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Sample records for rat thoracic aortas

  1. Effects of thapsigargin in isolated rat thoracic aorta

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    Mikkelsen, E O; Thastrup, Ole; Christensen, S B

    1988-01-01

    The effect of thapsigargin (Tg) was studied in rat thoracic aorta. Tg (10(-8)-10(-5) M) had a dual effect on rat aorta. Thus, Tg induced a concentration dependent increase in basal tone in normal physiological salt solution (PSS), while Tg in potassium (K+) precontracted aortic rings caused a con...... A 23187 had an endothelium dependent relaxant effect on rat aorta different from that of carbachol. The results indicate that Tg in vascular smooth muscle acts by stimulating the transmembranal influx of extracellular calcium....

  2. The Effect of Chlorpyrifos on Isolated Thoracic Aorta in Rats

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    Ebru Yıldırım

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of chlorpyrifos on thoracic aorta and on the level of NO in plasma and aorta. The effect of chlorpyrifos on thoracic aorta in organ bath was determined in 10 rats. Another 45 rats were assigned to 3 groups with 15 rats each: control group 1 received distilled water, control group 2 was given corn oil, and the last group was given 13.5 mg/kg chlorpyrifos dissolved in corn oil every other day for 8 weeks orally. Chlorpyrifos (10−10 M–10−5 M showed no effect on isolated thoracic aorta. Plasma AChE activity was decreased, while LDH, ALT, GGT, and AST activities were increased in chlorpyrifos group compared to control groups. Plasma NO level was increased in chlorpyrifos group compared to control groups. iNOS expression was present in all groups in the cytoplasm of the endothelia and in the smooth muscle cells of aorta. According to semiquantitative histomorphological analysis, iNOS immunopositive reactions were seen in the decreasing order in chlorpyrifos, control 2, and control 1 groups. eNOS immunopositive reactions were observed in the endothelial cell cytoplasm, rarely in the subintimal layer, and the smooth muscle cells of aorta. There were no differences among the groups in terms of eNOS immunostaining. In conclusion, chlorpyrifos induced NO production in aorta following an increase in NOS expression.

  3. The Effect of Chlorpyrifos on Isolated Thoracic Aorta in Rats

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    Yıldırım, Ebru; Baydan, Emine; Kanbur, Murat; Kul, Oğuz; Çınar, Miyase; Ekici, Hüsamettin; Atmaca, Nurgül

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of chlorpyrifos on thoracic aorta and on the level of NO in plasma and aorta. The effect of chlorpyrifos on thoracic aorta in organ bath was determined in 10 rats. Another 45 rats were assigned to 3 groups with 15 rats each: control group 1 received distilled water, control group 2 was given corn oil, and the last group was given 13.5 mg/kg chlorpyrifos dissolved in corn oil every other day for 8 weeks orally. Chlorpyrifos (10−10 M–10−5 M) showed no effect on isolated thoracic aorta. Plasma AChE activity was decreased, while LDH, ALT, GGT, and AST activities were increased in chlorpyrifos group compared to control groups. Plasma NO level was increased in chlorpyrifos group compared to control groups. iNOS expression was present in all groups in the cytoplasm of the endothelia and in the smooth muscle cells of aorta. According to semiquantitative histomorphological analysis, iNOS immunopositive reactions were seen in the decreasing order in chlorpyrifos, control 2, and control 1 groups. eNOS immunopositive reactions were observed in the endothelial cell cytoplasm, rarely in the subintimal layer, and the smooth muscle cells of aorta. There were no differences among the groups in terms of eNOS immunostaining. In conclusion, chlorpyrifos induced NO production in aorta following an increase in NOS expression. PMID:23878805

  4. [Effects of rhynchophylla alkaloids on vascular adventitial fibroblast apoptosis and proliferation in the thoracic aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rats].

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    Dai, Guo-Hua; Sun, Jing-Chang; Qi, Dong-Mei

    2012-09-01

    To study the effects of rhynchophylline, isorhynchophylline, and rhynchophylla alkaloids on the vascular adventitial fibroblasts (VAF) apoptosis and proliferation in thoracic aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and on the Bcl-2, Bax, c-Fos, c-Myc, laminin (LN), and fibronectin (FN). Forty 8-week old male SHR were randomly divided into five groups, i. e., the model group, the captopril group (17.5 mg/kg), the isorhynchophylline group (5.0 mg/kg), the rhynchophylline group (5.0 mg/kg), and the rhynchophylla alkaloids group (50.0 mg/kg), 8 in each group. In addition, eight 8-week old male Wistar rats were selected as the normal group. Equal volume of normal saline was given to rats in the normal group and the model group by gastrogavage. Rats in the rest groups were perfused with isovolumic medication solution (10 mL/kg), six days per week for eight successive weeks. The dosage of drugs was adjusted according to the change of body weight. The VAF apoptosis rate of the thoracic aorta was measured by Annexin V-FITC combined with PI dyeing and flow cytometry. The protein expressions of thoracic aortic Bcl-2, Bax, c-Myc, c-Fos, FN, and LN were detected by immunohistochemical assay. The adventitial transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) mRNA expression in the thoracic aorta was detected by in situ hybridization method. Compared with the model group, the tail arterial systolic pressure decreased, the VAF apoptosis and the protein expression of Bax increased, Bcl-2, c-Fos, FN, LN, and TGF-beta1 mRNA all decreased in the thoracic aorta of SHR in each treatment group after 4-and 8-week of intervention. Rhynchophylline, isorhynchophylline, and rhynchophylla alkaloids could inhibit the protein expression of c-Myc with statistical difference (Prhynchophylla alkaloids group (P>0.05). There was statistical difference in increased VAF apoptosis and decreased protein expressions of Bcl-2, c-Myc, and LN (Prhynchophylla alkaloids group (P>0.05). Rhynchophylline

  5. In vitro vasorelaxation mechanisms of bioactive compounds extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa on rat thoracic aorta

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    Sarr, Mamadou; Ngom, Saliou; Kane, Modou O; Wele, Alassane; Diop, Doudou; Sarr, Bocar; Gueye, Lamine; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Diallo, Aminata S

    2009-01-01

    Background In this study, we suggested characterizing the vasodilator effects and the phytochemical characteristics of a plant with food usage also used in traditional treatment of arterial high blood pressure in Senegal. Methods Vascular effects of crude extract of dried and powdered calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were evaluated on isolated thoracic aorta of male Wistar rats on organ chambers. The crude extract was also enriched by liquid-liquid extraction. The various cyclohexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol extracts obtained as well as the residual marc were subjected to Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The different methanolic eluate fractions were then analyzed by Thin Layer (TLC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and their vascular effects also evaluated. Results The H. Sabdariffa crude extract induced mainly endothelium-dependent relaxant effects. The endothelium-dependent relaxations result from NOS activation and those who not dependent to endothelium from activation of smooth muscle potassium channels. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenolic acids in the ethyl acetate extract and anthocyans in the butanolic extract. The biological efficiency of the various studied extracts, in term of vasorelaxant capacity, showed that: Butanol extract > Crude extract > Residual marc > Ethyl acetate extract. These results suggest that the strong activity of the butanolic extract is essentially due to the presence of anthocyans found in its fractions 43-67. Conclusion These results demonstrate the vasodilator potential of hibiscus sabdariffa and contribute to his valuation as therapeutic alternative. PMID:19883513

  6. Vasorelaxant Effect of a Newly Synthesized Dihydropyridine Ethyl Ester (DHPEE on Rat Thoracic Aorta: Dual Mechanism of Action

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    Hossein Babaei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: DHPEE is a newly synthesized compound by merging the key structural elements in an angiotensin receptor blocker (Telmisartan with key structural elements in 1,4- dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker (Nifedipine. In this study, we examined dual calcium channel blocking and AT1 antagonist activity for DHPEE. Methods: The functional inhibitory characteristics of DHPEE were studied in vitro in rat thoracic aorta preparations precontracted by phenylephrine (1µM or KCl (80µM or Ang II in normal or calcium-free solutions. Results: Concentration–dependent significant relaxation was observed in aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine, KCl or Ang II. The tension increment produced by increasing external calcium was also reduced by DHPEE. DHPEE caused a marked decrease in the maximal contractile response of the vasoactive agents and shifted their concentration-response curves to the right. Conclusion: DHPEE possesses dual characteristics and cause vasorelaxation by blocking the L-type calcium channels and blocking Ang II receptors (AT1 in rat aortic smooth muscle.

  7. Effect of nabumetone treatment on vascular responses of the thoracic aorta in rat experimental arthritis.

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    Ulker, S; Onal, A; Hatip, F B; Sürücü, A; Alkanat, M; Koşay, S; Evinç, A

    2000-04-01

    Nabumetone is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAI) drug which is known to cause less gastrointestinal damage than other NSAI drugs. This study was performed to evaluate whether nabumetone treatment might alter the vascular aberrations related to inflammation in a rat model of adjuvant-induced arthritis. Nabumetone treatment (120 or 240 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1), orally) was initiated on the 15th day of adjuvant inoculation and continued for 14 days. Arthritic lesions, vascular contractile and relaxant responses and gastroduodenal histopathological preparations were evaluated 29 days after adjuvant inoculation. The contractile responses of aortic rings to phenylephrine and KCl were increased in grade 2 arthritic rats. In grade 3 arthritis only the phenylephrine contractility was decreased. The relaxant responses to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were decreased in grades 2 and 3. In healthy rats, nabumetone did not change the vascular responses. After treatment of arthritic rats with nabumetone, both the contractile and relaxant response of the aortic rings returned to normal, and arthritic score and paw swelling were reduced. Gastroduodenal histopathology did not show erosions or ulcers in any of the groups. In conclusion, nabumetone improved the systemic signs and vascular alterations in experimental arthritis without showing any gastrointestinal side effects. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. EDRF [endothelium-derived relaxing factor]-release and Ca++-channel blockage by Magnolol, an antiplatelet agent isolated from Chinese herb Magnolia officinalis, in rat thoracic aorta

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    Teng, Cheming; Yu, Sheumeei; Chen, Chienchih; Huang, Yulin; Huang, Turfu

    1990-01-01

    Magnolol is an antiplatelet agent isolated from Chinese herb Magnolia officinalis. It inhibited norepinephrine-induced phasic and tonic contractions in rat thoracic aorta. At the plateau of the NE-induced tonic contraction, addition of magnolol caused two phases (fast and slow) of relaxation. These two relaxations were concentration-dependent, and were not inhibited by indomethacin. The fast relaxation was completely antagonized by hemoglobin and methylene blue, and disappeared in de-endothelialized aorta while the slow relaxation was not affected by the above treatments. Magnolol also inhibited high potassium-induced, calcium-dependent contraction of rat aorta in a concentration-dependent manner. 45 Ca ++ influx induced by high potassium or NE was markedly inhibited by magnolol. Cyclic GMP, but not PGI 2 , was increased by magnolol in intact, but not in de-endothelialized aorta. It is concluded that magnolol relaxed vascular smooth muscle by releasing endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) and by inhibiting calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels

  9. Endothelium-Independent Vasorelaxant Effect of Ligusticum jeholense Root and Rhizoma on Rat Thoracic Aorta

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    Bumjung Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ligusticum jeholense has been used as the traditional medicine ‘Go-Bon’ (Chinese name, Gao-ben in China and Korea. Considering the increased use of medicinal herbs to treat hypertension, in this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanisms of the vasorelaxation effect caused by L. jeholense. We tested the methanol (MeOH extract of L. jeholense root and rhizoma for vasorelaxant effects; while using an isolated organ-chamber technique, L. jeholense extract (LJE induced relaxation in the rat aortic rings by stimulating vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. LJE showed concentration-dependent relaxant effects on endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic rings pre-contracted with both phenylephrine (PE and potassium chloride (KCl in Krebs-Henseleit (KH buffer. The vasorelaxant effect of LJE was partly attenuated by pre-treatment with glibenclamide or 4-aminopyridine (4-AP as K+ channel blockers. Moreover, LJE showed concentration-dependent inhibition of vasoconstriction by Ca2+ supplementation in the aortic rings that were pre-contracted with PE or KCl in Ca2+-free KH buffer. In addition, a combination of LJE and nifedipine, pre-incubated further, decreased PE-induced contractions. The results suggested that LJE-induced vasorelaxation were related to blocking K+ channels and inhibiting entry of extracellular Ca2+ via receptor-operative Ca2+ channels (ROCCs or voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs.

  10. Analysis of the role of nitric oxide in the relaxant effect of the crude extract and fractions from Eugenia uniflora in the rat thoracic aorta.

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    Wazlawik, E; Da Silva, M A; Peters, R R; Correia, J F; Farias, M R; Calixto, J B; Ribeiro-Do-Valle, R M

    1997-04-01

    This study has evaluated the possible role played by the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway in the vasorelaxant action of the hydroalcoholic extract from Eugenia uniflora, and fractions from the extract, in rings of rat thoracic aorta. The addition of an increasing cumulative concentration of hydroalcoholic extract from E. uniflora (1-300 micrograms mL-1) caused a concentration-dependent relaxation response in intact endothelium-thoracic aorta rings pre-contracted with noradrenaline (30-100 nM). The IC50 value, with its respective confidence limit, and the maximum relaxation (Rmax) were 7.02 (4.77-10.00) micrograms mL-1 and 83.94 +/- 3.04%, respectively. The removal of the endothelium completely abolished these responses. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitors N omega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG, 30 microM) and N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 30 microM), inhibited the relaxation (Rmax) to -10.43 +/- 7.81% and -3.69 +/- 2.62%, respectively. In addition, L-arginine (1 mM), but not D-arginine (1 mM), completely reversed inhibition by L-NOARG. Methylene blue (30 microM), a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, reduced the relaxation induced by the extract to 14.60 +/- 7.40%. These data indicate that in the rat thoracic aorta the hydroalcoholic extract, and its fractions, from the leaves of E. uniflora have graded and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxant effects.

  11. Digital subtraction angiography of the thoracic aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, L.B.; Buonocore, E.; Modic, M.T.; Meaney, T.F.

    1984-01-01

    Forty-three patients with acquired and congenital abnormalities of the thoracic aorta were studied using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) after an intravenous bolus injection of 40 ml of contrast material. Abnormalities studied included coarctation, pseudocoarctation, Marfan syndrome, cervical aorta, double aortic arch, aneurysm, dissection, and tumor. Twenty-four patients also had conventional angiography. DSA was accurate in 95% of cases; in the other 5%, involving patients with acute type I dissection, the coronary arteries could not be seen. The authors concluded that in 92% of their patients, DSA could have replaced the standard aortogram

  12. Digital subtraction angiography of the thoracic aorta

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    Grossman, L.B.; Buonocore, E.; Modic, M.T.; Meaney, T.F.

    1984-02-01

    Forty-three patients with acquired and congenital abnormalities of the thoracic aorta were studied using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) after an intravenous bolus injection of 40 ml of contrast material. Abnormalities studied included coarctation, pseudocoarctation, Marfan syndrome, cervical aorta, double aortic arch, aneurysm, dissection, and tumor. Twenty-four patients also had conventional angiography. DSA was accurate in 95% of cases; in the other 5%, involving patients with acute type I dissection, the coronary arteries could not be seen. The authors concluded that in 92% of their patients, DSA could have replaced the standard aortogram.

  13. Extended replacement of the thoracic aorta.

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    Hino, Yutaka; Okada, Kenji; Oka, Takanori; Inoue, Takeshi; Tanaka, Akiko; Omura, Atsushi; Kano, Hiroya; Okita, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    We present our experience of total aortic arch replacement. Twenty-nine patients (21 males and 8 females; mean age 63.3 ± 13.3 years) with extended thoracic aortic aneurysms underwent graft replacement. The pathology of the diseased aorta was non-dissecting aneurysm in 11 patients, including one aortitis and aortic dissection in 18 patients (acute type A: one, chronic type A: 11, chronic type B: six). Five patients had Marfan syndrome. In their previous operation, two patients had undergone the Bentall procedure, three had endovascular stenting, one had aortic root replacement with valve sparing and 12 had hemi-arch replacement for acute type A dissection. Approaches to the aneurysm were as follows: posterolateral thoracotomy with rib-cross incision in 16, posterolateral thoracotomy extended to the retroperitoneal abdominal aorta in seven, mid-sternotomy and left pleurotomy in three, anterolateral thoracotomy with partial lower sternotomy in two and clam-shell incision in one patient. Extension of aortic replacement was performed from the aortic root to the descending aorta in 4, from the ascending aorta to the descending aorta in 17 and from the ascending to the abdominal aorta in eight patients. Arterial inflow for cardiopulmonary bypass consisted of the femoral artery in 15 patients, ascending aorta and femoral artery in seven, descending or abdominal aorta in five and ascending aorta in two. Venous drainage site was the femoral vein in 10, pulmonary artery in eight, right atrium in five, femoral artery with right atrium/pulmonary artery in four and pulmonary artery with right atrium in two patients. The operative mortality, 30-day mortality and hospital mortality was one (cardiac arrest due to aneurysm rupture), one (rupture of infected aneurysm) and one (brain contusion), respectively. Late mortality occurred in three patients due to pneumonia, ruptured residual aneurysm and intracranial bleeding. Actuarial survival at 5 years after the operations was 80.6

  14. Effects of hirsutine, an antihypertensive indole alkaloid from Uncaria rhynchophylla, on intracellular calcium in rat thoracic aorta.

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    Horie, S; Yano, S; Aimi, N; Sakai, S; Watanabe, K

    1992-01-01

    The effects of hirsutine, an indole alkaloid from Uncaria rhynchophylla (MIQ.) Jackson, on cytosolic Ca2+ level ([Ca2+]cyt) were studied by using fura-2-Ca2+ fluorescence in smooth muscle of the isolated rat aorta. Noradrenaline and high K+ solution produced a sustained increase in [Ca2+]cyt. Application of hirsutine after the increases in [Ca2+]cyt induced by noradrenaline and high K+ notably decreased [Ca2+]cyt, suggesting that hirsutine inhibits Ca2+ influx mainly through a voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel. Furthermore, the effect of hirsutine on intracellular Ca2+ store was studied by using contractile responses to caffeine under the Ca(2+)-free nutrient condition in the rat aorta. When hirsutine was added at 30 microM before caffeine treatment, the agent slightly but significantly reduced the caffeine-induced contraction. When added during Ca2+ loading, hirsutine definitely augmented the contractile response to caffeine. These results suggest that hirsutine inhibits Ca2+ release from the Ca2+ store and increases Ca2+ uptake into the Ca2+ store, leading to a reduction of intracellular Ca2+ level. It is concluded that hirsutine reduces intracellular Ca2+ level through its effect on the Ca2+ store as well as through its effect on the voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel.

  15. Diameter of the thoracic and abdominal aorta in healthy Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Wakako

    1989-01-01

    In 300 cases, diameter of thoracic and abdominal aorta in healthy Japanese is measured by computed tomography (CT) and the values are analyzed in relation to the age, sex and the level of the aorta on CT scan. Aorta becomes dilated with age. In female diameter of the aorta is correlated with age, on the other hand, diameter of those is not correlated with age in male. Diameter in male is larger than in female. Aorta tapers off and the ratio of tapering of the thoracic aorta is more prominent than that of the abdominal aorta. Therefore the calculations of the landmarks of tapering of the aorta and the ratio of diameter of the aorta to transverse diameter of the vertebral body at the levels of 10th thoracic and 3rd lumber vertebrae on CT scan are useful for judgement of normal range of diameter of the aorta. Calcifications of the wall of the aorta are seen initially at the age of 5th decade in the abdominal aorta and 6th decade in the thoracic aorta in healthy Japanese. They are noted in almost of the persons after the age of seventy years old. The presence of calcification is not correlated with diameter of the aorta at the same level on CT scan. (author)

  16. Investigation of pulsatile flowfield in healthy thoracic aorta models.

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    Wen, Chih-Yung; Yang, An-Shik; Tseng, Li-Yu; Chai, Jyh-Wen

    2010-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Complex hemodynamics plays a critical role in the development of aortic dissection and atherosclerosis, as well as many other diseases. Since fundamental fluid mechanics are important for the understanding of the blood flow in the cardiovascular circulatory system of the human body aspects, a joint experimental and numerical study was conducted in this study to determine the distributions of wall shear stress and pressure and oscillatory WSS index, and to examine their correlation with the aortic disorders, especially dissection. Experimentally, the Phase-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PC-MRI) method was used to acquire the true geometry of a normal human thoracic aorta, which was readily converted into a transparent thoracic aorta model by the rapid prototyping (RP) technique. The thoracic aorta model was then used in the in vitro experiments and computations. Simulations were performed using the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code ACE+((R)) to determine flow characteristics of the three-dimensional, pulsatile, incompressible, and Newtonian fluid in the thoracic aorta model. The unsteady boundary conditions at the inlet and the outlet of the aortic flow were specified from the measured flowrate and pressure results during in vitro experiments. For the code validation, the predicted axial velocity reasonably agrees with the PC-MRI experimental data in the oblique sagittal plane of the thoracic aorta model. The thorough analyses of the thoracic aorta flow, WSSs, WSS index (OSI), and wall pressures are presented. The predicted locations of the maxima of WSS and the wall pressure can be then correlated with that of the thoracic aorta dissection, and thereby may lead to a useful biological significance. The numerical results also suggest that the effects of low WSS and high OSI tend to cause wall thickening occurred along the inferior wall of the aortic arch and the

  17. Endothelium-Dependent Vasorelaxant Effect of Butanolic Fraction from Caryocar brasiliense Camb. Leaves in Rat Thoracic Aorta

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    Lais Moraes de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caryocar brasiliense Camb. “pequi” is a native plant from the Cerrado region of Brazil that contains bioactive components reported to be antioxidant agents. Previous work has demonstrated that dietary supplementation with pequi decreased the arterial pressure of volunteer athletes. We found that the crude hydroalcoholic extract (CHE of C. brasiliense leaves relaxed, in a concentration-dependent manner, rat aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine, and that the butanolic fraction (BF produced an effect similar to that of the CHE. Aortic relaxation induced by BF was abolished by endothelium removal, by incubation of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME, or the soluble guanylatecyclase inhibitor ODQ. However, incubation with atropine and pyrilamine had no effect on the BF-induced vasorelaxation. Moreover, this effect was not inhibited by indomethacin and tetraethylammonium. The concentration-response curve to calcium in denuded-endothelium rings was not modified after incubation with BF, and the vasorelaxation by BF in endothelium-intact rings precontracted with KCl was abolished after incubation with L-NAME. In addition, administration of BF in anesthetized rats resulted in a reversible hypotension. The results reveal that C. brasiliense possesses both in vivo and in vitro activities and that the vascular effect of BF involves stimulation of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway.

  18. Investigation of the role of the NO-cGMP pathway on YC-1 and DEA/NO effects on thoracic aorta smooth muscle responses in a rat preeclampsia model.

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    Turgut, Nergiz Hacer; Temiz, Tijen Kaya; Turgut, Bülent; Karadas, Baris; Parlak, Mesut; Bagcivan, Ihsan

    2013-10-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of YC-1, a nitric oxide (NO)-independent soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) activator, and DEA/NO, a NO donor, on smooth muscle responses in the preeclampsia model with suramin-treated rats and on the levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) of thoracic aorta rings isolated from term-pregnant rats. Rats of 2 groups, control group and suramin group, were given intraperitoneal injection of saline or suramin, respectively. Suramin injection caused increased blood pressure, protein in urine, and fetal growth retardation. Thoracic aorta rings were exposed to contractile and relaxant agents. KCl contraction and papaverine relaxation responses were similar. Relaxation responses of YC-1 and DEA/NO decreased in suramin group. In both groups in the presence of ODQ, a sGC inhibitor, the relaxation responses of YC-1 and DEA/NO decreased. The cGMP content was determined by radioimmunoassay technique. The content of cGMP in the suramin group decreased. In the presence of YC-1 and DEA/NO in both groups, cGMP content increased, but in ODQ-added groups, there was a significant decrease. We conclude that in preeclampsia, the decrease of relaxation responses and the decrease of cGMP content could be due to the reduction in stimulation of sGC and the decrease in cGMP levels.

  19. Interphase death and repair of radiation injuries to thoracic aorta endothelium of mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbova, E.N.; Ivanov, Yu.V.

    1978-01-01

    Using the method of plane preparations injury to the thoracic aorta endothelium of guinea-pigs, rats and rabbits exposed to various doses of γ-rays ( 60 Co) has been studied. The value of the threshold dose, tested by diminution of the endothelial cell quantity, has been found to be 250 R for guinea-pigs, 830 R, for rats and 880 R, for rabbits. It has been shown by means of the fractionated irradiation model that the interphase endothelial cells of guinea-pigs and rats can recover from sublethal radiation injuries

  20. Manejo endovascular de la aorta torácica Endovascular treatment of thoracic aorta

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    Juan G Barrera

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available En comparación con el tratamiento convencional, la terapia endovascular en aneurisma de aorta torácica, presenta los mejores resultados, por lo que se convierte en el tratamiento de elección para la patología de aorta torácica descendente endovascular, por su baja morbimortalidad perioperatoria. El tratamiento quirúrgico por vía retroperitoneal y/o endovascular para aneurisma de aorta abdominal infrarrenal, resulta ser especialmente seguro en pacientes octogenarios o con alta morbilidad. Esta cohorte institucional presenta resultados perioperatorios y en el seguimiento, similares a los reportados en la literatura mundial.Compared with the conventional treatment, endovascular therapy in thoracic aortic aneurysm shows the best results, being the election treatment for the pathology of the descending thoracic aorta, due to its low peri-operative morbid-mortality. Surgical treatment by retro-peritoneal route and/or endovascular for infra-renal abdominal aortic aneurysm is especially safe in octogenarian patients or in those with a high mortality rate. This institutional cohort show peri-operative and follow-up results similar to those reported in the world literature.

  1. Noninvasive radiodiagnosis of aneurysms of the thoracic aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todua, F.I.; Petsko, A.P.; Arablinskij, A.V.; Kazanchyan, P.O.; Nikitaev, N.S.; Sultanaliev, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    The paper is concerned with analysis of the results of X-ray investigation of 45 patients with aneurysms of the distal part of the arch and descending part of the thoracic aorta. X-ray investigation helped to establish correct diagnosis of aneurysm of the aorta in 42 of 45 patients (93.3 %) on the basis of the detection of intense additional shadow formation in left pulmonary field, unseparable from the aortic shadow. The use of a new method of ultrasound diagnosis-duplex scanning-made it possible to establish the presence of aneurysm and to determine its sizes as well as to visualize the relation of the left subclavicular artery to aneurysm in 17 of 21 patients. CT-semiotics of aneurysms of the descending part of the thoracic aorta consisted in its dilatation over 3.5 cm, wall calcification, thrombosis of the cavity and change of the adjacent structures. Basing on the analysis of these signs correct diagnosis was established in 34 of 35 examinees (97.1 %)

  2. Treatment of traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta

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    Davidović Lazar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Interest for traumatic thoracic aorta rupture stems from the fact that its number continually increases, and it can be rapidly lethal. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study is to present early and long term results as well as experiences of our team in surgical treatment of traumatic thoracic aorta rupture. METHOD Our retrospective study includes 12 patients with traumatic thoracic aorta rupture treated between 1985 and 2007. There were 10 male and two female patients of average age 30.75 years (18-74. RESULTS In six cases, primary diagnosis was established during the first seven days days after trauma, while in 6 more than one month later. In 11 cases, classical open surgical procedure was performed, while endovascular treatment was used in one patient. Three (25% patients died, while two (16.6% had paraplegia. Nine patients (75% were treated without complications, and are in good condition after a mean follow-up period of 9.7 years (from one month to 22 years. CONCLUSION Surgical treatment requires spinal cord protection to prevent paraplegia, using cardiopulmonary by-pass (three of our cases or external heparin-bonded shunts (five of our cases. Cardiopulmonary by-pass is followed with lower incidence of paraplegia, however it is not such a good solution for patients with polytrauma because of hemorrhage. The endovascular repair is a safe and feasible procedure in the acute phase, especially because of traumatic shock and polytrauma which contributes to higher mortality rate after open surgery. On the other hand, in chronic postrauamatic aortic rupture, open surgical treatment is connected with a lower mortality rate and good long-term results. There have been no published data about long-term results of endovascular treatment in the chronic phase.

  3. Increased interleukin-11 levels in thoracic aorta and plasma from patients with acute thoracic aortic dissection.

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    Xu, Yao; Ye, Jing; Wang, Menglong; Wang, Yuan; Ji, Qingwei; Huang, Ying; Zeng, Tao; Wang, Zhen; Ye, Di; Jiang, Huimin; Liu, Jianfang; Lin, Yingzhong; Wan, Jun

    2018-06-01

    Interleukin (IL) 11 is closely related to tumor and hematological system diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated that IL-11 also participates in cardiovascular diseases, including ischemia-reperfusion mediated heart injury and acute myocardial infarction. This study aimed to investigate whether IL-11 is involved in acute thoracic aortic dissection (TAD). Aortic tissue samples from normal donors and acute TAD patients were collected, and the expression of IL-11 in all aortic tissue was analyzed. In addition, blood samples from patients with chest pain were collected and divided into a non-AD (NAD) group and a TAD group according to the results of computed tomography angiography of the thoracic aorta. The plasma IL-11, IL-17 and interferon (IFN) γ in all blood samples were measured. Compared with aortic tissue of normal controls, IL-11 was significantly increased in aortic tissue of acute TAD patients, especially in the torn section. The IL-11 was derived from aorta macrophages in TAD. In addition, the plasma IL-11, IL-17 and IFN-γ were significantly higher in acute TAD patients than in NAD patients, and the correlation analysis showed that IL-11 levels were positively correlated with levels of IFN-γ, IL-17, glucose, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, white blood cells, C-reactive proteins and D-dimers. Binary logistic regression analyses showed that elevated IL11 in patients who may have diagnostic value of TAD, but less that D-dimer. IL-11 was increased in thoracic aorta and plasma of TAD patients and may be a promising biomarker for diagnosis in patients with TAD. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Geometric Deformations of the Thoracic Aorta and Supra-Aortic Arch Branch Vessels Following Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullery, Brant W; Suh, Ga-Young; Hirotsu, Kelsey; Zhu, David; Lee, Jason T; Dake, Michael D; Fleischmann, Dominik; Cheng, Christopher P

    2018-04-01

    To utilize 3-D modeling techniques to better characterize geometric deformations of the supra-aortic arch branch vessels and descending thoracic aorta after thoracic endovascular aortic repair. Eighteen patients underwent endovascular repair of either type B aortic dissection (n = 10) or thoracic aortic aneurysm (n = 8). Computed tomography angiography was obtained pre- and postprocedure, and 3-D geometric models of the aorta and supra-aortic branch vessels were constructed. Branch angle of the supra-aortic branch vessels and curvature metrics of the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and stented thoracic aortic lumen were calculated both at pre- and postintervention. The left common carotid artery branch angle was lower than the left subclavian artery angles preintervention ( P Supra-aortic branch vessel angulation remains relatively static when proximal landing zones are distal to the left common carotid artery.

  5. Endovascular treatment of thoracic aorta aneurysm and dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, I.; Stankov, Z.; Stefanov, St.; Stoyanov, Hr.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: The aim is to give up to date information about modern endovascular treatment of aortic pathology Dissection and aneurysms of the aorta are life threatening condition requiring in most of the cases prompt surgical or endovascular treatment because of the poor natural evolution. Purpose: to assess the immediate and 1-year outcome of endovascular treatment in broad spectrum of acute and subacute aortic syndrome during the last 3 years (November 2012 - August 2015) in City Clinic (Sofia, Bulgaria). We performed endovascular treatment of 47 patients (43 men, 4 women) at average age 54 y. with dissection (24) and aneurysms (23) of the aortic arch and thoracic aorta (in 5 emergent treatment was performed for aortic rupture). All patients were treated with minimal surgical femoral approach. In 4 (9%) of them initial carotid to carotid bypass was performed in order to provide a sufficient landing zone for the endograft implantation.the last 9 patients (19%) were treated without general anesthesia with either deep sedation or epidural anesthesia. Results: In all patients successful endograft implantation was achieved. Additional stent-graft or open cell stent was implanted in 4 cases in order to centralize the flow in the compressed true lumen. In 5 cases additional vascular plug or large coil was delivered in the left subclavian arteryostium in order to interrupt retrograde aneurysm or false lumen filling. Complications: 30 days mortality-2.2%, neurologic disorders (4.4%). one year survival- 45 (90.5%). 3 and 6 mo control CT scan showed no migration of the graft in 100%, full false lumen isolation in 19 out of 24 dissections (80%) and aneurysm free of expansion in 20 out of 23 (86%), patent carotid bay-pass graft in 4 of 4 (100%). This one center study showed excellent immediate and 1 year clinical and device results from endovascular repair of potentially fatal disease. Endovascular treatment is a method of choice for broad spectrum of aortic pathology

  6. Sympatholytic properties of several AT(1)-receptor antagonists in the isolated rabbit thoracic aorta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nap, Alexander; Balt, Jippe C.; Pfaffendorf, Martin; van Zwieten, Pieter A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the facilitating effect of angiotensin II on sympathetic neurotransmission to quantitatively compare the sympatho-inhibitory potencies of the selective AT(1)-receptor antagonists losartan, irbesartan and telmisartan in the isolated rabbit thoracic aorta. Design To investigate

  7. Mural Thrombus in the Normal-Appearing Descending Thoracic Aorta of a Chronic Smoker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Habib; Hsu, Judy; Winchell, Patricia Jo; Daoko, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Thrombus formation in an atherosclerotic or aneurysmal descending thoracic aorta is a well-described, frequently encountered vascular condition. In comparison, thrombus formation in a normal-appearing descending thoracic aorta is reported far less often. We describe the case of a 46-year-old woman who had splenic and renal infarctions secondary to embolic showers from a large, mobile thrombus in a morphologically normal proximal descending thoracic aorta. After the patient underwent anticoagulation, stent-grafting, and surgical bypass to correct an arterial blockage caused by the stent-graft, she resumed a relatively normal life. In contrast with other cases of a thrombotic but normal-appearing descending thoracic aorta, this patient had no known malignancy or systemic coagulative disorders; her sole risk factor was chronic smoking. We discuss our patient's case and review the relevant medical literature, focusing on the effect of smoking on coagulation physiology. PMID:24391341

  8. Characterization of atherosclerotic disease in thoracic aorta: A 3D, multicontrast vessel wall imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Changwu [Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing (China); Department of Radiology, The Second Clinical Medical College, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou (China); Qiao, Huiyu; He, Le [Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing (China); Yuan, Chun [Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing (China); Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Chen, Huijun; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Rui [Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing (China); Wang, Wei; Du, Fang [Department of Radiology, The Second Clinical Medical College, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou (China); Li, Cheng, E-mail: cjr.licheng@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Zhao, Xihai, E-mail: xihaizhao@tsinghua.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing (China)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the characteristics of plaque in the thoracic aorta using three dimensional multicontrast magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and methods: Elderly subjects (≥60 years) were recruited in this study. Thoracic aorta was imaged on a 3.0T MR scanner by acquiring multicontrast sequences. The plaque burden was evaluated by measuring lumen area, wall area, wall thickness, and normalized wall index. The presence or absence of plaque and intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH)/mural thrombus (MT) were identified. The characteristics of atherosclerosis among different thoracic aorta segments (AAO: ascending aorta; AOA: aortic arch, and DOA: descending aorta) were determined. Results: Of 66 recruited subjects (mean age 72.3 ± 6.2 years, 30 males), 55 (83.3%) had plaques in the thoracic aorta. The prevalence of plaque in AAO, AOA, and DAO was 5.4%, 72.7%, and 71.2%, respectively. In addition, 21.2% of subjects were found to have lesions with IPH/MT in the thoracic aorta. The prevalence of IPH/MT in segment of AAO, AOA and DAO was 0%, 13.6%, and 12.1%, respectively. The aortic wall showed the highest NWI in DAO (34.1% ± 4.8%), followed by AOA (31.2% ± 5%), and AAO (26.8% ± 3.3%) (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Three dimensional multicontrast MR imaging is capable of characterizing atherosclerotic plaques in the thoracic aorta. The findings of high prevalence of plaques and the presence of high risk plaques in the thoracic aorta suggest early screening for aortic vulnerable lesions in the elderly.

  9. Characterization of atherosclerotic disease in thoracic aorta: A 3D, multicontrast vessel wall imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Changwu; Qiao, Huiyu; He, Le; Yuan, Chun; Chen, Huijun; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Rui; Wang, Wei; Du, Fang; Li, Cheng; Zhao, Xihai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the characteristics of plaque in the thoracic aorta using three dimensional multicontrast magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and methods: Elderly subjects (≥60 years) were recruited in this study. Thoracic aorta was imaged on a 3.0T MR scanner by acquiring multicontrast sequences. The plaque burden was evaluated by measuring lumen area, wall area, wall thickness, and normalized wall index. The presence or absence of plaque and intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH)/mural thrombus (MT) were identified. The characteristics of atherosclerosis among different thoracic aorta segments (AAO: ascending aorta; AOA: aortic arch, and DOA: descending aorta) were determined. Results: Of 66 recruited subjects (mean age 72.3 ± 6.2 years, 30 males), 55 (83.3%) had plaques in the thoracic aorta. The prevalence of plaque in AAO, AOA, and DAO was 5.4%, 72.7%, and 71.2%, respectively. In addition, 21.2% of subjects were found to have lesions with IPH/MT in the thoracic aorta. The prevalence of IPH/MT in segment of AAO, AOA and DAO was 0%, 13.6%, and 12.1%, respectively. The aortic wall showed the highest NWI in DAO (34.1% ± 4.8%), followed by AOA (31.2% ± 5%), and AAO (26.8% ± 3.3%) (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Three dimensional multicontrast MR imaging is capable of characterizing atherosclerotic plaques in the thoracic aorta. The findings of high prevalence of plaques and the presence of high risk plaques in the thoracic aorta suggest early screening for aortic vulnerable lesions in the elderly.

  10. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding, aneurismatic dilatation of the thoracic aorta and filling defect on the esophagogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naschitz, J.E.; Bassan, H.; Lazarov, N.; Grishkan, A.

    1982-06-01

    A patient is described with an aneurysm of the thoracic aorta, which has ruptured into the esophagus. An esophageal X-ray contrast study has revealed a filling defect at the contact site of the esophagus and the aortic aneurysm. The filling defect was due to a clot protruding from the aorta into the esophagus. This unique case calls attention to a diagnostic triad: upper gastrointestinal bleeding, aneurysm of the thoracic aorta, and filling defect in the esophagus at its site of contact with the enlarged aorta. This triad suggested aortoesophageal fistula (AEF) in the patient and could help in the diagnosis of atypical cases of AEF, where thoracic aortography has not been performed initially.

  11. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding, aneurismatic dilatation of the thoracic aorta and filling defect on the esophagogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naschitz, J.E.; Bassan, H.; Lazarov, N.; Grishkan, A.; Haifa Univ.; Haifa Univ.

    1982-01-01

    A patient is described with an aneurysm of the thoracic aorta, which has ruptured into the esophagus. An esophageal X-ray contrast study has revealed a filling defect at the contact site of the esophagus and the aortic aneurysm. The filling defect was due to a clot protruding from the aorta into the esophagus. This unique case calls attention to a diagnostic triad: upper gastrointestinal bleeding, aneurysm of the thoracic aorta, and filling defect in the esophagus at its site of contact with the enlarged aorta. This triad suggested aortoesophageal fistula (AEF) in the patient and could help in the diagnosis of atypical cases of AEF, where thoracic aortography has not been performed initially. (orig.) [de

  12. Helical CT of traumatic injuries of the thoracic aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengozzi, E.; Burzi, M.; Miceli, M.; Lipparini, M.; Sartoni Galloni, S.

    2000-01-01

    Acute thoracic aortic injuries account for up to 10-20% of fatalities in high-speed deceleration road accidents and have an estimated immediate fatality rate of 80-90%. Untreated survivors to acute trauma (10-20%) have a dismal prognosis: 30% of them die within 6 hours, 40-50% die within 24 hours, and 90% within 4 months. It was investigated the diagnostic accuracy of Helical Computed Tomography (Helical CT) in acute traumatic injuries of the thoracic aorta, and the role of this technique in the diagnostic management of trauma patients with a strong suspicion of aortic rupture. It was compared retrospectively the chest Helical CT findings of 256 trauma patients examined June 1995 through August 1999. Chest Helical CT examinations were performed according to trauma score, to associated traumatic lesions and to plain chest radiographic findings. All the examinations were performed with no intravenous contrast agent administration and the pitch 2 technique. After a previous baseline study, contrast-enhanced scans were acquired with pitch 1 in 87 patients. Helical CT showed aortic lesions in 9 of 256 patients examined. In all the 9 cases it was found a mediastinal hematoma and all of them had positive plain chest radiographic findings of mediastinal enlargement. Moreover, in 6 cases aortic knob blurring was also evident on plain chest film and in 5 cases depressed left mainstem bronchus and trachea deviation rightwards were observed. All aortic lesions were identified on axial scans and located at the isthmus of level. Aortic rupture was always depicted as pseudo diverticulum of the proximal descending tract and intimal flap. It was also found that periaortic hematoma in 6 cases and intramural hematoma in 1 case. There were non false positive results in the series: 7 patients with Helical CT diagnosis of aortic rupture were submitted to conventional aortography that confirmed both type and extension of the lesions as detected by Helical CT, and all findings were

  13. Investigation of long-term retention of unchanged (-)-N-{2-[(R)-3-(6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-2-carbonyl)piperidino]ethyl}-4-fluorobenzamide, a novel "funny" If current channel inhibitor, and its metabolites in the eyeball and thoracic aorta of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umehara, Ken-ichi; Nakada, Naoyuki; Noguchi, Kiyoshi; Iwatsubo, Takafumi; Usui, Takashi; Kamimura, Hidetaka

    2009-11-01

    (-)-N-{2-[(R)-3-(6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-2-carbonyl)piperidino]ethyl}-4-fluorobenzamide (YM758), a novel "funny" If current channel inhibitor, was being developed as a treatment for stable angina and atrial fibrillation. After a single oral administration of (14)C-YM758, extensive accumulation and long-term retention of radioactivity were observed in the eyeballs of nonalbino rats and in the thoracic aorta of albino/nonalbino rats. Radioluminograms of the eyeballs of nonalbino rats indicated that the radioactivity was localized to the uveal tract, which suggests that the radioactivity may be positively charged and bound mainly to the melanins. Treatment with a mixture of 2 mol/l hydrochloric acid and methanol (5:95, v/v) allowed for the recovery of the major portion of radioactivity from the eyeball, which suggests reversible binding. The radioactive constituents in eyeballs consisted of the unchanged drug (YM758) and three metabolites [mainly 6,7-dimethoxy-2-[(3R)-piperidin-3-ylcarbonyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (YM-252124)]. Using the organic solvent mixture described above, almost all of the radioactivity was not collected from the thoracic aorta, and approximately 90% was recovered by treatment with elastase, which suggests that some metabolites covalently bind to the elastin fiber localized in the tunica media.

  14. MR imaging of the thoracic aorta in patients with Marfan syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommerhoff, B.A.; Sechtem, U.P.; Schiller, N.B.; Higgins, C.B.

    1986-01-01

    Gated MR imaging was used to evaluate the thoracic aorta in 11 with Marfan syndrome, eight patients with aneurysm of the ascending aorta, and 20 healthy subjects. The aortic diameter was measured on transverse and sagittal images at the levels of the sinuses of Valsalva, the caudal portion of the ascending aorta, the prearch region, the middle arch, and the descending aorta. The sinus of Valsalva-prearch region aortic diameter ratio in patients with Marfan syndrome was significantly greater than in the two other groups, indicating the characteristic shape of the Maranoid aorta. MR imaging allows definitive measurements' of aortic dimensions and is a valuable noninvasive method for monitoring the course of aortic enlargement

  15. Thoracic Aorta 3D Hemodynamics in Pediatric and Young Adult Patients With Bicuspid Aortic Valve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, Bradley D.; van Ooij, Pim; Barker, Alex J.; Carr, Maria; Gabbour, Maya; Schnell, Susanne; Jarvis, Kelly B.; Carr, James C.; Markl, Michael; Rigsby, Cynthia; Robinson, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the 3D hemodynamics in the thoracic aorta of pediatric and young adult bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) patients. Methods: 4D flow MRI was performed in 30 pediatric and young adult BAV patients (age: 13.9 +/- 4.4 (range: [3.4, 20.7]) years old, M:F = 17:13) as part of this

  16. Dissecting aneurysm of arch and descending thoracic aorta presenting as a left sided hemorrhagic pleural effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamim Shelley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common cause of massive hemorrhagic effusion is malignancy. Herein we present a case of dissecting aneurysm of descending thoracic aorta presenting initially with shortness of breath due to left sided massive pleural effusion. Effusion was hemorrhagic in nature with high hematocrit value. CT scan of thorax with CT angiogram was done and that revealed the diagnosis.

  17. Current Evidence and Insights about Genetics in Thoracic Aorta Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneretto, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms have been historically considered to be caused by etiologic factors similar to those implied in abdominal aortic aneurysms. However, during the past decade, there has been increasing evidence that almost 20% of thoracic aortic aneurysms may be associated with a genetic disease, often within a syndromic or familial disorder. Moreover, the presence of congenital anomalies, such as bicuspid aortic valve, may have a unique common genetic underlying cause. Finally, also sporadic forms have been found to be potentially associated with genetic disorders, as highlighted by the analysis of rare variants and expression of specific microRNAs. We therefore sought to perform a comprehensive review of the role of genetic causes in the development of thoracic aortic aneurysms, by analyzing in detail the current evidence of genetic alterations in syndromes such as Marfan, Loeys-Dietz, and Ehler-Danlos, familial or sporadic forms, or forms associated with bicuspid aortic valve. PMID:24453931

  18. Descending thoracic aorta dissection associated with esophageal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of aortic dissection with a malignancy is a rare finding and previous reports are usually those of primary aortic sarcomas. A 45-year-old male presented to us with chest pain and dysphagia for 1 month with a background history of obstructive airway disease and uncontrolled hypertension. In this report we present a case of typical descending aorta dissection with associated esophageal carcinoma.

  19. Evaluation of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta diameters by computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucarelli, Claudio Luiz

    1995-01-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate, through computerized tomography, the diameters of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta, as well as they are connected to gender, age and body surface area; and the ratio between measurements obtained at the ascending and descending limbs of the thoracic aorta, and between the abdominal aortic diameters. For that reason, we measured the widest anteroposterior diameters of the thoracic aortas at the levels of the arch, the root, the pulmonary artery, and the thoracic-abdominal transition, as well as the level of the emergence of the superior mesenteric artery, of the renal hila and just cephalad to the bifurcation of the abdominal aortas of 350 patients without cardiovascular diseases who had undergone computerized tomography of the thorax and/or abdomen for any other reasons. Observation and statistic analyses led us to conclude that: 1) both the thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters are reduced from their proximal to their distal portions; 2) the body surface influences the size of the aorta, although only extreme variations alter the vessel's caliber; 3) vessel diameter was observed to gradually increase with age; 4) men were found to have larger diameters than age matched women; 5) the ratio between the ascending and descending aortic diameters varies according to gender and age; 6) the relations between abdominal aortic diameters measured at the level of renal hila and cephalad to the bifurcation are independent from gender and age. But the relation between those measured at the level of the superior mesenteric artery and cephalad to the bifurcation are linked to gender, but not to age. (author)

  20. Cilostazol enhances atorvastatin-induced vasodilation of female rat aorta during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurullahoğlu-Atalık, K E; Kutlu, S; Solak, H; Koca, R Özen

    2017-09-01

    Statins have cholesterol-independent effects including an increased vascular nitric oxide activity and are commonly used by patients with cardiovascular disease. Such patients frequently have cardiovascular diseases, which may be treated with cilostazol, a platelet aggregation inhibitor. This study was designed to investigate whether combined use of cilostazol would increase the inhibitory effect of statin on vascular smooth muscle and how maturation would affect these responses. Female Wistar rats, aged 3-4 months (young) and 14-15 months (adult), were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and the thoracic aorta was dissected and cut into 3- to 4-mm-long rings. The rings were mounted under a resting tension of 1 g in a 20-ml organ bath filled with Krebs-Henseleit solution. Rings were precontracted with phenylephrine (10 -6  M), and the presence of endothelium was confirmed with acetylcholine (10 -6  M). Then, the concentration-response curves were obtained for atorvastatin alone (10 -10 to 3 × 10 -4  M; control) and in the presence of cilostazol (10 -6  M) in young and adult rat aortas. This experimental protocol was also carried out in aorta rings, which had been pretreated with N G -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, 10 -4  M). Atorvastatin induced concentration-dependent relaxations in young and adult rat thoracic aorta rings precontracted with phenylephrine. The pIC 50 value of atorvastatin was significantly decreased in adult rat aortas. In addition, pretreatment of aortas with cilostazol enhanced the potency of atorvastatin in both young and adult aortas. Incubation with l-NAME did not completely eliminate the relaxations to atorvastatin in the presence of cilostazol. These results suggest that combined application of cilostazol with atorvastatin was significantly more potent than atorvastatin alone. Combined drug therapy may be efficacious in delaying the occurrence of cardiovascular events.

  1. Differences in the Thoracic Aorta by Region and Sex in a Murine Model of Marfan Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Jiménez-Altayó

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Marfan syndrome (MFS is a hereditary disorder of the connective tissue that causes life-threatening aortic aneurysm, which initiates at the aortic root and can progress into the ascending portion. However, analysis of ascending aorta reactivity in animal models of MFS has remained elusive. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that although MFS is equally prevalent in men and women, men are at a higher risk of aortic complications than non-pregnant women. Nevertheless, there is no experimental evidence to support this hypothesis. The aim of this study was to explore whether there are regional and sex differences in the thoracic aorta function of mice heterozygous for the fibrillin 1 (Fbn1 allele encoding a missense mutation (Fbn1C1039G/+, the most common class of mutation in MFS. Ascending and descending thoracic aorta reactivity was evaluated by wire myography. Ascending aorta mRNA and protein levels, and elastic fiber integrity were assessed by qRT-PCR, Western blotting, and Verhoeff-Van Gieson histological staining, respectively. MFS differently altered reactivity in the ascending and descending thoracic aorta by either increasing or decreasing phenylephrine contractions, respectively. When mice were separated by sex, contractions to phenylephrine increased progressively from 3 to 6 months of age in MFS ascending aortas of males, whereas contractions in females were unchanged. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was unaltered in the MFS ascending aorta of either sex; an effect related to augmented endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization-type dilations. In MFS males, the non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX inhibitor indomethacin prevented the MFS-induced enhancement of phenylephrine contractions linked to increased COX-2 expression. In MFS mice of both sexes, the non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME revealed negative feedback of nitric oxide on phenylephrine contractions, which was associated with upregulation of eNOS in females. Finally

  2. Differences in the Thoracic Aorta by Region and Sex in a Murine Model of Marfan Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Altayó, Francesc; Siegert, Anna-Maria; Bonorino, Fabio; Meirelles, Thayna; Barberà, Laura; Dantas, Ana P.; Vila, Elisabet; Egea, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a hereditary disorder of the connective tissue that causes life-threatening aortic aneurysm, which initiates at the aortic root and can progress into the ascending portion. However, analysis of ascending aorta reactivity in animal models of MFS has remained elusive. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that although MFS is equally prevalent in men and women, men are at a higher risk of aortic complications than non-pregnant women. Nevertheless, there is no experimental evidence to support this hypothesis. The aim of this study was to explore whether there are regional and sex differences in the thoracic aorta function of mice heterozygous for the fibrillin 1 (Fbn1) allele encoding a missense mutation (Fbn1C1039G/+), the most common class of mutation in MFS. Ascending and descending thoracic aorta reactivity was evaluated by wire myography. Ascending aorta mRNA and protein levels, and elastic fiber integrity were assessed by qRT-PCR, Western blotting, and Verhoeff-Van Gieson histological staining, respectively. MFS differently altered reactivity in the ascending and descending thoracic aorta by either increasing or decreasing phenylephrine contractions, respectively. When mice were separated by sex, contractions to phenylephrine increased progressively from 3 to 6 months of age in MFS ascending aortas of males, whereas contractions in females were unchanged. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was unaltered in the MFS ascending aorta of either sex; an effect related to augmented endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization-type dilations. In MFS males, the non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor indomethacin prevented the MFS-induced enhancement of phenylephrine contractions linked to increased COX-2 expression. In MFS mice of both sexes, the non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME revealed negative feedback of nitric oxide on phenylephrine contractions, which was associated with upregulation of eNOS in females. Finally, MFS ascending

  3. One-stage surgery in combination with thoracic endovascular grafting and resection of T4 lung cancer invading the thoracic aorta and spine

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Seijiro; Goto, Tatsuya; Koike, Terumoto; Okamoto, Takeshi; Shoji, Hirokazu; Ohashi, Masayuki; Watanabe, Kei; Tsuchida, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    A novel strategy of one-stage surgery in combination with thoracic endovascular grafting and resection for T4 lung cancer invading the thoracic aorta and spine is described. A 56-year-old man with locally advanced lung cancer infiltrating the aortic wall and spine underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and thoracic irradiation, followed by en bloc resection of the aortic wall and spine with thoracic endovascular grafting. He developed postoperative chylothorax, but there were no stent graft-relat...

  4. Medical image of the week: atherosclerotic aneurysm of aortic arch and descecnding thoracic aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parasram M

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A 94-year-old Spanish-speaking woman presented to the hospital with intermittent episodes of dyspnea and abdominal pain for one week. Her past medical history was notable for 30 pack-year smoking history and hypertension, which was reportedly controlled with medical therapy. Physical exam showed trace peripheral edema bilaterally, intact peripheral pulses, and a mild abdominal bruit. Work up at the emergency department revealed a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction with troponin T of 0.34 ng/mL but no ST-wave abnormality on electrocardiography. Chest x-ray displayed an incidental thoracic aneurysm (Figure 1. Chest computed tomography with contrast demonstrated a continuous aneurysm of the aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta with diameters measuring 6.8 cm and 6 cm, respectively (Figure 2A and 2B. Eccentric thrombi are noted in the aortic arch and the descending aorta. Interestingly, the distal descending thoracic aorta curves as it transitions to the abdominal aorta, which is evidence of a tortuous descending ...

  5. Stress Alone or associated with Ethanol Induces Prostanoid Release in Rat Aorta via α2-Adrenoceptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Rafaela de Fátima Ferreira [Departamento de Farmacologia - Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP - São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laboratório de Farmacologia - Faculdade de Medicina de Marília - FAMEMA, SP (Brazil); Taipeiro, Elane de Fátima [Laboratório de Farmacologia - Faculdade de Medicina de Marília - FAMEMA, SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Regina Helena Costa [Departamento de Análise Clínica - Toxicológica e Ciência de Alimentos - Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas - USP, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Chies, Agnaldo Bruno [Departamento de Farmacologia - Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP - São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laboratório de Farmacologia - Faculdade de Medicina de Marília - FAMEMA, SP (Brazil); Cordellini, Sandra, E-mail: cordelli@ibb.unesp.br [Departamento de Farmacologia - Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP - São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-03-15

    Stress and ethanol are both, independently, important cardiovascular risk factors. To evaluate the cardiovascular risk of ethanol consumption and stress exposure, isolated and in association, in male adult rats. Rats were separated into 4 groups: Control, ethanol (20% in drinking water for 6 weeks), stress (immobilization 1h day/5 days a week for 6 weeks) and stress/ethanol. Concentration-responses curves to noradrenaline - in the absence and presence of yohimbine, L-NAME or indomethacin - or to phenylephrine were determined in thoracic aortas with and without endothelium. EC50 and maximum response (n=8-12) were compared using two-way ANOVA/Bonferroni method. Either stress or stress in association with ethanol consumption increased the noradrenaline maximum responses in intact aortas. This hyper-reactivity was eliminated by endothelium removal or by the presence of either indomethacin or yohimbine, but was not altered by the presence of L-NAME. Meanwhile, ethanol consumption did not alter the reactivity to noradrenaline. The phenylephrine responses in aortas both with and without endothelium also remained unaffected regardless of protocol. Chronic stress increased rat aortic responses to noradrenaline. This effect is dependent upon the vascular endothelium and involves the release of vasoconstrictor prostanoids via stimulation of endothelial alpha-2 adrenoceptors. Moreover, chronic ethanol consumption appeared to neither influence noradrenaline responses in rat thoracic aorta, nor did it modify the increase of such responses observed as a consequence of stress exposure.

  6. Stress Alone or associated with Ethanol Induces Prostanoid Release in Rat Aorta via α2-Adrenoceptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, Rafaela de Fátima Ferreira; Taipeiro, Elane de Fátima; Queiroz, Regina Helena Costa; Chies, Agnaldo Bruno; Cordellini, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Stress and ethanol are both, independently, important cardiovascular risk factors. To evaluate the cardiovascular risk of ethanol consumption and stress exposure, isolated and in association, in male adult rats. Rats were separated into 4 groups: Control, ethanol (20% in drinking water for 6 weeks), stress (immobilization 1h day/5 days a week for 6 weeks) and stress/ethanol. Concentration-responses curves to noradrenaline - in the absence and presence of yohimbine, L-NAME or indomethacin - or to phenylephrine were determined in thoracic aortas with and without endothelium. EC50 and maximum response (n=8-12) were compared using two-way ANOVA/Bonferroni method. Either stress or stress in association with ethanol consumption increased the noradrenaline maximum responses in intact aortas. This hyper-reactivity was eliminated by endothelium removal or by the presence of either indomethacin or yohimbine, but was not altered by the presence of L-NAME. Meanwhile, ethanol consumption did not alter the reactivity to noradrenaline. The phenylephrine responses in aortas both with and without endothelium also remained unaffected regardless of protocol. Chronic stress increased rat aortic responses to noradrenaline. This effect is dependent upon the vascular endothelium and involves the release of vasoconstrictor prostanoids via stimulation of endothelial alpha-2 adrenoceptors. Moreover, chronic ethanol consumption appeared to neither influence noradrenaline responses in rat thoracic aorta, nor did it modify the increase of such responses observed as a consequence of stress exposure

  7. Diagnostic and therapy of acute thoracic aortic diseases; Diagnostik und Therapie akuter Erkrankungen der thorakalen Aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schotten, Sebastian; Pitton, Michael B. [Universitaetsmedizin Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2017-09-15

    Acute diseases of the thoracic aorta represent a relatively rare but life threatening spectrum of pathologies. The non-traumatic diseases are usually summarized by the term ''acute aortic syndrome''. A timely diagnosis and initiation of therapy are cornerstones for the patient outcome. CT has become the standard imaging procedure due do its widespread availability and excellent sensitivity. Furthermore, CT is able to discriminate the variants of acute aortic diseases and to detect the wide spectrum of complications. The volumetric CT dataset is also the basis for planning of interventional procedures. Open surgical repair still represents the standard of care for acute pathologies of the ascending aorta while endovascular therapy, due to minimally invasive character and good outcome, has replaced open surgery in most cases of complicated lesions of the descending aorta.

  8. Changes in the Severity and Injury Sources of Thoracic Aorta Injuries due to Vehicular Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Ryb, Gabriel; Dischinger, Patricia; Kerns, Timothy; Burch, Cynthia; Rabin, Joseph; Ho, Shiu

    2013-01-01

    Research using the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) suggested a decreased adjusted risk of thoracic aorta injuries (TAI) for newer vehicles during near-side crashes and an increased adjusted TAI risk during frontal crashes. This study attempted to explore possible explanations of these findings. Adult front seat occupants in the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) database through June 2012 were studied. TAI cases were compared with ...

  9. The implantation of separating aortic stent-graft into the canine thoracic aorta: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Jinguo; Shi Haibin; Yang Zhengqiang; Li Chao; Liu Sheng; Zu Qingquan; Li Linsun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: to assess the technical feasibility of implanting separating stent-graft into the canine thoracic aorta and to study its biocompatibility. Methods: Twelve adult dogs were randomly and equally divided into three groups. The right femoral artery was cut open, through which the separating stent-graft was inserted and deployed in the canine thoracic aorta, with the proximal end of the graft being quite close to the origin of the left subclavian artery. the technical feasibility of the deployment process was assessed. Angiography was performed at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after stent-graft placement to evaluate the position and patency of the stent-graft. Then the dogs were sacrificed and the specimens were collected for pathologic study. Both gross and microscopic examinations were made to evaluate the fixation of the stent-graft with the vessel wall, the endothelialization of stent-graft surface and the pathologic changes of the vascular wall. Results: A total of ten separating stent-grafts were successfully deployed in the canine thoracic aorta, no migration or deformation occurred. One dog died of massive bleeding due to the rupture of the right femoral artery which occurred when the delivery system containing the inner bare stent was inserted through the right femoral artery. Death occurred in another dog as a result of the ascending aorta rupture caused by the migration of outer-layer stent-graft. Angiography was conducted at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after stent-graft placement. No migration, deformation, rupture or stenosis of the implanted stent-grafts were observed. The formation of intima on the inner surface of the bare stent appeared at 4 weeks, which became more and more obvious with the time passing, and at 12 weeks complete endothelialization of stent-graft surface was observed. Conclusion: Technically, it is feasible to deploy the separating aortic stent-graft into the canine thoracic aorta. Moreover, the separating aortic stent-graft carries excellent

  10. Congenital diseases of the thoracic aorta. Role of MRI and MRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, Vincenzo; Renzulli, Matteo; Palombara, Cesare la; Fattori, Rossella

    2006-01-01

    Aortic malformations may be associated with other congenital heart abnormalities or may present independently, as incidental findings in asymptomatic patients. For more than 30 years, conventional imaging techniques for detection and assessment of congenital anomalies of the aorta have been chest X-ray, echocardiography and angiography. In recent times, considerable interest in congenital aortic diseases has been shown, due to technical progresses of noninvasive imaging modalities. Among them, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) almost certainly offers the greatest advantages, especially in young patients in which a radiation exposure must be avoided as much as possible. MRI provides an excellent visualization of vascular structures with a wide field of view, well suited for evaluation of the thoracic aorta malformations. With the implementation of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) it is also possible to depict any relationship with supra-aortic or mediastinal vessels. Phase contrast technique allows identification of the hemodynamic significance of the aortic alteration. Some technical considerations, which include fast spin-echo, gradient-echo and, especially, MRA techniques with phase-contrast and contrast enhanced methods, are discussed and applied in the evaluation of congenital thoracic aorta diseases. (orig.)

  11. Intraindividual assessment of the thoracic aorta using contrast and non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik von; Gruenberg, K.M.; Giesel, F.L.; Ley-Zaporozhan, J.; Ley, S.; Henninger, V.; Kauczor, H.U.; Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg; Boeckler, D.; Krummenauer, F.

    2009-01-01

    To avoid intravenous contrast media application, new MRA sequences using inherent blood contrast are available. The clinical use of these non-contrast-enhanced MRA (non-CE-MRA) sequences is still limited for the aorta. Thus, the goal was to compare a standard CE-MRA with a non-CE-MRA for the thoracic aorta. Ethics committee approval and informed consent were obtained. CE-MRA and non-CE-MRA (1.5T) were performed in the same 50 healthy volunteers (mean age: 48). CE-MRA: GRE-Turbo-Flash-3D (1.2 x 1.2 x 1.6 mm 3 ), 0.15 mmol Gd/kg, TA 22 ± 2sec. Non-CE-MRA: Respiratory-and cardiac-gated, T 2-prepared 3D-trueFISP (1.2 x 1.2 x 1.3 mm 3 ), TA 14 ± 5 min. Assessment included (3 readers, consensus): image quality (sharpness of vessel wall, signal homogeneity, artifacts) at the ascending aorta, arch, descending aorta and supra-aortic vessels. The image quality in the ascending aorta was rated 'excellent' in 78 %, 'moderate' in 22 %, 'poor' in 0 % for non-CE-MRA versus 22 %, 50 %, and 28 % for CE-MRA (Cohen's kappa = 29 %, McNemar p < 0.001). In a comparison of non-CE-MRA versus CE-MRA, the aortic arch and descending aorta showed no significant difference (kappa = 58 %/p = 0.250 and kappa = 100 %/p 1.000, respectively). Supra-aortic vessels were rated 'excellent' 45 %/49 %, 'moderate' 30 %/49 % and 'poor' 13 %/2 %, 12 % of supra-aortic vessels were visualized < 1 cm at non-CE-MRA. (orig.)

  12. Factors influencing the mechanical behaviour of healthy human descending thoracic aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinea, Gustavo V; Atienza, José M; Rojo, Francisco J; Yiqun, Li; Claes, Els; Elices, Manuel; García-Herrera, Claudio M; Goicolea, José M; García-Montero, Carlos; Burgos, Raúl L; Goicolea, Francisco J

    2010-01-01

    In recent times, significant effort has been made to understand the mechanical behaviour of the arterial wall and how it is affected by the different vascular pathologies. However, to be able to interpret the results correctly, it is essential that the influence of other factors, such as aging or anisotropy, be understood. Knowledge of mechanical behaviour of the aorta has been customarily constrained by lack of data on fresh aortic tissue, especially from healthy young individuals. In addition, information regarding the point of rupture is also very limited. In this study, the mechanical behaviour of the descending thoracic aorta of 28 organ donors with no apparent disease, whose ages vary from 17 to 60 years, is evaluated. Tensile tests up to rupture are carried out to evaluate the influence of age and wall anisotropy. Results reveal that the tensile strength and stretch at failure of healthy descending aortas show a significant reduction with age, falling abruptly beyond the age of 30. This fact places age as a key factor when mechanical properties of descending aorta are considered

  13. Improvement of thoracic aortic vasoreactivity by continuous and intermittent exercise in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongpeng; Yang, Zhen; Hu, Jian; Luo, Yan; Zhu, Lingqin; Yang, Huifang; Li, Guanghua

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of continuous and intermittent exercise on the thoracic aortic vasoreactivity and free radical metabolism in rats fed with a high-fat diet (HD). Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=8, each group): Conventional diet (CD), HD, HD with continuous exercise (HCE) and HD with intermittent exercise (HIE). HCE rats swam once/day for 90 min; HIE rats performed swimming exercises 3 times/day, 30 min each time with an interval of 4 h. In these two groups, the exercise was conducted 5 days a week for 8 weeks. Rats in the CD and HD groups were fed without swimming training. At the end of the exercise, all the rats were sacrificed and the blood, thoracic aorta and myocardium were collected immediately. The thoracic aortic vasoreactivity, the plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and vascular endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene expression were measured. Compared to the control group, in the HD group the enhanced contractile response of the thoracic aortic rings to noradrenaline (NA) was observed (Pimprove the activity of the thoracic aorta in obese rats, which may be associated with enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity and reduced free radical generating. Additionally, intermittent exercise is better than the continuous exercise in improving the thoracic aorta vasoreactivity.

  14. Natural history of severe atheromatous disease of the thoracic aorta: a transesophageal echocardiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, D H; Ververis, J J; McGorisk, G; Frohwein, S; Martin, R P; Taylor, W R

    1996-01-01

    This study sought to prospectively observe the morphologic and clinical natural history of severe atherosclerotic disease of the thoracic aorta as defined by transesophageal echocardiography. Atherosclerosis of the thoracic aorta has been shown to be highly associated with risk for embolic events in transesophageal studies, but the natural history of the disease under clinical conditions has not been reported. During a 20-month period, 191 of 264 patients undergoing transesophageal echocardiography had adequate visualization of the aorta to allow atherosclerotic severity to be graded as follows: grade I = normal (44 patients); grade II = intimal thickening (52 patients); grade III = atheroma or = 5 mm (19 patients); grade V = mobile lesion (14 patients). All available patients with grades IV (8 patients) and V (10 patients) disease as well as a subgroup of 12 patients with grade III disease had follow-up transesophageal echocardiographic studies (mean [+/- SD] 11.7 +/- 0.9 months, range 6 to 22). Of 30 patients undergoing follow-up transesophageal echocardiographic studies, 20 (66%) had no change in atherosclerotic severity grade. Of the remaining 10 patients, atherosclerotic severity progressed one grade in 7 and decreased in 3 with resolved mobile lesions. Of 18 patients with grade IV or V disease of the aorta who underwent a follow-up study, 11 (61%) demonstrated formation of new mobile lesions. Of 10 patients with grade V disease on initial study who underwent follow-up study, 7 (70%) demonstrated resolution of a specific previously documented mobile lesion. However, seven patients (70%) with grade V disease also demonstrated development of a new mobile lesion. Of 33 patients with grade IV or V disease, 8 (24%) died during the study period, and 1 (3%) had a clinical embolic event. The presence of severe atherosclerotic disease of the thoracic aorta as defined by transesophageal echocardiography is associated with a high mortality rate. Although the morphologic

  15. Analysis of the thoracic aorta using a semi-automated post processing tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entezari, Pegah; Kino, Aya; Honarmand, Amir R.; Galizia, Mauricio S.; Yang, Yan; Collins, Jeremy; Yaghmai, Vahid; Carr, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluates a semi-automated method for Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm (TAA) measurement using ECG-gated Dual Source CT Angiogram (DSCTA). Methods: This retrospective HIPAA compliant study was approved by our IRB. Transaxial maximum diameters of outer wall to outer wall were studied in fifty patients at seven anatomic locations of the thoracic aorta: annulus, sinus, sinotubular junction (STJ), mid ascending aorta (MAA) at the level of right pulmonary artery, proximal aortic arch (PROX) immediately proximal to innominate artery, distal aortic arch (DIST) immediately distal to left subclavian artery, and descending aorta (DESC) at the level of diaphragm. Measurements were performed using a manual method and semi-automated software. All readers repeated their measurements. Inter-method, intra-observer and inter-observer agreements were evaluated according to intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland–Altman plot. The number of cases with manual contouring or center line adjustment for the semi-automated method and also the post-processing time for each method were recorded. Results: The mean difference between semi-automated and manual methods was less than 1.3 mm at all seven points. Strong inter-method, inter-observer and intra-observer agreement was recorded at all levels (ICC ≥ 0.9). The maximum rate of manual adjustment of center line and contour was at the level of annulus. The average time for manual post-processing of the aorta was 19 ± 0.3 min, while it took 8.26 ± 2.1 min to do the measurements with the semi-automated tool (Vitrea version 6.0.0.1 software). The center line was edited manually at all levels, with most corrections at the level of annulus (60%), while the contour was adjusted at all levels with highest and lowest number of corrections at the levels of annulus and DESC (75% and 0.07% of the cases), respectively. Conclusion: Compared to the commonly used manual method, semi-automated measurement of vessel dimensions is

  16. IV DSA in the diagnosis and follow-up of dissection of the thoracic aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickx, P.; Luska, G.; Laas, J.; Haverich, A.

    1986-05-01

    Intravenous DSA was performed in 53 patients with suspected dissection of the thoracic aorta and in 13 patients following surgery for aortic dissection. In 36 patients, the suspected diagnosis could be excluded definitely and, in 14 cases out of 17, a dissection was correctly diagnosed. All 11 type B dissections were correctly diagnosed. Of six type A dissections, only three were adequately demonstrated by IV DSA. In type B dissections, IV DSA is reliable, but in type A dissection with massive aortic insufficiency or pericardial tamponade the findings are not reliable. In all 13 patients who had surgery for dissection, IV DSA proved suitable for showing the anastomosis and progress of the disease.

