in the hUC-MSC therapy group. The hUC-MSCs migrated into wound and remarkably decreased the quantity of infiltrated inflammatory cells and levels of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α and increased levels of IL-10 and TSG-6 in wounds. Additionally, the neovascularization and levels of VEGF in wounds in the hUC-MSC therapy group were markedly higher than those in other control groups. The ratio of collagen types I and III in the hUC-MSC therapy group were markedly higher than that in the burn group at indicated time after transplantation. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that hUC-MSCs transplantation can effectively improve wound healing in severe burned rat model. Moreover, these data might provide the theoretical foundation for the further clinical application of hUC-MSC in burn areas.

  3. Autoradiographic demonstration of glucocorticoid receptors in the intermediate lobe of the rat pituitary transplanted to the anterior eye chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruehle, H.J.; Schnabel, C.; Lausch, A.

    1989-01-01

    The neurointermediate lobe of adult male Wistar rats was syngeneic transplanted to the anterior eye chamber. The recipient rats were adrenalectomized 19 days after grafting and injected with (3H)corticosterone 5 days later. After a survival time of 60 min, autoradiograms were prepared by thaw-mount technique and quantitatively evaluated by silver grain counting. Beside the classical targets, anterior pituitary and hippocampal stratum pyramidale, the intraocular transplants showed a nuclear accumulation of radioactivity. This was abolished in rats treated for competition with an excess of unlabelled corticosterone prior to tracer application. No such receptor binding was found in the normotopic intermediate lobe and in the diaphragm studied as a non-target reference. Thus, this study confirmed that the glucocorticoid receptor gene is expressed of the tissue is grafted into an ectopic site. (author)

  4. Disruption of thyroid hormone homeostasis in Ugt1a-deficient Gunn rats by microsomal enzyme inducers is not due to enhanced thyroxine glucuronidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Terrilyn A.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2010-01-01

    Microsomal enzyme inducers (MEI) that increase UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are thought to increase glucuronidation of thyroxine (T 4 ), thus reducing serum T 4 , and subsequently increasing thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Ugt1a1 and Ugt1a6 mediate T 4 glucuronidation. Therefore, this experiment determined the involvement of Ugt1a enzymes in increased T 4 glucuronidation, decreased serum T 4 , and increased TSH after MEI treatment. Male Wistar and Ugt1a-deficient Wistar (Gunn) rats were fed a control diet or diet containing pregnenolone-16α-carbonitrile (PCN; 800 ppm), 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC; 200 ppm), or Aroclor 1254 (PCB; 100 ppm) for 7 days. Serum T 4 , triiodothyronine (T 3 ), and TSH concentrations, hepatic T 4 /T 3 glucuronidation, and thyroid histology and follicular cell proliferation were investigated. PCN, 3-MC, and PCB treatments decreased serum T 4 , whereas serum T 3 was maintained in both Gunn and Wistar rats (except for PCB treatment). TSH was increased in Wistar and Gunn rats after PCN (130 and 277%) or PCB treatment (72 and 60%). T 4 glucuronidation in Wistar rats was increased after PCN (298%), 3-MC (85%), and PCB (450%), but was extremely low in Gunn rats, and unchanged after MEI. T 3 glucuronidation was increased after PCN (121%) or PCB (58%) in Wistar rats, but only PCN increased T 3 glucuronidation in Gunn rats (43%). PCN treatment induced thyroid morphological changes and increased follicular cell proliferation in both strains. These data demonstrate that T 4 glucuronidation cannot be increased in Ugt1a-deficient Gunn rats. Thus, the decrease in serum T 4 , increase in TSH, and increase in thyroid cell proliferation after MEI are not dependent on increased T 4 glucuronidation, and cannot be attributed to Ugt1a enzymes.

  5. Histomorphometric and functional studies of the rat thyroid throughout the estrous cycle Histomorfometria e função tireoidiana no ciclo estral da rata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Serakides

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the estrous cycle on the thyroid gland was studied. Twenty one five-to-seven-month-old Wistar female rats were divided according to the stage of the estrous cycle in two groups: metaestrus-diestrus and proestrus-estrus. After gross inspection, the thyroids were weighed, sampled, and processed for staining with hematoxilyn-eosin. Seric concentrations of total T4, free T4, total T3, TSH, progesterone, and estradiol were measured. The values of estradiol were significantly higher in the proestrus-estrus stage. However, no significant differences in the plasmatic concentrations of progesterone, free T4, total T4 and TSH throughout the cycle were found. The results of the morphometric study of the thyroid did not indicate any significant differences between the groups. These findings suggest that there is no thyreotrophic effect of estrogen during the estrous cycle in rats.

  6. Surfactant treatment before reperfusion improves the immediate function of lung transplants in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erasmus, ME; Petersen, AH; Hofstede, G; Haagsman, HP; Oetomo, SB; Prop, J

    An impaired function of alveolar surfactant can cause lung transplant dysfunction early after reperfusion. In this study it was investigated whether treatment with surfactant before reperfusion improves the immediate function of lung transplants and whether an improved transplant function was

  7. Hyper and hypothyroidism change the expression and diurnal variation of thyroid hormone receptor isoforms in rat liver without major changes in their zonal distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandieh-Doulabi, B.; Platvoet-ter Schiphorst, M.; Kalsbeek, A.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Bakker, O.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effect of hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism on mRNA and protein expression, diurnal variation and zonal distribution of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) isoforms TRalpha1 TRalpha2 and TRbeta1 in rat liver. Hypothyroidism results in increased isoform mRNA and protein expression

  8. Effect of electromagnetic fields at 2.45 GHz on the levels of cellular stress proteins HSP-90 and 70 in the rat thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misa Agustino, M. J.; Alvarez-Folgueras, M.; Jorge-Mora, M. T.; Jorge Barreiro, F. J.; Ares Pena, F. J.; Lleiro, J.; Lopez Martin, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the cellular stress levels achieved by heat shock proteins (HSP) 90 and 70 in rat thyroid tissue after exposure to radio waves in TWG experimental system. Parallel measurements of body stress in animals by rectal temperature probes allow us to determine whether there is any interaction between temperature increases and cellular stress.

  9. Study of rNIS as a reporter gene monitoring rBMSC transplanted to rat myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Shou; Lan Xiaoli; Cao Wei; Cao Guoxiang; Zhang Guopeng; Zhang Binqing; Wu Tao; Chang Wei; Zhang Yongxue

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of rat sodium/iodide symporter (rNIS) as a reporter gene monitoring rat bone marrow mesenchymal cells (rBMSC) transplanted to rat myocardium in vivo. Methods: Recombinated adenovirus vector was constructed by rNIS/enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) (Ad-rNIS/EGFP). rBMSC transfected by Ad-rNIS/EGFP were studied using fluorescence microscope. Fifteen rats were transplanted with rBMSC and randomly divided into three groups: rNIS group (with rNIS transfection), blocked group (with rNIS transfection) by oral intake of perchloric sodium before planar imaging (GE Millennium MPR SPECT), and control group (without rNIS transfection). All rats underwent 99 Tc m -pertechnetate planar imaging. The biological distribution of 99 Tc m -pertechnetate was studied. The expressions of rNIS gene and protein in myocardium were measured by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot, respectively. The expressions of CD 29 , CD 44 , CD 90 , CD 11 b, CD 34 and CD 45 were measured by immunohistochemistry. Results: rBMSC transfected by Ad-rNIS/EGFP showed EGFP expression under fluorescence microscope. The transplanted rat myocardium could be visualized on 99 Tc m -pertechnetate planar imaging in rNIS group. The relative uptake ratio (R heart /R hmb , RUR) was 6.7 ±0.4. RUR in control group (3.0 ±0.2) was lower than that in rNIS group (t =2.78, P=0.03). The percentage injection dose per gram of tissue (% ID/g) of the transplanted myocardium was 60.2 ± 20.8 in rNIS group, which was higher than that (2.5 ± 0.4) % ID/g of control group ( t = 7.13, P 29 , CD 44 and CD 90 were positive, CD 45 and CD 45 negative CD 11 b mildly positive in the myocardium transplanted with infective rBMSC. Conclusion: rNIS can efficiently monitor rBMSC transplanted to rat myocardium. (authors)

  10. MOK, a pharmacopuncture medicine, regulates thyroid dysfunction in L-thyroxin-induced hyperthyroidism in rats through the regulation of oxidation and the TRPV1 ion channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ji Hye; Kang, Seok Yong; Kang, An Na; Jung, Hyo Won; Jung, Chul; Jeong, Jin-Ho; Park, Yong-Ki

    2017-12-15

    In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of MOK, a pharmacopuncture medicine, on thyroid dysfunction in L-thyroxin (LT4)-induced hyperthyroidism rats. The experimental hyperthyroidism model was prepared by the intraperitoneal injection of LT4 (0.5 mg/kg) once daily for 2 weeks in SD rats. MOK extract was injected at doses of 0.3 or 3 mg/kg on acupuncture points in the thyroid glands of LT4-induced hypothyroidism rats once a day for 2 weeks. The body temperature, body weight, and food/water intake were measured once a week for 2 weeks. The levels of thyroid hormones, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, GOT, and GPT were measured in the sera of rats using ELISA and an automatic blood analyzer. The histological changes of thyroid tissues were observed by H&E staining. The expression of thermo-regulating protein, TRPV1 was determined by western blot in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and brain tissues. We also measured the contents of GSH in the liver and antioxidant enzymes, SOD, and catalase in the liver, heart, and brain tissues by enzyme-based assay and Western blot, respectively. The acupuncture of MOK extract on the thyroid gland of LT4-induced hyperthyroidism rats significantly decreased the body temperature, and did not change body weight and food and water intakes. MOK acupuncture significantly increased the level of TSH, and decreased the levels of T3 and T4 in hyperthyroidism rats. The expression of TRPV1 was inhibited in both DRG and brain tissues after MOK acupuncture, and the levels of GOT, GPT, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were also decreased. MOK acupuncture also inhibited the pathological feature with follicular lining epithelial thicknesses and increased follicular colloid depositions in the thyroid glands of hypothyroidism. MOK acupuncture significantly increased hepatic GSH levels and decreased the expression of SOD and catalase in the liver, heart, and brain tissues of hyperthyroidism rats. These results suggest that the

  11. In vivo MR imaging of nanometer magnetically labeled bone marrow stromal cells transplanted via portal vein in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ping; Wang Jianhua; Yan Zhiping; Hu Meiyu; Xu Pengju; Zhou Meiling; Ya Fuhua; Fan Sheung-tat; Luk John-m

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate in vivo magnetic resonance imaging with a conventional 1.5-T system for tracking of intra-portal vein transplantation nanometer magnetically labeled BMSCs in rat liver. Methods: BMSCs were isolated from 5 SD rats bone marrow with the density gradient centrifugation method. Then BMSCs were labeled with nanometer superpara-magnetic iron oxide and transfection agent. Cell labeling efficiency was assessed with determination of the percentage of Peris Prussian blue stain. Then BMSCs transplanted into normal rats' livers via portal vein. The receipts were divided into 5 groups ,including sham control,2 h ,3 d,7 d and 2 w after transplantation. Follow-up serial T 1 WI,T 2 WI and T 2 * -weighted gradient- echo MR imaging were performed at 1.5 T MRI system. MR imaging findings were compared with histology. Results: Cell labeling efficiency was more than 95% by Perls Prussian blue stain. After transplantation of labeled BMSCs via portal vein, liver's had diffuse granular signal intensity appearance in T 2 * WI MRI. Cells were detected for up to 2 w in receipts' liver's. At histologic analysis, signal intensity loss correlated with iron-loaded cells. Conclusion: MR imaging could aid in monitoring of magnetically labeled BMSCs administered via portal vein in vivo. (authors)

  12. Uptake of perfusion imaging agents by transplanted hearts: an experimental study in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsland, J.; Carr, E.A. Jr.; Carroll, M.; Feldman, M.J.; Kung, H.; Wright, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    There is a need for a reliable noninvasive marker of rejection in transplanted hearts. Endomyocardial biopsy is now the universally accepted diagnostic method of choice, but the invasiveness of the procedure and the limited size of the sample obtained makes this method far from ideal. As coronary blood flow may be expected to decrease during acute rejection, there has been interest in thallium-201 chloride (T1), a perfusion marker, as an imaging agent for diagnosing cardiac rejection. Hexakis(t-butylisonitrile)-technetium (Tc-TBI) is a representative of a new class of radiopharmaceuticals proposed as perfusion markers. We have compared the uptake of these imaging agents in a rat model of cardiac transplantation. Uptake of Tc-TBI as well as of T1 was significantly lower in rejecting than in nonrejecting hearts. This change was found in both left (LV) and right (RV) ventricles. Allografts in animals treated with cyclosporine (CyA) showed less severe rejection and higher uptakes of both imaging agents as compared to unmodified rejection. Our results suggest that perfusion imaging with these radionuclides is a potentially useful approach to the problem of detecting allograft rejection

  13. Involvement of Rho-kinase in cold ischemia-reperfusion injury after liver transplantation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiotani, Satoko; Shimada, Mitsuo; Suehiro, Taketoshi; Soejima, Yuji; Yosizumi, Tomoharu; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2004-08-15

    Reperfusion of ischemic tissues is known to cause the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with resultant tissue damage. However, the sources of ROS in reperfused tissues are not fully characterized. We hypothesized that the small GTPase Rho and its target effector Rho-kinase/ROK/ROCK are involved in the oxidative burst in reperfused tissue with resultant reperfusion injury. In an in vivo rat model of liver transplantation using cold ischemia for 12 hr followed by reperfusion, a specific Rho-kinase inhibitor, fasudil (30 mg/kg), was administered orally 1 hr before the transplantation. Fasudil suppressed the ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced generation of ROS after reperfusion (P<0.01) and also suppressed the release of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta) 3 hr after reperfusion, resulting in a significant reduction of I/R-induced hepatocellular injury (P<0.05), necrosis, apoptosis (P<0.01), and neutrophil infiltration (P<0.0001) 12 hr after reperfusion. All animals receiving a graft without fasudil died within 3 days, whereas 40% of those receiving fasudil survived (P<0.001). The present study demonstrates that Rho-kinase-mediated production of ROS and inflammatory cytokines are substantially involved in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular necrosis and apoptosis induced by cold I/R in vivo and that Rho-kinase may be regarded as a novel therapeutic target for the disorder.

  14. Hematopoiesis Stimulating Role of IL-12 Enabling Bone Marrow Transplantation in Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, O.M.; Abd el Sammad, H.; El Shahat, M.; Abou el Khier, I.

    2012-01-01

    Severe myelosuppression is a common side effect of radiotherapy or chemotherapy. As a mean to stimulate the full-lineage blood cell recovery from severe myelosuppression, sublethally irradiated animals were used to evaluate immunological effect of interleukin IL-12 in bone marrow transplanted animals. Isologous bone marrow (BM), from the same inbred strain, were given to male rats, 1 hour post whole body gamma irradiation at a single dose level of 5 Gy and subcutaneous injection of 100 ng/ml IL-12. Irradiation induced a significant drop in haematological values, blood glutathione(GSH) as well as bone marrow viability associated with a significant elevation of serum malondialdehyde (MDA). Related to immunological data, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) also recorded a significant depression. Irradiated animals receiving BM and IL-12 showed significantly elevated body and spleen weights, erythrocytes count (RBCs), hemoglobin content (Hb) and hemotocrit value (Hct %) besides, white blood cells (WBCs)and its differential count, as well as GSH, while MDA was significantly depressed as compared to the irradiated group. Bone marrow viability was significantly increased while IL-6 and TNF-α were normalized. The curative action of IL-12 enforcing significant innate response could trigger and augment adaptive immune response by bone marrow transplantation, hence improving oxidative stress. IL-12 administration is proposed as a complementary strategy to treat radiation-induced path-physiology and trapping free radicals accumulations after irradiation.

  15. Immunological Enhancement of Interferon Alpha Treatment to Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation in Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, E.M.; Abd El-Naby, Y.H.

    2011-01-01

    The Influence of the biological response modifiers: interferon alpha (IFN-α) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) on stimulation of blood cell recovery and boosting the immunological response were investigated in this work. Male rats received BMT 3 h post total body ?-irradiation of 5 Gy and were injected with 10 units of IFN-α weekly for 5 weeks. Irradiation induced a significant decrease in blood parameters, reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as bone marrow lymphocyte count and viability. Immunological data revealed that tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) recorded a significant depression while lipid peroxidation (MDA) was conversely elevated. White blood cells (WBC), erythrocytes (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Hct), lymphocytes and GSH in irradiated animals receiving BMT and IFN-α, were significantly elevated, while MDA was significantly depressed as compared to the irradiated group. Bone marrow lymphocytic count and viability percentage were significantly increased while IL-2 and TNF-α were normalized. The curative action of IFN-α enforcing significant innate response could trigger and augment adaptive immune response by bone marrow transplantation. Such therapies boosting both components of immunity would be considered a potential strategy for irradiation treatment

  16. Effect of ascorbic acid on thyroid functions and some biochemical activities in rats treated with cadmium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sherbiny, E.M.; Osman, H.F.

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the role of oral administration of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in rats at a dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight in reducing disturbances caused by cadmium at a dose level of 1.2 mg CdCl 2 /Kg body weight (1/4 LD 50 ). Cadmium treatment induced thyroid dysfunction and disturbance in blood count and some elements in sera of male rats. The rats were divided into four groups. The first group (I) of rats served as normal control, the second group (II) was treated with CdCl 2 , the third group (III) was treated with CdCl 2 followed by 2 weeks rehabilitation and the fourth one (IV) was treated with CdCl 2 followed by ascorbic acid treatment. Serum total T3, total T4, hemoglobin, red blood cell count, and hematocrit value, blood indices as well as white blood cell count, total serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase were evaluated in all rats.The results revealed that treatment with cadmium in groups II and III led to significant decreases in T3 and T4 levels and most of blood count parameters.In rats treated with ascorbic acid, a non-significant improvement in serum T3 level was obtained, whereas, serum T4 level was significantly increased and its level was reached around corresponding control value. Also, ascorbic acid treatment led to significant increases in Hb, RBCs, Hct, MCV, MCH and MCHC values, which were comparable to those obtained in control, whereas WBCs count was slightly improved in group (IV) in comparison with both groups treated with Cd but it was highly significantly decreased in both groups treated with Cd as compared to control. Serum total calcium and alkaline phosphatase activity were non-significantly decreased, whereas inorganic phosphorus concentrations was significantly decreased in groups III and IV as compared to control

  17. Thyroid hormone partially corrects the effect of diabetes on mysoin heavy chain RNAs in the rat ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrieux, A.; Dillmann, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    The relative abundance of the 2 cardiac myosin heavy chains (MHH-α and MHC-β) and their corresponding RNAs is similarly affected by hypothyroidism and diabetes in the rat ventricle. Since circulating levels of thyroid hormone (T 3 ) are significantly decreased in diabetes the decreased RNA-α and increased RNA-β associated with diabetes may be related to T 3 deficiency. Chronically diabetic rats were injected with T 3 , insulin (I), or both and sacrificed between 1 and 12 hrs after injection, MHC RNA was quantified by hybridization of total RNA to a [ 32 P]-cDNA MHC-α probe. Total MHC RNA was measured by retention of S1-resistant label on DE-81 while RNA-α and RNA-β were quantified by separation of intact (α) and partially digested (β) probe by gel electrophoresis. Total MHC RNA was not changed by T 3 or I (.9-1.2 ng/μg of cellular RNA). T 3 and I elicited a very rapid increase in RNA-α (18% in untreated to 38% (I) and 47% (T 3 within 1 hr). I administered either 7 hr before or 1 hr after T 3 did not modify the RNA-α increase observed after T 3 alone. However, the response of diabetic rats to T 3 was markedly different from that of hypothyroid rats. Conclusions: 1) T 3 in diabetic rats does not mimick the effect of T 3 in hypothyroid rats; it may simply impose a hyperthyroid state on the existing diabetes and 2) since neither T 3 nor I are able to increase RNA-α to control levels within 12 hrs, neither hormone is sufficient to regulate the expression of MHC RNAs

  18. On the cells of origin of radiogenic thyroid cancer: New studies based on an old idea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, K.H.; Domann, F.E.; Groch, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    We have presented evidence that the functional thyroid follicles (follicular units, FU) which are formed in grafts of monodispersed rat thyroid cells, and hence the thyroid tumors which later develop in such grafts, are clonal in origin. Recent studies have been designed to investigate: whether cell number-dependent inhibition of promotion-progression is mediated by remote hormonal feed-back, local cell-cell interactions, or both; the cell population kinetics of the clonogen subpopulation during goitrogenesis and goiter involution; and the effect of prolonged exposure to high levels of TSH (thyrotropin) on the capacity of the clonogens to give rise to functional FU. The results indicate that local cell-cell interactions play an important role in the cell number-dependent suppression of neoplastic promotion-progression. They also show that if sufficient thyroid cells are grafted, the thyroid-pituitary axis can be reestablished in thyroidectomized rats fed normal diets. In such animals given iodine deficient diets, the FU that develop in the thyroid grafts shift their secretory pattern to increase the ratio of T3 (triiodothyronine) to T4 (thyroxine), and thus conserve the available iodine. Finally, the clonogenic subpopulation is conserved during both goitrogenesis and goiter involution. When they are transplanted to thyroidectomized recipients, clonogens from two types of goiters form FU that are morphologically indistinguishable from those that develop in grafts of normal thyroid clonogens. Furthermore, the secretion of T3 and T4 by such grafts is dependent on the grafted clonogen number, and hence FU formation, and not on the total number of thyroid cells transplanted. We conclude that the thyroid clonogens, the presumptive cancer progenitor cells, have many of the characteristics of stem cells

  19. Development of a PBPK model of thiocyanate in rats with an extrapolation to humans: A computational study to quantify the mechanism of action of thiocyanate kinetics in thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willemin, Marie-Emilie; Lumen, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid homeostasis can be disturbed due to thiocyanate exposure from the diet or tobacco smoke. Thiocyanate inhibits both thyroidal uptake of iodide, via the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), and thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis in the thyroid, via thyroid peroxidase (TPO), but the mode of action of thiocyanate is poorly quantified in the literature. The characterization of the link between intra-thyroidal thiocyanate concentrations and dose of exposure is crucial for assessing the risk of thyroid perturbations due to thiocyanate exposure. We developed a PBPK model for thiocyanate that describes its kinetics in the whole-body up to daily doses of 0.15 mmol/kg, with a mechanistic description of the thyroidal kinetics including NIS, passive diffusion, and TPO. The model was calibrated in a Bayesian framework using published studies in rats. Goodness-of-fit was satisfactory, especially for intra-thyroidal thiocyanate concentrations. Thiocyanate kinetic processes were quantified in vivo, including the metabolic clearance by TPO. The passive diffusion rate was found to be greater than NIS-mediated uptake rate. The model captured the dose-dependent kinetics of thiocyanate after acute and chronic exposures. Model behavior was evaluated using a Morris screening test. The distribution of thiocyanate into the thyroid was found to be determined primarily by the partition coefficient, followed by NIS and passive diffusion; the impact of the latter two mechanisms appears to increase at very low doses. Extrapolation to humans resulted in good predictions of thiocyanate kinetics during chronic exposure. The developed PBPK model can be used in risk assessment to quantify dose-response effects of thiocyanate on TH. - Highlights: • A PBPK model of thiocyanate (SCN − ) was calibrated in rats in a Bayesian framework. • The intra-thyroidal kinetics of thiocyanate including NIS and TPO was modeled. • Passive diffusion rate for SCN − seemed to be greater than the NIS

  20. Development of a PBPK model of thiocyanate in rats with an extrapolation to humans: A computational study to quantify the mechanism of action of thiocyanate kinetics in thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willemin, Marie-Emilie; Lumen, Annie, E-mail: Annie.Lumen@fda.hhs.gov

    2016-09-15

    Thyroid homeostasis can be disturbed due to thiocyanate exposure from the diet or tobacco smoke. Thiocyanate inhibits both thyroidal uptake of iodide, via the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), and thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis in the thyroid, via thyroid peroxidase (TPO), but the mode of action of thiocyanate is poorly quantified in the literature. The characterization of the link between intra-thyroidal thiocyanate concentrations and dose of exposure is crucial for assessing the risk of thyroid perturbations due to thiocyanate exposure. We developed a PBPK model for thiocyanate that describes its kinetics in the whole-body up to daily doses of 0.15 mmol/kg, with a mechanistic description of the thyroidal kinetics including NIS, passive diffusion, and TPO. The model was calibrated in a Bayesian framework using published studies in rats. Goodness-of-fit was satisfactory, especially for intra-thyroidal thiocyanate concentrations. Thiocyanate kinetic processes were quantified in vivo, including the metabolic clearance by TPO. The passive diffusion rate was found to be greater than NIS-mediated uptake rate. The model captured the dose-dependent kinetics of thiocyanate after acute and chronic exposures. Model behavior was evaluated using a Morris screening test. The distribution of thiocyanate into the thyroid was found to be determined primarily by the partition coefficient, followed by NIS and passive diffusion; the impact of the latter two mechanisms appears to increase at very low doses. Extrapolation to humans resulted in good predictions of thiocyanate kinetics during chronic exposure. The developed PBPK model can be used in risk assessment to quantify dose-response effects of thiocyanate on TH. - Highlights: • A PBPK model of thiocyanate (SCN{sup −}) was calibrated in rats in a Bayesian framework. • The intra-thyroidal kinetics of thiocyanate including NIS and TPO was modeled. • Passive diffusion rate for SCN{sup −} seemed to be greater than the NIS

  1. Mechanism of immune tolerance induced by donor derived immature dendritic cells in rat high-risk corneal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Dong Zhao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the role of immature dendritic cells (imDCs on immune tolerance in rat penetrating keratoplasty (PKP in high-risk eyes and to investigate the mechanism of immune hyporesponsiveness induced by donor-derived imDCs. METHODS: Seventy-five SD rats (recipient and 39 Wistar rats (donor were randomly divided into 3 groups: control, imDC and mature dendritic cell (mDC group respectively. Using a model of orthotopic corneal transplantation in which allografts were placed in neovascularized high-risk eyes of recipient rat. Corneal neovascularization was induced by alkaline burn in the central cornea of recipient rat. Recipients in imDC group or mDC group were injected donor bone marrow-derived imDCs or mDCs of 1×106 respectively 1 week before corneal transplantation via tail vein. Control rat received the same volume of PBS. In each group, 16 recipients were kept for determination of survival time and other 9 recipients were executed on day 3, 7 and 14 after transplantation. Cornea was harvested for hematoxylin-eosin staining and acute rejection evaluation, Western blot was used to detect the expression level of Foxp3. RESULTS: The mean survival time of imDC group was significantly longer than that of control and mDC groups (all P<0.05. The expression level of Foxp3 on CD4+CD25+T cells of imDC group (2.24±0.18 was significantly higher than that in the control (1.68±0.09 and mDC groups (1.46±0.13 (all P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Donor-derived imDC is an effective treatment in inducing immune hyporesponsiveness in rat PKP. The mechanism of immune tolerance induced by imDC might be inhibit T lymphocytes responsiveness by regulatory T cells.

  2. [Adipose-derived stem cell transplantation promotes the expression of netrin-1 in the rat cortex after focal cerebral ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiehua; Hong, Zhuquan; Pan, Ying; Li, Guoqian

    2017-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) transplantation on the expression of netrin-1 in rats after focal cerebral ischemia. Methods Male SD rats were randomly divided into control group, model group and ADSC group. ADSCs were harvested and purified. Focal cerebral ischemia models were established in rats by the suture method. ADSCs were injected into the lateral ventricle of ADSC group rats and the same does of PBS was given to model group rats. At day 4, 7 and 14 after reperfusion, six rats were sacrificed to remove the brain tissues at each time point. The expression of netrin-1 was detected by reverse-transcription PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Results Compared with the control group, the expression of netrin-1 in the brain tissues of the model group increased after focal cerebral ischemia, reached the peak at 4 days, and the expression of netrin-1 was significantly higher than that of the control group at each time point. Compared with the model group, the expression of netrin-1 in the ADSC group increased further, reached the peak at 7 days, and the expression of netrin-1 in the ADSC group was significantly higher than that of the model group at each time point. Conclusion ADSC transplantation could up-regulate the expression of netrin-1, and promote axon regeneration and the recovery of neurological functions.

  3. Detection of acute renal allograft rejection by analysis of Renal TissueProteomics in rat models of renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Y.; Lv, T.; Wang, K.; Li, D.; Huang, Y.; Liu, J.

    2008-01-01

    At present, the diagnosis of renal allograft rejection requires a renalbiopsy. Clinical management of renal transplant patients would be improved ifrapid, noninvasive and reliable biomarkers of rejection were available. Thisstudy is designed to determine whether such protein biomarkers can be foundin renal graft tissue proteomic approach. Orthotopic kidney transplantationswere performed using Fisher (F344) or Lewis rats as donors and Lewis rats asrecipients. Hence, there were two groups of renal transplant models: one isallograft (from F344 to Lewis rats); another is syngrafts (from Lewis toLewis rats) serving as control. Renal tissues were collected 3, 7 and 14 daysafter transplantation. As many 18 samples were analyzed by 2-DElectrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS). Elevendifferentially expressed proteins were identified between groups. Inconclusion, proteomic technology can detect renal tissue proteins associatedwith acute renal allograft rejection. Identification of these proteins asdiagnostic markers for rejection in patient's urine or sera may be useful andnon-invasive, and these proteins might serve as novel therapeutic targetsthat also help to improve the understanding of mechanisms of renal rejection.(author)

  4. Nkx2.5 enhances the efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells transplantation in treatment heart failure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bo; Wang, Jin Xin; Hu, Xing Xing; Duan, Peng; Wang, Lin; Li, Yang; Zhu, Qing Lei

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether Nkx2.5 transfection of transplanted bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) improves the efficacy of treatment of adriamycin-induced heart failure in a rat model. Nkx2.5 was transfected in MSCs by lentiviral vector transduction. The expressions of Nkx2.5 and cardiac specific genes in MSCs and Nkx2.5 transfected mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs-Nkx2.5) were analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot in vitro. Heart failure models of rats were induced by adriamycin and were then randomly divided into 3 groups: injected saline, MSCs or MSCs-Nkx2.5 via the femoral vein respectively. Four weeks after injection, the cardiac function, expressions of cardiac specific gene, fibrosis formation and collagen volume fraction in the myocardium as well as the expressions of GATA4 and MEF2 in rats were analyzed with echocardiography, immunohistochemistry, Masson staining, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. Nkx2.5 enhanced cardiac specific gene expressions including α-MHC, TNI, CKMB, connexin-43 in MSCs-Nkx2.5 in vitro. Both MSCs and MSCs-Nkx2.5 improved cardiac function, promoted the differentiation of transplanted MSCs into cardiomyocyte-like cells, decreased fibrosis formation and collagen volume fraction in the myocardium, as well as increased the expressions of GATA4 and MEF2 in adriamycin-induced rat heart failure models. Moreover, the effect was much more remarkable in MSCs-Nkx2.5 than in MSCs group. This study has found that Nkx2.5 enhances the efficacy of MSCs transplantation in treatment adriamycin-induced heart failure in rats. Nkx2.5 transfected to transplanted MSCs provides a potential effective approach to heart failure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Possible Effect Of Tamoxifen Vs Whole Body Irradiation Treatment On Thyroid Hormones in Female Rats Bearing Mammary Tumors Chemically Induced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelgawad, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in most developed and developing regions of the world. In women, this drug has tissuespecific effects, acting as an estrogen antagonist on the breast, and as an estrogen agonist on bone, lipid metabolism (increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), and the endometrium. Thyroid hormones act on almost all organs throughout the body and regulate the basal metabolism of the organism. Thyroid hormone can also stimulate the proliferation in vitro of certain tumor cell lines. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the significant value of tamoxifen and/or irradiation treatment on thyroid hormones in breast cancer bearing female rats. Forty two female Sprague-Dawely rats randomly divided into seven groups and the effect of tamoxifen and post-irradiation was studied on breast cancer chemically induced. The results shows a T 4 and estradiol levels not T 3 were altered in different experimental groups. It could be concluded that irradiation-induced changes in the composition of the mammary microenvironment promote the expression of neoplastic potential by affecting both estradiol and thyroid hormones, and tamoxifen may alter the thyroid hormones. Irradiation and tamoxifen administration may have worth effects on T 4 and estradiol levels and it is recommended to further studies towards the bystander effect of radiation and tamoxifen on the tissue culture and molecular biology scale.

