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Sample records for rat seminal fluid

  1. On the presence of prostatic secretion protein in rat seminal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstroem, E.; Pousette, A.; Bjoerk, P.; Hoegberg, B.; Carlstroem, K.; Sundelin, B.; Gustafsson, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The copulating plug collected from the tip of the penis from rats immediately after decapitation contains a protein very similar and probably identical to PSP (prostatic secretion protein); this protein has earlier been purified from rat prostatic cytosol and characterized. The protein present in the copulating plug interacts with [3H]estramustine and binds to the antibody raised against rat PSP. The concentration of the protein in the copulating plug is 400 ng/mg of total protein, when measured using the radioimmunoassay technique developed earlier for measurement of PSP in rat prostate. The [3H]estramustine-protein complex formed in a preparation of the copulating plug has an apparent molecular weight of about 50,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of about 3S when analyzed using sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The complex was retained on Concanavalin-A Sepharose indicating that the protein is a glycoprotein. Binding of the complex was also observed on hydroxylapatite and DEAE-Sephadex columns, from which it was eluted at 0.18 M KCl. Light microscope autoradiograms of rat sperms incubated with 125I-labeled PSP indicated that PSP is bound to all parts of the sperms. A macromolecule interacting with the PSP-antibodies is also present in human seminal fluid but at a concentration considerably lower than in rat seminal fluid. The present study shows that a macromolecule probably identical to prostatic secretion protein is present in the copulating plug from the rat. The biological role of this protein in normal male fertility is discussed

  2. Tactic-specific differences in seminal fluid influence sperm performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatello, Lisa; Poli, Federica; Rasotto, Maria B

    2013-03-22

    Seminal fluid often makes up a large part of an ejaculate, yet most empirical and theoretical studies on sperm competition have focused on how sperm characteristics (number and quality) affect fertilization success. However, seminal fluid influences own sperm performance and may potentially influence the outcome of sperm competition, by also affecting that of rivals. As a consequence males may be expected to allocate their investment in both sperm and seminal fluid in relation to the potential level of competition. Grass goby (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) is an external fertilizer with guard-sneaker mating tactics, where sperm competition risk varies according to the tactic adopted. Here, we experimentally manipulated grass goby ejaculates by separately combining sperm and seminal fluid from territorial and sneaker males. While sperm of sneaker and territorial males did not differ in their performance when they interacted with their own seminal fluid only, sperm of sneakers increased their velocity and fertilization rate in the presence of territorial males' seminal fluid. By contrast, sneaker males' seminal fluid had a detrimental effect on the performance of territorial males' sperm. Sperm velocity was unaffected by the seminal fluid of males employing the same tactic, suggesting that seminal fluid's effect on rival-tactic sperm is not based on a self/non-self recognition mechanism. Our findings show that cross interactions of sperm and seminal fluid may influence the fertilization success of competing ejaculates with males investing in both sperm and seminal fluid in response to sperm competition risk.

  3. Seminal Fluid Analysis And Biophysical Profile: Findings And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seminal Fluid Analysis And Biophysical Profile: Findings And Relevance In Infertile Males In Ilorin, Nigeria. EK Oghagbon, AAG Jimoh, SA Adebisi. Abstract. To determine if there was a bearing of body mass index (BMI) on male infertility, a cross-sectional study of males of infertile couples, attending our infertility clinic was ...

  4. Does Cigarette Smoking Affect Seminal Fluid Parameters? A Comparative Study

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    Zakarya Bani Meri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of cigarette smoking on seminal fluid parameters, namely; volume, sperm concentration, and motility, as well as morphology, leukocyte infiltration, among males complaining of infertility.Methods: Between August 2010 and July 2011, seminal fluid analysis was done for 1438 males who are partners of couples who visited the infertility clinic at Prince Rashid Ben Al Hassan Hospital (PRH for infertility. The men who fit the inclusion criteria (n=960 were classified into two groups: group a (non-smokers; n=564 and group B (smokers; n=396, which represents 41.25% of the study group. Seminal fluid was collected using masturbation after 3-5 days of abstinence then analyzed for volume, sperm count, sperm concentration, motility and morphology. In order to analyze whether the number of cigarettes smoked per day has an effect on the spermatogram; the smoking men were divided into two subgroups: the heavy smokers (n=266 and non-heavy smokers (n=130.Results: A total of 960 adult males were enrolled. Their age ranged between 21 and 76 years, 564 were non-smokers with mean age of 36. 45±6.27 (Mean±SD. Three-hundred-and-ninety-six were smokers with a mean age of 34.35±4.25 (Mean±SD. There was a significant effect of smoking on the motility of sperms and the ratios of abnormality (p<0.005. Concentration appeared not to be affected by smoking. Furthermore, the group of heavy smokers were found to have lower sperm concentrations and a higher percentage of abnormal sperms compared to the non-heavy smokers.Conclusion: Cigarette smoking has a deleterious effect on some of the seminal fluid parameters (motility, morphology and leukocyte count which in turn may result in male subfertility.

  5. Quantitation of sperm bindable IgA and IgG in seminal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, S E; Lynch, D M

    1986-05-01

    Seminal fluid and serum from 95 infertile males were assayed for sperm bindable immunoglobulins using an indirect ELISA with whole target sperm. The ELISA method was compared to seminal fluid and serum immobilization and agglutination assays (functional assays). In this infertile group, the ELISA assay was positive in 22% of seminal fluids (greater than 1.2 fg IgA/sperm and greater than 0.3 fg IgG/sperm). The seminal fluid antibodies were IgA and had an accompanying elevated IgG component in 78% of patients. There was a 96% correlation between negative seminal fluid functional assays and negative ELISA, and a 95% correlation between positive seminal fluid functional assays and positive ELISA. Positive serum sperm antibody tests were found in 71% of the infertile males with positive seminal fluid sperm antibodies, but 29% of the infertile males with strongly positive IgA seminal fluid sperm antibodies showed normal levels of serum sperm antibodies by either ELISA or functional assays. The ELISA method gives reproducible quantitation of sperm antibodies in seminal fluid and correlates well with accepted functional assays. Comparisons with serum sperm antibody assays suggests that seminal fluid sperm antibody analysis complements the serum analysis of sperm antibodies.

  6. Male mating rate is constrained by seminal fluid availability in bedbugs, Cimex lectularius.

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    Klaus Reinhardt

    Full Text Available Sexual selection, differences in reproductive success between individuals, continues beyond acquiring a mating partner and affects ejaculate size and composition (sperm competition. Sperm and seminal fluid have very different roles in sperm competition but both components encompass production costs for the male. Theoretical models predict that males should spend ejaculate components prudently and differently for sperm and seminal fluid but empirical evidence for independent variation of sperm number and seminal fluid volume is scarce. It is also largely unknown how sperm and seminal fluid variation affect future mating rate. In bedbugs we developed a protocol to examine the role of seminal fluids in ejaculate allocation and its effect on future male mating rate. Using age-related changes in sperm and seminal fluid volume we estimated the lowest capacity at which mating activity started. We then showed that sexually active males allocate 12% of their sperm and 19% of their seminal fluid volume per mating and predicted that males would be depleted of seminal fluid but not of sperm. We tested (and confirmed this prediction empirically. Finally, the slightly faster replenishment of seminal fluid compared to sperm did not outweigh the faster decrease during mating. Our results suggest that male mating rate can be constrained by the availability of seminal fluids. Our protocol might be applicable to a range of other organisms. We discuss the idea that economic considerations in sexual conflict research might benefit from distinguishing between costs and benefits that are ejaculate dose-dependent and those that are frequency-dependent on the mating rate per se.

  7. The antioxidant system of seminal fluid during in vitro storage of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzyuba, Viktoriya; Cosson, Jacky; Dzyuba, Borys; Yamaner, Gunes; Rodina, Marek; Linhart, Otomar

    2016-04-01

    The role of the seminal fluid antioxidant system in protection against damage to spermatozoa during in vitro sperm storage is unclear. This study investigated the effect of in vitro storage of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus spermatozoa together with seminal fluid for 36 h at 4 °C on spermatozoon motility rate and curvilinear velocity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance level, and components of enzyme and non-enzyme antioxidant system (superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and uric acid concentration) in seminal fluid. Spermatozoon motility parameters after sperm storage were significantly decreased, while the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase, and uric acid concentration did not change. Our findings suggest that the antioxidant system of sterlet seminal fluid is effective in preventing oxidative stress during short-term sperm storage and prompt future investigations of changes in spermatozoon homeostasis and in spermatozoon plasma membrane structure which are other possible reasons of spermatozoon motility deterioration upon sperm storage.

  8. Drosophila melanogaster seminal fluid can protect the sperm of other males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Luke

    2009-01-01

    a different male. This study therefore provides strong evidence that seminal fluid does not kill rival sperm, and instead can actually protect them. This study also tested whether chemicals in the female reproductive tract harm sperm as in another Drosophila species, but found no evidence of this. # 3...... physiology. # 2. Seminal fluid is well-studied in Drosophila melanogaster, a species in which it has been suggested to 'incapacitate' the sperm of rival males (e.g. by killing them) and thereby provide an advantage in sperm competition. This hypothesis has been tested several times over many years......, but different studies have yielded conflicting conclusions. Here, I use fluorescent staining to directly measure the effects of D. melanogaster seminal fluid on the survival of sperm from the same male or from a rival. The results suggest that seminal fluid improves sperm survival, even if the sperm are from...

  9. Seminal fluid enhances competitiveness of territorial males' sperm in a fish with alternative male reproductive tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Federica; Locatello, Lisa; Rasotto, Maria B

    2018-05-29

    The most common adaptation to sperm competition in males is represented by an increase in the sperm number and/or quality released at mating, to raise their probability of egg fertilization. However, rapidly mounting evidence highlights that seminal fluid may directly influence the competitive fertilization success of a male by affecting either own and/or rival sperm performances. In the black goby, Gobius niger , an external fertilizer with guard-sneaker mating tactics and high sperm competition level, sneaker males' ejaculates contain less seminal fluid and more sperm, that are also of better quality, than those of territorial males. However, territorial males, gain a higher paternity success inside natural nests. Here, we ask whether the seminal fluid can contribute to territorial males' reproductive success by enhancing their sperm performances and/or by decreasing those of sneaker males. Using sperm and seminal fluid manipulation and in vitro fertilization tests, we found that own seminal fluid influences the velocity and fertilization ability of sperm only in territorial males, making them as faster as those of sneakers and with similar fertilization rate. Moreover, both sneaker and territorial males' sperm remain unaffected by the seminal fluid of rival males. Thus, black goby males respond to the different level of sperm competition faced by differently allocating in sperm and non-sperm components of the ejaculate, with sneakers primarily investing in sperm of intrinsic high quality and territorial males relying on the effect of seminal fluid to increase the lower intrinsic quality of their sperm. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. The outcome of the seminal fluid parameters collected via coitus interruptus versus masturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahyah, M Kamarul; Murad, Z Ahmad; Ghazali, I; Roszaman, R; Noraziana, A W; Mokhtar, A; Omar, M H

    2010-03-01

    A one year study was carried out to determine the outcome of the seminal fluid parameters collected via masturbation and coitus interruptus in 151 patients who were undergoing intrauterine insemination (IUI) and patients who came for seminal analysis. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of volume, concentration, progressive motility and normal morphology from specimens collected via coitus interruptus compared to specimens collected via masturbation. Pregnancy outcomes were also comparable.

  11. Sperm competition risk drives rapid ejaculate adjustments mediated by seminal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Michael J; Steeves, Tammy E; Gemmell, Neil J; Rosengrave, Patrice C

    2017-10-31

    In many species, males can make rapid adjustments to ejaculate performance in response to sperm competition risk; however, the mechanisms behind these changes are not understood. Here, we manipulate male social status in an externally fertilising fish, chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ), and find that in less than 48 hr, males can upregulate sperm velocity when faced with an increased risk of sperm competition. Using a series of in vitro sperm manipulation and competition experiments, we show that rapid changes in sperm velocity are mediated by seminal fluid and the effect of seminal fluid on sperm velocity directly impacts paternity share and therefore reproductive success. These combined findings, completely consistent with sperm competition theory, provide unequivocal evidence that sperm competition risk drives plastic adjustment of ejaculate quality, that seminal fluid harbours the mechanism for the rapid adjustment of sperm velocity and that fitness benefits accrue to males from such adjustment.

  12. Socially cued seminal fluid gene expression mediates responses in ejaculate quality to sperm competition risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Leigh W; Lovegrove, Maxine

    2017-08-30

    There is considerable evidence that males will increase the number of sperm ejaculated in response to sperm competition risk. However, whether they have the capacity to adjust seminal fluid components of the ejaculate has received less attention. Male crickets ( Teleogryllus oceanicus ) have been shown to adjust the viability of sperm in their ejaculate in response to sperm competition risk. Here we show that socially mediated plasticity in sperm viability is probably due, at least in part, to male adjustments in the protein composition of the seminal fluid. Seven seminal fluid protein genes were found to have an increased expression in males exposed to rival calls. Increased expression of these genes was correlated with increased sperm viability in whole ejaculates, and gene knockdown confirmed that at least one of these proteins promotes sperm viability. Our results lend support for recent theoretical models that predict complex responses in male allocation to seminal fluid composition in response to sperm competition risk. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Seminal fluid enhances sperm viability in the leafcutter ant Atta colombica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Baer, Boris

    2008-01-01

    The seminal fluid that accompanies sperm in ejaculates has been shown or suggested to affect sperm competition and paternity success of insects by preventing female remating, inducing oviposition, and forming mating plugs. In Atta leafcutter ants, queens have multiple mates but never remate later...

  14. Intermedin inhibits norepinephrine-induced contraction of rat seminal vesicle

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    P.F. Wong

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The results demonstrated that the inhibitory action of IMD on NE-induced seminal vesicle contraction was mediated via the ADM receptor(s and the nitric oxide production pathway, partially by the IMD receptor, but not by the CGRP receptor and the cAMP-PKA pathway.

  15. Kadar Prostaglandin F2? pada Cairan Vesikula Seminalis dan Produk Sel Monolayer Vesikula Seminalis Sapi Bali (CONCENTRATIONS OF PROSTAGLANDIN F2? IN SEMINAL VESICLE FLUID AND PRODUCT OF SEMINAL VESICLE MONOLAYER CELLS OF BALI CATTLE

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    Tjok Gde Oka Pemayun

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the concentration of prostaglandin F2 ? (PGF2? in seminal vesicle fluid and seminal vesicle monolayer cell cultures of Bali cattle was determined. The seminal vesicle fluid was aspirated and the epithelial cells of the seminal vesicles were cultured in tissue culture medium (TCM 199 growth medium containing 10% fetal calf serum (FCS and 10% oestrus mares serum (EMS with a density of 1.9 x 106 cells / ml medium. Following an incubation at 38.50 C in 5% CO2 atmosphere for 6 days and the level of PGF2 ? in the original seminal vesicle fluid and in the cell culture medium were determined by radioimmunoassay techniques (RIA. The results showed that the level of PGF2 ? in the non-extracted monolayer culture of seminal vesicle (1287,50 ± 3,39 pg/ml was significantly higher than that of detected in non-extracted seminal vesicle fluid (1,23 ± 0,79 pg/ml. In contrast, after extraction the level of PGF2 ? in seminal vesicle monolayer cell cultures (218,33 ± 2,87 pg/ml significantly decreased as compared to seminal vesicle fluid (1750,83 ± 2,71 pg/ml. In conclusion the highest level of PGF2 ? was found in the extract of seminal vesicle fluid.

  16. Seminal fluid of honeybees contains multiple mechanisms to combat infections of the sexually transmitted pathogen Nosema apis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan; Grassl, Julia; Millar, A Harvey; Baer, Boris

    2016-01-27

    The societies of ants, bees and wasps are genetically closed systems where queens only mate during a brief mating episode prior to their eusocial life and males therefore provide queens with a lifetime supply of high-quality sperm. These ejaculates also contain a number of defence proteins that have been detected in the seminal fluid but their function and efficiency have never been investigated in great detail. Here, we used the honeybee Apis mellifera and quantified whether seminal fluid is able to combat infections of the fungal pathogen Nosema apis, a widespread honeybee parasite that is also sexually transmitted. We provide the first empirical evidence that seminal fluid has a remarkable antimicrobial activity against N. apis spores and that antimicrobial seminal fluid components kill spores in multiple ways. The protein fraction of seminal fluid induces extracellular spore germination, which disrupts the life cycle of N. apis, whereas the non-protein fraction of seminal fluid induces a direct viability loss of intact spores. We conclude that males provide their ejaculates with efficient antimicrobial molecules that are able to kill N. apis spores and thereby reduce the risk of disease transmission during mating. Our findings could be of broader significance to master honeybee diseases in managed honeybee stock in the future. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. CHRONIC ALCOHOLISM ON THE SEMINAL VESICLE AND TESTIS WEIGHT OF ADULT RATS (Rattus norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, F. E.; Martinez, M.; Cagnon, V. H. A.; Mello Junior, W.; Padovani, C. R.; Garcia, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    Effects of experimental chronic alcoholism on the accessory sexual glands weight and testes weight were studied. Male adult albino rats received only sugar cane brandy at 30 Gay Lussac (v/v), while the controls received tap water. After periods of 60, 120, 180 and 240 days, rats from each group were anesthetized, weighed and sacrificed. Alterations in mean daily solid food intake and liquid, mean daily weight gain, mean prostate weight, mean seminal vesicle and coagulating gland weights and t...

  18. Semen cryopreservation and radical reduction capacity of seminal fluid in captive African lion (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, I; Jakop, U; Lueders, I; Tordiffe, A; Franz, C; Schiller, J; Kotze, A; Müller, K

    2017-02-01

    Optimizing cryopreservation protocols for nondomestic felids contributes to the successful development of assisted reproduction techniques and genetic resource banking. In this study, we describe a simple cryopreservation procedure for African lion (Panthera leo) ejaculates, which was tested with different packaging options and different sperm numbers per dose. By applying urethral catheterization and electroejaculation, 17 ejaculates with greater than 20% motile and greater than 5% progressively motile sperm were collected. A lyophilized extender (a modified egg yolk-Tes-Tris-fructose-glycerol medium) was rehydrated and added in one step at ambient temperature (∼25 °C) to semen, which was prediluted in cell culture medium M199. After slow cooling of insulated samples to 15 °C in a refrigerator (4 °C), the samples were fast frozen over the surface of liquid nitrogen or in a dry shipper. Aliquots of 300 μL containing 20 × 10 6 sperm were frozen in cryovials and in 0.5-mL straws. Differences were observed in the total motility after thawing between vial (31.5 ± 14.1%) and straw freezing (20.1 ± 8.6%). However, the subpopulations of vital (22.7 ± 7.8% for vial and 19.8 ± 8.5% for straw) and progressively motile (10.0 ± 7.9% for vial and 10.0 ± 6.4% for straw) sperm after washing and 1 hour incubation at 38 °C were of similar magnitude, velocity, and linearity for both packaging options. After freezing of five ejaculates with 20, 60, and 100 × 10 6 sperm per dose, best results were achieved at the lowest concentration. In general, post-thaw results were highly variable (2.2% and 56.5% total motility) and not correlated to motility or morphology of the fresh semen. To further characterize semen quality, we assessed the protective potential of seminal fluid against oxidative stress, which might be challenged on freeze thawing. The capacity of seminal fluid to reduce radicals was measured in 10 semen samples by electron spin resonance

  19. Evolution of species-specific major seminal fluid proteins in placental mammals by gene death and positive selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meslin, C.; Laurin, M.; Callebaut, I.; Druart, X.; Monget, P.

    2015-01-01

    The seminal fluid is a complex substance composed of a variety of secreted proteins and has been shown to play an important role in the fertilisation process in mammals and also in Drosophila. Several genes under positive selection have been documented in some rodents and primates. Our study

  20. Selection for higher fertility reflects in the seminal fluid proteome of modern domestic chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atikuzzaman, Mohammad; Sanz, Libia; Pla, Davinia; Alvarez-Rodriguez, Manuel; Rubér, Marie; Wright, Dominic; Calvete, Juan J; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto

    2017-03-01

    The high egg-laying capacity of the modern domestic chicken (i.e. White Leghorn, WL) has arisen from the low egg-laying ancestor Red Junglefowl (RJF) via continuous trait selection and breeding. To investigate whether this long-term selection impacted the seminal fluid (SF)-proteome, 2DE electrophoresis-based proteomic analyses and immunoassays were conducted to map SF-proteins/cytokines in RJF, WL and a 9th generation Advanced Intercross Line (AIL) of RJF/WL-L13, including individual SF (n=4, from each RJF, WL and AIL groups) and pools of the SF from 15 males of each group, analyzed by 2DE to determine their degree of intra-group (AIL, WL, and RJF) variability using Principal Component Analysis (PCA); respectively an inter-breed comparative analysis of intergroup fold change of specific SF protein spots intensity between breeds. The PCA clearly highlighted a clear intra-group similarity among individual roosters as well as a clear inter-group variability (e.g. between RJF, WL and AIL) validating the use of pools to minimize confounding individual variation. Protein expression varied considerably for processes related to sperm motility, nutrition, transport and survival in the female, including signaling towards immunomodulation. The major conserved SF-proteins were serum albumin and ovotransferrin. Aspartate aminotransferase, annexin A5, arginosuccinate synthase, glutathione S-transferase 2 and l-lactate dehydrogenase-A were RJF-specific. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase appeared specific to the WL-SF while angiotensin-converting enzyme, γ-enolase, coagulation factor IX, fibrinogen α-chain, hemoglobin subunit α-D, lysozyme C, phosphoglycerate kinase, Src-substrate protein p85, tubulins and thioredoxin were AIL-specific. The RJF-SF contained fewer immune system process proteins and lower amounts of the anti-inflammatory/immunomodulatory TGF-β2 compared to WL and AIL, which had low levels- or lacked pro-inflammatory CXCL10 compared to RJF. The seminal

  1. Seminal Fluid-Mediated Inflammation in Physiology and Pathology of the Female Reproductive Tract

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    Anthonio O. Adefuye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a multifaceted process involving a host of resident and recruited immune cells that eliminate the insult or injury and initiate tissue repair. In the female reproductive tract (FMRT, inflammation-mediated alterations in epithelial, vascular, and immune functions are important components of complex physiological processes and many local and systemic pathologies. It is well established that intracoital and postcoital function of seminal fluid (SF goes beyond nutritive support for the spermatozoa cells. SF, in particular, the inflammatory bioactive lipids, and prostaglandins present in vast quantities in SF, have a role in localized immune modulation and regulation of pathways that can exacerbate inflammation in the FMRT. In sexually active women SF-mediated inflammation has been implicated in physiologic processes such as ovulation, implantation, and parturition while also enhancing tumorigenesis and susceptibility to infection. This review highlights the molecular mechanism by which SF regulates inflammatory pathways in the FMRT and how alterations in these pathways contribute to physiology and pathology of the female reproductive function. In addition, based on findings from TaqMan® 96-Well Plate Arrays, on neoplastic cervical cells treated with SF, we discuss new findings on the role of SF as a potent driver of inflammatory and tumorigenic pathways in the cervix.

  2. Identification and characterization of seminal fluid proteins in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

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    Kathryn E Boes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus is an important vector for pathogens that affect human health, including the viruses that cause dengue and Chikungunya fevers. It is also one of the world's fastest-spreading invasive species. For these reasons, it is crucial to identify strategies for controlling the reproduction and spread of this mosquito. During mating, seminal fluid proteins (Sfps are transferred from male mosquitoes to females, and these Sfps modulate female behavior and physiology in ways that influence reproduction. Despite the importance of Sfps on female reproductive behavior in mosquitoes and other insects, the identity of Sfps in Ae. albopictus has not previously been reported. We used transcriptomics and proteomics to identify 198 Sfps in Ae. albopictus. We discuss possible functions of these Sfps in relation to Ae. albopictus reproduction-related biology. We additionally compare the sequences of these Sfps with proteins (including reported Sfps in several other species, including Ae. aegypti. While only 72 (36.4% of Ae. albopictus Sfps have putative orthologs in Ae. aegypti, suggesting low conservation of the complement of Sfps in these species, we find no evidence for an elevated rate of evolution or positive selection in the Sfps that are shared between the two Aedes species, suggesting high sequence conservation of those shared Sfps. Our results provide a foundation for future studies to investigate the roles of individual Sfps on feeding and reproduction in this mosquito. Functional analysis of these Sfps could inform strategies for managing the rate of pathogen transmission by Ae. albopictus.

  3. The Intensity of Free Radical Processes and the Testosterone and Estradiol Levels in Seminal Fluid of Men with Different Types of Pathospermia - Personalized Approach

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    Shkurat T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: We studied the intensity of free-radical processes and the testosterone and estradiol levels in seminal fluid of men with normospermia, asthenozoospermia, oligozoospermia, oligoasthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia. Results: An increased ability to generate reactive oxygen species in seminal fluid in patients with oligozoospermia was determined. Increased levels of testosterone and estradiol in semen were noted in pathospermia associated with reduced sperm motility. A positive correlation was found between the free-radical processes intensity and testosterone levels increase, and high correlation (r = 0.8 between the testosterone and estradiol levels in seminal fluid in patients with oligozoospermia was marked. Conclusion: The prooxidant and antioxidant processes conjugacy violation occurs in one of the pathospermia types - asthenozoospermia, which is reflected in the absence of all studied parameters correlation in the seminal fluid.

  4. Infections with the Sexually Transmitted Pathogen Nosema apis Trigger an Immune Response in the Seminal Fluid of Honey Bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassl, Julia; Peng, Yan; Baer-Imhoof, Barbara; Welch, Mat; Millar, A Harvey; Baer, Boris

    2017-01-06

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) males are highly susceptible to infections with the sexually transmitted fungal pathogen Nosema apis. However, they are able to suppress this parasite in the ejaculate using immune molecules in the seminal fluid. We predicted that males respond to infections by altering the seminal fluid proteome to minimize the risk to sexually transmit the parasite to the queen and her colony. We used iTRAQ isotopic labeling to compare seminal fluid proteins from infected and noninfected males and found that N. apis infections resulted in significant abundance changes in 111 of the 260 seminal fluid proteins quantitated. The largest group of proteins with significantly changed abundances consisted of 15 proteins with well-known immune-related functions, which included two significantly more abundant chitinases in the seminal fluid of infected males. Chitinases were previously hypothesized to be involved in honey bee antifungal activity against N. apis. Here we show that infection with N. apis triggers a highly specific immune response in the seminal fluid of honey bee males.

  5. Influence of testosterone on the distribution of 65Zn-binding proteins in the prostate and seminal vesicles of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlt, R.; Foerster, R.; Scherr, F.; Guenther, T.

    1977-01-01

    65 Zn (7.4 MBq; 200 μCi) was injected intravenously into normal, castrated and castrated, testosteronesubstituted rats. After 1,24 and 48 hours, the distribution of 65 Zn-binding proteins in the 100,000 g supernatant of the prostate and seminal vesicles was investigated by separation on Sephadex G 100. The prostate and seminal vesicles from any one rat showed the same distribution pattern of 65 Zn-proteins. In castrated rats, the incorporation of 65 Zn was, however, 5-6 times lower than in the normal or castrated, testosterone-substituted rats. One hour after the injection, the highest activity of 65 Zn was found in proteins in the molecular weight range above 100,000. After 48 hours the greatest proportion of 65 Zn was present in the protein peak corresponding to 28,000 Daltons. (orig.) 891 AJ [de

  6. Combining RNA-seq and proteomic profiling to identify seminal fluid proteins in the migratory grasshopper Melanoplus sanguinipes (F).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Martha L; Todd, Christopher; Erlandson, Martin; Andres, Jose

    2015-12-22

    Seminal fluid proteins control many aspects of fertilization and in turn, they play a key role in post-mating sexual selection and possibly reproductive isolation. Because effective proteome profiling relies on the availability of high-quality DNA reference databases, our knowledge of these proteins is still largely limited to model organisms with ample genetic resources. New advances in sequencing technology allow for the rapid characterization of transcriptomes at low cost. By combining high throughput RNA-seq and shotgun proteomic profiling, we have characterized the seminal fluid proteins secreted by the primary male accessory gland of the migratory grasshopper (Melanoplus sanguinipes), one of the main agricultural pests in central North America. Using RNA sequencing, we characterized the transcripts of ~ 8,100 genes expressed in the long hyaline tubules (LHT) of the accessory glands. Proteomic profiling identified 353 proteins expressed in the long hyaline tubules (LHT). Of special interest are seminal fluid proteins (SFPs), such as EJAC-SP, ACE and prostaglandin synthetases, which are known to regulate female oviposition in insects. Our study provides new insights into the proteomic components of male ejaculate in Orthopterans, and highlights several important patterns. First, the presence of proteins that lack predicted classical secretory tags in accessory gland proteomes is common in male accessory glands. Second, the products of a few highly expressed genes dominate the accessory gland secretions. Third, accessory gland transcriptomes are enriched for novel transcripts. Fourth, there is conservation of SFPs' functional classes across distantly related taxonomic groups with very different life histories, mating systems and sperm transferring mechanisms. The identified SFPs may serve as targets of future efforts to develop species- specific genetic control strategies.

  7. Measurement of seminal fluid 5 α dihydrotestosterone levels during investigations of sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massart, C.; Le Lannou, D.; Savoure, M.; Allannic, H.; Nicol, M.

    1981-01-01

    Two androgens (testosterone, 5 α dihydrotestosterone) were measured by radioimmunoassay in the seminal liquid. A statistic comparison of the results has been applied to samples taken from sterile men and classed chiefly according to sperm count. Different groups were explored: normospermia; oligospermia; various azoospermias. No significant differences testosterone were found between the groups. Levels of DHT are lower in oligospermia, and such more in azoospermia. The signification of the results is discussed [fr

  8. Clinical significance of asymptomatic urogenital Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in relation to seminal fluid parameters among infertile Jordanian males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala I. Al-Daghistani

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: The differences in the occurrence of M. hominis were statistically insignificant among infertility and control groups, but it was significant for U. urealyticum (p=0.046. M. hominis occurs more frequently in the semen of infertile-varicose male and normal seminal fluid quality. It seems to have no adverse effects on sperm motility but it might decline the fertility potential in such cases. U. urealyticum on the other hand have no clear significant impacts on sperm motility. The mean values for sperm motility, concentrations, and viscosity were not affected by the presence of the two species. Despite the significant presence of Ureaplasma among infertility, further studies were needed to clarify their potential effect on semen quality and infertility status.

  9. Seminal Fluid Regulates Accumulation of FOXP3(+) Regulatory T Cells in the Preimplantation Mouse Uterus Through Expanding the FOXP3(+) Cell Pool and CCL19-Mediated Recruitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerin, Leigh R.; Moldenhauer, Lachlan M.; Prins, Jelmer R.; Bromfield, John J.; Hayball, John D.; Robertson, Sarah A.

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells facilitate maternal immune tolerance of the semiallogeneic conceptus in early pregnancy, but the origin and regulation of these cells at embryo implantation is unclear. During the preimplantation period, factors in the seminal fluid delivered at coitus cause expansion of a

  10. Persistence and clearance of Ebola virus RNA from seminal fluid of Ebola virus disease survivors: a longitudinal analysis and modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daouda Sissoko, MD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: By January, 2016, all known transmission chains of the Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak in west Africa had been stopped. However, there is concern about persistence of Ebola virus in the reproductive tract of men who have survived EVD. We aimed to use biostatistical modelling to describe the dynamics of Ebola virus RNA load in seminal fluid, including clearance parameters. Methods: In this longitudinal study, we recruited men who had been discharged from three Ebola treatment units in Guinea between January and July, 2015. Participants provided samples of seminal fluid at follow-up every 3–6 weeks, which we tested for Ebola virus RNA using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Representative specimens from eight participants were then inoculated into immunodeficient mice to test for infectivity. We used a linear mixed-effect model to analyse the dynamics of virus persistence in seminal fluid over time. Findings: We enrolled 26 participants and tested 130 seminal fluid specimens; median follow up was 197 days (IQR 187–209 days after enrolment, which corresponded to 255 days (228–287 after disease onset. Ebola virus RNA was detected in 86 semen specimens from 19 (73% participants. Median duration of Ebola virus RNA detection was 158 days after onset (73–181; maximum 407 days at end of follow-up. Mathematical modelling of the quantitative time-series data showed a mean clearance rate of Ebola virus RNA from seminal fluid of −0·58 log units per month, although the clearance kinetic varied greatly between participants. Using our biostatistical model, we predict that 50% and 90% of male survivors clear Ebola virus RNA from seminal fluid at 115 days (90% prediction interval 72–160 and 294 days (212–399 after disease onset, respectively. We also predicted that the number of men positive for Ebola virus RNA in affected countries would decrease from about 50 in January 2016, to fewer than 1 person by July, 2016. Infectious

  11. The effect of chronic prostatitis on zinc concentration of prostatic fluid and seminal plasma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dong; Han, GuangWei; Shang, YongGang; Mu, LiJun; Long, QingZhi; Du, YueFeng

    2015-01-01

    Prostatitis is a common disease in urology departments. Prostatic zinc accumulation is connected with the secretory function of the prostate, and zinc concentrations present in prostatic diseases differ greatly from the normal level. Studies have investigated the effect of chronic prostatitis on zinc concentration of prostatic fluid and seminal plasma, but have shown inconsistent results. Hence, we performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of chronic prostatitis on the zinc concentration of prostatic fluid and seminal plasma. Systematic literature searches were conducted with PubMed, Embase, Science Direct/Elsevier, CNKI and the Cochrane Library up to March 2015 for case-control studies that involved the relationship between chronic prostatitis and zinc concentration of prostatic fluid and seminal plasma. Meta-analysis was performed with Review Manager and Stata software. Standard mean differences (SMDs) of zinc concentration were identified with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) in a random- or fixed-effects model. Our results illustrated that the zinc concentrations in prostatic fluid and seminal plasma from chronic prostatitis patients were significantly lower than normal controls (SMD [95% CI] -246.71 [-347.97, -145.44], -20.74 [-35.11, -6.37], respectively). The sample size of each study was relatively small, and a total of 731 chronic prostatitis patients and 574 normal controls were investigated in all fourteen studies. Several studies related to the subject were excluded due to lack of control data or means and standard deviations. The present study illustrates that there was a significant negative effect of chronic prostatitis on zinc concentrations of prostatic fluid and seminal plasma. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to better illuminate the negative impact of chronic prostatitis on zinc concentrations.

  12. Comparative study on the 3H-thymidine index of dorsal epidermis, buccal mucosa, and seminal vesicles in senile male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornstein, O.P.; Schell, H.

    1975-01-01

    To supplement previous investigations on endogenous fluctuations of DNA synthesis in male rat dorsal epidermis, buccal mucosa and seminal vesicle epithelium from birth to sexual maturity, the labelling indices (L.I.) of these tissues in senile male rats from the same breed, studied under analogous experimental conditions, were evaluated as well as compared to the data obtained from rats in puberal and early mature age. In the dorsal epidermis and buccal mucosa of the old animals the medium L.I. were found to be at about the same level as those measured after puberty. In the aged seminal vesicle epithelium the medium L.I. was found to be decreased. The maintenance of epidermal and buccal DNA synthesis in senile rats as well as the results of previous studies with male rats subjected to castration or long-term administration of cyproteron acetate furnish evidence that a deficiency of testosteron does not diminish the rate of DNA synthesis in epidermis and buccal mucosa. However, from the decreased L.I. in seminal vesicle epithelium a reduced blood level or stimulating capacity, respectively, of testosteron in senile rats can be concluded. Furhtermore, withdrawal of testosteron by orchidectomy or administration of cyproteron acetate is appropriate to suppress significantly the proliferative activity of seminal vesicles epithelium. (orig.) [de

  13. Differential staining of Western blots of human secreted glycoproteins from serum, milk, saliva, and seminal fluid using lectins displaying diverse sugar specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa-Garber, Nechama; Lerrer, Batya; Lesman-Movshovich, Efrat; Dgani, Orly

    2005-12-01

    Human milk, serum, saliva, and seminal fluid glycoproteins (gps) nourish and protect newborn and adult tissues. Their saccharides, which resemble cell membrane components, may block pathogen adhesion and infection. In the present study, they were examined by a battery of lectins from plants, animals, and bacteria, using hemagglutination inhibition and Western blot analyses. The lectins included galactophilic ones from Aplysia gonad, Erythrina corallodendron, Maclura pomifera (MPL), peanut, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA-IL); fucose-binding lectins from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA-IIL), Ralstonia solanacearum (RSL), and Ulex europaeus (UEA-I), and mannose/glucose-binding Con A. The results demonstrated the chosen lectin efficiency for differential analysis of human secreted gps as compared to CBB staining. They unveiled the diversity of these body fluid gp glycans (those of the milk and seminal fluid being highest): the milk gps interacted most strongly with PA-IIL, followed by RSL; the saliva gps with RSL, followed by PA-IIL and MPL; the serum gps with Con A and MPL, followed by PA-IIL and RSL, and the seminal plasma gps with RSL and MPL, followed by UEA-I and PA-IIL. The potential usage of these lectins as probes for scientific, industrial, and medical purposes, and for quality control of the desired gps is clearly indicated.

  14. Persistence and clearance of Ebola virus RNA from seminal fluid of Ebola virus disease survivors: a longitudinal analysis and modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissoko, Daouda; Duraffour, Sophie; Kerber, Romy; Kolie, Jacques Seraphin; Beavogui, Abdoul Habib; Camara, Alseny-Modet; Colin, Géraldine; Rieger, Toni; Oestereich, Lisa; Pályi, Bernadett; Wurr, Stephanie; Guedj, Jeremie; Nguyen, Thi Huyen Tram; Eggo, Rosalind M; Watson, Conall H; Edmunds, W John; Bore, Joseph Akoi; Koundouno, Fara Raymond; Cabeza-Cabrerizo, Mar; Carter, Lisa L; Kafetzopoulou, Liana Eleni; Kuisma, Eeva; Michel, Janine; Patrono, Livia Victoria; Rickett, Natasha Y; Singethan, Katrin; Rudolf, Martin; Lander, Angelika; Pallasch, Elisa; Bockholt, Sabrina; Rodríguez, Estefanía; Di Caro, Antonino; Wölfel, Roman; Gabriel, Martin; Gurry, Céline; Formenty, Pierre; Keïta, Sakoba; Malvy, Denis; Carroll, Miles W; Anglaret, Xavier; Günther, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    By January, 2016, all known transmission chains of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in west Africa had been stopped. However, there is concern about persistence of Ebola virus in the reproductive tract of men who have survived EVD. We aimed to use biostatistical modelling to describe the dynamics of Ebola virus RNA load in seminal fluid, including clearance parameters. In this longitudinal study, we recruited men who had been discharged from three Ebola treatment units in Guinea between January and July, 2015. Participants provided samples of seminal fluid at follow-up every 3-6 weeks, which we tested for Ebola virus RNA using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Representative specimens from eight participants were then inoculated into immunodeficient mice to test for infectivity. We used a linear mixed-effect model to analyse the dynamics of virus persistence in seminal fluid over time. We enrolled 26 participants and tested 130 seminal fluid specimens; median follow up was 197 days (IQR 187-209 days) after enrolment, which corresponded to 255 days (228-287) after disease onset. Ebola virus RNA was detected in 86 semen specimens from 19 (73%) participants. Median duration of Ebola virus RNA detection was 158 days after onset (73-181; maximum 407 days at end of follow-up). Mathematical modelling of the quantitative time-series data showed a mean clearance rate of Ebola virus RNA from seminal fluid of -0·58 log units per month, although the clearance kinetic varied greatly between participants. Using our biostatistical model, we predict that 50% and 90% of male survivors clear Ebola virus RNA from seminal fluid at 115 days (90% prediction interval 72-160) and 294 days (212-399) after disease onset, respectively. We also predicted that the number of men positive for Ebola virus RNA in affected countries would decrease from about 50 in January 2016, to fewer than 1 person by July, 2016. Infectious virus was detected in 15 of 26 (58%) specimens tested in mice. Time

  15. Seminal vesicle cycts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpern, M.B.; Dorfman, R.E.; Gross, B.H.; Gottlieb, C.A.; Sandler, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    PURPOSE: Adult polycystic kidney disease (APKCD), an autosomal dominant disorder, causes cyst formation in the kidney, liver, pancreas, esophagus, ovaries, uterus, and brain. This paper describes four APKCD patients with CT evidence of seminal vesicle cysts (SVCs). Four patients (aged 45-65 years) underwent abdominal/pelvic CT with oral and intravenous contrast material. Three were evaluated for possible renal transplantation and one for sepsis material. All seminal vesicles contained cystic masses with fluid that measured between 0 and 30 HU. Seminal vesicle thickness was 3-4 cm (normal, 1.5 cm). High-density walls separated the 3-12-mm diameter cysts. All patients demonstrated typical renal stigmata of APKCD. One patient had hepatic cysts, and none had cysts elsewhere. Postmortem examination in one patient confirmed the SVCs

  16. Differential effects of 2-difluoromethylornithine and methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) on the testosterone-induced growth of ventral prostate and seminal vesicles of castrated rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Käpyaho, K; Kallio, A; Jänne, J

    1984-01-01

    2-Difluoromethylornithine totally prevented any increases in putrescine and spermidine concentrations in the ventral prostate of castrated rats during a 6-day testosterone treatment. Prostatic ornithine decarboxylase activity was inhibited by 80%, whereas S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase was stimulated by more than 9-fold. In seminal vesicle, the inhibition of putrescine and spermidine accumulation, as well as of ornithine decarboxylase activity, was only minimal, and no stimulation of S-ad...

  17. Data Mining of Small RNA-Seq Suggests an Association Between Prostate Cancer and Altered Abundance of 5′ Transfer RNA Halves in Seminal Fluid and Prostatic Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Dhahbi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular RNAs are gaining clinical interest as biofluid-based noninvasive markers for diseases, especially cancer. In particular, derivatives of transfer RNA (tRNA are emerging as a new class of small-noncoding RNAs with high biomarker potential. We and others previously reported alterations in serum levels of specific tRNA halves in disease states including cancer. Here, we explored seminal fluid for tRNA halves as potential markers of prostate cancer. We found that 5′ tRNA halves are abundant in seminal fluid and are elevated in prostate cancer relative to noncancer patients. Importantly, most of these tRNA halves are also detectable in prostatic tissues, and a subset were increased in malignant relative to adjacent normal tissue. These findings emphasize the potential of 5′ tRNA halves as noninvasive markers for prostate cancer screening and diagnosis and provide leads for future work to elucidate a putative role of the 5′ tRNA halves in carcinogenesis.

  18. Impact of titanium dioxide on androgen receptors, seminal vesicles and thyroid hormones of male rats: possible protective trial with aged garlic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Zeid, E H; Alam, R T M; Abd El-Hameed, N E

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ), a widely produced and consumed pigment in various food products, on the post-natal development of male albino rat seminal vesicle and thyroid hormones, as well as to evaluate the ameliorative effect of aged garlic extract (AGE) on TiO 2 -induced alterations. Forty male rat pups (3 weeks old) were divided into four equal groups. The 1st group received distilled water orally (control group), 2nd group was given 2 ml kg -1 AGE, 3rd group was administered TiO 2 (5 g kg -1 BW) day after day for 65 days, and the 4th group administered AGE 6 hr prior to TiO 2 gavage. TiO 2 -exposed rats showed nonsignificant changes in the serum testosterone, TSH, T 3 and T 4 , while serum glucose showed a significant decrease. Androgen receptor (AR) mRNA expression was significantly down-regulated and weak signal of AR immune labelling. Histopathologically, the epithelium cell lining of seminal vesicles showed focal areas of necrosis and fibrous tissue with the prominent fibrous stroma of the atrophied glands. Meanwhile, AGE supplementation ameliorated the deleterious effects of TiO 2 intoxication through protecting the tissues from oxidative stress caused by TiO 2 . In summary, oral administration of TiO 2 resulted in abnormal developmental events in male rat seminal vesicle and AGE able to reduce TiO 2 toxicity. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. The longitudinal effect of ejaculation on seminal vesicle fluid volume and whole-prostate ADC as measured on prostate MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Tristan; Gallagher, Ferdia A. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, CamPARI Clinic, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Tanner, James; Gill, Andrew B.; Slough, Rhys A. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Wason, James [University of Cambridge, MRC Biostatistics Unit, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2017-12-15

    To prospectively investigate the longitudinal effect of ejaculatory abstinence on MRI-measured seminal vesicle (SV) volume and whole-prostate ADC over consecutive days. 15 healthy male volunteers (mean 35.9 years, range 27-53) underwent 3-T MRI at baseline and 1, 2 and 3 days post-ejaculation. Prostate and SV volumes were derived by volume segmentation and whole-gland apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values calculated. A mixed-effects linear regression compared ADC values and prostate/seminal vesicle volumes in each volunteer between studies in a pairwise manner. All subjects completed the four MRIs. Mean prostate volume was 22.45 cm{sup 3} (range 13.04-31.21 cm{sup 3}), with no change between the four studies (p = 0.89-0.99). 13/15 subjects showed SV volume reduction from baseline to day 1, with group-mean decreasing from 6.45 to 4.80 cm{sup 3} (-25.6%, p < 0.001), and a significant reduction from baseline to day 2 (-18.1%, p = 0.002). There was a significant volume increase from both day 1 (+21.3%, p = 0.006) and day 2 (+10.2%, p = 0.022) to day 3 post-ejaculation. There was a significant reduction in ADC from 1.105 at baseline to 1.056 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s at day 1 (mean -4.3%, p = 0.009). The longitudinal effect of ejaculation on SV volume was demonstrated. Significant reductions in SV volume and whole-gland ADC were observed post-ejaculation, supporting a 3-day period of abstinence before prostate MRI. (orig.)

  20. Use of rhodamine B to mark the body and seminal fluid of male Aedes aegypti for mark-release-recapture experiments and estimating efficacy of sterile male releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian J; Mitchell, Sara N; Paton, Christopher J; Stevenson, Jessica; Staunton, Kyran M; Snoad, Nigel; Beebe, Nigel; White, Bradley J; Ritchie, Scott A

    2017-09-01

    Recent interest in male-based sterile insect technique (SIT) and incompatible insect technique (IIT) to control Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus populations has revealed the need for an economical, rapid diagnostic tool for determining dispersion and mating success of sterilized males in the wild. Previous reports from other insects indicated rhodamine B, a thiol-reactive fluorescent dye, administered via sugar-feeding can be used to stain the body tissue and seminal fluid of insects. Here, we report on the adaptation of this technique for male Ae. aegypti to allow for rapid assessment of competitiveness (mating success) during field releases. Marking was achieved by feeding males on 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 or 0.8% rhodamine B (w/v) in 50% honey solutions during free flight. All concentrations produced >95% transfer to females and successful body marking after 4 days of feeding, with 0.4 and 0.8% solutions producing the longest-lasting body marking. Importantly, rhodamine B marking had no effect on male mating competitiveness and proof-of-principle field releases demonstrated successful transfer of marked seminal fluid to females under field conditions and recapture of marked males. These results reveal rhodamine B to be a potentially useful evaluation method for male-based SIT/IIT control strategies as well as a viable body marking technique for male-based mark-release-recapture experiments without the negative side-effects of traditional marking methods. As a standalone method for use in mating competitiveness assays, rhodamine B marking is less expensive than PCR (e.g. paternity analysis) and stable isotope semen labelling methods and less time-consuming than female fertility assays used to assess competitiveness of sterilised males.

  1. Use of rhodamine B to mark the body and seminal fluid of male Aedes aegypti for mark-release-recapture experiments and estimating efficacy of sterile male releases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J Johnson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent interest in male-based sterile insect technique (SIT and incompatible insect technique (IIT to control Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus populations has revealed the need for an economical, rapid diagnostic tool for determining dispersion and mating success of sterilized males in the wild. Previous reports from other insects indicated rhodamine B, a thiol-reactive fluorescent dye, administered via sugar-feeding can be used to stain the body tissue and seminal fluid of insects. Here, we report on the adaptation of this technique for male Ae. aegypti to allow for rapid assessment of competitiveness (mating success during field releases.Marking was achieved by feeding males on 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 or 0.8% rhodamine B (w/v in 50% honey solutions during free flight. All concentrations produced >95% transfer to females and successful body marking after 4 days of feeding, with 0.4 and 0.8% solutions producing the longest-lasting body marking. Importantly, rhodamine B marking had no effect on male mating competitiveness and proof-of-principle field releases demonstrated successful transfer of marked seminal fluid to females under field conditions and recapture of marked males.These results reveal rhodamine B to be a potentially useful evaluation method for male-based SIT/IIT control strategies as well as a viable body marking technique for male-based mark-release-recapture experiments without the negative side-effects of traditional marking methods. As a standalone method for use in mating competitiveness assays, rhodamine B marking is less expensive than PCR (e.g. paternity analysis and stable isotope semen labelling methods and less time-consuming than female fertility assays used to assess competitiveness of sterilised males.

  2. Differential effects of 2-difluoromethylornithine and methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) on the testosterone-induced growth of ventral prostate and seminal vesicles of castrated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käpyaho, K; Kallio, A; Jänne, J

    1984-05-01

    2-Difluoromethylornithine totally prevented any increases in putrescine and spermidine concentrations in the ventral prostate of castrated rats during a 6-day testosterone treatment. Prostatic ornithine decarboxylase activity was inhibited by 80%, whereas S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase was stimulated by more than 9-fold. In seminal vesicle, the inhibition of putrescine and spermidine accumulation, as well as of ornithine decarboxylase activity, was only minimal, and no stimulation of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase was observed. Administration of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) to castrated androgen-treated rats resulted in a marked increase in concentrations of all prostatic polyamines. Prostatic ornithine decarboxylase activity was nearly 2 times and adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity 9 times higher than that of the testosterone-treated animals. In contrast with ventral prostate, methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) treatment inhibited moderately the accumulation of spermidine and spermine in seminal vesicle, although both ornithine decarboxylase and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activities were stimulated. Difluoromethylornithine inhibited significantly the weight gain of ventral prostate, but methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) produced a substantial increase in prostatic weight. These changes were largely due to the fact that the volume of prostatic secretion was greatly decreased by difluoromethylornithine, whereas methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) increased the amount of secretion. Treatment with difluoromethylornithine strikingly increased the methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) content of both ventral prostate and seminal vesicle, but even under these conditions the drug concentration remained low in comparison with other tissues. The results indicate that a combined use of these two polyamine anti-metabolites does not necessarily result in a synergistic growth inhibition of the androgen-induced growth of male accessory sexual glands.

  3. Human seminal proteinase and prostate-specific antigen are the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/033/02/0195-0207. Keywords. Kallikrein; prostate cancer biomarker; proteinase activity; seminal plasma; tumour proliferation and metastasis; therapeutic target. Abstract. Human seminal proteinase and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were each isolated from human seminal fluid and ...

  4. The Seminal fluid proteome of the polyandrous Red junglefowl offers insights into the molecular basis of fertility, reproductive ageing and domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borziak, Kirill; Álvarez-Fernández, Aitor; L Karr, Timothy; Pizzari, Tommaso; Dorus, Steve

    2016-11-02

    Seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) are emerging as fundamental contributors to sexual selection given their role in post-mating reproductive events, particularly in polyandrous species where the ejaculates of different males compete for fertilisation. SFP identification however remains taxonomically limited and little is known about avian SFPs, despite extensive work on sexual selection in birds. We characterize the SF proteome of the polyandrous Red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, the wild species that gave rise to the domestic chicken. We identify 1,141 SFPs, including proteins involved in immunity and antimicrobial defences, sperm maturation, and fertilisation, revealing a functionally complex SF proteome. This includes a predominant contribution of blood plasma proteins that is conserved with human SF. By comparing the proteome of young and old males with fast or slow sperm velocity in a balanced design, we identify proteins associated with ageing and sperm velocity, and show that old males that retain high sperm velocity have distinct proteome characteristics. SFP comparisons with domestic chickens revealed both qualitative and quantitative differences likely associated with domestication and artificial selection. Collectively, these results shed light onto the functional complexity of avian SF, and provide a platform for molecular studies of fertility, reproductive ageing, and domestication.

  5. Evolutionary morphology of the male reproductive system, spermatozoa and seminal fluid of spiders (Araneae, Arachnida)--current knowledge and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalik, Peter; Ramírez, Martín J

    2014-07-01

    The male reproductive system and spermatozoa of spiders are known for their high structural diversity. Spider spermatozoa are flagellate and males transfer them to females in a coiled and encapsulated state using their modified pedipalps. Here, we provide a detailed overview of the present state of knowledge of the primary male reproductive system, sperm morphology and the structural diversity of seminal fluids with a focus on functional and evolutionary implications. Secondly, we conceptualized characters for the male genital system, spermiogenesis and spermatozoa for the first time based on published and new data. In total, we scored 40 characters for 129 species from 56 families representing all main spider clades. We obtained synapomorphies for several taxa including Opisthothelae, Araneomorphae, Dysderoidea, Scytodoidea, Telemidae, Linyphioidea, Mimetidae, Synotaxidae and the Divided Cribellum Clade. Furthermore, we recovered synspermia as a synapomorphy for ecribellate Haplogynae and thus propose Synspermiata as new name for this clade. We hope that these data will not only contribute to future phylogenetic studies but will also stimulate much needed evolutionary studies of reproductive systems in spiders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Setting of methods for analysis of mucosal antibodies in seminal and vaginal fluids of HIV seropositive subjects from Cambodian and Italian cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Donadoni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Genital mucosae play a key role in protection from STD and HIV infection, due to their involvement in both horizontal and vertical disease transmission. High variability of published observations concerning IgA isolation and quantification underlies the strong requirement of specific methods able to maximize investigation on HIV-specific IgA.Genital fluids from 109 subjects, including male and female cohorts from Italy and Cambodia, were collected, aliquoted and processed with different techniques, to assess optimal conditions maximizing mucosal antibody recovery. Three sampling techniques, up to sixteen preservation conditions, six ELISA methods and four purifications protocols were compared.The optimal method here described took advantage of Weck-Cel sampling of female mucosal fluids. Immediate processing of genital fluids, with the addition of antibiotics and EDTA, improved recovery of vaginal IgA, while the triple addition of EDTA, antibiotics and protease inhibitors provided the highest amount of seminal IgA. Due to low amount of IgA in mucosal fluids, a high sensitive sandwich ELISA assay was set; sensitivity was enhanced by milk-based overcoating buffer and by a two-step biotin-streptavidin signal amplification. Indeed, commercial antisera to detect human immunoglobulins showed weak cross-reactivity to different antibody types. Three-step affinity purification provided reproducible immunoglobulin recovery from genital specimens, while conventional immuno-affinity IgA purification was found poorly manageable. Affinity columns were suitable to isolate mucosal IgA, which are ten-fold less concentrated than IgG in genital specimens, and provided effective separation of IgA monomers, dimers, and J-chains. Jacalin-bound resin successfully separated IgA1 from IgA2 subfraction.Specific, effective and reliable methods to study local immunity are key items in understanding host mucosal response. The sequence of methods here described is effective

  7. Pervasive Adaptive Evolution in Primate Seminal Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Seminal fluid proteins show striking effects on reproduction, involving manipulation of female behavior and physiology, mechanisms of sperm competition, and pathogen defense. Strong adaptive pressures are expected for such manifestations of sexual selection and host defense, but the extent of positive selection in seminal fluid proteins from divergent taxa is unknown. We identified adaptive evolution in primate seminal proteins using genomic resources in a tissue-specific study. We found extensive signatures of positive selection when comparing 161 human seminal fluid proteins and 2,858 prostate-expressed genes to those in chimpanzee. Seven of eight outstanding genes yielded statistically significant evidence of positive selection when analyzed in divergent primates. Functional clues were gained through divergent analysis, including several cases of species-specific loss of function in copulatory plug genes, and statistically significant spatial clustering of positively selected sites near the active site of kallikrein 2. This study reveals previously unidentified positive selection in seven primate seminal proteins, and when considered with findings in Drosophila, indicates that extensive positive selection is found in seminal fluid across divergent taxonomic groups.

  8. Cerebrospinal fluid volume measurements in hydrocephalic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basati, Sukhraaj; Desai, Bhargav; Alaraj, Ali; Charbel, Fady; Linninger, Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Object Experimental data about the evolution of intracranial volume and pressure in cases of hydrocephalus are limited due to the lack of available monitoring techniques. In this study, the authors validate intracranial CSF volume measurements within the lateral ventricle, while simultaneously using impedance sensors and pressure transducers in hydrocephalic animals. Methods A volume sensor was fabricated and connected to a catheter that was used as a shunt to withdraw CSF. In vitro bench-top calibration experiments were created to provide data for the animal experiments and to validate the sensors. To validate the measurement technique in a physiological system, hydrocephalus was induced in weanling rats by kaolin injection into the cisterna magna. At 28 days after induction, the sensor was implanted into the lateral ventricles. After sealing the skull using dental cement, an acute CSF drainage/infusion protocol consisting of 4 sequential phases was performed with a pump. Implant location was confirmed via radiography using intraventricular iohexol contrast administration. Results Controlled CSF shunting in vivo with hydrocephalic rats resulted in precise and accurate sensor measurements (r = 0.98). Shunting resulted in a 17.3% maximum measurement error between measured volume and actual volume as assessed by a Bland-Altman plot. A secondary outcome confirmed that both ventricular volume and intracranial pressure decreased during CSF shunting and increased during infusion. Ventricular enlargement consistent with successful hydrocephalus induction was confirmed using imaging, as well as postmortem. These results indicate that volume monitoring is feasible for clinical cases of hydrocephalus. Conclusions This work marks a departure from traditional shunting systems currently used to treat hydrocephalus. The overall clinical application is to provide alternative monitoring and treatment options for patients. Future work includes development and testing of a chronic

  9. Proteolysis of complement factors iC3b and C5 by the serine protease prostate-specific antigen in prostatic fluid and seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Michael L; Williams, Simon A; Jelinek, Christine A; Kostova, Maya B; Denmeade, Samuel R

    2013-03-15

    Prostate-specific Ag (PSA) is a serine protease that is expressed exclusively by normal and malignant prostate epithelial cells. The continued high-level expression of PSA by the majority of men with both high- and low-grade prostate cancer throughout the course of disease progression, even in the androgen-ablated state, suggests that PSA has a role in the pathogenesis of disease. Current experimental and clinical evidence suggests that chronic inflammation, regardless of the cause, may predispose men to prostate cancer. The responsibility of the immune system in immune surveillance and eventually tumor progression is well appreciated but not completely understood. In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based evaluation of prostatic fluid obtained from diseased prostates after removal by radical prostatectomy to identify potential immunoregulatory proteins. This analysis revealed the presence of Igs and the complement system proteins C3, factor B, and clusterin. Verification of these findings by Western blot confirmed the high-level expression of C3 in the prostatic fluid and the presence of a previously uncharacterized C-terminal C3 cleavage product. Biochemical analysis of this C3 cleavage fragment revealed a putative PSA cleavage site after tyrosine-1348. Purified PSA was able to cleave iC3b and the related complement protein C5. These results suggest a previously uncharacterized function of PSA as an immunoregulatory protease that could help to create an environment hospitable to malignancy through proteolysis of the complement system.

  10. Pulmonary Complications of Gastric Fluid and Bile Salts Aspiration, an Experimental Study in Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Samareh Fekri, Mitra; Poursalehi, Hamid Reza; Najafipour, Hamid; Dabiri, Shahriar; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Siahposht Khacheki, Ali; Shahrokhi, Nader; Malekpour Afshar, Reza; Lashkarizadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is one of the most common digestive disorders that frequently lead to pulmonary complications due to gastric fluid aspiration. In the present experimental study, chronic aspiration of gastric fluid, its components and bile salts in rat lung was performed to find out the main factor(s) causing pulmonary complications of gastric fluid aspiration. Materials and Methods: Forty eight male rats weighted 250-300 g were selected in six groups. Afte...

  11. Adrenomedullin increases the short-circuit current in the rat prostate: Receptors, chloride channels, the effects of cAMP and calcium ions and implications on fluid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S B; Cheung, K H; Cheung, M P L; Wong, P F; O, W S; Tang, F

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we have investigated the effects of adrenomedullin on chloride and fluid secretion in the rat prostate. The presence of adrenomedullin (ADM) in rat prostate was confirmed using immunostaining, and the molecular species was determined using gel filtration chromatography coupled with an enzyme-linked assay for ADM. The effects of ADM on fluid secretion were studied by short-circuit current technique in a whole mount preparation of the prostate in an Ussing chamber. The results indicated that the ADM level was higher in the ventral than the dorso-lateral prostate and the major molecular species was the active peptide. ADM increased the short-circuit current through both the cAMP- and calcium-activated chloride channels in the ventral lobe, but only through the calcium-activated channels in the dorso-lateral lobe. These stimulatory effects were blocked by the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist, hCGRP8-37. We conclude that ADM may regulate prostatic fluid secretion through the chloride channels, which may affect the composition of the seminal plasma bathing the spermatozoa and hence fertility. © 2014 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  12. Using Castration Surgery in Male Rats to Demonstrate the Physiological Effects of Testosterone on Seminal Vesicle Anatomy in an Undergraduate Laboratory Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Rachelle M.; Conant, Stephanie B.; Grabowski, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Rats can be used as a model organism to teach physiological concepts in a laboratory setting. This article describes a two-part laboratory that introduces students to hypothesis testing, experimental design, the appropriate use of controls and surgical techniques. Students perform both a castration and sham-control surgery on male rats and test…

  13. Minocycline Effects on the Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteome of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, Marcel P.; Rosenling, Therese; Attali, Amos; Meesters, Roland J. W.; Stingl, Christoph; Dekker, Lennard J.; van Aken, Hans; Suidgeest, Ernst; Hintzen, Rogier Q.; Tuinstra, Tinka; van Gool, Alain; Luider, Theo M.; Bischoff, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    To identify response biomarkers for pharmaceutical treatment of multiple sclerosis, we induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rats and treated symptomatic animals with minocycline. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected 14 days after EAE induction at the peak of

  14. Minocycline effects on the cerebrospinal fluid proteome of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, M.P.; Rosenling, T.; Attali, A.; Meesters, R.J.; Stingl, C.; Dekker, L.J.; van Aken, H.; Suidgeest, E.; Hintzen, R.Q.; Tuinstra, T.; Gool, A.J. van; Luider, T.M.; Bischoff, R.

    2012-01-01

    To identify response biomarkers for pharmaceutical treatment of multiple sclerosis, we induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rats and treated symptomatic animals with minocycline. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected 14 days after EAE induction at the peak of

  15. A noninvasive method to study regulation of extracellular fluid volume in rats using nuclear magnetic resonance

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NMR fluid measurements of commonly used rat strains when subjected to SQ normotonic or hypertonic salines, as well as physiologic comparisons to sedentary and...

  16. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from normal rats stimulates DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, C.C.; McCormick-Shannon, K.; Mason, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Proliferation of alveolar type II cells after lung injury is important for the restoration of the alveolar epithelium. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) may represent an important source of growth factors for alveolar type II cells. To test this possibility, BALF fluid was collected from normal rats, concentrated 10-fold by Amicon filtration, and tested for its ability to stimulate DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture. BALF induced a dose-dependent increase in type II cell DNA synthesis resulting in a 6-fold increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation. Similar doses also stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation into rat lung fibroblasts by 6- to 8-fold. Removal of pulmonary surface active material by centrifugation did not significantly reduce the stimulatory activity of BALF for type II cells. The stimulation of type II cell DNA synthesis by BALF was reduced by 100% after heating at 100 degrees C for 10 min, and by approximately 80% after reduction with dithiothreitol, and after trypsin treatment. Dialysis of BALF against 1 N acetic acid resulted in a 27% reduction in stimulatory activity. The effect of BALF in promoting type II cell DNA synthesis was more pronounced when tested in the presence of serum, although serum itself has very little effect on type II cell DNA synthesis. When BALF was tested in combination with other substances that stimulate type II cell DNA synthesis (cholera toxin, insulin, epidermal growth factor, and acidic fibroblast growth factor), additive effects or greater were observed. When BALF was chromatographed over Sephadex G150, the activity eluted with an apparent molecular weight of 100 kDa

  17. Adrenomedullin increases the short-circuit current in the mouse seminal vesicle: actions on chloride secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S B; Cheung, K H; O, W S; Tang, Fai

    2014-08-01

    Adrenomedullin (ADM) may regulate seminal vesicle fluid secretion, and this may affect sperm quality. In this study, we investigated the effect of ADM on chloride secretion in the mouse seminal vesicle. The presence of ADM in mouse seminal vesicle was confirmed using immunostaining, and the molecular species was determined using gel filtration chromatography coupled with enzyme-linked assay for ADM. The effects of ADM on chloride secretion were studied by short-circuit current technique in a whole-mount preparation of mouse seminal vesicle in an Ussing chamber. The effects of specific ADM and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists were investigated. Whether the ADM effect depended on the cAMP- and/or calcium-activated chloride channel was also studied using specific chloride channel blockers. The results showed that ADM was present in seminal vesicle epithelial cells. The major molecular species was precursor in the mouse seminal vesicle. ADM increased short-circuit current through the calcium-activated chloride channel in mouse seminal vesicle, and CGRP receptor was involved. We conclude that ADM may regulate chloride and fluid secretion from the seminal vesicle, which may affect the composition of the seminal plasma bathing the sperm and, hence, fertility. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  18. Unmasking a sustained negative effect of SGLT2 inhibition on body fluid volume in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Takahiro; Watanabe, Yuko; Fukuda, Keiko; Watanabe, Minami; Onishi, Akira; Ohara, Ken; Imai, Toshimi; Koepsell, Hermann; Muto, Shigeaki; Vallon, Volker; Nagata, Daisuke

    2018-05-23

    The chronic intrinsic diuretic and natriuretic tone of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors is incompletely understood, because their effect on body fluid volume (BFV) has not been fully evaluated and because they often increase food and fluid intake at the same time. Here we first compared the effect of the SGLT2 inhibitor ipragliflozin (Ipra, 0.01% in diet for 8 weeks) and vehicle (Veh) in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii rat, a non-obese type 2 diabetic model, and non-diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats. In non-diabetic rats, Ipra increased urinary excretion of Na+ (UNaV) and fluid (UV) associated with increased food and fluid intake. Diabetes increased these 4 parameters, but Ipra had no further effect; probably due to its antihyperglycemic effect, such that glucosuria and as a consequence food and fluid intake were unchanged. Fluid balance and BFV, determined by bioimpedance spectroscopy, were similar among the 4 groups. To study the impact of food and fluid intake, non-diabetic rats were treated for 7 days with Veh, Ipra or Ipra+pair-feeding+pair-drinking (Pair-Ipra). Pair-Ipra maintained a small increase in UV and UNaV versus Veh despite similar food and fluid intake. Pair-Ipra induced a negative fluid balance and decreased BFV, while Ipra or Veh had no significant effect compared with basal values. In conclusion, SGLT2 inhibition induces a sustained diuretic and natriuretic tone. Homeostatic mechanisms are activated to stabilize body fluid volume, including compensatory increases in fluid and food intake.

  19. Biocompatibility of peritoneal dialysis fluids: long-term exposure of nonuremic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musi, Barbara; Braide, Magnus; Carlsson, Ola; Wieslander, Anders; Albrektsson, Ann; Ketteler, Markus; Westenfeld, Ralf; Floege, Jürgen; Rippe, Bengt

    2004-01-01

    Long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD) leads to structural and functional changes in the peritoneum. The aim of the present study was to investigate the long-term effects of PD fluid components, glucose and glucose degradation products (GDP), and lactate-buffered solution on morphology and transport characteristics in a nonuremic rat model. Rats were subjected to two daily intraperitoneal injections (20 mL/day) during 12 weeks of one of the following: commercial PD fluid (Gambrosol, 4%; Gambro AB, Lund, Sweden), commercial PD fluid with low GDP levels (Gambrosol trio, 4%; Gambro AB), sterile-filtered PD fluid (4%) without GDP, or a glucose-free lactate-buffered PD fluid. Punctured and untreated controls were used. Following exposure, the rats underwent a single 4-hour PD dwell (30 mL, 4% glucose) to determine peritoneal function. Additionally, submesothelial tissue thickness, percentage of high mesothelial cells (perpendicular diameter > 2 microm), vascular density, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1 mRNA expression were determined. Submesothelial collagen concentration was estimated by van Gieson staining. Submesothelial tissue thickness and vascular density, mediated by VEGF and TGFbeta production, in the diaphragmatic peritoneum increased significantly in rats exposed to any PD fluid. Gambrosol induced a marked increased fibrosis of the hepatic peritoneum. A significant increase in high mesothelial cells was observed in the Gambrosol group only. Net ultrafiltration was reduced in the Gambrosol and in the glucose-free groups compared to untreated controls. Small solute transport was unchanged, but all groups exposed to fluids showed significantly increased lymph flow. Our results show that long-term exposure to different components of PD fluids leads to mesothelial cell damage, submesothelial fibrosis, and neoangiogenesis. Mesothelial cell damage could be connected to the presence of GDP; the other changes were

  20. Correlations Between Seminal Plasma Hormones and Sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: There is a complex relationship between seminal plasma hormone levels and infertility in men. Previous studies had shown no specific pattern in the serum or seminal plasma hormone profiles of men with infertility and it is debatable whether there is a need to perform routine seminal hormone assays in the ...