  17. Evaluation of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta diameters by computerized tomography; Avaliacao dos diametros normais da aorta toracica e abdominal pela tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucarelli, Claudio Luiz

    1995-07-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate, through computerized tomography, the diameters of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta, as well as they are connected to gender, age and body surface area; and the ratio between measurements obtained at the ascending and descending limbs of the thoracic aorta, and between the abdominal aortic diameters. For that reason, we measured the widest anteroposterior diameters of the thoracic aortas at the levels of the arch, the root, the pulmonary artery, and the thoracic-abdominal transition, as well as the level of the emergence of the superior mesenteric artery, of the renal hila and just cephalad to the bifurcation of the abdominal aortas of 350 patients without cardiovascular diseases who had undergone computerized tomography of the thorax and/or abdomen for any other reasons. Observation and statistic analyses led us to conclude that: 1) both the thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters are reduced from their proximal to their distal portions; 2) the body surface influences the size of the aorta, although only extreme variations alter the vessel's caliber; 3) vessel diameter was observed to gradually increase with age; 4) men were found to have larger diameters than age matched women; 5) the ratio between the ascending and descending aortic diameters varies according to gender and age; 6) the relations between abdominal aortic diameters measured at the level of renal hila and cephalad to the bifurcation are independent from gender and age. But the relation between those measured at the level of the superior mesenteric artery and cephalad to the bifurcation are linked to gender, but not to age. (author)

  18. Evaluation of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta diameters by computerized tomography; Avaliacao dos diametros normais da aorta toracica e abdominal pela tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucarelli, Claudio Luiz

    1995-07-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate, through computerized tomography, the diameters of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta, as well as they are connected to gender, age and body surface area; and the ratio between measurements obtained at the ascending and descending limbs of the thoracic aorta, and between the abdominal aortic diameters. For that reason, we measured the widest anteroposterior diameters of the thoracic aortas at the levels of the arch, the root, the pulmonary artery, and the thoracic-abdominal transition, as well as the level of the emergence of the superior mesenteric artery, of the renal hila and just cephalad to the bifurcation of the abdominal aortas of 350 patients without cardiovascular diseases who had undergone computerized tomography of the thorax and/or abdomen for any other reasons. Observation and statistic analyses led us to conclude that: 1) both the thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters are reduced from their proximal to their distal portions; 2) the body surface influences the size of the aorta, although only extreme variations alter the vessel's caliber; 3) vessel diameter was observed to gradually increase with age; 4) men were found to have larger diameters than age matched women; 5) the ratio between the ascending and descending aortic diameters varies according to gender and age; 6) the relations between abdominal aortic diameters measured at the level of renal hila and cephalad to the bifurcation are independent from gender and age. But the relation between those measured at the level of the superior mesenteric artery and cephalad to the bifurcation are linked to gender, but not to age. (author)

  19. Thoracic aorta 3D hemodynamics in pediatric and young adult patients with bicuspid aortic valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Bradley D; van Ooij, Pim; Barker, Alex J; Carr, Maria; Gabbour, Maya; Schnell, Susanne; Jarvis, Kelly B; Carr, James C; Markl, Michael; Rigsby, Cynthia; Robinson, Joshua D

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the 3D hemodynamics in the thoracic aorta of pediatric and young adult bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) patients. 4D flow MRI was performed in 30 pediatric and young adult BAV patients (age: 13.9 ± 4.4 (range: [3.4, 20.7]) years old, M:F = 17:13) as part of this Institutional Review Board-approved study. Nomogram-based aortic root Z-scores were calculated to assess aortic dilatation and degree of aortic stenosis (AS) severity was assessed on MRI. Data analysis included calculation of time-averaged systolic 3D wall shear stress (WSSsys ) along the entire aorta wall, and regional quantification of maximum and mean WSSsys and peak systolic velocity (velsys ) in the ascending aorta (AAo), arch, and descending aorta (DAo). The 4D flow MRI AAo velsys was also compared with echocardiography peak velocity measurements. There was a positive correlation with both mean and max AAo WSSsys and peak AAo velsys (mean: r = 0.84, P max: r = 0.94, P max: rS  = 0.70, P < 0.001). AAo peak velocity was significantly higher when measured with echo compared with 4D flow MRI (2.1 ± 0.98 m/s versus 1.27 ± 0.49 m/s, P < 0.001). In pediatric and young adult patients with BAV, AS and peak ascending aorta velocity are associated with increased AAo WSS, while aortic dilation, age, and body surface area do not significantly impact AAo hemodynamics. Prospective studies are required to establish the role of WSS as a risk-stratification tool in these patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Increased levels of interleukin-22 in thoracic aorta and plasma from patients with acute thoracic aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jing; Wang, Menglong; Jiang, Huimin; Ji, Qingwei; Huang, Ying; Liu, Jianfang; Zeng, Tao; Xu, Yao; Wang, Zhen; Lin, Yingzhong; Wan, Jun

    2017-11-03

    Interleukin (IL)-22 plays important roles in the development of arterial disease, including atherosclerosis and hypertension. However, the relationship between IL-22 and acute thoracic aortic dissection (TAD) remains unknown. Blood samples were collected from patients with chest pain who underwent computed tomography angiography of the thoracic aorta but had no known preoperative diagnosis of coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, arthritis, and/or membranous nephropathy. Patients were divided into non-AD (NAD) and TAD groups, and the plasma concentrations of IL-22, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured. In addition, aortic tissue samples from acute TAD patients and normal donors were collected, and the expression levels of IL-22 and IL-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1) were measured. IL-22, IL-6 and TNF-α levels were significantly higher in acute TAD patients than in NAD patients (IL-22, NAD group: 27.0 (19.1, 38.6) pg/ml vs. TAD group: 32.9 (20.6, 58.3) pg/ml, pTAD (OR 1.169, 95% CI 1.069 to 1.277; p=0.001). In addition, compared with aortic tissue of normal controls, TAD aortas showed increased expression of IL-22 and IL-22R1, especially in the torn section (IL-22, non-torn section: 2.8±0.5/HPF vs. torn section 2.8±0.5/HPF, pTAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Penetrating Atherosclerotic Ulcer of the Descending Thoracic Aorta: Treatment by Endovascular Stent-Graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murgo, Salvatore; Dussaussois, Luc; Golzarian, Jafar; Cavenaile, Jean Christophe; Abada, Hicham Tarik; Ferreira, Jose; Struyven, Julien

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To present four cases of penetrating ulcer of the descending thoracic aorta treated by transfemoral insertion of an endoluminal stent-graft. Methods: Four patients with penetrating aortic ulcers were reviewed. Three cases were complicated by rupture, false aneurysm, or retrograde dissection. All patients were treated by endovascular stent-graft and were followed by helical computed tomography (CT). Results: Endovascular stent-graft deployment was successful in all patients. However, in one case we observed a perigraft leak that spontaneously disappeared within the first month, and two interventions were needed for another patient. Following treatment, one episode of transient spinal ischemia was observed. The 30-day survival rate was 100%, but one patient died from pneumonia with cardiac failure 34 days after the procedure. In one patient, helical CT performed at 3 months showed a false aneurysm independent of the first ulcer. This patient refused any further treatment and suddenly died at home (unknown cause) after a 6-month follow-up period. Conclusion: Transluminal placement of endovascular stent-grafts for treatment of penetrating ulcers of the descending thoracic aorta appears to be a possible alternative to classical surgery. After treatment, follow-up by CT is essential to detect possible complications of the disease

  2. Thoracic aorta calcification but not inflammation is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk: results of the CAMONA study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomberg, Bjoern A. [Odense University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense C (Denmark); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Jong, Pim A. de; Lam, Marnix G.E.; Mali, Willem P.T.M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Thomassen, Anders [Odense University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense C (Denmark); Vach, Werner [University Medical Center Freiburg, Clinical Epidemiology, Institute of Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics, Freiburg (Germany); Olsen, Michael H. [Odense University Hospital, The Cardiovascular and Metabolic Preventive Clinic, Department of Endocrinology, Center for Individualized Medicine in Arterial Diseases, Odense (Denmark); Narula, Jagat [Mount Sinai Hospital, Icahn School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Alavi, Abass [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hoeilund-Carlsen, Poul F. [Odense University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense C (Denmark); University of Southern Denmark, Institute of Clinical Research, Odense (Denmark)

    2017-02-15

    Arterial inflammation and vascular calcification are regarded as early prognostic markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this study we investigated the relationship between CVD risk and arterial inflammation ({sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging), vascular calcification metabolism (Na{sup 18}F PET/CT imaging), and vascular calcium burden (CT imaging) of the thoracic aorta in a population at low CVD risk. Study participants underwent blood pressure measurements, blood analyses, and {sup 18}F-FDG and Na{sup 18}F PET/CT imaging. In addition, the 10-year risk for development of CVD, based on the Framingham risk score (FRS), was estimated. CVD risk was compared across quartiles of thoracic aorta {sup 18}F-FDG uptake, Na{sup 18}F uptake, and calcium burden on CT. A total of 139 subjects (52 % men, mean age 49 years, age range 21 - 75 years, median FRS 6 %) were evaluated. CVD risk was, on average, 3.7 times higher among subjects with thoracic aorta Na{sup 18}F uptake in the highest quartile compared with those in the lowest quartile of the distribution (15.5 % vs. 4.2 %; P < 0.001). CVD risk was on average, 3.7 times higher among subjects with a thoracic aorta calcium burden on CT in the highest quartile compared with those in the lowest two quartiles of the distribution (18.0 % vs. 4.9 %; P < 0.001). CVD risk was similar in subjects in all quartiles of thoracic aorta {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. Our findings indicate that an unfavourable CVD risk profile is associated with marked increases in vascular calcification metabolism and vascular calcium burden of the thoracic aorta, but not with arterial inflammation. (orig.)

  3. Thoracic and abdominal aortas stiffen through unique extracellular matrix changes in intrauterine growth restricted fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, R Blair; Rozance, Paul J; Petrash, Carson C; Hunter, Kendall S; Ferguson, Virginia L

    2014-02-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a fetal complication of pregnancy epidemiologically linked to cardiovascular disease in the newborn later in life. However, the mechanism is poorly understood with very little research on the vascular structure and function during development in healthy and IUGR neonates. Previously, we found vascular remodeling and increased stiffness in the carotid and umbilical arteries, but here we examine the remodeling and biomechanics in the larger vessels more proximal to the heart. To study this question, thoracic and abdominal aortas were collected from a sheep model of placental insufficiency IUGR (PI-IUGR) due to exposure to elevated ambient temperatures. Aortas from control (n = 12) and PI-IUGR fetuses (n = 10) were analyzed for functional biomechanics and structural remodeling. PI-IUGR aortas had a significant increase in stiffness (P fetal vascular remodeling in PI-IUGR may set the stage for possible altered growth and development and help to explain the pathophysiology of adult cardiovascular disease in previously IUGR individuals.

  4. Conventional versus frozen elephant trunk surgery for extensive disease of the thoracic aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Eusanio, Marco; Borger, Michael; Petridis, Francesco D; Leontyev, Sergey; Pantaleo, Antonio; Moz, Monica; Mohr, Friedrich; Di Bartolomeo, Roberto

    2014-11-01

    To compare early and mid-term outcomes after repair of extensive aneurysm of the thoracic aorta using the conventional elephant trunk or frozen elephant trunk (FET) procedures. Fifty-seven patients with extensive thoracic aneurysmal disease were treated using elephant trunk (n = 36) or FET (n = 21) procedures. Patients with aortic dissection, descending thoracic aorta (DTA) diameter less than 40 mm, and thoracoabdominal aneurysms were excluded from the analysis, as were those who did not undergo antegrade selective cerebral perfusion during circulatory arrest. Short-term and mid-term outcomes were compared according to elephant trunk/FET surgical management. Preoperative and intraoperative variables were similar in the two groups, except for a higher incidence of female sex, coronary artery disease and associated procedures in elephant trunk patients. Hospital mortality (elephant trunk: 13.9% versus FET: 4.8%; P = 0.2), permanent neurologic dysfunction (elephant trunk: 5.7% versus FET: 9.5%; P = 0.4) and paraplegia (elephant trunk: 2.9% versus FET: 4.8%; P = 0.6) rates were similar in the two groups. Follow-up was 100% complete. In the elephant trunk group, 68.4% of patients did not undergo a second-stage procedure during follow-up for a variety of reasons. Of these patients, the DTA diameter was greater than 51 mm in 72.2% and two (6.7%) died due to aortic rupture while awaiting stage-two intervention. Endovascular second-stage procedures were successfully performed in all FET patients with residual DTA aneurysmal disease (n = 3), whereas nine of 11 elephant trunk patients who returned for second-stage procedures required conventional surgical replacement through a lateral thoracotomy. Kaplan-Meier estimate of 4-year survival was 75.8 ± 7.6 and 72.8 ± 10.6 in elephant trunk and FET patients, respectively (log-rank P = 0.8). In patients with extensive aneurysmal disease of thoracic aorta, elephant trunk and FET procedures

  5. Customized CT angiogram planning for intraoperative transesophageal echography-guided endovascular exclusion of thoracic aorta penetrating ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Michele; Lupia, Mario; Grego, Franco; Antonello, Michele

    2015-04-01

    The technique is demonstrated in a 78-year-old man; the preoperative CT angiogram showed a descending thoracic aorta ulcer of 5.9 cm in maximum diameter and 3.8 cm longitudinal extension. A ZTEG-2P-36-127-PF (Cook Medical) single tubular endograft was planned to be deployed. From the preoperative CT angiogram we planned to land 4.7 cm above the midline of the descending thoracic aorta ulcer and 8.0 cm below. In the operating room, under radioscopic vision the centre of the transesophageal echography probe was used as marker to identify the correspondent midline of the descending thoracic aorta ulcer and a centimeter-sized pigtail catheter in the aorta was used to calculate the desired length above and below the ulcer midline. The endograft was introduced and placed in the desired position compared to the transesophageal echography probe and the catheter; under transesophageal echography vision the graft was finally deployed. The CT angiogram at 1 month showed the correct endograft position, descending thoracic aorta ulcer exclusion with no signs of endoleak. In selected cases, this method allows planning in advance safe stent graft positioning and deployment totally assisted by transesophageal echography, with no risk of periprocedural contrast-related renal failure and reduced radiation exposure for the patient and operators. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. Endovascular Repair of Traumatic Rupture of the Thoracic Aorta: Single-Center Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saratzis, Nikolaos A.; Saratzis, Athanasios N.; Melas, Nikolaos; Ginis, Georgios; Lioupis, Athanasios; Lykopoulos, Dimitrios; Lazaridis, John; Dimitrios, Kiskinis

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. Traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta secondary to blunt chest trauma is a life-threatening emergency and a common cause of death, usually following violent collisions. The objective of this retrospective report was to evaluate the efficacy of endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic disruptions with a single commercially available stent-graft. Methods. Nine men (mean age 29.5 years) were admitted to our institution between January 2003 and January 2006 due to blunt aortic trauma following violent motor vehicle collisions. Plain chest radiography, spiral computed tomography, aortography, and transesophageal echocardiography were used for diagnostic purposes in all cases. All patients were diagnosed with contained extramural thoracic aortic hematomas, secondary to aortic disruption. One patient was also diagnosed with a traumatic thoracic aortic dissection, secondary to blunt trauma. All subjects were poor surgical candidates, due to major injuries such as multiple bone fractures, abdominal hematomas, and pulmonary contusions. All repairs were performed using the EndoFit (LeMaitre Vascular) stent-graft. Results. Complete exclusion of the traumatic aortic disruption and pseudoaneurysm was achieved and verified at intraoperative arteriography and on CT scans, within 10 days of the repair in all patients. In 1 case the deployment of a second cuff was necessary due to a secondary endoleak. In 2 cases the left subclavian artery was occluded to achieve adequate graft fixation. No procedure-related deaths have occurred and no cardiac or peripheral vascular complications were observed within the 12 months (range 8-16 months) follow-up. Conclusions. This is the first time the EndoFit graft has been utilized in the treatment of thoracic aortic disruptions secondary to chest trauma. The repair of such pathologies is technically feasible and early follow-up results are promising

  7. Clinical evaluation of atherosclerosis and mechanical properties of the thoracic aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, Atsushi

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate the aortic wall atherosclerosis, X-ray CT and ECG gated radionuclide angiography were performed in 25 subjects. They were classified into 17 normotensive group (N) and 8 hypertensive group (HT). The time-activity curve was generated using radionuclide angiography in the portion of the thoracic aorta. The aortic wall distensibility was expressed as 100ΔV/V 0 / PP, where ΔV was difference between maximum and minimum (V 0 ) counts of the aorta, and PP was pulse pressure. The degree of the aortic wall atherosclerosis was evaluated by X-ray CT. The aortic wall CT-score was calculated from the CT-scores measured whithin the region of interest of the other margin of the aorta and of the background by X-ray CT. There was a significant correlation between aortic wall CT-score and systolic blood pressure (r=0.59, p<0.01) or aortic wall distensibility (r=-0.74, p<0.01)), but no correlation existed between aortic wall CT-score and diastolic blood pressure (r=0.11, p:NS). The aortic wall distensibility was higher and the aortic wall CT-score was lower in N-group than in HT-group, whereas there was no difference of the radius of the aorta between both groups. These results suggest that the aortic wall atherosclerosis advanced progressively in hypertensive patients and systolic blood pressure was a good predictor of the degree of the aortic atherosclerosis. (author)

  8. Intramural hemorrhage of the thoracic aorta - imaging features and differential diagnosis; Das intramurale Haematom der thorakalen Aorta: Bildgebende Diagnostik und Differentialdiagnose

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    Sommer, T. [Bonn Univ. (Germany) Radiologische Klinik; Abu-Ramadan, D. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Herz- und Gefaesschirurgie; Busch, M. [Bonn Univ. (Germany) Radiologische Klinik; Bierhoff, E. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Pathologische Inst.; Kreft, B. [Bonn Univ. (Germany) Radiologische Klinik; Kuhl, C. [Bonn Univ. (Germany) Radiologische Klinik; Lutterbey, G. [Bonn Univ. (Germany) Radiologische Klinik; Keller, E. [Bonn Univ. (Germany) Radiologische Klinik; Schild, H. [Bonn Univ. (Germany) Radiologische Klinik

    1996-09-01

    Purpose: Aortic wall thickening due to intramural hemorrhage may be the only sign of aortic dissection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, imaging features and differential diagnoses of intramural hemorrhage (IMH) of the thoracic aorta. Methods: 98 patients with clinically suspected aortic dissection were investigated via Spiral-CT and MRT. Diagnosis of IMH based on the presence of smooth crescentic or concentric wall thickening over a longer segment of the thoracic aorta without flow visualization and without compression or distortion of the aortic lumen. Results: 69 patients had classic aortic dissections and 7 patients were diagnosed to have IMH of the thoracic aorta. One patient with IMH of the ascending aorta died of aortic rupture and subsequent pericardial tamponade 12 hours after onset of symptoms. In one patient with IMH of the descending aorta on initial examination, there was a progression of overt aortic dissection at follow-up after three weeks. In two patients with IMH of the descending aorta, wall thickening decreased in size at follow-up (10-15 weeks), whereas in one patient it remained unchanged. Conclusion: IMH of the aorta should be considered a precursor of aortic dissection. At follow-up IMH may decrease in size, rupture or progress to overt aortic dissection. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Eine aortale Wandverdichtung als Ausdruck eines intramuralen Haematoms kann die einzige Manifestation einer Aortendissektion sein. Ziel dieser Arbeit war die Evaluierung der Inzidenz, bildgebenden Aspekte und Differentialdiagnosen dieses in der deutschsprachigen Literatur wenig bekannten Krankheitsbildes. Methode: 98 Patienten mit klinischem Verdacht auf eine Aortendissektion wurden MR- und computertomographisch untersucht. Kriterium fuer das Vorliegen eines intramuralen Haematoms war der Nachweis einer laengerstreckigen aortalen Wandverdickung ohne Flussnachweis sowie ohne Konfigurationsaenderung des aortalen Lumens. Ergebnisse: 69 Patienten

  9. Vessel wall MRI of the thoracic aorta: correlation to histology and transesophageal ultrasound. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abolmaali, N.; Schick, C.; Thalhammer, A.; Schmitt, J.; Vogl, T.J.; Langenfeld, M.; Schaechinger, V.; Krahforst, R.; Schulze, T.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To visualise the vessel wall of the descending thoracic aorta using magnetic resonance imaging. To evaluate the diagnostic potential of tailored T 1 -weighted sequences with contrast enhancement to assess systemic atherosclerotic disease. Methods: This study was performed on a clinical 1.5 Tesla scanner using a gradient strength of 30 mT/m and the phased array spine coil. A cadaver was examined to optimise a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol to evaluate atherosclerotic aortic wall disease. The acquired MR images were compared to gross specimens and histology. Subsequently seven patients who had undergone transesophageal ultrasound (TEU) with detailed assessment of the descending thoracic aorta were examined with MRI. The optimised protocol included untriggered and fat suppressed T 2 -weighted turbo spin echo sequences and ECG-triggered and fat suppressed T 1 -weighted spin echo sequences before and after iv administration of Gd-DTPA. Findings of the MR images were compared to the results of TEU. Contrast enhancement measurements were performed in normal and thickened vessel wall segments. Results: For the cadaver study a good correlation of the degree of vessel wall thickening and the extent of plaque imaged with the applied MR protocol was found. Tissue characterisation was limited due to post mortem changes. In vivo ECG-triggered T 1 -weighted images showed good correlation to TEU in terms of vessel wall thickness and plaque extension as verified by means of consensus reading. Differentiation of the plaque components fat, calcium and fibrous tissue was possible. In thickened aortic wall segments and fibrous caps a mean contrast enhancement of 50.4%±23.5% was measurable while normal wall segments showed an enhancement of 6.7%±3.1%. (orig.) [de

  10. Delayed rupture of thoracic aorta aneurysm following a kick to the abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Antonio; De Giorgio, Fabio; Partemi, Sara; Pascali, Vincenzo L; Carbone, Arnaldo

    2009-03-01

    Several theories have been proposed to explain the Blunt Traumatic Aortic Rupture (BTAR) because different mechanical forces act on the aorta, at anatomically susceptible sites, including shearing, torsion and stretching, but the origin, transduction and relative importance of these forces remain uncertain. We report a case of a 74-year-old man injured by a kick to the abdomen. After 2 days he felt chest pain paroxysm and weakness in his left leg. The patient was admitted to an emergency care department where he experienced sudden and severe hemodynamic deterioration, dying rapidly. The autopsy, performed 3 days later, showed haemorragic infarction of hypogastric subcutaneous tissues and revealed an extended dissecting aneurysm of the thoracic aorta with following haemopericardium. In our case we considered that a low energy compression to the abdomen, in presence of underlying atherosclerosis, caused aortic dissection rather than rupture and then the 48h time span after the traumatic event and the cardiac tamponade was enough to complete the aortic retrograde dissection. We finally emphasise the importance of the careful surveillance of any trauma close to the abdomen in view of initially unpredictable, as well as eventful injuries. The finding of early signs of neointima formation in thoracoabdominal portions of aortic dissection strongly supported our interpretation. The forensic interest of this case is correlated to the voluntary character of the inflicted injury. The culprit was thus charged with manslaughter.

  11. Re-interventions on the thoracic and thoracoabdominal aorta in patients with Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenhoff, Florian S; Carrel, Thierry P

    2017-11-01

    The advent of multi-gene panel genetic testing and the discovery of new syndromic and non-syndromic forms of connective tissue disorders have established thoracic aortic aneurysms as a genetically mediated disease. Surgical results in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) provide an important benchmark for this patient population. Prophylactic aortic root surgery prevents acute dissection and has contributed to the improved survival of MFS patients. In the majority of patients, re-interventions are driven by a history of dissection. Patients undergoing elective root repair have a low risk for re-interventions on the root itself. Experienced centers have results after valve-sparing procedures at 10 years comparable with those seen after a modified Bentall procedure. In patients where only the ascending aorta was replaced during the initial surgery, re-intervention rates are high as the root continues to dilate. The fate of the aortic arch in MFS patients presenting with dissection is strongly correlated with the extent of the initial surgery. Not replacing the entire ascending aorta and proximal aortic arch results in a high rate of re-interventions. Nevertheless, the additional burden of replacing the entire aortic arch during emergent proximal repair is not very well defined and makes comparisons with patients undergoing elective arch replacement difficult. Interestingly, replacing the entire aortic arch during initial surgery for acute dissection does not protect from re-interventions on downstream aortic segments. MFS patients suffering from type B dissection have a high risk for re-interventions ultimately leading up to replacement of the entire thoracoabdominal aorta even if the dissection was deemed uncomplicated by conventional criteria. While current guidelines do not recommend the implantation of stent grafts in MFS patients, implantation of a frozen-elephant-trunk to create a stable proximal landing zone for future endovascular or open procedures has

  12. Computed tomography evaluation of traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta: an outcome study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.D.; Mayo, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the long-term outcome of blunt trauma patients with suspected thoracic aortic or great vessel injury that was evaluated with contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography (CT). We studied the outcome of 278 consecutive patients who received contrast enhanced CT for blunt chest trauma with computerized searches of the regional trauma database, hospital medical records, universal government medical coverage plan billing records, and regional vital statistics databases. Data retrieved included patient demographics, mechanism of injury, status of the aorta and proximal great vessels at contrast-enhanced CT, hospital discharge diagnoses, and outpatient procedural billings with specific attention to aortic or great vessel injury. Median follow-up was 615 days following the traumatic event. Six subjects demonstrated direct signs of aortic or proximal great vessel injury on contrast-enhanced chest CT, as follows: aortic pseudoaneurysm and intimal flap (n = 4), carotid artery dissection (n = 1), and aortic dissection (n 1). All were surgically treated, except the patient with aortic dissection, who was treated medically. In the other subjects, contrast-enhanced CT was negative (n = 230) or showed isolated mediastinal hematoma (n = 42). The computerized searches of the medical databases showed that none of these 272 subjects had procedures for, or died from, aortic or great vessel injury during the follow-up period. Computerized searches of medical databases found no evidence of missed thoracic aortic or proximal great vessel injury in blunt trauma patients who were evaluated with contrast-enhanced chest CT. (author)

  13. An unusual renal accessory artery originating from the thoracic aorta and its potential clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Talović

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of an unsual anatomical vascular blood supply to the right kidney. In an analysis of kidneys, by dissection of 39 foetuses, additional renal arteries were found in 18 cases (46.15%. In only one case (2.5% was it noticed that the right kidney was supplied with blood by three renal arteries, one main and two additional arteries. One of the additional arteries, marked as the upper pole artery of aortic origin, separated from the thoracic aorta at the level of T11 (the eleventh thoracic rib, 1.5 cm above the truncus coeliacus. This artery, after passing through the diaphragm, entered the renal hilus at its upper part and served to vasculate that part of the kidney. Conclusion. The importance of this study is seen in the fact that anatomic knowledge of variations in the vascularization of the kidneys is of exceptional practical importance. Also, this information may concern transplant surgeons involved in living donor nephrectomies.

  14. Vasodilator Activity of the Essential Oil from Aerial Parts of Pectis brevipedunculata and Its Main Constituent Citral in Rat Aorta

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    Gisele Zapata-Sudo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Pectis brevipedunculata (EOPB, a Brazilian ornamental aromatic grass, is characterized by its high content of citral (81.9%: neral 32.7% and geranial 49.2%, limonene (4.7% and α-pinene (3.4%. Vasodilation induced by EOPB and isolated citral was investigated in pre-contracted vascular smooth muscle, using thoracic aorta from Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats which was prepared for isometric tension recording. EOPB promoted intense relaxation of endothelium-intact and denuded aortic rings with the concentration to induce 50% of the maximal relaxation (IC50 of 0.044% ± 0.006% and 0.093% ± 0.015% (p 0.05. In endothelium-intact aorta, EOPB-induced vasorelaxation was significantly reduced by L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. The vasodilator activity of citral was increased in the KCl-contracted aorta and citral attenuated the contracture elicited by Ca2+ in depolarized aorta. EOPB and citral elicited vasorelaxation on thoracic aorta by affecting the NO/cyclic GMP pathway and the calcium influx through voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channels, respectively.

  15. Vasodilator activity of the essential oil from aerial parts of Pectis brevipedunculata and its main constituent citral in rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sharlene Lopes; Marques, André Mesquita; Sudo, Roberto Takashi; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora Coelho; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele

    2013-03-07

    The essential oil of Pectis brevipedunculata (EOPB), a Brazilian ornamental aromatic grass, is characterized by its high content of citral (81.9%: neral 32.7% and geranial 49.2%), limonene (4.7%) and α-pinene (3.4%). Vasodilation induced by EOPB and isolated citral was investigated in pre-contracted vascular smooth muscle, using thoracic aorta from Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats which was prepared for isometric tension recording. EOPB promoted intense relaxation of endothelium-intact and denuded aortic rings with the concentration to induce 50% of the maximal relaxation (IC50) of 0.044% ± 0.006% and 0.093% ± 0.015% (p 0.05). In endothelium-intact aorta, EOPB-induced vasorelaxation was significantly reduced by L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. The vasodilator activity of citral was increased in the KCl-contracted aorta and citral attenuated the contracture elicited by Ca2+ in depolarized aorta. EOPB and citral elicited vasorelaxation on thoracic aorta by affecting the NO/cyclic GMP pathway and the calcium influx through voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channels, respectively.

  16. Inhibition of PKC-dependent extracellular Ca2+ entry contributes to the depression of contractile activity in long-term pressure-overloaded endothelium-denuded rat aortas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, J.; López, R.M.; López, P.; Castillo, M.C.; Querejeta, E.; Ruiz, A.; Castillo, E.F.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the contractile responsiveness of rat thoracic aortas under pressure overload after long-term suprarenal abdominal aortic coarctation (lt-Srac). Endothelium-dependent angiotensin II (ANG II) type 2 receptor (AT 2 R)-mediated depression of contractions to ANG II has been reported in short-term (1 week) pressure-overloaded rat aortas. Contractility was evaluated in the aortic rings of rats subjected to lt-Srac or sham surgery (Sham) for 8 weeks. ANG I and II levels and AT 2 R protein expression in the aortas of lt-Srac and Sham rats were also evaluated. lt-Srac attenuated the contractions of ANG II and phenylephrine in the aortas in an endothelium-independent manner. However, lt-Srac did not influence the transient contractions induced in endothelium-denuded aortic rings by ANG II, phenylephrine, or caffeine in Ca 2+ -free medium or the subsequent tonic constrictions induced by the addition of Ca 2+ in the absence of agonists. Thus, the contractions induced by Ca 2+ release from intracellular stores and Ca 2+ influx through stored-operated channels were not inhibited in the aortas of lt-Srac rats. Potassium-elicited contractions in endothelium-denuded aortic rings of lt-Srac rats remained unaltered compared with control tissues. Consequently, the contractile depression observed in aortic tissues of lt-Srac rats cannot be explained by direct inhibition of voltage-operated Ca 2+ channels. Interestingly, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced contractions in endothelium-denuded aortic rings of lt-Srac rats were depressed in the presence but not in the absence of extracellular Ca 2+ . Neither levels of angiotensins nor of AT 2 R were modified in the aortas after lt-Srac. The results suggest that, in rat thoracic aortas, lt-Srac selectively inhibited protein kinase C-mediated activation of contraction that is dependent on extracellular Ca 2+ entry

  17. Transport of 125I-albumin across normal and deendothelialized rabbit thoracic aorta in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, C.A.; Colton, C.K.; Smith, K.A.; Stemerman, M.B.; Lees, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    Transmural concentration profiles of 125 I-albumin in vivo were measured across the normal and balloon catheter-deendothelialized rabbit descending thoracic aorta as a function of time following intravenous injection. A tracer was injected 5 or 60 minutes after deendothelialization, and the animals were sacrificed after circulation times of 10, 30 or 60 minutes. The aorta was immediately excised and frozen flat between glass slides. Samples were serially sectioned parallel to the intimal surface in a refrigerated microtome, washed with trichloroacetic acid (TCA), and counted. Relative tissue concentration profiles of TCA-precipitable radioactivity from the media of control animals showed entry from both luminal and adventitial sides, as previously found with conscious normal rabbits, but spatial gradients at both luminal and medial-adventitial borders were less steep. Relative concentration levels in ballooned animals were 10- to 40-fold higher than in controls, and the profiles were flatter. Uptake rates at equivalent circulation times were greater in experiments initiated 60 minutes, as compared with 5 minutes, after deendothelialization, suggesting that progressive medial edema may have occurred following balloon injury. These results show that the intact endothelium is the dominant mass transfer resistance for 125 I-albumin transport across the aortic wall. The data also suggest that the incomplete monolayer of platelets adherent to the subendothelium after balloon deendothelialization is not a substantial resistance to transport, as compared to that of the media, and that convection plays a more important role than diffusion for 125 I-albumin transport across the deendothelialized aortic wall

  18. Experiencia en el manejo endovascular para el tratamiento de la aorta torácica Experience in endovascular management for thoracic aorta treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan G Barrera

    2007-12-01

    aneurysm, showing a 16% mortality reduction. Objective: evaluate surgical results in terms of morbid-mortality in patients submitted to endovascular management of thoracic aortic lesions in the Colombian Cardiovascular Foundation from 2003 to 2005. Design-Method: longitudinal descriptive retrospective study in which clinical histories of all patients submitted to endovascular treatment of thoracico-abdominal aortic lesions were evaluated. Only patients with thoracic aortic procedures between 2003 and 2005 were included. Data analysis was realized in Stata/SE 8,0. Results: thoracic aortic procedures were performed in 16 patients. 75% were male with mean age 55.9 ± 12.6 years. 87.5% (14 had type A or B aortic dissection; one patient had traumatic aortic transection and one had aneurysm of thoracic descendant aorta. Acute dissections were presented in 78.6% (11 patients and chronic dissections in 21.4% (3 patients. Average of endoprosthesis employed was 2.8 ± 1. Intensive care unit stay was 3 ± 2.7 days. 81.3% had no mayor complications. Mortality was 18.7% (3 patients. All patients had post-operative computerized tomography scan, with satisfactory evolution. Conclusion: according to the largest casuistics literature reports, endovascular management of dissection, aneurysm or aortic trauma is considered a trustworthy procedure that diminishes morbid-mortality.

  19. Mid- and Long-Term Results of Endovascular Treatment in Thoracic Aorta Blunt Trauma

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    Luigi Irace

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Aim. Evaluation of results in blunt injury of the thoracic aorta (BAI endovascular treatment. Materials and Methods. Sixteen patients were treated for BAI. Thirteen patients had associated polytrauma, 4 of these had a serious hypotensive status and 4 had an hemothorax. In the remaining 3, two had a post-traumatic false aneurysm of the isthmus and 1 had a segmental dissection. In those 13 patients a periaortic hematoma was associated to hemothorax in 4. All patients were submitted to an endovascular treatment, in two cases the subclavian artery ostium was intentionally covered. Results. One patient died for disseminated intravascular coagulation. No paraplegia was recorded. No ischemic complications were observed. A type I endoleak was treated by an adjunctive cuff. During the followup (1–9 years 3 patients were lost. A good patency and no endoleaks were observed in all cases. One infolding and 1 migration of the endografts were corrected by an adjunctive cuff. Conclusion. The medium and long term results of the endovascular treatment of BAI are encouraging with a low incidence rate of mortality and complications. More suitable endo-suite and endografts could be a crucial point for the further improvement of these results.

  20. Density of calcium in the ascending thoracic aorta and risk of incident cardiovascular disease events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Isac C; McClelland, Robyn L; Michos, Erin D; Allison, Matthew A; Forbang, Nketi I; Longstreth, W T; Post, Wendy S; Wong, Nathan D; Budoff, Matthew J; Criqui, Michael H

    2017-10-01

    The volume and density of coronary artery calcium (CAC) both independently predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) beyond standard risk factors, with CAC density inversely associated with incident CVD after accounting for CAC volume. We tested the hypothesis that ascending thoracic aorta calcium (ATAC) volume and density predict incident CVD events independently of CAC. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) is a prospective cohort study of participants without clinical CVD at baseline. ATAC and CAC were measured from baseline cardiac computed tomography (CT). Cox regression models were used to estimate the associations of ATAC volume and density with incident coronary heart disease (CHD) events and CVD events, after adjustment for standard CVD risk factors and CAC volume and density. Among 6811 participants, 234 (3.4%) had prevalent ATAC and 3395 (49.8%) had prevalent CAC. Over 10.3 years, 355 CHD and 562 CVD events occurred. One-standard deviation higher ATAC density was associated with a lower risk of CHD (HR 0.48 [95% CI 0.29-0.79], pdensity was inversely associated with incident CHD and CVD after adjustment for CVD risk factors and CAC volume and density. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Heartbeat-related displacement of the thoracic aorta in patients with chronic aortic dissection type B: Quantification by dynamic CTA

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    Weber, Tim F. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: tim.weber@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Ganten, Maria-Katharina [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: m.ganten@dkfz.de; Boeckler, Dittmar [University of Heidelberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: dittmar.boeckler@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Geisbuesch, Philipp [University of Heidelberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: philipp.geisbuesch@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: hu.kauczor@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik von [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: h.vontengg@dkfz.de

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the heartbeat-related displacement of the thoracic aorta in patients with chronic aortic dissection type B (CADB). Materials and methods: Electrocardiogram-gated computed tomography angiography was performed during inspiratory breath-hold in 11 patients with CADB: Collimation 16 mm x 1 mm, pitch 0.2, slice thickness 1 mm, reconstruction increment 0.8 mm. Multiplanar reformations were taken for 20 equidistant time instances through both ascending (AAo) and descending aorta (true lumen, DAoT; false lumen, DAoF) and the vertex of the aortic arch (VA). In-plane vessel displacement was determined by region of interest analysis. Results: Mean displacement was 5.2 {+-} 1.7 mm (AAo), 1.6 {+-} 1.0 mm (VA), 0.9 {+-} 0.4 mm (DAoT), and 1.1 {+-} 0.4 mm (DAoF). This indicated a significant reduction of displacement from AAo to VA and DAoT (p < 0.05). The direction of displacement was anterior for AAo and cranial for VA. Conclusion: In CADB, the thoracic aorta undergoes a heartbeat-related displacement that exhibits an unbalanced distribution of magnitude and direction along the thoracic vessel course. Since consecutive traction forces on the aortic wall have to be assumed, these observations may have implications on pathogenesis of and treatment strategies for CADB.

  2. A rare case of acyanotic congenital heart disease, large patent ductus arteriosus with pre-ductal coarctation of descending thoracic aorta with patent ductus arteriosus closure and extra anatomical bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zara Wani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of 18-year-old female patient with large patent ductus arteriosus (PDA-preductal coarctation of descending thoracic aorta. She underwent large PDA closure with a prosthetic graft from ascending aorta to descending thoracic aorta by mid-sternotomy on cardiopulmonary bypass machine under total hypothermic circulatory arrest.

  3. A rare case of acyanotic congenital heart disease, large patent ductus arteriosus with pre-ductal coarctation of descending thoracic aorta with patent ductus arteriosus closure and extra anatomical bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Zara; Tiwari, Deepak; Gehlot, Rajeev; Kumar, Deepak; Chhabra, Sushil; Sharma, Meenaxi

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of 18-year-old female patient with large patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)-preductal coarctation of descending thoracic aorta. She underwent large PDA closure with a prosthetic graft from ascending aorta to descending thoracic aorta by mid-sternotomy on cardiopulmonary bypass machine under total hypothermic circulatory arrest.

  4. Changes in the Severity and Injury Sources of Thoracic Aorta Injuries due to Vehicular Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryb, Gabriel; Dischinger, Patricia; Kerns, Timothy; Burch, Cynthia; Rabin, Joseph; Ho, Shiu

    Research using the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) suggested a decreased adjusted risk of thoracic aorta injuries (TAI) for newer vehicles during near-side crashes and an increased adjusted TAI risk during frontal crashes. This study attempted to explore possible explanations of these findings. Adult front seat occupants in the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) database through June 2012 were studied. TAI cases were compared with remaining cases in relation to crash and vehicular characteristics. TAI cases of later crash year (CY) (2004-2012) were compared to those in earlier CY (1996-2003) in relation to TAI severity (minor, moderate, severe and non-survivable). TAI cases in newer model year (MY) vehicles (1999-2012) were compared to those in older vehicles (1988-98) in relation to injury source (steering wheel, front, left, seat belt, air bag and other or unknown). Analysis was stratified by direction of impact (frontal and near-side) and the use of restraints. The similar TAI severity of earlier and later CY among frontal crashes suggests that the observed changes in the adjusted odds of injury seen in NASS-CDS are not due to an increase in injury detection. The decrease in TAI severity among newer vehicles in near-side crashes of later CY is consistent with a beneficial effect of crashworthiness improvements for this crash configuration. A shift of injury source in frontal crashes from the steering wheel in older vehicles to "front of vehicle structures", "seat belts" and "unknown and other" in newer vehicles should suggest potential sites for crashworthiness improvements.

  5. Reduction of thoracic aorta motion artifact with high-pitch 128-slice dual-source computed tomographic angiography: a historical control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Junichiro; Tasaki, Osamu; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Azuma, Takeo; Ohnishi, Mitsuo; Ukai, Isao; Tahara, Kenichi; Ogura, Hiroshi; Kuwagata, Yasuyuki; Hamasaki, Toshimitsu; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Electrocardiogram-gated imaging combined with multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) has reduced cardiac motion artifacts, but it was not practical in the emergency setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of a high-pitch, 128-slice dual-source CT (DSCT) scanner to reduce motion artifacts in patients admitted to the emergency room. This study comprised 100 patients suspected of having thoracic aorta lesions. We examined 47 patients with the 128-slice DSCT scanner (DSCT group), and 53 patients were examined with a 64-slice MDCT scanner (MDCT group). Six anatomic areas in the thoracic aorta were evaluated. Computed tomography images in the DSCT group were distinct, and significant differences were observed in images of all areas between the 2 groups except for the descending aorta. The high-pitch DSCT scanner can reduce motion artifacts of the thoracic aorta and enable radiological diagnosis even in patients with tachycardia and without breath hold.

  6. Emergency Endovascular Treatment of an Acute Traumatic Rupture of the Thoracic Aorta Complicated by a Distal Low-Flow Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruninx, Guy; Wery, Didier; Dubois, Eric; El Nakadi, Badih; Dueren, Eric van; Verhelst, Guy; Delcour, Christian

    1999-01-01

    We report the case of a patient who suffered major trauma following a motorcycle accident that resulted in multiple fractures, bilateral hemopneumothorax, pulmonary contusions, and an isthmic rupture of the aorta with a pseudoaneurysm compressing the descending aorta. This compression was responsible for distal hypotension and low flow, leading to acute renal insufficiency and massive rhabdomyolysis. Due to the critical clinical status of the patient, which prevented any type of open thoracic surgery, endovascular treatment was performed. An initial stent-graft permitted alleviation of the compression and the re-establishment of normal hemodynamic conditions, but its low position did not allow sufficient coverage of the rupture. A second stent-graft permitted total exclusion of the pseudoaneurysm while preserving the patency of the left subclavian artery

  7. Inhibitory effects of tiamulin on contractile and electrical responses in isolated thoracic aorta and cardiac muscle of guinea-pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajyo, S; Hara, Y; Hirano, S; Agata, N; Shimizu, K; Urakawa, N

    1992-09-01

    The inhibitory effect of tiamulin, an antibiotic produced by Pleurotus mutilis, on contractile and electrical responses in isolated thoracic aorta and cardiac muscle of guinea-pigs was studied. In the thoracic aorta, tiamulin with an IC50 of 9.7 x 10(-6) M inhibited sustained contractions induced by isosmotically added 60 mM KCl. The inhibitory effect of tiamulin on a Ca(2+)-induced contraction in a depolarized muscle was competitively antagonized by raising external Ca2+ concentration. Bay K 8644 (10(-7) M) antagonized tiamulin's inhibition of the Ca(2+)-induced contraction. Tiamulin (2 x 10(-5) M) decreased the elevated cytoplasmic Ca2+ level measured by the fura 2 AM method in the depolarized muscle. In high K(+)-isoprenaline-treated left atria, tiamulin (2 x 10(-5)-2 x 10(-4) M) produced negative inotropic effects. On the other hand in the membrane action potential of papillary muscles, tiamulin (2 x 10(-6)-2 x 10(-4) M) produced decreases in action potential and durations and 2 x 10(-4) M tiamulin depressed the slow response action potential in depolarized muscles. Tiamulin produced prolongations of the PR interval in ECG, negative chrono- and inotropic effects, and an increase in perfusion flow in guinea-pig isolated and perfused hearts. These effects of tiamulin on the aorta or cardiac muscle were similar to those of verapamil and nifedipine. These results suggest that both the inhibitory action of tiamulin on the high K(+)-induced contraction in the aorta and the negative inotropic effect of tiamulin on the cardiac muscle are due to an inhibition of Ca2+ entry through the voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels of cells of both these muscles.

  8. Pseudoaneurysm of the thoracic aorta sustained during exposure to a tornado diagnosed with ECG-synchronized CT aortography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Amit; von Herrmann, Paul F; Embertson, Ryan E; Landwehr, Kevin P; Winkler, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    A case of a tornado victim with a delayed presentation of injury to the aortic isthmus is discussed. Tornado forces resemble the forces of high energy explosions, and the injuries that can occur as a result of these forces can be bizarre. The patient presented with the unique computed tomography (CT) findings of isolated pseudoaneurysm of the thoracic aorta in the absence of other traumatic injury to the thorax. Equivocal results of the initial CT aortogram (CTA) were confirmed with ECG-synchronized CTA (ECG-CTA), demonstrating the superiority of ECG-CTA as compared to standard CTA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Chromosomal mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling elastin content in rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauguier, Dominique; Behmoaras, Jacques; Argoud, Karène; Wilder, Steven P; Pradines, Christelle; Bihoreau, Marie Thérèse; Osborne-Pellegrin, Mary; Jacob, Marie Paule

    2005-03-01

    Extracellular matrix molecules such as elastin and collagens provide mechanical support to the vessel wall. In addition to its structural role, elastin is a regulator that maintains homeostasis through biologic signaling. Genetically determined minor modifications in elastin and collagen in the aorta could influence the onset and evolution of arterial pathology, such as hypertension and its complications. We previously demonstrated that the inbred Brown Norway (BN) rat shows an aortic elastin deficit in both abdominal and thoracic segments, partly because of a decrease in tropoelastin synthesis when compared with the LOU rat, that elastin gene polymorphisms in these strains do not significantly account for. After a genome-wide search for quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing the aortic elastin, collagen, and cell protein contents in an F2 population derived from BN and LOU rats, we identified on chromosomes 2 and 14, 3 QTL specifically controlling elastin levels, and a further highly significant QTL on chromosome 17 linked to the level of cell proteins. We also mapped 3 highly significant QTL linked to body weight (on chromosomes 1 and 3) and heart weight (on chromosome 1) in the cross. This study demonstrates the polygenic control of the content of key components of the arterial wall. Such information represents a first step in understanding possible mechanisms involved in dysregulation of these parameters in arterial pathology.

  10. Ayahuasca Alters Structural Parameters of the Rat Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitol, Dimitrius L; Siéssere, Selma; Dos Santos, Rafael G; Rosa, Maria L N M; Hallak, Jaime E C; Scalize, Priscilla H; Pereira, Bruno F; Iyomasa, Melina M; Semprini, Marisa; Riba, Jordi; Regalo, Simone C H

    2015-07-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic brew traditionally used by Northwestern Amazonian indigenous groups for therapeutic purposes. It is prepared by the decoction of Banisteriopsis caapi with the leaves of Psychotria viridis. Banisteriopsis caapi contains β-carbolines that are inhibitors of monoamine oxidase and P. viris is rich in dimethyltryptamine, a 5-HT(1A/2A/2C) agonist. Acute ayahuasca administration produces moderate cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers, but information regarding long-term use is lacking. This study investigated the effects of ayahuasca (2-4 mL/kg) in the rat aorta after acute and chronic (14 days) administration. Ayahuasca caused flattening and stretching of vascular smooth muscle cells and changes in the arrangement and distribution of collagen and elastic fibers. Chronic treatment with the higher dose significantly increased media thickness and the ratio of media thickness to lumen diameter. More research is needed on the cardiovascular function of long-term ayahuasca consumers.

  11. Structure of the Elastin-Contractile Units in the Thoracic Aorta and How Genes That Cause Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections Disrupt This Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ashkan; Milewicz, Dianna M

    2016-01-01

    The medial layer of the aorta confers elasticity and strength to the aortic wall and is composed of alternating layers of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and elastic fibres. The SMC elastin-contractile unit is a structural unit that links the elastin fibres to the SMCs and is characterized by the following: (1) layers of elastin fibres that are surrounded by microfibrils; (2) microfibrils that bind to the integrin receptors in focal adhesions on the cell surface of the SMCs; and (3) SMC contractile filaments that are linked to the focal adhesions on the inner side of the membrane. The genes that are altered to cause thoracic aortic aneurysms and aortic dissections encode proteins involved in the structure or function of the SMC elastin-contractile unit. Included in this gene list are the genes encoding protein that are structural components of elastin fibres and microfibrils, FBN1, MFAP5, ELN, and FBLN4. Also included are genes that encode structural proteins in the SMC contractile unit, including ACTA2, which encodes SMC-specific α-actin and MYH11, which encodes SMC-specific myosin heavy chain, along with MYLK and PRKG1, which encode kinases that control SMC contraction. Finally, mutations in the gene encoding the protein linking integrin receptors to the contractile filaments, FLNA, also predispose to thoracic aortic disease. Thus, these data suggest that functional SMC elastin-contractile units are important for maintaining the structural integrity of the aorta. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of the Vasoplegic impact of Papaverine in the rat aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, C.; Callskan, A.; Karahan, O.; Demirtas, S.; Yazici, S.; Guclu, O.; Mavitas, B.; Donmez, S.; Peker, R. O.; Yildirim, Y.; Gokalp, O.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the degree of vasoplegic affinity of papaverine to rat thoracic aortas following constriction caused by adrenalin, serotonin and potassium chloride in an in-vitro model. Methods: The in vitro vasoplegic efficacy of papaverine against adrenalin (10-5 M), serotonin (5HT) (10-4 M), and KCl (60 mM) was assessed, using a rat aortic vasospasm model in an organ bath. First, aortic rings were constricted with a submaximal dose of vasoconstrictor agents. The samples were then incubated with papaverine (3x10-4 M) for 20 minutes, followed by readministration of the same vasoconstrictor agents. The first vasospastic response (before papaverine incubation) and the new vasoconstrictor responses (after papaverine incubation) of the vessels were then compared. Results: The vasoplegic effect of vasoconstrictor agents in decreasing order was observed as adrenalin>KCl>5HT. This different affinity for the vasoplegic effect is considered to be a temporary impact of the drugs and the maximal inhibition of vasoconstriction was detected for the adrenalin receptor. Conclusion: The relevance of the macromolecules is responsible for the permanent efficacy of the drugs. Different degrees of vasoconstriction were also obtained after papaverine administration, which suggests that different responses can occur as a result of different stimulation of receptor modulators. (author)

  13. Large mobile thrombus in non-atherosclerotic thoracic aorta as the source of peripheral arterial embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brkovic Zoran

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of thrombi in the atherosclerotic and/or aneurysmatic aorta with peripheral arterial embolism is a common scenario. Thrombus formation in a morphologically normal aorta, however, is a rare event. A 50 years old woman was admitted to the mergency department for pain, coldness, and anesthesia in the the left foot. She had a 25 years history of cigarette smoking, a history of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT, hypercholesterolemia and hyperfibrinogenemia. An extensive serologic survey for hypercoagulability, including antiphospholipid antibodies, and vasculitis disorders was negative. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed a large, pedunculated and hypermobile thrombus attached to the aortic wall 5 cm distal of the left subclavian artery. The patient was admitted to the surgery department, where a 15 cm long fresh, parietal thrombus could be removed from the aorta showing no macroscopic wall lesions or any other morphologic abnormalities. This case report demonstrates the possibility of evolving a large, pedunculated thrombus in a morphologically intact aorta in a postmenopausal woman with thrombogenic conditions such as hyperfibrinogenemia, hypercholesterolemia, smoking and HRT. For these patients, profiling the individual risk and weighing the benefits against the potential risks is warranted before prescribing HRT.

  14. High Temporal Resolution Finite Element Simulations of the Aorta for Thoracic Impedance Cardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mühlsteff, J.; Ulbrich, M.; Paluchowski, P.; Leonhardt, S.

    2011-01-01

    Impedance cardiography (ICG) is a simple and cheap method to acquirehemodynamic parameters. Unfortunately, not all physiologic influences on the ICG signal have been identified, yet. In this work, the influence of the dynamics of the aorta have been analyzed using a simplified model of the human

  15. Endovascular repair of mycotic aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta: diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas-two case reports with 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, Ivan; Sarac, Momir; Tomic, Aleksandar; Bezmarevic, Mihailo

    2013-10-01

    A mycotic aneurysm of the thoracic aorta is a rare diagnosis with high mortality. We present two cases of endovascular reconstruction of mycotic descending thoracic aorta. Specific or nonspecific bacterial or other infectious agent in serial samples of blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and pleural puncture was not detected in the first case, but we found in sputum sample Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the second patient. We empirically began by administering broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics in the first case, with preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis and antituberculotic drugs therapy in the second case, and continued with the same medication for 4 months after endovascular repair. Control computed tomographic scans 6 months after reconstruction showed no endoleak in both patients. Repair of mycotic descending thoracic aortic aneurysms by endoluminal stent graft is reasonable alternative to open surgical intervention. A broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy has a high significance in the treatment of patients with mycotic aneurysm. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Endovascular implantation of stent-grafts in the thoracic aorta - mid-term results of a prospective controlled study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duda, S.H.; Pusich, B.; Tepe, G.; Pereira, P.; Feuls, R.; Claussen, C.D.; Raygrotzki, S.; Aebert, H.; Ziemer, G.; Uckmann, F.P.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of endovascular treatment of various descending thoracic aortic pathologies with covered stent-grafts as an alternative to open surgery. Methods: Among 16 patients (5 type B dissections, 5 contained ruptures, 3 aneurysms of the descending aorta, 1 thoraco-abdominal aneurysm, 1 mural thrombosis, 1 patch aneurysm) treated between November 1997 and November 2000, eight patients received Talent TM stent-grafts and another 8 patients underwent a Gore-TAG TM stent-graft implantation. A clinical follow-up and control CT scans were obtained after the procedure and then at six-month intervals. Results: Deployment of the stent-grafts was technically successful in all cases. Sufficient aortic reconstruction was achieved in all but one patient who needed surgical treatment. One patient died two days after the procedure from aortic rupture due to retrograde type A dissection. Another patient died 19 months after the procedure from an unknown cause. There was no occurrence of distal embolization, paralysis or infection. During follow-up, all patients remained free from recurrence or late complications of their disease. Conclusion: Endoluminal treatment of thoracic aortic pathologies with covered stent-grafts appears to be a safe and feasible method with at least mid-term efficacy. (orig.) [de

  17. Re-interventions on the thoracic and thoracoabdominal aorta in patients with Marfan syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenhoff, Florian S.; Carrel, Thierry P.

    2017-01-01

    The advent of multi-gene panel genetic testing and the discovery of new syndromic and non-syndromic forms of connective tissue disorders have established thoracic aortic aneurysms as a genetically mediated disease. Surgical results in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) provide an important benchmark for this patient population. Prophylactic aortic root surgery prevents acute dissection and has contributed to the improved survival of MFS patients. In the majority of patients, re-interventions...

  18. Proximal thoracic aorta dimensions after continuous-flow left ventricular assist device implantation: Longitudinal changes and relation to aortic valve insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Nowell M; Park, Soon J; Stulak, John M; Topilsky, Yan; Daly, Richard C; Joyce, Lyle D; Pereira, Naveen L; Schirger, John A; Edwards, Brooks S; Lin, Grace; Kushwaha, Sudhir S

    2016-04-01

    In this study we examined the impact of continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) support on proximal thoracic aorta dimensions. Aortic root and ascending aorta diameter were measured from serial echocardiograms before and after CF-LVAD implantation in patients with ≥6 months of support, and correlated with the development of >mild aortic valve insufficiency (AI). Of 162 patients included, mean age was 58 ± 11 years and 128 (79%) were male. Seventy-nine (63%) were destination therapy patients. Mean aortic root and ascending aorta diameters at baseline, 1 month, 6 months, 12 months and long-term follow-up (mean 2.0 ± 1.4 years) were 3.5 ± 0.4, 3.5 ± 0.3, 3.9 ± 0.3, 3.9 ± 0.2 and 4.0 ± 0.3, and 3.3 ± 0.2, 3.3 ± 0.3, 3.6 ± 0.2, 3.6 ± 0.3 and 3.6 ± 0.3 cm, respectively. Only change in aortic root diameter from 1-month to 6-month follow-up reached statistical significance (p = 0.03). Nine (6%) patients had accelerated proximal thoracic aorta expansion (>0.5 cm/year), occurring predominantly in the first 6 months after implantation. These patients were older and more likely to have hypertension and baseline proximal thoracic aorta dilation. Forty-five (28%) patients developed >mild AI at long-term follow-up, including 7 of 9 (78%) of those with accelerated proximal thoracic aorta expansion. All 7 had aortic valves that remained closed throughout the cardiac cycle, and this, along with duration of CF-LVAD support and increase in aortic root diameter, were significantly associated with developing >mild AI. CF-LVAD patients have small increases in proximal thoracic aorta dimensions that predominantly occur within the first 6 months after implantation and then stabilize. Increasing aortic root diameter was associated with AI development. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of camelina oil on the structure of aortas in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowska, Marta; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Piersiak, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether a disturbance of hormonal homeostasis caused by ovariectomy influences the elasticity and wall structure of the abdominal aorta and whether camelina oil administration has an effect on the properties of the abdominal aorta in rats after...... ovariectomy. Forty Wistar female rats (220-240 g) were used in the experiment: 10 animals underwent a sham ovary repositioning operation (SHO), and 30 were ovariectomized (OVX). After 7 days of convalescence, the SHO rats and OVX1 rats were given physiological saline intragastrically for 6 weeks, while......), and images were obtained by light and confocal microscopy. Ovariectomy caused a significant decrease in the elasticity of the aorta, as well as in the volume of collagen III and elastin in the tunica intima and media, but no changes in the volume of collagen I, the total wall thickness or the thickness...

  20. Ortner's Syndrome: Secondary Laryngeal Paralysis Caused by a Great Thoracic Aorta Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zangirolami, Ana Claudia Alves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury caused by cardiovascular disease is a rare condition, and often it is the only prominent sign of an imminent break of an aortic artery aneurysm. Objective To report left laryngeal paralysis caused by a great aortic arch aneurysm and to highlight the importance of an otorhinolaryngologic evaluation along with a thoracic radiologic study. Resumed Report A 42-year-old man complained of thickness of his voice and dysphagia for 3 months, but no thoracic pain or other relevant complaints. Video laryngoscopy revealed immobility of his left vocal fold in the paramedian position. Imaging was obtained for investigation, including magnetic resonance imaging of his thorax, which showed a fusiform aneurysm in the aortic arch, leading to recurrent compression of the left laryngeal nerve. The patient was successfully treated with endovascular repair of the aneurysm. At 2-month follow-up, there was still no recovery of the laryngeal mobility. Conclusion An aortic artery aneurysm can suddenly break, requiring emergency heart surgery, and the results can be fatal in many cases. We suggest routine exam of the vocal folds in all patients with a heart condition, and we review the literature and suggest the use of imaging to reduce the number of emergency procedures.

  1. Ortner's Syndrome: Secondary Laryngeal Paralysis Caused by a Great Thoracic Aorta Aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangirolami, Ana Claudia Alves; Oliveira, Frederico Vieira de; Tepedino, Miguel Soares

    2015-04-01

    Introduction Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury caused by cardiovascular disease is a rare condition, and often it is the only prominent sign of an imminent break of an aortic artery aneurysm. Objective To report left laryngeal paralysis caused by a great aortic arch aneurysm and to highlight the importance of an otorhinolaryngologic evaluation along with a thoracic radiologic study. Resumed Report A 42-year-old man complained of thickness of his voice and dysphagia for 3 months, but no thoracic pain or other relevant complaints. Video laryngoscopy revealed immobility of his left vocal fold in the paramedian position. Imaging was obtained for investigation, including magnetic resonance imaging of his thorax, which showed a fusiform aneurysm in the aortic arch, leading to recurrent compression of the left laryngeal nerve. The patient was successfully treated with endovascular repair of the aneurysm. At 2-month follow-up, there was still no recovery of the laryngeal mobility. Conclusion An aortic artery aneurysm can suddenly break, requiring emergency heart surgery, and the results can be fatal in many cases. We suggest routine exam of the vocal folds in all patients with a heart condition, and we review the literature and suggest the use of imaging to reduce the number of emergency procedures.

  2. Ovariectomy increases the participation of hyperpolarizing mechanisms in the relaxation of rat aorta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sagredo

    Full Text Available This study examines the downstream NO release pathway and the contribution of different vasodilator mediators in the acetylcholine-induced response in rat aorta 5-months after the loss of ovarian function. Aortic segments from ovariectomized and control female Sprague-Dawley rats were used to measure: the levels of superoxide anion, the superoxide dismutases (SODs activity, the cGMP formation, the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG activity and the involvement of NO, cGMP, hydrogen peroxide and hyperpolarizing mechanisms in the ACh-induced relaxation. The results showed that ovariectomy did not alter ACh-induced relaxation; incubation with L-NAME, a NO synthase inhibitor, decreased the ACh-induced response to a lesser extent in aorta from ovariectomized than from control rats, while ODQ, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, decreased that response to a similar extent; the blockade of hyperpolarizing mechanisms, by precontracting arteries with KCl, decreased the ACh-induced response to a greater extent in aortas from ovariectomized than those from control rats; catalase, that decomposes hydrogen peroxide, decreased the ACh-induced response only in aorta from ovariectomized rats. In addition, ovariectomy increased superoxide anion levels and SODs activity, decreased cGMP formation and increased PKG activity. Despite the increased superoxide anion and decreased cGMP in aorta from ovariectomized rats, ACh-induced relaxation is maintained by the existence of hyperpolarizing mechanisms in which hydrogen peroxide participates. The greater contribution of hydrogen peroxide in ACh-induced relaxation is due to increased SOD activity, in an attempt to compensate for increased superoxide anion formation. Increased PKG activity could represent a redundant mechanism to ensure vasodilator function in the aorta of ovariectomized rats.

  3. Vasodilatory effect of asafoetida essential oil on rat aorta rings: The role of nitric oxide, prostacyclin, and calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Hassan; Sharifi, Mozhdeh; Esmailidehaj, Mansour; Rezvani, Mohammad Ebrahim; Hafizibarjin, Zeynab

    2017-12-01

    Asafoetida is an oleo-gum resin mainly obtained from Ferula assa-foetida L. species in the apiaceae family. Previous studies have shown that it has antispasmodic effects on rat's and pig's ileums. The main goals of this study were to assess the vasodilatory effect of asafoetida essential oil (AEO) on the contractile response of rat's aorta rings and to find the role of nitric oxide, cyclooxygenase, and calcium channels. Thoracic aorta rings were stretched under a steady-state tension of 1 g in an organ bath apparatus for 1 h and then precontracted by KCl (80 mM) in the presence and absence of AEO. L-NAME (blocker of nitric oxide synthase) and indomethacin (blocker of cyclooxygenase) were used to assess the role of nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin in the vasodilatory effect of AEO. Also, the effect of AEO on the influx of calcium through the cell membrane calcium channels was determined. Data showed that AEO had vasodilatory effects on aorta rings with both intact (IC 50  = 1.6 µl/l) or denuded endothelium (IC 50  = 19.2 µl/l) with a significantly higher potency in intact endothelium rings. The vasodilatory effects of AEO were reduced, but not completely inhibited, in the presence of L-NAME or indomethacin. Adding AEO to the free-calcium medium also significantly reduced the CaCl 2 -induced contractions. The results indicated that AEO has a potent vasodilatory effect that is endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent. Also, it reduced the influx of calcium into the cell through plasma membrane calcium channels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. An Experimental Study to Replace the Thoracic Descending Aorta for Pigs with a Self-Made Sutureless Blood Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To simplify the procedure of blood vessel replacement operation and shorten the vascular anastomosis time, we developed a special artificial blood vessel which can be connected to native blood vessels without suture. The self-made sutureless blood vessel (SMSBV was made from two titanium connectors and a Gore-Tex graft. To investigate blood compatibility and histocompatibility of the SMSBV, we carried thoracic descending aorta replacement using either SMSBV or Gore-Tex, respectively, in pigs. The aortic clamp time and the operative blood loss in the experimental group (using SMSBV were less than those in the control group (using Gore-Tex. The whole blood hematocrit, platelet count, plasma soluble P-selectin, plasma free hemoglobin, and interleukins 2, 6 at each time point were not different significantly between the two groups. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy examination showed there were layers of vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells adhered in the inner wall of artificial blood vessel without any signs of thrombosis. Based on the result, we have drawn the conclusion that the application of SMSBV can significantly shorten the vascular anastomosis time, reduce operative blood loss, and show good blood and tissue compatibility.

  5. The use of intraosseous needles for injection of contrast media for computed tomographic angiography of the thoracic aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Michael; Talley, Cynthia; Woodward, Connor; Kingsbury, Alexander; Appiah, Frank; Elbelasi, Hossam; Landwher, Kevin; Li, Xingzhe; Fleischmann, Dominik

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the safety and quality of computed tomographic angiography of the thoracic aorta (CTA-TA) exams performed using intraosseous needle intravenous access (ION-IVA) for contrast media injection (CMI). All CTA-TA exams at the study institution performed between 1/1/2013 and 8/14/2015 were reviewed retrospectively to identify those exams which had been performed using ION-IVA (ION-exams). ION-exams were then analyzed to determine aortic attenuation and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Linear regression was used to determine how injection rate and other variables affected image quality for ION-exams. Patient electronic medical records were reviewed to identify any adverse events related to CTA-TA or ION-IVA. 17 (∼0.2%) of 7401 exams were ION-exams. ION-exam CMI rates varied between 2.5 and 4 ml/s. Mean attenuation was 312 HU (SD 88 HU) and mean CNR was 25 (SD 9.9). A strong positive linear association between attenuation and injection rate was found. No immediate or delayed complications related to the ION-exams, or intraosseous needle use in general, occurred. For CTA-TA, ION-IVA appears to be a safe and effective route for CMI at rates up to 4 ml/s. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nitric oxide and catalase-sensitive relaxation by scutellarin in the mouse thoracic aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weimin; Lust, Robert M; Bofferding, April; Wingard, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    The vascular activity of scutellarin (SCU), a flavonoid isolated from a Chinese traditional medicinal plant, was investigated in isolated thoracic aortic rings of mice. SCU-induced dose-dependent relaxation of phenylephrine (1 microM) stimulated contractions. This relaxation was reduced by endothelium removal, significantly reduced by both the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methylester, 300 microM) and slightly limited by the soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor (1 H-[1,2,4] oxidazolol [4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one, 100 microM). The catalase inhibitor (3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, 50 mM) augmented the constriction and blocked the lowest SCU concentration relaxation, whereas catalase addition was without effect. Preincubation with 300 and 1000 microM SCU significantly suppressed the contractile dose-response to phenylephrine, causing both a significant rise in half maximal effective concentration and a decrease in the maximal developed force. Western blot analysis showed that SCU inhibition of contraction was independent of reductions in myosin light chain phosphorylation. These results suggested that SCU relaxation was predominantly endothelium dependent and likely involved the catalase-sensitive nitric oxide synthase signaling pathway, without loss of myosin phosphorylation. The potential clinical use of SCU may prove to be effective in increasing vasoreactivity, independently of smooth muscle contractile activity that is mediated by the 20-kDa myosin light chain phosphorylation.

  7. 45Ca2+movements induced by Ca2+chloride in isolated rat aorta under K+-free conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wermelskirchen, D.; Nebel, U.; Wirth, A.; Wilffert, B.

    1991-01-01

    Increasing the extracellular Ca2+concentration induced a dihydropyridine-insensitive contraction in the isolated rat aorta bathed in K+-free solution. To obtained further insight into the mechanisms of this contraction45Ca2+uptake measurements were carried out with isolated rat aorta. Increasing the

  8. CA-45(2+) MOVEMENTS INDUCED BY CA2+ CHLORIDE IN ISOLATED RAT AORTA UNDER K+-FREE CONDITIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WERMELSKIRCHEN, D; NEBEL, U; WIRTH, A; WILFFERT, B

    1991-01-01

    Increasing the extracellular Ca2+ concentration induced a dihydropyridine-insensitive contraction in the isolated rat aorta bathed in K+-free solution. To obtain further insight into the mechanism of this contraction Ca-45(2+) uptake measurements were carried out with isolated rat aorta. Increasing

  9. Three-dimensional thoracic aorta principal strain analysis from routine ECG-gated computerized tomography: feasibility in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satriano, Alessandro; Guenther, Zachary; White, James A; Merchant, Naeem; Di Martino, Elena S; Al-Qoofi, Faisal; Lydell, Carmen P; Fine, Nowell M

    2018-05-02

    Functional impairment of the aorta is a recognized complication of aortic and aortic valve disease. Aortic strain measurement provides effective quantification of mechanical aortic function, and 3-dimenional (3D) approaches may be desirable for serial evaluation. Computerized tomographic angiography (CTA) is routinely performed for various clinical indications, and offers the unique potential to study 3D aortic deformation. We sought to investigate the feasibility of performing 3D aortic strain analysis in a candidate population of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Twenty-one patients with severe aortic valve stenosis (AS) referred for TAVR underwent ECG-gated CTA and echocardiography. CTA images were analyzed using a 3D feature-tracking based technique to construct a dynamic aortic mesh model to perform peak principal strain amplitude (PPSA) analysis. Segmental strain values were correlated against clinical, hemodynamic and echocardiographic variables. Reproducibility analysis was performed. The mean patient age was 81±6 years. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 52±14%, aortic valve area (AVA) 0.6±0.3 cm 2 and mean AS pressure gradient (MG) 44±11 mmHg. CTA-based 3D PPSA analysis was feasible in all subjects. Mean PPSA values for the global thoracic aorta, ascending aorta, aortic arch and descending aorta segments were 6.5±3.0, 10.2±6.0, 6.1±2.9 and 3.3±1.7%, respectively. 3D PSSA values demonstrated significantly more impairment with measures of worsening AS severity, including AVA and MG for the global thoracic aorta and ascending segment (panalysis is clinically feasible from routine ECG-gated CTA. Appropriate reductions in PSSA were identified with increasing AS hemodynamic severity. Expanded study of 3D aortic PSSA for patients with various forms of aortic disease is warranted.

  10. Veratridine activates a silent sodium-channel in rat isolated aorta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WERMELSKIRCHEN, D; WILFFERT, B; NEBEL, U; LEIDIG, A; WIRTH, A; Peters, Thies

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the existence of silent Na+ channels, isolated rat aorta was treated with veratridine (0.1 mM) and the resulting Ca2+ uptake was determined. After 30-min incubation the total tissue uptake of Ca2+ and Ca2+ uptake increased from 2.325 +/- 0.017 to 2.614 +/- 0.080 nmol/mg wet weight

  11. Inhibition of PKC-dependent extracellular Ca{sup 2+} entry contributes to the depression of contractile activity in long-term pressure-overloaded endothelium-denuded rat aortas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, J.; López, R.M.; López, P.; Castillo, M.C.; Querejeta, E.; Ruiz, A.; Castillo, E.F. [Sección de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Escuela Superior de Medicina, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-08-01

    We examined the contractile responsiveness of rat thoracic aortas under pressure overload after long-term suprarenal abdominal aortic coarctation (lt-Srac). Endothelium-dependent angiotensin II (ANG II) type 2 receptor (AT{sub 2}R)-mediated depression of contractions to ANG II has been reported in short-term (1 week) pressure-overloaded rat aortas. Contractility was evaluated in the aortic rings of rats subjected to lt-Srac or sham surgery (Sham) for 8 weeks. ANG I and II levels and AT{sub 2}R protein expression in the aortas of lt-Srac and Sham rats were also evaluated. lt-Srac attenuated the contractions of ANG II and phenylephrine in the aortas in an endothelium-independent manner. However, lt-Srac did not influence the transient contractions induced in endothelium-denuded aortic rings by ANG II, phenylephrine, or caffeine in Ca{sup 2+}-free medium or the subsequent tonic constrictions induced by the addition of Ca{sup 2+} in the absence of agonists. Thus, the contractions induced by Ca{sup 2+} release from intracellular stores and Ca{sup 2+} influx through stored-operated channels were not inhibited in the aortas of lt-Srac rats. Potassium-elicited contractions in endothelium-denuded aortic rings of lt-Srac rats remained unaltered compared with control tissues. Consequently, the contractile depression observed in aortic tissues of lt-Srac rats cannot be explained by direct inhibition of voltage-operated Ca{sup 2+} channels. Interestingly, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced contractions in endothelium-denuded aortic rings of lt-Srac rats were depressed in the presence but not in the absence of extracellular Ca{sup 2+}. Neither levels of angiotensins nor of AT{sub 2}R were modified in the aortas after lt-Srac. The results suggest that, in rat thoracic aortas, lt-Srac selectively inhibited protein kinase C-mediated activation of contraction that is dependent on extracellular Ca{sup 2+} entry.