  6. Epiretinal transplantation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells rescues retinal and vision function in a rat model of retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzameret, Adi; Sher, Ifat; Belkin, Michael; Treves, Avraham J; Meir, Amilia; Nagler, Arnon; Levkovitch-Verbin, Hani; Rotenstreich, Ygal; Solomon, Arieh S

    2015-09-01

    Vision incapacitation and blindness associated with incurable retinal degeneration affect millions of people worldwide. In this study, 0.25×10(6) human bone marrow stem cells (hBM-MSCs) were transplanted epiretinally in the right eye of Royal College Surgeons (RCS) rats at the age of 28 days. Epiretinally transplanted cells were identified as a thin layer of cells along vitreous cavity, in close proximity to the retina or attached to the lens capsule, up to 6 weeks following transplantation. Epiretinal transplantation delayed photoreceptor degeneration and rescued retinal function up to 20 weeks following cell transplantation. Visual functions remained close to normal levels in epiretinal transplantation rats. No inflammation or any other adverse effects were observed in transplanted eyes. Our findings suggest that transplantation of hBM-MSCs as a thin epiretinal layer is effective for treatment of retinal degeneration in RCS rats, and that transplanting the cells in close proximity to the retina enhances hBM-MSC therapeutic effect compared with intravitreal injection. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation does not affect changes of lipid metabolism induced in rats by altered thyroid status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauchová, H; Vokurková, M; Pavelka, S; Behuliak, M; Tribulová, N; Soukup, T

    2013-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption is associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerosis and hyperlipidemia. It is well known that lipid metabolism is also influenced by thyroid hormones. The aim of our study was to test whether n-3 PUFA supplementation (200 mg/kg of body weight/day for 6 weeks given intragastrically) would affect lipid metabolism in Lewis male rats with altered thyroid status. Euthyroid, hypothyroid, and hyperthyroid status of experimental groups was well defined by plasma levels of triiodothyronine, the activity of liver mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and by relative heart weight. Fasting blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the hyperthyroid compared to the euthyroid and hypothyroid rats (5.0±0.2 vs. 3.7±0.4 and 4.4±0.2 mmol/l, respectively). In hyperthyroid animals, the concentration of plasma postprandial triglycerides was also increased compared to euthyroid and hypothyroid rats (0.9±0.1 vs. 0.5±0.1 and 0.4±0.1 mmol/l, respectively). On the other hand, hypothyroidism compared to euthyroid and hyperthyroid status was associated with elevated plasma levels of total cholesterol (2.6±0.2 vs. 1.5±0.1 and 1.6±0.1 mmol/l, respectively), LDL cholesterol (0.9±0.1 vs. 0.4±0.1 and 0.2±0.1 mmol/l, respectively) as well as HDL cholesterol (1.6±0.1 vs. 1.0±0.1 and 1.3±0.1 mmol/l, respectively). Supplementation of n-3 PUFA in the present study did not significantly modify either relative heart weight or glucose and lipid levels in any thyroid status. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Modifications of thyroid hormones secretion and production in newborn rats from hyperthyroic dams; Alteracoes na secrecao e producao dos hormonios tireoideanos em filhotes de ratas femeas com hipertireoidismo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, M.F.G.; Neves, E.S.S.; Neves, S.R.S.; Catanho, M.T.J.A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas

    1997-12-01

    The onset of fetal thyroid function occurs about 17-18 days after conception in the rat. The maternal hyperthyroidism which occurs during gestation provokes alterations in the rat after its birth; due to this alterations, we decided to analyze the metabolic and hormonal modification in the newborn rats. The hyperthyroidism was induced in normal dams, which were being trated for 2 days with T4 2mg (thyroxine per 100g body wt/day) before mating. Another dam group which was submitted to an inducement of hyperthyroidism maintained the treatment with T4 and six day after gestation were being treated for 9 days. It was seen that the rat which was born from hyperthyroic dams suffered alterations on its T4 and T3 hormone levels concerning the days 10, 20 and 30 after birth. T4 e T3 were performed with Immu chem cooted tube - I{sup 125} RIA KIT .The administration of T4 affected the fetal thyroid function gland to, causing a decrease of both T4 and T3 levels, as was also modifications on their weight and size, even after the birth, indicating that the maternal hyperthyroidism influences on the post-natal life of the rat. The growth is affected throught post-natal life by thyroid hormones, which have a facilitatory influence on GH economy, as opposed to the inhibitory effects on TSH economy. (author). 12 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Localization of radioiodinated antibody to alpha-fetoprotein in rats with transplanted hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koji, T; Ishii, N; Kono, K [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan)

    1980-11-01

    The specific localization of radiolabeled antibody to AFP was investigated in rats bearing subcutaneous transplants of AH-7974 ascites hepatoma. Total body scintigrams 48 to 168 hours after injection of /sup 125/I-anti rat AFP horse antibody showed remarkable localization of radioactivity on the tumors, as a control, a faint outline of tumor was observed by /sup 125/I-normal horse IgG. The tumor/blood radioactivity ratio in the antibody group exceeded 1.0 and was approximately four times higher than that in the control group 7 days after injection, and suggested an active accumulation of radioactive antibody in the tumor tissue. In the subcellular distribution of radioactivity in the tumor tissue, about 30 to 60% of the total radioactivity were found in a fraction of the cell membrane plus nucleus. Furthermore autoradiograms of the fixed tissue sections in the antibody group revealed the specific localization of the radioactivity on the tumor cell surface as black grains.

  10. Localization of radioiodinated antibody to alpha-fetoprotein in rats with transplanted hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koji, T; Ishii, N; Munehisa, T; Kusumoto, Y; Nakamura, S; Tamenishi, A [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Kobayashi, K; Hara, A; Tsukada, Y; Nishi, S

    1980-01-01

    Total body scintigraphy, organ and subcellular distribution of radioactivity and autoradiography of tissue sections has been assessed in an animal model using radioiodinated horse antibody to rat alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Rats bearing subcutaneous transplants of AH-7974 ascites hepatoma were injected with /sup 125/I-labeled anti-AFP and scintigraphed. Localization of radioactivity in the tumors was observed 48-168 h after injection. Scintigraphy using /sup 125/I-labeled F(ab')/sub 2/ fragment of the antibody gave approximately the same results as that with the intact anti-AFP antibody. /sup 125/I-labeled normal horse IgG was used as control. The tumor/blood radioactivity ratio after a week after injection was approximately four times higher in the antibody group than that in the control group. This ratio suggested an active accumulation of radioactive antibody in the tumor tissue. In its subcellular distribution, about 30 to 60% of the total radioactivity administered was found in a fraction of the cell membrane plus nucleus. The specific activity of this fraction increased in the antibody group with time over 10 days. In autoradiograms of the fixed tissue sections specific localization of the antibody was observed on the tumor cell surface. The specific uptake of radiolabeled antibody to AFP into AFP producing tumor cells was confirmed.

  11. Transplantation of human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitors into rat spinal cord injuries does not cause harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Frank; Siegenthaler, Monica M; Nistor, Gabriel; Keirstead, Hans S

    2006-07-01

    Demyelination contributes to loss of function following spinal cord injury. We have shown previously that transplantation of human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitors into adult rat 200 kD contusive spinal cord injury sites enhances remyelination and promotes recovery of motor function. Previous studies using oligodendrocyte lineage cells have noted a correlation between the presence of demyelinating pathology and the survival and migration rate of the transplanted cells. The present study compared the survival and migration of human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitors injected 7 days after a 200 or 50 kD contusive spinal cord injury, as well as the locomotor outcome of transplantation. Our findings indicate that a 200 kD spinal cord injury induces extensive demyelination, whereas a 50 kD spinal cord injury induces no detectable demyelination. Cells transplanted into the 200 kD injury group survived, migrated, and resulted in robust remyelination, replicating our previous studies. In contrast, cells transplanted into the 50 kD injury group survived, exhibited limited migration, and failed to induce remyelination as demyelination in this injury group was absent. Animals that received a 50 kD injury displayed only a transient decline in locomotor function as a result of the injury. Importantly, human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor transplants into the 50 kD injury group did not cause a further decline in locomotion. Our studies highlight the importance of a demyelinating pathology as a prerequisite for the function of transplanted myelinogenic cells. In addition, our results indicate that transplantation of human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells into the injured spinal cord is not associated with a decline in locomotor function.

  12. The Effect of KIO3 and KI Salt Towards Iodium Levels (I2 in Urine, Malondialdehyde (MDA and The Histology of Thyroid Gland of Goitrogenic Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risman Heli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Goitrogenic substances can inhibit of iodine taking by the thyroid gland. Thus iodine concentration in thyroid gland will be low, and this phenomena is indicated by inflammation in the thyroid gland. Moreover, it can cause releaseing of an excessive amount of free radicals. This radicals, in the body, causes oxidative stress and also increase the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA. This is also as an indicator for lipid peroxidation and the decreasing of urinary iodine excretion levels (EIU. The treatment with KIO3 and KI salt was intended to study the level of supplementation of iodine (I2 toward level of MDA in serum and histological description of rat’s thyroid gland. The MDA levels was determined through TBA test (Thio Barbituric Acid, meanwhile the histological pattern of rat thyroid gland was determined by Hematoxylen-Eosin staining (HE. The results indicated both of KIO3 and KI salt significantly (p<0.01 reduced MDA level in the serum. Treatment with KIO3 salt gave 33.62% while KI salt slightly higher (37,02%. In addition, both of treaments displayed an recovering effect in thyroid gland.

  13. Pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activities in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid and hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axes of rats with mammary gland cancer induced by N-methyl nitrosourea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, M P; Ramírez-Expósito, M J; Valenzuela, M T; García, M J; Mayas, M D; Arias de Saavedra, J M; Sánchez, R; Pérez, M C; Martínez-Martos, J M

    2005-02-01

    Pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase is an omega-peptidase that hydrolyses N-terminal pyroglutamyl residues from biologically active peptides such as gonadotropin-releasing and thyrotrophin-releasing hormones. We previously described a decrease in both rat and human pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activity with breast cancer, suggesting that gonadotropin-releasing hormone may be an important local intracrine, autocrine and/or paracrine hormonal factor in the pathogenesis of breast cancer while playing a role in the tumoral process. However, the other susceptible substrate of pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase, thyrotrophin-releasing hormone, may also be modified with breast cancer, supporting an association between breast cancer and thyroid disorders. The present work analyses soluble and membrane-bound pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activities in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid and hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axes in N-methyl nitrosourea-induced breast cancer in rats. Our aim was to determine the possible relationship between gonadotropin-releasing hormone and thyrotrophin-releasing hormone regulation through pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activity. We propose that pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activity dysregulation at various local and systemic levels may participate in the initiation, promotion and progression of breast cancer induced in rat by N-methyl nitrosourea through the increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Since pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activity also acts on thyrotrophin-releasing hormone, the dysregulation of this enzyme's activity could indirectly affect hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis function, and thus potentially represent a link between the diseases of thyroid and breast cancer.

  14. Radiation and Heat Stress Impact on Plasma Levels of Thyroid Hormones, Lipid Fractions, Glucose and Liver Glycogen in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, K.I.; Abou-Safi, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Since Egypt is classified as a hot country, the present work has been directed to study the combined effect of heat stress and gamma radiation exposure on blood thyroid hormonal levels and some other parameters. Four groups of rats were served as: control, whole-body gamma irradiated (6Gy), exposed to ambient heat stress (38 C-40 C) and a group exposed to heat stress and irradiation. Four time intervals 1, 3, 5 and 7 days were determined for heat stress or exposure to heat followed by irradiation. Blood samples and liver specimens were taken at the end of each time interval in the third group and after one hour of irradiation in the second and fourth groups. To detect the radiation effects after the different periods of heat stress, plasma levels of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4), lipid fractions (triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol), glucose and liver glycogen content were determined. The results revealed that exposure to heat and ionizing radiation leads to a decrease in the levels of thyroid hormones, which was mostly pronounced in the T3 levels. Plasma glucose levels showed significant elevations in both, the heat-stressed group and the heat-treated then irradiated group. While, liver glycogen content exhibited similar elevations only during the 1st, 3 rd and 5 th days of heating followed by irradiation treatment as compared to the heat stressed group. Yet, it showed significant declines in comparison with both control and irradiated groups. Enormous increments in all determined plasma lipid fractions were induced by heat stress and / or gamma radiation

  15. The chicken c-erbA alpha-product induces expression of thyroid hormone-responsive genes in 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine receptor-deficient rat hepatoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, A; Höppner, W; Sap, J

    1990-01-01

    To determine the capacity of the chicken c-erbA (cTR-alpha) gene product in regulating expression of known thyroid hormone-responsive genes, both the cTR-alpha and the viral v-erbA genes were expressed in FAO cells, a rat hepatoma cell line defective for functional thyroid hormone receptors. Upon...

  16. Effect of acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) and Prostaglandins on thyroid tissue and carbohydrate metabolism in liver of male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, A.; Ramakrishnan, S.

    1979-01-01

    Aspirin, both in chronic and acute doses, led to a considerable decrease in percentage uptake of labelled iodine (Na 131 I) and serum protein-bound iodine by the thyroid gland whereas prostaglandins (PGs) did not exhibit any significant effect on both the parameters. Simultaneous administration of aspirin and PGs caused a significant decrease in the two parameters, and on withdrawal of aspirin from the diet the two parameters were restored to normal levels, thus suggesting that the effect of aspirin on thyroid is direct and reversible. Aspirin, both in acute and chronic doses, effected decrease in glycogen levels, in vivo and in vitro incorporation of [U- 14 C] glucose into glycogen, and glycogen synthetase activity in the liver of both fed, and fasting, rat. Prostaglandins, on the other hand, resulted in a significant increase in the three parameters, thus enhancing the rate of liver glycogenesis. Normal levels were restored when both aspirin and PGs were given together. Withdrawal of aspirin also restored normal hepatic glycogenesis. Significant reduction in the activities of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes, viz. glucose 6-phosphatase, fructose 1,6-diphosphatase, phosphopyruvate carboxylase, pyruvate carboxylase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase was observed due to chronic and acute administration of aspirin and PGs were devoid of any significant effect on gluconeogenic enzymes, thus ruling out the mediation of PGs. (auth.)

  17. Effect of acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) and Prostaglandins on thyroid tissue and carbohydrate metabolism in liver of male albino rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, A; Ramakrishnan, S [Jawaharlal Inst. of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Pondicherry (India)

    1979-04-01

    Aspirin, both in chronic and acute doses, led to a considerable decrease in percentage uptake of labelled iodine (Na/sup 131/I) and serum protein-bound iodine by the thyroid gland whereas prostaglandins (PGs) did not exhibit any significant effect on both the parameters. Simultaneous administration of aspirin and PGs caused a significant decrease in the two parameters, and on withdrawal of aspirin from the diet the two parameters were restored to normal levels, thus suggesting that the effect of aspirin on thyroid is direct and reversible. Aspirin, both in acute and chronic doses, effected decrease in glycogen levels, in vivo and in vitro incorporation of (U-/sup 14/C) glucose into glycogen, and glycogen synthetase activity in the liver of both fed, and fasting, rat. Prostaglandins, on the other hand, resulted in a significant increase in the three parameters, thus enhancing the rate of liver glycogenesis. Normal levels were restored when both aspirin and PGs were given together. Withdrawal of aspirin also restored normal hepatic glycogenesis. Significant reduction in the activities of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes, viz. glucose 6-phosphatase, fructose 1,6-diphosphatase, phosphopyruvate carboxylase, pyruvate carboxylase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase was observed due to chronic and acute administration of aspirin and PGs were devoid of any significant effect on gluconeogenic enzymes, thus ruling out the mediation of PGs.

  18. Reduction of intoxication in the rats with transplanted tumors under the influence of Gratiola officinalis L. extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navolokin, N. A.; Polukonova, A. V.; Plastun, I. L.; Mudrak, D. A.; Bokarev, A. N.; Afanasyeva, G. A.; Bucharskaya, A. B.; Maslyakova, G. N.; Polukonova, N. V.

    2018-04-01

    This study focuses on the effect of the flavonoid-containing Gratiola officinalis L. extract with antitumor activity on the intensity of peroxidation and the content of vitamin E in the blood serum of animals with transplanted liver cancer PC-1. Intramuscular and oral administrations of the Gratiola officinalis extract in a dose of 110 mg/kg reduce MDA concentration (more than 20 times) and lipid hydroperoxide (more than 1.5 times) in rats with transplanted tumors. This effect leads to decrease in intensity of lipid peroxidation processes in animals. The Gratiola officinalis extract administration increases the vitamin E concentration (more than 1.3 times) in the serum of rats. This result enables to suggest that the extract of Gratiola officinalis contains the tocopherols. Thus, the study of mechanisms of the Gratiola officinalis extract influence on the activity of peroxidation processes and on the activation of the antioxidant system is promising.

  19. Significant prolongation of hamster liver transplant survival in Lewis rats by total-lymphoid irradiation, cyclosporine, and splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Halperin, E.C.; Harland, R.C.; Wyble, C.; Bollinger, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of total lymphoid irradiation, cyclosporine and splenectomy alone and in combination have been studied in liver transplants from the LVG hamster to the LEW rat. Neither CsA alone, splenectomy alone, nor TLI alone prolonged graft survival. CsA/splenectomy and TLI/CsA produced significant prolongation of graft survival. TLI/CsA/splenectomy prolonged graft survival by over sixfold compared with controls. While CsA alone was ineffective in reducing lymphocytotoxic antidonor antibody, splenectomy alone or CsA/splenectomy did significantly suppress production of antibody. Only very low levels of antibody could be detected in animals treated with TLI/CsA/splenectomy. TLI/CsA/splenectomy has an immunosuppressive effect sufficient to significantly prolong liver graft survival in the LVG hamster to LEW rat combination and may represent a promising treatment protocol in experimental cross-species transplantation

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyl-induced alterations of thyroid hormone homeostasis and brain development in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morse, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    Introduction

    The work described in this thesis was undertaken to gain insight in the processes involved in the developmental neurotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls. It has been previously hypothesized that the alteration of thyroid hormone status by PCBs may

  1. Estradiol decreases iodide uptake by rat thyroid follicular FRTL-5 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furlanetto T.W.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol has well-known indirect effects on the thyroid. A direct effect of estradiol on thyroid follicular cells, increasing cell growth and reducing the expression of the sodium-iodide symporter gene, has been recently reported. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of estradiol on iodide uptake by thyroid follicular cells, using FRTL-5 cells as a model. Estradiol decreased basal iodide uptake by FRTL-5 cells from control levels of 2.490 ± 0.370 to 2.085 ± 0.364 pmol I-/µg DNA at 1 ng/ml (P<0.02, to 1.970 ± 0.302 pmol I-/µg DNA at 10 ng/ml (P<0.003, and to 2.038 ± 0.389 pmol I-/µg DNA at 100 ng/ml (P<0.02. In addition, 4 ng/ml estradiol decreased iodide uptake induced by 0.02 mIU/ml thyrotropin from 8.678 ± 0.408 to 7.312 ± 0.506 pmol I-/µg DNA (P<0.02. A decrease in iodide uptake by thyroid cells caused by estradiol has not been described previously and may have a role in goiter pathogenesis.

  2. Pecularities of peripheral blood morphological content in rats in case of combined irradiation of lungs and thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikova, S.B.; Korzhavin, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    Indices of morphological content of peripheral blood were studied in male rats at 1, 3, 7, 14 days following intratracheal administration of oxide suspension of 147 Nd + 147 Pm and oral administration of 131 I. By 14 days the doses for lungs and thyroid were 5 Gy and 10 Gy respectively. It was shown that the doses of 134 I don't influence morphological indices of peripheral blood but combined effect of radioisotopes leads to moderate increase of leukocyte, lymphocytes and neutrophils. Manifestation of changes in white blood turned out to be less than in case of similar effect of stable isotope on the lungs. Minor shifts in white blood and severity of patholoanatomical picture of inflammatory process in the lungs in case of radioactive isotopes effect can be attributed to specific effect of ionizing radiation. 4 refs.; 2 tabs

  3. Effects of long-term thyroid hormone level alterations, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation and statin administration in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, Suppl.1 (2014), S119-S131 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/1228; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/0259; GA MŠk(CZ) LH12058; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB12SK158; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14SK123 Grant - others:EC(XE) LSH-CT-2004-511978 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : thyroid hormones * n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) * statin s * rat muscle proteins * cardiac remodeling Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  4. A comparative study on the transplantation of different concentrations of human umbilical mesenchymal cells into diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Hui; Kong; Dan; Zheng; Song; Chen; Hong-Tao; Duan; Yue-Xin; Wang; Meng; Dong; Jian; Song

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To observe the effects of intravitreal injections of different concentrations of human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells on retinopathy in rats with diabetes mellitus.METHODS: Healthy and adult male Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were randomly assigned to a normal control group(group A), a diabetic retinopathy(DR) blank control group(group B), a high-concentration transplantation group(group C), a low-concentration transplantation group(group D) and a placebo transplantation group(group E). The expression of nerve growth factor(NGF)protein in the retinal layers was detected by immunohistochemical staining at 2, 4, 6 and 8wk.RESULTS: The expression of NGF was positive in group A and most positive in the retinal ganglion cell layer. In groups B and E, the expression of NGF was positive 2wk after transplantation and showed an increase in all layers. However, the level of expression had decreased in all layers at 4wk and was significantly reduced at 8wk. In groups C and D, the expression of NGF had increased at 2wk and continued to increase up to 8wk. The level of expression in group C was much higher than that in group D.CONCLUSION: DR can be improved by intravitreal injection of human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells.High concentrations of human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells confer a better protective effect on DR than low concentrations.

  5. Simultaneous Transplantation of Fetal Ventral Mesencephalic Tissue and Encapsulated Genetically Modified Cells Releasing GDNF in a Hemi-Parkinsonian Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Bouza, Alberto; Di Santo, Stefano; Seiler, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    Transplantation of fetal ventral mesencephalic (VM) neurons for Parkinson's disease (PD) is limited by poor survival and suboptimal integration of grafted tissue into the host brain. In a 6-OHDA rat model of PD we investigated the feasibility of simultaneous transplantation of rat fetal VM tissue...... between groups were observed for the number of surviving TH-ir neurons or graft volume. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that simultaneous transplantation of fetal VM tissue and encapsulated GDNF-releasing cells is feasible and support the graft survival and function. Pre-treatment of donor tissue...

  6. Effect of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on vascular calcification in rats with adenine-induced kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Yokote, Shinya; Katsuoka, Yuichi; Yamada, Akifumi; Ohkido, Ichiro; Yokoo, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to treat damaged kidneys. However, the effect of adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs) on vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is still poorly understood. In the present study, we explored the potential of ASCs for the treatment of CKD and vascular calcification. CKD was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by feeding them a diet containing 0.75% adenine for 4 weeks. ASCs transplantation significantly reduced s...

  7. Orthotopic Transplantation of Achilles Tendon Allograft in Rats: With or without Incorporation of Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aynardi, Michael; Zahoor, Talal; Mitchell, Reed; Loube, Jeffrey; Feltham, Tyler; Manandhar, Lumanti; Paudel, Sharada; Schon, Lew; Zhang, Zijun

    2018-02-01

    The biology and function of orthotopic transplantation of Achilles tendon allograft are unknown. Particularly, the revitalization of Achilles allograft is a clinical concern. Achilles allografts were harvested from donor rats and stored at -80 °C. Subcutaneous adipose tissue was harvested from the would-be allograft recipient rats for isolation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs were cultured with growth differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) and applied onto Achilles allografts on the day of transplantation. After the native Achilles tendon was resected from the left hind limb of the rats, Achilles allograft, with or without autologous MSCs, was implanted and sutured with calf muscles proximally and calcaneus distally. Animal gait was recorded presurgery and postsurgery weekly. The animals were sacrificed at week 4, and the transplanted Achilles allografts were collected for biomechanical testing and histology. The operated limbs had altered gait. By week 4, the paw print intensity, stance time, and duty cycle (percentage of the stance phase in a step cycle) of the reconstructed limbs were mostly recovered to the baselines recorded before surgery. Maximum load of failure was not different between Achilles allografts, with or without MSCs, and the native tendons. The Achilles allograft supplemented with MSCs had higher cellularity than the Achilles allograft without MSCs. Deposition of fine collagen (type III) fibers was active in Achilles allograft, with or without MSCs, but it was more evenly distributed in the allografts that were incubated with MSCs. In conclusion, orthotopically transplanted Achilles allograft healed with host tissues, regained strength, and largely restored Achilles function in 4 wk in rats. It is therefore a viable option for the reconstruction of a large Achilles tendon defect. Supplementation of MSCs improved repopulation of Achilles allograft, but large animal models, with long-term follow up and cell tracking, may be required to fully

  8. Protective role of cabbage extract versus cadmium-induced oxidative renal and thyroid hormones dysfunctions in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FARAG, M. F. S.; OSMAN, N. N.; DARWISH, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental and industrial pollutant that affects various organs in human and experimental animals. A body of evidence has accumulated implicating the free radical generation with subsequent oxidative stress in the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of Cd damage. Cabbage is economically an important cole crop grown and consumed worldwide. It belongs the Cruciferous vegetables (Brassica), which have been reported to have a wide range of pharmacological properties. Since kidney is the critical target organ of chronic Cd damage, we carried out this study to investigate the effects of cabbage extract (C.E.) on Cd-induced dysfunction in the kidney of rats. The thyroid hormones values were also determined. Male Wistar rats were provided with cadmium chloride (100 mg/ L water) as the only drinking fluid and/or cabbage extract (C.E.) (5 ml/ kg body weight /day) for 4 weeks. Oral administration of Cd significantly induced the renal damage which was evident from the significantly (p < 0.05) increased levels of serum urea, uric acid and creatinine with a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in creatinine clearance. It also significantly declined the levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine in urine. Intoxication of Cd to rats reduced serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) concentrations. Reduced glutathione (GSH), and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were also significantly (p < 0.05) depressed with a concomitant marked enhancement in lipid peroxidation marker (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS). Co-administration of C.E. along with Cd resulted in a reversal of the Cd-induced biochemical variables in kidney accompanied by a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation and a higher levels of renal antioxidant defense system. However, incorporation of C.E. to rats whether applied alone or in combination with Cd did not reveal any change in the thyroid hormones levels, which reflect significant drop in

  9. Feasibility of Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Assessing Functional Recovery in Rats with Olfactory Ensheathing Cell Transplantation After Contusive Spinal Cord Injury (SCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mengchao; Gao, Zhengchao; Li, Xiaohui; Zhao, Feng; Guo, Lei; Liu, Jiantao; He, Xijing

    2017-06-17

    BACKGROUND Olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation is a promising treatment for spinal cord injury. Diffusion tensor imaging has been applied to assess various kinds of spinal cord injury. However, it has rarely been used to evaluate the beneficial effects of olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation. This study aimed to explore the feasibility of diffusion tensor imaging in the evaluation of functional recovery in rats with olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation after contusive spinal cord injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS Immunofluorescence staining was performed to determine the purity of olfactory ensheathing cells. Rats received cell transplantation at week 1 after injury. Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan score was used to assess the functional recovery. Magnetic resonance imaging was applied weekly, including diffusion tensor imaging. Diffusion tensor tractography was reconstructed to visualize the repair process. RESULTS The results showed that olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation increased the functional and histological recovery and restrained the secondary injury process after the initial spinal cord injury. The fractional anisotropy values in rats with cell transplantation were significantly higher than those in the control group, while the apparent diffusion coefficient values were significantly lower. Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan score was positively and linearly correlated with fractional anisotropy value, and it was negatively and linearly correlated with apparent diffusion coefficient value. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that diffusion tensor imaging parameters are sensitive biomarker indices for olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation interventions, and diffusion tensor imaging scan can reflect the functional recovery promoted by the olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation after contusive spinal cord injury.

  10. Postpartum Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Thyroid Association ® Postpartum Thyroiditis www.thyroid.org What is the thyroid gland? The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped endocrine gland that ... as they should. What are the symptoms of postpartum thyroiditis? Thyroiditis is a general term that refers ...

  11. The prospective protective effect of selenium nanoparticles against chromium-induced oxidative and cellular damage in rat thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassanin KMA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Kamel MA Hassanin,1 Samraa H Abd El-Kawi,2 Khalid S Hashem1 1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 2Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt Background: Nanotechnology has enabled researchers to synthesize nanosize particles that possess increased surface areas. Compared to conventional microparticles, it has resulted in increased interactions with biological targets. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the protective ability of selenium nanoparticles against hexavalent chromium-induced thyrotoxicity. Design: Twenty male rats were used in the study, and arbitrarily assigned to four groups. Group 1 was the control group, and was given phosphate-buffered saline. Group 2 was the chromium-treated group and was given K2Cr2O7 60 µg/kg body weight intraperitoneally as a single dose on the third day of administration. Group 3 was the nano-selenium-treated group and was given selenium nanoparticles (size 3–20 nm 0.5 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally daily for 5 consecutive days. Group 4 was the nano-selenium chromium-treated group, which received selenium nanoparticles for 5 days and a single dose of K2Cr2O7 on the third day of administration. Materials and methods: Blood samples were collected from rats for measuring thyroid hormones (free triiodothyronine [T3] and free thyroxine [T4] and oxidative and antioxidant parameters (malondialdehyde [MDA], reduced glutathione [GSH], catalase, and superoxide dismutase [SOD]. Upon dissection, thyroid glands were taken for histopathological examination by using paraffin preparations stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and Masson’s trichrome. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for detecting cellular proliferation using Ki67 antibodies. Results: The present study shows that K2Cr2O7 has a toxic effect on the thyroid gland as a result of inducing a marked oxidative damage and release of reactive oxygen species

  12. The Effect of Thyroid Hormone, Prostaglandin E2, and Calcium Gluconate on Orthodontic Tooth Movement and Root Resorption in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Massoud; Hamedi, Roya; Khavandegar, Zohre

    2015-03-01

    A major objective of investigators is to clarify the role of metabolites in achievement of maximum tooth movement with minimal root damage during orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of administration of thyroid hormone, prostaglandin E2, and calcium on orthodontic tooth movement and root resorption in rats. Sixty four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 8 groups of eight rats each: 1- 20µg/kg thyroxine was injected in traperitoneally after installation of the orthodontic appliance.  2- 0.1 ml of 1 mg/ml prostaglandin E2 was injected submucosally.  3- 10% (200 mg/kg) calcium gluconate was injected.  4- Prostaglandin E2 was injected submucosally and 10% calcium was injected intraperitoneally.  5- Thyroxine was injected intraperitoneally and prostaglandin E2 was injected submucosally.  6- 20µg/kg thyroxine with calcium was injected. 7- Prostaglandin E2 was injected submucosally with calcium and thyroxine.  8- Distilled water was used in control group. The orthodontic appliances comprised of a NiTi closed coil were posteriorly connected to the right first molar and anteriorly to the upper right incisor. OTM was measured with a feeler gauge. The mid-mesial root of the first molar and the adjacent tissues were histologically evaluated. The Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls test. The highest mean OTM was observed in the thyroxine and prostaglandin E2 group (Mean±SD = 0.7375±0.1359 mm) that was significantly different (proot resorption was observed between the prostaglandin E2 (0.0192±0.0198 mm(2)) and the other groups. It seems that the combination of thyroxine and prostaglandin E2, with a synergistic effect, would decrease the root resorption and increase the rate of orthodontic tooth movement in rats.

  13. Antitumor effect of intra-arterial tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} in rats with transplanted intracerebral glioma and its evaluation by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Kunyu; Yoshida, Jun; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Sugita, Kenichiro [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Kurisu, Kaoru; Uozumi, Tohru; Zieroth, B.F.; Takahashi, Masaya; Yamanaka, Tsuyoshi

    1995-12-01

    Recombinant human TNF-{alpha} was administrated intra-arterially to rats with transplanted intracerebral glioma. 1 x 10{sup 6} of T9 rat glioma cells were transplanted into Fisher 344 rat brain stereotaxically and 1000 units of TNF-{alpha} was administrated at a rate of 100{mu}l/min via an internal carotid artery 1 or 3 weeks after the transplantation. The effects of TNF-{alpha} were evaluated by MRI and histopathological examinations. Neurological symptoms, i.e. hemiparesis, appeared after 9.0{+-}0.63 days and all rats died of tumor overloading 14.5{+-}0.84 days after the transplantation. Single injection of TNF-{alpha} on 7th day after the transplantation induced regression of the tumor size in one of six rats. The tumors were detected 3 days after transplantation by MRI and they were revealed as low/iso intensity mass in T1WI, iso/high intensity in T2WI, and were enhanced by Gd-DTPA heterogenously. On 7/14 days after the transplantation, the tumor grew approximately 7/10 mm in diameter. The single 1000 units of TNF-{alpha} were administrated via an internal carotid artery. Three days after the administration or TNF-{alpha}, regression of the tumor size was seen in one of six rats and decrease of peritumoral edema was seen in three. These effects of TNF-{alpha} were, however, transient and they were not demonstrated on day 7. Single injection of TNF-{alpha} was not effective for large tumors more than 10 mm in diameter seen 14 days after the transplantation. These data suggest that intra-arterial TNF-{alpha} should be administrated at an early stage of the tumor growth and several injections are needed to cause regression in the size of the gliomas. (author).

