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Sample records for rat renal basolateral

  1. Indirect coupling to Na+ of p-aminohippuric acid uptake into rat renal basolateral membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, H.; Moewes, B.; Burckhardt, G.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments with basolateral membrane vesicles prepared from rat kidney cortex were performed to study the mechanism by which p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) is taken up across the contraluminal membrane and is concentrated in proximal tubule cells. An inward Na + gradient failed to stimulate [ 3 H]PAH uptake compared with K + or Li + and did not cause intravesicular PAH accumulation above equilibrium distribution. In the absence of Na + , the dicarboxylates glutarate and suberate cis-inhibited and trans-stimulated [ 3 H]PAH uptake, indicating a common transport system. In the presence of Na + , 10 μM glutarate in the incubation medium did not cis-inhibit, but rather stimulated [ 3 H]PAH uptake and caused PAH accumulation above equilibrium distribution (over-shoot). Li + diminished this stimulation, but was without effect on [ 3 H]PAH/PAH- and [ 3 H]PAH/glutarate exchange. The data indicate the coexistence of a Na + -sensitive transport system for dicarboxylates and a Li + -insensitive PAH/dicarboxylate exchanger in the basolateral membrane. The authors propose that dicarboxylates are cotransported with Na + into the cell and subsequently exchange for extracellular PAH at the basolateral membrane. PAH uptake is thereby indirectly coupled to Na + via the Na + /dicarboxylate cotransporter

  2. PAH clearance after renal ischemia and reperfusion is a function of impaired expression of basolateral Oat1 and Oat3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Ariane; Bucher, Michael; Gekle, Michael; Sauvant, Christoph

    2014-02-01

    Determination of renal plasma flow (RPF) by para-aminohippurate (PAH) clearance leads to gross underestimation of this respective parameter due to impaired renal extraction of PAH after renal ischemia and reperfusion injury. However, no mechanistic explanation for this phenomenon is available. Based on our own previous studies we hypothesized that this may be due to impairment of expression of the basolateral rate limiting organic anion transporters Oat1 and Oat3. Thus, we investigated this phenomenon in a rat model of renal ischemia and reperfusion by determining PAH clearance, PAH extraction, PAH net secretion, and the expression of rOat1 and rOat3. PAH extraction was seriously impaired after ischemia and reperfusion which led to a threefold underestimation of RPF when PAH extraction ratio was not considered. PAH extraction directly correlated with the expression of basolateral Oat1 and Oat3. Tubular PAH secretion directly correlated with PAH extraction. Consequently, our data offer an explanation for impaired renal PAH extraction by reduced expression of the rate limiting basolateral organic anion transporters Oat1 and Oat3. Moreover, we show that determination of PAH net secretion is suitable to correct PAH clearance for impaired extraction after ischemia and reperfusion in order to get valid results for RPF.

  3. Basolateral amygdala lesions abolish mutual reward preferences in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Lallement, Julen; van Wingerden, Marijn; Schäble, Sandra; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In a recent study, we demonstrated that rats prefer mutual rewards in a Prosocial Choice Task. Here, employing the same task, we show that the integrity of basolateral amygdala was necessary for the expression of mutual reward preferences. Actor rats received bilateral excitotoxic (n=12) or sham lesions (n=10) targeting the basolateral amygdala and were subsequently tested in a Prosocial Choice Task where they could decide between rewarding ("Both Reward") or not rewarding a partner rat ("Own Reward"), either choice yielding identical reward to the actors themselves. To manipulate the social context and control for secondary reinforcement sources, actor rats were paired with either a partner rat (partner condition) or with an inanimate rat toy (toy condition). Sham-operated animals revealed a significant preference for the Both-Reward-option in the partner condition, but not in the toy condition. Amygdala-lesioned animals exhibited significantly lower Both-Reward preferences than the sham group in the partner but not in the toy condition, suggesting that basolateral amygdala was required for the expression of mutual reward preferences. Critically, in a reward magnitude discrimination task in the same experimental setup, both sham-operated and amygdala-lesioned animals preferred large over small rewards, suggesting that amygdala lesion effects were restricted to decision making in social contexts, leaving self-oriented behavior unaffected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Binding of IGF I and IGF I-stimulated phosphorylation in canine renal basolateral membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerman, M.R.; Gavin, J.R. III.

    1986-01-01

    To characterize the interaction of the renal proximal tubular cell with insulin like growth factor I (IGF I), we measured binding of 125 I-IGF I to proximal tubular basolateral membranes from dog kidney and induced IGF I-stimulated phosphorylation of basolateral membranes. Specific binding of 125 I-IGF I to basolateral membranes was observed that was half-maximal at between 10(-9) and 10(-8) M IGF I. 125 I-IGF I was affinity cross-linked to a 135,000 Mr protein in basolateral membranes that was distinct from the alpha-subunit of the insulin receptor and from the IGF II receptor. IGF I-stimulated phosphorylation of a 92,000 Mr protein was effected in detergent-solubilized membranes incubated with 100 microM [gamma- 32 P]ATP. The 32 P-labeled protein was distinct from the beta-subunit of the insulin receptor, the 32 P phosphorylation of which was stimulated by insulin. We conclude that specific receptors for IGF I are present in the basolateral membrane of the renal proximal tubular cell. Physiological actions of IGF I at this nephron site may occur through the binding of this peptide circulating in plasma, to specific basolateral membrane receptors, followed by IGF I stimulated phosphorylation

  5. Electrogenic Na+-independent Pi transport in canine renal basolateral membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwab, S.J.; Hammerman, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    To define the mechanism by which Pi exists from the renal proximal tubular cell across the basolateral membrane, we measured 32Pi uptake in basolateral membrane vesicles from dog kidney in the absence of Na+. Preloading of basolateral vesicles with 2 mM Pi transstimulated 32Pi uptake, which is consistent with counterflow. We used measurements of transstimulation to quantitate the transport component of 32Pi uptake. Transstimulation of 32Pi uptake was inhibited less than 30% by concentrations of probenecid as high as 50 mM. In contrast, transstimulation of 35SO4(2-) uptake by intravesicular SO4(2-) was inhibited 92% by 5 mM probenecid. Preloading basolateral vesicles with SO4(2-) did not result in transstimulation of 32Pi uptake. Accumulation of 32Pi in basolateral vesicles above steady state was driven by a membrane potential (intravesicular positive), consistent with Na+-independent Pi transport being accompanied by the net transfer of negative charge across the membrane. We conclude that carrier-mediated, electrogenic Na+-independent 32Pi transport can be demonstrated in basolateral vesicles from dog kidney. This process appears to be mediated, at least in part, via a mechanism different from that by which SO4(2-) is transported. Electrogenic Na+-independent Pi transport may reflect one means by which Pi reabsorbed across the luminal membrane exists from the proximal tubular cell down an electrochemical gradient

  6. PAH clearance after renal ischemia and reperfusion is a function of impaired expression of basolateral Oat1 and Oat3

    OpenAIRE

    Bischoff, Ariane; Bucher, Michael; Gekle, Michael; Sauvant, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Determination of renal plasma flow (RPF) by para‐aminohippurate (PAH) clearance leads to gross underestimation of this respective parameter due to impaired renal extraction of PAH after renal ischemia and reperfusion injury. However, no mechanistic explanation for this phenomenon is available. Based on our own previous studies we hypothesized that this may be due to impairment of expression of the basolateral rate limiting organic anion transporters Oat1 and Oat3. Thus, we investigat...

  7. Acute renal failure in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederholm, C.; Almen, T.; Bergquist, D.; Golman, K.; Takolander, R.; Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus

    1989-01-01

    It was demonstrated in rats that renal injury which follows transient renal hypoxia is potentiated by the contrast media metrizoate, ioxaglate, iopamidol and iohexol. Intravenous injection of 1 g I/kg of all four media alone to 82 rats caused no significant increase in serum urea 1, 3 and 7 days later. The percentage increase of serum urea is given in median values and interquartile range (in parentheses). Bilateral renal arterial occlusion alone for 40 minutes in 42 rats increased serum urea one day later by 40% (20-130). Intravenous injection of the media followed in one hour by bilateral renal arterial occlusion for 40 minutes in 104 rats caused serum urea to increase one day later by 130% (70-350) after metrizoate, by 220% (50-380) after ioxaglate, by 290 % (60-420) after iopamidol and by 160% (50-330) after iohexol. There were no significant differences between the potentiating effects of the various media on ischemic renal failure. (orig.)

  8. Role of beta1-adrenoceptor in the basolateral amygdala of rats with anxiety-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ailing; Li, Xiaorong; Zhao, Baoquan

    2008-05-23

    There are evidence suggesting that the function of adrenergic receptor is affected in the amygdala of animals with anxiety-like behavior. However, beta-adrenoceptor (beta-AR) subtypes, consisting of three subtypes, exert different effects on anxiety regulation. In order to determine the function of the beta1-AR subtype in anxiety-like behavior, we investigated the change of beta1-AR expression by immunostaining in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) of rats treated by conditional fear training. The results indicated that the level of beta1-AR was significantly increased in the BLA of fear-conditioned animals as compared that of controls. In animal behavioral tests, animals treated with selective beta1-AR antagonist metoprolol before conditional fear training exhibited a significant attenuation of anxiety-like behavior characterized by increased percentage of time spent and percentage of entries in the open arms, and increased number of head-dips in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test compared with the animals treated with only saline. Furthermore, the rats pretreated with metoprolol in the conditional fear training significantly decreased the freezing behavior in the test compared with the controls. The results suggested that the beta1-AR played an important role in anxiety-like behavior, and inhibition of the beta1-AR in the BLA could produce anxiolytic effect.