  12. Dietary fat level affecting histochemical radiosensitivity in dorsal aorta in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousri, R.M.; Roushdy, H.M.; EL-Malkh, N.M.; Ashry, M.A.; Soliman, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    The present work has been conducted to investigate the effect of dietary fat status and/or cumulative whole body gamma radiation exposures up to 15 Gy the histochemical pattern of the dorsal aortas of male albino rats. Experimental animals were fed on either fat-rich or fat-free diet and the observations compared with those fed normal fat diet. The histochemical investigations has been confined to the concentration levels of mucopolysaccharide substance and total lipids. The dorsal aorta normal fat group showed higher content of PAS-positive material in the first two layers of the aorta wall in comparison with decreased amount of collagen fibers was shown in fat-rich group

  13. Mid-term results of zone 0 thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair after ascending aorta wrapping and supra-aortic debranching in high-risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, Felice; Lachat, Mario; Hofmann, Michael; Cayne, Neal S; Chaykovska, Lyubov; Rancic, Zoran; Puippe, Gilbert; Pfammatter, Thomas; Mangialardi, Nicola; Veith, Frank J; Bettex, Dominique; Maisano, Francesco; Neff, Thomas A

    2017-06-01

    Surgical repair of aneurysmal disease involving the ascending aorta, aortic arch and eventually the descending aorta is generally associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A less invasive approach with the ascending wrapping technique (WT), supra-aortic vessel debranching (SADB) and thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) in zone 0 was developed to reduce the associated risk in these patients. During a 10-year period, consecutive patients treated by the ascending WT, SADB and TEVAR in zone 0 were included. All patients were considered at high risk for conventional surgery. Measured outcomes included perioperative deaths and morbidity, maximal aortic transverse diameter (TD) and its postoperative evolution, endoleak, survival, freedom from cardiovascular reinterventions, SADB freedom from occlusion and aortic valve function during follow-up. Median follow-up was 37.4 [mean = 34; range, 0-65; standard deviation (SD) = 20] months. Twenty-six cases were included with a mean age of 71.88 ( r  = 56-87; SD = 8) years. A mean of 2.9 supra-aortic vessels (75) per patient was debranched from the ascending aorta. The mean time interval from WT/SADB and TEVAR was 29 ( r  = 0-204; SD = 48) days. TEVAR was associated with chimney and/or periscope grafts in 6 (23%) patients, and extra-anatomical supra-aortic bypasses were performed in 6 (23%) patients. Perioperative mortality was 7.7% (2/26). Neurological events were registered in 3 (11.5%) cases, and a reintervention was required in 3 (11.5%) cases. After the WT, the ascending diameter remained stable during the follow-up period in all cases. At mean follow-up, significant shrinkage of the arch/descending aorta diameter was observed. A type I/III endoleak occurred in 3 cases. At 5 years, the rates of survival, freedom from cardiovascular reinterventions and SADB freedom from occlusion were 71.7, 82.3 and 96%, respectively. The use of the ascending WT, SADB and TEVAR in selected patients

  14. Increased albumin permeation in eyes, aorta, and kidney of hypertensive rats fed galactose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilton, R.G.; LaRose, L.; Chang, K.; Weigel, C.J.; Williamson, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    These experiments were undertaken to determine whether ingestion of galactose increases albumin permeation in the vasculature of hypertensive rats. 50% dextrin (control) or 50% galactose diets were fed to unilaterally nephrectomized, male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200 g. Hypertension (systolic pressure >175 mmHg) was induced by weekly IM injections of 25 mg/kg DOCA and 1% saline drinking water; 3 months later 125 I-albumin permeation was assessed in whole eyes, aorta and kidneys. 125 I-albumin permeation was significantly increased in all 3 tissues of hypertensive rats (n = 9) vs controls (n = 9): aorta (3.30 +/- 0.19 (SD) vs 2.87 +/- 0.14), eye (3.15 +/- 0.14 vs 2.59 +/- 0.11), and kidney (6.58 +/- 0.63 vs 3.85 +/- 0.50). Albumin permeation was increased still further in hypertensive rats fed the galactose diet (n = 8): aorta (3.75 +/- 0.38), eye (3.82 +/- 0.17), and kidney (10.74 +/- 3.13). Hypertension +/- galactose feeding had no effect on albumin permeation in lung, skin, or brain. These findings indicate that: (1) hypertension increases albumin permeation in vessels affected by diabetic vascular diseases, and 2) hypertension-induced increases in albumin permeation are increased still further by galactose ingestion, presumably mediated by imbalances in polyol/insitol metabolism (analogous to those induced by diabetes) independent of hyperglycemia and/or insulinopenia

  15. Arbutus unedo induces endothelium-dependent relaxation of the isolated rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Mekhfi, Hassane; Bnouham, Mohamed; Tahri, Abdelhafid; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Hoerter, Jacqueline; Fischmeister, Rodolphe

    2002-09-01

    Arbutus unedo L. (Ericaceae) is used in oriental Morocco to treat arterial hypertension. We studied its vasodilator effect and mechanisms of action in vitro. The root aqueous extract of Arbutus (0.25 mg/mL) produced a relaxation of noradrenaline-precontracted ring preparations of rat aorta with intact endothelium. Relaxation by Arbutus did not occur in specimens without endothelium and was inhibited by pretreatment with 100 microM N(G)-methyl-L-arginine (L-NMA), 10 microM methylene blue or 50 microM 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ) but not by 10 microM atropine. These results suggest that Arbutus produces an endothelium-dependent relaxation of the isolated rat aorta which may be mediated mainly by a stimulation of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase by mechanisms other than activation of muscarinic receptors. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Tratamiento endovascular de urgencia con endoprótesis de aneurisma roto disecado de aorta torácica: A propósito de un caso Emergency endovascular treatment with endoprosthesis of ruptured dissected aneurysm of thoracic aorta: Report of one case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lugo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Los aneurismas de aorta torácica son menos comunes que los aneurismas de aorta abdominal y pueden encontrarse en aorta ascendente, arco aórtico, aorta descendente o en una combinación de estos segmentos. De estos aneurismas el 30% al 40% se originan en la aorta torácica descendente. En los aneurismas de aorta torácica existe una debilidad estructural de la pared de la aorta, que conlleva una dilatación arterial progresiva con eventual ruptura o disección. Aproximadamente, 50% de los aneurismas de aorta torácica son ateroscleróticos y ocurren como resultado de remodelado arterial y dilatación o a raíz de un metabolismo anormal del colágeno. La mayoría de los aneurismas de aorta torácica se descubren por casualidad durante la evaluación de otros problemas médicos. La meta del tratamiento de los aneurismas de aorta torácica, es prevenir la muerte debido a su ruptura. El riesgo de ruptura de los no tratados oscila entre 46% a 74% y la tasa de mortalidad por su ruptura es extremadamente alta. Los aneurismas de gran tamaño, en especial aquellos mayores de 6 cm, son más susceptibles de rupturas que los aneurismas de menor tamaño. El tratamiento endovascular, inicialmente desarrollado para los aneurismas de aorta abdominal, se introdujo en 1992 como una alternativa menos invasiva al tratamiento de cirugía abierta para los aneurismas de la aorta torácica descendente. En la actualidad, el injerto de stent endovascular en la aorta descendente o endoprótesis, recibe mayor atención como alternativa al reparo quirúrgico de los aneurismas de aorta torácica.Thoracic aortic aneurysms are less common than abdominal aortic aneurysms and can be found in ascending aorta, aortic arch, descending aorta or in a combination of these segments. 30% to 40% of these aneurysms are originated in thoracic descending aorta. In thoracic aortic aneurysms there exists a structural wall weakness that leads to a progressive arterial dilation with eventual

  17. Histomorphometric, biochemical and ultrastructural changes in the aorta of salt-loaded stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats fed a Japanese-style diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccarani Contri, M; Taparelli, F; Miselli, M; Bacchelli, B; Biagini, G

    2003-02-01

    It is demonstrated that dietary habits play a role in cardiovascular diseases. In stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRsp), concomitant salt loading and a Japanese-style diet greatly accelerate hypertension and the appearance of cerebrovascular lesions by directly damaging arterial vessels. A number of studies have characterised medium and small vessel lesions in SHRsp, but little attention has been paid to the changes in the wall structure of large arteries induced by exposure to a salt-enriched diet. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a Japanese-style diet and salt loading on the thoracic aorta. Two-month-old SHRsp were kept on a Japanese-style diet with 1% sodium chloride solution replacing tap water. Two months later, they were sacrificed and compared with age-matched or two-month-old control SHRsp kept on a standard diet and tap water in terms of the histomorphometry, ultrastructure and biochemical composition of the thoracic aorta. The vessel was consistently thicker in the four-month-old SHRsp (+20%, p vs two-month-old rats) regardless of diet. The salt-loaded SHRsp showed a significant reduction in elastic fibre density (-20%, p vs two-month-old rats) and an increase in the other matrix components (%), whereas the four-month-old controls showed preserved elastic fibres and a significant increase in the other matrix components (+65%, p vs two-month-old rats). There was a considerable increase in the amounts of 4-OH-proline (+147%), 5-OH-lysine (+174%) and desmosines (+360%) in the four-month-old controls vs their two-month-old counterparts (p two months of treatment.

  18. Tratamento endovascular de ruptura traumática da aorta torácica descendente Endovascular treatment of traumatic descending thoracic aortic rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Roberto Breda

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Paciente do sexo feminino, 55 anos de idade, vítima de atropelamento, foi admitida em unidade de emergência, onde se realizou o diagnóstico clínico, radiológico e tomográfico de ruptura traumática da aorta torácica descendente. Diante do achado, a paciente foi encaminhada para tratamento endovascular com colocação de endoprótese auto-expansível (stent pela artéria femoral. O tratamento obteve sucesso, evidenciado pela exclusão da lesão localizada previamente no istmo aórtico. O tratamento endovascular tem sido indicado nas afecções de aorta torácica descendente com bons resultados iniciais. Na ruptura traumática de aorta, a terapêutica endovascular representa uma alternativa aceitável, especialmente devido aos riscos do tratamento operatório convencional.A 55-year-old, female patient who was run over by a motor vehicle was admitted at an emergency room. Clinical, radiological and tomographic diagnosis of traumatic descending aortic thoracic rupture was performed. The patient was referred for endovascular treatment with placement of a self-expandable stent through the femoral artery. Treatment was successful, with exclusion of the lesion previously located in the aortic isthmus. Endovascular treatment has been indicated in the treatment of descending thoracic aortic diseases, with good initial results. In case of traumatic aortic rupture, endovascular treatment is a feasible alternative, especially due to risks offered by the conventional surgical treatment.

  19. Lung, aorta, and platelet metabolism of 14C-arachidonic acid in vitamin E deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentovic, M.A.; Gairola, C.; Lubawy, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    14 C-arachidonic acid metabolism was determined in aortas, platelets, and perfused lungs from rats pair fed a basal diet supplemented with 0 or 100 ppm vitamin E for 11 weeks. Spontaneous erythrocyte hemolysis tests showed 92% and 8% hemolysis for the 0 and 100 ppm vitamin E groups, respectively. Elevated lung homogenate levels of malonaldehyde in the 0 ppm group confirmed its deficient vitamin E status. Aortas from the vitamin E deficient group synthesized 54% less prostacyclin than aortas from the supplemented group (p less than 0.05). Although thromboxane generation by platelets from the vitamin E deficient group exhibited a 37% increase, this difference was not statistically significant compared to the supplemented animals. Greater amounts of PGE2, PGF2 alpha, TXB2, and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha were obtained in albumin buffer perfusates from lungs of vitamin E deficient rats than in those from supplemented rats. Significant differences (p less than 0.05) were noticed, however, only for PGE2 and PGF2 alpha. These studies indicate that vitamin E quantitatively alters arachidonic acid metabolism in aortic and lung tissue but its effect on thromboxane synthesis by platelets is less marked

  20. Vasoconstrictive effect of Xinmailong injection in rat aorta | Yang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cockroach has been traditionally utilized in China for the therapy of cardiovascular disorders, such as heart failure. The present study was aimed to assess the vasoconstrictive effect of Xinmailong Injection (XML), a bioactive composite from American cockroach. Methodology: The isometric tensions of rat aortic ...

  1. Low-level 45,X/46,XX mosaicism is not associated with congenital heart disease and thoracic aorta dilatation:prospective magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klásková, E; Tüdös, Z; Sobek, A; Zapletalová, J; Dostál, J; Zbořilová, B; Sobek, A; Adamová, K; Lattová, V; Dostálová, Z; Procházka, M

    2015-06-01

    To establish the prevalence of risk factors for aortic dissection, such as bicuspid aortic valve, aortic coarctation and ascending aorta dilatation, in women with low-level 45,X/46,XX mosaicism undergoing an in-vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure. The study group comprised 25 women with low-level 45,X/46,XX mosaicism (ranging from 3.3% to 10.0%) who were referred to two reproductive medicine units between 2009 and 2013 because of infertility and who underwent subsequent karyotyping. In accordance with the recommendation of the Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine for patients with Turner syndrome (TS), prior to the IVF procedure, all women underwent careful cardiovascular screening for congenital heart disease and thoracic aorta dilatation, including standard cardiac examination, echocardiography and non-contrast cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Aortic size index (ASI, diameter of the ascending aorta normalized to body surface area) and the prevalence of coarctation of the aorta and of bicuspid aortic valve were compared with findings previously reported in women with TS and the general population. Bicuspid aortic valve without any stenosis or regurgitation was found in one woman in the study group with low-level 45,X/46,XX mosaicism, a statistically significantly lower prevalence of bicuspid aortic valve than that reported in women with TS. Aortic coarctation was not identified in any individual. The ASI was below the  95th percentile in all cases and the mean value was significantly lower than the mean reference values for both the general population and women with TS. Compared with the general population, the prevalence of risk factors for aortic dissection was not found to be higher in women with low-level 45,X/46,XX mosaicism without any noticeable features except infertility. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Vasorelaxant effect of the analgesic clonixin on rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, M A; Silva, A; Brito, G; Bustamante, S; Ponce, H; Paeile, C

    1995-03-01

    1. A novel vasorelaxant effect of clonixinate of L-lysine (Clx), analgesic and anti-inflammatory, was studied in rat aortic rings. 2. Clx completely relaxed aortic rings contracted by KCl 70 mM and together with its analog flunixin exhibited lesser potency but equal efficacy than verapamil. In comparison, indomethacin, which is a more potent cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor relaxed only about 40% of the maximal contraction of aortic rings. 3. Furthermore, Clx antagonized Ca2+ dependent aortic contraction and BAY K-8644 induced aortic contraction suggesting its calcium antagonist character. 4. From these results it can be concluded that the hypotensive effect seen in rats in vivo after Clx i.v. injection arises because of vasodilatory effect of Clx and gives further support to the proposal that the pharmacological mechanism of action of Clx should be calcium antagonism.

  3. Thymoquinone protects end organs from abdominal aorta ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Salih Aydin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Previous studies have demonstrated that thymoquinone has protective effects against ischemia reperfusion injury to various organs like lungs, kidneys and liver in different experimental models. Objective: We aimed to determine whether thymoquinone has favorable effects on lung, renal, heart tissues and oxidative stress in abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods: Thirty rats were divided into three groups as sham (n=10, control (n=10 and thymoquinone (TQ treatment group (n=10. Control and TQ-treatment groups underwent abdominal aorta ischemia for 45 minutes followed by a 120-min period of reperfusion. In the TQ-treatment group, thymoquinone was given 5 minutes. before reperfusion at a dose of 20 mg/kg via an intraperitoneal route. Total antioxidant capacity, total oxidative status (TOS, and oxidative stress index (OSI in blood serum were measured and lung, kidney, and heart tissue histopathology were evaluated with light microscopy. Results: Total oxidative status and oxidative stress index activity in blood samples were statistically higher in the control group compared to the sham and TQ-treatment groups (P<0.001 for TOS and OSI. Control group injury scores were statistically higher compared to sham and TQ-treatment groups (P<0.001 for all comparisons. Conclusion: Thymoquinone administered intraperitoneally was effective in reducing oxidative stress and histopathologic injury in an acute abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion rat model.

  4. Optimization of low-dose protocol in thoracic aorta CTA: weighting of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm and scanning parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongxia; Chang Jin; Zuo Ziwei; Zhang Changda; Zhang Tianle

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the best weighting of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm and optimized low-dose scanning parameters in thoracic aorta CT angiography(CTA). Methods: Totally 120 patients with the body mass index (BMI) of 19-24 were randomly divided into 6 groups. All patients underwent thoracic aorta CTA with a GE Discovery CT 750 HD scanner (ranging from 290-330 mm). The default parameters (100 kV, 240 mAs) were applied in Group 1. Reconstructions were performed with different weightings of ASIR(10%-100% with 10%), and the signal to noise ratio (S/N) and contrast to noise ratio(C/N) of images were calculated. The images of series were evaluated by 2 independent radiologists with 5-point-scale and lastly the best weighting were revealed. Then the mAs in Group 2-6 were defined as 210, 180, 150, 120 and 90 with the kilovoltage 100. The CTDI_v_o_l and DLP in every scan series were recorded and the effective dose (E) was calculated. The S/N and C/N were calculated and the image quality was assessed by two radiologists. Results: The best weighing of ASIR was 60% at the 100 kV, 240 mAs. Under 60% of ASIR and 100 kV, the scores of image quality from 240 mAs to 90 mAs were (4.78±0.30)-(3.15±0.23). The CTDI_v_o_l and DLP were 12.64-4.41 mGy and 331.81-128.27 mGy, and the E was 4.98-1.92 mSv. The image qualities among Group 1-5 were nor significantly different (F = 5.365, P > 0.05), but the CTDI_v_o_l and DLP of Group 5 were reduced by 37.0% and 36.9%, respectively compared with Group 1. Conclusions: In thoracic aorta CT Angiography, the best weighting of ASIR is 60%, and 120 mAs is the best mAs with 100 kV in patients with BMI 19-24. (authors)

  5. Accumulation of low density lipoprotein associated cholesterol in calcifying vesicle fractions correlates with intimal thickening in thoracic aortas of juvenile rabbits fed a supplemental cholesterol diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Culley Nathan C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown that calcifying vesicles play an important role in aortic calcification and that cholesterol content in the isolated vesicle fraction is increased when rabbits are fed supplemental cholesterol diets. Whether lipoprotein-associated cholesterols and other lipids are also increased in the vesicle fraction and whether the increase correlates with atherosclerosis remain unknown. Results Fourteen juvenile male rabbits fed an atherogenic diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 2% peanut oil for 3 months developed varying degrees of hypercholesterolemia and intimal thickening in the ascending thoracic aorta. The correlation between these two parameters was insignificant, and likely attributable to the use of small numbers of rabbits in this study. Despite this lack of correlation, we demonstrate that the accumulation of cholesterol in calcifying vesicle fractions obtained from the collagenase-digested aorta fragments correlates well with intimal thickening (r2 = 0.98, p Conclusion When limited numbers of rabbits are used, LDL-C accumulation in calcifying vesicle fractions is a better biomarker for atherosclerosis than LDL-C levels in the serum. The close association of LDL-C with calcifying vesicles may play an important role in atherosclerosis and calcification.

  6. Transfer of Learning from Practicing Microvascular Anastomosis on Silastic Tubes to Rat Abdominal Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Pooneh; Tayebi Meybodi, Ali; Lawton, Michael T; Payman, Andre; Benet, Arnau

    2017-12-01

    Learning to perform microvascular anastomosis is difficult. Laboratory practice models using artificial vessels are frequently used for this purpose. However, the efficacy of such practice models has not been objectively assessed for the performance of microvascular anastomosis during live surgical settings. This study was conducted to assess the transfer of learning from practicing microvascular anastomosis on tubes to anastomosing rat abdominal aorta. Ten surgeons without any experience in microvascular anastomosis were randomly assigned to an experimental or a control group. Both groups received didactic and visual training on end-to-end microvascular anastomosis. The experimental group received 24 sessions of hands-on training on microanastomosis using Silastic tubes. Next, both groups underwent recall tests on weeks 1, 2, and 8 after training. The recall test consisted of completing an end-to-end anastomosis on the rat's abdominal aorta. Anastomosis score, the time to complete the anastomosis, and the average time to place 1 stitch on the vessel perimeter were compared between the 2 groups. Compared with the control group, the experimental group did significantly better in terms of anastomosis score, total time, and per-stitch time. The measured variables showed stability and did not change significantly between the 3 recall tests. The skill of microvascular anastomosis is transferred from practicing on Silastic tubes to rat's abdominal aorta. Considering the relative advantages of Silastic tubes to live rodent surgeries, such as lower cost and absence of ethical issues, our results support the widespread use of Silastic tubes in training programs for microvascular anastomosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 6-Gingerol alleviates exaggerated vasoconstriction in diabetic rat aorta through direct vasodilation and nitric oxide generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghareib SA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Salah A Ghareib,1 Hany M El-Bassossy,1,2 Ahmed A Elberry,3,4 Ahmad Azhar,5 Malcolm L Watson,6 Zainy Mohammed Banjar7 1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt; 3Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Beni Suef University, Beni Suef, Egypt; 5Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 6Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Bath, Bath, UK; 7Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Abstract: The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect and potential mechanism of action of 6-gingerol on alterations of vascular reactivity in the isolated aorta from diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into two experimental groups, control and diabetics. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg kg-1, and the rats were left for 10 weeks to develop vascular complications. The effect of in vitro incubation with 6-gingerol (0.3–3 µM on the vasoconstrictor response of the isolated diabetic aortae to phenylephrine and the vasodilator response to acetylcholine was examined. Effect of 6-gingerol was also examined on aortae incubated with methylglyoxal as an advanced glycation end product (AGE. To investigate the mechanism of action of 6-gingerol, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (100 µM, guanylate cyclase inhibitor methylene blue (5 µM, calcium-activated potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium chloride (10 mM, and cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (5 µM were added 30 minutes before assessing the direct vasorelaxant effect of 6

  8. Transesophageal access to the cardiac cavities and descending thoracic aorta via echoendoscopy: An experimental study Acceso transesofágico a cavidades cardiacas y aorta torácica descendente mediante ecoendoscopia: Estudio experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. López Martín

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the applications of endoscopic ultrasonography have diversified over recent years. The possibility of reaching cardiac territory has been successfully explored in experimental models, opening up a new field of possibilities for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions that were unthinkable until very recently. The aims set out in this study are to evaluate cardiac anatomy, its approach, the safety of the experimental procedure and the resulting morphological and histological changes after the procedure. Material and methods: the study has been performed on two adult pigs. They have undergone different surgical approaches to the cardiac cavities and descending thoracic aorta with excellent results. Results: different cardiac structures have been identified and operated upon (right auricle, left auricle, left ventricle, cardiac valves, as well as major vessels. The use of contrast, both intracavitary and from a peripheral vein, enabled us to verify the anatomical spaces studied. During the procedures we monitored for arrhythmias, hemodynamic behavior, possibility of infection by obtaining sample hemocultures before and after procedures, and response to punctures. Conclusions: the present study has enabled us to evaluate access to the heart from the esophageal lumen using endoscopic ultrasonography, with results that are very similar to those described in the current bibliography. However, we offer two novelties: puncture of the right auricle through the interauricular partition and puncture of the descending thoracic aorta, both performed with ease and apparent safety.Objetivo: las aplicaciones de la ultrasonografía endoscópica se han diversificado en los últimos tiempos. La posibilidad de acceder al territorio cardiaco se ha explorado en modelos experimentales con buenos resultados, abriendo un campo de nuevas posibilidades de intervencionismo diagnóstico y terapéutico hasta hace poco impensables. Los objetivos planteados en este

  9. Microsurgical Bypass Training Rat Model, Part 1: Technical Nuances of Exposure of the Aorta and Iliac Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebi Meybodi, Ali; Lawton, Michael T; Mokhtari, Pooneh; Yousef, Sonia; Gandhi, Sirin; Benet, Arnau

    2017-11-01

    Animal models using rodents are frequently used for practicing microvascular anastomosis-an essential technique in cerebrovascular surgery. However, safely and efficiently exposing rat's target vessels is technically difficult. Such difficulty may lead to excessive hemorrhage and shorten animal survival. This limits the ability to perform multiple anastomoses on a single animal and may increase the overall training time and costs. We report our model for microsurgical bypass training in rodents in 2 consecutive articles. In part 1, we describe the technical nuances for a safe and efficient exposure of the rat abdominal aorta and common iliac arteries (CIAs) for bypass. Over a 2-year period, 50 Sprague-Dawley rats underwent inhalant anesthesia for practicing microvascular anastomosis on the abdominal aorta and CIAs. Lessons learned regarding the technical nuances of vessel exposure were recorded. Several technical nuances were important for avoiding intraoperative bleeding and preventing animal demise while preparing an adequate length of vessels for bypass. The most relevant technical nuances include (1) generous subcutaneous dissection; (2) use of cotton swabs for the blunt dissection of the retroperitoneal fat; (3) combination of sharp and blunt dissection to isolate the aorta and iliac arteries from the accompanying veins; (4) proper control of the posterior branches of the aorta; and (5) efficient division and mobilization of the left renal pedicle. Applying the aforementioned technical nuances enables safe and efficient preparation of the rat abdominal aorta and CIAs for microvascular anastomosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Presence of plasma proteins facilitates the uptake of 125I-thrombin by the rabbit thoracic aorta endothelium in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatton, M.W.; Moar, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    Various purified proteins, protein derivatives and two polysaccharides were added individually to a physiological medium in order to effect uptake of 125 I-thrombin by the rabbit aorta endothelium. Over a wide range of concentration (0.004-40 mg/ml), the presence of either purified rabbit or bovine albumin during thrombin uptake encouraged an increase (70-110%) in 125 I-thrombin binding by the endothelium and subendothelium compared to uptake by aorta segments in the absence of added protein. Pretreatment of aorta segments with albumin before incubation with 125 I-thrombin in the absence of albumin did not encourage thrombin uptake to the same extent as having 125 I-thrombin and albumin together. Purified human transferrin, rabbit IgG, chicken ovalbumin or denatured bovine casein could replace albumin to produce a similar enhancement of thrombin uptake. Replacing active concentrations of albumin by either reduced-carboxymethylated albumin, defatted albumin, plasmin-treated or thermolysin-treated albumin also caused an increase (50-130%) in thrombin binding, whereas replacement by acid-hydrolysed albumin or with polyglutamic acid was either ineffective or even inhibitory. Lysine-modified or arginine-modified albumins caused a small enhancement (14-32%) and no enhancement of thrombin uptake, respectively. Dextran, at low concentration (0.04-0.4 mg/ml) did not influence thrombin uptake, and at higher concentration (4-40 mg/ml) caused a decrease in uptake by both the endothelium and subendothelial layers. Low concentration of dextran sulphate inhibited thrombin uptake to 20-30% of control values. These data express the importance of accompanying protein in the response of the vascular endothelium during binding of thrombin. The possibility that other protein-cell interactions may be similarly influenced by macromolecular solutes is also discussed

  11. Calcium antagonism and the vasorelaxation of the rat aorta induced by rotundifolone

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    Guedes D.N.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The vasorelaxing activity of rotundifolone (ROT, a major constituent (63.5% of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa, was tested in male Wistar rats (300-350 g. In isolated rat aortic rings, increasing ROT concentrations (0.3, 1, 10, 100, 300, and 500 µg/ml inhibited the contractile effects of 1 µM phenylephrine and of 80 or 30 mM KCl (IC50 values, reported as means ± SEM = 184 ± 6, 185 ± 3 and 188 ± 19 µg/ml, N = 6, respectively. In aortic rings pre-contracted with 1 µM phenylephrine, the smooth muscle-relaxant activity of ROT was inhibited by removal of the vascular endothelium (IC50 value = 235 ± 7 µg/ml, N = 6. Furthermore, ROT inhibited (pD2 = 6.04, N = 6 the CaCl2-induced contraction in depolarizing medium in a concentration-dependent manner. In Ca2+-free solution, ROT inhibited 1 µM phenylephrine-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner and did not modify the phasic contractile response evoked by caffeine (20 mM. In conclusion, in the present study we have shown that ROT produces an endothelium-independent vasorelaxing effect in the rat aorta. The results further indicated that in the rat aorta ROT is able to induce vasorelaxation, at least in part, by inhibiting both: a voltage-dependent Ca² channels, and b intracellular Ca2+ release selectively due to inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate activation. Additional studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms underlying ROT-induced relaxation.

  12. Chronic lead exposure decreases the vascular reactivity of rat aortas: the role of hydrogen peroxide.

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    Karolini Zuqui Nunes

    Full Text Available We investigated whether exposure to small concentrations of lead alters blood pressure and vascular reactivity. Male Wistar rats were sorted randomly into the following two groups: control (Ct and treatment with 100 ppm of lead (Pb, which was added to drinking water, for 30 days. Systolic blood pressure (BP was measured weekly. Following treatment, aortic ring vascular reactivity was assessed. Tissue samples were properly stored for further biochemical investigation. The lead concentration in the blood reached approximately 8 μg/dL. Treatment increased blood pressure and decreased the contractile responses of the aortic rings to phenylephrine (1 nM-100 mM. Following N-nitro-L arginine methyl ester (L-NAME administration, contractile responses increased in both groups but did not differ significantly between them. Lead effects on Rmax were decreased compared to control subjects following superoxide dismutase (SOD administration. Catalase, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DETCA, and apocynin increased the vasoconstrictor response induced by phenylephrine in the aortas of lead-treated rats but did not increase the vasoconstrictor response in the aortas of untreated rats. Tetraethylammonium (TEA potentiated the vasoconstrictor response induced by phenylephrine in aortic segments in both groups, but these effects were greater in lead-treated rats. The co-incubation of TEA and catalase abolished the vasodilatory effect noted in the lead group. The present study is the first to demonstrate that blood lead concentrations well below the values established by international legislation increased blood pressure and decreased phenylephrine-induced vascular reactivity. The latter effect was associated with oxidative stress, specifically oxidative stress induced via increases in hydrogen peroxide levels and the subsequent effects of hydrogen peroxide on potassium channels.

  13. A comparison of reactive oxygen species metabolism in the rat aorta and vena cava: focus on xanthine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Theodora; Thompson, Janice M; Watts, Stephanie W

    2008-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important mediators in vascular biology. Venous function, although relevant to cardiovascular disease, is still understudied. We compared aspects of ROS metabolism between a major artery (the aorta) and a major vein (the vena cava, VC) of the rat, with the hypothesis that venous ROS metabolism would be overall increased compared with its arterial counterpart. Superoxide and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) release in basal conditions was higher in VC compared with aorta. The antioxidant capacity for H2O2 was also higher in VC than in aorta. Exogenous superoxide induced a higher contraction in VC compared with aorta. Protein expression of three major ROS metabolizing enzymes, xanthine oxidase (XO), CuZn-SOD, and catalase, was higher in VC compared with aorta. Because XO seemed a likely source of the higher VC ROS levels, we examined it further and found higher mRNA expression and activity of XO in VC compared with aorta. We also investigated the impact of XO inhibition by allopurinol on aorta and VC functional responses to norepinephrine, ANG II, ET-1, and ACh. Maximal ET-1-mediated contraction was decreased by allopurinol in VC but not in the aorta. Our results suggest that there are overall differences in ROS metabolism between aorta and VC, with the latter operating normally at a higher set point, releasing but also being able to handle, higher ROS levels. We propose XO to be an important source for these differences. The result of this particular comparison may be reflective of a general arteriovenous contrast.

  14. mTOR (Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin) Inhibition Decreases Mechanosignaling, Collagen Accumulation, and Stiffening of the Thoracic Aorta in Elastin-Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yang; Li, Guangxin; Li, Qingle; Ali, Rahmat; Qin, Lingfeng; Li, Wei; Qyang, Yibing; Greif, Daniel M; Geirsson, Arnar; Humphrey, Jay D; Tellides, George

    2017-09-01

    Elastin deficiency because of heterozygous loss of an ELN allele in Williams syndrome causes obstructive aortopathy characterized by medial thickening and fibrosis and consequent aortic stiffening. Previous work in Eln -null mice with a severe arterial phenotype showed that inhibition of mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin), a key regulator of cell growth, lessened the aortic obstruction but did not prevent early postnatal death. We investigated the effects of mTOR inhibition in Eln -null mice partially rescued by human ELN that manifest a less severe arterial phenotype and survive long term. Thoracic aortas of neonatal and juvenile mice with graded elastin deficiency exhibited increased signaling through both mTOR complex 1 and 2. Despite lower predicted wall stress, there was increased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, suggestive of greater integrin activation, and increased transforming growth factor-β-signaling mediators, associated with increased collagen expression. Pharmacological blockade of mTOR by rapalogs did not improve luminal stenosis but reduced mechanosignaling (in delayed fashion after mTOR complex 1 inhibition), medial collagen accumulation, and stiffening of the aorta. Rapalog administration also retarded somatic growth, however, and precipitated neonatal deaths. Complementary, less-toxic strategies to inhibit mTOR via altered growth factor and nutrient responses were not effective. In addition to previously demonstrated therapeutic benefits of rapalogs decreasing smooth muscle cell proliferation in the absence of elastin, we find that rapalogs also prevent aortic fibrosis and stiffening attributable to partial elastin deficiency. Our findings suggest that mTOR-sensitive perturbation of smooth muscle cell mechanosensing contributes to elastin aortopathy. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Interaction between sympathetic nervous system and renin angiotensin system on MMPs expression in juvenile rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dab, Houcine; Hachani, Rafik; Hodroj, Wassim; Sakly, Mohsen; Bricca, Giampiero; Kacem, Kamel

    2011-09-01

    The aim of our present study is to investigate the interaction between angiotensin II (ANG II) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) on matrix metalloproteinase MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and activity in juvenile rat aorta under normal conditions. Sympathectomy with guanethidine and blockade of the ANG II receptors (AT1R) by losartan were performed alone or in combination on new-born rats. mRNA, protein expression and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were examined by Q-RT-PCR, immunoblotting and zymography, respectively. MMP-2 mRNA and protein amount were decreased after sympathectomy or AT1R blockade and an additive effect was observed after combined treatment. However, MMP-9 expression was reduced to the same level in the three treated groups. There were some detectable gelatinolytic activity of the MMPs in both control and treated rats. We concluded that ANG II stimulates directly and indirectly (via sympathostimulator pathway) the MMP-2 expression but seems unable to affect MMP-9 expression through direct pathway. Combined inhibition of SNS and ANG II were more efficient than a single inhibition in reducing MMP amounts in rat vessels.

  16. Thymoquinone protects end organs from abdominal aorta ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mehmet Salih; Kocarslan, Aydemir; Kocarslan, Sezen; Kucuk, Ahmet; Eser, İrfan; Sezen, Hatice; Buyukfirat, Evren; Hazar, Abdussemet

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that thymoquinone has protective effects against ischemia reperfusion injury to various organs like lungs, kidneys and liver in different experimental models. We aimed to determine whether thymoquinone has favorable effects on lung, renal, heart tissues and oxidative stress in abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thirty rats were divided into three groups as sham (n=10), control (n=10) and thymoquinone (TQ) treatment group (n=10). Control and TQ-treatment groups underwent abdominal aorta ischemia for 45 minutes followed by a 120-min period of reperfusion. In the TQ-treatment group, thymoquinone was given 5 minutes. before reperfusion at a dose of 20 mg/kg via an intraperitoneal route. Total antioxidant capacity, total oxidative status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) in blood serum were measured and lung, kidney, and heart tissue histopathology were evaluated with light microscopy. Total oxidative status and oxidative stress index activity in blood samples were statistically higher in the control group compared to the sham and TQ-treatment groups (POSI). Control group injury scores were statistically higher compared to sham and TQ-treatment groups (Pmodel.

  17. Meat product based on porcine hearts and aortas ameliorates serum lipid profile and inflammation in hyperlipidemic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernukha, I. M.; Kotenkova, E. A.; Fedulova, L. V.

    2017-09-01

    The biological effect of porcine hearts and aortas in a hyperlipidemic rat model was confirmed. Porcine heart and aorta mixture in a 3:1 ratio was blended, canned and sterilized at 115°C and 0.23 Mpa for 40 min. Administration of experimental meat product to the animal model decreased total cholesterol, triglycerides and cholesterol low density lipoproteins by 31.8% (Pproduct compared with hyperlipidemic control rats. Normalization of white blood cell populations was also detected. Monocyte and granulocyte counts in blood of rats fed the meat product decreased by 71.1% (Pproduct compared with hyperlipidemic control rats. The data confirmed the hypolipidemic action of the sterilized meat product. Normalization of white blood cell populations led us to hypothesize an anti-inflammatory action of the new meat product, which, therefore, could be recommended as a part of maintenance therapy for people with lipid disorders or atherosclerosis.

  18. Effect of cannula shape on aortic wall and flow turbulence: hydrodynamic study during extracorporeal circulation in mock thoracic aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakawa, Masahito; Fukuda, Ikuo; Yamazaki, Junichi; Fukui, Kozo; Yanaoka, Hideki; Inamura, Takao

    2007-12-01

    This study was designed to analyze flow pattern, velocity, and strain on the aortic wall of a glass aortic model during extracorporeal circulation, and to elucidate the characteristics of flow pattern in four aortic cannulas. Different patterns of large vortices and helical flow were made by each cannula. The high-velocity flow (0.6 m/s) was observed in end-hole cannula, causing high strain rate tensor (0.3~0.4 without unit) on the aortic arch. In dispersion cannula, a decreased strain rate tensor (less than 0.1) was found on the outer curvature of the aortic arch. In Soft-flow cannula (3M Cardiovascular, Ann Arbor, MI, USA), further decreased flow velocity (0.2 m/s) and strain (less than 0.2) were observed. In Select 3D cannula (Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA), a high strain (0.4~0.5) was observed along the inner curvature of the aortic arch. In conclusion, end-hole cannula should not be used in atherosclerotic aorta. Particular attention should be paid both for selection of cannulas and cannulation site based on this result.

  19. Effect of noise on the development of induced sclerotic processes in the rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antov, G; Ivanovich, E; Kazakova, B; Goranova, L

    1985-01-01

    The authors studied the effect of 95 and 85 dB noise on the aortic wall of white rats fed for a period of 6 weeks an atherogenic diet (cholesterol + cholic acid + vitamin D2). Noise alone did not cause significant changes in the metabolism and structure of the aorta. The atherogenic diet alone caused segmental enlargement of the intercellular substance, disorganization of tissue elements, and destruction of smooth-muscle cells with marked activation of anaerobic processes, an increase in collagen content and a decrease in globular proteins and elastin. Simultaneous action of noise and of the atherogenic diet produced more pronounced biochemical and morphological alterations in the aortic wall than the diet alone. Noise not only contributes to the development of sclerotic processes but causes also complicated lesions of the aortic wall.

  20. "INHIBITORY EFFECT OF ALUMINIUM ON KCL AND PHENYLEPHRINE INDUCED CONTRACTION IN ISOLATED RAT AORTA"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mashhoodi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown in some investigations that cardiovascular events are the main causes of death in hemodialysis patients. The exact etiology is unknown but some of the articles have reported a relation between aluminium ions in the dialysis solution and cardiovascular disorders. To determine the probable effect of aluminium on vasculature function, in vitro effects of aluminium ion on vasoconstriction induced by KCl (30 mM or phenylephrine (10 µM were investigated using isolated rat aorta. AlCl3 (1-4 mM decreased both KCl and phenylephrine induced contractions in a dose dependent manner (P<0.01. Complete inhibition of the contractions occurred using the higher doses of aluminium. Results of this study suggest that because of inhibitory effects of aluminium on vascular contractions, the probable cardiovascular dysfunction must be considered in aluminium intoxication.

  1. Role of fetal nutrient restriction and postnatal catch-up growth on structural and mechanical alterations of rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Arzapalo, Perla Y; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Pilar; Ramiro-Cortijo, David; López de Pablo, Ángel L; López-Giménez, María Rosario; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis; Greenwald, Stephen E; González, Maria Del Carmen; Arribas, Silvia M

    2017-12-26

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), induced by maternal undernutrition, leads to impaired aortic development. This is followed by hypertrophic remodelling associated with accelerated growth during lactation. Fetal nutrient restriction is associated with increased aortic compliance at birth and at weaning, but not in adult animals. This mechanical alteration may be related to a decreased perinatal collagen deposition. Aortic elastin scaffolds purified from young male and female IUGR animals also exhibit increased compliance, only maintained in adult IUGR females. These mechanical alterations may be related to differences in elastin deposition and remodelling. Fetal undernutrition induces similar aortic structural and mechanical alterations in young male and female rats. Our data argue against an early mechanical cause for the sex differences in hypertension development induced by maternal undernutrition. However, the larger compliance of elastin in adult IUGR females may contribute to the maintenance of a normal blood pressure level. Fetal undernutrition programmes hypertension development, males being more susceptible. Deficient fetal elastogenesis and vascular growth is a possible mechanism. We investigated the role of aortic mechanical alterations in a rat model of hypertension programming, evaluating changes at birth, weaning and adulthood. Dams were fed ad libitum (Control) or 50% of control intake during the second half of gestation (maternal undernutrition, MUN). Offspring aged 3 days, 21 days and 6 months were studied. Blood pressure was evaluated in vivo. In the thoracic aorta we assessed gross structure, mechanical properties (intact and purified elastin), collagen and elastin content and internal elastic lamina (IEL) organization. Only adult MUN males developed hypertension (systolic blood pressure: MUN males  = 176.6 ± 5.6 mmHg; Control males  = 136.1 ± 4.9 mmHg). At birth MUN rats were lighter, with smaller aortic cross-sectional area

  2. Ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysm in patient with systemic lupus erythematosus Aneurisma roto da aorta descendente em paciente com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico

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    Daniel Oliveira De Conti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is reported a ruptured descending thoracic aortic aneurysm in a 25-year-old systemic lupus erythematosus woman who underwent 19 years steroid therapy. She was treated with 2 endovascular stent-grafts, discharged from hospital 13 days after the procedure in good health. Three months later she returned with hemorrhagic shock due to high digestive hemorrhage secondary to an aortic-esophageal fistula. She underwent to an open emergency surgery, and died during the post-operative period.Paciente de 25 anos, do sexo feminino, portadora de lúpus eritematoso sistêmico, fazendo uso de corticoesteroide havia 19 anos, deu entrada em unidade de emergência com aneurisma roto de aorta torácica descendente. Foi submetida a tratamento endovascular com 2 stents, recebeu alta hospitalar no 13º dia de pós-operatório, em boas condições de saúde. Três meses depois, retornou em choque hemorrágico secundário a hemorragia digestiva alta. Feito o diagnóstico de fístula aorto-esofágica, foi submetida à cirurgia aberta de emergência, indo a óbito durante o período pós-operatório.

  3. Overall evaluability of low dose protocol for computed tomography angiography of thoracic aorta using 80 kV and iterative reconstruction algorithm using different concentration contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annoni, Andrea Daniele; Mancini, Maria E; Andreini, Daniele; Formenti, Alberto; Mushtaq, Saima; Nobili, Enrica; Guglielmo, Marco; Baggiano, Andrea; Conte, Edoardo; Pepi, Mauro

    2017-10-01

    Multidetector Computed Tomography Angiography (MDCTA) is presently the imaging modality of choice for aortic disease. However, the effective radiation dose and the risk related to the use of contrast agents associated with MDCTA is an issue of concern. Aim of this study was to assess image quality of a low dose ECG-gated MDCTA of thoracic aorta using different concentration contrast media without tailored injection protocol. Two-hundred patients were randomised into four different scan protocols: Group A (Iodixanol 320 and 80 Kvp tube voltage), Group B (Iodixanol 320 and 100 Kvp tube voltage), Group C (Iomeprol 400 and 80 Kvp tube voltage) and Group D (Iomeprol 400 and 100 Kvp tube voltage). Image quality, noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and effective dose (ED) were compared among groups. No significant differences in image noise, SNR and CNR between groups with the same tube voltage. Significant differences in SNR and CNR were found among groups with 80 kV versus groups using 100 kV but without differences in terms of image quality. ED was significantly lower in groups with 80 kV. Multidetector Computed Tomography Angiography protocols using 80 kV and low concentration contrast media are feasible without need of tailored injection protocols. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  4. Experimental Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Induces Blunted Vasoconstriction and Functional Changes in the Rat Aorta

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    Cecilia Tufiño

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic conditions increase vascular reactivity to angiotensin II in several studies but there are scarce reports on cardiovascular effects of hypercaloric diet (HD induced gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, so the objective of this work was to determine the effects of HD induced GDM on vascular responses. Angiotensin II as well as phenylephrine induced vascular contraction was tested in isolated aorta rings with and without endothelium from rats fed for 7 weeks (4 before and 3 weeks during pregnancy with standard (SD or hypercaloric (HD diet. Also, protein expression of AT1R, AT2R, COX-1, COX-2, NOS-1, and NOS-3 and plasma glucose, insulin, and angiotensin II levels were measured. GDM impaired vasoconstrictor response (P<0.05 versus SD in intact (e+ but not in endothelium-free (e− vessels. Losartan reduced GDM but not SD e− vasoconstriction (P<0.01 versus SD. AT1R, AT2R, and COX-1 and COX-2 protein expression were significantly increased in GDM vessels (P<0.05 versus SD. Results suggest an increased participation of endothelium vasodilator mediators, probably prostaglandins, as well as of AT2 vasodilator receptors as a compensatory mechanism for vasoconstrictor changes generated by experimental GDM. Considering the short term of rat pregnancy findings can reflect early stage GDM adaptations.

  5. Lipid synthesis in the aorta of chick and other species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, A.R.

    1976-01-01

    The relative rate of fatty acid biosynthesis from labelled acetate in the adipose tissue of chicken is much lower than that in the rat (O'Hea and Leveille, 1968). To determine similar species differences in lipid synthesis in the aortas of cock, rat, rabbit and monkey, thoracic and abdominal segments of fresh aortas were incubated in vitro with (1- 14 C)-acetate for 3 h. Total lipids and their fractions (free and total cholesterol, free fatty acids, triglycerides and phospholipids) were counted for radioactivity. Incorporation of radioactivity into total as well as all classes of lipids was several times greater in chicken than in other species. Significant and consistent incorporation into cholesterol occurred only in chicks. Synthesis into total lipids and triglycerides was greater in the thoracic segment of chicks. These findings (Rao and Rao, 1968) are consistent with the ready susceptibility of chicken to atherosclerosis. (author)

  6. Automatic quantification of calcifications in the coronary arteries and thoracic aorta on radiotherapy planning CT scans of Western and Asian breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernaat, Sofie A M; van Velzen, Sanne G M; Koh, Vicky; Emaus, Marleen J; Išgum, Ivana; Lessmann, Nikolas; Moes, Shinta; Jacobson, Anouk; Tan, Poey W; Grobbee, Diederick E; van den Bongard, Desiree H J; Tang, Johann I; Verkooijen, Helena M

    2018-04-24

    This study automatically quantified calcifications in coronary arteries (CAC) and thoracic aorta (TAC) on breast planning computed tomography (CT) scans and assessed its reproducibility compared to manual scoring. Dutch (n = 1199) and Singaporean (n = 1090) breast cancer patients with radiotherapy planning CT scan were included. CAC and TAC were automatically scored using deep learning algorithm. CVD risk categories were based on Agatson CAC: 0, 1-10, 11-100, 101-400 and >400. Reliability between automatic and manual scoring was assessed in 120 randomly selected CT scans from each population, with linearly weighted kappa for CAC categories and intraclass correlation coefficient for TAC. Median age was higher in Dutch patients than Singaporean patients: 57 versus 52 years. CAC and TAC increased with age and were more present in Dutch patients than Singaporean patients: 24.2% versus 17.3% and 73.0% versus 62.2%, respectively. Reliability of CAC categories and TAC was excellent in the Netherlands (0.85 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.77-0.93) and 0.98 (95% CI = 0.96-0.98) respectively) and Singapore (0.90 (95% CI = 0.84-0.96) and 0.99 (95% CI = 0.98-0.99) respectively). CAC and TAC prevalence was considerable and increased with age. Deep learning software is a reliable method to automatically measure CAC and TAC on radiotherapy breast CT scans. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharides Reduce Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Interleukin-1β Expression in Cultured Smooth Muscle Cells and in Thoracic Aortas in Mice

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    Chan-Jung Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression of inflammatory cytokines on vascular walls is a critical event in vascular diseases and inflammation. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of an extract of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi polysaccharides (EORPs, which is effective against immunological disorders, on interleukin- (IL- 1β expression by human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs and the underlying mechanism. The lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced IL-1β expression was significantly reduced when HASMCs were pretreated with EORP by Western blot and immunofluorescent staining. Pretreatment with 10 μg/mL EORP decreased LPS-induced ERK, p38, JNK, and Akt phosphorylation. But the increase in IL-1β expression with LPS treatment was only inhibited by pretreatment with the ERK1/2 inhibitor, while the JNK and p38 inhibitors had no effect. In addition, EORP reduced the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor- (NF- κB p65 in LPS-treated HASMCs. Furthermore, in vivo, IL-1β expression was strongly expressed in thoracic aortas in LPS-treated mice. Oral administration of EORP decreased IL-1β expression. The level of IL-1β expression in LPS-treated or in LPS/EORP-treated group was very low and was similar to that of the saline-treated group in toll-like receptor 4-deficient (TLR4−/− mice. These findings suggest that EORP has the anti-inflammatory property and could prove useful in the prevention of vascular diseases and inflammatory responses.

  8. Reversal of endothelial dysfunction in aorta of streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced type-2 diabetic rats by S-Allylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmanaidu, Parim; Uddandrao, V V Sathibabu; Sasikumar, Vadivukkarasi; Naik, Ramavat Ravindar; Pothani, Suresh; Begum, Mustapha Sabana; Rajeshkumar, M Prasanna; Varatharaju, Chandrasekar; Meriga, Balaji; Rameshreddy, P; Kalaivani, A; Saravanan, Ganapathy

    2017-08-01

    Dietary measures and plant-based therapies as prescribed by native systems of medicine have gained attraction among diabetics with claims of efficacy. The present study investigated the effects of S-Allylcysteine (SAC) on body weight gain, glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, and nitric oxide synthase in plasma and argininosuccinate synthase (AS) and argininosuccinate lyase (ASL), lipid peroxides and antioxidant enzymes in aorta of control and streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA)-induced diabetic rats. Changes in body weight, glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, and antioxidant profiles of aorta and mRNA expressions of nitric oxide synthase, AS, and ASL were observed in experimental rats. SAC (150 mg/kg b.w) showed its therapeutic effects similar to gliclazide in decreasing glucose, insulin resistance, lipid peroxidation, and increasing body weight; insulin, antioxidant enzymes, and mRNA levels of nitric oxide synthase, argininosuccinate synthase, and argininosuccinate lyase genes in STZ-NA rats. Histopathologic studies also revealed the protective nature of SAC on aorta. In conclusion, garlic and its constituents mediate the anti-diabetic potential through mitigating hyperglycemic status, changing insulin resistance by alleviating endothelial dysregulation in both plasma and tissues.

  9. Ca2+ signaling in injured in situ endothelium of rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berra-Romani, Roberto; Raqeeb, Abdul; Avelino-Cruz, José Everardo; Moccia, Francesco; Oldani, Amanda; Speroni, Francisco; Taglietti, Vanni; Tanzi, Franco

    2008-09-01

    The inner wall of excised rat aorta was scraped by a microelectrode and Ca2+ signals were investigated by fluorescence microscopy in endothelial cells (ECs) directly coupled with injured cells. The injury caused an immediate increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), followed by a long-lasting decay phase due to Ca2+ influx from extracellular space. The immediate response was mainly due to activation of purinergic receptors, as shown by the effect of P2X and P2Y receptors agonists and antagonists, such as suramin, alpha,beta-MeATP, MRS-2179 and 2-MeSAMP. Inhibition of store-operated Ca2+ influx did not affect either the peak response or the decay phase. Furthermore, the latter was: (i) insensitive to phospholipase C inhibition, (ii) sensitive to the gap junction blockers, palmitoleic acid, heptanol, octanol and oleamide, and (iii) sensitive to La3+ and Ni2+, but not to Gd3+. Finally, ethidium bromide or Lucifer Yellow did not enter ECs facing the scraped area. These results suggest that endothelium scraping: (i) causes a short-lasting stimulation of healthy ECs by extracellular nucleotides released from damaged cells and (ii) uncouples the hemichannels of the ECs facing the injury site; these hemichannels do not fully close and allow a long-lasting Ca2+ entry.

  10. Cisto tímico como diagnóstico diferencial de doença aguda da aorta torácica Thymic cyst as a differencial diagnosis of acute thoracic aortic disease

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    Marcos Gradim Tiveron

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Paciente encaminhada de outro serviço com história de dor torácica aguda de forte intensidade com diagnóstico de hematoma intramural na aorta ascendente para correção cirúrgica. Após investigação diagnóstica, identificou-se tumoração cística no mediastino anterior, que envolvia toda a aorta ascendente e que produzia restrição ao enchimento diastólico do ventrículo direito. A análise histológica do tumor ressecado revelou o diagnóstico de cisto tímico. Objetivo deste relato é descrever tumoração mediastinal de baixa prevalência, que pode produzir imagem radiológica com características de hematoma intramural e resultar em conduta terapêutica equivocada.Patient was referred to our Service with acute thoracic pain and diagnosis of intramural hematoma of the ascending aorta for surgical correction. The diagnostic investigation showed a cystic tumor involving the ascending aorta causing restriction of the right ventricular inflow. After resection, the histologic analysis disclosed the diagnosis of thymic cyst. The aim of this study is to describe a rare mediastinal tumor that may simulate a radiologic feature with characteristics of intramural hematoma and may result in a wrong therapeutic approach.

  11. Hydroxytyrosol and its complex forms (secoiridoids) modulate aorta and heart proteome in healthy rats: Potential cardio-protective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Úrsula; Rubió, Laura; López de Las Hazas, Maria-Carmen; Herrero, Pol; Nadal, Pedro; Canela, Núria; Pedret, Anna; Motilva, Maria-José; Solà, Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is the major phenolic compound in virgin olive oil (VOO) in both free and complex forms (secoiridoids; SEC). Proteomics of cardiovascular tissues such as aorta or heart represents a promising tool to uncover the mechanisms of action of phenolic compounds in healthy animals. Twelve female Wistar rats were separated into three groups: a standard diet and two diets supplemented in phenolic compounds (HT and SEC) adjusted to 5 mg/kg/day during 21 days. Proteomic analyses of aorta and heart tissues were performed by nano-LC and MS. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used to generate interaction networks. HT or SEC modulated aorta and heart proteome compared to the standard diet. The top-scored networks were related to Cardiovascular System. HT and SEC downregulated proteins related to proliferation and migration of endothelial cells and occlusion of blood vessels in aorta and proteins related to heart failure in heart tissue. SEC showed higher fold change values compared to HT, attributed to higher concentration of HT detected in heart tissue. Changes at proteomic level in cardiovascular tissues may partially account for the underlying mechanisms of VOO phenols cardiovascular protection being the SEC effects higher than free HT. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Patient-specific stress analyses in the ascending thoracic aorta using a finite-element implementation of the constrained mixture theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, S Jamaleddin; Avril, Stéphane

    2017-10-01

    It is now a rather common approach to perform patient-specific stress analyses of arterial walls using finite-element models reconstructed from gated medical images. However, this requires to compute for every Gauss point the deformation gradient between the current configuration and a stress-free reference configuration. It is technically difficult to define such a reference configuration, and there is actually no guarantee that a stress-free configuration is physically attainable due to the presence of internal stresses in unloaded soft tissues. An alternative framework was proposed by Bellini et al. (Ann Biomed Eng 42(3):488-502, 2014). It consists of computing the deformation gradients between the current configuration and a prestressed reference configuration. We present here the first finite-element results based on this concept using the Abaqus software. The reference configuration is set arbitrarily to the in vivo average geometry of the artery, which is obtained from gated medical images and is assumed to be mechanobiologically homeostatic. For every Gauss point, the stress is split additively into the contributions of each individual load-bearing constituent of the tissue, namely elastin, collagen, smooth muscle cells. Each constituent is assigned an independent prestretch in the reference configuration, named the deposition stretch. The outstanding advantage of the present approach is that it simultaneously computes the in situ stresses existing in the reference configuration and predicts the residual stresses that occur after removing the different loadings applied onto the artery (pressure and axial load). As a proof of concept, we applied it on an ideal thick-wall cylinder and showed that the obtained results were consistent with corresponding experimental and analytical results of the well-known literature. In addition, we developed a patient-specific model of a human ascending thoracic aneurysmal aorta and demonstrated the utility in predicting the

  13. HYSTOPATHOLOGIC CHANGES ON AORTA OF CIRRHOSIS MALE RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS INDUCTED BY ESCHERICIA COLI O55 : B5

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    Tony Hartono

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The background of this study is to visualize histopathological changes on aorta of cirrhosis rats (Rattus norvegicus induced by endotoxin E. coli O55 : B5 This study was a laboratory experimental using complete randomized design with five treatments and five repetitions. Twenty five male Wistar rats were used as experimental model of cirrhosis by bile duct ligation (BDL technique. Three weeks after BDL, all cirrhosis experimental models were induced with a single intra venous injection of Eschericia coli endotoxin (3mg/kg b.b in 1 ml sterile saline, except those of five control rats that induced with sterile saline at the same volume only. Aortas of control rats group were excised at 6 hours after induction with sterile saline, whereas the other four groups were done at 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours after induction with endotoxin. The quantity of endothelial cell, discontinuity increment and the thickness of internal elastic lamina layer were observed to know histopathological changes on aorta. Histopathological changes were observed using a light mycroscope, dyscontinuity and thickness of internal elastic lamina were measured by reticular micrometer. The quantity of endothelial cell on control and observation interval of 6 and 12 hours as significant difference (P<0.05, which are bigger than that of 18 and 24 hours. Rats in the control group have the biggest quantity comparing to the other treatments. Discontinuity and thickness of internal elastic lamina layer had significant difference (P<0.05 on control, observation on 6 and 12 hours compared to observation on 18 and 24 hours after being induced with endotoxine. The highest discontinuity and the thinnest elastic lamina internal were obtained within observation on 24 hours. VCAM-1 expression on control group differ from observation on 6 and 12hours but all of them have significant difference to observation on 18 and 24 hours (P<0,05. The decrease of endothelial cell number is caused by

  14. Hydrogen sulfide regulates intracellular Ca2+ concentration in endothelial cells from excised rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moccia, Francesco; Bertoni, Giuseppe; Pla, Alessandra Florio; Dragoni, Silvia; Pupo, Emanuela; Merlino, Annalisa; Mancardi, Daniele; Munaron, Luca; Tanzi, Franco

    2011-09-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is a recently discovered gasotransmitter that may regulate a growing number of endothelial functions, including nitric oxide (NO) release, proliferation, adhesion and migration, which are the key steps of angiogenesis. The mechanism whereby H2S impacts on endothelial physiology is still unclear: however, the aforementioned processes are driven by an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). In the present study, we exploited the excised rat aorta to gain insights into the regulation of [Ca2+]i by H2S within in situ endothelial cells (ECs). Sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS), a H2S donor, caused an elevation in [Ca2+]i, which disappeared in absence of extracellular Ca2+. NaHSinduced Ca2+ inflow was sensitive to high doses of Gd3+, but not BTP-2. Inhibition of the reverse-mode of the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger (NCX), with KB-R7943 or upon removal of extracellular Na+, abrogated the Ca2+ response to NaHS. Moreover, NaHS-elicited Ca2+ entry was significantly reduced by TEA and glybenclamide, which hinted at the involvement of ATP-dependent K+ (KATP) channels. Conversely, NaHS-evoked Ca2+ signal was not affected by the reducing agent, dithiothreitol. Acute addition of NaHS hindered both Ca2+ release and Ca2+ entry induced by ATP, a physiological agonist of ECs. Consistently, inhibition of endogenous H2S synthesis with DL-propargylglycine impaired ATP-induced Ca2+ inflow, whereas it did not affect Ca2+ mobilization. These data provide the first evidence that H2S may stimulate Ca2+ influx into ECs by recruiting the reverse-mode of NCX and KATP channels. In addition, they show that such gasotransmitter may modulate the Ca2+ signals elicited by physiological stimuli in intact endothelium.

  15. Depolarization-stimulated 42K+ efflux in rat aorta is calcium- and cellular volume-dependent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magliola, L.; Jones, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors controlling membrane permeability to potassium of smooth muscle cells from rat aorta stimulated by depolarization. The increase 42 K+ efflux (change in the rate constant) induced by depolarization (application of high concentrations of potassium chloride) was inhibited significantly by the calcium antagonists diltiazem and nisoldipine. Parallel inhibitory effects on contraction were observed. Diltiazem also inhibited potassium-stimulated 36 Cl- efflux. The addition of 25-150 mM KCl to normal physiologic solution stimulated 42 K+ efflux in a concentration-dependent manner. Diltiazem suppressed potassium-stimulated 42 K+ efflux approximately 90% at 25 mM KCl and approximately 40% at 150 mM KCl. The ability of nisoldipine to inhibit 42 K+ efflux also diminished as the potassium chloride concentration was elevated. The component of efflux that was resistant to calcium antagonists probably resulted from a decrease in the electrochemical gradient for potassium. Cellular water did not change during potassium addition. Substitution of 80 and 150 mM KCl for sodium chloride produced cellular swelling and enhanced potassium-stimulated 42 K+ efflux compared with potassium chloride addition. The addition of sucrose to prevent cellular swelling reduced efflux response to potassium substitution toward that of potassium addition. A hypoosmolar physiologic solution produced an increase in the 42 K+ efflux and a contracture that were both prevented by the addition of sucrose. We concluded that the depolarization-mediated 42 K+ efflux has three components: one is calcium dependent; a second is dependent on cellular volume; and a third is resistant to inhibition by calcium antagonists

  16. Effect of pinacidil on norepinephrine- and potassium-induced contractions and membrane potential in rat and human resistance vessels and in rat aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Videbaek, L.M.; Aalkjaer, C.; Mulvany, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of pinacidil on contractile responses to norepinephrine, potassium, and membrane potential was examined in rat and human resistance vessels. In some experiments rat aorta was also used. Pinacidil (0.1-30 microM) caused a concentration-dependent relaxation of norepinephrine-induced contractions in all vessels studied. In the same concentration range, pinacidil had only little effect on potassium (125 mM) activated rat mesenteric and femoral resistance vessels. In denervated rat mesenteric resistance vessels, a depolarization with potassium (125 mM) before superimposing a norepinephrine tone markedly diminished the effect of pinacidil. In resting rat mesenteric resistance vessels, pinacidil (1-10 microM) caused a hyperpolarization of 10-15 mV. In rat aorta, pinacidil (10 microM) caused a significant (p less than 0.001) increase in 86 Rb+ efflux rate constant whereas 1 microM had no effect. The results of these experiments indicate that the vasodilating effect may be caused by a hyperpolarization of the vascular smooth muscle cell membrane

  17. Effect of prolonged incubation with copper on endothelium-dependent relaxation in rat isolated aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarugi, Alberto; Pitari, Giovanni Mario; Costa, Rosa; Ferrante, Margherita; Villari, Loredana; Amico-Roxas, Matilde; Godfraind, Théophile; Bianchi, Alfredo; Salomone, Salvatore

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the effects of prolonged exposure to copper (Cu2+) on vascular functioning of isolated rat aorta. Aortic rings were exposed to CuSO4 (3–24 h) in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium with or without 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS) and then challenged with vasoconstrictors or vasodilators in the absence of Cu2+. Exposure to 2 μM Cu2+ in the absence of FBS did not modify the response to phenylephrine (PE) or acetylcholine (ACh) in aortic rings incubated for 24 h. Identical exposure in the presence of FBS increased the contractile response to 1 μM PE by 30% (P<0.05) and impaired the relaxant response to 3 μM ACh or 1 μM A23187 (ACh, from 65.7±7.1 to 6.2±1.1%, n=8; A23187, from 74.6±8.2 to 12.0±0.8%, n=6; P<0.01 for both). Cu2+ exposure did not affect the relaxant response to NO-donors. Impairment of vasorelaxation appeared 3 h after incubation with 2 μM Cu2+ and required 12 h to attain a steady state. Vasorelaxation to ACh was partially restored by 1 mM tiron (intracellular scavenger of superoxide ions; maximum relaxation 34.2±6.4%, n=10, P<0.01 vs Cu2+ alone), whereas catalase, superoxide dismutase or cycloheximide were ineffective. Twenty-four hour-exposure to 2 μM Cu2+ did not affect endothelium integrity or eNOS expression, and increased the Cu content in arterial rings from 6.8±1.1 to 18.9±2.9 ng mg−1 wet weight, n=8; P<0.01. Our results show that, in the presence of FBS, prolonged exposure to submicromolar concentrations of Cu2+ impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in aortic rings, probably through an intracellular generation of superoxide ions. PMID:12163352

  18. Chronic cigarette smoke exposure adversely alters 14C-arachidonic acid metabolism in rat lungs, aortas and platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubawy, W.C.; Valentovic, M.A.; Atkinson, J.E.; Gairola, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    Male rats were exposed to freshly generated cigarette smoke once daily, 5 times a week for 10 weeks. Inhalation of smoke was verified by elevated carboxyhemoglobin in blood sampled immediately after smoke exposure and by increased lung aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity 24 hours after the last smoke exposure. Aortic rings isolated from smoke-exposed rats synthesized less prostacyclin (PGI2) from 14 C-arachidonic acid than rings from sham rats. Platelets from smoke-exposed rats synthesized more thromboxane (TXA2) from 14 C-arachidonic acid than platelets from room controls but not those from sham rats. Lung microsomes from smoke-exposed rats synthesized more TXA2 and had a lower PGI2/TXA2 ratio than lung microsomes from room controls and shams. It is concluded that chronic cigarette smoke exposure alters arachidonic acid metabolism in aortas, platelets and lungs in a manner resulting in decreased PGI2 and increased TXA2, thereby creating a condition favoring platelet aggregation and a variety of cardiovascular diseases

  19. Zn-Li alloy after extrusion and drawing: Structural, mechanical characterization, and biodegradation in abdominal aorta of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shan; Seitz, Jan-M; Eifler, Rainer; Maier, Hans J; Guillory, Roger J; Earley, Elisha J; Drelich, Adam; Goldman, Jeremy; Drelich, Jaroslaw W

    2017-07-01

    Zinc shows great promise as a bio-degradable metal. Our early in vivo investigations implanting pure zinc wires into the abdominal aorta of Sprague-Dawley rats revealed that metallic zinc does not promote restenotic responses and may suppress the activities of inflammatory and smooth muscle cells. However, the low tensile strength of zinc remains a major concern. A cast billet of the Zn-Li alloy was produced in a vacuum induction caster under argon atmosphere, followed by a wire drawing process. Two phases of the binary alloy identified by x-ray diffraction include the zinc phase and intermetallic LiZn 4 phase. Mechanical testing proved that incorporating 0.1wt% of Li into Zn increased its ultimate tensile strength from 116±13MPa (pure Zn) to 274±61MPa while the ductility was held at 17±7%. Implantation of 10mm Zn-Li wire segments into abdominal aorta of rats revealed an excellent biocompatibility of this material in the arterial environment. The biodegradation rate for Zn-Li was found to be about 0.008mm/yr and 0.045mm/yr at 2 and 12months, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Polymer nanocomposites enhance S-nitrosoglutathione intestinal absorption and promote the formation of releasable nitric oxide stores in rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen; Perrin-Sarrado, Caroline; Ming, Hui; Lartaud, Isabelle; Maincent, Philippe; Hu, Xian-Ming; Sapin-Minet, Anne; Gaucher, Caroline

    2016-10-01

    Alginate/chitosan nanocomposite particles (GSNO-acNCPs), i.e. S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) loaded polymeric nanoparticles incorporated into an alginate and chitosan matrix, were developed to increase the effective GSNO loading capacity, a nitric oxide (NO) donor, and to sustain its release from the intestine following oral administration. Compared with free GSNO and GSNO loaded nanoparticles, GSNO-acNCPs promoted 2.7-fold GSNO permeation through a model of intestinal barrier (Caco-2 cells). After oral administration to Wistar rats, GSNO-acNCPs promoted NO storage into the aorta during at least 17h, as highlighted by (i) a long-lasting hyporeactivity to phenylephrine (decrease in maximum vasoconstrictive effect of aortic rings) and (ii) N-acetylcysteine (a thiol which can displace NO from tissues)-induced vasodilation of aorxxtic rings preconstricted with phenylephrine. In conclusion, GSNO-acNCPs enhance GSNO intestinal absorption and promote the formation of releasable NO stores into the rat aorta. GSNO-acNCPs are promising carriers for chronic oral application devoted to the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Protective effect of soybeans as protein source in the diet against cadmium-aorta redox and morphological alteration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez Díaz, Matías F.F.; Acosta, Mariano; Mohamed, Fabián H.; Ferramola, Mariana L.; Oliveros, Liliana B.; Gimenez, María S., E-mail: marisofigime44@gmail.com

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the effects of cadmium exposition on thoracic aorta redox status and morphology, and the putative protective effect of soybeans in the diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into 6 groups: 3 fed with a diet containing casein and 3 containing soybeans, as protein source. Within each protein group, one was given tap water (control) and the other two tap water containing 15 and 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+}, respectively, for two months. In rats fed with casein diet, 15 ppm of Cd induced an increase of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and of the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, which were even higher with 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+}, in aorta. Also, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} exposure increased superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) activity; CAT, GPX, SOD, Nrf2 and metallothioneine II mRNA expressions and CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein levels, compared with control. Aorta endothelial and cytoplasmic alterations were observed. However, with the soybeans diet, 15 and 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+} did not modify TBARS levels; CAT, GPX and Nrf2 mRNA expressions; CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein; and the aorta morphology, compared with control. The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes and protects against morphological alterations induced, in a dose-dependent way, by Cd in aorta. - Highlights: • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} in drinking water induces oxidative stress in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} increases Nrf2, MT II and NOX2 expressions in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} induces morphological changes in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes induced by Cd in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates morphological alterations induced by Cd in rat aorta.

  2. Protective effect of soybeans as protein source in the diet against cadmium-aorta redox and morphological alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez Díaz, Matías F.F.; Acosta, Mariano; Mohamed, Fabián H.; Ferramola, Mariana L.; Oliveros, Liliana B.; Gimenez, María S.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of cadmium exposition on thoracic aorta redox status and morphology, and the putative protective effect of soybeans in the diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into 6 groups: 3 fed with a diet containing casein and 3 containing soybeans, as protein source. Within each protein group, one was given tap water (control) and the other two tap water containing 15 and 100 ppm of Cd 2+ , respectively, for two months. In rats fed with casein diet, 15 ppm of Cd induced an increase of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and of the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, which were even higher with 100 ppm of Cd 2+ , in aorta. Also, 100 ppm Cd 2+ exposure increased superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) activity; CAT, GPX, SOD, Nrf2 and metallothioneine II mRNA expressions and CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein levels, compared with control. Aorta endothelial and cytoplasmic alterations were observed. However, with the soybeans diet, 15 and 100 ppm of Cd 2+ did not modify TBARS levels; CAT, GPX and Nrf2 mRNA expressions; CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein; and the aorta morphology, compared with control. The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes and protects against morphological alterations induced, in a dose-dependent way, by Cd in aorta. - Highlights: • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd 2+ in drinking water induces oxidative stress in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd 2+ increases Nrf2, MT II and NOX2 expressions in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd 2+ induces morphological changes in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes induced by Cd in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates morphological alterations induced by Cd in rat aorta

  3. Regional gene expression of LOX-1, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 in aorta of HIV-1 transgenic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mette Fisker Hag

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increased prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients has been observed. The cause of this accelerated atherosclerosis is a matter of controversy. As clinical studies are complicated by a multiplicity of risk-factors and a low incidence of hard endpoints, studies in animal models could be attractive alternatives. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated gene expression of lectin-like oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 in HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1Tg rats; these genes are all thought to play important roles in early atherogenesis. Furthermore, the plasma level of sICAM-1 was measured. We found that gene expressions of LOX-1 and VCAM-1 were higher in the aortic arch of HIV-1Tg rats compared to controls. Also, the level of sICAM-1 was elevated in the HIV-1Tg rats compared to controls, but the ICAM-1 gene expression profile did not show any differences between the groups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HIV-1Tg rats have gene expression patterns indicating endothelial dysfunction and accelerated atherosclerosis in aorta, suggesting that HIV-infection per se may cause atherosclerosis. This transgenic rat model may be a very promising model for further studies of the pathophysiology behind HIV-associated cardiovascular disease.