  1. Magnetic resonance of seminal vesicles: a noninvasive study of seminal way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocantos, J.A.; Rey Valzacchi, G.; Sinclair, M.E.; Loor Guadamud, G.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic resonance without endorectal coil is an excellent diagnostic tool for studying the entire route of seminal non-invasive way in a single step diagnosis. We call magnetic resonance of seminal vesicles, but includes both the study of the seminal vesicles as the channels of the seminal way. [es

  2. Seminal transferrin in the seminal quality evaluation of hemodialytic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Pereira Silva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to verify the association between seminal quality and seminal transferrin (ST level and fertility index in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis (CH. Material and methods: This is a cross-sectional study in a group of 60 men (case undergoing CH for more than 6 months, and a group of 30 healthy men (control, aged 18-60 years, without clinical or laboratory signs of infection/inflammation. Spermiogram was performed, fertility index (FI was calculated and ST and sex hormones (SH levels were measured, including follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, total testosterone, and prolactin. Results: All individuals were eugonadal. No differences for age (49.47 ± 5.56, 47.90 ± 6.2, p = 0.22 were observed between cases and controls, whereas there were significant differences between the individuals in the case and control groups with respect to the mean FI (p = 0.000, seminal parameters (SP (p = 0.000, and ST levels (40.12 ± 08.25 vs 73.32 ± 06.8, p = 0.000. ST levels were correlated with FI (r = 0.787, p = 0.00 and SP (motility: r = 0.857, p = 0.000; vitality: r = 0.551, p = 0.000; density: r = 0.850, p = 0.000; normal morphology: r = 0.386, p = 0.000. Linear regression model showed relationship of ST levels with total sperm motility (R2 = 0.701; p = 0.000 and and FI (R2 = 0.569; p = 0.000. Conclusions: Our results suggest that seminal quality is associated with ST levels and FI and that it can be used the initial investigation of subfertility/infertility of patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis..

  3. Effect of heterologous seminal plasma and semen extenders on motility of frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Mataveia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Ram seminal plasma increases the fertility of frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa deposited into the cervix. The aim of the current study was to compare the effect of ram seminal plasma to that of bull seminal plasma, dog prostatic fluid, protein-free TALP, TrilEq (Triladyl with 0.5 mℓ of Equex STM paste added to each 100 mℓ and heat-treated skim milk on longevity and percentages of progressively motile and aberrantly motile frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa. Three ejaculates from each of 6 rams were extended in TrilEq, pooled and frozen in straws as a single batch per ram. One hundred and eight straws (3 straws from each ram for each fluid were thawed in random order. Once thawed, a straw was emptied into a tube with 0.85mℓ of the appropriate fluid at 37 °C and kept at that temperature for 6 h. Motility was assessed at x200 magnification immediately (time zero and 2, 4 and 6 h after thawing. Progressive motility decreased from each time to the next (P < 0.05 and was 39.0% (0 h, 26.0% (2 h, 19.6% (4 h and 12.6% (6 h; SEM 1.24, n=108 for each group. Ram seminal plasma resulted in higher progressive motility than bull seminal plasma, lower than milk, and similar to the other fluids. Ram seminal plasma resulted in lower aberrant motility than protein-free TALP and similar aberrant motility to other fluids. The effect of ram seminal plasma and dog prostatic fluid was very similar. The effect of ram seminal plasma on the fertility of frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa deposited into the cervix is not due an exceptionally beneficial effect on the motility of spermatozoa.

  4. Fluid resuscitation does not improve renal oxygenation during hemorrhagic shock in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Legrand, Matthieu; Mik, Egbert; Balestra, Gianmarco; Lutter, Rene; Pirracchio, Romain; Payen, Didier; Ince, Can

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The resuscitation strategy for hemorrhagic shock remains controversial, with the kidney being especially prone to hypoxia. Methods: The authors used a three-phase hemorrhagic shock model to investigate the effects of fluid resuscitation on renal oxygenation. After a 1-h shock phase, rats were randomized into four groups to receive either normal saline or hypertonic saline targeting a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of either 40 or 80 mmHg. After such resuscitation, rats w...

  5. Radiation-induced changes in sodium preference and fluid intake in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossman, K.L.; Martini, A.J.; Henkin, R.I.

    1979-01-01

    An animal model has been used in an investigation of taste dysfunction, which is a side effect of radiotherapy of the head and neck. Rats were 60 Co γ-irradiated (1.5, 5 or 20 Gy) to the head, abdomen or tail, and fluid preference was measured with a two-bottle free choice technique up to 120 days post-irradiation. Doses of 1.5 or 5 Gy delivered to the head, abdomen or tail did not change fluid preference, body weight or total fluid intake, but there were significant differences in all three in 20 Gy head-irradiated rats only. There were differences in the changes with time after irradiation in fluid intake and preference for these head irradiated animals. (UK)

  6. Zinc sulfate treatment of secondary male infertility associated with positive serum and seminal plasma anti-sperm antibody test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidar M. Jawad

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, infertile men with elevated level of ASA and poor basic parameters of seminal fluid characters can be treated with zinc sulfate protocol with great chance for decreasing the level of serum and seminal plasma ASA, and alleviating the serious side effects associated with corticosteroids.

  7. Chronic bacterial seminal vesiculitis as a potential disease entity in men with chronic prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hwan; Ryu, Ji-Kan; Choo, Gwoan-Youb; Chung, Yeun-Goo; Seong, Do-Hwan; Kim, Chang-Ho; Choe, Won-Sik; Ryu, Dong-Soo; Hyun, In Young; Suh, Jun-Kyu

    2015-05-01

    To investigate bacterial infection in the seminal vesicles by bacteriological examination and radionuclide imaging in men with chronic prostatitis. The study included 50 patients with chronic prostatitis who showed hot uptake in seminal vesicles on Tc-99m ciprofloxacin imaging and eight patients who did not show hot uptake. The evaluation included the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index and four-glass test. In all participants, transperineal aspiration of seminal vesicle fluid under the guidance of transrectal ultrasonography and bacteriological examination was carried out. Of the 50 patients who showed hot uptake in the seminal vesicles on the isotope study, microorganisms were isolated from the seminal vesicle fluid in 17 patients (positive predictive value, 34%). The most common causative organisms were Escherichia coli in 13 patients (26%), followed by coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species in two patients (4%), Enterococcus faecalis in one patient (2%) and Chlamydia trachomatis in one patient (2%). No microorganisms were isolated in the eight patients who did not show hot uptake in the seminal vesicles (negative predictive value, 100%). However, there were no significant differences in National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index total scores and subscores between the study groups. Chronic bacterial seminal vesiculitis might simultaneously affect a considerable portion of patients with chronic prostatitis, although the clinical implication of the disease remains to be further investigated. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  8. Elevated interstitial fluid volume in rat soleus muscles by hindlimb unweighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandarian, S C; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Schulte, Lars

    1991-01-01

    ) by tail suspension. Soleus muscles were studied after 28 days and compared with those from five age-matched control (C) rats. Interstitial fluid volume ([3H]inulin space) and maximum tetanic tension (Po) were measured in vitro at 25 degrees C. Soleus muscles atrophied 58% because of unweighting (C = 147...

  9. Magnetic Capture of a Molecular Biomarker from Synovial Fluid in a Rat Model of Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmola, Elena G; Shah, Yash; Arnold, David P; Dobson, Jon; Allen, Kyle D

    2016-04-01

    Biomarker development for osteoarthritis (OA) often begins in rodent models, but can be limited by an inability to aspirate synovial fluid from a rodent stifle (similar to the human knee). To address this limitation, we have developed a magnetic nanoparticle-based technology to collect biomarkers from a rodent stifle, termed magnetic capture. Using a common OA biomarker--the c-terminus telopeptide of type II collagen (CTXII)--magnetic capture was optimized in vitro using bovine synovial fluid and then tested in a rat model of knee OA. Anti-CTXII antibodies were conjugated to the surface of superparamagnetic iron oxide-containing polymeric particles. Using these anti-CTXII particles, magnetic capture was able to estimate the level of CTXII in 25 μL aliquots of bovine synovial fluid; and under controlled conditions, this estimate was unaffected by synovial fluid viscosity. Following in vitro testing, anti-CTXII particles were tested in a rat monoiodoacetate model of knee OA. CTXII could be magnetically captured from a rodent stifle without the need to aspirate fluid and showed tenfold changes in CTXII levels from OA-affected joints relative to contralateral control joints. Combined, these data demonstrate the ability and sensitivity of magnetic capture for post-mortem analysis of OA biomarkers in the rat.

  10. Intravenous S-Ketamine Does Not Inhibit Alveolar Fluid Clearance in a Septic Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Nina C.; van der Sluijs, Koen; Hackl, Florian; Hotz, Lorenz; Dahan, Albert; Hollmann, Markus W.; Berger, Marc M.

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that intratracheally administered S-ketamine inhibits alveolar fluid clearance (AFC), whereas an intravenous (IV) bolus injection had no effect. The aim of the present study was to characterize whether continuous IV infusion of S-ketamine, yielding clinically relevant plasma concentrations, inhibits AFC and whether its effect is enhanced in acute lung injury (ALI) which might favor the appearance of IV S-ketamine at the alveolar surface. AFC was measured in fluid-instilled rat lungs. S-ketamine was administered IV over 6 h (loading dose: 20 mg/kg, followed by 20 mg/kg/h), or intratracheally by addition to the instillate (75 µg/ml). ALI was induced by IV lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 7 mg/kg). Interleukin (IL)-6 and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-3 were measured by ELISA in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Isolated rat alveolar type-II cells were exposed to S-ketamine (75 µg/ml) and/or LPS (1 mg/ml) for 6 h, and transepithelial ion transport was measured as short circuit current (ISC). AFC was 27±5% (mean±SD) over 60 min in control rats and was unaffected by IV S-ketamine. Tracheal S-ketamine reduced AFC to 18±9%. In LPS-treated rats, AFC decreased to 16±6%. This effect was not enhanced by IV S-ketamine. LPS increased IL-6 and CINC-3 in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In alveolar type-II cells, S-ketamine reduced ISC by 37% via a decrease in amiloride-inhibitable sodium transport. Continuous administration of IV S-ketamine does not affect rat AFC even in endotoxin-induced ALI. Tracheal application with direct exposure of alveolar epithelial cells to S-ketamine decreases AFC by inhibition of amiloride-inhibitable sodium transport. PMID:25386677

  11. Pulmonary Complications of Gastric Fluid and Bile Salts Aspiration, an Experimental Study in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Samareh Fekri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD is one of the most common digestive disorders that frequently lead to pulmonary complications due to gastric fluid aspiration. In the present experimental study, chronic aspiration of gastric fluid, its components and bile salts in rat lung was performed to find out the main factor(s causing pulmonary complications of gastric fluid aspiration.   Materials and Methods: Forty eight male rats weighted 250-300 g were selected in six groups. After anesthesia and tracheal cannulation, the animals received 0.5 ml/kg normal saline, 0.5 ml/kg of whole gastric fluid, 0.5 ml/kg pepsin (2.5 μg/ml, 0.5 ml/kg hydrochloric acid (pH=1.5 or 0.5 ml/kg bile salts (2.5 μg/ml by injection into their trachea and lungs. In sham group nothing was injected. Results: Parenchymal and airways inflammation and fibrosis of bronchi, bronchioles and parenchyma were significantly more in the test groups compared to saline and sham groups (P

  12. Neuromyelitis optica study model based on chronic infusion of autoantibodies in rat cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marignier, R; Ruiz, A; Cavagna, S; Nicole, A; Watrin, C; Touret, M; Parrot, S; Malleret, G; Peyron, C; Benetollo, C; Auvergnon, N; Vukusic, S; Giraudon, P

    2016-05-18

    Devic's neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune astrocytopathy, associated with central nervous system inflammation, demyelination, and neuronal injury. Several studies confirmed that autoantibodies directed against aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgG) are relevant in the pathogenesis of NMO, mainly through complement-dependent toxicity leading to astrocyte death. However, the effect of the autoantibody per se and the exact role of intrathecal AQP4-IgG are still controversial. To explore the intrinsic effect of intrathecal AQP4-IgG, independent from additional inflammatory effector mechanisms, and to evaluate its clinical impact, we developed a new animal model, based on a prolonged infusion of purified immunoglobulins from NMO patient (IgG(AQP4+), NMO-rat) and healthy individual as control (Control-rat) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of live rats. We showed that CSF infusion of purified immunoglobulins led to diffusion in the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves, the targeted structures in NMO. This was associated with astrocyte alteration in NMO-rats characterized by loss of aquaporin-4 expression in the spinal cord and the optic nerves compared to the Control-rats (p = 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively). In addition, glutamate uptake tested on vigil rats was dramatically reduced in NMO-rats (p = 0.001) suggesting that astrocytopathy occurred in response to AQP4-IgG diffusion. In parallel, myelin was altered, as shown by the decrease of myelin basic protein staining by up to 46 and 22 % in the gray and white matter of the NMO-rats spinal cord, respectively (p = 0.03). Loss of neurofilament positive axons in NMO-rats (p = 0.003) revealed alteration of axonal integrity. Then, we investigated the clinical consequences of such alterations on the motor behavior of the NMO-rats. In a rotarod test, NMO-rats performance was lower compared to the controls (p = 0.0182). AQP4 expression, and myelin and axonal integrity were preserved in AQP4-Ig

  13. Toxicological study of a new maintenance fluid, Veen 3G, in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, J; Onodera, K; Kawaguchi, M; Shibata, M; Kagawa, M; Wachi, M; Kojima, J

    2002-10-01

    A study of the different volume and infusion rates of a new maintenance fluid, Veen 3G, on the general conditions of rats was investigated during the 14 days after infusion. In Experiment I, 100 ml/kg and 200 ml/kg of Veen 3G were infused at a rate of 300 ml/kg/h in male and female rats. Results were compared with those for Gurunon Ringer solution (GRS) in male and female rats. We observed only transient polyuria in animals administered by each dose of Veen 3G and GRS for 0-15 min after infusion. Necropsy was not observed in any of the animals tested 14 days after infusion. In Experiment II, 200 ml/kg of Veen 3G was infused at rates of 200, 400, 800 and 1600 ml/kg/h in male rats. At 800 and 1600 ml/kg/h, irregular respiration and decrease in movement were observed concomitantly with polyuria. Three out of 4 rats died immediately after the infusion of Veen 3G at a rate of 1600 ml/kg/h, and one rat was still alive 14 days after the infusion. In this experiment, 200 ml/kg Veen 3G was safe when we infused at a rate of less than 400 ml/kg/h in male rats. Since this rate is about 27-80 times higher than that used clinically in maintenance treatment, Veen 3G is suggested to be safe, with the exception of polyuria, in clinical situations at the standard infusion rate (5-15 ml/kg/h).

  14. Human leukocyte antigen-G in the male reproductive system and in seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Margit Hørup; Bzorek, Michael; Pass, Malene B; Larsen, Lise Grupe; Nielsen, Mette Weidinger; Svendsen, Signe Goul; Lindhard, Anette; Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F

    2011-12-01

    One of the non-classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class Ib proteins, HLA-G, is believed to exert important immunoregulatory functions, especially during pregnancy. The presence of HLA protein in paternal seminal fluid has been suggested to have an influence on the risk of developing pre-eclampsia. We have investigated whether HLA-G protein is present in human seminal plasma and in different tissue samples of the male reproductive system. Western blot technique and a soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) assay were used to detect sHLA-G in human seminal plasma samples. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue samples. We detected sHLA-G protein in seminal plasma, and HLA-G expression in normal testis and in epididymal tissue of the male reproductive system but not in the seminal vesicle. Furthermore, the results indicated a weak expression of HLA-G in hyperplastic prostatic tissue. In summary, several of the findings reported in this study suggest an immunoregulatory role of HLA-G in the male reproductive system and in seminal plasma.

  15. MR imaging of the seminal vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edson, S.B.; Hricak, H.; Chun-Fang Chang, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The seminal vesicles of 56 healthy males and 23 males with pathologic conditions were studied with a .35-T magnet and spin-echo (SE) techniques (repetition time/echo time [msec] = 500/30 and 2,000/60). The authors analyzed (1) the size and relative signal intensity of seminal vesicles compared to surrounding fat, muscle, or urine; (2) the effect of aging on the size and signal intensity of the vesicles, and (3) the appearance of the seminal vesicles in different pathologic conditions. In the transverse plane, the normal seminal vesicle measures 31 +- 7 mm in length and 17 +- 4 mm in width. Its size or signal intensity did not change significantly with age. On SE = 500/30 images the seminal vesicles were isointense with muscle; on SE = 2,000/60 images they were isointense or slightly hypointense relative to fat. MR imaging was highly sensitive for displaying seminal vesicle pathology, based on asymmetry in size and changes in signal intensities. MR imaging provides unique information but its role in pathologic conditions needs to be further explored

  16. Aliskiren prevents the toxic effects of peritoneal dialysis fluids during chronic dialysis in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pérez-Martínez

    Full Text Available The benefits of long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD in patients with end-stage renal failure are short-lived due to structural and functional changes in the peritoneal membrane. In this report, we provide evidence for the in vitro and in vivo participation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS in the signaling pathway leading to peritoneal fibrosis during PD. Exposure to high-glucose PD fluids (PDFs increases damage and fibrosis markers in both isolated rat peritoneal mesothelial cells and in the peritoneum of rats after chronic dialysis. In both cases, the addition of the RAAS inhibitor aliskiren markedly improved damage and fibrosis markers, and prevented functional modifications in the peritoneal transport, as measured by the peritoneal equilibrium test. These data suggest that inhibition of the RAAS may be a novel way to improve the efficacy of PD by preventing inflammation and fibrosis following peritoneal exposure to high-glucose PDFs.

  17. Analysis of Trace Elements in Rat Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Wajhul; Al-Ghadeer, Abdul Rahman; Ali, Raisuddin; Abuelizz, Hatem A

    2017-08-01

    The main objective was to determine the elemental profile of the lung lining fluid of rats which are used as model animals in various experiments. Lung lining fluid elemental constitution obtained after bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to determine the biological trace elements along with calcium and magnesium. BALF was collected from healthy rats using a tracheal cannula. However, cells in BALF were counted to monitor any underlying inflammatory lung condition. Cell free BALF samples were processed and analyzed for the elements including magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), bromine (Br), and iodine (I). In view of this, calcium concentration was the highest (6318.08 ± 3094.3 μg/L) and copper concentration was the lowest (0.89 ± 0.21 μg/L). The detected elements, from high to low concentration, include Ca > Mg > Fe > Br > I > Cr > Ni > Zn > Mn > Se > Cu. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed no significant correlation between cell count and concentration of any of the element detected in BALF. Correlation analysis also revealed significant positive correlation among Fe, I, Cr, Ni, and Mn. Ca was found to be correlated negatively with Cu and positively with Se. Br and Mg found to be positively correlated with each other. Zn remained the only element that was not found to be correlated with any of the elements in the rat BALF.

  18. Behavioral responses and fluid regulation in male rats after combined dietary sodium deficiency and water deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Kimberly J; Curtis, Kathleen S

    2018-02-01

    Most investigators use a single treatment such as water deprivation or dietary sodium deficiency to evaluate thirst or sodium appetite, which underlie behavioral responses to body fluid challenges. The goal of the present experiments was to assess the effects of combined treatments in driving behaviors. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of combined overnight water deprivation and dietary sodium deficiency on water intake and salt intake by adult male rats in 2-bottle (0.5M NaCl and water) tests. Overnight water deprivation alone increased water intake, and 10days of dietary sodium deficiency increased 0.5M NaCl intake, with a secondary increase in water intake. During combined water deprivation and dietary sodium deficiency, water intake was enhanced and 0.5M NaCl was reduced, but not eliminated, suggesting that physiologically relevant behavioral responses persist. Nonetheless, the pattern of fluid intake was altered by the combined treatments. We also assessed the effect of these behaviors on induced deficits in body sodium and fluid volume during combined treatments and found that, regardless of treatment, fluid ingestion partially repleted the induced deficits. Finally, we examined urine volume and sodium excretion during dietary sodium deficiency with or without overnight water deprivation and found that, whether or not rats were water deprived, and regardless of water consumption, sodium excretion was minimal. Thus, the combination of water deprivation and dietary sodium deficiency appears to arouse drives that stimulate compensatory behavioral responses. These behaviors, in conjunction with physiological adaptations to the treatments, underlie body sodium and volume repletion in the face of combined water deprivation and dietary sodium deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Increased Milk Protein Concentration in a Rehydration Drink Enhances Fluid Retention Caused by Water Reabsorption in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kentaro; Saito, Yuri; Ashida, Kinya; Yamaji, Taketo; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Oda, Munehiro

    2015-01-01

    A fluid-retention effect is required for beverages that are designed to prevent dehydration. That is, fluid absorbed from the intestines should not be excreted quickly; long-term retention is desirable. Here, we focused on the effect of milk protein on fluid retention, and propose a new effective oral rehydration method that can be used daily for preventing dehydration. We first evaluated the effects of different concentrations of milk protein on fluid retention by measuring the urinary volumes of rats fed fluid containing milk protein at concentrations of 1, 5, and 10%. We next compared the fluid-retention effect of milk protein-enriched drink (MPD) with those of distilled water (DW) and a sports drink (SD) by the same method. Third, to investigate the mechanism of fluid retention, we measured plasma insulin changes in rats after ingesting these three drinks. We found that the addition of milk protein at 5 or 10% reduced urinary volume in a dose-dependent manner. Ingestion of the MPD containing 4.6% milk protein resulted in lower urinary volumes than DW and SD. MPD also showed a higher water reabsorption rate in the kidneys and higher concentrations of plasma insulin than DW and SD. These results suggest that increasing milk protein concentration in a beverage enhances fluid retention, which may allow the possibility to develop rehydration beverages that are more effective than SDs. In addition, insulin-modifying renal water reabsorption may contribute to the fluid-retention effect of MPD.

  20. Would Interstitial Fluid Flow be Responsible for Skeletal Maintenance in Tail-Suspended Rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Ting; Huang, Yun-Fei; Sun, Lian-Wen; Luan, Hui-Qin; Zhu, Bao-Zhang; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2017-02-01

    Despite the fast development of manned space flight, the mechanism and countermeasures of weightlessness osteoporosis in astronauts are still within research. It is accepted that unloading has been considered as primary factor, but the precise mechanism is still unclear. Since bone's interstitial fluid flow (IFF) is believed to be significant to nutrient supply and waste metabolism of bone tissue, it may influence bone quality as well. We investigated IFF's variation in different parts of body (included parietal bone, ulna, lumbar, tibia and tailbone) of rats using a tail-suspended (TS) system. Ten female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into two groups: control (CON) and tail-suspension (TS) group. And after 21 days' experiment, the rats were injected reactive red to observe lacuna's condition under a confocal laser scanning microscope. The variations of IFF were analyzed by the number and area of lacuna. Volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and microarchitecture of bones were evaluated by micro-CT. The correlation coefficients between lacuna's number/area and vBMD were also analyzed. According to our experimental results, a 21 days' tail-suspension could cause a decrease of IFF in lumbar, tibia and tailbone and an increase of IFF in ulna. But in parietal bone, it showed no significant change. The vBMD and microarchitecture parameters also decreased in lumbar and tibia and increased in ulna. But in parietal bone and tailbone, it showed no significant change. And correlation analysis showed significant correlation between vBMD and lacuna's number in lumbar, tibia and ulna. Therefore, IFF decrease may be partly contribute to bone loss in tail-suspended rats, and it should be further investigated.

  1. Association Between Seminal Plasma Copper and Magnesium Levels with Oxidative Stress in Iraqi Infertile Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar F. Abdul-Rasheed

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the association between copper, magnesium and malondialdehyde levels in seminal plasma of oligozoospermic, azoospermic in relation to normozoospermic men.Methods: The present study was conducted at the Chemistry and Biochemistry department, College of Medicine, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad-Iraq during September 2007 to February 2008 after obtaining approval from the research and ethics committee and obtaining written consent, 78 infertile men (age range 33.01±4.20 years were recruited at the institute of embryo research and infertility treatment, Al-Kadhimiya teaching hospital, Iraq and were categorized according to their seminal fluid parameters to oligozoospermia (n=43 and azoospermia (n=35. 41 fertile men (age range 30.29±2.30 years were selected as controls. Seminal plasma copper and magnesium were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Malondialdehyde was measured calorimetrically using thiobarbituric acid assay which detects thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Results: Seminal plasma copper level was decreased significantly (p=0.000 in the azoospermic group compared to the control group. Whereas, the level decreased non-significantly in the oligozoospermic group. Seminal plasma magnesium levels were decreased significantly (p=0.000 in all the infertility groups studied. On the other hand, malondialdehyde levels which is an end product of lipid peroxidation were significantly elevated (p=0.000 in all the infertility groups studied.Conclusion: Copper and magnesium work in different ways in order to maintain normal environment for spermatozoa for normal fertilization to occur.

  2. The anti-apoptotic effect of fluid mechanics preconditioning by cells membrane and mitochondria in rats brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shan; Zhu, Fengping; Hu, Ruiping; Tian, Song; Chen, Xingxing; Lou, Dan; Cao, Bing; Chen, Qiulei; Li, Bai; Li, Fang; Bai, Yulong; Wu, Yi; Zhu, Yulian

    2018-01-01

    Exercise preconditioning is a simple and effective way to prevent ischemia. This paper further provided the mechanism in hemodynamic aspects at the cellular level. To study the anti-apoptotic effects of fluid mechanics preconditioning, Cultured rats brain microvascular endothelial cells were given fluid intervention in a parallel plate flow chamber before oxygen glucose deprivation. It showed that fluid mechanics preconditioning could inhibit the apoptosis of endothelial cells, and this process might be mediated by the shear stress activation of Tie-2 on cells membrane surface and Bcl-2 on the mitochondria surface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation of Seminal Plasma Hypersensitivity Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    diseases, chronic vaginal candidiasis ); 3) establish the prevalence of BSS and localized/systemic seminal plasma protein hypersensitivity among the GW...of further investigation as our population grows. Subsequent pharmacologic treatment of this female for chronic vaginal candidiasis with an...partner.2Ř Subsequently, women experiencing localized vaginal inflammation, characterized by burning and pain and occurring immediately after contact

  4. Biomarkers for severity of spinal cord injury in the cerebrospinal fluid of rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna M Lubieniecka

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges in management of spinal cord injury (SCI is that the assessment of injury severity is often imprecise. Identification of reliable, easily quantifiable biomarkers that delineate the severity of the initial injury and that have prognostic value for the degree of functional recovery would significantly aid the clinician in the choice of potential treatments. To find such biomarkers we performed quantitative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analyses of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF collected from rats 24 h after either a moderate or severe SCI. We identified a panel of 42 putative biomarkers of SCI, 10 of which represent potential biomarkers of SCI severity. Three of the candidate biomarkers, Ywhaz, Itih4, and Gpx3 were also validated by Western blot in a biological replicate of the injury. The putative biomarkers identified in this study may potentially be a valuable tool in the assessment of the extent of spinal cord damage.

  5. Biomarkers for Severity of Spinal Cord Injury in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubieniecka, Joanna M.; Streijger, Femke; Lee, Jae H. T.; Stoynov, Nikolay; Liu, Jie; Mottus, Randy; Pfeifer, Tom; Kwon, Brian K.; Coorssen, Jens R.; Foster, Leonard J.; Grigliatti, Thomas A.; Tetzlaff, Wolfram

    2011-01-01

    One of the major challenges in management of spinal cord injury (SCI) is that the assessment of injury severity is often imprecise. Identification of reliable, easily quantifiable biomarkers that delineate the severity of the initial injury and that have prognostic value for the degree of functional recovery would significantly aid the clinician in the choice of potential treatments. To find such biomarkers we performed quantitative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected from rats 24 h after either a moderate or severe SCI. We identified a panel of 42 putative biomarkers of SCI, 10 of which represent potential biomarkers of SCI severity. Three of the candidate biomarkers, Ywhaz, Itih4, and Gpx3 were also validated by Western blot in a biological replicate of the injury. The putative biomarkers identified in this study may potentially be a valuable tool in the assessment of the extent of spinal cord damage. PMID:21559420

  6. Functional morphology of the female reproductive system of a crab with highly extensible seminal receptacles and extreme sperm storage capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Nahuel E; Spivak, Eduardo D; Luppi, Tomas A

    2017-07-01

    We studied the functional morphology of the female reproductive system of the purple stone crab Danielethus crenulatus. The most remarkable feature is the relative storage capacity and extensibility of the seminal receptacles. These receptacles are a pair of simple sacs that lack internal structures dividing the internal lumen. Differences in seminal receptacle size and contents are accompanied by conspicuous changes in receptacle lining at a tissue level. Full seminal receptacles contain discrete sperm masses formed by hardened fluid and densely packed spermatophores. Different sperm masses are likely from different mates and their stratified disposition within the seminal receptacles is compatible with rival sperm displacement and last sperm precedence. Additionally, the anatomical structure of the vulva and vagina suggest active female control over copula. We discuss our results in the general context of sperm storage in brachyurans and the implications for the mating system of this species. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Seminal plasma PSA in spinal cord injured men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Sønksen, J; Sommer, P

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of spinal cord injury on seminal plasma PSA concentration.......The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of spinal cord injury on seminal plasma PSA concentration....

  8. Various irrigation fluids affect postoperative brain edema and cellular damage during experimental neurosurgery in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Kazuhisa; Kawano, Takeshi; Morioka, Yujiro; Fujita, Yasutaka; Nishimura, Masuhiro

    2006-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate how various irrigation fluids used during neurosurgical procedures affect the degree of postoperative brain edema and cellular damage during experimental neurosurgery in rats. The cerebral cortex was exposed and incised crosswise with a surgical knife under irrigation with an artificial CSF, lactated Ringer's solution, or normal saline. Four hours after injury, irrigation was stopped and brain tissue samples were obtained from injured and uninjured sites. Specific gravity, cerebrovascular permeability, and TTC staining of the samples were evaluated. Incision and irrigation of the brain were not performed on the control group. At the injured site, specific gravities of the samples in the normal saline group and the lactated Ringer's solution group were significantly lower than the specific gravity in the artificial CSF group. The EB concentration was significantly higher in the lactated Ringer's solution group and relatively high in the normal saline group as compared with the artificial CSF group. TTC staining did not differ significantly between the artificial CSF group and the control group. It was significantly lower in the lactated Ringer's solution group and the normal saline group than in the control group and the artificial CSF group. As compared with normal saline and lactated Ringer's solution, artificial CSF reduced postoperative brain edema, cerebrovascular permeability, and cellular damage in sites injured by experimental neurosurgery in rats.

  9. Refinement of a model of repeated cerebrospinal fluid collection in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, Eva Maria; Brecheisen, Muriel; Sach-Peltason, Lisa; Bergadano, Alessandra

    2017-02-01

    The cannulation of the cisterna magna in rats for in vivo sampling of cerebrospinal fluid serves as a valuable model for studying the delivery of new drugs into the central nervous system or disease models. It offers the advantages of repeated sampling without anesthesia-induced bias and using animals as their own controls. An established model was retrospectively reviewed for the outcomes and it was hypothesized that by refining the method, i.e. by (1) implementing pathophysiological-based anesthesia and analgesia, (2) using state-of-the-art peri-operative monitoring and supportive care, (3) increasing stability of the cement-cannula assembly, and (4) selecting a more adaptable animal strain, the outcome in using the model - quantified by peri-operative mortality, survival time and stability of the implant - could be improved and could enhance animal welfare. After refinement of the technique, peri-operative mortality decreased significantly (7 animals out of 73 compared with 4 out of 322; P = 0.001), survival time increased significantly (36 ± 14 days compared with 28 ± 18 days; P concept of Russell and Burch was successfully addressed and animal welfare was improved by (1) the reduction in the total number of animals needed as a result of lower mortality or fewer euthanizations due to technical failure, and frequent use of individual rats over a time frame; and (2) improving the scientific quality of the model.

  10. Higher levels of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in rat amniotic fluid than in maternal plasma after subcutaneous administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Taxvig, Camilla; Hass, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    to obtain more knowledge about the distribution of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in pregnant rats and pups after perinatal exposure, the presented study was designed. The data show response and distribution of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in maternal rat plasma, pools of amniotic fluids, placenta......, whole-body fetuses, and in fetal liver after dosing of dams with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day from gestational day 7 to 21. After cesarean section of dams, the fluids and tissues were collected, deconjugated, and purified by solid-phase extraction, and ethyl paraben and butyl paraben...... were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Markedly higher levels of ethyl paraben compared to butyl paraben were found in all fluids and tissues. Both ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in maternal plasma, livers, and whole-body tissues from fetus seemed to be saturated after dosing...

  11. The best stain for morphological study of human seminal fluid's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives:There is a high need for proper evaluation of the morphological features of human sperms. The importance of this lies in the field of andrology, male fertility and in vitro fertilization. The wet smears can give rough clue about the shape of the sperms, but it is neither accurate nor reproducible. This study aimed to ...

  12. Influence of Khat on seminal fluid among presumed infertile couples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Abnormal values were obtained for relatively older patients who also showed a higher frequency of marriage, prolonged duration of infertility and greater number of children ever fathered (p<0.05). The normal and abnormal results for khat and other drug consumers accounted for 97 (53%) and 86 (47%) in contrast ...

  13. Seminal fluid mediates ejaculate competition in social insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Baer, Boris; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2010-01-01

    Queens of ants and bees normally obtain a lifetime supply of sperm on a single day of sexual activity, and sperm competition is expected to occur in lineages where queens receive sperm from multiple males. We compared singly mated (monandrous) and multiply mated (polyandrous) sister groups of ants...

  14. Astrocyte oxidative metabolism and metabolite trafficking after fluid percussion brain injury in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartnik-Olson, Brenda L; Oyoyo, Udochukwu; Hovda, David A; Sutton, Richard L

    2010-12-01

    Despite various lines of evidence pointing to the compartmentation of metabolism within the brain, few studies have reported the effect of a traumatic brain injury (TBI) on neuronal and astrocyte compartments and/or metabolic trafficking between these cells. In this study we used ex vivo ¹³C NMR spectroscopy following an infusion of [1-¹³C] glucose and [1,2-¹³C₂] acetate to study oxidative metabolism in neurons and astrocytes of sham-operated and fluid percussion brain injured (FPI) rats at 1, 5, and 14 days post-surgery. FPI resulted in a decrease in the ¹³C glucose enrichment of glutamate in neurons in the injured hemisphere at day 1. In contrast, enrichment of glutamine in astrocytes from acetate was not significantly decreased at day 1. At day 5 the ¹³C enrichment of glutamate and glutamine from glucose in the injured hemisphere of FPI rats did not differ from sham levels, but glutamine derived from acetate metabolism in astrocytes was significantly increased. The ¹³C glucose enrichment of the C3 position of glutamate (C3) in neurons was significantly decreased ipsilateral to FPI at day 14, whereas the enrichment of glutamine in astrocytes had returned to sham levels at this time point. These findings indicate that the oxidative metabolism of glucose is reduced to a greater extent in neurons compared to astrocytes following a FPI. The increased utilization of acetate to synthesize glutamine, and the acetate enrichment of glutamate via the glutamate-glutamine cycle, suggests an integral protective role for astrocytes in maintaining metabolic function following TBI-induced impairments in glucose metabolism.

  15. Early ethanol and water intake: choice mechanism and total fluid regulation operate in parallel in male alcohol preferring (P) and both Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarov, Alexey V; Woodward, Donald J

    2014-01-17

    The goal of this study was to clarify similar and distinctly different parameters of fluid intake during early phases of ethanol and water choice drinking in alcohol preferring P-rat vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Precision information on the drinking amounts and timing is needed to analyze micro-behavioral components of the acquisition of ethanol intake and to enable a search for its causal activity patterns within individual CNS circuits. The experiment followed the standard ethanol-drinking test used in P-rat selective breeding, with access to water, then 10% ethanol (10E) as sole fluids, and next to ethanol/water choice. The novelty of the present approach was to eliminate confounding prandial elevations of fluid intake, by time-separating daily food from fluid access. P-rat higher initial intakes of water and 10E as sole fluids suggest adaptations to ethanol-induced dehydration in P vs. Wistar and SD rats. P-rat starting and overall ethanol intake during the choice period were the highest. The absolute extent of ethanol intake elevation during choice period was greatest in Wistar and their final intake levels approached those of P-rat, contrary to the hypothesis that selection would produce the strongest elevation of ethanol intake. The total daily fluid during ethanol/water choice period was strikingly similar between P, Wistar and SD rats. This supports the hypothesis for a universal system that gauges the overall intake volume by titrating and integrating ethanol and water drinking fluctuations, and indicates a stable daily level of total fluid as a main regulated parameter of fluid intake across the three lines in choice conditions. The present findings indicate that a stable daily level of total fluid comprises an independent physiological limit for daily ethanol intake. Ethanol drinking, in turn, stays under the ceiling of this limit, driven by a parallel mechanism of ethanol/water choice. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nasal cavity dimensions in guinea pig and rat measured by acoustic rhinometry and fluid-displacement method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straszek, Sune; Pedersen, O.F.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to measure nasal passageway dimensions in guinea pigs and rats by use of acoustic rhinometry (AR) and by a previously described fluid-displacement method (FDM) (Straszek SP, Taagehoej F, Graff S, and Pedersen OF. J Appl Physiol 95: 635-642, 2003) to investigate...... the potential of AR in pharmacological research with these animals. We measured the area-distance relationships by AR of nasal cavities postmortem in five guinea pigs (Duncan Hartley, 400 g) and five rats (Wistar, 250 g) by using custom-made equipment scaled for the purpose. Nosepieces were made from plastic...... pipette tips and either inserted into or glued onto the nostrils. We used liquid perfluorocarbon in the fluid-displacement study, and it was carried out subsequent to the acoustic measurements. We found for guinea pigs that AR measured a mean volume of 98 mm(3) (95-100 mm(3)) (mean and 95% confidence...

  17. Evidence for low molecular weight, non-transferrin-bound iron in rat brain and cerebrospinal fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Torben; Morgan, Evan H.

    1998-01-01

    Neuroscience, blood-brain barrier, choroid plexus, interstitial fluid, transferrin receptor, uptake......Neuroscience, blood-brain barrier, choroid plexus, interstitial fluid, transferrin receptor, uptake...

  18. Beneficial effects of curcumin nano-emulsion on spermatogenesis and reproductive performance in male rats under protein deficient diet model: enhancement of sperm motility, conservancy of testicular tissue integrity, cell energy and seminal plasma amino acids content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed-Farid, Omar A H; Nasr, Maha; Ahmed, Rania F; Bakeer, Rofanda M

    2017-09-02

    Malnutrition resulting from protein and calorie deficiency continues to be a major concern worldwide especially in developing countries. Specific deficiencies in the protein intake can adversely influence reproductive performance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of curcumin and curcumin nano-emulsion on protein deficient diet (PDD)-induced testicular atrophy, troubled spermatogenesis and decreased reproductive performance in male rats. Juvenile rats were fed the protein deficient diet (PDD) for 75 days. Starting from day 60 the rats were divided into 4 groups and given the corresponding treatments for the last 15 days orally and daily as follows: 1st group; curcumin group (C) received 50 mg/kg curcumin p.o. 2 nd group; curcumin nano-form low dose group (NCL) received 2.5 mg/kg nano-curcumin. 3rd group; curcumin nano-form high dose group (NCH) received 5 mg/kg nano-curcumin. 4th group served as malnutrition group (PDD group) receiving the protein deficient diet daily for 75 days and received distilled water ingestions (5 ml/kg p.o) daily for the last 15 days of the experiment. A normal control group was kept under the same conditions for the whole experiment and received normal diet according to nutrition requirement center daily for 75 days and received distilled water ingestions (5 ml/kg p.o) daily for the last 15 days of the experiment. PDD induced significant (P curcumin (50 mg/kg) and curcumin nano-emulsion (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) showed significant (Pcurcumin (50 mg/kg). The present study suggests that administration of curcumin nano-emulsion as a daily supplement would be beneficial in malnutrition- induced troubled male reproductive performance and spermatogenesis cases.

  19. Effects of Exercise Following Lateral Fluid Percussion Brain Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Ramona R.; Boggs, Arden; Leider, Denise; Kraemer, Philip; Brown, Russell; Scheff, Stephen W.; Seroogy, Kim B.

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in memory and learning, and may be neuroprotective following various brain insults. Exercise has been found to increase BDNF mRNA levels in various brain regions, including specific subpopulations of hippocampal neurons. In the present study, we were interested in whether following traumatic brain injury, exercise could increase BDNF mRNA expression, attenuate neuropathology, and improve cognitive and neuromoter performance. We subjected adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to a fluid percussion brain injury, followed by either 18 days of treadmill exercise or handling. Spatial memory was evaluated in a Morris Water Maze (MWM) and motor function was evaluated with a battery of neuromotor tests. Neuropathology was evaluated by measuring the cortical lesion volume and the extent of neuronal loss in the hipocampus. Expression of BDNF mRNA in the hippocampus was assessed with in situ hybridization and densitometry. Hybridization signal for BDNF mRNA was significantly increased bilaterally in the exercise group in hippocampal regions CA1 and CA3 (p<0.05), but not in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus. No significant differences were observed between the groups in neuropathology, spatial memory, or motor performance. This study suggests that after traumatic brain injury, exercise elevates BDNF mRNA in specific regions of the hippocampus.

  20. Disturbed Glucose Metabolism in Rat Neurons Exposed to Cerebrospinal Fluid Obtained from Multiple Sclerosis Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepali Mathur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Axonal damage is widely accepted as a major cause of permanent functional disability in Multiple Sclerosis (MS. In relapsing-remitting MS, there is a possibility of remyelination by myelin producing cells and restoration of neurological function. The purpose of this study was to delineate the pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning axonal injury through hitherto unknown factors present in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF that may regulate axonal damage, remyelinate the axon and make functional recovery possible. We employed primary cultures of rat unmyelinated cerebellar granule neurons and treated them with CSF obtained from MS and Neuromyelitis optica (NMO patients. We performed microarray gene expression profiling to study changes in gene expression in treated neurons as compared to controls. Additionally, we determined the influence of gene-gene interaction upon the whole metabolic network in our experimental conditions using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING program. Our findings revealed the downregulated expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism in MS-derived CSF-treated neurons and upregulated expression of genes in NMO-derived CSF-treated neurons. We conclude that factors in the CSF of these patients caused a perturbation in metabolic gene(s expression and suggest that MS appears to be linked with metabolic deformity.

  1. Effects of abdominal lavage fluid from rats with radiation injury and combined radiation-burn injury on growth of hematopoietic progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Y.-P.; Cheng, T.-M.; Guo, C.-H.; Liu, X.-H.; Qu, J.-F.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Objective: To observe the effects of abdominal lavage fluid from rats with radiation injury, burn injury and combined radiation-burn injury on growth of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Methods Rats were irradiated with a single dose of 12 Gy γ-ray of 60Co, combined with 30% of total body surface area (TBSA) generated under a 5 KW bromo-tungsten lamp for 25 s. Lavage fluid from the peritoneum was collected 3, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours after injury. Then the lavage fluid was added to the culture media of erythrocyte progenitor cells (CFU-E, BFE-E) or of granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells (CFU-GM) at 40 mg/ml final concentration. Results The formed clones of CFU-E, BFU-E and CFU-GM of the lavage fluid from rats with radiation injury or combined radiation-burn injury at 3h, 12h, 24h, 48h and 72h time points were significantly higher than those from normal. They reached their peaks at 24h after injury (215.7%, 202.3%, or 241.2% from burned rats and 188.1%, 202.3% or 204.6% from rats inflected with combined radiation-burn injury as compared with those from normal rats). However, few CFU-E, BFU-E or CFU-GM clones were found after addition of lavage fluid from irradiated rats. Conclusion Peritoneal lavage fluid from rats with burn injury or combined radiation-burn injury enhances the growth of erythrocytes and granulocyte progenitor cells. On the contrary, the lavage fluid from irradiated rats shows inhibitory effects

  2. [Effect of different volumes of fluid resuscitation on hemorrhagic shock with pulmonary edema at high altitude in the unacclimated rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang-ming; Hu, De-yao; Liu, Jian-cang; Li, Ping; Liu, Hou-dong; Xiao, Nan; Zhou, Xue-wu; Tian, Kun-lun; Huo, Xiao-ping; Shi, Quan-gui; He, Yan-mei; Yin, Zuo-ming

    2003-05-01

    To study the effects of different volumes of fluid resuscitation on hemorrhagic shock with pulmonary edema at high altitude in the unacclimated rat. One hundred and twenty-six SD rats transported to Lasa, Tibet, 3 760 meters above the sea level, were anesthetized one week later with sodium pentobarbital (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneal). Hemorrhagic shock with pulmonary edema model was induced by hemorrhage (50 mm Hg for 1 hour, 1 mmHg=0.133 kPa) plus intravenous injection of oleic acid (50 microl/kg). Experiments were then conducted in two parts. Sixty-three rats in part I were equally divided into nine groups (n=7): normal control, hemorrhagic shock control, hemorrhagic shock with pulmonary edema (HSPE) without fluid infusion, HSPE plus infusing lactated Ringer's solution (LR) with 0.5-, 1-, 1.5-, 2- or 3- fold volume shed blood, and 1 volume of LR plus mannitol (10 ml/kg). Hemodynamic parameters including mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), left intraventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) and the maximal change rate of intraventricular pressure rise or decline (+/- dp/dt max) were observed at 15, 30, 60 and 120 minutes after infusion, blood gases were measured at 30 and 120 minutes after infusion and the water content of lung and brain was determined at 120 minutes after infusion. In part II, additional 63 rats were used to observe the effect of different volumes of fluid resuscitation on survival time of HSPE rats. 0.5 volume of LR infusion significantly improved MAP, LVSP and +/- dp/dt max, prolonged the survival time of HSPE animals (all P<0.01), while it did not increase the water content of lung and brain and had no marked influence on blood gases. One volume of LR infusion slightly improved hemodynamic parameters, prolonged the survival time and increased the water content of lung. More than 1 volume of LR infusion including 1.5-, 2- and 3- fold volume LR deteriorated the hemodynamic parameters and decreased the survival time of shocked animal, meanwhile they

  3. Multiple effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and on vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojimoto, Fernanda D; Piffer, Renata C; Kiguti, Luiz Ricardo de A; Lameu, Claudiana; de Camargo, Antônio C M; Pereira, Oduvaldo C M; Pupo, André S

    2009-09-15

    Sibutramine is an inhibitor of norepinephrine and 5-HT reuptake largely used in the management of obesity. Although a fairly safe drug, postmarketing adverse effects of sibutramine were reported including abnormal ejaculation in men. This study investigates the effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility. Adult male rats received sibutramine (5; 20; or 50 mg kg(-1), ip) and after 60 min were exposed to receptive females for determination of ejaculation parameters. The vasa deferentia and seminal vesicles of untreated rats were mounted in isolated organ baths for recording of isometric contractions and HEK293 cells loaded with fluorescent calcium indicator were used to measure intracellular Ca(2+) transients. Sibutramine 5 and 20 mg kg(-1) reduced ejaculation latency whereas 50 mg kg(-1) increased ejaculation latency. Sibutramine 3 to 30 microM greatly increased the sensitivity of the seminal vesicle and vas deferens to norepinephrine, but at concentrations higher than 10 microM there were striking depressions of maximal contractions induced by norepinephrine, carbachol and CaCl(2). In HEK293 cells, sibutramine 10 to 100 microM inhibited intracellular Ca(2+) transients induced by carbachol. Depending on the doses, sibutramine either facilitates or inhibits ejaculation. Apart from its actions in the central nervous system, facilitation of ejaculation may result from augmented sensitivity of smooth muscles to norepinephrine while reductions of intracellular Ca(2+) may be involved in the delayed ejaculation observed with high doses of sibutramine.

  4. Multiple effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and on vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojimoto, Fernanda D.; Piffer, Renata C.; Kiguti, Luiz Ricardo de A.; Lameu, Claudiana; Camargo, Antonio C.M. de; Pereira, Oduvaldo C.M.; Pupo, Andre S.

    2009-01-01

    Sibutramine is an inhibitor of norepinephrine and 5-HT reuptake largely used in the management of obesity. Although a fairly safe drug, postmarketing adverse effects of sibutramine were reported including abnormal ejaculation in men. This study investigates the effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility. Adult male rats received sibutramine (5; 20; or 50 mg kg -1 , ip) and after 60 min were exposed to receptive females for determination of ejaculation parameters. The vasa deferentia and seminal vesicles of untreated rats were mounted in isolated organ baths for recording of isometric contractions and HEK293 cells loaded with fluorescent calcium indicator were used to measure intracellular Ca 2+ transients. Sibutramine 5 and 20 mg kg -1 reduced ejaculation latency whereas 50 mg kg -1 increased ejaculation latency. Sibutramine 3 to 30 μM greatly increased the sensitivity of the seminal vesicle and vas deferens to norepinephrine, but at concentrations higher than 10 μM there were striking depressions of maximal contractions induced by norepinephrine, carbachol and CaCl 2 . In HEK293 cells, sibutramine 10 to 100 μM inhibited intracellular Ca 2+ transients induced by carbachol. Depending on the doses, sibutramine either facilitates or inhibits ejaculation. Apart from its actions in the central nervous system, facilitation of ejaculation may result from augmented sensitivity of smooth muscles to norepinephrine while reductions of intracellular Ca 2+ may be involved in the delayed ejaculation observed with high doses of sibutramine.

  5. Increased transfer of 45Ca into brain and cerebrospinal fluid from plasma during chronic hypocalcemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, V A; Rapoport, S I

    1988-06-28

    Recent studies have shown regulation of central nervous system [Ca] after chronic hypo- and hypercalcemia. To investigate the mechanism of this regulation, 3-week-old rats were fed diets for 8 weeks that contained low or normal levels of Ca. Plasma [Ca] was 40% less in rats fed the low Ca diet than in animals fed normal diet. Unidirectional transfer coefficients for Ca (KCa) and Cl (KCl) into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain were determined from the 10 min uptake of intravenously injected 45Ca and 36Cl in awake animals. KCa for CSF was 68% greater in low-Ca rats than in normal rats. Likewise, the values of KCa for brain regions with areas adjacent to the ventricles like the hippocampus and pons-medulla were 50% higher than in normal animals. On the other hand, KCas for parietal cortex, a brain region distant from the choroid plexus and not expected to be influenced by Ca entry into CSF, were similar between the groups. Comparison of the regional ratios of KCa/KCl revealed that a selective increase of Ca transport occurred into CSF and all brain regions except the parietal cortex in Ca-deficient rats. The results suggest that Ca homeostasis of CSF and brain [Ca] during chronic hypocalcemia is due to increased transfer of Ca from blood to brain, and that the regulation occurs via the CSF, possibly at the choroid plexus, but not via the cerebral capillaries.

  6. Double Stranded RNA in Human Seminal Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Zagoskin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, human semen was shown to contain cell-free nucleic acids, such as DNA, long single stranded RNA, and small RNAs–miRNA and piRNA. The RNAs have been suggested to have potential biological roles as communication molecules between cells and in the temporal and spatial regulation of gene expression in the male reproductive system. Here we demonstrate that human seminal plasma contains a variety of cell-free dsRNAs, describe a robust method to isolate this type of nucleic acid in preparative amounts, and discuss the potential biological roles of these molecules in inheritance. dsRNA plays a role in a variety of biological processes, including gene regulation, is extremely stable and can gain access to cells from the extracellular medium. We suggest that one of the possible functions of dsRNA in human seminal plasma may be to influence human oocytes and therefore, influence the offspring. It also remains possible that these dsRNAs might have potential use as biomarkers for the study of human physiopathological conditions and genetic variation.

  7. Hormones and endocrine disruptors in human seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, R; Kubatova, J; Heracek, J; Sobotka, V; Starka, L

    2013-07-01

    Seminal plasma represents a unique environment for maturation, nutrition, and protection of male germ cells from damaging agents. It contains an array of organic as well as inorganic chemicals, encompassing a number of biologically and immunologically active compounds, including hormones. Seminal plasma contains also various pollutants transferred from outer environment known as endocrine disruptors. They interfere with hormones at the receptor level, act as inhibitors of their biosynthesis, and affect hormone regulation.In this minireview, the main groups of hormones detected in seminal plasma are summarized. Seminal gonadal steroids were investigated mostly with aim to use them as biomarkers of impaired spermatogenesis (sperm count, motility, morphology). Concentrations of hormones in the seminal plasma often differ considerably from the blood plasma levels in dependence on their origin. In some instances (dihydrotestosterone, estradiol), their informative value is higher than determination in blood.Out of peptide hormones detected in seminal plasma, peptides of transforming growth factor beta family, especially antimullerian hormone, and oligopeptides related to thyrotropin releasing hormone have the high informative value, while assessment of seminal gonadotropins and prolactin does not bring advantage over determination in blood.Though there is a large body of information about the endocrine disruptors' impact on male reproduction, especially with their potential role in decline of male reproductive functions within the last decades, there are only scarce reports on their presence in seminal plasma. Herein, the main groups of endocrine disruptors found in seminal plasma are reviewed, and the use of their determination for investigation of fertility disorders is discussed.

  8. Effect of fluid supplementation and modality on peritoneal permeability characteristics in a rat peritoneal dialysis model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zweers, M. M.; Splint, L. J.; Krediet, R. T.; Struijk, D. G.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Hemoconcentration may influence peritoneal permeability parameters in anesthetized animals without fluid supplementation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of fluid supplementation on peritoneal permeability in an acute peritoneal dialysis model in

  9. [Lessening effect of hypoxia-preconditioned rat cerebrospinal fluid on oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced injury of cultured hippocampal neurons in neonate rats and possible mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jing-Zhong; Zhang, Yan-Bo; Li, Mei-Yi; Liu, Li-Li

    2011-12-25

    The present study was to investigate the effect of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the rats with hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) on apoptosis of cultured hippocampal neurons in neonate rats under oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD). Adult Wistar rats were exposed to 3 h of hypoxia for HPC, and then their CSF was taken out. Cultured hippocampal neurons from the neonate rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6): normal control group, OGD group, normal CSF group and HPC CSF group. OGD group received 1.5 h of incubation in glucose-free Earle's solution containing 1 mmol/L Na2S2O4, and normal and HPC CSF groups were subjected to 1 d of corresponding CSF treatments followed by 1.5 h OGD. The apoptosis of neurons was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscope and flow cytometry using Annexin V/PI double staining. Moreover, protein expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax were detected by immunofluorescence. The results showed that few apoptotic cells were observed in normal control group, whereas the number of apoptotic cells was greatly increased in OGD group. Both normal and HPC CSF could decrease the apoptosis of cultured hippocampal neurons injured by OGD (P neurons by up-regulating expression of Bcl-2 and down-regulating expression of Bax.

  10. Seminal quality prediction using data mining methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Anoop J; Kumar, Yugal

    2014-01-01

    Now-a-days, some new classes of diseases have come into existences which are known as lifestyle diseases. The main reasons behind these diseases are changes in the lifestyle of people such as alcohol drinking, smoking, food habits etc. After going through the various lifestyle diseases, it has been found that the fertility rates (sperm quantity) in men has considerably been decreasing in last two decades. Lifestyle factors as well as environmental factors are mainly responsible for the change in the semen quality. The objective of this paper is to identify the lifestyle and environmental features that affects the seminal quality and also fertility rate in man using data mining methods. The five artificial intelligence techniques such as Multilayer perceptron (MLP), Decision Tree (DT), Navie Bayes (Kernel), Support vector machine+Particle swarm optimization (SVM+PSO) and Support vector machine (SVM) have been applied on fertility dataset to evaluate the seminal quality and also to predict the person is either normal or having altered fertility rate. While the eight feature selection techniques such as support vector machine (SVM), neural network (NN), evolutionary logistic regression (LR), support vector machine plus particle swarm optimization (SVM+PSO), principle component analysis (PCA), chi-square test, correlation and T-test methods have been used to identify more relevant features which affect the seminal quality. These techniques are applied on fertility dataset which contains 100 instances with nine attribute with two classes. The experimental result shows that SVM+PSO provides higher accuracy and area under curve (AUC) rate (94% & 0.932) among multi-layer perceptron (MLP) (92% & 0.728), Support Vector Machines (91% & 0.758), Navie Bayes (Kernel) (89% & 0.850) and Decision Tree (89% & 0.735) for some of the seminal parameters. This paper also focuses on the feature selection process i.e. how to select the features which are more important for prediction of

  11. Effects of supplemental seminal plasma on cryopreserved boar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To analyse the effects of supplemental autologous seminal plasma on boar semen quality before freezing and after thawing, thirty ejaculates were collected from six Pietrain boars. The main factors of a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments were Beltsville thawing solution (BTS), seminal plasma before freezing, and ...

  12. Simulated rat intestinal fluid improves oral exposure prediction for poorly soluble compounds over a wide dose range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg Berghausen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Solubility can be the absorption limiting factor for drug candidates and is therefore a very important input parameter for oral exposure prediction of compounds with limited solubility. Biorelevant media of the fasted and fed state have been published for humans, as well as for dogs in the fasted state. In a drug discovery environment, rodents are the most common animal model to assess the oral exposure of drug candidates. In this study a rat simulated intestinal fluid (rSIF is proposed as a more physiologically relevant media to describe drug solubility in rats. Equilibrium solubility in this medium was tested as input parameter for physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK simulations of oral pharmacokinetics in the rat. Simulations were compared to those obtained using other solubility values as input parameters, like buffer at pH 6.8, human simulated intestinal fluid and a comprehensive dissolution assay based on rSIF. Our study on nine different compounds demonstrates that the incorporation of rSIF equilibrium solubility values into PBPK models of oral drug exposure can significantly improve the reliability of simulations in rats for doses up to 300 mg/kg compared to other media. The comprehensive dissolution assay may help to improve further simulation outcome, but the greater experimental effort as compared to equilibrium solubility may limit its use in a drug discovery environment. Overall, PBPK simulations based on solubility in the proposed rSIF medium can improve prioritizing compounds in drug discovery as well as planning dose escalation studies, e.g. during toxicological investigations.

  13. Metabolomic changes in follicular fluid induced by soy isoflavones administered to rats from weaning until sexual maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenxiang [Department of Nutrition and Health Care, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Zhang, Wenchang, E-mail: wenchang2002@sina.com [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Liu, Jin [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Sun, Yan [Center for Reproductive Medicine, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fujian Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Li, Yuchen; Li, Hong; Xiao, Shihua; Shen, Xiaohua [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China)

    2013-06-15

    Female Wistar rats at 21 days of age were treated with one of three concentrations of soy isoflavones (SIF) (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight, orally, once per day) from weaning until sexual maturity (3 months) in order to evaluate the influence of SIF on ovarian follicle development. After treatment, the serum sex hormone levels and enumeration of ovarian follicles of the ovary were measured. The metabolic profile of follicular fluid was determined using HPLC-MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify differences in metabolites and reveal useful toxic biomarkers. The results indicated that modest doses of SIF affect ovarian follicle development, as demonstrated by decreased serum estradiol levels and increases in both ovarian follicle atresia and corpora lutea number in the ovary. SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were also found in the PCA and PLS-DA models. The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified, including primary sex hormones, amino acids, fatty acids and metabolites involved in energy metabolism. These findings may indicate that soy isoflavones affect ovarian follicle development by inducing metabolomic variations in the follicular fluid. - Highlights: ► Modest doses of soy isoflavones (SIF) do affect ovarian follicle development. ► SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were found. ► The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified.

  14. Metabolomic changes in follicular fluid induced by soy isoflavones administered to rats from weaning until sexual maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenxiang; Zhang, Wenchang; Liu, Jin; Sun, Yan; Li, Yuchen; Li, Hong; Xiao, Shihua; Shen, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    Female Wistar rats at 21 days of age were treated with one of three concentrations of soy isoflavones (SIF) (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight, orally, once per day) from weaning until sexual maturity (3 months) in order to evaluate the influence of SIF on ovarian follicle development. After treatment, the serum sex hormone levels and enumeration of ovarian follicles of the ovary were measured. The metabolic profile of follicular fluid was determined using HPLC-MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify differences in metabolites and reveal useful toxic biomarkers. The results indicated that modest doses of SIF affect ovarian follicle development, as demonstrated by decreased serum estradiol levels and increases in both ovarian follicle atresia and corpora lutea number in the ovary. SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were also found in the PCA and PLS-DA models. The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified, including primary sex hormones, amino acids, fatty acids and metabolites involved in energy metabolism. These findings may indicate that soy isoflavones affect ovarian follicle development by inducing metabolomic variations in the follicular fluid. - Highlights: ► Modest doses of soy isoflavones (SIF) do affect ovarian follicle development. ► SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were found. ► The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified

  15. Time-frequency analyses of fluid-solid interaction under sinusoidal translational shear deformation of the viscoelastic rat cerebrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Lauren N.; Haslach, Henry W.

    2018-02-01

    During normal extracellular fluid (ECF) flow in the brain glymphatic system or during pathological flow induced by trauma resulting from impacts and blast waves, ECF-solid matter interactions result from sinusoidal shear waves in the brain and cranial arterial tissue, both heterogeneous biological tissues with high fluid content. The flow in the glymphatic system is known to be forced by pulsations of the cranial arteries at about 1 Hz. The experimental shear stress response to sinusoidal translational shear deformation at 1 Hz and 25% strain amplitude and either 0% or 33% compression is compared for rat cerebrum and bovine aortic tissue. Time-frequency analyses aim to correlate the shear stress signal frequency components over time with the behavior of brain tissue constituents to identify the physical source of the shear nonlinear viscoelastic response. Discrete fast Fourier transformation analysis and the novel application to the shear stress signal of harmonic wavelet decomposition both show significant 1 Hz and 3 Hz components. The 3 Hz component in brain tissue, whose magnitude is much larger than in aortic tissue, may result from interstitial fluid induced drag forces. The harmonic wavelet decomposition locates 3 Hz harmonics whose magnitudes decrease on subsequent cycles perhaps because of bond breaking that results in easier fluid movement. Both tissues exhibit transient shear stress softening similar to the Mullins effect in rubber. The form of a new mathematical model for the drag force produced by ECF-solid matter interactions captures the third harmonic seen experimentally.

  16. Effects of Constant Flow vs. Constant Pressure Perfusion on Fluid Filtration in Severe Hypothermic Isolated Blood-Perfused Rat Lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsøy, Kathrine; Kondratiev, Timofey; Tveita, Torkjel; Bjertnaes, Lars J

    2016-01-01

    Victims of severe accidental hypothermia are prone to fluid extravasation but rarely develop lung edema. We hypothesize that combined hypothermia-induced increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and a concomitant fall in cardiac output protect the lungs against edema development. Our aim was to explore in hypothermic-isolated blood-perfused rat lungs whether perfusion at constant pressure influences fluid filtration differently from perfusion at constant flow. Isolated blood-perfused rat lungs were hanging freely in a weight transducer for measuring weight changes (ΔW). Fluid filtration coefficient (Kfc), was determined by transiently elevating left atrial pressure (Pla) by 5.8 mmHg two times each during normothermia (37°C) and during hypothermia (15°C). The lung preparations were randomized to two groups. One group was perfused with constant flow (Constant flow group) and the other group with constant pulmonary artery pressure (Constant PPA group). Microvascular pressure (Pmv) was determined before and during elevation of Pla (ΔPmv) by means of the double occlusion technique. Kfc was calculated with the formula Kfc = ΔW/ΔPmv/min. All Kfc values were normalized to predicted lung weight (P LW ), which was based on body weight (BW) according to the formula: P LW  = 0.0053 BW - 0.48 and presented as Kfc PLW in mg/min/mmHg/g. At cessation, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid/perfusate protein concentration (B/P) ratio was determined photometrically. Data were analyzed with parametric or non-parametric tests as appropriate. p  Kfc PLW and B/P ratio increased significantly by more than 10-fold during hypothermia concerted by visible signs of edema in the trachea. Hemoglobin and hematocrit increased within the Constant flow group and between the groups at cessation of the experiments. In hypothermic rat lungs perfused at constant flow, fluid filtration coefficient per gram P LW and B/P ratio increased more than 10-fold concerted by increased

  17. Seminal vesicle intrafraction motion analysed with cinematic magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, Suki; Dang, Kim; Fox, Chris; Bressel, Mathias; Kron, Tomas; Bergen, Noelene; Ferris, Nick; Owen, Rebecca; Chander, Sarat; Tai, Keen Hun; Foroudi, Farshad

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses seminal vesicle displacement relative to the prostate and in relation to treatment time. A group of eleven patients undergoing prostate cancer radiotherapy were imaged with a continuous 3 T cine-MRI in the standard treatment setup position. Four images were recorded every 4 seconds for 15 minutes in the sagittal plane and every 6.5 seconds for 12 minutes in the coronal plane. The prostate gland and seminal vesicles were contoured on each MRI image. The coordinates of the centroid of the prostate and seminal vesicles on each image was analysed for displacement against time. Displacements between the 2.5 percentile and 97.5 percentile (i.e. the 2.5% trimmed range) for prostate and seminal vesicle centroid displacements were measured for 3, 5, 10 and 15 minutes time intervals in the anterior-posterior (AP), left-right (LR) and superior-inferior (SI) directions. Real time prostate and seminal vesicle displacement was compared for individual patients. The 2.5% trimmed range for 3, 5, 10 and 15 minutes for the seminal vesicle centroids in the SI direction measured 4.7 mm; 5.8 mm; 6.5 mm and 7.2 mm respectively. In the AP direction, it was 4.0 mm, 4.5 mm, 6.5 mm, and 7.0 mm. In the LR direction for 3, 5 and 10 minutes; for the left seminal vesicle, it was 2.7 mm, 2.8 mm, 3.4 mm and for the right seminal vesicle, it was 3.4 mm, 3.3 mm, and 3.4 mm. The correlation between the real-time prostate and seminal vesicle displacement varied substantially between patients indicating that the relationship between prostate displacement and seminal vesicles displacement is patient specific with the majority of the patients not having a strong relationship. Our study shows that seminal vesicle motion increases with treatment time, and that the prostate and seminal vesicle centroids do not move in unison in real time, and that an additional margin is required for independent seminal vesicle motion if treatment localisation is to the prostate

  18. Repurposing Hsp104 to Antagonize Seminal Amyloid and Counter HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Laura M; Bart, Stephen M; Holmes, Veronica M; Weissman, Drew; Shorter, James

    2015-08-20

    Naturally occurring proteolytic fragments of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP248-286 and PAP85-120) and semenogelins (SEM1 and SEM2) form amyloid fibrils in seminal fluid, which capture HIV virions and promote infection. For example, PAP248-286 fibrils, termed SEVI (semen-derived enhancer of viral infection), can potentiate HIV infection by several orders of magnitude. Here, we design three disruptive technologies to rapidly antagonize seminal amyloid by repurposing Hsp104, an amyloid-remodeling nanomachine from yeast. First, Hsp104 and an enhanced engineered variant, Hsp104(A503V), directly remodel SEVI and PAP85-120 fibrils into non-amyloid forms. Second, we elucidate catalytically inactive Hsp104 scaffolds that do not remodel amyloid structure, but cluster SEVI, PAP85-120, and SEM1(45-107) fibrils into larger assemblies. Third, we modify Hsp104 to interact with the chambered protease ClpP, which enables coupled remodeling and degradation to irreversibly clear SEVI and PAP85-120 fibrils. Each strategy diminished the ability of seminal amyloid to promote HIV infection, and could have therapeutic utility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Role of mesenteric lymph drainage improving the metabolism of red blood cell in hemorrhagic shock rats following fluid resuscitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rui; Du, Hui-bo; Lu, Bei; Si, Yong-hua; Zhang, Li-min; Zhang, Yu-pin; Zhao, Zi-gang; Niu, Chun-yu

    2012-08-01

    To observe the effects of mesenteric lymph drainage on the metabolism of red blood cell (RBC) in hemorrhagic shock (HS) rats following fluid resuscitation. Eighteen male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham group (n=6), HS group (n=6), HS + drainage group (n=6). After 1.5 hours of HS model prepared, the animals were given fluid resuscitation by lost blood plus equal volume of Ringer solution within 30 minutes in HS and HS + drainage groups, and mesenteric lymph drainage was performed after 1 hour of hypotension in HS + drainage group. At 3 hours after resuscitation or corresponding time, blood samples were obtained from abdominal aorta. Membrane suspensions of RBC prepared from part of whole blood samples were used to measure the activities of adenosine triphosphate ase (ATPase) and contents of ATP and lactic acid (LA), the intracellular fluid of RBC prepared from part of whole blood samples was used to determine the concentration of 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid (2,3-DPG), Na(+) and K(+), plasma samples isolated from blood by centrifugation were used to determine the concentration of Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) and total Ca. Compared with sham group, the content of ATP (μmol/g), activity of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase (μmol×mg(-1)×h(-1)) and Ca(2+)-ATPase (μmol×mg(-1)×h(-1)) in RBC membrane and total Ca (mmol/L) in plasma were decreased markedly (ATP: 6.698±0.938 vs. 10.670±1.466, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase: 0.042±0.010 vs. 0.066±0.019, Ca(2+)-ATPase: 0.054±0.015 vs. 0.081±0.017, total Ca: 2.27±0.18 vs. 2.66±0.21, P0.05). Compared with HS group, the contents of 2,3-DPG (4.459±0.900) and ATP (8.859±1.189), the activities of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase (0.089±0.022), Ca(2+)-ATPase (0.082±0.020) of RBC were increased in HS + drainage group, and the level of LA (2.060±0.810) was decreased observably (Pdrainage plays an important role in improving the metabolism of RBC in HS rats following fluid resuscitation, subsequently, may preserve the structure and function of RBC.