  9. Administration of riluzole to the basolateral amygdala facilitates fear extinction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Azusa; Yamada, Misa; Saitoh, Akiyoshi; Oka, Jun-Ichiro; Yamada, Mitsuhiko

    2018-01-15

    A general understanding exists that inhibition of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) impairs fear extinction in rodents. Surprisingly, we recently found that systemic administration of riluzole, which has been shown to inhibit the glutamatergic system, facilitates extinction learning in rats with a preconditioned contextual fear response. However, the mechanisms underlying this paradoxical effect of riluzole remain unclear. In this study, adult male Wistar rats were bilaterally cannulated in the BLA to examine the effects of intra-BLA administration of riluzole. We also compared the effects of riluzole with those of d-cycloserine, a partial agonist at the glycine-binding region of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. In this study, intra-BLA administration of either riluzole or d-cycloserine facilitated extinction learning of contextual fear in conditioned rats. In addition, both riluzole and d-cycloserine enhanced the acquisition of recognition memory in the same model. However, intra-BLA injections of riluzole, but not d-cycloserine, had a potent anxiolytic-like effect when investigated using an elevated plus-maze test. Our findings suggest that riluzole-induced facilitation of extinction learning in rats with a preconditioned contextual fear reflects an indirect effect, resulting from the intra-BLA administration of the drug, and might not be directly related to inhibition of glutamatergic signaling. Further research is needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying the paradoxical effect of riluzole on fear extinction learning observed in this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of basolateral amygdala adrenergic receptors in hippocampus dependent spatial memory in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vafaei A.L.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: There are extensive evidences indicating that the noradrenergic system of the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA is involved in memory processes. The present study investigated the role of the BLA adrenergic receptors (ARs in hippocampus dependent spatial memory in place avoidance task in male rat. Material and Methods: Long Evans rats (n=150 were trained to avoid footshock in a 60° segment while foraging for scattered food on a circular (80-cm diameter arena. The rats were injected bilaterally in the BLA specific ARS (Adrenergic receptors agonist norepinephrine (NE, 0.5 and 1 µg/µl and specific β-ARs antagonist propranolol (PRO, 0.5 and 1 µg/µl before acquisition, after training or before retrieval of the place avoidance task. Control rats received vehicle at the same volume. The learning in a single 30-min session was assessed 24h later by a 30-min extinction trial in which the time to first entrance and the number of entrances to the shocked area measured the avoidance memory. Results: Acquisition and consolidation were enhanced and impaired significantly by NE and PRO when the drugs were injected 10 min before or immediately after training, respectively. In contrast, neither NE nor PRO influenced animal performances when injected before retention testing. Conclusion: Findings of this study indicates that adrenergic system of the BLA plays an important role in regulation of memory storage and show further evidences for the opinion that the BLA plays an important role in integrating hormonal and neurotransmitter influences on memory storage.

  11. Basolateral amygdala GABA-A receptors mediate stress-induced memory retrieval impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardari, Maryam; Rezayof, Ameneh; Khodagholi, Fariba; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-04-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the involvement of GABA-A receptors of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in the impairing effect of acute stress on memory retrieval. The BLAs of adult male Wistar rats were bilaterally cannulated and memory retrieval was measured in a step-through type passive avoidance apparatus. Acute stress was evoked by placing the animals on an elevated platform for 10, 20 and 30 min. The results indicated that exposure to 20 and 30 min stress, but not 10 min, before memory retrieval testing (pre-test exposure to stress) decreased the step-through latency, indicating stress-induced memory retrieval impairment. Intra-BLA microinjection of a GABA-A receptor agonist, muscimol (0.005-0.02 μg/rat), 5 min before exposure to an ineffective stress (10 min exposure to stress) induced memory retrieval impairment. It is important to note that pre-test intra-BLA microinjection of the same doses of muscimol had no effect on memory retrieval in the rats unexposed to 10 min stress. The blockade of GABA-A receptors of the BLA by injecting an antagonist, bicuculline (0.4-0.5 μg/rat), 5 min before 20 min exposure to stress, prevented stress-induced memory retrieval. Pre-test intra-BLA microinjection of the same doses of bicuculline (0.4-0.5 μg/rat) in rats unexposed to 20 min stress had no effect on memory retrieval. In addition, pre-treatment with bicuculline (0.1-0.4 μg/rat, intra-BLA) reversed muscimol (0.02 μg/rat, intra-BLA)-induced potentiation on the effect of stress in passive avoidance learning. It can be concluded that pre-test exposure to stress can induce memory retrieval impairment and the BLA GABA-A receptors may be involved in stress-induced memory retrieval impairment.

  12. Angiotensin II's role in sodium lactate-induced panic-like responses in rats with repeated urocortin 1 injections into the basolateral amygdala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Philip L; Sajdyk, Tammy J; Fitz, Stephanie D

    2013-01-01

    Rats treated with three daily urocortin 1 (UCN) injections into the basolateral amygdala (BLA; i.e., UCN/BLA-primed rats) develop prolonged anxiety-associated behavior and vulnerability to panic-like physiological responses (i.e., tachycardia, hypertension and tachypnea) following intravenous...

  13. Chemical Renal Denervation in the Rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consigny, Paul M., E-mail: paul.consigny@av.abbott.com; Davalian, Dariush, E-mail: dariush.davalian@av.abbott.com [Abbott Vascular, Innovation Incubator (United States); Donn, Rosy, E-mail: rosy.donn@av.abbott.com; Hu, Jie, E-mail: jie.hu@av.abbott.com [Abbott Vascular, Bioanalytical and Material Characterization (United States); Rieser, Matthew, E-mail: matthew.j.rieser@abbvie.com; Stolarik, DeAnne, E-mail: deanne.f.stolarik@abbvie.com [Abbvie, Analytical Pharmacology (United States)

    2013-12-03

    Introduction: The recent success of renal denervation in lowering blood pressure in drug-resistant hypertensive patients has stimulated interest in developing novel approaches to renal denervation including local drug/chemical delivery. The purpose of this study was to develop a rat model in which depletion of renal norepinephrine (NE) could be used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after the delivery of a chemical to the periadventitial space of the renal artery. Methods: Renal denervation was performed on a single renal artery of 90 rats (n = 6 rats/group). The first study determined the time course of renal denervation after surgical stripping of a renal artery plus the topical application of phenol in alcohol. The second study determined the efficacy of periadventitial delivery of hypertonic saline, guanethidine, and salicylic acid. The final study determined the dose–response relationship for paclitaxel. In all studies, renal NE content was determined by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: Renal NE was depleted 3 and 7 days after surgical denervation. Renal NE was also depleted by periadventitial delivery of all agents tested (hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, guanethidine, and paclitaxel). A dose response was observed after the application of 150 μL of 10{sup −5} M through 10{sup −2} M paclitaxel. Conclusion: We developed a rat model in which depletion of renal NE was used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after perivascular renal artery drug/chemical delivery. We validated this model by demonstrating the efficacy of the neurotoxic agents hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, and guanethidine and increasing doses of paclitaxel.

  14. Chemical Renal Denervation in the Rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consigny, Paul M.; Davalian, Dariush; Donn, Rosy; Hu, Jie; Rieser, Matthew; Stolarik, DeAnne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The recent success of renal denervation in lowering blood pressure in drug-resistant hypertensive patients has stimulated interest in developing novel approaches to renal denervation including local drug/chemical delivery. The purpose of this study was to develop a rat model in which depletion of renal norepinephrine (NE) could be used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after the delivery of a chemical to the periadventitial space of the renal artery. Methods: Renal denervation was performed on a single renal artery of 90 rats (n = 6 rats/group). The first study determined the time course of renal denervation after surgical stripping of a renal artery plus the topical application of phenol in alcohol. The second study determined the efficacy of periadventitial delivery of hypertonic saline, guanethidine, and salicylic acid. The final study determined the dose–response relationship for paclitaxel. In all studies, renal NE content was determined by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: Renal NE was depleted 3 and 7 days after surgical denervation. Renal NE was also depleted by periadventitial delivery of all agents tested (hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, guanethidine, and paclitaxel). A dose response was observed after the application of 150 μL of 10 −5  M through 10 −2  M paclitaxel. Conclusion: We developed a rat model in which depletion of renal NE was used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after perivascular renal artery drug/chemical delivery. We validated this model by demonstrating the efficacy of the neurotoxic agents hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, and guanethidine and increasing doses of paclitaxel

  15. Chemical renal denervation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consigny, Paul M; Davalian, Dariush; Donn, Rosy; Hu, Jie; Rieser, Matthew; Stolarik, Deanne

    2014-02-01

    The recent success of renal denervation in lowering blood pressure in drug-resistant hypertensive patients has stimulated interest in developing novel approaches to renal denervation including local drug/chemical delivery. The purpose of this study was to develop a rat model in which depletion of renal norepinephrine (NE) could be used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after the delivery of a chemical to the periadventitial space of the renal artery. Renal denervation was performed on a single renal artery of 90 rats (n = 6 rats/group). The first study determined the time course of renal denervation after surgical stripping of a renal artery plus the topical application of phenol in alcohol. The second study determined the efficacy of periadventitial delivery of hypertonic saline, guanethidine, and salicylic acid. The final study determined the dose-response relationship for paclitaxel. In all studies, renal NE content was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Renal NE was depleted 3 and 7 days after surgical denervation. Renal NE was also depleted by periadventitial delivery of all agents tested (hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, guanethidine, and paclitaxel). A dose response was observed after the application of 150 μL of 10(-5) M through 10(-2) M paclitaxel. We developed a rat model in which depletion of renal NE was used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after perivascular renal artery drug/chemical delivery. We validated this model by demonstrating the efficacy of the neurotoxic agents hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, and guanethidine and increasing doses of paclitaxel.