  4. Hypercholesterolemia Up-Regulates the Expression of Intermedin and Its Receptor Components in the Aorta of Rats via Inducing the Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingtao; Shi, Di; Feng, Jiayue; Su, Yanling; Long, Yang; He, Sen; Wang, Si; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Xiangxun; Chen, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia can cause damage to the artery. Intermedin (IMD) is a novel member of the calcitonin gene-related peptide family. This study aims to investigate the aortic expression of IMD and its receptors in hypercholesterolemia without atherosclerosis. Male Wistar rats were fed with high cholesterol diet, with or without simvastatin and vitamin C. Both the malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in plasma and aorta were determined as the oxidative stress biomarkers. The plasma IMD was assessed by radioimmunoassay. Within the aorta, the mRNA expression of IMD along with its receptor components was determined, and the corresponding protein level of the CRLR/RAMPs was also assessed. The hypercholesterolemia rats without atherosclerotic lesion manifested a higher level of MDA and SOD and the plasma IMD elevated. Increased expression of IMD and all its receptor components (CRLR, RAMP1, RAMP2, and RAMP3) were displayed within the aorta. The simvastatin indirectly attenuated oxidative stress by improving lipid profiles, while the vitamin C directly reduced oxidative stress without interfering with the serum lipids. Both simvastatin and vitamin C ameliorated the aortic injury, decreased the plasma IMD level, and recovered the expression of IMD and its receptors within the aorta. The up-regulated expression of IMD is observed within the aorta of the hypercholesterolemia rats. In addition, the oxidative stress participates in the up-regulation. © 2016 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  5. Coarctation of the aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogova, T.; Janev, I.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Coarctation of the aorta is a congenital malformation representing a zone of strong narrowing of the aortic lumen, leading to impaired blood flow. In 90% of cases it affects isthmus vessel - the part between the separation of the left Ater subclavian and ductus arteriosus and it is often combined with other congenital heart defects and occurs more frequently in males. A case of juvenile isthmus type coarctation of the aorta at a young woman suffering from long hard to control hypertension, with intermittent discomfort in precordium and heart murmur is presented. Upon receipt of the patient a conventional radiography of organs in the chest front projection, which establishes a typical disease finding is carried out. After that a noninvasive computer-tomography angiography of the thoracic aorta, with CT Siemens Definition AS with a slice thickness 5 mm, subsequent reconstruction of 0,75 mm and postreconstruction were conducted. CT angiography study demonstrates the pathological constriction, the state of the aorta before and after constriction as well as the rich collateral vasculature of the intercostal and internal thoracic arteries. The available 3D reconstructions and postprocessing have been supported the establishment of optimal preoperative plan. The patient was subjected to surgery with vessel recovery and at the moment the patient is with excellent postoperative results

  6. Differential effects of isoproterenol on the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme in the rat heart and aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busatto V.C.W.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The excessive stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors in the heart induces myocardial hypertrophy. There are several experimental data suggesting that this hypertrophy may also depend, at least partially, on the increase of local production of angiotensin II secondary to the activation of the cardiac renin-angiotensin system. In this study we investigated the effects of isoproterenol on the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE in the heart and also in the aorta and plasma. Male Wistar rats weighing 250 to 305 g were treated with a dose of (±-isoproterenol (0.3 mg kg-1 day-1, N = 8 sufficient to produce cardiac hypertrophy without deleterious effects on the pumping capacity of the heart. Control rats (N = 7 were treated with vehicle (corn oil. The animals were killed one week later. ACE activity was determined in vitro in the four cardiac chambers, aorta and plasma by a fluorimetric assay. A significant hypertrophy was observed in both ventricular chambers. ACE activity in the atria remained constant after isoproterenol treatment. There was a significant increase (P<0.05 of ACE activity in the right ventricle (6.9 ± 0.9 to 8.2 ± 0.6 nmol His-Leu g-1 min-1 and in the left ventricle (6.4 ± 1.1 to 8.9 ± 0.8 nmol His-Leu g-1 min-1. In the aorta, however, ACE activity decreased (P<0.01 after isoproterenol (41 ± 3 to 27 ± 2 nmol His-Leu g-1 min-1 while it remained unchanged in the plasma. These data suggest that ACE expression in the heart can be increased by stimulation of beta-adrenoceptors. However, this effect is not observed on other local renin-angiotensin systems, such as the aorta. Our data also suggest that the increased sympathetic discharge and the elevated plasma concentration of catecholamines may contribute to the upregulation of ACE expression in the heart after myocardial infarction and heart failure.

  7. Evidence of cytotoxic T and B immunoblasts in the thoracic duct of rats bearing tumor grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, S.; Wrathmell, A.B.; Alexander, P.

    1975-01-01

    Wistar rats were immunized with allogeneic or xenogeneic tumour before collection of their thoracic duct lymph. Specifically cytotoxic effector cells were found in the lymph between 3 and 8 days after immunization, and their occurrence coincided with an increased number of immunoblasts in the lymphocyte population. The immune response in lymph to allogeneic cells appeared to be affected solely by radiosensitive thymus-dependent lymphocytes; no complement-dependent killing was evident and cytotoxic cells failed to appear when immunized animals were deprived of thymus-dependent lymphocytes. In contrast, the response to immunization with xenogeneic cells elicited both complement-dependent and complement-independent cytotoxicity, but only the former could be detected in animals deprived of thymus-dependent lymphocytes. In normal animals and in animals deprived of thymus-dependent cells, the cytotoxic cells in the thoracic duct lymph appeared to be large lymphocytes or immunoblasts. (U.S.)

  8. The thoracic aortography by Gd-DTPA enhanced ultrafast cine MR imaging. Assessment of thoracic aortic dilatation in aging and in patients with hypertension and aortic valve disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Kentaro; Nakase, Emiko; Kawai, Ichiyoshi; Saito, Takayuki; Kikkawa, Nobutada; Haiyama, Toru

    1995-01-01

    To assess the morphology of thoracic aorta, we had a trial of Gd-DTPA enhanced ultrafast cine MR imaging on the thoracic aorta. This method was provided with high quality thoracic aortogram during 15-20 seconds. In patients without hypertension and aortic valve disease, dimensions of ascending aorta and aortic arch were significantly correlated with aging. In patients with hypertension, dimensions of ascending aorta and aortic arch were significantly dilated. In patients with aortic valve disease, thoracic aorta was diffusely enlarged, especially in ascending aorta. Gd-DTPA enhanced ultrafact cine MR imaging was useful to assess the thoracic aortic anatomy and diseases. (author)

  9. Data on the effects of losartan on protein expression, vascular reactivity and antioxidant capacity in the aorta of ethanol-treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla S. Ceron

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe the effects of losartan, a selective AT1 receptor antagonist on the alterations induced by treatment with ethanol in the rat aorta. The data shown here are related to the article entitled “Angiotensin type 1 receptor mediates chronic ethanol consumption-induced hypertension and vascular oxidative stress” (P. Passaglia, C.S. Ceron, A.S. Mecawi, J. Antunes-Rodrigues, E.B. Coelho, C.R. Tirapelli, 2015 [1]. Here we include new data on the protective effect of losartan against ethanol-induced oxidative stress. Male Wistar rats treated for 2 weeks with ethanol (20%, vol./vol. exhibited increased aortic production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and losartan (10 mg/kg/day; p.o. gavage prevented this response. Ethanol did not alter the expression of eNOS in the rat aorta. Losartan prevented ethanol-induced increase in the aortic expression of nNOS. Neither ethanol nor losartan affected superoxide dismutase (SOD or catalase (CAT activities in the rat aorta. Treatment with ethanol increased the contraction induced by phenylephrine in both endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortas and these responses were prevented by losartan. Conversely, neither ethanol nor losartan affected the endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine.

  10. Intraperitoneal curcumin decreased lung, renal and heart injury in abdominal aorta ischemia/reperfusion model in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mehmet Salih; Caliskan, Ahmet; Kocarslan, Aydemir; Kocarslan, Sezen; Yildiz, Ali; Günay, Samil; Savik, Emin; Hazar, Abdussemet; Yalcin, Funda

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that curcumin (CUR) has protective effects against ischemia reperfusion injury to various organs. We aimed to determine whether CUR has favorable effects on tissues and oxidative stress in abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thirty rats were divided into three groups as sham, control and treatment (CUR) group. Control and CUR groups underwent abdominal aorta ischemia for 60 min followed by a 120 min period of reperfusion. In the CUR group, CUR was given 5 min before reperfusion at a dose of 200 mg/kg via an intraperitoneal route. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidative status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) in blood serum were measured, and lung, renal and heart tissue histopathology were evaluated with light microscopy. TOS and OSI activity in blood samples were statistically decreased in sham and CUR groups compared to the control group (p OSI). Renal, lung, heart injury scores of sham and CUR groups were statistically decreased compared to control group (p model. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Exogenous BMP7 in aortae of rats with chronic uremia ameliorates expression of profibrotic genes, but does not reverse established vascular calcification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Eva; Lerche Mace, Maria; Nordholm, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia and vascular calcification are frequent complications of chronic renal failure and bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) has been shown to protect against development of vascular calcification in uremia. The present investigation examined the potential reversibility of established...... uremic vascular calcification by treatment of uremic rats with BMP7. A control model of isogenic transplantation of a calcified aorta from uremic rats into healthy littermates examined whether normalization of the uremic environment reversed vascular calcification. Uremia and vascular calcification were...... induced in rats by 5/6 nephrectomy, high phosphate diet and alfacalcidol treatment. After 14 weeks severe vascular calcification was present and rats were allocated to BMP7, vehicle or aorta transplantation. BMP7 treatment caused a significant decrease of plasma phosphate to 1.56 ± 0.17 mmol/L vs 2.06 ± 0...

  12. Serum lipid profile and inflammatory markers in the aorta of cholesterol-fed rats supplemented with extra virgin olive oil, sunflower oils and oil-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsarou, Ageliki I; Kaliora, Andriana C; Papalois, Apostolos; Chiou, Antonia; Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Agrogiannis, George; Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K

    2015-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) major and minor component anti-inflammatory effect on aorta was evaluated; Wistar rats were fed (9 weeks) on either a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) or a HCD supplemented with oils, i.e. EVOO, sunflower oil (SO), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), or oil-products modified to their phenolic content, i.e. phenolics deprived-EVOO [EVOO(-)], SO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [SO(+)], HOSO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [HOSO(+)]. HCD induced dyslipidemia and resulted in higher aorta adhesion molecules levels at euthanasia. Groups receiving EVOO, EVOO(-), HOSO, HOSO(+) presented higher serum TC and LDL-c levels compared to cholesterol-fed rats; attenuation of aorta E-selectin levels was also observed. In EVOO/EVOO(-) groups, aorta vascular endothelial adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was lower compared to HCD animals. SO/SO(+) diets had no effect on endothelial dysfunction amelioration. Overall, our results suggest that major and/or minor EVOO constituents improve aorta E-selectin and VCAM-1, while serum lipids do not benefit.

  13. Methanol fractionations of Catha edulis Frosk (Celastraceae) contracted Lewis rat aorta in vitro: a comparison between crimson and green leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Samira Abdulla; Pavlovic, Dragan; Hoffmann, Ulrich

    2009-05-07

    The study investigated the effect of methanol extract and its fractionations obtained from Yemeni khat on the smooth muscle isometric tension in Lewis rat aortal ring preparations and compared the effects of the crimson and green leaves. Khat leaves were sorted into green (khat Light; KL) and crimson (khat Dark; KD) leaves, extracted with methanol, followed with solvent-solvent extraction (benzene, chloroform and ethylacetate). The contractile activity of the fractions was tested using aortal ring preparations. The control (phenylepherine contraction) methanol extracts contracted aortas at concentrations 250, 125 and 67.5 microg/ml buffer by 80.2%, 57.3%, 26.4% and 81.5%, 65.6%, 24.6% for KL and KD, respectively. Fractions of benzene (BF) and ethylacetate (EaF) contracted the aorta with 2 microgm, whereas, chloroform (ChF) with 1 microgm/1 ml buffer was less potent. The shape of contraction curve produced by EaF differed from that of ChF and BF of both (KL and KD). The EaF induced-contraction peaked after 3.3 +/- 0.94 mins, whereas those of BF and CHF peaked after 18.0 +/- 2.2, 19.7 +/- 0.94 mins, respectively. Pre-incubation with nifedipine (10(-6) M) insignificantly reduced the contraction induced by all fractionations, but prazosin (10(-6) M) reduced the contraction by 81.9%, 63.1%, 71.8% with p = 0.23, 0.09, 0.15 for BF, ChF and EaF of KL, respectively. It significantly reduced contraction of ChF, 64.1%; p = 0.02, and of EaF, 73.5%; p = 0.04 of KD, while the reduction in contraction of BF was 63.1%; p = 0.06. In conclusion, fractions of green and crimson Yemeni khat leaves contracted aortas of Lewis rats. Both leaves behave almost similarly. Contraction induced by chloroform fraction produced alpha-sympathetic activity.

  14. Gou-teng (from Uncaria rhynchophylla Miquel)-induced endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxations in the isolated rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramochi, T; Chu, J; Suga, T

    1994-01-01

    Gou-teng is a drug used for treatment of hypertension in Chinese medicine. Its antihypertensive action has been previously confirmed in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Here, its vasorelaxing effect and the mechanisms of actions were studied in vitro. Gou-teng extract (GTE) relaxed the norepinephrine (NE)-precontracted aortic ring preparations isolated from Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) with and without intact endothelium; the latter was significantly less sensitive than the former. The GTE-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation was significantly inhibited by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (NMMA) in a dose-dependent manner while indomethacin did not affect the relaxation. Atropine inhibited the acetylcholine (ACh)-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation but did not the GTE-induced one. Furthermore, once GTE was applied, the following NE-induced contraction was significantly reduced even after repeated washout. NMMA effectively reduced and rather reversed this residual effect of GTE. From these results, it is concluded that GTE relaxes the NE-precontracted rat aorta through endothelium-dependent and, to lesser extent, -independent mechanisms. The endothelium-dependent component would be mediated by EDRF/NO pathway in which the muscarinic cholinoceptors were not involved. Thus, GTE appears to be a potent and long-lasting vasodilator mainly through EDRF/NO release.

  15. The normal distribution of thoracoabdominal aorta small branch artery ostia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin, Paul; Williams, David M.; Vellody, Ranjith; Kelly, Aine Marie; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Carlos, Ruth C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the normal distribution of aortic branch artery ostia. CT scans of 100 subjects were retrospectively reviewed. The angular distributions of the aorta with respect to the center of the T3 to L4 vertebral bodies, and of branch artery origins with respect to the center of the aorta were measured. At each vertebral body level the distribution of intercostal/lumbar arteries and other branch arteries were calculated. The proximal descending aorta is posteriorly placed becoming a midline structure, at the thoracolumbar junction, and remains anterior to the vertebral bodies within the abdomen. The intercostal and lumbar artery ostia have a distinct distribution. At each vertebral level from T3 caudally, one intercostal artery originates from the posterior wall of the aorta throughout the thoracic aorta, while the other intercostal artery originates from the medial wall of the descending thoracic aorta high in the chest, posteromedially from the mid-thoracic aorta, and from the posterior wall of the aorta low in the chest. Mediastinal branches of the thoracic aorta originate from the medial and anterior wall. Lumbar branches originate only from the posterior wall of the abdominal aorta. Aortic branch artery origins arise with a bimodal distribution and have a characteristic location. Mediastinal branches of the thoracic aorta originate from the medial and anterior wall. Knowing the location of aortic branch artery ostia may help distinguish branch artery pseudoaneurysms from penetrating ulcers.

  16. Combination of Medicinal Herbs KIOM-79 Reduces Advanced Glycation End Product Accumulation and the Expression of Inflammatory Factors in the Aorta of Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunjin Sohn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that KIOM-79 shows a strong inhibitory effect on AGE formation and inhibited a proinflammatory state in a murine macrophage cell line. In the present study, we investigated the effect of KIOM-79 on AGE accumulation and vascular inflammation in the aorta of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats, a commonly used model of type 2 diabetes. Seven-week-old male ZDF rats were treated with KIOM-79 (50 mg/kg once a day orally for 13 weeks. We examined the dissected aortas for AGE accumulation, expression of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE, and the expression of proinflammatory factors, including monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1. Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were also measured by Southwestern histochemistry, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA, and immunohistochemistry, respectively. KIOM-79 markedly reduced the accumulation of AGEs and the expression of RAGE in the aorta. We also found that KIOM-79 attenuated the expression of inflammatory factors including NF-κB, MCP-1, VEGF, VCAM-1, and iNOS in the aortas of ZDF rats. These data suggest that KIOM-79 may prevent or retard the development of inflammation in diabetic vascular disease.

  17. Neural progenitor cells but not astrocytes respond distally to thoracic spinal cord injury in rat models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Nguyen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI is a detrimental condition that causes loss of sensory and motor function in an individual. Many complex secondary injury cascades occur after SCI and they offer great potential for therapeutic targeting. In this study, we investigated the response of endogenous neural progenitor cells, astrocytes, and microglia to a localized thoracic SCI throughout the neuroaxis. Twenty-five adult female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent mild-contusion thoracic SCI (n = 9, sham surgery (n = 8, or no surgery (n = 8. Spinal cord and brain tissues were fixed and cut at six regions of the neuroaxis. Immunohistochemistry showed increased reactivity of neural progenitor cell marker nestin in the central canal at all levels of the spinal cord. Increased reactivity of astrocyte-specific marker glial fibrillary acidic protein was found only at the lesion epicenter. The number of activated microglia was significantly increased at the lesion site, and activated microglia extended to the lumbar enlargement. Phagocytic microglia and macrophages were significantly increased only at the lesion site. There were no changes in nestin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, microglia and macrophage response in the third ventricle of rats subjected to mild-contusion thoracic SCI compared to the sham surgery or no surgery. These findings indicate that neural progenitor cells, astrocytes and microglia respond differently to a localized SCI, presumably due to differences in inflammatory signaling. These different cellular responses may have implications in the way that neural progenitor cells can be manipulated for neuroregeneration after SCI. This needs to be further investigated.

  18. Pulmonary endothelial dysfunction induced by unilateral as compared to bilateral thoracic irradiation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, W.F.; Molteni, A.; Ts'Ao, C.H.; Solliday, N.H.

    1987-01-01

    Rats were sacrificed 2 months after a single dose of 10-30 Gy of 60 Co gamma rays delivered to either a right unilateral or a bilateral thoracic port. Four indices of lung endothelial function were measured: the activities of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and plasminogen activator (PLA) and the production of prostacyclin (PGI2) and thromboxane (TXA2). The number of macrophages recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and the degree of right ventricular hypertrophy (an index of pulmonary hypertension) also were determined. Right lung ACE and PLA activity decreased linearly, and PGI2 and TXA2 production increased linearly with increasing radiation dose. The response curves for right unilateral and bilateral thoracic irradiation were not significantly different. In contrast, bilateral irradiation was more toxic than unilateral, since rats exposed to the former exhibited decreased body weight, an increased incidence of pleural effusions, an increase in the number of macrophages recovered by BAL, and right ventricular hypertrophy. These data demonstrate that pulmonary endothelial dysfunction induced by hemithorax irradiation represents a direct response of the endothelium to radiation injury and is not secondary to other phenomena such as shunting of function to the shielded lung

  19. HZE ⁵⁶Fe-ion irradiation induces endothelial dysfunction in rat aorta: role of xanthine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucy, Kevin G; Lim, Hyun Kyo; Kim, Jae Hyung; Oh, Young; Attarzadeh, David O; Sevinc, Baris; Kuo, Maggie M; Shoukas, Artin A; Vazquez, Marcelo E; Berkowitz, Dan E

    2011-10-01

    Ionizing radiation has been implicated in the development of significant cardiovascular complications. Since radiation exposure is associated with space exploration, astronauts are potentially at increased risk of accelerated cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the effect of high atomic number, high-energy (HZE) iron-ion radiation on vascular and endothelial function as a model of space radiation. Rats were exposed to a single whole-body dose of iron-ion radiation at doses of 0, 0.5 or 1 Gy. In vivo aortic stiffness and ex vivo aortic tension responses were measured 6 and 8 months after exposure as indicators of chronic vascular injury. Rats exposed to 1 Gy iron ions demonstrated significantly increased aortic stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity. Aortic rings from irradiated rats exhibited impaired endothelial-dependent relaxation consistent with endothelial dysfunction. Acute xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibition or reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging restored endothelial-dependent responses to normal. In addition, XO activity was significantly elevated in rat aorta 4 months after whole-body irradiation. Furthermore, XO inhibition, initiated immediately after radiation exposure and continued until euthanasia, completely inhibited radiation-dependent XO activation. ROS production was elevated after 1 Gy irradiation while production of nitric oxide (NO) was significantly impaired. XO inhibition restored NO and ROS production. Finally, dietary XO inhibition preserved normal endothelial function and vascular stiffness after radiation exposure. These results demonstrate that radiation induced XO-dependent ROS production and nitroso-redox imbalance, leading to chronic vascular dysfunction. As a result, XO is a potential target for radioprotection. Enhancing the understanding of vascular radiation injury could lead to the development of effective methods to ameliorate radiation-induced vascular damage.

  20. Evaluation of TGF beta1 expression and comparison the thickness of different aorta layers in experimental diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuce, G; Kalkan, S S; Esen, H H

    2011-01-01

    It was aimed to investigate the effects of experimental diabetes on TGF beta1 expression and tunica intima and media thickness in abdominal and thoracic aorta. Fourteen three months old female rats were divided into two groups, non-diabetic and streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic group. Hematoxylin-Eosin and Verhoeff's Van Gieson elastic staining and TGF beta1 immunohistochemistry staining were performed. Abdominal and thoracic intima and media thickness of aortas were measured with the oculometer. Evaluation of intima and media thickness measurements showed no significant statistical differences between non-diabetic and diabetic groups. TGF beta1 expression increased significantly in thoracic diabetic (TD) group. The 60 day duration of diabetes is not sufficiently enough time for the development of pathological changes that could lead to thickening in aortic intima-media layers. TGF beta1 expression was negative in the abdominal aorta that can predispose to the development of atherosclerosis, which could develop overtime. This finding may be interpreted as an appropriate basis for the development of atherosclerosis. In the thoracic aorta TGF beta1 may coordinate cellular events such as tissue repair (Fig. 5, Ref. 23).

  1. Changes in vascular reactivity induced by acute hyperthyroidism in isolated rat aortae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, H; Iwata, T; Mochizuki, T; Kogo, H

    2000-06-01

    Hyperthyroidism was induced by subcutaneous injections of L-thyroxine (T(4)) (500 mg/kg/day) for 3 days in order to study whether adrenergic and muscarinic receptor-mediated vascular responses alter at an early stage of the disease. T(4) treatment was sufficient to induce a significant degree of thyroid weight loss, tachycardia, cardiac hypertrophy, and an elevation in serum T(4) levels. The tension of aortic ring preparations isolated from rats was measured isometrically to investigate the influence of acute hyperthyroidism. The contractions induced by norepinephrine (NE) were significantly suppressed in aortic rings from rats treated with T(4) compared with control rats. N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), significantly enhanced NE-induced contraction in aortic rings from both control and T(4)-treated rats, and the enhancement was greater in rats treated with T(4) than control rats. The relaxations induced by either acetylcholine (ACh) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were also significantly enhanced by T(4) treatment. L-NOARG abolished the relaxation induced by ACh in aortic rings from both control and T(4)-treated rats. L-NOARG shifted SNP-induced relaxation curves of aortic rings from those of control rats to the left, but not with rats treated with T(4). T(4) treatment showed no influence on the amount of endothelial NOS (eNOS) protein. These results suggest that vascular responses alter at an early stage of hyperthyroidism and that it may be due to a modification in the NO system which is independent from the amount of eNOS protein.

  2. Characterization of thoracic spinal neurons with noxious convergent inputs from heart and lower airways in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chao; Foreman, Robert D; Farber, Jay P

    2007-04-13

    Respiratory symptoms experienced in some patients with cardiac diseases may be due to convergence of noxious cardiac and pulmonary inputs onto neurons of the central nervous system. For example, convergence of cardiac and respiratory inputs onto single solitary tract neurons may be in part responsible for integration of regulatory and defensive reflex control. However, it is unknown whether inputs from the lungs and heart converge onto single neurons of the spinal cord. The present aim was to characterize upper thoracic spinal neurons responding to both noxious stimuli of the heart and lungs in rats. Extracellular potentials of single thoracic (T3) spinal neurons were recorded in pentobarbital anesthetized, paralyzed, and ventilated male rats. A catheter was placed in the pericardial sac to administer bradykinin (BK, 10 microg/ml, 0.2 ml, 1 min) as a noxious cardiac stimulus. The lung irritant, ammonia, obtained as vapor over a 30% solution of NH(4)OH was injected into the inspiratory line of the ventilator (0.5-1.0 ml over 20 s). Intrapericardial bradykinin (IB) altered activity of 58/65 (89%) spinal neurons that responded to inhaled ammonia (IA). Among those cardiopulmonary convergent neurons, 81% (47/58) were excited by both IA and IB, and the remainder had complex response patterns. Bilateral cervical vagotomy revealed that vagal afferents modulated but did not eliminate responses of individual spinal neurons to IB and IA. The convergence of pulmonary and cardiac nociceptive signaling in the spinal cord may be relevant to situations where a disease process in one organ influences the behavior of the other.

  3. Lipid Emulsion Inhibits Vasodilation Induced by a Toxic Dose of Bupivacaine via Attenuated Dephosphorylation of Myosin Phosphatase Target Subunit 1 in Isolated Rat Aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Seong-Ho; Byon, Hyo-Jin; Kwon, Seong-Chun; Park, Jungchul; Lee, Youngju; Hwang, Yeran; Baik, Jiseok; Choi, Mun-Jeoung; Sohn, Ju-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Lipid emulsions are widely used for the treatment of systemic toxicity that arises from local anesthetics. The goal of this in vitro study was to examine the cellular mechanism associated with the lipid emulsion-mediated attenuation of vasodilation induced by a toxic dose of bupivacaine in isolated endothelium-denuded rat aorta. The effects of lipid emulsion on vasodilation induced by bupivacaine, mepivacaine, and verapamil were assessed in isolated aorta precontracted with phenylephrine, the Rho kinase stimulant NaF, and the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu). The effects of Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 on contraction induced by phenylephrine or NaF were assessed. The effects of bupivacaine on intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) and tension induced by NaF were simultaneously measured. The effects of bupivacaine alone and lipid emulsion plus bupivacaine on myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) phosphorylation induced by NaF were examined in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. In precontracted aorta, the lipid emulsion attenuated bupivacaine-induced vasodilation but had no effect on mepivacaine-induced vasodilation. Y-27632 attenuated contraction induced by either phenylephrine or NaF. The lipid emulsion attenuated verapamil-induced vasodilation. Compared with phenylephrine-induced precontracted aorta, bupivacaine-induced vasodilation was slightly attenuated in NaF-induced precontracted aorta. The magnitude of the bupivacaine-induced vasodilation was higher than that of a bupivacaine-induced decrease in [Ca2+]i. Bupivacaine attenuated NaF-induced MYPT1 phosphorylation, whereas lipid emulsion pretreatment attenuated the bupivacaine-induced inhibition of MYPT1 phosphorylation induced by NaF. Taken together, these results suggest that lipid emulsions attenuate bupivacaine-induced vasodilation via the attenuation of inhibition of MYPT1 phosphorylation evoked by NaF. PMID:26664257

  4. Modulatory Effect of 2-(4-Hydroxyphenylamino-1,4-naphthoquinone on Endothelial Vasodilation in Rat Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Palacios

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The vascular endothelium plays an essential role in the control of the blood flow. Pharmacological agents like quinone (menadione at various doses modulate this process in a variety of ways. In this study, Q7, a 2-phenylamino-1,4-naphthoquinone derivative, significantly increased oxidative stress and induced vascular dysfunction at concentrations that were not cytotoxic to endothelial or vascular smooth muscle cells. Q7 reduced nitric oxide (NO levels and endothelial vasodilation to acetylcholine in rat aorta. It also blunted the calcium release from intracellular stores by increasing the phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction when CaCl2 was added to a calcium-free medium but did not affect the influx of calcium from extracellular space. Q7 increased the vasoconstriction to BaCl2 (10−3 M, an inward rectifying K+ channels blocker, and blocked the vasodilation to KCl (10−2 M in aortic rings precontracted with BaCl2. This was recovered with sodium nitroprusside (10−8 M, a NO donor. In conclusion, Q7 induced vasoconstriction was through a modulation of cellular mechanisms involving calcium fluxes through K+ channels, and oxidative stress induced endothelium damage. These findings contribute to the characterization of new quinone derivatives with low cytotoxicity able to pharmacologically modulate vasodilation.

  5. Modulatory Effect of 2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)amino-1,4-naphthoquinone on Endothelial Vasodilation in Rat Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Javier; Cifuentes, Fredi; Valderrama, Jaime A; Benites, Julio; Ríos, David; González, Constanza; Chiong, Mario; Cartes-Saavedra, Benjamín; Lafourcade, Carlos; Wyneken, Ursula; González, Pamela; Owen, Gareth I; Pardo, Fabián; Sobrevia, Luis; Buc Calderon, Pedro

    The vascular endothelium plays an essential role in the control of the blood flow. Pharmacological agents like quinone (menadione) at various doses modulate this process in a variety of ways. In this study, Q7 , a 2-phenylamino-1,4-naphthoquinone derivative, significantly increased oxidative stress and induced vascular dysfunction at concentrations that were not cytotoxic to endothelial or vascular smooth muscle cells. Q7 reduced nitric oxide (NO) levels and endothelial vasodilation to acetylcholine in rat aorta. It also blunted the calcium release from intracellular stores by increasing the phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction when CaCl 2 was added to a calcium-free medium but did not affect the influx of calcium from extracellular space. Q7 increased the vasoconstriction to BaCl 2 (10 -3  M), an inward rectifying K + channels blocker, and blocked the vasodilation to KCl (10 -2  M) in aortic rings precontracted with BaCl 2 . This was recovered with sodium nitroprusside (10 -8  M), a NO donor. In conclusion, Q7 induced vasoconstriction was through a modulation of cellular mechanisms involving calcium fluxes through K + channels, and oxidative stress induced endothelium damage. These findings contribute to the characterization of new quinone derivatives with low cytotoxicity able to pharmacologically modulate vasodilation.

  6. Infecção de prótese vascular em cirurgia da aorta torácica: revisão da experiência e relato de caso tratado por técnica não convencional Vascular prosthesis infection in thoracic aorta surgery: review of the experience and a case report illustrating treatment with an unconventional technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Ducceschi Fontes

    2004-03-01

    toxemia. Pleural empyema was diagnosed, and she underwent an exploratory thoracotomy that did not confirm this diagnosis, but revealed intense effusion thickening. Four months after the exploratory thoracotomy, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter sp were isolated in a blood culture. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed shapes compatible with perigraft infection. With this clinical and laboratory picture, graft removal was indicated as was axillo-bifemoral grafting. Surgery was successfully performed, the patient was discharged in good condition, and remains well after a 57-month follow-up without complications. The methods used for diagnosis and treatment of prosthesis infection in thoracic aorta surgery are discussed.

  7. Mitochondrial Morphofunctional Alterations in Smooth Muscle Cells of Aorta in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarán, Mariana; Llorens, Candelaria; Balceda, Ariel; Scribano, María de La Paz; Pons, Patricia; Moya, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    In an experimental model of atherogenesis induced by hyperfibrinogenemia (HF), the pharmacological response of vitamin E was studied in order to assess its antioxidant effect on the mitochondrial morphofunctional alterations in aortic smooth muscle cells. Three groups of male rats were used: (Ctr) control, (AI) atherogenesis induced for 120 days, and (AIE) atherogenesis induced for 120 days and treated with vitamin E. HF was induced by adrenalin injection (0.1 mg/day/rat) for 120 days. AIE group was treated with the administration of 3.42 mg/day/rat of vitamin E for 105 days after the first induction. Mitochondria morphology was analyzed by electronic microscopy (EM) and mitochondrial complexes (MC) by spectrophotometry. In group AI the total and mean number of mitochondria reduced significantly, the intermembranous matrix increased, and swelling was observed with respect to Ctr and AIE (P < 0.01). These damages were related to a significant decrease in the activity of citrate synthase and complexes I, II, III, and IV in group AI in comparison to Ctr (P < 0.001). Similar behavior was presented by group AI compared to AIE (P < 0.001). These results show that vitamin E produces a significative regression of inflammatory and oxidative stress process and it resolved the morphofunctional mitochondrial alterations in this experimental model of atherogenic disease. PMID:24653842

  8. Comparison of histopathologic changes following X-irradiation of mid-thoracic and lumbosacral levels of neonatal rat spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heard, J.K.; Gilmore, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    Light microscopic changes were studied in the dorsal funiculi of spinal cords from rats irradiated (4000 R) at 3 days of age and killed from 9-60 days postirradiation (P-I). The irradiated site was limited to a 5-mm length of mid-thoracic spinal cord (T only) in one group of rats, to a 5-mm length of lumbosacral spinal cord (L only) in a second group, and to 5-mm lengths of both mid-thoracic and lumbosacral spinal cord (T/L) in the third group. Changes in the lumbosacral regions were essentially the same in both L only and T/L irradiated groups. These changes included a decreased neuroglial population and a concurrent state of hypomyelination from 9-30 days P-I. In contrast, in the mid-thoracic regions of T only and T/L irradiated groups the decrease in the neuroglial population was obvious only through 13 days P-I, and by 30 days this population resembled that of the controls. The irradiated mid-thoracic areas were hypomyelinated, with the fasciculus gracilis showing a greater degree of hypomyelination than the fasciculus cuneatus. By 25 days P-I, myelination appeared to be normal in these areas. Scattered hemorrhages were noted in both lumbosacral and mid-thoracic regions, but necrotic areas occurred only at the lumbosacral level. In general, the mid-thoracic area appeared to be less sensitive to x-radiation at 3 days of age than the lumbosacral area. These data suggest that there may be marked differences in the developmental states of cells at these two levels at 3 days of age

  9. Effect of telmisartan on the expression of adiponectin receptors and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase in the heart and aorta in type 2 diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Zhixin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic cardiovascular disease is associated with decreased adiponectin and increased oxidative stress. This study investigated the effect of telmisartan on the expression of adiponectin receptor 2 (adipoR2 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase subunits in the heart and the expression of adiponectin receptor 1 (adipoR1 in aorta in type 2 diabetic rats. Methods Type 2 diabetes was induced by high-fat and high-sugar diet and intraperitoneal injection of a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ. Heart function, adipoR2, p22phox, NOX4, glucose transporter 4(GLUT4, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1 and connective tissue growth factor (CTGFin the heart, and adipoR1, MCP-1 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB in aorta were analyzed in controls and diabetic rats treated with or without telmisartan (5mg/kg/d by gavage for 12 weeks. Results Heart function, plasma and myocardial adiponectin levels, the expression of myocardial adipoR2 and GLUT4 were significantly decreased in diabetic rats (P Conclusions Our results suggest that telmisartan upregulates the expression of myocardial adiponectin, its receptor 2 and GLUT4. Simultaneously, it downregulates the expression of myocardial p22phox, NOX4, MCP-1, and CTGF, contributing so to the improvement of heart function in diabetic rats. Telmisartan also induces a protective role on the vascular system by upregulating the expression of adipoR1 and downregulating the expression of MCP-1 and NF-κB in the abdominal aorta in diabetic rats.

  10. Uric acid does not affect the acetylcholine-induced relaxation of aorta from normotensive and deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Theodora; Watts, Stephanie W

    2010-06-01

    Uric acid (UA) results from xanthine oxidase (XO) catabolism of xanthine and is the final product of purine catabolism in humans. In this species, hyperuricemia is associated with gout, nephropathy, and increased cardiovascular disease risk. Although the effects of hyperuricemia in vascular biology are overall controversial, UA has been described as an antioxidant and as potentially improving endothelial function. Hypertension is associated with endothelial dysfunction. We hypothesized that UA improves the endothelial function of aorta from deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats. UA (100 microM) in the presence of the uricase inhibitor oxonic acid (10 microM) did not modify relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) (1 nM-10 microM) in the aorta from nontreated, sham normotensive, and DOCA-salt hypertensive rats [response to 10 microM ACh for UA versus vehicle, respectively: nontreated = 37 +/- 7 versus 48 +/- 7%, sham = 53 +/- 15 versus 57 +/- 20%, DOCA = 81 +/- 4 versus 85 +/- 2% from 20 microM prostaglandin 2alpha (PGF(2alpha))-induced contraction]. Allopurinol (100 microM), a XO inhibitor, did not significantly alter the ACh-induced relaxation of sham and DOCA aortic rings (response to 10 microM ACh for allopurinol versus vehicle, respectively: sham = 61 +/- 5 versus 68 +/- 9%, DOCA = 87 +/- 6 versus 88 +/- 3% from 20 microM PGF(2alpha)-induced contraction). Uricemia, ranging from unmeasurable to 547 microM in sham and to 506 microM in DOCA rats, was not significantly different between these two groups. The expression and activity of XO, as well as the expression of uricase, were not different between sham and DOCA rat aorta. We conclude that, at least in vitro, UA does not affect the ACh-induced relaxation of normotensive and DOCA-salt hypertensive rats.

  11. Tannins and catechin gallate mediate the vasorelaxant effect of Arbutus unedo on the rat isolated aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Mekh, Hassane; Bnouham, Mohamed; Herrenknecht, Christine; Roumy, Vincent; Fourneau, Christophe; Laurens, Alain; Hoerter, Jacqueline; Fischmeister, Rodolphe

    2004-11-01

    This study examined the vascular effect of Arbutus leaves (aqueous extract) and described the isolation of several fractions responsible for their vasorelaxant activity. The aqueous extract (AE) of leaves was tested on rat aortic rings precontracted with 0.1 microm noradrenaline. At 10(-2) g/L, AE produced an endothelium dependent relaxation of 66% +/- 5%, (n = 8). The leaves of Arbutus were then extracted successively with different solvents and the methanol extract was the most active. When tannins (primarily condensed tannins) were precipitated from the methanol extract, they showed a strong vasorelaxant activity (87% +/- 4%, n = 5), whereas the elimination of tannins in the methanol extract reduced significantly its vasorelaxant activity (42% +/- 8%, n = 8, p Arbutus is likely to be due to polyphenol compounds, primarily condensed tannins and catechin gallate. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Diverse effects of a 445 nm diode laser on isometric contraction of the rat aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Woong; Shin, Kyung Chul; Park, Hyun Ji; Lee, In Wha; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Chung, Soon-Cheol; Kim, Ji-Sun; Jun, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Bokyung; Bae, Young Min

    2015-01-01

    The usefulness of visible lasers in treating vascular diseases is controversial. It is probable that multiple effects of visible lasers on blood vessels and their unclear mechanisms have hampered the usefulness of this therapy. Therefore, elucidating the precise actions and mechanisms of the effects of lasers on blood vessels would provide insight into potential biomedical applications. Here, using organ chamber isometric contraction measurements, western blotting, patch-clamp, and en face immunohistochemistry, we showed that a 445 nm diode laser contracted rat aortic rings, both by activating endothelial nitric oxide synthase and by increasing oxidative stress. In addition to the effects on the endothelium, the laser also directly relaxed and contracted vascular smooth muscle by inhibiting L-type Ca2+ channels and by activating protein tyrosine kinases, respectively. Thus, we conclude that exposure to 445 nm laser might contract and dilate blood vessels in the endothelium and smooth muscle via distinct mechanisms. PMID:26417517

  13. Nitric oxide-dependent vasodilation and Ca2+ signalling induced by erythrodiol in rat aorta

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    Fidèle Ntchapda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the pharmacological property of erythrodiol, a natural triterpenoid contained in propolis, as vasodilatory agent, and to determine its mechanism of action. Methods: Rats aortic rings were isolated and suspended in organ baths, and the effects of erythrodiol were studied by means of isometric tension recording experiments. Nitric oxide (NO was detected by ozone-induced chemiluminescence. The technique used to evaluate changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration in intact endothelium was opened aortic ring and loaded with 16 µmol Fura-2/AM for 60 min at room temperature, washed and fixed by small pins with the luminal face up. In situ, ECs were visualized by an upright epifluorescence Axiolab microscope (Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany equipped with a Zeiss×63 Achroplan objective (water immersion, 2.0 mm working distance, 0.9 numerical apertures. ECs were excited alternately at 340 and 380 nm, and the emitted light was detected at 510 nm. Results: In aortic rings with intact endothelium pre-contracted with norepinephrine (10-4 mol/L, the addition of erythrodiol (10-8-10-4 mol/L induced vasorelaxation in a concentration-dependent manner; in endothelium-denuded rings, the relaxant response induced by erythrodiol was almost completely abolished suggesting that vasorelaxation was endothelium-dependent. They had almost no relaxant effect on depolarised or endothelium-denuded aortic segments. The relaxation was significantly attenuated by pre-treatment with the NO synthase inhibitor Nvnitro-L-arginine-methylester. Erythrodiol (10-4 mol/L was able to significantly increase NOx levels. This effect was completely abolished after removal of the vascular endothelium. Erythrodiol (100 µmol/L caused a slow, long-lasting increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration. These results further supported the hypothesis that erythrodiol can induce activation of the NO/soluble guanylate cyclase/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway, as

  14. L-arginine and Arginase Products Potentiate Dexmedetomidine-induced Contractions in the Rat Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Emily S W; Man, Ricky Y K; Ng, Kwok F J; Leung, Susan W S; Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2018-03-01

    The α2-adrenergic sedative/anesthetic agent dexmedetomidine exerts biphasic effects on isolated arteries, causing endothelium-dependent relaxations at concentrations at or below 30 nM, followed by contractions at higher concentrations. L-arginine is a common substrate of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and arginases. This study was designed to investigate the role of L-arginine in modulating the overall vascular response to dexmedetomidine. Isometric tension was measured in isolated aortic rings of Sprague Dawley rats. Cumulative concentrations of dexmedetomidine (10 nM to 10 μM) were added to quiescent rings (with and without endothelium) after previous incubation with vehicle, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME; nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), prazosin (α1-adrenergic antagonist), rauwolscine (α2-adrenergic antagonist), L-arginine, (S)-(2-boronethyl)-L-cysteine hydrochloride (arginase inhibitor), N-hydroxy-L-arginine (arginase inhibitor), urea and/or ornithine. In some preparations, immunofluorescent staining, immunoblotting, or measurement of urea content were performed. Dexmedetomidine did not contract control rings with endothelium but evoked concentration-dependent increases in tension in such rings treated with L-NAME (Emax 50 ± 4%) or after endothelium-removal (Emax 74 ± 5%; N = 7 to 12). Exogenous L-arginine augmented the dexmedetomidine-induced contractions in the presence of L-NAME (Emax 75 ± 3%). This potentiation was abolished by (S)-(2-boronethyl)-L-cysteine hydrochloride (Emax 16 ± 4%) and N-hydroxy-L-arginine (Emax 18 ± 4%). Either urea or ornithine, the downstream arginase products, had a similar potentiating effect as L-arginine. Immunoassay measurements demonstrated an upregulation of arginase I by L-arginine treatment in the presence of L-NAME (N = 4). These results suggest that when vascular nitric oxide homeostasis is impaired, the potentiation of the vasoconstrictor effect of

  15. High-Fat and Fat-Enriched Diets Impair the Benefits of Moderate Physical Training in the Aorta and the Heart in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleverson Rodrigues Fernandes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available AimMillions of people die each year due to cardiovascular disease (CVD. A Western lifestyle not only fuses a significant intake of fat with physical inactivity and obesity but also promotes CVD. Recent evidence suggests that dietary fat intake impairs the benefits of physical training. We investigated whether aerobic training could reverse the adverse effects of a high-fat diet (HFD on the aorta. Then, we explored whether this type of exercise could reverse the damage to the heart that is imposed by fat-enriched diet (FED.MethodsRats were randomly assigned to two experiments, which lasted 8 weeks each. First, rats swam for 60 min and were fed either a regular diet [standard diet (STD] or an HFD. After aortic samples had been collected, the rats underwent a histopathological analysis for different biomarkers. Another experiment subjected rats that were fed either an STD or an FED to swimming for 20 or 90 min.ResultsThe first experiment revealed that rats that were subjected to an HFD-endured increased oxidative damage in the aorta that exercises could not counteract. Together with increased cyclooxygenase 2 expression, an HFD in combination with physical training increased the number of macrophages. A reduction in collagen fibers with an increased number of positive α-actin cells and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 occurred concomitantly. Upon analyzing the second experiment, we found that physically training rats that were given an FED for 90 min/day decreased the cardiac adipose tissue density, although it did not protect the heart from fat-induced oxidative damage. Even though the physical training lowered cholesterol levels that were promoted by the FED, the levels were still higher than those in the animals that were given an STD. Feeding rats an FED impaired the swimming protocol’s effects on lowering triglyceride concentration. Additionally, exercise was unable to reverse the fat-induced deregulation in hepatic

  16. Methodologic aspects of acetylcholine-evoked relaxation of rabbit aorta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kirsten Vendelbo; Nedergaard, Ove A.

    1999-01-01

    The acetylcholine-evoked relaxation of rabbit isolated thoracic aorta precontracted by phenylephrine was studied. Phenylephrine caused a steady contraction that was maintained for 6 h. In the presence of calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and ascorbic acid the contraction decreased...

  17. Endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat aorta to a histamine H3 agonist is reduced by inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase, guanylate cyclase and Na+,K+-ATPase

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    D. M. Djuric

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible involvement of different effector systems (nitric oxide synthase, guanylate cyclase, β-adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors, cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase, and Na+,K+-ATPase was evaluated in a histamine H3 receptor agonist-induced ((Rα-methylhistamine, (Rα-MeHA endothelium-dependent rat aorta relaxation assay. (Rα-MeHA (0.1 nM – 0.01 mM relaxed endothelium-dependent rat aorta, with a pD2 value of 8.22 ± 0.06, compared with a pD2 value of 7.98 ± 0.02 caused by histamine (50% and 70% relaxation, respectively. The effect of (Rα-MeHA (0.1 nM – 0.01 mM was competitively antagonized by thioperamide (1, 10 and 30 nM (pA2 = 9.21 ± 0.40; slope = 1.03 ± 0.35 but it was unaffected by pyrilamine (100 nM, cimetidine (1 μM, atropine (10 μM, propranolol (1 μM, indomethacin (10 μM or nordthydroguaiaretic acid (0.1 mM. Inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase, L-NG-monomethylarginine (L-NMMA, 10 μM and NG-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NOARG, 10 μM inhibited the relaxation effect of (Rα-MeHA, by approximately 52% and 70%, respectively. This inhibitory effect of L-NMMA was partially reversed by L-arginine (10 μM. Methylene blue (10 μM and ouabain (10 μM inhibited relaxation (Rα-MeHA-induced by approximately 50% and 90%, respectively. The products of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase are not involved in (Rα-MeHA-induced endothelium-dependent rat aorta relaxation nor are the muscarinic cholinergic and β-adrenergic receptors. The results also suggest the involvement of NO synthase, guanylate cyclase and Na+,K+-ATPase in (Rα-MeHA-induced endothelium-dependent rat aorta relaxation.

  18. Conduction of impulses by axons regenerated in a Schwann cell graft in the transected adult rat thoracic spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon, A; Calancie, B; Oudega, M; Noga, B R

    2001-06-01

    Central nervous system axons regenerate into a Schwann cell implant placed in the transected thoracic spinal cord of an adult rat. The present study was designed to test whether these regenerated axons are capable of conducting action potentials. Following the transection and removal of a 4- to 5-mm segment of the thoracic spinal cord (T8-T9), a polymer guidance channel filled with a mixture of adult rat Schwann cells and Matrigel was grafted into a 4- to 5-mm-long gap in the transected thoracic spinal cord. The two cut ends of the spinal cord were eased into the guidance channel openings. Transected control animals received a channel containing Matrigel only. Three months after implantation, electrophysiological studies were performed. Tungsten microelectrodes were used for monopolar stimulation of regenerated axons within the Schwann cell graft. Glass microelectrodes were used to record responses in the spinal cord rostral to the stimulation site. Evoked responses to electrical stimulation of the axon cable were found in two out of nine Schwann cell-grafted animals. These responses had approximate latencies in the range of those of myelinated axons. No responses were seen in any of the Matrigel-grafted animals. Histological analysis revealed that the two cases that showed evoked potentials had the largest number of myelinated axons present in the cable. This study demonstrates that axons regenerating through Schwann cell grafts in the complete transected spinal cord can produce measurable evoked responses following electrical stimulation. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Tocotrienol rich tocomin attenuates oxidative stress and improves endothelium-dependent relaxation in aortae from rats fed a high-fat western diet

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    Saher F Ali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that tocomin, a mixture high in tocotrienol content and also containing tocopherol, acutely preserves endothelial function in the presence of oxidative stress. In this study we investigated whether tocomin treatment would preserve endothelial function in aortae isolated from rats fed a high fat diet known to cause oxidative stress. Wistar hooded rats were fed a western diet (WD, 21% fat or control rat chow (SD, 6% fat for 12 weeks. Tocomin (40 mg/kg/day sc or its vehicle (peanut oil was administered for the last 4 weeks of the feeding regime. Aortae from WD rats showed an impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation that was associated with an increased expression of the NADPH oxidase Nox2 subunit and an increase in the vascular generation of superoxide measured using L-012 chemiluminescence. The increase in vascular oxidative stress was accompanied by a decrease in basal NO release and impairment of the contribution of NO to ACh-induced relaxation. The impaired relaxation is likely contributed to by a decreased expression of eNOS, calmodulin and phosphorylated Akt and an increase in caveolin-Tocotrienol rich tocomin, which prevented the diet-induced changes in vascular function, reduced vascular superoxide production and abolished the diet-induced changes in eNOS and other protein expression. Using selective inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS, soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC and calcium activated potassium (KCa channels we demonstrated that tocomin increased NO mediated relaxation, without affecting the contribution of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization type relaxation to the endothelium-dependent relaxation. The beneficial actions of tocomin in this diet-induced model of obesity suggests that it may have potential to be used as a therapeutic agent to prevent vascular disease in obesity.

  20. [Effects of fatigue and restraint stress on the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors in aorta of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Cong; Han, Jian-ke; Wang, Hong-tao; Jia, Zhen-hua; Chang, Li-Ping; Wu, Yi-ling

    2011-04-05

    To investigate the effect of fatigue and restraint stress on the expressions of CPT (carnitine palmitoyltransferase)-I, PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor) δ, 5-HT (hydroxytryptamine) 1D and 5-HT2A receptors in aorta of rats. A total of 45 healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group, excessive fatigue group and restraint stress group (n = 15 each). The general condition, morphological changes of aortic endothelium cell and the blood levels of ET-1 (endothelin) and NO (nitric oxide) were observed. The real-time reverse transcription PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and Western blot were used to detect the gene and protein expressions of CPT-I, PPAR δ, 5-HT1D and 5-HT2A receptors in aorta. Compared with control group, the structural damages of endothelial cell were induced by excessive fatigue and restraint stress. The plasma levels of ET-1 increased [(124 ± 18) ng/L vs (161 ± 18) ng/L, (154 ± 17) ng/L] (P fatigue rats, [(1.23 ± 0.21) vs (0.42 ± 0.05)], [(1.09 ± 0.10) vs (0.25 ± 0.07)] (P fatigue rats, [(1.32 ± 0.07) vs (0.83 ± 0.04)], [(1.41 ± 0.05) vs. (0.75 ± 0.06)]; the mRNA and protein expressions of 5-HT1D receptor decreased in excessive fatigue rats and restraint stress rats, [(1.10 ± 0.15) vs (0.46 ± 0.13), (0.45 ± 0.02)], [(1.19 ± 0.05) vs (0.71 ± 0.06), (0.70 ± 0.05)] (P fatigue rats and restraint stress rats, [(0.99 ± 0.08) vs (6.73 ± 0.46), (7.01 ± 1.56)], [(0.64 ± 0.03) vs (0.79 ± 0.05), (0.82 ± 0.03)] (P fatigue and restraint stress can injure the structure and function of endothelial cell. The changes in energy of abnormal carnitine metabolism and 5-HT receptors may play important roles.

  1. Abdominal aorta coarctation: The first three case reports in our literature

    OpenAIRE

    Gajin Predrag; Tanasković Slobodan; Nenezić Dragoslav; Ilijevski Nenad; Radak Đorđe

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Congenital coarctation of the thoracic aorta at the ligamentum arteriosum or the aortic arch is well recognized. But a much less common variety (0.5-2.0%) of aortic coarctation is located in the distal thoracic aorta or abdominal aorta or both and is often called 'middle aortic syndrome' or 'midaortic dysplastic syndrome'. This represents serious pathological condition and indicates multidisciplinary therapy approach. Outline of Cases. From 1996 to 2007, at the Vascular Surgery ...

  2. Pré-condicionamento isquêmico e monitorização da função medular na abordagem da aorta torácica descendente Ischemic preconditioning and spinal cord function monitoring in the descending thoracic aorta approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Assumpção de Mônaco

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a eficácia do pré-condicionamento isquêmico (PI agudo, guiado por potenciais evocados somatossensoriais (PESS, como método de proteção medular em cães e analisar o valor dos PESS na monitorização da função medular. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 28 cães submetidos à isquemia medular obtida pelo pinçamento da aorta torácica descendente. No grupo C45, o tempo de oclusão aórtica foi de 45 min (n = 7; no grupo PI45, os cães foram submetidos ao PI antes do pinçamento aórtico por 45 min (n = 7. No grupo C60, os cães foram submetidos a 60 min de oclusão aórtica (n = 7 e no grupo PI60, os cães foram submetidos ao PI, seguido pelo pinçamento aórtico por 60 min. Os ciclos de PI foram determinados pelas alterações dos PESS. RESULTADOS: Os índices de Tarlov dos grupos pré-condicionados foram significativamente melhores que os dos grupos de controle (p = 0,005. Observou-se paraplegia em três cães do C45 e em seis do C60, enquanto todos os cães do PI45 permaneceram neurologicamente normais, assim como quatro do grupo PI60. Houve correlação entre o tempo de recuperação dos PESS após a reperfusão aórtica e o estado neurológico pós-operatório (p = 0,011, com sensibilidade e especificidade de 0,75 e 0,83, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: O PI agudo repetitivo, baseado na monitorização do PESS, induziu proteção à isquemia medular causada pelo pinçamento aórtico prolongado. A monitorização do PESS parece ser um bom método de detecção precoce do comprometimento isquêmico medular.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of acute ischemic preconditioning (IP, based on somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP monitoring, as a method of spinal cord protection and to asses SSEP importance in spinal cord neuromonitoring. METHODS: Twenty-eight dogs were submitted to spinal cord ischemic injury attained by descending thoracic aorta cross-clamping. In the C45 group, the aortic cross-clamping time was 45 min (n

  3. Ropivacaine-Induced Contraction Is Attenuated by Both Endothelial Nitric Oxide and Voltage-Dependent Potassium Channels in Isolated Rat Aortae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Ho Ok

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated endothelium-derived vasodilators and potassium channels involved in the modulation of ropivacaine-induced contraction. In endothelium-intact rat aortae, ropivacaine concentration-response curves were generated in the presence or absence of the following inhibitors: the nonspecific nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, the neuronal NOS inhibitor Nω-propyl-L-arginine hydrochloride, the inducible NOS inhibitor 1400W dihydrochloride, the nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (GC inhibitor ODQ, the NOS and GC inhibitor methylene blue, the phosphoinositide-3 kinase inhibitor wortmannin, the cytochrome p450 epoxygenase inhibitor fluconazole, the voltage-dependent potassium channel inhibitor 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, the calcium-activated potassium channel inhibitor tetraethylammonium (TEA, the inward-rectifying potassium channel inhibitor barium chloride, and the ATP-sensitive potassium channel inhibitor glibenclamide. The effect of ropivacaine on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS phosphorylation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells was examined by western blotting. Ropivacaine-induced contraction was weaker in endothelium-intact aortae than in endothelium-denuded aortae. L-NAME, ODQ, and methylene blue enhanced ropivacaine-induced contraction, whereas wortmannin, Nω-propyl-L-arginine hydrochloride, 1400W dihydrochloride, and fluconazole had no effect. 4-AP and TEA enhanced ropivacaine-induced contraction; however, barium chloride and glibenclamide had no effect. eNOS phosphorylation was induced by ropivacaine. These results suggest that ropivacaine-induced contraction is attenuated primarily by both endothelial nitric oxide and voltage-dependent potassium channels.

  4. Polydatin Restores Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation in Rat Aorta Rings Impaired by High Glucose: A Novel Insight into the PPARβ-NO Signaling Pathway.

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    Yang Wu

    Full Text Available Polydatin, a natural component from Polygonum Cuspidatum, has important therapeutic effects on metabolic syndrome. A novel therapeutic strategy using polydatin to improve vascular function has recently been proposed to treat diabetes-related cardiovascular complications. However, the biological role and molecular basis of polydatin's action on vascular endothelial cells (VECs-mediated vasodilatation under diabetes-related hyperglycemia condition remain elusive. The present study aimed to assess the contribution of polydatin in restoring endothelium-dependent relaxation and to determine the details of its underlying mechanism. By measuring endothelium-dependent relaxation, we found that acetylcholine-induced vasodilation was impaired by elevated glucose (55 mmol/L; however, polydatin (1, 3, 10 μmol/L could restore the relaxation in a dose-dependent manner. Polydatin could also improve the histological damage to endothelial cells in the thoracic aorta. Polydatin's effects were mediated via promoting the expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS, enhancing eNOS activity and decreasing the inducible NOS (iNOS level, finally resulting in a beneficial increase in NO release, which probably, at least in part, through activation of the PPARβ signaling pathway. The results provided a novel insight into polydatin action, via PPARβ-NO signaling pathways, in restoring endothelial function in high glucose conditions. The results also indicated the potential utility of polydatin to treat diabetes related cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Acute ethanol intake induces superoxide anion generation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in rat aorta: A role for angiotensin type 1 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yogi, Alvaro; Callera, Glaucia E. [Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Mecawi, André S. [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Batalhão, Marcelo E.; Carnio, Evelin C. [Department of General and Specialized Nursing, College of Nursing of Ribeirão Preto, USP, São Paulo (Brazil); Antunes-Rodrigues, José [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Regina H. [Department of Clinical, Toxicological and Food Science Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, USP, São Paulo (Brazil); Touyz, Rhian M. [Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Tirapelli, Carlos R., E-mail: crtirapelli@eerp.usp.br [Department of Psychiatric Nursing and Human Sciences, Laboratory of Pharmacology, College of Nursing of Ribeirão Preto, USP, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-11-01

    Ethanol intake is associated with increase in blood pressure, through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that acute ethanol intake enhances vascular oxidative stress and induces vascular dysfunction through renin–angiotensin system (RAS) activation. Ethanol (1 g/kg; p.o. gavage) effects were assessed within 30 min in male Wistar rats. The transient decrease in blood pressure induced by ethanol was not affected by the previous administration of losartan (10 mg/kg; p.o. gavage), a selective AT{sub 1} receptor antagonist. Acute ethanol intake increased plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, plasma angiotensin I (ANG I) and angiotensin II (ANG II) levels. Ethanol induced systemic and vascular oxidative stress, evidenced by increased plasma thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) levels, NAD(P)H oxidase‐mediated vascular generation of superoxide anion and p47phox translocation (cytosol to membrane). These effects were prevented by losartan. Isolated aortas from ethanol-treated rats displayed increased p38MAPK and SAPK/JNK phosphorylation. Losartan inhibited ethanol-induced increase in the phosphorylation of these kinases. Ethanol intake decreased acetylcholine-induced relaxation and increased phenylephrine-induced contraction in endothelium-intact aortas. Ethanol significantly decreased plasma and aortic nitrate levels. These changes in vascular reactivity and in the end product of endogenous nitric oxide metabolism were not affected by losartan. Our study provides novel evidence that acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and induces vascular oxidative stress and redox-signaling activation through AT{sub 1}-dependent mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of RAS in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage. -- Highlights: ► Acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and vascular oxidative stress. ► RAS plays a role in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage via AT{sub 1} receptor activation.

  6. Bone marrow stromal cells elicit tissue sparing after acute but not delayed transplantation into the contused adult rat thoracic spinal cord.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tewarie, R.D.; Hurtado, A.; Ritfeld, G.J.; Rahiem, S.T.; Wendell, D.F.; Barroso, M.M.; Grotenhuis, J.A.; Oudega, M.

    2009-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) transplanted into the contused spinal cord may support repair by improving tissue sparing. We injected allogeneic BMSC into the moderately contused adult rat thoracic spinal cord at 15 min (acute) and at 3, 7, and 21 days (delayed) post-injury and quantified tissue

  7. Characterization of upper thoracic spinal neurons responding to esophageal distension in diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Chao; Ghorbani, Marie L M; Wu, Mingyuan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine spinal neuronal processing of innocuous and noxious mechanical inputs from the esophagus in diabetic rats. Streptozotocin (50 mg/kg, ip) was used to induce diabetes in 15 male Sprague-Dawley rats, and vehicle (10 mM citrate buffer) was injected into 15 rats...

  8. Thoracic rat spinal cord contusion injury induces remote spinal gliogenesis but not neurogenesis or gliogenesis in the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Franz

    Full Text Available After spinal cord injury, transected axons fail to regenerate, yet significant, spontaneous functional improvement can be observed over time. Distinct central nervous system regions retain the capacity to generate new neurons and glia from an endogenous pool of progenitor cells and to compensate neural cell loss following certain lesions. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether endogenous cell replacement (neurogenesis or gliogenesis in the brain (subventricular zone, SVZ; corpus callosum, CC; hippocampus, HC; and motor cortex, MC or cervical spinal cord might represent a structural correlate for spontaneous locomotor recovery after a thoracic spinal cord injury. Adult Fischer 344 rats received severe contusion injuries (200 kDyn of the mid-thoracic spinal cord using an Infinite Horizon Impactor. Uninjured rats served as controls. From 4 to 14 days post-injury, both groups received injections of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU to label dividing cells. Over the course of six weeks post-injury, spontaneous recovery of locomotor function occurred. Survival of newly generated cells was unaltered in the SVZ, HC, CC, and the MC. Neurogenesis, as determined by identification and quantification of doublecortin immunoreactive neuroblasts or BrdU/neuronal nuclear antigen double positive newly generated neurons, was not present in non-neurogenic regions (MC, CC, and cervical spinal cord and unaltered in neurogenic regions (dentate gyrus and SVZ of the brain. The lack of neuronal replacement in the brain and spinal cord after spinal cord injury precludes any relevance for spontaneous recovery of locomotor function. Gliogenesis was increased in the cervical spinal cord remote from the injury site, however, is unlikely to contribute to functional improvement.

  9. Reduced estradiol-induced vasodilation and poly-(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP activity in the aortas of rats with experimental polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Masszi

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a complex endocrine disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance, both of which have been connected to atherosclerosis. Indeed, an increased risk of clinical manifestations of arterial vascular diseases has been described in PCOS. On the other hand endothelial dysfunction can be detected early on, before atherosclerosis develops. Thus we assumed that vascular dysfunction is also related directly to the hormonal imbalance rather than to its metabolic consequences. To detect early functional changes, we applied a novel rodent model of PCOS: rats were either sham operated or hyperandrogenism was achieved by implanting subcutaneous pellets of dihydrotestosterone (DHT. After ten weeks, myograph measurements were performed on isolated aortic rings. Previously we described an increased contractility to norepinephrine (NE. Here we found a reduced immediate relaxation to estradiol treatment in pre-contracted aortic rings from hyperandrogenic rats. Although the administration of vitamin D3 along with DHT reduced responsiveness to NE, it did not restore relaxation to estradiol. Poly-(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP activity was assessed by poly-ADP-ribose immunostaining. Increased PAR staining in ovaries and circulating leukocytes from DHT rats showed enhanced DNA damage, which was reduced by concomitant vitamin D3 treatment. Surprisingly, PAR staining was reduced in both the endothelium and vascular smooth muscle cells of the aorta rings from hyperandrogenic rats. Thus in the early phase of PCOS, vascular tone is already shifted towards vasoconstriction, characterized by reduced vasorelaxation and vascular dysfunction is concomitant with altered PARP activity. Based on our findings, PARP inhibitors might have a future perspective in restoring metabolic disorders in PCOS.

  10. Reduced estradiol-induced vasodilation and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity in the aortas of rats with experimental polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masszi, Gabriella; Horvath, Eszter Maria; Tarszabo, Robert; Benko, Rita; Novak, Agnes; Buday, Anna; Tokes, Anna-Maria; Nadasy, Gyorgy L; Hamar, Peter; Benyó, Zoltán; Varbiro, Szabolcs

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance, both of which have been connected to atherosclerosis. Indeed, an increased risk of clinical manifestations of arterial vascular diseases has been described in PCOS. On the other hand endothelial dysfunction can be detected early on, before atherosclerosis develops. Thus we assumed that vascular dysfunction is also related directly to the hormonal imbalance rather than to its metabolic consequences. To detect early functional changes, we applied a novel rodent model of PCOS: rats were either sham operated or hyperandrogenism was achieved by implanting subcutaneous pellets of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). After ten weeks, myograph measurements were performed on isolated aortic rings. Previously we described an increased contractility to norepinephrine (NE). Here we found a reduced immediate relaxation to estradiol treatment in pre-contracted aortic rings from hyperandrogenic rats. Although the administration of vitamin D3 along with DHT reduced responsiveness to NE, it did not restore relaxation to estradiol. Poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity was assessed by poly-ADP-ribose immunostaining. Increased PAR staining in ovaries and circulating leukocytes from DHT rats showed enhanced DNA damage, which was reduced by concomitant vitamin D3 treatment. Surprisingly, PAR staining was reduced in both the endothelium and vascular smooth muscle cells of the aorta rings from hyperandrogenic rats. Thus in the early phase of PCOS, vascular tone is already shifted towards vasoconstriction, characterized by reduced vasorelaxation and vascular dysfunction is concomitant with altered PARP activity. Based on our findings, PARP inhibitors might have a future perspective in restoring metabolic disorders in PCOS.

  11. Cartilaginous focus at the base of the non-coronary semilunar valve of the aorta in rats of different ages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, C.F.

    1968-01-01

    Cartilaginous tissue in the heart of rat has been described in literature by some as an ageing phenomenon, while others have observed it in young animals. Hearts of rats of different ages were studied for the occurence and localization of cartilaginous tissue. A cartilaginous focus has been

  12. Differential Changes of Aorta and Carotid Vasodilation in Type 2 Diabetic GK and OLETF Rats: Paradoxical Roles of Hyperglycemia and Insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Fang Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated large vessel function in lean Goto-Kakizaki diabetic rats (GK and Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty diabetic rats (OLETF with possible roles of hyperglycemia/hyperosmolarity and insulin. Both young and old GK showed marked hyperglycemia with normal insulin level and well-preserved endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation in aorta and carotid artery. There were significant elevations in endothelial/inducible nitric oxide synthase (eNOS/iNOS and inducible/constitutive heme oxygenase (HO-1/HO-2 in GK. The endothelium-dependent vasodilation in GK was inhibited partly by NOS blockade and completely by simultaneous blocking of HO and NOS. In contrast, OLETF showed hyperinsulinemia and mild hyperglycemia but significant endothelium dysfunction beginning at early ages with concomitantly reduced eNOS. Insulin injection corrected hyperglycemia in GK but induced endothelium dysfunction and intima hyperplasia. Hyperglycemia/hyperosmolarity in vitro enhanced vessel eNOS/HO. We suggest that hyperinsulinemia plays a role in endothelium dysfunction in obese diabetic OLETF, while hyperglycemia/hyperosmolarity-induced eNOS/HO upregulation participates in the adaptation of endothelium function in lean diabetic GK.

  13. Vasodilator effects and putative guanylyl cyclase stimulation by 2-nitro-1-phenylethanone and 2-nitro-2-phenyl-propane-1,3-diol on rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Thiago Brasileiro de; Ribeiro-Filho, Helder Veras; Lahlou, Saad; Pereira, José Geraldo de Carvalho; Oliveira, Paulo Sérgio Lopes de; Magalhães, Pedro Jorge Caldas

    2018-07-05

    Compounds containing a nitro group may reveal vasodilator properties. Several nitro compounds have a NO 2 group in a short aliphatic chain connected to an aromatic group. In this study, we evaluated in rat aorta the effects of two nitro compounds, with emphasis on a putative recruitment of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) pathway to induce vasodilation. Isolated aortic rings were obtained from male Wistar rats to compare the effects induced by 2-nitro-1-phenylethanone (NPeth) or 2-nitro-2-phenyl-propane-1,3-diol (NPprop). In aortic preparations contracted with phenylephrine or KCl, NPeth and NPprop induced vasorelaxant effects that did not depend on the integrity of vascular endothelium. NPeth had a lesser vasorelaxant efficacy than NPprop and only the NPprop effects were inhibited by pretreatment with the sGC inhibitors, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) or methylene blue. In an ODQ-preventable manner, NPprop inhibited the contractile component of the phenylephrine-induced response mediated by intracellular Ca 2+ release or by extracellular Ca 2+ recruitment through receptor- or voltage-operated Ca 2+ channels. In contrast, NPprop was inert against the transient contraction induced by caffeine in Ca 2+ -free medium. In an ODQ-dependent manner, NPprop inhibited the contraction induced by the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate or by the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor sodium orthovanadate. In silico docking analysis of a sGC homologous protein revealed preferential site for NPprop. In conclusion, the nitro compounds NPeth and NPprop induced vasorelaxation in rat aortic rings. Aliphatic chain substituents selectively interfered in the ability of these compounds to induce vasorelaxant effects, and only NPprop relaxed aortic rings via a sGC pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Calcium activity of upper thoracic dorsal root ganglion neurons in zucker diabetic Fatty rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghorbani, Marie Louise; Nyborg, Niels C B; Fjalland, Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the calcium activity of C8-T5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from Zucker diabetic fatty rats. In total, 8 diabetic ZDF fatty animals and 8 age-matched control ZDF lean rats were employed in the study. C8-T5 dorsal root ganglia were isolated bilatera......The aim of the present study was to examine the calcium activity of C8-T5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from Zucker diabetic fatty rats. In total, 8 diabetic ZDF fatty animals and 8 age-matched control ZDF lean rats were employed in the study. C8-T5 dorsal root ganglia were isolated...... in calcium activity of the DRG neurons were found, potentially indicating altered neuronal responses during myocardial ischemia....

  15. Regional gene expression of LOX-1, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 in aorta of HIV-1 transgenic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hag, Anne Mette Fisker; Kristoffersen, Ulrik Sloth; Pedersen, Sune Folke

    2009-01-01

    endpoints, studies in animal models could be attractive alternatives. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated gene expression of lectin-like oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in HIV-1...... transgenic (HIV-1Tg) rats; these genes are all thought to play important roles in early atherogenesis. Furthermore, the plasma level of sICAM-1 was measured. We found that gene expressions of LOX-1 and VCAM-1 were higher in the aortic arch of HIV-1Tg rats compared to controls. Also, the level of sICAM-1......-infection per se may cause atherosclerosis. This transgenic rat model may be a very promising model for further studies of the pathophysiology behind HIV-associated cardiovascular disease....