  20. Decreases in renal functional reserve and proximal tubular fluid output in conscious oophorectomized rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Camilla Birch; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Bruun, Jens Meldgaard

    2003-01-01

    Age-dependent glomerulosclerosis with reduced GFR develops earlier among men than among women. Therefore, whether female sex hormones could prevent the age-dependent decrease in GFR was investigated. The kidney function in oophorectomized rats treated with placebo (OOX group), estrogen (OOX+E(2...... effects were prevented with administration of estrogen. Sham-operated rats demonstrated values for renal functional reserve and fractional lithium excretion that were between those observed for the OOX group and the groups treated with sex hormones....

  1. Temporal course of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and amyloid accumulation in the aging rat brain from three to thirty months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyloid accumulation in the brain parenchyma is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD and is seen in normal aging. Alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF dynamics are also associated with normal aging and AD. This study analyzed CSF volume, production and turnover rate in relation to amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ accumulation in the aging rat brain. Methods Aging Fischer 344/Brown-Norway hybrid rats at 3, 12, 20, and 30 months were studied. CSF production was measured by ventriculo-cisternal perfusion with blue dextran in artificial CSF; CSF volume by MRI; and CSF turnover rate by dividing the CSF production rate by the volume of the CSF space. Aβ40 and Aβ42 concentrations in the cortex and hippocampus were measured by ELISA. Results There was a significant linear increase in total cranial CSF volume with age: 3-20 months (p p p p -1 to 12 months (11.30 day-1 and then a decrease to 20 months (10.23 day-1 and 30 months (6.62 day-1. Aβ40 and Aβ42 concentrations in brain increased from 3-30 months (p Conclusions In young rats there is no correlation between CSF turnover and Aβ brain concentrations. After 12 months, CSF turnover decreases as brain Aβ continues to accumulate. This decrease in CSF turnover rate may be one of several clearance pathway alterations that influence age-related accumulation of brain amyloid.

  2. Identification of New Epididymal Luminal Fluid Proteins Involved in Sperm Maturation in Infertile Rats Treated by Dutasteride Using iTRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Wu Xie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spermatozoa become mature and acquire fertilizing capacity during their passage through the epididymal lumen. In this study, we identified new epididymal luminal fluid proteins involved in sperm maturation in infertile rats by dutasteride, a dual 5α-reductase inhibitor, in order to provide potential epididymal targets for new contraceptives and infertility treatment. Methods: Male rats were treated with dutasteride for 28 consecutive days. We observed the protein expression profiles in the epididymal luminal fluids in infertile and normal rats using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ technique. The confidence of proteome data was validated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results: 1045 proteins were tested, and 23 of them presented different expression profiling in the infertile and normal rats. The seven proteins were down-regulated, and 16 proteins were up-regulated. Among the seven proteins which were significantly down-regulated by dutasteride in the epididymal luminal fluids, there were three β-defensins (Defb2, Defb18 and Defb39, which maybe the key proteins involved in epididymal sperm maturation and male fertility. Conclusions: We report for the first time that dutasteride influences the protein expression profiling in the epididymal luminal fluids of rats, and this result provides some new epididymal targets for male contraception and infertility therapy.

  3. FACTORES QUE AFECTAN LA CALIDAD SEMINAL EN TOROSFACTORS AFFECTING SEMINAL QUALITY IN BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano Marquez Harvey

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available La calidad seminal de los toros se puede ver afectada por múltiples causas tanto de origen infeccioso o no infeccioso. El entendimiento adecuado de estas causas es de gran importancia ya que de este modo se pueden tomar los correctivos necesarios ya sea para tratar al toro, o en otros casos para descartarlo del sistema productivo del cual haga parte. No se debe olvidar como la presencia física del toro se puede dar a partir de un banco de germoplasma (semen congelado, el cual puede tener problemas de calidad no inherentes al proceso de criopreservación sino a factores infecciosos o no infecciosos previos a la congelación. Los problemas de calidad seminal se verán reflejados en los diferentes parámetros reproductivos del sistema productivo, lo que a su véz será de gran relevancia al hacer un balance de pérdidas y ganancias de una ganadería tanto de ganado de carne como de leche.Semen quality of bulls can be affected by multiple causes, both infectious and non infectious. Proper understanding of these causes is imperative, either to take the necessary correctives to treat the bull or to discard it from the productive system. It is important not to forget that the physical presence of the bull can be from a germoplasm bank (frozen semen which can have quality problems not related to the cryopreservation procedure but to infectious or not infectious factors before freezing. Seminal quality problems will be reflected on different reproductive parameters of the productive system and these will be highly relevant when estimating earnings and losses of the productive system, both for beef or milk production.

  4. Cystadenoma of the seminal vesicle. A case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundhus, E; Bundgaard, N; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1984-01-01

    Cystadenomas of the seminal vesicle are extremely rare benign tumours, which only have been reported seven times earlier in the literature. The first Danish case is reported with discussion of symptomatology, pathology and treatment.......Cystadenomas of the seminal vesicle are extremely rare benign tumours, which only have been reported seven times earlier in the literature. The first Danish case is reported with discussion of symptomatology, pathology and treatment....

  5. Seminal vesicle involvement at salvage radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Joshua J; Walker, Marc; Bernstein, Melanie; Eastham, James A

    2013-06-01

    To describe the incidence and clinical outcomes of seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) at salvage radical prostatectomy (SRP) and to describe the accuracy of SV biopsy. As SRP is used after biochemical recurrence (BCR) of prostate cancer after radiotherapy (RT) to gain local oncological control. The SVs receive lower doses of radiation from external-beam RT (EBRT) to avoid rectal exposure and are not targeted with brachytherapy (BT) with low-risk prostate cancer. SRP was performed on 206 men with BCR after RT at a tertiary care institution between 1998 and 2011. Post-RT biopsy and SRP specimens were reviewed by a genitourinary pathologist. SVI was detected in 65 (32%) of 206 patients. No difference was found between EBRT alone (65% vs 63%) and BT (29% vs 31%) with or without EBRT in patients with SVI. Men with SVI had higher rates of cT3 disease (20% vs 8%) and Gleason score ≥ 8 at SRP (52% vs 21%). BCR-free survival at 5 years was 18% and 56% in patients with and without SVI (hazard ratio 2.85, 95% confidence interval 1.87-4.36, P < 0.001), yet the rate of local recurrence was low (11%). Prostate cancer was identified in nine of 18 patients who underwent SV biopsy and was the only location of prostate cancer in two patients. SVI is a prognostic indicator for BCR after SRP, but local recurrence in patients with SVI after SRP remains low. We recommend SV biopsy to improve staging and cancer detection in men with BCR after radiotherapy. © 2013 BJU International.

  6. Influence of fluid resuscitation on renal microvascular PO2 in a normotensive rat model of endotoxemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johannes, Tanja; Mik, Egbert G.; Nohé, Boris; Raat, Nicolaas J. H.; Unertl, Klaus E.; Ince, Can

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Septic renal failure is often seen in the intensive care unit but its pathogenesis is only partly understood. This study, performed in a normotensive rat model of endotoxemia, tests the hypotheses that endotoxemia impairs renal microvascular PO2 (microPO2) and oxygen consumption

  7. Fucosylated glycans in the periventricular structures and the cerebrospinal fluid of the fetal rat forebrain. An autoradiographic and lectin binding histiotopic study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Vladislav; Brückner, G.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2001), s. 297-303 ISSN 0736-5748 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : fetal rat brain * fucosylated glycans * cerebrospinal fluid Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.156, year: 2001

  8. A Noninvasive Method to Study Regulation of Extracellular Fluid Volume in Rats Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR)-based measurement of body composition of rodents is an effective method to quickly and repeatedly measure proportions of fat, lean, and fluid without anesthesia. TD-NMR provides a measure of free water in a living animal, termed % f...

  9. Correlative analysis of metabolite profiling of Danggui Buxue Tang in rat biological fluids by rapid resolution LC-TOF/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang-Yin; Qi, Lian-Wen; Li, Ping

    2011-04-28

    In this work, the metabolite profiles of Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) in rat bile and plasma were qualitatively described, and the possible metabolic pathways of DBT were subsequently proposed. Emphasis was put on correlative analysis of metabolite profiling in different biological fluids. After oral administration of DBT, bile and plasma samples were collected and pretreated by solid phase extraction. Rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-TOFMS) was used for characterization of DBT-related compounds (parent compounds and metabolites) in biological matrices. A total of 142 metabolites were detected and tentatively identified from the drug-containing bile and plasma samples. Metabolite profiling shows that rat bile contained relatively more glutathione-derived conjugates, more saponins compounds and more diverse forms of metabolites than urine. The metabolite profile in plasma revealed that glucuronide conjugates of isoflavonoids, dimmers, acetylcysteine conjugates and parent form of phthalides, as well as saponin aglycones were the major circulating forms of DBT. Collectively, the metabolite profile analysis of DBT in different biological matrices provided a comprehensive understanding of the in vivo metabolic fates of constituents in DBT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Amniotic fluid stem cells with low γ-interferon response showed behavioral improvement in Parkinsonism rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jen Chang

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs are multipotent stem cells that may be used in transplantation medicine. In this study, AFSCs established from amniocentesis were characterized on the basis of surface marker expression and differentiation potential. To further investigate the properties of AFSCs for translational applications, we examined the cell surface expression of human leukocyte antigens (HLA of these cells and estimated the therapeutic effect of AFSCs in parkinsonian rats. The expression profiles of HLA-II and transcription factors were compared between AFSCs and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs following treatment with γ-IFN. We found that stimulation of AFSCs with γ-IFN prompted only a slight increase in the expression of HLA-Ia and HLA-E, and the rare HLA-II expression could also be observed in most AFSCs samples. Consequently, the expression of CIITA and RFX5 was weakly induced by γ-IFN stimulation of AFSCs compared to that of BMMSCs. In the transplantation test, Sprague Dawley rats with 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning of the substantia nigra were used as a parkinsonian-animal model. Following the negative γ-IFN response AFSCs injection, apomorphine-induced rotation was reduced by 75% in AFSCs engrafted parkinsonian rats but was increased by 53% in the control group after 12-weeks post-transplantation. The implanted AFSCs were viable, and were able to migrate into the brain's circuitry and express specific proteins of dopamine neurons, such as tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter. In conclusion, the relative insensitivity AFSCs to γ-IFN implies that AFSCs might have immune-tolerance in γ-IFN inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, the effective improvement of AFSCs transplantation for apomorphine-induced rotation paves the way for the clinical application in parkinsonian therapy.

  11. Acetazolamide lowers intracranial pressure and modulates the cerebrospinal fluid secretion pathway in healthy rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldall, Maria; Botfield, Hannah; Jansen-Olesen, Inger

    2017-01-01

    a maximum reduction at 55min 66±4% (P... in the amount of AQP1 (p=0.0152) and Na/K ATPase (p=0.0411) protein in the membrane fraction of the CP, but not AQP4 (p=0.0649). A single dose of acetazolamide lowers ICP and modulates the CSF secretion pathway in healthy rats - Firstly, by inhibiting the Na/K ATPase to slow the CSF production, secondly...... was collected for qPCR and western blot analysis. The effect of acetazolamide on the Na/K ATPase activity was evaluated in an in vitro assay of primary CP epithelial cells isolated from rats. Acetazolamide significantly lowered ICP within 10min of injection compared to the vehicle group (P

  12. Seminal SIRT1 expression in infertile oligoasthenoteratozoospermic men with varicocoele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, T; Nabil, N; Rashed, L; Makeen, K; El-Kasas, M A; Mohamaed, H A

    2018-03-01

    In a case-controlled study, we assessed the expressed seminal NAD-dependent protein deacetylase (SIRT1) expression in infertile oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) men associated with varicocoele. Our study involved 81 men, recruited from the University hospitals, after ethical approval and informed consent. They were allocated into fertile normozoospermic men (n = 23), infertile OAT men without varicocoele (n = 23) and infertile OAT men with varicocoele (n = 35). Inclusion criteria consisted of confirmation of abnormal semen parameters and normal female partners whereas exclusion criteria were leukocytospermia, tobacco smoking, hormonal therapy, immunological disorders, dyslipidemia, hypogonadism, cardiovascular disorders, morbid obesity, and hepatic or renal failures. All participants had an interview to assess clinical history, clinical examination, semen analysis, and estimation of seminal SIRT1 expression. Seminal SIRT1 expression was significantly lower in infertile OAT men than fertile men. Among infertile OAT men, seminal SIRT1 expression was significantly lower in those with varicocoele than in those without. Additionally, seminal SIRT1 expression was significantly lower in varicocoele grade III cases compared with other grades. Seminal SIRT1 expression was positively correlated with sperm concentration (r = 0.327, p = 0.001), total sperm motility (r = 0.532, p = 0.001), and sperm normal forms (r = 0.469, p = 0.001). Our results suggest that seminal SIRT1 expression has a role of male infertility being significantly decreased in infertile OAT men in general and in infertile OAT men associated with varicocoele in particular. © 2018 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  13. Expression of TRPM8 in the distal cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons in the brain mesencephalon of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Licai

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown that distal cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons (dCSF-CNs exist near the ventral midline of the midbrain aqueduct and also in the grey matter of the inferior third ventricle and the fourth ventricle floor in the superior segment of the pons. The dCSF-CNs communicate between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and the brain parenchyma and may participate in the transduction and regulation of pain signals. The cold sensation receptor channel, TRPM8 is involved in analgesia for neuropathic pain, but whether the TRPM8 receptor exists on dCSF-CNs remains unknown. However, there is preliminary evidence that TRPM8 is expressed in dCSF-CNs and may participate in the transmission and regulation of sensory information between brain parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in rats. Methods Retrograde tracing of the cholera toxin subunit B labeled with horseradish peroxidase (CB-HRP injected into the lateral ventricle was used to identify dCSF-CNs. A double-labeled immunofluorescent technique and laser scanning confocal microscopy were used to identify the expression of TRPM8 in dCSF-CNs. Software Image-Pro Plus was used to count the number of neurons in three sections where CB-HRP positive neurons were located in the mesencephalon of six rats. Results The cell bodies of CB-HRP-positive dCSF-CNs were found in the brain parenchyma near the midline of the ventral Aq, also in the grey of the 3V, and the 4V floor in the superior segment of the pons. In the mesencephalon their processes extended into the CSF. TRPM8 labeled neurons were also found in the same area as were CB-HRP/TRPM8 double-labeled neurons. CB-HRP/TRPM8 double-labeled neurons were found in 42.9 ± 2.3% of neurons labeled by TRPM8, and all CB-HRP-labeled neurons were also labeled with TPRM8. Conclusion This study has demonstrated that the cold sensation receptor channel, TRPM8, is localised within the dCSF-CNs of the mesencephalon. TRPM8 acts as receptor of d

  14. Seminal Quality Prediction Using Clustering-Based Decision Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of seminal quality with statistical learning tools is an emerging methodology in decision support systems in biomedical engineering and is very useful in early diagnosis of seminal patients and selection of semen donors candidates. However, as is common in medical diagnosis, seminal quality prediction faces the class imbalance problem. In this paper, we propose a novel supervised ensemble learning approach, namely Clustering-Based Decision Forests, to tackle unbalanced class learning problem in seminal quality prediction. Experiment results on real fertility diagnosis dataset have shown that Clustering-Based Decision Forests outperforms decision tree, Support Vector Machines, random forests, multilayer perceptron neural networks and logistic regression by a noticeable margin. Clustering-Based Decision Forests can also be used to evaluate variables’ importance and the top five important factors that may affect semen concentration obtained in this study are age, serious trauma, sitting time, the season when the semen sample is produced, and high fevers in the last year. The findings could be helpful in explaining seminal concentration problems in infertile males or pre-screening semen donor candidates.

  15. Acute and Two-Week Inhalation Toxicity Studies in Rats for Polyalphaolefin (PAO) Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Institute for Science and Education (ORISE)); Antonio Brown (ORISE); Joseph B. Brune (Level One Personnel); Kathy A. Frondorf, Nathan M. Gargas... Nutrition , International, LLC, Brentwood MO) and reverse osmosis purified municipal tap water, ad libitum. Rats were randomly assigned to exposure...0.00 Red blood cells (# x 106/µL) 9.08 0.69 8.82 0.83 8.86 0.52 9.01 0.44 Hemoglobin (g/dL) 15.08 1.29 14.70 1.65 14.87 1.16 15.06 0.78 Hematocrit

  16. Mass spectrometric identification of diagnostic markers for chronic prostatitis in seminal plasma by analysis of seminal plasma protein clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokka, A; Mehik, A; Tonttila, P; Vaarala, M

    2017-08-15

    There are few specific diagnostic markers for chronic prostatitis. Therefore, we used mass spectrometry to evaluate differences in seminal plasma protein expression among patients with prostatitis and young and middle-aged healthy controls. We analysed pooled seminal plasma protein samples from four prostatitis patients (two pools), three young controls (one pool), and three middle-aged controls (one pool). The samples were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Of the 349 proteins identified, 16 were differentially expressed between the two control pools. Five proteins were up- or down-regulated in both of the prostatitis pools compared to middle-aged controls but not between young and middle-aged pools. Progestagen-associated endometrial protein (PAEP) was over-expressed in prostatitis samples compared to young and middle-aged controls. Our findings and those of previous studies indicate that PAEP is a potential seminal plasma marker for chronic prostatitis. In conclusion, we found age-related changes in seminal plasma protein expression. PAEP expression in seminal plasma should be investigated further to evaluate its potential as a diagnostic marker for chronic prostatitis.

  17. Antenatal Corticosteroids and Postnatal Fluid Restriction Produce Differential Effects on AQP3 Expression, Water Handling, and Barrier Function in Perinatal Rat Epidermis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Agren

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Loss of water through the immature skin can lead to hypothermia and dehydration in preterm infants. The water and glycerol channel aquaglyceroporin-3 (AQP3 is abundant in fetal epidermis and might influence epidermal water handling and transepidermal water flux around birth. To investigate the role of AQP3 in immature skin, we measured in vivo transepidermal water transport and AQP3 expression in rat pups exposed to clinically relevant fluid homeostasis perturbations. Preterm (E18 rat pups were studied after antenatal corticosteroid exposure (ANS, and neonatal (P1 rat pups after an 18 h fast. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL and skin hydration were determined, AQP3 mRNA was quantified by RT-PCR, and in-situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry were applied to map AQP3 expression. ANS resulted in an improved skin barrier (lower TEWL and skin hydration, while AQP3 mRNA and protein increased. Fasting led to loss of barrier integrity along with an increase in skin hydration. These alterations were not paralleled by any changes in AQP3. To conclude, antenatal corticosteroids and early postnatal fluid restriction produce differential effects on skin barrier function and epidermal AQP3 expression in the rat. In perinatal rats, AQP3 does not directly determine net water transport through the skin.

  18. Seminal vesicle metastasis after partial hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Li; Zheng, Minwen; Li, Yanhong; Zhang, Wendong; Bu, Wangjun; Shi, Lifang; Zhang, Wei; Yan, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Metastasis to the seminal vesicle is extremely rare for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To our knowledge, it has been not reported in literature. The purpose of the present paper was to report a case of metastasis to the seminal vesicle after HCC resection, along with its histological features and immunohistochemical characteristics. A 46-year-old Chinese man was admitted to our hospital due to abdominal distension. He had a history of HCC related to hepatitis B virus infection. Moreover, left partial hepatectomy was performed in another hospital 28 months ago, and right partial hepatectomy for HCC recurrence in our hospital 4 months ago. After resection, radiofrequency ablation therapy had been performed. About 27 months after the initial operation, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the pelvic cavity revealed a mass with homogeneous enhancement in the seminal vesicle. Transrectal needle biopsy revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Therefore, seminal vesiculectomy was resected. The histological diagnosis of the removed tumor was compatible with the original HCC. Immunohistochemical examination demonstrated that the tumor cells were positive for glypican-3 (GPC3), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), hepatocyte paraffin-1 (Hep Par 1), cytokeratin 18 (CK 18), and hepatocyte antigen, which confirmed that the seminal vesicle tumor was a metastatic tumor of HCC. However, CT subsequently revealed multiple metastatic foci in the abdominal and pelvic cavities in May 2009 and August 2009, respectively. The seminal vesicle is an extremely rare metastatic site for HCC, and the prognosis is very poor. A combination of clinical and pathological features is necessary for a correct diagnosis, and primary tumor should be excluded before diagnosing metastatic foci

  19. Effects of angiotensin II and ionomycin on fluid and bicarbonate absorption in the rat proximal tubule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatsudthipong, V.; Chan, Y.L.

    1986-01-01

    Microperfusion of proximal convoluted tubule(PCT) and peritubular capillaries was performed to examine the effects of angiotensin II(Ang II) and ionomycin on fluid and bicarbonate absorption. Bicarbonate was determined by microcalorimetry and C-14 inulin was used as a volume marker. The rates of bicarbonate absorption (JHCO 3 ) was 143 peq/min x mm and fluid absorption(Jv) was 2.70 nl/min x mm, when PCT and capillary perfusate contained normal Ringer solution. Addition of Ang II (10 -6 M) to the capillary perfusate caused reductions of JHCO 3 and Jv by 35%. A similar effect was observed when ionomycin was added to the capillary perfusate. Ang II antagonist, (Sar 1 , Ile 8 )-Angiotensin II(10 -6 M), completely blocked the inhibitory effect of Ang II on Jv and JHCO 3 . Removal of calcium from both luminal and capillary perfusate did not change the effect of Ang II on Jv and JHCO 3 . Our results indicate that Ang II inhibits the sodium-hydrogen exchanger in the proximal tubule via interacting with angiotensin receptor. The mechanism of Ang II action may involve mobilization of intracellular calcium

  20. Quantitative determination of hederagenin in rat plasma and cerebrospinal fluid by ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuemei; Li, Guoliang; Chen, Lingyun; Zhang, Cong; Wan, Xinxiang; Xu, Jiangping

    2011-07-01

    A rapid, sensitive and selective method was developed for the quantitative determination of hederagenin in rat plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS). It has been successfully applied in a pharmacokinetic study of hederagenin in the central nervous system (CNS). Sample pretreatment involved a simple protein precipitation with methanol and a one-step extraction with ethyl acetate. Separation was carried out in a Shim-pack XR-ODS II (75 mm × 2.0 mm, i.d., 2.1 μm) column with gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.35 mL/min. The mobile phase was 5mM ammonium acetate and acetonitrile. Detection was performed in a triple-quadruple tandem mass spectrometer by multiple-reaction-monitoring mode via electrospray ionization. A linear calibration curve for hederagenin was obtained over a concentration range of 0.406 (lower limit of quantification, LLOQ) to 203 ng/mL (r² > 0.99) for both plasma and CSF. The intra-day and inter-day precision (relative standard deviation, RSD) values were less than 15%. At all quality control (QC) levels, the accuracy (relative error, RE) was within -9.0% and 11.1% for plasma and CSF, respectively. The pharmacokinetics results indicated that hederagenin could pass through the blood-brain barrier. This UFLC-MS/MS method demonstrates higher sensitivity and sample throughput than previous methods. It was also successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of hederagenin following oral administration of Fructus akebiae extract in rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acid in biological fluids from humans and rats by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, F; Krapf, R; Brenneisen, R; Bourquin, D; Krähenbühl, S

    1993-10-22

    Methods have been developed and characterized allowing rapid isolation and quantification of 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (GRA) in biological fluids from both humans and rats. Sample preparation includes extraction with urea-methanol for plasma samples, and solid-phase extraction (SPE) for urine and bile samples. Hydrolysis of GRA glucuronides in urine and bile was performed by treatment with beta-glucuronidase. MGRA, the 3-O-methyl derivative of GRA was synthesized as an internal standard resistant to hydrolysis. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed with an isocratic system using methanol-water-acetic acid (83:16.8:0.2, v/v/v) as solvent on a Lichrocart RP-18 column at 30 degrees C with ultraviolet detection. The methods allowed base line separation of GRA and MGRA from all biological fluids tested, with a detection limit of 0.15 mg/l. Validation of the methods included determination of recovery, accuracy and precision in plasma, bile and urine from humans and rats. The methods were further evaluated by investigating the pharmacokinetics of GRA in normal rats and in rats with a bile fistula. Following an intravenous dose of 10 mg/kg, the plasma concentration-time curve of GRA could be fitted to a one compartment model both in control and bile fistula rats. The elimination half life averaged 15.0 +/- 2.2 versus 16.8 +/- 2.4 min in control and bile fistula rats (difference not significant). Within 90 min following administration of GRA, urinary elimination of GRA and GRA glucuronides was less than 1% in both groups whereas biliary elimination averaged 51.3 +/- 3.1%. The results show that the methods developed allow pharmacokinetic studies of GRA in humans and rats.

  2. Metabolic clearance of insulin from the cerebrospinal fluid in the anesthetized rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manin, M.; Broer, Y.; Balage, M.; Rostene, W.; Grizard, J.

    1990-01-01

    Infusion of 125I-(Tyr A14)-insulin at tracer doses into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) resulted in a slow rate of increase in the CSF-labeled insulin during the first 2 hours with a plateau thereafter. Labeled insulin was cleared from the CSF at a higher rate than 3H-inulin, a marker of CSF bulk flow. The labeled insulin was mainly distributed in all the ventricular and periventricular brain regions. Small amounts of degraded insulin appeared in the CSF. Coinfusion with an excess of unlabeled insulin impaired the clearance and degradation of labeled insulin. It also inhibited the labeling in medial hypothalamus, olfactory bulbs and brain stem. In contrast, coinfusion of ribonuclease B (used to test the specificity of uptake) was without any effect. It was concluded that there is an active insulin intake from CSF into brain specific compartments that is presumably essential for the effects of insulin on brain function

  3. MRI, CT and TRUS imaging of seminal vesicle metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, P.; Blomqvist, L.; Norming, U.

    1997-01-01

    We present a case of a testicular germ-cell metastasis in the seminal vesicle. Diagnostic imaging with transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS), CT, and MRI was performed. This case emphasizes the role of MRI in the evaluation of patients with pathology in the pelvic region. (orig.)

  4. Primary malignancy of seminal vesicle: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaraman Ramamurthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of seminal vesicle malignancy (primitive neuro ectodermal tumor in a 40-year-old male patient. He was treated with enbloc resection of the tumor and ureteric reimplantation. In view of the rarity of this entity, management of these tumors should be individualized.

  5. Seminal vesicle abscess causing unilateral hydroureteronephrosis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Imperatore

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Seminal vesicle abscess (SVA is a rare urologic entity. It mainly occurs in subjects with predisposing factors and may be associated with other urogenital infections. We describe the case of a diabetic subject with SVA associated with funiculitis, epididymitis and obstructive pyelonephritis. Treatment consisted of laparotomic surgical drainage of the abscess and ureteral stent placement.

  6. Proteomic analysis of heparin-binding proteins from human seminal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    (MALDI TOF/MS) for protein analysis of human HBPs. We resolved 70 ... Thus, the combined effects of seminal plasma components support the survival of ...... The BBXB motif of RANTES is the principal site for heparin binding and controls ...

  7. Ultrasound-guided seminal vesicle biopsies in prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wymenga, LFA; Duisterwinkel, FJ; Groenier, K; Mensink, HJA

    2000-01-01

    Invasion of prostatic adenocarcinoma into the seminal vesicles (SV) is generally accepted as an index of poor prognosis. The pre-operative identification of SV invasion is an important element in staging since it may alter subsequent treatment decisions. We studied the possibility of diagnosing SV

  8. Genomic Regions Influencing Seminal Root Traits in Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Hannah; Hickey, Lee; Richard, Cecile; Mace, Emma; Kelly, Alison; Borrell, Andrew; Franckowiak, Jerome; Fox, Glen

    2016-03-01

    Water availability is a major limiting factor for crop production, making drought adaptation and its many component traits a desirable attribute of plant cultivars. Previous studies in cereal crops indicate that root traits expressed at early plant developmental stages, such as seminal root angle and root number, are associated with water extraction at different depths. Here, we conducted the first study to map seminal root traits in barley ( L.). Using a recently developed high-throughput phenotyping method, a panel of 30 barley genotypes and a doubled-haploid (DH) population (ND24260 × 'Flagship') comprising 330 lines genotyped with diversity array technology (DArT) markers were evaluated for seminal root angle (deviation from vertical) and root number under controlled environmental conditions. A high degree of phenotypic variation was observed in the panel of 30 genotypes: 13.5 to 82.2 and 3.6 to 6.9° for root angle and root number, respectively. A similar range was observed in the DH population: 16.4 to 70.5 and 3.6 to 6.5° for root angle and number, respectively. Seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seminal root traits (root angle, two QTL; root number, five QTL) were detected in the DH population. A major QTL influencing both root angle and root number (/) was positioned on chromosome 5HL. Across-species analysis identified 10 common genes underlying root trait QTL in barley, wheat ( L.), and sorghum [ (L.) Moench]. Here, we provide insight into seminal root phenotypes and provide a first look at the genetics controlling these traits in barley. Copyright © 2016 Crop Science Society of America.

  9. Genomic Regions Influencing Seminal Root Traits in Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Robinson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water availability is a major limiting factor for crop production, making drought adaptation and its many component traits a desirable attribute of plant cultivars. Previous studies in cereal crops indicate that root traits expressed at early plant developmental stages, such as seminal root angle and root number, are associated with water extraction at different depths. Here, we conducted the first study to map seminal root traits in barley ( L.. Using a recently developed high-throughput phenotyping method, a panel of 30 barley genotypes and a doubled-haploid (DH population (ND24260 × ‘Flagship’ comprising 330 lines genotyped with diversity array technology (DArT markers were evaluated for seminal root angle (deviation from vertical and root number under controlled environmental conditions. A high degree of phenotypic variation was observed in the panel of 30 genotypes: 13.5 to 82.2 and 3.6 to 6.9° for root angle and root number, respectively. A similar range was observed in the DH population: 16.4 to 70.5 and 3.6 to 6.5° for root angle and number, respectively. Seven quantitative trait loci (QTL for seminal root traits (root angle, two QTL; root number, five QTL were detected in the DH population. A major QTL influencing both root angle and root number (/ was positioned on chromosome 5HL. Across-species analysis identified 10 common genes underlying root trait QTL in barley, wheat ( L., and sorghum [ (L. Moench]. Here, we provide insight into seminal root phenotypes and provide a first look at the genetics controlling these traits in barley.

  10. Biochemical components of seminal plasma and their correlation to the fresh seminal characteristics in Marwari stallions and Poitou jacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirumala Rao Talluri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate various biochemical components of seminal plasma in Marwari stallions and Poitou Jacks and to find out their correlation with that of the seminal characteristics. Materials and Methods: In this study, semen was collected from six Marwari stallions and six Poitou jacks aged from 4 to 6 years and with known fertility status. The semen collection from the stallions were collected during the breeding season, i.e., between the months of April and June. From the collected semen ejaculates, we estimated the values of some biochemical components, viz., total protein content, total lipid content, and enzymes such as glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, acid phosphatase (ACP, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH as well as concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, total calcium (Ca, and phosphorus (P and correlations among different seminal parameters were statistically examined using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: In this study, we found positive correlations between semen volume as well as sperm concentration and GOT, GPT, ALP and ACP for both the group stallions. Significant correlation between motility and glucose, GOT and GPT could be an indication for their role metabolism and protection against free radicals to the spermatozoa. Conclusion: Based on the results, it is concluded that there is a positive correlation between some biochemical values such as glucose, Ca, ALP, and LDH and seminal parameters which play a key role in capacitation and onward movement of the spermatozoa.

  11. Determination of some enzymes and macro- and microelements in stallion seminal plasma and their correlations to semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Sandra; Bergmann, Martin; Bostedt, Hartwig

    2006-07-15

    Seminal plasma is very important for sperm metabolism as well as sperm function and survival and transport in the female genital tract. Analysis of enzyme activities and concentrations of elements can estimate integrity and function of sperm cell membranes. In man much data are available about biochemical analyses of seminal plasma. However, not many studies have been conducted in horses yet. We collected ejaculates from 72 stallions, measured the volume, obtained seminal plasma by centrifugation and examined spermatozoa with light microscopy for motility, concentration, for dead sperm and morphology. Of seminal plasma fluid, we measured activities of aspartate-amino-transferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (AlP), acid phosphatase (AcP) and lactate-dehydrogenase (LDH) as well as concentrations of sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), total and ionised calcium (Ca(TOTAL)/Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), phosphate (P), chloride (Cl), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). In addition, correlations among different parameters in light microscopy and seminal plasma were statistically examined by using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Median enzyme activities for AST, GGT, AlP, AcP and LDH were 80.0, 7,500, 30,200, 20.0, 81.0 IU/L, respectively. Concentrations of Na(+), K(+), Ca(TOTAL), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), P, Cl were 110.5, 22.1, 2.9, 1.7, 3.1, 1.1 and 114.5 mmol/L, and of microelements Cu, Fe and Zn were 17.8, 1.9 and 13.2 micromol/L, respectively. Furthermore, we found significant correlations between semen volume as well as sperm concentration and AST, GGT, AlP, AcP and LDH as well as Fe and Zn. This made us propose a primary testicular and epididymal origin of these parameters. Significant correlation between GGT and motility may be a sign for its function for cell protection against free radicals. LDH activity significantly correlates with motility and progressive motility, live:dead-ratio and pathomorphology. In our study, LDH seems to

  12. Evaluation of Serum Testosterone, Progesterone, Seminal Antisperm Antibody, and Fructose Levels among Jordanian Males with a History of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala I. Al-Daghistani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the biochemical complexity of seminal fluid, we attempt to study the possible correlation between fructose, which is secreted under the effect of androgen hormone, and autoimmunity, which might play a role in varicocele associated infertility, in reducing sperm motility. Seminal fructose, antisperm antibodies (ASAs and blood steroids hormones (testosterone and progesterone levels were measured in 66 infertile males with varicocele and 84 without varicocele referred for fertility treatment. Seminal analysis was performed with biochemical measurements of seminal fructose and mixed agglutination reaction (MAR for ASA. Serum levels of progesterone and testosterone were estimated using a competitive chemoluminescent enzyme immunoassay. The mean values for serum testosterone were 380.74±24.331, 365.9±16.55, and 367.5±21.8 ng/dl, progesterone 0.325±0.243, 0.341±0.022, and 0.357  ±  0.0306 ng/ml, and seminal plasma fructose 359.6  ±  26.75, 315.6  ±  13.08, and 332.08  ±  24.38 mg/dl in males with varicocele, without varicocele, and fertile males, respectively. A significant high level of testosterone was observed within varicocele group (P=.001. This result showed that testosterone may play a role as an infertility determinant in subjects with varicocele. ASA was detected in 18 (26.47% of cases with varicocele, 20 (38.46% without varicocele, and in 16 (32.0% fertile men. Cases with ASAs associated with low sperm motility morphology. An inverse correlation between sperm-bound antibodies and viscosity has been shown (P=.017. ASA showed some significant inverse relations with ages, durations of infertility, and viscosity (P<.05. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between ASA positive seminal plasma and testosterone concentration among infertile cases (with or without varicocele and fertile (P<.05. Our results suggest a relationship between testicular steroid hormone levels with

  13. Plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain distribution of 14C-melatonin in rat: a biochemical and autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitte, P.A.; Harthe, C.; Lestage, P.; Claustrat, B.; Bobillier, P.

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of 14C-Melatonin (14C-MT) after systemic injection was studied in the plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and brain of rats. Chromatographic analysis (thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography) indicated that the radioactivity from biological samples taken at various times following the injection of label was mainly associated with 14C-MT. Computer analysis of plasma 14C-MT kinetics showed a three-compartment system with half-lives of 0.21 +/- 0.05, 5.97 +/- 1.11, and 47.52 +/- 8.86 min. The volume of distribution and the clearance were 1,736 +/- 349 ml.kg-1 and 25.1 +/- 1.7 ml.min-1.kg-1 respectively. The entry of 14C-MT into the CSF was rapid and reached a maximum at 5 min. The decay followed a two-compartment system with half-lives of 16.5 +/- 2.9 and 47.3 +/- 8.6 min. The CSF/plasma concentration ratio was 0.38 at the steady state (30 min). At 2 min the level of 14C-MT in the brain was 3.8 higher than in the CSF. Representative autoradiograms revealed an heterogeneous localization of 14C-MT in the grey matter. The highest regional values, as evaluated by the permeability area product technique, were found in cortex, thalamic nuclei, medial geniculate nucleus, anterior pretectal area, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, choroid plexuses, and bulb-pons. Thirty minutes later 14C-MT was still detected in most of the brain regions analyzed. These results point to a low but rapid penetration of circulating MT into the brain and the CSF. The heterogeneous distribution and the partial retention of 14C-MT in the brain are compatible with the hypothesis of a central action of this hormone mediated via binding sites

  14. Responses of seminal wheat seedling roots to soil water deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo, Carlos; Else, Mark A; Atkinson, Christopher J

    2018-04-01

    The aims of this paper are to develop our understanding of the ways by which soil water deficits influence early wheat root growth responses, particularly how seminal roots respond to soil drying and the extent to which information on differences in soil water content are conveyed to the shoot and their impact on shoot behaviour. To achieve this, wheat seedlings have been grown, individually for around 25 days after germination in segmented soil columns within vertical plastic compartments. Roots were exposed to different soil volumetric moisture contents (SVMC) within the two compartments. Experiments where the soil in the lower compartment was allowed to dry to different extents, while the upper was maintained close to field capacity, showed that wheat seedlings allocated proportionally more root dry matter to the lower drier soil compartment. The total production of root, irrespective of the upper or lower SVMC, was similar and there were no detected effects on leaf growth rate or gas exchange. The response of seminal roots to proportionally increase their allocation of dry matter, to the drier soil was unexpected with such plasticity of roots system development traditionally linked to heterogeneous nutrient distribution than accessing soil water. In experiments where the upper soil compartment was allowed to dry, root growth slowed and leaf growth and gas exchange declined. Subsequent experiments used root growth rates to determine when seminal root tips first came into contact with drying soil, with the intentions of determining how the observed root growth rates were maintained as an explanation for the observed changes in root allocation. Measurements of seminal root ABA and ethylene from roots within the drying soil are interpreted with respect to what is known about the physiological control of root growth in drying soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Glycoprotein fucosylation is increased in seminal plasma of subfertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Olejnik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fucose, the monosaccharide frequent in N- and O-glycans, is a part of Lewis-type antigens that are known to mediate direct sperm binding to the zona pellucida. Such interaction was found to be inhibited in vitroby fucose-containing oligo- and polysaccharides, as well as neoglycoproteins. The objective of this study was to screen seminal plasma proteins of infertile/subfertile men for the content and density of fucosylated glycoepitopes, and compare them to samples of fertile normozoospermic subjects. Seminal proteins were separated in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and blotted onto nitrocellulose membrane and probed with fucose-specific Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL. Twelve electrophoretic bands were selected for quantitative densitometric analysis. It was found that the content, and especially the density of fucosylated glycans, were higher in glycoproteins present in seminal plasma of subfertile men. No profound differences in fucosylation density were found among the groups of normozoospermic, oligozoospermic, asthenozoospermic, and oligoasthenozoospermic subfertile men. According to the antibody probing, AAL-reactive bands can be attributed to male reproductive tract glycoproteins, including prostate-specific antigen, prostatic acid phosphatase, glycodelin and chorionic gonadotropin. Fibronectin, α1 -acid glycoprotein, α1 -antitrypsin, immunoglobulin G and antithrombin III may also contribute to this high fucosylation. It is suggested that the abundant fucosylated glycans in the sperm environment could interfere with the sperm surface and disturb the normal course of the fertilization cascade.

  16. Relationship between substances in seminal plasma and Acrobeads Test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Kazuhiko; Tsujimura, Akira; Okamoto, Yoshio; Matsuoka, Yasuhiro; Takao, Tetsuya; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Takada, Shingo; Nonomura, Norio; Okuyama, Akihiko

    2009-01-01

    To asses the effects of seminal plasma on sperm function. Retrospective case-control study. University hospital. One hundred fourteen infertile men. Acrobeads Test scores (0-4) and measurement of interleukin (IL)-6, soluble IL-6 receptor, epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), transforming growth factor-beta I, superoxide dismutase, calcitonin, and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) levels in seminal plasma. Kruskal-Wallis test to compare the concentrations of substances as a nonparametric test for differences among Acrobeads Test scores and a multivariable logistic regression model to find independent risk factors associated with abnormal Acrobeads Test results. The Acrobeads Test score was 0 for 7 samples, 1 for 20 samples, 2 for 18 samples, 3 for 28 samples, and 4 for 41 samples. Age, abstinence period, and semen parameters, except for sperm motility and percentage of sperm with abnormal morphology, had no effect on the Acrobeads Test results. Concentrations of IGF-I and MIF were significantly higher in patients with abnormal Acrobeads Test results. Multivariate analysis indicated that MIF and IGF-I were significantly associated with abnormal Acrobeads Test results (scores 0 to 1). Although further studies are needed, IGF-I and MIF in seminal plasma may have negative effects on sperm function.

  17. Fluid mechanical consequences of pendular activity, segmentation and pyloric outflow in the proximal duodenum of the rat and the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Loubens, Clément; Lentle, Roger G; Love, Richard J; Hulls, Corrin; Janssen, Patrick W M

    2013-06-06

    We conducted numerical experiments to study the influence of non-propagating longitudinal and circular contractions, i.e. pendular activity and segmentation, respectively, on flow and mixing in the proximal duodenum. A lattice-Boltzmann numerical method was developed to simulate the fluid mechanical consequences for each of 22 randomly selected sequences of high-definition video of real longitudinal and radial contractile activity in the isolated proximal duodenum of the rat and guinea pig. During pendular activity in the rat duodenum, the flow was characterized by regions of high shear rate. Mixing was so governed by shearing deformation of the fluid that increased the interface between adjacent domains and accelerated their inter-diffusion (for diffusion coefficients approx. less than 10(-8) m² s(-1)). When pendular activity was associated with a slow gastric outflow characteristic of post-prandial period, the dispersion was also improved, especially near the walls. Mixing was not promoted by isolated segmentative contractions in the guinea pig duodenum and not notably influenced by pylorus outflow. We concluded that pendular activity generates mixing of viscous fluids 'in situ' and accelerates the diffusive mass transfer, whereas segmentation may be more important in mixing particulate suspensions with high solid volume ratios.

  18. Fluid mechanical consequences of pendular activity, segmentation and pyloric outflow in the proximal duodenum of the rat and the guinea pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Loubens, Clément; Lentle, Roger G.; Love, Richard J.; Hulls, Corrin; Janssen, Patrick W. M.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted numerical experiments to study the influence of non-propagating longitudinal and circular contractions, i.e. pendular activity and segmentation, respectively, on flow and mixing in the proximal duodenum. A lattice-Boltzmann numerical method was developed to simulate the fluid mechanical consequences for each of 22 randomly selected sequences of high-definition video of real longitudinal and radial contractile activity in the isolated proximal duodenum of the rat and guinea pig. During pendular activity in the rat duodenum, the flow was characterized by regions of high shear rate. Mixing was so governed by shearing deformation of the fluid that increased the interface between adjacent domains and accelerated their inter-diffusion (for diffusion coefficients approx. less than 10−8 m² s−1). When pendular activity was associated with a slow gastric outflow characteristic of post-prandial period, the dispersion was also improved, especially near the walls. Mixing was not promoted by isolated segmentative contractions in the guinea pig duodenum and not notably influenced by pylorus outflow. We concluded that pendular activity generates mixing of viscous fluids ‘in situ’ and accelerates the diffusive mass transfer, whereas segmentation may be more important in mixing particulate suspensions with high solid volume ratios. PMID:23536539

  19. Penetration and distribution of gadolinium-based contrast agents into the cerebrospinal fluid in healthy rats: a potential pathway of entry into the brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Gregor; Frenzel, Thomas; Lohrke, Jessica; Lenhard, Diana Constanze; Naganawa, Shinji; Pietsch, Hubertus

    2017-07-01

    Signal hyperintensity on unenhanced MRI in certain brain regions has been reported after multiple administrations of some, but not all, gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). One potential initial pathway of GBCA entry into the brain, infiltration from blood into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), was systematically evaluated in this preclinical study. GBCA infiltration and distribution in the CSF were investigated in healthy rats using repeated fluid-attenuated MRI up to 4 h after high-dose (1.8 mmol/kg) administration of six marketed and one experimental GBCA. Additionally, gadolinium measurements in CSF, blood and brain tissue samples (after 24 h) were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Enhanced MRI signals in the CSF spaces with similar distribution kinetics were observed for all GBCAs. No substantial differences in the gadolinium concentrations among the marketed GBCAs were found in the CSF, blood or brain tissue. After 4.5 h, the concentration in the CSF was clearly higher than in blood but was almost completely cleared and lower than the brain tissue concentration after 24 h. In contrast to the brain signal hyperintensities, no differences in penetration and distribution into the CSF of healthy rats exist among the marketed GBCAs. • Gadolinium-based contrast agents can cross the blood-CSF barrier. • Fluid-attenuated MRI shows GBCA distribution with CSF flow. • GBCA structure and physicochemical properties do not impact CSF penetration and distribution. • GBCA clearance from CSF was almost complete within 24 h in rats. • CSF is a potential pathway of GBCA entry into the brain.

  20. Collagen metabolism during wound healing in rats. The aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen in serum and wound fluid in relation to formation of granulation tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Garbarsch, C; Hørslev-Petersen, K

    1993-01-01

    The aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) in serum has been shown to correlate with fibrillogenesis, and thus to be a potential direct marker of type III collagen deposition. The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between changes in serum PIIINP and formation ......, changes in serum PIIINP mirror fibrillogenesis. Furthermore, our study provides experimental evidence consistent with the hypothesis that wound fluid PIIINP directly mirrors the local formation of granulation tissue, independent of weight loss and cyclophosphamide treatment.......The aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) in serum has been shown to correlate with fibrillogenesis, and thus to be a potential direct marker of type III collagen deposition. The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between changes in serum PIIINP and formation...... loss caused by treatment, weight loss caused by starvation was investigated. In untreated rats, serum PIIINP and wound fluid PIIINP were related to formation of granulation tissue (serum: r = 0.58, p

  1. Seminal Plasma HIV-1 RNA Concentration Is Strongly Associated with Altered Levels of Seminal Plasma Interferon-γ, Interleukin-17, and Interleukin-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jennifer C.; Anton, Peter A.; Baldwin, Gayle Cocita; Elliott, Julie; Anisman-Posner, Deborah; Tanner, Karen; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Sugar, Catherine; Yang, Otto O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level is an important determinant of the risk of HIV-1 sexual transmission. We investigated potential associations between seminal plasma cytokine levels and viral concentration in the seminal plasma of HIV-1-infected men. This was a prospective, observational study of paired blood and semen samples from 18 HIV-1 chronically infected men off antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 RNA levels and cytokine levels in seminal plasma and blood plasma were measured and analyzed using simple linear regressions to screen for associations between cytokines and seminal plasma HIV-1 levels. Forward stepwise regression was performed to construct the final multivariate model. The median HIV-1 RNA concentrations were 4.42 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2.98, 4.70) and 2.96 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2, 4.18) in blood and seminal plasma, respectively. In stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis, blood HIV-1 RNA level (pplasma HIV-1 RNA level. After controlling for blood HIV-1 RNA level, seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level was positively associated with interferon (IFN)-γ (p=0.03) and interleukin (IL)-17 (p=0.03) and negatively associated with IL-5 (p=0.0007) in seminal plasma. In addition to blood HIV-1 RNA level, cytokine profiles in the male genital tract are associated with HIV-1 RNA levels in semen. The Th1 and Th17 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-17 are associated with increased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA, while the Th2 cytokine IL-5 is associated with decreased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA. These results support the importance of genital tract immunomodulation in HIV-1 transmission. PMID:25209674

  2. Developmental environment mediates male seminal protein investment in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigby, Stuart; Perry, Jennifer C; Kim, Yon-Hee; Sirot, Laura K

    2016-03-01

    Males of many species fine-tune their ejaculates in response to sperm competition risk. Resource availability and the number of competitors during development can also strongly influence sperm production. However, despite the key role of seminal proteins in mediating reproductive processes, it is unclear whether seminal protein investment is dependent on the developmental environment.We manipulated the developmental environment of Drosophila melanogaster by rearing flies at low and high density. As expected, this resulted in large and small (i.e. high and low condition) adult phenotypes, respectively.As predicted, large males produced more of two key seminal proteins, sex peptide (SP) and ovulin, and were more successful at obtaining matings with both virgin and previously mated females. However, there was only a weak and non-significant trend for large males to transfer more absolute quantities of SP at mating, and thus, small males ejaculated proportionally more of their stored accessory gland SP resources.Males transferred more receptivity-inhibiting SP to large females. Despite this, large females remated more quickly than small females and thus responded to their developmental environment over and above the quantity of SP they received.The results are consistent with two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses. First, flies might respond to condition-dependent reproductive opportunities, with (i) small males investing heavily in ejaculates when mating opportunities arise and large males strategically partitioning SP resources and (ii) small females remating at reduced rates because they have higher mating costs or need to replenish sperm less often.Second, flies may be primed by their larval environment to deal with similar adult population densities, with (i) males perceiving high density as signalling increased competition, leading small males to invest proportionally more SP resources at mating and (ii) females perceiving high density as signalling abundant

  3. Mannan-binding proteins from boar seminal plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínková-Slavíčková, Petra; Liberda, J.; Maňásková, Pavla; Ryšlavá, H.; Jonáková, Věra; Tichá, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 62, 1-2 (2004), s. 167-182 ISSN 0165-0378. [Congress of the European Society for Reproductive & Developmental Immunology /4./. Rhodes, 04.06.2003-06.06.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/02/0433; GA ČR GP303/02/P069; GA MŠk VS96141; GA MZd NJ7463 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : boar seminal plasma proteins * mannan-binding proteins * oviductal epithelium Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.726, year: 2004

  4. Impact of experimental endogenous gram-negative peritonitis on the pancreas of the rat as evaluated by cationic trypsin-like immunoreactivity in peritoneal fluid and serum and by electron microscopy of pancreatic tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florholmen, J.; Almdahl, S.M.; Myklebust, R.; Burhol, P.G.; Malm, D.; Riepl, R.; Giercksky, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    Endogenous gram-negative peritonitis leading to septic shock was induced in rats by a defined perforation of the coecum. Cationic trypsin-like immunoreactivity (CTLI) was measured in peritoneal fluid and serum by a radioimmunoassay method. 5, 10 and 15 h after the coecal perforation, CTLI in peritoneal fluid was significantly higher than before the coecal perforation and also higher than in the corresponding control rats. Moreover, CTLI in serum was under the same conditions significantly higher 10 and 15 h after the induction of peritonitis. Gel chromatography of peritoneal fluid and serum during peritonitis showed free CTLI and CTLI bound to both alpha-1-antitrypsin and alpha-2-macroglobulin, wheras only free CTLI could be detected in serum from control rats. These findings were accompanied by local ultrastructural changes in the acinar cells as evaluated by electron microscopy. The pathophysiologic implications of the findings are discussed

  5. Penetration and distribution of gadolinium-based contrast agents into the cerebrospinal fluid in healthy rats: a potential pathway of entry into the brain tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, Gregor; Frenzel, Thomas; Lohrke, Jessica; Pietsch, Hubertus [MR and CT Contrast Media Research, Bayer Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Lenhard, Diana Constanze [Charite, Institute of Vegetative Physiology, Berlin (Germany); Naganawa, Shinji [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Nagoya (Japan)

    2017-07-15

    Signal hyperintensity on unenhanced MRI in certain brain regions has been reported after multiple administrations of some, but not all, gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). One potential initial pathway of GBCA entry into the brain, infiltration from blood into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), was systematically evaluated in this preclinical study. GBCA infiltration and distribution in the CSF were investigated in healthy rats using repeated fluid-attenuated MRI up to 4 h after high-dose (1.8 mmol/kg) administration of six marketed and one experimental GBCA. Additionally, gadolinium measurements in CSF, blood and brain tissue samples (after 24 h) were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Enhanced MRI signals in the CSF spaces with similar distribution kinetics were observed for all GBCAs. No substantial differences in the gadolinium concentrations among the marketed GBCAs were found in the CSF, blood or brain tissue. After 4.5 h, the concentration in the CSF was clearly higher than in blood but was almost completely cleared and lower than the brain tissue concentration after 24 h. In contrast to the brain signal hyperintensities, no differences in penetration and distribution into the CSF of healthy rats exist among the marketed GBCAs. (orig.)

  6. Penetration and distribution of gadolinium-based contrast agents into the cerebrospinal fluid in healthy rats: a potential pathway of entry into the brain tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jost, Gregor; Frenzel, Thomas; Lohrke, Jessica; Pietsch, Hubertus; Lenhard, Diana Constanze; Naganawa, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    Signal hyperintensity on unenhanced MRI in certain brain regions has been reported after multiple administrations of some, but not all, gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). One potential initial pathway of GBCA entry into the brain, infiltration from blood into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), was systematically evaluated in this preclinical study. GBCA infiltration and distribution in the CSF were investigated in healthy rats using repeated fluid-attenuated MRI up to 4 h after high-dose (1.8 mmol/kg) administration of six marketed and one experimental GBCA. Additionally, gadolinium measurements in CSF, blood and brain tissue samples (after 24 h) were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Enhanced MRI signals in the CSF spaces with similar distribution kinetics were observed for all GBCAs. No substantial differences in the gadolinium concentrations among the marketed GBCAs were found in the CSF, blood or brain tissue. After 4.5 h, the concentration in the CSF was clearly higher than in blood but was almost completely cleared and lower than the brain tissue concentration after 24 h. In contrast to the brain signal hyperintensities, no differences in penetration and distribution into the CSF of healthy rats exist among the marketed GBCAs. (orig.)

  7. Combinatorial effects of quercetin and sex-steroids on fluid and electrolytes' (Na+, Cl-, HCO3- secretory mechanisms in the uterus of ovariectomised female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Shahzad

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of uterine fluid environment could impair successful reproduction and this could be due to the effect of environmental estrogens. Therefore, in this study, effect of quercetin, an environmental estrogen on uterine fluid and electrolytes concentrations were investigated under sex-steroid influence. Ovariectomised adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were given 10, 50 or 100mg/kg/day quercetin subcutaneously with 17-β estradiol (E for seven days or three days E, then three days E plus progesterone (P (E+P treatment. Uterine fluid secretion rate, Na+, Cl- and HCO3- concentrations were determined by in-vivo perfusion. Following sacrifice, uteri were harvested and levels of the proteins of interest were identified by Western blotting and Realtime PCR. Distribution of these proteins in the uterus was observed by immunofluorescence. Levels of uterine cAMP were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA. Administration of quercetin at increasing doses increased uterine fluid secretion rate, Na+, Cl- and HCO3- concentrations, but to the levels lesser than that of E. In concordant, levels of CFTR, SLC4A4, ENaC (α, β and γ, Na+/K+-ATPase, GPα/β, AC and cAMP in the uterus increased following increased in the doses of quercetin. Co-administration of quercetin with E caused uterine fluid secretion rate, Na+, Cl- and HCO3- concentrations to decrease. In concordant, uterine CFTR, SLC26A6, SLC4A4, ENaC (α, β and γ, Na+/K+-ATPase, GPα/β, AC and cAMP decreased. Greatest effects were observed following co-administration of 10mg/kg/day quercetin with E. Co-administration of quercetin with E+P caused uterine fluid Na+ and HCO3- concentrations to increase but no changes in fluid secretion rate and Cl- concentration were observed. Co-administration of high dose quercetin (100 mg/kg/day with E+P caused uterine CFTR, SLC26A6, AC, GPα/β and ENaC (α, β and γ to increase. Quercetin-induced changes in the uterine fluid secretion rate and

  8. Small round blue cell tumor of seminal vesicle in a young patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano A. De Paula

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Seminal vesicle tumor is a rare disease with unclear origin. Generally, it is presented as a pelvic mass that can be detected by sonography and digital rectal exam. The authors report a 25-year-old patient with a pelvic mass which the magnetic resonance and surgical specimen reveal a seminal vesicle tumor. Immunohistochemical findings favored a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the seminal vesicle. Herein, the treatment, histological and histochemical findings of this entity are discussed.

  9. Interrelation between human fertility and seminal plasma lipids, prostaglandins and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiez, A.A.; Zaki, K.; Abbas, E.Z.; Halawa, F.A.; Abdel-Azis, A.

    1986-01-01

    In adult fertile men (32), men with oligospermia (43) and men with azoospermia (31) seminal plasma lipids, prostaglandins (PG) and Zn were determined. The PGs were determined by radioimmunoassay. In oligospermia the seminal plasma levels of PGE phospholipids, triglycerides and Zn were significantly increased, while the PGF/sub 2α/ level was unchanged. In azoospermia the seminal plasma total lipids, phospholipids and cholesterol were significantly decreased, PGE revealed an insignificant decrease only

  10. DETECTION AND ISOLATION OF CD59 FROM HUMAN SEMINAL PLASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A REZAIE

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. CD59 is one of the complement regulatory proteins (CRPs which exert inhibitory function by blocking the formation of C5b-9 complex or Membrane Attacks complex (MAC. Regarding the therapeutic role of CD59 in treatment of pathological effects in uncontrolled activation of complements system and its efficiency to overcome the hyper-acute rejection, CD59 was suggested for maintenance of transplanted organ. In this study We determined and isolated CD59 from seminal plasma. Methods. Six normospermic sample according to WHO standards were chosen. Plasma of samples was separated and to remove the postasomes, the seminal plama was ultra centrifuged. CD59 was detected by Dot-Blot using CD59 mAb (MEM43. The molecular weight and purity of protein was detected by SOS-PAGE method follwed by Westerm Blot. Results. Protein was present in the 6.5 ml and 15ml of gel fitration fractions. Molecular weight based on marker size in these two fractions was 65 and 21KD respectively. Discussion. CD59 had previously beem purified by lysis of erythrocyte cell membrane. Because of use of detergent and preservative agents, this method decreased physiologic effects of the protein. In this study the isolation was performed from prostasome granules" without using of any detergent and preservative agents.

  11. FACTORES QUE AFECTAN LA CALIDAD SEMINAL EN TOROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Lozano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La calidad seminal de los toros se puede ver afectada por múltiples causas tanto de origen infeccioso o no infeccioso. El entendimiento adecuado de estas causas es de gran importancia ya que de este modo se pueden tomar los correctivos necesarios ya sea para tratar al toro, o en otros casos para descartarlo del sistema productivo del cual haga parte. No se debe olvidar como la presencia física del toro se puede dar a partir de un banco de germoplasma (semen congelado, el cual puede tener problemas de calidad no inherentes al proceso de criopreservación sino a factores infecciosos o no infecciosos previos a la congelación. Los problemas de calidad seminal se verán reflejados en los diferentes parámetros reproductivos del sistema productivo, lo que a su véz será de gran relevancia al hacer un balance de pérdidas y ganancias de una ganadería tanto de ganado de carne como de leche.

  12. A Pilot Comparative Study of 26 Biochemical Markers in Seminal Plasma and Serum in Infertile Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Xiang Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The relationships of the biochemical components in seminal plasma and serum, and their origins and physiological effects in male reproductive system have been poorly understood. Methods. Based on the calibration and quality control measures, 26 biochemical markers, in seminal plasma and serum samples from 36 male infertility patients with nonazoospermia were detected and compared. Results. Only PA was undetectable in all seminal plasma samples. There were significant differences of all other 24 biochemical markers in seminal plasma and serum (P<0.05 except for UA (P=0.214. There were rich proteins in seminal plasma, and globulin accounted for about 90%. There were also abundant enzymes in seminal plasma, and the activities of ALT, AST, AKP, GGT, LDH, CK, and αHBDH in seminal plasma were significantly higher than those in serum while ADA was inversely lower. There were relatively low levels of Glu, TG, TC, and hsCRP in seminal plasma, but Glu was undetectable in 8 of 36 cases. Conclusions. The differences of the levels of biochemical markers in seminal plasma and serum might be associated with the selective secretion of testis, epididymis and male accessory glands, and the specific environment needed for sperm metabolism and function maintenance.

  13. Reversal of diet-induced obesity increases insulin transport into cerebrospinal fluid and restores sensitivity to the anorexic action of central insulin in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Denovan P; Mul, Joram D; Liu, Min; Reedy, Brianne M; D'Alessio, David A; Seeley, Randy J; Woods, Stephen C

    2013-03-01

    Diet-induced obesity (DIO) reduces the ability of centrally administered insulin to reduce feeding behavior and also reduces the transport of insulin from the periphery to the central nervous system (CNS). The current study was designed to determine whether reversal of high-fat DIO restores the anorexic efficacy of central insulin and whether this is accompanied by restoration of the compromised insulin transport. Adult male Long-Evans rats were initially maintained on either a low-fat chow diet (LFD) or a high-fat diet (HFD). After 22 weeks, half of the animals on the HFD were changed to the LFD, whereas the other half continued on the HFD for an additional 8 weeks, such that there were 3 groups: 1) a LFD control group (Con; n = 18), 2) a HFD-fed, DIO group (n = 17), and 3) a HFD to LFD, DIO-reversal group (DIO-rev; n = 18). The DIO reversal resulted in a significant reduction of body weight and epididymal fat weight relative to the DIO group. Acute central insulin administration (8 mU) reduced food intake and caused weight loss in Con and DIO-rev but not DIO rats. Fasting cerebrospinal fluid insulin was higher in DIO than Con animals. However, after a peripheral bolus injection of insulin, cerebrospinal fluid insulin increased in Con and DIO-rev rats but not in the DIO group. These data provide support for previous reports that DIO inhibits both the central effects of insulin and insulin's transport to the CNS. Importantly, DIO-rev restored sensitivity to the effects of central insulin on food intake and insulin transport into the CNS.

  14. Transcapillary permeability and subendothelial distribution of endothelial and amniotic fluid insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in the rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar, R.S.; Clemmons, D.R.; Boes, M.; Busby, W.H.; Booth, B.A.; Dake, B.L.; Sandra, A.

    1990-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding proteins (IGFBP) were purified from conditioned media of cultured bovine endothelial cells (ECBP) and from human amniotic fluid (IGFBP-1), and then labeled by radioiodination. 125I-ECBP and 125I-IGFBP-1 were perfused through isolated beating rat hearts for 1 and 5 min, and the hearts fixed and analyzed for 125I-BP content and distribution. One to 4% of the perfused 125I-ECBP and 125I-IGFBP-1 crossed the capillary boundary. The ECBPs predominantly localized as intact 125I-BP in connective tissue elements of the heart with less 125I-BP in cardiac muscle. The ratio of 125I-ECBP in connective tissue: muscle (normalized to percent vol of these compartments) was greater than or equal to 10:1. In contrast, the IGFBP-1 had a greater affinity for cardiac muscle with ratios of 125I-IGFBP-1 in connective tissue:muscle of approximately 1:2. When 125I-IGF-I, in the absence of any BPs, was perfused through the hearts approximately 3-5% left the microcirculation and was found in subendothelial tissues. 125I-IGF-I localized primarily to cardiac muscle with a distribution of connective tissue:cardiac muscle of about 1:3. The findings in the isolated perfused heart were confirmed in intact animals. After 125I-IGFBP-1 was injected into anesthetized rats and allowed to circulate for 5 min, substantial radioactivity was associated with the heart. As in the isolated heart, the IGFBP-1 preferentially localized to cardiac muscle with a connective tissue:cardiac muscle ratio of 1:3. We conclude that IGFBPs produced by endothelial cells and the IGFBP-1 contained in amniotic fluid can cross the capillary boundaries of the rat heart, and that the ECBPs preferentially localize in connective tissue elements of the myocardium, whereas IGFBP-1 predominantly localizes in cardiac muscle

  15. Intravenous grafts of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells induce endogenous cell proliferation and attenuate behavioral deficits in ischemic stroke rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Tajiri

    Full Text Available We recently reported isolation of viable rat amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS cells [1]. Here, we tested the therapeutic benefits of AFS cells in a rodent model of ischemic stroke. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received a 60-minute middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo. Thirty-five days later, animals exhibiting significant motor deficits received intravenous transplants of rat AFS cells or vehicle. At days 60-63 post-MCAo, significant recovery of motor and cognitive function was seen in stroke animals transplanted with AFS cells compared to vehicle-infused stroke animals. Infarct volume, as revealed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining, was significantly reduced, coupled with significant increments in the cell proliferation marker, Ki67, and the neuronal marker, MAP2, in the dentate gyrus (DG [2] and the subventricular zone (SVZ of AFS cell-transplanted stroke animals compared to vehicle-infused stroke animals. A significantly higher number of double-labeled Ki67/MAP2-positive cells and a similar trend towards increased Ki67/MAP2 double-labeling were observed in the DG and SVZ of AFS cell-transplanted stroke animals, respectively, compared to vehicle-infused stroke animals. This study reports the therapeutic potential of AFS cell transplantation in stroke animals, possibly via enhancement of endogenous repair mechanisms.

  16. Lack of effect of non-steroid antiinflammatory drugs on lithium clearance and on delivery of tubular fluid to the loop of Henle in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, E; Thomsen, K; Sørensen, S S; Pedersen, E B

    1986-11-01

    This paper examines a possible interaction between non-steroid antiinflammatory drugs (NSAI drugs) and renal lithium clearance in conscious, unoperated rats with diabetes insipidus (Brattleboro strain) and ordinary Wistar rats. The drugs were given with the food for 5 days before clearance determinations in the following daily doses per kg body weight: acetylsalicyclic acid 115 mg/kg, phenylbutazone 20 mg/kg, indomethacin 5 mg/kg, and penicillamine 65 mg/kg. None of the drugs affected the lithium clearance. Also urine flow, sodium clearance, potassium clearance, and prostaglandin E2 excretion remained unaffected by the treatments. The results suggest that a continued lowering of lithium clearance cannot be produced, at least not by administration of the drugs with the food. Since lithium clearance is a quantitative measure of the delivery of tubular fluid from the proximal tubules to the loop of Henle, the results also suggest that chronic administration of NSAI drugs does not influence delivery from the proximal tubules in rats. The lowering of lithium clearance observed by others after administration of the drugs by injection or by gastric tube may have been transient, lasting only for a short period after each administration.

  17. Molecular and phenotypic adaptation in social insect reproductive fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liberti, Joanito

    of sperm competition. The seminal fluid of ants and bees with multiply mated queens are known to have evolved proteins that are able to kill the sperm of rival males, but the identity of the proteins involved has remained poorly understood. I sequenced the seminal fluid proteomes of four fungus-growing ant...... species that span the evolutionary transition from single to multiple queen-mating in the fungus-growing ant phylogeny. I then reconstructed the evolutionary histories of these proteins and identified a number of their functions related to energy production, control of oxidative stress, and proteolysis...

  18. Suspected seminal vesiculitis in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Jennifer J; Velguth, Karen E; Backues, Kay A

    2011-09-01

    A 32-year-old male Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) underwent routine transrectal stimulation for semen collection as part of an artificial insemination program. The procedure consisted of a preinsemination semen collection followed by two consecutive days of semen collections for artificial insemination. The second day's sample contained large numbers of inflammatory cells, intracellular bacteria, and phagocytized sperm. Semen was submitted for culture and sensitivity. Culture revealed Acinetobacter lwoffii, Staphylococcus intermedius, Kocuria roseus, and an unidentified gram-positive organism. Empirical antibiotic therapy with trimethoprim sulfa was initiated and then changed to enrofloxacin based on sensitivity panel results for a total of 28 days of treatment. Diagnostic semen collections were performed during treatment and 2 wk posttreatment to determine the success of therapy. Posttreatment collections revealed resolution of the inflammation. The origin of the infection was suspected to be the seminal vesicles.

  19. [Anatomo-functional changes in the prostate and seminal vesicles with aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, F; Mastromarino, G; Colombo, F; Canclini, L; Fenice, O

    1993-10-01

    The anatomo-functional modifications of the prostate and the seminal pathways during the genital apparatus aging, (prostatic hyperplasia and hypotrophy of the seminal pathways and testis), are caused by hormonal modifications (inconstant increase of the gonadotropins LH-FSH, decrease of the peripheric utilization of testosterone, alterations of the adrenal secretion), by anatomical involutions (degenerations of the glandular, stromal and vascular components).