  16. Endocannabinoids in the rat basolateral amygdala enhance memory consolidation and enable glucocorticoid modulation of memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campolongo, Patrizia; Roozendaal, Benno; Trezza, Viviana; Hauer, Daniela; Schelling, Gustav; McGaugh, James L.; Cuomo, Vincenzo

    2009-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) modulates the consolidation of memories for emotionally arousing experiences, an effect that involves the activation of the glucocorticoid system. Because the BLA expresses high densities of cannabinoid CB1 receptors,

  17. Endocannabinoids in the rat basolateral amygdala enhance memory consolidation and enable glucocorticoid modulation of memory

    OpenAIRE

    Campolongo, Patrizia; Roozendaal, Benno; Trezza, Viviana; Hauer, Daniela; Schelling, Gustav; McGaugh, James L.; Cuomo, Vincenzo

    2009-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) modulates the consolidation of memories for emotionally arousing experiences, an effect that involves the activation of the glucocorticoid system. Because the BLA expresses high densities of cannabinoid CB1 receptors, the present experiments investigated whether the endocannabinoid system in the BLA influences memory consolidation and whether glucocorticoids interact with this system. The CB1 receptor agonist WIN5...

  18. Oxytocin Signaling in Basolateral and Central Amygdala Nuclei Differentially Regulates the Acquisition, Expression, and Extinction of Context-Conditioned Fear in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Smith, Emma J.; Holmes, Nathan M.; Lingawi, Nura W.; Panayi, Marios C.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how oxytocin (OT) signaling in the central (CeA) and basolateral (BLA) amygdala affects acquisition, expression, and extinction of context-conditioned fear (freezing) in rats. In the first set of experiments, acquisition of fear to a shocked context was impaired by a preconditioning infusion of synthetic OT into the…

  19. Renal function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P K; Christiansen, J S; Steven, K

    1981-01-01

    to the rise in kidney glomerular filtration rate (diabetic rats: 37.0 nl/min; control rats: 27.9 nl/min). Likewise renal plasma flow was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (4.1 ml/min) than in the control group (3.0 ml/min). Glomerular capillary pressure was identical in both groups (56.0 and 56.0 mm......-1mmHg-1). Kidney weight was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (1.15 g; control rats: 0.96 g) while body weight was similar in both groups (diabetic rats: 232 g; control rats: 238 g). Calculations indicate that the increases in transglomerular hydraulic pressure, renal plasma flow......Renal function was examined with micropuncture methods in the insulin-treated streptozotocin-diabetic rat. Kidney glomerular filtration rate was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (1.21 ml/min) than in the control group (0.84 ml/min) Nephron glomerular filtration rate increased in proportion...

  20. Long-term aldosterone treatment induces decreased apical but increased basolateral expression of AQP2 in CCD of rat kidney.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seigneux, S. de; Nielsen, J.; Olesen, E.T.; Dimke, H.; Kwon, T.H.; Frokiaer, J.; Nielsen, S.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to determine the effects of high-dose aldosterone and dDAVP treatment on renal aquaporin-2 (AQP2) regulation and urinary concentration. Rats were treated for 6 days with either vehicle (CON; n = 8), dDAVP (0.5 ng/h, dDAVP, n = 10), aldosterone (Aldo, 150

  1. Impairment of decision making and disruption of synchrony between basolateral amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex in the maternally separated rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bing; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xu; Yang, Xiangwei; Poon, David Chun-Hei; Jelfs, Beth; Chan, Rosa H M; Wu, Justin Che-Yuen; Li, Ying

    2016-12-01

    There is considerable evidence to suggest early life experiences, such as maternal separation (MS), play a role in the prevalence of emotional dysregulation and cognitive impairment. At the same time, optimal decision making requires functional integrity between the amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and any dysfunction of this system is believed to induce decision-making deficits. However, the impact of MS on decision-making behavior and the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms have not been thoroughly studied. As such, we consider the impact of MS on the emotional and cognitive functions of rats by employing the open-field test, elevated plus-maze test, and rat gambling task (RGT). Using multi-channel recordings from freely behaving rats, we assessed the effects of MS on the large scale synchrony between the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the ACC; while also characterizing the relationship between neural spiking activity and the ongoing oscillations in theta frequency band across the BLA and ACC. The results indicated that the MS rats demonstrated anxiety-like behavior. While the RGT showed a decrease in the percentage of good decision-makers, and an increase in the percentage of poor decision-makers. Electrophysiological data revealed an increase in the total power in the theta band of the LFP in the BLA and a decrease in theta power in the ACC in MS rats. MS was also found to disrupt the spike-field coherence of the ACC single unit spiking activity to the ongoing theta oscillations in the BLA and interrupt the synchrony in the BLA-ACC pathway. We provide specific evidence that MS leads to decision-making deficits that are accompanied by alteration of the theta band LFP in the BLA-ACC circuitries and disruption of the neural network integrity. These observations may help revise fundamental notions regarding neurophysiological biomarkers to treat cognitive impairment induced by early life stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  2. Depression of calcium pump activity in renal cortex of vitamin D-deficient rats with secondary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Saitoh, Michiyo; Takita, Yumiko; Nakano, Toshiaki; Tamura, Teiichi

    1990-01-01

    To examine the hormonal regulation of the ATP-dependent Ca 2+ pump in the kidneys, the ATP-dependent Ca 2+ uptake by the basolateral membrane vesicles in the renal cortex was measured using radioactive calcium ( 45 Ca 2+ ) in rats with vitamin D deficiency or rats undergoing thyroparathyroidectomy. The V max of the Ca 2+ pump activity was increased not only by administering calcitriol, but also by normalizing the serum calcium level in vitamin D-deficient rats. PTH suppressed the Ca 2+ pump activity in normocalcemic vitamin D-deficient rats. Thyroparathyroidectomy did not affect the Ca 2+ pump activity in the kidneys of normal rats. It was concluded that the ATP-dependent Ca 2+ pump activity was depressed by secondary hyperparathyroidism in vitamin D-deficient rats. (author)

  3. Infusion of methylphenidate into the basolateral nucleus of amygdala or anterior cingulate cortex enhances fear memory consolidation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPD; also called Ritalin) is a blocker of dopamine and norepi-nephrine transporter. It has been clinically used for treatment of Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). There have been inconsistent reports regarding the effects of systemically adminis-tered MPD on learning and memory, either in animals or humans. In the present study, we investigated the effect of direct infusion of MPD into the basolateral nucleus of amygdala (BLA) or the anterior cin-gulate cortex (ACC) on conditioned fear memory. Rats were trained on a one-trial step-through inhibi-tory avoidance task. MPD was infused bilaterally into the BLA or the ACC, either at ‘0’ or 6 h post-training. Saline was administered as control. Memory retention was tested 48 h post-training. In-tra-BLA or intra-ACC infusion of MPD ‘0’ h but not 6 h post-training significantly improved 48-h memory retention: the MPD-treated rats had significant longer step-through latency than controls. The present results indicate that action of MPD in the BLA or the ACC produces a beneficial effect on the consoli-dation of inhibitory avoidance memory.

  4. Exposure to high- and low-light conditions in an open-field test of anxiety increases c-Fos expression in specific subdivisions of the rat basolateral amygdaloid complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Matthew W; Bouwknecht, J Adriaan; Spiga, Francesca; Shekhar, Anantha; Lowry, Christopher A

    2006-12-11

    Anxiety states and anxiety-related behaviors appear to be regulated by a distributed and highly interconnected system of forebrain structures including the basolateral amygdaloid complex (basolateral amygdala). Despite a wealth of research examining the role of the basolateral amygdala in anxiety-related behaviors and anxiety states, the specific subdivisions of the basolateral amygdala that are involved in responses to anxiogenic stimuli have not been examined. In this study, we investigated the effects of exposure to a novel open-field environment, with either low- or high-levels of illumination, on expression of the protein product of the immediate-early gene c-Fos in subdivisions of the rat basolateral amygdala. The subdivisions studied included the lateral, ventrolateral and ventromedial parts of the lateral amygdaloid nucleus, the anterior, posterior and ventral parts of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus and the anterior and posterior part of the basomedial amygdaloid nucleus. Small increases in the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive cells were observed in several, but not all, of the subdivisions of the basolateral amygdala studied following exposure of rats to either the high- or low-light conditions, compared to home cage or handled control groups. Open-field exposure in both the high- and low-light conditions resulted in a marked increase in c-Fos expression in the anterior part of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus compared to either home cage or handled control groups. These findings point toward anatomical and functional heterogeneity within the basolateral amygdaloid complex and an important role of the anterior part of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus in the neural mechanisms underlying physiological or behavioral responses to this anxiety-related stimulus.

  5. The effect of basolateral amygdala nucleus lesion on memory under acute,mid and chronic stress in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Hoda; Radahmadi, Maryam; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Reisi, Parham; Karimi, Sara

    2016-12-20

    The basolateral amygdala (BLA) modulates memory for emotional events and is involved in both stress and memory. This study investigated different durations of stress and the role of BLA on serum corticosterone level and spatial and cognitive memory. Different durations of stress (acute, mid, and chronic stress), with and without BLA lesion were induced in rats by 6 h/day restraint stress for 1, 7, and 21 days. Memory functions were evaluated by novel object recognition (NOR) and object location test (OLT). The OLT findings showed locomotor activity and spatial memory slightly decreased with different durations of stress. The NOR findings significantly showed locomotor activity impairment in different durations of stress. Cognitive memory deficit was observed in mid stress. The corticosterone level significantly increased in the mid and chronic stress groups. Moreover, the mid stress was the strongest stress condition. There is a possibility that different stress durations act by different mechanisms. The recognition of a novel location decreased in all lesion groups. It was more severe in the NOR. The BLA lesion significantly decreased corticosterone level in the mid and chronic stress groups compared to similar groups without lesion. The BLA lesion caused more damage to cognitive than spatial memory in stressed groups.

  6. Dynamic autoregulation and renal injury in Dahl rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, F M; Andersen, C B; Leyssac, P P

    1997-01-01

    of hypertension, a gradual impairment of autoregulatory control of renal blood flow might expose the glomerular circulation to periods of elevated pressure, resulting in renal injuries in Dahl S rats. Dynamic autoregulatory capacity was assessed in Dahl S and Dahl salt-resistant (Dahl R) rats, SHR, and Sprague......-Dawley rats by inducing broad-band fluctuations in the arterial blood pressure and simultaneously measuring renal blood flow. Dynamic autoregulation was estimated by the transfer function using blood pressure as the input and renal blood flow as the output. Renal morphological injuries were evaluated in Dahl......The Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl S) rat develops hypertension and renal injuries when challenged with a high salt diet and has been considered to be a model of chronic renal failure. Renal injuries appear very early in life compared with the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). During the course...