  16. Gestational hypothyroidism-induced changes in L-type calcium channels of rat aorta smooth muscle and their impact on the responses to vasoconstrictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedaghat, Katayoun; Zahediasl, Saleh; Ghasemi, Asghar

    2015-02-01

    Thyroid hormones play an essential role in fetal growth and maternal hypo-thyroidism which leads to cardiovascular deficiency in their offspring. Considering this, we intended to investigate the impact of gestational hypothyroidism on offspring vascular contractibility and possible underlying mechanisms. Hypothyroidism was induced in female rats by administration of 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil in drinking water (0.02%) till delivery. The offspring aorta smooth muscle (without endothelium) contractile response to KCl (10-100 mM), KCl in the presence of nifedipine (10(-4)-10(-1) µM), phenylephrine (10(-9)-10(-6) M) and finally, phenylephrine and caffeine 100 mM in Ca(2+)-free Krebs were measured. KCl and phenylephrine-induced contractions were considerably lower in gestational hypothyroid (GH) than euthyroid offspring. GH responded to nifedipine with less sensitivity than control. The GH and control groups produced almost equal contraction in respond to phenylephrine and caffeine in Ca(2+)-free Krebs. This study suggests that in hypothyroid offspring L-type Ca(2+) channels are less functional, while intracellular Ca(2+) handling systems are less modified by low levels of maternal thyroid hormones.

  17. Thoracic CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through a vein (IV) in your hand or forearm. It may be given through the rectum using ... CT scan Vertebra, thoracic (mid back) Normal lung anatomy Thoracic organs References Gotway MB, Panse PM, Gruden ...

  18. JAG Tearing Technique with Radiofrequency Guide Wire for Aortic Fenestration in Thoracic Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, Carmelo; Ceccherini, Claudio; Leonini, Sara; Cini, Marco; Vigni, Francesco; Neri, Eugenio; Tucci, Enrico; Benvenuti, Antonio; Tommasino, Giulio; Sassi, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    An innovative approach, the JAG tearing technique, was performed during thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair in a patient with previous surgical replacement of the ascending aorta with a residual uncomplicated type B aortic dissection who developed an aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta with its lumen divided in two parts by an intimal flap. The proximal landing zone was suitable to place a thoracic stent graft. The distal landing zone was created by cutting the intimal flap in the distal third of the descending thoracic aorta with a radiofrequency guide wire and intravascular ultrasound catheter.

  19. Traumatic rupture of the aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorfman, G.S.; Paolella, L.P.; Haas, R.A.; Lambiase, R.E.; Cronan, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate the acceptability of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the evaluation of traumatic rupture of the aorta (TRA), the authors obtained 56 thoracic aortograms in 55 consecutive trauma patients, using both DSA and cut-film angiography (CFA). Both studies were ranked blindly and assigned scores for quality and diagnosis. Interobserver variance for DSA and CFA quality rankings was insignificant. CFA achieved significantly higher ranking for quality. In the 56 examinations, CFA demonstrated seven abnormalities that demanded intervention for follow-up angiography. DSA demonstrated only five of these and found no additional abnormalities. While this evaluation applies only to the particular digital system that the authors tested, they found that DSA, as compared with CFA, failed to demonstrate significant aortic injury. The confidence of diagnosis was significantly greater with CFA. Similar double-blind evaluation is mandatory at any trauma center prior to converting from CFA to DSA in the diagnosis of this life-threatening condition

  20. Evidence for P(2)-purinoceptors contribution in H(2)O(2)-induced contraction of rat aorta in the absence of endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, J Z; Zheng, X F; Kwan, C Y

    2000-08-18

    H(2)O(2) can contract many arteries, however the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. This study aims to test whether H(2)O(2)-induced vasoconstriction could be functionally attributed to the activation of P(2)-purinoceptors in rat aorta and to explore its possible signaling mechanisms. Isometric tension recording of H(2)O(2) and ATP-induced contractions of rat aortic rings were compared in the absence or presence of various pharmacological tools to identify their possible common signaling pathways. Both H(2)O(2) and ATP induced transient phasic contractions in a concentration-dependent manner (1-1000 microM). Removal of endothelium potentiated the contractile responses to H(2)O(2) and to ATP. H(2)O(2) (30 microM)-induced phasic contraction could be abolished by catalase (800 U/ml), but not affected by SOD (150 U/ml), DMSO (5 mM) and apyrase (5 U/ml), suggesting no involvement of O(2)(-), hydroxyl free radicals and ATP release. Also, several receptor antagonists including phentolamine, atropine, methysergide and chlorpheniramine (each 3 microM) were without effect on H(2)O(2) (30 microM)-induced phasic contraction, suggesting no involvement of typical neurotransmitter release. However, both H(2)O(2) (30 microM) and ATP (1 mM)-induced phasic contractions not only presented homologous desensitization, but also showed heterogeneous desensitization. Furthermore, the phasic contractions in response to H(2)O(2) (30 microM) or ATP (100 microM) could be inhibited or abolished in a concentration dependent manner by RB-2 and suramin (10-100 microM), two widely used P(2)-purinoceptor antagonists, with only partial inhibition by Evans blue (300 microM), a moderately selective P(2x) receptor blocker, or by alpha-beta-methylene-ATP (100 microM), a selective P(2x) receptor desensitizer. On the other hand, both H(2)O(2) (30 microM) and ATP (100 microM)-induced phasic contractions were also attenuated, to different degree, by inhibitors of several enzymes including PLC

  1. Effect of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on the Participation of Vasodilator Factors in Aorta from Orchidectomized Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diva M Villalpando

    Full Text Available Benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs against cardiovascular diseases have been reported. Vascular tone regulation is largely mediated by endothelial factors whose release is modulated by sex hormones. Since the incidence of cardiovascular pathologies has been correlated with decreased levels of sex hormones, the aim of this study was to analyze whether a diet supplemented with the specific PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA could prevent vascular changes induced by an impaired gonadal function. For this purpose, control and orchidectomized rats were fed with a standard diet supplemented with 5% (w/w sunflower oil or with 3% (w/w sunflower oil plus 2% (w/w DHA. The lipid profile, the blood pressure, the production of prostanoids and nitric oxide (NO, and the redox status of biological samples from control and orchidectomized rats, fed control or DHA-supplemented diet, were analyzed. The vasodilator response and the contribution of NO, prostanoids and hyperpolarizing mechanisms were also studied. The results showed that orchidectomy negatively affected the lipid profile, increased the production of prostanoids and reactive oxygen species (ROS, and decreased NO production and the antioxidant capacity, as well as the participation of hyperpolarizing mechanisms in the vasodilator responses. The DHA-supplemented diet of the orchidectomized rats decreased the release of prostanoids and ROS, while increasing NO production and the antioxidant capacity, and it also improved the lipid profile. Additionally, it restored the participation of hyperpolarizing mechanisms by activating potassium. Since the modifications induced by the DHA-supplemented diet were observed in the orchidectomized, but not in the healthy group, DHA seems to exert cardioprotective effects in physiopathological situations in which vascular dysfunction exists.

  2. Cross-organ sensitization of thoracic spinal neurons receiving noxious cardiac input in rats with gastroesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chao; Malykhina, Anna P; Thompson, Ann M; Farber, Jay P; Foreman, Robert D

    2010-06-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) frequently triggers or worsens cardiac pain or symptoms in patients with coronary heart disease. This study aimed to determine whether GER enhances the activity of upper thoracic spinal neurons receiving noxious cardiac input. Gastric fundus and pyloric ligations as well as a longitudinal myelotomy at the gastroesophageal junction induced acute GER in pentobarbital-anesthetized, paralyzed, and ventilated male Sprague-Dawley rats. Manual manipulations of the stomach and lower esophagus were used as surgical controls in another group. At 4-9 h after GER surgery, extracellular potentials of single neurons were recorded from the T3 spinal segment. Intrapericardial bradykinin (IB) (10 microg/ml, 0.2 ml, 1 min) injections were used to activate cardiac nociceptors, and esophageal distensions were used to activate esophageal afferent fibers. Significantly more spinal neurons in the GER group responded to IB compared with the control group (69.1 vs. 38%, P neurons in the superficial laminae of GER animals was significantly different from those in deeper layers (1/8 vs. 46/60, P 0.05). Excitatory responses of spinal neurons to IB in the GER group were greater than in the control group [32.4 +/- 3.5 impulses (imp)/s vs. 13.3 +/- 2.3 imp/s, P neurons responded to cardiac input and ED, which was higher than the control group (61.5%, P neurons in deeper laminae of the dorsal horn to noxious cardiac stimulus.

  3. Over length quantification of the multiaxial mechanical properties of the ascending, descending and abdominal aorta using Digital Image Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Juan A; Corral, Victoria; Martínez, Miguel A; Peña, Estefanía

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we hypothesize that the biaxial mechanical properties of the aorta may be dependent on arterial location. To demonstrate any possible position-related difference, our study analyzed and compared the biaxial mechanical properties of the ascending thoracic aorta, descending thoracic aorta and infrarenal abdominal aorta stemming from the same porcine subjects, and reported values of constitutive parameters for well-known strain energy functions, showing how these mechanical properties are affected by location along the aorta. When comparing ascending thoracic aorta, descending thoracic aorta and infrarenal abdominal aorta, abdominal tissues were found to be stiffer and highly anisotropic. We found that the aorta changed from a more isotropic to a more anisotropic tissue and became progressively less compliant and stiffer with the distance to the heart. We observed substantial differences in the anisotropy parameter between aortic samples where abdominal samples were more anisotropic and nonlinear than the thoracic samples. The phenomenological model was not able to capture the passive biaxial properties of each specific porcine aorta over a wide range of biaxial deformations, showing the best prediction root mean square error ε=0.2621 for ascending thoracic samples and, especially, the worst for the infrarenal abdominal samples ε=0.3780. The micro-structured model with Bingham orientation density function was able to better predict biaxial deformations (ε=0.1372 for ascending thoracic aorta samples). The root mean square error of the micro-structural model and the micro-structured model with von Mises orientation density function were similar for all positions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ca²⁺-dependent nitric oxide release in the injured endothelium of excised rat aorta: a promising mechanism applying in vascular prosthetic devices in aging patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berra-Romani, Roberto; Avelino-Cruz, José Everardo; Raqeeb, Abdul; Della Corte, Alessandro; Cinelli, Mariapia; Montagnani, Stefania; Guerra, Germano; Moccia, Francesco; Tanzi, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide is key to endothelial regeneration, but it is still unknown whether endothelial cell (EC) loss results in an increase in NO levels at the wound edge. We have already shown that endothelial damage induces a long-lasting Ca²⁺ entry into surviving cells though connexin hemichannels (CxHcs) uncoupled from their counterparts on ruptured cells. The physiological outcome of injury-induced Ca²⁺ inflow is, however, unknown. In this study, we sought to determine whether and how endothelial scraping induces NO production (NOP) in the endothelium of excised rat aorta by exploiting the NO-sensitive fluorochrome, DAF-FM diacetate and the Ca²⁺-sensitive fluorescent dye, Fura-2/AM. We demonstrated that injury-induced NOP at the lesion site is prevented in presence of the endothelial NO synthase inhibitor, L-NAME, and in absence of extracellular Ca²⁺. Unlike ATP-dependent NO liberation, the NO response to injury is insensitive to BTP-2, which selectively blocks store-operated Ca²⁺ inflow. However, injury-induced NOP is significantly reduced by classic gap junction blockers, and by connexin mimetic peptides specifically targeting Cx37Hcs, Cx40HCs, and Cx43Hcs. Moreover, disruption of caveolar integrity prevents injury-elicited NO signaling, but not the accompanying Ca²⁺ response. The data presented provide the first evidence that endothelial scraping stimulates NO synthesis at the wound edge, which might both exert an immediate anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory action and promote the subsequent re-endothelialization.

  5. Scaffold-Free Tubular Tissues Created by a Bio-3D Printer Undergo Remodeling and Endothelialization when Implanted in Rat Aortae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Manabu; Nakayama, Koichi; Noguchi, Ryo; Kamohara, Keiji; Furukawa, Kojirou; Uchihashi, Kazuyoshi; Toda, Shuji; Oyama, Jun-ichi; Node, Koichi; Morita, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    Background Small caliber vascular prostheses are not clinically available because synthetic vascular prostheses lack endothelial cells which modulate platelet activation, leukocyte adhesion, thrombosis, and the regulation of vasomotor tone by the production of vasoactive substances. We developed a novel method to create scaffold-free tubular tissue from multicellular spheroids (MCS) using a “Bio-3D printer”-based system. This system enables the creation of pre-designed three-dimensional structures using a computer controlled robotics system. With this system, we created a tubular structure and studied its biological features. Methods and Results Using a “Bio-3D printer,” we made scaffold-free tubular tissues (inner diameter of 1.5 mm) from a total of 500 MCSs (2.5× 104 cells per one MCS) composed of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (40%), human aortic smooth muscle cells (10%), and normal human dermal fibroblasts (50%). The tubular tissues were cultured in a perfusion system and implanted into the abdominal aortas of F344 nude rats. We assessed the flow by ultrasonography and performed histological examinations on the second (n = 5) and fifth (n = 5) day after implantation. All grafts were patent and remodeling of the tubular tissues (enlargement of the lumen area and thinning of the wall) was observed. A layer of endothelial cells was confirmed five days after implantation. Conclusions The scaffold-free tubular tissues made of MCS using a Bio-3D printer underwent remodeling and endothelialization. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the underlying mechanism of endothelialization and its function, as well as the long-term results. PMID:26325298

  6. In vitro vascular effects produced by crude aqueous extract of green marine algae, Cladophora patentiramea (Mont.) Kützing, in aorta from normotensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yee-Ling; Mok, Shiueh-Lian

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the antihypertensive activity of aqueous extracts obtained from Malaysian coastal seaweeds and to determine the pharmacological mechanisms of the extracts on rat aorta in vitro. The antihypertensive activity of 11 species of seaweeds (5 brown, 1 red and 5 green algae) were tested by cumulative addition of the extracts to phenylephrine (PE)-precontracted Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) aortic rings in in vitro isometric contraction studies. Mechanisms for vasorelaxant effect were investigated in the presence of various antagonists. Of the 11 species tested, 2 showed a vasorelaxant effect. Further investigation of the mechanisms of action of the aqueous extract of green alga, Cladophora patentiramea (AECP),showed that the vascular relaxant effect was endothelium- and concentration-dependent. A maximum relaxation of 45.8 +/- 4.6% (n = 8, p < 0.001) was obtained at 0.1 mg/ml of extract, after which the response was found to reduce in a concentration-dependent manner to 15.7 +/- 4.9% (n = 8, p < 0.001) at the highest extract concentration tested. Pretreatment of endothelium-intact aortic rings with Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 30 microM), (1)H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 microM) and methylene blue (100 microM) resulted in a complete blockade of AECP-induced vasorelaxation. However, the relaxant effects of the extract were not blocked by atropine (1 microM), indomethacin (10 microM) and glibenclamide (10 microM), although the maximum relaxant responses were enhanced in the presence of glibenclamide. Our data showed that the in vitro vascular relaxant effect of AECPwas mediated through endothelium-dependent nitric oxide-cGMP pathway, and was not associated with the release of vasodilator prostaglandins, activation of muscarinic receptors, or ATP-sensitive potassium channels opening. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Scaffold-Free Tubular Tissues Created by a Bio-3D Printer Undergo Remodeling and Endothelialization when Implanted in Rat Aortae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Manabu; Nakayama, Koichi; Noguchi, Ryo; Kamohara, Keiji; Furukawa, Kojirou; Uchihashi, Kazuyoshi; Toda, Shuji; Oyama, Jun-Ichi; Node, Koichi; Morita, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    Small caliber vascular prostheses are not clinically available because synthetic vascular prostheses lack endothelial cells which modulate platelet activation, leukocyte adhesion, thrombosis, and the regulation of vasomotor tone by the production of vasoactive substances. We developed a novel method to create scaffold-free tubular tissue from multicellular spheroids (MCS) using a "Bio-3D printer"-based system. This system enables the creation of pre-designed three-dimensional structures using a computer controlled robotics system. With this system, we created a tubular structure and studied its biological features. Using a "Bio-3D printer," we made scaffold-free tubular tissues (inner diameter of 1.5 mm) from a total of 500 MCSs (2.5× 104 cells per one MCS) composed of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (40%), human aortic smooth muscle cells (10%), and normal human dermal fibroblasts (50%). The tubular tissues were cultured in a perfusion system and implanted into the abdominal aortas of F344 nude rats. We assessed the flow by ultrasonography and performed histological examinations on the second (n = 5) and fifth (n = 5) day after implantation. All grafts were patent and remodeling of the tubular tissues (enlargement of the lumen area and thinning of the wall) was observed. A layer of endothelial cells was confirmed five days after implantation. The scaffold-free tubular tissues made of MCS using a Bio-3D printer underwent remodeling and endothelialization. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the underlying mechanism of endothelialization and its function, as well as the long-term results.

  8. Coil embolization of an anastomotic leak after ascending aorta replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Anders; Andersen, Lars Ib; Haahr, P.E.

    2008-01-01

    treated aneurysm in the ascending thoracic aorta complicated with an anastomotic leak. If a short prosthesis (6 cm) had been available, the anastomotic leak would have been treated with endovascular repair. In lack of this prosthesis, we were forced to treat the patient with a method not generally...

  9. Dissection of descending aorta treated by stent-graft implantation in a patient with Marfan syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marat A. Aripov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a 32 years old patient with Marfan syndrome and hypertension. David`s procedure was performed to the patient three months before due to dissection of the ascending thoracic aorta. Computer tomography scan showed DeBakey type III dissection of aorta beginning from left subclavian artery with transition to the ostium of the celiac trunk and proximal part of the left common iliac artery. Stent-grafts in the descending thoracic aorta with overlapping of left subclavian artery were implanted to the patient with Marfan syndrome. Patient was discharged and no complications recorded at 6th month follow-up.

  10. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections: endovascular treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Donald T; Cho, Jae S; Chaer, Rabih A; Makaroun, Michel S

    2010-01-01

    The treatment of thoracic aortic disease has changed radically with the advances made in endovascular therapy since the concept of thoracic endovascular aortic repair was first described 15 years ago. Currently, there is a diverse array of endografts that are commercially available to treat the thoracic aorta. Multiple studies, including industry-sponsored and single-institution reports, have demonstrated excellent outcomes of thoracic endovascular aortic repair for the treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms, with less reported perioperative morbidity and mortality in comparison with conventional open repair. Additionally, similar outcomes have been demonstrated for the treatment of type B dissections. However, the technology remains relatively novel, and larger studies with longer term outcomes are necessary to more fully evaluate the role of endovascular therapy for the treatment of thoracic aortic disease. This review examines the currently available thoracic endografts, preoperative planning for thoracic endovascular aortic repair, and outcomes of thoracic endovascular aortic repair for the treatment of both thoracic aortic aneurysms and type B aortic dissections. Mt Sinai J Med 77:256-269, 2010. (c) 2010 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  11. Anomalous Posterior Intercostal Arterial Trunk Arising From the Abdominal Aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jie, Bing, E-mail: jbshh@163.com; Yu, Dong, E-mail: yudong-mail@126.com; Jiang, Sen, E-mail: jasfly77@vip.163.com [Tongji University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital (China)

    2016-04-15

    A common trunk of the ipsilateral posterior intercostal artery (PIA) arising from the thoracic aorta is usually an anatomical variation. However, a common trunk of bilateral posterior intercostal arterial trunk (PIAT) arising from the abdominal aorta is rare. It is important to recognize this anatomical variation of PIA when performing interventional radiological procedures. We present a rare case of an anomalous PIAT that originated from the abdominal aorta in a patient with hemoptysis caused by tuberculosis sequelae. Bilateral 4th to 11th PIAs arose from a common trunk and the trunk arising from the posterior aspect of the abdominal aorta at the level of T12/L1 intervertebral space. The pathological right 4th and 5th PIAs and bronchial arteries were embolized. Hemoptysis has been controlled for 3 months.

  12. Thoracic CT findings at hypovolemic shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotondo, A.; Angelelli, G.; Catalano, O.; Grassi, R.; Scialpi, M.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To describe and discuss the thoracic CT features of hypovolemic shock. Material and Methods: From a group of 18 patients with signs of hypovolemia on contrast-enhanced abdominal CT, 11 were selected for our study as having also undergone a complete chest examination. Pulse rate, blood pressure, trauma score value, Glasgow coma scale value, surgical result, and final outcome were retrospectively evaluated. The CT features analyzed were: decreased cardiac volume, reduced caliber of the thoracic aorta, aortic branches and caval venous system, increased enhancement of the aorta, and increased enhancement of the pulmonary collapses/contusions. Results: All 11 subjects presented severe injuries and hemodynamic instability; 7 were stable enough to undergo surgery; only 1 of the 11 survived. Two patients showed none of the features of thoracic hypovolemia. All the other patients presented at least two signs: reduced caliber of the thoracic aorta in 7 cases; decreased volume of the cardiac chambers and increased aortic enhancement in 6; decreased caliber of the aortic vessels in 4; decreased caliber of the caval veins in 3; and increased enhancement of the pulmonary collapses/contusions in 3. Conclusions: In patients with hypovolemia, CT may show several thoracic findings in addition to abdominal ones. Knowledge of these features is important for distinguishing them from traumatic injuries. (orig.)

  13. Coarctation of the Aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the wall of the left ventricle to thicken (hypertrophy). Risk factors Coarctation of the aorta often occurs ... body. Over time, this can cause your heart muscle to thicken and lead to symptoms such as ...

  14. Coarctation of the aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the legs is usually weaker than in the arms. Blood pressure is usually higher in the arms after infancy. ... be used to see if there are any differences in blood pressure in different areas of the aorta. Treatment Most ...

  15. Mechanisms Underlying Vasorelaxation Induced in Rat Aorta by Galetin 3,6-Dimethyl Ether, a Flavonoid from Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth. Ducke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibério L. Macêdo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the relaxant action of galetin 3,6-dimethyl ether (FGAL on rat aorta. The flavonoid relaxed both PMA‑ and phenylephrine (Phe-induced contractions (pD2 = 5.36 ± 0.11 and 4.17 ± 0.10, respectively, suggesting the involvement of PKC and Phe pathways or α1 adrenergic receptor blockade. FGAL inhibited and rightward shifted Phe-induced cumulative contraction‑response curves, indicating a noncompetitive antagonism of α1 adrenergic receptors. The flavonoid was more potent in relaxing 30 mM KCl- than 80 mM KCl-induced contractions (pD2 = 5.50 ± 0.22 and 4.37 ± 0.12. The vasorelaxant potency of FGAL on Phe-induced contraction was reduced in the presence of 10 mM TEA+. Furthermore, in the presence of apamin, glibenclamide, BaCl2 or 4-AP, FGAL-induced relaxation was attenuated, indicating the participation of small conductance calcium-activated K+ channels (SKCa, ATP-sensitive K+ channels (KATP, inward rectifier K+ channels (Kir and voltage-dependent K+ channels (KV, respectively. FGAL inhibited and rightward shifted CaCl2-induced cumulative contraction-response curves in both depolarizing medium (high K+ and in the presence of verapamil and phenylephrine, suggesting inhibition of Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated calcium channels (CaV and receptor operated channels (ROCs, respectively. Likewise, FGAL inhibited Phe-induced contractions in Ca2+-free medium, indicating inhibition of Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR. FGAL potentiated the relaxant effect of aminophylline and sildenafil but not milrinone, suggesting the involvement of phosphodiesterase V (PDE V. Thus, the FGAL vasorelaxant mechanism involves noncompetitive antagonism of α1 adrenergic receptors, the non-selective opening of K+ channels, inhibition of Ca2+ influx through CaV or ROCs and the inhibition of intracellular Ca2+ release. Additionally, there is the involvement of cyclic nucleotide pathway, particularly through PDE V inhibition.

  16. Can Severe Kyphoscoliosis Lead to Aorta Rupture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotopoulos, Constantinos; Karakasi, Maria Valeria; Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Pavlidis, Pavlos

    2016-09-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a polysystemic disease presenting with a multifaceted clinical picture. Clinical manifestations may present in the skin, as well as in the skeletal and cardiovascular system. The present study aims to describe and examine the case of a 46-year-old woman, who suffered from neurofibromatosis type 1 and died abruptly in the emergency room. The forensic examination attributed her death to traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta resulting from an acute angulation that her vertebral column formed in the thoracic region (severe kyphosis). Outspread cutaneous neurofibromas, severe scoliosis, and osteoporosis (brittle bones) were observed during the autopsy. No atherosclerotic lesions were detected in the aortic lumen. To the authors' knowledge, no similar case has been reported throughout relevant literature.

  17. Hybrid Approach of Aortic Diseases: Zone 1 Delivery and Volumetric Analysis on the Descending Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Duncan

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Conventional techniques of surgical correction of arch and descending aortic diseases remains as high-risk procedures. Endovascular treatments of abdominal and descending thoracic aorta have lower surgical risk. Evolution of both techniques - open debranching of the arch and endovascular approach of the descending aorta - may extend a less invasive endovascular treatment for a more extensive disease with necessity of proximal landing zone in the arch. Objective: To evaluate descending thoracic aortic remodeling by means of volumetric analysis after hybrid approach of aortic arch debranching and stenting the descending aorta. Methods: Retrospective review of seven consecutive patients treated between September 2014 and August 2016 for diseases of proximal descending aorta (aneurysms and dissections by hybrid approach to deliver the endograft at zone 1. Computed tomography angiography were analyzed using a specific software to calculate descending thoracic aorta volumes pre- and postoperatively. Results: Follow-up was done in 100% of patients with a median time of 321 days (range, 41-625 days. No deaths or permanent neurological complications were observed. There were no endoleaks or stent migrations. Freedom from reintervention was 100% at 300 days and 66% at 600 days. Median volume reduction was of 45.5 cm3, representing a median volume shrinkage by 9.3%. Conclusion: Hybrid approach of arch and descending thoracic aorta diseases is feasible and leads to a favorable aortic remodeling with significant volume reduction.

  18. Renal cortical calcification in syngeneic intact rats and those receiving an infrarenal thoracic aortic graft: possible etiological roles of endothelin, nitrate and minerals, and different preventive effects of long-term oral treatment with magnesium, citrate and alkali-containing preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedl, A; Schmiedl, P O; Bonucci, E; Seitz, T; Schwille, R M; Manoharan, M

    2001-08-01

    Renal cortical nephrocalcinosis (C-NC) is a rare disorder of uncertain etiology. Using highly inbred (syngeneic) male Lewis rats, we describe the spontaneous occurrence of histologically detectable C-NC in sham operated control rats (Sham; n=12), its aggravation following grafting of the ascending thoracic aorta from a donor rat to the infrarenal aorta of a recipient (ATx; n=12), and differences in C-NC inhibition after 12 weeks of oral administration of magnesium (Mg), citrate and alkali. C-NC is characterized by Kossa-positive areas located in cells of the proximal tubule close to blood vessels and also, to a lesser extent, within glomeruli. After ATx there was vascular overproduction of endothelin (ET-1) but decreased production of nitrate; in renal cortical tissue there was an excess of calcium over Mg and phosphorus and oxalate over citrate. In plasma there was an increase in calcium and creatinine within the normal range. Calcification of tubular cells was eliminated by a preparation containing potassium, sodium and bases (from citrate degradation and bicarbonate) in addition to Mg. Less effective than the latter was Mg-potassium citrate and least effective, Mg citrate. The former treatment also normalized calcemia and urinary nitrate, but only incompletely suppressed ET-1 and had no significant effect on glomerular calcification or tissue and urinary oxalate. Urinary ET-1 excess appeared directly related to the cortical tissue calcium/Mg ratio, and urinary excretion of Mg, citrate and total protein appeared to be inversely related to the severity of C-NC. It was concluded that (1) the highly inbred rat is prone to precipitation of calcium phosphate in the renal cortex; (2) this type of C-NC occurs in close proximity to and within renal vascular tissue and is associated with an imbalance of vasoconstrictors and vasodilators of endothelial origin; (3) effective inhibition of C-NC can be achieved by an alkalinizing combination of Mg, potassium, sodium and

  19. Surgical treatment of penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer of the descending aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Pavle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The term “penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer” (PAU of the aorta describes the condition in which ulceration of an aortic atherosclerotic lesion penetrates the internal elastic lamina into media. PAU is a high-risk lesion due to its deleterious effects on the integrity of aortic wall, with potentially fatal outcome. Case report. A patient with intensive, sharp chest pain irradiating to the back but with no signs of myocardial ischemia on an electrocardiogram was referred to our hospital. Transthoracic echocardiography showed no pathological changes of the ascending aorta. However, multislice computed tomography (CT showed an aortic ulcer with varying degree of the subadventitial hemorrhage in the region of the thoracic aorta at the level of Th 8-9. Due to imminent rupture of the penetrating aortic ulcer, the patient was promptly prepared for surgery. A 15 cm long subadventitial hematoma was found intraoperatively in the right posterolateral aspect of the descending aorta, 5 cm above the diaphragm and 7 cm below the origin of the left subclavial artery. The affected segment of the aorta was resected, followed by an inlay aortic reconstruction with a Dacron tube graft of 24 mm. Control CT revealed satisfactory reconstruction of the descending aorta. Conclusion. PAU is a rare, but potentially fatal disease. Open surgery in patients with PAU is an effective treatment strategy, although endovascular treatment options are emerging.

  20. Aorta Fluorescence Imaging by Using Confocal Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chun-Yang; Tsai, Jui-che; Chuang, Ching-Cheng; Hsieh, Yao-Sheng; Sun, Chia-Wei

    2011-01-01

    The activated leukocyte attacked the vascular endothelium and the associated increase in VEcadherin number was observed in experiments. The confocal microscopic system with a prism-based wavelength filter was used for multiwavelength fluorescence measurement. Multiwavelength fluorescence imaging based on the VEcadherin within the aorta segment of a rat was achieved. The confocal microscopic system capable of fluorescence detection of cardiovascular tissue is a useful tool for measuring the bi...

  1. Computational modeling of blood flow in the aorta--insights into eccentric dilatation of the ascending aorta after surgery for coarctation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopos, Marcela; Poussineau, Nicole; Maday, Yvon; Canniffe, Carla; Celermajer, David S; Bonnet, Damien; Ou, Phalla

    2014-10-01

    To assess whether combining a computational modeling technique with data from patient magnetic resonance imaging studies can detect different fluid dynamics and vascular biomechanical properties of the ascending and horizontal aorta in patients with angulated "gothic" arch geometry compared with those with normal "Romanesque" arch geometry after aortic coarctation repair. Advanced computational fluid dynamics techniques (coupled Navier-Stokes and elastodynamics equations) were used to predict the fluid-wall interactions in large arteries. We modeled the fluid dynamics and shear stress in the ascending and horizontal aorta in cases of "gothic" arch and normal "Romanesque" aortic arch geometry. A total of 30 patients after aortic coarctation repair prospectively underwent 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging angiography of the thoracic aorta. Measurements of the ascending and horizontal aorta were assessed using multiplanar reformatting images. Our computational model demonstrated that wall shear stress is greater in those with an angulated "gothic" aortic arch than in those with a "Romanesque" arch. In particular, wall shear stress affected the anterior and posterior segments of the ascending aorta and the inferior and superior segments of the horizontal aorta (vs the left and right segments). In vivo, a "gothic" arch was associated with dilatation of the ascending and horizontal aorta, which was eccentric rather than concentric (Pgothic" aortic arch after repair of coarctation. This suggests that patients with an angulated "gothic" aortic arch might warrant increased surveillance for aortic complications. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Thoracic Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Bradley M; Bellister, Seth A; Guillamondegui, Oscar D

    2017-10-01

    Management of chest trauma is integral to patient outcomes owing to the vital structures held within the thoracic cavity. Understanding traumatic chest injuries and appropriate management plays a pivotal role in the overall well-being of both blunt and penetrating trauma patients. Whether the injury includes rib fractures, associated pulmonary injuries, or tracheobronchial tree injuries, every facet of management may impact the short- and long-term outcomes, including mortality. This article elucidates the workup and management of the thoracic cage, pulmonary and tracheobronchial injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of upper thoracic spinal neurons receiving noxious cardiac and/or somatic inputs in diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghorbani, Marie Louise M; Qin, Chao; Wu, Mingyuan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine spinal processing of cardiac and somatic nociceptive input in rats with STZ-induced diabetes. Type 1 diabetes was induced with streptozotocin (50mg/kg) in 14 male Sprague-Dawley rats and citrate buffer was injected in 14 control rats. After 4-11weeks...

  4. Diminutive Porcelain Ascending Aorta With Supravalvular Aortic Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houmsse, Mustafa; McDavid, Asia; Kilic, Ahmet

    2018-05-01

    This report describes the case of a 49-year-old man with a medical history significant for congenital aortic stenosis. The patient presented with progressive shortness of breath and decreased stamina and was found to have a concentric, diminutive porcelain ascending aorta with diffuse supravalvular aortic stenosis. We describe treatment with an aortic root augmentation and Bentall procedure using hypothermic circulatory arrest. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Valve-sparing root and ascending aorta replacement after heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhenawy, Abdelsalam M; Feindel, Christopher M; Ross, Heather; Butany, Jagdish; Yau, Terrence M

    2012-12-01

    A 45-year-old female underwent heart transplantation 17 years ago, with a heart from a 15-year-old donor. Recently, she had developed an aneurysm of the donor aortic root and ascending aorta, with severe aortic insufficiency. Two surgical options were considered; retransplantation versus replacement of the aortic root and ascending aorta. A valve-sparing replacement of the aortic root and ascending aortic aneurysm was performed. The donor aorta showed pathologic changes typical of Marfan syndrome. Nineteen months postoperatively, the patient remains in functional class I, with trivial aortic insufficiency. Copyright © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Imaging of acute traumatic injuries of the thoracic aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintermark, Max; Wicky, Stefan; Schnyder, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Blunt traumatic aortic injuries are a major concern in the settings of high-speed deceleration accidents, since they are associated with a very high mortality rate; however, with prompt diagnosis and surgery, 70% of the patients with a blunt aortic lesion who reach the hospital alive will survive. This statement challenges the emergency radiologist in charge to evaluate the admission radiological survey in a severe chest trauma patient. With a 95% negative predictive value for the identification of blunt traumatic aortic lesions, plain chest film represents an adequate screening test. If aortography remains the gold standard, it tends, at least in hemodynamically stable trauma patients, to be replaced by spiral-CT angiography (SCTA), which demonstrates a 96.2% sensitivity, a 99.8% specificity, and a 99.7% accuracy. In unstable patients, trans-esophageal echography (TEE) plays a major diagnostic role. Knowledge of advantages and pitfalls of these imaging techniques, as reviewed in this article, will help the emergency radiologist to choose the appropriate algorithm in the diagnosis of traumatic aortic injury, for each trauma patient. (orig.)

  7. Cerebral protection during surgery of the thoracic aorta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Eusanio, Marco

    2003-01-01

    The brain is an organ with a high energy demand. Over 90% of the energy produced by mitochondria in the brain is derived from oxygen and glucose carried by the circulation. Any decrease in oxygen causes a prompt fall in energy production and results in severe ischemic brain damage. Since surgery of

  8. MR imaging of the toracic aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbagnati, F.; Castoldi, M.C.; Bianchini, E.

    1988-01-01

    Various pathological conditions of the thoracic aorta were studied by MR Imaging in 31 patients: 23 were aneurysms (branching and non-branching), 2 artero-venous fistulae, 2 aortic prostheses, 2 Marfan's syndromes, 1 coronary sinus aneurysm, and 1 isthmic stenosis. MRI studies were always performed on patients who had been examined by other imaging procedures. A comparative study was carried out on the results of MRI, angiography, computerized tomography, and ultrasounds. The possibility of propedeutic protocol was explored. Our experience, in accordance with the literature on the subject, indicates MRI as the procedure of choice in the study of aneurysms of the toracic aorta. The advantages offered by MRI-the high natural contrast between circulating blood and the supporting structures, the possibility of obtaining multiplanar images as well as data on intraluminal, parietal, and extraparietal conditions-make it a highly competitive procedure if compared to either CT or angiography. While awaiting further evidence, the use of a propedeutic protocol in non-aneurysmatic diseases is still not advisable, due to insufficient patient population, and to the lack of a consistent literature on the subject

  9. Cadaveric aorta implantation for aortic graft infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asad; Bahia, Sandeep S S; Ali, Tahir

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a 73-year-old gentleman who underwent explantation of an infected prosthetic aorto-iliac graft and replacement with a cryopreserved thoracic and aorto-iliac allograft. The patient has been followed up a for more than a year after surgery and remains well. After elective tube graft repair of his abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in 2003, he presented to our unit in 2012 in cardiac arrest as a result of a rupture of the distal graft suture line due to infection. After resuscitation he underwent aorto-bifemoral grafting using a cuff of the original aortic graft proximally. Distally the new graft was anastomosed to his common femoral arteries, with gentamicin beads left in situ. Post discharge the patient was kept under close surveillance with serial investigations including nuclear scanning, however it became apparent that his new graft was infected and that he would require aortic graft replacement, an operation with a mortality of at least 50%. The patient underwent the operation and findings confirmed a synthetic graft infection. This tube graft was explanted and a cryopreserved aorta was used to the refashion the abdominal aorta and its bifurcation. The operation required a return to theatre day one post operatively for a bleeding side branch, which was repaired. The patient went on to make a full recovery stepping down from the intensive therapy unit day 6 post operatively and went on to be discharged 32 days after his cryopreserved aorta implantation. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of atherosclerotic change of the aorta by enhanced computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasu, Junichiro

    1990-01-01

    Intimal atherosclerotic changes of the aorta were quantified by enhanced computed tomography (enhanced CT) and were examined in terms of their relation to other atherosclerotic characteristics, including calcification and aortic pulse wave velocity, diameter of the aorta, and arteriosclerotic risk factors. A total of 413 subjects were studied, consisting of normal volunteers and patients with cardiovascular diseases. Enhanced CT revealed the atheromatous intima as a projecting and thickened wall. Thus, the ratio of the intimal atherosclerotic change to the whole round was determined in various aortic sites. The diameter of the aorta decreased in accordance with the location from the ascending aorta to aortic ending. The diameter of the infrarenal abdominal aorta was 1.5 times larger than that of the ascending aorta, irrespective of age. The diameter of each region of the aorta increased with advancing age; in the age group of 70 years or older, it was 1.5 times larger that that in the age group of 40 years or younger. The intimal change was noted in the middle descending thoracic aorta and infrarenal abdominal aorta. It was proportional to an increase in the aortic pulse wave velocity, the diameter of the aorta, and the intimal calcification. Intimal changes of the aorta were increased in cerebrovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, arteriosclerosis obliterans, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. In particular, hypertension accompanied by diabetes mellitus or high cholesterolemia tended to accelerate the intimal change. In conclusion, aortic intimal changes, as detected on enhanced CT, is useful for the noninvasive diagnosis of arteriosclerosis. (N.K.)

  11. Plaque of atherosclerosis in aorta: review on atherogenesis, formation of plaque, clinical significance, methods of imaging and treatment; Placa de aterosclerose em aorta: revisao sobre aterogenese, formacao de placa, significado clinco, metodos de imagens e tratamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Rogerio Gomes; Nunes, Colandy G. de Oliveira; Rassi, Junior, Luis; Melato, Luciano Henrique; Turco, Fabio de Paula; Borges, Moises Marcos, E-mail: rogerinhofurtado@gmail.com [Centro de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDI), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Sara, Leonardo [Instituto do Coracao (InCor/FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    There is a certain consensus in the literature that the earliest stage of atherogenesis is characterized by the accumulation of spongy cells in the region of the intimal artery. Risk factors such as arterial hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, male gender and advanced age predispose a person to the formation of plaques in the coronaries and aorta. A greater number of acute coronary events as well as strokes have been observed in people with these risk factors. Strokes are the third cause of death in the USA, with about 40% of the cases being of cryptogenic origin. Since 1989 the atheroma plaques which develop in the thoracic aorta have been considered to be responsible for cerebral and peripheral strokes which were previously considered cryptogenic because imaging techniques such as electrocardiogram transesophageal, computerized tomogram, nuclear magnetic angio-resonance have visualized and characterized the lesions with plaques of arteriosclerosis in the thoracic aorta. The authors of this article made a systematic review in the PUBMED about arteriosclerosis in the aorta and its diagnostic methods. This review includes the physiopathology of the formation of atheroma to the aorta and its consequences, diagnostic methods such as echo transesophageal, computerized tomogram and angio resonance, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each method of identification of the lesions. An analysis of the clinical significance of the size, form and location of the atheroma plaques in the thoracic aorta were made based on clinical studies, as well as their treatment with anticoagulants, antiplatelet and drugs to reduce cholesterol. (author)

  12. Impact of thoracic surgery on cardiac morphology and function in small animal models of heart disease: a cardiac MRI study in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nordbeck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Surgical procedures in small animal models of heart disease might evoke alterations in cardiac morphology and function. The aim of this study was to reveal and quantify such potential artificial early or long term effects in vivo, which might account for a significant bias in basic cardiovascular research, and, therefore, could potentially question the meaning of respective studies. METHODS: Female Wistar rats (n = 6 per group were matched for weight and assorted for sham left coronary artery ligation or control. Cardiac morphology and function was then investigated in vivo by cine magnetic resonance imaging at 7 Tesla 1 and 8 weeks after the surgical procedure. The time course of metabolic and inflammatory blood parameters was determined in addition. RESULTS: Compared to healthy controls, rats after sham surgery showed a lower body weight both 1 week (267.5±10.6 vs. 317.0±11.3 g, n<0.05 and 8 weeks (317.0±21.1 vs. 358.7±22.4 g, n<0.05 after the intervention. Left and right ventricular morphology and function were not different in absolute measures in both groups 1 week after surgery. However, there was a confined difference in several cardiac parameters normalized to the body weight (bw, such as myocardial mass (2.19±0.30/0.83±0.13 vs. 1.85±0.22/0.70±0.07 mg left/right per g bw, p<0.05, or enddiastolic ventricular volume (1.31±0.36/1.21±0.31 vs. 1.14±0.20/1.07±0.17 µl left/right per g bw, p<0.05. Vice versa, after 8 weeks, cardiac masses, volumes, and output showed a trend for lower values in sham operated rats compared to controls in absolute measures (782.2±57.2/260.2±33.2 vs. 805.9±84.8/310.4±48.5 mg, p<0.05 for left/right ventricular mass, but not normalized to body weight. Matching these findings, blood testing revealed only minor inflammatory but prolonged metabolic changes after surgery not related to cardiac disease. CONCLUSION: Cardio-thoracic surgical procedures in experimental myocardial infarction

  13. Aortic dose constraints when reirradiating thoracic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Jaden D.; Gomez, Daniel R.; Amini, Arya; Rebueno, Neal; Allen, Pamela K.; Martel, Mary K.; Rineer, Justin M.; Ang, Kie Kian; McAvoy, Sarah; Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Welsh, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: Improved radiation delivery and planning has allowed, in some instances, for the retreatment of thoracic tumors. We investigated the dose limits of the aorta wherein grade 5 aortic toxicity was observed after reirradiation of lung tumors. Material and methods: In a retrospective analysis, 35 patients were identified, between 1993 and 2008, who received two rounds of external beam irradiation that included the aorta in the radiation fields of both the initial and retreatment plans. We determined the maximum cumulative dose to 1 cm 3 of the aorta (the composite dose) for each patient, normalized these doses to 1.8 Gy/fraction, and corrected them for long-term tissue recovery between treatments (NID R ). Results: The median time interval between treatments was 30 months (range, 1–185 months). The median follow-up of patients alive at analysis was 42 months (range, 14–70 months). Two of the 35 patients (6%) were identified as having grade 5 aortic toxicities. There was a 25% rate of grade 5 aortic toxicity for patients receiving composite doses ⩾120.0 Gy (vs. 0% for patients receiving R ⩾90.0 Gy) to 1 cm 3 of the aorta

  14. Thoracic aortic aneurysm in a buck associated with caseous lymphadenitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Pinheiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the clinical, bacteriological and pathological findings of a thoracic aortic aneurysm in a four-year-old Anglo-Nubian goat buck, related to a framework of visceral caseous lymphadenitis. General clinical examination showed heart rate of 75 beats per minute, respiratory rate of 20 movements per minute and ruminal movements of four movements per minute. Superficial lymph nodes were normal upon palpation. Rectal temperature was slightly high (40.5°C. Blood test showed an intense leukocytosis (54,000/µL, characterized by strong neutrophil shift to the left. At necropsy, a large blood clot was detected in the thoracic cavity. The thickening of the myocardium and dilatation of the aorta in the thoracic portion, presenting a saculiform format was also observed. A large number of abscesses were disseminated in the media and intima layers of aorta. The aorta lumen obstruction by arterial plaques consisting of inflammatory infiltrate, predominantly neutrophilic was also detected. Abscesses were found spread in turbinate, rumen, reticulum, kidneys, liver, spleen, testicles and aorta wall. The microbiological exam of exudate confirmed Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis as the causal agent.

  15. Imaging of thoracic aortic dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu, F.H.; Young, N.; Soo, Y.S.

    1994-01-01

    Acute thoracic aortic dissection has a high mortality rate if untreated, so the diagnosis must be rapidly made. Multiple imaging techniques are often used. This retrospective study from 1988 to 1993 assesses the usefulness in diagnosis of chest X-rays, computed tomography (CT) scanning, aortography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), trans-thoracic (TTE) and trans-oesophageal (TOE) echocardiography. Forty-two patients with a final clinical diagnosis of dissection were studied. The diagnosis was confirmed in 16 (13 at surgery and three at autopsy). Three died with dissection given as the only cause of death. Chest X-ray abnormalities were seen in all 19 patients with surgery or death from dissection, with a widened mediastinum and/or dilated aorta being present in 17. In the group of 16 patients with surgery or autopsy proof, CT scans found dissections in 9 out of 12 patients studied and correctly classified the type in only five. Aortography was preformed in five, with accurate depiction of dissection and type in all. TTE found dissections in three of eight patients imaged by this method. MRI and TOE were preformed each on two patients, with accurate depiction of dissection and type in each. Because of the relatively low sensitivity of CT scanning in defining aortic dissections Westmead Hospital is currently assessing the use of TOE as the prime imaging modality prior to surgical intervention. 17 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  16. Cigarette smoke exposure alters [14C]arachidonic acid metabolism in aortas and platelets of rats fed various levels of selenium and vitamin E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentovic, M.A.; Gairola, C.; Lubawy, W.C.

    1985-01-01

    Rats were placed on a basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.03, or 3 ppm selenium and 0 or 20 ppm vitamin E for 41-43 wk. Selenium deficiency decreased hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity and lowered both aortic prostacyclin (PGI2) and platelet thromboxane (TXA2) production compared to selenium- and vitamin E-supplemented animals. Vitamin E deficiency increased hepatic lipid peroxidation and decreased aortic PGI2 synthesis. Rats exposed daily for 31-32 wk to fresh smoke from a UK 2R1 reference cigarette had carboxyhemoglobin levels of 0.75 +/- 0.12 and 4.73 +/- 0.12% in sham- and smoke-exposed groups, respectively. Animals chronically exposed to cigarette smoke displayed a nearly twofold increase in pulmonary arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase activity. Smoke exposure produced a 26-33% decrease in aortic PGI2 synthesis compared to shams in the Se3E20, Se0.03E20, and Se3E0 groups. Smoking also increased platelet thromboxane 91% and 98% in the Se3E20 and Se3E0 groups compared to shams. It is concluded that cigarette-smoke exposure and selenium or vitamin E deficiency alter aortic PGI2 and platelet TXA2 production

  17. Thoracic Hemisection in Rats Results in Initial Recovery Followed by a Late Decrement in Locomotor Movements, with Changes in Coordination Correlated with Serotonergic Innervation of the Ventral Horn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczyńska, Anna N.; Majczyński, Henryk; Wilczyński, Grzegorz M.; Sławińska, Urszula; Cabaj, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    Lateral thoracic hemisection of the rodent spinal cord is a popular model of spinal cord injury, in which the effects of various treatments, designed to encourage locomotor recovery, are tested. Nevertheless, there are still inconsistencies in the literature concerning the details of spontaneous locomotor recovery after such lesions, and there is a lack of data concerning the quality of locomotion over a long time span after the lesion. In this study, we aimed to address some of these issues. In our experiments, locomotor recovery was assessed using EMG and CatWalk recordings and analysis. Our results showed that after hemisection there was paralysis in both hindlimbs, followed by a substantial recovery of locomotor movements, but even at the peak of recovery, which occurred about 4 weeks after the lesion, some deficits of locomotion remained present. The parameters that were abnormal included abduction, interlimb coordination and speed of locomotion. Locomotor performance was stable for several weeks, but about 3–4 months after hemisection secondary locomotor impairment was observed with changes in parameters, such as speed of locomotion, interlimb coordination, base of hindlimb support, hindlimb abduction and relative foot print distance. Histological analysis of serotonergic innervation at the lumbar ventral horn below hemisection revealed a limited restoration of serotonergic fibers on the ipsilateral side of the spinal cord, while on the contralateral side of the spinal cord it returned to normal. In addition, the length of these fibers on both sides of the spinal cord correlated with inter- and intralimb coordination. In contrast to data reported in the literature, our results show there is not full locomotor recovery after spinal cord hemisection. Secondary deterioration of certain locomotor functions occurs with time in hemisected rats, and locomotor recovery appears partly associated with reinnervation of spinal circuitry by serotonergic fibers. PMID

  18. The organ specificity in pathological damage of chronic intermittent hypoxia: an experimental study on rat with high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Tian, Jian-li; Feng, Shu-zhi; Sun, Ning; Chen, Bao-yuan; Zhang, Yun

    2013-09-01

    It is known today that sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome and its characteristic chronic intermittent hypoxia can cause damages to multiple organs, including the cardiovascular system, urinary system, and liver. It is still unclear, however, whether the damage caused by sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome and the severity of the damage are organ-specific. This research observed the pathological effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia on rat's thoracic aorta, myocardium, liver, and kidney, under the condition of lipid metabolism disturbance, through establishing the rat model of chronic intermittent hypoxia with high-fat diet by imitating the features of human sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome. In this model, 24 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: a control group fed by regular diet, a high-fat group fed by high-fat diet, and a high-fat plus intermittent hypoxia group fed by high-fat diet and treated with intermittent hypoxia 7 h a day. At the end of the ninth week, the pathological changes of rat's organs, including the thoracic aorta, myocardium, liver, and kidney are observed (under both optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy). As the result of the experiment shows, while there was no abnormal effect observed on any organs of the control group, slight pathological changes were found in the organs of the high-fat group. For the high-fat plus intermittent hypoxia group, however, remarkably severer damages were found on all the organs. It also showed that the severity of the damage varies by organ in the high-fat plus intermittent hypoxia group, with the thoracic aorta being the worst, followed by the liver and myocardium, and the kidney being the slightest. Chronic intermittent hypoxia can lead to multiple-organ damage to rat with high-fat diet. Different organs appear to have different sensitivity to chronic intermittent hypoxia.

  19. “ELEPHANT TRUNK” AND ENDOVASCULAR STENTGRAFTING – A HYBRID APPROACH TO THE TREATMENT OF EXTENSIVE THORACIC AORTIC ANEURYSM

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    Tomáš Holubec

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid approach to elephant trunk technique for treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms combines a conventional surgical and endovascular therapy. Compared to surgery alone, there is a presumption that mortality and morbidity is reduced. We present a case report of a 42-year-old man with a giant aneurysm of the entire thoracic aorta, significant aortic and tricuspid regurgitation and ventricular septum defect. The patient underwent multiple consecutive operations and interventions having, among others, finally replaced the entire thoracic aorta with the use of the hybrid elephant trunk technique.

  20. Spaceflight Affects Postnatal Development of the Aortic Wall in Rats

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    Shin-ichiro Katsuda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated effect of microgravity environment during spaceflight on postnatal development of the rheological properties of the aorta in rats. The neonate rats were randomly divided at 7 days of age into the spaceflight, asynchronous ground control, and vivarium control groups (8 pups for one dam. The spaceflight group rats at 9 days of age were exposed to microgravity environment for 16 days. A longitudinal wall strip of the proximal descending thoracic aorta was subjected to stress-strain and stress-relaxation tests. Wall tensile force was significantly smaller in the spaceflight group than in the two control groups, whereas there were no significant differences in wall stress or incremental elastic modulus at each strain among the three groups. Wall thickness and number of smooth muscle fibers were significantly smaller in the spaceflight group than in the two control groups, but there were no significant differences in amounts of either the elastin or collagen fibers among the three groups. The decreased thickness was mainly caused by the decreased number of smooth muscle cells. Plastic deformation was observed only in the spaceflight group in the stress-strain test. A microgravity environment during spaceflight could affect postnatal development of the morphological and rheological properties of the aorta.

  1. Effect of chlorpromazine on lipid metabolism in aortas from cholesterol-fed rabbits and normal rats, in vitro: inhibition of sterol esterification and modification of phospholipid synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, F.P.

    1983-01-01

    Chlorpromazine (CPZ), a major tranquilizer, was found to be a potent inhibitor of acylCoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT, EC 2.3.1.26) in isolated arterial microsomes and in intact arterial tissue from the rat and cholesterol-fed rabbit in vitro. In isolated rabbit arterial microsomes, CPZ resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of ACAT with 50% inhibition of [1-14C]oleoylCoA incorporation into [14C]cholesteryl esters occurring at 0.1 mM CPZ. CPZ also effectively inhibited the incorporation of [14C]oleate into triglycerides without affecting incorporation into diglycerides. Additionally, CPZ altered the pattern of arterial phospholipids synthesized from [1-14C]oleate. Incorporation into phosphatidylcholine was depressed while incorporation into phosphatidylinositol was increased. Since diglyceride synthesis appeared to be unaffected by CPZ, a redirection of phosphatidic acid into the CDP-diglyceride pathway of glycerolipid synthesis does not adequately account for the effect of CPZ on arterial phospholipid and triglyceride synthesis in these experiments

  2. Abdominal aorta coarctation: The first three case reports in our literature

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    Gajin Predrag

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Congenital coarctation of the thoracic aorta at the ligamentum arteriosum or the aortic arch is well recognized. But a much less common variety (0.5-2.0% of aortic coarctation is located in the distal thoracic aorta or abdominal aorta or both and is often called 'middle aortic syndrome' or 'midaortic dysplastic syndrome'. This represents serious pathological condition and indicates multidisciplinary therapy approach. Outline of Cases. From 1996 to 2007, at the Vascular Surgery Clinic of the Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases 'Dedinje', Belgrade, three patients were treated due to abdominal aorta coarctation, two females aged 55 and 50 and a 4-year-old child. The patients were treated surgically (by-pass with a prosthetic graft and patch angioplasty and endovascular-percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA with and without a stent. The follow-up period was 3-70 months. In the 50-year-old patient, angiography showed severe narrowing of the suprarenal segment of the abdominal aorta. Thoraco-abdominal bypass with a 16 mm dacronic tubular graft was performed. In the 4-year-old patient angiography also showed a suprarenal aorta narrowing. In the first act patch angioplasty was performed and after PTA of the visceral arteries was done on several occasions. In the 55-year-old patient, after diagnostic angiography, infrarenal aorta coarctation was registered. PTA was performed with stent placement. All patients were asymptomatic on control check-ups. Conclusion. Abdominal coarctation is a pathological disease which is seldom found in vascular surgery. Angiography is of major importance for setting the diagnosis and for the control of the results of surgical and nonsurgical treatment. The combination of surgical and endovascular treatment in our patients showed very good results in the studied period.

  3. Asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzcr, J.; Kozlowski, K.

    2008-01-01

    Asphyxiating Thoracic Dysplasia is the most frequent form of Small Thorax - Short Rib Syndromes. Asphyxiating Thoracic Dysplasia in two patients with different clinical course is reported. Radiographic examination is the only method to diagnose Asphyxiating Thoracic Dysplasia with certainty. The correct diagnosis is important for prognostication and genetic counseling. It also excludes the necessity of further, often expensive investigations. (author)

  4. Tracheal replacement by autogenous aorta

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    Anoosh Farhad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tracheal defects may occur after trauma or prolonged intubation. Resection of tracheal tumors also poses a major challenge for substitution. In an effort to solve this problem, different techniques have been tried with little success. We report on a new animal model which showed acceptable results with fewer complications. Methods We replaced 5 cm of cervical trachea in 10 dogs with harvested infra-renal aorta and repaired the aortic defect with Dacron graft. Results Necropsy of the grafted aorta and anastomotic site revealed well healed anastomosis in all animals together with ciliated columnar epithelium coverage of grafted aorta and neovascularization of aortic wall. Conclusion Aortic graft is preferable to other substitutes because of less antigenicity, less vascularity, and no mucous secretions or peristalsis

  5. Tracheal replacement by autogenous aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoosh, Farhad; Hodjati, Hossain; Dehghani, Seifollah; Tanideh, Nader; Kumar, Perikala V

    2009-06-09

    Tracheal defects may occur after trauma or prolonged intubation. Resection of tracheal tumors also poses a major challenge for substitution. In an effort to solve this problem, different techniques have been tried with little success. We report on a new animal model which showed acceptable results with fewer complications. We replaced 5 cm of cervical trachea in 10 dogs with harvested infra-renal aorta and repaired the aortic defect with Dacron graft. Necropsy of the grafted aorta and anastomotic site revealed well healed anastomosis in all animals together with ciliated columnar epithelium coverage of grafted aorta and neovascularization of aortic wall. Aortic graft is preferable to other substitutes because of less antigenicity, less vascularity, and no mucous secretions or peristalsis.

  6. Arctigenin reduces blood pressure by modulation of nitric oxide synthase and NADPH oxidase expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Guoyuan; Yang, Mingguang; Chen, Haining; zhao, Yan; Yang, Shucai; Sun, Changhao

    2015-12-25

    Arctigenin is a bioactive constituent from dried seeds of Arctium lappa L., which was traditionally used as medicine. Arctigenin exhibits various bioactivities, but its effects on blood pressure regulation are still not widely studied. In this study, we investigated antihypertensive effects of arctigenin by long-term treatment in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Arctigenin (50 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered to SHRs or Wistar rats as negative control by oral gavage once a day for total 8 weeks. Nifedipine (3 mg/kg) was used as a positive drug control. After treatment, hemodynamic and physical parameters, vascular reactivity in aorta, the concentration of plasma arctigenin and serum thromboxane B2, NO release and vascular p-eNOS, p-Akt, caveolin-1 protein expression, and vascular superoxide anion generation and p47phox protein expression were detected and analyzed. The results showed that arctigenin significantly reduced systolic blood pressure and ameliorated endothelial dysfunction of SHRs. Arctigenin reduced the levels of thromboxane B2 in plasma and superoxide anion in thoracic aorta of SHRs. Furthermore, arctigenin increased the NO production by enhancing the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS (Ser 1177), and inhibiting the expression of NADPH oxidase in thoracic aorta of SHRs. Our data suggested that antihypertensive mechanisms of arctigenin were associated with enhanced eNOS phosphorylation and decreased NADPH oxidase-mediated superoxide anion generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Feasibility of low contrast media volume in CT angiography of the aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seehofnerová, Anna; Kok, Madeleine; Mihl, Casper; Douwes, Dave; Sailer, Anni; Nijssen, Estelle; Haan, Michiel J.W. de; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Das, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Using smaller volumes of contrast media (CM) in CT angiography (CTA) is desirable in terms of cost reduction and prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). The purpose was to evaluate the feasibility of low CM volume in CTA of the aorta. 77 patients referred for CTA of the aorta were scanned using a standard MDCT protocol at 100 kV. A bolus of 50 ml CM (Iopromide 300 mg Iodine/ml) at a flow rate of 6 ml/s was applied (Iodine delivery rate IDR = 1.8 g/s; Iodine load 15 g) followed by a saline bolus of 40 ml at the same flow rate. Scan delay was determined by the test bolus method. Subjective image quality was assessed and contrast enhancement was measured at 10 anatomical levels of the aorta. Diagnostic quality images were obtained for all patients, reaching a mean overall contrast enhancement of 324 ± 28 HU. Mean attenuation was 350 ± 60 HU at the thoracic aorta and 315 ± 83 HU at the abdominal aorta. A straightforward low volume CM protocol proved to be technically feasible and led to CTA examinations reaching diagnostic image quality of the aorta at 100 kV. Based on these findings, the use of a relatively small CM bolus can be incorporated into routine clinical imaging

  8. Thoracic Ganglioneuromas Resulting in Nonimmune Hydrops Fetalis

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    Paul Singh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction - Most often, ganglioneuromas affect older pediatric and adult patients. They are typically slow growing tumors that remain clinically silent until they become large enough to cause symptoms by compression of adjacent structures. Case - We report a case of a 22-year-old Hispanic gravida 2 para 1 female patient who was found to have massive hydrops fetalis at 20 completed gestational weeks. Fetal echocardiography revealed a narrowed distal ductal arch and proximal descending aorta. Cesarean delivery was undertaken at 29 completed gestational weeks for refractory labor and nonreassuring fetal status. The neonate expired at 47 minutes of life despite aggressive resuscitation. At autopsy, multiple thoracic masses were found adjacent to a compressed proximal descending aorta. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the diagnosis of a ganglioneuroma, a rare type of neural crest tumor. Discussion - A variety of intrathoracic masses have previously been reported to cause hydrops fetalis including teratomas, fibrosarcomas, and lymphangiomas. To our knowledge, this case is the first description of hydrops fetalis caused by ganglioneuromas. We propose that multiple thoracic ganglioneuromas led to biventricular distal outflow tract obstruction and hydrops fetalis.

  9. Características ultraestruturais do segmento abdominal da aorta de rato albino - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i4.825 Mural features of the abdominal aortic segment of albino rat - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i4.825

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Simões

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi investigar as peculiaridades ultraestruturais da parede da aorta de rato. Foram utilizados sete ratos albinos, adultos jovens, dos quais foram coletados fragmentos da aorta abdominal infra-renal. Após a coleta, os segmentos vasculares foram fixados e encaminhados para a rotina de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão e varredura. As lamelas elásticas aparecem interpostas às fibras musculares lisas, sendo essa disposição principalmente notada na túnica média da parede vascular. Entre as fibras musculares lisas e as lamelas elásticas, observa-se um inter-relacionamento aparentemente estreito, feito por conexão e ancoramento entre ambos os elementos murais por meio de lamelas de colágeno. A túnica íntima da aorta abdominal do rato mostra algumas peculiaridades ultraestruturais marcantes, tais como a interrupção, em certos locais da parede, de continuidade da lâmina elástica interna, interrupção acompanhada por poros endoteliais, de certa extensão, suprajacentes à falha na estrutura elástica intimal. Este padrão de constituição mural, com destaque aos ancoramentos elástico-musculares, via o colágeno, parece garantir propriedades fundamentais da parede vascular, concernentes à hemodinâmica, tal como o cisalhamento, normalmente notado entre os estratos superpostos da parede vascular, bem como a contratilidade e a visco-elasticidade da parede arterial.The objective of the present research was to investigate the ultrastructural peculiarities of the aortic wall of the rat. Seven young adult rats were used, from which fragments of the infrarenal abdominal aorta were collected. After collection, the vascular segments were fixed and sent for analysis by scanning electron microscope. The elastic lamellae appear interposed with smooth muscular fibers; this pattern was verified mainly at the medial layer structure. Among the mural elements a well defined interrelationship was established through

  10. Detection of thoracic vascular structures by electrical impedance tomography: a systematic assessment of prominence peak analysis of impedance changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodack, K H; Buehler, S; Nishimoto, S A; Graessler, M F; Behem, C R; Waldmann, A D; Mueller, B; Böhm, S H; Kaniusas, E; Thürk, F; Maerz, A; Trepte, C J C; Reuter, D A

    2018-02-28

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a non-invasive and radiation-free bedside monitoring technology, primarily used to monitor lung function. First experimental data shows that the descending aorta can be detected at different thoracic heights and might allow the assessment of central hemodynamics, i.e. stroke volume and pulse transit time. First, the feasibility of localizing small non-conductive objects within a saline phantom model was evaluated. Second, this result was utilized for the detection of the aorta by EIT in ten anesthetized pigs with comparison to thoracic computer tomography (CT). Two EIT belts were placed at different thoracic positions and a bolus of hypertonic saline (10 ml, 20%) was administered into the ascending aorta while EIT data were recorded. EIT images were reconstructed using the GREIT model, based on the individual's thoracic contours. The resulting EIT images were analyzed pixel by pixel to identify the aortic pixel, in which the bolus caused the highest transient impedance peak in time. In the phantom, small objects could be located at each position with a maximal deviation of 0.71 cm. In vivo, no significant differences between the aorta position measured by EIT and the anatomical aorta location were obtained for both measurement planes if the search was restricted to the dorsal thoracic region of interest (ROIs). It is possible to detect the descending aorta at different thoracic levels by EIT using an intra-aortic bolus of hypertonic saline. No significant differences in the position of the descending aorta on EIT images compared to CT images were obtained for both EIT belts.

  11. Reduction of transmural 125I-albumin concentration in rat aortic media by chronic hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belmin, J.; Michel, J.B.; Curmi, P.A.; Salzmann, J.L.; Juan, L.; Tedgui, A.

    1991-01-01

    Relative 125I-albumin concentration was measured in vivo in the aortic media of sham-operated (n = 10) and hypertensive (two-kidney, one clip) rats, untreated (n = 8) or treated (n = 10) by an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (CEI, Trandolapril). Blood pressure was acutely lowered to a normal level at the time of the experiment in hypertensive rats (n = 7) to separate the direct effect of increased pressure from the effect of pressure-induced structural changes. Relative tissue concentration profiles of labeled albumin across the media were obtained using a serial frozen-sectioning technique. In hypertensive rats, the mean medial albumin concentration decreased by 35% in the ascending arch and 32% in the descending arch (p less than 0.01). When blood pressure was acutely lowered in hypertensive animals, this value decreased further by 56% in the ascending arch, 48% in the descending arch (p less than 0.01), and 22% in the thoracic aorta (p less than 0.05) as compared with controls. The medial thickness in hypertensive rats was significantly increased (more in the ascending arch than in the rest of the aorta). Four-week CEI treatment reversed hypertension and medial thickening, but the mean medial albumin concentration remained significantly lower in the arch (by 36% in the ascending part and 40% in the descending part, p less than 0.01). The collagen content in the thoracic aorta was significantly increased in hypertensive rats (by 40%, p less than 0.01) and remained increased (by 29%, p less than 0.01) after CEI treatment. These results suggested that the hypertension-induced structural changes might reduce the medial distribution volume for albumin, whereas elevated blood pressure per se tended to enhance albumin concentration within the media

  12. Effects of Sucroferric Oxyhydroxide Compared to Lanthanum Carbonate and Sevelamer Carbonate on Phosphate Homeostasis and Vascular Calcifications in a Rat Model of Chronic Kidney Failure

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    Olivier Phan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elevated serum phosphorus, calcium, and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23 levels are associated with cardiovascular disease in chronic renal disease. This study evaluated the effects of sucroferric oxyhydroxide (PA21, a new iron-based phosphate binder, versus lanthanum carbonate (La and sevelamer carbonate (Se, on serum FGF23, phosphorus, calcium, and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH concentrations, and the development of vascular calcification in adenine-induced chronic renal failure (CRF rats. After induction of CRF, renal function was significantly impaired in all groups: uremic rats developed severe hyperphosphatemia, and serum iPTH increased significantly. All uremic rats (except controls then received phosphate binders for 4 weeks. Hyperphosphatemia and increased serum iPTH were controlled to a similar extent in all phosphate binder-treatment groups. Only sucroferric oxyhydroxide was associated with significantly decreased FGF23. Vascular calcifications of the thoracic aorta were decreased by all three phosphate binders. Calcifications were better prevented at the superior part of the thoracic and abdominal aorta in the PA21 treated rats. In adenine-induced CRF rats, sucroferric oxyhydroxide was as effective as La and Se in controlling hyperphosphatemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and vascular calcifications. The role of FGF23 in calcification remains to be confirmed.

  13. Involvement of the thoracic duct in liver cirrhosis patients with ascites. Using MR lymphography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuboyama, Shin-ichi; Ishii, Kunihide; Koga, Hiroyuki

    2003-01-01

    To elucidate whether the morphological changes of the thoracic duct are observed in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites, the thoracic duct was examined at magnetic resonance (MR) lymphography without contrast agent. In 7 healthy volunteers, the thoracic duct was clearly visualized as an intermittent or continuous straight line along the thoracic aorta (its mean diameter was 3.9 mm). In 20 liver cirrhosis without ascites, its mean diameter was 3.6 mm. In 6 liver cirrhosis with refractory ascites, the thoracic duct was visualized as straight or slightly tortuous and slender line (its mean diameter was 2.5 mm). On the other hand, 7 cases with ascites which respond well to the administration of diuretics showed tortuous and dilated thoracic duct (its mean diameter was 4.3 mm). In cases with refractory ascites, mean diameter of the thoracic duct was significantly reduced, compared with the cases without ascites and with ascites that respond well to the administration of diuretics. Thus, it was found that the morphological differences of the thoracic duct depend on the response to the diuretics in liver cirrhosis patients with ascites. To elucidate whether the morphological changes of the thoracic duct are observed in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites, the thoracic duct was examined at magnetic resonance lymphography without contrast agent. In cases with refractory ascites, mean diameter of the thoracic duct was significantly reduced, compared with the cases without ascites and with ascites that respond well to the administration of diuretics. (author)

  14. Two-stage multilevel en bloc spondylectomy with resection and replacement of the aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gösling, Thomas; Pichlmaier, Maximilian A; Länger, Florian; Krettek, Christian; Hüfner, Tobias

    2013-05-01

    We report a case of multilevel spondylectomy in which resection and replacement of the adjacent aorta were done. Although spondylectomy is nowadays an established technique, no report on a combined aortic resection and replacement has been reported so far. The case of a 43-year-old man with a primary chondrosarcoma of the thoracic spine is presented. The local pathology necessitated resection of the aorta. We did a two-stage procedure with resection and replacement of the aorta using a heart-lung machine followed by secondary tumor resection and spinal reconstruction. The procedure was successful. A tumor-free margin was achieved. The patient is free of disease 48 months after surgery. En bloc spondylectomy in combination with aortic resection is feasible and might expand the possibility of producing tumor-free margins in special situations.

  15. Elastin and collagen fibre microstructure of the human aorta in ageing and disease: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamis, Alkiviadis; Krawiec, Jeffrey T.; Vorp, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Aortic disease is a significant cause of death in developed countries. The most common forms of aortic disease are aneurysm, dissection, atherosclerotic occlusion and ageing-induced stiffening. The microstructure of the aortic tissue has been studied with great interest, because alteration of the quantity and/or architecture of the connective fibres (elastin and collagen) within the aortic wall, which directly imparts elasticity and strength, can lead to the mechanical and functional changes associated with these conditions. This review article summarizes the state of the art with respect to characterization of connective fibre microstructure in the wall of the human aorta in ageing and disease, with emphasis on the ascending thoracic aorta and abdominal aorta where the most common forms of aortic disease tend to occur. PMID:23536538

  16. Thrombosis of abdominal aorta during cisplatin-based chemotherapy of testicular seminoma - a case report

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    Gehrckens Ralf

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular complications occurring during cisplatin-based chemotherapy of germ cell tumours are inadequately recognized to date. Case Presentation A 49 year old man with advanced seminoma underwent two courses of chemotherapy according to the PEB regimen. Upon restaging, two thrombotic deposits were noted in the descending part of the thoracic aorta and in the infrarenal abdominal aorta, respectively. Although thrombotic plaques caused aortic occlusion of about 30%, no clinical signs of malperfusion of limbs were registered. The patient was placed on anticoagulant therapy. Six months after completion of chemotherapy, thrombotic deposits had completely resolved. In the absence of other predisposing factors, it must be assumed that cisplatin-based chemotherapy represented a strong stimulus for arterial thrombosis in the aorta. Conclusions This is the first case of endo-aortic thrombosis during chemotherapy for testicular germ cell cancer. Providers of chemotherapy must be aware of arterial thrombosis even in young patients with testicular cancer.