  14. Selenium nanoparticles prevents lead acetate-induced hypothyroidism and oxidative damage of thyroid tissues in male rats through modulation of selenoenzymes and suppression of miR-224.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteia, Hebatallah Husseini; Arafa, Manar Hamed; Prabahar, Kousalya

    2018-03-01

    Selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs) are customizable drug delivery vehicles that show good bioavailability, higher efficacy and lower toxicity than ordinary Se. Pre-treatment of male rats with these NPs has been recently shown to exert a protective effect against chromium-induced thyroid dysfunction. This study, therefore, aimed to investigate and characterize the potential protective mechanism of Se-NPs against lead (Pb) acetate-induced thyrotoxicity. We found that prophylactic and concurrent treatment of Pb acetate-exposed rats with Nano-Se (0.5 mg/kg, i.p) for 15 wk significantly alleviated the decrease in free triiodothyronine (fT3) and free thyroxine (fT4) levels as well as fT3/fT4 ratio% and the increase in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels to approach control values. This was accompanied by a reduction in the accumulation of Pb in serum and thyroid tissues as well as maintenance of thyroidal pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance and iodothyronine deiodinase type 1 (ID1), an essential enzyme for metabolizing of T4 into active T3, gene expression. Surprisingly, miR-224, a direct complementary target of ID1 mRNA, expression in the thyroid tissues was significantly down-regulated in Nano-Se-pre- and co-treated Pb acetate intoxicated animals. Such changes in miR-224 expression were negatively correlated with the changes in ID1 gene expression and serum fT3 level. These results suggest that Se-NPs can rescue from Pb-induced impairment of thyroid function through the maintenance of selenoproteins and down-regulation of miR-224. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Thyroid hormone disrupting chemicals and their influence on the developing rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marta Axelstad

    differentiation and proliferation, normal status of these hormones during early development is crucial, and in humans even moderate and transient reductions in maternal T4 levels during pregnancy, can adversely affect the child’s neurological development. In order to maintain correct levels of THs, the body...... is dependent on sufficient iodine intake but several substances in the environment may also affect thyroid status. These are called thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs), and they are xenobiotics that can change the levels of circulating THs. The TDCs are made up of a wide range of chemical structures...... and include industrial chemicals, pesticides and ingredients used in personal care products. A way of getting more insight into the causal relationship between exposure to endocrine disrupters, their effects on TH levels and subsequent adverse effects on brain development, is by investigating it in animal...

  16. Effect of thyroid hormones on the gene expression of calcium transport systems in rat muscles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudecová, S.; Vadászová, Adriana; Soukup, Tomáš; Križanová, O.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 8 (2004), s. 923-931 ISSN 0024-3205 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/03/0752 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 2/3008; NATO(XX) 979876; SAV(SK) APVT-51-013802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : thyroid hormones * calcium transport systems Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.158, year: 2004

  17. Boosting of antioxidant defence by interferon -Alfa in irradiated bone marrow transplanted rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, O.M.; Hussein, E.M.; Salama, S.F.

    2009-01-01

    this work was conducted to point out the influence of the biological responses modifiers namely interferon-Alfa (IFN-α)and bone marrow transplantation (BMT)on boosting the antioxidant level and protection from oxidative stress in irradiated rats. BMT was given to male rats, 3 hours post gamma irradiation at the dose level pf 5 Gy, that were injected intra peritoneal with 30,000 units of crude mouse virus-induced IFN-α biweekly for 2 months. glutathione (GSH) has a significant role in cell protection from oxidative stress. excessive lipid peroxidation can cause increased GSH consumption, thus the content of GSH was measured in blood, liver, lung and spleen tissues. product of lipid peroxidation (MDA)was measured in parallel. serum total lipids, cholesterol as well as blood parameters as white blood cells (WBCS), erythrocytes count (RBCs), hemoglobin content (Hb) and hematocrit value (Hct % ) were monitored. results point out that all investigated blood parameters were significantly elevated, while MDA was depressed in serum and spleen by BMT alone after 2 months. irradiation significantly depressed all investigated blood parameters, GSH of different tissues and conversely elevated level of lipid peroxidation, total lipids and cholesterol. WBCs, RBCs, Hb,Ht, blood GSH and serum MDA of of irradiated animals receiving BMT were normalized and exhibited significant differences compared to the irradiated group . IFN-α combined with BMT reconstituted blood parameters, normalized blood GSH and MDA and significantly elevated tissue GSH concentration and depressed tissue MDA as well as serum total lipids and cholesterol, compared to the irradiated group

  18. Effect of Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate Administration on the Levels of Thyroid Hormones and Testosterone in the γ-Irradiated Rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Seifi, S.A.; Abou-Safi, H.M.; Abdel-Hamid, G.R.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate (DHEAS) is an adrenal hormone and is the most abundant circulatory steroid hormone in the body. This study intended to determine the role of exogenous DHEAS administration (20 mg/100 g b.wt.) and its possible protective and/or mitigating effect (s) against γ- irradiation (6 Gy) induced disorders in the irradiated rats. Five groups of male Albino rats were used. Samples were collected after one day, one week and two weeks post irradiation and/or DHEAS treatment. The levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), testosterone (T) and acid phosphatase (ACP) enzyme activity were measured in plasma, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) were estimated in testicular tissue. Obtained results showed that DHEAS administration pre-irradiation improved the disturbances induced by irradiation on the tested parameters: TSH, T3, T4, T and ACP. It also elevated reduced GSH level and decreased lipid peroxidation in the testicular tissue. DHEAS treatment pre-irradiation, rather than post-irradiation, exerts a prophylactic effect, by protecting the cellular vital components from ROS, generated by gamma radiation

  19. Mast cell stabilization alleviates acute lung injury after orthotopic autologous liver transplantation in rats by downregulating inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute lung injury (ALI is one of the most severe complications after orthotopic liver transplantation. Amplified inflammatory response after transplantation contributes to the process of ALI, but the mechanism underlying inflammation activation is not completely understood. We have demonstrated that mast cell stabilization attenuated inflammation and ALI in a rodent intestine ischemia/reperfusion model. We hypothesized that upregulation of inflammation triggered by mast cell activation may be involve in ALI after liver transplantation. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received orthotopic autologous liver transplantation (OALT and were executed 4, 8, 16, and 24 h after OALT. The rats were pretreated with the mast cell stabilizers cromolyn sodium or ketotifen 15 min before OALT and executed 8 h after OALT. Lung tissues and arterial blood were collected to evaluate lung injury. β-hexosaminidase and mast cell tryptase levels were assessed to determine the activation of mast cells. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β and IL-6 in serum and lung tissue were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB p65 translocation was assessed by Western blot. RESULTS: The rats that underwent OALT exhibited severe pulmonary damage with a high wet-to-dry ratio, low partial pressure of oxygen, and low precursor surfactant protein C levels, which corresponded to the significant elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, β-hexosaminidase, and tryptase levels in serum and lung tissues. The severity of ALI progressed and maximized 8 h after OALT. Mast cell stabilization significantly inhibited the activation of mast cells, downregulated pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and translocation of NF-κB, and attenuated OALT-induced ALI. CONCLUSIONS: Mast cell activation amplified inflammation and played an important role in the process of post-OALT related ALI.

  20. Thyroid function and deiodinase activities in rats with marginal iodine deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.P.L.T.M.K. Janssen (Karin); D. van der Heide (Daan); T.J. Visser (Theo); E. Kaptein (Ellen); A.C. Beynen (Anton)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe hypothesis tested was whether marginal iodine deficiency for a period of 6 wk affects iodothyronine deiodinase activities in liver and brain of rats. Male rats were fed purified diets either deficient or sufficient in iodine; the diets were fed on a restricted basis (60% of ad

  1. Exposure to the widely used fungicide Mancozeb causes thyroid hormone disruption in rat dams but no behavioral effects in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Boberg, Julie; Nellemann, Christine Lydia

    2011-01-01

    The widely used fungicide Mancozeb has been shown to cause hypothyroxinemia and other adverse effects on the thyroid hormone system in adult experimental animals. In humans, hypothyroxinemia early in pregnancy is associated with adverse effects on the developing nervous system and can lead...... to impaired cognitive function and motor development in children. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess whether perinatal Mancozeb exposure would cause developmental neurotoxicity in rats. Groups of 9-21 time-mated Wistar rats were dosed with 0, 50, 100 or 150 mg Mancozeb/kg bw/day by gavage...... offspring. The dose of 150 mg/kg/day caused neurotoxicity in the pregnant dams, and was therefore reduced to 100 mg/kg bw/day in mid study. T4 levels showed a dose-dependent and significant decreased in dams from all three dose groups on GD 15, whereas offspring T4 levels, thyroid weights and histology were...

  2. Effects of Phenobarbital and Carbazole on Carcinogenesis of the Lung, Thyroid, Kidney, and Bladder of Rats Pretreated with N‐Bis(2‐hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Atsuko; Imaida, Katsumi; Ogiso, Tadashi; Ito, Nobuyuki

    1988-01-01

    Studies were made on potential modifying effects of phenobarbital (PB) and carbazole on tumor development induced by N‐bis(2‐hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine (DHPN), a wide‐spectrum carcinogen in rats. Effects on the lung, thyroid, kidney, bladder and liver were investigated. Male F344 rats were given 0.2% DHPN in their drinking water for 1 week and then 0.05% PB or 0.6% carbazole in their diet for 50 weeks. Control animals were treated with either DHPN or PB or carbazole only. Neither PB nor carbazole affected the incidence or histology of lung tumors. However, PB promoted the development of thyroid tumors and preneoplastic lesions of the liver, while carbazole promoted the induction of renal pelvic tumors. PMID:3133336

  3. Graft-versus-host disease and sialodacryoadenitis viral infection in bone marrow transplanted rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossie, K.M.; Sheridan, J.F.; Barthold, S.W.; Tutschka, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of a localized viral infection on the occurrence of graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) was examined in allogeneic rat bone marrow chimeras (ACI/LEW). Animals without clinical evidence of GVHD, 62 days after bone marrow transplant, were infected in salivary and lacrimal glands with sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV), and sacrificed 8-25 days postinfection. Using established histologic criteria, GVHD was found more frequently in salivary and lacrimal glands of SDAV-infected chimeras than uninfected chimeras. Skin and oral mucosa, tissues not infected by the virus, showed no differences in occurrence of GVHD, suggesting that the viral infection induced only local and not systemic GVHD. GVHD and SDAV infection, which are histologically similar, were differentiated by examining tissues for SDAV antigen using immunoperoxidase technique. Histologic changes were present for at least 1 week longer than viral antigen, suggesting they represented GVHD rather than viral infection. GVHD and SDAV infection were also differentiated by looking for a histologic feature characteristic of GVHD and not found in SDAV infection (periductal lymphocytic infiltrate). This was found in SDAV-infected chimeras more frequently than uninfected chimeras, suggesting that the viral infection somehow induced GVHD. Results showed a localized increase in the occurrence of GVHD subsequent to localized viral infection

  4. Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing IL10 attenuates cardiac impairments in rats with myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xin; Li, Jianping; Yu, Ming; Yang, Jian; Zheng, Minjuan; Zhang, Jinzhou; Sun, Chao; Liang, Hongliang; Liu, Liwen

    2018-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) has been well known to exert therapeutic potential for patients with myocardial infarction (MI). In addition, interleukin-10 (IL10) could attenuate MI through suppressing inflammation. Thus, the combination of MSC implantation with IL10 delivery may extend health benefits to ameliorate cardiac injury after MI. Here we established overexpression of IL10 in bone marrow-derived MSC through adenoviral transduction. Cell viability, apoptosis, and IL10 secretion under ischemic challenge in vitro were examined. In addition, MSC was transplanted into the injured hearts in a rat model of MI. Four weeks after the MI induction, MI, cardiac functions, apoptotic cells, and inflammation cytokines were assessed. In response to in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), IL10 overexpression in MSC (Ad.IL10-MSC) enhanced cell viability, decreased apoptosis, and increased IL10 secretion. Consistently, the implantation of Ad.IL10-MSCs into MI animals resulted in more reductions in myocardial infarct size, cardiac impairment, and cell apoptosis, compared to the individual treatments of either MSC or IL10 administration. Moreover, the attenuation of both systemic and local inflammations was most prominent for Ad.IL10-MSC treatment. IL10 overexpression and MSC may exert a synergistic anti-inflammatory effect to alleviate cardiac injury after MI. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Thyroid autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) is a multifactorial disease in which autoimmunity against thyroid antigens develops against a particular genetic background facilitated by exposure to environmental factors. Immunogenicity of the major thyroid antigens thyroid peroxidase, thyroglobulin (TG) and

  6. Transplantation of Porcine Hepatocytes Cultured with Polylactic Acid-O-Carboxymethylated Chitosan Nanoparticles Promotes Liver Regeneration in Acute Liver Failure Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, free porcine hepatocytes suspension (Group A, porcine hepatocytes embedded in collagen gel (Group B, porcine hepatocytes cultured with PLA-O-CMC nanoparticles and embedded in collagen gel (Group C, and PLA-O-CMC nanoparticles alone (Group D were transplanted into peritoneal cavity of ALF rats, respectively. The result showed that plasma HGF levels were elevated post-transplantation with a peak at 12 hr. The rats in Group C showed highest plasma HGF levels at 2, 6, 12, 24 and 36 hr post-transplantation and lowest HGF level at 48 hr. Plasma VEGF levels were elevated at 48 hr post-transplantation with a peak at 72 hr. The rats in Group C showed highest plasma HGF levels at 48, 72, and 96 hr post-transplantation. The liver functions in Group C were recovered most rapidly. Compared with Group B, Group C had significant high liver Kiel 67 antigen labeling index (Ki-67 LI at day 1 post-HTx (P<.05. Ki-67 LI in groups B and C was higher than that in groups A and D at days 5 and 7 post-HTx. In conclusion, intraperitoneal transplantation of porcine hepatocytes cultured with PLA-O-CMC nanoparticles and embedded in collagen gel can promote significantly liver regeneration in ALF rats.

  7. Immunological characteristics of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells and the therapeutic effects of their transplantion on hyperglycemia in diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, HONGWU; QIU, XIAOYAN; NI, PING; QIU, XUERONG; LIN, XIAOBO; WU, WEIZHAO; XIE, LICHUN; LIN, LIMIN; MIN, JUAN; LAI, XIULAN; CHEN, YUNBIN; HO, GUYU; MA, LIAN

    2014-01-01

    Islet transplantation involves the transplantation of pancreatic islets from the pancreas of a donor to another individual. It has proven to be an effective method for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. However, islet transplantation is hampered by immune rejection, as well as the shortage of donor islets. Human umbilical cord Wharton’s jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs) are an ideal cell source for use in transplantation due to their biological characteristics and their use does not provoke any ethical issues. In this study, we investigated the immunological characteristics of HUMSCs and their effects on lymphocyte proliferation and the secretion of interferon (IFN)-γ, and explored whether direct cell-to-cell interactions and soluble factors, such as IFN-γ were important for balancing HUMSC-mediated immune regulation. We transplanted HUMSCs into diabetic rats to investigate whether these cells can colonize in vivo and differentiate into pancreatic β-cells, and whether the hyperglycemia of diabetic rats can be improved by transplantation. Our results revealed that HUMSCs did not stimulate the proliferation of lymphocytes and did not induce allogeneic or xenogeneic immune cell responses. qRT-PCR demonstrated that the HUMSCs produced an immunosuppressive isoform of human leukocyte antigen (HLA-I) and did not express HLA-DR. Flow cytometry revealed that the HUMSCs did not express immune response-related surface antigens such as, CD40, CD40L, CD80 and CD86. IFN-γ secretion by human peripheral blood lymphocytes was reduced when the cells were co-cultured with HUMSCs. These results suggest that HUMSCs are tolerated by the host in an allogeneic transplant. We transplanted HUMSCs into diabetic rats, and the cells survived in the liver and pancreas. Hyperglycemia of the diabetic rats was improved and the destruction of pancreatic cells was partly repaired by HUMSC transplantation. Hyperglycemic improvement may be related to the immunomodulatory effects of

  8. Neonatal Persistent Exposure to 6-Propyl-2-thiouracil, a Thyroid-Disrupting Chemical, Differentially Modulates Expression of Hepatic Catalase and C/EBP-β in Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, Suresh Kumar; Dandapat, Jagneshwar; Sahoo, Sunil Kumar; Roy, Anita; Chainy, Gagan B N

    2016-02-01

    Persistent exposure of rats to 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) from birth resulted in decreases in plasma thyroid hormone (TH) levels and hepatic expression of catalase and CCAAT enhancer binding protein β (C/EBP-β). Catalase promoter region (-185 to +52) that contains binding sites for C/EBP-β showed an augmentation in the methylation level along with a change in methylation pattern of CpG islands in response to PTU treatment. PTU withdrawal on 30 days of birth restored TH levels and C/EBP-β to control rats in adulthood. Although catalase expression was restored to some extent in adult rats in response to PTU withdrawal, a permanent change in its promoter CpG methylation pattern was recorded. The results suggest that downregulation of adult hepatic catalase gene in response to persistent neonatal PTU exposure may not solely be attributed to thyroid-disrupting properties of PTU. It is possible that besides thyroid-disrupting behavior, PTU may impair expression of hepatic catalase by altering methylation pattern of its promoter. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Thyroid hormone participates in the regulation of neural stem cells and oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the central nervous system of adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, M; Pirondi, S; Manservigi, M; Giardino, L; Calzà, L

    2004-10-01

    Oligodendrocyte development and myelination are under thyroid hormone control. In this study we analysed the effects of chronic manipulation of thyroid status on the expression of a wide spectrum of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) markers and myelin basic protein (MBP) in the subventricular zone (SVZ), olfactory bulb and optic nerve, and on neural stem cell (NSC) lineage in adult rats. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism were induced in male rats, by propyl-thio-uracil (PTU) and L-thyroxin (T4) treatment, respectively. Hypothyroidism increased and hyperthyroidism downregulated proliferation in the SVZ and olfactory bulb (Ki67 immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, bromodeoxyuridine uptake). Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFalpha-R) and MBP mRNA levels decreased in the optic nerve of hypothyroid rats; the same also occurred at the level of MBP protein. Hyperthyroidism slightly upregulates selected markers such as NG2 in the olfactory bulb. The lineage of cells derived from primary cultures of NSC prepared from the forebrain of adult hypo- and hyperthyroid also differs from those derived from control animals. Although no difference of in vitro proliferation of NSCs was observed in the presence of epidermal growth factor, maturation of oligodendrocytes (defined by process number and length) was enhanced in hyperthyroidism, suggesting a more mature state than in control animals. This difference was even greater when compared with the hypothyroid group, the morphology of which suggested a delay in differentiation. These results indicate that thyroid hormone affects NSC and OPC proliferation and maturation also in adulthood.

  10. Effects of transplantation and resection of a radiation-induced rat insulinoma on glucose homeostasis and the endocrine pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flatt, P.R.; Tan, K.S.; Powell, C.J.; Swanston-Flatt, S.K.; Marks, V.; Bailey, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-one days after s.c. subscapular transplantation of a radiation-induced insulinoma, male NEDH rats exhibited hyperinsulinaemia and hypoglycaemia. These features were associated with islet atrophy, degenerative changes in pancreatic A and B cells, and decreases in the pancreatic contents of insulin, glucagon and somatostatin. The immunoreactive glucagon and somatostatin contents of extrapancreatic tissues of insulinoma-bearing rats were unchanged. Surgical resection of the tumour resulted in an immediate fall of plasma insulin, attaining concentrations similar to those of anaesthetised control rats by 10 min. The estimated half-life of insulin was 3.5 min. Hypoglycaemia persisted until 60 min after resection, followed by hyperglycaemia of 1-2 days duration. Glucose tolerance was impaired 1 day after tumour resection despite the coexistence of raised insulin concentrations. Evidence for abnormal pancreatic B cell function was gained by injection of arginine which failed to evoke a plasma insulin response in the resected rats. Two days after resection, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were similar to those of control rats. Plasma glucose and insulin responses to glucose and arginine were suggestive of tumour recurrence by 12 days. A single large encapsulated tumour was eventually observed in each rat, with resection giving a 17-56 day prolongation of life. (author)

  11. Pathological changes after bone marrow and skin allograft transplantation in rats inflicted with severe combined radiation-burn injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Huaien; Cheng Tianmin; Yan Yongtang

    1994-01-01

    Bone marrow and skin allografts from the same donor were transplanted to rats inflicted with 8 Gy γ-radiation combined with third degree burns of 15% body surface area within 6 hr post injury. Pathological changes of hematopoietic tissues and skin allografts were studied. All injured controls died within 7 days post injury without bone marrow regeneration; 50% of treated rats survived with living skin allografts on 50th day post injury. On days 100 and 480 post operation, grafted skin still survived well on recipients with normal ultrastructure. Epidermic cells of skin allografts proliferated on day 5, developed and repaired on day 10. Histological structure of the skin returned to normal on day 30 post operation. The regeneration of bone marrow appeared on 5th day, increased markedly on day 10, and almost completed on day 15 after bone marrow transplantation. However, the regeneration of lymphocytes in cortex of spleen and lymph nodes did not appear until day 15 of BMT. The results show that bone marrow and skin allograft transplantation at early time post injury in most severe combined radiation-burn injury have tremendous beneficial effects, and the skin allograft can survive for a long time

  12. Thyroid Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hypothyroidism in Children and Adolescents Pediatric Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Nodules in Children and Adolescents Thyroid Surgery Resources Thyroid Surgery Brochure PDF Thyroid Surgery FAQs PDF En Español Cirugia De La Tiroides El folleto de Cirugia De La Tiroides Search Thyroid ...

  13. The effect of Tributyltin on thyroid follicular cells of adult male albino rats and the possible protective role of green tea: a toxicological, histological and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr El Dine, Fatma M M; Nabil, Iman M; Dwedar, Fatma I

    2017-01-01

    Tributyltin is one of the important and wide-spread persistent organic contaminants that accumulate in the food chain. It is suspected to cause endocrine-disrupting effects in mammals, due in part to its possible transfer through marine food chains and to the consumption of contaminated seafood. Was to study the possible toxic effect of Tributyltin on thyroid follicular cells of adult male albino rats and to evaluate the possible protective role of green tea. Forty-five adult male albino rats were included and randomly divided into 3 equal groups: a control group (Group I); Group II: received tributyltin chloride (TBT) dissolved in corn oil orally in a dose of 5 mg/kg for 30 days. Group III: received tributyltin chloride in the same dose with concomitant oral administration of green tea extract for 30 days. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed and blood samples were subjected to hormonal assay for T3, T4 and TSH levels. Malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione were assessed. The thyroid tissue was processed for histological and ultrastructure examination. The colloid area of thyroid follicles was evaluated morphometrically and statistically analyzed. A significant decrease in T3 and T4 levels and serum reduced glutathione in the group II when compared with the other groups. Furthermore, a significant increase in serum Malondialdehyde and TSH levels was recorded in group II treated group by comparison to the other two groups. Histopathological and ultrastructural changes of thyroid gland follicles were detected in tributyltin treated rats; the follicular cells appeared swollen and vacuolated. Epithelial stratification was noticed in some foci with excessive vacuolation of the colloid. Dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum filled with flocculent material and increased number of lysosomes were also detected together with variation in shape and size of the nuclei. A marked improvement in the histological features of thyroid follicles was noticed in

  14. Transplantation of rat embryonic stem cell-derived retinal progenitor cells preserves the retinal structure and function in rat retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zepeng; Guan, Yuan; Cui, Lu; Song, Jian; Gu, Junjie; Zhao, Hanzhi; Xu, Lei; Lu, Lixia; Jin, Ying; Xu, Guo-Tong

    2015-11-09

    Degenerative retinal diseases like age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are the leading cause of blindness. Cell transplantation showed promising therapeutic effect for such diseases, and embryonic stem cell (ESC) is one of the sources of such donor cells. Here, we aimed to generate retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) from rat ESCs (rESCs) and to test their therapeutic effects in rat model. The rESCs (DA8-16) were cultured in N2B27 medium with 2i, and differentiated to two types of RPCs following the SFEBq method with modifications. For rESC-RPC1, the cells were switched to adherent culture at D10, while for rESC-RPC2, the suspension culture was maintained to D14. Both RPCs were harvested at D16. Primary RPCs were obtained from P1 SD rats, and some of them were labeled with EGFP by infection with lentivirus. To generate Rax::EGFP knock-in rESC lines, TALENs were engineered to facilitate homologous recombination in rESCs, which were cotransfected with the targeting vector and TALEN vectors. The differentiated cells were analyzed with live image, immunofluorescence staining, flow cytometric analysis, gene expression microarray, etc. RCS rats were used to mimic the degeneration of retina and test the therapeutic effects of subretinally transplanted donor cells. The structure and function of retina were examined. We established two protocols through which two types of rESC-derived RPCs were obtained and both contained committed retina lineage cells and some neural progenitor cells (NPCs). These rESC-derived RPCs survived in the host retinas of RCS rats and protected the retinal structure and function in early stage following the transplantation. However, the glia enriched rESC-RPC1 obtained through early and longer adherent culture only increased the b-wave amplitude at 4 weeks, while the longer suspension culture gave rise to evidently neuronal differentiation in rESC-RPC2 which significantly improved the visual function of RCS rats. We have successfully differentiated

  15. Functional morphology of pituitary -thyroid and -adrenocortical axes in middle-aged male rats treated with Vitex agnus castus essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šošić-Jurjević, Branka; Ajdžanović, Vladimir; Filipović, Branko; Trifunović, Svetlana; Jarić, Ivana; Ristić, Nataša; Milošević, Verica

    2016-09-01

    We previously reported that Vitex agnus-castus L. essential oil (VACEO), when administered to middle-aged males, exerts a bone-protective effect, induces silencing of locomotor activities and decreases pituitary prolactin immunopositivity. To further assess the putative endocrine effects of VACEO, we examined the pituitary-thyroid and -adrenocortical axes in our model. Sixteen-month-old Wistar rats were subcutaneously administered 60mg/kg of VACEO dissolved in sterile olive oil, while the control group received the same amount of vehicle alone for three weeks. Pituitaries, thyroids and adrenals were analyzed by qualitative and quantitative histological approaches. Concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxine and triiodothyronine (TH), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone in serum and in adrenal tissue were measured. In VACEO-treated rats, the relative volume density of pituitary thyrotrophs increased (p<0.001), while intensity of cytoplasmic TSHβ immunostaining decreased (p<0.001), consistent with elevated TSH in serum (p<0.01). The thyroid tissue was characterized by a micro-follicular structure, increased relative volume of follicular epithelium (p<0.05), decreased volume of luminal colloid (p<0.001) and increased basolateral expression of sodium-iodide symporter-immunopositivity (p<0.05). Serum TH also increased (p<0.01). The relative volume density of pituitary corticotrophs decreased (p<0.05), compatible with decline in circulating ACTH (p<0.05). Neither tissue nor serum corticosterone levels were affected by VACEO treatment. In conclusion, the observed changes in TSH and ACTH strongly indicate central endocrine effects of prolonged VACEO treatment. In this respect, production of ACTH decreased without impact on corticosterone production. Increase in serum concentration of both TH and TSH are not compatible with a negative feedback loop and suggest a major change in set-point regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid

  16. Protein metabolism in hypo- and hyperstimulated rat thyroid glands. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic-Hournac, M.; Delbauffe, D.

    1976-01-01

    The rate of degradation of total thyroidal proteins is modified in differently stimulated glands. It is slowed down in hypostimulated thyroids and accelerated in hyperstimulated ones. Comparative evaluation of the rates degradation (either in absolute terms - DPM/mg of tissue or as specific activity) of different proteins shows that a modified hormonal state affects the degradation of thyroglobulin much more significantly than the degradation of non-thyroglobulin proteins. In the absence of thyrotropic hormone (TSH) the degradation of throglobulin is almost completely inhibited, while with excess of hormone it is dramatically accelerated. Comparing the TSH action on the synthesis with its effect on the degradation of thyroglobulin, it appears that it has a much stronger effect on the process of degradation than on the process of synthesis. This means that TSH significantly modifies the turnover of thyroglobulin. This effect of TSH leads, in chronically hypo- or hyperstimulated glands to the new levels of colloidal thyroglobulin which are highly increased in hypostimulated and significantly decreased in hyperstimulated glands. These results are in perfect agreement with the classical morphological description of hypo- and hyperstimulated glands. (orig.) [de

  17. Plasmid-based genetic modification of human bone marrow-derived stromal cells: analysis of cell survival and transgene expression after transplantation in rat spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronsyn, Mark W; Daans, Jasmijn; Spaepen, Gie; Chatterjee, Shyama; Vermeulen, Katrien; D'Haese, Patrick; Van Tendeloo, Viggo Fi; Van Marck, Eric; Ysebaert, Dirk; Berneman, Zwi N; Jorens, Philippe G; Ponsaerts, Peter

    2007-12-14

    Bone marrow-derived stromal cells (MSC) are attractive targets for ex vivo cell and gene therapy. In this context, we investigated the feasibility of a plasmid-based strategy for genetic modification of human (h)MSC with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and neurotrophin (NT)3. Three genetically modified hMSC lines (EGFP, NT3, NT3-EGFP) were established and used to study cell survival and transgene expression following transplantation in rat spinal cord. First, we demonstrate long-term survival of transplanted hMSC-EGFP cells in rat spinal cord under, but not without, appropriate immune suppression. Next, we examined the stability of EGFP or NT3 transgene expression following transplantation of hMSC-EGFP, hMSC-NT3 and hMSC-NT3-EGFP in rat spinal cord. While in vivo EGFP mRNA and protein expression by transplanted hMSC-EGFP cells was readily detectable at different time points post-transplantation, in vivo NT3 mRNA expression by hMSC-NT3 cells and in vivo EGFP protein expression by hMSC-NT3-EGFP cells was, respectively, undetectable or declined rapidly between day 1 and 7 post-transplantation. Further investigation revealed that the observed in vivo decline of EGFP protein expression by hMSC-NT3-EGFP cells: (i) was associated with a decrease in transgenic NT3-EGFP mRNA expression as suggested following laser capture micro-dissection analysis of hMSC-NT3-EGFP cell transplants at day 1 and day 7 post-transplantation, (ii) did not occur when hMSC-NT3-EGFP cells were transplanted subcutaneously, and (iii) was reversed upon re-establishment of hMSC-NT3-EGFP cell cultures at 2 weeks post-transplantation. Finally, because we observed a slowly progressing tumour growth following transplantation of all our hMSC cell transplants, we here demonstrate that omitting immune suppressive therapy is sufficient to prevent further tumour growth and to eradicate malignant xenogeneic cell transplants. In this study, we demonstrate that genetically modified hMSC lines can survive

  18. C cells in the thyroid of pinealectomized rats Células C em tireóides de ratos pinealectomisados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Aurelho de Lima

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study quantitatively C cells in the thyroids of non-isogenic rats to determine the possible effects of pinealectomy on the number of these cells, and consequently on the synthesis and secretion of calcitonin. METHODS: Twenty male rats of an outbred strain (200-300 g were used in the present study. One group of 10 animals was pinealectomized 50 days prior to sacrifice. Thyroid tissue was stained for calcitonin (Dako Corporation at a 1:1500 dilution. The number of C cells observed was expressed as number of cells/cm². Data were analyzed statistically by Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: The number of C cells in pinealectomized and normal animals ranged from 489 to 2084 per cm² and 227 to 1584 per cm², respectively, a difference that was statistically significant (P OBJETIVO: Estudar quantitativamente células C de tireóides em ratos não isogênicos para determinar os possíveis efeitos da pinealectomia no número destas células e conseqüentemente na síntese e secreção de calcitonina. MÉTODO: Vinte ratos machos com peso de 200 a 300g foram utilizados no presente estudo. Um grupo de 10 animais foi pinealectomizado 50 dias antes do sacrifício. Os cortes de tireóide foram corados com calcitonina (DAKO Corporation a diluição de 1:1500. O número de células C observado é expresso como número de células/cm². Os dados foram analisados pela análise de variância (ANOVA e teste Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS: O número de células C em animais pinealectomizados e normais variou de 489 a 2084 células/cm² e 227 a 1584 células/cm², respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: Estes resultados mostraram diferenças consistentes (p<0,05 no número de células C após a pinealectomia quando comparada aos controles. Nós acreditamos que a pinealectomia aumenta o número de células C nas tireóides dos ratos.