  7. Administration of riluzole into the basolateral amygdala has an anxiolytic-like effect and enhances recognition memory in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Azusa; Saitoh, Akiyoshi; Yamada, Misa; Oka, Jun-Ichiro; Yamada, Mitsuhiko

    2017-06-01

    It is widely thought that inactivation of the glutamatergic system impairs recognition memory in rodents. However, we previously demonstrated that systemic administration of riluzole, which blocks the glutamatergic system, enhances recognition memory in the rat novel object recognition (NOR) test. The mechanisms underlying this paradoxical effect of riluzole on recognition memory remain unclear. In the present study, adult male Wistar rats were bilaterally cannulated in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) to examine the effects of intra-BLA administration of riluzole. We also compared the effects of riluzole with those of d-cycloserine, a partial agonist at the glycine binding site on the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. The BLA plays a critical role not only in recognition memory, but also in the regulation of anxiety. In the present study, intra-BLA administration of riluzole or d-cycloserine enhanced recognition memory in the NOR test. It was previously suggested that recognition memory can be strongly affected by the state of anxiety in rodents. Interestingly, intra-BLA administration of riluzole, but not d-cycloserine, produced a potent anxiolytic-like effect in the elevated plus-maze test. Thus, the enhancement of recognition memory by riluzole might be an indirect effect resulting from the anxiolytic-like action of the intra-BLA administration of the drug, and may not be directly related to inhibition of the glutamatergic system. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying the memory enhancing effect of riluzole. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dissociable effects of basolateral amygdala lesions on decision making biases in rats when loss or gain is emphasized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Melanie; Cocker, Paul J; Hosking, Jay G; Zeeb, Fiona D; Rogers, Robert D; Winstanley, Catharine A

    2014-12-01

    Individuals switch from risk seeking to risk aversion when mathematically identical options are described in terms of loss versus gains, as exemplified in the reflection and framing effects. Determining the neurobiology underlying such cognitive biases could inform our understanding of decision making in health and disease. Although reports vary, data using human subjects have implicated the amygdala in such biases. Animal models enable more detailed investigation of neurobiological mechanisms. We therefore tested whether basolateral amygdala (BLA) lesions would affect risk preference for gains or losses in rats. Choices in both paradigms were always between options of equal expected value-a guaranteed outcome, or the 50:50 chance of double or nothing. In the loss-chasing task, most rats exhibited strong risk seeking preferences, gambling at the risk of incurring double the penalty, regardless of the size of the guaranteed loss. In the betting task, the majority of animals were equivocal in their choice, irrespective of bet size; however, a wager-sensitive subgroup progressively shifted away from the uncertain option as the bet size increased, which is reminiscent of risk aversion. BLA lesions increased preference for the smaller guaranteed loss in the loss-chasing task, without affecting choice on the betting task, which is indicative of reduced risk seeking for losses, but intact risk aversion for gains. These data support the hypothesis that the amygdala plays a more prominent role in choice biases related to losses. Given the importance of the amygdala in representing negative affect, the aversive emotional reaction to loss, rather than aberrant estimations of probability or loss magnitude, may underlie risk seeking for losses.

  9. Glucocorticoid receptors in the basolateral amygdala mediated the restraint stress-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behaviors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taslimi, Zahra; Sarihi, Abdolrahman; Haghparast, Abbas

    2018-04-21

    Methamphetamine (METH) addiction is a growing epidemic worldwide. It is a common psychiatric disease and stress has an important role in the drug seeking and relapse behaviors. The involvement of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in effects of stress on the reward pathway has been discussed in several studies. In this study, we tried to find out the involvement of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the BLA in stress-induced reinstatement of the extinguished METH-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in rats. The CPP paradigm was done in eighty-one adult male Wistar rats weighing 220-250 g. The animals received a daily injection of methamphetamine (0.5 mg/kg), during the conditioning phase. In extinction phase, the rats were put in the CPP box for 30 min per day for 8 days. After the extinction, the animals were exposed to acute restraint stress (ARS), 3 h before subcutaneous administration of sub-threshold dose of methamphetamine (0.125 mg/kg), based on our previous study, in reinstatement phase. In separated groups, the rats were exposed to chronic restraint stress (CRS) for 1 h each day during the extinction phase. To block the GRs in BLA, the animals unilaterally received RU38486 as GRs antagonist (10, 30 and 90 ng/0.3 μl DMSO) in all ARS groups on reinstatement day. In separated experiments, RU38486 (3, 10 and 30 ng/0.3 μl DMSO) was microinjected into the BLA in CRS groups prior to exposure to stress every day in extinction phase. The results revealed that intra-BLA RU38486 in ARS (90 ng) and CRS (10 and 30 ng) groups significantly prevented the stress-induced reinstatement. It can be proposed that stress partially exerts its effect on the reward pathway via GRs in the BLA. This effect was not quite similar in acute and chronic stress conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitative analysis of the renal aging in rats. Stereological study

    OpenAIRE

    Melchioretto, Eduardo Felippe; Zeni, Marcelo; Veronez, Djanira Aparecida da Luz; Martins Filho, Eduardo Lopes; Fraga, Rogério de

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the renal function and the renal histological alterations through the stereology and morphometrics in rats submitted to the natural process of aging. METHODS: Seventy two Wistar rats, divided in six groups. Each group was sacrificed in a different age: 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. It was performed right nephrectomy, stereological and morphometric analysis of the renal tissue (renal volume and weight, density of volume (Vv[glom]) and numerical density (Nv[glo...

  11. Quantification of extracellular levels of corticosterone in the basolateral amygdaloid complex of freely-moving rats: a dialysis study of circadian variation and stress-induced modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchez, Gaëlle; Millan, Mark J; Rivet, Jean-Michel; Billiras, Rodolphe; Boulanger, Raphaël; Gobert, Alain

    2012-05-03

    Corticosterone influences emotion and cognition via actions in a diversity of corticolimbic structures, including the amygdala. Since extracellular levels of corticosterone in brain have rarely been studied, we characterized a specific and sensitive enzymatic immunoassay for microdialysis quantification of corticosterone in the basolateral amygdaloid complex of freely-moving rats. Corticosterone levels showed marked diurnal variation with an evening (dark phase) peak and stable, low levels during the day (light phase). The "anxiogenic agents", FG7142 (20 mg/kg) and yohimbine (10 mg/kg), and an environmental stressor, 15-min forced-swim, induced marked and sustained (1-3 h) increases in dialysis levels of corticosterone in basolateral amygdaloid complex. They likewise increased dialysis levels of dopamine and noradrenaline, but not serotonin and GABA. As compared to basal corticosterone levels of ~200-300 pg/ml, the elevation provoked by forced-swim was ca. 20-fold and this increase was abolished by adrenalectomy. Interestingly, stress-induced rises of corticosterone levels in basolateral amygdaloid complex were abrogated by combined but not separate administration of the corticotrophin releasing factor(1) (CRF(1)) receptor antagonist, CP154,526, and the vasopressin(1b) (V(1b)) receptor antagonist, SSR149,415. Underpinning their specificity, they did not block forced-swim-induced elevations in dopamine and noradrenaline. In conclusion, extracellular levels of corticosterone in the basolateral amygdaloid complex display marked diurnal variation. Further, they are markedly elevated by acute stressors, the effects of which are mediated (in contrast to concomitant elevations in levels of monoamines) by co-joint recruitment of CRF(1) and V(1b) receptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Biogenesis of the rat hepatocyte plasma membrane in vivo: comparison of the pathways taken by apical and basolateral proteins using subcellular fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartles, J.R.; Feracci, H.M.; Stieger, B.; Hubbard, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    We have used pulse-chase metabolic radiolabeling with L-[ 35 S]methionine in conjunction with subcellular fractionation and specific protein immunoprecipitation techniques to compare the posttranslational transport pathways taken by endogenous domain-specific integral proteins of the rat hepatocyte plasma membrane in vivo. Our results suggest that both apical (HA 4, dipeptidylpeptidase IV, and aminopeptidase N) and basolateral (CE 9 and the asialoglycoprotein receptor [ASGP-R]) proteins reach the hepatocyte plasma membrane with similar kinetics. The mature molecular mass form of each of these proteins reaches its maximum specific radioactivity in a purified hepatocyte plasma membrane fraction after only 45 min of chase. However, at this time, the mature radiolabeled apical proteins are not associated with vesicles derived from the apical domain of the hepatocyte plasma membrane, but instead are associated with vesicles which, by several criteria, appear to be basolateral plasma membrane. These vesicles: (a) fractionate like basolateral plasma membrane in sucrose density gradients and in free-flow electrophoresis; (b) can be separated from the bulk of the likely organellar contaminants, including membranes derived from the late Golgi cisternae, transtubular network, and endosomes; (c) contain the proven basolateral constituents CE 9 and the ASGP-R, as judged by vesicle immunoadsorption using fixed Staphylococcus aureus cells and anti-ASGP-R antibodies; and (d) are oriented with their ectoplasmic surfaces facing outward, based on the results of vesicle immunoadsorption experiments using antibodies specific for the ectoplasmic domain of the ASGP-R. Only at times of chase greater than 45 min do significant amounts of the mature radiolabeled apical proteins arrive at the apical domain, and they do so at different rates

  13. Quantitative analysis of the renal aging in rats. Stereological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchioretto, Eduardo Felippe; Zeni, Marcelo; Veronez, Djanira Aparecida da Luz; Martins, Eduardo Lopes; Fraga, Rogério de

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the renal function and the renal histological alterations through the stereology and morphometrics in rats submitted to the natural process of aging. Seventy two Wistar rats, divided in six groups. Each group was sacrificed in a different age: 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. It was performed right nephrectomy, stereological and morphometric analysis of the renal tissue (renal volume and weight, density of volume (Vv[glom]) and numerical density (Nv[glom]) of the renal glomeruli and average glomerular volume (Vol[glom])) and also it was evaluated the renal function for the dosage of serum creatinine and urea. There was significant decrease of the renal function in the oldest rats. The renal volume presented gradual increase during the development of the rats with the biggest values registered in the group of animals at 12 months of age and significant progressive decrease in older animals. Vv[glom] presented statistically significant gradual reduction between the groups and the Nv[glom] also decreased significantly. The renal function proved to be inferior in senile rats when compared to the young rats. The morphometric and stereological analysis evidenced renal atrophy, gradual reduction of the volume density and numerical density of the renal glomeruli associated to the aging process.