  20. Calidad seminal y toxicidad de metales pesados y plaguicidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La función reproductiva masculina se ha visto deteriorada significativamente en los últimos 50 años y dicha alteración podría estar relacionada con la exposición a diferentes tóxicos y contaminantes ocupacionales y ambientales. El objetivo de este trabajo es resumir el impacto de la exposición humana a metales pesados y plaguicidas sobre la función reproductiva masculina. La mayoría de los plaguicidas y metales pesados se consideran tóxicos reproductivos y podrían afectar negativamente al sistema reproductivo masculino debido al efecto alterador sobre el eje hipotálamo-pituitario-gonadal, o directamente afectando a la espermatogénesis, dando lugar a una alteración de la calidad seminal. Los efectos negativos de estos compuestos se han relacionado con los principales parámetros espermáticos (concentración, morfología y movilidad normal, volumen seminal y recuento total espermático, alteración del ADN espermático, así como con cambios en los niveles de hormonas reproductivas. El uso de algunas de estas sustancias ya está prohibido mientras que se continúa comercializando con otras. Sería recomendable una legislación más severa que impida cualquier exposición a este tipo de tóxicos debido a su confirmado efecto perjudicial sobre la salud reproductiva masculina.

  1. Human leukocyte antigen-G in the male reproductive system and in seminal plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horup Larsen, Margit; Bzorek, Michael; Pass, Malene B.

    2011-01-01

    -eclampsia. We have investigated whether HLA-G protein is present in human seminal plasma and in different tissue samples of the male reproductive system.Western blot technique and a soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) assay were used to detect sHLA-G in human seminal plasma samples. Immunohistochemical staining...... was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue samples. We detected sHLA-G protein in seminal plasma, and HLA-G expression in normal testis and in epididymal tissue of the male reproductive system but not in the seminal vesicle. Furthermore, the results indicated a weak expression of HLA–G in hyperplastic prostatic...... tissue. In summary, several of the findings reported in this study suggest an immunoregulatory role of HLA-G in the male reproductive system and in seminal plasma....

  2. Effects of propranolol and clonidine on brain edema, blood-brain barrier permeability, and endothelial glycocalyx disruption after fluid percussion brain injury in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genét, Gustav Folmer; Bentzer, Peter; Hansen, Morten Bagge

    2018-01-01

    clonidine would decrease brain edema, blood-brain barrier permeability, and glycocalyx disruption at 24 hours after trauma. METHODS: We subjected 53 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to lateral fluid percussion brain injury and randomized infusion with propranolol (n = 16), propranolol + clonidine (n = 16......), vehicle (n = 16), or sham (n = 5) for 24 hours. Primary outcome was brain water content at 24 hours. Secondary outcomes were blood-brain barrier permeability and plasma levels of syndecan-1 (glycocalyx disruption), cell damage (histone-complexed DNA fragments), epinephrine, norepinephrine, and animal.......555). We found no effect of propranolol and propranolol/clonidine on blood-brain barrier permeability and animal motor scores. Unexpectedly, propranolol and propranolol/clonidine caused an increase in epinephrine and syndecan-1 levels. CONCLUSION: This study does not provide any support for unselective...

  3. 'Semen contains vitality and heredity, not germs': seminal discourse in the AIDS era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sharful Islam; Hudson-Rodd, Nancy; Saggers, Sherry; Bhuiyan, Mahbubul Islam; Bhuiya, Abbas; Karim, Syed Afzalul; Rauyajin, Oratai

    2006-12-01

    Perspectives of public health generally ignore culture-bound sexual health concerns, such as semen loss, and primarily attempt to eradicate sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Like in many other countries, sexual health concerns of men in Bangladesh have also received less attention compared to STIs in the era of AIDS. This paper describes the meanings of non-STI sexual health concerns, particularly semen loss, in the masculinity framework. In a qualitative study on male sexuality, 50 men, aged 18-55 years, from diverse sociodemographic backgrounds and 10 healthcare practitioners were interviewed. Men considered semen the most powerful and vital body fluid representing their sexual performance and reproductive ability. Rather than recognizing the vulnerability to transmission of STIs, concerns about semen were grounded in the desire of men to preserve and nourish seminal vitality. Traditional practitioners supported semen loss as a major sexual health concern where male heritage configures male sexuality in a patriarchal society. Currently, operating HIV interventions in the framework of disease and death may not ensure participation of men in reproductive and sexual health programmes and is, therefore, less likely to improve the quality of sexual life of men and women.

  4. Semen quality and concentration of soluble proteins in the seminal plasma of Alpine bucks Semen quality and concentration of soluble proteins in the seminal plasma of Alpine bucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Eliza Facione Guimarães

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to study the in vitro seminal quality analyzed by complementary tests and to compare them with physical, morphological and biochemical aspects of male goat semen of the Alpine breed. This experiment took place at the Federal University of Viçosa, situated at 20º45’ S latitude and 42º51’ W longitude, Southwest of Brazil. It was done during the summer months of January and February, and three adult male goats of the Alpine breed were used in intensive conditions. The semen was collected by artificial vagina method. In all semen samples (45 ejaculates, after the physical and morphological analysis, the hiposmotic test was done. In 24 ejaculates, it were done thermo-resistance test, and in 21 ejaculates it were determined the concentration of total soluble proteins in seminal plasma. The male goats presented difference in the semen physical and morphological aspects, in the hiposmotic test and thermo-resistance test, but they did not presented difference in total soluble proteins concentration in seminal plasma. Results of the slow thermo-resistance test and hiposmotic test were positively correlated (r = 0.60. It was concluded, according to our results, that the concentration of total soluble proteins in seminal plasma can not be used as a parameter to predict the seminal quality of Alpine bucks.It was aimed to study the in vitro seminal quality analyzed by complementary tests and to compare them with physical, morphological and biochemical aspects of male goat semen of the Alpine breed. This experiment took place at the Federal University of Viçosa, situated at 20º45’ S latitude and 42º51’ W longitude, Southwest of Brazil. It was done during the summer months of January and February, and three adult male goats of the Alpine breed were used in intensive conditions. The semen was collected by artificial vagina method. In all semen samples (45 ejaculates, after the physical and morphological analysis, the hiposmotic test

  5. Distribution Assessments of Coumarins from Angelicae Pubescentis Radix in Rat Cerebrospinal Fluid and Brain by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Fang Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Angelicae Pubescentis Radix (APR is a widely-used traditional Chinese medicine. Pharmacological studies have begun to probe its biological activities on neurological disorders recently. To assess the brain penetration and distribution of APR, a validated ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was applied to the simultaneous determinations of the main coumarins from APR in the rat cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and brain after oral administration of APR extract, including psoralen, xanthotoxin, bergapten, isoimperatorin, columbianetin, columbianetin acetate, columbianadin, oxypeucedanin hydrate, angelol B, osthole, meranzin hydrate and nodakenetin. Most of the tested coumarins entered the rat CSF and brain quickly, and double-peak phenomena in concentration-time curves were similar to those of their plasma pharmacokinetics. Columbianetin had the highest concentration in the CSF and brain, while psoralen and columbianetin acetate had the largest percent of CSF/plasma and brain/plasma, indicating that these three coumarins may be worthy of further research on the possible nervous effects. Correlations between the in vivo brain distributions and plasma pharmacokinetics of these coumarins were well verified. These results provided valuable information for the overall in vivo brain distribution characteristics of APR and also for its further studies on the active substances for the central nervous system.

  6. Distribution Assessments of Coumarins from Angelicae Pubescentis Radix in Rat Cerebrospinal Fluid and Brain by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-Fang; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2018-01-20

    Angelicae Pubescentis Radix (APR) is a widely-used traditional Chinese medicine. Pharmacological studies have begun to probe its biological activities on neurological disorders recently. To assess the brain penetration and distribution of APR, a validated ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was applied to the simultaneous determinations of the main coumarins from APR in the rat cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain after oral administration of APR extract, including psoralen, xanthotoxin, bergapten, isoimperatorin, columbianetin, columbianetin acetate, columbianadin, oxypeucedanin hydrate, angelol B, osthole, meranzin hydrate and nodakenetin. Most of the tested coumarins entered the rat CSF and brain quickly, and double-peak phenomena in concentration-time curves were similar to those of their plasma pharmacokinetics. Columbianetin had the highest concentration in the CSF and brain, while psoralen and columbianetin acetate had the largest percent of CSF/plasma and brain/plasma, indicating that these three coumarins may be worthy of further research on the possible nervous effects. Correlations between the in vivo brain distributions and plasma pharmacokinetics of these coumarins were well verified. These results provided valuable information for the overall in vivo brain distribution characteristics of APR and also for its further studies on the active substances for the central nervous system.

  7. Altered neuronal activities in the motor cortex with impaired motor performance in adult rats observed after infusion of cerebrospinal fluid from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayani, R; Nalini, A; Rao Laxmi, T; Raju, T R

    2010-01-05

    Although definite evidences are available to state that, neuronal activity is a prime determinant of animal behavior, the specific relationship between local field potentials of the motor cortex after intervention with CSF from human patients and animal behavior have remained opaque. The present study has investigated whether cerebrospinal fluid from sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS) patients could disrupt neuronal activity of the motor cortex, which could be associated with disturbances in the motor performance of adult rats. CSF from ALS patients (ALS-CSF) was infused into the lateral ventricle of Wistar rats. After 24h, the impact of ALS-CSF on the local field potentials (LFPs) of the motor cortex and on the motor behavior of animals were examined. The results indicate that ALS-CSF produced a bivariate distribution on the relative power values of the LFPs of the motor cortex 24h following infusion. However, the behavioral results did not show bimodality, instead showed consistent decrease in motor performance: on rotarod and grip strength meter. The neuronal activity of the motor cortex negatively correlated with the duration of ALS symptoms at the time of lumbar puncture. Although the effect of ALS-CSF was more pronounced at 24h following infusion, the changes observed in LFPs and motor performance appeared to revert to baseline values at later time points of testing. In the current study, we have shown that, ALS-CSF has the potential to perturb neuronal activity of the rat motor cortex which was associated with poor performance on motor function tests.

  8. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of panel of neurotransmitters in cerebrospinal fluid from the rat model for tauopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Andrej; Somikova, Zuzana; Zilka, Norbert; Novak, Michal

    2014-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still being recognized today as an unmet medical need. Currently, there is no cure and early preclinical diagnostic assay available for AD. Therefore much attention is now being directed at the development of novel methods for quantitative determination of AD biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Here, we describe the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of 5-hydroxytryptamine (SER), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanilic acid (HVA), noradrenaline (NADR), adrenaline (ADR), dopamine (DA), glutamic acid (Glu), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and histamine (HIS) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the rat model for human tauopathy. The benzoyl chloride was used as pre-column derivatization reagents. Neurotransmitters and metabolites were analysed on ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) on C18 column in combination with tandem mass spectrometry. The method is simple, highly sensitive and showed excellent linearity with regression coefficients higher than 0.99. The accuracy was in a range of 93-113% for all analytes. The inter-day precision (n=5 days), expressed as %RSD, was in a range 2-10% for all analytes. Using this method we detected significant changes of CSF levels of two important neurotransmitters/metabolites, ADR and 5-HIAA, which correlates with progression of neurodegeneration in our animal model. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Evaluation of Resuscitation Fluids on Endothelial Glycocalyx, Venular Blood Flow, and Coagulation Function After Hemorrhagic Shock in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Associateship at the US Army Institute of Surgical Research, and I.T.F. was employed by Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro and Premier Consulting...Dawley rats (Charles River Laboratories, Wilmington, MA; body weight, 220 T 10 g) breathing spontaneously 100% oxygen were maintained under isoflurane (2...diffusion of small solutes. Microvasc Res. 2010;80(3):394Y401. 22. Harris PD, Longnecker DE , Greenwald EK, Miller FN. Small vessel constriction in the

  10. Ionic composition and osmolality of paddlefish (Polyodon spathula, Acipenseriformes) seminal fluid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Linhart, Otomar; Mims, S. H.; Gomelsky, B.; Hiott, A. E.; Shelton, W. L.; Cosson, J.; Rodina, Marek; Gela, David; Bastl, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2003), s. 357-368 ISSN 0967-6120 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/03/0178 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : ionic cintents * aquaculture * motility of sperm Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.446, year: 2003

  11. Total iodine quantification in fluids and tissues from iodine- or iodide-supplemented rats by ion chromatography following microwave-assisted digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Guadalupe; Muñoz-Torres, Carolina; Orozco-Esquivel, Teresa; Anguiano, Brenda; Aceves, Carmen

    2015-03-01

    Iodine is a crucial component of thyroid hormones, and several reports have shown that iodine per se is implicated in the physiopathology of other organs. Innovative ion chromatography detection following a four-step temperature ramp microwave digestion in 25-50 mM nitric acid was developed to measure total iodine in biological fluids and tissue samples from female Sprague-Dawley rats supplemented with 0.05% molecular iodine (I2) or 0.05% potassium iodide (I(-)) in drinking water. The reported method allows the measurement of total iodine with a limit of quantification of 13.7 μg L(-1), recoveries of 96.3-100.3%, and intra- and inter-assay variations, of 3.5% and 7.4% respectively. Analysis of biological fluids showed that after 48 hours, iodine-supplemented animals exhibited significantly higher levels of total iodine in both serum and urine compared with those supplemented with iodide. The half-life of iodine in serum and urine measured over the first 48 h showed similar patterns for both the I2 (7.89 and 7.76 hours) and I(-) (8.27 and 8.90 hours) supplements. Differential uptake patterns were observed in tissues after 6 days of supplements, with I(-) preferentially retained by thyroid, lactating mammary gland, and milk, and a slightly but significantly higher capture of I2 in pituitary, ovary, and virgin mammary gland. We developed a rapid, selective, and accurate digestion method to process fluid and tissue samples that permits reproducible measurements of total iodine by ion chromatography; iodine or iodide supplement show a similar serum and urine half-life, but organ-specific uptake depends on the chemical form of the iodine supplement.

  12. Evaluation of magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) combined with external radiation in an orthotopic rat model of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannsen, M.; Thiesen, B.; Taymoorian, K.; Gneveckow, U.; Waldoefner, N.; Koch, M.; Scholz, R.; Lein, M.; Jung, K.; Loening, S.A.; Jordan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) is a new concept of cancer treatment based on AC magnetic field-induced excitation of biocompatible superparamagnetic nanoparticles. Preliminary studies of MFH using nanoscaled aminosilan-coated magnetites have demonstrated the feasibility of minimally invasive MFH in the Dunning tumor model. Here we evaluated the effect of two sequential MFH treatments, combined with external radiation, in an orthotopic Dunning R3327-MatLyLu prostate cancer model. MFH led to a significant growth inhibition in this orthotopic model of the aggressive MatLyLu tumor variant. Furthermore, combined MFH and radiation with 20 Gy equally effective in inhibiting tumor growth as radiation with 60 Gy, suggesting a significant synergistic effect. Intratumoral deposition of magnetic fluids was found to be stable, allowing for serial MFH treatments without repeated injection. The optimal treatment schedules of this combination regarding temperatures, sequencing and fractionation need to be defined in further experimental studies. (author)

  13. Effect of climate on the seminal characteristics of boars in a region of humid tropical forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henao Restrepo, Guillermo; Trujillo Aramburo, Luis Emilio; Buritica Henao, Maria Elizabet; Sierra Perez, Carlos Ignacio; Correa Londono, Guillermo; Gonzalez Boto, Oscar Domingo

    2004-01-01

    In a region of humid tropical forest, ten boars of from 12 to 24 months of age were selected to evaluate the effect of climatic variables measured on the day of semen collection and for each of preceding 45 days. On seminal characteristics, the variability of each characteristic was separated into an intra individual component and an interindividual component, using maximum likelihood estimators (PROC VARCOMP of SAS). In order to relate the seminal characteristics with the climatic variables, morphological abnormalities were grouped according to the affected spermatic region, into head. Midsection and main section abnormalities; the other characteristics were evaluated without any modification. Possible correlations between seminal characteristics and climatic variables were evaluated. In a total of 298 ejaculates collected weekly during a period of 30 weeks, except for total volume and morphological abnormalities. The seminal characteristics presented low or moderate intra and interindividual variation and were similar to those found in other latitudes, with a tendency to present greater seminal volumes and concentrations maximum temperature minimum temperature. Range among temperatures. Relative humidity and precipitation of the day of the semen collection and on each of the preceding 45 days had low effects on the seminal characteristics. It is possible that the boars in warm humid tropical areas develop a high level of adaptation that permits an adequate testicular thermoregulation that favors the spermatogenic function of the seminiferous tubules in a way that does not perceptibly affect production the seminal quality

  14. Altered Antioxidant Status and Increased Lipid Per-Oxidation in Seminal Plasma of Tunisian Infertile Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atig, Fatma; Raffa, Monia; Ali, Habib Ben; Abdelhamid, Kerkeni; Saad, Ali; Ajina, Mounir

    2012-01-01

    Human seminal plasma is a natural reservoir of antioxidants that protect spermatozoa from oxidative damages. There is evidence in literature supports the fact that impairments in seminal antioxidant and lipid per-oxidation status play important roles in the physiopathology of male infertility. Our present study forms the first one which was carried out in Tunisia. We evaluated the antioxidant status in the seminal plasma of 120 infertile men programmed to In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) for the first tentative. Patients were characterized by an idiopathic infertility. They were divided into three groups: normozoospermics who were considered as controls (n=40), asthenozoospermics (Astheno; n=45) and oligoasthenoteratozoospermics (OAT; n=35). Seminal activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and the levels of glutathione (GSH), zinc (Zn) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. With the significant increase of the seminal activities of SOD and GPX in normozoospermics group, there were positive correlations observed between this enzymes and sperm quality. Also, significant elevated rates of seminal zinc and GSH were observed in control group, but there was contradictory associations reflecting the effects of these antioxidants on semen parameters. However, we noted significant increase of MDA levels in groups with abnormal seminogram. We showed negative associations between this per-oxidative marker and sperm parameters. These results obviously suggested that impairment on seminal antioxidants is an important risk factor for low sperm quality associated to idiopathic infertility and as a result can lead to poor IVF outcome. PMID:22211112

  15. Male Seminal Relaxin Contributes to Induction of the Post-mating Cytokine Response in the Female Mouse Uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle J. Glynn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The hormone relaxin is important in female reproduction for embryo implantation, cardiovascular function, and during labor and lactation. Relaxin is also synthesized in males by organs of the male tract. We hypothesized that relaxin might be one component of seminal plasma responsible for eliciting the female cytokine response induced in the uterus at mating. When recombinant relaxin was injected into the uterus of wild-type (Rln+/+ mice at estrus, it evoked the production of Cxcl1 mRNA and its secreted protein product CXCL1 in four of eight animals. Mating experiments were then conducted using mice with a null mutation in the relaxin gene (Rln−/− mice. qRT-PCR analysis of mRNA expression in wild-type females showed diminished uterine expression of several cytokine and chemokine genes in the absence of male relaxin. Similar differences were also noted comparing Rln−/− and Rln+/+ females mated to wild-type males. Quantification of uterine luminal fluid cytokine content confirmed that male relaxin provokes the production of CXCL10 and CSF3 in Rln+/+ females. Differences were also seen comparing Rln−/− and Rln+/+ females mated with Rln−/− males for CXCL1, CSF3, and CCL5, implying that endogenous relaxin in females might prime the uterus to respond appropriately to seminal fluid at coitus. Finally, pan-leukocyte CD45 mRNA was increased in wild-type matings compared to other combinations, implying that male and female relaxin may trigger leukocyte expansion in the uterus. We conclude that male and/or female relaxin may be important in activating the uterine cytokine/chemokine network required to initiate maternal immune adaptation to pregnancy.

  16. MiOXSYS: a novel method of measuring oxidation reduction potential in semen and seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh; Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Du Plessis, Stefan; Sabanegh, Edmund

    2016-09-01

    To measure oxidative reduction potential (ORP) in semen and seminal plasma and to establish their reference levels. ORP levels were measured in semen and seminal plasma. Tertiary hospital. Twenty-six controls and 33 infertile men. None. Static ORP (sORP) and capacitance ORP (cORP) were measured in semen and seminal plasma at time 0 and 120 minutes. Correlation of ORP was assessed between [1] semen and seminal plasma and [2] time 0 and 120 minutes. The association with sperm parameters was studied in (a) controls and (b) infertile patients, and a receiver operating characteristic curve was generated to establish the sORP cutoff. Semen sORP and cORP levels were associated with seminal plasma levels at time 0 and time 120 minutes. In controls and infertile patients, an inverse relationship of sORP levels was established with concentration and total sperm count in semen as well as seminal plasma at time 0 and 120 minutes. Classification of subjects based on sperm motility showed that subjects with abnormal motility present with poor concentration, total count, morphology, and elevated levels of semen and seminal plasma sORP at time 120 minutes. The sORP cutoff of 1.48 in semen and 2.09 in seminal plasma based on motility was able to distinguish subjects with normal semen quality from those with abnormal semen quality. The MiOXSYS System can reliably measure ORP levels in semen and seminal plasma. ORP levels are not affected by semen age, making this new technology easy to employ in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Squamous cell carcinoma of the seminal vesicle. Review of the related literature and case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Matveev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seminal vesicle tumors are very rare malignancies which are not diagnosed in daily clinical oncology practice. Primary malignant tumors in seminal vesicle are difficult to define due to the lack of specific symptoms in the early stages of the disease. Another obstacle of proper diagnosis is the frequent invasion of tumors of the surrounding organs, especially the prostate, rectum and bladder which is difficult to differentiate. Very often seminal vesicle tumors are difficult to detect. Digital rectal examination as well as transrectal ultrasound scan (US could reveal a bulky mass in the retrovesical space. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI are the main diagnostic methods which could help to reveal pathologic masses in the region of seminal vesicles. Levels of prostate-specific antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen and tumor markers specific for colorectal cancer are negative in seminal vesicle tumors.The world experience of treating seminal vesicle tumors is very limited. There is paucity of data regarding appropriate choice of surgical approach and further treatment strategy and most of the time the treatment is individualized and based on very scarce information. At the same time surgical approach may vary significantly from vesiculectomy to pelvic exenteration. Possibility of using any regimens of adjuvant radiation therapy, chemotherapy or hormone therapy is highly debatable. However, aggressive surgical approach with radical tumor removal followed by extended lymphodissection shows the most favorable results in survival of patients suffering from seminal vesicle cancer.Squamous cell carcinoma of the seminal vesicles is presumed to be an extremely rare disease as there are only 3 reports of it in the world literature. We report a case of patient B. suffering from squamous cell carcinoma of the right seminal vesicle whom we conducted an aggressive surgical approach – prostatovesiculectomy followed by resection of the

  18. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of seminal vesicles: Is there a role for relatively aggressive treatment modalities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Crestani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A 50 year old white man received an incidental ultrasound diagnosis of hypoechoic mass interesting the right seminal vesicle. A CT scan showed the presence of a 7.8 cm roundish cyst, originating from the right seminal vesicle. He had been followed by the removal of the right seminal vesicle and both the cystic lesion. The histological findings of the specimen documented the presence of small round cells compatible with Ewing’s sarcoma/PPNET. The patient received also adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation treatment. After 10 years, the follow-up is still negative.

  19. Rabbit seminal plasma proteome: The importance of the genetic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casares-Crespo, Lucía; Fernández-Serrano, Paula; Vicente, José S; Marco-Jiménez, Francisco; Viudes-de-Castro, María Pilar

    2018-02-01

    The present study was conducted to characterise rabbit seminal plasma proteins (SP proteins) focusing on the influence of the genetic origin and seasonality. In addition, β-NGF protein quantity in SP was determined. Semen samples were recovered from January to December 2014 using 6 males belonging to genotype A and six from genotype R. For each genotype, one pooled sample at the beginning, middle and end of each season was selected to develop the experiment. A total of 24 pools (3 for each season and genetic line) were analysed. SP proteins of the two experimental groups were recovered and subjected to in-solution digestion nano LC-MS/MS and bioinformatics analysis. The resulting library included 402 identified proteins validated with ≥95% Confidence (unused Score ≥ 1.3). These data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD006308. Only 6 proteins were specifically implicated in reproductive processes according to Gene Ontology annotation. Twenty-three proteins were differentially expressed between genotypes, 11 over-expressed in genotype A and 12 in genotype R. Regarding the effect of season on rabbit SP proteome, results showed that there is no clear pattern of protein variation throughout the year. Similar β-NGF relative quantity was observed between seasons and genotypes. In conclusion, this study generates the largest library of SP proteins reported to date in rabbits and provides evidence that genotype is related to a specific abundance of SP proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Potential endocrine disrupting effects of bifenthrin in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yanjun; Wang, Hengjuan; Song, Yan; Yang, Hui; Jia, Xudong; Li, Ning

    2012-05-01

    To study the potential endocrine disrupting effects of bifenthrin (BIF) by using uterotrophic assay and Hershberger assay. In uterotrophic assay, 60 female SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups, 10 rats per group. Rats in bifenthrin-treated groups were given different doses of bifenthrin (1.47, 4.41 and 13.23 mg/kg BW by gavage for 3 consecutive days). Rats in negative control groups were given corn oil by gavage. Rats in ethinyl estradiol (EE) oral positive control groups were given EE 1.0 microg/kg BW by gavage. Rats in EE injected positive groups were given 0.6 microg/kg BW EE by subcutaneously injection while given corn oil by gavage. At necropsy, the wet and blotted uteri were weighed. The relative uteri weights were calculated, and the histology of uteri was observed. In Hershberger assay, 60 castrated male SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups, with 10 rats in each group. Rats in BIF-treated groups were given different doses of BIF (1.4, 4.2 and 12.6 mg/kg BW) by gavage. Flutamide (3.0 mg/kg BW) were given to animals in the positive control group by gavage. Rats in the negative control group and testosterone propionate group were given corn oil by gavage for 10 consecutive days. Rats in all groups except the negative control group were also treated with testosterone propionate (TP, 0.2 mg/kg BW) by subcutaneous injection. At necropsy, ventral prostate (VP), seminal vesicle plus fluids and coagulating glands (SVCG), levator ani-bulbocavernosus muscle (LABC), paired Cowper's glands (COW) and the glands penis (GP), liver, kidneys, adrenals were weighed. Serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were determined. In uterotrophic assay, compared with the negative control group, the mean relative wet weight and relative blotted weight of uterine were increased significantly in the female rats given by BIF at 13.23 mg/kg BW for 3 days (P < 0.05). BIF resulted in a significant increase of epithelial cell heights of uteri at 4.41 and 13.23 mg/kg BW

  1. Pattern of Semen Fluid Abnormalities in Male Partners of Infertile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of male infertility is increasing in our environment. There is a need to evaluate the partern of abnormality with a view to recommending appropriate interventions. We aimed to to analyze the seminal fluid parameters of the male partners of the infertile couples managed in the hospital over a 12 month period ...

  2. Effect of Addition of Concentrated Proteins and Seminal Plasma Low Molecular Weight Proteins in Freezing and Thawing of Equine Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagundes, B.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties in obtaining equine frozen semen with potential fertility are recognized. This study was designed to investigate the effect of seminal plasma on frozen/thawing of eight stallion semen from different breed using the following treatments: Seminal plasma with ten-fold concentrated proteins with molecular weight above 10 kDa on frozen extender; Part of seminal plasma with proteins under 10 kDa on frozen extender; Conventional freezing, using whole seminal plasma on frozen extender. Using the parameter of 30% of seminal motility post-thawing as index of good freezability, it was verified an increased percentage of stallions that presented good freezability when semen was frozen with seminal plasma containing ten-fold concentrated proteins with molecular weight above 10 kDa on frozen extender. These results, suggested the use of seminal plasma concentrated proteins from own stallion to freezing/thawing semen.

  3. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  4. Primary leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle: Case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauvin, Cécile; Moureau-Zabotto, Laurence; Chetaille, Bruno; Hilgers, Werner; Denoux, Yves; Jacquemier, Jocelyne; Guiramand, Jérôme; Sarran, Anthony; Bertucci, François

    2011-01-01

    Primary leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle is exceedingly rare. We report a case of a 59-year-old man with tumour detected by rectal symptoms and ultrasonography. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging suggested an origin in the right seminal vesicle. Transperineal biopsy of the tumour revealed leiomyosarcoma. A radical vesiculo-prostactectomy with bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed. Pathological examination showed a grade 2 leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy. He developed distant metastases 29 months after diagnosis, and received chemotherapy. Metastatic disease was controlled by second-line gemcitabine-docetaxel combination. Fifty-one months after diagnosis of the primary tumour, and 22 months after the first metastases, the patient is alive with excellent performance status, and multiple asymptomatic stable lung and liver lesions. We report the eighth case of primary leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle and the first one with a so long follow-up

  5. Primary leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauvin, Cécile; Moureau-Zabotto, Laurence; Chetaille, Bruno; Hilgers, Werner; Denoux, Yves; Jacquemier, Jocelyne; Guiramand, Jérôme; Sarran, Anthony; Bertucci, François

    2011-07-29

    Primary leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle is exceedingly rare. We report a case of a 59-year-old man with tumour detected by rectal symptoms and ultrasonography. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging suggested an origin in the right seminal vesicle. Transperineal biopsy of the tumour revealed leiomyosarcoma. A radical vesiculo-prostactectomy with bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed. Pathological examination showed a grade 2 leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy. He developed distant metastases 29 months after diagnosis, and received chemotherapy. Metastatic disease was controlled by second-line gemcitabine-docetaxel combination. Fifty-one months after diagnosis of the primary tumour, and 22 months after the first metastases, the patient is alive with excellent performance status, and multiple asymptomatic stable lung and liver lesions. We report the eighth case of primary leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle and the first one with a so long follow-up.

  6. Primary leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle: Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiramand Jérôme

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle is exceedingly rare. Case Presentation We report a case of a 59-year-old man with tumour detected by rectal symptoms and ultrasonography. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging suggested an origin in the right seminal vesicle. Transperineal biopsy of the tumour revealed leiomyosarcoma. A radical vesiculo-prostactectomy with bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed. Pathological examination showed a grade 2 leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy. He developed distant metastases 29 months after diagnosis, and received chemotherapy. Metastatic disease was controlled by second-line gemcitabine-docetaxel combination. Fifty-one months after diagnosis of the primary tumour, and 22 months after the first metastases, the patient is alive with excellent performance status, and multiple asymptomatic stable lung and liver lesions. Conclusions We report the eighth case of primary leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle and the first one with a so long follow-up.

  7. Gold in semen: Level in seminal plasma and spermatozoa of normal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    K.P. Skandhan

    2016-07-01

    Jul 1, 2016 ... Gold level in sediment (spermatozoa) of normal was almost same as observed in its seminal plasma ... showed, gold was not detected in semen by Direct Couple ... Diffraction Analysis, revealed presence of gold throughout.

  8. Na,K-ATPase alpha isoforms at the blood-cerebrospinal fluid-trigeminal nerve and blood-retina interfaces in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakaki, Xianghong; McCleary, Paige; Techy, Matthew; Chiang, Jiarong; Kuo, Linus; Fonteh, Alfred N; Armstrong, Brian; Levy, Dan; Harrington, Michael G

    2013-03-14

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sodium concentration increases during migraine attacks, and both CSF and vitreous humor sodium increase in the rat migraine model. The Na,K-ATPase is a probable source of these sodium fluxes. Since Na,K-ATPase isoforms have different locations and physiological roles, our objective was to establish which alpha isoforms are present at sites where sodium homeostasis is disrupted. Specific Na,K-ATPase alpha isoforms were identified in rat tissues by immunohistochemistry at the blood-CSF barrier at the choroid plexus, at the blood-CSF-trigeminal barrier at the meninges, at the blood-retina barrier, and at the blood-aqueous barrier at the ciliary body. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), occludin, or von Willibrand factor (vWF) were co-localized with Na,K-ATPase to identify trigeminal nociceptor fibers, tight junctions, and capillary endothelial cells respectively. The Na,K-ATPase alpha-2 isoform is located on capillaries and intensely at nociceptive trigeminal nerve fibers at the meningeal blood-CSF-trigeminal barrier. Alpha-1 and -3 are lightly expressed on the trigeminal nerve fibers but not at capillaries. Alpha-2 is expressed at the blood-retina barriers and, with alpha-1, at the ciliary body blood aqueous barrier. Intense apical membrane alpha-1 was associated with moderate cytoplasmic alpha-2 expression at the choroid plexus blood-CSF barrier. Na,K-ATPase alpha isoforms are present at the meningeal, choroid plexus, and retinal barriers. Alpha-2 predominates at the capillary endothelial cells in the meninges and retinal ganglion cell layer.

  9. Development of a Supercritical Fluid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for the Determination of Azacitidine in Rat Plasma and Its Application to a Bioavailability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongpo Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Azacitidine is widely used for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS and acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML. The analysis of azacitidine in biological samples is subject to interference by endogenous compounds. Previously reported high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric (HPLC-MS/MS bioanalytical assays for azacitidine suffer from expensive sample preparation procedures or from long separation times to achieve the required selectivity. Herein, supercritical fluid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (SFC-MS/MS was explored as a more promising technique for the selective analysis of structure-like or chiral drugs in biological matrices. In this study, a simple, rapid and specific SFC/MS/MS analytical method was developed for the determination of azacitidine levels in rat plasma. Azacitidine was completely separated from the endogenous compounds on an ACQUITY UPLC™ BEH C18 column (100 mm × 3.0 mm, 1.7 μm; Waters Corp., Milford, MA, USA using isocratic elution with CO2/methanol as the mobile phase. The single-run analysis time was as short as 3.5 min. The sample preparation for protein removal was accomplished using a simple methanol precipitation method. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ of azacitidine was 20 ng/mL. The intra-day and inter-day precisions were less than 15%, and the relative error (RE was within ±15% for the medium- and high-concentration quality control (QC samples and within ±20% for the low-concentration QC samples. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in rats following the intravenous administration of azacitidine.

  10. Differential expression of miRNAs in the seminal plasma and serum of testicular cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelloni, Marianna; Coltrinari, Giulia; Paoli, Donatella; Pallotti, Francesco; Lombardo, Francesco; Lenzi, Andrea; Gandini, Loredana

    2017-09-01

    Various microRNAs from the miR-371-3 and miR-302a-d clusters have recently been proposed as markers for testicular germ cell tumours. Upregulation of these miRNAs has been found in both the tissue and serum of testicular cancer patients, but they have never been studied in human seminal plasma. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the differences in the expression of miR-371-3 and miR-302a-d between the seminal plasma and serum of testicular cancer patients, and to identify new potential testicular cancer markers in seminal plasma. We investigated the serum and seminal plasma of 28 pre-orchiectomy patients subsequently diagnosed with testicular cancer, the seminal plasma of another 20 patients 30 days post-orchiectomy and a control group consisting of 28 cancer-free subjects attending our centre for an andrological check-up. Serum microRNA expression was analysed using RT-qPCR. TaqMan Array Card 3.0 platform was used for microRNA profiling in the seminal plasma of cancer patients. Results for both miR-371-3 and the miR-302 cluster in the serum of testicular cancer patients were in line with literature reports, while miR-371and miR-372 expression in seminal plasma showed the opposite trend to serum. On array analysis, 37 miRNAs were differentially expressed in the seminal plasma of cancer patients, and the upregulated miR-142 and the downregulated miR-34b were validated using RT-qPCR. Our study investigated the expression of miRNAs in the seminal plasma of patients with testicular cancer for the first time. Unlike in serum, miR-371-3 cannot be considered as markers in seminal plasma, whereas miR-142 levels in seminal plasma may be a potential marker for testicular cancer.

  11. Painful orgasm in an adolescent after seminal-sparing cystoprostatectomy: a puzzling symptom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Lorenzo; Castagnetti, Marco; Rigamonti, Waifro

    2015-01-01

    An 18-year-old boy, followed up after seminal-sparing cystectomy for bladder rhabdomyosarcoma, presented complaining of recurrent episodes of left scrotal/inguinal pain arising after orgasms. Full work-up ruled out disease recurrence, but showed enlarged seminal vesicles. Ligation of the vas deferens was unsuccessful. The patient was started on α-blockers to reduce vas contractions with improvement of symptoms. The possible pathophysiology and treatments of this symptom are discussed. 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. Radical prostatectomy, sparing of the seminal vesicles, and painful orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogorovich, Andrea; Nilsson, Andreas E; Tyritzis, Stavros I; Carlsson, Stefan; Jonsson, Martin; Haendler, Leif; Nyberg, Tommy; Steineck, Gunnar; Wiklund, N Peter

    2013-05-01

    Erectile dysfunction has been widely investigated as the major factor responsible for sexual bother in patients after radical prostatectomy (RP); painful orgasm (PO) is one element of this bother, but little is known about its prevalence and its effects on sexual health. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of PO and to identify potential risk factors. A total of 1,411 consecutive patients underwent open (radical retropubic prostatectomy) or robot-assisted laparoscopic RP between 2002 and 2006. The patients were asked to complete a study-specific questionnaire. Of a total of 145 questions, 5 dealt with the orgasmic characteristics. The questionnaire was also administered to a comparison group of 442 persons, matched for age and area of residency. The response rate was 91% (1,288 patients). A total of 143 (11%) patients reported PO. Among the 834 men being able to have an orgasm, the prevalence was 18% vs. 6% in the comparison group (relative risk [RR] 2.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-4.5). When analyzed as independent variables, bilateral seminal vesicle (SV)-sparing approach (RR 2.33, 95% CI 1.0-5.3, P = 0.045) and age <60 years were significantly related to the presence of PO (95% CI 0.5-0.9, P = 0.019). After adjustment for age, bilateral SV-sparing still remained a significant predictor for occurrence of PO. We found that PO occurs significantly more often in patients undergoing bilateral SV-sparing RP when compared with age-matched comparison population. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  13. Quantification of Prostate and Seminal Vesicle Interfraction Variation During IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, Steven J.; Dong Lei; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; De Crevoisier, Renaud; Lee, Andrew K.; Cheung, Rex; Choi, Seungtaek; O'Daniel, Jennifer; Tucker, Susan L.; Wang He; Kuban, Deborah A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the interfraction variability in prostate and seminal vesicle (SV) positions during a course of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using an integrated computed tomography (CT)-linear accelerator system and to assess the impact of rectal and bladder volume changes. Methods and Materials: We studied 15 patients who had undergone IMRT for prostate carcinoma. Patients had one pretreatment planning CT scan followed by three in-room CT scans per week using a CT-on-rails system. The prostate, bladder, rectum, and pelvic bony anatomy were contoured in 369 CT scans. Using the planning CT scan as a reference, the volumetric and positional changes were analyzed in the subsequent CT scans. Results: For all 15 patients, the mean systematic internal prostate and SV variation was 0.1 ± 4.1 mm and 1.2 ± 7.3 mm in the anteroposterior axis, -0.5 ± 2.9 mm and -0.7 ± 4.5 mm in the superoinferior axis, and 0.2 ± 0.9 mm and -0.9 ± 1.9 mm in the lateral axis, respectively. The mean magnitude of the three-dimensional displacement vector was 4.6 ± 3.5 mm for the prostate and 7.6 ± 4.7 mm for the SVs. The rectal and bladder volume changes during treatment correlated with the anterior and superior displacement of the prostate and SVs. Conclusion: The dominant prostate and SV variations occurred in the anteroposterior and superoinferior directions. The systematic prostate and SV variation between the treatment planning CT and daily therapy as a result of the rectal and bladder volume changes emphasizes the need for daily directed target localization and/or immobilization techniques

  14. Characterization of the seminal plasma proteome in men with prostatitis by mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate gland which affects approximately 10% of men. Despite its frequency, diagnosing prostatitis and monitoring patient response to treatment remains frustrating. As the prostate contributes a substantial percentage of proteins to seminal plasma, we hypothesized that a protein biomarker of prostatitis might be found by comparing the seminal plasma proteome of patients with and without prostatitis. Results Using mass spectrometry, we identified 1708 proteins in the pooled seminal plasma of 5 prostatitis patients. Comparing this list to a previously published list of seminal plasma proteins in the pooled seminal plasma of 5 healthy, fertile controls yielded 1464 proteins in common, 413 found only in the control group, and 254 found only in the prostatitis group. Applying a set of criteria to this dataset, we generated a high-confidence list of 59 candidate prostatitis biomarkers, 33 of which were significantly increased in prostatitis as compared to control, and 26 of which were decreased. The candidates were analyzed using Gene Ontology and Ingenuity Pathway analysis to delineate their subcellular localizations and functions. Conclusions Thus, in this study, we identified 59 putative biomarkers in seminal plasma that need further validation for diagnosis and monitoring of prostatitis. PMID:22309592

  15. Ovulation-inducing factor: a protein component of llama seminal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanca Wilfredo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously, we documented the presence of ovulation-inducing factor (OIF in the seminal plasma of llamas and alpacas. The purpose of the study was to define the biochemical characteristics of the molecule(s in seminal plasma responsible for inducing ovulation. Methods In Experiment 1, llama seminal plasma was centrifuged using filtration devices with nominal molecular mass cut-offs of 30, 10 and 5 kDa. Female llamas (n = 9 per group were treated i.m. with whole seminal plasma (positive control, phosphate-buffered saline (negative control, or the fraction of seminal plasma equal or higher than 30 kDa, 10 to 30 kDa, 5 to 10 kDa, or Results In Experiment 1, all llamas in the equal or higher than 30 kDa and positive control groups ovulated (9/9 in each, but none ovulated in the other groups (P Conclusions We conclude that ovulation-inducing factor (OIF in llama seminal plasma is a protein molecule that is resistant to heat and enzymatic digestion with proteinase K, and has a molecular mass of approximately equal or higher than 30 kDa.

  16. Reproductive hacking. A male seminal protein acts through intact reproductive pathways in female Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, C Dustin; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2014-01-01

    Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through "hacking" a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones.

  17. Effect of Mucuna pruriens on semen profile and biochemical parameters in seminal plasma of infertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Shukla, Kamla Kant; Islam, Najmul; Jaiswar, Shyam Pyari; Ahmad, Sohail

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the impact of Mucuna pruriens seeds on semen profiles and biochemical levels in seminal plasma of infertile men. Prospective study. Departments of Biochemistry and Obstetrics and Gynecology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, India. Sixty normal healthy fertile men (controls) and 60 men undergoing infertility screening. High-performance liquid chromatography assay procedure for quantitation of vitamin A and E in seminal plasma. Biochemical parameters in seminal plasma, namely lipids, fructose, and vitamin C, were estimated by standard spectrophotometric procedures. Before and after the treatment, seminal plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxide, fructose, and antioxidant vitamin levels were measured. Treatment with M. pruriens significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation, elevated spermatogenesis, and improved sperm motility. Treatment also recovered the levels of total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and vitamin A, C, and E and corrected fructose in seminal plasma of infertile men. Treatment with M. pruriens increased sperm concentration and motility in all the infertile study groups. Oligozoospermic patients recovered sperm concentration significantly, but sperm motility was not restored to normal levels in asthenozoospermic men. Furthermore, in the seminal plasma of all the infertile groups, the levels of lipids, antioxidant vitamins, and corrected fructose were recovered after a decrease in lipid peroxides after treatment. The present study is likely to open new vistas on the possible role of M. pruriens seed powder as a restorative and invigorating agent for infertile men.

  18. Relationship between seminal plasma levels of anandamide congeners palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamide and semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoako, Akwasi Atakora; Marczylo, Timothy Hywel; Elson, Janine; Taylor, Anthony Henry; Willets, Jonathon M; Konje, Justin Chi

    2014-11-01

    To determine whether changes in seminal plasma concentrations of the endogenous lipid signaling molecules palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and oleoylethanolamide (OEA) have significant effects on sperm quality. Biochemical and physiological studies of human seminal plasma and spermatozoa. Academic tertiary care medical center. Ninety men attending an infertility clinic for semen analysis. Palmitoylethanolamide and OEA extracted from seminal plasma were quantified by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry. Patient sperm from semen with normal parameters were exposed in vitro to PEA or OEA to determine effects on sperm motility, viability, and mitochondrial activity. The relationship between seminal plasma concentrations of PEA and OEA and sperm quality and the effect of these compounds on sperm motility, viability, and mitochondria activity in vitro. Palmitoylethanolamide and OEA concentrations in seminal plasma were lower in men with asthenozoospermia and oligoasthenoteratozospermia compared with men with normal semen parameters. Palmitoylethanolamide and OEA rapidly and significantly improved sperm motility and maintained viability without affecting mitochondria activity in vitro. Maintenance of normal PEA and OEA tone in human seminal plasma may be necessary for the preservation of normal sperm function and male fertility. Exocannabinoids found in Cannabis, such as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, could compete with these endocannabinoids upsetting their finely balanced, normal functioning and resulting in male reproductive failure. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. SEMINAL PLASMA LEVELS OF LEAD AND MERCURY IN INFERTILE MALES IN BENIN CITY, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emokpae MA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectives: Studies on environmental exposure to toxic metals and their effects on male reproductive function are scare in our setting. This study evaluates the levels of lead and mercury in seminal plasma of infertile males who are non-occupationally exposed in Benin City, Nigeria and to determine the relationship between seminal quality and these toxic metals. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects participated in this study which includes 60 infertile males on routine visit to the infertility clinics in Benin City and 20 fertile males as controls. The concentration of lead in seminal plasma was assayed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer while the concentration of mercury was measured using inductively coupled plasma Mass spectrometry. Semen analyses were performed using standard techniques as recommended by World Health Organization. Results: Mean seminal plasma lead and mercury levels were significantly higher (p<0.001 in infertile males compared with controls. Mercury and lead correlated negatively (p<0.001 with sperm count, progressive motility, total motility and morphology but not with semen volume. There was no significant correlation between toxic metals and sperm indices in fertile males (controls. Conclusion: The levels of the studied toxic metals were higher in seminal plasma of infertile males and appear to have adverse effect on seminal indices in non -occupationally exposed males.

  20. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEVEL OF COPPER IN BOVINE SEMINAL PLASMA AND SPERMATOZOA MOTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Kňažická

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate relationship between copper (Cu concentration of bovine seminal plasma and spermatozoa motility. Semen samples were collected from 13 breeding bulls. The motility analysis was carried out using the Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA system. The mean value for the percentage of motile spermatozoa (MOT was 92.46±3.99% and the progressive motility of the spermatozoa (PROG as 90.23±4.02%. The seminal plasma Cu concentrations were analyzed by UV/VIS spectrophotometry. The total Cu concentration of the seminal plasma was 4.28±1.47 μM/L. The correlation analysis revealed a strong negative correlation between MOT and seminal plasma Cu concentration (rp=-0.781; P<0.01 as well as between PROG and Cu content in the seminal plasma (rp=-0.726; P<0.01. The data obtained from this study clearly indicated that concentration of copper in seminal plasma negatively affects the spermatozoa motility parameters and subsequently might cause reproductive alteration in male sexual functions.

  1. Seminal epithelium in prostate biopsy can mimic malignant and premalignant prostatic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arista-Nasr, J; Trolle-Silva, A; Aguilar-Ayala, E; Martínez-Benítez, B

    2016-01-01

    In most prostate biopsies, the seminal epithelium is easily recognised because it meets characteristic histological criteria. However, some biopsies can mimic malignant or premalignant prostatic lesions. The aims of this study were to analyse the histological appearance of the biopsies that mimic adenocarcinomas or preneoplastic prostatic lesions, discuss the differential diagnosis and determine the frequency of seminal epithelia in prostate biopsies. We consecutively reviewed 500 prostate puncture biopsies obtained using the sextant method and selected those cases in which we observed seminal vesicle or ejaculatory duct epithelium. In the biopsies in which the seminal epithelium resembled malignant or premalignant lesions, immunohistochemical studies were conducted that included prostate-specific antigen and MUC6. The most important clinical data were recorded. Thirty-six (7.2%) biopsies showed seminal epithelium, and 7 of them (1.4%) resembled various prostate lesions, including high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, atypical acinar proliferations, adenocarcinomas with papillary patterns and poorly differentiated carcinoma. The seminal epithelium resembled prostate lesions when the lipofuscin deposit, the perinuclear vacuoles or the nuclear pseudoinclusions were inconspicuous or missing. Five of the 7 biopsies showed mild to moderate cellular atypia with small and hyperchromatic nuclei, and only 2 showed cellular pleomorphism. The patients were alive and asymptomatic after an average of 6 years of progression. The seminal epithelium resembles prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, atypical acinar proliferations and various types of prostatic adenocarcinomas in approximately 1.4% of prostate biopsies. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Lactotransferrin in Asian elephant (Elephas maximus seminal plasma correlates with semen quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy K Kiso

    Full Text Available Asian elephants (Elephas maximus have highly variable ejaculate quality within individuals, greatly reducing the efficacy of artificial insemination and making it difficult to devise a sperm cryopreservation protocol for this endangered species. Because seminal plasma influences sperm function and physiology, including sperm motility, the objectives of this study were to characterize the chemistry and protein profiles of Asian elephant seminal plasma and to determine the relationships between seminal plasma components and semen quality. Ejaculates exhibiting good sperm motility (≥65% expressed higher percentages of spermatozoa with normal morphology (80.3±13.0 vs. 44.9±30.8% and positive Spermac staining (51.9±14.5 vs. 7.5±14.4%, in addition to higher total volume (135.1±89.6 vs. 88.8±73.1 ml and lower sperm concentration (473.0±511.2 vs. 1313.8±764.7×10⁶ cells ml⁻¹ compared to ejaculates exhibiting poor sperm motility (≤10%; P<0.05. Comparison of seminal plasma from ejaculates with good versus poor sperm motility revealed significant differences in concentrations of creatine phosphokinase, alanine aminotransferase, phosphorus, sodium, chloride, magnesium, and glucose. These observations suggest seminal plasma influences semen quality in elephants. One- and two-dimensional (2D gel electrophoresis revealed largely similar compositional profiles of seminal plasma proteins between good and poor motility ejaculates. However, a protein of ∼80 kDa was abundant in 85% of ejaculates with good motility, and was absent in 90% of poor motility ejaculates (P<0.05. We used mass spectrometry to identify this protein as lactotransferrin, and immunoblot analysis to confirm this identification. Together, these findings lay a functional foundation for understanding the contributions of seminal plasma in the regulation of Asian elephant sperm motility, and for improving semen collection and storage in this endangered species.

  3. Seminal plasma and sperm proteome of ring-tailed coatis (Nasua nasua, Linnaeus, 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Herlon Victor Rodrigues; Rodriguez-Villamil, Paula; Magalhães, Francisco Felipe de; Nunes, Thalles Gothardo Pereira; Freitas, Luana Azevedo de; Ribeiro, Leandro Rodrigues; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues; Moura, Arlindo A; Silva, Lúcia Daniel Machado da

    2018-04-15

    Ring-tailed coati is listed as a species of least concern in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List, however, there has been a sharp decline in their population. The present study was conducted to evaluate the major proteins of both seminal plasma and sperm in ring-tailed coatis. Semen sample was collected from three adult coatis and evaluated for their morphological characteristics. Further, the sample was centrifuged to separate spermatozoa from seminal plasma, and then stored in liquid nitrogen. The seminal plasma and sperm proteins were subjected to one-dimensional (1-D) sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and identified by mass spectrometry. Gene ontology and protein networks were analyzed using bioinformatics tools. Based on sperm concentration and average protein content of the semen, the concentration of protein/spermatozoon was found to be 104.69 ± 44.43 μg. The analysis of SDS-PAGE gels showed 20.3 ± 3.1 and 17 ± 2 protein bands/lane for seminal plasma and sperm, respectively. In-gel protein digestion and peptide analysis by mass spectrometry revealed 238 and 246 proteins in the seminal plasma and sperm, respectively. The gene ontology analysis revealed that the proteins of seminal plasma mainly participated in cellular (35%) and regulatory (21%) processes. According to their cellular localization, seminal plasma proteins were categorized as structural (18%), extracellular (17%), and nuclear (14%) proteins with molecular functions, such as catalytic activity (43%) and binding (43%). The sperm proteins were also involved in cellular (38%) and regulatory (23%) processes, and mainly categorized as extracellular (17%), nuclear (13%), and cytoplasmic (10%) proteins. The major molecular functions of the sperm proteins were catalytic activity (44%) and binding (42%). These results indicated that the seminal plasma of ring-tailed coati has an array of proteins that can potentially

  4. Relationship of zinc concentrations in blood and seminal plasma with various semen parameters in infertile subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, H.; Ahmed, M.; Baig, M.; Ali, M.

    2007-01-01

    To find out relationship of zinc concentrations in blood and seminal plasma with various semen parameters between fertile and infertile men. (JPMC), Karachi and Department of Biochemistry. Basic Medical Sciences Institute, JPMC, Karachi. Fifty eight primary infertile male subjects, without any treatment, who had regular unprotected intercourse for at least 12 months without conception with their partners, aged 20-40 years, were selected from Infertility Clinic Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi. After semen analyses they were grouped as, oligospermic (30), and azoospermic (28). Twenty five known fertile male selected from general population and after semen analysis were taken as normospermic control group. Semen analyzed according to WHO criteria. Serum and seminal plasma zinc were estimated by 5Br. PAPS Colorimetric method. This study showed significant difference in serum and seminal zinc levels in normospermic, oligospermic (p<0.05) and azoospermic (p<0.005). Seminal plasma zinc showed a positive correlation with sperm count and negative with sperm motility in normospermic and oligospermic and negative correlation with volume, pH, WBC concentration in all three groups. There was no correlation found with sperm morphology. On the basis of the findings of this study and those of other reports, zinc may contribute to fertility through its significant effects on various semen parameters. It seems that the estimation of seminal plasma zinc may help in investigation and treatment of infertile males. (author)

  5. SL15: A seminal plasma-derived lectin from the sperm of llama (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, Renato; Sequeira, Sabrina; Argañaraz, Martin E; Apichela, Silvana A

    2017-07-01

    The oviductal sperm reservoir of South American camelids is formed when sperm bind to N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) on the surface of oviductal epithelium. The aim of this study was to characterize the GalNAc-binding proteins on llama sperm, and to establish their origin. Sperm-adsorbed proteins were extracted with 0.5 M KCl in Hepes-balanced salts. Sperm-adsorbed and seminal plasma proteins were then subjected to ligand blotting for their GalNAc affinity, and the labeled bands were identified by mass spectrometry. Three proteins were identified in seminal plasma versus only one in the sperm-adsorbed population; SL15, a seminal lectin, was common to both. SL15 is a homologue of Zymogen granule protein 16, homolog B-like, which belongs to the Jacalin-related lectin family. This lectin is likely presented to sperm via seminal plasma since epididymal sperm are not capable of binding GalNAc, whereas ejaculated sperm does, and its transcript was enriched predominantly in the prostate and bulbourethral glands. This is the first report of a seminal lectin in South American camelids that originates in the male reproductive tract, and is probably involved in sperm reservoir formation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Relationship between volume of the seminal vesicles and sexual activity in middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, H; Kawa, G; Yoshida, K; Takayasu, K; Kinoshita, H; Matsuda, T

    2017-04-01

    The relationship between volume of the seminal vesicles and the frequency of sex and sexual function in middle-aged men is not clear. This study included 81 patients who were diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. Volume of the seminal vesicles was examined using a volume analyser from computed tomography. Sexual function was subjectively evaluated using the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite and Erection Hardness Score. The frequency of sex was surveyed using our original questionnaire. The mean ± SD age of the patients was 67.7 ± 5.3 years. There was no relationship between the volume of seminal vesicles and age of the patients. Volume of the seminal vesicles in patients who answered that they had sexual activity at least once a year was significantly larger than in those who answered no sexual activity for several years (P middle-aged men, volume of the seminal vesicles was significantly larger in those who had a sexual frequency once every 3 months than in those who had a sexual frequency once every 6 months or once a year (P middle-aged men is correlated with sexual activity. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Quantitative Gd-DOTA uptake from cerebrospinal fluid into rat brain using 3D VFA-SPGR at 9.4T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hedok; Mortensen, Kristian; Sanggaard, Simon; Koch, Palle; Brunner, Hans; Quistorff, Bjørn; Nedergaard, Maiken; Benveniste, Helene

    2018-03-01

    We propose a quantitative technique to assess solute uptake into the brain parenchyma based on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI). With this approach, a small molecular weight paramagnetic contrast agent (Gd-DOTA) is infused in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and whole brain gadolinium concentration maps are derived. We implemented a 3D variable flip angle spoiled gradient echo (VFA-SPGR) longitudinal relaxation time (T1) technique, the accuracy of which was cross-validated by way of inversion recovery rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (IR-RARE) using phantoms. Normal Wistar rats underwent Gd-DOTA infusion into CSF via the cisterna magna and continuous MRI for approximately 130 min using T1-weighted imaging. Dynamic Gd-DOTA concentration maps were calculated and parenchymal uptake was estimated. In the phantom study, T1 discrepancies between the VFA-SPGR and IR-RARE sequences were approximately 6% with a transmit coil inhomogeneity correction. In the in vivo study, contrast transport profiles indicated maximal parenchymal retention of approximately 19% relative to the total amount delivered into the cisterna magna. Imaging strategies for accurate 3D contrast concentration mapping at 9.4T were developed and whole brain dynamic concentration maps were derived to study solute transport via the glymphatic system. The newly developed approach will enable future quantitative studies of the glymphatic system in health and disease states. Magn Reson Med 79:1568-1578, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. Oxidants and anti-oxidants in turbot seminal plasma and their effects on sperm quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mingming; Ding, Fuhong; Meng, Zhen; Lei, Jilin

    2015-08-01

    In this research, the concentration and activity of oxidants and anti-oxidants in turbot semen, and their effects on sperm quality were studied. The results showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione reductase (GR), uric acid, vitamin E (VE) and vitamin C (VC) were more abundant in seminal plasma than in spermatozoa. The variation for each of them was specific. In seminal plasma, the activity of SOD and GR increased from November 15, November 30 to December 15, and then decreased on December 30. The concentrations of both VC and uric acid decreased during the first 3 sampling times and increased on December 30. The oxidants in seminal plasma accumulated to the highest on December 30. Lactic acid (LA) and ATP levels decreased to the lowest on December 30. The correlation analysis showed that GR had the significant positive relevance to sperm motility and VSL/VCL, while ·OH had negative relevance to them.

  9. Potential Application of Quantitative Prostate-specific Antigen Analysis in Forensic Examination of Seminal Stains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenping Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study are to use quantitative analysis of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA in the seminal stain examination and to explore the practical value of this analysis in forensic science. For a comprehensive analysis, vaginal swabs from 48 rape cases were tested both by a PSA fluorescence analyzer (i-CHROMA Reader and by a conventional PSA strip test. To confirm the results of these PSA tests, seminal DNA was tested following differential extraction. Compared to the PSA strip test, the PSA rapid quantitative fluorescence analyzer provided the more accurate and sensitive results. More importantly, individualized schemes based on quantitative PSA results of samples can be developed to improve the quality and procedural efficiency in the forensic seminal inspection of samples prior to DNA analysis.

  10. Differential proteomics of human seminal plasma: A potential target for searching male infertility marker proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Anil Kumar; Sooch, Balwinder Singh; Singh, Sarman; Yadav, Savita

    2012-04-01

    The clinical fertility tests, available in the market, fail to define the exact cause of male infertility in almost half of the cases and point toward a crucial need of developing better ways of infertility investigations. The protein biomarkers may help us toward better understanding of unknown cases of male infertility that, in turn, can guide us to find better therapeutic solutions. Many clinical attempts have been made to identify biomarkers of male infertility in sperm proteome but only few studies have targeted seminal plasma. Human seminal plasma is a rich source of proteins that are essentially required for development of sperm and successful fertilization. This viewpoint article highlights the importance of human seminal plasma proteome in reproductive physiology and suggests that differential proteomics integrated with functional analysis may help us in searching potential biomarkers of male infertility. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Solitary waves in fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Grimshaw, RHJ

    2007-01-01

    After the initial observation by John Scott Russell of a solitary wave in a canal, his insightful laboratory experiments and the subsequent theoretical work of Boussinesq, Rayleigh and Korteweg and de Vries, interest in solitary waves in fluids lapsed until the mid 1960's with the seminal paper of Zabusky and Kruskal describing the discovery of the soliton. This was followed by the rapid development of the theory of solitons and integrable systems. At the same time came the realization that solitary waves occur naturally in many physical systems, and play a fundamental role in many circumstances. The aim of this text is to describe the role that soliton theory plays in fluids in several contexts. After an historical introduction, the book is divided five chapters covering the basic theory of the Korteweg-de Vries equation, and the subsequent application to free-surface solitary waves in water to internal solitary waves in the coastal ocean and the atmospheric boundary layer, solitary waves in rotating flows, ...

  12. Efecto del plasma seminal sobre el estado redox del semen equino criopreservado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Pizarro L.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar el efecto del plasma seminal sobre la generación de especies reactivas de oxígeno (ERO y la peroxidación lipídica de semen equino criopreservado y su asociación con parámetros de calidad seminal. Materiales y métodos. El semen de cinco caballos de la raza criollo colombiano (dos eyaculados cada uno, fue criopreservado mediante un protocolo de congelación rápida, empleando un diluyente leche-yema de huevo, suplementado con 0%, 10% y 20% de plasma seminal equino. En muestras de semen fresco y criopreservado se evaluó la generación de ERO y la peroxidación lipídica por espectrofluorimetría, y los parámetros de calidad seminal de movilidad progresiva, vitalidad e integridad de membrana, mediante microscopia de contraste de fase. Para el análisis estadístico se ajustaron modelos mixtos y se realizaron análisis de regresión y correlación. Resultados. Se hallaron promedios post-descongelación de movilidad progresiva, vitalidad e integridad de membrana de 37.8%±20.2, 50.6% ± 14.6 y 37.8% ± 15.5, respectivamente. Para el semen fresco y criopreservado suplementado con 0%, 10% y 20% de plasma seminal, los promedios de producción de ERO (URF fueron de 13.34±10.7, 16.15 ± 13.5, 17.32 ± 16 y 22.98 ± 19.4, respectivamente; mostrando un incremento estadísticamente significativo (p≤0.05 en la producción de ERO por efecto de la criopreservación y la suplementación con plasma seminal. Los promedios de peroxidación lipídica (nmolMDA/ml para estos mismos tratamientos, fueron de 0.41 ± 0.25, 0.72±0.37, 0.51 ± 0.29 y 0.47±0.26, respectivamente; mostrando una reducción significativa (p≤0.05 de la peroxidación lipídica del semen suplementado con 10% y 20% de plasma seminal, respecto al semen no suplementado (0%. Conclusiones. El plasma seminal reduce la peroxidación lipídica del semen equino criopreservado.

  13. Topology optimization of fluid mechanics problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Allan

    While topology optimization for solid continuum structures have been studied for about 20 years and for the special case of trusses for many more years, topology optimization of fluid mechanics problems is more recent. Borrvall and Petersson [1] is the seminal reference for topology optimization......D Navier-Stokes equation as well as an example with convection dominated transport in 2D Stokes flow. Using Stokes flow limits the range of applications; nonetheless, the present work gives a proof-of-concept for the application of the method within fluid mechanics problems and it remains...... processing tool. Prior to design manufacturing this allows the engineer to quantify the performance of the computed topology design using standard, credible analysis tools with a body-fitted mesh. [1] Borrvall and Petersson (2003) "Topology optimization of fluids in Stokes flow", Int. J. Num. Meth. Fluids...

  14. Introducing a prognostic score for pretherapeutic assessment of seminal vesicle invasion in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, Laurent; Porcher, Raphaeel; Anastasiadis, Aristotelis G.; Levrel, Olivier; Saint, Fabian; Taille, Alexandre de la; Vordos, Dimitrios; Cicco, Antony; Hoznek, Andras; Chopin, Dominique; Abbou, Clement-Claude; Lagrange, Jean-Leon

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To identify prostate cancer patients who will have the most likely benefit from sparing the seminal vesicles during 3D conformal radiation therapy. Methods and materials: From 1988 to 2001, 532 patients underwent radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer. Primary endpoint was the pathological evidence of seminal vesicle invasion. Variables for univariate and multivariate analyses were age, prostate weight, clinical stage, PSA level, Gleason score, number and site of positive prostate sextant biopsies. Multivariate logistic regression with backward stepwise variable selection was used to identify a set of independent predictors of seminal vesicle invasion, and the variable selection procedure was validated by non-parametric bootstrap. Results: Seminal vesicle invasion was reported in 14% of the cases. In univariate analysis, all variables except age and prostate weight were predictors of seminal vesicle invasion. In multivariate analysis, only the number of positive biopsies (P<0.0001), Gleason score (P<0.007) and PSA (P<0.0001) were predictors for seminal vesicles invasion. Based on the multivariate model, we were able to develop a prognostic score for seminal vesicle invasion, which allowed us to discriminate two patient groups: A group with low risk of seminal vesicles invasion (5.7%), and the second with a higher risk of seminal vesicles invasion (32.7%). Conclusions: Using the number of positive biopsies, Gleason score and PSA, it is possible to identify patients with low risk of seminal vesicles invasion. In this population, seminal vesicles might be excluded as a target volume in radiation therapy of prostate cancer

  15. Histological changes in the rat brain and spinal cord following prolonged intracerebroventricular infusion of cerebrospinal fluid from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients are similar to those caused by the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pinedo, U; Galán, L; Yañez, M; Matias-Guiu, J; Valencia, C; Guerrero-Sola, A; Lopez-Sosa, F; Brin, J R; Benito-Martin, M S; Leon-Espinosa, G; Vela-Souto, A; Lendinez, C; Guillamon-Vivancos, T; Matias-Guiu, J A; Arranz-Tagarro, J A; Barcia, J A; Garcia, A G

    2018-05-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients induces cytotoxic effects in in vitro cultured motor neurons. We selected CSF with previously reported cytotoxic effects from 32 ALS patients. Twenty-eight adult male rats were intracerebroventricularly implanted with osmotic mini-pumps and divided into 3 groups: 9 rats injected with CSF from non-ALS patients, 15 rats injected with cytotoxic ALS-CSF, and 4 rats injected with a physiological saline solution. CSF was intracerebroventricularly and continuously infused for periods of 20 or 43days after implantation. We conducted clinical assessments and electromyographic examinations, and histological analyses were conducted in rats euthanised 20, 45, and 82days after surgery. Immunohistochemical studies revealed tissue damage with similar characteristics to those found in the sporadic forms of ALS, such as overexpression of cystatinC, transferrin, and TDP-43 protein in the cytoplasm. The earliest changes observed seemed to play a protective role due to the overexpression of peripherin, AKTpan, AKTphospho, and metallothioneins; this expression had diminished by the time we analysed rats euthanised on day 82, when an increase in apoptosis was observed. The first cellular changes identified were activated microglia followed by astrogliosis and overexpression of GFAP and S100B proteins. Our data suggest that ALS could spread through CSF and that intracerebroventricular administration of cytotoxic ALS-CSF provokes changes similar to those found in sporadic forms of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of postnatal administration of diethylstilbestrol on puberty and thyroid function in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae-Ho; Kim, Tae Sung; Kang, Il Hyun; Kang, Tae Seok; Moon, Hyun Ju; Han, Soon-Young

    2009-10-01

    To examine the effects of diethylstilbestrol (DES) on male pubertal development and thyroid function, juvenile male Sprague-Dawley rats were given DES daily by oral intubation at doses of 10, 20 and 40 microg/kg/day from postnatal day 33 for 20 days. Prepuce separation was significantly delayed at the dose of 20 microg/kg/day and above in the DES-treated rats. DES treatment induced a significant reduction in the weights of testes, epididymides, the ventral prostate, seminal vesicles plus coagulating glands and fluid, levator ani bulbocavernosus muscles, Cowper's glands and the glans penis. The weights of the liver and adrenals increased in the DES-treated animals. DES caused a dose-dependent reduction in germ cells; in particular the spermatids were mainly affected. The serum levels of testosterone and luteinizing hormone were significantly reduced in the DES-treated groups, but that of estradiol decreased. No differences were observed in the serum thyroxine levels of the control and DES-treated groups. In microscopic observation of the DES-treated animals, degeneration of germ cells and tubular atrophy in the testis were noted, but there were no microscopic changes in the thyroid. These results indicate that DES affected the pubertal development of juvenile male rats and that its mode of action may be related to alterations in hormone levels.

  17. Red Palm Oil Attenuates Lead Acetate Induced Testicular Damage in Adult Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Jegede

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the protective effect of Red Palm Oil (RPO on testicular damage induced by administration of lead acetate on male Sprague-Dawley rats, 28 rats divided into four groups of 7 animals each were used. They were administered orally with RPO (1 mL and 2 mL and lead acetate (i.p. 6 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Treatment was conducted for 8 weeks, and 24 hrs after the last treatment the rats were sacrificed using cervical dislocation. Sperms collected from epididymis were used for seminal fluid analyses; while the testes sample was used for ROS and oxidative enzyme activities assessment. Statistical analysis was carried out using GraphPad Prism 5.02 statistical analysis package. Administration of lead acetate increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS significantly (p<0.05 as evidenced by the elevated value of H2O2 and LPO and decreased GSH level. Also there was reduced epididymal sperm count, poor grade of sperm motility, and lower percentage of normal sperm morphology significantly. Coadministration with RPO, however, has a protective effect against lead toxicity by decreasing H2O2 production, increased GSH level, and increased sperm qualities especially. This shows that RPO has a potential to attenuate the toxic effect of lead on testicular cells preventing possible resultant male infertility.