  19. Thyroid hormone modulates the development of cholinergic terminal fields in the rat forebrain: relation to nerve growth factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J D; Butcher, L L; Woolf, N J

    1991-04-24

    Hyperthyroidism, induced in rat pups by the daily intraperitoneal administration of 1 microgram/g body weight triiodothyronine, facilitated the development of ChAT fiber plexuses in brain regions innervated by basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, leading to an earlier and increased expression of cholinergic markers in those fibers in the cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. A similar enhancement was seen in the caudate-putamen complex. This histochemical profile was correlated with an accelerated appearance of ChAT-positive telencephalic puncta, as well as with a larger total number of cholinergic terminals expressed, which persisted throughout the eight postnatal week, the longest time examined in the present study. Hypothyroidism was produced in rat pups by adding 0.5% propylthiouracil to the dams' diet beginning the day after birth. This dietary manipulation resulted in the diminished expression of ChAT in forebrain fibers and terminals. Hypothyroid treatment also reduced the quantity of ChAT puncta present during postnatal weeks 2 and 3, and, from week 4 and continuing through week 6, the number of ChAT-positive terminals in the telencephalic regions examined was actually less than the amount extant during the former developmental epoch. Immunostaining for nerve growth factor receptor (NGF-R), which is associated almost exclusively with ChAT-positive somata and fibers in the basal forebrain, demonstrated a different time course of postnatal development. Forebrain fibers and terminals demonstrating NGF-R were maximally visualized 1 week postnatally, a time at which these same neuronal elements evinced minimal ChAT-like immunopositivity. Thereafter and correlated with increased immunoreactivity for ChAT, fine details of NGF-R stained fibers were observed less frequently. Although propylthiouracil administration decreased NGF-R immunodensity, no alteration in the development of that receptor was observed as a function of triiodothyronine treatment. Cholinergic

  20. Evaluation of lipid peroxidation activity at intravenous administration of gold nanorods in rats with simulated diabetes and transplanted liver cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Dikht, Natalia I.; Afanasyeva, Galina A.; Terentyuk, Georgy S.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Zaraeva, Nadezhda V.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.

    2014-01-01

    In the experiment the white outbred rats with transplanted liver cancer (cholangiocarcinoma line PC-1) and simulated alloxan diabetes were treated by single intravenous injection of gold nanorods. State of lipid peroxidation was evaluated by the following parameters: the malondialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxide, the average weght molecules in the serum of animals by conventional spectrophotometric methods study using a spectrofluorometer RF-5301 PC (Shimadzu, Japan). In both experimental groups of animals the significant increasing of levels of lipid peroxidation products was noted compared with control group. After intravenous administration of nanoparticles in the group of animals with alloxan diabetes the activation of a free radical oxidation was not observed, in group with transplanted liver cancer the increasing of levels of lipid hydroperoxide, malondialdehyde was established.

  1. Restoration of Respiratory Gases and Acid-base Balance of Blood of Gamma Irradiated Rats Through Bone Marrow Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, S.M.; Roushdy, H.M.; Khamis, F. I.; Abu-Zeid, N.M.

    2000-01-01

    The present investigation aimed at elucidating the role played by bone marrow transplantation as a biological treatment against the deleterious effect of ionizing radiation. The parameters tested were PO2; PCO2; TCO2 and acid base balance encountering pH and (HCO3) in blood. Investigations were conducted 1,3,7,14 and 21 days post whole body gamma exposure at the dose levels 2 and 6 Gy. The data obtained showed highly significant changes in all tested parameters after whole body gamma irradiation. A higher depressant effect was more pronounced after exposure to higher radiation dose. Bone marrow transplantation to irradiated rats resulted in partial restoration or the radiation induced changes in both PO2 and PCO2 as recorded on the first week post treatment and succeeded to ameliorate the radiation induced changes in pH values and (HCO3) in blood

  2. Nanoparticle-mediated transcriptional modification enhances neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells following transplantation in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowei; Tzeng, Stephany Y; Liu, Xiaoyan; Tammia, Markus; Cheng, Yu-Hao; Rolfe, Andrew; Sun, Dong; Zhang, Ning; Green, Jordan J; Wen, Xuejun; Mao, Hai-Quan

    2016-04-01

    Strategies to enhance survival and direct the differentiation of stem cells in vivo following transplantation in tissue repair site are critical to realizing the potential of stem cell-based therapies. Here we demonstrated an effective approach to promote neuronal differentiation and maturation of human fetal tissue-derived neural stem cells (hNSCs) in a brain lesion site of a rat traumatic brain injury model using biodegradable nanoparticle-mediated transfection method to deliver key transcriptional factor neurogenin-2 to hNSCs when transplanted with a tailored hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel, generating larger number of more mature neurons engrafted to the host brain tissue than non-transfected cells. The nanoparticle-mediated transcription activation method together with an HA hydrogel delivery matrix provides a translatable approach for stem cell-based regenerative therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Study of the efficiency of transplantation of human neural stem cells to rats with spinal trauma: the use of functional load tests and BBB test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, S V; Karasev, A V; Chekhonin, V P; Savchenko, E A; Viktorov, I V; Chelyshev, Yu A; Shaimardanova, G F

    2010-09-01

    Human ensheating neural stem cells of the olfactory epithelium were transplanted to adult male rats immediately after contusion trauma of the spinal cord at T9 level rostrally and caudally to the injury. Voluntary movements (by a 21-point BBB scale), rota-rod performance, and walking along a narrowing beam were monitored weekly over 60 days. In rats receiving cell transplantation, the mean BBB score significantly increased by 11% by the end of the experiment. The mean parameters of load tests also regularly surpassed the corresponding parameters in controls. The efficiency of transplantation (percent of animals with motor function recovery parameters surpassing the corresponding mean values in the control groups) was 62% by the state of voluntary motions, 37% by the rota-rod test, and 32% by the narrowing beam test. Morphometry revealed considerable shrinking of the zone of traumatic damage in the spinal cord and activation of posttraumatic remyelination in animals receiving transplantation of human neural stem cells.

  4. Impact of recombinant globular adiponectin on early warm ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat bile duct after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yang; Gong, Jian-Ping

    2014-09-19

    Adiponectin (APN) is an adipocyte protein with anti-diabetic properties, which has been recently revealed to have anti-inflammatory activity in organ ischemia- reperfusion injury (IRI). However, little is known about its function in bile duct IRI after liver transplantation. Therefore, we investigated whether APN affects early warm IRI in rat bile duct using a liver autologous transplantation model. In our study, rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups: a sham group, a IRI group, and a APN group. The serum enzyme levels and BDISS scores of bile duct histology associated with bile duct injury, decreased after administration of APN. Subsequently, the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor(TNF-α),.interleukin-6(IL-6) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) decreased. Furthermore, pretreatment with APN suppressed the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) (p65), a transcription factor involved in inflammatory reactions, compared to other two groups. Administration of APN also downregulated the expression of Fas protein and attenuated caspase-3 activity to decrease bile duct apoptosis. Our results illustrate that APN protects the rat bile duct against early warm IRI by suppressing the inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis, and NF-κB (p65) plays an important role in this process.

  5. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE)-induced alterations in vitamin A and thyroid hormone concentrations in the rat during lactation and early postnatal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G.; Cherr, Gary N.; Hanna, Lynn A.; Keen, Carl L.

    2006-01-01

    In experimental animals fed standard laboratory diets, penta-BDE mixtures can decrease circulating thyroid hormone and liver vitamin A concentrations. A substantial number of pregnant women and their children have marginal vitamin A status, potentially increasing their risk of adverse effects to penta-BDE exposure. The current study investigated the effects of maternal gestational and lactational penta-BDE exposure on thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis in rats of sufficient vitamin A (VAS) or marginal vitamin A (VAM) status and their offspring. Dams were administered daily oral doses of 18 mg/kg DE-71 (a penta-BDE mixture) or a corn oil vehicle from gestation day 6 through lactation day (LD) 18. Thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis were assessed in plasma and tissues of LD 19 dams and postnatal day (PND) 12, 18, and 31 pups. DE-71 exposure induced hepatomegaly in VAS and VAM pups at all timepoints and increased testes weights at PND 31. While liver vitamin A concentrations were low in DE-71 treated dams and pups, plasma retinol concentrations and plasma retinol binding protein levels were only low in VAM animals exposed to DE-71. DE-71 exposure lowered plasma thyroxine concentrations in VAS and VAM dams and pups. Plasma thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations were high in VAM dams exposed to DE-71, suggesting that marginal vitamin A status enhances the susceptibility to thyroid hormone axis disruption by DE-71. These results support the concept that marginal vitamin A status in pregnant women may increase the risk for PBDE-induced disruptions in vitamin A and thyroid hormone homeostasis

  6. Effect of heme oxygenase-1 on the protection of ischemia reperfusion injury of bile duct in rats after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xi; Zhang, Zhiqing; Huang, Hanfei; Zhang, Yujun; Zeng, Zhong

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the effect of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) on the ischemic reperfusion injury (IRI) of bile duct in rat models after liver transplantation. 320 SD rats were equally and randomly divided into 5 groups, which were group A receiving injection of 3×10 8 /pfu/ml adenovirus (adv), group B with donor receiving Adv-HO-1 and recipient receiving Adv-HO-1-siRNA, group C with donor and recipient both receiving Adv-HO-1, group D with donor receiving Adv-HO-1-siRNA and recipient receiving Adv-HO-1, and group E with donor and recipient both receiving Adv-HO-1-siRNA at 24h before liver transplantation. Donor liver was stored in UW liquid at 4°C followed by measuring HO-1 level by western blot before transplantation. On d1, d3, d7 and d14, serum and liver was isolated for analysis of liver function, inflammatory cell infiltration by H&E staining, ultrastructure of liver by transmission electron microscopy as well as the expression of HO-1, Bsep, Mrp2 and Ntcp by western blot. Compared with group D and E, group B and C displayed improved liver function as demonstrated by lower level of ALT, AST, LDH, TBIL, ALP and GGT, increased secretion of TBA and PL as well as expression of transporter proteins (Bsep, Mrp2 and Ntcp), reduced inflammatory cells infiltration and liver injury. Our study demonstrated that overexpression of HO-1 in donor liver can ameliorate the damage to bile duct and liver, and improved liver function, suggesting HO-1 might be a new therapeutic target in the treatment of IRI after liver transplantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cell conditioned medium induced bone marrow stromal cells on rats with spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Linjie; Gan, Hongquan; Zhao, Wenguo; Liu, Yingjie

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord injury is a serious threat to human health and various techniques have been deployed to ameliorate or cure its effects. Stem cells transplantation is one of the promising methods. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) conditioned medium-induced bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) on spinal cord injury. Rat spinal cord compression injury animal models were generated, and the rats divided into the following three groups: Group A, (control) Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium-treated group; group B, normal BMSC-treated group; group C, OEC conditioned medium-induced BMSC-treated group. The animals were sacrificed at 2, 4 and 8 weeks following transplantation for hematoxylin and eosin staining, and fluorescence staining of neurofilament protein, growth associated protein-43 and neuron-specific nuclear protein. The cavity area of the spinal cord injury was significantly reduced at 2 and 4 weeks following transplantation in group C, and a significant difference between the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan score in group C and groups A and B was observed. Regenerated nerve fibers were observed in groups B and C; however, a greater number of regenerated nerve fibers were observed in group C. BMSCs induced by OEC conditioned medium survived in vivo, significantly reduced the cavity area of spinal cord injury, promoted nerve fiber regeneration following spinal cord injury and facilitated recovery of motor function. The present study demonstrated a novel method to repair spinal cord injury by using induced BMSCs, with satisfactory results. PMID:28656221

  8. Selective lymphoid irradiation. V. Synergism with pretransplant thymectomy or thymic irradiation in cardiac transplantation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iga, C.; Fawwaz, R.; Nowygrod, R.; Reemtsma, K.; Hardy, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Selective lymphoid irradiation (SLI) using palladium-109-hematoporphyrin (Pd-H), given four days prior to transplantation, combined with two doses of antilymphocyte globulin (ALG) (10 mg, days -2 and -1), was evaluated as a method of induction of permanent heterotopic cardiac allograft survival in the highly histoincompatible rat strain combination of ACI (RT1(1))-to-Lewis (RT1a). Both Pd-H and ALG localize poorly in the thymus, so this study evaluated whether thymic irradiation (TI) or thymectomy (TX) of the adult recipient results in indefinite allograft survival. Immunosuppression with Pd-H or ALG alone gave a mean survival time (MST) of 6.7 +/- 0.6 days, but the combination of the two agents led to an MST of 17.6 +/- 3.4 days. When TI was combined with Pd-H and ALG, cardiac allograft survival was prolonged to 50.2 +/- 13.9 days, but TI alone showed an MST of 10.3 +/- 1.8 days. Permanent cardiac allograft survival (greater than 250 days) was achieved in all thymectomized recipients treated with the combination of Pd-H and a brief course of ALG. These animals also accepted second-set skin grafts and rejected third-party skin grafts following more than 150 days of ACI cardiac allograft survival. Thymic irradiation, although effective in acting synergistically with SLI and ALG, led to prolonged, but limited allograft survival, although thymectomy with SLI and ALG is synergistic in prolonging allograft survival permanently without chronic immunosuppression

  9. Human dental pulp stem cells transplantation combined with treadmill training in rats after traumatic spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C. Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI is a disabling condition resulting in deficits of sensory and motor functions, and has no effective treatment. Considering that protocols with stem cell transplantation and treadmill training have shown promising results, the present study evaluated the effectiveness of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs transplantation combined with treadmill training in rats with experimental spinal cord injury. Fifty-four Wistar rats were spinalized using NYU impactor. The rats were randomly distributed into 5 groups: Sham (laminectomy with no SCI, n=10; SCI (laminectomy followed by SCI, n=12; SHEDs (SCI treated with SHEDs, n=11; TT (SCI treated with treadmill training, n=11; SHEDs+TT (SCI treated with SHEDs and treadmill training; n=10. Treatment with SHEDs alone or in combination with treadmill training promoted functional recovery, reaching scores of 15 and 14, respectively, in the BBB scale, being different from the SCI group, which reached 11. SHEDs treatment was able to reduce the cystic cavity area and glial scar, increase neurofilament. Treadmill training alone had no functional effectiveness or tissue effects. In a second experiment, the SHEDs transplantation reduced the TNF-α levels in the cord tissue measured 6 h after the injury. Contrary to our hypothesis, treadmill training either alone or in combination, caused no functional improvement. However, SHEDs showed to be neuroprotective, by the reduction of TNF-α levels, the cystic cavity and the glial scar associated with the improvement of motor function after SCI. These results provide evidence that grafted SHEDs might be an effective therapy to spinal cord lesions, with possible anti-inflammatory action.

  10. Human dental pulp stem cells transplantation combined with treadmill training in rats after traumatic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicola, F C; Rodrigues, L P; Crestani, T; Quintiliano, K; Sanches, E F; Willborn, S; Aristimunha, D; Boisserand, L; Pranke, P; Netto, C A

    2016-08-08

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a disabling condition resulting in deficits of sensory and motor functions, and has no effective treatment. Considering that protocols with stem cell transplantation and treadmill training have shown promising results, the present study evaluated the effectiveness of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) transplantation combined with treadmill training in rats with experimental spinal cord injury. Fifty-four Wistar rats were spinalized using NYU impactor. The rats were randomly distributed into 5 groups: Sham (laminectomy with no SCI, n=10); SCI (laminectomy followed by SCI, n=12); SHEDs (SCI treated with SHEDs, n=11); TT (SCI treated with treadmill training, n=11); SHEDs+TT (SCI treated with SHEDs and treadmill training; n=10). Treatment with SHEDs alone or in combination with treadmill training promoted functional recovery, reaching scores of 15 and 14, respectively, in the BBB scale, being different from the SCI group, which reached 11. SHEDs treatment was able to reduce the cystic cavity area and glial scar, increase neurofilament. Treadmill training alone had no functional effectiveness or tissue effects. In a second experiment, the SHEDs transplantation reduced the TNF-α levels in the cord tissue measured 6 h after the injury. Contrary to our hypothesis, treadmill training either alone or in combination, caused no functional improvement. However, SHEDs showed to be neuroprotective, by the reduction of TNF-α levels, the cystic cavity and the glial scar associated with the improvement of motor function after SCI. These results provide evidence that grafted SHEDs might be an effective therapy to spinal cord lesions, with possible anti-inflammatory action.

  11. Histomorphology of the Olfactory Mucosa and Spinal Tissue Sparing Following Transplantation in the Partial Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Delaviz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Nowadays, cellular and tissues transplant has become the focus of attention for spinal cord injury. It has been shown olfactory nerve cells or olfactory mucosa whi have more efficient on nervous tissue repair and they have been more studied in experimental study. Furthermore, they were used in a few clinical centers for spinal defect. But mucosa tissue and spinal tissue have different structure and there is doubt about the integration of mucosa tissue in nervous tissue. Thus, in this research the morphology and the effect of the fetal olfactory mucosa (FOM on spinal tissue sparing were studied after transplanted into the spinal cord hemisection in rats. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was conducted at Iran University of Medical Sciences in 2008. Of thirty eight female Sprague-Dawley (200-250g rats twenty- eight were spinally hemisected at the L1 spinal level and were randomized into two groups of 14 animals. Treatment group received FOM graft and the control group received fetal respiratory mucosa graft (FRM. The other animals received surgical procedure without spinal cord injury as a sham group. The morphology of the transplant region and spinal tissue sparing was examined histological eight weeks after transplantation. The collected data was analyzed by the SPSS software using ANOVA and the morphology of the transplant region were studied by light microscope. Results: Histological study showed that the both mucosa tissues could not integrate with the parenchyma of the spinal tissue. Although the FOM were fused more than the FRM with the host tissue but clear boundary was seen at the graft–host interface. The mean spinal tissue sparing of the treatment group increased a little compare to the control but a significant difference was not apparent whereas, the spinal tissue sparing in treatment and control groups compare to the sham group decreased significantly (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Transplantation of

  12. The Protective and Curative Role of Selenium and Vitamin E Against Disorders Induced by Gamma Radiation on The Hypophysis Thyroid Axis in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, K.I.; Abou-Safi, H.M.; Abdel-Khalek, L.G.; Mehany, N.L.; Ragab, M.T.

    2003-01-01

    This work aimed to investigate the protective and curative potency of both selenium and vitamin E on the hypophysis-thyroid axis hormones of rats exposed to a collective dose of 4 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. Rats were divided into five groups; control, drenched with antioxidants (2.5 mcg selenium and 1.5 mg vitamin E/100 GB wt), exposed to fractionated dose (4 Gy) of gamma radiation (0.5 Gy twice weekly for one month), drenched with antioxidants before each dose of irradiation and a group of rats supplied with antioxidants both before each dose of irradiation and for one month after the last dose of irradiation. Results obtained showed that administration of the two antioxidants both before irradiation doses and for one month after the last dose of irradiation showed the best effects on plasma levels of T 3 , T 4 , and TSH. SO, it could be concluded that oral administration of both selenium and vitamin E before and after exposure to fractionated whole body gamma irradiation showed protective and curative effects on the hypophysis-thyroid axis hormones in rats. Depending on the obtained results and in order to protect patients from gamma irradiation hazard, we recommend the use of these two antioxidants (selenium and vitamin E) before and after the exposure to the therapeutic doses of gamma radiation

  13. Molecular mechanisms of regulation of growth hormone gene expression in cultured rat pituitary cells by thyroid and glucocorticoid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaffe, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    In cultured GC cells, a rat pituitary tumor cell line, growth hormone [GH] is induced in a synergistic fashion by physiologic concentrations of thyroid and glucocorticoid hormones. Abundant evidence indicates that these hormones mediate this response via their specific receptors. The purpose of this thesis is to explore the mechanisms by which these hormones affect GH production. When poly (A) + RNA was isolated from cells grown both with and without hormones and translated in a cell-free wheat germ system, the preGH translation products were shown to be proportional to immunoassayable GH production under all combinations of hormonal milieux, indicating that changes in GH production is modulated at a pretranslational level. A cDNA library was constructed from poly (A) + RNA and one clone containing GH cDNA sequences was isolated. This was used to confirm the above results by Northern dot blot analysis. This probe was also used to assess hormonal effects on GH mRNA half-life and synthetic rates as well as GH gene transcription rates in isolated nuclei. Using a pulse-chase protocol in which cellular RNA was labeled in vivo with [ 3 H]uridine, and quantitating [ 3 H]GHmRNA directly by hybridization to GH cDNA bound to nitrocellulose filters, GHmRNA was found to have a half-life of approximately 50 hours, and was not significantly altered by the presence of inducing hormones

  14. Effect of thyroid status on the development of the different molecular forms of Na+,K+-ATPase in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atterwill, C K; Reid, J; Athayde, C M

    1985-05-01

    The effect of thyroid status on the postnatal development of the two molecular forms of Na+,K+-ATPase, distinguished kinetically on the basis of their ouabain sensitivity, was examined in rat brain. Hypothyroidism induced by PTU from day 1 postnatally significantly reduced the Na+,K+-ATPase activity in cerebellum (22-30 days) but not forebrain, whereas hyperthyroidism (T4 treatment from day 1) had no effect. The hypothyroidism-induced reduction in cerebellum was reflected by a 20-45% reduction in the activity of the alpha(+) form of Na+,K+-ATPase (high ouabain affinity) against control brains compared to a 60-70% reduction in the activity of the alpha form (low ouabain affinity). These results show that neonatally induced hypothyroidism leads to a selectively greater impairment of the ontogenesis of the activity of cerebellar alpha form of Na+,K+-ATPase. This may possibly reflect a retarded development of a selective cerebellar cell population containing predominantly the alpha form of the enzyme.

  15. Impact of environmental chemicals on the thyroid hormone function in pituitary rat GH3 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva

    2005-01-01

    -nonylphenol, 4-octylphenol), pesticides (prochloraz, iprodion, chlorpyrifos), PCB metabolites (OH-PCB 106, OH-PCB 121, OH-PCB 69) and brominated flame-retardants (tetrabromobisphenol A). The ED potential of a chemical was determined by its effect on the cell proliferation of TH-dependent rat pituitary GH3 cell...

  16. Thyroid status affects the rat cardiac beta-adrenoceptor system transiently and time-dependently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaveling, J.; Batink, H. D.; Taguchi, K.; de Jong, J.; Michel, M. C.; Pfaffendorf, M.; van Zwieten, A.

    1998-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to investigate the time-dependency of the influence of dysthyroid states on the beta-adrenoceptor system in rat heart left ventricle. Therefore, the influence of acute and chronic hyper- and hypothyroidism on beta-adrenoceptor-induced left ventricular responses,

  17. Long-term exposure to xenoestrogens alters some brain monoamines and both serum thyroid hormones and cortisol levels in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nashwa M. Saied

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to examine the effect of long-term treatment with the phytoestrogen soy isoflavone [(SIF; 43 mg/kg body weight/day] and/or the plastics component bisphenol-A [(BPA; 3 mg/kg body weight/day] on some monoamines in the forebrain and both serum thyroid hormones and cortisol levels of adult rats. Significant increases in serotonin (5-HT and norepinephrine (NE level, and significant decreases in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA level and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio, were observed after treatment with SIF or BPA. Level of dopamine (DA was increased in SIF-treated group and decreased in BPA-treated group. Activity of monoamine oxidase (MAO was decreased in all treated groups. The level of serum thyroid hormones (fT3 and fT4 was increased after treatment with SIF and decreased after exposure to BPA, while cortisol level was increased in all treated groups. It may be concluded that long-term exposure to SIF or BPA disrupts monoamine levels in the forebrain of adult rats through alteration in the metabolic pathways of amines and disorders of thyroid hormones and cortisol levels.

  18. Vitamin A Repletion in rats with concurrent vitamin A and iodine deficiency affects pituitary THS {beta} gene expression and reduces thyroid hyperstimulation and thyroid size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biebinger, R.; Arnold, M.; Langhans, W.; Hurrell, R.F.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2007-01-01

    Concurrent vitamin A (VA) deficiency (VAD) and iodine deficiency (ID) are common in developing countries. VAD has effects on thyroid metabolism that may be dependent on iodine status. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of VA supplementation (VAS) and/or dietary iodine repletion,

  19. Action of Specific Thyroid Hormone Receptor alpha(1) and beta(1) Antagonists in the Central and Peripheral Regulation of Thyroid Hormone Metabolism in the Rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beeren, Hermina C.; Kwakkel, Joan; Ackermans, Mariëtte T.; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.; Fliers, Eric; Boelen, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Background: The iodine-containing drug amiodarone (Amio) and its noniodine containing analogue dronedarone (Dron) are potent antiarrhythmic drugs. Previous in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that the major metabolite of Amio, desethylamiodarone, acts as a thyroid hormone receptor (TR) alpha(1)

  20. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto thyroiditis; Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis; Autoimmune thyroiditis; Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis; Lymphadenoid goiter - Hashimoto; Hypothyroidism - Hashimoto; Type 2 polyglandular autoimmune ...

  1. Transplantation of Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells Overexpressing Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2α Improves Blood Perfusion and Arteriogenesis in a Rat Hindlimb Ischemia Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifeng Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have been increasingly tested in cell-based therapy to treat numerous diseases. Genetic modification to improve MSC behavior may enhance posttransplantation outcome. This study aims to test the potential therapeutic benefits of rat bone marrow MSCs overexpressing hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (rMSCsHIF-2α in a rat hindlimb ischemia model. PBS, rMSCs, or rMSCsHIF-2α were injected into rat ischemic hindlimb. Compared with the injection of PBS or rMSCs, transplantation of rMSCsHIF-2α significantly improved blood perfusion, increased the number of vessel branches in the muscle of the ischemic hindlimb, and improved the foot mobility of the ischemic hindlimb (all P<0.05. rMSCHIF-2α transplantation also markedly increased the expression of proangiogenic factors VEGF, bFGF, and SDF1 and Notch signaling proteins including DII4, NICD, Hey1, and Hes1, whereas it reduced the expression of proapoptotic factor Bax in the muscle of the ischemic hindlimb. Overexpression of HIF-2α did not affect rMSC stemness and proliferation under normoxia but significantly increased rMSC migration and tube formation in matrigel under hypoxia (all P<0.05. RMSCsHIF-2α stimulated endothelial cell invasion under hypoxia significantly (P<0.05. Genetic modification of rMSCs via overexpression of HIF-2α improves posttransplantation outcomes in a rat hindlimb ischemia model possibly by stimulating proangiogenic growth factors and cytokines.

  2. Study of thyroid hormone disruption by the environmental contaminant bde-99 in perinatal rats

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco Pérez, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    The main human concern about the environmental pollutants polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are the rising concentrations accumulated in women. The aim of the present thesis is the study of the toxicity by maternal transference of BDE-99 in the offspring. Among highlights of the results, we found that exposure to BDE-99 during the gestational period produced a delayed ossification, slight hypertrophy of the heart, and enlargement of the liver in rat fetuses. A transplacental effect of BD...

  3. Thyroid hormone affects secretory activity and uncoupling protein-3 expression in rat harderian gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieffi Baccari, Gabriella; Monteforte, Rossella; de Lange, Pieter; Raucci, Franca; Farina, Paola; Lanni, Antonia

    2004-07-01

    The effects of T(3) administration on the rat Harderian gland were examined at morphological, biochemical, and molecular levels. T(3) induced hypertrophy of the two cell types (A and B) present in the glandular epithelium. In type A cells, the hypertrophy was mainly due to an increase in the size of the lipid compartment. The acinar lumina were filled with lipoproteic substances, and the cells often showed an olocrine secretory pattern. In type B cells, the hypertrophy largely consisted of a marked proliferation of mitochondria endowed with tightly packed cristae, the mitochondrial number being nearly doubled (from 62 to 101/100 microm(2)). Although the average area of individual mitochondria decreased by about 50%, the total area of the mitochondrial compartment increased by about 80% (from 11 to 19/100 microm(2)). This could be ascribed to T(3)-induced mitochondrial proliferation. The morphological and morphometric data correlated well with our biochemical results, which indicated that mitochondrial respiratory activity is increased in hyperthyroid rats. T(3), by influencing the metabolic function of the mitochondrial compartment, induces lipogenesis and the release of secretory product by type A cells. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 were expressed at both mRNA and protein levels in the euthyroid rat Harderian gland. T(3) treatment increased the mRNA levels of both uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) and UCP3, but the protein level only of UCP3. A possible role for these proteins in the Harderian gland is discussed.

  4. Monitoring stem cell transplantation in rat cerebral ischemic infarction model with 131I-FIAU/TK reporter gene system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Tao; An Rui; Zhang Binqing; Sun Xun; Lang Juntao

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the biodistribution of 131 I-2'-deoxy-1-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-5-iodouracil (FIAU) in the rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model and the expression of thymidine kinase (TK) gene in brain tissue after gene-modified stem cell transplantation, and thus evaluate the possibility of further noninvasive monitoring of stem cell transplantation therapy in cerebral infarction. Methods: Adenovirus recombinant Ad5-TK-internal ribosome entry site-brain derived heterotrophic factor-enhanced green florescent protein(IRES-BDNF-EGFP) carrying TK-IRES-BDNF gene was prepared. Cerebral infarction model was established in rats by intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion with nylon monofilament. Gene modified bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were transplanted via intraparenchymal route, lateral ventricle, carotid artery and tail vein, respectively. The normal rats were used as controls. 131 I-FAU was prepared to be the tracer for biodistribution study and the % ID/g was calculated based on measurement of the tissue radioactivity counts. The expression of TK gene was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (QR-PCR) and Western blot analysis. Data were analyzed with independent-samples t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test, and Pearson linear correlation test. Results: The % ID/g of infarcted brain tissue in the intraparenchymal group was 0.124 ± 0.013, which was significantly higher than that in lateral ventricle group (0.052 ±0.004), carotid artery group (0.061 ±0.002), tail vein group (0.059 ±0.005) and control group (0.005 ±0.001) (t=2.913-5.652, all P<0.05), while there were no statistically significant differences among the other route transplanted groups (t=0.694-1.448, all P>0.05). The differences of % ID/g between the infarcted and contralateral sides of brain tissue in all transplanted groups were statistically significant (t=9.004-15.734, all P<0.05), while there was no statistically significant difference of this parameter

  5. Age-dependent exposure to radioactive iodine (131I) in the thyroid and total body of newborn, pubertal and adult fischer 344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Yumiko; Fujimoto, Nariaki; Kamiya, Kenji; Hoshi, Masaharu; Endo, Satoru

    2001-01-01

    Female rats of the Fischer 344 strain at ages of 1, 4 and 9 weeks were exposed to 131 I intraperitoneally with activities of 0.38, 1.03 and 3.42 kBq per gram of body weight under the condition of iodine deficiency. The absorbed doses in the thyroid increased linearly depending on the injected activities. Irradiation at 1 week old caused heavier exposure than those at 4 and 9 weeks old by 7.5 and 7.7 times, respectively; however, damage of the thyroid tissue was more obvious in the 4-week-old groups than in the 1-week-old groups. The absorbed doses in the total body were proportional to the square root of the injected activities. The one-week-old groups were exposed more heavily than the 4- and 9-week-old groups by 3.6 and 4.7 times, respectively, shown by the slow excretion of 131 I with the values of effective half-life of 131 I activity (T eff ). An IDD-treatment was not so effective to enhance the 131 I absorption in the total body, as in the thyroid. No matter how the iodine concentration in the blood changed, the 1-week-old groups could not react to normalize the level. We drew standard curves, which enabled us to estimate the absorbed doses in the thyroid and the total body in the case of the injected activities of 131 I for the newborn, pubertal and adult rats. (author)

  6. Effects of blood transfusion and cyclophosphamide before total lymphoid irradiation on survival of rats with bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran Xinze; Yan Yongtang

    1994-01-01

    The effects of blood transfusion at various intervals before and after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and with different donors on the survival of rats with BMT were investigated. Cyclophosphamide was administered before total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) with 10 Gy γ-rays from a 60 Co source. All the rats in control groups and in the group with blood transfusion alone died within 4-12 days after TLI. The 60-day survival rate after TLI in the group of donor-specific blood transfusion given one day after BMT was not significantly different from that in the group with BMT alone (the 60-day survival rate was 10%). The survival rates in the groups with transfusion of both donor specific and non-specific blood one day before BMT were 20% and 40% (P<0.05) respectively. All the rats given blood transfusion three days before BMT died within 4-10 days after TLI. The survival rate in the group with both donor-specific blood transfusion and cyclophosphamide given in divided dose one day before BMT increased to 80% (P<0.01). The results show that the therapeutic effect of blood transfusion on rats with BMT is related to the time of blood transfusion

  7. Transplanted Dental Pulp Stem Cells Migrate to Injured Area and Express Neural Markers in a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuemei; Zhou, Yinglian; Li, Hulun; Wang, Rui; Yang, Dan; Li, Bing; Cao, Xiaofang; Fu, Jin

    2018-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is a major cause of disability and mortality worldwide, while effective restorative treatments are limited at present. Stem cell transplantation holds therapeutic potential for ischemic vascular diseases and may provide an opportunity for neural regeneration. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) origin from neural crest and have neuro-ectodermal features including proliferation and multilineage differentiation potentials. The rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was used to evaluate whether intravenous administration of DPSCs can reduce infarct size and to estimate the migration and trans-differentiation into neuron-like cells in focal cerebral ischemia models. Brain tissues were collected at 4 weeks following cell transplantation and analyzed with immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods. Intravenously administration of rat-derived DPSCs were found to migrate into the boundary of ischemic areas and expressed neural specific markers, reducing infarct volume and cerebral edema. These results suggest that DPSCs treatment may serve as a potential therapy for clinical stroke patients in the future. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Neuronal regeneration in injured rat spinal cord after human dental pulp derived neural crest stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabatas, S; Demir, C S; Civelek, E; Yilmaz, I; Kircelli, A; Yilmaz, C; Akyuva, Y; Karaoz, E

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of human Dental Pulp-Neural Crest Stem Cells (hDP-NCSCs) delivery on lesion site after spinal cord injury (SCI), and to observe the functional recovery after transplantation. Neural Crest Stem Cells (NCSCs) were isolated from human Dental Pulp (hDP). The experimental rat population was divided into four groups (n = 6/24). Their behavioral motility was scored regularly. After 4-weeks, rats were sacrificed, and their spinal cords were examined for Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) labeled hDP-NCSCs by immunofluorescence (IF) staining. In early post-injury (p.i) period, the ultrastructure of spinal cord tissue was preserved in Group 4. The majority of cells forming the ependymal region around the central canal were found to be hDP-NCSCs. While the grey-and-white-matter around the ependymal region was composed of e.g. GFP cells, with astrocytic-like appearance. The scores showed significant motor recovery in hind limb functions in Group 4. However, no obvious change was observed in other groups. Cells e.g., mesenchymal (Vimentin+) which express GFP+ cells in the gray-and-white-matter around the ependymal region could indicate the potential to self-renewal and plasticity. Thus, transplantation of hDP-NCSCs might be an effective strategy to improve functional recovery following spinal cord trauma (Fig. 10, Ref. 32).