  14. Low dose prenatal ethanol exposure induces anxiety-like behaviour and alters dendritic morphology in the basolateral amygdala of rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlie L Cullen

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure to high levels of alcohol is strongly associated with poor cognitive outcomes particularly in relation to learning and memory. It is also becoming more evident that anxiety disorders and anxiety-like behaviour can be associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. This study used a rat model to determine if prenatal exposure to a relatively small amount of alcohol would result in anxiety-like behaviour and to determine if this was associated with morphological changes in the basolateral amygdala. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed a liquid diet containing either no alcohol (Control or 6% (vol/vol ethanol (EtOH throughout gestation. Male and Female offspring underwent behavioural testing at 8 months (Adult or 15 months (Aged of age. Rats were perfusion fixed and brains were collected at the end of behavioural testing for morphological analysis of pyramidal neuron number and dendritic morphology within the basolateral amygdala. EtOH exposed offspring displayed anxiety-like behaviour in the elevated plus maze, holeboard and emergence tests. Although sexually dimorphic behaviour was apparent, sex did not impact anxiety-like behaviour induced by prenatal alcohol exposure. This increase in anxiety - like behaviour could not be attributed to a change in pyramidal cell number within the BLA but rather was associated with an increase in dendritic spines along the apical dendrite which is indicative of an increase in synaptic connectivity and activity within these neurons. This study is the first to link increases in anxiety like behaviour to structural changes within the basolateral amygdala in a model of prenatal ethanol exposure. In addition, this study has shown that exposure to even a relatively small amount of alcohol during development leads to long term alterations in anxiety-like behaviour.

  15. Cleistanthus collinus induces type I distal renal tubular acidosis and type II respiratory failure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneksh, Delinda; Sidharthan, Anita; Kettimuthu, Kavithapriya; Kanthakumar, Praghalathan; Lourthuraj, Amala A; Ramachandran, Anup; Subramani, Sathya

    2010-06-01

    A water decoction of the poisonous shrub Cleistanthus collinus is used for suicidal purposes. The mortality rate is 28%. The clinical profile includes distal renal tubular acidosis (DRTA) and respiratory failure. The mechanism of toxicity is unclear. To demonstrate features of C. collinus toxicity in a rat model and to identify its mechanism(s) of action. Rats were anesthetized and the carotid artery was cannulated. Electrocardiogram and respiratory movements were recorded. Either aqueous extract of C. collinus or control solution was administered intraperitoneally. Serial measurements of blood gases, electrolytes and urinary pH were made. Isolated brush border and basolateral membranes from rat kidney were incubated with C. collinus extract and reduction in ATPase activity was assessed. Venous blood samples from human volunteers and rats were incubated with an acetone extract of C. collinus and plasma potassium was estimated as an assay for sodium-potassium pump activity. The mortality was 100% in tests and 17% in controls. Terminal event in test animals was respiratory arrest. Controls had metabolic acidosis, respiratory compensation acidic urine and hyperkalemia. Test animals showed respiratory acidosis, alkaline urine and low blood potassium as compared to controls. C. collinus extract inhibited ATPase activity in rat kidney. Plasma K(+) did not increase in human blood incubated with C. collinus extract. Active principles of C. collinus inhibit proton pumps in the renal brush border, resulting in type I DRTA in rats. There is no inhibition of sodium-potassium pump activity. Test animals develop respiratory acidosis, and the immediate cause of death is respiratory arrest.

  16. Lipopolysaccharide-induced acute renal failure in conscious rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Thomas E N; Graebe, Martin; Promeneur, Dominique

    2002-01-01

    In conscious, chronically instrumented rats we examined 1) renal tubular functional changes involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute renal failure; 2) the effects of LPS on the expression of selected renal tubular water and sodium transporters; and 3) effects of milrinone......-alpha and lactate, inhibited the LPS-induced tachycardia, and exacerbated the acute LPS-induced fall in GFR. Furthermore, Ro-20-1724-treated rats were unable to maintain MAP. We conclude 1) PDE3 or PDE4 inhibition exacerbates LPS-induced renal failure in conscious rats; and 2) LPS treated rats develop an escape......, a phosphodiesterase type 3 (PDE3) inhibitor, and Ro-20-1724, a PDE4 inhibitor, on LPS-induced changes in renal function. Intravenous infusion of LPS (4 mg/kg b.wt. over 1 h) caused an immediate decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and proximal tubular outflow without changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP...

  17. Detection of acute renal allograft rejection by analysis of renal tissue proteomics in rat models of renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Yong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the diagnosis of renal allograft rejection requires a renal biopsy. Clinical management of renal transplant patients would be improved if rapid, noninvasive and reliable biomarkers of rejection were available. This study is designed to determine whether such protein biomarkers can be found in renal-graft tissue proteomic approach. Orthotopic kidney transplantations were performed using Fisher (F344 or Lewis rats as donors and Lewis rats as recipients. Hence, there were two groups of renal transplant models: one is allograft (from F344 to Lewis rats; another is syngrafts (from Lewis to Lewis rats serving as control. Renal tissues were collected 3, 7 and 14 days after transplantation. As many as 18 samples were analyzed by 2-D Electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS. Eleven differentially expressed proteins were identified between groups. In conclusion, proteomic technology can detect renal tissue proteins associated with acute renal allograft rejection. Identification of these proteins as diagnostic markers for rejection in patients′ urine or sera may be useful and non-invasive, and these proteins might serve as novel therapeutic targets that also help to improve the understanding of mechanism of renal rejection.

  18. Functional characteristics of a renal H+/lipophilic cation antiport system in porcine LLC-PK1 cells and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Ryutaro; Hattori, Ryutaro; Usami, Youhei; Koyama, Masumi; Hirayama, Yuki; Matsuba, Emi; Hashimoto, Yukiya

    2018-02-01

    We have recently found an H + /quinidine (a lipophilic cation, QND) antiport system in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the H + /lipophilic cation antiport system is expressed in porcine LLC-PK 1 cells. That is, we investigated uptake and/or efflux of QND and another cation, bisoprolol, in LLC-PK 1 cells. In addition, we studied the renal clearance of bisoprolol in rats. Uptake of QND into LLC-PK 1 cells was decreased by acidification of the extracellular pH or alkalization of the intracellular pH. Cellular uptake of QND from the apical side was much greater than from the basolateral side. In addition, apical efflux of QND from LLC-PK 1 cells was increased by acidification of the extracellular pH. Furthermore, lipophilic cationic drugs significantly reduced uptake of bisoprolol in LLC-PK 1 cells. Renal clearance of bisoprolol in rats was approximately 7-fold higher than that of creatinine, and was markedly decreased by alkalization of the urine pH. The present study suggests that the H + /lipophilic cation antiport system is expressed in the apical membrane of LLC-PK 1 cells. Moreover, the H + /lipophilic cation antiport system may be responsible for renal tubular secretion of bisoprolol in rats. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection of acute renal allograft rejection by analysis of Renal TissueProteomics in rat models of renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Y.; Lv, T.; Wang, K.; Li, D.; Huang, Y.; Liu, J.

    2008-01-01

    At present, the diagnosis of renal allograft rejection requires a renalbiopsy. Clinical management of renal transplant patients would be improved ifrapid, noninvasive and reliable biomarkers of rejection were available. Thisstudy is designed to determine whether such protein biomarkers can be foundin renal graft tissue proteomic approach. Orthotopic kidney transplantationswere performed using Fisher (F344) or Lewis rats as donors and Lewis rats asrecipients. Hence, there were two groups of renal transplant models: one isallograft (from F344 to Lewis rats); another is syngrafts (from Lewis toLewis rats) serving as control. Renal tissues were collected 3, 7 and 14 daysafter transplantation. As many 18 samples were analyzed by 2-DElectrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS). Elevendifferentially expressed proteins were identified between groups. Inconclusion, proteomic technology can detect renal tissue proteins associatedwith acute renal allograft rejection. Identification of these proteins asdiagnostic markers for rejection in patient's urine or sera may be useful andnon-invasive, and these proteins might serve as novel therapeutic targetsthat also help to improve the understanding of mechanisms of renal rejection.(author)

  20. Characterization of renal hyperemia in portal hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premen, A.J.; Banchs, V.; Go, V.L.W.; Benoit, J.N.; Granger, D.N.

    1986-01-01

    In anesthetized sham-operated control (C) and portal vein stenosed (PVS) rats, renal blood flow (RBF) was measured with radioactive microspheres on days 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 following surgery. On day 2, only a small increase in RBF (19%) was produced in PVS versus C rats. However, by day 4, a significant increase in RBF (35%) was observed in PVS versus C animals. By day 6, the renal hyperemia in PVS rats reached a maximal value that was 42% higher than in C rats. Thereafter (on days 8 and 10), the renal hyperemia remained at the maximal value. In a separate group of 10-day PVS rats, glucagon antiserum failed to attenuate the 44% increase in RBF observed in PVS versus C rats. Radioimmunoassay of C and PVS plasma (10-day samples) revealed that vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, substance P, cholecystokinin/gastrin, neurotensin, pancreatic polypeptide, beta-endorphin, and peptide histidine-isoleucine amide are not elevated in arterial plasma of PVS rats. These data indicate that the renal hyperemia induced by chronic portal hypertension is manifested within 4 days after the hypertensive insult. Our studies also suggest that at least 9 blood-borne gastrointestinal peptides are not directly involved in the renal response to portal vein stenosis

  1. Characterization of renal hyperemia in portal hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premen, A.J.; Banchs, V.; Go, V.L.W.; Benoit, J.N.; Granger, D.N.