  18. Exosomal microRNAs in seminal plasma are markers of the origin of azoospermia and can predict the presence of sperm in testicular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló, Maria; Mata, Ana; Bassas, Lluís; Larriba, Sara

    2018-06-01

    Are exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) in seminal plasma (SP) useful as markers of the origin of azoospermia and the presence of sperm in the testis? Our study demonstrated the potential of several miRNAs contained in small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) of seminal fluid as sensitive and specific biomarkers for selecting those azoospermic individuals with real chances of obtaining spermatozoa from the testicular biopsy. There are no precise non-invasive diagnostic methods for classifying the origin of the sperm defects in semen and the spermatogenic reserve of the testis in those infertile men with a total absence of sperm in the ejaculate (azoospermia). The diagnosis of such individuals is often based on the practice of biopsies. In this context it is reasonable to study the presence of organ-specific markers in human semen that contains fluid from the testis and the male reproductive glands, which could help in the diagnosis and prognosis of male infertility. Additionally, seminal fluid contains high concentrations of sEVs that are morphologically and molecularly consistent with exosomes, which originate from multiple cellular sources in the male reproductive tract. A case and control prospective study was performed. This study compares the miRNA content of exosomes in semen samples obtained from nine normozoospermic fertile individuals (control group), 14 infertile men diagnosed with azoospermia due to spermatogenic failure, and 13 individuals with obstructive azoospermia and conserved spermatogenesis. Additionally, three severe oligozoospermic individuals (90%). The efficacy of the predictive test was even better when the blood FSH values were included in the analysis. Furthermore a model that included miR-539-5p and miR-941 expression values is also described as being useful for predicting the presence of residual spermatogenesis in individuals with severe spermatogenic disorders with diagnostic accuracy. Further studies, with an independent second population

  19. Clinical Significance and Expression of PAF and TNF-alpha in Seminal Plasma of Leukocytospermic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaodong Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Discuss the changes and roles of PAF in the reproductive tract infection by observing the expression of platelet activating factor (PAF and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α in seminal plasma of patients with leukocytospermia. Methods. The seminal plasma was obtained from 22 cases of leukocytospermia and 15 cases of normal males; the peroxidase dyeing method was adopted for seminal plasma white blood count; the ELISA was adopted to test PAF and TNF-α concentration in seminal plasma. Result. PAF concentration ( ng/mL of leukocytospermia group was significantly lower than the normal group ( ng/mL, while TNF-α ( ng/mL was significantly higher than that of normal group ( ng/mL. There was negative correlation between PAF and TNF-α , (, ; the same situation existed in PAF and WBC (, ; but TNF-α was positively correlated to WBC (, . Conclusion. (1 Low expression of PAF and high expression of TNF-α in leukocytospermia affect the sperm motility, which is one of the reasons that leads to infertility. (2 Lower expression of PAF has its particularity during the reproductive tract infection.

  20. Effects of Silodosin and Tamsulosin on the Seminal Vesicle Contractile Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Tokumasa; Takeya, Mitsue; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro; Matsuoka, Kei

    2016-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms underlying ejaculation dysfunction caused by α1A-adrenocetor (AR) antagonists, the effects of α1A-AR antagonists on the contractile responses of the seminal vesicle were investigated. Isolated seminal vesicles from guinea pigs were cannulated and pressurized, and the changes in the intraluminal pressure were recorded. Periodic applications of electrical stimulation (ES) caused biphasic increase in the intraluminal pressure, that is, initial and subsequent contractions. The effects of silodosin and tamsulosin, α1A-AR antagonists, on the contractile responses were examined. The ES-induced biphasic contractions were blocked by tetrodotoxin (TTX). Silodosin and tamsulosin suppressed the initial contractions in a dose-dependent manner, while also exerting various inhibitory effects on the subsequent contractions. Increases in the intraluminal pressure facilitated spontaneous phasic contractions. The spontaneous contractions were not affected by TTX or α1A-AR antagonists, but were abolished by nifedipine. The initial contractions triggered by neuronal excitations were suppressed by silodosin and tamsulosin, suggesting that the ejaculation dysfunction may be attributed to the α1A-AR antagonist-mediated suppression of nerve-evoked contractions in the seminal vesicle. The subsequent contractions may be induced by mechanical stimulation associated with the initial, nerve-evoked contractions. Alternatively, other transmitters may be involved to various degrees in the neuromuscular transmission of the seminal vesicle. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Semi-national surveillance of fungaemia in Denmark 2004-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Fuursted, Kurt; Gahrn-Hansen, B

    2008-01-01

    A semi-national laboratory-based surveillance programme for fungaemia was initiated in 2003 that now covers c. 3.5 million inhabitants (64%) of the Danish population. In total, 1089 episodes of fungaemia were recorded during 2004-2006, corresponding to an annual incidence of 10.4/100 000 inhabita...

  2. Lack of detection of XMRV in seminal plasma from HIV-1 infected men in The Netherlands.

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    Marion Cornelissen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV is a recently discovered human gammaretrovirus with yet unknown prevalence and transmission route(s. Its presence in prostate stromal fibroblasts and prostatic secretions suggests that XMRV might be sexually transmitted. We chose to study a compartment closely connected to the prostate, a location where XMRV was detected in independent studies. Seminal plasma samples from HIV-1 infected men were examined as they have an increased probability of acquiring sexually transmitted pathogens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the prevalence of XMRV in 93 seminal plasma samples of 54 HIV-1 infected men living in The Netherlands with a nested PCR amplification specifically targeting the XMRV gag gene. As a control for the presence and integrity of retrovirus particles, HIV-1 was amplified from the same samples with a PCR amplification targeting the env gene of the virus, or HIV-1 was quantified with a real-time PCR amplifying part of the pol gene. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although HIV-1 was amplified from 25% of the seminal plasma samples, no XMRV was detected, suggesting that either the prevalence of XMRV is very low in The Netherlands, or that XMRV is not naturally present in the seminal plasma.

  3. Mapping the ribonucleolytic active site of bovine seminal ribonuclease. The binding of pyrimidinyl phosphonucleotide inhibitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dossi, K.; Tsirkone, V.G.; Hayes, J.M.; Matoušek, Josef; Poučková, P.; Souček, J.; Zadinová, M.; Zographos, S.E.; Leonidas, D.D.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 11 (2009), s. 4496-4508 ISSN 0223-5234 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : bovine seminal ribonuclease * antitumor agent Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.269, year: 2009

  4. Gold in semen: Level in seminal plasma and spermatozoa of normal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to understand the amount of gold in semen of normal and different infertile conditions. Gold was estimated in normal (n38) and pathological conditions (n86) by employing Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Gold level observed in seminal plasma was as follows: in normozoospermia (n38) ...

  5. Liquid chromatography--tandem mass spectrometry analysis of cocaine and its metabolites from blood, amniotic fluid, placental and fetal tissues: study of the metabolism and distribution of cocaine in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, K; Wang, P P; Eley, A T; White, C A; Bartlett, M G

    2000-08-18

    The ability to simultaneously quantitate cocaine and its 12 metabolites from pregnant rat blood, amniotic fluid, placental and fetal tissue homogenates aids in elucidating the metabolism and distribution of cocaine. An efficient extraction method was developed to simultaneously recover these 13 components using underivatized silica solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. The overall recoveries for cocaine and its metabolites were studied from pregnant rat blood (47-100%), amniotic fluid (61-100%), placental homogenate (31-83%), and fetal homogenate (39-87%). Extraction of the samples using silica is not classical SPE, but rather allows for the concentration of the sample into a small volume prior to injection and the removal of the proteins due to their strong interaction with the active silica surface. A positive ion mode electrospray ionization liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method was used and validated to simultaneously quantitate cocaine and 12 metabolites from these four biological matrices. A gradient elution method with a Zorbax XDB C8 reversed-phase column was used to separate the components. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of a product ion arising from the corresponding precursor ion was used in order to enhance the selectivity and sensitivity of the method. Low background noise was observed from the complex biological matrices due to efficient SPE and the selectivity of the MRM mode. Linear calibration curves were generated from 0.01 to 2.50 ppm. The method also showed high intra-day (n =3) and inter-day (n=9) precision (% RSD) and accuracy (% error) for all components. The limits of detection (LODs) for the method ranged from 0.15 to 10 ppb. The LODs of cocaine and its major metabolites were less than 1 ppb from all four biological matrices. This method was applied to the study of the metabolism and distribution of cocaine in pregnant rats following intravenous infusion to a steady state plasma drug concentration. The

  6. Relationship between Lipids Levels of Serum and Seminal Plasma and Semen Parameters in 631 Chinese Subfertile Men.

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    Jin-Chun Lu

    Full Text Available This prospective study was designed to investigate the relationship between lipids levels in both serum and seminal plasma and semen parameters.631 subfertile men were enrolled. Their obesity-associated markers were measured, and semen parameters were analyzed. Also, seminal plasma and serum TC, TG, HDL and LDL and serum FFA, FSH, LH, total testosterone (TT, estradiol (E2 and SHBG levels were detected.Seminal plasma and serum TG, TC and LDL levels were positively related to age. Serum TC, TG and LDL were positively related to obesity-associated markers (P < 0.001, while only seminal plasma TG was positively related to them (P < 0.05. For lipids levels in serum and seminal plasma, only TG level had slightly positive correlation between them (r = 0.081, P = 0.042. There was no significant correlation between serum lipids levels and semen parameters. However, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels were negatively related to one or several semen parameters, including semen volume (SV, sperm concentration (SC, total sperm count (TSC, sperm motility, progressive motility (PR and total normal-progressively motile sperm counts (TNPMS. Moreover, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels in patients with oligospermatism, asthenospermia and teratozoospermia were higher than those with normal sperm concentration, motility or morphology. After adjusting age and serum LH, FSH, TT, E2 and SHBG levels, linear regression analysis showed that SV was still significantly correlated with seminal plasma LDL (P = 0.012, both of SC and TSC with seminal plasma HDL (P = 0.028 and 0.002, and both of PR and sperm motility with seminal plasma TC (P = 0.012 and 0.051.The abnormal metabolism of lipids in male reproductive system may contribute to male factor infertility.

  7. Effect of Seminal Vesicles and Dithiotritol (Dtt on Stability of Sperm Chromatin

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    MH Nasr-Esfahani

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Different studies have shown that there is no relation between sperm chromatin stability and fertilization rate in both IVF and ICSI patients. However, the relation between SDS tests, as a detergent, along with DTT as reducer of disulphide bridges has not been studied so far in ICSI patients. Since different concentrations of DTT can induce different degrees of sperm chromatin decondensation, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of DTT on sperm chromatin decondensation in IVF and ICSI cases. Methods: During this study, 85 patients were divided into two groups according to their treatment procedure (IVF or ICSI.Semen samples of each patient was evaluated for sperm chromatin tests including SDS, SDS+EDTA & SDS+DTT for assessment of free thiole groups level (-SH, amount of non covalent bond between Zn and thioles(-SH Zn SH- and levels of disulfide bond (-S-S- in sperm chromatin, respectively. In this study, seminal fructose concentration, corrected seminal fructose level and true corrected fructose level as indicators of seminal vesicle function on sperm chromatin stability were assessed. Results: No correlation was observed between any of the above tests and rate of fertilization, both in IVF and ICSI cases. However, in IVF patients, a significant correlation was observed between SDS, SDS+DTT test and seminal fructose level, while in ICSI patients, only a significant correlation was observed between SDS+DTT and corrected or true fructose concentration. Conclusion: Since no correlation was observed between sperm chromatin test and fertilization rate, it is suggested that the chromatin status of these samples are adequate for fertilization to take place and extent of disulphide bridges has no effect on fertilization rate. However, the amount of disulphide bound present in sperms of ICSI and IVF patients are different, and this difference is related to seminal vesicle performance in these patients.

  8. Parabens in urine, serum and seminal plasma from healthy Danish men determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Jørgensen, Niels; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Parabens are used as anti-microbial preservatives in a range of consumer products, especially in cosmetics. In vitro and animal studies have shown weak estrogenic and other endocrine disrupting effects of parabens, including reduced testosterone levels in exposed male rats. The knowledge of paraben...... exposure, distribution and excretion in humans is limited. In this study we determined the concentration of five parabens; methyl-, ethyl-, n-propyl-, n-butyl- and benzylparaben in urine, serum and seminal plasma samples from 60 healthy Danish men. To conduct the study a sensitive and specific method using...... LC-MS/MS for simultaneous determination of the five parabens was developed for all three different matrices. Highest concentrations of the parabens were found in urine, wherein methyl-, ethyl-, n-propyl- and n-butyl parabens were measurable in 98%, 80%, 98% and 83% of the men, respectively. Benzyl...

  9. Isolation and characterization of gelatin-binding proteins from goat seminal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazure Claude

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A family of proteins designated BSP-A1, BSP-A2, BSP-A3 and BSP-30 kDa (collectively called BSP proteins for Bovine Seminal Plasma proteins constitute the major protein fraction in the bull seminal plasma. These proteins interact with choline phospholipids on the sperm surface and play a role in the membrane stabilization (decapacitation and destabilization (capacitation process. Homologous proteins have been isolated from boar and stallion seminal plasma. In the current study we report the isolation and preliminary characterization of homologous proteins from goat seminal plasma. Frozen semen (-80°C was thawed and centrifuged to remove sperm. The proteins in the supernatant were precipitated by the addition of cold ethanol. The precipitates were dissolved in ammonium bicarbonate and lyophilised. The lyophilised proteins were dissolved in phosphate buffer and loaded onto a gelatin-agarose column, which was previously equilibrated with the same buffer. The column was successively washed with phosphate buffer, with phosphate buffer saline and with 0.5 M urea in phosphate buffer saline to remove unadsorbed proteins, and the adsorbed proteins were eluted with 5 M urea in phosphate buffer saline. Analysis of pooled, dialysed and lyophilised gelatin-agarose adsorbed protein fraction by SDS-PAGE indicated the presence of four protein bands that were designated GSP-14 kDa, GSP-15 kDa, GSP-20 kDa and GSP-22 kDa (GSP, Goat Seminal Plasma proteins. Heparin-affinity chromatography was then used for the separation of GSP-20 and -22 kDa from GSP-14 and -15 kDa. Finally, HPLC separation permitted further isolation of each one from the other. Amino acid sequence analysis of these proteins indicated that they are homologous to BSP proteins. In addition, these BSP homologs bind to hen's egg-yolk low-density lipoproteins. These results together with our previous data indicate that BSP family proteins are ubiquitous in mammalian seminal plasma, exist in

  10. Relationship between seminal plasma zinc and semen quality in a subfertile population

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    DMAB Dissanayake

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale : Current knowledge on the relationship between seminal zinc levels and different parameters of human semen is inconsistent. Objectives : To assess the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and semen quality using two markers; zinc concentration (Zn-C and total zinc per ejaculate (Zn-T. Design : The study was carried out as a cross-sectional study. Subjects and Methods : Semen parameters of 152 healthy men undergoing evaluation for subfertility were assessed. Seminal plasma zinc levels were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Zn-C, expressed as μg/mL, was multiplied by ejaculated volume to calculate Zn-T. Mann Whitney U test and Chi-square test were used to compare the zinc levels between different seminal groups when appropriate. Correlations were observed with Pearson′s correlation of coefficient. Analysis was carried out using SPSS 10.0 for windows software. Results : Zn-C was low in 23 (15% samples, while in 32 (21% of the samples Zn-T was abnormal. The number of subnormal samples was high in the low-zinc groups compared with the normal-zinc groups, 15 vs. 8 (P > 0.05 for Zn-C and 28 vs. 4 (P < 0.001 for Zn-T. Zn-C was significantly high in the asthenozoospermics compared with the normal motile group; 138.11 μg/mL (83.92 vs. 110.69 11 μg/mL (54.59 (P < 0.05. Zn-T was significantly low in samples with hyperviscosity compared with samples with normal viscosity; 220.06 μg (144.09 vs. 336.34 μg (236.33 (P < 0.05. Conversely, Zn-T was high in samples with low viability compared with those with normal viability; 437.67 μg (283.88 vs. 305.15 μg (221.19 (P < 0.05. Weak correlations were found between Zn and some semen parameters. However, the correlation was negative between pH and Zn-C (r = -0.193, P < 0.05 as well as Zn-T (r = -0.280, P < 0.01. On the other hand, correlations were positive between Zn-T and sperm count (r = 0.211, P < 0.05. Conclusion : Count, motility, viability, pH and viscosity are

  11. Identifying seminal papers in the Australasian Journal on Ageing 1982-2011: a Delphi consensus approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Lynne; Richardson, Kristy; Sims, Jane; Wells, Yvonne; Naganathan, Vasi; Brooke, Elizabeth; Lindley, Richard

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify seminal Australasian Journal on Ageing papers published over 30 years through a Delphi consensus process. The main data collection was a three-round Delphi consensus study with 38 past and current members of the Australasian Journal on Ageing Editorial Board, Editorial Team and Management Committee. Three papers were agreed as top-ranking. One of the top-ranking articles was also highly cited. One article was published in the 1990 s, two in 2001. While it is difficult to judge how well the top-ranking papers represent seminal papers arising over 30 years, these papers do represent three different research strengths in Australasia, they do span three different disciplines, and they do reflect some of the diversity that characterises ageing research in Australasia over 30 years. © 2013 ACOTA.

  12. Perceptual effects of linguistic category priming: the Stapel and Semin (2007) paradigm revisited in twelve experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJzerman, Hans; Regenberg, Nina F E; Saddlemyer, Justin; Koole, Sander L

    2015-05-01

    Linguistic category priming is a novel paradigm to examine automatic influences of language on cognition (Semin, 2008). An initial article reported that priming abstract linguistic categories (adjectives) led to more global perceptual processing, whereas priming concrete linguistic categories (verbs) led to more local perceptual processing (Stapel & Semin, 2007). However, this report was compromised by data fabrication by the first author, so that it remains unclear whether or not linguistic category priming influences perceptual processing. To fill this gap in the literature, the present article reports 12 studies among Dutch and US samples examining the perceptual effects of linguistic category priming. The results yielded no evidence of linguistic category priming effects. These findings are discussed in relation to other research showing cultural variations in linguistic category priming effects (IJzerman, Saddlemyer, & Koole, 2014). The authors conclude by highlighting the importance of conducting and publishing replication research for achieving scientific progress. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Asssessment of the effect of selected components of equine seminal plasma on semen freezability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Mráčková

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, selected components of seminal plasma in equine semen were evaluated. Levels of enzymes, electrolytes, microelements and some other components were observed. The aim of this study was to fi nd some important differences between the levels of these components and the total sperm motility after freezing and thawing (freezability of the semen. Total of 32 ejaculates from 7 stallions were collected, assessed and prepared in 0,5 ml straws for freezing. After thawing, the sperm motility was analyzed and ejaculates were divided into two groups: “good” freezable and “poor” freezable. The only statistically significant difference between groups of „good“ and „poor“ freezable ejaculates was in the concentration of vitamin E in the seminal plasma. In the group of „good“ freezable ejaculates, the level of vitamin E was significantly lower (p≤0,05 than in the group of “poor” freezable ejaculates.

  14. NÍVEIS DE TESTOSTERONA NA SALIVA E NO PLASMA SEMINAL DE REPRODUTORES SUÍNOS

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    Thais Schwarz Gaggini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were evaluated testosterone levels in saliva and seminal plasma and correlate these informations with libido and sperm production of two lines of boars. The hormonal analysis was done using ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay and test F and Sperman correlation of SAS program was used for statistical analysis. There was no difference (P>0.05 between boar lines and testosterone levels in saliva and seminal plasma, collection length, semen volume and concentration and sperm motility and viability. Boars used in this study had libido, semen production and sperm cells considered normal and there was no difference between the lines. The results obtained can be classified as normal parameters expected in this situation.

  15. Aggregated forms of bull seminal plasma proteins and their heparin-binding activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínková, Petra; Ryšlavá, H.; Liberda, J.; Jonáková, Věra; Tichá, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 69, - (2004), s. 616-630 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/02/0433; GA ČR GP303/02/P069; GA MZd NJ7463 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915; CEZ:MSM 113100001 Keywords : bull seminal plasma proteins * heparin-binding proteins * aggregated forms of proteins Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.062, year: 2004

  16. Deformation of Prostate and Seminal Vesicles Relative to Intraprostatic Fiducial Markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielen, Gerard J. van der; Mutanga, Theodore F.; Incrocci, Luca; Kirkels, Wim J.; Vasquez Osorio, Eliana M.; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Boer, Hans C.J. de

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the residual geometric uncertainties after on-line corrections with intraprostatic fiducial markers, this study analyzed the deformation of the prostate and, in particular, the seminal vesicles relative to such markers. Patients and Methods: A planning computed tomography (CT) scan and three repeat CT scans were obtained for 21 prostate cancer patients who had had three to four cylindrical gold markers placed. The prostate and whole seminal vesicles (clinical target volume [CTV]) were delineated on each scan at a slice thickness of 1.5 mm. Rigid body transformations (translation and rotation) mapping the markers onto the planning scan positions were obtained. The translation only (T only ) or both translation and rotation were applied to the delineated CTVs. Next, the residue CTV surface displacements were determined using nonrigid registration of the delineated contours. For translation and rotation of the CTV, the residues represented deformation; for T only , the residues stemmed from deformation and rotation. T only represented the residues for most currently applied on-line protocols. The patient and population statistics of the CTV surface displacements were calculated. The intraobserver delineation variation was similarly quantified using repeat delineations for all patients and corrected for. Results: The largest CTV deformations were observed at the anterior and posterior side of the seminal vesicles (population average standard deviation ≤3 mm). Prostate deformation was small (standard deviation ≤1 mm). The increase in these deviations when neglecting rotation (T only ) was small. Conclusion: Although prostate deformation with respect to implanted fiducial markers was small, the corresponding deformation of the seminal vesicles was considerable. Adding marker-based rotational corrections to on-line translation corrections provided a limited reduction in the estimated planning margins

  17. Seminal characteristics and sexual behavior in men of different age groups: is there an aging effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavos, Panayiotis M; Kaskar, Khalied; Correa, Juan R; Sikka, Suresh C

    2006-05-01

    To assess the seminal characteristics as well as the sexual behavior of men of various age groups to establish the presence of an aging effect on those characteristics. Semen samples were collected from men (n = 792) undergoing in vitro fertilization or intrauterine insemination in cases of female factor infertility only. Samples were collected using a seminal collection device at intercourse and evaluated manually according to World Health Organization (WHO) standards. Men were divided into four groups according to their ages: (i) 20-30, (ii) 31-40, (iii) 41-50 and (iv) 51-60 years, and their seminal characteristics and responses to a sexual behavior questionnaire were compared. The data showed statistically significant differences in the seminal characteristics tested, most notably in the sperm concentration, motility, grade of motility, hypo-osmotic swelling and normal sperm morphology. Furthermore, the decline in normal sperm morphology with age was more pronounced when using strict criteria rather than WHO standards. There were also differences in total sperm count, total motile sperm and total functional sperm fraction (assessed by both WHO and strict criteria). Significant differences were also observed in the sexual behavior patterns in older men in terms of the number of years they have been trying to conceive, sexual frequency and sexual satisfaction. The data clearly illustrate an aging effect on semen characteristics and sexual behavior in men as they age. It is suggested that the aging effect be taken into consideration when proposing normal standard values for semen characteristics in routine semen analysis as outlined by WHO standards.

  18. D-fructose-binding proteins in bull seminal plasma: Isolation and characterization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liberda, J.; Kraus, Marek; Ryšlavá, H.; Vlasáková, M.; Jonáková, Věra; Tichá, M.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 4 (2001), s. 113-119 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/99/0357; GA ČR GV524/96/K162 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : bull seminal plasma * non-heparin-binding and heparin-binding proteins * D-fructose-binding proteins Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.519, year: 2001

  19. Characteristics of seminal plasma and cryopreservation of anoa (Bubalus sp. semen obtained by electroejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The population of anoa, which is an endemic fauna to Indonesia, was getting decrease caused by the illegal hunting and deforestation. Anoa is included in endangered species by IUCN, and Appendix I by CITES. The experiment aimed to characterize the seminal plasma contents and to cryopreserve the anoa semen for artificial insemination application in captivity. The experiment was carried out in Taman Safari Indonesia (Bogor. Semen was collected from 2 anesthetized males (4-10 years by electroejaculation. Seminal plasma gained by centrifugation of ejaculate (3000 rpm, 20 minutes, and then was evaluated the biochemical contents. Other ejaculates were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically, and then extended in Tris and Na-citrate media to a total concentration of 100 billion cells mL-1. Extended semen was stored at 4oC, and evaluated the motility and viability every 12 h. Frozen semen was made in Tris medium added with 5% of glycerol. The seminal plasma of anoa contained total lipid, Na, Ca and Mg higher than the buffalo, but its total protein, K and Cl were lower. Electrophoresis of seminal plasma using by SDS-PAGE method showed 10 bands of proteins (17-148 kDa. The motility and viability of chilled-extended semen in Tris and Na-citrate media were not significantly different (P > 0.05 during 72 h of evaluation. Extended semen in both of media may applicable for AI program for 24-48 h. Post thawing motility of frozen semen was still low, 26.00 ± 9.62%. Therefore, it is necessary to improve each stages of semen processing, so the motility will increased and resulted high pregnancy in AI program.

  20. Growth/differentiation factor-I5 is an abundant cytokine in human seminal plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Souček, Karel; Slabáková, Eva; Ovesná, P.; Malenovská, A.; Kozubík, Alois; Hampl, Aleš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 12 (2010), s. 2962-2971 ISSN 0268-1161 R&D Projects: GA MZd NS9600 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : seminal plasma * growth/differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15/MIC-1) * FOXP3 Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.357, year: 2010

  1. Localization of porcine seminal plasma (PSP) proteins in the boar reproductive tract and spermatozoa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maňásková, Pavla; Jonáková, Věra

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 1 (2008), s. 40-48 ISSN 0165-0378 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/06/0895; GA MŠk 1M06011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : porcine seminal plasma proteins * boar reproductive tract * spermatozoa Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.778, year: 2008

  2. Purification and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of β-microseminoprotein from human seminal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Vijay; Roske, Yvette; Singh, Nagendra; Heinemann, Udo; Singh, Tej P.; Yadav, Savita

    2009-01-01

    The preliminary X-ray data of β-microseminoprotein isolated from human seminal plasma at 2.4 Å resolution are reported. β-Microseminoprotein (β-MSP) is a small cysteine-rich protein with a molecular mass of 10 kDa. It was first isolated from human seminal plasma and has subsequently been identified from several species. Comparison of the amino-acid sequences of β-MSP proteins suggests that the protein is a rapidly evolving protein. The function of β-MSP is poorly understood. Furthermore, no crystal structure has been reported of any β-MSP; therefore, determination of the crystal structure of β-MSP is the foremost task in order to understand the function of this protein completely. Here, the purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of β-MSP from human seminal plasma are described. The protein was purified using anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography and the purified protein was crystallized using 0.1 M ammonium sulfate, 0.1 M HEPES buffer pH 7.0 and 20%(w/v) PEG 3350. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P4 3 22 and contained three β-MSP molecules in the asymmetric unit. X-ray intensity data were collected to 2.4 Å resolution

  3. Proliferative activity of benign human prostate, prostatic adenocarcinoma and seminal vesicle evaluated by thymidine labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.S.; Sufrin, G.; Martin, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The thymidine labeling index (TLI) was measured in vitro in the epithelium and stroma of benign prostate glands and seminal vesicles and in the epithelium of prostatic adenocarcinomas. The mean epithelial TLI of normal peripheral (posterior) prostatic zone was 0.12 percent, and that of the normal central (deep) zone was 0.11 percent. Mean normal stromal TLI's were 0.08 percent and 0.06 percent, respectively. The mean TLI of epithelium in nodular hyperplasia was 0.31 percent, which differs significantly from normal epithelium (p less than 0.05), and the mean stromal TLI was also increased (0.16 percent, p less than 0.1). The mean TLI of prostatic adenocarcinomas was 0.90 percent (range 0.14 to 3.90 percent) which was significantly higher than for either normal epithelium (p less than 0.001) or epithelium of nodular hyperplasia (p less than 0.05). Trends of increasing TLI with increasing histologic grades and increasing nuclear size and numbers of nucleoli were not significant. The data support participation of both epithelial and stromal proliferation in nodular hyperplasia, and indicate a low basal proliferative rate in normal prostatic glands. The low TLI's of prostatic adenocarcinomas relative to other malignancies are consistent with their frequently slowly progressive course. The very low proliferative rate of seminal vesicular epithelium (mean TLI 0.02 percent) may account for the rarity of seminal vesicular carcinomas

  4. Proliferative activity of benign human prostate, prostatic adenocarcinoma and seminal vesicle evaluated by thymidine labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.S.; Sufrin, G.; Martin, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The thymidine labeling index (TLI) was measured in vitro in the epithelium and stroma of benign prostate glands and seminal vesicles and in the epithelium of prostatic adenocarcinomas. The mean epithelial TLI of normal peripheral (posterior) prostatic zone was 0.12 per cent, and that of the normal central (deep) zone was 0.11 per cent. Mean normal stromal TLI's were 0.08 per cent and 0.06 per cent, respectively. The mean TLI of epithelium in nodular hyperplasia was 0.31 per cent, which differs significantly from normal epithelium, and the mean stromal TLI was also increased. The mean TLI of prostatic adenocarcinomas was 0.90 per cent (range 0.14 to 3.90 per cent) which was significantly higher than for either normal epithelium or epithelium of nodular hyperplasia. Trends of increasing TLI with increasing histologic grades and increasing nuclear size and numbers of nucleoli were not significant. The data support participation of both epithelial and stromal proliferation in nodular hyperplasia, and indicate a low basal proliferative rate in normal prostatic glands. The low TLI's of prostatic adenocarcinomas relative to other malignancies are consistent with their frequently slowly progressive course. The very low proliferative rate of seminal vesicular epithelium may account for the rarity of seminal vesicular carcinomas

  5. Impact of long-term and short-term therapies on seminal parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jlenia Elia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this work was: i to evaluate the prevalence of male partners of subfertile couples being treated with long/short term therapies for non andrological diseases; ii to study their seminal profile for the possible effects of their treatments on spermatogenesis and/or epididymal maturation. Methods: The study group was made up of 723 subjects, aged between 25 and 47 years. Semen analysis was performed according to World Health Organization (WHO guidelines (1999. The Superimposed Image Analysis System (SIAS, which is based on the computerized superimposition of spermatozoa images, was used to assess sperm motility parameters. Results: The prevalence of subjects taking pharmacological treatments was 22.7% (164/723. The prevalence was 3.7% (27/723 for the Short-Term Group and 18.9% (137/723 for the Long-Term Group. The subjects of each group were also subdivided into subgroups according to the treatments being received. Regarding the seminal profile, we did not observe a significant difference between the Long-Term, Short-Term or the Control Group. However, regarding the subgroups, we found a significant decrease in sperm number and progressive motility percentage in the subjects receiving treatment with antihypertensive drugs compared with the other subgroups and the Control Group. Conclusions: In the management of infertile couples, the potential negative impact on seminal parameters of any drugs being taken as Long-Term Therapy should be considered. The pathogenic mechanism needs to be clarified.

  6. Flexible Vesiculovasoscopy Using a Microoptical System in a Human Cadaver Model: An Experimental Approach for Atraumatic Endoscopy of the Seminal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Daniel; Maas, Moritz; Hein, Simon; Adams, Fabian; Schoenthaler, Martin; Wetterauer, Ulrich; Diemer, Thorsten; Weidner, Wolfgang; Miernik, Arkadiusz

    2016-08-01

    The most common pathologies of the seminal tract are persistent hematospermia, seminal vesicle stones, and seminal duct obstruction. Endoscopic diagnostic work-up of the seminal tract is impeded by complex anatomy and lack of technical equipment. To date, there is no standardized endoscopic approach. The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability and feasibility of a flexible microoptical device for atraumatic endoscopy of the seminal tract in a male human cadaver. The transurethral endoscopic examination was performed on a male cadaver. No premortal interventions or diseases of the genitourinary tract had been reported. The seminal orifice was identified via cystoscopy and accessed by the Seldinger technique using a hydrophilic guidewire and ureteral catheter. Retrograde endoscopic inspection of the distal seminal tract was performed using a miniaturized flexible endoscope. An antegrade endoscopic inspection of the seminal tract was carried out via high scrotal access to the vas deferens. Structures of the seminal tract, such as the ejaculatory duct, seminal vesicles, and distal portion of the ductus deferentes, were visualized using the miniaturized endoscope. Image quality allowed identification of anatomical structures and characterization of tissue properties. The technical limitations we observed involved the system's maneuverability. Initial results of this novel endoscopic approach to the seminal tract using a flexible microoptical system are encouraging. However, considerable anatomical limitations of the targeted organs necessitate further refinements of the technical equipment. This approach might improve diagnostics and treatment of genitourinary diseases. Future surgical techniques may include intraseminal laser therapy or endoocclusion to monitor fertility in men.

  7. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  8. Association between sperm DNA integrity and seminal plasma antioxidant levels in health workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Dayanidhi; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Uppangala, Shubhashree; Kumari, Sandhya; Challapalli, Srinivas; Chandraguthi, Shrinidhi Gururajarao; Jain, Navya; Krishnamurthy, Hanumanthappa; Kumar, Pratap; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the association between occupational radiation exposure and risk to human fertility. Recently, we provided the first evidence on altered sperm functional characteristics, DNA damage and hypermethylation in radiation health workers. However, there is no report elucidating the association between seminal plasma antioxidants and sperm chromatin integrity in occupationally exposed subjects. Here, we assessed the seminal plasma antioxidants and lipid peroxidation level in 83 men who were occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation and then correlated with the sperm chromatin integrity. Flow cytometry based sperm chromatin integrity assay revealed a significant decline in αt value in the exposed group in comparison to the non-exposed group (P<0.0001). Similarly, both total and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity in the seminal plasma were significantly higher in exposed group than the non-exposed group (P<0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001, respectively). However, superoxide dismutase level and malondialdehyde level, which is an indicator of lipid peroxidation in the seminal plasma, did not differ significantly between two groups. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and GSH level exhibited a positive correlation with sperm DNA integrity in exposed subjects. To conclude, this study distinctly shows that altered sperm chromatin integrity in radiation health workers is associated with increase in seminal plasma antioxidant level. Further, the increased seminal plasma GSH and TAC could be an adaptive measure to tackle the oxidative stress to protect genetic and functional sperm deformities in radiation health workers. - Highlights: • Seminal plasma antioxidants were measured in men occupationally exposed to radiation. • Sperm chromatin integrity was significantly affected in the exposed group. • Glutathione and total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in exposed group. • Sperm DNA damage in exposed subjects

  9. Association between sperm DNA integrity and seminal plasma antioxidant levels in health workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Dayanidhi; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Uppangala, Shubhashree; Kumari, Sandhya [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576104 (India); Challapalli, Srinivas [Department of Radiotherapy, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore (India); Chandraguthi, Shrinidhi Gururajarao [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal (India); Jain, Navya; Krishnamurthy, Hanumanthappa [National Centre for Biological Sciences, Bangalore (India); Kumar, Pratap [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal (India); Adiga, Satish Kumar, E-mail: satish.adiga@manipal.edu [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576104 (India)

    2014-07-15

    There is a paucity of data regarding the association between occupational radiation exposure and risk to human fertility. Recently, we provided the first evidence on altered sperm functional characteristics, DNA damage and hypermethylation in radiation health workers. However, there is no report elucidating the association between seminal plasma antioxidants and sperm chromatin integrity in occupationally exposed subjects. Here, we assessed the seminal plasma antioxidants and lipid peroxidation level in 83 men who were occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation and then correlated with the sperm chromatin integrity. Flow cytometry based sperm chromatin integrity assay revealed a significant decline in αt value in the exposed group in comparison to the non-exposed group (P<0.0001). Similarly, both total and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity in the seminal plasma were significantly higher in exposed group than the non-exposed group (P<0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001, respectively). However, superoxide dismutase level and malondialdehyde level, which is an indicator of lipid peroxidation in the seminal plasma, did not differ significantly between two groups. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and GSH level exhibited a positive correlation with sperm DNA integrity in exposed subjects. To conclude, this study distinctly shows that altered sperm chromatin integrity in radiation health workers is associated with increase in seminal plasma antioxidant level. Further, the increased seminal plasma GSH and TAC could be an adaptive measure to tackle the oxidative stress to protect genetic and functional sperm deformities in radiation health workers. - Highlights: • Seminal plasma antioxidants were measured in men occupationally exposed to radiation. • Sperm chromatin integrity was significantly affected in the exposed group. • Glutathione and total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in exposed group. • Sperm DNA damage in exposed subjects

  10. Seminal plasma total antioxidant capacity and vitamin- C levels in asthenozoospermia: a case- control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bidmeshkipour

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Defective sperm function is now recognized as one of the most important causes of male infertility. Seminal plasma possesses a rich source of different enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid that protect spermatozoa against oxidative stress as one of the mediators of infertility causing sperm dysfunction and low sperm quality. The aim of this study was investigation of seminal total antioxidant capacity and determination of vitamin C effects on sperm motility. "n"nMethods: We designed a case-control study with a total subject of 62 males. Sperm parameters were analyzed according to World Health Organization guidelines (WHO, 1999. Total antioxidant capacity and vitamin C level of seminal plasma were measured in the 32 normozoospermic as the control group and 32 asthenospermic men as the case group using FRAP (Ferric Reducing of Antioxidants Powers and RP-HPLC (Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography methods, respectively. "n"nResults: Our results indicated that total antioxidant capacity levels in the seminal plasma of asthenospermic men were significantly lower than healthy men (p=0.002. In addition, we found a positive correlation between reduced total

  11. Desenvolvimento pós-seminal de espécies de Poaceae (Poales Post-seminal development of Poaceae species (Poales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Tiemi Nakamura

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou verificar a existência de um padrão do desenvolvimento pós-seminal em Poaceae. Para tanto, foram estudadas as seguintes espécies: Olyra humilis Nees (Bambusoideae; Axonopus aureus P. Beauv. e Paspalum polyphyllum Nees ex Trin. (Panicoideae; Chloris elata Nees e Eragrostis solida Desv. (Chloridoideae. Procurou-se também comparar as estruturas da plântula de Poaceae com as demais monocotiledôneas. As espécies estudadas são plantas perenes, rizomatosas, cespitosas e apresentam cariopses de tamanhos diferentes. Apresentam sementes albuminosas; embrião lateral, diferenciado, com raiz endógena (adventícia; cotilédone dividido em hiperfilo (escutelo, bainha reduzida e hipofilo (coleóptilo; coleorriza (raiz primária reduzida e mesocótilo (eixo localizado entre o escutelo e coleóptilo. A presença de epiblasto (folha embrionária foi observada em Olyra humilis, Chloris elata e Eragrostis solida. O desenvolvimento pós-seminal é semelhante nas espécies estudadas e forma um padrão em Poaceae. Primeiramente, observa-se a emissão da coleorriza, que cresce no sentido geotrópico positivo, seguida do coleóptilo e plúmula que crescem em sentido contrário, a partir do desenvolvimento do mesocótilo. As primeiras folhas são semelhantes às folhas definitivas (metafilos das espécies, exceto em Olyra humilis, que são modificadas em catafilos e podem ser interpretadas como caráter basal em Bambusoideae. Raiz primária reduzida (coleorriza e hipofilo modificado em coleóptilo são considerados caracteres derivados em Poaceae, quando comparados com as demais monocotiledôneas.This work has aimed to verify the existence of a pattern of the post-seminal development in Poaceae. Thus, Olyra humilis Nees (Bambusoideae; Axonopus aureus P. Beauv. e Paspalum polyphyllum Nees ex Trin. (Panicoideae; Chloris elata Nees e Eragrostis solida Desv. (Chloridoideae have been studied. Besides, it was compared the structures of

  12. Fluids engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Fluids engineering has played an important role in many applications, from ancient flood control to the design of high-speed compact turbomachinery. New applications of fluids engineering, such as in high-technology materials processing, biotechnology, and advanced combustion systems, have kept up unwaining interest in the subject. More accurate and sophisticated computational and measurement techniques are also constantly being developed and refined. On a more fundamental level, nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior of fluid flow are no longer an intellectual curiosity and fluid engineers are increasingly interested in finding practical applications for these emerging sciences. Applications of fluid technology to new areas, as well as the need to improve the design and to enhance the flexibility and reliability of flow-related machines and devices will continue to spur interest in fluids engineering. The objectives of the present seminar were: to exchange current information on arts, science, and technology of fluids engineering; to promote scientific cooperation between the fluids engineering communities of both nations, and to provide an opportunity for the participants and their colleagues to explore possible joint research programs in topics of high priority and mutual interest to both countries. The Seminar provided an excellent forum for reviewing the current state and future needs of fluids engineering for the two nations. With the Seminar ear-marking the first formal scientific exchange between Korea and the United States in the area of fluids engineering, the scope was deliberately left broad and general

  13. Assessment and Optimization of the GeneXpert Diagnostic Platform for Detection of Ebola Virus RNA in Seminal Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettitt, James; Higgs, Elizabeth; Fallah, Mosoka; Nason, Martha; Stavale, Eric; Marchand, Jonathan; Reilly, Cavan; Jensen, Kenneth; Dighero-Kemp, Bonnie; Tuznik, Kaylie; Logue, James; Bolay, Fatorma; Hensley, Lisa

    2017-02-15

    Recent studies have suggested that Ebola virus (EBOV) ribonucleic acid (RNA) potentially present in the semen of a large number of survivors of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Western Africa may contribute to sexual transmission of EVD and generate new clusters of cases in regions previously declared EVD-free. These findings drive the immediate need for a reliable, rapid, user-friendly assay for detection of EBOV RNA in semen that is deployable to multiple sites across Western Africa. In this study, we optimized the Xpert EBOV assay for semen samples by adding dithiothreitol. Compared to the assays currently in use in Liberia (including Ebola Zaire Target 1, major groove binder real-time-polymerase chain reaction assays, and original Xpert EBOV assay), the modified Xpert EBOV assay demonstrated greater sensitivity than the comparator assays. Thus, the modified Xpert EBOV assay is optimal for large-scale monitoring of EBOV RNA persistence in male survivors. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) supplementation in resuscitation fluids on renal microcirculatory oxygenation, inflammation, and function in a rat model of endotoxemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ergin, Bulent; Guerci, Philippe; Zafrani, Lara; Nocken, Frank; Kandil, Asli; Gurel-Gurevin, Ebru; Demirci-Tansel, Cihan; Ince, Can

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of inflammation and oxidative stress appears to limit sepsis-induced damage in experimental models. The kidney is one of the most sensitive organs to injury during septic shock. In this study, we evaluated the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) administration in conjunction with fluid

  15. Buffer fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzadzhanzade, A Kh; Dedusanko, G Ya; Dinaburg, L S; Markov, Yu M; Rasizade, Ya N; Rozov, V N; Sherstnev, N M

    1979-08-30

    A drilling fluid is suggested for separating the drilling and plugging fluids which contains as the base increased solution of polyacrylamide and additive. In order to increase the viscoelastic properties of the liquid with simultaneous decrease in the periods of its fabrication, the solution contains as an additive dry bentonite clay. In cases of the use of a buffer fluid under conditions of negative temperatures, it is necessary to add to it table salt or ethylene glycol.

  16. Root type matters: measurements of water uptake by seminal, crown and lateral roots of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mutez Ali; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kaestner, Anders; Carminati, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Roots play a key role in water acquisition and are a significant component of plant adaptation to different environmental conditions. Although maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important crops worldwide, there is limited information on the function of different root segments and types in extracting water from soils. Aim of this study was to investigate the location of root water uptake in mature maize. We used neutron radiography to image the spatial distribution of maize roots and trace the transport of injected deuterated water (D2O) in soil and roots. Maize plants were grown in aluminum containers filled with a sandy soil that was kept homogeneously wet throughout the experiment. When the plants were five weeks-old, we injected D2O into selected soil regions. The transport of D2O was simulated using a diffusion-convection numerical model. By fitting the observed D2O transport we quantified the diffusion coefficient and the water uptake of the different root segments. The model was initially developed and tested with two weeks-old maize (Ahmed et. al. 2015), for which we found that water was mainly taken up by lateral roots and the water uptake of the seminal roots was negligible. Here, we used this method to measure root water uptake in a mature maize root system. The root architecture of five weeks-old maize consisted of primary and seminal roots with long laterals and crown (nodal) roots that emerged from the above ground part of the plant two weeks after planting. The crown roots were thicker than the seminal roots and had fewer and shorter laterals. Surprisingly, we found that the water was mainly taken up by the crown roots and their laterals, while the lateral roots of seminal roots, which were the main location of water uptake of younger plants, stopped to take up water. Interestingly, we also found that in contrast to the seminal roots, the crown roots were able to take up water also from their distal segments. We conclude that for the two weeks

  17. A mixture of St. John's wort and sea buckthorn oils regresses endometriotic implants and affects the levels of inflammatory mediators in peritoneal fluid of the rat: A surgically induced endometriosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İlhan, Mert; Süntar, İpek; Demirel, Mürşide Ayşe; Yeşilada, Erdem; Keleş, Hikmet; Küpeli Akkol, Esra

    2016-12-01

    Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) and St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) are used as an emmenagog and for the treatment of other gynecological disorders including uterus inflammation and endometriosis. The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential of a mixture of sea buckthorn and St. John's wort oils (HrHp oil) in the treatment of endometriosis. The activity was assessed in surgically induced endometriosis in rats. A 15-mm piece of endometrium was sutured into the abdominal wall. Twenty-eight days later, a second laparotomy was performed to calculate the endometrial foci areas and to score intra-abdominal adhesions. The rats were treated with either vehicle, HrHp oil formulation, or the reference (buserelin acetate). At the end of the experiment all rats were sacrificed and endometriotic foci areas and intra-abdominal adhesions were re-evaluated. The tissue sections were analyzed histopathologically. Peritoneal fluids of the experimental animals were collected in order to detect the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, vascular endothelial growth factor, and interleukin-6, which might be involved in the etiology of endometriosis. In the HrHp oil-treated group, the volumes of endometriotic implants were found to be significantly decreased (from 50.8 mm 3 to 18.6 mm 3 , pnecrosis factor-α decreased from 7.02±1.33 pg/mL to 4.78±1.02 pg/mL (pvascular endothelial growth factor from 17.39±8.52 pg/mL to 9.67±5.04 pg/mL (ptreatment. HrHp oil may be a promising alternative for the treatment of endometriosis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The effects of rival seminal plasma on sperm velocity in the alternative reproductive tactics of Chinook salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jason A; Pitcher, Trevor E

    2017-04-01

    Sperm competition is prevalent and intense in many animal mating systems, and is a major force driving evolution of such mating systems. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of seminal plasma on sperm velocity of male Chinook salmon (Onchorhynchus tshawytscha), which possesses a mating system with male alternative reproductive tactics and intense sperm competition. Male Chinook salmon either adopt a small, precocious sneaking tactic (jack) or a large, dominant tactic (hooknose). To test whether the seminal plasma can effect sperm velocity amongst sperm competitors, two experiments were done whereby males were paired based upon the alternative tactic each male adopted, with the first experiment consisting of jack-hooknose pairs (N = 16) and the second experiment consisting of jack-jack and hooknose-hooknose pairs (N = 12 and 14, respectively). Within each pair, milt of each male was manipulated such that seminal plasma was removed and swapped between the males in each pair and sperm velocity was measured. Jack seminal plasma caused a significant decrease (∼11.9%) in hooknose sperm velocity while causing a significant increase in jack sperm velocity (∼7%), while alternatively, hooknose seminal plasma had no affect on sperm velocity of jack or other hooknose males. This study shows that rival seminal plasma may affect the outcome of sperm competition between males; males adopting a sneaking tactic, that spawn in a disadvantageous mating position, may be able to compensate for this deficit by being more competitive through the effects of their seminal plasma on their competitor's sperm velocity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Seminal plasma enhances cervical adenocarcinoma cell proliferation and tumour growth in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason R Sutherland

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in women in sub-Saharan Africa. Extensive evidence has shown that cervical cancer and its precursor lesions are caused by Human papillomavirus (HPV infection. Although the vast majority of HPV infections are naturally resolved, failure to eradicate infected cells has been shown to promote viral persistence and tumorigenesis. Furthermore, following neoplastic transformation, exposure of cervical epithelial cells to inflammatory mediators either directly or via the systemic circulation may enhance progression of the disease. It is well recognised that seminal plasma contains an abundance of inflammatory mediators, which are identified as regulators of tumour growth. Here we investigated the role of seminal plasma in regulating neoplastic cervical epithelial cell growth and tumorigenesis. Using HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma cells, we found that seminal plasma (SP induced the expression of the inflammatory enzymes, prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase (PTGS1 and PTGS2, cytokines interleukin (IL -6, and -11 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A. To investigate the role of SP on tumour cell growth in vivo, we xenografted HeLa cells subcutaneously into the dorsal flank of nude mice. Intra-peritoneal administration of SP rapidly and significantly enhanced the tumour growth rate and size of HeLa cell xenografts in nude mice. As observed in vitro, we found that SP induced expression of inflammatory PTGS enzymes, cytokines and VEGF-A in vivo. Furthermore we found that SP enhances blood vessel size in HeLa cell xenografts. Finally we show that SP-induced cytokine production, VEGF-A expression and cell proliferation are mediated via the induction of the inflammatory PTGS pathway.

  20. Relationships between seminal plasma metals/metalloids and semen quality, sperm apoptosis and DNA integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Xin; Wang, Peng; Feng, Wei; Liu, Chong; Yang, Pan; Chen, Ying-Jun; Sun, Li; Sun, Yang; Yue, Jing; Gu, Long-Jie; Zeng, Qiang; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationships between environmental exposure to metals/metalloids and semen quality, sperm apoptosis and DNA integrity using the metal/metalloids levels in seminal plasma as biomarkers. We determined 18 metals/metalloids in seminal plasma using an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry among 746 men recruited from a reproductive medicine center. Associations of these metals/metalloids with semen quality (n = 746), sperm apoptosis (n = 331) and DNA integrity (n = 404) were evaluated using multivariate linear and logistic regression models. After accounting for multiple comparisons and confounders, seminal plasma arsenic (As) quartiles were negatively associated with progressive and total sperm motility using multivariable linear regression analysis, which were in accordance with the trends for increased odds ratios (ORs) for below-reference semen quality parameters in the logistic models. We also found inverse correlations between cadmium (Cd) quartiles and progressive and total sperm motility, whereas positive correlations between zinc (Zn) quartiles and sperm concentration, between copper (Cu) and As quartiles and the percentage of tail DNA, between As and selenium (Se) quartiles and tail extent and tail distributed moment, and between tin (Sn) categories and the percentage of necrotic spermatozoa (all P trend <0.05). These relationships remained after the simultaneous consideration of various elements. Our results indicate that environmental exposure to As, Cd, Cu, Se and Sn may impair male reproductive health, whereas Zn may be beneficial to sperm concentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of a Radioimmunological Method to Measure Transferrin in Seminal Plasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallea Sanchez, L.; Estevez Gandara, A.; Navaroli Fernandez, F.; Machado Curbelo, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    A specific antiserum against human transferrin was obtained. It was titrated and used to develop a radioimmunological method to measure transferrin in seminal plasm, since the concentration of that protein could be a useful marker of testicular function in the clinical management of male infertility. The method showed good precision, accurateness and sensitivity, when it was assessed by standard statistical methods and accordingly it seems to be adequate for the intended purposes. The assessment of its value in the diagnosis and therapy of male infertility, will be the subject of future work. (author). 14 refs

  2. Correlation of biochemical constituents of seminal plasma with semen quality in Teddy goat (Capra hircus) bucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, S; Ahmad, M; Ahmad, I; Zubair, M; Umar, Z; Qureshi, A S; Manzoor, A; Murtaza, A; Shaukat, A

    2018-04-01

    This study was planned to determine the relationship between semen quality parameters and the levels of biochemical constituents of seminal plasma of Teddy (Capra hircus) buck semen. For this purpose, semen ejaculates were collected from five mature healthy Teddy bucks. All the experimental bucks were kept under natural environmental conditions. Semen was collected twice in a week for the duration of 6 weeks by Artificial Vagina (AV) in the breeding season (February-April). Two successive ejaculates of single buck were pooled at time of collection, and a total of 60 semen samples were processed for semen analysis. Sperm per cent motility, sperm concentration, dead sperm percentage, morphological abnormal spermatozoa, plasma membrane integrity were correlated with biochemical constituents of seminal plasma. The mean per cent motility (89.18% ± 0.37%), sperm concentration (1.86 ± 0.04 × 10 9 /ml), dead sperm percentage (8.08% ± 0.29%), morphological abnormal spermatozoa (6.05% ± 0.29%) and plasma membrane integrity (88.22% ± 0.34%) were recorded. The seminal plasma contained Na + (144.12 ± 1.59 mEq/L), K + (27.38 ± 0.49 mEq/L), Cl - (65.73 ± 0.45 mEq/L), Ca ++ (9.34 ± 0.22 mg/dl), P (19.32 ± 0.97 mg/dl), aspartate aminotransferase (AST; 26.48 ± 1.30 IU/L), alanine aminotransferase (ALT; 168.47 ± 5.18 IU/L), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; 215.98 ± 6.06 IU/L), albumin (1.90 ± 0.10 g/dl), globulins (2.08 ± 0.11 g/dl) and total protein (3.98 ± 0.20 g/dl). The collected data were analysed by applying Pearson's correlation coefficients. Dead sperm percentage had negative correlation with sodium (r = -.278, p correlated with plasma membrane integrity (r = -.292, p correlated with biochemical constituents, but opposite trends were found in case of dead sperm percentage. The seminal biochemical constituents dynamically interact with each other. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Giant seminal vesicle cyst with ipsilateral hypoplastic kidney: Report of a case with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar Pal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a congenital seminal vesicle cyst with ipsilateral hypoplastic kidney in a 51 year-old Indian man presenting with features of bladder outlet obstruction. Abdominal and pelvic Ultrasonography (USG, computed tomography revealed a retrovesical cystic mass measuring 10cm x 9cm with indentations over the left infero-lateral wall of the urinary bladder. On USG and radionuclide renal scanning the ipsilateral kidney was not found, which was located only on the CT scan. The cyst and the hypoplastic kidney was excised with an uneventful recovery.

  4. Distribution of sperm-free 131I-labelled seminal plasma in the genital tract of estrous sheep, following cervical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, G.; Kaempfer, I.; Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig

    1984-01-01

    In 10 fertile sheep with synchronized estrus comparative studies with 131 I-labelled sperma and sperma-free seminal plasma were performed. 2, 4, and 22 hours after cervical application and insemination resp., the distribution of sperma and seminal plasma in different parts of the genital tract was determined. Considerable amounts of seminal plasma were revealed in vagina, cervix and uterus decreasing proportionally with both the course of the genital tract and the post-application time. Only low amounts of seminal plasma could be detected in the oviducts, while sizeable amounts diffused into the peritoneum. The levels of 131 I-labelled iodine in the thyroid were low 2 hours after application but rose to constantly higher level. The reservoirs for seminal plasma and sperma could be revealed after 22 hours. There was no marked cervical barrier to seminal plasma in sheep with synchronized estrus

  5. Schroedinger fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, K.K.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of nuclear internal flow and collective inertia, the difference of this flow from that of a classical fluid, and the approach of this flow to rigid flow in independent-particle model rotation are elucidated by reviewing the theory of Schroedinger fluid and its implications for collective vibration and rotation. (author)

  6. Acute exposure to space flight results in evidence of reduced lymph Transport, tissue fluid Shifts, and immune alterations in the rat gastrointestinal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromer, W. E.; Zawieja, D. C.

    2018-05-01

    Space flight causes a number of alterations in physiological systems, changes in the immunological status of subjects, and altered interactions of the host to environmental stimuli. We studied the effect of space flight on the lymphatic system of the gastrointestinal tract which is responsible for lipid transport and immune surveillance which includes the host interaction with the gut microbiome. We found that there were signs of tissue damage present in the space flown animals that was lacking in ground controls (epithelial damage, crypt morphological changes, etc.). Additionally, morphology of the lymphatic vessels in the tissue suggested a collapsed state at time of harvest and there was a profound change in the retention of lipid in the villi of the ileum. Contrary to our assumptions there was a reduction in tissue fluid volume likely associated with other fluid shifts described. The reduction of tissue fluid volume in the colon and ileum is a likely contributing factor to the state of the lymphatic vessels and lipid transport issues observed. There were also associated changes in the number of MHC-II+ immune cells in the colon tissue, which along with reduced lymphatic competence would favor immune dysfunction in the tissue. These findings help expand our understanding of the effects of space flight on various organ systems. It also points out potential issues that have not been closely examined and have to potential for the need of countermeasure development.

  7. Morfologia de sementes e do desenvolvimento pós-seminal de espécies de Bromeliaceae Seed and post-seminal development morphology on Bromeliaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Regina Pereira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivos caracterizar as sementes, fornecendo informações sobre o tipo e o tempo médio de germinação e de formação de plântulas, além de descrever a morfologia do desenvolvimento pós-seminal de seis espécies de Bromeliaceae. Os resultados mostram germinação do tipo epígea e plântulas criptocotiledonares para todas as espécies. As porcentagens máximas de germinação obtidas, acima de 80%, indicam alta qualidade fisiológica das sementes. O tempo médio de germinação e de formação de plântulas foi de 4-15 e 8-18 dias, respectivamente. As sementes são filiformes a elípticas, lisas ou com apêndices plumosos. Os caracteres morfológicos mais relevantes para a diferenciação entre gêneros e subfamílias de Bromeliaceae referem-se à forma e ao tipo de apêndices das sementes, e na forma e tamanho da bainha cotiledonar, hipocótilo e raiz primária das plântulas, subsidiando estudos taxonômicos, ecológicos e na área de tecnologia de sementes.The aim of this study was to characterize the seeds, providing information about germination type and seedling rate, in addition to describe the post-seminal development morphology of the six species of Bromeliaceae. The results showed that the germination is epigeal with cryptocotylar seedlings. Maximum germination percentage was over 80%, for all species, indicating high physiological quality of the seeds. Germination and seedling rate was 4-15 and 8-18 days, respectively. Seeds are filiform to elliptical, smooth or with flight apparatus. The most relevant morphological characters for distinguishing among genera and subfamilies are shape and appendices of the seeds, form and size of the cotyledonal sheath, hypocotyl and primary root, providing information on taxonomic, ecological and seed technology studies.

  8. Protease Expression Levels in Prostate Cancer Tissue Can Explain Prostate Cancer-Associated Seminal Biomarkers—An Explorative Concept Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Neuhaus

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we described prostate cancer (PCa detection (83% sensitivity; 67% specificity in seminal plasma by CE-MS/MS. Moreover, advanced disease was distinguished from organ-confined tumors with 80% sensitivity and 82% specificity. The discovered biomarkers were naturally occurring fragments of larger seminal proteins, predominantly semenogelin 1 and 2, representing endpoints of the ejaculate liquefaction. Here we identified proteases putatively involved in PCa specific protein cleavage, and examined gene expression and tissue protein levels, jointly with cell localization in normal prostate (nP, benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH, seminal vesicles and PCa using qPCR, Western blotting and confocal laser scanning microscopy. We found differential gene expression of chymase (CMA1, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP3, MMP7, and upregulation of MMP14 and tissue inhibitors (TIMP1 and TIMP2 in BPH. In contrast tissue protein levels of MMP14 were downregulated in PCa. MMP3/TIMP1 and MMP7/TIMP1 ratios were decreased in BPH. In seminal vesicles, we found low-level expression of most proteases and, interestingly, we also detected TIMP1 and low levels of TIMP2. We conclude that MMP3 and MMP7 activity is different in PCa compared to BPH due to fine regulation by their inhibitor TIMP1. Our findings support the concept of seminal plasma biomarkers as non-invasive tool for PCa detection and risk stratification.

  9. Protease Expression Levels in Prostate Cancer Tissue Can Explain Prostate Cancer-Associated Seminal Biomarkers-An Explorative Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Jochen; Schiffer, Eric; Mannello, Ferdinando; Horn, Lars-Christian; Ganzer, Roman; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe

    2017-05-04

    Previously, we described prostate cancer (PCa) detection (83% sensitivity; 67% specificity) in seminal plasma by CE-MS/MS. Moreover, advanced disease was distinguished from organ-confined tumors with 80% sensitivity and 82% specificity. The discovered biomarkers were naturally occurring fragments of larger seminal proteins, predominantly semenogelin 1 and 2, representing endpoints of the ejaculate liquefaction. Here we identified proteases putatively involved in PCa specific protein cleavage, and examined gene expression and tissue protein levels, jointly with cell localization in normal prostate (nP), benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), seminal vesicles and PCa using qPCR, Western blotting and confocal laser scanning microscopy. We found differential gene expression of chymase (CMA1), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP3, MMP7), and upregulation of MMP14 and tissue inhibitors (TIMP1 and TIMP2) in BPH. In contrast tissue protein levels of MMP14 were downregulated in PCa. MMP3/TIMP1 and MMP7/TIMP1 ratios were decreased in BPH. In seminal vesicles, we found low-level expression of most proteases and, interestingly, we also detected TIMP1 and low levels of TIMP2. We conclude that MMP3 and MMP7 activity is different in PCa compared to BPH due to fine regulation by their inhibitor TIMP1. Our findings support the concept of seminal plasma biomarkers as non-invasive tool for PCa detection and risk stratification.

  10. A proton NMR study of the effect of Mucuna pruriens on seminal plasma metabolites of infertile males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashish; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem; Shukla, Kamla Kant; Bansal, Navneeta; Jaiswer, Shyam Pyari; Shankhwar, Satya Narain

    2011-07-15

    The objective of this study was to employ proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy to evaluate the impact of Mucuna pruriens seeds on the metabolic profile of seminal plasma of infertile patients. A total of 180 infertile patients were administered M. pruriens seed powder for a period of three months. Age-matched healthy men comprised the control (n=50) group in the study. Lactate, alanine, choline, citrate, glycerophosphocholine (GPC), glutamine, tyrosine, histidine, phenylalanine, and uridine were measured in seminal plasma by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. To evaluate the degree of infertility and extent of hormonal imbalance induced by this milieu, separate sperm concentration, motility, lipid peroxide in seminal plasma and LH, FSH, T, and PRL hormone concentration in serum were measured using standard laboratory methods and RIA, respectively, in the same subjects. M. pruriens therapy rectifies the perturbed alanine, citrate, GPC, histidine and phenylalanine content in seminal plasma and improves the semen quality of post-treated infertile men with compared to pre-treated. Concomitantly, clinical variables in seminal plasma and blood serum were also improved over post therapy in infertile men. On the basis of these observations, it may be proposed that M. pruriens seed powder not only reactivates the enzymatic activity of metabolic pathways and energy metabolism but also rejuvenates the harmonic balance of male reproductive hormones in infertile men. These findings open more opportunities for infertility treatment and management by improving semen quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of BMI on sperm parameters and the metabolite changes of seminal plasma concomitantly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dan; Wu, Wei; Tang, Qiuqin; Qiao, Shanlei; Chen, Yiqiu; Chen, Minjian; Teng, Mengying; Lu, Chuncheng; Ding, Hongjuan; Xia, Yankai; Hu, Lingqing; Chen, Daozhen; Sha, Jiahao; Wang, Xinru

    2017-07-25

    The development of male infertility increased rapidly worldwide, which coinciding with the epidemic of obesity. However, the impact of weight abnormalities on sperm quality is still contestable. To assess the correlation between BMI and sperm parameters, we searched relevant articles in PubMed, Embase, Web of science, and Wanfang database published until June 2015 without language restriction. Otherwise, we also recruited some participants who attended fertility clinic as well as some general populations in this report. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis about BMI and sperm parameters containing total sperm count, concentration, semen volume and sperm motility (overall and progressive). Metabolomic analysis of seminal plasma was performed to explore the mechanism from a new perspective. This study found standardized weighted mean differences (SMD) in sperm parameters (total sperm count, sperm concentration, and semen volume) of abnormal weight groups decreased to different degree compared to normal weight. Dose-response analysis found SMD of sperm count, sperm concentration and semen volume respectively fell 2.4%, 1.3% and 2.0% compared with normal weight for every 5-unit increase in BMI. Metabolomic analysis of seminal plasma showed that spermidine and spermine were likely to play a vital role in the spermatogenesis progress. This systematic review with meta-analysis has confirmed there was a relationship between BMI and sperm quality, suggesting obesity may be a detrimental factor of male infertility.

  12. Dietary supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) improves seminal antioxidant status and decreases sperm DNA fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Soto, Juan Carlos; Domingo, Joan Carles; Cordobilla, Begoña; Nicolás, María; Fernández, Laura; Albero, Pilar; Gadea, Joaquín; Landeras, José

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary supplementation on semen quality, fatty acid composition, antioxidant capacity, and DNA fragmentation. In this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, 74 subjects were recruited and randomly assigned to either the placebo group (n=32) or to the DHA group (n=42) to consume three 500-mg capsules of oil per day over 10 weeks. The placebo group received 1,500 mg/day of sunflower oil and the DHA group 1,500 mg/day of DHA-enriched oil. Seminal parameters (semen volume, sperm concentration, motility, morphology, and vitality), total antioxidant capacity, deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation, and lipid composition were evaluated prior to the treatment and after 10 weeks. Finally, 57 subjects were included in the study with 25 in the placebo group and 32 in the DHA group. No differences were found in traditional sperm parameters or lipid composition of the sperm membrane after treatment. However, an increase in DHA and Omega-3 fatty acid content in seminal plasma, an improvement in antioxidant status, and a reduction in the percentage of spermatozoa with deoxyribonucleic acid damage were observed in the DHA group after 10 weeks of treatment.

  13. Morphological changes in the seminal receptacle during ovarian development in the speckled swimming crab Arenaeus cribrarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, Fernando Jose; Raggi Pereira, Gerson Rodrigues; Sant'anna, Bruno Sampaio

    2014-08-01

    To understand sperm plug dissolution and spermatophore dehiscence in Portunidae, histological and ultrastructural changes in the seminal receptacle (SR) of Arenaeus cribrarius were investigated during ovarian development. In juvenile females the SR was filled with acid polysaccharides and the dorsal epithelium was stratified. Mated females with rudimentary ovaries showed a large SR filled by a glycoprotein sperm plug. This plug was present until the developing-ovary stage, when spermatophore dehiscence and intense holocrine secretions in the dorsal dense layer occurred. The plug was absent after the intermediate stage, and the SR became flaccid. The secretion produced moved the spermatophores into the ventral region. The modified dorsal epithelium in the transition between the dorsal and ventral regions released acid polysaccharides, which were found among the sperm, by exocytosis. The morphological changes of the SR in A. cribrarius, including the presence of the sperm plug, followed the macroscopic pattern observed in other members of Portunidae, such as blue crabs. However, in this species dissolution of the sperm plug was synchronized with ovarian development and occurred simultaneously with spermatophore dehiscence, showing the evolutionary relationship of the seminal receptacle and the female reproductive system to the storage of spermatophores and spermatozoa. © 2014 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  14. Quantitative Gd-DOTA uptake from cerebrospinal fluid into rat brain using 3D VFA-SPGR at 9.4T

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Hedok; Mortensen, Kristian; Sanggaard, Simon

    2017-01-01

    strategies for accurate 3D contrast concentration mapping at 9.4T were developed and whole brain dynamic concentration maps were derived to study solute transport via the glymphatic system. The newly developed approach will enable future quantitative studies of the glymphatic system in health and disease...... phantoms. Normal Wistar rats underwent Gd-DOTA infusion into CSF via the cisterna magna and continuous MRI for approximately 130 min using T1-weighted imaging. Dynamic Gd-DOTA concentration maps were calculated and parenchymal uptake was estimated. RESULTS: In the phantom study, T1 discrepancies between...