  9. Celecoxib plays a multiple role to peripheral blood lymphocytes and allografts in acute rejection in rats after cardiac transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-feng; ZHANG Fan; LIU Hong-yu; SUN Guo-dong; LIU Zong-hong; L(U) Hang; CHI Chao; LI Chun-yu

    2009-01-01

    Background Celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used as an adjuvant to sensitize cancer cells to apoptosis. However, in rats suffering from acute rejection, celecoxib reduced apoptosis of myocardial cells. We hypothesize that celecoxib reduces myocardial apoptosis either by inducing apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) or by altering the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. Methods After cardiac transplantation, rats were administered intragastrically with celecoxib (50 mg/kg per day) for 3, 5 or 7 days, at which time the graft was excised and evaluated for organ rejection. In addition, PBLs were isolated from the blood to determine PBLs apoptosis, and the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. Results Celecoxib induced PBLs apoptosis in 3 days, but protected the cells from apoptosis at 5 and 7 days. Also, the percentage of CD4+ lymphocytes decreased only at 3 days, but a reduction in the percentage of CD8+ lymphocytes was not seen until 7 days after the transplant surgery. Celecoxib only decreased acute rejection at 5 days, with no discernible difference in rejection after 3 and 7 days. Conclusions The results suggested that celecoxib displayed a multiple physiological function in a time-dependent manner.

  10. Acute and transient activation of pituitary-thyroid axis during unforced restriction in rats: component of nonshivering thermogenesis in conscious animals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, P; Földes, O; Macho, L; Kvetnanský, R

    1983-01-01

    Groups of 6-8 male Wistar Olac SPF rats weighing about 300 g were subjected to unforced restriction (UR) in small cages with a metallic bottom and a Plexiglas cover for various intervals from 2 min to 72 h. An acute activation of the pituitary-thyroid axis was found which was manifested by an increase of thyrotropin (TSH) and thyroxine (T4) levels at 2-5 min of UR. This was presumably due to the emotional effect of a rapid transfer and to the placing of the animals into restriction cages. Later, between 3 and 6 h of UR, another, and more pronounced period of activation of the pituitary-thyroid axis and of the peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism was repeatedly observed which lasted until about 36-48 h and was manifested by a highly significant increase of TSH, T4, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (rT3) levels. It was concluded that this phenomenon presumably may be a component of nonshivering thermogenesis resulting from a decreased muscular activity and resembling the conditions occurring under cold stress. Such a view was supported by findings of highly increased nonesterified fatty acid levels in plasma in restricted animals, by unchanged levels of TSH and thyroid hormones found in unrestricted animals kept individually in regular group cages and, finally, by a preventive effect of ambient temperature of 32 degrees C on the pituitary-thyroid activation at 6 h of UR. In some experiments, no substantial differences in hormone levels were found between the animals kept in Plexiglas or stainless wire-mesh restriction cages. Finally, a multifold increase of prolactin level in plasma was found as early as 2 min of UR, the peak being observed between 5 and 20 min and a decrease to about the initial level at about 360 min.

  11. Exercise training versus T3 and T4 hormones treatment: The differential benefits of thyroid hormones on the parasympathetic drive of infarcted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Rayane Brinck; Zimmer, Alexsandra; de Castro, Alexandre Luz; Carraro, Cristina Campos; Casali, Karina Rabello; Dias, Ingrid Gonçalves Machuca; Godoy, Alessandra Eifler Guerra; Litvin, Isnard Elman; Belló-Klein, Adriane; da Rosa Araujo, Alex Sander

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether beneficial effects of thyroid hormones are comparable to those provided by the aerobic exercise training, to verify its applicability as a therapeutic alternative to reverse the pathological cardiac remodeling post-infarction. Male rats were divided into SHAM-operated (SHAM), myocardial infarction (MI), MI subjected to exercise training (MIE), and MI who received T3 and T4 treatment (MIH) (n = 8/group). MI, MIE and MIH groups underwent an infarction surgery while SHAM was SHAM-operated. One-week post-surgery, MIE and MIH groups started the exercise training protocol (moderate intensity on treadmill), or the T3 (1.2 μg/100 g/day) and T4 (4.8 μg/100 g/day) hormones treatment by gavage, respectively, meanwhile SHAM and MI had no intervention for 9 weeks. The groups were accompanied until 74 days after surgery, when all animals were anesthetized, left ventricle echocardiography and femoral catheterization were performed, followed by euthanasia and left ventricle collection for morphological, oxidative stress, and intracellular kinases expression analysis. Thyroid hormones treatment was more effective in cardiac dilation and infarction area reduction, while exercise training provided more protection against fibrosis. Thyroid hormones treatment increased the lipoperoxidation and decreased GSHPx activity as compared to MI group, increased the t-Akt2 expression as compared to SHAM group, and increased the vascular parasympathetic drive. Thyroid hormones treatment provided differential benefits on the LV function and autonomic modulation as compared to the exercise training. Nevertheless, the redox unbalance induced by thyroid hormones highlights the importance of more studies targeting the ideal duration of this treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evidence of chemical stimulation of hepatic metabolism by an experimental acetanilide (FOE 5043) indirectly mediating reductions in circulating thyroid hormone levels in the male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, W R; Becker, B D; Wahle, B S; Moore, K D; Dass, P D; Lake, S G; Van Goethem, D L; Stuart, B P; Sangha, G K; Thyssen, J H

    1996-02-01

    N-(4-Fluorophenyl)-N-(1-methylethyl)-2-[[5-(trifluoromethyl)-1,3, 4-thiadiazol-2-yl]oxy]acetamide (FOE 5043) is a new acetanilide-type herbicide undergoing regulatory testing. Previous work in this laboratory suggested that FOE 5043-induced reductions in serum thyroxine (T4) levels were mediated via an extrathyroidal site of action. The possibility that the alterations in circulating T4 levels were due to chemical induction of hepatic thyroid hormone metabolism was investigated. Treatment with FOE 5043 at a rate of 1000 ppm as a dietary admixture was found to significantly increase the clearance of [125I]T4 from the serum, suggesting an enhanced excretion of the hormone. In the liver, the activity of hepatic uridine glucuronosyl transferase, a major pathway of thyroid hormone biotransformation in the rat, increased in a statistically significant and dose-dependent manner; conversely, hepatic 5'-monodeiodinase activity trended downward with dose. Bile flow as well as the hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of [125I]T4 were increased following exposure to FOE 5043. Thyroidal function, as measured by the discharge of iodide ion in response to perchlorate, and pituitary function, as measured by the capacity of the pituitary to secrete thyrotropin in response to an exogenous challenge by hypothalamic thyrotropin releasing hormone, were both unchanged from the controlled response. These data suggest that the functional status of the thyroid and pituitary glands has not been altered by treatment with FOE 5043 and that reductions in circulating levels of T4 are being mediated indirectly through an increase in the biotransformation and excretion of thyroid hormone in the liver.

  13. Protective effect of probiotics on intestinal barrier function in malnourished rats after liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Gang Ren; Hui Liu; Jian-Wen Jiang; Li Jiang; Hui Chen; Hai-Yang Xie; Lin Zhou; Shu-Sen Zheng

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most patients waiting for liver transplantation have end-stage liver diseases with malnutrition, which is prone to induce intestinal barrier dysfunction after liver transplantation. We aimed to study the effect of probiotics on intestinal barrier function  in  malnourished  rats  following  liver  transplantation with long-term antibiotics. METHODS: Twelve  Lewis  rats  were  selected  as  donors. Twelve  BN  rats,  which  served  as  recipients,  were  subjected  to malnutrition  by  semi-starvation  for  4-5  weeks.  They  were randomly  divided  into  two  groups:  a  control  group  which received  phosphate-buffered  saline  and  a  probiotics  group which received Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. All recipients were injected with intramuscular imipenem and subcutaneous cyclosporine  A.  Furthermore,  six  normal  BN  rats  without any drugs or operations served as a normal group. Eight days after operation, all rats were sacrificed for examination of the following  parameters:  serum  levels  of  endotoxin  and  TNF-α, bacterial  translocation,  intestinal  microflora,  ileocecal  sIgA, lymphocyte  numbers,  and  phenotypes  (CD4,  CD8,  αβTCR, γδTCR) of Peyer's patches. RESULTS: In  recipients  subjected  to  malnutrition,  weight decreased  by  20%  and  they  survived  until  8  days  after operation.  Compared  with  the  normal  group,  all  recipients on  postoperative  day  8  showed  increased  levels  of  serum endotoxin  and  TNF-α  as  well  as  increased  counts  of translocated  bacteria.  Meanwhile,  there  were  decreases  in

  14. Plasma antioxidant capacity, sexual and thyroid hormones levels, sperm quantity and quality parameters in stressed male rats received nano-particle of selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rezaeian-Tabrizi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of nano-particle of selenium (nSe on plasma antioxidant capacity, sexual and thyroid hormones and spermatogenesis in male rats exposed to oxidative stress.Methods: Forty rats were randomly divided into four treatments with ten replicates. Treatment groups were: C, the control group received normal saline as gavage and injection (i.p.; OS, received tert-butyl hydroperoxide (0.2 mmol/kg body weight for inducing oxidative stress; nSe, received nSe (0.3 mg/kg body weight as gavage, and OS+nSe, received tert-butyl hydroperoxide and nSe. All groups were treated for 28 d and administrations were done each 48 h.Results: Oxidative stress decreased and gavage of nSe to stressed rats increased the antioxidant capacity and activities (P0.05 between rats exposed to oxidative stress and those in the control group for sperm quantity and quality. Gavage of nSe to stressed rats had no effect (P>0.05 on the sperm parameters, except increased viability and progressive percentages.Conclusions: Nano-particle of Selenium administration in stressed rats could ameliorate the negative effects of oxidative stress on the antioxidant capacity and activities, but not on the quantity and quality parameters of sperm.

  15. Synergistic Effects of Aerobic Exercise after Bone Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation on Recovery of Dopaminergic Neurons and Angiogenesis Markers of Parkinsonian Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abdollah Hashemvarzi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Parkinson is a progressive neurodegenerative disease in central nervous system. Non-pharmacologic treatment methods such as stem cell transplantation and exercise have been considered as a treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the synergistic effects of aerobic exercise after bone marrow stem cells transplantation on recovery of dopaminergic neurons and promotion of angiogenesis markers in the striatum of parkinsonian rats. 42 rats were divided into six groups: Normal (N, Sham (S, Parkinson’s (P, Stem cells transplanted Parkinson’s (SP, Exercised Parkinson’s (EP and Stem cells transplanted+Exercised Parkinson’s (SEP. To create a model of Parkinson's, the striatum was destroyed by injection of 6-hydroxy-dopamine into the striatum through stereotaxic apparatus. Stem cells were derived from the bone marrow of femur and tibia of male rats aged 6-8 weeks. After cultivation, approximately 5×105 cells were injected into the striatum of rats through the channel. Aerobic exercise was included 8 weeks of running on treadmill with a speed of 15 meters per minute. At the end of the study, all subjects were decapitated and striatum tissues were separately isolated for measurement of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, dopamine (DA and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH levels. VEGF, DA and TH levels in the striatum of parkinsonian rats significantly increased in treatment groups (SP, EP and SEP, especially in SEP group compared to P group after treatment (P<0.05. The BMSCs transplantation in combination with exercise would have synergistic effects leading to functional recovery, dopaminergic neurons recovery and promotion of angiogenesis marker in the striatum of parkinsonian rats. Keywords: Stem cells, Aerobic exercise, Neurotrophic factors, Parkinson

  16. The effects of clobazam treatment in rats on the expression of genes and proteins encoding glucronosyltransferase 1A/2B (UGT1A/2B) and multidrug resistance‐associated protein-2 (MRP2), and development of thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyawaki, Izuru, E-mail: izuru-miyawaki@ds-pharma.co.jp; Tamura, Akitoshi; Matsumoto, Izumi; Inada, Hiroshi; Kunimatsu, Takeshi; Kimura, Juki; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2012-12-15

    Clobazam (CLB) is known to increase hepatobiliary thyroxine (T4) clearance in Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats, which results in hypothyroidism followed by thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy. However, the mechanism of the acceleration of T4-clearance has not been fully investigated. In the present study, we tried to clarify the roles of hepatic UDP-glucronosyltransferase (UGT) isoenzymes (UGT1A and UGT2B) and efflux transporter (multidrug resistance–associated protein-2; MRP2) in the CLB-induced acceleration of T4-clearance using two mutant rat strains, UGT1A-deficient mutant (Gunn) and MRP2-deficient mutant (EHBR) rats, especially focusing on thyroid morphology, levels of circulating hormones (T4 and triiodothyronine (T3)) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and mRNA or protein expressions of UGTs (Ugt1a1, Ugt1a6, and Ugt2b1/2) and MRP2 (Mrp). CLB induced thyroid morphological changes with increases in TSH in SD and Gunn rats, but not in EHBR rats. T4 was slightly decreased in SD and Gunn rats, and T3 was decreased in Gunn rats, whereas these hormones were maintained in EHBR rats. Hepatic Ugt1a1, Ugt1a6, Ugt2b1/2, and Mrp2 mRNAs were upregulated in SD rats. In Gunn rats, UGT1A mRNAs (Ugt1a1/6) and protein levels were quite low, but UGT2B mRNAs (Ugt2b1/2) and protein were prominently upregulated. In SD and Gunn rats, MRP2 mRNA and protein were upregulated to the same degree. These results suggest that MRP2 is an important contributor in development of the thyroid cellular hypertrophy in CLB-treated rats, and that UGT1A and UGT2B work in concert with MRP2 in the presence of MRP2 function to enable the effective elimination of thyroid hormones. -- Highlights: ► Role of UGT and MRP2 in thyroid pathology was investigated in clobazam-treated rats. ► Clobazam induced thyroid cellular hypertrophy in SD and Gunn rats, but not EHBR rats. ► Hepatic Mrp2 gene and protein were upregulated in SD and Gunn rats, but not EHBR rats. ► Neither serum thyroid hormones (T3/T4

  17. The effects of clobazam treatment in rats on the expression of genes and proteins encoding glucronosyltransferase 1A/2B (UGT1A/2B) and multidrug resistance‐associated protein-2 (MRP2), and development of thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyawaki, Izuru; Tamura, Akitoshi; Matsumoto, Izumi; Inada, Hiroshi; Kunimatsu, Takeshi; Kimura, Juki; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Clobazam (CLB) is known to increase hepatobiliary thyroxine (T4) clearance in Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats, which results in hypothyroidism followed by thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy. However, the mechanism of the acceleration of T4-clearance has not been fully investigated. In the present study, we tried to clarify the roles of hepatic UDP-glucronosyltransferase (UGT) isoenzymes (UGT1A and UGT2B) and efflux transporter (multidrug resistance–associated protein-2; MRP2) in the CLB-induced acceleration of T4-clearance using two mutant rat strains, UGT1A-deficient mutant (Gunn) and MRP2-deficient mutant (EHBR) rats, especially focusing on thyroid morphology, levels of circulating hormones (T4 and triiodothyronine (T3)) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and mRNA or protein expressions of UGTs (Ugt1a1, Ugt1a6, and Ugt2b1/2) and MRP2 (Mrp). CLB induced thyroid morphological changes with increases in TSH in SD and Gunn rats, but not in EHBR rats. T4 was slightly decreased in SD and Gunn rats, and T3 was decreased in Gunn rats, whereas these hormones were maintained in EHBR rats. Hepatic Ugt1a1, Ugt1a6, Ugt2b1/2, and Mrp2 mRNAs were upregulated in SD rats. In Gunn rats, UGT1A mRNAs (Ugt1a1/6) and protein levels were quite low, but UGT2B mRNAs (Ugt2b1/2) and protein were prominently upregulated. In SD and Gunn rats, MRP2 mRNA and protein were upregulated to the same degree. These results suggest that MRP2 is an important contributor in development of the thyroid cellular hypertrophy in CLB-treated rats, and that UGT1A and UGT2B work in concert with MRP2 in the presence of MRP2 function to enable the effective elimination of thyroid hormones. -- Highlights: ► Role of UGT and MRP2 in thyroid pathology was investigated in clobazam-treated rats. ► Clobazam induced thyroid cellular hypertrophy in SD and Gunn rats, but not EHBR rats. ► Hepatic Mrp2 gene and protein were upregulated in SD and Gunn rats, but not EHBR rats. ► Neither serum thyroid hormones (T3/T4

  18. Propofol combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation improves electrophysiological function in the hindlimb of rats with spinal cord injury better than monotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-xin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The repair effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on nervous system damage are not satisfactory. Propofol has been shown to protect against spinal cord injury. Therefore, this study sought to explore the therapeutic effects of their combination on spinal cord injury. Rat models of spinal cord injury were established using the weight drop method. Rats were subjected to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation via tail vein injection and/or propofol injection via tail vein using an infusion pump. Four weeks after cell transplantation and/or propofol treatment, the cavity within the spinal cord was reduced. The numbers of PKH-26-positive cells and horseradish peroxidase-positive nerve fibers apparently increased in the spinal cord. Latencies of somatosensory evoked potentials and motor evoked potentials in the hindlimb were noticeably shortened, amplitude was increased and hindlimb motor function was obviously improved. Moreover, the combined effects were better than cell transplantation or propofol injection alone. The above data suggest that the combination of propofol injection and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation can effectively improve hindlimb electrophysiological function, promote the recovery of motor funtion, and play a neuroprotective role in spinal cord injury in rats.

  19. Freshly isolated hepatocyte transplantation in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity model in rats Transplante de hepatócitos recém-isolados em um modelo de hepatotoxicidade induzida por acetaminofeno em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Rodrigues

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Hepatocyte transplantation is an attractive therapeutic modality for liver disease as an alternative for orthotopic liver transplantation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to investigate the feasibility of freshly isolated rat hepatocyte transplantation in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity model. METHODS: Hepatocytes were isolated from male Wistar rats and transplanted 24 hours after acetaminophen administration in female recipients. Female rats received either 1x10(7 hepatocytes or phosphate buffered saline through the portal vein or into the spleen and were sacrificed after 48 hours. RESULTS: Alanine aminotransferase levels measured within the experiment did not differ between groups at any time point. Molecular analysis and histology showed presence of hepatocytes in liver of transplanted animals injected either through portal vein or spleen. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of hepatocyte transplantation in the liver or spleen in a mild acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity model.CONTEXTO: O transplante de hepatócitos é uma modalidade terapêutica atrativa para doenças hepáticas como alternativa ao transplante hepático ortotópico. OBJETIVO: Investigar a factibilidade do uso de hepatócitos frescos isolados de ratos em um modelo de hepatotoxicidade induzida por paracetamol. MÉTODOS: Hepatócitos foram isolados de ratos Wistar machos e transplantados 24 horas após a administração de paracetamol em receptores fêmeas. As ratas receberam 1x10(7 hepatócitos ou tampão salina fosfato pela veia porta ou no baço e foram sacrificadas após 48 horas. RESULTADOS: Os níveis de alanina aminotransferase medidos durante o experimento não diferiram entre os grupos em nenhum momento. Análises moleculares e histológicas demonstraram a presença de hepatócitos no fígado dos animais transplantados pelo baço ou pela veia porta. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados indicam a factibilidade e eficácia do

  20. Autogenous transplantation of rib cartilage preserved in glycerol, after removal of the perichondrium, to the malar process of rats--a histological study (Part I).

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, T.; Gabrielli, M. A.; de Oliveira Júnior, O. B.; Marcantonio, E.; Gabrielli, M. F.

    1990-01-01

    Seventy-two male albino rats received autogenous transplants of glycerol-preserved rib cartilage into the malar process. The animals were divided into two groups which received preserved cartilage with or without perichondrium. The implants were well tolerated and removal of the perichondrium enhanced the rate of resorption and bone replacement of the material.

  1. Combination of exogenous cell transplantation and 5-HT4 receptor agonism induce endogenous enteric neural crest-derived cells in a rat hypoganglionosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Zheng, Bai-Jun; Pan, Wei-Kang; Wang, Huai-Jie; Xie, Chong; Zhao, Yu-Ying; Chen, Xin-Lin; Liu, Yong; Gao, Ya

    2017-02-01

    Enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCCs) can migrate into endogenous ganglia and differentiate into progeny cells, and have even partially rescued bowel function; however, poor reliability and limited functional recovery after ENCC transplantation have yet to be addressed. Here, we investigated the induction of endogenous ENCCs by combining exogenous ENCC transplantation with a 5-HT 4 receptor agonist mosapride in a rat model of hypoganglionosis, established by benzalkonium chloride treatment. ENCCs, isolated from the gut of newborn rats, were labeled with a lentiviral eGFP reporter. ENCCs and rats were treated with the 5-HT 4 receptor agonist/antagonist. The labeled ENCCs were then transplanted into the muscular layer of benzalkonium chloride-treated colons. At given days post-intervention, colonic tissue samples were removed for histological analysis. ENCCs and neurons were detected by eGFP expression and immunoreactivity to p75 NTR and peripherin, respectively. eGFP-positive ENCCs and neurons could survive and maintain levels of fluorescence after transplantation. With longer times post-intervention, the number of peripherin-positive cells gradually increased in all groups. Significantly more peripherin-positive cells were found following ENCCs plus mosapride treatment, compared with the other groups. These results show that exogenous ENCCs combined with the 5-HT 4 receptor agonist effectively induced endogenous ENCCs proliferation and differentiation in a rat hypoganglionosis model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bone marrow stromal cells elicit tissue sparing after acute but not delayed transplantation into the contused adult rat thoracic spinal cord.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tewarie, R.D.; Hurtado, A.; Ritfeld, G.J.; Rahiem, S.T.; Wendell, D.F.; Barroso, M.M.; Grotenhuis, J.A.; Oudega, M.

    2009-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) transplanted into the contused spinal cord may support repair by improving tissue sparing. We injected allogeneic BMSC into the moderately contused adult rat thoracic spinal cord at 15 min (acute) and at 3, 7, and 21 days (delayed) post-injury and quantified tissue

  3. Quantitative arterial spin labelling perfusion measurements in rat models of renal transplantation and acute kidney injury at 3 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, Fabian; Schad, Lothar R.; Zoellner, Frank G. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Klotz, Sarah; Hoeger, Simone; Yard, Benito A.; Kraemer, Bernhard K. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Medicine V

    2017-05-01

    To employ ASL for the measurement of renal cortical perfusion in particular renal disorders typically associated with graft loss and to investigate its potential to detect and differentiate the related functional deterioration i.e., in a setting of acute kidney injury (AKI) as well as in renal grafts showing acute and chronic transplant rejection. 14 Lewis rats with unilateral ischaemic AKI and 43 Lewis rats with renal grafts showing acute or chronic rejections were used. All ASL measurements in this study were performed on a 3 T MR scanner using a FAIR True-FISP approach to assess renal blood flow (RBF). Perfusion maps were calculated and the cortical blood flow was determined using a region-of-interest based analysis. RBF of healthy and AKI kidneys as well as of both rejection models, were compared. In a subsample of 20 rats, creatinine clearance was measured and correlated with cortical perfusion. RBF differs significantly between healthy and AKI kidneys (P < 0.001) with a mean difference of 213 ± 80 ml/100 g/min. Renal grafts with chronic rejections show a significantly higher (P < 0.001) mean cortical perfusion (346 ± 112 ml/100 g/min) than grafts with acute rejection (240 ± 66 ml/100 g/min). Both transplantation models have a significantly (P < 0.001) lower perfusion than healthy kidneys. Renal creatinine clearance is significantly correlated (R = 0.85, P < 0.001) with cortical blood flow. Perfusion measurements with ASL have the potential to become a valuable diagnostic tool, regarding the detection of renal impairment and the differentiation of disorders that lead to a loss of renal function and that are typically associated with graft loss.

  4. Quantitative arterial spin labelling perfusion measurements in rat models of renal transplantation and acute kidney injury at 3 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, Fabian; Schad, Lothar R.; Zoellner, Frank G.; Klotz, Sarah; Hoeger, Simone; Yard, Benito A.; Kraemer, Bernhard K.

    2017-01-01

    To employ ASL for the measurement of renal cortical perfusion in particular renal disorders typically associated with graft loss and to investigate its potential to detect and differentiate the related functional deterioration i.e., in a setting of acute kidney injury (AKI) as well as in renal grafts showing acute and chronic transplant rejection. 14 Lewis rats with unilateral ischaemic AKI and 43 Lewis rats with renal grafts showing acute or chronic rejections were used. All ASL measurements in this study were performed on a 3 T MR scanner using a FAIR True-FISP approach to assess renal blood flow (RBF). Perfusion maps were calculated and the cortical blood flow was determined using a region-of-interest based analysis. RBF of healthy and AKI kidneys as well as of both rejection models, were compared. In a subsample of 20 rats, creatinine clearance was measured and correlated with cortical perfusion. RBF differs significantly between healthy and AKI kidneys (P < 0.001) with a mean difference of 213 ± 80 ml/100 g/min. Renal grafts with chronic rejections show a significantly higher (P < 0.001) mean cortical perfusion (346 ± 112 ml/100 g/min) than grafts with acute rejection (240 ± 66 ml/100 g/min). Both transplantation models have a significantly (P < 0.001) lower perfusion than healthy kidneys. Renal creatinine clearance is significantly correlated (R = 0.85, P < 0.001) with cortical blood flow. Perfusion measurements with ASL have the potential to become a valuable diagnostic tool, regarding the detection of renal impairment and the differentiation of disorders that lead to a loss of renal function and that are typically associated with graft loss.

  5. Transplantation of MSCs in combination with netrin-1 improves neoangiogenesis in a rat model of hind limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Yao, Dan; Ma, Jianhua; Zhu, Jian; Xu, Xianghong; Ren, Yunli; Ding, Xinsheng; Mao, Xiaoming

    2011-03-01

    Similar to the neural network, the vascular network is formed from central axial structures that send sprouts along predetermined trajectories to their distal destinations. Indeed, recent evidence indicates that neuronal guidance factors and their receptors function as angiogenic regulators. As neural guidance cues, netrin-1 is the most extensively studied gene in the field of angiogenesis. Despite achieving some advances in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy in angiogenesis, there are still a certain number of patients who fail to respond to cell therapy. Thus, a novel therapeutic strategy to enhance the angiogenic property of transplanted cells is desirable. This study examined the impact of combined netrin-1 protein and MSC implantation on therapeutic angiogenesis in a rat model of hind limb ischemia. Hind limb ischemic rats (n = 24) were divided randomly into four groups (six rats per group): control group (0.05 mL saline); netrin-1 group (1 μg netrin-1 dissolved in 0.05 mL saline); MSC group (1 × 10(6) MSCs); and netrin-1/MSCs group (1 μg netrin-1 combined with MSCs). Netrin-1 and/or MSCs were injected directly into the muscle of the ischemic limb. Gross appearance of ischemic limb, collateral vessel formation, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level were assessed 28 d after treatment. The results showed that pretreatment of MSCs with a recombinant netrin-1 protein markedly augmented the angiographic score and capillary density, improved function of the ischemic limb, and increased levels of VEGF in the plasma and damaged tissues. Further studies assaying the cell migration and network formation suggested that netrin-1 promoted MSC migration and enhanced its ability to participate in tube formation. These results demonstrated that transplantation of MSCs pretreated with netrin-1 protein significantly improved the therapeutic effect of MSCs and, therefore, may provide a novel therapeutic approach for ischemic disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier

  6. EVALUATION OF THE ANTITUMOR AND ANTICACHEXIA ACTIVITY OF GRATIOLA OFFICINALIS L. EXTRACT IN RATS WITH TRANSPLANTED SARCOMA 45

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Navolokin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cachexia is a severe complication of cancer and currently there are no drugs that would effectively deal with exhaustion and intoxication in various diseases.Materials and methods. In this paper a study and evaluation of the antitumor and anticachexia activities of the extract of Gratiola officinalis l. in rats with transplanted sarcoma 45 in experiment in vivo was conducted. Gratiola officinalis l. extract is received by patented method and is not toxic to animals. The study was conducted on 40 white male rats line Wistar weighing 150 ± 50 g. Animals were divided into 4 groups (10 rats per group: control group, comparison group with sarcoma without affecting, group with sarcoma with intramuscular and group with sarcoma with oral administration of the extract in a dosage of 110 mg/kg. The extract was administered intramuscularly or orally 72 hours after transplantation of sarcoma 45. The tumor volume and the weight of the animals were assessed daily.Results. The extract of leaves and flowers of Gratiola officinalis l. obtained by patented method has a strong antitumor activity, reducing the growth rate of the tumor and causing marked changes in the tumor, as well as providing stable anticachexia effect. Index of tumor weight inhibition was 70.6 % on average. Intramuscular administration was more effective in reducing of tumor growth, but less effectively increases the weight of animals than oral administration. In both administration methods Gratiola officinalis extract has no toxic effect on peripheral blood. We have previously found that the extract has antioxidant activity so that anticachexia effect is pathogenic, meaning it occurs by reducing toxicity.Conclusions. Gratiola officinalis extract has a broad spectrum of biological activity, in particular antitumor, anticachexia, it is not toxic, so it is advisable to investigate as a promising tool for the treatment of tumor diseases and cancer cachexia, and cachexia caused by other chronic

  7. Toxicological Aspects of Carbaryl on liver functions, lipid profile and thyroid hormones in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afifi, E.A.A.