    1986-03-01

    In anesthetized sham-operated control (C) and portal vein stenosed (PVS) rats, renal blood flow (RBF) was measured with radioactive microspheres on days 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 following surgery. On day 2, only a small increase in RBF (19%) was produced in PVS versus C rats. However, by day 4, a significant increase in RBF (35%) was observed in PVS versus C animals. By day 6, the renal hyperemia in PVS rats reached a maximal value that was 42% higher than in C rats. Thereafter (on days 8 and 10), the renal hyperemia remained at the maximal value. In a separate group of 10-day PVS rats, glucagon antiserum failed to attenuate the 44% increase in RBF observed in PVS versus C rats. Radioimmunoassay of C and PVS plasma (10-day samples) revealed that vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, substance P, cholecystokinin/gastrin, neurotensin, pancreatic polypeptide, beta-endorphin, and peptide histidine-isoleucine amide are not elevated in arterial plasma of PVS rats. These data indicate that the renal hyperemia induced by chronic portal hypertension is manifested within 4 days after the hypertensive insult. Our studies also suggest that at least 9 blood-borne gastrointestinal peptides are not directly involved in the renal response to portal vein stenosis.

  2. The CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 impairs reconsolidation of pavlovian fear memory in the rat basolateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratano, Patrizia; Everitt, Barry J; Milton, Amy L

    2014-10-01

    We have investigated the requirement for signaling at CB1 receptors in the reconsolidation of a previously consolidated auditory fear memory, by infusing the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251, or the FAAH inhibitor URB597, directly into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in conjunction with memory reactivation. AM251 disrupted memory restabilization, but only when administered after reactivation. URB597 produced a small, transient enhancement of memory restabilization when administered after reactivation. The amnestic effect of AM251 was rescued by coadministration of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline at reactivation, indicating that the disruption of reconsolidation was mediated by altered GABAergic transmission in the BLA. These data show that the endocannabinoid system in the BLA is an important modulator of fear memory reconsolidation and that its effects on memory are mediated by an interaction with the GABAergic system. Thus, targeting the endocannabinoid system may have therapeutic potential to reduce the impact of maladaptive memories in neuropsychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder.

  3. FKBP5 and specific microRNAs via glucocorticoid receptor in the basolateral amygdala involved in the susceptibility to depressive disorder in early adolescent stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingjing; Wang, Rui; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Dexiang; Jiang, Hong; Pan, Fang

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to stressful events induces depressive-like symptoms and increases susceptibility to depression. However, the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Studies reported that FK506 binding protein51 (FKBP5), the co-chaperone protein of glucocorticoid receptors (GR), plays a crucial role. Further, miR-124a and miR-18a are involved in the regulation of FKBP5/GR function. However, few studies have referred to effects of early life stress on depressive-like behaviours, GR and FKBP5, as well as miR-124a and miR-18a in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) from adolescence to adulthood. This study aimed to examine the dynamic alternations of depressive-like behaviours, GR and FKBP5, as well as miR-124a and miR-18a expressions in the BLA of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rats and dexamethasone administration rats during the adolescent period. Meanwhile, the GR antagonist, RU486, was used as a means of intervention. We found that CUMS and dexamethasone administration in the adolescent period induced permanent depressive-like behaviours and memory impairment, decreased GR expression, and increased FKBP5 and miR-124a expression in the BLA of both adolescent and adult rats. However, increased miR-18a expression in the BLA was found only in adolescent rats. Depressive-like behaviours were positively correlated with the level of miR-124a, whereas GR levels were negatively correlated with those in both adolescent and adult rats. Our results suggested FKBP5/GR and miR-124a in the BLA were associated with susceptibility to depressive disorder in the presence of stressful experiences in early life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling to explore the role of kidney transporters in renal reabsorption of perfluorooctanoic acid in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worley, Rachel Rogers; Fisher, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Renal elimination and the resulting clearance of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from the serum exhibit pronounced sex differences in the adult rat. The literature suggests that this is largely due to hormonally regulated expression of organic anion transporters (OATs) on the apical and basolateral membranes of the proximal tubule cells that facilitate excretion and reabsorption of PFOA from the filtrate into the blood. Previously developed PBPK models of PFOA exposure in the rat have not been parameterized to specifically account for transporter-mediated renal elimination. We developed a PBPK model for PFOA in male and female rats to explore the role of Oat1, Oat3, and Oatp1a1 in sex-specific renal reabsorption and excretion of PFOA. Descriptions of the kinetic behavior of these transporters were extrapolated from in vitro studies and the model was used to simulate time-course serum, liver, and urine data for intravenous (IV) and oral exposures in both sexes. Model predicted concentrations of PFOA in the liver, serum, and urine showed good agreement with experimental data for both male and female rats indicating that in vitro derived physiological descriptions of transporter-mediated renal reabsorption can successfully predict sex-dependent excretion of PFOA in the rat. This study supports the hypothesis that sex-specific serum half-lives for PFOA are largely driven by expression of transporters in the kidney and contribute to the development of PBPK modeling as a tool for evaluating the role of transporters in renal clearance. - Highlights: • The PBPK model for PFOA in the rat explores the role of OATs in sex-specific clearance. • Descriptions of OAT kinetics were extrapolated from in vitro studies. • Model predictions showed good fit with experimental data for male and female rats.

  5. Application of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling to explore the role of kidney transporters in renal reabsorption of perfluorooctanoic acid in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, Rachel Rogers, E-mail: idz7@cdc.gov [Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Community Health Investigations, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Interdisciplinary Toxicology Program, University of Georgia, 341 Pharmacy South, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Fisher, Jeffrey [Interdisciplinary Toxicology Program, University of Georgia, 341 Pharmacy South, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Food and Drug Administration, National Center for Toxicological Research, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    ABSTRACT: Renal elimination and the resulting clearance of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from the serum exhibit pronounced sex differences in the adult rat. The literature suggests that this is largely due to hormonally regulated expression of organic anion transporters (OATs) on the apical and basolateral membranes of the proximal tubule cells that facilitate excretion and reabsorption of PFOA from the filtrate into the blood. Previously developed PBPK models of PFOA exposure in the rat have not been parameterized to specifically account for transporter-mediated renal elimination. We developed a PBPK model for PFOA in male and female rats to explore the role of Oat1, Oat3, and Oatp1a1 in sex-specific renal reabsorption and excretion of PFOA. Descriptions of the kinetic behavior of these transporters were extrapolated from in vitro studies and the model was used to simulate time-course serum, liver, and urine data for intravenous (IV) and oral exposures in both sexes. Model predicted concentrations of PFOA in the liver, serum, and urine showed good agreement with experimental data for both male and female rats indicating that in vitro derived physiological descriptions of transporter-mediated renal reabsorption can successfully predict sex-dependent excretion of PFOA in the rat. This study supports the hypothesis that sex-specific serum half-lives for PFOA are largely driven by expression of transporters in the kidney and contribute to the development of PBPK modeling as a tool for evaluating the role of transporters in renal clearance. - Highlights: • The PBPK model for PFOA in the rat explores the role of OATs in sex-specific clearance. • Descriptions of OAT kinetics were extrapolated from in vitro studies. • Model predictions showed good fit with experimental data for male and female rats.

  6. Review of Surgical Techniques of Experimental Renal Transplantation in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Badri; Haylor, John

    2017-08-01

    Microvascular surgical techniques of renal transplant in rats have evolved over the past 5 decades to achieve successful rat renal transplant; these modifications have included surgical techniques to address the anatomic variations in the renal blood vessels and those to reduce ischemic and operation durations. Here, we review the surgical techniques of renal transplant in rats and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of individual techniques of vascular and ureteric anastomoses. For this review, we performed a systematic literature search using relevant medical subject heading terms and included appropriate publications in the review. Since the first description of a rat model of renal transplant by Bernard Fisher and his colleagues in 1965, which used end-to-side anastomosis between the renal vein and renal artery to the recipient inferior vena cava and aorta, several vascular and ureteric anastomosis techniques have been modified. Vascular anastomosis techniques now include end-to-end anastomosis, use of donor aortic and inferior vena cava conduits, sleeve and cuff anastomoses, and application of fibrin glue. Likewise, restoration of the urinary tract can now be achieved by direct anastomosis of the donor ureter to the recipient bladder, end-to-end anastomosis between the donor and recipient ureters, and donor bladder cuff to the recipient bladder. There are advantages and disadvantages attributable to individual techniques. The range of vascular and ureteric anastomosis techniques that has emerged reflects the need for mastering more than one technique to suit the vascular anatomy of individual animals and to reduce operating time for achieving successful outcomes after renal transplant.

  7. High-protein diets and renal status in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Aparicio, V. A.; Nebot, E.; García-del Moral, R.; Machado-Vílchez, M.; Porres, J. M.; Sánchez, C.; Aranda, P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: High-protein (HP) diets might affect renal status. We aimed to examine the effects of a HP diet on plasma, urinary and morphological renal parameters in rats. Material and methods: Twenty Wistar rats were randomly distributed in 2 experimental groups with HP or normal-protein (NP) diets over 12 weeks. Results and discussion: Final body weight was a 10% lower in the HP group (p < 0.05) whereas we have not observed differences on food intake, carcass weight and muscle ashes conten...