  17. Magnetic resonance-thoracic ductography. Imaging aid for thoracic surgery and thoracic duct depiction based on embryological considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, Itsuko; Udagawa, Harushi; Takahashi, Junji; Yamase, Hiromi; Kohno, Tadasu; Nakajima, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    We describe the optimal protocol of magnetic resonance-thoracic ductography (MRTD) and provide examples of thoracic ducts (TD) and various anomalies. The anatomical pathway of the TD was analyzed based on embryological considerations. A total of 78 subjects, consisting of noncancer adults and patients with esophageal cancer and lung cancer, were enrolled. The MRTD protocol included a long echo time and was based on emphasizing signals from the liquid fraction and suppressing other signals, based on the principle that lymph flow through the TD appears hyperintense on T2-weighted images. The TD configuration was classified into nine types based on location [right and/or left side(s) of the descending aorta] and outflow [right and/or left venous angle(s)]. MRTD was conducted in 78 patients, and the three-dimensional reconstruction was considered to provide excellent view of the TD in 69 patients, segmentalization of TD in 4, and a poor view of the TD in 5. MRTD achieved a visualization rate of 94%. Most of the patients had a right-side TD that flowed into the left venous angle. Major configuration variations were noted in 14% of cases. Minor anomalies, such as divergence and meandering, were frequently seen. MRTD allows noninvasive evaluation of TD and can be used to identify TD configuration. Thus, this technique is considered to contribute positively to safer performance of thoracic surgery. (author)

  18. Thoracic aortic aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... age Connective tissue disorders such as Marfan or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Inflammation of the aorta Injury from falls or ... of connective tissue disorders (such as Marfan or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome) Chest or back discomfort Prevention To prevent atherosclerosis: ...

  19. Endovascular repair of traumatic thoracic aortic tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, M Ashraf; Kirk, Jeffrey S; Cuff, Robert F; Banegas, Shonda L; Ambrosi, Gavin M; Liao, Timothy H; Chambers, Christopher M; Wong, Peter Y; Heiser, John C

    2012-03-01

    Patients with thoracic aorta injuries (TAI) present a unique challenge. The purpose of this study was to review the outcomes of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in patients with TAI. A retrospective chart review of all patients admitted for TEVAR for trauma was performed. In a 5-year period, 19 patients (6 women and 13 men; average age, 42 y) were admitted to our trauma center with TAI. Mechanism of injury was a motor vehicle crash in 12 patients, motorcycle crash in 2 patients, automobile-pedestrian accident in 2 patients, 1 fall, 1 crush injury, and 1 stab wound to the back. A thoracic endograft was used in 6 patients and proximal aortic cuffs were used in 13 patients (68%). One patient (5%) died. There were no strokes, myocardial infarctions, paraplegia, or renal failure. TEVAR for TAI appears to be a safe option for patients with multiple injuries. TEVAR in young patients is still controversial because long-term endograft behavior is unknown. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Thoracic myelopathy with alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeda, Koji; Kasai, Yuichi; Kawakita, Eiji; Matsumura, Yoshihiro; Kono, Toshibumi; Murata, Tetsuya; Uchida, Atsumasa

    2008-01-15

    A case of thoracic myelopathy with alkaptonuria (ochronotic spondyloarthropathy) is presented. To present and review the first reported case of an alkaptonuric patient with concomitant thoracic myelopathy. Alkaptonuria, a rare hereditary metabolic disease, is characterized by accumulation of homogentistic acid, ochronosis, and destruction of connective tissue resulting in degenerative spondylosis and arthritis. Despite the high incidence of intervertebral disc diseases among patients with alkaptonuria, neurologic symptoms caused by spinal disease are rare. Thoracic myelopathy in a patient with alkaptonuria has not been previously reported. The clinical course, radiologic features, pathology, and treatment outcome of an alkaptonuria patient with thoracic myelopathy was documented. Myelopathy of the patient was caused by rupture of a thoracic intervertebral disc. The neurologic symptoms of the patient were markedly improved after surgery. We have reported for the first time, that an alkaptonuria patient showed thoracic myelopathy caused by rupture of a thoracic intervertebral disc. Decompression followed by the instrumented fusion of the thoracic spine was effective for improving the neurologic symptoms.

  1. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  2. Thoracic spine pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Ivanovich Isaikin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic spine pain, or thoracalgia, is one of the common reasons for seeking for medical advice. The epidemiology and semiotics of pain in the thoracic spine unlike in those in the cervical and lumbar spine have not been inadequately studied. The causes of thoracic spine pain are varied: diseases of the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, and renal systems, injuries to the musculoskeletal structures of the cervical and thoracic portions, which require a thorough differential diagnosis. Facet, costotransverse, and costovertebral joint injuries and myofascial syndrome are the most common causes of musculoskeletal (nonspecific pain in the thoracic spine. True radicular pain is rarely encountered. Traditionally, treatment for thoracalgia includes a combination of non-drug and drug therapies. The cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor meloxicam (movalis may be the drug of choice in the treatment of musculoskeletal pain.

  3. Internal thoracic artery collateral to the external iliac artery in chronic aortoiliac occlusive disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jinna; Won, Jong Yun; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Do Yun

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence and angiographic findings of the collateral pathway involving the internal thoracic artery in patients with chronic aortoiliac occlusive disease. Between March 2000 and Februrary 2001, 124 patients at our hospital underwent angiographic evaluation of chronic aortoiliac occlusive disease, and in 15 of these complete obstruction or severe stenosis of the aortoiliac artery was identified. The aortograms and collateral arteriograms obtained, including internal thoracic arteriograms, as well as the medical records of the patients involved, were evaluated. In nine patients there was complete occlusion of the infrarenal aorta, or diffuse stenosis of 75% or more in the descending thoracic aorta, and in the other six, a patent aorta but complete occlusion or stenosis of 75% or more of the common iliac artery was demonstrated. Collateral perfusion via hypertrophied internal thoracic arteries and rich anastomoses between the superior and inferior epigastric arteries, reconstituting the external iliac artery, were noted in all fifteen patients, regardless of symptom duration, which ranged from six months to twelve years. In patients with chronic aortoiliac occlusive disease, the internal thoracic artery, along with visceral collaterals and those from the contralateral side, is one of the major parietal collateral pathways

  4. Is subdiaphragmatic aortic cross-clamping a suitable model for spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury study in rats? O pinçamento sub-diagragmático da aorta é um modelo adequado para o estudo da lesão medular de isquemia/reperfusão em ratos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Elizabeth Lopez Carrillo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of subdiaphragmatic aortic cross-clamping in an experimental model of ischemia/reperfusion injury of the spinal cord in albino rats. METHODS: Thirty-six male Wistar rats were randomized in two groups (n=18: G-1 (Sham and G-2 (Ischemia/Reperfusion, I/R. G-2 rats were submitted to 30 min subdiafragmatic aortic cross-clamping. G-1 rats served as controls and were submitted to surgical trauma (laparotomy without ischemia. Samples (spinal cord and arterial blood were collected at the end of ischemic period and 10 (T-10 and 20 (T-20 min later in G-2 rats. Sham rats (G-1 samples were collected at the same time-points. Blood and tissue metabolites concentrations of pyruvate, lactate, glucose and medullary adenosine triphosphate (ATP were assayed. RESULTS: Blood and tissue concentrations of pyruvate and glucose as well as lactate and medullary ATP were not different when comparing G1 to G2. Lactacemia was significantly elevated in G-2 compared with G-1 rats during reperfusion (T-10. CONCLUSION: Subdiaphragmatic aortic cord cross-clamping is not a suitable rat model for spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury study as it does not ensure changes in in vivo tissue metabolites concentrations similar to those found in tissues subjected to ischemia/reperfusion.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia do pinçamento da aorta subdiafragmática no modelo experimental de isquemia/reperfusão da medula espinhal em ratos. MÉTODOS: Trinta e seis ratos Wistar, machos, foram aleatoriamente distribuídos em 2 grupos (n=18 e submetidos ao pinçamento subdiafragmático da aorta, durante 30 minutos (Grupo-2 -Isquemia/Reperfusão. Os ratos do Grupo-1 (G-1 - Sham foram utilizados como controles e submetidos a laparotomia sem pinçamento arterial. As amostras (medula e sangue arterial foram coletadas ao término do período de isquemia (T-0 e 10 (T-10 e 20 (T-20 minutos mais tarde e nos mesmos intervalos, no grupo G-1. As concentrações teciduais e

  5. Thoracic and abdominopelvic actinomycosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thoracic disease.1,2,4 The chronic progressive suppurative infection ... venous Penicillin G for 4 - 6 weeks being the treatment of ... pathology was demonstrated in the liver. (Figs 7a and b ). .... ulceration (may resemble Crohn's disease).3. 2.

  6. Society of Thoracic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Apply for Membership Membership Directory Pay Your Dues Industry Mailing List License & eBlast Communications Programs Advertise on ... Hotel Discount Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. ...

  7. Predictive factors for cerebrovascular accidents after thoracic endovascular aortic repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariscalco, Giovanni; Piffaretti, Gabriele; Tozzi, Matteo; Bacuzzi, Alessandro; Carrafiello, Giampaolo; Sala, Andrea; Castelli, Patrizio

    2009-12-01

    Cerebrovascular accidents are devastating and worrisome complications after thoracic endovascular aortic repair. The aim of this study was to determine cerebrovascular accident predictors after thoracic endovascular aortic repair. Between January 2001 and June 2008, 76 patients treated with thoracic endovascular aortic repair were prospectively enrolled. The study cohort included 61 men; mean age was 65.4 +/- 16.8 years. All patients underwent a specific neurologic assessment on an hourly basis postoperatively to detect neurologic deficits. Cerebrovascular accidents were diagnosed on the basis of physical examination, tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging, or autopsy. Cerebrovascular accidents occurred in 8 (10.5%) patients, including 4 transient ischemic attack and 4 major strokes. Four cases were observed within the first 24-hours. Multivariable analysis revealed that anatomic incompleteness of the Willis circle (odds ratio [OR] 17.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.10 to 140.66), as well as the presence of coronary artery disease (OR 6.86, 95 CI% 1.18 to 40.05), were independently associated with postoperative cerebrovascular accident development. Overall hospital mortality was 9.2%, with no significant difference for patients hit by cerebrovascular accidents (25.0% vs 7.3%, p = 0.102). Preexisting coronary artery disease, reflecting a severe diseased aorta and anomalies of Willis circle are independent cerebrovascular accident predictors after thoracic endovascular aortic repair procedures. A careful evaluation of the arch vessels and cerebral vascularization should be mandatory for patients suitable for thoracic endovascular aortic repair.

  8. Bovine aortic arch: A novel association with thoracic aortic dilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, C.D.; Urbania, T.H.; Crook, S.E.S.; Hope, M.D.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether there is a link between bovine arch and thoracic aortic aneurysm. Materials and methods: Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images of the thorax of 191 patients with dilated thoracic aortas and 391 consecutive, unselected patients as controls were retrospectively reviewed. Bovine arch was considered present if either a shared origin of the left common carotid and innominate arteries or an origin of the left common carotid from the innominate artery was identified. A chi-square test was used to evaluate the significance of differences between subgroups. Results: A trend towards increased prevalence of bovine arch was seen in patients with dilated aortas (26.2%) compared to controls (20.5%, p = 0.12). The association was statistically significant in patients over 70 years old (31.9%, p = 0.019) and when dilation involved the aortic arch (47.6%, p = 0.003). Conclusions: An association between bovine arch and aortic dilation is seen in older patients, and when dilation involves the aortic arch. Bovine arch should be considered a potential risk factor for thoracic aortic aneurysm.

  9. Increased methylglyoxal formation with upregulation of renin angiotensin system in fructose fed Sprague Dawley rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Dhar

    Full Text Available The current epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is attributed to a high carbohydrate diet, containing mainly high fructose corn syrup and sucrose. More than two thirds of diabetic patients have hypertension. Methylglyoxal is a highly reactive dicarbonyl generated during glucose and fructose metabolism, and a major precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGEs. Plasma methylglyoxal levels are increased in hypertensive rats and diabetic patients. Our aim was to examine the levels of methylglyoxal, mediators of the renin angiotensin system and blood pressure in male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with a high fructose diet (60% of total calories for 4 months. The thoracic aorta and kidney were used for molecular studies, along with cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. HPLC, Western blotting and Q-PCR were used to measure methylglyoxal and reduced glutathione (GSH, proteins and mRNA, respectively. Fructose treated rats developed a significant increase in blood pressure. Methylglyoxal level and protein and mRNA for angiotensin II, AT1 receptor, adrenergic α1D receptor and renin were significantly increased, whereas GSH levels were decreased, in the aorta and/or kidney of fructose fed rats. The protein expression of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE and NF-κB were also significantly increased in the aorta of fructose fed rats. MG treated VSMCs showed increased protein for angiotensin II, AT1 receptor, and α1D receptor. The effects of methylglyoxal were attenuated by metformin, a methylglyoxal scavenger and AGEs inhibitor. In conclusion, we report a strong association between elevated levels of methylglyoxal, RAGE, NF-κB, mediators of the renin angiotensin system and blood pressure in high fructose diet fed rats.

  10. Increased methylglyoxal formation with upregulation of renin angiotensin system in fructose fed Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Indu; Dhar, Arti; Wu, Lingyun; Desai, Kaushik M

    2013-01-01

    The current epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is attributed to a high carbohydrate diet, containing mainly high fructose corn syrup and sucrose. More than two thirds of diabetic patients have hypertension. Methylglyoxal is a highly reactive dicarbonyl generated during glucose and fructose metabolism, and a major precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Plasma methylglyoxal levels are increased in hypertensive rats and diabetic patients. Our aim was to examine the levels of methylglyoxal, mediators of the renin angiotensin system and blood pressure in male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with a high fructose diet (60% of total calories) for 4 months. The thoracic aorta and kidney were used for molecular studies, along with cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). HPLC, Western blotting and Q-PCR were used to measure methylglyoxal and reduced glutathione (GSH), proteins and mRNA, respectively. Fructose treated rats developed a significant increase in blood pressure. Methylglyoxal level and protein and mRNA for angiotensin II, AT1 receptor, adrenergic α1D receptor and renin were significantly increased, whereas GSH levels were decreased, in the aorta and/or kidney of fructose fed rats. The protein expression of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) and NF-κB were also significantly increased in the aorta of fructose fed rats. MG treated VSMCs showed increased protein for angiotensin II, AT1 receptor, and α1D receptor. The effects of methylglyoxal were attenuated by metformin, a methylglyoxal scavenger and AGEs inhibitor. In conclusion, we report a strong association between elevated levels of methylglyoxal, RAGE, NF-κB, mediators of the renin angiotensin system and blood pressure in high fructose diet fed rats.

  11. Bio-chemo-mechanics of thoracic aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenseil, Jessica E

    2018-03-01

    Most thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) occur in the ascending aorta. This review focuses on the unique bio-chemo-mechanical environment that makes the ascending aorta susceptible to TAA. The environment includes solid mechanics, fluid mechanics, cell phenotype, and extracellular matrix composition. Advances in solid mechanics include quantification of biaxial deformation and complex failure behavior of the TAA wall. Advances in fluid mechanics include imaging and modeling of hemodynamics that may lead to TAA formation. For cell phenotype, studies demonstrate changes in cell contractility that may serve to sense mechanical changes and transduce chemical signals. Studies on matrix defects highlight the multi-factorial nature of the disease. We conclude that future work should integrate the effects of bio-chemo-mechanical factors for improved TAA treatment.

  12. Dissection of Retroesophageal Aortic Diverticulum and Descending Aorta in a Patient with Right Aortic Arch: Magnetic Resonance Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, S.-F.; Ng, S.-H.; Fu, Morgan; Lo, P.-H.; Cheng, Y.-F.; Lee, T.-Y.

    1996-01-01

    An acute aortic dissection involved the retroesophageal aortic diverticulum (RAD) and descending thoracic aorta in a patient with right aortic arch. The RAD, which was separated into false and true lumens by an intimal flap-the classic diagnostic sign of aortic dissection-was overlooked on transesophageal echocardiography and computed tomography but was clearly depicted on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It was found that MRI can delineate the anatomy of a congenital arch anomaly complicated by great vessels disease

  13. Imaging of thoracic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uffmann, M.; Herold, C.J.; Fuchs, M.

    1998-01-01

    Blunt trauma to the chest results from transfer of kinetic energy to the human body. It may cause a wide range of mostly life-threatening injuries, including fractures of the thoracic skeleton, disintegration of the pleural space, contusion or laceration of pulmonary parenchyma and damage to the mediastinal structures. For a systematic approach it may be helpful to follow an organ-based evaluation of thoracic trauma. However, it should be borne in mind that subtle injuries may be associated with serious complications. Trauma to the chest may affect different anatomic compartments at the same time, requiring and extending diagnostic approach. Conventional radiography plays a major role in diagnosting thoracic trauma, complemented by ultrasound examination of the pleura and abdomen. It is well documented that CT scanning represents a major technological improvement for assessment of thoracic trauma. With the advent of fast helical CT scanning this method becomes more applicable for severly traumatized patients and potentially replaces other time-consuming procedures. State-of-the-art imaging of both projection and cross-sectional techniques provides useful information for immediate and appropriate treatment mandatory in patients with thoracic trauma. (orig.) [de

  14. A reappraisal of pediatric thoracic surface anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Nicholas J; Morreau, Jonty; Sugunesegran, Ramanen; Taghavi, Kiarash; Mirjalili, S Ali

    2017-09-01

    Accurate knowledge of surface anatomy is fundamental to safe clinical practice. A paucity of evidence in the literature regarding thoracic surface anatomy in children was identified. The associations between surface landmarks and internal structures were meticulously analyzed by reviewing high quality computed tomography (CT) images of 77 children aged from four days to 12 years. The results confirmed that the sternal angle is an accurate surface landmark for the azygos-superior vena cava junction in a plane through to the level of upper T4 from birth to age four, and to lower T4 in older children. The concavity of the aortic arch was slightly below this plane and the tracheal and pulmonary artery bifurcations were even lower. The cardiac apex was typically at the 5 th intercostal space (ICS) from birth to age four, at the 4 th ICS and 5 th rib in 4-12 year olds, and close to the midclavicular line at all ages. The lower border of the diaphragm was at the level of the 6 th or 7 th rib at the midclavicular line, the 7 th ICS and 8 th rib at the midaxillary line, and the 11 th thoracic vertebra posteriorly. The domes of the diaphragm were generally flatter and lower in children, typically only one rib level higher than its anterior level at the midclavicular line. Diaphragm apertures were most commonly around the level of T9, T10, and T11 for the IVC, esophagus and aorta, respectively. This is the first study to provide an evidence-base for thoracic surface anatomy in children. Clin. Anat. 30:788-794, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. [Thoracic aortic dissection revealed by systemic cholesterol embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braem, L; Paule, P; Héno, P; Morand, J J; Mafart, B; La Folie, T; Varlet, P; Mioulet, D; Fourcade, L

    2006-10-01

    Systemic cholesterol embolism is a rare complication of atherosclerosis, and has various presentations. Arterial catheterisms are a common cause. However, the association with an aortic dissection has been exceptionally reported. We report the observation of a 70 year-old man, with coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia. Six months before hospitalization, a coronary angioplasty was performed due to recurrent angina. The association of purpuric lesions on the feet, with acute renal failure confirmed cholesterol embolism syndrome. Transoesophageal echocardiography showed a dissection of the descending thoracic aorta associated with complex atheroma. The evolution was marked by the pulpar necrosis of a toe and by a worsening of the renal failure, requiring definitive hemodialysis. Further echographic control highlighted the rupture of the intimal veil of the dissection. Cholesterol embolism syndrome may reveal an aortic dissection in patients without thoracic symptoms. In such cases, transoesophageal echocardiography is a useful and non-invasive examination.

  16. Endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm due to brucellosis: a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Wang, Qi; Liu, Han; Sun, Siqiao; Sun, Xiwei; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Zhongying; Cheng, Zhihua

    2017-06-02

    Arterial damage is a known complication of brucellosis, but the occurrence of a thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm secondary to brucellosis has not been previously reported. A 65-year-old Chinese man presented with a pseudoaneurysm in the descending segment of the thoracic aorta that caused symptoms of chest pain and intermittent fever. He was diagnosed with a thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm secondary to brucellosis based on a positive brucella serology test (standard-tube agglutination test) and imaging examination (computed tomography angiography). Anti-brucellosis treatment and covered stent graft implantation were attempted to eliminate the brucellosis and pseudoaneurysm, respectively, and were ultimately successful, with no symptoms after 6 months of follow-up. Endovascular repair may be effective and safe for treating a thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm resulting from brucellosis.

  17. Human Aorta Is a Passive Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan, Niema; Gharib, Morteza

    2012-11-01

    Impedance pump is a simple valveless pumping mechanism that operates based on the principles of wave propagation and reflection. It has been shown in a zebrafish that a similar mechanism is responsible for the pumping action in the embryonic heart during early stages before valve formation. Recent studies suggest that the cardiovascular system is designed to take advantage of wave propagation and reflection phenomena in the arterial network. Our aim in this study was to examine if the human aorta is a passive pump working like an impedance pump. A hydraulic model with different compliant models of artificial aorta was used for series of in-vitro experiments. The hydraulic model includes a piston pump that generates the waves. Our result indicates that wave propagation and reflection can create pumping mechanism in a compliant aorta. Similar to an impedance pump, the net flow and the flow direction depends on the frequency of the waves, compliance of the aorta, and the piston stroke.

  18. Variations in local elastic modulus along the length of the aorta as observed by use of a scanning haptic microscope (SHM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, Takeshi; Oie, Tomonori; Takamizawa, Keiichi; Murayama, Yoshinobu; Fukuda, Toru; Omata, Sadao; Kanda, Keiichi; Nakayama, Yasuhide

    2011-12-01

    Variations in microscopic elastic structures along the entire length of canine aorta were evaluated by use of a scanning haptic microscope (SHM). The total aorta from the aortic arch to the abdominal aorta was divided into 6 approximately equal segments. After embedding the aorta in agar, it was cut into horizontal circumferential segments to obtain disk-like agar portions containing ring-like samples of aorta with flat surfaces (thickness, approximately 1 mm). The elastic modulus and topography of the samples under no-load conditions were simultaneously measured along the entire thickness of the wall by SHM by using a probe with a diameter of 5 μm and a spatial resolution of 2 μm at a rate of 0.3 s/point. The elastic modulus of the wall was the highest on the side of the luminal surface and decreased gradually toward the adventitial side. This tendency was similar to that of the change in the elastin fiber content. During the evaluation of the mid-portion of each tunica media segment, the highest elastic modulus (40.8 ± 3.5 kPa) was identified at the thoracic section of the aorta that had the highest density of elastic fibers. Under no-load conditions, portions of the aorta with high elastin density have a high elastic modulus.

  19. "Elephant trunk" and endovascular stentgrafting : a hybrid approach to the treatment of extensive thoracic aortic aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Holubec, Tomás; Raupach, Jan; Dominik, Jan; Vojácek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    A hybrid approach to elephant trunk technique for treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms combines a conventional surgical and endovascular therapy. Compared to surgery alone, there is a presumption that mortality and morbidity is reduced. We present a case report of a 42-year-old man with a giant aneurysm of the entire thoracic aorta, significant aortic and tricuspid regurgitation and ventricular septum defect. The patient underwent multiple consecutive operations and interventions having, am...

  20. CT appearance of complications related to thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR): a pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pua, U.; Tay, K.H.; Tan, B.S.; Htoo, M.M.; Sebastian, M.; Sin, K.; Chua, Y.L.

    2009-01-01

    Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is a recognized treatment for various diseases involving the thoracic aorta. Patients treated with TEVAR require lifelong surveillance for potential complications, with CT being highly utilized in most centres. Endoleak is the most common complication and can be detected using CT. However, other complications such as stent strut perforations and end organ ischemia can also be detected on CT. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to illustrate the CT appearance of post-TEVAR complications encountered in our institution and to highlight their significance. (orig.)

  1. CT appearance of complications related to thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR): a pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pua, U. [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore (Singapore); Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore (Singapore); Tay, K.H.; Tan, B.S.; Htoo, M.M. [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore (Singapore); Sebastian, M. [Singapore General Hospital, Department of General Surgery, Singapore (Singapore); Sin, K.; Chua, Y.L. [National Heart Centre, Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-05-15

    Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is a recognized treatment for various diseases involving the thoracic aorta. Patients treated with TEVAR require lifelong surveillance for potential complications, with CT being highly utilized in most centres. Endoleak is the most common complication and can be detected using CT. However, other complications such as stent strut perforations and end organ ischemia can also be detected on CT. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to illustrate the CT appearance of post-TEVAR complications encountered in our institution and to highlight their significance. (orig.)

  2. Comparison of fractional flow reserve of composite Y-grafts with saphenous vein or right internal thoracic arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glineur, David; Boodhwani, Munir; Poncelet, Alain; De Kerchove, Laurent; Etienne, Pierre Yves; Noirhomme, Philippe; Deceuninck, Paul; Michel, Xavier; El Khoury, Gebrine; Hanet, Claude

    2010-09-01

    Composite Y-grafts, using the left internal thoracic artery as the inflow, allow a more efficient use of conduits without the need to touch a diseased ascending aorta. Among other conduits, the saphenous vein graft may be an alternative to the radial artery in elderly patients. We evaluated the hemodynamic characteristics of 17 composite Y-grafts made with the left internal thoracic artery anastomosed to the left anterior descending coronary artery in all cases and with either the free right internal thoracic artery (RITA group, n = 10) or a saphenous vein graft (SVG group, n = 7) implanted proximally to the left internal thoracic artery and distally to the circumflex territory 6 months after the operation. At baseline, the pressure gradient measured with a 0.014-inch pressure wire was minimal between the aorta and the internal thoracic artery stem (2 +/- 1 mm Hg), the internal thoracic artery and left anterior descending (4 +/- 2 mm Hg), the internal thoracic artery and left circumflex (3 +/- 1 mm Hg), and the saphenous vein graft and left circumflex (2 +/- 2 mm Hg). During hyperemia induced by adenosine, the pressure gradient increased significantly to 6 +/- 2 mm Hg in the internal thoracic artery stem, 9 +/- 4 mm Hg in the internal thoracic artery and left anterior descending artery, 9 +/- 3 mm Hg in the internal thoracic artery and left circumflex, and 7 +/- 4 mm Hg in the saphenous vein graft and left circumflex. Fractional flow reserve was 0.94 +/- 0.02 in internal thoracic artery stem, 0.90 +/- 0.04 mm Hg in the internal thoracic artery and left anterior descending, 0.91 +/- 0.03 mm Hg in the internal thoracic artery and left circumflex, and 0.92 +/- 0.06 mm Hg in the saphenous vein graft and left circumflex. No difference between the two types of composite Y-grafts was observed for pressure gradients or fractional flow reserve measured in internal thoracic artery stem or in distal branches. Composite Y-grafts with saphenous vein or right internal thoracic

  3. Cardiovascular Disease in Ageing: An Overview on Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm as an Emerging Inflammatory Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogera Pisano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Medial degeneration associated with thoracic aortic aneurysm and acute aortic dissection was originally described by Erdheim as a noninflammatory lesion related to the loss of smooth muscle cells and elastic fibre fragmentation in the media. Recent evidences propose the strong role of a chronic immune/inflammatory process in aneurysm evocation and progression. The coexistence of inflammatory cells with markers of apoptotic vascular cell death in the media of ascending aorta with aneurysms and type A dissections raises the possibility that activated T cells and macrophages may contribute to the elimination of smooth muscle cells and degradation of the matrix. On the other hand, several inflammatory pathways (including TGF-β, TLR-4 interferon-γ, chemokines, and interferon-γ seem to be involved in the medial degeneration related to aged and dilated aorta. This is an overview on thoracic aortic aneurysm as an emerging inflammatory disease.

  4. High-pitch dual-source CT angiography of the whole aorta without ECG synchronisation: Initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeres, Martin; Schell, Boris; Mastragelopoulos, Aristidis; Kerl, Josef Matthias; Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana; Lee, Clara; Siebenhandl, Petra; Bodelle, Boris; Zangos, Stephan; Vogl, Thomas J.; Jacobi, Volkmar; Bauer, Ralf W.; Herrmann, Eva

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility, image quality and radiation dose for high-pitch dual-source CT angiography (CTA) of the whole aorta without ECG synchronisation. Each group of 40 patients underwent CTA either on a 16-slice (group 1) or dual-source CT device with conventional single-source (group 2) or high-pitch mode with a pitch of 3.0 (group 3). The presence of motion or stair-step artefacts of the thoracic aorta was independently assessed by two readers. Subjective and objective scoring of motion and artefacts were significantly reduced in the high-pitch examination protocol (p < 0.05). The imaging length was not significantly different, but the imaging time was significantly (p < 0.001) shorter in the high-pitch group (12.2 vs. 7.4 vs. 1.7 s for groups 1, 2 and 3). The ascending aorta and the coronary ostia were reliably evaluable in all patients of group 3 without motion artefacts as well. High-pitch dual-source CT angiography of the whole aorta is feasible in unselected patients. As a significant advantage over regular pitch protocols, motion-free imaging of the aorta is possible without ECG synchronisation. Thus, this CT mode bears potential to become a standard CT protocol before trans-catheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). (orig.)

  5. [Protective effect of arctigenin in GK rats combined with hypertension macroangiopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qin; Sun, Bao-cun; Xia, Wen-kai

    2015-03-01

    To study the protective effect of Arctigenin in goto-kakizaki (GK) rats combined with hypertension macroangiopathy. Six-week-old GK rats were divided randomly according to blood glucose level into four groups: the model group and low, middle and high dose arctigenin groups (12.5, 25, 50 mg x kg(-1)), with Wistar rats as the normal group. All of GK rats were given high-glucose and high-fat diet. After 16 weeks, GK rats were orally administrated with 10 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) N-Ω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester for eight weeks. During the modeling, all of arctigenin groups were orally administrated with different dose of arctigenin twice a day; The model group and the normal group were given solvents. At the beginning, mid-term and end of the experiment, blood glucose was measured. At the end of the experiment, efforts were made to detect blood pressure, collect abdominal aortic blood after anesthesia, fix thoracic aorta after bloodletting to make paraffin sections, observe morphological characteristics and detect the expression of VEGF by immunohistochemistry. According to the results, the blood glucose rose in all GK rats, with no significant difference between the drug group and the model group. At the end of the experiment, the blood pressure significantly increased in GK rats, indicating that Arctigenin could notably reduce the blood pressure in GK rats in a dose-dependent manner. The blood routine test showed increases in both the total white blood cell count and differential blood count, MPV and PDW, abnormal blood platelet parameters and decrease in PLT in GK rats, suggesting that Arctigenin could remarkably reduce the total white blood cell count and differential blood count, MPV and PDW. The thoracic aortic morphological observation revealed obvious endangium lesions in GK rats, demonstrating that Arctigenin could ameliorate the lesion extent. VEGF immumohistochemical staining showed a higher VEGF expression in the model group but lower expression in Arctigenin

  6. Radiology of thoracic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, P.

    1987-01-01

    This course provides an overview of the radiologic manifestations of trauma to the chest. The basic mechanisms of injury are discussed. The effect of trauma on the chest wall, the lung parenchyma, and the pleural space is described. Rib fractures, sternal fractures, lung contusion, lung hematoma, lung laceration, post-traumatic atelectasis, hemothorax, chylothorax, pneumothorax, and adult respiratory distress syndrome are discussed and illustrated. Injuries to the tracheobronchial tree, the aorta and brachiocephalic vessels, the esophagus, the diaphragm, and the heart are also presented. The purpose of the lecture is to familiarize the audience with common and unusual radiologic presentations of traumatic injury to the thorax

  7. Endovascular stent-graft placement for the treatment of acute onset and chronic aortic dissections of the descending aorta (Short-term follow-up)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, I; Jorgova, J.; Trendafilova, D.

    2004-01-01

    The leading cause of death for patients with surgically untreated thoracic aortic aneurysms is the rupture of the aneurysm. Almost one half of these patients are left to medical treatment assuming the risk of late rupture and aneurysm sac enlargement - the late surgical treatment of these patients is too risky and with poor results. On the other hand the emergent surgical treatment of these cases is related with relatively high mortality rate. Recently, thoracic aortic stent-grafting has emerged as a less traumatic alternative therapeutic modality for patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms and aortic dissections. The first case of stent implantation in a dissected descending aorta was performed in Bulgaria at 09.04.2003. Since then we implanted in 8 patients thoracic stent grafts, The mean age of the patients was 67.5 years. The primary success was 100%. One died on the second postoperative day by abdominal aorta rupture. No other complications were registered. The mean follow-up of 5 months proved to be uneventful and the control CT revealed efficacious sealing of the entry and false lumen thrombosis in all except one cases. We report our initial clinical experience of endovascular stent-graft repair for dissection of the descending aorta that is encouraging. These preliminary data suggest that endovascular stent-grafting is a viable treatment for acute onset and chronic aortic dissection type B

  8. Tributyltin contributes in reducing the vascular reactivity to phenylephrine in isolated aortic rings from female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Samya Mere L; Ximenes, Carolina F; de Batista, Priscila R; Simões, Fabiana V; Coser, Pedro Henrique P; Sena, Gabriela C; Podratz, Priscila L; de Souza, Leticia N G; Vassallo, Dalton V; Graceli, Jones B; Stefanon, Ivanita

    2014-03-21

    Organotin compounds such as tributyltin (TBT) are used as antifouling paints by shipping companies. TBT inhibits the aromatase responsible for the transformation of testosterone into estrogen. Our hypothesis is that TBT modulates the vascular reactivity of female rats. Female Wistar rats were treated daily (Control; CONT) or TBT (100 ng/kg) for 15 days. Rings from thoracic aortas were incubated with phenylephrine (PHE, 10(-10)-10(-4) M) in the presence and absence of endothelium, and in the presence of N(G)-Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME), tetraethylammonium (TEA) and apocynin. TBT decreased plasma levels of estrogen and the vascular response to PHE. In the TBT group, the vascular reactivity was increased in the absence of endothelium, L-NAME and TEA. The decrease in PHE reactivity during incubation with apocynin was more evident in the TBT group. The sensitivity to acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was reduced in the TBT group. TBT increased collagen, reduced α1-smooth muscle actin. Female rats treated with TBT for 15 days showed morphology alteration of the aorta and decreased their vascular reactivity, probably due to mechanisms dependent on nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, K(+) channels and an increase in oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Comparison between Gadofosveset Trisodium and Gadobenate Dimeglumine for Steady State MRA of the Thoracic Vasculature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paul Camren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Retrospective comparison between gadofosveset trisodium and gadobenate dimeglumine steady state magnetic resonance angiography (SS-MRA of the thoracic vasculature at 1.5T using signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and vessel edge sharpness (ES as markers of image quality. Materials and Methods. IRB approval was obtained. Twenty separate patients each underwent SS-MRA using high-resolution 3D ECG-triggered coronal IR-TFE at 1.5T approximately 3-4 minutes following 10 or 15 mL gadofosveset or 20 mL gadobenate. ROIs were placed in the right atrium, left ventricle, left atrium, ascending aorta, descending aorta, and right pulmonary artery to estimate SNR. Vessel ES was estimated as 20–80% rise distances from line intensity profiles in the left pulmonary vein, ascending aorta, and descending aorta. Data were analyzed using nonpaired Student’s t-test (threshold for significance set at P<0.05. Results. There was no significant difference in mean SNR for the gadofosveset or gadobenate groups (P values: 0.14 to 0.85. There was no significant difference in mean vessel ES for gadofosveset and gadobenate groups (P values: 0.17 to 0.78. Conclusion. High quality thoracic SS-MRA can be achieved with gadobenate dimeglumine, similar to that achieved with the blood pool agent gadofosveset trisodium provided that imaging is initiated quickly (3-4 min after contrast injection.

  10. A comparison between gadofosveset trisodium and gadobenate dimeglumine for steady state MRA of the thoracic vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camren, G Paul; Wilson, Gregory J; Bamra, Vikram R; Nguyen, Khahn Q; Hippe, Daniel S; Maki, Jeffrey H

    2014-01-01

    Retrospective comparison between gadofosveset trisodium and gadobenate dimeglumine steady state magnetic resonance angiography (SS-MRA) of the thoracic vasculature at 1.5T using signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and vessel edge sharpness (ES) as markers of image quality. IRB approval was obtained. Twenty separate patients each underwent SS-MRA using high-resolution 3D ECG-triggered coronal IR-TFE at 1.5T approximately 3-4 minutes following 10 or 15 mL gadofosveset or 20 mL gadobenate. ROIs were placed in the right atrium, left ventricle, left atrium, ascending aorta, descending aorta, and right pulmonary artery to estimate SNR. Vessel ES was estimated as 20-80% rise distances from line intensity profiles in the left pulmonary vein, ascending aorta, and descending aorta. Data were analyzed using nonpaired Student's t-test (threshold for significance set at P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in mean SNR for the gadofosveset or gadobenate groups (P values: 0.14 to 0.85). There was no significant difference in mean vessel ES for gadofosveset and gadobenate groups (P values: 0.17 to 0.78). High quality thoracic SS-MRA can be achieved with gadobenate dimeglumine, similar to that achieved with the blood pool agent gadofosveset trisodium provided that imaging is initiated quickly (3-4 min) after contrast injection.

  11. Managment of thoracic empyema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, M M; Subramanian, V; Berger, R L

    1977-04-01

    Over a ten year period, 102 patients with thoracic empyemata were treated at Boston City Hospital. Only three patients died from the pleural infection while twenty-six succumbed to the associated diseases. Priniciples of management include: (1) thoracentesis; (2) antibiotics; (3) closed-tube thoracostomy; (4) sinogram; (5) open drainage; (6) empyemectomy and decortication in selected patients; and (7) bronchoscopy and barium swallow when the etiology is uncertain.

  12. Thoracic textilomas: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Dianne Melo; Zanetti, Glaucia; Araujo Neto, Cesar Augusto; Nobre, Luiz Felipe; Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e; Guimaraes, Marcos Duarte; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares; Hochhegger, Bruno; Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro (HUAP/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Objective: the aim of this study was to analyze chest CT scans of patients with thoracic textiloma. Methods: this was a retrospective study of 16 patients (11 men and 5 women) with surgically confirmed thoracic textiloma. The chest CT scans of those patients were evaluated by two independent observers, and discordant results were resolved by consensus. Results: the majority (62.5%) of the textilomas were caused by previous heart surgery. The most common symptoms were chest pain (in 68.75%) and cough (in 56.25%). In all cases, the main tomographic finding was a mass with regular contours and borders that were well-defined or partially defined. Half of the textilomas occurred in the right hemithorax and half occurred in the left. The majority (56.25%) were located in the lower third of the lung. The diameter of the mass was ≤ 10 cm in 10 cases (62.5%) and > 10 cm in the remaining 6 cases (37.5%). Most (81.25%) of the textilomas were heterogeneous in density, with signs of calcification, gas, radiopaque marker, or sponge-like material. Peripheral expansion of the mass was observed in 12 (92.3%) of the 13 patients in whom a contrast agent was used. Intraoperatively, pleural involvement was observed in 14 cases (87.5%) and pericardial involvement was observed in 2 (12.5%). Conclusions: it is important to recognize the main tomographic aspects of thoracic textilomas in order to include this possibility in the differential diagnosis of chest pain and cough in patients with a history of heart or thoracic surgery, thus promoting the early identification and treatment of this postoperative complication. (author)

  13. Human urotensin-II is an endothelium-dependent vasodilator in rat small arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottrill, Fiona E; Douglas, Stephen A; Hiley, C Robin; White, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The possible role of the endothelium in modulating responses to human urotensin-II (U-II) was investigated using isolated segments of rat thoracic aorta, small mesenteric artery, left anterior descending coronary artery and basilar artery.Human U-II was a potent vasoconstrictor of endothelium-intact isolated rat thoracic aorta (EC50=3.5±1.1 nM, Rmax=103±10% of control contraction induced by 60 mM KCl and 1 μM noradrenaline). However the contractile response was not significantly altered by removal of the endothelium or inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis with L-NAME (100 μM). Human U-II did not cause relaxation of noradrenaline-precontracted, endothelium-intact rat aortae.Human U-II contracted endothelium-intact rat isolated left anterior descending coronary arteries (EC50=1.3±0.8 nM, Rmax=20.1±4.9% of control contraction induced by 10 μM 5-HT). The contractile response was significantly enhanced by removal of the endothelium (Rmax=55.4±16.1%). Moreover, human U-II caused concentration-dependent relaxation of 5-HT-precontracted arteries, which was abolished by L-NAME or removal of the endothelium.No contractile effects of human U-II were found in rat small mesenteric arteries. However the peptide caused potent, concentration- and endothelium-dependent relaxations of methoxamine-precontracted vessels. The relaxant responses were potentiated by L-NAME (300 μM) but abolished in the additional presence of 25 mM KCl (which inhibits the actions of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor).The present study is the first to show that human U-II is a potent endothelium-dependent vasodilator in some rat resistance vessels, and acts through release of EDHF as well as nitric oxide. Our findings have also highlighted clear anatomical differences in the responses of different vascular beds to human U-II which are likely to be important in determining the overall cardiovascular activity of this peptide. PMID:10952676

  14. Sub-therapeutic doses of fluvastatin and valsartan are more effective than therapeutic doses in providing beneficial cardiovascular pleiotropic effects in rats: A proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janić, Miodrag; Lunder, Mojca; France Štiglic, Alenka; Jerin, Aleš; Skitek, Milan; Černe, Darko; Marc, Janja; Drevenšek, Gorazd; Šabovič, Mišo

    2017-12-01

    Statins and sartans can, in therapeutic doses, induce pleiotropic cardiovascular effects. Similar has recently been shown also for sub-therapeutic doses. We thus explored and compared the cardiovascular pleiotropic efficacy of sub-therapeutic vs. therapeutic doses. Wistar rats were randomly divided into 7 groups receiving fluvastatin, valsartan and their combination in sub-therapeutic and therapeutic doses, or saline. After 6weeks, the animals were euthanised, their hearts and thoracic aortas isolated, and blood samples taken. Endothelium-dependent relaxation of the thoracic aortae and ischaemic-reperfusion injury of the isolated hearts were assessed along with the related serum parameters and genes expression. Fluvastatin and valsartan alone or in combination were significantly more effective in sub-therapeutic than therapeutic doses. The sub-therapeutic combination greatly increased thoracic aorta endothelium-dependent relaxation and maximally protected the isolated hearts against ischaemia-reperfusion injury and was thus most effective. Beneficial effects were accompanied by increased levels of nitric oxide (NO) and decreased levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in the serum (again prominently induced by the sub-therapeutic combination). Furthermore, nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) and endothelin receptor type A (EDNRA) genes expression increased, but only in both combination groups and without significant differences between them. In the therapeutic dose groups, fluvastatin and valsartan decreased cholesterol values and systolic blood pressure. Sub-therapeutic doses of fluvastatin and valsartan are more effective in expressing cardiovascular pleiotropic effects than therapeutic doses of fluvastatin and/or valsartan. These results could be of significant clinical relevance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reconstrução da aorta com conduto de pericárdio bovino corrugado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Salles

    1998-04-01

    éticas, proporciona um conduto circular, que facilita a realização da anastomose, mantém a forma tubular mesmo quando fletido e evita o acotovelamento. O pericárdio é muito macio, fácil de ser manipulado, suturado e coapta muito bem nas linhas de sutura, resultando uma anastomose hemostática. O seguimento de 9 anos demonstrou um desempenho satisfatório deste substituto vascular biológico, não ocorrendo casos de fibrose, calcificação ou dilatação aneurismática.From October 1989 to May 1997, 40 patients with aortic dissection, aortic aneurysm, aortic coarctation or aorto-iliac occlusive disease, underwent reconstruction of their aorta using crimped bovine pericardial conduits processed in glutaraldehyde. Total reconstruction of ascending thoracic aorta and aortic valve with reimplantation of coronary arteries was performed in 9 patients, single ascending thoracic aorta in 6, descending thoracic aorta in 2, aortic arch in 1, thoracoabdominal aorta in 1 and the abdominal aorta was reconstructed in 21, also including patients undergoing aortoiliac or aortofemoral bypass. Hospital mortality was 20% (8 patients and causes of death were low cardiac output, recurrence of aortic dissection, multiple organ failure and bleeding. Total follow-up was 128.4 patient-years with a mean follow-up of 4 years per patient. Late complications related to the conduit were observed in 4 patients, including a limb obstruction in 1 patient subjected to aorto-femoral bypass and infection in 3, resulting in pseudoaneurysm. All of them underwent reoperations, corresponding to an incidence of 3.1% ± 1.6% per patient-year. There were 5 late deaths and the causes were sudden death, coronary artery disease, pneumonia, septicemia, and metabolic complications of diabetes and renal failure, corresponding to an incidence of 3.9% ± 1.7% per patient-year. The 9-year actuarial survival was 61.5% ± 9.2%, including the surgical mortality, and the 9-year actuarial freedom from conduit failure due to primary

  16. Endothelial relaxation mechanisms and nitrative stress are partly restored by Vitamin D3 therapy in a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masszi, Gabriella; Benko, Rita; Csibi, Noemi; Horvath, Eszter M; Tokes, Anna-Maria; Novak, Agnes; Beres, Nora Judit; Tarszabo, Robert; Buday, Anna; Repas, Csaba; Bekesi, Gabor; Patocs, Attila; Nadasy, Gyorgy L; Hamar, Peter; Benyo, Zoltan; Varbiro, Szabolcs

    2013-08-06

    In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunction is related to hyperandrogenic status and insulin resistance, however, Vitamin D3 has a beneficial effect partly due to its anti-oxidant capacity. Nitrative stress is a major factor in the development of cardiovascular dysfunction and insulin resistance in various diseases. Our aim was to determine the effects of vitamin D3 in a rat model of PCOS, particularly the pathogenic role of nitrative stress. Female Wistar rats weighing 100-140g were administered vehicle (C), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or dihydrotestosterone plus vitamin D3 (DHT+D) (n=10 per group). On the 10th week, acetylcholine (Ach) induced relaxation ability of the isolated thoracic aorta rings was determined. In order to examine the possible role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathways in the impaired endothelial function, immunohistochemical labeling of aortas with anti-eNOS and anti-COX-2 antibodies was performed. Leukocyte smears, aorta and ovary tissue sections were also immunostained with anti-nitrotyrosine antibody to determine nitrative stress. Relaxation ability of aorta was reduced in group DHT, and vitamin D3 partly restored Ach induced relaxation. eNOS labeling was significantly lower in DHT rats compared to the other two groups, however COX-2 staining showed an increment. Nitrative stress showed a significant increase in response to dihydrotestosterone, while vitamin D3 treatment, in case of the ovaries, was able to reverse this effect. Nitrative stress may play a role in the pathogenesis of PCOS and in the development of the therapeutic effect of vitamin D3. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Arma branca retida em aorta abdominal superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antonio C. Spencer Netto

    Full Text Available Abdominal aorta wounds carries a high immediate mortality. Few patients reach hospital care alive. There are no reports on Medline (1969-2002 about aortic wounds of foreign body with retention. A case with upper abdominal aortic wound with an inlaid blade is reported. The retained blade fixed the stomach to the surgical field, difficulting the vascular control, leading to an unconventional approach and allowing extensive contamination. The patient developed multiple organ dysfunction and died at fifth postoperative day. Singularities of an inlaid knife in upper abdominal aorta and changes in traditional approach are discussed. The authors assumed that the inlaid knife decreased the bleeding, allowing the patient arrival to the hospital, but worsened the approach to the aorta wound.

  18. Relation of murine thoracic aortic structural and cellular changes with aging to passive and active mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Jason B; Mukherjee, Rupak; Stroud, Robert E; Jones, Jeffrey A; Ikonomidis, John S

    2015-02-25

    Maintenance of the structure and mechanical properties of the thoracic aorta contributes to aortic function and is dependent on the composition of the extracellular matrix and the cellular content within the aortic wall. Age-related alterations in the aorta include changes in cellular content and composition of the extracellular matrix; however, the precise roles of these age-related changes in altering aortic mechanical function are not well understood. Thoracic aortic rings from the descending segment were harvested from C57BL/6 mice aged 6 and 21 months. Thoracic aortic diameter and wall thickness were higher in the old mice. Cellular density was reduced in the medial layer of aortas from the old mice; concomitantly, collagen content was higher in old mice, but elastin content was similar between young and old mice. Stress relaxation, an index of compliance, was reduced in aortas from old mice and correlated with collagen fraction. Contractility of the aortic rings following potassium stimulation was reduced in old versus young mice. Furthermore, collagen gel contraction by aortic smooth muscle cells was reduced with age. These results demonstrate that numerous age-related structural changes occurred in the thoracic aorta and were related to alterations in mechanical properties. Aortic contractility decreased with age, likely because of a reduction in medial cell number in addition to a smooth muscle contractile deficit. Together, these unique findings provide evidence that the age-related changes in structure and mechanical function coalesce to provide an aortic substrate that may be predisposed to aortopathies. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  19. Retained guidewire penetrating through the aorta into the thorax: an unusual cause of recurrent bilateral pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YongHun; Yu, JunSik; Kim, YoHan; Lee, WooSurng

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous complications of the Seldinger technique have been reported in the literature, only a few complications are related to guidewires. We here report a case of a patient with a guidewire lost and retained in the aorta during vertebral artery stenting. Unfortunately, the guidewire in the aorta was not detected for 5 years, and it penetrated through the aorta into the left thorax, leading to recurrent left pneumothorax. No physician identified the wandering guidewire in the left thorax, and the recurrent left pneumothorax was only managed with closed thoracostomy drainage several times. After 4 months, the patient presented to our hospital with repeated severe chest pain, and newly developed right pneumothorax was diagnosed on chest X-rays. We meticulously evaluated the radiological findings of the other hospitals to identify the cause of the recurrent pneumothorax and discovered that the lost and wandering guidewire had crossed over from the left to the right thorax through the anterior mediastinum. The guidewire was identified as the cause of the recurrent bilateral pneumothorax, and the patient was successfully treated with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery without any events. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  20. Pseudoprominent aorta: Radiographic findings and CT correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.T.; Shepard, J.A.O.; Stewart, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    The presence of a persistent left-sided superior vena cava (LSVC) in the absence of a right-sided superior vena cava (RSVC) may be suspected on a posteroanterior (PA) chest radiograph because of a prominent-appearing ascending aorta, which results from the absence of the RSVC. In the absence of an RSVC, the right upper lobe abuts and outlines the course of the ascending aorta, allowing better demonstration of its profile. This report describes a patient with this finding on a PA chest radiograph. Computed tomographic correlation is presented

  1. Pseudoprominent aorta: Radiographic findings and CT correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.T.; Shepard, J.A.O.; Stewart, W.J.

    1985-05-01

    The presence of a persistent left-sided superior vena cava (LSVC) in the absence of a right-sided superior vena cava (RSVC) may be suspected on a posteroanterior (PA) chest radiograph because of a prominent-appearing ascending aorta, which results from the absence of the RSVC. In the absence of an RSVC, the right upper lobe abuts and outlines the course of the ascending aorta, allowing better demonstration of its profile. This report describes a patient with this finding on a PA chest radiograph. Computed tomographic correlation is presented.

  2. Role of endothelium in enhancement ofα1-adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction by bupivacaine in isolated rat aorta%布比卡因增强α1受体介导大鼠胸主动脉收缩反应中血管内皮的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贺飞; 许文琪; 都倩; 赵静; 夏红月; 任雷鸣

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate the role of endothe-lium in the enhancement of phenylephrine-mediated vasoconstriction by bupivacaine in the isolated rat aor-ta.Methods The isolated rat aortic rings were pre-pared, and the vascular endothelium was removed chemically or physically .Phenylephrine-mediated vas-oconstriction was recorded .Results A pretreatment with bupivacaine at 30 μmol · L-1 for 20 min signifi-cantly increased the Emax value of vasoconstrictive re-sponses to phenylephrine from 2.22 ±0.07 g of sol-vent-controlled group to 2.50 ±0.05 g ( P0.05 ) .A pretreatment with bupivacaine at 30 μmol · L-1 for 20 min slightly but significantly inhibited the vasoconstrictive responses to low concen-tration of phenylephrine in the isolated endothelium-de-nuded rat aorta (P0.05 ) .Conclusion Bupivacaine enhances α1-adre-noceptor-mediated vasoconstriction by inhibiting vascu-lar endothelium in the isolated endothelium-intact rat aorta, Which potentiates indirectly the vasoconstrictive responses to phenylephrine .%目的:分析血管内皮在布比卡因( bupivacaine , BUP )增强苯肾上腺素(phenylephrine,Phe)诱发血管收缩反应中的作用。方法制备大鼠离体胸主动脉血管环,采用机械损伤或工具药干扰血管内皮的舒张功能。记录Phe作为α1受体激动剂诱发的动脉收缩反应。结果 BUP (30μmol · L-1)与内皮完整血管标本孵育20 min后,Phe诱发的血管收缩Emax值为(2.50±0.05) g,明显高于对照组标本的Emax值[(2.22±0.07) g,P<0.01]。孵育时间缩短至5、10或15 min时,BUP无此增强效应。在内皮损伤动脉标本,同浓度BUP孵育20 min时,轻度但明显抑制低浓度Phe诱发的血管收缩反应( P<0.05)。在吲哚美辛、ChTX、apamin 和 L-NAME预处理的内皮完整血管标本上,ACh诱发的血管舒张反应消失;此时BUP(30μmol· L-1孵育20 min)对Phe诱发的血管收缩反应无明显影响( P>0.05)。结论

  3. Enhanced Protective Effect of the Combination of Uncaria and Semen Raphani on Vascular Endothelium in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-lun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation are closely associated with hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. The combination of Uncaria (U and Semen Raphani (R is common in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of hypertension and heart diseases. We aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of the combination of Uncaria and Semen Raphani on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs, and valsartan was used as a positive control. In the present study, all extracts decreased systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, and mean arterial pressure. U alone showed antihypertensive efficacy and effectively decreased CECs count, while R alone showed efficacy in relieving inflammatory level. The combination of U and R showed enhanced effectiveness at lowering activated CECs and improving endothelial integrity of thoracic aorta and mesenteric artery and normalized the level of plasma biomarkers of endothelial damage. The combination of U and R decreased the mRNA level of VCAM-1, Sel-L, TFPI, and Sel-P, while it elevated mRNA expression of FGF-1 and THBD of the thoracic aorta, which may be, at least in part, involved in the mechanism of protective effect on hypertensive endothelial injury.

  4. Thoracic aortic injury in motor vehicle crashes: the effect of impact direction, side of body struck, and seat belt use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzharris, Michael; Franklyn, Melanie; Frampton, Richard; Yang, King; Morris, Andrew; Fildes, Brian

    2004-09-01

    Using in-depth, real-world motor vehicle crash data from the United States and the United Kingdom, we aimed to assess the incidence and risk factors associated with thoracic aorta injuries. De-identified National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (U.S.) and Co-operative Crash Injury Study (U.K.) data formed the basis of this retrospective analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the level of risk of thoracic aorta injury associated with impact direction, seat belt use and, given the asymmetry of the thoracic cavity, whether being struck toward the left side of the body was associated with increased risk in side-impact crashes. A total of 13,436 U.S. and 3,756 U.K. drivers and front seat passengers were analyzed. The incidence of thoracic aorta injury in the U.S. and U.K. samples was 1.5% (n = 197) and 1.9% (n = 70), respectively. The risk was higher for occupants seated on the side closest to the impact than for occupants involved in frontal impact crashes. This was the case irrespective of whether the force was applied toward the left (belted: relative risk [RR], 4.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9-7.1; p direction. Thoracic aorta injuries were found to be associated with high impact severity, and being struck by a sports utility vehicle relative to a passenger vehicle (RR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.3; p = 0.001). Aortic injuries have been conventionally associated with frontal impacts. However, emergency clinicians should be aware that occupants of side-impact crashes are at greater risk, particularly if the occupant was unbelted and involved in a crash of high impact severity.

  5. Melatonin effect on hypertension and nitric oxide balance in the heart and aorta

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecháňová, Olga; Paulis, L.; Zicha, Josef; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Šimko, F.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. S6 (2006), s. 395-395 ISSN 0263-6352. [Scientific Meeting of the International Society of Hypertension /21./. 15.10.2006-19.10.2006, Fukuoka] Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 2/6148/26 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : melatonin * nitric oxide balance * hypertension * SHR and WKY rat * heart and aorta Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  6. Role NO in realization of disorders of reactivity of an aorta after affecting an low intensive ionizing radiation: age aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'eva, N.G.

    2008-01-01

    The ionizing radiation in a dose 1 Gy mediates depressing of vasodilatation functions of an endothelium against the background of discriminated variations of neurohumoral regulations of reactivity of an aorta for young and old rats. The radiation-induced modification of physiological function of endothelial NO executes the key role in these age variations. (authors)

  7. Spiral CT-angiography of the aorta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balm, R.; Eikelboom, B. C.; van Leeuwen, M. S.; Noordzij, J.

    1994-01-01

    AIMS: To determine whether the new technique of CT-angiography was accurate in displaying the complex anatomy of the aorta and its major branches. METHODS: Seventeen patients with a variety of aortic pathology were examined. Using a spiral CT-scanner a volumetric scan was made during injection of

  8. Adiponectin improves coronary no-reflow injury by protecting the endothelium in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue; Wu, Ye; Liu, Xin; Ma, Lu; Lv, Tingting; Sun, Qi; Xu, Wenli; Zhang, Suli; Wang, Ke; Wang, Wen; Ma, Xinliang; Liu, Huirong

    2017-08-31

    To determine the effect of adiponectin (APN) on the coronary no-reflow (NR) injury in rats with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 80 male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a high-sugar-high-fat diet to build a T2DM model. Rats received vehicle or APN in the last week and then were subjected to myocardial ischemia reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of the thoracic aorta was significantly decreased and serum levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were noticably increased in T2DM rats compared with rats without T2DM. Serum APN was positively correlated with the endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, but negatively correlated with the serum level of ET-1. Treatment with APN improved T2DM-induced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, recovered cardiac function, and decreased both NR size and the levels of ET-1, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Hypoadiponectinemia was associated with the aggravation of coronary NR in T2DM rats. APN could alleviate coronary NR injury in T2DM rats by protecting the endothelium and improving microcirculation. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Thoracic organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Richard N; Barr, Mark L; McCullough, Keith P; Egan, Thomas; Garrity, Edward; Jessup, Mariell; Murray, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an overview of factors associated with thoracic transplantation outcomes over the past decade and provides valuable information regarding the heart, lung, and heart-lung waiting lists and thoracic organ transplant recipients. Waiting list and post-transplant information is used to assess the importance of patient demographics, risk factors, and primary cardiopulmonary disease on outcomes. The time that the typical listed patient has been waiting for a heart, lung, or heart-lung transplant has markedly increased over the past decade, while the number of transplants performed has declined slightly and survival after transplant has plateaued. Waiting list mortality, however, appears to be declining for each organ and for most diseases and high-severity subgroups, perhaps in response to recent changes in organ allocation algorithms. Based on perceived inequity in organ access and in response to a mandate from Health Resources and Services Administration, the lung transplant community is developing a lung allocation system designed to minimize deaths on the waiting list while maximizing the benefit of transplant by incorporating post-transplant survival and quality of life into the algorithm. Areas where improved data collection could inform evolving organ allocation and candidate selection policies are emphasized.

  10. Thoracic damage control surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Roberto; Saad, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The damage control surgery came up with the philosophy of applying essential maneuvers to control bleeding and abdominal contamination in trauma patients who are within the limits of their physiological reserves. This concept was extended to thoracic injuries, where relatively simple maneuvers can shorten operative time of in extremis patients. This article aims to revise the various damage control techniques in thoracic organs that must be known to the surgeon engaged in emergency care. RESUMO A cirurgia de controle de danos surgiu com a filosofia de se aplicar manobras essenciais para controle de sangramento e contaminação abdominal, em doentes traumatizados, nos limites de suas reservas fisiológicas. Este conceito se estendeu para as lesões torácicas, onde manobras relativamente simples, podem abreviar o tempo operatório de doentes in extremis. Este artigo tem como objetivo, revisar as diversas técnicas de controle de dano em órgãos torácicos, que devem ser de conhecimento do cirurgião que atua na emergência.

  11. Mechanical contribution of lamellar and interlamellar elastin along the mouse aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, T E; Lillie, M A; Vogl, A W; Gosline, J M; Shadwick, R E

    2015-10-15

    The mechanical properties of aortic elastin vary regionally, but the microstructural basis for this variation is unknown. This study was designed to identify the relative contributions of lamellar and interlamellar elastin to circumferential load bearing in the mouse thoracic and abdominal aortas. Forces developed in uniaxial tests of samples of fresh and autoclaved aorta were correlated with elastin content and morphology obtained from histology and multiphoton laser scanning microscopy. Autoclaving should render much of the interlamellar elastin mechanically incompetent. In autoclaved tissue force per unit sample width correlated with lamellar elastin content (P≪0.001) but not total elastin content. In fresh tissue at low strain where elastin dominates the mechanical response, forces were higher than in the autoclaved tissue, but force did not correlate with total elastin content. Therefore although interlamellar elastin likely contributed to the stiffness in the fresh aorta, its contribution appeared not in proportion to its quantity. In both fresh and autoclaved tissue, elastin stiffness consistently decreased along the abdominal aorta, a key area for aneurysm development, and this difference could not be fully accounted for on the basis of either lamellar or total elastin content. These findings are relevant to the development of mathematical models of arterial mechanics, particularly for mouse models of arterial diseases involving elastic tissue. In microstructural based models the quantity of each mural constituent determines its contribution to the total response. This study shows elastin's mechanical response cannot necessarily be accounted for on the basis of fibre quantity, orientation, and modulus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Tratamento de aneurismas da parte torácica da aorta pela introdução de "stents" sob visão endoscópica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Honório PALMA

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Tratamento de paciente com dois aneurismas saculares da aorta descendente, utilizando dois "stents" distintos, manufaturados sob medida tanto em comprimento quanto em diâmetro. Inseridos sob visão endoscópica com aparelho da marca "Olimpus" esterilizado com óxido de etileno, através de abertura na croça da aorta. O procedimento foi realizado por esternotomia mediana, com circulação extracorpórea, em hipotermia profunda e parada circulatória total. A manipulação endoscópica da aorta descendente, sem sangue, permitiu a identificação dos dois aneurismas, assim como a visão dos ramos principais da aorta e a inserção com expansão , na posição exata, dos dois "stents". A evolução pós- operatória foi satisfatória, sendo que este procedimento, inédito, abre uma nova perspectiva no tratamento dos aneurismas torácicos, toracoabdominais e abdominais.This is a case report of a patient with two saccular aneurysms in the thoracic descending aorta. Treatment consisted of the positioning, through an opening in the aortic arch under deep hipothermia and total circulatory arrest, of two auto expandable stents, guided an Olympus endoscope. The bloodless field made possible the identification of the main thoracic and abdominal aortic branches facilitating the positioning and expansion of both stents. Immediate postoperative recovery was excellent. This is a previously unreported way of placing stents and could open a new perspective in the treatment of thoraco, abdominal and thoracic abdominal aortic aneurysms.

  13. Thoracic spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  14. Usefulness of computed tomography angiography for the detection of high-risk aortas for carotid artery stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hiromichi; Kuwayama, Naoya; Hayashi, Nakamasa; Kubo, Michiya; Endo, Shunro

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) angiography for the detection of high-risk aortas for carotid artery stenting (CAS). We investigated changes in the treatment method and modifications of endovascular techniques according to the information from CT angiography. CT angiography using three-dimensional and multi-planar reconstruction was performed in 43 consecutive patients with carotid artery stenoses intended to undergo CAS. Two neurosurgeons evaluated the images and estimated the risk and difficulties of CAS. CT angiography clearly depicted the entire aorta, the supra-aortic vessels, and the ilio-femoral arteries in all patients. Abnormal vascular findings were found in 17 patients. High-risk aortic lesions for CAS were detected in 5 patients, including thick aortic plaques with thrombi in 2. We changed the treatment strategy from CAS to carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in these 2 patients. CT angiograms proved very useful in evaluating the approach routes of CAS in 12 patients. One patient had dissecting aneurysm of the thoracic aorta and another had aberrant right vertebral artery. In these two, the treatment strategy was changed from CAS to CEA. The treatment method was changed in 4 patients in total. CT angiography is useful for the detection of high-risk aortas for CAS and for the evaluation of safe approaches to the carotid artery. (author)

  15. 6. Endovascular treatment for acute traumatic transection of the thoracic aorta: The safety of delayed stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil H. Al Kindi

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: The delayed approach has been safe with no patients lost during the waiting period. Patients with ATT who make it to the hospital and are stable from the aortic point of view may be managed safely with delayed TEVAR if immediate therapy is not available or possible.

  16. Aortic root repair for thoracic aorta false aneurysm following Bentall procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Jones, Steve; Sivananthan, U M; McGoldrick, J P

    2008-08-01

    The Bentall procedure for aortic root replacement in Marfan's syndrome is safe and durable. We describe successful repair of periprosthetic valvular leak, 12 years following Bentall repair with composite graft. The aim of this report is to analyse and evaluate technical factors leading to this unusual occurrence.

  17. Haemodynamic imaging of thoracic stent-grafts by computational fluid dynamics (CFD): presentation of a patient-specific method combining magnetic resonance imaging and numerical simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midulla, Marco; Moreno, Ramiro; Baali, Adil; Chau, Ming; Negre-Salvayre, Anne; Nicoud, Franck; Pruvo, Jean-Pierre; Haulon, Stephan; Rousseau, Hervé

    2012-10-01

    In the last decade, there was been increasing interest in finding imaging techniques able to provide a functional vascular imaging of the thoracic aorta. The purpose of this paper is to present an imaging method combining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to obtain a patient-specific haemodynamic analysis of patients treated by thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). MRI was used to obtain boundary conditions. MR angiography (MRA) was followed by cardiac-gated cine sequences which covered the whole thoracic aorta. Phase contrast imaging provided the inlet and outlet profiles. A CFD mesh generator was used to model the arterial morphology, and wall movements were imposed according to the cine imaging. CFD runs were processed using the finite volume (FV) method assuming blood as a homogeneous Newtonian fluid. Twenty patients (14 men; mean age 62.2 years) with different aortic lesions were evaluated. Four-dimensional mapping of velocity and wall shear stress were obtained, depicting different patterns of flow (laminar, turbulent, stenosis-like) and local alterations of parietal stress in-stent and along the native aorta. A computational method using a combined approach with MRI appears feasible and seems promising to provide detailed functional analysis of thoracic aorta after stent-graft implantation. • Functional vascular imaging of the thoracic aorta offers new diagnostic opportunities • CFD can model vascular haemodynamics for clinical aortic problems • Combining CFD with MRI offers patient specific method of aortic analysis • Haemodynamic analysis of stent-grafts could improve clinical management and follow-up.

  18. Reverse extra-anatomic aortic arch debranching procedure allowing thoracic endovascular aortic repair of a chronic ascending aortic aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Canaud, MD, PhD

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A 79-year-old woman was admitted with a large chronic dissecting ascending aortic aneurysm starting 5 mm distal to the ostia of the left coronary artery and ending immediately proximal to the innominate artery. A reverse extra-anatomic aortic arch debranching procedure was performed. During the same operative time, through a transapical approach, a thoracic stent graft was deployed with the proximal landing zone just distal to the coronary ostia and the distal landing zone excluding the origin of the left common carotid artery. The postoperative course was uneventful. Computed tomography at 12 months documented patent extra-anatomic aortic arch debranching and no evidence of endoleak. Keywords: Ascending aorta, Thoracic aorta, Aortic dissection, Stent graft

  19. Permeability of the arterial endothelium of spontaneously hypertensive rats to plasma macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurukova, Z.B.; Georgiev, P.G.

    1979-01-01

    By means of vascular labelling technique at cellular level, the permeability of the arterial endothelium of spontaneously hypertensive rats has been studied. For this purpose colloidal carbon and plasma lipoproteins were introduced into the jugular vein of the animals. Material for light- and electron-microscopic and radioautographic examinations was taken from the thoracic and abdominal parts of the aorta. The results show that in long-term hypertension substances from plasma enter the aortic wall in increased amounts through two main pathways. First, through the selective physiological pathways of transendothelial transport (through cell junctions and vesicular transport) and secondly, through discontinuities of the endothelial lining (separation of the intercellular junctions, areas of loss of one to several endothelial cells). The alteration of the arterial endothelium barrier function in chronic hypertension seems to be an important mechanism for the progression of hypertensive arterial lesions. (A.B.)

  20. Device occlusion of pseudoaneurysm of ascending aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Mridul; Ray, Mili; Pallavi, M; Sen, Supratim; Ganguly, Debosree; Joshi, Pankaj; Tanti, Sanjay; Chattopadhyay, Amitabh; Bandyopadhyay, Biswajit

    2011-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of ascending aorta is an infrequent but well-recognized and potentially fatal complication after cardiac surgeries. The complication can develop early, delayed or late, and the presentation is also varied. We are presenting here two cases of pseudoaneurysm of ascending aorta following cardiac surgery that were successfully managed by the transcatheter method. The first one occurred following coronary artery bypass surgery and the second one occurred following double-valve replacement surgery. The aortic openings of these aneurysms were occluded with 12 mm and 10 mm atrial septal occluders, respectively, with a good outcome. An immediate postprocedure angiogram showed no residual flow into the sac. Six months of follow-up of both cases also showed excellent results

  1. Diagnosis of supravalvar stenosis of aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumskij, V.I.; Konstantinova, N.V.; Pokidkin, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    The authors analyzed the potentialities of combined radiodiagnosis of supravalvar stenosis (SS) and concomitant diseases of the heart and major vessels (Williams-Beuren syndrome) in 7 patients aged 7 mos. to 24 yrs. Polypositional chest and heart X-ray procedure, catheterization of the cardiac cavities, pulmonary artery and aorta, left ventriculography (6), right ventriculography (4) and angiopulmonography were used. The diagnostic potentialities of each method were defined

  2. Myocardial ischemia due to compression of an unruptured thoracic aortic aneurysm in a patient with Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Hiroya; Asada, Tatsuro; Gan, Kunio; Abe, Koichiro; Izumi, Satoshi

    2007-06-01

    We report a 33-year-old woman who had a 60-mm thoracic aneurysm of the ascending aorta with Marfan syndrome and effort angina due to compression of the right coronary artery (RCA) by the aneurysm. Surgery was performed using the Bentall procedure and a coronary artery bypass graft to the RCA. Postoperatively, coronary angiography showed that the coronary flow of the RCA was restored by removing the aneurysmal compression. The patient was discharged without angina on postoperative day 21.

  3. Rock Tea extract (Jasonia glutinosa) relaxes rat aortic smooth muscle by inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Marta Sofía; Oliván-Viguera, Aida; Garrido, Irene; Langa, Elisa; Berzosa, César; López, Víctor; Gómez-Rincón, Carlota; Murillo, María Divina; Köhler, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    In traditional herbal medicine, Rock Tea (Jasonia glutinosa) is known for its prophylactic and therapeutic value in various disorders including arterial hypertension. However, the mechanism by which Rock Tea exerts blood pressure-lowering actions has not been elucidated yet. Our aim was to demonstrate vasorelaxing effects of Rock Tea extract and to reveal its possible action mechanism. Isometric myography was conducted on high-K+-precontracted rings from rat thoracic aorta and tested extracts at concentrations of 0.5-5 mg/ml. Whole-cell patch-clamp experiments were performed in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (line A7r5) to determine blocking effects on L-type Ca(2+) channels. Rock Tea extract relaxed the aorta contracted by high [K+] concentration dependently with an EC50 of ≈2.4 mg/ml and produced ≈75 % relaxation at the highest concentration tested. The L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, verapamil (10(-6) M), had similar effects. Rock Tea extract had no effect in nominally Ca(2+)-free high-K(+) buffer but significantly inhibited contractions to re-addition of Ca(2+). Rock Tea extract inhibited the contractions induced by the L-type Ca(2+) channel activator Bay K 8644 (10(-5) M) and by phenylephrine (10(-6) M). Rock Tea extract and Y-27632 (10(-6) M), Rho-kinase inhibitor, had similar effects and the respective effects were not additive. Patch-clamp experiments demonstrated that Rock Tea extract (2.5 mg/ml) virtually abolished L-type Ca(2+) currents in A7r5. We conclude that Rock Tea extract produced vasorelaxation of rat aorta and that this relaxant effect is mediated by inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels. Rock Tea extracts may be of phytomedicinal value for prevention and adjuvant treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Angiographic anatomy of major branches of the abdominal aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. W.; Suh, J. H.; Park, C. Y.