    2003-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to show the toxicological effects of daily oral doses of carbaryl on different metabolic activities through biochemical determinations in male rats by feeding diet treated with 28 mg/kg for four consecutive weeks, followed by one and two weeks of recovery periods. Results revealed disturbance in liver functions which were elucidated through marked increases of serum glutamic oxalacetic (SGOT), glutamic pyruvic (SGPT) transaminases and alkaline phosphatase (SALP). Carbaryl also induced hypoglycemia, increase in liver glycogen content, decrease in kidney and brain glycogen, decrease in serum bilirubin and total lipids, reduction in blood cholesterol, increase in serum calcium with decrease in serum inorganic phosphorus. Thyroxine hormone(T 4 ) was increased while triiodothyronine (T 3 ) was decreased

  8. Adaptation of intestinal hydrolases to starvation in rats: effect of thyroid function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galluser, M; Belkhou, R; Freund, J N

    1991-01-01

    The effects of long-term starvation on the activities of sucrase, lactase, and aminopeptidase, and on their respective mRNA were determined in the small intestine of thyroidectomized and sham-operated adult rats. Thyroidectomy reduced the protein loss at the level of the intestinal brush border...... membranes during starvation. Prolonged fasting caused a significant decrease in sucrase activity, but thyroidectomy partly prevented this effect. However, the amount of the corresponding mRNA dropped during long term starvation without incidence of thyroidectomy. Lactase activity in the brush border...... membranes was increased by starvation, and thyroidectomy caused a further elevation of the enzyme activity. Simultaneously, lactase mRNA content rose only slightly compared to the enzyme activity. Aminopeptidase activity and mRNA content decreased during starvation and thyroidectomy did not prevent...

  9. [Effect of thyroid hormones on the histotopography of lectin receptors in the rat salivary gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsik, A D; Iashchenko, A M; Detiuk, E S

    1987-04-01

    Using lectin-peroxidase technique, the influence of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on histotopography of glycoconjugates has been investigated in rat submandibular gland. The following lectins were used: peanut agglutinin (PNA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Laburnum anagyroides lectin (LAL) and concanavalin A (con A). It has been demonstrated that hyperthyroidism is accompanied by the loss of con A, WGA and LAL receptor sites. Hypothyrodism enhanced con A binding to granular duct cells with a parallel reduction in WGA and LAL binding to these or other duct cells. Hypothyroidism as well as hyperthyroidism markedly enhanced PNA binding to duct epitheliocytes with redistribution of these lectin binding sites from the luminal surface of salivary ducts into the cytoplasm of duct cells. Possible interpretations of the observed phenomena are discussed.

  10. Transplantation of human umbilical cord blood-derived mononuclear cells induces recovery of motor dysfunction in a rat model of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen C

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chao Chen,1,* Jing Duan,1,* Aifang Shen,2,* Wei Wang,1 Hao Song,1 Yanming Liu,1 Xianjie Lu,1 Xiaobing Wang,2 Zhiqing You,1 Zhongchao Han,3,4 Fabin Han1 1Center for Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, The Liaocheng People's Hospital, Affiliated Liaocheng Hospital, Taishan Medical University, Shandong, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Liaocheng People's Hospital, Affiliated Liaocheng Hospital, Taishan Medical University, Shandong, People's Republic of China; 3The State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Hospital of Blood Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union of Medical College, Tianjin, People's Republic of China; 4National Engineering Research Center of Cell Products, AmCellGene Co. Ltd., TEDA, Tianjin, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Human umbilical cord blood-derived mononuclear cells (hUCB-MNCs were reported to have neurorestorative capacity for neurological disorders such as stroke and traumatic brain injury. This study was performed to explore if hUCB-MNC transplantation plays any therapeutic effects for Parkinson's disease (PD in a 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model of PD. hUCB-MNCs were isolated from umbilical cord blood and administered to the striatum of the 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. The apomorphine-induced locomotive turning-overs were measured to evaluate the improvement of motor dysfunctions of the rats after administration of hUCB-MNCs. We observed that transplanted hUCB-MNCs significantly improve the motor deficits of the PD rats and that grafted hUCB-MNCs integrated to the host brains and differentiated to neurons and dopamine neurons in vivo after 16 weeks of transplantation. Our study provided evidence that transplanted hUCB-MNCs play therapeutic effects in a rat PD model by differentiating to neurons and dopamine neurons. Keywords: hUCB-MNCs, Parkinson's disease, transplantation

  11. Adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells transplantation via portal vein improves microcirculation and ameliorates liver fibrosis induced by CCl4 in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs, carrying the similar characteristics to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, only much more abundant and easier to obtain, may be a promising treatment for liver fibrosis. We aim to investigate the therapeutic potential of ADMSCs transplantation in liver fibrosis caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in rats as well as its underlying mechanism, and to further explore the appropriate infusion pathway. Methods ADMSCs were isolated, cultured and identified. Placebo and ADMSCs were transplanted via portal vein and tail vein respectively into carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver fibrosis rats. Computed tomography (CT perfusion scan and microvessel counts were performed to measure the alteration of liver microcirculation after therapy. Liver function tests and histological findings were estimated. Results CT perfusion scan shown significant decrease of hepatic arterial perfusion index, significant increased portal vein perfusion, total liver perfusion in rats receiving ADMSCs from portal vein, and Factor VIII (FVIII immunohistochemical staining shown significant decrease of microvessels in rats receiving ADMSCs from portal vein, indicating microcirculation improvement in portal vein group. Vascular endothelial growth Factor (VEGF was significantly up-regulated in fibrosis models, and decreased after ADMSCs intraportal transplantation. A significant improvement of liver functional test and histological findings in portal vein group were observed. No significance was found in rats receiving ADMSCs from tail vein. Conclusions ADMSCs have a therapeutic effect against CCl4-mediated liver fibrosis. ADMSCs may benefit the fibrotic liver through alteration of microcirculation, evidenced by CT perfusion scan and down-regulation of VEGF. Intraportal transplantation is a better pathway than tail vein transplantation.

  12. Ameliorating Effects of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Zinc Supplementation on Physiological and Immunological Changes in Gamma-Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, O.; Soliman, M.; Mahmoud, N.; Abd Elnaby, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The present study was carried out to determine the prophylactic impact of zinc sulphate administration to irradiated rats treated with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) as indicated by the hematological and immunologic response as well as oxidative stress. Material and methods: Rats were injected orally with zinc sulphate, 10 mg/kg body wt, daily for 2 weeks before whole body 5 Gy gamma irradiation and intravenous injection of bone marrow cells, one hour post irradiation. Results: The results revealed a significant decrease in red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), glutathione (GSH) and zinc superoxide dismutase (Zn/SOD), splenocyte count as well as bone marrow lymphocyte count and viability of irradiated rats. Regarding immunological data: tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF– ) and interleukin 2 (IL–2) recorded a significant decrease while interleukin 6 (IL–6) and lipid peroxidation product (MDA) in the serum and spleen were conversely elevated. Zn supplementation before irradiation and BMT and showed significant decrease of serum and tissue MDA compared to the irradiated group. Lymphocytes, bone marrow viability percentage, splenocytes percentage, IL–2, IL–6 and GSH were significantly elevated compared to irradiated group. Conclusion: Protection with Zn, enforcing significant innate response, could trigger and augment adaptive immune response by BMT which suggests its use to protect against radiation hazards. (author)

  13. Modification of the activity of lymphocytes by xenotransplantation of thyroid gland tissue and by the transfer factor of immune reactivity in the case of radiation-induced hypothyrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goleva, O.G.; Paster, Yi.P.; Lyubchenko, T.A.; Kholodna, L.S.; Paster, Je.U.; Donyich, S.F.; Grodzins'kij, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    Transplantation of a thyroid tissue is one of the possible methods for the curing of functional disorders of thyroid gland that appear due to the influence of insufficient environmental conditions on organism. By the micro method of lymphocyte blast transformation reaction, the functional activity of Wistar rat's splenocytes is studied. In the case of radiation-induced hypothyrosis before and after xenotransplantation of the organic cell culture of thyroid gland of newborn pigs, the opportunities for correction of immunological disorders with the help of transfer factor preparations are investigated. The transfer factor is a low-molecular weight leukocyte extract (≤ 10kD) with immuno modulating activities. The reducing of self and PHA-stimulated proliferation of rat's splenocytes with [J131]-induced hypothyrosis is found. Bovine and human transfer factor preparations activate the proliferation of splenocytes from animals with hypothyrosis and animals with xenotransplantation

  14. Expression of the skeletal calsequestrin isoform in normal and regenerated skeletal muscles and in the hearts of rats with altered thyroid status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Tomáš; Sulimenko, Vadym; Marková, Vladimíra; Kopecká, Kateřina; Zachařová, Gisela; Paleček, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 6 (2012), s. 575-586 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/1228; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Grant - others:EC(XE) Myores 511978 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : skeletal calsequestrin * calcium and muscle contraction * thyroid hormones * western blot and qRT-PCR analysis * muscle transplantation * fast and slow muscle fibers Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.531, year: 2012

  15. Thyroid Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Institute. (2014). Thyroid Cancer . Bomeli, S.R., LeBeau, S.O., Ferris, R.L. (2010). Evalution of a Thyroid Nodule . ... Institute. (2014). Thyroid Cancer . Bomeli, S.R., LeBeau, S.O., Ferris, R.L. (2010). Evalution of a Thyroid Nodule . ...

  16. Heterotopic cardiac transplantation decreases the capacity for rat myocardial protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, I.; Samarel, A.M.; Welikson, R.; Hong, C.

    1991-01-01

    Heterotopic cardiac isografts are vascularly perfused hearts that maintain structural and functional integrity for prolonged periods of time. When placed in an infrarenal location, the heart is hemodynamically unloaded and undergoes negative growth, leading to cardiac atrophy. At 7 and 14 days after transplantation, the transplanted heart was decreased in size compared with the in situ heart (p less than 0.001). To assess the possible mechanism(s) to account for this reduction in size we studied in vivo rates of total left ventricular (LV) protein synthesis, total LV RNA content, and 18S ribosomal RNA content by nucleic acid hybridization. The LV protein synthetic rate was 4.7 and 5.3 mg/day in the in situ heart and was significantly decreased to 2.9 and 2.7 mg/day in the transplanted hearts at 7 and 14 days, respectively. LV RNA content of the transplant declined to 53% and 48% of the in situ value at 7 and 14 days, respectively. Hybridization studies revealed that LV 18S ribosomal subunit content was reduced proportionately to total RNA in the heterotopic hearts. As a result of these changes, there was no significant difference in the efficiency of total LV protein synthesis between the in situ and transplanted hearts. The present studies demonstrate that the hemodynamic unloading and cardiac atrophy that is characteristic of heterotopic cardiac transplantation is accompanied by a decrease in LV total RNA content and 18S RNA, resulting in a decreased capacity for myocardial protein synthesis

  17. Therapeutic effect of 15-deoxyspergualin on acute graft rejection detected by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectrography, and its effect on rat heart transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.; Kanashiro, M.; Watanabe, H.; Amemiya, H.

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 15-deoxyspergualin (DSG) on graft rejection, starting administration at the onset of rejection and on the induction of immunologic unresponsiveness. Hearts from WKAH rats were transplanted into the neck of ACI rats. The energy metabolism of the grafted hearts was followed by 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The day that energy metabolism started to fall was defined as the onset of rejection, and intraperitoneal administration of DSG was initiated at 5 mg/kg/day for 15 days from this day. The grafted heart arrested in 2 of 10 rats 9 and 11 days after transplantation, respectively, but the remaining 8 recovered from rejection and 5 of them showed evidence of immunologic unresponsiveness. Of 10 rats treated with DSG from the day of transplantation, only 1 rat showed evidence of unresponsiveness. The initiation of DSG treatment from the onset of rejection resulted in a higher percentage of induction of unresponsiveness. Therefore, DSG was considered to specifically inhibit lymphocyte clone expansion at the onset of rejection. Spleen cells obtained from recipients 7-10 days after the end of DSG treatment were administered to syngeneic ACI rats grafted with WKAH hearts. Graft survival was significantly prolonged, but long-term unresponsiveness could not be transferred. However, immunologic unresponsiveness could be adoptively transferred in 3 of 5 rats receiving spleen cells from syngeneic rats that had recovered from rejection after DSG treatment and had acquired long-term unresponsiveness. These results suggest that suppressor cells are resistant to DSG and are spared and participate in the maintenance of immunologic unresponsiveness

  18. Transplantation of mononuclear cells from bone marrow in a rat model of Huntington’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano T

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Teresa Serrano,1 Paula Pierozan,2 Esteban Alberti,1 Lisette Blanco,1 Karelys de la Cuétara Bernal,1 María E González,1 Nancy Pavón,1 Lourdes Lorigados,1 María A Robinson-Agramonte,1 Jorge A Bergado1 1International Center for Neurological Restoration (CIREN, La Habana, Cuba; 2Department of Biochemistry, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Abstract: This article investigates the possible effects of transplantation of mononuclear bone marrow cells (mBMCs to ameliorate or prevent the behavioral impairments and the cellular damage observed in a quinolinic acid (QA model of Huntington’s disease. mBMCs were isolated using a standard procedure and implanted within the QA-lesioned striatum. Behavior was explored using motor (beam test and memory (object recognition and Morris water maze tests. Morphology was evaluated using conventional histology (cresyl violet, bisbenzimide (to evaluate cell vitality, and immunohystochemistry to identify neurons or glia. mBMC-transplanted animals showed improvements in motor coordination (beam test. Regarding memory, object recognition was significantly improved in transplanted animals, while spatial memory (Morris water maze test was not severely affected by QA and, therefore, the results after transplantation were significant only in the probe-trial retention test. In samples taken from the animals that participated in the behavioral tests, a preserved morphology of striatal neurons and a reduced glial reaction indicated a possible neuroprotective effect of the transplanted mBMCs. A parallel study confirmed that the transplanted mBMCs have a long survival period (1 year follow-up. The results presented confirm the possibility that mBMC transplantation may be a viable therapeutic option for Huntington’s disease. Keywords: mononuclear bone marrow cells, Huntington’s disease, quinolinic acid, transplant, Fluoro-Jade C

  19. Effect of developmental low dose PBDE 47 exposure on thyroid hormone status and serum concentrations of FSH and inhibin B in male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, A.J.M.; Kuriyama, S.N.; Akkoc, Z.; Talsness, C.E.; Chahoud, I. [Charite Univ. Medical School Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Dept. Toxicology, Campus Benjamin Franklin

    2004-09-15

    Several persistent halogenated organic compounds such as PCBs, dioxins and more recently, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis in experimental animals. Particular concern exists regarding exposure to these compounds during critical periods of development when thyroid hormones orchestrate the growth and differentiation of many organs including the brain and the testis. While the contamination levels of PCBs and other persistent organic pollutants have declined in the past years, increasing levels of PBDEs have been detected in environmental and human samples including human breast milk. PBDEs are produced in large quantities and used worldwide as flame retardants in electrical appliances, carpets and furniture upholstery. Similar to other halogenated environmental organic pollutants, PBDEs seem to present a wide range of toxic effects including reproductive, endocrine, neurobehavioral and hepatic toxicity. Recently, it has been demonstrated that in utero and pubertal exposures to DE-71 (a commercial mixture containing mostly tetra- and penta-bromodiphenyl ethers) significantly reduce thyroxine levels (T4) in rats. The present study has focused on the possible effects of the tetra- BDE congener 2,2'4,4'-tetrabromo diphenyl ether (PBDE 47) on thyroid hormone status and associated changes on FSH and inhibin B levels in the developing male rat. We administered a single dose to gravid dams on gestation day 6 of either 140 {mu}g/kg BW or 700 {mu}g/kg BW PBDE 47. These doses are pertinent to human exposure situation because a study by She et al.3 found a mean level of 33.3 {mu}g PBDE 47 /kg fat in human breast adipose tissue with a range from 7.01 to 196 {mu}g PBDE 47 /kg fat.

  20. Glutathione deficiency induced by cystine and/or methionine deprivation does not affect thyroid hormone deiodination in cultured rat hepatocytes and monkey hepatocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.; Robbins, J.

    1981-01-01

    To elucidate the recently advanced hypothesis that glutathione [L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl glycine (GSH)] regulates deiodinating enzyme activities, accounting for the decreased conversion of T4 to T3 in the liver of fetal and starved animals, we investigated thyroid hormone metabolism in GSH-depleted neoplastic and normal hepatocytes. In monkey hepatocarcinoma cells, intracellular total GSH decreased below 10% of the control value (approximately 25 micrograms/mg protein) when cells were grown for 44 h in medium deficient in cystine and methionine or in cystine alone. The latter finding indicated that transsulfuration from methionine to cysteine was defective in these neoplastic cells. In primary cultured adult rat hepatocytes, on the other hand, the transsulfuration pathway was intact, and total GSH decreased below 10% of control (approximately 20 micrograms/mg protein) only in cells grown in cystine- and methionine-deficient medium. In both cell types, the oxidized GSH fraction remained constant (2-5% of total). Incubation with 125I-labeled T4 and T3, followed by chromatography, was used to evaluate 5-deiodination in hepatocarcinoma cells and both 5- and 5'-deiodination in normal hepatocytes. Deiodination was not decreased by GSH deficiency in either case, but was actually increased in hepatocarcinoma cells. This resulted from an increase in the Vmax of 5-deiodinase related to growth arrest. Diamide at 2 mM reversibly inhibited both 5'- and 5'-deiodination in rat hepatocytes, accompanied by decreased total GSH as well as increased GSH disulfide (27% of total). The data suggest that GSH is so abundant in the liver that hepatocytes can tolerate a greater than 90% decrease in intracellular concentration without any change in thyroid hormone deiodination and indicate that altered thyroid hormone metabolism in the fetus and in starvation cannot be accounted for by a decreased hepatic GSH concentration

  1. Effects of thyroid hormone on Na+-K+ transport in resting and stimulated rat skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everts, M.E.; Clausen, T.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of hypothyroidism and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T 3 ) treatment on passive Na + -K + fluxes and Na + -K + pump concentration were investigated in isolated rat muscle. Within 12 h after a single dose of T 3 (20 μg/100 g body wt), K + efflux had increased by 21% in soleus and by 20% in extensor digitorum longus muscle. In the presence of ouabain, even larger effects were observed. These changes were associated with a 12% rise in amiloride-suppressible Na + influx but no significant increase in [ 3 H]ouabain binding site concentration. After 3 days of T 3 treatment, the stimulating effect on K + efflux and Na + influx in soleus reached a plateau ∼80 and 40% above control levels, respectively, whereas the maximum increase in [ 3 H]ouabain binding site concentration (103%) was only fully developed after 8 days. Hypothyroidism decreased 86 Rb efflux by 30%. The efflux of K + and the influx of Na + per contraction (both ∼7 nmol/g wet wt) as well as the net loss of K + induced by electrical stimulation were unaffected by T 3 treatment. The rise in resting K + efflux after 12-24 h of T 3 treatment could be partly blocked by dantrolene or trifluoroperazine, indicating that an increase in the cytoplasmic Ca 2+ concentration may contribute to the early rise in K + efflux. It is concluded that the early rise in the resting passive leaks of Na + and K + induced by T 3 is a major driving force for Na + -K + pump synthesis

  2. Transplantation of Human Skin-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Improves Locomotor Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Fernanda Rosene; Bressan, Raul Bardini; Forner, Stefânia; Martini, Alessandra Cadete; Rode, Michele; Delben, Priscilla Barros; Rae, Giles Alexander; Figueiredo, Claudia Pinto; Trentin, Andrea Gonçalves

    2017-07-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurologic disorder with significant impacts on quality of life, life expectancy, and economic burden. Although there are no fully restorative treatments yet available, several animal and small-scale clinical studies have highlighted the therapeutic potential of cellular interventions for SCI. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-which are conventionally isolated from the bone marrow-recently emerged as promising candidates for treating SCI and have been shown to provide trophic support, ameliorate inflammatory responses, and reduce cell death following the mechanical trauma. Here we evaluated the human skin as an alternative source of adult MSCs suitable for autologous cell transplantation strategies for SCI. We showed that human skin-derived MSCs (hSD-MSCs) express a range of neural markers under standard culture conditions and are able to survive and respond to neurogenic stimulation in vitro. In addition, using histological analysis and behavioral assessment, we demonstrated as a proof-of-principle that hSD-MSC transplantation reduces the severity of tissue loss and facilitates locomotor recovery in a rat model of SCI. Altogether, the study provides further characterization of skin-derived MSC cultures and indicates that the human skin may represent an attractive source for cell-based therapies for SCI and other neurological disorders. Further investigation is needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which hSD-MSCs elicit tissue repair and/or locomotor recovery.

  3. ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES AND EFFECTS ON SEXUAL MATURATION AND THYROID FUNCTION IN THE MALE RAT. A FOCUS ON THE EDSTAC RECOMMENDATIONS. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTER SCREENING AND TESTING ADVISORY COMMITTEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: prepubertal exposures and effects on sexual maturation and thyroid function in the male rat. A focus on the EDSTAC recommendations. Endocrine Disrupter Screening and Testing Advisory Committee.Stoker TE, Parks LG, Gray LE, Cooper RL.

  4. [Alternative approaches in thyroid surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, E; Wächter, S; Bartsch, D K

    2017-08-01

    In thyroid surgery multiple different cervical minimally invasive (partly endoscopically assisted) and extracervical endoscopic (partly robot-assisted) approaches have been developed in the last 20 years. The aim of all these alternative approaches to the thyroid gland is optimization of the cosmetic result. The indications for the use of alternative and conventional approaches are principally the same. Important requirements for the use of alternative methods are nevertheless a broad experience in conventional thyroid operations of the thyroid and adequate patient selection under consideration of the size of the thyroid and the underlying pathology. Contraindications for the use of alternative approaches are a large size of the thyroid gland including local symptoms, advanced carcinomas, reoperations and previous radiations of the anterior neck. The current article gives an overview of the clinically implemented alternative approaches for thyroid surgery. Of those the majority must still be considered as experimental. The alternative approaches to the thyroid gland can be divided in cervical minimally invasive, extracervical endosopic (robot-assisted) and transoral operations (natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, NOTES). Since conventional thyroid operations are standardized procedures with low complication rates, alternative approaches to the thyroid gland are considered critically in Germany. The request for a perfect cosmetic result should not overweigh patients' safety. Only a few alternative approaches (e. g. MIVAT, RAT) can yet be considered as a safe addition in experienced hands in highly selected patients.

  5. Response of the sensorimotor cortex of cerebral palsy rats receiving transplantation of vascular endothelial growth factor 165-transfected neural stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jielu Tan; Xiangrong Zheng; Shanshan Zhang; Yujia Yang; Xia Wang; Xiaohe Yu; Le Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem cells are characterized by the ability to differentiate and stably express exogenous ge-nes. Vascular endothelial growth factor plays a role in protecting local blood vessels and neurons of newborn rats with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Transplantation of vascular endothelial growth factor-transfected neural stem cells may be neuroprotective in rats with cerebral palsy. In this study, 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into ifve groups: (1) sham operation (control), (2) cerebral palsy model alone or with (3) phosphate-buffered saline, (4) vascular en-dothelial growth factor 165 + neural stem cells, or (5) neural stem cells alone. hTe cerebral palsy model was established by ligating the letf common carotid artery followed by exposure to hypox-ia. Phosphate-buffered saline, vascular endothelial growth factor + neural stem cells, and neural stem cells alone were administered into the sensorimotor cortex using the stereotaxic instrument and microsyringe. Atfer transplantation, the radial-arm water maze test and holding test were performed. Immunohistochemistry for vascular endothelial growth factor and histology using hematoxylin-eosin were performed on cerebral cortex. Results revealed that the number of vas-cular endothelial growth factor-positive cells in cerebral palsy rats transplanted with vascular endothelial growth factor-transfected neural stem cells was increased, the time for ifnding water and the ifnding repetitions were reduced, the holding time was prolonged, and the degree of cell degeneration or necrosis was reduced. hTese ifndings indicate that the transplantation of vascu-lar endothelial growth factor-transfected neural stem cells alleviates brain damage and cognitive deifcits, and is neuroprotective in neonatal rats with hypoxia ischemic-mediated cerebral palsy.

  6. Transplantation of oligodendrocyte precursors and sonic hedgehog results in improved function and white matter sparing in the spinal cords of adult rats after contusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambakidis, Nicholas C; Miller, Robert H

    2004-01-01

    A substantial cause of neurological disability in spinal cord injury is oligodendrocyte death leading to demyelination and axonal degeneration. Rescuing oligodendrocytes and preserving myelin is expected to result in significant improvement in functional outcome after spinal cord injury. Although previous investigators have used cellular transplantation of xenografted pluripotent embryonic stem cells and observed improved functional outcome, these transplants have required steroid administration and only a minority of these cells develop into oligodendrocytes. The objective of the present study was to determine whether allografts of oligodendrocyte precursors transplanted into an area of incomplete spinal cord contusion would improve behavioral and electrophysiological measures of spinal cord function. Additional treatment incorporated the use of the glycoprotein molecule Sonic hedgehog (Shh), which has been shown to play a critical role in oligodendroglial development and induce proliferation of endogenous neural precursors after spinal cord injury. Laboratory study. Moderate spinal cord contusion injury was produced in 39 adult rats at T9-T10. Ten animals died during the course of the study. Nine rats served as contusion controls (Group 1). Six rats were treated with oligodendrocyte precursor transplantation 5 days after injury (Group 2). The transplanted cells were isolated from newborn rat pups using immunopanning techniques. Another eight rats received an injection of recombinant Shh along with the oligodendrocyte precursors (Group 3), while six more rats were treated with Shh alone (Group 4). Eight additional rats received only T9 laminectomies to serve as noninjured controls (Group 0). Animals were followed for 28 days. After an initial complete hindlimb paralysis, rats of all groups receiving a contusive injury recovered substantial function within 1 week. By 28 days, rats in Groups 2 and 3 scored 4.7 and 5.8 points better on the Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan

  7. Human induced pluripotent stem cells differentiation into oligodendrocyte progenitors and transplantation in a rat model of optic chiasm demyelination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Pouya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aims to differentiate human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs into oligodendrocyte precursors and assess their recovery potential in a demyelinated optic chiasm model in rats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We generated a cell population of oligodendrocyte progenitors from hiPSCs by using embryoid body formation in a defined medium supplemented with a combination of factors, positive selection and mechanical enrichment. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence analyses showed that stage-specific markers, Olig2, Sox10, NG2, PDGFRα, O4, A2B5, GalC, and MBP were expressed following the differentiation procedure, and enrichment of the oligodendrocyte lineage. These results are comparable with the expression of stage-specific markers in human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte lineage cells. Transplantation of hiPSC-derived oligodendrocyte progenitors into the lysolecithin-induced demyelinated optic chiasm of the rat model resulted in recovery from symptoms, and integration and differentiation into oligodendrocytes were detected by immunohistofluorescence staining against PLP and MBP, and measurements of the visual evoked potentials. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results showed that oligodendrocyte progenitors generated efficiently from hiPSCs can be used in future biomedical studies once safety issues have been overcome.

  8. Propolis maintaining the restorative role played by bone marrow transplantation in pregnant rats exposed to whole body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafafy, Y.A.; Roushdy, H.M.; El Beih, N.M.; Hussien, E.M.

    2006-01-01

    This work was conducted to evaluate the possible capability of the natural product propolis with its high anti oxidative capacity as a protector for bone marrow graft transplanted to pregnant rats 3 h post irradiation of 3 Gy gamma-rays. Different treatments were performed on days 7 or 13 of gestation and examined at the end of the gestation period. Irradiation significantly elevated serum AST, ALT, ALP, urea, uric acid and creatinine while it declined total proteins and albumin. Haematological parameters showed decrease in RBCs, Hb, Ht, WBCs and their differential counts. BMT (75 x 106 ± 5 cells) 3 h post-irradiation depressed AST, ALT and ALP but were still significantly different from the control. Urea, uric acid and creatinine declined approaching the control level. Less drop in total proteins and globulin and elevation in RBCs, Ht, Hb and WBCs were detected. Rats exposed to 3 Gy and treated with propolis (50 mg/ kg) showed results comparable and even exceeding those of BMT. Combined treatment of BMT and propolis accentuated the recovery process and could restore the physiological and haematological parameters and protect pregnancy which suggests that propolis maintained BMT graft so that they may have future potential value in patients subjected to irradiation and BMT

  9. Toxic effect of PBDE-47 on thyroid development, learning, and memory, and the interaction between PBDE-47 and PCB153 that enhances toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Wang, Aiguo; Niu, Qiang; Guo, Lijuan; Xia, Tao; Chen, Xuemin

    2011-04-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread environmental contaminants. There are potential interactive effects between PBDEs and PCBs, as these compounds share similar structures. The developmental neurotoxicity of 2, 2', 4, 4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-47) and the interaction of PBDE-47 with 2, 2', 4, 4', 5, 5'-hexachlorobipheny (PCB153) were investigated herein, as the dominant congener forms of PBDEs and PCBs, respectively. SD rats were exposed to a single oral dose of PBDE-47 (1, 5, and 10 μg/g) and/or PCB153 (5 μg/g) on post-natal day (PND) 10. Concentrations of PBDE-47, triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroxine (T(4)), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in serum; organ-to-body weight ratios; as well as long-term learning and memory were measured in 2-month-old rats. The present study found that some doses of PBDE-47 decreased the organ-to-body weight ratios of the thyroid and uterus, decreased the concentration of T(4) in serum, and increased the organ-to-body weight ratio of the ovaries (p action of PBDE-47 during combined exposure, but this interaction was not found between PBDE-47 and PCB153. In a Morris water maze experiment, the latency periods were significantly prolonged and time ratios were obviously depressed in all PBDE-47-treated groups compared to the control (p memory capabilities in adult rats exposed to PBDE-47 on PND 10. PCB153 can interact with PBDE-47, resulting in an increase in developmental neurotoxicity.

  10. Thyroid Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Thyroid Function Tests Leer en Español Thyroid Function Tests FUNCTION HOW DOES THE THYROID GLAND FUNCTION? ... Cancer Thyroid Nodules in Children and Adolescents Thyroid Function Tests Resources Thyroid Function Tests Brochure PDF En ...

  11. Morphological and functional rescue in RCS rats after RPE cell line transplantation at a later stage of degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaomei; Lu, Bin; Girman, Sergej; Holmes, Toby; Bischoff, Nicolas; Lund, Raymond D

    2008-01-01

    It is well documented that grafting of cells in the subretinal space of Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats limits deterioration of vision and loss of photoreceptors if performed early in postnatal life. What is unclear is whether cells introduced later, when photoreceptor degeneration is already advanced, can still be effective. This possibility was examined in the present study, using the human retinal pigment epithelial cell line, ARPE-19. Dystrophic RCS rats (postnatal day [P] 60) received subretinal injection of ARPE-19 cells (2 x 10(5)/3 microL/eye). Spatial frequency was measured by recording optomotor responses at P100 and P150, and luminance threshold responses were recorded from the superior colliculus at P150. Retinas were stained with cresyl violet, retinal cell-specific markers, and a human nuclear marker. Control animals were injected with medium alone. Animals comparably treated with grafts at P21 were available for comparison. All animals were treated with immunosuppression. Later grafts preserved both spatial frequency and threshold responses over the control and delayed photoreceptor degeneration. There were two to three layers of rescued photoreceptors even at P150, compared with a scattered single layer in sham and untreated control retinas. Retinal cell marker staining showed an orderly array of the inner retinal lamination. The morphology of the second-order neurons was better preserved around the grafted area than in regions distant from graft. Sham injection had little effect in rescuing the photoreceptors. RPE cell line transplants delivered later in the course of degeneration can preserve not only the photoreceptors and inner retinal lamination but also visual function in RCS rats. However, early intervention can achieve better rescue.

  12. Transplantation of CX3CL1-expressing mesenchymal stem cells provides neuroprotective and immunomodulatory effects in a rat model of retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Libin; Xu, Wei; Xu, Guoxing

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the neuroprotective and immunomodulatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) engineered to secrete CX3CL1 on the light-injured retinal structure and function. Normal MSCs and CX3CL1-expressing MSCs (CX3CL1-MSCs) were transplanted into the subretinal space of light-injured rats. By ERG and TUNEL methods, their rescue effect of the host retina was compared with untreated light-injured and vehicle-injected rats. Activated microglia in the retina were stained by ED-1 antibody, and Western blot was performed to quantify cytokines secreted by the retina post-transplantation. ERG analysis showed better function in CX3CL1-MSC-injected group than other groups at 21 days after transplantation (p < 0.05). CX3CL1-MSCs inhibited apoptosis of the retinal cells and microglial activation. Neurotrophic factors expression in host retina that received CX3CL1-MSCs was stronger than in the retina that received normal MSCs. Conversely, the expression of proinflammatory factors was downregulated. CX3CL1-MSCs subretinal transplantation may enhance protective effect against light-induced retinal degeneration.