  8. Renal ornithine decarboxylase activity, polyamines, and compensatory renal hypertrophy in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, M.H.; Etheredge, S.B.; Lin, Shanyan; Ribstein, J.; Marton, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    The authors determined the role of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in compensatory renal hypertrophy (CRH) by relating renal ODC activity and polyamine content to kidney size, expressed as a percent of body weight, 1 wk after unilateral nephrectomy (UN). In normal rats, renal ODC activity increased after UN; 1 wk later the remaining kidney weight had increased. Renal concentration of putrescine, the product of ODC's decarboxylation of ornithine, was increased 3, 8, and 48 h after UN, but concentrations of polyamines synthesized later in the pathway, spermidine and spermine, were not appreciably affected. Pretreatment with difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an irreversible inhibitor of ODC inhibited both base-line renal ODC activity and putrescine concentration as well as increases stimulated by UN, although concentrations of spermidine and spermine were not decreased. In hypophysectomized rats, both increased renal ODC activity and CRH occurred as well, indicating that these two consequences of UN do not require intact pituitary function. Thus stimulation of renal ODC activity and putrescine content do not appear critical to the process of CRH after UN

  9. Renal inflammatory response to urinary tract infection in rat neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarepour, M; Moradpoor, H; Emamghorashi, F; Owji, S M; Roodaki, M; Khamoushi, M

    2015-09-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections. Maternal UTI is a risk factor for neonatal UTI. The aim of the present study was to determine the severity of renal inflammation in neonate rats born from mothers with induced UTI. Twelve pregnant rats (Sprague-Dawley) were included in study. The rats were divided into two groups (six rats in each group). In the first group, pyelonephritis was induced in the third trimester of pregnancy and the second group was used as a control group. After delivery, the neonates were divided into three groups based on days after birth (the 1 st, 3 rd and 7 th days after birth). In each group, two neonates of each mother were killed and a midline abdominal incision was made and both kidneys were aseptically removed. On the 7 th day, rat mothers were killed and their kidneys were removed. The preparations were evaluated with a bright field microscope for inflammatory response. Renal pathology showed inflammation in all UTI-induced mothers, but only two cases of neonates (2.1%) showed inflammation in the renal parenchyma. There was no relation between the positive renal culture and the pathological changes. We conclude that neonates with UTI born to UTI-induced mothers showed a lesser inflammatory response.

  10. Renal inflammatory response to urinary tract infection in rat neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zarepour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common bacterial infections. Maternal UTI is a risk factor for neonatal UTI. The aim of the present study was to determine the severity of renal inflammation in neonate rats born from mothers with induced UTI. Twelve pregnant rats (Sprague-Dawley were included in study. The rats were divided into two groups (six rats in each group. In the first group, pyelonephritis was induced in the third trimester of pregnancy and the second group was used as a control group. After delivery, the neonates were divided into three groups based on days after birth (the 1 st, 3 rd and 7 th days after birth. In each group, two neonates of each mother were killed and a midline abdominal incision was made and both kidneys were aseptically removed. On the 7 th day, rat mothers were killed and their kidneys were removed. The preparations were evaluated with a bright field microscope for inflammatory response. Renal pathology showed inflammation in all UTI-induced mothers, but only two cases of neonates (2.1% showed inflammation in the renal parenchyma. There was no relation between the positive renal culture and the pathological changes. We conclude that neonates with UTI born to UTI-induced mothers showed a lesser inflammatory response.

  11. Region-specific role of Rac in nucleus accumbens core and basolateral amygdala in consolidation and reconsolidation of cocaine-associated cue memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zeng-Bo; Wu, Ping; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Shi, Hai-Shui; Shen, Hao-Wei; Wang, Shen-Jun; Lu, Lin

    2013-08-01

    Drug reinforcement and the reinstatement of drug seeking are associated with the pathological processing of drug-associated cue memories that can be disrupted by manipulating memory consolidation and reconsolidation. Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate (Rac) is involved in memory processing by regulating actin dynamics and neural structure plasticity. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) and amygdala have been implicated in the consolidation and reconsolidation of emotional memories. Therefore, we hypothesized that Rac in the NAc and amygdala plays a role in the consolidation and reconsolidation of cocaine-associated cue memory. Conditioned place preference (CPP) and microinjection of Rac inhibitor NSC23766 were used to determine the role of Rac in the NAc and amygdala in the consolidation and reconsolidation of cocaine-associated cue memory in rats. Microinjections of NSC23766 into the NAc core but not shell, basolateral (BLA), or central amygdala (CeA) after each cocaine-conditioning session inhibited the consolidation of cocaine-induced CPP. A microinjection of NSC23766 into the BLA but not CeA, NAc core, or NAc shell immediately after memory reactivation induced by exposure to a previously cocaine-paired context disrupted the reconsolidation of cocaine-induced CPP. The effect of memory disruption on cocaine reconsolidation was specific to reactivated memory, persisted at least 2 weeks, and was not reinstated by a cocaine-priming injection. Our findings indicate that Rac in the NAc core and BLA are required for the consolidation and reconsolidation of cocaine-associated cue memory, respectively.

  12. Differential role of Rac in the basolateral amygdala and cornu ammonis 1 in the reconsolidation of auditory and contextual Pavlovian fear memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ping; Ding, Zeng-Bo; Meng, Shi-Qiu; Shen, Hao-Wei; Sun, Shi-Chao; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Liu, Jian-Feng; Lu, Lin; Zhu, Wei-Li; Shi, Jie

    2014-08-01

    A conditioned stimulus (CS) is associated with a fearful unconditioned stimulus (US) in the traditional fear conditioning model. After fear conditioning, the CS-US association memory undergoes the consolidation process to become stable. Consolidated memory enters an unstable state after retrieval and requires the reconsolidation process to stabilize again. Evidence indicates the important role of Rac (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate) in the acquisition and extinction of fear memory. In the present study, we hypothesized that Rac in the amygdala is crucial for the reconsolidation of auditory and contextual Pavlovian fear memory. Auditory and contextual fear conditioning and microinjections of the Rac inhibitor NSC23766 were used to explore the role of Rac in the reconsolidation of auditory and contextual Pavlovian fear memory in rats. A microinjection of NSC23766 into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) but not central amygdala (CeA) or cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) immediately after memory retrieval disrupted the reconsolidation of auditory Pavlovian fear memory. A microinjection of NSC23766 into the CA1 but not BLA or CeA after memory retrieval disrupted the reconsolidation of contextual Pavlovian fear memory. Our experiments demonstrate that Rac in the BLA is crucial for the reconsolidation of auditory Pavlovian fear memory, whereas Rac in the CA1 is critical for the reconsolidation of contextual Pavlovian fear memory.

  13. Morphological characteristics of renal artery and kidney in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoldas, Atilla; Dayan, Mustafa Orhun

    2014-01-01

    The gross anatomy and morphometry of the kidney and renal arteries were studied in the strains of laboratory rat: Sprague-Dawley (Sp) and Wistar (W) rats. Total of 106 three-dimensional endocasts of the intrarenal arteries of kidney that were prepared using standard injection-corrosion techniques were examined. A single renal artery was observed in 100% of the cases. The renal arteries were divided into a dorsal and a ventral branch. The dorsal and ventral branches were divided into two branches, the cranial and caudal branch. Renal arteries were classified into types I and II, depending on the cranial and caudal branches and their made of branching. The present study also showed that the right kidney was slightly heavier than the left one and that the kidney of the male was generally larger than that of the female. The mean live weights of the Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats were found to be 258.26 ± 5.9 and 182.4 ± 19.05 g, respectively. The kidney weights were significantly correlated (P kidney weights were not found significantly correlated (P > 0.01) with the length of renal arteries.

  14. Activation of exchange protein activated by cAMP in the rat basolateral amygdala impairs reconsolidation of a memory associated with self-administered cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xun; Torregrossa, Mary M; Sanchez, Hayde; Nairn, Angus C; Taylor, Jane R

    2014-01-01

    The intracellular mechanisms underlying memory reconsolidation critically involve cAMP signaling. These events were originally attributed to PKA activation by cAMP, but the identification of Exchange Protein Activated by cAMP (Epac), as a distinct mediator of cAMP signaling, suggests that cAMP-regulated processes that subserve memory reconsolidation are more complex. Here we investigated how activation of Epac with 8-pCPT-cAMP (8-CPT) impacts reconsolidation of a memory that had been associated with cocaine self-administration. Rats were trained to lever press for cocaine on an FR-1 schedule, in which each cocaine delivery was paired with a tone+light cue. Lever pressing was then extinguished in the absence of cue presentations and cocaine delivery. Following the last day of extinction, rats were put in a novel context, in which the conditioned cue was presented to reactivate the cocaine-associated memory. Immediate bilateral infusions of 8-CPT into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) following reactivation disrupted subsequent cue-induced reinstatement in a dose-dependent manner, and modestly reduced responding for conditioned reinforcement. When 8-CPT infusions were delayed for 3 hours after the cue reactivation session or were given after a cue extinction session, no effect on cue-induced reinstatement was observed. Co-administration of 8-CPT and the PKA activator 6-Bnz-cAMP (10 nmol/side) rescued memory reconsolidation while 6-Bnz alone had no effect, suggesting an antagonizing interaction between the two cAMP signaling substrates. Taken together, these studies suggest that activation of Epac represents a parallel cAMP-dependent pathway that can inhibit reconsolidation of cocaine-cue memories and reduce the ability of the cue to produce reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior.