  15. Morfologia de sementes e desenvolvimento pós-seminal de Physalis angulata L Seed morphology and post-seminal development of Physalis angulata L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Luiza Mascarenhas de Souza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Physalis angulata é conhecida como camapu, mullaca ou juá-de-capote e pertence à família Solanaceae. Esta espécie possui importância medicinal, pela presença dos vitaesteróides conhecidos como fisalinas e, atualmente, na alimentação. Essa espécie se propaga facilmente por sementes, motivo pelo qual ela é tida como infestante de outras culturas. Nesse sentido, a identificação da espécie ainda nos estágios iniciais de crescimento confunde com as demais infestantes, tornando difícil a sua caracterização taxonômica. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar morfologicamente as sementes e o desenvolvimento pós-seminal de Physalis angulata. Os ensaios foram desenvolvidos no Laboratório de Germinação da Unidade Experimental Horto Florestal, Feira de Santana - BA. Para tanto foram realizadas análises morfométricas das sementes (4 repetições de 25 e analisadas suas características externas e internas com auxilio de microscópico estereoscópico. Para a descrição das plântulas da espécie foram utilizadas placas de petri contendo duas folhas de papel filtro (4 repetições de 20 sementes e umedecidos com água destilada. As sementes foram colocadas em câmara de germinação à 35ºC (fotoperíodo de 12 horas até a emissão dos cotilédones. A metodologia para descrição do desenvolvimento pós-seminal foi realizada em condições de casa de vegetação e consistiu em avaliações realizadas cinco dias após a semeadura (emissão dos cotilédones e no intervalo de até 15 dias (emissão de eófilos e metáfilos no qual foram utilizados 2 repetições de 20 vasos. As sementes apresentaram em média 1,55 mm de comprimento, 1,26 mm de largura e 0,43 mm de espessura. O período de análise foi suficiente para caracterizar as sementes e plântulas da espécie, permitindo a adoção de critérios de anormalidade.Physalis angulata is also known as camapu, mullaca or juá-de-capote it belongs to the Solanaceae family

  16. Reversal of Quinine-Induced Testicular Toxicity by Testosterone in Rat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that quinine (QU), which is presently the mainstay of treatment for severe P.falciparum malaria and nocturnal lag cramps, is deleterious to the testis of rat. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of ... All the animals were sacrificed at the end of 16 weeks. Seminal analysis was done ...

  17. PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND IMMUNO-BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION OF FERTILITY ASSOCIATED PROTEIN OF KARAN FRIES BULL SEMINAL PLASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajesh Raman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was detection, isolation, partial purification and immunobiochemical characterization of fertility associated protein in the seminal plasma of high prolific Karan fries bull. Seminal plasma of Karan Fries bull was partially purified by gel filtration chromatography and analyzed by 10% SDS-PAGE for their polypeptide profile. PAGE analysis revealed major band of 55 kDa, and 26 kDa. Hyperimmune serum was raised in rabbit against crude seminal plasma protein. Single precipitin line was observed in DID test when each of the partially purified 26 kDa and 55 kDa proteins were reacted with hyperimmune serum. These proteins were also found to be immunoreactive against hyperimmune serum in Western blot technique.

  18. The Analysis of Sialylation, N-Glycan Branching, and Expression of O-Glycans in Seminal Plasma of Infertile Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa M. Kratz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates are known to mediate some events involved in successful fertilization. Although some studies on the glycosylation of seminal plasma proteins are available, the total glycan profile was rarely analyzed as a feature influencing fertilization potential. In this work we aimed to compare some glycosylation traits in seminal plasma glycoproteins of fertile and infertile men. The following findings emerge from our studies: (1 in human seminal plasma the presence and alterations of O-linked glycans were observed; (2 the expression of SNA-reactive sialic acid significantly differs between asthenozoospermia and both normozoospermic (fertile and infertile groups; (3 the expression of PHA-L-reactive highly branched N-glycans was significantly lower in oligozoospermic patients than in both normozoospermic groups. Indication of the appropriate lectins that would enable the possibly precise determination of the glycan profile seems to be a good supplement to mass spectrum analysis. Extension of the lectin panel is useful for the further research.

  19. Analysis of risk factors of involvement of seminal vesicles in patients with prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos F. Dall'Oglio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine through preoperative serum PSA level, Gleason score on biopsy and percentage of fragments affected by tumor on biopsy, the probability of involvement of the seminal vesicles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During the period between March 1991 to December 2002, we selected 899 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy for treatment of localized prostate adenocarcinoma. The analyzed preoperative variables were PSA, percentage of positive fragments and Gleason score on the biopsy. Pre-operative PSA was divided in scales from 0 to 4.0 ng/mL, 4.1 to 10 ng/mL, 10.1 to 20 ng/mL and > 20 ng/mL, Gleason score was categorized in scales from 2 to 6. 7 and 8 to 10, and the percentage of affected fragments was divided in 0 to 25%, 25.1% to 50%, 50.1% to 75%, and 75.1% to 100%. All these variables were correlated with the involvement of seminal vesicles in the surgical specimen. RESULTS: Of the 899 patients under study, approximately 11% (95% CI, [9% - 13%] had involvement of seminal vesicles. On the multivariate analysis, when PSA was < 4, the Gleason score was 2 to 6, and less than 25% of fragments were involved on the biopsy, only 3.6%, 7.6% and 6.2% of patients respectively, had involvement of seminal vesicles. On the multivariate analysis, we observed that PSA, Gleason score and the percentage of involved fragments were independent prognostic factors for invasion of seminal vesicles. CONCLUSION: The preoperative variables used in the present study allow the identification of men with minimal risk (lower than 5% if involvement of seminal vesicles.

  20. Intraluminal occlusion of the seminal duct by laser and Histoacryl: Two non-invasive alternatives for vasectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, B.; Sroka, R.; Koelle, S.; Becker, A. J.; Khoder, W.; Pongratz, T.; Stief, C. G.; Trottmann, M.

    2014-03-01

    Introduction and objective: Vasectomy is a well-established method in family control. Even though it is a safe and low risk operation, this surgery is invasive and difficult to reverse. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate new non-invasive methods for occlusion of the seminal duct. Material and Methods: Seminal duct tissue was obtained from patients (n=30) suffering from prostate cancer and therefore undergoing prostatectomy. In a first set of experiments, the seminal duct was occluded by intraluminal application of Histoacryl® (Braun Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen, Germany). In a 2nd set of experiments, endoluminal laser induced occlusion was performed. Four different laser wavelengths (1940nm, 1470nm, 1064nm, 940nm) and different sets of laser parameters (e.g. power, exposure duration, fibre diameter, energy applied) were compared. Effectiveness of occlusion of the seminal duct was proven by post-treatment irrigation flow measurement, as well as by morphological analyses. To evaluate a potential damage of the surrounding tissue, external temperature was measured using a thermometer during laser application. Results: Intraluminal application of Histoacryl® induced an immediate and complete occlusion of the seminal duct. The underlying connective tissue maintained its functional integrity after this treatment. By laser light application to a Histoacryl® block, a hole could be created into the block thus indicating the possibility of recanalization. Treatment with laser energy resulted in shrinkage of the ductal lumen. The laser application generally caused necrosis in the epithelium and induced formation of vacuoles in the underlying connective tissue. As described for endoluminal varicose treatment, this distinct local reaction might result in an intense inflammation leading to a functional occlusion of the vas deferens. Conclusions: Both laser-induced occlusion and application of Histoacryl® are fast and simple techniques which may be able to achieve a

  1. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a focused, readable account of the principal physical and mathematical ideas at the heart of fluid dynamics. Graduate students in engineering, applied math, and physics who are taking their first graduate course in fluids will find this book invaluable in providing the background in physics and mathematics necessary to pursue advanced study. The book includes a detailed derivation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, followed by many examples of their use in studying the dynamics of fluid flows. Modern tensor analysis is used to simplify the mathematical derivations, thus allowing a clearer view of the physics. Peter Bernard also covers the motivation behind many fundamental concepts such as Bernoulli's equation and the stream function. Many exercises are designed with a view toward using MATLAB or its equivalent to simplify and extend the analysis of fluid motion including developing flow simulations based on techniques described in the book.

  2. Simultaneous determination of D-aspartic acid and D-glutamic acid in rat tissues and physiological fluids using a multi-loop two-dimensional HPLC procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hai; Miyoshi, Yurika; Ueno, Kyoko; Okamura, Chieko; Tojo, Yosuke; Mita, Masashi; Lindner, Wolfgang; Zaitsu, Kiyoshi; Hamase, Kenji

    2011-11-01

    For a metabolomics study focusing on the analysis of aspartic and glutamic acid enantiomers, a fully automated two-dimensional HPLC system employing a microbore-ODS column and a narrowbore-enantioselective column was developed. By using this system, a detailed distribution of D-Asp and D-Glu besides L-Asp and L-Glu in mammals was elucidated. For the total analysis concept, the amino acids were first pre-column derivatized with 4-fluoro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-F) to be sensitively and fluorometrically detected. For the non-stereoselective separation of the analytes in the first dimension a monolithic ODS column (750 mm × 0.53 mm i.d.) was adopted, and a self-packed narrowbore-Pirkle type enantioselective column (Sumichiral OA-2500S, 250 mm × 1.5 mm i.d.) was selected for the second dimension. In the rat plasma, RSD values for intra-day and inter-day precision were less than 6.8%, and the accuracy ranged between 96.1% and 105.8%. The values of LOQ of D-Asp and D-Glu were 5 fmol/injection (0.625 nmol/g tissue). The present method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of free aspartic acid and glutamic acid enantiomers in 7 brain areas, 11 peripheral tissues, plasma and urine of Wistar rats. Biologically significant D-Asp values were found in various tissue samples whereas for D-Glu the values were very low possibly indicating less significance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of seminal plasma and egg yolk concentration on freezability of goat semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria da Silva Ferreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of egg yolk and seminal plasma on the viability of cryopreserved goat semen. To this end, four fertile Saanen bucks, aged between 10 months and 1 year, and weighing 18 to 25 kg, were used. Semen was collected from each buck by the artificial vagina method at the end of breeding season (June-July. The extender used was the yolk citrate, which was split into two equal aliquots: 5% egg yolk (2.5 mL egg yolk: 47.5 mL citrate solution were added to one of the samples and 10% egg yolk (5.0 mL egg yolk: 45.0 mL citrate solution were added to another. The sperm motility and vigor after thawing and post thermal resistance test (TRT were evaluated and the data were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared by the F test at 5.0% probability. The observed values for motility and vigor after thawing and post thermal resistance test (TRT, fast and slow, according to the presence of seminal plasma and egg yolk percentage were: 5% egg yolk with plasma (25.0% and 3.3; 1.60% and 0.7; 12.36% and 1.6, respectively; 5% egg yolk without plasma (23.61% and 3.1; 1.25% and 0.2; 9.93% and 1.3, respectively; 10% egg yolk with plasma (30.8% and 3.3; 4.4% and 1.9; 19.5% and 2.7, respectively; and 10% egg yolk without plasma (13.4% and 2.5; 4.1% and 0.5; 17.0% and 1.0, respectively. There were significant differences between the analyzed data in relation to semen with or without plasma at different percentages of egg yolk, and the group that presented the best results was 10% egg yolk citrate in extender with plasma. The presence of seminal plasma and higher concentration of egg yolk in extender provide a higher viability of cryopreserved goat semen.

  4. Scrotal circumference: A predictor of testosterone concentration and certain attributes of seminal vesicles influencing buffalo male fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mahmood

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of scrotal circumference (SC with plasma testosterone, seminal vesicles (SVs weight, and its secretion as measurable indicators of fertility and also to sequence and establish phylogenetic relatedness of certain SV protein genes with other species as such integrated approach is lacking. Materials and Methods: Altogether, 59 apparently healthy male buffaloes sacrificed at slaughterhouse were selected (irrespective of breed for measuring SC and collecting blood and paired SVs. The SC was measured at greater curvature using soft thread. In the present study, blood plasma testosterone, cholesterol, protein, and glucose in addition to SV fructose, citric acid and proteins in SV fluid were also estimated. The SV tissue was fixed in RNAlater for RNA extraction.Male buffaloes were categorized as per total SV weight into Group I (8.0 g and dentitions-I (≤18 months, II (18-24 months, and III (≥24 months to assess the effect of weight and dentition age on SC, SV weight, and its certain secretions. Data were analyzed using linear model procedure including Tukey HSD test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Variance inflation and condition index were also used to assess multicollinearity. Results: Gross and histomorphological evaluation of SVs did not show any abnormality. Macronutrients (plasma protein, glucose, and cholesterol showed non-significant (p>0.05 variation between groups. The SC and SV weight varied significantly (p<0.05 with a significant positive relationship with plasma testosterone, SV protein, fructose, and citric acid. In addition, testosterone concentration also showed increasing trend from Groups I to III but increased significantly (p<0.05 from Group II to III with positive and significant correlations with SV protein, fructose, and citric acid similar to SV weight and SC. Binders of sperm protein (BSP1, 3, and 5 genes (full length were sequenced and established an

  5. Average concentrations of FSH and LH in seminal plasma as determined by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milbradt, R.; Linzbach, P.; Feller, H.

    1979-01-01

    In 322 males, 25 to 50 years of age, levels of LH and FSH respectively were determined in seminal plasma by radioimmunoassay. Average values of 0,78 ng/ml and 3,95 ng/ml were found as for FSH and LH respectively. Sperm count and motility were not related to FSH levels, but were to LH levels. A high count of spermatozoa corresponded to high concentration of LH, and normal motility was associated with higher levels of LH as compared to levels associated with asthenozoospermia. With respect to count of spermatozoa of a single or the average patient, it is suggested that the ratio of FSH/LH would be more meaningful than LH level alone. (orig.) [de

  6. Interferência da idade sobre a qualidade seminal Interference of age on semen quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Borges Cavalcante

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a influência da idade sobre a qualidade seminal de homens com quadro de infertilidade conjugal submetidos a análises espermáticas em um serviço de reprodução humana. MÉTODOS: estudo retrospectivo, no qual foram avaliados os espermogramas de todos os homens em processo de investigação para infertilidade conjugal no período de Setembro de 2002 a Dezembro de 2004, em um serviço de reprodução assistida do nordeste do Brasil. Foram incluídos 531 indivíduos submetidos a 531 avaliações espermáticas. Foram analisados os seguintes parâmetros: volume, concentração, motilidade e morfologia espermática. O total de investigados foi dividido em grupos, de acordo com resultados obtidos de cada variável estudada. Os grupos referentes ao volume seminal foram: hipoespermia, normoespermia e hiperespermia. Os grupos referentes à concentração espermática foram: azoospermia, oligoospermia, normospermia e poliespermia. Os grupos referentes à motilidade foram: motilidade normal e astenospermia. Os grupos referentes à morfologia foram: morfologia normal e teratospermia. As médias das idades dos pacientes entre os grupos com parâmetros normais foram comparadas com as de grupos alterados, sendo utilizado o teste t. Para análise estatística, foi utilizado o programa XLSTAT (pPURPOSE: to evaluate the influence of age on the quality of semen in men submitted to spermatic analysis in a human reproduction service, in cases of conjugal infertility. METHODS: a retrospective study in which the spermiograms of all men in process of investigation for conjugal infertility in a service of assisted reproduction in the Northeast of Brazil were evaluated from September 2002 to December 2004. A number of 531 individuals submitted to 531 spermatic evaluations were included in the study. The following parameters have been analyzed: spermatic volume, concentration, motility and morphology. The men under investigation have been divided in

  7. Notes on critical care-review of seminal management and leadership papers in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Maureen

    2009-06-01

    Review of recent critical care provision reveals substantial changes in clinical unit operating, and policy drivers influencing international critical care delivery. Practitioners who have worked in healthcare environments over this time, will have witnessed substantial shifts in healthcare policy, changes in professional body guidance and greater service evaluation have impacted on critical care management and leadership. This paper offers a personal perspective on seminal management and leadership papers published in the critical care literature over the past decade. Presenting a range of national and international work that utilise diverse approaches, ten key papers are highlighted that have impacted in the United Kingdom setting. Through this, the influence of the modernisation agenda, the increasing significance of outcome studies, and the need for flexible, interdependent practice emerges. A key message to surface from this paper is the need for all in critical care to engage with, and understand the wider implications of management and leadership change for critical care delivery.

  8. Relation of size of seminal vesicles on ultrasound to premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Wei Hong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Myriad biological factors have been proposed to explain premature ejaculation (PE. However, data correlating PE with seminal vesicles (SVs are sparse. The study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the size of SV and PE. The cross-sectional study included 44 outpatients with PE and 44 volunteers without PE, and the size of SV was compared. Self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time, the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT, the International Index of Erectile Function-15, and the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index were used for assessment of symptoms. Compared to the control group, the PE group had significantly higher mean anterior-posterior diameter (APD of SV (P < 0.001. The optimal mean APD of SV cutoff level was 9.25 mm for PE. In the PE group, PEDT was also higher with a mean APD of SV ≥9.25 mm compared with mean APD of SV <9.25 mm. PEDT was significantly correlated with the mean APD of SV (r = 0.326, P = 0.031. The seminal plasma proteins were compared between six PE and six matched control cases by mass spectrometry and it was shown that 102 proteins were at least 1.5-fold up- or down-regulated. Among them, GGT1, LAMC1, and APP were significantly higher in the PE group. These results indicated that men with a larger mean APD of SV might have a higher PEDT score. Transrectal ultrasound of SV should be considered in the evaluation of patients with premature ejaculation. SV might be a potential target for the treatment of patients with PE and ultrasound change in SV.

  9. Analysis of the functional aspects and seminal plasma proteomic profile of sperm from smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniassi, Mariana Pereira; Intasqui, Paula; Camargo, Mariana; Zylbersztejn, Daniel Suslik; Carvalho, Valdemir Melechco; Cardozo, Karina H M; Bertolla, Ricardo Pimenta

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of smoking on sperm functional quality and seminal plasma proteomic profile. Sperm functional tests were performed in 20 non-smoking men with normal semen quality, according to the World Health Organization (2010) and in 20 smoking patients. These included: evaluation of DNA fragmentation by alkaline Comet assay; analysis of mitochondrial activity using DAB staining; and acrosomal integrity evaluation by PNA binding. The remaining semen was centrifuged and seminal plasma was used for proteomic analysis (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry). The quantified proteins were used for Venn diagram construction in Cytoscape 3.2.1 software, using the PINA4MS plug-in. Then, differentially expressed proteins were used for functional enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology categories, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and Reactome, using Cytoscape software and the ClueGO 2.2.0 plug-in. Smokers had a higher percentage of sperm DNA damage (Comet classes III and IV; P analysis, 422 proteins were identified and quantified, of which one protein was absent, 27 proteins were under-represented and six proteins were over-represented in smokers. Functional enrichment analysis showed the enrichment of antigen processing and presentation, positive regulation of prostaglandin secretion involved in immune response, protein kinase A signalling and arachidonic acid secretion, complement activation, regulation of the cytokine-mediated signalling pathway and regulation of acute inflammatory response in the study group (smokers). In conclusion, cigarette smoking was associated with an inflammatory state in the accessory glands and in the testis, as shown by enriched proteomic pathways. This state causes an alteration in sperm functional quality, which is characterized by decreased acrosome integrity and mitochondrial activity, as well as by increased nuclear DNA fragmentation. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John

  10. Drug Clearance from Cerebrospinal Fluid Mediated by Organic Anion Transporters 1 (Slc22a6) and 3 (Slc22a8) at Arachnoid Membrane of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengyu; Tachikawa, Masanori; Uchida, Yasuo; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2018-03-05

    Although arachnoid mater epithelial cells form the blood-arachnoid barrier (BAB), acting as a blood-CSF interface, it has been generally considered that the BAB is impermeable to water-soluble substances and plays a largely passive role. Here, we aimed to clarify the function of transporters at the BAB in regulating CSF clearance of water-soluble organic anion drugs based on quantitative targeted absolute proteomics (QTAP) and in vivo analyses. Protein expression levels of 61 molecules, including 19 ATP-binding-cassette (ABC) transporters and 32 solute-carrier (SLC) transporters, were measured in plasma membrane fraction of rat leptomeninges using QTAP. Thirty-three proteins were detected; others were under the quantification limits. Expression levels of multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mdr1a/P-gp/Abcb1a) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp/Abcg2) were 16.6 and 3.27 fmol/μg protein (51.9- and 9.82-fold greater than in choroid plexus, respectively). Among those organic anion transporters detected only at leptomeninges, not choroid plexus, organic anion transporter 1 (oat1/Slc22a6) showed the greatest expression (2.73 fmol/μg protein). On the other hand, the protein expression level of oat3 at leptomeninges was 6.65 fmol/μg protein, and the difference from choroid plexus was within two-fold. To investigate oat1's role, we injected para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) with or without oat1 inhibitors into cisterna magna (to minimize the contribution of choroid plexus function) of rats. A bulk flow marker, FITC-inulin, was not taken up from CSF up to 15 min, whereas uptake clearance of PAH was 26.5 μL/min. PAH uptake was completely blocked by 3 mM cephalothin (inhibits both oat1 and oat3), while 17% of PAH uptake was inhibited by 0.2 mM cephalothin (selectively inhibits oat3). These results indicate that oat1 and oat3 at the BAB provide a distinct clearance pathway of organic anion drugs from CSF independently of choroid plexus.

  11. Comparison of the antimicrobial adhesion potential of human body fluid glycoconjugates using fucose-binding lectin (PA-IIL) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Ulex europaeus lectin (UEA-I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerrer, Batia; Lesman-Movshovich, Efrat; Gilboa-Garber, Nechama

    2005-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a fucose-binding lectin (PA-IIL) which strongly binds to human cells. This lectin was shown to be highly sensitive to inhibition by fucose-bearing human milk glycoproteins. Since the glycans of these glycoproteins mimic human cell receptors, they may function as decoys in blocking lectin-dependent pathogen adhesion to the host cells. Human saliva and seminal fluid also contain such compounds, and body fluids of individuals who are "secretors" express additional fucosylated (alpha 1,2) residues. The latter are selectively detected by Ulex europaeus lectin UEA-I. The aim of the present research was to compare the PA-IIL and UEA-I interactions with human salivas and seminal fluids of "secretors" and "nonsecretors" with those obtained with the respective milks. Using hemagglutination inhibition and Western blot analyses, we showed that PA-IIL interactions with the saliva and seminal fluid glycoproteins were somewhat weaker than those obtained with the milk and that "nonsecretor" body fluids were not less efficient than those of "secretors" in PA-IIL blocking. UEA-I, which interacted only with the "secretors" glycoproteins, was most sensitive to those of the seminal fluids.

  12. Seminational surveillance of fungemia in Denmark: Notably high rates of fungemia and numbers of isolates with reduced azole susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M.C.; Fuursted, K.; Gahrn-Hansen, B.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present the first set of comprehensive data on fungemia in Denmark including the distribution of species and range of susceptibility to major antifungal compounds based on a seminational surveillance study initiated in 2003. The catchment area of the participating hos...

  13. Steroidogenesis in the testes and seminal vesicles of spawning and non-spawning African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, W.G.E.J.; Granneman, J.C.M.; Lambert, J.G.D.; Oordt, P.G.W.J. van

    1987-01-01

    The in vitro biosynthesis of steroids was studied in testes as well as seminal vesicles of non-spawning pond and spawning feral African catfish, collected during the breeding season. In testes of non-spawners the conversion of [3H]-pregnenolone was directed towards 11-oxygenated androgens and

  14. Antisecretory activity from the flowers of Chiranthodendron pentadactylon and its flavonoids on intestinal fluid accumulation induced by Vibrio cholerae toxin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Claudia; Calzada, Fernando; Esquivel, Baldomero; Barbosa, Elizabeth; Calzada, Samuel

    2009-12-10

    The flowers of Chiranthodendron pentadactylon Larreat. (Sterculiaceae) has been traditionally used as folk medicine in Mexico for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea and dysentery. This study aimed to assess the antisecretory activity which supports the therapeutic use of Chiranthodendron pentadactylon and its flavonoids to treat diarrhea. The methanol extract of Chiranthodendron pentadactylon, subsequent fractions, and flavonoids were evaluated on cholera toxin-induced intestinal secretion in rat jejunal loops model. Three antisecretory flavonoids were isolated by bioassay-guided purification, namely, isoquercitrin 3, (+)-catechin 4 and (-)-epicatechin 5. Among them, epicatechin exhibited the most potent antisecretory activity with ID(50) of 8.3 microM/kg. Its potency was close that of to loperamide (ID(50) 6.1 microM/kg), drug used as control. Isoquercitrin (ID(50) 19.2 microM/kg) and catechin (ID(50) 51.7 microM/kg) showed moderate and weak activity, respectively. The results of the present study lend some support to the anecdotal report for the traditional use of the flowers of Chiranthodendron pentadactylon in the control of dysentery.

  15. Assay of 6-gingerol in CO2 supercritical fluid extracts of ginger and evaluation of its sustained release from a transdermal delivery system across rat skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Cuiping; Zhang, Mei; Fu, Xiaobing

    2014-07-01

    Ginger has been widely used as healthy food condiment as well as traditional Chinese medicine since antiquity. Multiple potentials of ginger for treatment of various ailments have been revealed. However, the biological half-life of 6-gingerol (a principal pungent ingredient of ginger) is only 7.23 minutes while taken orally. Delivery of ginger compositions by routes other than oral have scarcely been reported. Therefore, we studied a noninvasive transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) of ginger to bypass hepatic first pass metabolism, avoid gastrointestinal degradation and achieve long persistent release of effective compositions. After establishment of a HPLC analysis method of 6-gingerol, assays of 6-gingerol were performed to compare two kinds of ginger extracts. Then, the characteristics of transdermal delivery of 6-gingerol in TDDS were exhibited. The results showed that the contents of 6-gingerol in two kinds of ginger extracts were significantly different. The maximal delivery percentage of 6-gingerol across rat skin at 20 h was more than 40% in different TDDS formulations. TDDS may provide long-lasting delivery of ginger compounds.

  16. The sensitivity of male rat reproductive organs to monosodium glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitthichai Iamsaard

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to investigate the sensitivity of the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, and sperm acrosome reaction (AR to monosodium L- glutamate (MSG in rats. Materials and methods. Rats were divided into four groups and fed with non-acidic MSG at 0.25, 3 or 6 g/kg body weight for 30 days or without MSG. The morphological changes in the reproductive organs were studied. The plasma testosterone level, epididymal sperm concentration, and sperm AR status were assayed. Results. Compared to the control, no significant changes were discerned in the morphology and weight of the testes, or the histological structures of epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicle. In contrast, significant decreases were detected in the weight of the epididymis, testosterone levels, and sperm concentration of rats treated with 6 g/kg body weight of MSG. The weight loss was evident in the seminal vesicle in MSG-administered rats. Moreover, rats treated with MSG 3 and 6 g/kg exhibited partial testicular damage, characterized by sloughing of spermatogenic cells into the seminiferous tubular lumen, and their plasma testosterone levels were significantly decreased. In the 6 g/kg MSG group, the sperm concentration was significantly decreased compared with the control or two lower dose MSG groups. In AR assays, there was no statistically significant difference between MSG-rats and normal rats. Conclusion. Testicular morphological changes, testosterone level, and sperm concentration were sensitive to high doses of MSG while the rate of AR was not affected. Therefore, the consumption of high dose MSG must be avoided because it may cause partial infertility in male.

  17. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  18. Seminal plasma as a source of prostate cancer peptide biomarker candidates for detection of indolent and advanced disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Neuhaus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extensive prostate specific antigen screening for prostate cancer generates a high number of unnecessary biopsies and over-treatment due to insufficient differentiation between indolent and aggressive tumours. We hypothesized that seminal plasma is a robust source of novel prostate cancer (PCa biomarkers with the potential to improve primary diagnosis of and to distinguish advanced from indolent disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In an open-label case/control study 125 patients (70 PCa, 21 benign prostate hyperplasia, 25 chronic prostatitis, 9 healthy controls were enrolled in 3 centres. Biomarker panels a for PCa diagnosis (comparison of PCa patients versus benign controls and b for advanced disease (comparison of patients with post surgery Gleason score 7 were sought. Independent cohorts were used for proteomic biomarker discovery and testing the performance of the identified biomarker profiles. Seminal plasma was profiled using capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry. Pre-analytical stability and analytical precision of the proteome analysis were determined. Support vector machine learning was used for classification. Stepwise application of two biomarker signatures with 21 and 5 biomarkers provided 83% sensitivity and 67% specificity for PCa detection in a test set of samples. A panel of 11 biomarkers for advanced disease discriminated between patients with Gleason score 7 and organ-confined (Seminal profiles showed excellent pre-analytical stability. Eight biomarkers were identified as fragments of N-acetyllactosaminide beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, prostatic acid phosphatase, stabilin-2, GTPase IMAP family member 6, semenogelin-1 and -2. Restricted sample size was the major limitation of the study. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Seminal plasma represents a robust source of potential peptide makers

  19. Effect of split ejaculation and seminal extenders on longevity of donkey semen preserved at 5° C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello S.L.V.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the longevity of donkey sperm comparing the rich seminal fraction and the whole semen in two extenders, Kenney and modified Baken extenders. Semen of five donkeys were collected through an open-end artificial vagina once a week for five consecutive weeks. The two first jets (rich fraction of semen were collected separately from the rest of the ejaculate. Whole semen samples were obtained mixing proportionally part of the rich with part of the poor seminal fractions. Seminal samples were immediately diluted 1:1 in each extender and maintained at room temperature during sperm concentration analysis. Samples were further diluted to rich 50×10(6 sperm per ml, cooled in a refrigerator at the initial rate of -0.6° C/min and preserved at 5° C. Total motility (TM, progressive motility (PM and sperm vigor (V were examined after final dilution and cooling, and every 24 hours up to the decrease of total motility under 10%. Sperm morphology was evaluated using a phase contrast microscope directly after dilution, on days 3, 6 and 9 post collection. It was used a 2×2 factorial design in a randomised bloc experiment, and means were compared by Student?s t test. Longevity did not vary between the rich seminal fraction and the whole semen for both extenders used. TM, PM, V and sperm morphology were better preserved in the extender with egg yolk (modified Baken extender than in the one with skimmed milk (Kenney in both seminal fractions.

  20. Fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granger, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This text offers the most comprehensive approach available to fluid mechanics. The author takes great care to insure a physical understanding of concepts grounded in applied mathematics. The presentation of theory is followed by engineering applications, helping students develop problem-solving skills from the perspective of a professional engineer. Extensive use of detailed examples reinforces the understanding of theoretical concepts

  1. Does prostate brachytherapy treat the seminal vesicles? A dose-volume histogram analysis of seminal vesicles in patients undergoing combined PD-103 prostate implantation and external beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, Richard G.; Lo, Yeh-Chi; Gaildon, Mohamoud; Stone, Nelson N.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Combined brachytherapy of the prostate and external beam irradiation (EBRT) of the prostate and seminal vesicles (SV) is becoming a popular treatment for high-risk prostate cancer. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) analysis of the SV in patients undergoing this treatment was performed to determine the dose distribution to the SV and the adequacy of this treatment in patients with potential SV involvement. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five consecutive patients were treated with a Pd-103 implant of the prostate alone and 45 Gy of EBRT to the prostate and SV. Attempts were not made to implant the SV but seeds were routinely placed at the junction of the prostate and SV. All patients underwent CT-based post implant dosimetric analysis 1 month after implantation. As part of this analysis, DVH were generated for the prostate and total SV volume (SVT). In addition, the SV was divided into 6-mm-thick volumes identified as SV1, SV2, SV3, SV4, and SV5 starting from the junction of the prostate and SV and extending distally. DVH were also generated for these structures. Delivered dose was defined as the D90 (dose delivered to 90% of the organ on DVH). Results: The median volumes in cc of the prostate, SVT, SV1, SV2, SV3, SV4, and SV5 were 34.33, 9.75, 2.7, 3.48, 2.92, 3.18, and 1.96 respectively. The SVT contained from 0-9 seeds (median 2). There was little dose delivered to the SVT and SV volumes from the implanted prostate. The median D90 values for the prostate, SVT, SV1, SV2, SV3, SV4, and SV5 were 8615 cGy, 675 cGy, 3100 cGy, 1329 cGy, 553 cGy, 246 cGy, and 67 cGy, respectively. The dose delivered to the prostate covered small percentages of SV. The percents of SV volumes covered by the prostate D90 were 11, 35, 3.3, 0, 0, and 0 for SVT, SV1, SV2, SV3, SV4, and SV5, respectively. Conclusions: DVH analysis of the SV reveals that dose generated from an implanted prostate contributes little to the SV. Those patients at high risk for SV involvement may be under treated

  2. Blood-filled cerebrospinal fluid-enhanced pericyte microvasculature contraction in rat retina: A novel in vitro study of subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Li, Qiang; Cui, Gaoyu; Zhu, Gang; Tang, Weihua; Zhao, Hengli; Zhang, John H.; Chen, Yujie; Feng, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Previously, it was widely accepted that the delayed ischemic injury and poor clinical outcome following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was caused by cerebral vasospasm. This classical theory was challenged by a clazosentan clinical trial, which failed to improve patient outcome, despite reversing angiographic vasospasm. One possible explanation for the results of this trial is the changes in microcirculation following SAH, particularly in pericytes, which are the primary cell type controlling microcirculation in the brain parenchyma. However, as a result of technical limitations and the lack of suitable models, there was no direct evidence of microvessel dysfunction following SAH. In the present study, whole-mount retinal microvasculature has been introduced to study microcirculation in the brain following experimental SAH in vitro. Artificial blood-filled cerebrospinal fluid (BSCF) was applied to the retinal microvasculature to test the hypothesis that the presence of subarachnoid blood affects the contractile properties of the pericytes containing cerebral microcirculation during the early phase of SAH. It was observed that BCSF induced retina microvessel contraction and that this contraction could be resolved by BCSF wash-out. Furthermore, BCSF application accelerated pericyte-populated collagen gel contraction and increased the expression of α-smooth muscle actin. In addition, BCSF induced an influx of calcium in cultured retinal pericytes. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates increased contractility of retinal microvessels and pericytes in the presence of BCSF in vitro. These findings suggest that pericyte contraction and microvascular dysfunction is induced following SAH, which could lead to greater susceptibility to SAH-induced ischemia. PMID:27698742

  3. Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko

    2012-01-01

    of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, and instantaneous hardening upon external impact. An analysis of the model...

  4. Neurophysiological role of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on seminal parameters in diabetic males with and without neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Tabrez; Rakkah, Nabeeh I

    2007-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate is a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase (PDE) type-5 and represents a powerful therapy for male erectile and fertility dysfunctions of different etiologies. Present study demonstrates whether sildenafil administration modifies seminal parameters in diabetic neuropathic patients. In this investigation 50 insulin dependent (IDDM) and 50 non insulin dependent (NIDDM) diabetic male patients with and without an objective evidence of neuropathy and 50 age matched non diabetic male controls were selected. Every male had age between 20 to 65 years with duration of diabetes distributed over 1 to 20 years. Treatment with 100 mg of oral sildenafil citrate on seminal parameters was evaluated by semen analysis in these patients. In both IDDM and NIDDM diabetic neuropathic patients, chronic sildenafil treatment exhibited a significant decrease in total sperm output and sperm concentration (p<0.001). On the other hand, sperm motility and semen volume were found to be increased by about 40% and 48% respectively in these patients, where as sperm morphology and quality of sperm motility remained unaffected. However both types of non neuropathic diabetics showed a non significant difference in all the above mentioned parameters when compared with the untreated groups and their respective control subjects. A comparison between IDDM and NIDDM neuropathic and non neuropathic diabetic groups further indicated a non significant difference in all the parameters of semen analysis. These findings suggest a chronic neuro physiological effect of sildenafil treatment on male fertility profile exclusively in diabetic neuropathic condition with an improvement in testicular function which was probably arrested due to some kind of testicular hyperplasia resulted by testicular necrosis and promoted spermatogenesis. Sildenafil seems to be associated with an improvement in the entire smooth musculature of reproductive tract and testicular morphology which was altered due to

  5. Quantification of leptin in seminal plasma of buffalo bulls and its correlation with antioxidant status, conventional and computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) semen variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Saini, Monika; Kumar, Dharmendra; Jan, M H; Swami, Dheer Singh; Sharma, R K

    2016-03-01

    The present study is the first to quantify leptin in seminal plasma of buffalo and investigate its relationship with seminal attributes. Ten ejaculates each from 10 Murrah buffalo bulls were collected. Semen quality variables such as semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm abnormalities, membrane integrity, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, as well as sperm kinetics and motility variables were evaluated. The leptin concentration in serum and seminal plasma were estimated by the ELISA method. Bulls were classified in two groups on the basis of sperm concentration with Group I having >800 million sperm/mL and Group II <500 million sperm/mL. Greater (P<0.05) mean sperm abnormalities, seminal leptin concentrations and MDA concentrations were recorded in Group II than Group I. The seminal leptin was positively correlated with sperm abnormalities and MDA concentration while being negatively correlated with sperm concentration, but there was no correlation with sperm kinetic and motility variables, sperm membrane integrity and seminal plasma antioxidant enzyme activity. Thus, the data suggest that seminal leptin has a role in spermatogenesis and can be used as a marker for spermatogenesis to predict the capacity of buffalo bulls for semen production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ruban, Anatoly I

    This is the first book in a four-part series designed to give a comprehensive and coherent description of Fluid Dynamics, starting with chapters on classical theory suitable for an introductory undergraduate lecture course, and then progressing through more advanced material up to the level of modern research in the field. The present Part 1 consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of Continuum Hypothesis, which is followed by an introduction to macroscopic functions, the velocity vector, pressure, density, and enthalpy. We then analyse the forces acting inside a fluid, and deduce the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible and compressible fluids in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates. In Chapter 2 we study the properties of a number of flows that are presented by the so-called exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, including the Couette flow between two parallel plates, Hagen-Poiseuille flow through a pipe, and Karman flow above an infinite rotating disk. Chapter 3 is d...

  7. Seminal, clinical and colour-Doppler ultrasound correlations of prostatitis-like symptoms in males of infertile couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotti, F; Corona, G; Mondaini, N; Maseroli, E; Rossi, M; Filimberti, E; Noci, I; Forti, G; Maggi, M

    2014-01-01

    'Prostatitis-like symptoms' (PLS) are a cluster of bothersome conditions defined as 'perineal and/or ejaculatory pain or discomfort and National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) pain subdomain score ≥4' (Nickel's criteria). PLS may originate from the prostate or from other portions of the male genital tract. Although PLS could be associated with 'prostatitis', they should not be confused. The NIH-CPSI is considered the gold-standard for assessing PLS severity. Although previous studies investigated the impact of prostatitis, vesiculitis or epididymitis on semen parameters, correlations between their related symptoms and seminal or scrotal/transrectal colour-Doppler ultrasound (CDU) characteristics have not been carefully determined. And no previous study evaluated the CDU features of PLS in infertile men. This study was aimed at investigating possible associations among NIH-CPSI (total and subdomain) scores and PLS, with seminal, clinical and scrotal/transrectal CDU parameters in a cohort of males of infertile couples. PLS of 400 men (35.8 ± 7.2 years) with a suspected male factor were assessed by the NIH-CPSI. All patients underwent, during the same day, semen analysis, seminal plasma interleukin 8 (sIL-8, a marker of male genital tract inflammation), biochemical evaluation, urine/seminal cultures, scrotal/transrectal CDU. PLS was detected in 39 (9.8%) subjects. After adjusting for age, waist and total testosterone (TT), no association among NIH-CPSI (total or subdomain) scores or PLS and sperm parameters was observed. However, we found a positive association with current positive urine and/or seminal cultures, sIL-8 levels and CDU features suggestive of inflammation of the epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate, but not of the testis. The aforementioned significant associations of PLS were further confirmed by comparing PLS patients with age-, waist- and TT-matched PLS-free patients (1 : 3 ratio). In conclusion, NIH

  8. Relationship of serum and seminal plasma zinc levels and serum testosterone in oligospermic and azoospermic infertile men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, H.; Qasim, R.; Baig, M.; Rana, M.F.; Ali, M.; Khem, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To measure the zinc level in fertile and infertile population and to find out relationship of serum and seminal plasma zinc levels and serum testosterone in oligospermic and azoospermic infertile men. Design: Comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: The Infertility Clinic, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center (JPMC), Karachi, from January 2002-July 2003. Patients and Methods: Fifty-eight primary infertile male subjects, without any treatment, who had regular unprotected intercourse for at least 12 months without conception with their partners, aged 20-40 years, having normal and regular menstrual cycles without any uterine pathology or hormonal disturbance were selected from Infertile Clinic, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi. After semen analyses, they were grouped as, oligospermic (30), and azoospermic (28). Twenty-five known fertile male selected from general population (their spouse had given birth to a child within one year) and after semen analysis were taken as normospermic control group. Semen analyzed according to WHO criteria and serum and seminal plasma zinc was estimated by 5Br. PAPS colorimetric method. Serum testosterone, LH, and FSH were measured by ELISA, using kits supplied by Diagnostic System Laboratories (DSL), U.S.A. Results: The mean value for testosterone was significantly low in oligospermic, (8.04+0.76) and azoospermic subjects (7.14+0.27) as compared to normospermic (9.90+0.14) control groups (p<0.05, p<0.001 respectively), serum LH (p<0.05, p<0.001) respectively) and FSH (p<0.05) were significantly higher than normospermic control group. Serum and seminal plasma zinc levels was low in oligospermic, and azoospermic subjects when compared with normospermic control groups (p<0.05, p<0.001 respectively). This suggests its involvement in spermatogenesis and infertility in such patients. Seminal zinc level has weak correlation with testosterone in oligospermic (r=0.44, p<0.05) and with serum zinc in azoospermic

  9. Lectin-like receptor for alpha 1-acid glycoprotein in the epithelium of the rat prostate gland and seminal vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U O; Bøg-Hansen, T C; Kirkeby, S

    1996-01-01

    by mannose and N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine. RESULTS: In vitro the receptor was also inhibited by the steroid hormones cortisone, aldosterone, progesterone, and estradiol, but not by testosterone. A significant regional variation in the expression of AGP-lectin receptor and in the localization of AGP was seen...

  10. Inhibition of the antibody responses to rat blood transfusion antigens in mice by boar seminal immunosuppressive fraction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselský, Leopold; Jonáková, Věra; Dostál, Jaromír; Holáň, Vladimír; Voburka, Zdeněk; Drahorád, Josef; Maňásková, Pavla; Železná, Blanka

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 6 (2000), s. 325-335 ISSN 8755-8920 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/98/0827; GA ČR GV524/96/K162; GA ČR GA303/99/0357; GA MZd NC4534 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.932, year: 2000

  11. Imunoidentification of Albumin and Osteopontin in Seminal Plasma of Taurine and Zebuine Bulls/ Imunoidentificação de Albumina e Osteopontina no Plasma Seminal de Reprodutores Taurinos e Zebuínos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Costa Mattos

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed in seminal plasma of seven Bos taurus taurus and seven Bos taurus indicus bulls with high semen freezability, from an artificialinsemination center. In a 8% polyacrylamide gels, three bands of 195, 66 and 55 kDa, present in 100% of the samples in both sub-species, were analyzed by their optical densities. In Bos taurus samples, the opticals densities of 55 kDa band, imunoidentified as osteopontin were superior (pAs proteínas do plasma seminal de 14 reprodutores (7 Bos taurus taurus e 7 Bos taurus indicus, foram analisadas por eletroforese bidimensional, em géis de poliacrilamida a 8%, corados por Comassie Blue. Três bandas protéicas, presentes em 100% das amostras de plasma seminal, foram quantificadas de acordo com a densidade óptica exibida: 195 kDa, pI 6,5-7,5 ; 66 kDa, pI 5,4 e 55 kDa, pI 4,5. As amostras de plasma seminal provenientes de taurinos apresentaram densidades ópticas significativamente superiores (p < 0,05 às dos zebuínos na banda de 55 kDa, que foi imunoidentificada como osteopontina. As demais proteínas analisadas não apresentaram variações significativas entre as subespécies. A banda protéica de 66 kDa, foi imunoidentificada como albumina. Nas amostras provenientes de taurinos, as densidades ópticas das três bandas protéicas quantificadas não evidenciaram variação significativa entre os reprodutores. Entretanto, nos zebuínos, as densidades ópticas da albumina apresentaram diferenças significativas entre os touros (p < 0,05.

  12. Male Infertility: The Effect of Natural Antioxidants and Phytocompounds on Seminal Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Adewoyin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Defective sperm function has been identified as the most common cause of infertility. The objective of this study was to review recent findings on the effects of various antioxidants on male fertility. High amounts of poly unsaturated fatty acid are found in the mammalian spermatozoa membranes, thereby making them susceptible to lipid peroxidation. Although, free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS play major roles in reproduction, they are strongly associated with oxidative stress. Furthermore, factors such as obesity, inflammation, pollutants and cigarette smoking are negatively correlated with spermatogenesis. Endogenous antioxidants system exists to mediate these damages. In a normal physiological state, the seminal plasma contains antioxidant enzyme mechanism that is capable of quenching these ROS as well as protecting the spermatozoa against any likely damage. However, high level of ROS triggered by inflammatory cells and oxidation of fatty acid in obese subjects may down play antioxidant mechanism resulting in oxidative stress. Evaluation of such oxidative stress is the first step in the treatment of male infertility through administration of suitable antioxidant. Notably, antioxidant such as vitamin E and C, carotenoids and carnitine have been found beneficial in restoring a balance between ROS generation and scavenging activities. There are emerging evidences that herbal products can also boost male reproductive functions. Nonetheless, a good lifestyle, regular exercise, avoidance of stress and observing safety rules at work are habits that can reverse male infertility.

  13. Significant changes of T2 value in the peripheral zone and seminal vesicles after ejaculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Takeshi [Dokkyo Medical University, Department of Radiology, Tochigi (Japan); Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Department of Urology, Saitama (Japan); Kaji, Yasushi [Dokkyo Medical University, Department of Radiology, Tochigi (Japan); Shukuya, Toshiro; Nozaki, Miwako [Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Department of Radiology, Saitama (Japan); Soh, Shigehiro; Okada, Hiroshi [Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Department of Urology, Saitama (Japan)

    2018-03-15

    To analyse the quantitative changes of the prostate and seminal vesicles (SV) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after ejaculation. Ten healthy young males were enrolled for T2-weighted and T2 mapping MRI before and after two consecutive ejaculations. T2 values of the peripheral zone (PZ) and the central gland (CG) at the midgland of the prostate were compared before and after ejaculation, respectively. T2 values of the PZ at the apex and base were also compared before and after, respectively. Pre- and post-ejaculation SV volumes were compared. The Wilcoxon's signed rank test with Bonferroni adjustment was used for comparison. After ejaculation, T2 values of the PZ significantly decreased (mean, 119±20 vs. 105±21, p=0.002) while those of the CG did not significantly change at the midgland. At the apex, T2 values of the PZ also decreased significantly (mean, 114±9 vs. 94±7, p=0.002). On the other hand, T2 values of the PZ did not change at the base. SV volumes were significantly reduced after ejaculation (mean, 11.1±7.7mL vs. 7.2±6.7mL, p=0.002). Ejaculation decreases T2 values of the PZ at the midgland and apex, and reduces SV volumes. Abstinence periods should be considered in evaluating the prostate and SV on MRI. (orig.)

  14. Effect of seminal plasma in the conservation of semen in zootechnical species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carretero MI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Seminal plasma (PS acts as a transport medium for sperm through the reproductive tract of the female and male, regulates the osmolarity of the ejaculate through the inorganic components, is a source of energy for sperm, provides buffer protection against pH changes, protects sperm from the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species through their antioxidant enzymes and regulates the female reproductive tract's immune response. PS proteins have been associated with fertilization events such as sperm maturation, sperm capacitation, interaction with the oviduct and are even involved in the interaction with the oocyte. In many species, PS is routinely diluted or removed during the semen cryopreservation process; this can have positive and/or negative effects on sperm function and fertility. The PS has also been added after the cryopreservation process. The effects that PS has on cryopreserved spermatozoa vary between species, between individuals of the same species and between ejaculates of the same individual. Despite a notable advance in the knowledge of the functions of PS, there is still controversy about the precise role of SP in sperm function, male fertility and its effect on cryopreserved spermatozoa.

  15. Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidant in Seminal Plasma and Their Impact on Male Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Eid Hammadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Spermatozoa generate reactive oxygen species (ROS in physiological amounts, which play arole in sperm functions during sperm capacitation, acrosome reaction (AR, and oocyte fusion. Inaddition, damaged sperm are likely to be the source of ROS. The most important ROS producedby human sperm are hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals. Besides, humanseminal plasma and sperm possess an antioxidant system to scavenge ROS and prevent ROS relatedcellular damage. Under normal circumstances, there is an appropriate balance between oxidants andantioxidants. A shift in the levels of ROS towards pro-oxidants in semen can induce oxidative stress(OS on spermatozoa.Male infertility is associated with increased ROS and decreased total antioxidant activity in theseminal plasma. ROS induce nuclear DNA strand breaks. Besides, due to a high polyunsaturatedfatty acid content human sperm plasma membranes are highly sensitive to ROS induced lipidperoxidation thus decreasing membrane fluidity. This will result in increased lipid peroxidation(LPO, decreased sperm motility, viability, function and ultimately lead to infertility. The protectiveaction of antioxidants against the deleterious effect of ROS on cellular lipids, proteins and DNA hasbeen supported by several scientific studies.The purpose of the present review is to address the possible relationship between ROS andantioxidants production in seminal plasma, and the role they may play in influencing the outcomeof assisted reproductive technology (ART.

  16. Antireward, compulsivity, and addiction: seminal contributions of Dr. Athina Markou to motivational dysregulation in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koob, George F

    2017-05-01

    Addiction is defined as a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking that is hypothesized to derive from multiple sources of motivational dysregulation. Dr. Athina Markou made seminal contributions to our understanding of the neurobiology of addiction with her studies on the dysregulation of reward function using animal models with construct validity. Repeated overstimulation of the reward systems with drugs of abuse decreases reward function, characterized by brain stimulation reward and presumbably reflecting dysphoria-like states. The construct of negative reinforcement, defined as drug taking that alleviates a negative emotional state that is created by drug abstinence, is particularly relevant as a driving force in both the withdrawal/negative affect and preoccupation/anticipation stages of the addiction cycle. The negative emotional state that drives such negative reinforcement is hypothesized to derive from the dysregulation of key neurochemical circuits that drive incentive-salience/reward systems (dopamine, opioid peptides) in the ventral striatum and from the recruitment of brain stress systems (corticotropin-releasing factor, dynorphin) within the extended amygdala. As drug taking becomes compulsive-like, the factors that motivate behavior are hypothesized to shift to drug-seeking behavior that is driven not only by positive reinforcement but also by negative reinforcement. This shift in motivation is hypothesized to reflect the allostatic misregulation of hedonic tone such that drug taking makes the hedonic negative emotional state worse during the process of seeking temporary relief with compulsive drug taking.

  17. Variability in prostate and seminal vesicle delineations defined on magnetic resonance images, a multi-observer, -center and -sequence study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, Tufve; Jonsson, Joakim; Söderström, Karin

    2013-01-01

    and approximately equal for the prostate and seminal vesicles. Large differences in variability were observed for individual patients, and also for individual imaging sequences used at the different centers. There was however no indication of decreased variability with higher field strength. CONCLUSION: The overall......BACKGROUND: The use of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as a part of preparation for radiotherapy is increasing. For delineation of the prostate several publications have shown decreased delineation variability using MR compared to computed tomography (CT). The purpose of the present work....... Two physicians from each center delineated the prostate and the seminal vesicles on each of the 25 image sets. The variability between the delineations was analyzed with respect to overall, intra- and inter-physician variability, and dependence between variability and origin of the MR images, i...

  18. Fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraschivoiu, I.; Prud'homme, M.; Robillard, L.; Vasseur, P.

    2003-01-01

    This book constitutes at the same time theoretical and practical base relating to the phenomena associated with fluid mechanics. The concept of continuum is at the base of the approach developed in this work. The general advance proceeds of simple balances of forces as into hydrostatic to more complex situations or inertias, the internal stresses and the constraints of Reynolds are taken into account. This advance is not only theoretical but contains many applications in the form of solved problems, each chapter ending in a series of suggested problems. The major part of the applications relates to the incompressible flows

  19. Seminal plasma induces global transcriptomic changes associated with cell migration, proliferation and viability in endometrial epithelial cells and stromal fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Joseph C.; Johnson, Brittni A.; Erikson, David W.; Piltonen, Terhi T.; Barragan, Fatima; Chu, Simon; Kohgadai, Nargis; Irwin, Juan C.; Greene, Warner C.; Giudice, Linda C.; Roan, Nadia R.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION How does seminal plasma (SP) affect the transcriptome of human primary endometrial epithelial cells (eEC) and stromal fibroblasts (eSF)? SUMMARY ANSWER Exposure of eEC and eSF to SP in vitro increases expression of genes and secreted proteins associated with cellular migration, proliferation, viability and inhibition of cell death. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Studies in both humans and animals suggest that SP can access and induce physiological changes in the upper female reproductiv...

  20. Semen quality, lipid peroxidation, and seminal plasma antioxidant status in horses with different intensities of physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Härtlová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare markers of semen quality, sperm membrane damage, and the seminal plasma antioxidant activity in warmblood stallions with and without sport workload stress. Four stallions were used for breeding only (control and four both for breeding and competition in jumping. Semen samples were collected at 14-day intervals (from June to August from each stallion (5 ejaculates per stallion. Immediately after sperm collection, a conventional examination of the ejaculate was processed. Catalytic activities of enzymes aspartate aminotransferase, alanin aminotransferase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and indicator of lipoperoxidation - F2α isoprostanes were measured in samples of seminal plasma. Contrary to basic semen quality indicators, the values of seminal plasma pH, aspartate aminotransferase and alanin aminotransferase were significantly (P 2α isoprostanes and the activity of superoxide dismutase were significantly (P 0.05 increased by stress. The antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathion peroxidase increased during the monitored period and reflected changes in F2α isoprostane concentration. We can conclude that even the conventional basic sperm indicators stay within the reference ranges of the biochemical indicators of seminal plasma such as pH or AST/ALT activity may be negatively influenced by sport workload stress. Increased concentrations of F2α isoprostanes indicate that lipoperoxidation can be a mechanism of cell membrane destabilization, which is counteracted by an increase of antioxidant enzyme activities. This is the first report of oxidative stress symptoms in normospermic equine semen in relation to stallion sport workload.

  1. The effects of 16 weeks of intensive cycling training on seminal oxidants and antioxidants in male road cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Behzad Hajizadeh; Tartibian, Bakhtyar; Vaamonde, Diana

    2014-07-01

    To examine the effects of 16 weeks of intensive cycling training on seminal reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in male road cyclists. Repeated measures design. The Exercise Physiology Laboratory of the Urmia University. Twenty-four healthy nonprofessional male road cyclists (aged 17-26 years) participated in this study. All subjects participated in 16 weeks of intensive cycling training. The semen samples were collected, respectively, at baseline (T1), immediately (T2), 12 (T3), and 24 (T4) hours after the last training session in week 8; immediately (T5), 12 (T6), and 24 (T7) hours after the last training session in week 16; and 7 (T8) and 30 (T9) days after the last training session in week 16. Total antioxidant capacity and SOD were measured by colorimetric assay. The levels of ROS were measured by a chemiluminescence assay. Malondialdehyde levels were measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay. Catalase was measured by monitoring the initial rate of disappearance of hydrogen peroxide (initial concentration 10 mM) at 240 nm. The levels of seminal ROS and MDA increased (P < 0.008) and remained high after 30 days of recovery. The levels of seminal SOD, catalase, and TAC decreased (P < 0.008) and remained low after 30 days of recovery (P < 0.008). Sixteen weeks of intensive cycling training may have deleterious consequences for spermatozoa and hence may affect sperm healthy parameters in male cyclists.

  2. Seasonal variations of melatonin in ram seminal plasma are correlated to those of testosterone and antioxidant enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muiño-Blanco Teresa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some breeds of sheep are highly seasonal in terms of reproductive capability, and these changes are regulated by photoperiod and melatonin secretion. These changes affect the reproductive performance of rams, impairing semen quality and modifying hormonal profiles. Also, the antioxidant defence systems seem to be modulated by melatonin secretion, and shows seasonal variations. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma and their variations between the breeding and non-breeding seasons. In addition, we analyzed the possible correlations between these hormones and the antioxidant enzyme defence system activity. Methods Seminal plasma from nine Rasa Aragonesa rams were collected for one year, and their levels of melatonin, testosterone, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione reductase (GRD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and catalase (CAT were measured. Results All samples presented measurable quantities of hormones and antioxidant enzymes. Both hormones showed monthly variations, with a decrease after the winter solstice and a rise after the summer solstice that reached the maximum levels in October-November, and a marked seasonal variation (P Conclusions These results show the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma, and that both hormones have seasonal variations, and support the idea that seasonal variations of fertility in the ram involve interplay between melatonin and the antioxidant defence system.

  3. Principles of fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreider, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book is an introduction on fluid mechanics incorporating computer applications. Topics covered are as follows: brief history; what is a fluid; two classes of fluids: liquids and gases; the continuum model of a fluid; methods of analyzing fluid flows; important characteristics of fluids; fundamentals and equations of motion; fluid statics; dimensional analysis and the similarity principle; laminar internal flows; ideal flow; external laminar and channel flows; turbulent flow; compressible flow; fluid flow measurements

  4. Disappearing fluid?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graney, K.; Chu, J.; Lin, P.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A 78-year old male in end stage renal failure (ESRF) with a background of NIDDM retinopathy, nephropathy, and undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) presented with anorexia, clinically unwell, decreased mobility and right scrotal swelling. There was no difficulty during CAPD exchange except there was a positive fluid balance Peritoneal dialysates remained clear A CAPD peritoneal study was requested. 100Mbq 99mTc Sulphur Colloid was injected into a standard dialysate bag containing dialysate. Anterior dynamic images were acquired over the abdomen pelvis while the dialysate was infused Static images with anatomical markers were performed 20 mins post infusion, before and after patient ambulation and then after drainage. The study demonstrated communication between the peritoneal cavity and the right scrotal sac. Patient underwent right inguinal herniaplasty with a marlex mesh. A repeat CAPD flow study was performed as follow up and no abnormal connection between the peritoneal cavity and the right scrotal sac was demonstrated post operatively. This case study shows that CAPD flow studies can be undertaken as a simple, minimally invasive method to evaluate abnormal peritoneal fluid flow dynamics in patients undergoing CAPD, and have an impact on dialysis management. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  5. Auxillary Fluid Flowmeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    RezaNejad Gatabi, Javad; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Ebrahimi Darkhaneh, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    The Auxiliary Fluid Flow meter is proposed to measure the fluid flow of any kind in both pipes and open channels. In this kind of flow measurement, the flow of an auxiliary fluid is measured Instead of direct measurement of the main fluid flow. The auxiliary fluid is injected into the main fluid ...

  6. β-Microseminoprotein endows post coital seminal plasma with potent candidacidal activity by a calcium- and pH-dependent mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edström Hägerwall, Anneli; Rydengård, Victoria; Fernlund, Per

    2012-01-01

    is very rare. This prompted us to investigate whether the post coital vaginal milieu contained factors active against C. albicans. By CFU assays, we found prominent candidacidal activity of post coital seminal plasma at both neutral and the acid vaginal pH. In contrast, normal seminal plasma did...... not display candidacidal activity prior to acidification. By antifungal gel overlay assay, one clearing zone corresponding to a protein band was found in both post coital and normal seminal plasma, which was subsequently identified as β-microseminoprotein. At neutral pH, the fungicidal activity of β......-microseminoprotein and seminal plasma was inhibited by calcium. By NMR spectroscopy, amino acid residue E(71) was shown to be critical for the calcium coordination. The acidic vaginal milieu unleashed the fungicidal activity by decreasing the inhibitory effect of calcium. The candidacidal activity of β...

  7. Mineral profiling of ostrich (Struthio camelus) seminal plasma and its relationship with semen traits and collection day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A M J; Bonato, M; Dzama, K; Malecki, I A; Cloete, S W P

    2018-06-01

    Successful assisted reproduction techniques, with specific focus on in vitro semen storage for artificial insemination, are dependent on certain key elements which includes the biochemical profiling of semen. The objective of this study was to complete an ostrich seminal plasma (SP) evaluation by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) among seven males at different daily intervals (day 1, 3, 7, 11, 15, 19, 21, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28) for a period of 28 days during spring (August to September) for mineral profiling. The effect of collection day and male on sperm concentration, semen volume and seminal plasma volume, was explored as well as the relationships amongst these specific sperm traits and SP minerals. Variation amongst SP mineral concentrations, accounted for by the fixed effects of sperm concentration, semen volume, seminal plasma volume, collection day and male, ranged from 18% to 77%. Male had the largest effect on variation in SP minerals, namely: phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), boron (B), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), barium (Ba), arsenic (As) and selenium (Se). Sperm concentration instigated fluctuations of P, magnesium (Mg), B, zinc (Zn), Fe, aluminium (Al), Se, manganese (Mn) and lead (Pb). Semen volume had an effect on Na, K, B, Pb and Ba while seminal plasma volume only influenced variation in Na. There were fluctuations among collection days of specific micro minerals, Ni and Mo, with initial Ni concentrations being relatively greater and Mo at lesser concentrations. Semen volume, seminal plasma volume and sperm concentration varied amongst males. Sperm concentrations during the initial collection days, 1 and 3, were less than that for days 7 to 28. Significant variation of SP minerals and sperm characteristics among ejaculates and males suggest an association of these specific elements with sperm function and are, therefore, considered to be of potential importance to

  8. Three-dimensional computed tomography-guided monotherapeutic pararectal brachytherapy of prostate cancer with seminal vesicle invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutrouvelis, Panos; Lailas, Niko; Hendricks, Fred; Gil-Montero, Guillermo; Sehn, James; Katz, Stuart

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To treat patients with prostate cancer and seminal vesicle invasion with monotherapeutic three dimensional computed tomography (3-DCT)-guided posterior pararectal brachytherapy. Methods and materials: Three hundred and sixty two patients with clinical stage T1 a,b or T2 a,b of prostate cancer were referred for 3-DCT-guided brachytherapy. Each underwent further staging with 3-D CT-guided pararectal biopsy of the seminal vesicles under local anesthesia during the pre-treatment CT-planning. Forty-three patients (12%) were upstaged to T3 cNoMo disease. In the set of 43 patients, Eight had Gleason's score≤6, 24 Gleason's score=7, and 11 patients ≥8. Initial PSA was 20 in 18 patients. Of the 43 patients, 37 patients were treated monotherapeutically with 3-D CT-guided brachytherapy. No patients received hormone therapy after the implant. The prescribed dosage to the seminal vesicles and prostate is 120 Gy with Pd-103 seeds and 144 Gy with 1-125 seeds. Results: The prescribed dosage was achieved in all 37 patient's throughout the seminal vesicles whose range of target radiation extended 5-10 mm outside the target in the adjacent fat as calculated with post-implant CT-dosimetry with Varian Brachy Vision or MMS software. Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) outcome data were available in 34 patients treated with monotherapy and follow up ranged from 12-56 months (median, 24 months). Decreased PSA levels were stratified into six groups based on the presenting Gleason's score and initial PSA. In the first group (with Gleason's score≤6 and initial PSA 20 ng/ml), PSA decreased to less than 0.5 ng/ml in four out of eight patients (50%). All of the patients in the fourth group (with Gleason's score≥8 and initial PSA 20 ng/ml). There were no patients with Gleason's score of 1-6 and greater than 20 ng/ml initial PSA. Patients, irrespective of the Gleason's score and PSA, had an overall response of decreased PSA (less than 1 ng/ml) of 79%. Conclusion: 3-D CT

  9. Role of seminal plasma in the anti-HIV-1 activity of candidate microbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yun-Yao

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluation of microbicides for prevention of HIV-1 infection in macaque models for vaginal infection has indicated that the concentrations of active compounds needed for protection by far exceed levels sufficient for complete inhibition of infection in vitro. These experiments were done in the absence of seminal plasma (SP, a vehicle for sexual transmission of the virus. To gain insight into the possible effect of SP on the performance of selected microbicides, their anti-HIV-1 activity in the presence, and absence of SP, was determined. Methods The inhibitory activity of compounds against the X4 virus, HIV-1 IIIB, and the R5 virus, HIV-1 BaL was determined using TZM-bl indicator cells and quantitated by measuring β-galactosidase induced by infection. The virucidal properties of cellulose acetate 1,2-benzene-dicarboxylate (CAP, the only microbicide provided in water insoluble, micronized form, in the presence of SP was measured. Results The HIV-1 inhibitory activity of the polymeric microbicides, poly(naphthalene sulfonate, cellulose sulfate, carrageenan, CAP (in soluble form and polystyrene sulfonate, respectively, was considerably (range ≈ 4 to ≈ 73-fold diminished in the presence of SP (33.3%. Formulations of micronized CAP, providing an acidic buffering system even in the presence of an SP volume excess, effectively inactivated HIV-1 infectivity. Conclusion The data presented here suggest that the in vivo efficacy of polymeric microbicides, acting as HIV-1 entry inhibitors, might become at least partly compromised by the inevitable presence of SP. These possible disadvantages could be overcome by combining the respective polymers with acidic pH buffering systems (built-in for formulations of micronized CAP or with other anti-HIV-1 compounds, the activity of which is not affected by SP, e.g. reverse transcriptase and zinc finger inhibitors.

  10. Ultrasound characterization of the seminal vesicles in infertile patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Vignera, Sandro; Vicari, Enzo; Condorelli, Rosita; D'Agata, Rosario; Calogero, Aldo E.

    2011-01-01

    Male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) may experience infertility because the disease affects negatively many aspects of reproduction, including seminal vesicle (SV) function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ultrasound characteristics of the SVs of infertile patients with DM because no such data are available in these patients. To accomplish this, 25 infertile patients with type 2 DM and no other known causes of sperm parameter abnormalities were selected. Two different control groups were also enrolled: healthy men with idiopathic infertility (n = 25) and infertile patients with male accessory gland infections (MAGI) (n = 25), a well-studied clinical model of SV inflammation. Patients and controls underwent prostate-vesicular transrectal ultrasonography after 1 day of sexual abstinence before and 1 h after ejaculation. The following SV ultrasound parameters were recorded: (1) body antero-posterior diameter (ADP); (2) fundus APD; (3) parietal thickness of the right and left SVs; (4) number of polycyclic areas within both SVs; (5) fundus/body ratio; (6) difference of the parietal thickness between the right and the left SV; and (7) pre- and post-ejaculatory APD difference. Patients with DM had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher F/B ratio compared to controls and patients with MAGI. Only patients with MAGI had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher number of polycyclic areas. Controls and MAGI patients have a similar pre- and post-ejaculatory difference of the body SV APD, whereas this difference was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in patients with DM. In conclusion, this study showed that infertile patients with DM have peculiar SV ultrasound features suggestive of functional atony.

  11. Ultrasound characterization of the seminal vesicles in infertile patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Vignera, Sandro; Vicari, Enzo; Condorelli, Rosita; D' Agata, Rosario [Section of Endocrinology, Andrology and Internal Medicine and Master in Andrological, Human Reproduction and Biotechnology Sciences, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Calogero, Aldo E., E-mail: acaloger@unict.it [Section of Endocrinology, Andrology and Internal Medicine and Master in Andrological, Human Reproduction and Biotechnology Sciences, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2011-11-15

    Male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) may experience infertility because the disease affects negatively many aspects of reproduction, including seminal vesicle (SV) function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ultrasound characteristics of the SVs of infertile patients with DM because no such data are available in these patients. To accomplish this, 25 infertile patients with type 2 DM and no other known causes of sperm parameter abnormalities were selected. Two different control groups were also enrolled: healthy men with idiopathic infertility (n = 25) and infertile patients with male accessory gland infections (MAGI) (n = 25), a well-studied clinical model of SV inflammation. Patients and controls underwent prostate-vesicular transrectal ultrasonography after 1 day of sexual abstinence before and 1 h after ejaculation. The following SV ultrasound parameters were recorded: (1) body antero-posterior diameter (ADP); (2) fundus APD; (3) parietal thickness of the right and left SVs; (4) number of polycyclic areas within both SVs; (5) fundus/body ratio; (6) difference of the parietal thickness between the right and the left SV; and (7) pre- and post-ejaculatory APD difference. Patients with DM had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher F/B ratio compared to controls and patients with MAGI. Only patients with MAGI had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher number of polycyclic areas. Controls and MAGI patients have a similar pre- and post-ejaculatory difference of the body SV APD, whereas this difference was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in patients with DM. In conclusion, this study showed that infertile patients with DM have peculiar SV ultrasound features suggestive of functional atony.

  12. Seminal vesicle sparing laparoscopic radical prostatectomy using a low-energy source: Better continence and potency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrenik J Shah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Ongoing with the newer developments in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP, we report our experience in a consecutive series of 42 patients with a mean 18-month follow-up. We also studied the use of a low-energy source, especially in the region of the prostatic apex and the neurovascular bundle and evaluated its outcome on continence and potency. Materials and Methods: Between November 2003 and December 2008, 50 patients aged 50-80 yrs underwent LRP with vesicourethral anastomosis and of these, 42 patients who had a minimum follow-up of 3 months were selected for the study. Of these, the initial 16 patients were operated by the routine method and the 26 patients operated in the later part of our experience were operated upon using a minimal energy source. Results: The mean follow-up was 18 months (range 3-60. Continence was evaluated at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Eleven of the 16 patients in Group I were continent as compared with 21 of 26 patients in Group II. The difference in continence rates was mainly due to less use of electrocautery and harmonic scalpel at the bladder neck. Of the eight patients who were potent pre-operatively in Group I, four remained potent 3 months after LRP. In Group II, 20 of the 26 patients were potent pre-operatively and 16 remained potent 3 months after LRP. Conclusions: Use of a low-energy source at the bladder neck and neurovascular bundle, sparing of seminal vesicle, and leaving behind a long, healthy stump of the urethra during apical dissection, is associated with better continence and potency without compromising oncological outcome.