  13. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  14. Thyroid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, S.

    1990-01-01

    Presenting a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease, this volume provides a comprehensive picture of current thyroid medicine and surgery. The book integrates the perspectives of the many disciplines that deal with the clinical manifestations of thyroid disorders. Adding to the clinical usefulness of the book is the state-of-the-art coverage of many recent developments in thyroidology, including the use of highly sensitive two-site TSH immunoradionetric measurements to diagnose thyroid activity; thyroglobulin assays in thyroid cancer and other diseases; new diagnostic applications of MRI and CT; treatment with radionuclides and chemotherapy; new developments in thyroid immunology, pathology, and management of hyperthyroidism; suppressive treatment with thyroid hormone; and management of Graves' ophthalmopathy. The book also covers all aspects of thyroid surgery, including surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism; papillary, follicular, and other carcinomas; thyroidectomy; and prevention and management of complications.

  15. Thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, S.

    1990-01-01

    Presenting a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease, this volume provides a comprehensive picture of current thyroid medicine and surgery. The book integrates the perspectives of the many disciplines that deal with the clinical manifestations of thyroid disorders. Adding to the clinical usefulness of the book is the state-of-the-art coverage of many recent developments in thyroidology, including the use of highly sensitive two-site TSH immunoradionetric measurements to diagnose thyroid activity; thyroglobulin assays in thyroid cancer and other diseases; new diagnostic applications of MRI and CT; treatment with radionuclides and chemotherapy; new developments in thyroid immunology, pathology, and management of hyperthyroidism; suppressive treatment with thyroid hormone; and management of Graves' ophthalmopathy. The book also covers all aspects of thyroid surgery, including surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism; papillary, follicular, and other carcinomas; thyroidectomy; and prevention and management of complications

  16. Regeneration of rat corpora cavernosa tissue by transplantation of CD133+ cells derived from human bone marrow and placement of biodegradable gel sponge sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Inoue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to develop an easier technique for regenerating corpora cavernosa tissue through transplantation of human bone marrow-derived CD133 + cells into a rat corpora cavernosa defect model. We excised 2 mm × 2 mm squares of the right corpora cavernosa of twenty-three 8-week-old male nude rats. Alginate gel sponge sheets supplemented with 1 × 10 4 CD133 + cells were then placed over the excised area of nine rats. Functional and histological evaluations were carried out 8 weeks later. The mean intracavernous pressure/mean arterial pressure ratio for the nine rats (0.34258 ± 0.0831 was significantly higher than that for eight rats with only the excision (0.0580 ± 0.0831, P = 0.0238 and similar to that for five rats for which the penis was exposed, and there was no excision (0.37228 ± 0.1051, P = 0.8266. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the nine fully treated rats had venous sinus-like structures and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of extracts from their alginate gel sponge sheets revealed that the amounts of mRNA encoding the nerve growth factor (NGF, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were significantly higher than those for rats treated with alginate gel sheets without cell supplementation (NGF: P = 0.0309; VEGF: P < 0.0001. These findings show that transplantation of CD133 + cells accelerates functional and histological recovery in the corpora cavernosa defect model.

  17. Combination of exogenous cell transplantation and 5-HT{sub 4} receptor agonism induce endogenous enteric neural crest-derived cells in a rat hypoganglionosis model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hui [Department of Pediatric Surgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No 157, Xi Wu Road, Xi’an 710004, Shaanxi (China); Institute of Neurobiology, Environment and Genes Related to Diseases Key Laboratory of Chinese Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No 96, Yan Ta Xi Road, Xi’an 710061, Shaanxi (China); Zheng, Bai-Jun; Pan, Wei-Kang; Wang, Huai-Jie; Xie, Chong; Zhao, Yu-Ying [Department of Pediatric Surgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No 157, Xi Wu Road, Xi’an 710004, Shaanxi (China); Chen, Xin-Lin; Liu, Yong [Institute of Neurobiology, Environment and Genes Related to Diseases Key Laboratory of Chinese Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No 96, Yan Ta Xi Road, Xi’an 710061, Shaanxi (China); Gao, Ya, E-mail: ygao@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Pediatric Surgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No 157, Xi Wu Road, Xi’an 710004, Shaanxi (China)

    2017-02-01

    Enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCCs) can migrate into endogenous ganglia and differentiate into progeny cells, and have even partially rescued bowel function; however, poor reliability and limited functional recovery after ENCC transplantation have yet to be addressed. Here, we investigated the induction of endogenous ENCCs by combining exogenous ENCC transplantation with a 5-HT{sub 4} receptor agonist mosapride in a rat model of hypoganglionosis, established by benzalkonium chloride treatment. ENCCs, isolated from the gut of newborn rats, were labeled with a lentiviral eGFP reporter. ENCCs and rats were treated with the 5-HT{sub 4} receptor agonist/antagonist. The labeled ENCCs were then transplanted into the muscular layer of benzalkonium chloride-treated colons. At given days post-intervention, colonic tissue samples were removed for histological analysis. ENCCs and neurons were detected by eGFP expression and immunoreactivity to p75{sup NTR} and peripherin, respectively. eGFP-positive ENCCs and neurons could survive and maintain levels of fluorescence after transplantation. With longer times post-intervention, the number of peripherin-positive cells gradually increased in all groups. Significantly more peripherin-positive cells were found following ENCCs plus mosapride treatment, compared with the other groups. These results show that exogenous ENCCs combined with the 5-HT{sub 4} receptor agonist effectively induced endogenous ENCCs proliferation and differentiation in a rat hypoganglionosis model. - Highlights: • Survival and differentiation of exogenous ENCCs in treated colons. • With longer times post-intervention, the number of ENCCs and their progeny cells gradually increased. • Exogenous ENCCs combined with the 5-HT4 receptor agonist ffectively induced ENCCs proliferation and differentiation.

  18. Combination of exogenous cell transplantation and 5-HT4 receptor agonism induce endogenous enteric neural crest-derived cells in a rat hypoganglionosis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Hui; Zheng, Bai-Jun; Pan, Wei-Kang; Wang, Huai-Jie; Xie, Chong; Zhao, Yu-Ying; Chen, Xin-Lin; Liu, Yong; Gao, Ya

    2017-01-01

    Enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCCs) can migrate into endogenous ganglia and differentiate into progeny cells, and have even partially rescued bowel function; however, poor reliability and limited functional recovery after ENCC transplantation have yet to be addressed. Here, we investigated the induction of endogenous ENCCs by combining exogenous ENCC transplantation with a 5-HT 4 receptor agonist mosapride in a rat model of hypoganglionosis, established by benzalkonium chloride treatment. ENCCs, isolated from the gut of newborn rats, were labeled with a lentiviral eGFP reporter. ENCCs and rats were treated with the 5-HT 4 receptor agonist/antagonist. The labeled ENCCs were then transplanted into the muscular layer of benzalkonium chloride-treated colons. At given days post-intervention, colonic tissue samples were removed for histological analysis. ENCCs and neurons were detected by eGFP expression and immunoreactivity to p75 NTR and peripherin, respectively. eGFP-positive ENCCs and neurons could survive and maintain levels of fluorescence after transplantation. With longer times post-intervention, the number of peripherin-positive cells gradually increased in all groups. Significantly more peripherin-positive cells were found following ENCCs plus mosapride treatment, compared with the other groups. These results show that exogenous ENCCs combined with the 5-HT 4 receptor agonist effectively induced endogenous ENCCs proliferation and differentiation in a rat hypoganglionosis model. - Highlights: • Survival and differentiation of exogenous ENCCs in treated colons. • With longer times post-intervention, the number of ENCCs and their progeny cells gradually increased. • Exogenous ENCCs combined with the 5-HT4 receptor agonist ffectively induced ENCCs proliferation and differentiation.

  19. Effects of experimentally induced maternal hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on the development of rat offspring: I. The development of the thyroid hormones-neurotransmitters and adenosinergic system interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, O M; Abd El-Tawab, S M; Ahmed, R G

    2010-10-01

    The adequate functioning of the maternal thyroid gland plays an important role to ensure that the offspring develop normally. Thus, maternal hypo- and hyperthyroidism are used from the gestation day 1 to lactation day 21, in general, to recognize the alleged association of offspring abnormalities associated with the different thyroid status. In maternal rats during pregnancy and lactation, hypothyroidism in one group was performed by antithyroid drug, methimazole (MMI) that was added in drinking water at concentration 0.02% and hyperthyroidism in the other group was induced by exogenous thyroxine (T4) (from 50 microg to 200 microg/kg body weight) intragastric administration beside adding 0.002% T4 to the drinking water. The hypothyroid and hyperthyroid states in mothers during pregnancy and lactation periods were confirmed by measuring total thyroxine (TT4) and triiodothyronine (TT3) at gestational day 10 and 10 days post-partum, respectively; the effect was more pronounced at the later period than the first. In offspring of control maternal rats, the free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyrotropin (TSH) and growth hormone (GH) concentrations were pronouncedly increased as the age progressed from 1 to 3 weeks. In hypothyroid group, a marked decrease in serum FT3, FT4 and GH levels was observed while there was a significant increase in TSH level with age progress as compared with the corresponding control. The reverse pattern to latter state was recorded in hyperthyroid group. The thyroid gland of offspring of hypothyroid group, exhibited some histopathological changes as luminal obliteration of follicles, hyperplasia, fibroblastic proliferation and some degenerative changes throughout the experimental period. The offspring of hyperthyroid rats showed larger and less thyroid follicles with flattened cell lining epithelium, decreased thyroid gland size and some degenerative changes along the experimental period. On the other hand, the biochemical data

  20. The effect of dermal benzophenone-2 administration on immune system activity, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis activity and hematological parameters in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broniowska, Żaneta; Ślusarczyk, Joanna; Starek-Świechowicz, Beata; Trojan, Ewa; Pomierny, Bartosz; Krzyżanowska, Weronika; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Budziszewska, Bogusława

    2018-04-13

    Benzophenones used as UV filters, in addition to the effects on the skin, can be absorbed into the blood and affect the function of certain organs. So far, their effects on the sex hormone receptors and gonadal function have been studied, but not much is known about their potential action on other systems. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of benzophenone-2 (BP-2) on immune system activity, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis activity and hematological parameters. BP-2 was administered dermally, twice daily at a dose of 100 mg/kg for 4-weeks to male Wistar rats. Immunological and hematological parameters and HPT axis activity were assayed 24 h after the last administration. It was found that BP-2 did not change relative weights of the thymus and spleen and did not exert toxic effect on tymocytes and splenocytes. However, this compound increased proliferative activity of splenocytes, enhanced metabolic activity of splenocytes and thymocytes and nitric oxide production of these cells. In animals exposed to BP-2, the HPT axis activity was increased, as evidenced by reduction in the thyroid stimulating hormone (TRH) level and increase in free fraction of triiodothyronine (fT3) and thyroxin (fT4) in blood. BP-2 had no effect on leukocyte, erythrocyte and platelet counts or on morphology and hemoglobin content in erythrocytes. The conducted research showed that dermal, sub-chronic BP-2 administration evoked hyperthyroidism, increased activity or function of the immune cells but did not affect hematological parameters. We suggest that topical administration of BP-2 leading to a prolonged elevated BP-2 level in blood causes hyperthyroidism, which in turn may be responsible for the increased immune cell activity or function. However, only future research can explain the mechanism and functional importance of the changes in thyroid hormones and immunological parameters observed after exposure to BP-2. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  1. Effects of transforming growth factor-beta on growth and differentiation of the continuous rat thyroid follicular cell line, FRTL-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.C. III; Ranganathan, G.; Hay, I.D.; Nelson, R.E.; Jiang, N.S.

    1988-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta) has been shown to influence the growth and differentiation of many widely varied cell types in vitro, including some that are endocrinologically active. We have investigated the previously unknown effects of this unique growth factor in the differentiated rat thyroid follicular cell line FRTL-5. The cells demonstrated specific, high affinity binding of TGF beta, and as with other epithelial cells, the growth of these thyroid follicular cells was potently inhibited by addition of TGF beta to the culture medium. TGF beta caused a significant reduction in TSH-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity in the cells. The addition of (Bu)2cAMP along with the growth factor to cultures partially reversed the characteristic morphological changes seen with TGF beta, but did not reverse the growth inhibition. To further investigate the possible mechanisms of the effects of TGF beta on the cells, we measured the influence of the growth factor on [125I]TSH binding. TGF beta did not compete for specific TSH-binding sites; however, exposure of the cells to TGF beta for 12 or more h resulted in a dose-dependent down-regulation of TSH receptors that was fully reversible. While cellular proliferation was potently inhibited by TGF beta, differentiated function, as manifest by iodine-trapping ability, was stimulated by the growth factor. This stimulation of iodine uptake was independent of, and additive to, the stimulatory effects of TSH. Finally, FRTL-5 cells in serum-free medium and in response to TSH were shown to secrete TGF beta-like activity that competed for [125I]TGF beta in a RRA. These studies suggest that TGF beta may represent an autocrine mechanism of controlling the growth response to TSH in thyroid follicular cells, while allowing the continuance of differentiated function

  2. Transplantation of ES cells to Parkinson model rat irradiated with carbon ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaji, Motoki; Okauchi, Takashi; Nagai, Yuji; Nojima, Kumie; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2004-01-01

    The present study was designed to make a new Parkinson disease model using carbon ion beam. In this year, we irradiated right middle forebrain bundle of adult rats with charged carbon particles (290 MeV/nucleon, Mono peak, 150 Gy) and damaged right dopaminergic neurons pathway. To irradiate precisely, rats were set in the stereotactic frame with ear bars which was developed in this year. In 4 weeks after the irradiation, we performed methamphetamine induced rotation test and the autoradiography measurement on dopamine transporter using [ 11 C]PE2I to assess degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in caudate putamen (Cpu). As a result, ipsilateral rotation was observed and the distributions of dopamine transporter in the striatum decreased significantly. These results are similar to those of 6-OHDA lesioned rats, and indicate validity of this model. (author)

  3. Fetal hypothalamic transplants into brain irradiated rats: Graft morphometry and host behavioral responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearlman, S.H.; Rubin, P.; White, H.C.; Wiegand, S.J.; Gash, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that neural implants can ameliorate or prevent some of the long-term changes associated with CNS irradiation. Using a rat model, the initial study focused on establishing motor, regulatory, and morphological changes associated with brain radiation treatments. Secondly, fetal hypothalamic tissue grafts were placed into the third ventricle of rats which had been previously irradiated. Adult male Long Evans rats received one of three radiation doses (15, 22.5, ampersand 30 Gy) or no radiation. Three days after irradiation, 7 animals in each dose group received an embryonic day 17 hypothalamic graft into the third ventricle while the remaining 8-9 animals in each group received injections of vehicle solution (sham). Few changes were observed in the 15 and 22.5 Gy animals, however rats in the 30 Gy treatment group showed stereotypic and ambulatory behavioral hyperactivity 32 weeks after irradiation. Regulatory changes in the high dose group included decreased growth rate and decreased urine osmolalities, but these measures were extremely variable among animals. Morphological results demonstrated that 30 Gy irradiated animals showed extensive necrosis primarily in the fimbria, which extended into the internal capsule, optic nerve, hippocampus, and thalamus. Hemorrhages were found in the hippocampus, thalamus, and fimbria. Defects in the blood-brain barrier also were evident by entry of intravascularly injected horseradish peroxidase into the parenchyma of the brain. Animals in the 30 Gy grafted group showed fewer behavioral changes and less brain damage than their sham grafted counterparts. Specifically, activity measures were comparable to normal levels, and a dilute urine was not found in the 30 Gy implanted rats. Morphological changes support these behavioral results since only two 30 Gy implanted rats showed necrosis

  4. Thyroid Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too low Hashimoto’s disease , of the most common cause of hypothyroidism thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer Your doctor will ... of hyperthyroidism—and Hashimoto’s disease —the most common cause of hypothyroidism. Thyroid antibodies are made when your immune system ...

  5. Thyroid Hormone Supplementation Restores Spatial Memory, Hippocampal Markers of Neuroinflammation, Plasticity-Related Signaling Molecules, and β-Amyloid Peptide Load in Hypothyroid Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaalal, Amina; Poirier, Roseline; Blum, David; Laroche, Serge; Enderlin, Valérie

    2018-05-23

    Hypothyroidism is a condition that becomes more prevalent with age. Patients with untreated hypothyroidism have consistently reported symptoms of severe cognitive impairments. In patients suffering hypothyroidism, thyroid hormone supplementation offers the prospect to alleviate the cognitive consequences of hypothyroidism; however, the therapeutic value of TH supplementation remains at present uncertain and the link between cellular modifications associated with hypothyroidism and neurodegeneration remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we therefore evaluated the molecular and behavioral consequences of T3 hormone replacement in an animal model of hypothyroidism. We have previously reported that the antithyroid molecule propylthiouracil (PTU) given in the drinking water favors cerebral atrophy, brain neuroinflammation, Aβ production, Tau hyperphosphorylation, and altered plasticity-related cell-signaling pathways in the hippocampus in association with hippocampal-dependent spatial memory deficits. In the present study, our aim was to explore, in this model, the effect of hippocampal T3 signaling normalization on various molecular mechanisms involved in learning and memory that goes awry under conditions of hypothyroidism and to evaluate its potential for recovery of hippocampal-dependent memory deficits. We report that T3 supplementation can alleviate hippocampal-dependent memory impairments displayed by hypothyroid rats and normalize key markers of thyroid status in the hippocampus, of neuroinflammation, Aβ production, and of cell-signaling pathways known to be involved in synaptic plasticity and memory function. Together, these findings suggest that normalization of hippocampal T3 signaling is sufficient to reverse molecular and cognitive dysfunctions associated with hypothyroidism.

  6. Resident Arterial Cells and Circulating Bone Marrow-Derived Cells both Contribute to Intimal Hyperplasia in a Rat Allograft Carotid Transplantation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi He

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Neointimal formation following vascular injury remains a major mechanism of restenosis, whereas the precise sources of neointimal cells are still uncertain. We tested the hypothesis that both injured arterial cells and non-arterial cells contribute to intimal hyperplasia. Methods: Following allograft transplantation of the balloon-injured carotid common artery (n = 3-6, the cellular composition of the transplant grafts and the origins of neointimal cells were measured by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. Results: Smooth muscle actin (SMA-positive and CD68-positive cells were clearly observed 14 days later in the neointima after allograft transplantation of the balloon-injured carotid common artery, where re-endothelialization was not yet complete. Green fluorescent protein (GFP and wild-type (WT allograft transplantation revealed that the majority of the neointima cells were apparently from the recipient (≈85% versus the donor (≈15%. Both monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/CCR2 and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling were involved in intimal hyperplasia, with bone marrow-derived cells also playing a role. Conclusion: These data support the hypothesis that intimal hyperplasia could develop in our novel rat allograft transplantation model of arterial injury, where neointima is attributable not only to local arterial cells but also non-arterial cells including the bone marrow.

  7. Transplante isogênico de ilhotas de Langerhans no fígado de ratos: metodologia para separação e purificação das ilhotas de Langerhans Isogenic islet transplantation on the rat liver: Method for isolation and purification of the rat islets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleazar CHAIB

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A maior indicação do transplante de pâncreas ou de ilhotas de Langerhans é o diabetes mellitus do tipo I. O processo deve suprir as necessidades de insulina mantendo os níveis glicêmicos dentro da normalidade. Estudou-se o transplante isogênico de ilhotas de Langerhans no fígado de ratos WAG-RT1u. Com o método de separação e purificação das ilhotas de Langerhans obteve-se 2.834 ± 551,64 ilhotas com pureza de 83 ± 2,45%. O transplante de 2.834 ± 551,64 ilhotas de Langerhans no fígado destes animais, normalizou a glicemia que chegou a 35 mmol/L após indução do diabetes pela estreptozotocina, ficando em 9,62 ± 2,65 mmol/L nos primeiros 10 dias após o enxerto e 7,43 ± 0,27 mmol/L nos dias subseqüentes (P The major indication for pancreas or islet transplantation is diabetes mellitus type I. This process has to supply the insulin necessity keeping glucose under control. We have studied isogenic islet transplantation on the rat (WAG-RT1u liver. The method of isolation and purification of the islets obtained 2.834 ± 551,64 islets with purity of 83 ± 2,45%. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin and seric glucose prior transplantation was 35 mmol/L. The islet transplantation of 2.834 ± 551,64 islets in the rat liver has normalized glucose test from 9,62 ± 2,65 mmol/L 10 days after transplantation to 7,43 ± 0,27 mmol/L later in the follow-up (P <0,05. The median survival time of the islets was 73 days. In conclusion both the method of isolation and purification of the islets and islet transplantation was effective in the control of the diabetes induced by streptozotocin with median survival time of both islet and rat more than 73 days when rats were sacrificied.

  8. Wnt1 from cochlear schwann cells enhances neuronal differentiation of transplanted neural stem cells in a rat spiral ganglion neuron degeneration model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ya; Zhang, Peng-Zhi; Sun, Dong; Mi, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Xin-Yi; Cui, Yong; Jiang, Xing-Wang; Mao, Xiao-Bo; Qiu, Jian-Hua

    2014-04-01

    Although neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation is widely expected to become a therapy for nervous system degenerative diseases and injuries, the low neuronal differentiation rate of NSCs transplanted into the inner ear is a major obstacle for the successful treatment of spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) degeneration. In this study, we validated whether the local microenvironment influences the neuronal differentiation of transplanted NSCs in the inner ear. Using a rat SGN degeneration model, we demonstrated that transplanted NSCs were more likely to differentiate into microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2)-positive neurons in SGN-degenerated cochleae than in control cochleae. Using real-time quantitative PCR and an immunofluorescence assay, we also proved that the expression of Wnt1 (a ligand of Wnt signaling) increases significantly in Schwann cells in the SGN-degenerated cochlea. We further verified that NSC cultures express receptors and signaling components for Wnts. Based on these expression patterns, we hypothesized that Schwann cell-derived Wnt1 and Wnt signaling might be involved in the regulation of the neuronal differentiation of transplanted NSCs. We verified our hypothesis in vitro using a coculture system. We transduced a lentiviral vector expressing Wnt1 into cochlear Schwann cell cultures and cocultured them with NSC cultures. The coculture with Wnt1-expressing Schwann cells resulted in a significant increase in the percentage of NSCs that differentiated into MAP2-positive neurons, whereas this differentiation-enhancing effect was prevented by Dkk1 (an inhibitor of the Wnt signaling pathway). These results suggested that Wnt1 derived from cochlear Schwann cells enhanced the neuronal differentiation of transplanted NSCs through Wnt signaling pathway activation. Alterations of the microenvironment deserve detailed investigation because they may help us to conceive effective strategies to overcome the barrier of the low differentiation rate of transplanted

  9. Assessment of pathological changes associated with chronic allograft rejection and tolerance in two experimental models of rat lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Y; Marchevsky, A; Zuo, X J; Kass, R M; Matloff, J M; Jordan, S C

    1995-06-15

    Lung transplantation is now routinely performed for a wide range of end-stage cardiopulmonary disorders. Despite overcoming the problems associated with early acute rejection, chronic rejection (CR) in the form of obliterative bronchiolitis has emerged as the primary cause of late graft loss. The mechanisms involved in the development of CR of lung allografts are poorly understood, and no effective therapy is currently available. To better understand the pathological events associated with CR and tolerance, we examined two models of lung allograft rejection established in our laboratory. First, we exchanged left lung allografts between moderately histoincompatible inbred rat strains (WKY-->F344: n = 42 and F344-->WKY: n = 40). The WKY-->F344 model was previously shown to develop spontaneous tolerance, while the converse model (F344-->WKY) showed persistent acute rejection. The purpose of this investigation was to assess histopathological changes associated with long-term grafts left in place up to 140 days after transplant. To confirm that tolerance had developed, skin-grafting experiments were performed. Five skin grafts from each strain were placed on lung allograft recipients on day 35 after transplant and skin allograft survival was assessed and compared with controls. Acute rejection (AR) was graded histologically (stage O-IV) and the pathologic intensity of inflammation and CR were graded (0-4: 0 = 0%, 1 = 1-25%, 2 = 26-50%, 3 = 51-75%, and 4 = 76-100%) on percentage of involvement with the following categories being examined: (a) lymphocytic infiltration (perivascular, peribronchial, and peribronchiolar) and (b) vasculitis, edema, hemorrhage, and necrosis. Finally, chronic rejection was diagnosed by the presence of intimal hyperplasia, interstitial fibrosis, peribronchiolar fibrosis, bronchiolitis obliterans, and bronchiectasis. The WKY-->F344 animals showed progressive AR (stage III, day 21). Thereafter, the AR subsided spontaneously and was stage 0 on day

  10. Selenium, but not lycopene or vitamin E, decreases growth of transplantable dunning R3327-H rat prostate tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L Lindshield

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lycopene, selenium, and vitamin E are three micronutrients commonly consumed and supplemented by men diagnosed with prostate cancer. However, it is not clear whether consumption of these compounds, alone or in combination, results in improved outcomes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the effects of dietary lycopene (250 mg/kg diet, selenium (methylselenocysteine, 1 mg/kg diet, and vitamin E (gamma-tocopherol, 200 mg/kg diet alone and in combination on the growth of androgen-dependent Dunning R3327-H rat prostate adenocarcinomas in male, Copenhagen rats. AIN-93G diets containing these micronutrients were prefed for 4 to 6 weeks prior to tumor implantation by subcutaneous injection. Tumors were allowed to grow for approximately 18 weeks. Across diet groups, methylselenocysteine consumption decreased final tumor area (P = 0.003, tumor weight (P = 0.003, and the tumor weight/body weight ratio (P = 0.003, but lycopene and gamma-tocopherol consumption intake did not alter any of these measures. There were no significant interactions among nutrient combinations on tumor growth. Methylselenocysteine consumption also led to small, but significant decreases in body weight (P = 0.007, food intake (P = 0.012, and body weight gain/food intake ratio (P = 0.022. However, neither body weight nor gain/food intake ratio was correlated with tumor weight. Methylselenocysteine, lycopene, and gamma-tocopherol consumed alone and in combination did not alter serum testosterone or dihydrotestosterone concentrations; tumor proliferation or apoptosis rates. In addition, the diets also did not alter tumor or prostate androgen receptor, probasin, selenoprotein 15, selenoprotein P, or selenium binding protein 2 mRNA expression. However, using castration and finasteride-treated tissues from a previous study, we found that androgen ablation altered expression of these selenium-associated proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Of the three micronutrients tested, only

  11. Lavandula angustifolia Extract Improves the Result of Human Umbilical Mesenchymal Wharton’s Jelly Stem Cell Transplantation after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayvan Yaghoobi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The primary trauma of spinal cord injury (SCI results in severe damage to nervous functions. At the cellular level, SCI causes astrogliosis. Human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs, isolated from Wharton’s jelly of the umbilical cord, can be easily obtained. Previously, we showed that the neuroprotective effects of Lavandula angustifolia can lead to improvement in a contusive SCI model in rats. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of L. angustifolia (Lav on HUMSC transplantation after acute SCI. Materials and Methods. Sixty adult female rats were randomly divided into eight groups. Every week after SCI onset, all animals were evaluated for behavior outcomes. H&E staining was performed to examine the lesions after injury. GFAP expression was assessed for astrogliosis. Somatosensory evoked potential (SEP testing was performed to detect the recovery of neural conduction. Results. Behavioral tests showed that the HUMSC group improved in comparison with the SCI group, but HUMSC + Lav 400 was very effective, resulting in a significant increase in locomotion activity. Sensory tests and histomorphological and immunohistochemistry analyses verified the potentiation effects of Lav extract on HUMSC treatment. Conclusion. Transplantation of HUMSCs is beneficial for SCI in rats, and Lav extract can potentiate the functional and cellular recovery with HUMSC treatment in rats after SCI.

  12. Lavandula angustifolia Extract Improves the Result of Human Umbilical Mesenchymal Wharton's Jelly Stem Cell Transplantation after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoobi, Kayvan; Kaka, Gholamreza; Mansouri, Korosh; Davoodi, Shaghayegh; Sadraie, Seyed Homayoon; Hosseini, Seyed Ruhollah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The primary trauma of spinal cord injury (SCI) results in severe damage to nervous functions. At the cellular level, SCI causes astrogliosis. Human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs), isolated from Wharton's jelly of the umbilical cord, can be easily obtained. Previously, we showed that the neuroprotective effects of Lavandula angustifolia can lead to improvement in a contusive SCI model in rats. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of L. angustifolia (Lav) on HUMSC transplantation after acute SCI. Materials and Methods. Sixty adult female rats were randomly divided into eight groups. Every week after SCI onset, all animals were evaluated for behavior outcomes. H&E staining was performed to examine the lesions after injury. GFAP expression was assessed for astrogliosis. Somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) testing was performed to detect the recovery of neural conduction. Results. Behavioral tests showed that the HUMSC group improved in comparison with the SCI group, but HUMSC + Lav 400 was very effective, resulting in a significant increase in locomotion activity. Sensory tests and histomorphological and immunohistochemistry analyses verified the potentiation effects of Lav extract on HUMSC treatment. Conclusion. Transplantation of HUMSCs is beneficial for SCI in rats, and Lav extract can potentiate the functional and cellular recovery with HUMSC treatment in rats after SCI. PMID:27057171

  13. Impact of titanium dioxide on androgen receptors, seminal vesicles and thyroid hormones of male rats: possible protective trial with aged garlic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Zeid, E H; Alam, R T M; Abd El-Hameed, N E

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ), a widely produced and consumed pigment in various food products, on the post-natal development of male albino rat seminal vesicle and thyroid hormones, as well as to evaluate the ameliorative effect of aged garlic extract (AGE) on TiO 2 -induced alterations. Forty male rat pups (3 weeks old) were divided into four equal groups. The 1st group received distilled water orally (control group), 2nd group was given 2 ml kg -1 AGE, 3rd group was administered TiO 2 (5 g kg -1 BW) day after day for 65 days, and the 4th group administered AGE 6 hr prior to TiO 2 gavage. TiO 2 -exposed rats showed nonsignificant changes in the serum testosterone, TSH, T 3 and T 4 , while serum glucose showed a significant decrease. Androgen receptor (AR) mRNA expression was significantly down-regulated and weak signal of AR immune labelling. Histopathologically, the epithelium cell lining of seminal vesicles showed focal areas of necrosis and fibrous tissue with the prominent fibrous stroma of the atrophied glands. Meanwhile, AGE supplementation ameliorated the deleterious effects of TiO 2 intoxication through protecting the tissues from oxidative stress caused by TiO 2 . In summary, oral administration of TiO 2 resulted in abnormal developmental events in male rat seminal vesicle and AGE able to reduce TiO 2 toxicity. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Myocardial regeneration by transplantation of modified endothelial progenitor cells expressing SDF-1 in a rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuh, A.; Kroh, A.; Konschalla, S.

    2012-01-01

    Cell based therapy has been shown to attenuate myocardial dysfunction after myocardial infarction (MI) in different acute and chronic animal models. It has been further shown that stromal-cell derived factor-1a (SDF-1a) facilitates proliferation and migration of endogenous progenitor cells...... into injured tissue. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of exogenously applied and endogenously mobilized cells in a regenerative strategy for MI therapy. Lentivirally SDF-1a-infected endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were injected after 90 min. of ligation and reperfusion of the left...... compared to medium control. Intracoronary application of cells did not lead to significant differences compared to medium injected control hearts. Histology showed a significantly elevated rate of apoptotic cells and augmented proliferation after transplantation of EPCs and EPCs + SDF-1 alpha in infarcted...

  15. Xenograft transplantation of human malignant astrocytoma cells into immunodeficient rats: an experimental model of glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Flávio Key; Alves, Maria Jose Ferreira; Rocha, Mussya Cisotto; da Silva, Roseli; Oba-Shinjo, Sueli Mieko; Marie, Suely Kazue Nagahashi

    2010-03-01

    Astrocytic gliomas are the most common intracranial central nervous system neoplasias, accounting for about 60% of all primary central nervous system tumors. Despite advances in the treatment of gliomas, no effective therapeutic approach is yet available; hence, the search for a more realistic model to generate more effective therapies is essential. To develop an experimental malignant astrocytoma model with the characteristics of the human tumor. Primary cells from subcutaneous xenograft tumors produced with malignant astrocytoma U87MG cells were inoculated intracerebrally by stereotaxis into immunosuppressed (athymic) Rowett rats. All four injected animals developed non-infiltrative tumors, although other glioblastoma characteristics, such as necrosis, pseudopalisading cells and intense mitotic activity, were observed. A malignant astrocytoma intracerebral xenograft model with poorly invasive behavior was achieved in athymic Rowett rats. Tumor invasiveness in an experimental animal model may depend on a combination of several factors, including the cell line used to induce tumor formation, the rat strains and the status of the animal's immune system.