    1980-01-01

    These paper is an analyses of 110 patients who received abdominal aortography and selective organ angiography from July 1977 to August 1979 at the Department of Radiology of Yonsei Medical Center. 1. The most frequent site of bifurcation of the abdominal aorta was the 4th intervertebral disc level, occurring in 22 of 50 cases (42.3%). 2. The celiac trunk arose most frequently at the level of the 12th thoracic intervertebral disc, occurring in 11 of 52 cases (21.2%). 3. The superior mesenteric artery arose most frequent at the level of the upper third of the 1st lumbar vertebra, occurring in 8 of 30 cases (26.7%). 4. The right renal artery most frequently arose at the level of the middle third of the 1st lumbar vertebra, occurring in 17 of 70 cases (24.3%) and the left renal artery occurred most frequently in 1st lumbar vertebral disc level, 14 of 70 cases (20%). 5. Both renal arteries most commonly arose symmetrically as seen in 37 of 70 cases (52.6%). Case in which the rights arose at a higher level than the left occurred in 28 of 70 cases (40.6%). 6. Accessory renal arteries occurred in 19 of 70 cases (27.1%). 7. The most common form of the celiac trunk in which it divides into left gastric, splenic and common hepatic arteries was seen in 30 of 38 cases (78.9%). 8. The normal hepatic artery pattern in which it arise from the common hepatic artery and divides into right, middle and left hepatic artery occurred in 23 of 38 cases (60.5%0. A replaced right hepatic artery was seen in 2 of 35 cases (5.3%), and an accessory right hepatic artery also in 2 of 38 cases (5.3%).

  5. Expression of platelet-derived growth factor B is upregulated in patients with thoracic aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Weixin; Liu, Shangdian; Li, Dandan; Liu, Zonghong; Yang, Hui; Sun, Bo; Liu, Hongyu

    2018-04-20

    Thoracic aortic dissection (TAD) is a serious condition requiring urgent treatment to avoid catastrophic consequences. The inflammatory response is involved in the occurrence and development of TAD, possibly potentiated by platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs). This study aimed to determine whether expression of PDGF-B (a subunit of PDGF-BB) was increased in TAD patients and to explore the factors responsible for its upregulation and subsequent effects on TAD. Full-thickness ascending aorta wall specimens from TAD patients (n = 15) and control patients (n = 10) were examined for expression of PDGF-B and its receptor (PDGFRB) and in terms of morphology, inflammation, and fibrosis. Blood samples from TAD and control patients were collected to detect plasma levels of PDGF-BB and soluble elastins. Expression levels of PDGF-B, PDGFRB, and collagen I were significantly enhanced in ascending aorta wall specimens from TAD patients compared with controls. Furthermore, soluble elastic fragments and PDGF-BB were significantly increased in plasma from TAD patients compared with controls, and numerous irregular elastic fibers and macrophages were seen in the ascending aorta wall in TAD patients. An increase in elastic fragments in the aorta wall might be responsible for inducing the activation and migration of macrophages to injured sites, leading to elevated expression of PDGF-B, which in turn induces deposition of collagen, disrupts extracellular matrix homeostasis, and increases the stiffness of the aorta wall, resulting in compromised aorta compliance. Copyright © 2018 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Towards the evaluation of the pathological state of ascending thoracic aneurysms: integration of in-vivo measurements and hemodynamic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccadifuoco, Alessandro; Mariotti, Alessandro; Celi, Simona; Martini, Nicola; Salvetti, Maria Vittoria

    2016-11-01

    Ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms are cardiovascular diseases consisting in a dilation of the ascending thoracic aorta. Since indicating a weakness of the arterial wall, they can lead to major complications with significant mortality rate. Clinical decisions about surgery are currently based on the maximum aortic diameter, but this single index does not seem a reliable indicator of the pathological state of the aorta. Numerical simulations of the blood flow inside the aneurysm may give supplementary information by quantifying important indices that are difficult to be measured, like the wall shear stress. Our aim is to develop an efficient platform in which in-vivo measurements are used to perform the hemodynamic simulations on a patient-specific basis. In particular, we used real geometries of thoracic aorta and focused on the use of clinical information to impose accurate boundary conditions at the inlet/outlets of the computational model. Stochastic analysis was also performed, to evaluate how uncertainties in the boundary parameters affect the main hemodynamic indicators, by considering both rigid and deformable walls. Stochastic calibration of numerical parameters against clinical data is in progress and results will be possibly shown.

  7. Altered aortic and cremaster muscle prostaglandin synthesis in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, T.O.; Messina, E.J.; Rodrigues, A.M.; Gerritsen, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Alterations in the synthesis and release of prostaglandins have been reported in humans and animal models of diabetes mellitus. In the present study synthesis and release of prostaglandins by thoracic aorta and cremaster muscle of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes of 8 wk duration was compared with age-matched controls. Prostaglandin synthesis was assessed by the measurement of immunoreactive prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 6-ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1 alpha) release and by quantifying metabolism of exogenous [1- 14 C]arachidonic acid by thoracic aortic rings and minced cremaster muscle. These studies indicate that diminished prostacyclin (PGI2) and/or PGE2 production is not a general feature of all diabetic vascular tissues, suggesting that large and small blood vessels may not be similarly affected by diabetes in regard to the metabolism of exogenous arachidonic acid and the synthesis and release of prostaglandins. Furthermore, the vascular changes often observed in conjunction with diabetes, i.e., alterations in vascular reactivity and microangiopathy in small blood vessels and atherosclerosis of large blood vessels may be related in some way to the segmental differences observed in prostaglandin synthesis

  8. The evolution of thoracic anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Jay B

    2005-02-01

    The specialty of thoracic surgery has evolved along with the modem practice of anesthesia. This close relationship began in the 1930s and continues today. Thoracic surgery has grown from a field limited almost exclusively to simple chest wall procedures to the present situation in which complex procedures, such as lung volume reduction or lung transplantation, now can be performed on the most severely compromised patient. The great advances in thoracic surgery have followed discoveries and technical innovations in many medical fields. One of the most important reasons for the rapid escalation in the number and complexity of thoracic surgical procedures now being performed has been the evolution of anesthesia for thoracic surgery. There has been so much progress in this area that numerous books and journals are devoted entirely to this subject. The author has been privileged to work with several surgeons who specialized in noncardiac thoracic surgery. As a colleague of 25 years, the noted pulmonary surgeon James B.D. Mark wrote, "Any operation is a team effort... (but) nowhere is this team effort more important than in thoracic surgery, where near-choreography of moves by all participants is essential. Exchange of information, status and plans are mandatory". This team approach between the thoracic surgeon and the anesthesiologist reflects the history of the two specialties. With new advances in technology, such as continuous blood gas monitoring and the pharmacologic management of pulmonary circulation to maximize oxygenation during one-lung ventilation, in the future even more complex procedures may be able to be performed safely on even higher risk patients.

  9. Early and late results of graft replacement for dissecting aneurysm of thoracoabdominal aorta in patients with Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Atsushi; Tanaka, Akiko; Miyahara, Shunsuke; Sakamoto, Toshihito; Nomura, Yoshikatsu; Inoue, Takeshi; Oka, Takanori; Minami, Hitoshi; Okada, Kenji; Okita, Yutaka

    2012-09-01

    When treating dissecting aneurysm of the thoracoabdominal aorta surgically in patients with Marfan syndrome, we have usually performed graft replacement- including the entire thoracoabdominal aorta and reconstruction of all visceral branches, even if dilatation is mild in some segments-to avoid further aortic operations in the follow-up period. From October 1999 through July 2011, 20 consecutive patients with Marfan syndrome underwent repair of dissecting aneurysm of the thoracoabdominal aorta (median age, 45 years; range, 19-65 years). All patients underwent surgical intervention with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage and distal aortic and selective organ perfusion. Deep hypothermia was used in 13 patients for spinal cord protection. No in-hospital mortality was observed. One patient had temporary spinal cord ischemia but was fully recovered by discharge. Other complications included exploration for bleeding (n=1), prolonged ventilation (n=1), and graft infection (n=1). At a mean follow-up of 54 months (range, 9-129 months), 1 patient had died of interstitial pneumonia at 38 months postoperatively. Survival at 8% years was 91.2±9.0%. Two patients required additional aortic procedures (total arch replacement and aortic valve-sparing surgery). Actuarial rate of freedom from aortic operations at 8 years was 83.9%±10.5%, but no patient needed required repeated thoracotomy for an aortic procedure. Neither false nor patch aneurysms were observed using computed tomography (CT) during follow-up surveillance. Graft replacement for dissecting aneurysm of the thoracoabdominal aorta in Marfan syndrome offers good early and long-term results. We believe total aortic replacement including the entire thoracoabdominal aorta and reconstruction of all visceral arteries should be recommended for selected patients with Marfan syndrome. Copyright © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tratamiento endoluminal de la aorta. Implicaciones en la enfermedad de la aorta torácica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Josa García-Tornel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Durante los últimos años el tratamiento quirúrgico endoluminal de la enfermedad de la aorta (EVAR, endovascular aortic repair se ha convertido en una opción terapéutica en un espectro amplio de pacientes. EVAR es una técnica relativamente fácil, menos agresiva y con aparente menor riesgo con respecto a la cirugía convencional de la aorta. La evidente presión de la industria, a menudo combinada con el lógico interés por su desarrollo por parte de muchos grupos clínicos y el factor moda, tan en boga en nuestros tiempos, han dado a la cirugía endoluminal de la aorta abdominal un desarrollo muy rápido que se está extendiendo en la actualidad a segmentos de la aorta torácica. Aunque los resultados publicados parecen avalar un papel importante de EVAR en algunos grupos específicos de pacientes, su uso en muchos otros grupos es muy controvertido. Su alto coste y los resultados a medio plazo parecen poner en tela de juicio la tendencia a la generalización que existe hoy día. La aplicación a la aorta torácica está asociada con un mayor número de interrogantes. Estudios rigurosos y mejoras técnicas ayudarán, sin duda, a definir mejor su indudable aplicabilidad en el tratamiento de la aorta tanto abdominal como torácica, pero en la actualidad su uso debe estar regulado por un cumplimiento estricto de indicaciones basadas en evidencias clínicas y alejadas de otros intereses, y su práctica debe reducirse a grupos de multiespecialidad preparados en todos los aspectos de la cirugía cardiovascular.

  11. Assessment of thoracic aortic elasticity: a preliminary study using electrocardiographically gated dual-source CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ning; Guo, Lijun; Sun, Haitao; Gao, Fei; Liu, Cheng; Beck, Thomas; Chen, Jiuhong; Biermann, Christina

    2011-01-01

    To gain a new insight into the elastic properties of the thoracic aorta in patients without aortic diseases using electrocardiographically (ECG)-gated dual-source (DS) CT. 56 subjects with no cardiovascular disease, selected from 2,700 people undergoing ECG-gated DSCT examination, were divided into three groups according to their age. CT data were reconstructed in 5% step throughout the RR interval. Diameter and area were measured at the curve of the ascending aorta (AA) and at the same level of the descending aorta (DA). The pulsation and elasticity of the aorta were evaluated. Aortic diameter changes were noted throughout the cardiac cycle. The maximum average diameter was seen at an RR interval of 24.02 ± 4.99% for the AA and 25.63 ± 4.77% for the DA. The minimum was at 93.5 ± 4.04% for the AA and 96.6 ± 4.58% for the DA. There was an age-dependent decrease in elasticity, while different correlation coefficients were found between various age groups and different elastic parameters. The properties of aortic pulsation and wall elasticity could be well shown by ECG-gated DSCT. The new findings regarding segment difference and age relevance were significant and should be taken into account in clinical trials and treatments for the elasticity related cardiovascular diseases. (orig.)

  12. Measurement of calcium influx in tethered rings of rabbit aorta under tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleason, M.M.; Ratz, P.H.; Flaim, S.F.

    1985-01-01

    Calcium (Ca) influx in vascular smooth muscle is routinely measured in untethered preparations not under passive stretch, and Ca influx data are correlated with data for steady-state isometric tension obtained under parallel conditions from tethered preparations under passive stretch. The validity of this method was tested by simultaneous measurement of Ca influx and tension in tethered rings of rabbit thoracic aorta. Ca influx ( 45 Ca 3-min pulse) and tension were measured at 3 and 30 min after norepinephrine (NE) or KCl and under control (no agonist) conditions. Active tension was significantly altered by variations in passive tension. Ca influx was unaffected by passive tension under control, NE, or KCl conditions, and results were similar at 3 and 30 min. The results confirm the validity of correlating Ca influx data from untethered rings with steady-state contractile response data obtained from tethered rings under similar experimental conditions

  13. Initial experience of Da Vinci robotic thoracic surgery at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhehao; Zeng, Liping; Zhang, Chong; Wang, Luming; Wang, Zhitian; Rustam, Azmat; Du, Chengli; Lv, Wang

    2017-01-01

    Robot-assisted thoracic surgery (RATS) is a relatively new but rapidly adopted technique, pioneered by the urological and gynecological departments. The primary objective of this study is to present the current status, a series of improvement and innovation of Da Vinci robotic surgery in the Department of Thoracic Surgery at First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University. In addition, we discuss the prospect of robotic surgical technology. PMID:29302429

  14. Intimal permeability evaluated in a short-term organ culture of diabetic guinea pig aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, M.J.; Verlangieri, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    A novel short-term organ culture system was used to evaluate intimal permeability changes by measuring aortic [ 14 C]methylated albumin accumulation. Aortic plugs were removed from the upper thoracic aorta of male guinea pigs and maintained in serum-free media. The accumulation of [ 14 C]albumin in the intimal-medial layer was determined after a 5 h incubation. In preliminary studies, albumin recovered from intimal-injured aortic plugs was significantly greater than those from non-injured plugs. Aortic plugs from streptozotocin-treated guinea pigs, diabetic for 3 weeks, also accumulated significantly more [ 14 C]albumin than plugs from nondiabetic controls. Histological changes were not observed in the aorta of either the diabetic or control group. A strong significant inverse correlation was found between plasma ascorbic acid levels and [ 14 C]-activity recovered from aortic plugs. This study demonstrates a simple and rapid method for assessing aortic permeability changes under a well-defined in vitro system, and suggests that vascular permeability changes in the streptozotocin-diabetic guinea pig may be associated with an ascorbic acid deficit

  15. Iterative Otsu's method for OCT improved delineation in the aorta wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Daniel; Real, Eusebio; Val-Bernal, José F.; Revuelta, José M.; Pontón, Alejandro; Calvo Díez, Marta; Mayorga, Marta; López-Higuera, José M.; Conde, Olga M.

    2015-07-01

    Degradation of human ascending thoracic aorta has been visualized with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). OCT images of the vessel wall exhibit structural degradation in the media layer of the artery, being this disorder the final trigger of the pathology. The degeneration in the vessel wall appears as low-reflectivity areas due to different optical properties of acidic polysaccharides and mucopolysaccharides in contrast with typical ordered structure of smooth muscle cells, elastin and collagen fibers. An OCT dimension indicator of wall degradation can be generated upon the spatial quantification of the extension of degraded areas in a similar way as conventional histopathology. This proposed OCT marker can offer in the future a real-time clinical perception of the vessel status to help cardiovascular surgeons in vessel repair interventions. However, the delineation of degraded areas on the B-scan image from OCT is sometimes difficult due to presence of speckle noise, variable signal to noise ratio (SNR) conditions on the measurement process, etc. Degraded areas can be delimited by basic thresholding techniques taking advantage of disorders evidences in B-scan images, but this delineation is not optimum in the aorta samples and requires complex additional processing stages. This work proposes an optimized delineation of degraded areas within the aorta wall, robust to noisy environments, based on the iterative application of Otsu's thresholding method. Results improve the delineation of wall anomalies compared with the simple application of the algorithm. Achievements could be also transferred to other clinical scenarios: carotid arteries, aorto-iliac or ilio-femoral sections, intracranial, etc.

  16. AORTA: Adding Organizational Reasoning to Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    the expected behavior of the agents. Agents need to be able to reason about the regulations, so that they can act within the expected boundaries and work towards the objectives of the organization. This extended abstract introduces AORTA, a component that can be integrated into agents’ reasoning mechanism......, allowing them to reason about (and act upon) regulations specified by an organizational model using simple reasoning rules. The added value is that the organizational model is independent of that of the agents, and that the approach is not tied to a specific organizational model....

  17. Aerobic Swim Training Restores Aortic Endothelial Function by Decreasing Superoxide Levels in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila P. Jordão

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether aerobic training decreases superoxide levels, increases nitric oxide levels, and improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the aortas of spontaneously hypertensive rats. METHODS: Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY were distributed into 2 groups: sedentary (SHRsd and WKYsd, n=10 each and swimming-trained (SHRtr, n=10 and WKYtr, n=10, respectively. The trained group participated in training sessions 5 days/week for 1 h/day with an additional work load of 4% of the animal’s body weight. After a 10-week sedentary or aerobic training period, the rats were euthanized. The thoracic aortas were removed to evaluate the vasodilator response to acetylcholine (10-10 to 10-4 M with or without preincubation with L-NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME; 10-4 M in vitro. The aortic tissue was also used to assess the levels of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase subunit isoforms 1 and 4 proteins, as well as the superoxide and nitrite contents. Blood pressure was measured using a computerized tail-cuff system. RESULTS: Aerobic training significantly increased the acetylcholine-induced maximum vasodilation observed in the SHRtr group compared with the SHRsd group (85.9±4.3 vs. 71.6±5.2%. Additionally, in the SHRtr group, superoxide levels were significantly decreased, nitric oxide bioavailability was improved, and the levels of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase subunit isoform 4 protein were decreased compared to the SHRsd group. Moreover, after training, the blood pressure of the SHRtr group decreased compared to the SHRsd group. Exercise training had no effect on the blood pressure of the WKYtr group. CONCLUSIONS: In SHR, aerobic swim training decreased vascular superoxide generation by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase subunit isoform 4 and increased nitric oxide bioavailability, thereby improving

  18. Aortic arch/elephant trunk procedure with Sienna(TM) graft and endovascular stenting of thoraco-abdominal aorta for treatment of complex chronic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Randolph H L; Baghai, Max; Yu, Simon C H; Underwood, Malcolm J

    2013-05-01

    Aneurismal dilatation of the remaining thoracic aorta after ascending aortic interposition grafting for type 'A' aortic dissection is not uncommon. For such complex cases, one treatment option is total arch replacement and elephant trunk procedure with the Sienna(TM) collared graft (Vascutek, Inchinnan, UK) technique followed by a staged thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). The video illustrates our technique in a 56-year-old man with an extensive aortic arch and descending thoracic aortic dissecting aneurysm. For the 'open' procedure femoral arterial and venous cannulation was used along with systemic cooling and circulatory arrest at 22 °C. Upon circulatory arrest, the aortic arch was incised and antegrade cerebral perfusion achieved via selective cannulation to the right brachiocephalic and left common carotid artery, keeping flow rates at 10-15 mL/kg/min and perfusion pressure at 50-60 mmHg. Arch replacement with an elephant trunk component was then performed and after completion of the distal aortic anastomosis antegrade perfusion via a side-arm in the graft was started and the operation completed using a variation of the 'sequential' clamping technique to maximize cerebral perfusion. The second endovascular stage was performed two weeks after discharge. Two covered stents were landing from the elephant trunk to the distal descending thoracic aorta, to secure the distal landing a bare stent of was placed to cover the aorta just distal to the origin of the celiac axis. The left subclavian artery was embolised with fibre coils. Post TEVAR angiogram showed no endoleak Although re-operative total arch replacement and elephant trunk procedure and subsequent TEVAR remained a challenging procedure, we believe excellent surgical outcome can be achieved with carefully planned operative strategy.

  19. ATP sensitive K+ channel subunits (Kir6.1, Kir6.2) are the candidate mediators regulating ameliorating effects of pulsed magnetic field on aortic contractility in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocal, Isil; Yilmaz, Mehmet B; Kocaturk-Sel, Sabriye; Tufan, Turan; Erkoc, Mehmet A; Comertpay, Gamze; Oksuz, Hale; Barc, Esma D

    2018-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease that causes increased morbidity and mortality in developed and developing countries. With recent advancements in technology, alternative treatment methods have begun to be investigated in the world. This study aims to evaluate the effect of pulsed magnetic field (PMF) on vascular complications and contractile activities of aortic rings along with Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 subunit expressions of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K ATP ) in aortas of controlled-diabetic and non-controlled diabetic rats. Controlled-diabetic and non-controlled diabetic adult male Wistar rats were exposed to PMF for a period of 6 weeks according to the PMF application protocol (1 h/day; intensity: 1.5 mT; consecutive frequency: 1, 10, 20, and 40 Hz). After PMF exposure, body weight and blood glucose levels were measured. Then, thoracic aorta tissue was extracted for relaxation-contraction and Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 expression experiments. Blood plasma glucose levels, body weight, and aortic ring contraction percentage decreased in controlled-diabetic rats but increased in non-controlled diabetic rats. PMF therapy repressed Kir6.1 mRNA expression in non-controlled diabetic rats but not in controlled diabetic rats. Conversely, Kir6.2 mRNA expressions were repressed both in controlled diabetic and non-controlled diabetic rats by PMF. Our findings suggest that the positive therapeutic effects of PMF may act through (K ATP ) subunits and may frequently occur in insulin-free conditions. Bioelectromagnetics. 39:299-311, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Impairment of the vascular relaxation and differential expression of caveolin-1 of the aorta of diabetic +db/+db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Tze Yan; Seto, Sai Wang; Lau, Yee Man; Au, Lai Shan; Kwan, Yiu Wa; Ngai, Sai Ming; Tsui, Kwong Wing

    2006-09-28

    In this study, we compared the endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxation of the isolated thoracic aorta of control (+db/+m) and diabetic (+db/+db) (C57BL/KsJ) mice. The gene expression (mRNA and protein) level of the muscarinic M(3) receptors, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and caveolin-1 of the aorta was also evaluated. Acetylcholine caused a concentration-dependent, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl-ester (20 microM)-sensitive relaxation, with approximately 100% relaxation at 10 microM, in +db/+m mice. In +db/+db mice, the acetylcholine-induced relaxation was significantly smaller (maximum relaxation: approximately 80%). The sodium nitroprusside-mediated relaxation was slightly diminished in +db/+db mice, compared to +db/+m mice. However, there was no significant difference in the isoprenaline- and cromakalim-induced relaxation observed in both species. The mRNA and protein expression levels of caveolin-1 were significantly higher in the aorta of +db/+db mice. In contrast, there was no difference in the mRNA and protein expression levels of eNOS and muscarinic M(3) receptors between these mice. Our results demonstrate that the impairment of the acetylcholine-induced, endothelium-dependent aortic relaxation observed in +db/+db mice was probably associated with an enhanced expression of caveolin-1 mRNA and protein.

  1. Preoperative Evaluation and Endovascular Procedure of Intraoperative Aneurysm Rupture During Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zha, Bin-Shan, E-mail: binszha2013@163.com; Zhu, Hua-Gang, E-mail: huagzhu@yeah.net; Ye, Yu-Sheng, E-mail: yeyusheng@aliyun.com; Li, Yong-Sheng, E-mail: 872868848@qq.com; Zhang, Zhi-Gong, E-mail: zzgedward@sina.com; Xie, Wen-Tao, E-mail: 345344347@qq.com [The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Department of Vascular Surgery (China)

    2017-03-15

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms are now routinely repaired with endovascular repair if anatomically feasible because of advantages in safety and recovery. However, intraoperative aneurysm rupture is a severe complication which may have an adverse effect on the outcome of treatment. Comprehensive preoperative assessment and considerate treatment are keys to success of endovascular aneurysm repair, especially during unexpected circumstances. Few cases have reported on intraoperative aortic rupture, which were successfully managed by endovascular treatment. Here, we present a rare case of an intraoperative aneurysm rupture during endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysm with narrow neck and angulated aorta arch (coarctation-associated aneurysm), which was successfully treated using double access route approach and iliac limbs of infrarenal devices.Level of EvidenceLevel 5.

  2. Aortopulmonary Fistula Presenting without an Endoleak after Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Sica

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report the case of a 60-year-old man, a smoker with a history of arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus. After computed tomography (CT for an episode of hemoptysis, the patient underwent elective thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR because of a degenerative aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta. The area of perianeurysmal pulmonary atelectasis reported on the CT scan was not considered. Three months later, he developed an aortopulmonary fistula without endoleaks. Although TEVAR is a relatively safe procedure, no detail should be overlooked in the preoperative evaluation in order to avoid life-threatening complications. Further, the effectiveness and modality of prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis and/or preoperative respiratory physiotherapy should be assessed in such cases.

  3. Pathomorphological changes of aorta in fetuses and newborns exposed to experimental maternal escherichiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Markovskyi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine infections occupy a leading place in the perinatal mortality structure. The aim of this study was to identify the morphological features of the aorta in progenies born from mothers with subacute prolonged infectious and inflammatory process. Two experimental studies were performed on WAG line laboratory rats. The comparison group consisted of newborns died due to acute postnatal hypoxia. The main group included fetuses and newborns born from Escherichia coli infected mothers. The differences between the vessels of two study groups were not observed in macroscopic examination. In the group of progenies born from infected mothers, the average thickness of the aorta increased in comparison with the group under hypoxia influence, due to the inner and middle membranes, which can be interpreted as the sclerotic changes development. There was tunica adventitia volume increase in the group with hypoxia, which can be explained by edema caused by increased vascular permeability. Morphological signs of endothelial dysfunction were found in both study groups, which were expressed in the endotheliocytes flattening with their subsequent desquamation more pronounced in the group with hypoxia. It is apparently related to the process severity. There is a violation of the elastic and collagen fibers ratio towards the second in the vessel wall under the hypoxia influence, which reduces the elastic properties of the aorta.

  4. Tratamento cirúrgico dos aneurismas toracoabdominais da aorta Surgical treatment of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Januário M Souza

    1991-04-01

    proximal thoracic aortic clamping was impossible. A woven Dacron graft of adequate size was used to substitute the aorta, intercostals and visceral arteries were reimplanted. Paraplegia occurred in one patient. There was no intraoperative death. Two patients died in the immediate postoperative period, one of them on the 3rd day, by neurologic coma caused by cardiac arrest during the operation, and the other patient on the 12th postoperative day, suddenlly. Three patients were followed up. Two patients are doing well, 13 and 72 months after operation, and the other one has the limitation of the paraplegia.

  5. Right sided arcus aorta as a cause of dyspnea and chronic cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozkaya Sevket

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Right sided arcus aorta (RSAA is a rare condition that is usually asymptomatic. Patients may present with exertional dyspnea and chronic cough. A recent article suggested that RSAA should be included in the differential diagnosis of asthma, especially in patients with intractable exertional dyspnea. We aimed to present the clinical, radiologic and spirometric features of thirteen patients with RSAA observed in four years at the Rize Education and Research Hospital and Samsun Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Hospital. Methods The characteristics of patients with RSAA, including age, gender, symptoms, radiologic and spirometric findings, were retrospectively evaluated. Results A total of thirteen patients were diagnosed with RSAA. Their ages ranged from 17 to 86 years and the male to female ratio was 11:2. Seven of the patients (54% were symptomatic. The most common symptoms were exertional dyspnea, dysphagia and chronic cough. Five patients had received treatment for asthma with bronchodilators. Spirometry showed intrathoracic tracheal obstruction in five patients. Conclusions The RSAA anomaly occurs more frequently than might be estimated from the number of patients who are detected. Patients with intractable exertional dyspnea and chronic cough should be evaluated for the RSAA anomaly by thoracic CT.

  6. Thoracic complications of rheumatoid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massey, H.; Darby, M.; Edey, A.

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a relatively common multisystem disease associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Thoracic disease, both pleural and pulmonary, is a frequent extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis and responsible for approximately 20% of rheumatoid-associated mortality. Rheumatoid disease and its associated therapies can affect all compartments of the lung inciting a range of stereotyped pathological responses and it is not infrequent for multiple disease entities to co-exist. In some instances, development of pulmonary complications may precede typical rheumatological presentation of the disease and be the first indication of an underlying connective tissue disease. The spectrum of thoracic disease related to rheumatoid arthritis is reviewed

  7. Thoracic outlet syndrome: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez, Juan Camilo; Acosta, Mauricio Fernando; Uribe Jorge Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of vascular thoracic outlet syndrome in a young man, diagnosed with upper limb arteriography, leading to repeated arterio-arterial emboli originating from a post-stenotic subclavian artery aneurysm. It is of our interest due to its low incidence and the small number of cases reported that have been diagnosed by arteriography. The thoracic outlet is the path through which vascular and neural structures goes from the neck to the axilla, and it has three anatomical strictures, that when pronounced, can compress the brachial plexus or subclavian vessels, leading to different symptoms and signs.

  8. Valsartan ameliorates ageing-induced aorta degeneration via angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated ERK activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, HaiYan; Zhang, Siyang; Li, Xuelian; yu, Kai; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Xinyue; Jin, Bo; Bai, XiaoJuan

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays important roles in ageing-related disorders through its type 1 receptor (AT1R). However, the role and underlying mechanisms of AT1R in ageing-related vascular degeneration are not well understood. In this study, 40 ageing rats were randomly divided into two groups: ageing group which received no treatment (ageing control), and valsartan group which took valsartan (selective AT1R blocker) daily for 6 months. 20 young rats were used as adult control. The aorta structure were analysed by histological staining and electron microscopy. Bcl-2/Bax expression in aorta was analysed by immunohistochemical staining, RT-PCR and Western blotting. The expressions of AT1R, AT2R and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were detected. Significant structural degeneration of aorta in the ageing rats was observed, and the degeneration was remarkably ameliorated by long-term administration of valsartan. With ageing, the expression of AT1R was elevated, the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax was decreased and meanwhile, an important subgroup of MAPKs, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity was elevated. However, these changes in ageing rats could be reversed to some extent by valsartan. In vitro experiments observed consistent results as in vivo study. Furthermore, ERK inhibitor could also acquire partial effects as valsartan without affecting AT1R expression. The results indicated that AT1R involved in the ageing-related degeneration of aorta and AT1R-mediated ERK activity was an important mechanism underlying the process. PMID:24548645

  9. Thoracic chordoma: CT and MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Yoo Mi; Hwang, Hee Young; Kim, Sang Joon; Chung, Hyo Sun; Han, Heon

    1993-01-01

    Chordoma arising from the notochordal remnants is a rare primary bone tumor in the cervicosacral region and is even more unusual in the thoracic region. The authors experienced a case of thoracic chordoma and reports its CT and MR findings

  10. [Change of paradigms in the surgical treatment of complex thoracic aortic disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Ulf; Tsagakis, Konstantinos; Kamler, Markus; Massoudy, Parwis; Assenmacher, Eva; Eggebrecht, Holger; Buck, Thomas; Jakob, Heinz

    2006-08-01

    One of the main issues in complex thoracic aortic disease, requiring the replacement of the ascending aorta, the entire aortic arch and the descending aorta, is the vast amount of surgery necessary to cure the patient. Though one-stage repair is feasible by a clamshell thoracotomy, the associated surgical trauma and perioperative morbidity limit this approach to younger patients only. Classic surgical repair consist of a two-stage strategy, whereby, in the first step, the ascending aorta and the aortic arch are replaced via a midline sternotomy. In the second step, via a lateral thoracotomy, the descending aorta is replaced. The two stages may sum up to a mortality of 20%; furthermore, the waiting period between the stages is associated with a mortality rate of 10% of its own. Additionally, the two-stage strategy has an inherent limitation, due to the comorbidity and advanced age of the majority of patients. Therefore, the second stage cannot be offered to up to 30% of patients. New developments and improvements in aortic surgery were introduced to overcome these shortcomings and to simplify the surgical repair. The "elephant trunk" principle, introduced by Borst et al. in 1983, was an important step to facilitate surgical repair, but still required the second step. With the introduction of endovascular repair of thoracic aortic disease with stent grafts implanted retrograde via the femoral artery, new therapeutic concepts emerged. In the late 1990s, two Japanese groups reported first trials to stabilize the free-floating "elephant trunk" prosthesis by implantation of nitinol stent grafts into the vascular graft. The applied devices were purely custom-made and nonstandardized. The availability of industrially made and CE-marked stent-graft devices raised the possibility to apply them in open aortic arch surgery. The experience with stent-graft devices implanted antegrade into the descending aorta (Medtronic Talent) was reported first by the Essen and the Vienna

  11. Multidetector-row computed tomography of thoracic aortic anomalies in dogs and cats: Patent ductus arteriosus and vascular rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolte Ingo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis of extracardiac intrathoracic vascular anomalies is of clinical importance, but remains challenging. Traditional imaging modalities, such as radiography, echocardiography, and angiography, are inherently limited by the difficulties of a 2-dimensional approach to a 3-dimensional object. We postulated that accurate characterization of malformations of the aorta would benefit from 3-dimensional assessment. Therefore, multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT was chosen as a 3-dimensional, new, and noninvasive imaging technique. The purpose of this study was to evaluate patients with 2 common diseases of the intrathoracic aorta, either patent ductus arteriosus or vascular ring anomaly, by contrast-enhanced 64-row computed tomography. Results Electrocardiography (ECG-gated and thoracic nongated MDCT images were reviewed in identified cases of either a patent ductus arteriosus or vascular ring anomaly. Ductal size and morphology were determined in 6 dogs that underwent ECG-gated MDCT. Vascular ring anomalies were characterized in 7 dogs and 3 cats by ECG-gated MDCT or by a nongated thoracic standard protocol. Cardiac ECG-gated MDCT clearly displayed the morphology, length, and caliber of the patent ductus arteriosus in 6 affected dogs. Persistent right aortic arch was identified in 10 animals, 8 of which showed a coexisting aberrant left subclavian artery. A mild dilation of the proximal portion of the aberrant subclavian artery near its origin of the aorta was present in 4 dogs, and a diverticulum analogous to the human Kommerell's diverticulum was present in 2 cats. Conclusions Contrast-enhanced MDCT imaging of thoracic anomalies gives valuable information about the exact aortic arch configuration. Furthermore, MDCT was able to characterize the vascular branching patterns in dogs and cats with a persistent right aortic arch and the morphology and size of the patent ductus arteriosus in affected dogs. This additional

  12. Rosiglitazone attenuates transplant arteriosclerosis after allogeneic aorta transplantation in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onuta, Geanina; Rienstra, Heleen; de Boer, Jan Freark; Boer, Mark Walther; Roks, Anton J. M.; Klatter, Flip A.; Uges, Donald R. A.; Navis, Gerjan; Rozing, Jan; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk

    2007-01-01

    Background. Transplant arteriosclerosis is a leading cause of chronic transplant dysfunction and is characterized by occlusive neointima formation in intragraft arteries. Development of transplant arteriosclerosis is refractory to conventional immunosuppressive drugs and adequate therapy is not

  13. Chondrosarcoma of a thoracic vertebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelwahab, I.F.; Casden, A.M.; Klein, M.J.; Spollman, A.

    1991-01-01

    Central chondrosarcoma is an uncommon primary malignancy of the axial skeleton which usually affects the posterior elements or the posterior part of a vertebral body. The authors present an unusual case of chondrosarcoma involving the anterior part of a thoracic vertebra with massive extravertebral extension into the posterior mediastinum. The roles of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in identifying this pathology are emphasized

  14. Nanotechnology applications in thoracic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofferberth, Sophie C; Grinstaff, Mark W; Colson, Yolonda L

    2016-07-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging, rapidly evolving field with the potential to significantly impact care across the full spectrum of cancer therapy. Of note, several recent nanotechnological advances show particular promise to improve outcomes for thoracic surgical patients. A variety of nanotechnologies are described that offer possible solutions to existing challenges encountered in the detection, diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Nanotechnology-based imaging platforms have the ability to improve the surgical care of patients with thoracic malignancies through technological advances in intraoperative tumour localization, lymph node mapping and accuracy of tumour resection. Moreover, nanotechnology is poised to revolutionize adjuvant lung cancer therapy. Common chemotherapeutic drugs, such as paclitaxel, docetaxel and doxorubicin, are being formulated using various nanotechnologies to improve drug delivery, whereas nanoparticle (NP)-based imaging technologies can monitor the tumour microenvironment and facilitate molecularly targeted lung cancer therapy. Although early nanotechnology-based delivery systems show promise, the next frontier in lung cancer therapy is the development of 'theranostic' multifunctional NPs capable of integrating diagnosis, drug monitoring, tumour targeting and controlled drug release into various unifying platforms. This article provides an overview of key existing and emerging nanotechnology platforms that may find clinical application in thoracic surgery in the near future. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  15. MRI assessment of thoracic stent grafts after emergency implantation in multi trauma patients: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasche, Volker [University Hospital Ulm, Department of Internal Medicine II, Ulm (Germany); University Hospital Ulm, University of Ulm, Department of Internal Medicine II, Ulm (Germany); Oberhuber, Alexander; Orend, Karl-Heinz [University Hospital Ulm, Department of Vascular and Thoracic Surgery, Ulm (Germany); Trumpp, Stephan [University Hospital Ulm, Department of Internal Medicine II, Ulm (Germany); University Hospital Ulm, Department of Vascular and Thoracic Surgery, Ulm (Germany); Bornstedt, Axel; Merkle, Nico; Rottbauer, Wolfgang [University Hospital Ulm, Department of Internal Medicine II, Ulm (Germany); Hoffmann, Martin [University Hospital Ulm, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Ulm (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of MRI for static and dynamic assessment of the deployment of thoracic aortic stent grafts after emergency implantation in trauma patients. Twenty patients initially presenting with a rupture of the thoracic aorta were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). The deployment of the implanted stent graft was assessed by CTA and MRI, comprising the assessment of the aortic arch with and without contrast agent, and the assessment of the motion of the stent graft over the cardiac cycle. The stent graft geometry and motion over the cardiac cycle were assessable by MRI in all patients. Flow-mediated signal variations in areas of flow acceleration could be well visualised. No statistically significant differences in stent-graft diameters were observed between CT and MRI measurements. MRI appears to be a valuable tool for the assessment of thoracic stent grafts. It shows similar performance in the accurate assessment of stent-graft dimensions to the current gold standard CTA. Its capability of providing additional functional information and the lack of ionising radiation and nephrotoxic contrast agents may make MRI a valuable tool for monitoring patients after TEVAR. (orig.)

  16. The Benefits of Internal Thoracic Artery Catheterization in Patients With Chronic Abdominal Aortic Occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, Nikola; Davidovic, Lazar; Koncar, Igor; Dragas, Marko; Markovic, Miroslav; Colic, Momcilo; Cinara, Ilijas

    2011-01-01

    Occlusion of the abdominal aorta may be caused by an embolic lesion, but more commonly by thrombotic disease at the aortoiliac area, progressing retrograde. However, the visualization of the distal run-off via internal thoracic-epigastric inferior artery collateral channel may be a very important diagnostic tool, especially in countries with poor technical equipment. This study was designed to show the benefit of the selective internal thoracic angiography in cases with complete aortic occlusion. We present 30 patients with chronic aortic abdominal occlusion who were submitted to the transaxillary aortography and selective ITA angiography with purpose of distal run off evaluation. Angiographic evaluation was performed by two independent radiologists according to previously defined classification. Good angiographic score via internal thoracic angiography by first observer was achieved in 19 (63.3%) patients and in 18 (60%) by a second observer. Transaxillary aortography showed inferior results: good angiographic score by the first observer in six (20%) patients and by the second observer in three (3%) patients. Low extremity run-off is better visualized during internal thoracic angiography than during transaxillary aortography.

  17. Thoracic periaortal fibrosis and Ormond's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacl, G.M.; Bino, M.; Salomon, F.; Risti, B.; Marincek, B.

    1995-01-01

    Two cases of thoracic periaortal fibrosis as a manifestation of retroperitoneal fibrosis (Ormond's disease) are shown on CT and MRI. Thoracic periaortal fibrosis can result in an inflammatory aneurysmo with chronic dissection. Manifestation of thoracic periaortal fibrosis may typically occur intermittently over decades. (orig.) [de

  18. Atorvastatin ameliorates arsenic-induced hypertension and enhancement of vascular redox signaling in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarath, Thengumpallil Sasindran; Waghe, Prashantkumar; Gupta, Priyanka; Choudhury, Soumen; Kannan, Kandasamy; Pillai, Ayyappan Harikrishna; Harikumar, Sankaran Kutty; Mishra, Santosh Kumar; Sarkar, Souvendra Nath

    2014-01-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure has been linked to elevated blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases, while statins reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease predominantly by their low density lipoprotein-lowering effect. Besides, statins have other beneficial effects, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We evaluated whether atorvastatin, a widely used statin, can ameliorate arsenic-induced increase in blood pressure and alteration in lipid profile and also whether the amelioration could relate to altered NO and ROS signaling. Rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (100 ppm) through drinking water for 90 consecutive days. Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg bw, orally) was administered once daily during the last 30 days of arsenic exposure. On the 91st day, blood was collected for lipid profile. Western blot of iNOS and eNOS protein, NO and 3-nitrotyrosine production, Nox-4 and p22Phox mRNA expression, Nox activity, ROS generation, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants were evaluated in thoracic aorta. Arsenic increased systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure, while it decreased HDL-C and increased LDL-C, total cholesterol and triglycerides in serum. Arsenic down-regulated eNOS and up-regulated iNOS protein expression and increased basal NO and 3-nitrotyrosine level. Arsenic increased aortic Nox-4 and p22Phox mRNA expression, Nox activity, ROS generation and lipid peroxidation. Further, arsenic decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase and depleted aortic GSH content. Atorvastatin regularized blood pressure, improved lipid profile and attenuated arsenic-mediated redox alterations. The results demonstrate that atorvastatin has the potential to ameliorate arsenic-induced hypertension by improving lipid profile, aortic NO signaling and restoring vascular redox homeostasis. - Highlights: • Arsenic increased systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure and caused dyslipidemia. • Arsenic increased

  19. Atorvastatin ameliorates arsenic-induced hypertension and enhancement of vascular redox signaling in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarath, Thengumpallil Sasindran; Waghe, Prashantkumar; Gupta, Priyanka; Choudhury, Soumen; Kannan, Kandasamy [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, 243122 Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh (India); Pillai, Ayyappan Harikrishna [Division of Animal Biochemistry, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, 243122 Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh (India); Harikumar, Sankaran Kutty; Mishra, Santosh Kumar [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, 243122 Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh (India); Sarkar, Souvendra Nath, E-mail: snsarkar1911@rediffmail.com [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, 243122 Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2014-11-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure has been linked to elevated blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases, while statins reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease predominantly by their low density lipoprotein-lowering effect. Besides, statins have other beneficial effects, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We evaluated whether atorvastatin, a widely used statin, can ameliorate arsenic-induced increase in blood pressure and alteration in lipid profile and also whether the amelioration could relate to altered NO and ROS signaling. Rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (100 ppm) through drinking water for 90 consecutive days. Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg bw, orally) was administered once daily during the last 30 days of arsenic exposure. On the 91st day, blood was collected for lipid profile. Western blot of iNOS and eNOS protein, NO and 3-nitrotyrosine production, Nox-4 and p22Phox mRNA expression, Nox activity, ROS generation, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants were evaluated in thoracic aorta. Arsenic increased systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure, while it decreased HDL-C and increased LDL-C, total cholesterol and triglycerides in serum. Arsenic down-regulated eNOS and up-regulated iNOS protein expression and increased basal NO and 3-nitrotyrosine level. Arsenic increased aortic Nox-4 and p22Phox mRNA expression, Nox activity, ROS generation and lipid peroxidation. Further, arsenic decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase and depleted aortic GSH content. Atorvastatin regularized blood pressure, improved lipid profile and attenuated arsenic-mediated redox alterations. The results demonstrate that atorvastatin has the potential to ameliorate arsenic-induced hypertension by improving lipid profile, aortic NO signaling and restoring vascular redox homeostasis. - Highlights: • Arsenic increased systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure and caused dyslipidemia. • Arsenic increased

  20. Thoracic trauma in newborn foals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean, D.; Laverty, S.; Halley, J.; Hannigan, D.; Leveille, R.

    1999-01-01

    In a report describing life ending fractures (255 horses) from the Livestock Disease Diagnostic Center, Kentucky (1993 and 1994), 32 foals had rib fractures. The purpose of our study was to examine the incidence of rib fractures in newborn foals on a Thoroughbred studfarm by physical and radiographic examination, to determine factors which may contribute to the problem and to document any clinical consequences. All foals (263) included were examined within 3 days of birth. The thoracic cage was palpated externally for abnormalities and all foals were placed in dorsal recumbency to evaluate thoracic cage symmetry. Radiographs were used to diagnose foals with thoraciccage asymmetry (TCA) and rib fracture (RF). A diagnosis of costochondral dislocation (CD) was made when no radiographic evidence of fracture was present but there was severe TCA, Fifty-five foals (20.1%) had TCA (9 RF), One to 5 ribs were fractured on 9 of 40 radiographic studies. No consequences of the thoracic trauma was detected clinically, radiographically or ultrasonographically in this group of foals or at a 2- and 4-week follow-up examination. The percentage of foals with a history of abnormal parturition was higher in the TCA foals (15%) compared to the normal foals (6.8%). There weremore primiparous dams in the TCA group than in the normal foal group. Fillies (56.6%) had a higher incidence of birth trauma than colts (43.4%), Thisstudy demonstrates that thoracic trauma is often present in newborn foals and may not always be of clinical significance. Dystocia foals and foals from primiparous mares should be considered high risk for thoracic trauma

  1. Turner Syndrome in Girls Presenting with Coarctation of the Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhauser, Aaron; South, Sarah T; Meyers, Lindsay; Bleyl, Steven B; Botto, Lorenzo D

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the frequency of Turner syndrome in a population-based, statewide cohort of girls with coarctation of the aorta. The Utah Birth Defects Network was used to ascertain a cohort of girls between 1997 and 2011 with coarctation of the aorta. Livebirths with isolated coarctation of the aorta or transverse arch hypoplasia were included and patients with complex congenital heart disease not usually seen in Turner syndrome were excluded. Of 244 girls with coarctation of the aorta, 77 patients were excluded, leaving a cohort of 167 girls; 86 patients (51%) had chromosomal studies and 21 (12.6%) were diagnosed with Turner syndrome. All patients were diagnosed within the first 4 months of life and 5 (24%) were diagnosed prenatally. Fifteen patients (71%) had Turner syndrome-related findings in addition to coarctation of the aorta. Girls with mosaicism were less likely to have Turner syndrome-associated findings (3/6 mosaic girls compared with 12/17 girls with non-mosaic 45,X). Twelve girls (57%) diagnosed with Turner syndrome also had a bicommissural aortic valve. At least 12.6% of girls born with coarctation of the aorta have karyotype-confirmed Turner syndrome. Such a high frequency, combined with the clinical benefits of an early diagnosis, supports genetic screening for Turner syndrome in girls presenting with coarctation of the aorta. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lagenaria siceraria ameliorates atheromatous lesions by modulating HMG–CoA reductase and lipoprotein lipase enzymes activity in hypercholesterolemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun Singh Rajput

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: It can be concluded that ethanolic extract of fruits of L. siceraria contains active components which ameliorates the atheromatous lesions in rat aorta and lowers the risk of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rats.

  3. Quantification of progression and regression of descending thoracic aortic wall thickness by enhanced computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Kenichi; Takasu, Junichiro; Yamamoto, Rie; Taguchi, Rie; Itani, Yasutaka; Ito, Yuichi; Watanabe, Shigeru; Masuda, Yoshiaki

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to verify the usefulness of the quantification of aortic wall involvement by enhanced computed tomography (CT). One-hundred thirteen Japanese patients underwent two enhanced CT of the descending thoracic aorta at intervals. We sliced the descending thoracic aorta continuously from the level of the tracheal bifurcation with 1 cm intervals, and we defined aortic wall volume (AWV) (cm 3 ) as the sum of a 7-slice area of aortic wall involving calcification. The average of AWV increased from 7.95±2.92 cm 3 to 8.70±2.98 cm 3 . The developmental rate of AWV (ΔAWV) was 0.270±0.281 cm 3 /year. ΔAWV did not have a significant correlation with any risk factor at the baseline. ΔAWV had significant correlation with total cholesterol, (LDL-C) low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and LDL-C/(HDL-C) high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio at the follow-up, and by multivariate analysis with only the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. ΔAWV was not correlated with the intake status of hypoglycemic, antihypertensive or lipid-lowering drugs. The cut-off level of total cholesterol with the most significant odds ratio for progression of aortic wall was 190 mg/dl, and that of LDL-C was 130 mg/dl. This method proved to be useful for the non-invasive assessment of aortic wall thickness. (author)

  4. Evaluation of diseases of the aorta with ultrafast CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldredge, W.J.; Flicker, S.; Altin, R.S.; Naidech, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    Ultrafast CT offers several advantages over standard CT for imaging of various congenital and acquired diseases of the aorta. Scan acquisition rates of 50 msec permit evaluation of the entire aorta following a single peripheral intravenous injection of iodinated contrast medium. Pathologic aortic flow patterns may also be defined using an ECG triggered ''flow'' mode, adding another dimension to CT evaluation of the aorta. The papers shows examples of a variety of aortic diseases, including coarctation, Marfan syndrome, atherosclerotic aneurysm, dissection, and postoperative abnormalities. The advantages of the modality are stressed

  5. Effects of 6 weeks oral administration of Phyllanthus acidus leaf water extract on the vascular functions of middle-aged male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chongsa, Watchara; Kanokwiroon, Kanyanatt; Jansakul, Chaweewan

    2015-12-24

    Leaves of Phyllanthus acidus (PA) have been used in Thai traditional medicine for the treatment of hypertension. We have previously shown that chronic treatment of a PA water extract to middle-aged male rats caused a lowering of the body and serum lipids, two of the parameters that are implicated in cardiovascular disease. To investigate if chronic treatment of middle-aged male rats with a PA water extract affected the perivascular (aortic) adipose tissue (PVAT) and/or their vascular functions Fresh leaves of PA were extracted with water and orally gavaged to the middle-aged male rats for 6 weeks. Vascular functions were studied in vitro using isolated thoracic aorta with and without PVAT, and mesenteric rings in Krebs Heinseleit solution with results recorded with a Polygraph or a Myograph system. The amount of blood vessel eNOS and CSE (cystathionine-γ-lyase) expression was measured by Western blotting. PA treatment caused a lower maximal contractile response to phenylephrine (Phe) of the endothelium-intact aortic ring than that of the control group. This effect was abolished by N(G)-nitro-l-arginine (l-NA) or by denudation of the endothelium. dl-propargylglycine (PAG, H2S inhibitor) and TEA (Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel blocker), but not glybenclamide (ATP-activated K(+) channel blocker), caused a similar increase in the baseline of the endothelium-intact aortic ring in the presence of l-NA in both the PA-treated and control aortic rings. This effect sequentially resulted in a greater contractile response of the aortic rings of both groups to Phe. Glybenclamide also caused a similar increase in the maximal contraction of the endothelium-intact blood vessels with l-NA to both groups. PAG, TEA or glybenclamide did not modify the phenylephrine C-R curves for either group of the PVAT-endothelium-intact aortic rings preincubated with l-NA. The CSE levels of the thoracic aorta and at the PVAT were not different between the PA-treated and the control group

  6. Hypotrophy of conduit artery walls of the offspring of nitric oxide-defective rats

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    Kristek F.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the structure of the arterial walls of the offspring stemming from nitric oxide (NO-defective hypertensive parents. The parents were treated with N G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (40 mg kg-1 day-1 for 5 weeks. Blood pressure was measured noninvasively in six 30-day-old rats and nine age-matched controls. The cardiovascular system was perfused with glutaraldehyde at 120 mmHg. The thoracic aorta and carotid artery were processed for electron microscopy, and geometry was determined by light microscopy. Endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells (SMC and extracellular matrix (ECM were determined by the point counting method in electron micrographs of the carotid artery. The blood pressure of experimental offspring was 150.0 ± 2.3 vs 104.6 ± 2.1 mmHg (P < 0.01 for the controls and their heart/body weight ratio of 3.9 ± 0.1 vs 4.4 ± 0.2 (P < 0.05 for the controls indicated cardiac hypotrophy. The wall thickness (tunica intima and media of the thoracic aorta and carotid artery of experimental offspring was decreased to 78.9% (P < 0.01 and 83.8% (P < 0.01, respectively, compared to controls, as confirmed by a respective cross-sectional area of 85.3% (P < 0.01 and 84.1% (P < 0.01. The wall thickness/inner diameter ratio was reduced to 75% (P < 0.01 in the thoracic artery and to 81.5% (P < 0.01 in the carotid artery. No change in endothelial cell volume density or ECM was observed in the tunica intima of the carotid artery, and SMC volume density was lower in the tunica media (37.6 ± 0.9 vs 44.7 ± 1.1% for controls, P < 0.01, indicating compromised SMC development. Interference with arginine metabolism, a decrease in NO, and other factors are possible mechanisms underlying the structural alterations of the cardiovascular system of offspring from NO-defective hypertensive rats.

  7. Effect of AST-120 on Endothelial Dysfunction in Adenine-Induced Uremic Rats

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    Yuko Inami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Chronic kidney disease (CKD represents endothelial dysfunction. Monocyte adhesion is recognized as the initial step of arteriosclerosis. Indoxyl sulfate (IS is considered to be a risk factor for arteriosclerosis in CKD. Oral adsorbent AST-120 retards deterioration of renal function, reducing accumulation of IS. In the present study, we determined the monocyte adhesion in the adenine-induced uremic rats in vivo and effects of AST-120 on the adhesion molecules. Methods. Twenty-four rats were divided into control, control+AST-120, adenine, and adenine+AST-120 groups. The number of monocytes adherent to the endothelium of thoracic aorta by imaging the entire endothelial surface and the mRNA expressions of adhesion and atherosclerosis-related molecules were examined on day 49. The mRNA expressions of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells were also examined. Results. Adenine increased the number of adherent monocytes, and AST-120 suppressed the increase. The monocyte adhesion was related to serum creatinine and IS in sera. Overexpression of VCAM-1 and TGF-β1 mRNA in the arterial walls was observed in uremic rats. IS induced increase of the ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA expressions in vitro. Conclusion. It appears that uremic condition introduces the monocyte adhesion to arterial wall and AST-120 might inhibit increasing of the monocyte adherence with CKD progression.

  8. Ultrasonographyin diagnosis of thoracic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Stević Ruža; Jaković Radoslav; Mašulović Dragan; Nagorni-Obradović Ljudmila; Mujović Nataša; Jovanović Dragana

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Chest sonography was used until recently mainly for diagnosis of pleural diseases. High resolution ultrasound machines enable ultrasound application not only in pleural diseases detection, but in diagnosing peripheral lung and mediastinal lesions. Ultrasonography can define the origin and structure of the lesion of thoracic wall, pleural and peripheral lung lesions and mediastinal lesions. Pleural lesions. Ultrasonography is very useful in diagnosing pleural effusion and disting...

  9. Isolated thoracic perfusion with chemofiltration for progressive malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aigner KR

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Karl Reinhard Aigner, Emir Selak, Sabine Gailhofer Department of Surgical Oncology, Medias Klinikum, Burghausen, Germany Introduction: Therapy of malignant pleural mesothelioma and especially the adequate role of surgery in this context remain the subject of controversial discussions. Radical surgery in particular, which is associated with substantial morbidity, failed to translate into a definite survival advantage. We report on interim results of an ongoing Phase II study of regional chemotherapy in terms of isolated thoracic perfusion with chemofiltration (ITP-F.Patients and methods: Twenty-eight patients (25 male, 3 female, mean age 63.4 years with advanced pleural mesothelioma were included in this study. Isolation of the chest was achieved by insertion of a venous and arterial stop-flow balloon catheter via a femoral access. The aorta and inferior vena cava were blocked at the level of the diaphragm and the upper arms were blocked by pneumatic cuffs. Chemotherapy, consisting of 60 mg/m² cisplatin and 15 mg/m² mitoxantrone, was administered directly into the aorta. The isolated circuit was maintained for 15 minutes followed by ~45 minutes of chemofiltration with a hemoprocessor until 5 L of filtrate were reached. The endpoints of the study were overall survival and quality of life (QoL.Results: Out of 28 patients enrolled in the study, 5 had prior surgeries, 10 patients had systemic chemotherapy, and 5 patients additional irradiation. In all patients in restaging, clinical progress was noted. In all, 162 cycles were administered. Due to chemofiltration, toxicity was within tolerable limits, revealing World Health Organization grade I leucopenia and thrombocytopenia in 9 patients and mucositis grade I in 6 patients. The major surgical complication was inguinal lymphatic fistula in 40% of the cases. Gastrointestinal toxicity and/or neurotoxicity were never observed. One-year survival was 49%, 2-year and 3-year survival was 31%, and 5

  10. Super, red palm and palm oleins improve the blood pressure, heart size, aortic media thickness and lipid profile in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Chee-Meng; Ng, Mei-Han; Choo, Yuen-May; Mok, Shiueh-Lian

    2013-01-01

    Oleic acid has been shown to lower high blood pressure and provide cardiovascular protection. Curiosity arises as to whether super olein (SO), red palm olein (RPO) and palm olein (PO), which have high oleic acid content, are able to prevent the development of hypertension. Four-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were fed 15% SO, RPO or PO supplemented diet for 15 weeks. After 15 weeks of treatment, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) of SHR treated with SO, RPO and PO were 158.4±5.0 mmHg (prats were not different from those of WKY controls. The SO and PO significantly reduced the increased heart size and thoracic aortic media thickness observed in untreated SHR but RPO reduced only the latter. No such differences, however, were observed between the treated and untreated WKY rats. Oil Red O enface staining of thoracic-abdominal aorta did not show any lipid deposition in all treated rats. The SO and RPO significantly raised serum alkaline phosphatase levels in the SHR while body weight and renal biochemical indices were unaltered in both strains. Serum lipid profiles of treated SHR and WKY rats were unchanged, with the exception of a significant reduction in LDL-C level and total cholesterol/HDL ratio (atherogenic index) in SO and RPO treated SHR compared with untreated SHR. The SO, RPO and PO attenuate the rise in blood pressure in SHR, accompanied by bradycardia and heart size reduction with SO and PO, and aortic media thickness reduction with SO, RPO and PO. The SO and RPO are antiatherogenic in nature by improving blood lipid profiles in SHR.

  11. Obstructive pneumonia: an indication for surgery in mega aorta syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkat, Maninder S; Bonser, Robert S

    2003-04-01

    A 76-year-old woman with annuloaortic ectasia, aortic regurgitation, and aneurysmal dilatation extending from the root to mid descending aorta presented with symptoms of bronchial compression and obstructive pneumonitis. Despite vigorous antibiotic treatment and physiotherapy, the pneumonitis persisted with clinical and radiologic deterioration. An emergency operation was performed to relieve bronchial compression. The operation comprised homograft aortic root replacement with prosthetic replacement of the arch and descending aorta. Postoperatively the pneumonia rapidly resolved.

  12. Endograft Collapse After Endovascular Treatment for Thoracic Aortic Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandorski, Dirk; Brueck, Martin; Guenther, Hans-Ulrich; Manke, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Endovascular treatment is an established therapy for thoracic aortic disease. Collapse of the endograft is a potentially fatal complication. We reviewed 16 patients with a thoracic endograft between 2001 and 2006. Medical records of the treated patients were studied. Data collected include age, gender, diagnosis, indication for endoluminal treatment, type of endograft, and time of follow up. All patients (n = 16; mean age, 61 years; range, 21-82 years) underwent computed tomography (CT) for location of the lesion and planning of the intervention. Time of follow-up with CT scan ranged from 1 to 61 months. Indications for endovascular treatment were degenerative aneurysm (n = 7; 44%), aortic dissection (n = 2; 12%), perforated aortic ulcer (n = 4; 25%), and traumatic aortic injury (n = 3; 19%). Three patients suffered from a collapse of the endograft (one patient distal, two patients proximal) between 3 and 8 days after endovascular treatment. These patients were younger (mean age, 37 ± 25 years vs. 67 ± 16 years; P 0.05]; distal, 45 ± 23.5% vs. 38 ± 21.7% [P > 0.05]). Proximal collapse was corrected by placing a bare stent. In conclusion, risk factors for stent-graft collapse are a small lumen of the aorta and a small radius of the aortic arch curvature (young patients), as well as oversizing, which is an important risk factor and is described for different types of endografts and protheses (Gore TAG and Cook Zenith). Dilatation of the collapsed stent-graft is not sufficient. Following therapy implantation of a second stent or surgery is necessary in patients with a proximal endograft collapse. Distal endograft collapse can possibly be treated conservatively under close follow-up.

  13. Sequential Hybrid Repair of Aorta and Bilateral Common Iliac Arteries Secondary to Chronic Aortic Dissection with Extensive Aneurysmal Degeneration in a Marfan Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Carlos A; Anaya-Ayala, Javier E; Laparra-Escareno, Hugo; Lizola, Rene; Torres-Machorro, Adriana

    2017-09-01

    Marfan syndrome is a connective tissue disorder associated with aortic dissection, aneurysmal degeneration and rupture. These cardiovascular complications represent the main cause of mortality, therefore repair is indicated. We present a 35-year-old woman who experienced acute onset of chest pain. Her imaging revealed a chronic DeBakey type I dissection with aortic root dilation and descending thoracic aneurysmal degeneration. She underwent a Bentall procedure and endovascular exclusion of the descending thoracic aortic aneurysm. She was closely followed and 2 years later a computed tomography angiography (CTA) revealed the aneurysmal degeneration of the thoracoabominal aorta and bilateral iliac arteries. The patient underwent a composite reconstruction using multi-visceral branched and bifurcated Dacron grafts. At 5 years from her last surgery, a CTA revealed no new dissection or further aneurysmal degenerations. Aortic disease in Marfan patients is a complex clinical problem that may lead to secondary or tertiary aortic reconstructions; close follow-up is mandatory.

  14. Mean blood velocities and flow impedance in the fetal descending thoracic aortic and common carotid artery in normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilardo, C M; Campbell, S; Nicolaides, K H

    1988-12-01

    A linear array pulsed Doppler duplex scanner was used to establish reference ranges for mean blood velocities and flow impedance (Pulsatility Index = PI) in the descending thoracic aorta and in the common carotid artery from 70 fetuses in normal pregnancies at 17-42 weeks' gestation. The aortic velocity increased with gestation up to 32 weeks, then remained constant until term, when it decreased. In contrast, the velocity in the common carotid artery increased throughout pregnancy. The PI in the aorta remained constant throughout pregnancy, while in the common carotid artery it fell steeply after 32 weeks. These results suggest that with advancing gestation there is a redistribution of the fetal circulation with decreased impedance to flow to the fetal brain, presumably to compensate for the progressive decrease in fetal blood PO2.

  15. [Midterm results of thoracic aortic dissection endovascular repair in conjunctions with the location of Adamkiewicz artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ying-bin; Li, Jian; Su, Yong-hui; Ma, Jie-fei; Guan, Xiao-dong; Zhang, Bai-meng

    2012-10-23

    To evaluate the effects of using longer xenografts in conjunctions with the location of Adamkiewicz artery (AKA) on midterm outcomes of endovascular treatment for thoracic aortic dissection. From March 2005 to September 2011, 217 patients with type B dissection were recruited. There were 143 males and 74 females with a mean age of 65 ± 11 years. Among them, 43 patients were from Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University while another 174 patients from Affiliated Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University. They were divided into 2 groups according to whether AKA was identified or not pre-operatively. Endovascular repairs were performed for all patients. Distal landing levels of xenografts were recorded. The thrombosis of false lumen and the complications of spinal cord injury and endoleak were analyzed. AKA was detected in 121 (55.8%) patients (group A) but not in 96 (44.2%) patients (group B). According to the levels of AKA, the patients of group A obtained the stabilization of affected thoracic aorta over a longer distance. And the ratio of patients with distal landing levels at T8-T10 was significantly higher than in group B (59.5% vs 12.5%, χ² = 49.85, P < 0.01). Also, during the follow-up period of 7.3 months, the ratio of patients with total thrombosis of false lumen in group A was significantly higher than that in group B (32.1% vs 19.1%, χ² = 4.34, P < 0.05). During the endovascular repair of thoracic aortic dissection, selecting a longer device may provide a better structural stability of affected aorta and promote false lumen thrombosis.

  16. Prophylactic effects of elastin peptide derived from the bulbus arteriosus of fish on vascular dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemori, Kumiko; Yamamoto, Ei; Ito, Hiroyuki; Kometani, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prophylactic effects of an elastin peptide derived from the bulbus arteriosus of bonitos and prolylglycine (PG), a degradation product of elastin peptide, on vascular dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Male 15-week-old SHR/Izm rats were fed without (control group) or with elastin peptide (1 g/kg body weight) for 5 weeks (EP group), or were infused via an osmotic mini-pump for 4 weeks with PG (PG group) or saline (control group). Using thoracic aortas, we assessed endothelial changes by scanning electron microscopy. Vascular reactivity (contraction and relaxation) and pressure-induced distension was compared. mRNA production levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were investigated by real-time-polymerase chain reaction. Aortas of the EP group displayed limited endothelial damage compared with that in the control group. Under treatment of SHRs with elastin peptide, the effect of phenylephrine returned closer to the normal level observed in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY/Izm) rats. mRNA production of eNOS (but not ICAM-1) was greater in the EP group than in the control group. Endothelial damage was suppressed and pressure-induced vascular distension was greater in the PG group than in the corresponding control group. These results suggest that elastin peptide from bonitos elicits prophylactic affects hypertension-associated vascular dysfunction by targeting the eNOS signaling pathway. PG may be a key mediator of the beneficial effects of elastin peptide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors Affecting Optimal Aortic Remodeling After Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair of Type B (IIIb) Aortic Dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, I-Ming; Chen, Po-Lin; Huang, Chun-Yang; Weng, Shih-Hsien; Chen, Wei-Yuan; Shih, Chun-Che

    2017-01-01

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to determine factors associated with entire aortic remodeling after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in patients with type B dissection.Materials and MethodsThe patients with type B (IIIb) dissections who underwent TEVAR from 2006 to 2013 with minimum of 2 years of follow-up computed tomography data were retrospectively reviewed. Based on the status of false lumen remodeling of entire aorta, patients were divided into three groups: complete regression, total thrombosis, and inadequate regression with patent abdominal false lumen.ResultsA total of 90 patients (72 males, 18 females; mean age 56.6 ± 16.4 years) were included and divided into the complete regression (n = 22), total thrombosis (n = 18), and inadequate regression (n = 50) groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that dissection extension to iliac arteries, increased preoperative number of dissection tear over abdominal aorta, and decreased preoperative abdominal aorta bifurcation true lumen ratio, as compared between the inadequate and complete regression groups, were associated with a persistent false lumen (odds ratio = 33.33, 2.304, and 0.021; all, p ≤ 0.012). Comparison of 6, 12, and 24 months postoperative data revealed no significant differences at any level, suggesting that the true lumen area ratio might not change after 6 months postoperatively.ConclusionsIncreased preoperative numbers of dissection tear around the abdominal visceral branches, dissection extension to the iliac arteries, and decreased preoperative true lumen area ratio of abdominal aorta are predictive of entire aortic remodeling after TEVAR in patients with type B dissection.Level of EvidenceIII.

  18. Factors Affecting Optimal Aortic Remodeling After Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair of Type B (IIIb) Aortic Dissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, I-Ming [National Yang Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine (China); Chen, Po-Lin; Huang, Chun-Yang [National Yang Ming University, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine (China); Weng, Shih-Hsien; Chen, Wei-Yuan; Shih, Chun-Che, E-mail: ccshih@vghtpe.gov.tw [National Yang Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine (China)

    2017-05-15

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to determine factors associated with entire aortic remodeling after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in patients with type B dissection.Materials and MethodsThe patients with type B (IIIb) dissections who underwent TEVAR from 2006 to 2013 with minimum of 2 years of follow-up computed tomography data were retrospectively reviewed. Based on the status of false lumen remodeling of entire aorta, patients were divided into three groups: complete regression, total thrombosis, and inadequate regression with patent abdominal false lumen.ResultsA total of 90 patients (72 males, 18 females; mean age 56.6 ± 16.4 years) were included and divided into the complete regression (n = 22), total thrombosis (n = 18), and inadequate regression (n = 50) groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that dissection extension to iliac arteries, increased preoperative number of dissection tear over abdominal aorta, and decreased preoperative abdominal aorta bifurcation true lumen ratio, as compared between the inadequate and complete regression groups, were associated with a persistent false lumen (odds ratio = 33.33, 2.304, and 0.021; all, p ≤ 0.012). Comparison of 6, 12, and 24 months postoperative data revealed no significant differences at any level, suggesting that the true lumen area ratio might not change after 6 months postoperatively.ConclusionsIncreased preoperative numbers of dissection tear around the abdominal visceral branches, dissection extension to the iliac arteries, and decreased preoperative true lumen area ratio of abdominal aorta are predictive of entire aortic remodeling after TEVAR in patients with type B dissection.Level of EvidenceIII.

  19. Pneumothorax in severe thoracic traumas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camassa, N.W.; Boccuzzi, F.; Diettorre, E.; Troilo, A.

    1988-01-01

    The authors reviewed CT scans and supine chest X-ray of 47 patients affected by severe thoracic trauma, examined in 1985-86. The sensibility of the two methodologies in the assessment of pneumothorax was compared. CT detected 25 pneumothorax, whereas supine chest X-ray allowed a diagnosis in 18 cases only. In 8 of the latter (44.4%) the diagnosis was made possible by the presence of indirect signs of pneumothorax only - the most frequent being the deep sulcus sign. The characterization of pneumothorax is important especially in the patients who need to be treated with mechanical ventilation therapy, or who are to undergo surgery in total anaesthesia

  20. The effects of Euphorbia hirta on the ultrastructure of the murine liver, kidney and aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    WONG, J.Y.R.; CHEN, Y.S.; CHAKRAVARTHI, S.; JUDSON, J.P.; L., SANTHANA RAJ; ER, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Euphorbia hirta is widely used in traditional remedies and has been used cross-culturally for generations against maladies such as asthma, skin ailments and hypertension. Previous studies have demonstrated that Euphorbia hirta has antibacterial activity, and have also indicated certain antimolluscidal, antimalarial and anti-inflammatory properties, the latter of which have been suggested to be more pronounced than those of the rheumatological drug, etanercept. To date, no studies have identified the anatomical effects of this herb on the organs of test animals. This study aimed to identify the effects of Euphorbia hirta on the ultrastructure of the murine liver, kidney and aorta. A total of 32 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups; three groups were fed with aqueous extracts of Euphorbia hirta at doses of 1, 10 and 50 mg/kg, respectively, every alternate day for 50 days, while one group served as a control. The animals were later sacrificed and the liver, kidney and aorta harvested for examination by electron microscopy. The aorta showed no ultrastructural changes across the groups. Renal and hepatic tissue from the treated groups demonstrated dose-dependent injuries, which showed architectural damage beginning in the nuclei and spreading outwards. Taking into consideration the properties of Euphorbia hirta that have been described in previous studies, in addition to the results from the present study, it appears that the herb may exhibit similar effects to those of the quinolone group of antibiotics. Further in-depth investigations are required into the potential effects of Euphorbia hirta, deleterious and otherwise. PMID:24223653

  1. Thoracic aortic aneurysm: A rare cause of elevated hemidiaphragm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Arshad Ejazi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phrenic nerve palsy causing hemidiaphragm paralysis is a very uncommon feature of thoracic aortic aneurysm. In one case, a 30 year male complained of chronic dull aching chest pain, and hoarseness of voice; posteroanterior view chest radiograph revealed large spherical radiopacity on the left upper lung zone with smooth lobulated margin with elevated left hemidiaphragm. On Colour Doppler sonography, lesion was anechoic on gray scale sonography but on Doppler analysis revealed intense internal vascularity within it with characteristic "Ying Yang" sign. The finding favor the vascular origin of the lesion and a diagnosis of an arterial aneurysm was made Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT of the thorax revealed a large well defined spherical lesion of 8 × 10 cm size with smooth well defined margin arising from the aortic arch and attenuation of impending rupture or dissection were lesion on immediate post contrast and delayed scan was similar to that of aorta. Left hemidiaphragm elevation was explained by the gross mass effect of the aneurysm causing right phrenic nerve palsy.