  13. Prostate cancer involving bilateral seminal vesicles along with bone and testicular metastases: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qingqiang; Chen, Jianhuai; Dai, Yutian

    2018-03-09

    In the past 20 years, the incidence of prostate cancer has risen rapidly. It has been ranked as the third most common malignant tumor of the male genitourinary system. Testicular metastasis is uncommon in prostate cancer. Most cases are incidentally found in the treatment of prostate cancer with orchiectomy. Therefore, we believed it was necessary to report the case of our patient with this disease. We present a case of a 69-year-old Han Chinese man with a high total prostate-specific antigen level. A transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy was performed. A pathology report showed prostate cancer tissue with a Gleason score of 4 + 4 = 8/10. Imaging findings suggested that the prostate cancer tissue involved bilateral seminal vesicles and multiple bones. Next, radioactive seed implantation was carried out, and endocrine therapy was continued after the operation. Then enlargement of the left scrotum was found along with a total prostate-specific antigen level of 19.21 ng/ml. Computed tomography of the middle abdomen and pelvic cavity revealed 2.0 × 1.3-cm lesions of the left testis. The patient underwent a left testicular high resection and right orchiectomy. The postoperative pathology report showed metastatic prostate cancer cells in the left testis. Testicular metastasis of prostate cancer is rare. Therefore, a testicular physical examination is necessary for patients without relapse to avoid a missed diagnosis. Testicular metastasis should be treated according to the principle of treatment for advanced prostate adenocarcinoma if testicular metastasis of prostate adenocarcinoma is detected.

  14. Transcriptomic and anatomical complexity of primary, seminal, and crown roots highlight root type-specific functional diversity in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Huanhuan; Lu, Xin; Opitz, Nina; Marcon, Caroline; Paschold, Anja; Lithio, Andrew; Nettleton, Dan; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Maize develops a complex root system composed of embryonic and post-embryonic roots. Spatio-temporal differences in the formation of these root types imply specific functions during maize development. A comparative transcriptomic study of embryonic primary and seminal, and post-embryonic crown roots of the maize inbred line B73 by RNA sequencing along with anatomical studies were conducted early in development. Seminal roots displayed unique anatomical features, whereas the organization of primary and crown roots was similar. For instance, seminal roots displayed fewer cortical cell files and their stele contained more meta-xylem vessels. Global expression profiling revealed diverse patterns of gene activity across all root types and highlighted the unique transcriptome of seminal roots. While functions in cell remodeling and cell wall formation were prominent in primary and crown roots, stress-related genes and transcriptional regulators were over-represented in seminal roots, suggesting functional specialization of the different root types. Dynamic expression of lignin biosynthesis genes and histochemical staining suggested diversification of cell wall lignification among the three root types. Our findings highlight a cost-efficient anatomical structure and a unique expression profile of seminal roots of the maize inbred line B73 different from primary and crown roots. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  15. Gyroelastic fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerbel, G.D.

    1981-01-20

    A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch.

  16. Gyroelastic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerbel, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch

  17. Dynamic analysis of sexual organ weight and serum levels of glucose, glycosyl protein, testosterone in male rats with short-term diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Donghui; Wang Zhongshan; Zhao Hui; Xu Zongge

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of short-term diabetes on the changes of sexual organ weights and serum levels of testosterone in male rats. Methods: All rats were divided into control (C) and diabetes (D). Diabetes group was observed on 1 day, 3 days, 5 days, 7 days, 14 days after injection of streptozotocin. All rats were killed for measurement of serum levels of glucose, glycosyl protein, testosterone and weights of sexual organs (testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate). Results: The serum levels of glucose, glycosyl protein of diabetes group decreased significantly, compared with those of control group; the serum levels of T lowered remarkably compared with control levels after three days of injection of STZ. The weight of epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate reduced remarkably, compared with control group. The weights of seminal vesicle, prostate negatively correlated with serum levels of glucose and glycosyl protein, and they positively correlated with serum levels of testosterone. Conclusion: The sexual organs (testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate) of male rats with short-term diabetes were damaged, and the changes of sexual organs closely related with the serum levels of testosterone besides irregular metabolism in diabetes

  18. Structural changes and effect of denopamine on alveolar fluid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... alveolar fluid clearance in hypoxic rat lungs. Nai-jing Li1, Wei Li2, ... for absorption of excess alveolar fluid (Sartori et al.,. 2001 ... free access to food and water. ..... Dopamine increases lung liquid clearance during mechanical.

  19. Do rats have orgasms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaus, James G.; Scardochio, Tina; Parada, Mayte; Gerson, Christine; Quintana, Gonzalo R.; Coria-Avila, Genaro A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although humans experience orgasms with a degree of statistical regularity, they remain among the most enigmatic of sexual responses; difficult to define and even more difficult to study empirically. The question of whether animals experience orgasms is hampered by similar lack of definition and the additional necessity of making inferences from behavioral responses. Method Here we define three behavioral criteria, based on dimensions of the subjective experience of human orgasms described by Mah and Binik, to infer orgasm-like responses (OLRs) in other species: 1) physiological criteria that include pelvic floor and anal muscle contractions that stimulate seminal emission and/or ejaculation in the male, or that stimulate uterine and cervical contractions in the female; 2) short-term behavioral changes that reflect immediate awareness of a pleasurable hedonic reward state during copulation; and 3) long-term behavioral changes that depend on the reward state induced by the OLR, including sexual satiety, the strengthening of patterns of sexual arousal and desire in subsequent copulations, and the generation of conditioned place and partner preferences for contextual and partner-related cues associated with the reward state. We then examine whether physiological and behavioral data from observations of male and female rats during copulation, and in sexually-conditioned place- and partner-preference paradigms, are consistent with these criteria. Results Both male and female rats display behavioral patterns consistent with OLRs. Conclusions The ability to infer OLRs in rats offers new possibilities to study the phenomenon in neurobiological and molecular detail, and to provide both comparative and translational perspectives that would be useful for both basic and clinical research. PMID:27799081

  20. Do rats have orgasms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Pfaus

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although humans experience orgasms with a degree of statistical regularity, they remain among the most enigmatic of sexual responses; difficult to define and even more difficult to study empirically. The question of whether animals experience orgasms is hampered by similar lack of definition and the additional necessity of making inferences from behavioral responses. Method: Here we define three behavioral criteria, based on dimensions of the subjective experience of human orgasms described by Mah and Binik, to infer orgasm-like responses (OLRs in other species: 1 physiological criteria that include pelvic floor and anal muscle contractions that stimulate seminal emission and/or ejaculation in the male, or that stimulate uterine and cervical contractions in the female; 2 short-term behavioral changes that reflect immediate awareness of a pleasurable hedonic reward state during copulation; and 3 long-term behavioral changes that depend on the reward state induced by the OLR, including sexual satiety, the strengthening of patterns of sexual arousal and desire in subsequent copulations, and the generation of conditioned place and partner preferences for contextual and partner-related cues associated with the reward state. We then examine whether physiological and behavioral data from observations of male and female rats during copulation, and in sexually-conditioned place- and partner-preference paradigms, are consistent with these criteria. Results: Both male and female rats display behavioral patterns consistent with OLRs. Conclusions: The ability to infer OLRs in rats offers new possibilities to study the phenomenon in neurobiological and molecular detail, and to provide both comparative and translational perspectives that would be useful for both basic and clinical research.

  1. Effect of Three Days Storage of Coated Spermatozoa at Cooling and Adding Seminal Plasma on Ram Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Vaferi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Artificial insemination (AI has only been used as a supplement to natural mating. AI, when used in conjunction with accurate progeny testing schemes, can substantially increase the rate of genetic progress compared with that of natural service. Moreover, the use of AI causes the limitation of the transmitted diseases. Cervical insemination with frozen-thawed ram semen has not been widely adopted, probably because of the relative poor fertility obtained. Thus using fresh and diluted semen is only approach for performing AI. AI is currently limited by the poor fertility achieved after cervical insemination with the storage of liquid semen at sub-ambient temperature. The success of this procedure in sheep is restricted by the short length of time that ram sperm can be stored in a liquid state. Moreover, the effect of cooling on sperm differs depending on species. It is also well known that ram spermatozoa are more sensitive to cold-shock stress than those of other species. Seminal plasma, as physiological secretion, is a complex mixture of secretions originating from testis, epididymis and accessory sex glands which is mixed with epididymal sperm at ejaculation; it serves as the carrier of sperm to the female genital tract. This mixture contains numerous factors such as organic and nonorganic material which play an important role in the final maturation of the spermatozoa through hormonal, enzymatic and surface-modifying events. During natural mating, a mechanism may be activated to separate spermatozoa from seminal plasma. After being ejaculated into the vagina, sperm swim through cervical mucus and enter the uterus within minutes (>30 min; cervical mucus acts as a barrier for seminal plasma. In the artificial insemination industry, seminal plasma with all the useful and harmful components is not removed from semen and is in contact with sperm throughout cooling, freezing and storage. On the other hand, it was demonstrated that the

  2. Germinação e desenvolvimento pós-seminal de Tibouchina moricandiana (DC Baill. (Melastomataceae Germination and post-seminal development of Tibouchina moricandiana (DC Baill. (Melastomataceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Silva de Andrade

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito de diferentes temperaturas (20,25, 30, 35 e 30-20ºC sob condição de luz (fotoperíodo de oito horas e escuro sobre a germinação de sementes de Tibouchina moricandiana (DC Baill. Posteriormente, estudou-se a morfologia do desenvolvimento pós-seminal, visando o conhecimento das estruturas essenciais da plântula. Os resultados demonstraram que a temperatura ótima para a germinação de sementes foi de 30ºC; as temperaturas de 20 e 35ºC causaram o decréscimo da porcentagem e da velocidade de germinação. As sementes são tipicamente fotoblásticas positivas, necessitando de vários dias de exposição a luz para alcançar a máxima germinação. O estudo do desenvolvimento pós-seminal permitiu classificar a plântula como faneroepígea, típica de espécies colonizadoras de grandes clareiras.The germination responses of Tibouchina moricandiana (DC Baill. were tested under different temperature (20, 25, 30, 35 and 30-20ºC and light regime (8 hours photoperiod or darkness. A morphological study of the post-seminal development was carried out to establish descriptions of normal and abnormal seedlings. The optimun temperature for seed germination was 30ºC; 20 and 35ºC caused a decrease of percentage and speed of germination; they did not germinate in the dark and required consecutive days of light exposure to achieve maximun percentage. The seedlings to the phaneroepigeal type, which is characteristic from pionner species of large gaps.

  3. Impact of oral Lactobacillus acidophilus gavage on rooster seminal and cloacal Lactobacilli concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiess, A S; Hirai, J H; Triplett, M D; Parker, H M; McDaniel, C D

    2016-08-01

    The use of antibiotics in poultry is being heavily scrutinized, therefore alternatives such as probiotics are being investigated. Lactobacilli spp. are a commonly used bacteria in formulating probiotics, and the addition of Lactobacilli to broiler diets has demonstrated increased growth rates, stimulated immune systems, and reduced pathogen loads in the gastro-intestinal tract ( GI: ) tract. However, previous research has shown that when rooster semen is directly exposed to Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) sperm quality is reduced. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to determine if oral administration of L. acidophilus increases the concentration of Lactobacilli in semen as well as the cloaca. A total of 30 roosters were used: 15 roosters were gavaged with 1X PBS (Control) and 15 roosters were gavaged with 10(7) cfu/mL of L. acidophilus (Treated). All roosters were gavaged for 14 consecutive days. Semen was collected on a 3 d interval, and cloacal swabs were collected on a 2 d interval, beginning on the first day prior to oral administration. Semen and cloacal swabs were serial diluted, and 100 μL of each dilution was then plated on Man, Rogosa, Sharpe ( MRS: ) agar plates. All plates were incubated for 48 h at 37°C under anaerobic conditions and counted. All Lactobacilli counts were first log transformed, then log transformed (day 0) pre-counts were subtracted from the log transformed day counts providing log differences for the analysis. Seminal Lactobacilli counts were not altered by treatments. However, the main effect of treatment (P = 0.026) for cloacal counts indicated that roosters gavaged with Lactobacilli yielded higher counts than the controls. Additionally, cloaca samples also demonstrated a treatment by day interaction trend (P = 0.082), where Lactobacilli was higher in the L. acidophilus gavaged roosters than the controls only on days 3, 5, 13, and 15. In conclusion, the addition of L. acidophilus to the male breeder diet

  4. Correlation of pretherapy prostate cancer characteristics with seminal vesicle invasion in radical prostatectomy specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisansky, Thomas M.; Blute, Michael L.; Suman, Vera J.; Bostwick, David G.; Earle, John D.; Zincke, Horst

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to identify pretherapy factors associated with seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) in patients with localized carcinoma of the prostate (CaP), and to develop a model that would allow estimation of the likelihood for SVI at the time of initial diagnosis. Methods and Materials: Between January 1988 and December 1993, 2959 patients underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy, with or without pelvic lymph node dissection, as initial therapy for clinical Stage T1a-3bN0-XM0 CaP. Preoperative patient and tumor-related characteristics were evaluated for an association with SVI in univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. A model was developed and probability plots were constructed to display the estimated likelihood for SVI in the patient with a new diagnosis of localized CaP. Results: Within clinical tumor stage, three groups (T1a-2a, T2b-c, and T3a-b) were observed to have a distinctly different rate of SVI. Gleason primary grades were combined (1-2, 3, and 4-5) because of a similar observation. Univariate analysis identified clinical tumor stage (p < 0.0001), Gleason primary grade (p < 0.0001), and serum prostate-specific antigen level (p < 0.0001) as factors associated with the likelihood for SVI. Multivariate analysis confirmed the independent significance (p = 0.0001) of each of these factors. Patient age (p = 0.16) and history of prior transurethral resection of the prostate (p = 0.82) were not associated with this end point. Probability plots were constructed to display the likelihood of SVI as a function of pretherapy clinical tumor stage, Gleason primary grade, and serum prostate-specific antigen value. Conclusion: In the patient with a new diagnosis of localized CaP, clinical tumor stage as determined by digital rectal examination, diagnostic biopsy tumor (Gleason primary) grade, and pretherapy serum prostate-specific antigen value were significant factors for development of a model that estimated the likelihood of SVI

  5. Correlation of Serum Lipid P rofile with Histological and Seminal Parameters of Testis in The Goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Louei Monfared

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Materials and Methods: In this analytic, cross-sectional study, we chose a total often mature Iranian male goats that comprised a homogenous group through simplerandom sampling. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein; the sera wereseparated and subsequently used for measurement of serum lipids, lipoproteins andtestosterone levels. In addition, we collected semen from the animals and evaluatedthe seminal characteristics. We also performed histological and anatomical assessmentsof the testes.Results: The findings demonstrated that serum levels of high density lipoprotein(HDL-c had a significant positive correlation with interstitial testicular tissue area(r=0.73; p<0.001, seminiferous tubule area (r=0.61; p<0.01, the number of Leydigcells (r=0.53; p<0.05, the diameter of the Leydig cell nuclei (r=0.54; p<0.05,scrotal circumference (r=0.83; p<0.001, testis weight (r=0.72; p<0.001, the numberof live, normal sperm (r=0.94 ; p<0.001 and serum testosterone levels (r=0.88;p<0.001. Significant but negative correlations were found between serum triglycerideconcentration and seminiferous tubule area (r=-0.53; p<0.05, the diameterof the Leydig cell nuclei (r=-0.55; p<0.05, testis weight (r =-0.64; p<0.01, totalsperm number (r=-0.82; p<0.001, number of live, normal sperm (r=-0.55; p<0.05and serum testosterone levels (r=-0.79; p<0.001. In addition, a significant negativecorrelation was observed between serum very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-cconcentration and the percent of live sperm (r=-0.67; p<0.01, and serum testosteronelevels (r=-0.65; p<0.01.Conclusion: The present results indicated that among serum lipids only the levelsof HDL-c positively correlated with testicular parameters. High serum triglyceridelevels exerted direct adverse effects at the testicular level, which was mainly observedin the seminiferous tubules (STs, characterization of Leydig cells and semenquality.

  6. ESCOLA DIFERENCIADA GUARANI: ENTRE O VIVER SEMINAL E O VIVER OCIDENTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Maria de Oliveira Viçosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A construção das escolas diferenciadas da tradição Guarani tem representado um desafio para suas aldeias no interior do Rio Grande do Sul, bem como para as escolas rurais que acompanham esse processo e as universidades envolvidas. Partindo da observação e convivência com duas aldeias indígenas, a de Estrela Velha e a de Salto do Jacuí (investigando infâncias e educação Guarani, encontramos três escolas: a Escola Estadual Indígena de Ensino Fundamental Guarani, em Salto do Jacuí; a Escola Estadual Indígena de Ensino Fundamental Karaí Tata Endy Vera Claudio Acosta, em Estrela Velha, e profissionais da Escola Itaúba, situada no município de Estrela Velha, na qual possuem 6 estudantes indígenas. As duas primeiras estão sendo construídas nas aldeias e trabalham até o quinto ano do Ensino Fundamental. Enquanto são construídas, as crianças saem para escolas não indígenas. Em ambas as escolas diferenciadas, existem professores indígenas e não indígenas que ensinam principalmente língua Guarani, Português e Matemática, situadas no interior do Rio Grande do Sul. Nesse processo, nas duas aldeias, estão implicados lideranças indígenas, crianças e jovens das aldeias, professores Guarani e não indígenas, diretores da rede Estadual de Educação, Karai1 e KunhãKarai, estudantes e pesquisadores do Mestrado em Educação da Universidade de Santa Cruz – UNISC/RS2 , que juntos desenvolvem uma pesquisa-ação e etnográfica que vem acontecendo desde o início de 2013 de modo compartilhado e negociado através do diálogo e da escuta do que pensamos e queremos como escola diferenciada em cada aldeia Guarani. Apresentaremos as observações e diálogos que emergem do pesquisar conjuntamente e que produziram reflexões teóricas acerca do pensar, do viver seminal e ocidental.

  7. Correlation of Seminal Plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity and Malondialdehyde Levels With Sperm Parameters in Men With Idiopathic Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazeli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Oxidative stress is the result of an imbalance between the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Recently, oxidative stress has been introduced as a major cause of male infertility. Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine the correlation between total antioxidant capacity (TAC and malondialdehyde (MDA as markers of oxidative stress in relation to idiopathic male infertility and sperm parameters. Patients and Methods This case control study was conducted using 35 men with idiopathic infertility and 34 men with proven fertility. Seminal plasma TAC and MDA were measured by ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP and thiobarbituric acid (TBA reaction methods, respectively. Results Seminal TAC levels were significantly lower and seminal MDA levels were significantly higher in men with idiopathic infertility than in fertile men (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.004, respectively. A positive correlation was shown between sperm motility, sperm morphology, and TAC levels in men with idiopathic infertility (P = 0.002 and P = 0.002, respectively. In addition, there was a correlation between sperm motility and TAC levels in fertile men (P = 0.005. There was no correlation between sperm count and TAC levels in either men with idiopathic infertility or in fertile men. Negative correlations were observed between MDA levels and sperm motility, morphology, and sperm count only in men with idiopathic infertility (P = 0.003, P = 0.001, and P = 0.006, respectively. Conclusions Our results show that oxidative stress could play an important role in male infertility as well as in sperm motility and sperm morphology.

  8. Semiclassical gravitoelectromagnetic inflation in a Lorentz gauge: Seminal inflaton fluctuations and electromagnetic fields from a 5D vacuum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membiela, Federico Agustin; Bellini, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    Using a semiclassical approach to Gravitoelectromagnetic Inflation (GEMI), we study the origin and evolution of seminal inflaton and electromagnetic fields in the early inflationary universe from a 5D vacuum state. The difference with other previous works is that in this one we use a Lorentz gauge. Our formalism is naturally not conformal invariant on the effective 4D de Sitter metric, which make possible the super adiabatic amplification of magnetic field modes during the early inflationary epoch of the universe on cosmological scales.

  9. Semiclassical gravitoelectromagnetic inflation in a Lorentz gauge: Seminal inflaton fluctuations and electromagnetic fields from a 5D vacuum state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Membiela, Federico Agustin, E-mail: membiela@mdp.edu.a [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Fisica de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Bellini, Mauricio, E-mail: mbellini@mdp.edu.a [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Fisica de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina)

    2010-02-22

    Using a semiclassical approach to Gravitoelectromagnetic Inflation (GEMI), we study the origin and evolution of seminal inflaton and electromagnetic fields in the early inflationary universe from a 5D vacuum state. The difference with other previous works is that in this one we use a Lorentz gauge. Our formalism is naturally not conformal invariant on the effective 4D de Sitter metric, which make possible the super adiabatic amplification of magnetic field modes during the early inflationary epoch of the universe on cosmological scales.

  10. Semiclassical gravitoelectromagnetic inflation in a Lorentz gauge: Seminal inflaton fluctuations and electromagnetic fields from a 5D vacuum state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membiela, Federico Agustín; Bellini, Mauricio

    2010-02-01

    Using a semiclassical approach to Gravitoelectromagnetic Inflation (GEMI), we study the origin and evolution of seminal inflaton and electromagnetic fields in the early inflationary universe from a 5D vacuum state. The difference with other previous works is that in this one we use a Lorentz gauge. Our formalism is naturally not conformal invariant on the effective 4D de Sitter metric, which make possible the super adiabatic amplification of magnetic field modes during the early inflationary epoch of the universe on cosmological scales.

  11. Perfluorinated compounds in human serum and seminal plasma from an urban and rural population in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guruge, Keerthi; Miyazaki, Shigeru; Yamanaka, Noriko [National Institute of Animal Health, Tsukuba (Japan); Taniyasu, Sacgu; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi [National Institute of Advance Industrial and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan); Wijeratna, S.; Seneviratne, H. [Colombo Univ. (Sri Lanka)

    2004-09-15

    Fluorinated organic compounds (FOCs) have been used for variety of industrial applications such as surfactants, adhesives, insecticides, and their global production increase since 1970s. These compounds repel both water and oil. The high-energy carbon-fluorine covalent bonds in FOCs are strong enough to have high persistency in the environment. These compounds emerged as priory environmental pollutants since they are found in various biota throughout the world. Human contamination of some FOCs was reported mostly in developed countries such as USA, Japan and from Europe. In the present study, we report 10 FOCs in human serum including seminal plasma for the first time, collected from volunteers from Sri Lanka.

  12. Synovial fluid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint fluid analysis; Joint fluid aspiration ... El-Gabalawy HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelly's Textbook of ...

  13. Fator do plasma seminal associado à integridade de membrana de espermatozóides suínos pós-descongelamento Seminal plasma factor associated to post-thawing swine sperm membrane integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bianchi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, identificaram-se polipeptídeos associados à integridade da membrana plasmática (IMP de espermatozóides suínos após o processo de congelamento/descongelamento. Por meio do perfil protéico do plasma seminal em SDS-PAGE, observou-se a presença de nove bandas polipeptídicas com pesos moleculares que variaram de 11,97 a 122,52kDa. Detectou-se que uma banda de 26,58kDa esteve associada à baixa IMP (Polypeptides associate to membrane integrity (MI of swine spermatozoa submitted to freezing and thawing were identified. The protein profile of seminal plasma analyzed by SDS-PAGE allowed the identification of nine polypeptide bands with molecular weight ranging from 11.97 to 122.52kDa. One 26.58kDa band was associated with reduced MI (<55%. No associations among other bands and MI were observed. The 26.58kDa factor is associated with reduction of membrane integrity of swine spermatozoa after freezing and thawing.

  14. Self lubricating fluid bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapich, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    The invention concerns self lubricating fluid bearings, which are used in a shaft sealed system extending two regions. These regions contain fluids, which have to be isolated. A first seal is fluid tight for the first region between the carter shaft and the shaft. The second seal is fluid tight between the carter and the shaft, it communicates with the second region. The first fluid region is the environment surrounding the shaft carter. The second fluid region is a part of a nuclear reactor which contains the cooling fluid. The shaft is conceived to drive a reactor circulating and cooling fluid [fr

  15. Modern fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinstreuer, Clement

    2018-01-01

    Modern Fluid Dynamics, Second Edition provides up-to-date coverage of intermediate and advanced fluids topics. The text emphasizes fundamentals and applications, supported by worked examples and case studies. Scale analysis, non-Newtonian fluid flow, surface coating, convection heat transfer, lubrication, fluid-particle dynamics, microfluidics, entropy generation, and fluid-structure interactions are among the topics covered. Part A presents fluids principles, and prepares readers for the applications of fluid dynamics covered in Part B, which includes computer simulations and project writing. A review of the engineering math needed for fluid dynamics is included in an appendix.

  16. Association of Blood and Seminal Plasma Cadmium and Lead Levels With Semen Quality in Non-Occupationally Exposed Infertile Men in Abakaliki, South East Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademola C Famurewa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate association of blood and seminal plasma lead and cadmium with sperm quality of non-occupationally exposed male partners of couples with infertility.Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 75 men aged 20-45 years (mean = 37.1 ± 7.0 yrs. with infertility recruited from the Fertility Clinic of a hospital in Abakaliki. Sperm count done in accordance with the WHO guidelines was used to classify the participants as normospamia, oligospermia and azospermia. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to determine lead and cadmium levels in plasma from blood and semen.Results: There were 15 azospermics, 22 oligospermics and 36 normospermics. Seminal and blood plasma cadmium as well as blood plasma lead were significantly (p < 0.01 higher in azospermic and oligospermic men compared to normospermic men. However, while seminal plasma lead was significantly (p < 0.05 higher in oligospermic and normospernic men than in azospermic men, the seminal plasma lead was comparable between oligospermic and normospermic men. Significant inverse associations (p < 0.01 were found between blood and seminal cadmium levels and sperm count, motility and morphology; blood lead was inversely correlated with sperm count only.Conclusion: The study suggests that environmental exposure to cadmium and lead may contribute to development of poor sperm quality and infertility in men of reproductive age in Nigeria.

  17. SENSITIVE EFFECTS OF POTASSIUM AND CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKING AND ATP-SENSITIVE POTASSIUM CHANNEL ACTIVATORS ON SEMINAL VESICLE SMOOTH MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H SADRAEI

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Seminal vesicle smooth muscle contraction is mediated through sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons activity. Although seminal vesicle plays an important role in male fertility, but little attention is given to mechanism involved in contraction of this organ.
    Methods. In this study effects of drugs which activate ATP - sensitive K channels and blockers of K and Ca channels were examined on contraction of guinea - pig isolated seminal vesicle due to electrical filled stimulation (EFS, noradrenaline, carbachol and KCI.
    Results. The K channel blocker tetraethyl ammonium potentate the EFS responses at all frequencies, while, the ATP - sensitive K channel inhibitor glibenclamide and the K channel opener levcromakalim, diazoxide, minoxidil and Ca channel blocker nifedipine all had relaxant effect on guinea - pig seminal vesicle.
    Discussion. This study indicate that activities of K and Ca channels is important in regulation of seminal vesicle contraction due to nerve stimulation, noradrenaline or carbachol.

  18. The relationship between seminal plasma zinc levels and high molecular weight zinc binding protein and sperm motility in Iraqi infertile men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbdulRasheed, Omar F

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between sperm motility and total seminal plasma zinc concentration and high molecular weight zinc bound protein values in infertile Iraqi men. A case-control study was conducted at the Chemistry and Biochemistry Department, College of Medicine, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq between March 2005 to February 2006. The subjects for the study included 60 infertile male patients who were recruited Al-Kadhimiya Teaching Hospital, and Institute of Embryo Research and Infertility Treatment, Baghdad, Iraq. They were categorized according to their seminal parameters to oligozoospermia (n=32), azoospermia (n=22), and asthenozoospermia (n=6). Thirty nine fertile men (age range 31.87 +/- 3.76 years) were selected as controls, whose partners had conceived within the last year before participation with this study, and having normal spermiogram parameters. Seminal plasma zinc concentration and high molecular weight zinc binding proteins (HMW-Zn) were assayed in the ejaculates of fertile and infertile men. The seminal plasma zinc levels were 181.92 +/- 23.40 ug/mL in the oligozoospermia group, 178.50 +/- 18.61 ug/mL in the azoospermia group, 195.33 +/- 13.00 ug/mL in the asthenozoospermia group, and 184.66 +/- 21.31 ug/mL in the control group. The HMW-Zn% is a good index of sperm function rather than the total seminal plasma zinc levels. (author)

  19. Assessment of basic seminal characteristics, sperm cryopreservation and heterologous in vitro fertilisation in the fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiangtum, Khongsak; Swanson, William F; Howard, JoGayle; Tunwattana, Wanchai; Tongthainan, Dakara; Wichasilpa, Wisid; Patumrattanathan, Pornchai; Pinyopoommintr, Tanu

    2006-01-01

    Conservation of the fishing cat, a threatened south-east Asian felid, could benefit from effective ex situ genetic management and breeding programmes, including the use of assisted reproduction. The aims of the present study were to: (1) characterise basal seminal traits of fishing cats in Thailand zoos; and (2) investigate the effect of cryopreservation on sperm motility, acrosomal integrity and in vitro function. Seminal traits were evaluated in electroejaculates collected from eight males. Spermatozoa were diluted in n-tris(hydroxymethyl)-methyl-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid Tris (TEST)-yolk buffer (TYB) without glycerol, then diluted further with TYB with glycerol (4% final concentration) at either 25 degrees C or after slow cooling to 5 degrees C and frozen in straws over liquid nitrogen vapour. After thawing, sperm function was assessed by insemination of viable domestic cat oocytes. Fishing cat ejaculates averaged (+/- s.e.m.) 43.6 +/- 14.2 x 10(6) motile spermatozoa with 33.5 +/- 6.8% normal sperm morphology. Semen processing had a negligible effect (P > 0.05) on sperm motility and acrosomal integrity, but values were reduced (P cat oocytes, with 62.1% (36/58) of mature oocytes cleaving. Glycerol addition at 5 degrees C resulted in higher (P fishing cats and their spermatozoa exhibit adequate function after cryopreservation for in vitro fertilisation procedures.

  20. Effects of multiple collections on spermatozoa quality of Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus: motility, density and seminal plasma composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramli, M S; Kalbassi, M R; Gharibi, M R

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of multiple collections of sperm on the endangered Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus, in terms of a number of sperm functional parameters (percentage of motile spermatozoa, total time period of motility and sperm concentration) as well as on the ionic composition, protein concentration and osmolality of seminal plasma. Semen samples were collected from 12 induced male fish in three experimental groups that had been injected intramuscularly with LHRH-A2, at dosages of 5 μg/kg body weight, at a number of time regimes: at 12 h, 17 h and 24 h after spawning induction (1); at 24, 29 and 34 h after spawning induction (2); and at 36, 41 and 46 h after spawning induction (3). The percentage of motile spermatozoa and the period of sperm motility decreased significantly (p collections. The concentration of spermatozoa decreased after the third collection, but this decline was not significant. No significant effect of multiple collections on protein concentration and ionic content (with exception of the Cl(-) ion) of seminal plasma was observed. In all experimental groups, a moderate impact of sequential collection on the osmolality (p collections on spermatological characteristics in the Persian sturgeon. Our results confirm that sequential stripping after the third collections has a negative effect on a number of functional parameters associated with sperm. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Effect of Seminal Plasma Removal on Cell Membrane, Acrosomal Integrity and Mitochondrial Activity of Cooled Stallion Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhafer M. Aziz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Fresh semen samples were collected from 11 warm blood stallions, each ejaculate was distributed into three equal parts. The first part was diluted in a skim milk-glucose diluent (SMG, the second part was diluted in a skim milk-glucose supplemented with Tyrode's medium (SMG-T, the third part was centrifuged to remove the seminal plasma, then the sperm was resuspended in the second diluent (SMG-T-C. The diluted semen were evaluated immediately after dilution (0 hour and at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours of storage at 5°C. Flow cytometry was performed to determine sperm viability, mitochondrial activity and acrosomal integrity. Immediately after dilution the tested parameters of sperms that diluted in SMG-T was significantly (P<0.001 higher than those diluted with SMG and SMG-T-C, and with SMG-T-C were higher significantly (P<0.05 than those diluted with SMG. The decreasing rate in tested sperm parameter was greater significantly (P<0.001 in semen samples which were diluted with SMG than those diluted with SMG-T and SMG-T-C. In conclusion, the present study indicated that viability, acrosomal integrity, and mitochondrial activity of stallion sperms were better preserved in SMG-T in comparison with SMG, also centrifugation and removal of the seminal plasma have an adverse effect on these three sperm parameters.

  2. Effects of parsley supplementation on the seminal quality, blood lipid profile and oxidant status of young and old male rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.M. El-Gindy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The high unsaturation levels of spermatozoal membrane make it very susceptible to oxidative damage and this problem increases with advancing age. In this study, the aim is to investigate whether parsley seed (PS has a protective effect on semen quality, serum lipid profile and antioxidative status of old and young bucks. Male rabbits (n= 36 (18 young 9-12 mo old and 18 old 36-42 mo old were each assigned to 3 dietary treatments (a control and 2 levels of PS: 0.3 and 0.6 kg/100 kg diet to evaluate the ability of parsley to enhance bucks’ reproductive status. Most of the studied traits were adversely affected by age of rabbit bucks. On the other hand, the inclusion of PS significantly boosted ejaculate volume and improved mass motility concentration and total sperm output. Seminal plasma and blood serum total antioxidant capacity increased, while serum lipid peroxidase decreased with parsley treatments. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of parsley seed alleviates most semen quality parameters and counteracts oxidative stress, especially with the advance of age (seminal plasma and blood serum of total antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde.

  3. Reduced Seminal Concentration of CD45pos Cells after Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Treatment in Selected Patients with Idiopathic Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosita A. Condorelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the conventional sperm parameters and the seminal concentration of CD45pos cells (pan-leukocyte marker of infertile patients with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT. The patients were arbitrarily divided into three groups treated with recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone FSH: α (Group A = 20 patients, recombinant FSH-β (Group B = 20 patients, and highly purified human FSH (Group C = 14 patients. All treated groups achieved a similar improvement of the main sperm parameters (density, progressive motility, and morphology, but only the increase in the percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology was significant compared to the baseline in all three examined groups. Moreover, all groups had a significant reduction of the seminal concentration of CD45pos cells and of the percentage of immature germ cells. Before and after the treatment, the concentration of CD45pos cells showed a positive linear correlation with the percentage of immature germ cells and a negative correlation with the percentage of spermatozoa with regular morphology. These results demonstrate that treatment with FSH is effective in patients with idiopathic OAT and that there are no significant differences between the different preparations. The novelty of this study is in the significant reduction of the concentration of CD45pos cells observed after the treatment.

  4. Seminal vesicle invasion in prostate cancer: prediction with combined T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Jing; Huan, Yi; Ge, YaLi; Chang, YingJuan; Yin, Hong; Sun, LiJun; Wang, He

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in detecting seminal vesicle invasion (SVI). A total of 283 patients underwent conventional MRI and DWI before prostate cancer surgery. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of all PCa foci, SVI and seminal vesicle were measured. T2 images alone and then T2 images combined with DWI were scored for the likelihood of SVI. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to assess accuracy. Statistical significance was inferred at P<0.05. On pathological analysis, 39 patients had SVI. The ADC values of SVI were significantly lower than those of SV. The AUC for T2-weighted imaging plus DW imaging (0.897) was significantly larger (P<0.05) than that for T2-weighted imaging alone (0.779). T2 images combined with DWI shows significantly higher accuracy than T2-weighted imaging alone in the detection of SVI. (orig.)

  5. Effects of the antimicrobial peptide protegrine 1 on sperm viability and bacterial load of boar seminal doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, S; Briz, M; Yeste, M; Bonet, S; Bussalleu, E

    2017-10-01

    The presence of bacteria adversely affects boar sperm quality of seminal doses intended for artificial insemination. Currently, the most common measure to prevent bacteriospermia is the addition of antibiotics in semen extenders; however, mounting evidence shows that microbial resistance exists. A promising alternative to replace antibiotics are antimicrobial peptides. In this study, the effects of the antimicrobial peptide protegrine 1 (PG1) on the sperm viability and bacterial load of boar seminal doses were evaluated. Three different concentrations of PG1 (2.5, 25 and 100 μg/ml) were tested over a storing period of 10 days at 17°C. Sperm viability was analysed by fluorescence microscopy (SYBR14/propidium iodide), and bacterial load was assessed by plating 100 μl of each sample in Luria-Bertani medium and incubated at 37°C for 72 hr under aerobic conditions. Protegrine 1 was effective in controlling the bacterial load in all the assessed concentrations (p < .05), reaching the lowest values at the highest concentrations of the antimicrobial peptide. Nevertheless, sperm viability was significantly (p < .05) reduced by all tested concentrations of this peptide, the most cytotoxic effects being observed at the highest PG1 concentrations. Despite these results, the use of PG1 as an alternative to antibiotics cannot be totally discarded, as further studies using the truncated form of this peptide are needed. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Effect of the Oxidant-Antioxidant System in Seminal Plasma on Varicocele and Idiopathic Infertility in Male Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazar, Hayrullah; Halis, Fikret; Nasir, Yasemin; Guzel, Derya; Akdogan, Mehmet; Gokce, Ahmet

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate seminal oxidant-antioxidant activity in idiopathic and varicocele infertility in men. Total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), paraoxonase (PON1), aryl esterase (ARE), and total thiol levels (TTL) were measured in seminal plasma with an autoanalyzer. The TOS/TAC ratio was determined as the oxidative stress index (OSI). A histopathological evaluation of the sperm was performed in the andrology laboratory of the hospital. Number, motility, morphology, volume, pH, and leukocytes were evaluated in all samples according to World Health Organization criteria. The three study groups were as follows: G1, males with idiopathic infertility; G2, males with varicocele infertility; and G3, normal healthy males (had fathered a child in the last 2 years). Each group was composed of 36 men (age, 25 - 40 years). The Rel Assay Diagnostics kit was used to determine the levels of the parameters. The study was conducted according to the principles of the declaration of Helsinki and was approved by Sakarya University Medicine Faculty Ethic Committee (e.n: 16214662/050.01.04/07). Statistical significance was assumed if p 0.05). The ARE was not performed in group 3 (control) due to a methodological problem. PON1 levels in infertile subjects were significantly higher than those of fertile subjects.

  7. The Effect of Pollen on Some Reproductive Parameters of Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güldeniz Selmanoğlu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Honeybee pollen is consumed as natural food in healthy human diet in many European and Asian countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pollen use on some reproductive parameters. In this study, mature male rats were fed on pollen of three different plant sources (Trifolium spp., Raphanus spp. and Cistus spp. at 60 mg/per animal/ per day over a 30-day period. At the end of the treatment, testosterone levels of rats were analysed and weights of testis, epididymis, prostate and seminal vesicle were recorded. In addition, epididymal sperms were counted. There were increases in testosterone levels, sperm counts and daily sperm production of rats fed with pollen of Raphanus spp. and Cistus spp. There were no significant changes in absolute weights, except in prostate weights. Also there were no changes in relative testis,prostate and seminal vesicle weights of rats fed on pollen, but relative epididymis weights of rats in pollen groups decreased. The results of this study show that bee pollen caused an increase in testosterone level and sperm counts of male rats. We suggest that bee pollen has an androgenic effect.

  8. Fluid mechanics in fluids at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Howard

    2012-07-01

    Using readily available experimental thermophoretic particle-velocity data it is shown, contrary to current teachings, that for the case of compressible flows independent dye- and particle-tracer velocity measurements of the local fluid velocity at a point in a flowing fluid do not generally result in the same fluid velocity measure. Rather, tracer-velocity equality holds only for incompressible flows. For compressible fluids, each type of tracer is shown to monitor a fundamentally different fluid velocity, with (i) a dye (or any other such molecular-tagging scheme) measuring the fluid's mass velocity v appearing in the continuity equation and (ii) a small, physicochemically and thermally inert, macroscopic (i.e., non-Brownian), solid particle measuring the fluid's volume velocity v(v). The term "compressibility" as used here includes not only pressure effects on density, but also temperature effects thereon. (For example, owing to a liquid's generally nonzero isobaric coefficient of thermal expansion, nonisothermal liquid flows are to be regarded as compressible despite the general perception of liquids as being incompressible.) Recognition of the fact that two independent fluid velocities, mass- and volume-based, are formally required to model continuum fluid behavior impacts on the foundations of contemporary (monovelocity) fluid mechanics. Included therein are the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations, which are now seen to apply only to incompressible fluids (a fact well-known, empirically, to experimental gas kineticists). The findings of a difference in tracer velocities heralds the introduction into fluid mechanics of a general bipartite theory of fluid mechanics, bivelocity hydrodynamics [Brenner, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 54, 67 (2012)], differing from conventional hydrodynamics in situations entailing compressible flows and reducing to conventional hydrodynamics when the flow is incompressible, while being applicable to both liquids and gases.

  9. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  10. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  11. Process fluid cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farquhar, N.G.; Schwab, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A system of heat exchangers is disclosed for cooling process fluids. The system is particularly applicable to cooling steam generator blowdown fluid in a nuclear plant prior to chemical purification of the fluid in which it minimizes the potential of boiling of the plant cooling water which cools the blowdown fluid

  12. Caracterización seminal en sabaleta brycon henni: evaluación de factores inhibidores y activadores de la motilidad espermática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Olivera

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available

    La sabaleta es una especie endémica de las cuencas del Río Cauca y se presenta como una alternativa para la seguridad alimentaria y mantenimiento de la diversidad, sin embargo, se desconocen sus características reproductivas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar el balance iónico del plasma seminal y evaluar si la activación de la motilidad está relacionada con el cambio en las concentraciones iónicas del plasma seminal.(1

     

     

  13. Metabolism of polyunsaturated (n-3) fatty acids by monkey seminal vesicles: isolation and biosynthesis of omega-3 epoxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliw, E H; Sprecher, H W

    1991-11-27

    Monooxygenases of monkey seminal vesicles can metabolize arachidonic acid (20:4(n-6)) by w3-hydroxylation to 18(R)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (18(R)-HETE) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5(n-3)) to 17,18-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (Oliw, E.H. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 17845-17853). The present study aimed to further characterize the oxygenation of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids. 14C-Labelled 22:6(n-3), 20:5(n-3), 20:4-(n-3) and 18:3(n-3) were incubated with microsomes of seminal vesicles of the cynomolgus monkey, NADPH and a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, diclofenac, and the main metabolites were identified by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 22:6(n-3) was slowly metabolized to 19,20-dihydroxy-4,7,10,13,16-docosapentaenoic acid, while 20:5(n-3), 20:4(n-3) and 18:3(n-3) were metabolized more efficiently to the corresponding w4,w3-diols. The w3 epoxides, which were obtained from 20:5(n-3) and 18:3(n-3), were isolated in the presence of an epoxide hydrolase inhibitor, 1(2)epoxy-3,3,3-trichloropropane, and the geometry of the epoxides was determined to be 17S, 18R and 15S, 16R, respectively. While 20:5(n-3) was metabolized almost exclusively to the epoxide and diol pair of metabolites, 18:3(n-3) was metabolized not only to the w3 epoxide and the corresponding diol, but also to the w2 alcohol, 17(R)-hydroxy-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid. 22:6(n-3) and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid inhibited the biosynthesis of 18(R)-HETE from arachidonic acid (IC50 0.16 and 0.14 mM, respectively). In comparison with 20:4 or 18:3(n-3), 18:1(n-9) and 22:5(n-6) appeared to be slowly metabolized by seminal monooxygenases, while 18:2(n-6) was converted to the w3 alcohol and to smaller amounts of the w2 alcohol (4:1). Together, the results indicate that the w3-hydroxylase and w3-epoxygenase enzyme(s) metabolize 20:4(n-6) and 20:5(n-3) almost exclusively to the w3(R) alcohol and the w3(R, S) epoxide, respectively, while longer and shorter fatty acids either are poor

  14. Germinação de sementes de jenipapo: temperatura, substrato e morfologia do desenvolvimento pós-seminal Seed germination of Genipa americana l. - rubiaceae: temperature, substrate and post-seminal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTÔNIO CARLOS SILVA DE ANDRADE

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivos definir o tipo de substrato e a temperatura mais adequados à germinação de sementes de jenipapo (Genipa americana L., conhecer a morfologia das sementes e seu desenvolvimento pós-seminal, caracterizando as plântulas normais, o tipo de germinação e os padrões de anormalidade. Para tanto, realizou-se um experimento colocando-se as sementes sobre os seguintes substratos: papel, vermiculita e solo, nas temperaturas constantes de 20°C, 25°C, 30°C, e 35°C e alternada de 20°C-30°C. O delineamento estatístico empregado foi o inteiramente casualizado (5 x 3, com quatro repetições de 50 sementes. Foram analisados os parâmetros germinação normal (% e velocidade de germinação. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos nas temperaturas constantes de 25°C, 30°C e 35°C, e nos substratos vermiculita e solo.This study aimed to define the best substrate and temperature for germination of genipap (Genipa americana L. - Rubiaceae seeds, and to describe the morphology of its seeds, post-seminal development, normal and abnormal seedlings. The experiment was designed according to a 5 x 3 factorial with constant temperatures of 20°C, 25°C, 30°C and 35°C and alternated 20°C-30°C in filter paper, vermiculite and soil substrates. The following parameters were analyzed: normal percentage germination and speed of germination. The 25°C, 30°C and 35°C temperatures and vermiculite and soil substrates were the best conditions for seed germination.

  15. Energetic Variational Approach to Multi-Component Fluid Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshtein, Arkadz; Liu, Chun; Brannick, James

    2017-11-01

    In this talk I will introduce the systematic energetic variational approach for dissipative systems applied to multi-component fluid flows. These variational approaches are motivated by the seminal works of Rayleigh and Onsager. The advantage of this approach is that we have to postulate only energy law and some kinematic relations based on fundamental physical principles. The method gives a clear, quick and consistent way to derive the PDE system. I will compare different approaches to three-component flows using diffusive interface method and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. The diffusive interface method is an approach for modeling interactions among complex substances. The main idea behind this method is to introduce phase field labeling functions in order to model the contact line by smooth change from one type of material to another. The work of Arkadz Kirshtein and Chun Liu is partially supported by NSF Grants DMS-141200 and DMS-1216938.

  16. Application of seminal plasma to female genital tract prior to embryo transfer in assisted reproductive technology cycles (IVF, ICSI and frozen embryo transfer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata, Baris; Abou-Setta, Ahmed M; Seyhan, Ayse; Buckett, William

    2018-02-28

    The female genital tract is not exposed to seminal plasma during standard assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles. However, it is thought that the inflammatory reaction triggered by seminal plasma may be beneficial by inducing maternal tolerance to paternal antigens expressed by the products of conception, and may increase the chance of successful implantation and live birth. To assess the effectiveness and safety of application of seminal plasma to the female genital tract prior to embryo transfer in ART cycles. We searched the following databases from inception to October 2017: Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Central Register of Studies Online (CRSO), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO. We also searched trial registers for ongoing trials, including International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) Search Portal and ClinicalTrials.gov. Other sources searched were; Web of Knowledge, OpenGrey, LILACS, PubMed, Google Scholar and the reference lists of relevant articles. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) conducted among women undergoing ART, comparing any procedure that would expose the female genital tract to seminal plasma during the period starting five days before embryo transfer and ending two days after it versus no seminal plasma application. Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data. We pooled data to calculate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed statistical heterogeneity using the I 2 statistic. We assessed the overall quality of the evidence for the main outcomes using GRADE methods. Our primary outcomes were live birth rate and miscarriage rate. Secondary outcomes were live birth/ongoing pregnancy rate, clinical pregnancy rate, multiple pregnancy rate, ectopic pregnancy rate and the incidence of other adverse events. We included 11 RCTs (3215 women). The quality of the evidence ranged

  17. Comparison of two cooling protocols for llama semen: with and without collagenase and seminal plasma in the medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero, M I; Giuliano, S M; Arraztoa, C C; Santa Cruz, R C; Fumuso, F G; Neild, D M

    2017-08-01

    Seminal plasma (SP) of South American Camelids could interfere with the interaction of spermatozoa with the extenders; therefore it becomes necessary to improve semen management using enzymatic treatment. Our objective was to compare two cooling protocols for llama semen. Twelve ejaculates were incubated in 0.1% collagenase and then were divided into two aliquots. One was extended in lactose and egg yolk (LEY) (Protocol A: collagenase and SP present). The other aliquot was centrifuged, and the pellet was resuspended in LEY (Protocol B: collagenase and SP absent). Both samples were maintained at 5°C during 24 hr. Routine and DNA evaluations were carried out in raw and cooled semen. Both cooling protocols maintained sperm viability, membrane function and DNA fragmentation, with Protocol A showing a significantly lowered total and progressive motility (p semen samples prior to either cooling or freeze-thawing. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. FOREWORD Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power (FMFP)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This section of the Special Issue carries selected articles from the Fluid Mechanics and Fluid. Power Conference held during 12–14 December 2013 at the National Institute of Technology,. Hamirpur (HP). The section includes three review articles and nine original research articles. These were selected on the basis of their ...

  19. Subsequent influences of feeding intact green seaweed Ulva lactuca to growing lambs on the seminal and testicular characteristics in rams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, E M; Okab, A B; Abdoun, K A; El-Waziry, A M; Al-Haidary, A A

    2013-12-01

    The present experiment was designed to investigate the subsequent influences of supplementing different levels of intact green seaweed Ulva lactuca (0%, 3%, and 5% DM) to growing sexually immature lambs during the growth period (74 d) on the seminal and testicular characteristics of sexually mature rams. Ulva lactuca was manually collected, adequately prepared, and then incorporated into lambs' diets. Eighteen male 3-mo-old lambs of the Awassi breed with a mean BW of 22.57 kg (SD = 1.08) were randomly assigned into treatments. The obtained results indicate that offering Ulva lactuca at the level of 3% or 5% DM to lambs during the growth period had no subsequent impacts (P > 0.05) on liver and kidney functions as well as blood water balance in rams, thereby suggesting that Ulva lactuca can be safely supplemented to lambs during growing. However, our findings point out that feeding a lamb diet supplemented with intact Ulva lactuca failed to demonstrate any subsequent benefit (P > 0.05) on the growth performance, thermoregulatory responses, and plasma oxidative status in rams. Above all, it was clearly evident that supplementing intact Ulva lactuca to lambs had demonstrated subsequent negative influences (P Ulva lactuca during the growth period compared to control rams. The deleterious impacts of feeding intact Ulva lactuca on spermatogenesis and germ cell loss were proven to be attributed to the dysfunction of Sertoli cells. Collectively, these results provide novel insights on the subsequent influences of dietary supplementation of intact Ulva lactuca to lambs. The consistent evidence of profound negative impacts on seminal and testicular characteristics as well as the resulting data of no improvement of subsequent growth, thermoregulation, and plasma oxidative status in rams prompts us to tentatively recommend the avoidance of feeding intact Ulva lactuca to lambs.

  20. Effects of potassium or potassium/magnesium supplementation on potassium content of body tissues and fluids in furosemide-treated rats on magnesium-deficient or magnesium-sufficient diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coram, W.M.; Kapeghian, J.C.; Plocinski, A.F.; Toledo, L.M.; Douglas, F.L.; Weiss, G.B. (Univ. of New Jersey, Newmark (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Persistent Mg{sup 2+} deficiency may interfere with restoration of normal tissue K{sup +} levels. This study examined: (a) the effects of chronic furosemide treatment of K{sup +} of sartorius, aorta and ventricle of rats fed Mg{sup 2+}-deficient or Mg{sup 2+} sufficient diet and deionized water; (b) whether normal tissue K{sup +} is restored by oral K{sup +} or K{sup +}/Mg{sup 2+} supplementation with continued furosemide therapy. Levels of Mg{sup 2+} were also measured. Furosemide decreased K{sup +} in sartorius, aorta and ventricle by 5.5, 4.3 and 19.9 {mu}Eq/gm, respectively, in rats fed 100 ppm Mg{sup 2+} diet. Furosemide did not alter K{sup +} levels in rats fed 400 ppm Mg{sup 2+} diet. K{sup +} supplementation restored K{sup +} to normal in sartorius but the addition of Mg{sup 2+} supplementation was necessary to restore K+ levels to normal in ventricle and aorta. These data indicate that furosemide can decrease tissue K{sup +} in rats on a Mg{sup 2+}- deficient diet. This decrease can be reversed during diuretic administration by K{sup +} supplementation in sartorius, or K{sup +} plus Mg{sup 2+} supplementation in ventricle and aorta.

  1. Time bound changes (in 24 h in human sperm motility and level of calcium and magnesium in seminal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Valsa

    2016-09-01

    Level of calcium (27.2 mg/dl and magnesium (13.54 mg/dl in seminal plasma did not show any significant changes during study period from that of at ½ h. The study concluded that electrolytes under study were not responsible for the decrease in motility during study period.

  2. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THE PRESENCE OF A 38 kDa FACTOR IN THE SEMINAL PLASMA AND INHIBITION OF SPERM MOTILITY IN JUNDIÁ FISH Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Farias Campos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein factors have been identified in the seminal plasmaof fish and mammal species and, in some situations, associatedto sperm quality indicators. However, for jundiá fish (Rhamdiaquelen, such factors and those potential associations remainunknown. In the present study, we aimed to identify some proteinfactors present in the seminal plasma of jundiá fish and to evaluatetheir association to sperm motility. SDS-PAGE was used to identify14 bands, with molecular weight ranging from 217.1 to 7.1 kDa.Sperm motility was evaluated for 21 males. Four protein bands(81.5; 60.4; 33.6; and 25.5 kDa were present in all seminal plasmasamples. One protein band with molecular weight of 38.3 kDa wasassociated to reduced sperm motility of jundiá (P<0.01, since itwas detected in 91.4% of the samples having motility lower than80%. These results suggest that this seminal protein band associatedto lower sperm motility may be considered a potential biochemicalmarker for sperm quality.

  3. Pneumaturia signaling a fistula between the rectum anastomosis and seminal vesicle as a complication after transanal endorectal pull-through operation for Hirschsprung's disease. A method of repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Granéli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy underwent an uneventful transanal endorectal pull-through for Hirschsprung's disease. Postoperatively he suffered from pneumaturia which prompted surgical evaluation. He was found to have a rectum to seminal vesicle fistula. He was re-operated closing the fistula through an anterior transperineal approach with a successful operative outcome.

  4. Association of CAT-262C/T with the concentration of catalase in seminal plasma and the risk for male infertility in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousnane, Nour El Houda; May, Sadiq; Yahia, Mouloud; Abu Alhaija, Abed Alkarem

    2017-10-01

    Catalase (CAT) plays a central role in the protection of different cell types against the deleterious effects of hydrogen peroxide. In human, CAT is implicated in many physiological and pathological conditions including idiopathic male infertility. In this study we examined the association between CAT levels in seminal plasma with different sperm parameters and with CAT-262 C/T polymorphism and their risk for idiopathic male infertility in Algeria. Semen and blood samples were obtained from 111 infertile males and 104 fertile controls from the region of Eastern Algeria following informed consent. Standard semen parameters, DNA integrity, and CAT concentration in seminal plasma were evaluated. CAT-262C/T genotypes were screened using allele specific PCR. Seminal CAT activity was significantly different (pCAT activity and semen parameters (volume, motility, concentration, and morphology) were detected, but not with sperm DNA integrity. There was no direct association between CAT-262C/T polymorphism and general male infertility. However, the results presented in this study showed that CAT activity is remarkably associated with the CAT-262T allele (p=0.001) and the different CAT-262C/T genotypes. This study highlighted the major differences in the seminal plasma CAT content between infertile and fertile males and the differences of CAT concentration between different CAT-262C/T genotypes carriers.

  5. Effects of exposure of epididymal boar spermatozoa to seminal plasma on the binding of zona pellucida proteins during in vitro capacitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkema, W.; Colenbrander, B.; Engel, B.; Woelders, H.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether seminal plasma plays a role in the increase during in vitro capacitation of the number of boar spermatozoa with enhanced binding of zona pellucida proteins. Ejaculated spermatozoa and spermatozoa collected from the caudae epididymides of

  6. Lectures on fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Shinbrot, Marvin

    2012-01-01

    Readable and user-friendly, this high-level introduction explores the derivation of the equations of fluid motion from statistical mechanics, classical theory, and a portion of the modern mathematical theory of viscous, incompressible fluids. 1973 edition.

  7. Synovial Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plasma Free Metanephrines Platelet Count Platelet Function Tests Pleural Fluid Analysis PML-RARA Porphyrin Tests Potassium Prealbumin ... is being tested? Synovial fluid is a thick liquid that acts as a lubricant for the body's ...

  8. Electric fluid pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  9. Cerebrospinal fluid culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Names Culture - CSF; Spinal fluid culture; CSF culture Images Pneumococci organism References Karcher DS, McPherson RA. Cerebrospinal, synovial, serous body fluids, and alternative specimens. In: McPherson RA, Pincus ...

  10. Cerebrospinal fluid leak (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brain and spinal cord by acting like a liquid cushion. The fluid allows the organs to be buoyant protecting them from blows or other trauma. Inside the skull the cerebrospinal fluid is contained by the dura which covers ...

  11. Avaliação espermática e da concentração de proteínas solúveis no plasma seminal de bodes da raça Alpina em regime de monta controlada Reproductive performance, soluble proteins of the seminal plasm and hypoosmotic test in male goats of the Alpine breed under controlled mating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Franco Martins

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas as relações entre a concentração de proteínas solúveis do plasma seminal, o teste hipoosmótico, a análise física e morfológica do sêmen e o desempenho reprodutivo de bodes da raça Alpina em regime de monta controlada. O experimento foi realizado durante os meses de fevereiro a abril de 2001. Foram realizadas 40 coletas de sêmen em quatro reprodutores adultos em regime de monta controlada. Em todas as coletas, além do exame físico e morfológico do sêmen, foram realizados os testes hipoosmóticos, isoosmóticos e a determinação da concentração de proteínas solúveis do plasma seminal. Foi detectada diferença entre os bodes na concentração de proteínas solúveis do plasma seminal, mas não houve diferença no teste hipoosmótico e no número de coberturas por prenhez. O teste hipoosmótico pode ser uma importante ferramenta para a avaliação de sêmen caprino, mas a concentração de proteínas solúveis do plasma seminal não pode ser utilizada como parâmetro para predizer a qualidade seminal e a fertilidade de bodes da raça Alpina utilizados em regime de monta natural.The relationships among soluble proteins of the seminal plasma, the hypoosmotic test, the physical and morphologic analyses of semen and the reproductive performance of male goats of the Alpine breed under controlled mating were studied using forty samples of semen from four adult male goats collected twice a week between February and April of 2001. Differences among male goats were observed for soluble protein concentration of the seminal plasma, but not for the hypoosmotic test and the pregnancy rate. These results suggest the hypoosmotic test may be used for the evaluation of goat semen, but the protein concentration of the seminal plasma can not be used as a parameter to predict the seminal quality and fertility of male goats of the Alpine breed.

  12. Biokinetics of radiotellurium in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Y.; Sahoo, S.K.; Kim, S.; Homma-Takeda, S.; Watanabe, Y.; Inaba, J.

    2003-01-01

    Radiotellurium is present in the environment primarily due to its release during nuclear reactor accidents. Little is known of tellurium metabolism in juveniles, although the element is relatively abundant and has a number of industrial uses. A biokinetic study of radiotellurium in rats was done using gamma-ray counting. Wistar strain rats were used to determine the uptake of H 2 123 Te m O 3 by the whole-body retention of juvenile rats and the conceptus in relation to its gestational stages, by measurements in the placenta, fetal membranes, fetal fluid, and fetus. The whole-body retention of 123 Te m in juvenile rats was higher than that of adult rats. The relative concentration in the placenta and fetal membranes was higher than in the fetus. No activity was observed in the fetal fluid. These results indicate that the placenta and fetal membranes play significant roles as barriers to the transfer of 123 Te m into the fetus. The ratio, relative concentration in fetus/relative concentration in mother (C F /C M ), was calculated. The C F /C M ratio was dependent on the stage of gestation and ranged from 0.2 to 0.5. A little 123 Te m was transferred to the suckling rats through the mother's milk when the isotope was administered intravenously to the mother. (author)

  13. Computational Fluid Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myeong, Hyeon Guk

    1999-06-01

    This book deals with computational fluid dynamics with basic and history of numerical fluid dynamics, introduction of finite volume method using one-dimensional heat conduction equation, solution of two-dimensional heat conduction equation, solution of Navier-Stokes equation, fluid with heat transport, turbulent flow and turbulent model, Navier-Stokes solution by generalized coordinate system such as coordinate conversion, conversion of basic equation, program and example of calculation, application of abnormal problem and high speed solution of numerical fluid dynamics.

  14. Effect of post-thaw addition of seminal plasma on motility, viability and chromatin integrity of cryopreserved donkey jack (Equus asinus) spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, C; Mari, G; Mislei, B; Love, Cc; Panzani, D; Camillo, F; Rota, A

    2014-12-01

    Pregnancy rates in donkeys after artificial insemination with cryopreserved semen are still low, compared to the horse species. Addition of autologous seminal plasma to frozen-thawed semen appeared to improve pregnancy rates. The aims of this study were to evaluate (1) sperm motility and plasma membrane integrity after thawing (T0) and after one and 2 h (T1 and T2) of post-thaw incubation in either 0% (SP0) or 70% (SP70) autologous seminal plasma and (2) sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and DNA quality (%COMP-αt) after thawing (T0) and after 2 and 4 h (T2 and T4) of post-thaw incubation in either 0% (SP0), 5% (SP5) or 20% (SP20) homologous seminal plasma. In experiment 1, seminal plasma decreased total and progressive sperm motility and plasma membrane intact spermatozoa immediately after dilution and at all following time points (p < 0.05). In experiment 2, total and progressive motility did not differ between treatments immediately after dilution and between SP0 and SP5 at T2, while they were lower in both SP5 and SP20 than in SP0 at T4. Plasma membrane intact sperm cells did not differ between SP0 and SP5 and were lower in SP20 at all time points. DNA quality was not affected by treatment immediately after dilution and was significantly worse for SP20 after 4 h of incubation (p < 0.05). The post-thaw addition of seminal plasma at the tested concentrations did not improve donkey frozen semen characteristics in vitro over time. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Two major quantitative trait loci controlling the number of seminal roots in maize co-map with the root developmental genes rtcs and rum1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Silvio; Giuliani, Silvia; Ricciolini, Claudia; Carraro, Nicola; Maccaferri, Marco; Presterl, Thomas; Ouzunova, Milena; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    The genetic dissection of root architecture and functions allows for a more effective and informed design of novel root ideotypes and paves the way to evaluate their effects on crop resilience to a number of abiotic stresses. In maize, limited attention has been devoted to the genetic analysis of root architecture diversity at the early stage. The difference in embryonic (including seminal and primary) root architecture between the maize reference line B73 (which mostly develops three seminal roots) and the landrace Gaspé Flint (with virtually no seminal roots) was genetically dissected using a collection of introgression lines grown in paper rolls and pots. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified three QTLs controlling seminal root number (SRN) on chromosome bins 1.02, 3.07, and 8.04-8.05, which collectively explained 66% of the phenotypic variation. In all three cases, Gaspé Flint contributed the allele for lower SRN. Primary root dry weight was negatively correlated with SRN (r= -0.52), and QTLs for primary root size co-mapped with SRN QTLs, suggesting a pleiotropic effect of SRN QTLs on the primary root, most probably caused by competition for seed resources. Interestingly, two out of three SRN QTLs co-mapped with the only two known maize genes (rtcs and rum1) affecting the number of seminal roots. The strong additive effect of the three QTLs and the development of near isogenic lines for each QTL in the elite B73 background provide unique opportunities to characterize functionally the genes involved in root development and to evaluate how root architecture affects seedling establishment, early development, and eventually yield in maize. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  16. [Purification of human goose-type lysozyme 2 (HLysG2) from human seminal plasma and analysis of its enzymatic properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peng; Yang, Zhifang; Bao, Jianying; Zhang, Ning; Li, Wenshu

    2017-03-01

    Objective To purify human goose-type lysozyme 2 (HLysG2) from human seminal plasma by chromatography and analyze its enzymatic properties. Methods The distribution of HLysG2 in semen was analyzed by Western blot analysis. Seminal plasma was subjected to the separation of target protein using cation-exchange chromatography, chitin affinity chromatography and size-exclusion chromatography. The purified product was identified by Western blot analysis and mass spectrometry (MS).The purity was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Then, the optimum pH, ion concentration and temperature of HLysG2 and its standard activity were determined by the turbidimetric assay. The bactericidal activity of HLysG2 was assessed by the colony-forming assay. Results The existence of HLysG2 in seminal plasma was confirmed by Western blot analysis. A protein of about 21.5 kDa was purified from seminal plasma by the three kinds of chromatography and identified as HLysG2 by Western blot analysis and MS. The final purity of the purified product was above 99.0% and the peak enzymatic activity reached 13 800 U/mg under the condition of pH 6.4, 0.09 mol/L Na + , 30DegreesCelsius. In vitro assay indicated that HLysG2 had a significant killing effect on Micrococcus lysodeikticus, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, but not on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Conclusion Native HLysG2 can be obtained from seminal plasma by chromatography. It has in vitro bactericidal activity against Gram-positive bacteria, suggesting that it might play a role in innate immunity of the male reproductive system.

  17. Fluid Statics and Archimedes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    librium of a vertical slice fluid (Figure Id) of height H and again using the fact .... same fluid having the same shape and same volume as the body. This fluid volume .... example, can be caused by the heating of air near the ground by the sun ...

  18. Fullerol ionic fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil; Dallas, Panagiotis; Rodriguez, Robert; Bourlinos, Athanasios B.; Georgakilas, Vasilios; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2010-01-01

    ®). The ionic fluid was compared to a control synthesized by mixing the partially protonated form (sodium form) of the fullerols with the same oligomeric amine in the same ratio as in the ionic fluids (20 wt% fullerol). In the fullerol fluid the ionic bonding

  19. Fluid and particle mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Michell, S J

    2013-01-01

    Fluid and Particle Mechanics provides information pertinent to hydraulics or fluid mechanics. This book discusses the properties and behavior of liquids and gases in motion and at rest. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the science of fluid mechanics that is subdivided accordingly into two main branches, namely, fluid statics and fluid dynamics. This text then examines the flowmeter devices used for the measurement of flow of liquids and gases. Other chapters consider the principle of resistance in open channel flow, which is based on improper application of th

  20. Fluid inclusion geothermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, C.G.

    1977-01-01

    Fluid inclusions trapped within crystals either during growth or at a later time provide many clues to the histories of rocks and ores. Estimates of fluid-inclusion homogenization temperature and density can be obtained using a petrographic microscope with thin sections, and they can be refined using heating and freezing stages. Fluid inclusion studies, used in conjunction with paragenetic studies, can provide direct data on the time and space variations of parameters such as temperature, pressure, density, and composition of fluids in geologic environments. Changes in these parameters directly affect the fugacity, composition, and pH of fluids, thus directly influencing localization of ore metals. ?? 1977 Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart.

  1. Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power (FMFP)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amitabh Bhattacharya

    of renewable energy (e.g., via wind, hydrokinetic generators), creating low-cost healthcare ... multiphase flow, turbulence, bio-fluid dynamics, atmospheric flows, microfluidic flows, and ... study the challenging problem of entry of solids in water.