  16. A subpopulation of dopaminergic neurons co-expresses serotonin in ventral mesencephalic cultures but not after intrastriatal transplantation in a rat model of Parkinsons disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Santo, Stefano; Seiler, Stefanie; Ducray, Angélique

    2017-01-01

    Cell replacement therapy is a promising avenue into the investigation and treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and in some cases significant long-term motor improvements have been demonstrated. The main source of donor tissue is the human fetal ventral mesencephalon (VM), which consists...... 30% of the dopaminergic neurons in the donor tissue co-expressed serotonin, no co-localization could be detected in grafts one month after intrastriatal transplantation into hemi-parkinsonian rats. In conclusion, a significant and susceptible sub-population of dopaminergic neurons in fetal VM tissues...... both fetal rat and human dissociated, organotypic and neurosphere VM cultures as well as an animal model of PD were investigated. In dissociated rat VM cultures approximately 30% of the TH positive neurons co-expressed serotonin, while no co-localization with GABA was observed. Interestingly, co...

  17. Uptake and clearance of plutonium-238 from intact liver and liver cells transplanted into fat pads of F344/N rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, A.L.; Guilmette, R.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Jirtle, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    An understanding of the role of liver cells and the intact liver in plutonium biokinetics is needed. Liver cells were isolated from rats, injected into fat pads of recipient rats, and allowed 21 days to form cell colonies. Rats then received a single intraperitoneal injection of 1 μCi 238 Pu-citrate and were serially sacrificed. Uptake, retention, and distribution of Pu in intact liver and in liver cells growing in fat pads were determined. Intact liver cells took up about twice as much 238 Pu as liver cells transplanted into fat pads. However, the retention kinetics of Pu were similar for both the liver cells in the fat pads and the intact liver cells when the retention was expressed as activity per cell. 4 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  18. Vitex agnus-castus essential oil affects thyroid C cells and bone metabolism in middle-aged male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pantelić Jasmina; Filipović B.; Šošić-Jurjević Branka; Ajdžanović V.; Trifunović Svetlana; Medigović Ivana; Milošević Verica

    2013-01-01

    Ageing in men is accompanied by an increased occurrence of osteoporosis, but traditional hormonal replacement therapy elevates the risk of developing endocrine cancer. Vitex agnus-castus L. (Vac) essential oil is commonly used as an alternative therapy for ageing symptoms in both men and women. It is known that calcitonin (CT), thyroid C cell hormone, inhibits bone resorption. The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the influence of Vac es...

  19. Cardiac Connexin-43 and PKC Signaling in Rats With Altered Thyroid Status Without and With Omega-3 Fatty Acids Intake

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szeiffová Bačová, B.; Egan Beňová, T.; Viczenczová, C.; Soukup, Tomáš; Rauchová, Hana; Pavelka, Stanislav; Knezl, V.; Barančík, M.; Tribulová, N.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, Suppl.1 (2016), S77-S90 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/1228; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/0259 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : thyroid hormones * cardiac arrhythmias * Connexin-43 * omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  20. Liver transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatic transplant; Transplant - liver; Orthotopic liver transplant; Liver failure - liver transplant; Cirrhosis - liver transplant ... The donated liver may be from: A donor who has recently died and has not had liver injury. This type of ...

  1. Hair Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Skin Experts Skin Treatments Hair Transplants Share » HAIR TRANSPLANTS Before (left) and after (right) - front of ... transplant. Photo courtesy of N. Sadick What are hair transplants? In punch transplanting, a plug containing hair ...

  2. The elimination of the thyroid of the rat by means of 131-I and verification of suitable control measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanauer, G.

    1987-01-01

    Carrier-free iodine-131 was used for thyroidectomy and injected intraperitoneally once or twice in a interval of 7 days. In five examinations iodine-131 was injected twice in an activity of 0.5 mCi, 0.4 mCi, 0.3 mCi, and 0.1 mCi or once in an activity of 1.0 mCi, 0.5 mCi and 0.4 mCi. The results yielded, that the thyroid gland can not be eliminated suitably with activities under twice 0.5 mCi iodine-131. An injection of once 1.0 mCi iodine-131 yielded at least to the same results, or reasons of ray hygiene single injection has to be preferred. As in vitro method only the measurement of the radioiodine incorporation in the exstirpated larynx with the gammacounter was qualified for the proof of residual thyroid tissue. Unfortunately the animals have to be sacrified and a topographic coordination of the results is impossible. Furthermore the thyroid status of one single animal can not be estimated when an control group is missing. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Effect of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway on apoptosis, migration, and invasion of transplanted hepatocellular carcinoma cells after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao-Ming; Li, Nuo

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to investigate the influence of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway on apoptosis, migration, and invasion of transplanted hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) in rat models. A total of 80 rats were grouped into sham, TACE, Wnt-C59, and TACE + Wnt-C59 groups (n = 20). Ten days after model establishment, 10 rats in each group were executed to perform pathological examination and follow-up experiment, and the remaining 10 rats in each group were reared to observe the survival condition. RT-qPCR and Western blotting were applied to determine the expressions of Wnt1, β-catenin, cyclin D1, c-met, vimentin, E-cadherin, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). ELISA was performed to measure the serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) content of rats. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate cell apoptosis rate and transwell assay to examine cell migration and invasion. Compared with the TACE group, the Wnt-C59 and TACE + Wnt-C59 groups showed increased apoptosis and survival time (the TACE + Wnt-C59 group > the Wnt-C59 group). Compared with the sham group, the TACE + Wnt-C59 groups showed decreased cancer tissue weight and expressions of Wnt1, β-catenin, cyclin D1, vimentin, c-met, and VEGF, but increased E-cadherin expression. Compared with the TACE group, the Wnt-C59 and TACE + Wnt-C59 groups showed decreased AFP level, migration, and invasion (the TACE + Wnt-C59 group Wnt-C59 group). These findings indicate inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway improves therapeutic effect on TACE via suppressing migration, invasion, and promoting apoptosis of transplanted HCC cells in rats. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Hipogonadismo e função tireoidiana em ratas hipertireóideas e eutireóideas Hypogonadism and thyroid function in hyper and euthyroid rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Serakides

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A influência do hipogonadismo sobre a função tireoidiana de ratas hipertireóideas e eutireóideas foi medida com base no perfil sérico dos hormônios tireoidianos, dos esteróides ovarianos e do TSH e na histomorfometria da tireóide. Ratas Wistar, com cinco meses de idade, castradas, foram mantidas em estado eutireóideo ou hipertireóideo por períodos de 30, 60 e 90 dias. Um grupo não castrado foi mantido nas mesmas condições e serviu como controle. O hipertireoidismo foi induzido mediante a administração diária 50µg de L-tiroxina, por sonda gástrica. Ao final de cada período, nove ratas por grupo tiveram suas tireóides inspecionadas, pesadas e processadas para avaliação histomorfométrica e o plasma sangüíneo colhido para dosagem de estradiol, progesterona, T4 total, T4 livre, T3 total e TSH. O hipogonadismo não alterou os valores de T3 total e de TSH, mas aumentou significativamente as concentrações de T4 livre, independente do estado hipertireóideo ou eutireóideo. As concentrações de T4 total sofreram influência da castração apenas no grupo hipertireóideo. O peso das tireóides não sofreu influência do hipogonadismo, mas a altura do epitélio folicular nos animais eutireóideos variou ao longo do experimento, apresentando-se maior aos 30 e 90 dias e menor aos 60 dias. Não se observou correlação entre os níveis de estrógeno e as variáveis estudadas, mas os níveis de progesterona foram inversamente proporcionais à elevação dos níveis de T4 total e T4 livre. Concluiu-se que o hipogonadismo altera a histomorfometria da tireoide em indivíduos eutireóideos, aumenta os valores plasmáticos de T4 livre independentemente do estado funcional da tireóide e potencializa a elevação de T4 total no hipertireoidismo, provavelmente sob influência do hipoprogesteronismo e não do hipoestrogenismo.The effects of hypogonadism on thyroid function of hyper and euthyroid rats were measured based on plasmatic

  5. Effect of cassava ( Manihot esculenta crentz ) on thyroid status under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased thyroid weight (P < 0.001), inhibited thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity and reduced thyroid hormone profiles (P < 0.001) were noted in fresh and cooked cassava fed rats, resembling a relative state of morphological as well as biochemical hypothyroidism even in presence of adequate iodine. African Journal of ...

  6. [Painless thyroiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Ken; Fujikawa, Megumi; Bandai, Sachiko

    2006-12-01

    Painless thyroiditis is characterized by painless low-uptake thyrotoxicosis (thyrotoxicosis without hyperthyroidism). Destructive damage of the thyroid has been thought to be the mechanism for self-limited thyrotoxicosis. However, hydrolysis of thyroglobulin must be responsible for the release of excessive thyroid hormone. Low-uptake of iodine and excessive release of thyroid hormone suggest the uncoupling of hormone synthesis and hormone secretion in the thyroid gland. Suppressed serum TSH level, various cytokines or growth factors including TGFbeta1, and thyroglobulin itself may be responsible for the suppressed hormone synthesis. The mechanism for persistent hormone release despite suppressed hormone synthesis should be clarified. Quantitative TSH binding inhibitor immunoglobulin assay is helpful for the differential diagnosis of painless thyroiditis and Graves' hyperthyroidism.

  7. In Vivo Kinetics of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Transplanted into the Knee Joint in a Rat Model Using a Novel Magnetic Method of Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuta, Yasunari; Kamei, Naosuke; Ishikawa, Masakazu; Adachi, Nobuo; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2015-10-01

    We have developed a magnetic system for targeting cells in minimally invasive cell transplantation. Magnetically labeled MSCs (m-MSCs) with nanoscale iron particles can be guided into the desired region by magnetic force from an extracorporeal device. We reported that magnetic targeting of m-MSCs enhances cartilage repair in a mini-pig model. However, the detailed kinetics of these magnetically targeted m-MSCs remain unknown. For clinical use, this aspect should be clarified from a safety standpoint. We therefore investigated the spatial and temporal distribution of the fluorescently-labeled m-MSCs transplanted into the knee joint using in vivo fluorescence combined with three-dimensional computed tomographic imaging in a rat model. Although the intraarticularly injected m-MSCs were spread throughout the joint cavity in the absence of magnetic force, the magnetic force caused the injected m-MSCs to accumulate around the chondral lesion. Further examinations including ex vivo imaging, histological assessments and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that transplanted MSCs were not present in any major organs after intraarticular administration, regardless of magnetic targeting. Our data suggest that m-MSCs can be accumulated efficiently into a chondral lesion using our magnetic targeting system, while none of the intraarticularly transplanted MSCs migrate to other major organs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. MARGINAL IODINE DEFICIENCY EXACERBATES PERCHLORATE THYROID TOXICITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The environmental contaminant perchlorate disrupts thyroid homeostasis via inhibition of iodine uptake into the thyroid. This work tested whether iodine deficiency exacerbates the effects of perchlorate. Female 27 day-old LE rats were fed a custom iodine deficient diet with 0, 50...

  9. Hyperthermia improves the antitumour effect of metronomic cyclophosphamide in a rat transplantable brain tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl Borkamo, Erling; Fluge, Oystein; Mella, Olav; Akslen, Lars A.; Bruland, Ove; Dahl, Olav

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: As low-dose metronomic cyclophosphamide (CTX) and hyperthermia (HT) both exert antitumour effects in part through antiangiogenic mechanisms, interactive effects of the two modalities were explored. Materials and methods: Subcutaneously implanted rat tumours (BT4An) were treated with CTX 35 mg/kg i.p. three doses a week for two weeks, local water-bath HT yielding mean tumour temperature of 43 o C for one hour at day 0, both modalities combined (CTX-HT 0 ), or saline. TUNEL assays, immunohistochemical staining of thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1) and real time RT-PCR of TSP-1 mRNA were analysed the first three hours after completed treatment day 0. Results: Metronomic dosed CTX (p = 0.006) and HT (p 0 (41%) treated rats. TSP-1 protein was specifically upregulated in the vascular matrix of tumours receiving CTX (weak), HT (moderate) and CTX-HT 0 (strong). In contrast, reduced expression of TSP-1 protein was observed in tumour cells after HT alone and CTX-HT 0 . TUNEL assays indicated induction of apoptosis by HT and CTX-HT 0 90 minutes after end of the first treatment. Conclusion: A single session of local HT enhances the effects of low-dose metronomic CTX, possibly in part mediated through a differential effect on TSP-1 protein levels in tumour cells and tumour vasculature

  10. Transplanted Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improve Memory in Rat Models of Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Babaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to evaluate the effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs grafts on cognition deficit in chemically and age-induced Alzheimer's models of rats. In the first experiments aged animals (30 months were tested in Morris water maze (MWM and divided into two groups: impaired memory and unimpaired memory. Impaired groups were divided into two groups and cannulated bilaterally at the CA1 of the hippocampus for delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (500×103/ and PBS (phosphate buffer saline. In the second experiment, Ibotenic acid (Ibo was injected bilaterally into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM of young rats (3 months and animals were tested in MWM. Then, animals with memory impairment received the following treatments: MSCs (500×103/ and PBS. Two months after the treatments, cognitive recovery was assessed by MWM in relearning paradigm in both experiments. Results showed that MSCs treatment significantly increased learning ability and memory in both age- and Ibo-induced memory impairment. Adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells show promise in treating cognitive decline associated with aging and NBM lesions.

  11. Effect of sodium channel blocker, pilsicainide hydrochloride, on net inward current of atrial myocytes in thyroid hormone toxicosis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Munesada; Sunagawa, Masanori; Shimabukuro, Michio; Higa, Namio; Takasu, Nobuyuki; Kosugi, Tadayoshi

    2005-07-01

    To investigate effect of pilsicainide hydrochloride (pilsicainide) on electrocardiogram (ECG) signals and action potentials (APs) of atrial myocytes, levo-thyroxine (T4, 500 microg/kg body weight) was daily injected into peritoneal cavity of Sprague-Dawley rats for 14 days. T4-treatment significantly shortened RR interval, P wave, and QRS complex durations on ECG. Although pilsicainide did not affect the heart rate, P wave and corrected QT interval (QTc) was increased in T4-treated rats. AP recordings revealed that AP durations at 20%, 50%, and 90% repolarization were significantly shortened and maximal rate of rise (Max dV/dt) was significantly increased in T4-treated rat atrial cells. Pilsicainide significantly decreased AP amplitude (APA) and Max dV/dt in both control and T4-treated rat atrial cells. Concentration-inhibition study demonstrated that pilsicainide significantly inhibited net inward current of T4-treated rats at lower concentration (IC50 of 29.2 microg/mL) than that of control rats (133 microg/mL). In conclusion, pilsicainide could decrease the conduction velocity in T4-treated rat atrium by decreasing the Max dV/dt and net inward current, which could be a possible treatment of thyrotoxicosis-induced arrhythmia.

  12. Neuroradiology of the normal and pathological anatomy of the rat brain. Pt. 2. Microangiographic investigations of the vascularisation of transplanted malignant brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, M; Weisser, G; Voigt, K; Mennel, H D

    1980-11-01

    70 BD-IX rats, in which chemically induced mixed gliomas have been transplanted intracerebrally, were investigated by microangiography. The pattern and the degree of tumor vascularisation of all animals was correlated with the histological findings. Dependent on the type of the tumor different localisations of tumor growth could be found: G XII-gliomas preferred the juxta-ventricular region and subarachnoid space whereas GL 2.2-gliomas mainly grew as solid intracerebral space occupying lesions. Microangiograms of all tumor stages from the 14th to 42nd day after transplantation revealed a typical vascular pattern consisting of lacunar glomerulose and netlike vessels. Further, necrosis, bleedings into the tumor, and irregularities of the capillary network could be demonstrated. The volume, age and vascularisation of the tumors are correlated and the results are discussed with regard to the principles of tumor growth and malignancy.

  13. Methymazole (MMI) effects on seric levels of thyroid hormones in rats and mices; Influencia do metimazol (MMI) sob os niveis sericos dos hormonios da tireoide em rato e camundongos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Filho, G.L.; Carvalho, E.B.; Lima, G.M.S.; Neves, S.R.S.; Catanho, M.T.J.A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Lima, G.M.T. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). DMC

    1997-12-01

    The thyroid gland secretes the metabolic hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) which regulate the oxygen consumption of the majority of cells in the body. Their synthesis and release are controlled by the anterior pituitary hormone and also for drugs that mediated the serum concentration of T4 and T3 in the thyroid gland or in the peripheral tissues. The present study evaluates the sinergic effect on the basal secretion of the T4 and T3 after administration of throidal and nonthyroidal drugs in rats and mice. The study achievements with the oral administration of methymazole (MMI) in rats and mice. The study achievements with the oral administration of Methymazole (MMI) in rats and mice resulted in the reduction of the T4 and T3 serum levels, obtained through kinertic treatment. there was a significant reduction in T4 serum values among treated rats and mice for up to 14 days of MMI. Moreover, increased T3 serum concentration was found in rats treated with MMI, after 7 days of treatment, when compared to the serum level of treated mice. The serie levels of T3 and T4 were determined by radioimmunoassay. (author). 11 refs., 2 figs.

  14. [Human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cell transplantation promotes long-term neurobehavioral functional development of newborn SD rats with hypoxic ischemic brain injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-zhi; Wen, Xiao-hong; Liu, Hui; Huang, Jin-hua; Liu, Shang-quan; Ren, Wei-hua; Fang, Wen-xiang; Qian, Yin-feng; Hou, Wei-zhu; Yan, Ming-jie; Yao, You-heng; Li, Wei-Zu; Li, Qian-Jin

    2013-06-01

    To explore the effect of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (UCBMC) promoting nerve behavior function and brain tissue recovery of neonatal SD rat with hypoxic ischemic brain injury (HIBI). A modified newborn rat model that had a combined hypoxic and ischemic brain injury as described by Rice-Vannucci was used, early nervous reflex, the Morris water maze and walking track analysis were used to evaluate nervous behavioral function, and brain MRI, HE staining to evaluate brain damage recovery. Newborn rat Rice-Vannucci model showed significant brain atrophy, obvious hemiplegia of contralateral limbs,e.g right step length [(7.67 ± 0.46) cm vs. (8.22 ± 0.50) cm, F = 1.494] and toe distance [(0.93 ± 0.06) cm vs. (1.12 ± 0.55) cm, F = 0.186] were significantly reduced compared with left side, learning and memory ability was significantly impaired compared with normal control group (P vs.(14.22 ± 5.07) s, t = 4.618] and negative geotaxis reflex time [(7.26 ± 2.00) s vs. (11.76 ± 3.73) s, t = 4.755] on postnatal 14 days of HIBI+ transplantation group were significantly reduced compared with HIBI+NaCl group (P vs. (34.04 ± 12.95) s, t = 3.356] and swimming distance [ (9.12 ± 1.21) cm vs.(12.70 ± 1.53) cm, t = 17.095] of HIBI+transplantation group were significantly reduced compared with those of HIBI+NaCl group (P brain volume on postnatal 10 d [ (75.37 ± 4.53)% vs. (67.17 ± 4.08)%, t = -6.017] and 67 d [ (69.05 ± 3.58)% vs.(60.83 ± 3.69)%, t = -7.148]of HIBI+ transplantation group were significantly larger than those of HIBI+NaCl group (P left cortical edema significantly reduced and nerve cell necrosis of HIBI+ transplantation group is not obvious compared with HIBI+NaCl group. Human UCBMC intraperitoneal transplantation significantly promoted recovery of injured brain cells and neurobehavioral function development.

  15. [Alternation of proteins in brain of Parkinson's disease model rats after the transplantation of TH-NTN gene modified bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Chang, Cheng; Zhang, Jie-wen; Gao, Xiao-qun

    2012-09-04

    To explore the effects of tyrosine hydroxylase-neurturin (TH-NTN) gene modified bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation in Parkinson's disease (PD) model rats and the alternations of correlated proteins. The PD rat model was established by the 2-point injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into unilateral (right) striatum. Successful modeling rats were separated into PD, BMSC and TH-NTN-BMSC groups. BMSC and TH-NTN-BMSC groups were transplanted into BMSCs and TH-NTN gene modified BMSC cells separately into right striatum. After transplantation, ethology detection in all groups was made with an intraperitoneal injection of apomorphine (APO). Dopamine (DA) and Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid (DOPAC) in striatum were detected by high performance liquid electrochemical analysis. TH and NTN proteins in right striatum were also analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Finally the density of dopamine receptors in post synaptic density of dopaminergic synapses of corpus striatum were compared between each group by post-embedding immunogold electron microscopy. After an injection of APO, rotation frequency decreased in TH-NTN-BMSC group, i.e. (5.7 ± 1.3) circles/min versus (10.8 ± 2.2), (9.9 ± 1.2) circles/min in PD and BMSC groups (P TH-NTN-BMSC group versus (923 ± 132)/µm(2) in PD and (860 ± 116)/µm(2) in BMSC groups was also found. The combined therapy of TH and NTN genes increases the synthesis of DA and also protects the dopaminergic neurons to achieve double therapeutic effects. It may provide potential innovations of PD genetic therapy.

  16. Functional recovery after injury of motor cortex in rats: effects of rehabilitation and stem cell transplantation in a traumatic brain injury model of cortical resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Do-Hun; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Oh, Byung-Mo; Phi, Ji Hoon; Kim, Seung-Ki; Bang, Moon Suk; Kim, Seung U; Wang, Kyu-Chang

    2013-03-01

    Experimental studies and clinical trials designed to help patients recover from various brain injuries, such as stroke or trauma, have been attempted. Rehabilitation has shown reliable, positive clinical outcome in patients with various brain injuries. Transplantation of exogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) to repair the injured brain is a potential tool to help patient recovery. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of a combination therapy consisting of rehabilitation and NSC transplantation compared to using only one modality. A model of motor cortex resection in rats was used to create brain injury in order to obtain consistent and prolonged functional deficits. The therapeutic results were evaluated using three methods during an 8-week period with a behavioral test, motor-evoked potential (MEP) measurement, and measurement of the degree of endogenous NSC production. All three treatment groups showed the effects of treatment in the behavioral test, although the NSC transplantation alone group (CN) exhibited slightly worse results than the rehabilitation alone group (CR) or the combination therapy group (CNR). The latency on MEP was shortened to a similar extent in all three groups compared to the untreated group (CO). However, the enhancement of endogenous NSC proliferation was dramatically reduced in the CN group compared not only to the CR and CNR groups but also to the CO group. The CR and CNR groups seemed to prolong the duration of endogenous NSC proliferation compared to the untreated group. A combination of rehabilitation and NSC transplantation appears to induce treatment outcomes that are similar to rehabilitation alone. Further studies are needed to evaluate the electrophysiological outcome of recovery and the possible effect of prolonging endogenous NSC proliferation in response to NSC transplantation and rehabilitation.

  17. Kidney transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... always take your medicine as directed. Alternative Names Renal transplant; Transplant - kidney Patient Instructions Kidney removal - discharge Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow Kidneys Kidney transplant - ...

  18. Thyroid Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Thyroid Problems Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic ... enough thyroid hormone, usually of the thyroxine (T4) type of hormone. Your T4 levels can drop temporarily ...

  19. Thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noma, Koji

    1992-01-01

    This chapter reviews the correlation between thyroid disease, other than cancer, and radiation in the literature. Radiation-induced thyroid disturbance is discussed in the context of external and internal irradiation. External irradiation of 10 to 40 Gy may lower thyroid function several months or years later. Oral administration of I-131 is widely given to patients with Basedow's disease; it may also lower thyroid function with increasing radiation doses. When giving 70 Gy or more of I-131, hypothyroidism has been reported to occur in 20-30% and at least 10%. Thyroiditis induced with internal I-131 irradiation has also been reported, but no data is available concerning external irradiation-induced thyroiditis. The incidence of nodular goiter was found to be several ten times higher with external irradiation than internal irradiation. Thyroid disturbance is correlated with A-bomb survivors. A-bomb radiation can be divided into early radiation within one minute after A-bombing and the subsequent residual radiation. Nodular goiter was significantly more frequent in the exposed group than the non-exposed group; it increased with increasing radiation doses and younger age (20 years or less) at the time of exposure. The incidence of decrease in thyroid function was higher with increasing radiation doses. However, in the case of Nagasaki, the incidence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in the low-dose exposed group, especially A-bomb survivors aged 10-39 at the time of exposure and women. (N.K.)

  20. [Thyroid nodule].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, Jérôme

    2005-01-31

    The thyroid nodule is a frequent, most often benign, chronic, multifocal and slowly progressive disease. The first line strategy is to diagnose cancerous nodules (thyroid nodules is controversial since the prognosis of thyroid cancer is excellent for lesions measuring less than 20 mm. Though imaging accuracy is quite limited in assessing the diagnosis of thyroid cancer, both ultrasounds (US) and thyroid scan are helpful to enhance nodular identification (>30%), to sort the nodules relevant for cytological sampling and to optimize the follow-up, the major source of health costs. Suspicious and non contributive FNAs must have a control FNA within 6 months. Nodules with a non suspicious FNA (>85%) require long term follow-up. This follow-up is mainly morphological. New or evolutive nodules, as assessed by palpation or US, will require iterative FNAs or should be considered for surgery. In patients with hyperfunctioning nodules on the scan (10 to 20%), a yearly evaluation of the TSH level is sufficient. These nodules account either for autonomously functioning ones, which slowly develop towards thyrotoxicosis, or for hyperplastic nodules frequently disclosing a lymphocytic thyroiditis. Morbidity due to thyroid autonomy is still underestimated especially in aging patients with TSH levels thyroid nodule is suggested.

  1. Granulomatous Thyroiditis: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Darshan P; Bhagat, Ramesh; Nakanishi, Yukihiro; Wang, Alun; Moroz, Krzysztof; Falk, Nadja K

    2017-09-01

    Granulomatous disease in the thyroid gland has been linked to viral, bacterial and autoimmune etiologies. The most common granulomatous disease of the thyroid is subacute granulomatous thyroiditis, which is presumed to have a viral or post-viral inflammatory cause. Bacterial etiologies include tuberculosis, actinomycosis, and nocardiosis, but are extremely rare. Disseminated actinomycosis and nocardiosis more commonly affect organ-transplant patients with the highest susceptibility within the first year after transplant surgery. A 45-year-old African American male, who received his third kidney transplant for renal failure secondary to Alport Syndrome, presented with numerous subcutaneous nodules and diffuse muscle pain in the neck. Further workup revealed bilateral nodularity of the thyroid. Fine needle aspiration of these nodules demonstrated suppurative granulomatous thyroiditis. Subsequent right thyroid lobectomy showed granulomatous thyroiditis with filamentous micro-organisms, morphologically resembling Nocardia or Actinomyces. Disseminated granulomatous disease presenting in the thyroid is very rare, and typically afflicts immune-compromised patients. The overall clinical, cytologic and histologic picture of this patient strongly points to an infectious etiology, likely Nocardia, in the setting of recent organ transplantation within the last year. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  2. The Effects of Topical Application of Thyroid Hormone (Liothyronine, T3 on Skin Wounds in Diabetic Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ali Kaykhaei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Efficient treatment of skin ulcers, a leading cause of substantial number of morbidities among diabetic patients, is a subject of matter. Objectives Since current therapies are partially effective and/or expensive and topical liothyronine (T3 was shown to get faster wound healing in mice, the present study was designed to assess its effectiveness in diabetic male rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 30 male wistar rats with mean weight of 242 g were randomly assigned into control (group C (n = 10 and diabetic (n = 20 groups. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of streptozotocin. Diabetic rats were randomly subdivided into two groups: diabetic T3 group (group A which was treated with 150 ng/day topical T3 and diabetic placebo group (group B received vehicle. Full thickness wound on dorsum was created in each rat (1 cm2. Photographs were taken at baseline, fourth and tenth day to analyze changes in surface areas of wounds. Results Results obtained from the present study showed that baseline surface areas of wounds were similar in all groups. Conversely, wound contraction was significantly better in T3 group in fourth and tenth days compared to placebo group, (P = 0.001, P < 0.00001. Moreover, wound healing was impaired in diabetic placebo group compared to other groups (all P < 0.05. Conclusions This study revealed that topical T3 administration is an effective measure for treatment of ulcers in diabetic male rats.

  3. SP-A-enriched surfactant for treatment of rat lung transplants with SP-A deficiency after storage and reperfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erasmus, ME; Hofstede, GJH; Petersen, AH; Batenburg, JJ; Haagsman, HP; Oetomo, SB; Prop, J

    2002-01-01

    Background. The function of pulmonary surfactant is affected by lung transplantation, contributing to impaired lung transplant function. A decreased amount of surfactant protein-A (SP-A) after reperfusion is believed to contribute to the impaired surfactant function. Surfactant treatment has been

  4. Distribution of transplanted human mesenchymal stem cells from Wharton’s Jelly in the central nervous systems of the EAE rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk M. V.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Human Wharton’s Jelly MSCs (hWJ-MSCs have a considerable advantage and potential in treating the central nervous system diseases and can be a new alternative treatment of Multiple Sclerosis (MS. Aim. To study the persistence and distribution of hWJ-MSCs along the neuraxis following transplantation in central nervous system of rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, the animal model of MS. Methods. Isolation and cultivation of hWJ-MSCs in vitro. Immunological phenotyping by flow cytometry. EAE induction. Intrathecal (suboccipital injection of MSCs into CNS of SCH-induced EAE rats. Persistence of hWJ-MSCs in the CNS of hWJ-MSCs -treated rats was detected through detection of the human alpha-satellite DNA in the tissue sections and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF by PCR at days 2, 3, 4 and 5 Results. PCR-assays for alpha-satellite sequences revealed that Human DNA was detected during 5 days following intrathecal injection at the peak of disease in the treated rats. It has been demonstrated that the human DNA was traced in CSF and various segments of a spinal cord. Conclusions. The data obtained suggest that intrathecally delivered hWJ-MSCs, with time, can migrate through the CSF from the injection site to various segments of CNS and persist therein during the first week of post transplantation, which was performed at the EAE disease peak in the xenogeneic setting without immunosuppression. hWJ-MSCs may be considered as a delivery cell source of therapeutic molecules for CNS inflammatory diseases.

  5. The influence of vascularization of transplanted processed allograft nerve on return of motor function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Guilherme; Lee, Joo-Yup; Kremer, Thomas; Friedrich, Patricia; Bishop, Allen T; Shin, Alexander Y

    2016-02-01

    Processed nerve allografts have become an alternative to repair segmental nerve defects, with results comparable with autografts regarding sensory recovery; however, they have failed to reproduce comparable motor recovery. The purpose of this study was to determine how revascularizaton of processed nerve allograft would affect motor recovery. Eighty-eight rats were divided in four groups of 22 animals each. A unilateral 10-mm sciatic nerve defect was repaired with allograft (group I), allograft wrapped with silicone conduit (group II), allograft augmented with vascular endothelial growth factor (group III), or autograft (group IV). Eight animals from each group were sacrificed at 3 days, and the remaining animals at 16 weeks. Revascularization was evaluated by measuring the graft capillary density at 3 days and 16 weeks. Measurements of ankle contracture, compound muscle action potential, tibialis anterior muscle weight and force, and nerve histomorphometry were performed at 16 weeks. All results were normalized to the contralateral side. The results of capillary density at 3 days were 0.99% ± 1.3% for group I, 0.33% ± 0.6% for group II, 0.05% ± 0.1% for group III, and 75.6% ± 45.7% for group IV. At 16 weeks, the results were 69.9% ± 22.4% for group I, 37.0% ± 16.6% for group II, 84.6% ± 46.6% for group III, and 108.3% ± 46.8% for group IV. The results of muscle force were 47.5% ± 14.4% for group I, 21.7% ± 13.5% for group II, 47.1% ± 7.9% for group III, and 54.4% ± 10.6% for group IV. The use of vascular endothelial growth factor in the fashion used in this study improved neither the nerve allograft short-term revascularization nor the functional motor recovery after 16 weeks. Blocking allograft vascularization from surrounding tissues was detrimental for motor recovery. The processed nerve allografts used in this study showed similar functional motor recovery compared with that of the autograft. © 2014

  6. Thyroid effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxon, H.; Thomas, S.; Buncher, C.; Book, S.; Hertzberg, V.

    1985-01-01

    Risk coefficients for thyroid disorders have been developed for both 131 I and external x or gamma low-LET radi