  2. Thoracic aortic coarctation: MR evaluation and follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papavero, R.; Kastler, B.; Clair, C.; Livolsi, A.; Papavero, R.; Site, O.; Kastler, B.; Clair, C.; Litzler, J.F.; Delabrousse, E.; Scheneider, P.; Bernard, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Report our experience in the evaluation and follow-up of thoracic aortic coarctation with MRI and describe its role to estimate trans-stenotic flow. Material and methods: 43 MR examinations were performed in 30 patients (age range 15 days to 73 years) referred to our institution in the last 7 years. Results: MRI visualized the ascending, horizontal and descending portions of the aorta and the supra-aortic vessels in 42/43 patients. MRI clearly identified preoperatively an aortic coarctation in 11/12 cases confirmed by surgery. Postoperatively MRI depicted 4 restenosis and one aneurysm. In 5 patients MRI demonstrated pseudo-coarctation. A significant correlation was established between the maximal trans-stenotic pressure gradient when measured by Doppler US or angiography and the size of the signal void measured on cine-MR images (r=0.72; p<0.01). Conclusion: MRI is a reliable non invasive investigation method for the diagnosis and semi-quantitative evaluation of aortic coarctation particularly when colour Doppler US is not satisfactory. (authors)

  3. Tratamiento endovascular del aneurisma de aorta descendente en el adolescente con síndrome de Marfan: Reporte de un caso Endovascular treatment of an aneurysm of the descending aorta in an adolescent with Marfan syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan G Barrera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se expone el caso de un adolescente de 14 años de edad, con síndrome de Marfan y antecedente de tres cirugías cardiovasculares previas: valvuloplastia aórtica y mitral a los cinco años y valvuloplastia aórtica y reconstrucción de la aorta torácica con tubo de pericardio bovino a sus diez años. En primer tiempo quirúrgico se realizó reemplazo valvular aórtico por válvula mecánica y valvuloplastia mitral y tricuspidea, y en segundo tiempo quirúrgico, durante la misma hospitalización, exclusión endovascular de aneurisma de aorta descendente asintomático sin complicaciones. Antes del egreso se diagnosticó una endofuga tipo II que se manejó con observación clínica. Luego de un año del procedimiento, los controles clínico y tomográfico son satisfactorios.We describe the case of a 14-year-old adolescent with Marfan syndrome and a history of three previous cardiovascular surgeries: aortic and mitral valve replacement at the age of 5 and aortic valve replacement and reconstruction of the thoracic aorta with a tube of bovine pericardium at the age of ten. In the first surgical procedure the aortic valve was replaced by a mechanical valve, and mitral and tricuspid valvuloplasty was performed. In a second surgical procedure during the same hospitalization, endovascular exclusion of the asymptomatic descending aortic aneurysm was realized without complications. Before discharge, a type II endoleak was diagnosed and managed through clinical observation. After a year of the procedure, clinical and tomographic controls are satisfactory.

  4. Hypotensive effect of aqueous extract of Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae) in rats: an in vivo and in vitro approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soncini, Roseli; Santiago, Michael B; Orlandi, Lidiane; Moraes, Gabriel O I; Peloso, André Luiz M; dos Santos, Marcelo H; Alves-da-Silva, Geraldo; Paffaro, Valdemar A; Bento, Antonio C; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

    2011-01-27

    Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae) leaves are used in Brazilian traditional medicine to treat hypertension. This study was conducted to evaluate the hypotensive effect of the aqueous extract of Averrhoa carambola (AEAc) and its underlying mechanisms in the isolated rat aorta. The effect of AEAc on the mean arterial pressure (MAP) was determined in vivo in anesthetized rats. In vitro, thoracic aortic rings were isolated and suspended in organ baths, and the effects of AEAc were studied by means of isometric tension recording experiments. In HPLC analysis, the fingerprint chromatogram of AEAc was established. In normotensive rats, AEAc (12.5-50.0 mg/kg, i.v.) induced dose-dependent hypotension. In vitro, AEAc caused a depression in the E(max) response to phenylephrine without a change in sensibility. Also, in a depolarized Ca(2+)-free medium, AEAc inhibited CaCl(2)-induced contractions and caused a concentration-dependent rightward shift of the response curves, indicating that AEAc inhibited the contractile mechanisms involving extracellular Ca(2+) influx. These results demonstrate the hypotensive effects of AEAc, and these effects may, in part, be due to the inhibition of Ca(2+), which supports previous claims of its traditional use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Thoracic organ transplantation: laboratory methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jignesh K; Kobashigawa, Jon A

    2013-01-01

    Although great progress has been achieved in thoracic organ transplantation through the development of effective immunosuppression, there is still significant risk of rejection during the early post-transplant period, creating a need for routine monitoring for both acute antibody and cellular mediated rejection. The currently available multiplexed, microbead assays utilizing solubilized HLA antigens afford the capability of sensitive detection and identification of HLA and non-HLA specific antibodies. These assays are being used to assess the relative strength of donor specific antibodies; to permit performance of virtual crossmatches which can reduce the waiting time to transplantation; to monitor antibody levels during desensitization; and for heart transplants to monitor antibodies post-transplant. For cell mediated immune responses, the recent development of gene expression profiling has allowed noninvasive monitoring of heart transplant recipients yielding predictive values for acute cellular rejection. T cell immune monitoring in heart and lung transplant recipients has allowed individual tailoring of immunosuppression, particularly to minimize risk of infection. While the current antibody and cellular laboratory techniques have enhanced the ability to manage thoracic organ transplant recipients, future developments from improved understanding of microchimerism and graft tolerance may allow more refined allograft monitoring techniques.

  6. Spiral blood flow in aorta-renal bifurcation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadzadegan, Ashkan; Simmons, Anne; Barber, Tracie

    2016-01-01

    The presence of a spiral arterial blood flow pattern in humans has been widely accepted. It is believed that this spiral component of the blood flow alters arterial haemodynamics in both positive and negative ways. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of spiral flow on haemodynamic changes in aorta-renal bifurcations. In this regard, a computational fluid dynamics analysis of pulsatile blood flow was performed in two idealised models of aorta-renal bifurcations with and without flow diverter. The results show that the spirality effect causes a substantial variation in blood velocity distribution, while causing only slight changes in fluid shear stress patterns. The dominant observed effect of spiral flow is on turbulent kinetic energy and flow recirculation zones. As spiral flow intensity increases, the rate of turbulent kinetic energy production decreases, reducing the region of potential damage to red blood cells and endothelial cells. Furthermore, the recirculation zones which form on the cranial sides of the aorta and renal artery shrink in size in the presence of spirality effect; this may lower the rate of atherosclerosis development and progression in the aorta-renal bifurcation. These results indicate that the spiral nature of blood flow has atheroprotective effects in renal arteries and should be taken into consideration in analyses of the aorta and renal arteries.

  7. The problem of calcified ascending aorta during aortocoronary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nežić Duško G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavily calcified ascending aorta significantly increased morbidity and lethality during open-heart surgery. Cannulation and clamping (partial or total of severely atherosclerotic ascending aorta can easily cause damage and rupture of aortic wall, with consequential distal (often fatal embolization with atheromatous debris (brain, myocardium. From June 1998. until June 2000, 11 of 2 136 (0.5% patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting were with the severe atheromatous ascending aorta. The site of cannulation was in the aortic arch in three patients (aorta was occluded with Foley catheter in one case, and single clamp technique was used in the other two cases. The femoral artery was the cannulation site in other five cases. Profound hypothermia, ventricular fibrillation, and circulatory arrest, with no cross-clamping or cardioplegia, were used in three patients. Two patients were operated on with extracorporeal circulation, one in normothermia, on the beating heart, the other in moderate hypothermia, on fibrillating heart. In three patients myocardial revascularization was performed on the beating heart, in normothermia, without extracorporeal circulation. Postoperative course was uneventful in all 11 patients. Neither atheroembolism in the peripheral organs, nor atheroembolism of the extramities occurred. The proposed surgical approaches have the potential to reduce the prevalence of stroke and systemic embolization associated with coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with heavily calcified ascending aorta. This result was achieved due to the applied modifications of standard cardiosurgical technique.

  8. Radiotherapy-induced aortic valve disease associated with porcelain aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daitoku, Kazuyuki; Fukui, Kozo; Ichinoseki, Ikkoh; Munakata, Mamoru; Takahashi, Shoichi; Fukuda Ikuo

    2004-01-01

    Mediastinal irradiation has been reported to induce cardiac disease such as pericarditis, valvular dysfunction, conduction abnormalities, accelerated arteriosclerosis of the coronary arteries, and also calcifications of the ascending aorta. We herein describe a case of radiotherapy-induced porcelain aorta and aortic valve disease and their surgical treatment. The patient was diagnosed with myasthenia gravis (MG) in 1965 (Osserman's type II), and mediastinal irradiation was performed in 1970 for treatment of thymic tumor associated with MG. Thirty years after radiation therapy, complete atrioventricular block and aortic valve disease with severe calcification of the ascending aorta and aortic arch (porcelain aorta) were detected on echo cardiogram and cardiac catheterization. A permanent pacemaker was implanted via the left subclavian vein and aortic valve replacement was performed under extracorporeal circulation established by selective cerebral perfusion and balloon occlusion instead of aortic cross-clamping. As no risk factors of arteriosclerosis such as hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia and hypertension were apparent, we concluded that the aortic valve disease and porcelain aorta were primarily induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  9. Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase in Smooth Muscle Cells Maintains Genome Integrity, Resists Aortic Medial Degeneration, and Is Suppressed in Human Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Alanna; Nong, Zengxuan; Yin, Hao; O'Neil, Caroline; Fox, Stephanie; Balint, Brittany; Guo, Linrui; Leo, Oberdan; Chu, Michael W A; Gros, Robert; Pickering, J Geoffrey

    2017-06-09

    The thoracic aortic wall can degenerate over time with catastrophic consequences. Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) can resist and repair artery damage, but their capacities decline with age and stress. Recently, cellular production of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) via nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) has emerged as a mediator of cell vitality. However, a role for Nampt in aortic SMCs in vivo is unknown. To determine whether a Nampt-NAD + control system exists within the aortic media and is required for aortic health. Ascending aortas from patients with dilated aortopathy were immunostained for NAMPT, revealing an inverse relationship between SMC NAMPT content and aortic diameter. To determine whether a Nampt-NAD + control system in SMCs impacts aortic integrity, mice with Nampt -deficient SMCs were generated. SMC- Nampt knockout mice were viable but with mildly dilated aortas that had a 43% reduction in NAD + in the media. Infusion of angiotensin II led to aortic medial hemorrhage and dissection. SMCs were not apoptotic but displayed senescence associated-ß-galactosidase activity and upregulated p16, indicating premature senescence. Furthermore, there was evidence for oxidized DNA lesions, double-strand DNA strand breaks, and pronounced susceptibility to single-strand breakage. This was linked to suppressed poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 activity and was reversible on resupplying NAD + with nicotinamide riboside. Remarkably, we discovered unrepaired DNA strand breaks in SMCs within the human ascending aorta, which were specifically enriched in SMCs with low NAMPT. NAMPT promoter analysis revealed CpG hypermethylation within the dilated human thoracic aorta and in SMCs cultured from these tissues, which inversely correlated with NAMPT expression. The aortic media depends on an intrinsic NAD + fueling system to protect against DNA damage and premature SMC senescence, with relevance to human thoracic aortopathy. © 2017 American Heart

  10. Evolution of thoracic surgery in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslauriers, Jean; Pearson, F Griffith; Nelems, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Canada's contributions toward the 21st century's practice of thoracic surgery have been both unique and multilayered. Scattered throughout are tales of pioneers where none had gone before, where opportunities were greeted by creativity and where iconic figures followed one another. To describe the numerous and important achievements of Canadian thoracic surgeons in the areas of surgery for pulmonary tuberculosis, thoracic oncology, airway surgery and lung transplantation. Information was collected through reading of the numerous publications written by Canadian thoracic surgeons over the past 100 years, interviews with interested people from all thoracic surgery divisions across Canada and review of pertinent material form the archives of several Canadian hospitals and universities. Many of the developments occurred by chance. It was the early and specific focus on thoracic surgery, to the exclusion of cardiac and general surgery, that distinguishes the Canadian experience, a model that is now emerging everywhere. From lung transplantation in chimera twin calves to ex vivo organ preservation, from the removal of airways to tissue regeneration, and from intensive care research to complex science, Canadians have excelled in their commitment to research. Over the years, the influence of Canadian thoracic surgery on international practice has been significant. Canada spearheaded the development of thoracic surgery over the past 100 years to a greater degree than any other country. From research to education, from national infrastructures to the regionalization of local practices, it happened in Canada.

  11. Advancements in robotic-assisted thoracic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenwyk, Brad; Lyerly, Ralph

    2012-12-01

    Advancements in robotic-assisted thoracic surgery present potential advantages for patients as well as new challenges for the anesthesia and surgery teams. This article describes the major aspects of the surgical approach for the most commonly performed robotic-assisted thoracic surgical procedures as well as the pertinent preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative anesthetic concerns. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Thoracic duct lymphography by subcutaneous contrast agent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A second lymphography revealed a collateral thoracic duct that was not detected during the first lymphography. The collateral duct was ligated and chylothorax was resolved after the second surgery. The lymphography applied in this study was minimally-invasive and easily provided images of the thoracic duct in a dog with ...

  13. Visualization of the thoracic duct by lymphoscintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baulieu, F.; Baulieu, J.L.; Itti, R.; Tours Univ., 37

    1987-01-01

    Imaging of the thoracic duct is usually performed by radiological lymphography. However, this procedure, which uses an oil based dye injected directly into the lymph channels, has some adverse effects. In this paper we note that lymphoscintigraphy, a physiological and non invasive method, may visualize thoracic duct abnormalities, and might be particularly usefull when radiological lymphography is contraindicated. (orig.)

  14. Bilateral locked facets in the thoracic spine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.A. Willems; Braakman, R. (Reinder); B. van Linge (Bert)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractTwo cases of traumatic bilateral locked facets in the thoracic spine are reported. Both patients had only minor neurological signs. They both made a full neurological recovery after surgical reduction of the locked facets. Bilateral locked facets are very uncommon in the thoracic spine.

  15. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; van der Zwan, Jan Maarten; Izarzugaza, Isabel; Jaal, Jana; Treasure, Tom; Foschi, Roberto; Ricardi, Umberto; Groen, Harry; Tavilla, Andrea; Ardanaz, Eva

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  16. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; Zwan, J.M.V.D.; Izarzugaza, I.; Jaal, J.; Treasure, T.; Foschi, R.; Ricardi, U.; Groen, H.; Tavilla, A.; Ardanaz, E.

    2012-01-01

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  17. Radiologic findings of thoracic trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akgul Ozmen C

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cihan Akgul Ozmen,1 Serdar Onat,2 Delal Aycicek3 1Department of Radiology, 2Department of Chest Surgery, Dicle University School of Medicine, Diyarbakir, 3Radiology Unit, Siirt State Hospital, Siirt, Turkey Introduction: Chest trauma may be blunt or penetrating and the chest is the third most common trauma region. It is a significant cause of mortality. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT has been an increasingly used method to evaluate chest trauma because of its high success in detecting tissue and organ injuries. Herein, we aimed to present MDCT findings in patients with blunt and penetrating chest trauma admitted to our department. Methods: A total of 240 patients admitted to the emergency department of our hospital between April 2012 and July 2013 with a diagnosis of chest trauma who underwent MDCT evaluations were included. Most of the patients were male (83.3% and victims of a blunt chest trauma. The images were analyzed with respect to the presence of fractures of bony structures, hemothorax, pneumothorax, mediastinal organ injury, and pulmonary and vascular injuries. Results: MDCT images of the 240 patients yielded a prevalence of 41.7% rib fractures, 11.2% scapular fractures, and 7.5% clavicle fractures. The prevalence of thoracic vertebral fracture was 13.8% and that of sternal fracture was 3.8%. The prevalence of hemothorax, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and subcutaneous emphysema was 34.6%, 62.1%, 9.6%, and 35.4%, respectively. The prevalence of rib, clavicle, and thoracic vertebral fractures and pulmonary contusion was higher in the blunt trauma group, whereas the prevalence of hemothorax, subcutaneous emphysema, diaphragmatic injury, and other vascular lacerations was significantly higher in the penetrating trauma group than in the blunt trauma group (p<0.05. Conclusion: MDCT images may yield a high prevalence of fracture of bony structures, soft tissue lacerations, and vascular lesions, which should be well understood by

  18. The effects of heated vegetable oils on blood pressure in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamsiah Jaarin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to determine the possible mechanism that is involved in the blood pressureraising effect of heated vegetable oils. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 11 groups; the control group was fed with rat chow, and the other groups were fed with chow that was mixed with 15% weight/weight palm or soy oils, which were either in a fresh form or heated once, twice, five, or ten times. Blood pressures were measured at the baseline and throughout the 24-week study. Plasma nitric oxide levels were assessed prior to treatment and at the end of the study. Following 24 weeks, the rats were sacrificed to investigate their vascular reactivity using the thoracic aorta. RESULTS: Palm and soy oils had no detrimental effects on blood pressure, and they significantly elevated the nitric oxide contents and reduced the contractile responses to phenylephrine. However, trials using palm and soy oils that were repeatedly heated showed an increase in blood pressure, enhanced phenylephrine-induced contractions, reduced acetylcholine- and sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxations relative to the control and rats that were fed fresh vegetable oils. CONCLUSIONS: The blood pressure-raising effect of the heated vegetable cooking oils is associated with increased vascular reactivity and a reduction in nitric oxide levels. The chronic consumption of heated vegetable oils leads to disturbances in endogenous vascular regulatory substances, such as nitric oxide. The thermal oxidation of the cooking oils promotes the generation of free radicals and may play an important contributory role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in rats.

  19. Developmental programming of vascular dysfunction by prenatal and postnatal zinc deficiency in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes Garrido Abregú, Facundo; Gobetto, María Natalia; Juriol, Lorena Vanesa; Caniffi, Carolina; Elesgaray, Rosana; Tomat, Analía Lorena; Arranz, Cristina

    2018-06-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition during intrauterine and postnatal growth may program cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. We examined whether moderate zinc restriction in male and female rats throughout fetal life, lactation and/or postweaning growth induces alterations that can predispose to the onset of vascular dysfunction in adulthood. Female Wistar rats were fed low- or control zinc diets from pregnancy to offspring weaning. After weaning, offspring were fed either a low- or a control zinc diet until 81 days. We evaluated systolic blood pressure (SBP), thoracic aorta morphology, nitric oxide (NO) system and vascular reactivity in 6- and/or 81-day-old offspring. At day 6, zinc-deficient male and female offspring showed a decrease in aortic NO synthase (NOS) activity accompanied by an increase in oxidative stress. Zinc-deficient 81-day-old male rats exhibited an increase in collagen deposition in tunica media, as well as lower activity of endothelial NOS (eNOS) that could not be reversed with an adequate zinc diet during postweaning life. Zinc deficiency programmed a reduction in eNOS protein expression and higher SBP only in males. Adult zinc-deficient rats of both sexes showed reduced vasodilator response dependent on eNOS activity and impaired aortic vasoconstrictor response to angiotensin-II associated with alterations in intracellular calcium mobilization. Female rats were less sensitive to the effects of zinc deficiency and exhibited higher eNOS activity and/or expression than males, without alterations in SBP or aortic histology. This work strengthens the importance of a balanced intake of micronutrients during perinatal growth to ensure adequate vascular function in adult life. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Increased shedding of microvesicles from intimal smooth muscle cells in athero-prone areas of the human aorta: implications for understanding of the predisease stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobryshev, Yuri V; Killingsworth, Murray C; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated whether a change in the content of matrix microvesicles might occur at the preatherosclerotic stage. Applying quantitative electron microscopic and immunohistochemical analyses, two areas of grossly normal segments of the thoracic aorta were compared: atherosclerosis-prone (AP) areas, situated at the dorsal aspect of the aorta along the rows of intercostal branch origins, and atherosclerosis-resistant (AR) areas, situated at the corresponding sites of the ventral aspect of the aorta. The electron microscopic analysis showed that there were 1.4 times more microvesicles in AP areas than AR areas (p = 0.019). It was found that matrix microvesicles originated as a result of blebbing and shedding of surface membranes of smooth muscle cells. A quantitative analysis of the expression of ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6), which is known to be involved in membrane trafficking and microvesicle formation, showed that ARF6 expression was 1.3 times higher in AP areas than that in AR areas (p = 0.006). There was a positive correlation between the content of matrix microparticles and the expression of ARF6 by intimal smooth muscle cells (r = 0.61; p < 0.0001). The present study supports the concept that alterations of the arterial intima occur at the predisease stage. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Shoulder Pain After Thoracic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt-Eckhardt, Morten R; Andersen, Claus; Ørding, Helle

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the time course of ipsilateral shoulder pain after thoracic surgery with respect to incidence, pain intensity, type of pain (referred versus musculoskeletal), and surgical approach. DESIGN: Prospective, observational cohort study. SETTING: Odense University Hospital, Denmark...... for musculoskeletal involvement (muscle tenderness on palpation and movement) with follow-up 12 months after surgery. Clinically relevant pain was defined as a numeric rating scale score>3. Of the 60 patients included, 47 (78%) experienced ipsilateral shoulder pain, but only 25 (42%) reported clinically relevant...... shoulder pain. On postoperative day 4, 19 patients (32%) still suffered shoulder pain, but only 4 patients (7%) had clinically relevant pain. Four patients (8%) still suffered shoulder pain 12 months after surgery. In 26 patients (55%), the shoulder pain was classified as referred versus 21 patients (45...

  2. Carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herskovic, A.M.; Leichman, L.; Lattin, P.B.

    1987-01-01

    The authors analyzed all cases of thoracic esophagel carcinoma seen from 1980 to 1984 inclusive, plus an additional 22 cases from a pilot study at Wayne State University. Most patients received preoperative combination radiation and chemotherapy. Eighty-nine patients completed treatment (5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, and radiation therapy) as in both the RTOG and SWOG national studies. Of these 89, 39 refused or were not offered planned surgery. Four patients are still alive and well. Fifty patients underwent esophagectomy; 12 patients were free of tumor at esophagectomy, and four of these are alive and well. One patient with a tumor in the resected esophagus alone is still alive. Twenty-two patients were enrolled in the pilot study in which surgery was reserved for salvage, the initial radiation volume was increased, the tumor dose was increased to 5,000 rad give continuously, and chemotherapy was increased to four courses

  3. Role of contrast-enhanced helical CT in the evaluation of acute thoracic aortic injuries after blunt chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaglione, M.; Pinto, A.; Pinto, F.; Romano, L.; Ragozzino, A.; Grassi, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the value of contrast-enhanced helical CT for detecting and managing acute thoracic aortic injury (ATAI). Between June 1995 and February 2000, 1419 consecutive chest CT examinations were performed in the setting of major blunt trauma. The following CT findings were considered indicative of ATAI: intimal flap; pseudoaneurysm; contour irregularity; lumen abnormality; and extravasation of contrast material. On the basis of these direct findings no further diagnostic investigations were performed. Isolated mediastinal hematoma on CT scans was considered an indirect sign of ATAI: In these cases, thoracic aortography was performed even if CT indicated normal aorta. Seventy-seven patients had abnormal CT scans: Among the 23 patients with direct CT signs, acute thoracic aortic injuries was confirmed at thoracotomy in 21. Two false-positive cases were observed. The 54 remaining patients had isolated mediastinal hematoma without aortic injuries at CT and corresponding negative angiograms. The 1342 patients with negative CT scans were included in the 8-month follow-up program and did not show any adverse sequela based on clinical and radiographic criteria. Contrast-enhanced helical CT has a critical role in the exclusion of thoracic aortic injuries in patient with major blunt chest trauma and prevents unnecessary thoracic aortography. Direct CT signs of ATAI do not require further diagnostic investigations to confirm the diagnosis: Isolated aortic bands or contour vessel abnormalities should be first considered as possible artifacts or related to non-traumatic etiologies especially when mediastinal hematoma is absent. In cases of isolated mediastinal hematoma other possible sources of bleeding should be considered before directing patients to thoracic aortography. (orig.)

  4. Surgery for pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta under moderate hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Dong-Hyup

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta is a rare complication after cardiac surgery. Particularly, pseudoaneurysm due to postoperative infection in the ascending aorta requires surgical treatment with antibiotics. If a large sized pseudoaneurysm is located at the retrosternal space, then there is a very high risk of massive bleeding from rupture during performance of resternotomy. To avoid this risk, we performed femoro-femoral bypass under moderate hypothermia with transient circulatory arrest, and we report here on the successful result of this case.

  5. Gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography of the thoracoabdominal aorta diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ippolito, Giuseppe; Wolosker, Nelson; Galvao Filho, Mario; Kalil, Jorge A.; Wolosker, Angela; Borri, Maria Lucia

    1998-01-01

    Gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography (GEMRA) of the thoracoabdominal aorta is a noninvasive technique that can rapidly delineate the branch vessels diseases, without flow or respiration artifacts, obtained with non contrast MRA. The objective of this paper is to show the main clinical applications of GEMRA, compared to non contrast sequences. We have evaluated 30 patients with thorocoabdominal aorta diseases. These patients have been examined with GEMRA (3D, FFE sequences) obtained after 30 mlIV contrast injection and non contrast MRA (2D-TOF sequences). In our experience, gadolinium-enhanced MRA is a high resolution and speedy technique with advantages over non contrast MRA. (author)

  6. Embolization for Thoracic Duct Collateral Leakage in High-Output Chylothorax After Thoracic Surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kariya, Shuji, E-mail: kariyas@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Nakatani, Miyuki, E-mail: nakatanm@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Yoshida, Rie, E-mail: yagir@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Ueno, Yutaka, E-mail: uenoyut@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Komemushi, Atsushi, E-mail: komemush@takii.kmu.ac.jp; Tanigawa, Noboru, E-mail: tanigano@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp [Kansai Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2017-01-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to investigate thoracic duct collateral leakage and the supply route of lymphatic fluid by lymphangiography and transcatheter thoracic ductography and to evaluate the results of embolization for thoracic duct collateral leakage performed to cut off this supply route.MethodsData were retrospectively collected from five patients who underwent embolization for thoracic duct collateral leakage in persistent high-output chylothorax after thoracic surgery. Extravasation of lipiodol at the ruptured thoracic duct collaterals was confirmed in all patients on lymphangiography. Transcatheter thoracic ductography was used to identify extravasation of iodinated contrast agent and to identify communication between the thoracic duct and leakage site. Thoracic duct embolization (TDE) was performed using the percutaneous transabdominal approach to cut off the supply route using N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) mixed with lipiodol (1:5–1:20).ResultsClinical success (drainage volume ≤10 mL/kg/day within 7 days after TDE) was achieved in all patients. The collateral routes developed as consequence of surgical thoracic duct ligation. In three patients, NBCA-Lipiodol reached the leakage site through direct communication between the thoracic duct and the ruptured lymphatic duct. In the other two patients, direct communication and extravasation was not detected on thoracic ductography, and NBCA-Lipiodol did not reach the leakage site. However, NBCA-Lipiodol did reach the cisterna chyli, lumbar trunks, and some collateral routes via the cisterna chyli or lumbar lymphatics. As a result, leakage was stopped.ConclusionsTDE was effective for the management of leakage of the collaterals in high-output chylothorax after thoracic surgery.

  7. Embolization for Thoracic Duct Collateral Leakage in High-Output Chylothorax After Thoracic Surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kariya, Shuji; Nakatani, Miyuki; Yoshida, Rie; Ueno, Yutaka; Komemushi, Atsushi; Tanigawa, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    PurposeThis study was designed to investigate thoracic duct collateral leakage and the supply route of lymphatic fluid by lymphangiography and transcatheter thoracic ductography and to evaluate the results of embolization for thoracic duct collateral leakage performed to cut off this supply route.MethodsData were retrospectively collected from five patients who underwent embolization for thoracic duct collateral leakage in persistent high-output chylothorax after thoracic surgery. Extravasation of lipiodol at the ruptured thoracic duct collaterals was confirmed in all patients on lymphangiography. Transcatheter thoracic ductography was used to identify extravasation of iodinated contrast agent and to identify communication between the thoracic duct and leakage site. Thoracic duct embolization (TDE) was performed using the percutaneous transabdominal approach to cut off the supply route using N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) mixed with lipiodol (1:5–1:20).ResultsClinical success (drainage volume ≤10 mL/kg/day within 7 days after TDE) was achieved in all patients. The collateral routes developed as consequence of surgical thoracic duct ligation. In three patients, NBCA-Lipiodol reached the leakage site through direct communication between the thoracic duct and the ruptured lymphatic duct. In the other two patients, direct communication and extravasation was not detected on thoracic ductography, and NBCA-Lipiodol did not reach the leakage site. However, NBCA-Lipiodol did reach the cisterna chyli, lumbar trunks, and some collateral routes via the cisterna chyli or lumbar lymphatics. As a result, leakage was stopped.ConclusionsTDE was effective for the management of leakage of the collaterals in high-output chylothorax after thoracic surgery.

  8. [Coarctation of the descending aorta. A rare form of connatal aortic stenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammwitz, E; Schöttler, M; Brix, F; Poser, H L; Langkau, G; Yükseltan, I

    1983-07-01

    A clinical diagnosis of a coarctation of the aorta was made in a 17-year-old female hypertensive patient. Angiography revealed an atypical stenosis of the descending aorta which was surgically corrected. The causes of aortic stenoses are discussed.

  9. Endovascular treatment of aortic pathologies - State of the art. Part 2 - Pathologies of thoracic aorta and other applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uribe, Carlos E; Calderon, Luis L; Gomez, German S; Castro, Pablo; Hurtado, Edgar F; Estrada, Gilberto

    2007-01-01

    Endovascular treatment of aortic pathologies is actually an alternative to open surgery. It has proven to be safe, showing similar or better results to those achieved by surgery. In this article, treatment of aortic pathologies by means of endoprosthesis is presented, as well as its indications, contraindications and future treatment with this kind of devices

  10. Efficacy of a novel strategy for poststernotomy deep sternal infection after thoracic aorta replacement using a prosthetic graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Motone; Yoshida, Yukitaka; Ninomiya, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Shin; Sasaguri, Shiro; Akita, Shinsuke; Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki

    2018-05-01

    Poststernotomy deep sternal wound infections are persistent and occasionally fatal, especially in cases involving prosthetic grafts, because of their complicated structure and virtual impossibility of removal. We aimed to verify the influence of cooperation with plastic surgeons and our novel strategy for treating deep sternal wound infection after aortic replacement on cardiovascular surgery outcomes. Nine hundred eighty-three consecutive patients were divided into two groups: an early group (2012-2013) and a late group (2014-2015). The late group had received cooperatively improved perioperative wound management: our novel strategy of deep sternal infection based on radical debridement and immediate reconstruction decided by reference to severities of the patient's general condition and widespread infection by early intervention of plastic surgeons. The groups were analysed retrospectively. Binary variables were analysed statistically with the Fisher exact test and continuous variables with the Mann-Whitney U test. Inter-group differences were assessed with the chi-square test. Twenty of 390 cases in the early group and 13 of 593 cases in the late group were associated with deep sternal infection. Morbidity rates of deep sternal wound infection and associated mortality rates 1 year after reconstruction surgery were significantly less (p infection also reduced associated mortality rates. Facilities should consider the early inclusion of plastic surgeons in the treatment of patients undergoing aortic replacement to facilitate better outcomes. Copyright © 2018 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Emergency Anaesthetic Management of Extensive Thoracic Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H C Chandola

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available High speed vehicles, drug abuse, alcohol and easy availability of handguns are the main reasons of increasing number of trauma especially thoracic trauma. Anaesthesiologist plays an important role in the management of extensive thoracic trauma. Thoracic trauma, penetrating or blunt, may cause damage to organs suspended in thorax viz. pleura, lungs, heart, great vessels, trachea and oesophagus. It may lead to pneumothorax, cardiac tamponade or life threatening haemorrhage. With aggressive care and management of these factors, majority of patients can survive and return to normal life.

  12. Risk model of thoracic aortic surgery in 4707 cases from a nationwide single-race population through a web-based data entry system: the first report of 30-day and 30-day operative outcome risk models for thoracic aortic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Noboru; Miyata, Hiroaki; Tsukihara, Hiroyuki; Takamoto, Shinichi

    2008-09-30

    The objective of this study was to collect integrated data from nationwide hospitals using a web-based national database system to build up our own risk model for the outcome from thoracic aortic surgery. The Japan Adult Cardiovascular Surgery Database was used; this involved approximately 180 hospitals throughout Japan through a web-based data entry system. Variables and definitions are almost identical to the STS National Database. After data cleanup, 4707 records were analyzed from 97 hospitals (between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2005). Mean age was 66.5 years. Preoperatively, the incidence of chronic lung disease was 11%, renal failure was 9%, and rupture or malperfusion was 10%. The incidence of the location along the aorta requiring replacement surgery (including overlapping areas) was: aortic root, 10%; ascending aorta, 47%; aortic arch, 44%; distal arch, 21%; descending aorta, 27%; and thoracoabdominal aorta, 8%. Raw 30-day and 30-day operative mortality rates were 6.7% and 8.6%, respectively. Postoperative incidence of permanent stroke was 6.1%, and renal failure requiring dialysis was 6.7%. OR for 30-day operative mortality was as follows: emergency or salvage, 3.7; creatinine >3.0 mg/dL, 3.0; and unexpected coronary artery bypass graft, 2.6. As a performance metric of the risk model, C-index of 30-day and 30-day operative mortality was 0.79 and 0.78, respectively. This is the first report of risk stratification on thoracic aortic surgery using a nationwide surgical database. Although condition of these patients undergoing thoracic aortic surgery was much more serious than other procedures, the result of this series was excellent.

  13. Application of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in treating dwarfism with Stanford B aortic dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jian; Cai, Wenwu; Shu, Chang; Li, Ming; Xiong, Qinggen; Li, Quanming; Li, Xin

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: To apply thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) to treat dwarfism complicated with Stanford B aortic dissection. Patient concerns: In this report, we presented a 63-year-old male patient of dwarfism complicated with Stanford B aortic dissection successfully treated with TEVAR. Diagnoses: He was diagnosed with dwarfism complicated with Stanford B aortic dissection. Interventions: After conservative treatment, the male patient underwent TEVAR at 1 week after hospitalization. After operation, he presented with numbness and weakness of his bilateral lower extremities, and these symptoms were significantly mitigated after effective treatment. At 1- and 3-week after TEVAR, the aorta status was maintained stable and restored. Outcomes: The patient obtained favorable clinical prognosis and was smoothly discharged. During subsequent follow-up, he remained physically stable. Lessons: TEVAR is probably an option for treating dwarfism complicated with Stanford B aortic dissection, which remains to be validated by subsequent studies with larger sample size. PMID:29703033

  14. Surgical exclusion of postsurgical pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Ramachandra; Patnaik, Amar Narayana; Kumar, Ravintula Venkata; Mohapatra, Rudra Prasad; Medep, Vikas; Nemani, Lalita

    2014-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of ascending aorta after cardiac surgery is rare in children. We report a case of successful surgical exclusion of ascending aortic pseudoaneurysm in a 15-year-old boy. The neck of the aneurysm was in close proximity to the right coronary artery (RCA). PMID:24987261

  15. Surgical exclusion of postsurgical pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, Ramachandra; Patnaik, Amar Narayana [Department of Cardiology, Nizam' s Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh (India); Kumar, Ravintula Venkata; Mohapatra, Rudra Prasad [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Nizam' s Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh (India); Medep, Vikas; Nemani, Lalita [Department of Cardiology, Nizam' s Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2014-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of ascending aorta after cardiac surgery is rare in children. We report a case of successful surgical exclusion of ascending aortic pseudoaneurysm in a 15-year-old boy. The neck of the aneurysm was in close proximity to the right coronary artery (RCA)

  16. Surgical exclusion of postsurgical pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra Barik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoaneurysm of ascending aorta after cardiac surgery is rare in children. We report a case of successful surgical exclusion of ascending aortic pseudoaneurysm in a 15-year-old boy. The neck of the aneurysm was in close proximity to the right coronary artery (RCA.

  17. Hypergravity and multiple reflections in wave propagation in the aorta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroot, J.M.B.; Giannopapa, C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Hypergravity and gravity changes encountered in, e.g., airplanes, rollercoasters, and spaceflight can result in headaches or loss of consciousness due to decreased cerebral blood flow. This paper describes the effect of hypergravity and gravity changes on the pressure in the aorta and the distension

  18. The AORTA Architecture: Integrating Organizational Reasoning in Jason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    the expected behavior of the agents. Agents need to be able to reason about the regulations, so that they can act within the expected boundaries and work towards the objectives of the organization. In this paper, we describe the AORTA (Adding Organizational Reasoning to Agents) architecture for making agents...

  19. Effect of Euterpe oleracea Mart. (Açaí) Oil on Dyslipidemia Caused by Cocos nucifera L. Saturated Fat in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria E Souza, Belmira S; Carvalho, Helison O; Taglialegna, Talisson; Barros, Albenise Santana A; da Cunha, Edilson Leal; Ferreira, Irlon Maciel; Keita, Hady; Navarrete, Andres; Carvalho, José Carlos Tavares

    2017-09-01

    Dyslipidemia is caused by disturbances in lipid metabolism that lead to chronic elevations of serum lipids, especially low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and triglycerides, increasing the risk of metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, atherogenic processes, and cardiovascular diseases. The oil from the fruits of Euterpe oleracea (OFEO) is rich in unsaturated fatty acids with potential for treating alterations in lipid metabolism. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of OFEO on hyperlipidemia induced by Cocos nucifera L. saturated fat (GSC) in Wistar rats. Chromatographic profile showed that unsaturated fatty acids account for 66.08% in OFEO, predominately oleic acid (54.30%), and saturated fatty acids (palmitic acid 31.6%) account for 33.92%. GSC-induced dyslipidemia resulted in an increase in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and liver and abdominal fat, as well as atherogenic processes in the thoracic aorta. OFEO treatment did not reduce hypertriglyceridemia, but did reduce total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, thus contributing to the antiatherogenic action of OFEO. OFEO treatment inhibited the formation of atheromatous plaques in the vascular endothelium of the treated rats, as well as those who were treated with simvastatin. The results obtained suggest that OFEO has an antiatherogenic effect in a rat model of dyslipidemia.

  20. Hybrid repair of a very late, post-aortic coarctation surgery thoracic aneurysm: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilea Ioan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Local aneurysms after surgical repair of coarctation of the aorta occur mainly in patients surgically treated by Dacron patch plasty during adulthood. The management of these patients is always problematic, with frequent complications and increased mortality rates. Percutaneous stent-graft implantation avoids the need for surgical reintervention. Case presentation We report a case involving the hybrid treatment by stent-graft implantation and transposition of the left subclavian artery to the left common carotid artery of an aneurysmal dilatation of the thoracic aorta that occurred in a 64-year-old Caucasian man, operated on almost 40 years earlier with a Dacron patch plasty for aortic coarctation. Our patient presented to our facility for evaluation with back pain and shortness of breath after minimal physical effort. A physical examination revealed stony dullness to percussion of the left posterior thorax, with no other abnormalities. The results of chest radiography, followed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography and aortography, led to a diagnosis of giant aortic thoracic aneurysm. Successful treatment of the aneurysm was achieved by percutaneous stent-graft implantation combined with transposition of the left subclavian artery to the left common carotid artery. His post-procedural recovery was uneventful. Three months after the procedure, computed tomography showed complete thrombosis of the excluded aneurysm, without any clinical signs of left lower limb ischemia or new onset neurological abnormalities. Conclusions Our patient’s case illustrates the clinical outcomes of surgical interventions for aortic coarctation. However, the very late appearance of a local aneurysm is rather unusual. Management of such cases is always difficult. The decision-making should be multidisciplinary. A hybrid approach was considered the best solution for our patient.

  1. Catamenial pneumothorax caused by thoracic endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Maniglio, MD

    2018-02-01

    Conclusion: The diagnosis of thoracic endometriosis is challenging. The first line of treatment is medical, whereas the surgical treatment is performed secondly. Moreover, surgical treatment can lead to a significant rate of recurrence, often reduced by a coadjutant medical treatment.

  2. Surgical treatment of double thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with a rigid proximal thoracic curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Hideki; Abe, Yuichiro; Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Iwasaki, Norimasa; Ito, Manabu

    2016-02-01

    There is limited consensus on the optimal surgical strategy for double thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Recent studies have reported that pedicle screw constructs to maximize scoliosis correction cause further thoracic spine lordosis. The objective of this study was to apply a new surgical technique for double thoracic AIS with rigid proximal thoracic (PT) curves and assess its clinical outcomes. Twenty one consecutive patients with Lenke 2 AIS and a rigid PT curve (Cobb angle ≥30º on side-bending radiographs, flexibility ≤30 %) treated with the simultaneous double-rod rotation technique (SDRRT) were included. In this technique, a temporary rod is placed at the concave side of the PT curve. Then, distraction force is applied to correct the PT curve, which reforms a sigmoid double thoracic curve into an approximate single thoracic curve. As a result, the PT curve is typically converted from an apex left to an apex right curve before applying the correction rod for PT and main thoracic curve. All patients were followed for at least 2 years (average 2.7 years). The average main thoracic and PT Cobb angle correction rate at the final follow-up was 74.7 and 58.0 %, respectively. The average preoperative T5-T12 thoracic kyphosis was 9.3°, which improved significantly to 19.0° (p corrected using SDRRT for Lenke 2 AIS with a rigid PT curve.

  3. Physiological Interaction of Heart and Lung in Thoracic Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghobadi, Ghazaleh; Veen, Sonja van der [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Bartelds, Beatrijs [Center for Congenital Heart Disease, Beatrix Children Hospital, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Boer, Rudolf A. de [Department of Cardiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Dickinson, Michael G. [Center for Congenital Heart Disease, Beatrix Children Hospital, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Jong, Johan R. de [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Faber, Hette; Niemantsverdriet, Maarten [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Brandenburg, Sytze [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Berger, Rolf M.F. [Center for Congenital Heart Disease, Beatrix Children Hospital, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Coppes, Robert P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Luijk, Peter van, E-mail: p.van.luijk@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2012-12-01

    Introduction: The risk of early radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) limits the dose and efficacy of radiation therapy of thoracic tumors. In addition to lung dose, coirradiation of the heart is a known risk factor in the development RILT. The aim of this study was to identify the underlying physiology of the interaction between lung and heart in thoracic irradiation. Methods and Materials: Rat hearts, lungs, or both were irradiated to 20 Gy using high-precision proton beams. Cardiopulmonary performance was assessed using breathing rate measurements and F{sup 18}-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET) scans biweekly and left- and right-sided cardiac hemodynamic measurements and histopathology analysis at 8 weeks postirradiation. Results: Two to 12 weeks after heart irradiation, a pronounced defect in the uptake of {sup 18}F-FDG in the left ventricle (LV) was observed. At 8 weeks postirradiation, this coincided with LV perivascular fibrosis, an increase in LV end-diastolic pressure, and pulmonary edema in the shielded lungs. Lung irradiation alone not only increased pulmonary artery pressure and perivascular edema but also induced an increased LV relaxation time. Combined irradiation of lung and heart induced pronounced increases in LV end-diastolic pressure and relaxation time, in addition to an increase in right ventricle end-diastolic pressure, indicative of biventricular diastolic dysfunction. Moreover, enhanced pulmonary edema, inflammation and fibrosis were also observed. Conclusions: Both lung and heart irradiation cause cardiac and pulmonary toxicity via different mechanisms. Thus, when combined, the loss of cardiopulmonary performance is intensified further, explaining the deleterious effects of heart and lung coirradiation. Our findings show for the first time the physiological mechanism underlying the development of a multiorgan complication, RILT. Reduction of dose to either of these organs offers new opportunities to

  4. Glutathione system participation in thoracic aneurysms from patients with Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga-Muñoz, Alejandra María; Pérez-Torres, Israel; Guarner-Lans, Verónica; Núñez-Garrido, Elías; Velázquez Espejel, Rodrigo; Huesca-Gómez, Claudia; Gamboa-Ávila, Ricardo; Soto, María Elena

    2017-05-01

    Aortic dilatation in Marfan syndrome (MFS) is progressive. It is associated with oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction that contribute to the early acute dissection of the vessel and can result in rupture of the aorta and sudden death. We evaluated the participation of the glutathione (GSH) system, which could be involved in the mechanisms that promote the formation and progression of the aortic aneurysms in MFS patients. Aortic aneurysm tissue was obtained during chest surgery from eight control subjects and 14 MFS patients. Spectrophotometrical determination of activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), lipid peroxidation (LPO) index, carbonylation, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and concentration of reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH and GSSG respectively), was performed in the homogenate from aortic aneurysm tissue. LPO index, carbonylation, TGF-β1, and GR activity were increased in MFS patients (p < 0.04), while TAC, GSH/GSSG ratio, GPx, and GST activity were significantly decreased (p < 0.04). The depletion of GSH, in spite of the elevated activity of GR, not only diminished the activity of GSH-depend GST and GPx, but increased LPO, carbonylation and decreased TAC. These changes could promote the structural and functional alterations in the thoracic aorta of MFS patients.

  5. Massive aggrecan and versican accumulation in thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikach, Frank S; Koch, Christopher D; Mead, Timothy J; Galatioto, Josephine; Willard, Belinda B; Emerton, Kelly B; Eagleton, Matthew J; Blackstone, Eugene H; Ramirez, Francesco; Roselli, Eric E; Apte, Suneel S

    2018-03-08

    Proteoglycan accumulation is a hallmark of medial degeneration in thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (TAAD). Here, we defined the aortic proteoglycanome using mass spectrometry, and based on the findings, investigated the large aggregating proteoglycans aggrecan and versican in human ascending TAAD and a mouse model of severe Marfan syndrome. The aortic proteoglycanome comprises 20 proteoglycans including aggrecan and versican. Antibodies against these proteoglycans intensely stained medial degeneration lesions in TAAD, contrasting with modest intralamellar staining in controls. Aggrecan, but not versican, was increased in longitudinal analysis of Fbn1mgR/mgR aortas. TAAD and Fbn1mgR/mgR aortas had increased aggrecan and versican mRNAs, and reduced expression of a key proteoglycanase gene, ADAMTS5, was seen in TAAD. Fbn1mgR/mgR mice with ascending aortic dissection and/or rupture had dramatically increased aggrecan staining compared with mice without these complications. Thus, aggrecan and versican accumulation in ascending TAAD occurs via increased synthesis and/or reduced proteolytic turnover, and correlates with aortic dissection/rupture in Fbn1mgR/mgR mice. Tissue swelling imposed by aggrecan and versican is proposed to be profoundly deleterious to aortic wall mechanics and smooth muscle cell homeostasis, predisposing to type-A dissections. These proteoglycans provide potential biomarkers for refined risk stratification and timing of elective aortic aneurysm repair.

  6. A History of Thoracic Aortic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Paul Michael; Wiggins, Luke M; Boys, Joshua A

    2017-08-01

    Ancient historical texts describe the presence of aortic pathology conditions, although the surgical treatment of thoracic aortic disease remained insurmountable until the 19th century. Surgical treatment of thoracic aortic disease then progressed along with advances in surgical technique, conduit production, cardiopulmonary bypass, and endovascular technology. Despite radical advances in aortic surgery, principles established by surgical pioneers of the 19th century hold firm to this day. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pencegahan hipertensi dan penebalan dinding aorta dengan pemberian kecambah kacang hijau (Phaseolus radiatus (L pada tikus putih Sprague Dawley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novian Swasono Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lifestyle changes with high-fat food consumption is one of the factors the risks of cardiovascular diseases like of coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis. A healthy diet and a balanced diet and consume foods that contain lots of antioxidants is one of the effective ways to prevent hyperlipidemia. Mung bean sprouts have properties that neutralize free radicals cause Hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases because it is an antioxidant compound. Objective: The aim of this study was to determinate the effect of mung bean sprouts (Phaseolus radiatus (L to blood pressure and histopathology aorta of Sprague-Dawley male rats. Method: The type of study was experimental research using pre-post test controlled group design for blood pressure variable and post test only controlled group design histopathology aorta. The thirty-five of Sprague-Dawley male rats was eight weeks divided into 5 groups. The first group was given standard diet, group 2 was given a hight fat diet, the third group was given a high-fat diet and mung bean sprout 0,67 gram, group 4 was given a high-fat diet and mung bean 1,34 gram, and group 5 was given a high-fat diet and vitamin E doses of 23 IU. Results: Result of this study showed that after 4 weeks of treatment, increased in blood pressure systole in the given of  high fat diet higher than group who were given a high fat diet and mung bean sprout and also on group who were given high fat diet and vitamin E, but there is no difference effect a decrease in blood pressure between the provision of mung bean sprouts and vitamin E (p>0,05. Statistical analysis to thick the wall the aorta show the similarity meaningful in all the treatment group, it can be said that overall thick the wall the aorta in this research is not different. Conclusion: A dose of mung bean sprout 0,67 g is optimal doses in preventing a rise in blood pressure and prevent alterations histopathology Sprague-Dawley male rats.

  8. Thoracic trauma: analysis of 100 consecutive cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Benito Scapolan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze thoracic trauma assisted by the EmergencyService of Hospital da Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia deSão Paulo. Methods: One hundred patients with thoracic trauma wereassisted throughout six months in 2006. Data from their records werecollected and a protocol of thoracic trauma was fulfilled. The RevisedTrauma Score was used to evaluate gravity of injury and to calculatethe survival index. Results: Prevalence of trauma injury in male from20 to 29 years old was observed. Out of all patients, 44 had blunttrauma and 56 penetrating trauma (78.6% presented stab woundsand 21.4% gun shots. Up to the settings of injuries, 23% were in thethoracoabdominal transition, 7% in the precordium and 70% in theremainder thoracic area. In those with the thoracoabdominal transitioninjury, 22.7% were hemodynamically unstable and 77.3% stable.Thoracoabdominal injury patients presented 40.9% of diaphragmwound and all were stable. Of those with precordium wound, 37.5%presented cardiac injury. In cardiac onset, 66.7% presented stableand 33.3% unstable. Thoracic drainage was the most accomplishedsurgical procedure (71%. Conclusions: The thoracic trauma patientis most prevalently young male with stab wound penetrating injury,without associated injuries, hemodynamically stable, presentinghemothorax, with high probability of survival.

  9. MRI of thoracic outlet syndrome in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavhan, Govind B.; Batmanabane, Vaishnavi [The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Muthusami, Prakash [The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Image Guided Therapy, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Towbin, Alexander J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Borschel, Gregory H. [The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2017-09-15

    Thoracic outlet syndrome is caused by compression of the neurovascular bundle as it passes from the upper thorax to the axilla. The neurovascular bundle can be compressed by bony structures such as the first rib, cervical ribs or bone tubercles, or from soft-tissue abnormalities like a fibrous band, muscle hypertrophy or space-occupying lesion. Thoracic outlet syndrome commonly affects young adults but can be seen in the pediatric age group, especially in older children. Diagnosis is based on a holistic approach encompassing clinical features, physical examination findings including those triggered by various maneuvers, electromyography, nerve conduction studies and imaging. Imaging is performed to confirm the diagnosis, exclude mimics and classify thoracic outlet syndrome into neurogenic, arterial, venous or mixed causes. MRI and MR angiography are useful in this process. A complete MRI examination for suspected thoracic outlet syndrome should include the assessment of anatomy and any abnormalities using routine sequences, vessel assessment with the arms in adduction by MR angiography and assessment of dynamic compression of vessels with abduction of the arms. The purpose of this paper is to describe the anatomy of the thoracic outlet, causes of thoracic outlet syndrome, the MR imaging techniques used in its diagnosis and the principles of image interpretation. (orig.)

  10. MRI of thoracic outlet syndrome in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavhan, Govind B.; Batmanabane, Vaishnavi; Muthusami, Prakash; Towbin, Alexander J.; Borschel, Gregory H.

    2017-01-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome is caused by compression of the neurovascular bundle as it passes from the upper thorax to the axilla. The neurovascular bundle can be compressed by bony structures such as the first rib, cervical ribs or bone tubercles, or from soft-tissue abnormalities like a fibrous band, muscle hypertrophy or space-occupying lesion. Thoracic outlet syndrome commonly affects young adults but can be seen in the pediatric age group, especially in older children. Diagnosis is based on a holistic approach encompassing clinical features, physical examination findings including those triggered by various maneuvers, electromyography, nerve conduction studies and imaging. Imaging is performed to confirm the diagnosis, exclude mimics and classify thoracic outlet syndrome into neurogenic, arterial, venous or mixed causes. MRI and MR angiography are useful in this process. A complete MRI examination for suspected thoracic outlet syndrome should include the assessment of anatomy and any abnormalities using routine sequences, vessel assessment with the arms in adduction by MR angiography and assessment of dynamic compression of vessels with abduction of the arms. The purpose of this paper is to describe the anatomy of the thoracic outlet, causes of thoracic outlet syndrome, the MR imaging techniques used in its diagnosis and the principles of image interpretation. (orig.)

  11. Initial thoracic involvement in lymphoma. CT assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos, A.; Corredoira, J.; Ferreiros, J.; Cabeza, B.; Jorquera, M.; Pedrosa, I.; Martinez, R.; Fernandez, C.

    2002-01-01

    To analyze the initial thoracic involvement by CT in a consecutive series of patients with lymphoma. A retrospective analysis was made of thoracic CT studies made at the time of diagnosis of 259 patients with lymphoma. Mediastinal pulmonary, pleural, pericardial and chest wall involvement was assessed by CT. Of 259 patients (129 men y 130 women), 56 had Hodgkin's disease (HD) and 203 had non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Forty-two percent (42.5%, 110/259) of the patients had chest involvement on CT: 33 of 56 patients with HD (58.9%) and 77 of 203 patients with NHL (37.9%). All the patients with thoracic HD) and 71.4% of patients with thoracic NHL, had mediastinal lymph node involvement. of the patients with thoracic involvement 12.1% (4/33) of the patient with HD and 23.3% (18/77) of the patients with NHL had pulmonary involvement. Thoracic involvement on CT was more frequent in HD. Mediastinal lymph node involvement was the most common finding fundamentally in HD. Pulmonary disease always occurred in the presence of mediastinal lymph node involvement in HD but could occur as an isolated finding in NHL. (Author) 24 refs

  12. Roselle supplementation prevents nicotine-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and remodelling in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Lislivia Yiang-Nee; Kamisah, Yusof; Ramalingam, Anand; Lim, Yi Cheng; Budin, Siti Balkis; Zainalabidin, Satirah

    2017-07-01

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) plays an important role in the initiation of cardiovascular diseases. Roselle, enriched with antioxidants, demonstrates high potential in alleviating hypertension. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of roselle supplementation of VED and remodelling in a rodent model with prolonged nicotine administration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 per group) were administered with 0.6 mg/kg nicotine for 28 days to induce VED. The rats were given either aqueous roselle (100 mg/kg) or normal saline orally 30 min prior to nicotine injection daily. One additional group of rats served as control. Thoracic aorta was isolated from rats to measure vascular reactivity, vascular remodelling and oxidative stress. Roselle significantly lowered aortic sensitivity to phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction (Endo-(+) C max = 234.5 ± 3.9%, Endo-(-) C max = 247.6 ± 5.2%) compared with untreated nicotine group (Endo-(+) C max = 264.5 ± 6.9%, Endo-(-) C max = 276.5 ± 6.8%). Roselle also improved aortic response to endothelium-dependent vasodilator, acetylcholine (Endo-(+) R max = 73.2 ± 2.1%, Endo-(-) R max = 26.2 ± 0.8%) compared to nicotine group (Endo-(+) R max = 57.8 ± 1.7%, Endo-(-) R max = 20.9 ± 0.8%). In addition, roselle prevented an increase in intimal media thickness and elastic lamellae proliferation to preserve vascular architecture. Moreover, we also observed a significantly lowered degree of oxidative stress in parallel with increased antioxidant enzymes in aortic tissues of the roselle-treated group. This study demonstrated that roselle prevents VED and remodelling, and as such it has high nutraceutical value as supplement to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide combined with pre- and postnatal high-fat diet result in lowered blood pressure and insulin resistance in offspring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xue-Qin; Du, Jing-Xia; Li, Yan; Li, Meng; Zhang, Shou-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Adult metabolic syndrome may in part have origins in fetal or early life. This study was designed to explore the effect of prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide and high-fat diet on metabolic syndrome in offspring rats. 32 pregnant rats were randomly divided into four groups, including Control group; LPS group (pregnant rats were injected with LPS 0.4 mg/kg intraperitoneally on the 8(th), 10(th) and 12(th) day of pregnancy); High-fat group (maternal rats had high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation period, and their pups also had high-fat diet up to the third month of life); LPS + High-fat group (rats were exposed to the identical experimental scheme with LPS group and High-fat group). Blood pressure elevated in LPS group and High-fat group, reduced in LPS+High-fat group, accompanied by the increase of serum leptin level in LPS and High-fat group and increase of serum IL-6, TNF-a in High-fat group; both serum insulin and cholesterol increased in High-fat and LPS+High-fat group, as well as insulin in LPS group. HOMA-IR value increased in LPS, High-fat and LPS+High-fat group, and QUICKI decreased in these groups; H-E staining showed morphologically pathological changes in thoracic aorta and liver tissue in the three groups. Increased serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferase suggest impaired liver function in LPS+High-fat group. Prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide combined with pre- and postnatal high-fat diet result in lowered blood pressure, insulin resistance and impaired liver function in three-month old offspring rats. The lowered blood pressure might benefit from the predictive adaptive response to prenatal inflammation.

  14. Emergency thoracic surgery in elderly patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Stefan; Unger, Lena; Czymek, Ralf; Kujath, Peter; Hoffmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Emergency thoracic surgery in the elderly represents an extreme situation for both the surgeon and patient. The lack of an adequate patient history as well as the inability to optimize any co-morbidities, which are the result of the emergent situation, are the cause of increased morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the outcome and prognostic factors for this selected group of patients. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting Academic tertiary care referral center. Participants Emergency patients treated at the Department of Thoracic Surgery, University Hospital of Luebeck, Germany. Main outcome measures Co-morbidities, mortality, risk factors and hospital length of stay. Results A total of 124 thoracic procedures were performed on 114 patients. There were 79 men and 36 women (average age 72.5 ±6.4 years, range 65–94). The overall operative mortality was 25.4%. The most frequent indication was thoracic/mediastinal infection, followed by peri- or postoperative thoracic complications. Risk factors for hospital mortality were a high ASA score, pre-existing diabetes mellitus and renal insufficiency. Conclusions Our study documents a perioperative mortality rate of 25% in patients over 65 who required emergency thoracic surgery. The main indication for a surgical intervention was sepsis with a thoracic/mediastinal focus. Co-morbidities and the resulting perioperative complications were found to have a significant effect on both inpatient length of stay and outcome. Long-term systemic co-morbidities such as diabetes mellitus are difficult to equalize with respect to certain organ dysfunctions and significantly increase mortality. PMID:21369531

  15. Seasonal variation in thoracic vessel calcifications: Evidence from a chest computed tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehmas, Tapio; Leino-Arjas, Paeivi (Health and Work Ability, Finnish Inst. of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland)), e-mail: tapio.vehmas@ttl.fi; Hiltunen, Asta (Dept. of Radiology, Central Hospital of Laensi-Pohja, Kemi (Finland))

    2010-01-15

    Background: Cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality exhibit a winter peak and a summer trough, a fact that could have radiological manifestations. Purpose: To identify possible seasonal trends in the occurrence of thoracic vessel calcifications. Material and Methods: 505 male construction workers (aged 39-80 years) were each imaged once with chest spiral computed tomography (CT) during a 2-year period. Based on visual assessment of calcified plaques (0=no, 1=slight, 2=moderate, 3=extensive calcification), sum scores of atherosclerosis in coronary arteries, in the thoracic aorta, in the pre-cervical artery bases, and overall were constructed. The scores were regressed on the annual rank number of the CT day. Results: By using the cubic regression model, seasonal variation in calcified plaques in coronary arteries (P=0.003), in pre-cervical artery origins (P=0.015), and in the overall sum score (P=0.004) was observed. The peak occurred in January-February and the nadir in August. Depending on the model, about 2-3% of the variation in atherosclerotic calcifications could be explained by the season of imaging. Conclusion: The observed seasonal trend in calcifications parallels with mortality reports. Seasonal variations should be considered in atherosclerosis treatment studies. Confirmatory studies using modern imaging technology are needed in different countries and geographical locations, preferably with repeat imaging of the same individuals

  16. Thoracic CT in the ED: a study of thoracic computed tomography utilisation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Williams, E

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the use of thoracic Computed Tomography (CT) in the Emergency Department of a Dublin Academic Teaching Hospital over a six month period. Data was retrieved using the hospital\\'s computerised information system. There were 202 referrals in total for thoracic CT from the Emergency Department during this time period. The most common indication for thoracic CT referral was for the investigation of pulmonary embolism with 127 (63%) referrals. There were 40 (25%) referrals for suspected malignancy and lung disease, whilst 8 (4%) of the referrals were for investigation of thoracic aortic dissection, 8 (4%) for infection, and 6 (3%) were for investigation of thoracic injury. Only 8 (4%) of all referrals were for investigation of injury as a result of chest trauma.

  17. Mechanics, Mechanobiology, and Modeling of Human Abdominal Aorta and Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, J.D.; Holzapfel, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Biomechanical factors play fundamental roles in the natural history of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and their responses to treatment. Advances during the past two decades have increased our understanding of the mechanics and biology of the human abdominal aorta and AAAs, yet there remains a pressing need for considerable new data and resulting patient-specific computational models that can better describe the current status of a lesion and better predict the evolution of lesion geometry, composition, and material properties and thereby improve interventional planning. In this paper, we briefly review data on the structure and function of the human abdominal aorta and aneurysmal wall, past models of the mechanics, and recent growth and remodeling models. We conclude by identifying open problems that we hope will motivate studies to improve our computational modeling and thus general understanding of AAAs. PMID:22189249

  18. MagnetoHemoDynamics in the aorta and electrocardiograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Vincent; Drochon, Agnès; Fokapu, Odette; Gerbeau, Jean-Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses a complex multi-physical phenomenon involving cardiac electrophysiology and hemodynamics. The purpose is to model and simulate a phenomenon that has been observed in magnetic resonance imaging machines: in the presence of a strong magnetic field, the T-wave of the electrocardiogram (ECG) gets bigger, which may perturb ECG-gated imaging. This is due to a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effect occurring in the aorta. We reproduce this experimental observation through computer simulations on a realistic anatomy, and with a three-compartment model: inductionless MHD equations in the aorta, bi-domain equations in the heart and electrical diffusion in the rest of the body. These compartments are strongly coupled and solved using finite elements. Several benchmark tests are proposed to assess the numerical solutions and the validity of some modeling assumptions. Then, ECGs are simulated for a wide range of magnetic field intensities (from 0 to 20 T). (paper)

  19. Intrapericardial bronchogenic cyst adherent to ascending aorta in young patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Atipo-Galloye

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bronchogenic cysts arise from an abnormal budding of the ventral diverticulum of the foregut or the thracheobronchial tree during embryogenesis. An intrapericardial location is an extremely rare finding. Symptoms are related to cardiac structure compression, but in most case they remain asymptomatic. We present a case of intrapericardial bronchogenic cyst in a young patient, resected entirely with repair of right lateral proximal ascending aorta with PTFE graft.

  20. Changes in Angiotensin Receptor Distribution and in Aortic Morphology Are Associated with Blood Pressure Control in Aged Metabolic Syndrome Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Guarner-Lans

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS in blood pressure regulation in MS during aging is unknown. It participates in metabolic syndrome (MS and aging regulating vascular tone and remodeling. RAS might participate in a compensatory mechanism decreasing blood pressure and allowing MS rats to reach 18 months of age and it might form part of therapeutical procedures to ameliorate MS. We studied histological changes and distribution of RAS receptors in aortas of MS aged rats. Electron microscopy images showed premature aging in MS since the increased fibrosis, enlarged endothelium, and invasion of this layer by muscle cells that was present in control 18-month-old aortas were also found in 6-month-old aortas from MS rats. AT1, AT2, and Mas receptors mediate the effects of Ang II and Ang 1-7, respectively. Fluorescence from AT2 decreased with age in control and MS aortas, while fluorescence of AT1 increased in aortas from MS rats at 6 months and diminished during aging. Mas expression increased in MS rats and remained unchanged in control rats. In conclusion, there is premature aging in the aortas from MS rats and the elevated expression of Mas receptor might contribute to decrease blood pressure during aging in MS.

  1. Hemodynamic Modeling of Surgically Repaired Coarctation of the Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Laura J; de Zélicourt, Diane A; Haggerty, Christopher M; Ratnayaka, Kanishka; Cross, Russell R; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2011-12-01

    PURPOSE: Late morbidity of surgically repaired coarctation of the aorta includes early cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, shortened life expectancy, abnormal vasomodulator response, hypertension and exercise-induced hypertension in the absence of recurrent coarctation. Observational studies have linked patterns of arch remodeling (Gothic, Crenel, and Romanesque) to late morbidity, with Gothic arches having the highest incidence. We evaluated flow in native and surgically repaired aortic arches to correlate respective hemodynamic indices with incidence of late morbidity. METHODS: Three dimensional reconstructions of each remodeled arch were created from an anatomic stack of magnetic resonance (MR) images. A structured mesh core with a boundary layer was generated. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis was performed assuming peak flow conditions with a uniform velocity profile and unsteady turbulent flow. Wall shear stress (WSS), pressure and velocity data were extracted. RESULTS: The region of maximum WSS was located in the mid-transverse arch for the Crenel, Romanesque and Native arches. Peak WSS was located in the isthmus of the Gothic model. Variations in descending aorta flow patterns were also observed among the models. CONCLUSION: The location of peak WSS is a primary difference among the models tested, and may have clinical relevance. Specifically, the Gothic arch had a unique location of peak WSS with flow disorganization in the descending aorta. Our results suggest that varied patterns and locations of WSS resulting from abnormal arch remodeling may exhibit a primary effect on clinical vascular dysfunction.

  2. Thoracic surgical resident education: a costly endeavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoon, John H; Baisden, Clint; Holler, Ben; Hicks, George L; Bove, Ed L; Wright, Cameron D; Merrill, Walter H; Fullerton, Dave A

    2014-12-01

    We sought to define an accurate measure of thoracic surgical education costs. Program directors from six distinct and differently sized and geographically located thoracic surgical training programs used a common template to provide estimates of resident educational costs. These data were reviewed, clarifying questions or discrepancies when noted and using best estimates when exact data were unavailable. Subsequently, a composite of previously published cost-estimation products was used to capture accurate cost data. Data were then compiled and averaged to provide an accurate picture of all costs associated with thoracic surgical education. Before formal accounting was performed, the estimated average for all programs was approximately $250,000 per year per resident. However, when formal evaluations by the six programs were performed, the annual cost of resident education ranged from $330,000 to $667,000 per year per resident. The average cost of $483,000 per year was almost double the initial estimates. Variability was noted by region and size of program. Faculty teaching costs varied from $208,000 to $346,000 per year. Simulation costs ranged from $0 to $80,000 per year. Resident savings to program ranged from $0 to $135,000 per year and averaged $37,000 per year per resident. Thoracic surgical education costs are considerably higher than initial estimates from program directors and probably represent an unappreciated source of financial burden for cardiothoracic surgical educational programs. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Endothelial dysfunction in normal and prediabetic rats with metabolic syndrome exposed by oral gavage to carbon black nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkmann, Janne Kjærsgaard; Vesterdal, Lise Kristine; Sheykhzade, Majid

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to nanosized particles may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases by endothelial dysfunction, particularly in susceptible subjects with metabolic syndrome. We investigated vasomotor dysfunction in aorta from obese and lean Zucker rats after oral exposure to nanosized carbon black (...

  4. Enhanced Recovery in Thoracic Surgery: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna D. Dinic

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of enhanced recovery program after thoracic surgery is to minimize stress response, reduce postoperative pulmonary complications, and improve patient outcome, which will in addition decrease hospital stay and reduce hospital costs. As minimally invasive technique, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery represents an important element of enhanced recovery program in thoracic surgery. Anesthetic management during preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative period is essential for the enhanced recovery. In the era of enhanced recovery protocols, non-intubated thoracoscopic procedures present a step forward. This article focuses on the key elements of the enhanced recovery program in thoracic surgery. Having reviewed recent literature, the authors highlight potential procedures and techniques that might be incorporated into the program.

  5. Atorvastatin restores arsenic-induced vascular dysfunction in rats: Modulation of nitric oxide signaling and inflammatory mediators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesavan, Manickam; Sarath, Thengumpallil Sasindran; Kannan, Kandasamy; Suresh, Subramaniyam; Gupta, Priyanka; Vijayakaran, Karunakaran; Sankar, Palanisamy; Kurade, Nitin Pandurang; Mishra, Santosh Kumar; Sarkar, Souvendra Nath

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated whether atorvastatin, an extensively prescribed statin for reducing the risks of cardiovascular diseases, can reduce the risk of arsenic-induced vascular dysfunction and inflammation in rats and whether the modulation could be linked to improvement in vascular NO signaling. Rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (100 ppm) through drinking water for 90 consecutive days. Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg bw, orally) was administered once daily during the last 30 days of arsenic exposure. On the 91 st day, blood was collected for measuring serum C-reactive protein. Thoracic aorta was isolated for assessing reactivity to phenylephrine, sodium nitroprusside and acetylcholine; evaluating eNOS and iNOS mRNA expression and measuring NO production, while abdominal aorta was used for ELISA of cytokines, chemokine and vascular cell adhesion molecules. Histopathology was done in aortic arches. Arsenic did not alter phenylephrine-elicited contraction. Atorvastatin inhibited E max of phenylephrine, but it augmented the contractile response in aortic rings from arsenic-exposed animals. Sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxation was not altered with any treatment. However, arsenic reduced acetylcholine-induced relaxation and affected aortic eNOS at the levels of mRNA expression, protein concentration, phosphorylation and NO production. Further, it increased aortic iNOS mRNA expression, iNOS-derived NO synthesis, production of pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1, VCAM, sICAM) and serum C-reactive protein and aortic vasculopathic lesions. Atorvastatin attenuated these arsenic-mediated functional, biochemical and structural alterations. Results show that atorvastatin has the potential to ameliorate arsenic-induced vascular dysfunction and inflammation by restoring endothelial function with improvement in NO signaling and attenuating production of pro-inflammatory mediators and cell adhesion molecules. - Highlights: • We evaluated if atorvastatin reduce arsenic

  6. Atorvastatin restores arsenic-induced vascular dysfunction in rats: Modulation of nitric oxide signaling and inflammatory mediators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesavan, Manickam; Sarath, Thengumpallil Sasindran; Kannan, Kandasamy; Suresh, Subramaniyam; Gupta, Priyanka; Vijayakaran, Karunakaran; Sankar, Palanisamy; Kurade, Nitin Pandurang; Mishra, Santosh Kumar; Sarkar, Souvendra Nath, E-mail: snsarkar1911@rediffmail.com

    2014-10-01

    We evaluated whether atorvastatin, an extensively prescribed statin for reducing the risks of cardiovascular diseases, can reduce the risk of arsenic-induced vascular dysfunction and inflammation in rats and whether the modulation could be linked to improvement in vascular NO signaling. Rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (100 ppm) through drinking water for 90 consecutive days. Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg bw, orally) was administered once daily during the last 30 days of arsenic exposure. On the 91{sup st} day, blood was collected for measuring serum C-reactive protein.