  2. Effect of red maca (Lepidium meyenii) on prostate zinc levels in rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, C; Leiva-Revilla, J; Rubio, J; Gasco, M; Gonzales, G F

    2012-05-01

    Lepidium meyenii (maca) is a plant that grows exclusively above 4000 m in the Peruvian central Andes. Red maca (RM) extract significantly reduced prostate size in rats with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone enanthate (TE). Zinc is an important regulator of prostate function. This study aimed to determine the effect of RM on prostate zinc levels in rats with BPH induced by TE. Also, the study attempted to determine the best marker for the effect of RM on sex accessory glands. Rats treated with RM extract from day 1 to day 14 reversed the effect of TE administration on prostate weight and zinc levels. However, RM administered from day 7 to day 14 did not reduce the effect of TE on all studied variables. Finasteride (FN) reduced prostate, seminal vesicle and preputial gland weights in rats treated with TE. Although RM and FN reduced prostate zinc levels, the greatest effect was observed in TE-treated rats with RM from day 1 to day 14. In addition, prostate weight and zinc levels showed the higher diagnosis values than preputial and seminal vesicle weights. In conclusion, RM administered from day 1 to day 14 reduced prostate size and zinc levels in rats where prostatic hyperplasia was induced with TE. Also, this experimental model could be used as accurately assay to determine the effect of maca obtained under different conditions and/or the effect of different products based on maca. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Seminal vesicle biopsy and laparoscopic pelvic lymph node dissection: implications for patient selection in the radiotherapeutic management of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, Richard G.; Stone, Nelson N.; Ianuzzi, Christopher; Unger, Pamela

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Seminal vesicle biopsies (SVB) and laparoscopic pelvic lymph node dissection (LPLND) are safe surgical staging procedures for prostate cancer that can yield more accurate information than can be obtained by routine clinical means. This information is critical in patient and treatment selection when planning definitive prostate irradiation. An analysis of the procedural findings was undertaken to better define those patients who might benefit from these procedures. Methods and Materials: From June 1990 to February 1994, 120 patients with clinical Stage T1b to T2c prostate cancer with negative bone scan and pelvic computerized tomography (CT) scans underwent transrectal ultrasound guided SVB (three from each side). Of these patients, 99 also underwent LPLND. Twelve patients were excluded from analysis of LPLND findings because they were treated with 3 months of hormonal therapy prior to LPLND. During LPLND, 0 to 18 nodes were removed (median--five nodes) from the right side and 0 to 20 nodes (median--five nodes) were removed from the left side. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) values ranged from 1.6 to 190 ng/ml, with a median value of 11.5. Combined Gleason grades ranged from 2 to 9, with a median of 6. Results: A positive SVB was found in 18 patients (15%). A logistic regression analysis was performed to test the effect of grade, PSA, and stage on SVB results. Combined grade and PSA were significant predictors of a positive SVB (p <0.001 and p = 0.024, respectively). Patients with combined grades of 7 or greater had a higher positive SVB rate of 37.5% (12 out of 32) compared to 7% (6 out of 88) for patients with a lower grade (p <0.0001). Patients with PSA values greater than 10 had a positive SVB rate of 21% (15 out of 70) compared to 6% (3 out of 50) for patients with values up to 10. There was no morbidity associated with SVB. Laparoscopic pelvic lymph node disection detected positive pelvic nodes in nine patients (10%). The effect of a positive SVB

  4. Seed morphology and post-seminal development of Tillandsia L. (Bromeliaceae from the "Campos Gerais", Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia Scatena

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the morphology and post-seminal development of seeds of Tillandsia gardneri Lindl., T. streptocarpa Baker, and T. stricta Sol. ex Sims (Bromeliaceae from the "Campos Gerais", State of Paraná, Southern Brazil. The seeds (ca. 2.0 mm long presented plumose appendages at their micropylar end, an important structure in the taxonomy of the family since it represented an elaborate apparatus allowing effective wind-dispersal. Seeds germinated after circa twenty days. The haustorial cotyledon, responsible for the seedling nutrition, appeared first during the germination process. No cataphyll or primary roots developed. A small tank came along in the seedling, formed by the base of the sheath of the first leaf, which overlapped that of the second leaf. This tank can store water and litter. The adventitious roots developed later.Foi estudada a morfologia da semente e do desenvolvimento pós-seminal de Tillandsia gardneri Lindl., T. streptocarpa Baker, e T. stricta Sol. ex Sims (Bromeliaceae, que ocorrem nos Campos Gerais do Paraná, Brasil. As sementes apresentaram cerca de 2,0 mm de comprimento e testa com apêndices plumosos na região micropylar. A presença desses apêndices é um caráter importante na taxonomia da família e garante sucesso na dispersão anemocórica das sementes. Após a embebição, as sementes levaram cerca de 20 dias para germinar. A primeira estrutura que emergiu durante a germinação foi o cotilédone haustorial, que é responsável pela nutrição da plântula. Eram ausentes catafilo e raiz primária. Na plântula ocorreu a formação de um pequeno tanque, que é constituído pela base da bainha da folha primária superposta à base da bainha da folha secundária. Esse pequeno tanque permaneceu na posição vertical e armazenou água e detritos orgânicos para a nutrição da plântula. As raízes adventícias emergiram tardiamente.

  5. Adição de alanina, glicina e glutamina ao meio crioprotetor seminal de garanhões Mangalarga Marchador Addition of alanine, glycine and glutamine to frozen seminal extender from Mangalarga Marchador stallions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Fagundes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho verificar o efeito da adição de alanina, glicina e glutamina ao meio crioprotetor seminal de garanhões Mangalarga Marchador. Foram utilizados cinco garanhões provenientes do haras Lugavi. Três ejaculados de cada garanhão, após coleta e avaliação, foram divididos em seis tratamentos: sem adição de aminoácidos, adição de 40 mM de alanina, adição de 40 mM de glicina, adição de 60 mM de glutamina, adição de 7 mM de alanina + 7 mM de glicina + 20 mM de glutamina e adição de 40 mM de alanina + 40 mM de glicina + 60 mM de glutamina ao diluente de congelamento convencional. Foram avaliados os parâmetros motilidade total, motilidade progressiva, retidão, linearidade, velocidade média do percurso, velocidade linear, velocidade curvilínea, amplitude lateral de cabeça e frequência de batimentos dos espermatozoides por meio de análise espermática assistida por computador (CASA, funcionalidade da membrana plasmática por choque hiposmótico e integridade de membrana acrossomal pelo teste FITC-PSA. Não houve melhora nos parâmetros de motilidade e cinética espermática nem na funcionalidade de membrana, entretanto, a adição de aminoácidos ao meio crioprotetor seminal aumentou o número de espermatozoides com membrana acrossomal íntegra. Os melhores resultados neste teste são obtidos com 40 mM de alanina (78,6 ± 13,6, 40 mM de glicina (74,7 ± 19,6 ou 7 mM de alanina + 7 mM de glicina + 20 mM de glutamina (76,8 ± 17,5, porém outros estudos devem ser realizados para determinação da concentração ideal desses componentes.The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of the addition of alanine, glycine and glutamine on frozen seminal extender of Mangalarga marchador breed stallions. Five stallions were used from the Lugavi stables. Three ejaculates from each stallion were divided into six treatments: without the addition of amino acids, addition of 40 mM alanine, addition of 40 m

  6. Effects of Tribulus terrestris on endocrine sensitive organs in male and female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino-Andrade, Anderson J; Morais, Rosana N; Spercoski, Katherinne M; Rossi, Stefani C; Vechi, Marina F; Golin, Munisa; Lombardi, Natália F; Greca, Cláudio S; Dalsenter, Paulo R

    2010-01-08

    Investigate the possible effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT) on endocrine sensitive organs in intact and castrated male rats as well as in a post-menopausal rat model using ovariectomized females. Three different dose levels of TT (11, 42 and 110 mg/kg/day) were administered to castrated males for 7 days and to intact males and castrated females for 28 days. In addition to TT treatment, all experiments also included a group of rats treated with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). In experiments using castrated males and females we also used testosterone and 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol, respectively, as positive controls for androgenicity and estrogenicity. Neither DHEA nor TT was able to stimulate androgen sensitive tissues like the prostate and seminal vesicle in both intact and castrated male rats. In addition, administration of TT to intact male rats for 28 days did not change serum testosterone levels as well as did not produce any quantitative change in the fecal excretion of androgenic metabolites. However, a slight increase in the number of homogenization-resistant spermatids was observed in rats treated with 11 mg/kg/day of TT extract. In ovariectomized females, TT did not produce any stimulatory effects in uterine and vaginal epithelia. Tribulus terrestris was not able to stimulate endocrine sensitive tissues such as the prostate, seminal vesicle, uterus and vagina in Wistar rats, indicating lack of androgenic and estrogenic activity in vivo. We also showed a positive effect of TT administration on rat sperm production, associated with unchanged levels of circulating androgens. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Differences in tubuloglomerular feedback--oscillatory activity between spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar-Kyoto rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1985-01-01

    strains, oscillations could be elicited by free flow microperfusion with artificial tubular fluid. When furosemide was added to the artificial tubular fluid in a concentration of 0.1 mmol/l, the oscillations were abolished in both strains of rats. It is concluded that, in both strains of rats...

  8. Effect of Piper betel leaf stalk extract on protein metabolism in reproductive tissues of male albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    V Vengaiah; A Govardhan Naik; C Changamma

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To know the impact of Piper betel leaf stalk (P. betel) extract on Protein and energy metabolism and its role in male albino rats. Methods: Healthy adult (3-4 months old) male Wistar strain albino rats were administered with betel leaf stalk extract, at the dose of 50 mg/kg/day through oral gavages for 15 days. Twenty four hours after the last dose, the animals were autopsied. In order to assess antifertility effect in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate gland, esti...

  9. Fullerol ionic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Nikhil; Dallas, Panagiotis; Rodriguez, Robert; Bourlinos, Athanasios B.; Georgakilas, Vasilios; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2010-09-01

    We report for the first time an ionic fluid based on hydroxylated fullerenes (fullerols). The ionic fluid was synthesized by neutralizing the fully protonated fullerol with an amine terminated polyethylene/polypropylene oxide oligomer (Jeffamine®). The ionic fluid was compared to a control synthesized by mixing the partially protonated form (sodium form) of the fullerols with the same oligomeric amine in the same ratio as in the ionic fluids (20 wt% fullerol). In the fullerol fluid the ionic bonding significantly perturbs the thermal transitions and melting/crystallization behavior of the amine. In contrast, both the normalized heat of fusion and crystallization of the amine in the control are similar to those of the neat amine consistent with a physical mixture of the fullerols/amine with minimal interactions. In addition to differences in thermal behavior, the fullerol ionic fluid exhibits a complex viscoelastic behavior intermediate between the neat Jeffamine® (liquid-like) and the control (solid-like).

  10. Fiber optic fluid detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, S.M.

    1987-02-27

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

  11. Fiber optic fluid detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, S. Michael

    1989-01-01

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element (11, 11a to 11j) having a cladding or coating of a material (23, 23a to 23j) which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector (24, 24a to 24j) may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses.

  12. Morfologia de frutos, sementes e desenvolvimento pós-seminal de cabelo-de-negro - Connarus suberosus Planch. (Connaraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miele Tallon Matheus

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describe and illustrate the morphological aspects of cabelo-de-negro (Connarus suberosus Planch. fruits, seeds and post-seminal development. The fruits were characterized externally, the seeds internally and externally, and the germination and initial development of the seedlings were also analyzed and described. A stereoscope microscope was used for the observations whereas the measurements were made with a pachimeter. Fruits are ovoid and dehiscent follicles, of ferruginous-yellow color, containing one or two seeds. The seed has a reniform shape, showing dark coat and a circular hilum, which is recovered by the yellow-orange arilum. Seeds have axial and invaginated embryo, with green cotyledons that show various specks of ferruginous-reddish pigmentation, and a short, straight and cylindrical hypocotil-radicle axis. Seed germination was hypogeous and criptocotylar. The primary root emerges after 3 to 10 days, followed by the emergence of the protophyll, which occurs from around 10 to 20 days after sowing.

  13. Gravitropic reaction of primary seminal roots of Zea mays L. influenced by temperature and soil water potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, T

    1995-03-01

    The growth of the primary seminal root of maize (Zea mays L.) is characterized by an initial negative gravitropic reaction and a later positive one that attains a plagiotropic liminal angle. The effects of temperature and water potential of the surrounding soil on these gravitropic reactions were studied. Temperatures of 32, 25, and 18C and soil water potentials of -5, -38, and -67 kPa were imposed and the direction of growth was measured for every 1 cm length of the root. The initial negative gravitropic reaction extended to a distance of about 10 cm from the grain. Higher temperatures reduced the initial negative gravitropic reaction. Lower soil water potential induced a downward growth at root emergence. A mathematical model, in which it was assumed that the rate of the directional change of root growth was a sum of a time-dependent negative gravitropic reaction and an establishment of the liminal angle, adequately fitted the distance-angle relations. It was suggested that higher temperatures and/or a lower water potential accelerated the diminution of the initial negative gravitropic reaction.

  14. Evaluation and Optimization of Paper-Based SERS Substrate for Potential Label-Free Raman Analysis of Seminal Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zufang Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization and optimization of paper SERS substrate were performed in detail, in which morphologies and distribution of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs on the paper substrate pretreated with different concentrations of NaCl and the subsequent soaking with colloidal AgNPs for different period of time were evaluated. Our results show that both NaCl concentration and soaking time with AgNPs have a significant influence on SERS enhancement, showing that an optimal EF of 2.27 × 107 was achieved when the paper substrate was treated with 20 mM NaCl and one-hour soak with AgNPs. Moreover, seminal plasma (SP was specifically selected to evaluate the performance of paper-based SERS substrate for potential clinical detection and diagnosis. The optimization of the paper SERS substrate demonstrates potential applications in reliable on-site detection of SP and clinical diagnosis of fertility-related diseases as well.

  15. Testicular echotexture and seminal quality of young Montana Tropical Compound bulls classified as sound and unsound for breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Oliveira Pinho

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between testicular echotexture and seminal quality, in addition to evaluate the testicular parenchyma echogenicity pattern in young Montana bulls classified as sound and unsound for breeding. Fifty-two young Montana Tropical Compound bulls from 22 to 33 months of age were used. The animals were previously evaluated by breeding soundness evaluation and thereafter divided into two groups of breeding soundness classes: 1 = 16 animals sound for breeding; 2 = 36 animals unsound for breeding by means of physical and morphological analysis of semen. All animals underwent an ultrasound examination of the testes, and the images were analyzed with the software "Image J". ANOVA was used for statistical analysis, to determine the effect of groups in relation to testicular measurements, physical and morphological semen features and ultrasound pixel analysis. There was a difference between scrotal circumference between classes, with 39.7±2.1 cm and 37.3±3.1 cm for sound and unsound animals, respectively. Regarding testicular echotexture, mean values for the pixel intensity were 95.7 and 94.0 for sound and unsound animals for breeding, respectively, with no difference between the classes. None of the studied parameters were correlated with each other, indicating that the quantification of the pixel intensity in testicular echotexture was not effective in determining the degree of sexual maturity in Montana Tropical Compound bulls.

  16. Thermodynamic properties and static structure factor for a Yukawa fluid in the mean spherical approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Perez, J; Cruz-Vera, A; Herrera, J N

    2011-12-01

    This work presents the full analytic expressions for the thermodynamic properties and the static structure factor for a hard sphere plus 1-Yukawa fluid within the mean spherical approximation. To obtain these properties of the fluid type Yukawa analytically it was necessary to solve an equation of fourth order for the scaling parameter on a large scale. The physical root of this equation was determined by imposing physical conditions. The results of this work are obtained from seminal papers of Blum and Høye. We show that is not necessary the use the series expansion to solve the equation for the scaling parameter. We applied our theoretical result to find the thermodynamic and the static structure factor for krypton. Our results are in good agreement with those obtained in an experimental form or by simulation using the Monte Carlo method.

  17. Metalworking and machining fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  18. Disposing of fluid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    Toxic liquid waste, eg liquid radioactive waste, is disposed of by locating a sub-surface stratum which, before removal of any fluid, has a fluid pressure in the pores thereof which is less than the hydrostatic pressure which is normal for a stratum at that depth in the chosen area, and then feeding the toxic liquid into the stratum at a rate such that the fluid pressure in the stratum never exceeds the said normal hydrostatic pressure. (author)

  19. Fluid dynamics transactions

    CERN Document Server

    Fiszdon, W

    1965-01-01

    Fluid Dynamics Transactions, Volume 2 compiles 46 papers on fluid dynamics, a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow. The topics discussed in this book include developments in interference theory for aeronautical applications; diffusion from sources in a turbulent boundary layer; unsteady motion of a finite wing span in a compressible medium; and wall pressure covariance and comparison with experiment. The certain classes of non-stationary axially symmetric flows in magneto-gas-dynamics; description of the phenomenon of secondary flows in curved channels by means of co

  20. Electrorheological fluids and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Peter F.; McIntyre, Ernest C.

    2015-06-02

    Electrorheological fluids and methods include changes in liquid-like materials that can flow like milk and subsequently form solid-like structures under applied electric fields; e.g., about 1 kV/mm. Such fluids can be used in various ways as smart suspensions, including uses in automotive, defense, and civil engineering applications. Electrorheological fluids and methods include one or more polar molecule substituted polyhedral silsesquioxanes (e.g., sulfonated polyhedral silsesquioxanes) and one or more oils (e.g., silicone oil), where the fluid can be subjected to an electric field.

  1. Plasmas and fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Plasma and fluid physics includes the fields of fusion research and space investigation. This book discusses the most important advances in these areas over the past decade and recommends a stronger commitment to basic research in plasma and fluid physics. The book recommends that plasma and fluid physics be included in physics curriculums because of their increasing importance in energy and defense. The book also lists recent accomplishments in the fields of general plasma physics, fusion plasma confinement and heating, space and astrophysical plasmas, and fluid physics and lists research opportunities in these areas. A funding summary explains how research monies are allocated and suggests ways to improve their effectiveness

  2. Theoretical Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shivamoggi, Bhimsen K

    1998-01-01

    "Although there are many texts and monographs on fluid dynamics, I do not know of any which is as comprehensive as the present book. It surveys nearly the entire field of classical fluid dynamics in an advanced, compact, and clear manner, and discusses the various conceptual and analytical models of fluid flow." - Foundations of Physics on the first edition. Theoretical Fluid Dynamics functions equally well as a graduate-level text and a professional reference. Steering a middle course between the empiricism of engineering and the abstractions of pure mathematics, the author focuses

  3. Correlations between phthalate metabolites in urine, serum, and seminal plasma from young Danish men determined by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Jørgensen, Niels; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2010-01-01

    Phthalates are suspected of endocrine disrupting effects. We aimed to develop an analytical method for simultaneous determination of several phthalate metabolites in human urine, serum, and seminal plasma and to study correlations between levels of metabolites in these matrices. Thirteen metaboli......Phthalates are suspected of endocrine disrupting effects. We aimed to develop an analytical method for simultaneous determination of several phthalate metabolites in human urine, serum, and seminal plasma and to study correlations between levels of metabolites in these matrices. Thirteen...... metabolites were determined in samples from 60 young Danish men. Metabolites of common di-ester phthalates were detected in most urine samples. Summed di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites were excreted in urine in the highest amount (median = 91.1 ng/mL), followed by monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono...

  4. Las proteínas del plasma seminal incrementan la viabilidad espermática post-descongelación del semen de toros Sanmartinero

    OpenAIRE

    Fabián Rueda A.; Tatiana Garcés P.; Rocío Herrera L.; Luis Arbeláez R.; Miguel Peña J.; Henry Velásquez P.; Aureliano Hernández V.; Jaime Cardozo C.

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la adición de proteínas del plasma seminal sobre el porcentaje de espermatozoides bovinos viables post-descongelación. Materiales y métodos. Los espermatozoides se congelaron usando dos medios (citrato-fructosa-yema y Bioxcell®) y la obtención de proteínas de plasma seminal de bajo peso molecular se realizó por medio de cromatografía líquida de baja presión. Las proteínas de interés eluyeron en las fracciones 21-25 y se sometieron...

  5. Las proteínas del plasma seminal incrementan la viabilidad espermática post-descongelación del semen de toros Sanmartinero

    OpenAIRE

    Rueda A, Fabián; Garcés P, Tatiana; Herrera L, Rocío; Arbeláez R, Luis; Peña J, Miguel; Velásquez P, Henry; Hernández V, Aureliano; Hernández V, Aureliano; Cardozo C, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    RESUMENObjetivo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la adición de proteínas del plasma seminal sobre el porcentaje de espermatozoides bovinos viables post-descongelación. Materiales y métodos. Los espermatozoides se congelaron usando dos medios (citrato-fructosa-yema y Bioxcell®) y la obtención de proteínas de plasma seminal de bajo peso molecular se realizó por medio de cromatografía líquida de baja presión. Las proteínas de interés eluyeron en las fracciones 21-25 y se som...

  6. Protein profile of seminal plasma and functionality of spermatozoa during the reproductive season in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shaliutina-Kolešová, A.; Kotas, P.; Štěrba, Ján; Rodina, M.; Dzyuba, B.; Cosson, J.; Linhart, O.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 11 (2016), s. 968-982 ISSN 1040-452X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-03044S; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : reproductive season * spermatozoon motility * seminal plasma proteins * carp * rainbow trout * protein identification Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.316, year: 2016

  7. Seminal Plasma Characteristics and Expression of ATP-binding Cassette Transporter A1 (ABCA1) in Canine Spermatozoa from Ejaculates with Good and Bad Freezability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer-Somi, S; Palme, N

    2016-04-01

    The composition of seminal plasma and the localization of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) in spermatozoa from good and bad freezers were compared to frozen-thawed spermatozoa from the same dog. Ejaculates were obtained from 31 stud dogs, and the sperm-rich fraction (SRF) was kept for analysis. One aliquot was used for the analysis of concentration, progressive motility (P; CASA), viability (V; CASA) and leucocyte count, and the analysis was performed by flow cytometry (FITC-PNA/PI), SCSA and HOST. In seminal plasma, concentration of albumin, cholesterol, calcium, inorganic phosphate, sodium, potassium, zinc and copper was measured. Semen smears were prepared and evaluated for the expression of ABCA1. The remainder of each ejaculate was frozen. After thawing, the quality assessment was repeated and further smears were prepared. According to post-thaw semen quality, dogs were assigned to good freezers (n = 20) or bad freezers (n = 11), the latter were defined as 40% morphologically abnormal sperm and/or < 50% viability. Bad freezers were older than good freezers (5.3 vs 3.4 years, p < 0.05). In bad freezers, the percentage of sperm with ABCA1 signal in the acrosome was lower (26.3% vs 35.7%, p < 0.01) and the percentage of sperm with complete loss of ABCA1 signal higher (46.7% vs 30%, p < 0.01); the percentage of dead spermatozoa was higher (36.1% vs 25.5%, p < 0.05), and the concentration of cholesterol and sodium in seminal plasma was lower than in good freezers (p < 0.05). We conclude that in thawed bad freezer sperm, an increase in acrosome damages coincided with an increased loss of cholesterol transporters and cell death, and a lower cholesterol concentration in seminal plasma. Follow-up studies revealed whether a relation exists between these findings. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. β-Microseminoprotein Endows Post Coital Seminal Plasma with Potent Candidacidal Activity by a Calcium- and pH-Dependent Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edström Hägerwall, Anneli M. L.; Rydengård, Victoria; Fernlund, Per; Mörgelin, Matthias; Baumgarten, Maria; Cole, Alexander M.; Malmsten, Martin; Kragelund, Birthe B.; Sørensen, Ole E.

    2012-01-01

    The innate immune factors controlling Candida albicans are mostly unknown. Vulvovaginal candidiasis is common in women and affects approximately 70–75% of all women at least once. Despite the propensity of Candida to colonize the vagina, transmission of Candida albicans following sexual intercourse is very rare. This prompted us to investigate whether the post coital vaginal milieu contained factors active against C. albicans. By CFU assays, we found prominent candidacidal activity of post coital seminal plasma at both neutral and the acid vaginal pH. In contrast, normal seminal plasma did not display candidacidal activity prior to acidification. By antifungal gel overlay assay, one clearing zone corresponding to a protein band was found in both post coital and normal seminal plasma, which was subsequently identified as β-microseminoprotein. At neutral pH, the fungicidal activity of β-microseminoprotein and seminal plasma was inhibited by calcium. By NMR spectroscopy, amino acid residue E71 was shown to be critical for the calcium coordination. The acidic vaginal milieu unleashed the fungicidal activity by decreasing the inhibitory effect of calcium. The candidacidal activity of β-microseminoprotein was mapped to a fragment of the C-terminal domain with no structural similarity to other known proteins. A homologous fragment from porcine β-microseminoprotein demonstrated calcium-dependent fungicidal activity in a CFU assay, suggesting this may be a common feature for members of the β-microseminoprotein family. By electron microscopy, β-microseminoprotein was found to cause lysis of Candida. Liposome experiments demonstrated that β-microseminoprotein was active towards ergosterol-containing liposomes that mimic fungal membranes, offering an explanation for the selectivity against fungi. These data identify β-microseminoprotein as an important innate immune factor active against C. albicans and may help explain the low sexual transmission rate of Candida

  9. Decrease in Seminal HIV-1 RNA Load After Praziquantel Treatment of Urogenital Schistosomiasis Coinfection in HIV-Positive Men—An Observational Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; Mudenge, Boniface

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urogenital schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma hematobium infection is hypothesized to cause increased HIV-1 RNA shedding in semen in HIV co-infected men as result of chronic egg-induced inflammation in the prostate and the seminal vesicles. The effect of treatment with the antihelmint...... targeting praziquantel as a supplementary preventive measure of sexual transmission of HIV-1 in S. haematobium endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa....

  10. Effect of season on scrotal circumference, semen characteristics, seminal plasma composition and spermatozoa motility during liquid storage in INRA180 rams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmoula, Anass; Badi, Abdelmoughit; El Fadili, Moussa; El Khalil, Kaoutar; Allai, Larbi; El Hilali, Abderaouf; El Amiri, Bouchra

    2017-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of seasons on scrotal circumference, semen characteristics, seminal plasma composition, and sperm motility during liquid storage of INRA180 rams. The semen was collected from five mature INRA180 rams (2-3 years of age) during one year (from April 2014 to March 2015). Scrotal circumferences, semen characteristics, some biochemical parameters of seminal plasma were evaluated. Immediately after collection and evaluation, the semen was pooled and extended in skim milk (SM) at 15°C to reach 0.8×109 spermatozoa/ml. Thereafter, samples were evaluated at different storage times (0, 8, and 24h). The results showed that scrotal circumference, semen quality and the concentration of total protein in seminal plasma were relatively constant during the year (P>0.05). However, total lipid and cholesterol concentrations increased significantly (P0.05). To conclude, the INRA180 rams have the ability to produce semen with high quality all over the year. The only parameters showing seasonal variations are cholesterol, total lipid, and progressive motility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Differential abundances of four forms of Binder of SPerm 1 in the seminal plasma of Bos taurus indicus bulls with different patterns of semen freezability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Marcos Jorge; Martins, Leonardo Franco; Senra, Renato Lima; Santos, Thaís Ferreira Dos; Okano, Denise Silva; Pereira, Paulo Roberto Gomes; Faria-Campos, Alessandra; Campos, Sérgio Vale Aguiar; Guimarães, José Domingos; Baracat-Pereira, Maria Cristina

    2016-08-01

    The Binder of SPerm 1 (BSP1) protein is involved in the fertilization and semen cryopreservation processes and is described to be both beneficial and detrimental to sperm. Previously, the relationship of BSP1 with freezability events has not been completely understood. The objective of this work was to determine the differential abundance of the forms of the BSP1 protein in cryopreserved seminal plasma of Bos taurus indicus bulls with different patterns of semen freezability using proteomics. A wide cohort of adult bulls with high genetic value from an artificial insemination center was used as donors of high quality, fresh semen. Nine bulls presenting different patterns of semen freezability were selected. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed differential abundance in a group of seven protein spots in the frozen/thawed seminal plasma from the bulls, ranging from 15 to 17 kDa, with pI values from 4.6 to 5.8. Four of these spots were confirmed to be BSP1 using mass spectrometry, proteomics, biochemical, and computational analysis (Tukey's test at P semen freezability and its absence in bulls presenting high semen freezability. This is the first report showing that more than two forms of BSP1 are found in the seminal plasma of Nelore adult bulls and not all animals have a similar abundance of each BSP1 form. Different BSP1 forms may be involved in different events of fertilization and the cryopreservation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of feeding omega-3-fatty acids on fatty acid composition and quality of bovine sperm and on antioxidative capacity of bovine seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürler, Hakan; Calisici, Oguz; Calisici, Duygu; Bollwein, Heinrich

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of feeding alpha-linolenic (ALA) acid on fatty acid composition and quality of bovine sperm and on antioxidative capacity of seminal plasma. Nine bulls (ALA bulls) were fed with 800 g rumen-resistant linseed oil with a content of 50% linolenic acid and eight bulls with 400 g palmitic acid (PA bulls). Sperm quality was evaluated for plasma membrane and acrosome intact sperm (PMAI), the amount of membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO), and the percentage of sperm with a high DNA fragmentation index (DFI). Fatty acid content of sperm was determined using gas chromatography. Total antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activity were determined in seminal plasma. Feeding ALA increased (P acid (DHA) content in bulls whereas in PA bulls did not change. PMAI increased after cryopreservation in ALA bulls as well as in PA bulls during the experiment period (P fatty acids affect the antioxidant levels in seminal plasma. Both saturated as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids had positive effects on quality of cryopreserved bovine sperm, although the content of docosahexaenoic acid in sperm membranes increased only in ALA bulls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Space Station fluid management logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Sam M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  14. Compressible generalized Newtonian fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Málek, Josef; Rajagopal, K.R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 6 (2010), s. 1097-1110 ISSN 0044-2275 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : power law fluid * uniform temperature * compressible fluid Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.290, year: 2010

  15. Pleural fluid smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... into the space around the lungs, called the pleural space. As fluid drains into a collection bottle, you may cough a bit. This is because your lung re-expands to fill the space where fluid had been. This sensation lasts for a few hours after the test.

  16. Peritoneal fluid culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... The peritoneal fluid culture may be negative, even if you have ... diagnosis of peritonitis is based on other factors, in addition ...

  17. Tumor interstitial fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Olsen, Charlotta J.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) is a proximal fluid that, in addition to the set of blood soluble phase-borne proteins, holds a subset of aberrantly externalized components, mainly proteins, released by tumor cells and tumor microenvironment through various mechanisms, which include classical...

  18. Fluid control valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, J.

    1980-01-01

    A fluid control valve is described in which it is not necessary to insert a hand or a tool into the housing to remove the valve seat. Such a valve is particularly suitable for the control of radioactive fluids since maintenance by remote control is possible. (UK)

  19. Time Independent Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, A. A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses theories underlying Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids by explaining flow curves exhibited by plastic, shear-thining, and shear-thickening fluids and Bingham plastic materials. Indicates that the exact mechanism governing shear-thickening behaviors is a problem of further study. (CC)

  20. Relativistic thermodynamics of fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souriau, J.-M.

    1977-05-01

    The relativistic covariant definition of a statistical equilibrium, applied to a perfect gas, involves a 'temperature four-vector', whose direction is the mean velocity of the fluid, and whose length is the reciprocal temperature. The hypothesis of this 'temperature four-vector' being a relevant variable for the description of the dissipative motions of a simple fluid is discussed. The kinematics is defined by using a vector field and measuring the number of molecules. Such a dissipative fluid is subject to motions involving null entropy generation; the 'temperature four-vector' is then a Killing vector; the equations of motion can be completely integrated. Perfect fluids can be studied by this way and the classical results of Lichnerowicz are obtained. In weakly dissipative motions two viscosity coefficient appear together with the heat conductibility coefficient. Two other coefficients perharps measurable on real fluids. Phase transitions and shock waves are described with using the model [fr

  1. TGF-mediated oscillations in the proximal intratubular pressure: differences between spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar-Kyoto rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1986-01-01

    fluid (ATF). When furosemide was added to the ATF in a concentration of 0.1 mM, the oscillations were abolished in both strains of rats. It is concluded that, in both strains of rats the oscillatory phenomena depend upon TGF activity. It is suggested that the irregular pattern of the oscillations...

  2. Latencia en semillas de Stylosanthes hamata (Leguminosae y su relación con la morfología de la cubierta seminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Castillo

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available La semilla de Stylosanthes hamata (L. Taub. se caracteriza por presentar un alto grado de latencia asociada a una restricción a la absorción de humedad (semilla dura. En esta investigación, se estudió la dureza de semillas distales y basales de siete líneas diploides y cinco líneas tetraploides, cultivadas bajo condiciones tropicales. Las pruebas pruebas de germinación (HR: 55-65%, temperatura constante: 27-30º C, fotoperíodo: 12/12 hr llevadas a cabo en semillas desprovistas de vaina indicaron que el grado de dureza seminal estuvo en casi todos los casos por encima del 85%, independientemente del nivel de ploidia y de la posición de la semilla en el fruto. Así mismo, se realizó una caracterización morfo-anatómica de la cubierta seminal a través del uso del microscopio óptico y de barrido. Esta caracterización fue complementada con un estudio histoquímico para determinar la ubicación de compuestos hidrofóbicos en la cubierta seminal. Los resultados de estas pruebas señalaron que la dureza seminal estuvo relacionada con la presencia de un micropilo y un hilo totalmente cerrados, una epidermis compuesta por macroesclereidas en empalizada con una línea lúcida en las paredes más externas de estas células y a una alta concentración de compuestos hidrofóbicos en todos los tejidos que conforman la cubierta seminal.The seed of Stylosanthes hamata is characterized by it's a high level of dormancy, which is imposed by seed-coat impermeability to water entry (harseededness or hard-seed condition. The level of hardseededness between upper and lower articulations of seven diploid and five tetraploid accessions was studied under tropical conditions. Germination tests on naked seeds (relative humidity: 55-65%, constant temperature: 27-30º C, photoperiod: 12/12 hr showed that hard-seed percentage was, in most cases, over 85% independent of ploidy level and seed position within the fruit. Histochemical analysis indicated that

  3. Effect of Priangan ram seminal plasma on viability of Peranakan Etawah buck spermatozoa preserved at 3–5oC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rizal

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In processing of buck semen, seminal plasma is a problem because it contains a phospholipase A enzime produced by the Cowper gland. If this enzime interacts with egg yolk, it causes semen coagulation, and consequently death of spermatozoa. The purpose of this research was to examine the effect of Priangan ram seminal plasma on viability of Peranakan Etawah (PE buck spermatozoa preserved at 3–5oC. Semen was collected using artificial vagina once a week. Fresh semen was divided into three tubes then centrifuged at 3,000 RPM for 30 min. Supernatant of the first tube was mixed again with Pasteur pipette (treatment A or control. Supernatant of the second tube was removed (treatment B or without seminal plasma. Supernatant of the third tube was removed and changed with Priangan ram seminal plasma in the same volume (treatment C. Semen was diluted with Tris extender containing 20% egg yolk and stored in refrigerator at 3–5oC. Quality of diluted-semen including percentages of motile spermatozoa (MS, live spermatozoa (LS, and intact plasma membrane (IPM was evaluated every day during storage at 3–5oC for three days. Results of this study showed that mean volume, colour, consistency, pH, mass activity, spermatozoa concentration, MS, LS, spermatozoa abnormal, and IPM of PE buck fresh semen, respectively was 0.68 ml, cream, thick, 7, ++/+++, 4,148.57 million cell/ml, 70%, 83.89%, 7.12% and 84%. At day-4 of storage, percentages of MS, LS, and IPM for treatment C (40, 52.2 and 51.6% was significantly (P<0.05 higher than that of: treatment B (31, 44.8 and 45.2% and treatment A (11, 15.6 and 14.8%. In conclusion, seminal plasma of Priangan ram could maintain the quality of PE buck semen preserved at 3–5oC for three days, and it prevent semen from coagulation.

  4. Dosimetric implications of residual seminal vesicle motion in fiducial-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenmark, Matthew H.; Vineberg, Karen; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Hamstra, Daniel A.; Feng, Mary

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether residual interfraction seminal vesicle (SV) displacement necessitates specific planning target volume (PTV) margins during fiducial-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of the prostate. A planning computed tomography (CT) scan and 2 subsequent CT scans were prospectively obtained for 20 prostate cancer patients with intraprostatic fiducial markers. After CT registration, SV displacement relative to the prostate was quantified as a function of margin size for both the proximal (1 cm) SV (PSV) and the full SV (FSV). Two IMRT plans were simulated for each patient (prostate + PSV and prostate + FSV) both with a uniform 5-mm PTV margin. Minimum clinical target volume (CTV) dose (D min ) and the volume of SV receiving 95% of the prescription dose (V 95% ) were assessed during treatment and compared with the initial plan. In all cases, SV displacement with respect to the prostate was greater for the FSV compared with the PSV. To ensure at least 95% geometrical coverage of the CTV for 90% of patients, margins of 5 and 8 mm were required for the PSV and FSV, respectively. Dosimetrically, residual SV displacement had minimal impact on PSV coverage compared with FSV coverage. For the PSV D min was ≥95% of the prescribed dose in 90% of patients with an overall mean V 95% of 99.6 ± 0.8%; for the FSV D min was ≥95% of the prescribed dose in only 45% of patients with a mean V 95% of 97.9 ± 2.4%. The SVs move differentially from the prostate and exhibit greater variation with increasing distance from the prostate. For plans targeting just the prostate and PSVs, 5-mm PTV expansions are adequate. However, despite daily localization of the prostate, larger PTV margins are required for cases where the intent is to completely cover the FSV.

  5. The Role of Seminal Vesicle Motion in Target Margin Assessment for Online Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Jian; Wu Qiuwen; Yan Di

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: For patients with intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer, the seminal vesicles (SVs) are included in the clinical target volume (CTV). The purposes of this study are to investigate interfraction motion characteristics of the SVs and determine proper margins for online computed tomography image guidance. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients, each with 16 daily helical computed tomography scans, were included in this study. A binary image mask was used for image registration to determine daily organ motion. Two online image-guided radiotherapy strategies (prostate only and prostate + SVs) were simulated in a hypofractionated scheme. Three margin designs were studied for both three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). In prostate-only guidance, Margin A was uniformly applied to the whole CTV, and Margin B was applied to the SVs with a fixed 3-mm prostate margin. In prostate plus SV guidance, Margin C was uniformly applied to the CTV. The minimum margins were sought to satisfy the criterion that minimum cumulative CTV dose be more than those of the planning target volume in the plan for greater than 95% of patients. Results: The prostate and SVs move significantly more in the anterior-posterior and superior-inferior than right-left directions. The anterior-posterior motion of the prostate and SVs correlated (R 2 = 0.7). The SVs move significantly more than the prostate. The minimum margins found were 2.5 mm for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and 4.5, 4.5, and 3.0 mm for Margins A, B, and C for IMRT, respectively. Margins for IMRT were larger, but the irradiated volume and doses to critical structures were smaller. Minimum margins of 4.5 mm to the SVs and 3 mm to the prostate are recommended for IMRT with prostate-only guidance. Conclusions: The SVs move independently from the prostate gland, and additional margins are necessary for image-guided radiotherapy

  6. Seminal quality and sperm production in beef bulls with chronic dietary vitamin A deficiency and subsequent re-alimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, L M; Coulter, G H; Kastelic, J P; Bailey, D R

    1995-05-01

    Sixteen Hereford bulls (16 mo of age, 462 kg average body weight) were used in each of 2 yr to evaluate the effects of hypovitaminosis A on seminal quality and sperm production. Bulls were fed a high-concentrate diet with (+VIT) or without (-VIT) supplemental Vitamin A until the apparent onset of hypovitaminosis A (28 and 32 wk in Year 1 and 2, respectively). Half of the bulls on each treatment were then slaughtered and those remaining were re-alimented with Vitamin A. Plasma retinol concentration in -VIT bulls reached a nadir at approximately 25 wk. In Year 1, the proportion of progressively motile spermatozoa was lower in -VIT bulls after 17 wk but returned to that of the +VIT group after re-alimentation. The proportion of spermatozoa with primary morphological defects appeared to be greater in -VIT bulls compared to +VIT bulls by 26 and 24 wk in Year 1 and 2, respectively. The incidence of these defects declined in -VIT bulls upon re-alimentation, and approached the incidence observed in +VIT bulls by 8 to 12 wk of re-alimentation. Hypovitaminosis A decreased paired testes weight, daily sperm production, and epididymal sperm reserves but did not affect daily gain. Prolonged dietary Vitamin A deficiency impaired semen quality and sperm production in the absence of other clinical symptoms. However, under practical feeding conditions, diets that result in long-term, marginal Vitamin A deficiency or a relatively short-term absence of Vitamin A intake probably would have minimal effects on spermatogenesis.

  7. Elevated seminal plasma estradiol and epigenetic inactivation of ESR1 and ESR2 is associated with CP/CPPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesheim, Nils; Ellem, Stuart; Dansranjavin, Temuujin; Hagenkötter, Christina; Berg, Elena; Schambeck, Rupert; Schuppe, Hans-Christian; Pilatz, Adrian; Risbridger, Gail; Weidner, Wolfgang; Wagenlehner, Florian; Schagdarsurengin, Undraga

    2018-04-13

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is associated with urinary tract symptoms and hormonal imbalances amongst others. The heterogeneous clinical presentation, unexplored molecular background and lack of prostate biopsies complicate therapy. Here, using liquid biopsies, we performed a comprehensive translational study on men diagnosed with CP/CPPS type III ( n = 50; median age 39.8, range 23-65) and age-matched controls ( n = 61; median age 36.8, range 20-69), considering biochemical parameters of blood and ejaculates, and epigenetic regulation of the estrogen receptor genes ( ESR1 and ESR2 ) in leukocytes isolated from blood (systemic regulation) and in somatic cells isolated from ejaculates (local regulation). We found elevated 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) levels in seminal plasma, but not in blood plasma, that was significantly associated with CP/CPPS and impaired urinary tract symptoms. In ejaculated somatic cells of CP/CPPS patients we found that ESR1 and ESR2 were both significantly higher methylated in CpG-promoters and expressionally down-regulated in comparison to controls. Mast cells are reported to contribute to CP/CPPS and are estrogen responsive. Consistent with this, we found that E 2 -treatment of human mast cell lines (HMC-1 and LAD2) resulted in altered cytokine and chemokine expression. Interestingly, in HMC-1 cells, possessing epigenetically inactivated ESR1 and ESR2, E 2 -treatment led to a reduced transcription of a number of inflammatory genes. Overall, these data suggest that elevated local E 2 levels associate with an epigenetic down-regulation of the estrogen receptors and have a prominent role in CP/CPPS. Investigating E 2 levels in semen could therefore serve as a promising biomarker to select patients for estrogen targeted therapy.

  8. Effect of the Camelid's Seminal Plasma Ovulation-Inducing Factor/β-NGF: A Kisspeptin Target Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Allali, Khalid; El Bousmaki, Najlae; Ainani, Hassan; Simonneaux, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    Female mammals are classified into spontaneous and induced ovulators based on the mechanism eliciting ovulation. Ovulation in spontaneous species (e.g., human, sheep, cattle, horse, pigs, and most rodents) occurs at regular intervals and depends upon the circulating estradiol. However, in induced ovulators (e.g., rabbits, ferrets, cats, and camelids), ovulation is associated with coitus. In the later, various factors have been proposed to trigger ovulation, including auditory, visual, olfactory, and mechanic stimuli. However, other studies have identified a biochemical component in the semen of induced ovulators responsible for the induction of ovulation and named accordingly ovulation-inducing factor (OIF). In camelids, intramuscular or intrauterine administration of seminal plasma (SP) was shown to induce the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge followed by ovulation and subsequent formation of corpus luteum. Recently, this OIF has been identified from SP as a neurotrophin, the β subunit of nerve growth factor (β-NGF). β-NGF is well known as promoting neuron survival and growth, but in this case, it appears to induce ovulation through an endocrine mode of action. Indeed, β-NGF may be absorbed through the endometrium to be conveyed, via the blood stream, to the central structures regulating the LH preovulatory surge. In this review, we provide a summary of the most relevant results obtained in the field, and we propose a working hypothesis for the central action of β-NGF based on our recent demonstration of the presence of neurons expressing kisspeptin, a potent stimulator of GnRH/LH, in the camel hypothalamus.

  9. Effect of the Camelid’s Seminal Plasma Ovulation-Inducing Factor/β-NGF: A Kisspeptin Target Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Allali, Khalid; El Bousmaki, Najlae; Ainani, Hassan; Simonneaux, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    Female mammals are classified into spontaneous and induced ovulators based on the mechanism eliciting ovulation. Ovulation in spontaneous species (e.g., human, sheep, cattle, horse, pigs, and most rodents) occurs at regular intervals and depends upon the circulating estradiol. However, in induced ovulators (e.g., rabbits, ferrets, cats, and camelids), ovulation is associated with coitus. In the later, various factors have been proposed to trigger ovulation, including auditory, visual, olfactory, and mechanic stimuli. However, other studies have identified a biochemical component in the semen of induced ovulators responsible for the induction of ovulation and named accordingly ovulation-inducing factor (OIF). In camelids, intramuscular or intrauterine administration of seminal plasma (SP) was shown to induce the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge followed by ovulation and subsequent formation of corpus luteum. Recently, this OIF has been identified from SP as a neurotrophin, the β subunit of nerve growth factor (β-NGF). β-NGF is well known as promoting neuron survival and growth, but in this case, it appears to induce ovulation through an endocrine mode of action. Indeed, β-NGF may be absorbed through the endometrium to be conveyed, via the blood stream, to the central structures regulating the LH preovulatory surge. In this review, we provide a summary of the most relevant results obtained in the field, and we propose a working hypothesis for the central action of β-NGF based on our recent demonstration of the presence of neurons expressing kisspeptin, a potent stimulator of GnRH/LH, in the camel hypothalamus. PMID:28713816

  10. Effect of the Camelid’s Seminal Plasma Ovulation-Inducing Factor/β-NGF: A Kisspeptin Target Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid El Allali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Female mammals are classified into spontaneous and induced ovulators based on the mechanism eliciting ovulation. Ovulation in spontaneous species (e.g., human, sheep, cattle, horse, pigs, and most rodents occurs at regular intervals and depends upon the circulating estradiol. However, in induced ovulators (e.g., rabbits, ferrets, cats, and camelids, ovulation is associated with coitus. In the later, various factors have been proposed to trigger ovulation, including auditory, visual, olfactory, and mechanic stimuli. However, other studies have identified a biochemical component in the semen of induced ovulators responsible for the induction of ovulation and named accordingly ovulation-inducing factor (OIF. In camelids, intramuscular or intrauterine administration of seminal plasma (SP was shown to induce the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH surge followed by ovulation and subsequent formation of corpus luteum. Recently, this OIF has been identified from SP as a neurotrophin, the β subunit of nerve growth factor (β-NGF. β-NGF is well known as promoting neuron survival and growth, but in this case, it appears to induce ovulation through an endocrine mode of action. Indeed, β-NGF may be absorbed through the endometrium to be conveyed, via the blood stream, to the central structures regulating the LH preovulatory surge. In this review, we provide a summary of the most relevant results obtained in the field, and we propose a working hypothesis for the central action of β-NGF based on our recent demonstration of the presence of neurons expressing kisspeptin, a potent stimulator of GnRH/LH, in the camel hypothalamus.

  11. Effect of transient scrotal hyperthermia on sperm parameters, seminal plasma biochemical markers, and oxidative stress in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental prospective study, we aimed to analyze the effect of transient scrotal hyperthermia on the male reproductive organs, from the perspective of sperm parameters, semen plasma biochemical markers, and oxidative stress, to evaluate whether different frequencies of heat exposure cause different degrees of damage to spermatogenesis. Two groups of volunteers (10 per group received testicular warming in a 43°C water bath 10 times, for 30 min each time: group 1: 10 consecutive days; group 2: once every 3 days. Sperm parameters, epididymis and accessory sex gland function, semen plasma oxidative stress and serum sex hormones were tested before treatment and in the 16-week recovery period after treatment. At last, we found an obvious reversible decrease in sperm concentration (P = 0.005 for Group 1 and P= 0.008 for Group 2 when the minimums were compared with baseline levels, the same below, motility (P = 0.009 and 0.021, respectively, the hypoosmotic swelling test score (P = 0.007 and 0.008, respectively, total acrosin activity (P = 0.018 and 0.009, respectively, and an increase in the seminal plasma malondialdehyde concentration (P = 0.005 and 0.017, respectively. The decrease of sperm concentration was greater for Group 2 than for Group 1 (P = 0.031. We concluded that transient scrotal hyperthermia seriously, but reversibly, negatively affected the spermatogenesis, oxidative stress may be involved in this process. In addition, intermittent heat exposure more seriously suppresses the spermatogenesis compared to consecutive heat exposure. This may be indicative for clinical infertility etiology analysis and the design of contraceptive methods based on heat stress.

  12. Cystic tumors of the pituitary infundibulum: seminal autopsy specimens (1899 to 1904) that allowed clinical-pathological craniopharyngioma characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, José M; Prieto, Ruth; Rosdolsky, Maria; Strauss, Sewan; Castro-Dufourny, Inés; Hofecker, Verena; Winter, Eduard; Carrasco, Rodrigo; Ulrich, Walter

    2018-04-21

    A heterogeneous group of epithelial cystic tumors developed at the infundibulum and the third ventricle disconcerted pathologists at the dawn of the twentieth century. Very little was known at that time about the physiological role played by the pituitary gland, and there was almost complete ignorance regarding the function of the hypothalamus. Acromegaly, or enlargement of acral body parts, described in 1886 by Pierre Marie, was the only disease linked to primary hypertrophies of the pituitary gland, known as "pituitary strumas". A growing number of young patients manifesting an unexplained combination of physical and mental symptoms, including absent or delayed sexual maturation, progressive obesity, abnormal somnolence, and dementia-like changes in behavior were reported to present large solid-cystic tumors which characteristically expanded within the infundibulum and third ventricle, above an anatomically intact pituitary gland. Between 1899 and 1904, five seminal autopsy studies from different countries thoroughly described the anatomical relationships and histological features of this newly recognized type of infundibular tumors. These cases were instrumental in fostering the systematic investigation of similar lesions by the Austrian pathologist Jakob Erdheim (1874-1937), who in 1904 was able to classify these infundibulo-tuberal cysts under the common category of hypophyseal duct tumors. The pioneering American neurosurgeon Harvey Cushing (1869-1939) unsuccessfully attempted to surgically remove one of these cysts, for the first time in history, in 1902. The term "craniopharyngioma", chosen by Cushing in 1929 to designate these lesions, would eventually prevail over Erdheim's more accurate denomination, which linked their origin to squamous cell remnants derived from the embryological structures that give rise to the pituitary gland. This paper presents a comprehensive, renewed account of the five clinical-pathological reports which laid the groundwork for

  13. A multicenter study shows PTEN deletion is strongly associated with seminal vesicle involvement and extracapsular extension in localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Dean A; Jamaspishvili, Tamara; Wei, Wei; Feng, Ziding; Good, Jennifer; Hawley, Sarah; Fazli, Ladan; McKenney, Jesse K; Simko, Jeff; Hurtado-Coll, Antonio; Carroll, Peter R; Gleave, Martin; Lance, Raymond; Lin, Daniel W; Nelson, Peter S; Thompson, Ian M; True, Lawrence D; Brooks, James D; Squire, Jeremy A

    2015-08-01

    Loss of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) tumor suppressor gene is a promising marker of aggressive prostate cancer. Active surveillance and watchful waiting are increasingly recommended to patients with small tumors felt to be low risk, highlighting the difficulties of Gleason scoring in this setting. There is an urgent need for predictive biomarkers that can be rapidly deployed to aid in clinical decision-making. Our objectives were to assess the incidence and ability of PTEN alterations to predict aggressive disease in a multicenter study. We used recently developed probes optimized for sensitivity and specificity in a four-color FISH deletion assay to study the Canary Retrospective multicenter Prostate Cancer Tissue Microarray (TMA). This TMA was constructed specifically for biomarker validation from radical prostatectomy specimens, and is accompanied by detailed clinical information with long-term follow-up. In 612 prostate cancers, the overall rate of PTEN deletion was 112 (18.3%). Hemizygous PTEN losses were present in 55/612 (9.0%) of cancers, whereas homozygous PTEN deletion was observed in 57/612 (9.3%) of tumors. Significant associations were found between PTEN status and pathologic stage (P free survival (number of events = 189), pre-operative prostate specific antigen (PSA) (P free survival in multivariate models, as were seminal vesicle invasion, extracapsular extension, and Gleason score, and preoperative PSA. Furthermore, these data demonstrate that the assay can be readily introduced at first diagnosis in a cost effective manner analogous to the use of FISH for analysis of HER2/neu status in breast cancer. Combined with published research beginning 17 years ago, both the data and tools now exist to implement a PTEN assay in the clinic. © 2015 The Authors. The Prostate, published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Fluid sampling tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A.R.; Johnston, R.G.; Martinez, R.K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool is described for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall. 6 figs.

  15. Fluid mechanics. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truckenbrodt, E.

    1980-01-01

    The second volume contains the chapter 4 to 6. Whereas chapter 1 deals with the introduction into the mechanics of fluids and chapter 2 with the fundamental laws of fluid and thermal fluid dynamics, in chapter 3 elementary flow phenomena in fluids with constant density are treated. Chapter 4 directly continues chapter 3 and describes elementary flow phenomena in fluids with varying density. Fluid statics again is treated as a special case. If compared with the first edition the treatment of unsteady laminar flow and of pipe flow for a fluid with varying density were subject to a substantial extension. In chapter 5 rotation-free and rotating potential flows are presented together. By this means it is achieved to explain the behaviour of the multidimensional fictionless flow in closed form. A subchapter describes some related problems of potential theory like the flow along a free streamline and seepage flow through a porous medium. The boundary layer flows in chapter 6 are concerned with the flow and temperature boundary layer in laminar and turbulent flows at a fired wall. In it differential and integral methods are applied of subchapter reports on boundary layer flows without a fixed boundary, occurring e.g. in an open jet and in a wake flow. The problems of intermittence and of the Coanda effect are briefly mentioned. (orig./MH)

  16. Fluid sampling tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall.

  17. FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhash Shah

    2000-08-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

  18. Thermodynamics of Fluid Polyamorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail A. Anisimov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluid polyamorphism is the existence of different condensed amorphous states in a single-component fluid. It is either found or predicted, usually at extreme conditions, for a broad group of very different substances, including helium, carbon, silicon, phosphorous, sulfur, tellurium, cerium, hydrogen, and tin tetraiodide. This phenomenon is also hypothesized for metastable and deeply supercooled water, presumably located a few degrees below the experimental limit of homogeneous ice formation. We present a generic phenomenological approach to describe polyamorphism in a single-component fluid, which is completely independent of the molecular origin of the phenomenon. We show that fluid polyamorphism may occur either in the presence or in the absence of fluid phase separation depending on the symmetry of the order parameter. In the latter case, it is associated with a second-order transition, such as in liquid helium or liquid sulfur. To specify the phenomenology, we consider a fluid with thermodynamic equilibrium between two distinct interconvertible states or molecular structures. A fundamental signature of this concept is the identification of the equilibrium fraction of molecules involved in each of these alternative states. However, the existence of the alternative structures may result in polyamorphic fluid phase separation only if mixing of these structures is not ideal. The two-state thermodynamics unifies all the debated scenarios of fluid polyamorphism in different areas of condensed-matter physics, with or without phase separation, and even goes beyond the phenomenon of polyamorphism by generically describing the anomalous properties of fluids exhibiting interconversion of alternative molecular states.

  19. Fluid Dynamics for Physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, T. E.

    1995-08-01

    This textbook provides an accessible and comprehensive account of fluid dynamics that emphasizes fundamental physical principles and stresses connections with other branches of physics. Beginning with a basic introduction, the book goes on to cover many topics not typically treated in texts, such as compressible flow and shock waves, sound attenuation and bulk viscosity, solitary waves and ship waves, thermal convection, instabilities, turbulence, and the behavior of anisotropic, non-Newtonian and quantum fluids. Undergraduate or graduate students in physics or engineering who are taking courses in fluid dynamics will find this book invaluable.

  20. Thermal Fluid Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Byeong Ju

    1984-01-01

    This book is made up of 5 chapters. They are fluid mechanics, fluid machines, Industrial thermodynamics, steam boiler and steam turbine. It introduces hydrostatics, basic theory of fluid movement and law of momentum. It also deals with centrifugal pump, axial flow pump, general hydraulic turbine, and all phenomena happening in the pump. It covers the law of thermodynamics, perfect gas, properties of steam, and flow of gas and steam and water tube boiler. Lastly it explains basic format, theory, loss and performance as well as principle part of steam turbine.

  1. Male reproductive effects of octylphenol and estradiol in Fischer and Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossaini, Alireza; Dalgaard, Majken; Vinggaard, Anne

    2003-01-01

    to vehicle or 400 mg/kg bw of 4-tert-octylphenol administrated orally by gavage. Estradiol benzoate, at a dose of 40 mug/kg bw, was used as positive control agent. Treatment with estradiol benzoate decreased serum levels of testosterone, LH, FSH, inhibin and increased prolactin. Additionally, estradiol...... benzoate decreased the weight of all investigated reproductive organs, decreased sperm production and increased seminiferous tubular degeneration in both strains. More progressive effects on testis weight and histopathology were observed in the Fischer rats. Oral administration of octylphenol at 400 mg....../kg bw to both rat strains increased prolactin levels but had no effect on LH, FSH, testosterone or inhibin. In the octylphenol-treated Fischer rats the weights of the seminal vesicles and the levator ani/bulbocavernosus muscle were significantly decreased, whereas only the levator ani...

  2. Windshield washer fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests Chest x-ray CT (computerized tomography, or advanced imaging) scan EKG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing) Fluids ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  3. COUPLED CHEMOTAXIS FLUID MODEL

    KAUST Repository

    LORZ, ALEXANDER

    2010-01-01

    We consider a model system for the collective behavior of oxygen-driven swimming bacteria in an aquatic fluid. In certain parameter regimes, such suspensions of bacteria feature large-scale convection patterns as a result of the hydrodynamic

  4. Phoresis in fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Howard

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a unified theory of phoretic phenomena in single-component fluids. Simple formulas are given for the phoretic velocities of small inert force-free non-Brownian particles migrating through otherwise quiescent single-component gases and liquids and animated by a gradient in the fluid's temperature (thermophoresis), pressure (barophoresis), density (pycnophoresis), or any combination thereof. The ansatz builds upon a recent paper [Phys. Rev. E 84, 046309 (2011)] concerned with slip of the fluid's mass velocity at solid surfaces--that is, with phenomena arising from violations of the classical no-slip fluid-mechanical boundary condition. Experimental and other data are cited in support of the phoretic model developed herein.

  5. Peritoneal Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get Tested? To help diagnose the cause of peritonitis, an inflammation of the membrane lining the abdomen, ... fever and your healthcare practitioner suspects you have peritonitis or ascites Sample Required? A peritoneal fluid sample ...

  6. Fluid flow control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rion, Jacky.

    1982-01-01

    Fluid flow control system featuring a series of grids placed perpendicular to the fluid flow direction, characterized by the fact that it is formed of a stack of identical and continuous grids, each of which consists of identical meshes forming a flat lattice. The said meshes are offset from one grid to the next. This system applies in particular to flow control of the coolant flowing at the foot of an assembly of a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor [fr

  7. Amniotic fluid inflammatory cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna; Grove, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of children developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and controls, adjusting for maternal autoimmune disorders and maternal infections during pregnancy.......The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of children developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and controls, adjusting for maternal autoimmune disorders and maternal infections during pregnancy....

  8. [Diagnosis: synovial fluid analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo Vallejo, Francisco Javier; Giner Ruiz, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Synovial fluid analysis in rheumatological diseases allows a more accurate diagnosis in some entities, mainly infectious and microcrystalline arthritis. Examination of synovial fluid in patients with osteoarthritis is useful if a differential diagnosis will be performed with other processes and to distinguish between inflammatory and non-inflammatory forms. Joint aspiration is a diagnostic and sometimes therapeutic procedure that is available to primary care physicians. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Immunotherapy With Magentorheologic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    anti-tumor effects are weakened by removal of the tumor antigen pool (i.e. surgery) or use of cytoreductive and immunosuppressive therapies (i.e...particles were injected as magneto -rheological fluid (MRF) into an orthotopic primary breast cancer and followed by application of a magnetic field to...SUBJECT TERMS MRF: Magneto -rehological fluid iron particles, IT: immunotherapy, necrotic death, DCs: dendritic cells, cytokines, chemokines

  10. Supercritical fluid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigdergauz, M. S.; Lobachev, A. L.; Lobacheva, I. V.; Platonov, I. A.

    1992-03-01

    The characteristic features of supercritical fluid chromatography (SCFC) are examined and there is a brief historical note concerning the development of the method. Information concerning the use of supercritical fluid chromatography in the analysis of objects of different nature is presented in the form of a table. The roles of the mobile and stationary phases in the separation process and the characteristic features of the apparatus and of the use of the method in physicochemical research are discussed. The bibliography includes 364 references.

  11. Fullerol ionic fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    We report for the first time an ionic fluid based on hydroxylated fullerenes (fullerols). The ionic fluid was synthesized by neutralizing the fully protonated fullerol with an amine terminated polyethylene/polypropylene oxide oligomer (Jeffamine®). The ionic fluid was compared to a control synthesized by mixing the partially protonated form (sodium form) of the fullerols with the same oligomeric amine in the same ratio as in the ionic fluids (20 wt% fullerol). In the fullerol fluid the ionic bonding significantly perturbs the thermal transitions and melting/crystallization behavior of the amine. In contrast, both the normalized heat of fusion and crystallization of the amine in the control are similar to those of the neat amine consistent with a physical mixture of the fullerols/amine with minimal interactions. In addition to differences in thermal behavior, the fullerol ionic fluid exhibits a complex viscoelastic behavior intermediate between the neat Jeffamine® (liquid-like) and the control (solid-like). © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Thermostating highly confined fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Stefano; Todd, B D; Searles, Debra J

    2010-06-28

    In this work we show how different use of thermostating devices and modeling of walls influence the mechanical and dynamical properties of confined nanofluids. We consider a two dimensional fluid undergoing Couette flow using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Because the system is highly inhomogeneous, the density shows strong fluctuations across the channel. We compare the dynamics produced by applying a thermostating device directly to the fluid with that obtained when the wall is thermostated, considering also the effects of using rigid walls. This comparison involves an analysis of the chaoticity of the fluid and evaluation of mechanical properties across the channel. We look at two thermostating devices with either rigid or vibrating atomic walls and compare them with a system only thermostated by conduction through vibrating atomic walls. Sensitive changes are observed in the xy component of the pressure tensor, streaming velocity, and density across the pore and the Lyapunov localization of the fluid. We also find that the fluid slip can be significantly reduced by rigid walls. Our results suggest caution in interpreting the results of systems in which fluid atoms are thermostated and/or wall atoms are constrained to be rigid, such as, for example, water inside carbon nanotubes.

  13. Dysgenesis and histological changes of genitals and perturbations of gene expression in male rats after in utero exposure to antiandrogen mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Dalgaard, Majken; Christiansen, Sofie

    2007-01-01

    of the individual chemicals. Chemicals were administered orally to pregnant Wistar rats from gestational day 7 to postnatal day 16. Changes in reproductive organ weights and of androgen-regulated gene expression in prostates from male rat pups were chosen as end points for extensive dose-response studies. With all...... own did not produce significant reductions in the weights of seminal vesicles and PBP C3 expression induced a marked mixture effect. Thus, antiandrogens cause additive effects on end points of various molecular complexities such as alterations at the morphological and the molecular level. Exposure...

  14. Association of Seminal Plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity and Malondialdehyde Levels With Sperm Parameters in Infertile Men With Varicocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Varicocele is one of the most common reasons for male infertility and could impair spermatogenesis through mechanisms that are not well known. Recently, oxidative stress has been introduced as a major reason for male infertility caused by varicocele. Objectives In the current study, we aimed to assess the TAC (total antioxidant capacity and MDA (malondialdehyde as stress oxidative markers in infertile men with varicocele and fertile men, and moreover, their correlation with sperm parameters. Patients and Methods This case control study was performed on 43 infertile men with varicocele and 46 men with proven fertility. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP and thiobarbituric acid (TBA reaction methods were used for seminal plasma TAC and MDA assay, respectively. Results Lower TAC levels (1.7 ± 0.2 vs. 1.3 ± 0.4 mmol/L, P = 0.0004 and higher MDA levels (2.5 ± 1.1 vs. 5.8 ± 1.9 mmol/L, P < 0.0001 were observed in infertile men with varicocele compared to fertile men. There was no correlation between TAC and MDA in fertile men (r = 0.02, P = 0.9, however, a negative correlation was found between TAC and MDA levels in varicocele infertile men (r = −0.44, P = 0.003. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between sperm count and sperm motility with TAC levels in varicocele infertile men (r = 0.4, P = 0.02 and r = 0.6, P < 0.0001, respectively. There was a correlation between sperm motility and TAC levels in fertile men (r = 0.5, P = 0.001, but other parameters did not correlate with TAC in this group. A negative correlation was shown between semen volume, sperm count, total sperm, sperm motility, and sperm morphology with MDA levels in varicocele infertile men (r = 0.3, P = 0.045; r = −0.4, P = 0.009; r = −0.5, P = 0.002; r = −0.5, P = 0.001 and r = −0.4, P = 0.008, respectively. There was no correlation between these parameters and MDA in fertile men. Conclusions Our findings indicated that oxidative stress could

  15. Seminal plasma induces global transcriptomic changes associated with cell migration, proliferation and viability in endometrial epithelial cells and stromal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Joseph C; Johnson, Brittni A; Erikson, David W; Piltonen, Terhi T; Barragan, Fatima; Chu, Simon; Kohgadai, Nargis; Irwin, Juan C; Greene, Warner C; Giudice, Linda C; Roan, Nadia R

    2014-06-01

    How does seminal plasma (SP) affect the transcriptome of human primary endometrial epithelial cells (eEC) and stromal fibroblasts (eSF)? Exposure of eEC and eSF to SP in vitro increases expression of genes and secreted proteins associated with cellular migration, proliferation, viability and inhibition of cell death. Studies in both humans and animals suggest that SP can access and induce physiological changes in the upper female reproductive tract (FRT), which may participate in promoting reproductive success. This is a cross sectional study involving control samples versus treatment. SP (pooled from twenty donors) was first tested for dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effects on eEC and eSF (n = 4). As exposure of eEC or eSF to 1% SP for 6 h proved to be non-toxic, a second set of eEC/eSF samples (n = 4) was treated under these conditions for transcriptome, protein and functional analysis. With a third set of samples (n = 3), we further compared the transcriptional response of the cells to SP versus fresh semen. eEC and eSF were isolated from endometrial biopsies from women of reproductive age undergoing benign gynecologic procedures and maintained in vitro. RNA was isolated and processed for microarray studies to analyze global transcriptomic changes. Secreted factors in conditioned media from SP-treated cells were analyzed by Luminex and for the ability to stimulate migration of CD14+ monocytes and CD4+ T cells. Pathway identifications were determined using the Z-scoring system in Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (Z scores ≥|1.5|). SP induced transcriptomic changes (P reproductive success, female reproductive health and susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases. The gene list provided by the transcriptome analysis reported here should prove a valuable resource for understanding the response of the upper FRT to SP exposure. This project was supported by NIH AI083050-04 (W.C.G./L.C.G.); NIH U54HD 055764 (L.C.G.); NIH 1F32HD074423-02 (J.C.C.); DOD W81XWH-11

  16. Analysis of seminal plasma from brown bear (Ursus arctos during the breeding season: Its relationship with testosterone levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Anel-López

    Full Text Available Seminal plasma (SP plays an important role in the motility, viability and maintenance of the fertilizing capacity of mammalian spermatozoa. This study is the first on brown bear (Ursus arctos SP components, and has two main objectives: 1 to define the SP composition in bear ejaculate and 2 to identify variations in SP composition in relation to high and low levels of testosterone in serum during the breeding season. Forty-eight sperm samples from 30 sexually mature male brown bears (Ursus arctos were obtained by electroejaculation, and their serum testosterone levels were assessed to sort the animals into 2 groups (high and low testosterone levels, threshold 5 ng/dl. The biochemical and protein compositions of the SP samples were assessed, and sperm motility was analyzed. We found that lactate dehydrogenase was significantly higher in the low-serum-testosterone samples, while concentrations of lipase and Mg+ values were significantly higher in the high-serum-testosterone samples. In contrast, sperm motility did not significantly differ (P>0.05 between the testosterone level groups (total motility: 74.42.8% in the high-level group vs. 77.1±4.7% in the low-level group. A reference digital model was constructed since there is no information for this wild species. To do this, all gel images were added in a binary multidimensional image and thirty-three spots were identified as the most-repeated spots. An analysis of these proteins was done by qualitative equivalency (isoelectric point and molecular weight with published data for a bull. SP protein composition was compared between bears with high and low serum testosterone, and three proteins (binder of sperm and two enzymes not identified in the reference bull showed significant (P<0.05 quantitative differences. We conclude that male bears with high or low serum testosterone levels differs only in some properties of their SP, differences in enzyme LDIP2, energy source LACT2, one protein (similar to

  17. Culture and identification of Borrelia spirochetes in human vaginal and seminal secretions [version 3; referees: 2 approved, 2 not approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne J. Middelveen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent reports indicate that more than 300,000 cases of Lyme disease are diagnosed yearly in the USA. Preliminary clinical, epidemiological and immunological studies suggest that infection with the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb could be transferred from person to person via intimate human contact without a tick vector. Failure to detect viable Borrelia spirochetes in vaginal and seminal secretions would argue against this hypothesis. Methods: Patients with and without a history of Lyme disease were selected for the study after informed consent was obtained. Serological testing for Bb was performed on all subjects. Semen or vaginal secretions were inoculated into BSK-H medium and cultured for four weeks. Examination of genital cultures and culture concentrates for the presence of spirochetes was performed using light and darkfield microscopy, and spirochete concentrates were subjected to Dieterle silver staining, anti-Bb immunohistochemical staining, molecular hybridization and PCR analysis for further characterization. Immunohistochemical and molecular testing was performed in three independent laboratories in a blinded fashion. Positive and negative controls were included in all experiments. Results: Control subjects who were asymptomatic and seronegative for Bb had no detectable spirochetes in genital secre