  15. Activation of exchange protein activated by cAMP in the rat basolateral amygdala impairs reconsolidation of a memory associated with self-administered cocaine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Wan

    Full Text Available The intracellular mechanisms underlying memory reconsolidation critically involve cAMP signaling. These events were originally attributed to PKA activation by cAMP, but the identification of Exchange Protein Activated by cAMP (Epac, as a distinct mediator of cAMP signaling, suggests that cAMP-regulated processes that subserve memory reconsolidation are more complex. Here we investigated how activation of Epac with 8-pCPT-cAMP (8-CPT impacts reconsolidation of a memory that had been associated with cocaine self-administration. Rats were trained to lever press for cocaine on an FR-1 schedule, in which each cocaine delivery was paired with a tone+light cue. Lever pressing was then extinguished in the absence of cue presentations and cocaine delivery. Following the last day of extinction, rats were put in a novel context, in which the conditioned cue was presented to reactivate the cocaine-associated memory. Immediate bilateral infusions of 8-CPT into the basolateral amygdala (BLA following reactivation disrupted subsequent cue-induced reinstatement in a dose-dependent manner, and modestly reduced responding for conditioned reinforcement. When 8-CPT infusions were delayed for 3 hours after the cue reactivation session or were given after a cue extinction session, no effect on cue-induced reinstatement was observed. Co-administration of 8-CPT and the PKA activator 6-Bnz-cAMP (10 nmol/side rescued memory reconsolidation while 6-Bnz alone had no effect, suggesting an antagonizing interaction between the two cAMP signaling substrates. Taken together, these studies suggest that activation of Epac represents a parallel cAMP-dependent pathway that can inhibit reconsolidation of cocaine-cue memories and reduce the ability of the cue to produce reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior.

  16. Adrenal medullary regulation of rat renal cortical adrenergic receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaresan, P.R.; Guarnaccia, M.M.; Izzo, J.L. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The role of the adrenal medulla in the regulation of renal cortical adrenergic receptors was investigated in renal cortical particular fractions from control rats and rats 6 wk after adrenal demedullation. The specific binding of [ 3 H]prazosin, [ 3 H]rauwolscine, and [ 125 I]iodocyanopindolol were used to quantitate α 1 -, α 2 -, and β-adrenergic receptors, respectively. Adrenal demedullation increased the concentration of all three groups of renal adrenergic receptors; maximal number of binding sites (B max , per milligram membrane protein) for α 1 -, and α 2 -, and β-adrenergic receptors were increased by 22, 18.5, and 25%, respectively. No differences were found in the equilibrium dissociation constants (K D ) for any of the radioligands. Plasma corticosterone and plasma and renal norepinephrine levels were unchanged, whereas plasma epinephrine was decreased 72% by adrenal demedullation, renal cortical epinephrine was not detectable in control or demedullated animals. The results suggest that, in the physiological state, the adrenal medulla modulates the number of renal cortical adrenergic receptors, presumably through the actions of a circulating factor such as epinephrine

  17. Tobacco Induced Renal Function Alterations in Wistar Rats: An 8 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... pattern was observed for urea and uric acid levels. Over all, the significant increase (P<0.05) in renal function parameters of the test rats (as compared to the control values), suggests that the ingestion of tobacco snuff has harmful effects on kidney functions. Keywords: Tobacco, Snuff, Kidney function, Nicotine substitute.

  18. L-NIL prevents renal microvascular hypoxia and increase of renal oxygen consumption after ischemia-reperfusion in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legrand, Matthieu; Almac, Emre; Mik, Egbert G.; Johannes, Tanja; Kandil, Asli; Bezemer, Rick; Payen, Didier; Ince, Can

    2009-01-01

    Legrand M, Almac E, Mik EG, Johannes T, Kandil A, Bezemer R, Payen D, Ince C. L-NIL prevents renal microvascular hypoxia and increase of renal oxygen consumption after ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 296: F1109-F1117, 2009. First published February 18, 2009;

  19. Blood transfusion improves renal oxygenation and renal function in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafrani, Lara; Ergin, Bulent; Kapucu, Aysegul; Ince, Can

    2016-01-01

    The effects of blood transfusion on renal microcirculation during sepsis are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of blood transfusion on renal microvascular oxygenation and renal function during sepsis-induced acute kidney injury. Twenty-seven Wistar albino rats were randomized into

  20. Chronic alcohol exposure disrupts CB1 regulation of GABAergic transmission in the rat basolateral amygdala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varodayan, Florence P.; Bajo, Michal; Soni, Neeraj

    2017-01-01

    in BLA pyramidal neurons of rats exposed to 2–3 weeks intermittent ethanol. In the naïve rat BLA, the CB1 agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) decreased GABA release, and this effect was prevented by the CB1 antagonist AM251. AM251 alone increased GABA release via a mechanism requiring postsynaptic calcium-dependent......1 influence on BLA GABAergic transmission that is dysregulated by chronic ethanol exposure and, thus, may contribute to the alcohol-dependent state....

  1. 5-HT1A receptor blockade targeting the basolateral amygdala improved stress-induced impairment of memory consolidation and retrieval in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardari, M; Rezayof, A; Zarrindast, M-R

    2015-08-06

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible role of basolateral amygdala (BLA) 5-HT1A receptors in memory formation under stress. We also examined whether the blockade of these receptors is involved in stress-induced state-dependent memory. Adult male Wistar rats received cannula implants that bilaterally targeted the BLA. Long-term memory was examined using the step-through type of passive avoidance task. Behavioral stress was evoked by exposure to an elevated platform (EP) for 10, 20 and 30min. Post-training exposure to acute stress (30min) impaired the memory consolidation. In addition, pre-test exposure to acute stress-(20 and 30min) induced the impairment of memory retrieval. Interestingly, the memory impairment induced by post-training exposure to stress was restored in the animals that received 20- or 30-min pre-test stress exposure, suggesting stress-induced state-dependent memory retrieval. Post-training BLA-targeted injection of a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, (S)-WAY-100135 (2μg/rat), prevented the impairing effect of stress on memory consolidation. Pre-test injection of the same doses of (S)-WAY-100135 that was targeted to the BLA also reversed stress-induced memory retrieval impairment. It should be considered that post-training or pre-test BLA-targeted injection of (S)-WAY-100135 (0.5-2μg/rat) by itself had no effect on the memory formation. Moreover, pre-test injection of (S)-WAY-100135 (2μg/rat) that targeted the BLA inhibited the stress-induced state-dependent memory retrieval. Taken together, our findings suggest that post-training or pre-test exposure to acute stress induced the impairment of memory consolidation, retrieval and state-dependent learning. The BLA 5-HT1A receptors have a critical role in learning and memory under stress. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Renal Protective Effects of Corn Silk and Feijoa by using in situ Rat Renal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karami

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Corn silk (CS is widely used in Iranian traditional medicine. Feijoa sellowiana (FS, on the other hand, is a non-native plant widespread in the southern part of Iran. The aim of the present study was to examine the renal protective activity of CS and FS against dosage-induced ecstasy (MDMA by in situ rat renal perfusion (IRRP system. Methods: Hydro-alcoholic extracts of CS and FS (10, 20, 40 and 100 mg/ kg were studied for their renal protective activities by IRRP system. In this study, the kidneys were perfused with Kerbs-Henseleit buffer, containing different concentrations of hydro-alcoholic (HA extracts of CS and FS (10, 20, 40, 50, and 100mg/kg added to the buffer and perfused for two hours. During the perfusion, many factors, including urea, creatinine and GSH levels assessed as indicator of renal viability. Consequently, sections of renal tissue were examined for any histopathological changes. Results: The results showed that histopathological changes in renal tissue related to HA extract of CS AND FS concentrations dose-dependently. Doses of 50, 100 mg/kg caused significant histopathological changes (P<0.05. Glutathione (GSH levels of samples perfused by HA extract of CS and FS increased compared with the positive control group. Conclusion: Renal protective effects of CS and FS decrease lipid peroxidation, although other mechanisms may also be involved.

  3. Cyclophilin B expression in renal proximal tubules of hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainer, D B; Doris, P A

    2000-04-01

    Rat cyclophilin-like protein (Cy-LP) is a candidate hypertension gene initially identified by differential hybridization and implicated in renal mechanisms of salt retention and high blood pressure. We report the molecular characterization of rat cyclophilin B (CypB) and demonstrate, through sequence analysis and an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction primer assay, that CypB but not Cy-LP is expressed in rat kidney. CypB is an endoplasmic reticulum-localized prolyl-isomerase that interacts with elongation initiation factor 2-beta, an important regulator of protein translation and a central component of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response to hypoxia or ATP depletion. Active renal transport of sodium is increased in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), and there is evidence that this coincides with hypoxia and ATP depletion in the renal cortex. In the present studies we have examined expression of CypB in rat proximal tubules, which contributes to the increased renal sodium reabsorption in this model of hypertension. We report that CypB transcript abundance is significantly elevated in proximal convoluted tubules from SHR compared with the control Wistar-Kyoto strain. This upregulation occurs in weanling animals and precedes the development of hypertension, indicating that it is not a simple response to hypertension in SHR. Further, CypB expression is also higher in a proximal tubule cell line derived from SHR compared with a similar line derived from Wistar-Kyoto rats, indicating that this difference is genetically determined. No sequence differences were observed in the CypB cDNA from these 2 strains. These observations suggest that a genetically determined alteration in proximal tubules from SHR occurs that leads to increased expression of CypB. In view of evidence linking CypB to the regulation of elongation initiation factor-2, the upregulation of CypB may result from metabolic stress.

  4. Novel resveratrol analogues attenuate renal ischemic injury in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Adam; Yang, Weng-Lang; Kuncewitch, Michael; Prince, Jose M.; Marambaud, Philippe; Nicastro, Jeffrey; Coppa, Gene F.; Wang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Background Renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is a severe clinical complication with no specific treatment. Resveratrol has been shown as a promising experimental agent in renal I/R due to its effect on cellular energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Recently, we identified two biologically active resveratrol analogues (RSVAs), RSVA405 and RSVA314. We hypothesized that both RSAVs would attenuate I/R-induced renal injury. Methods Adult male rats were subjected to renal I/R through bilateral renal pedicle clamping for 60 min, followed by reperfusion. RSVA405 (3 mg/kg BW), RSVA314 (3 mg/kg BW), or vehicle (10% DMSO and 33% Solutol in PBS) was administered by intraperitoneal injection 1 h prior to ischemia. Blood and renal tissues were collected 24 h after I/R for evaluation. Results Administration of RSVA405 and RSVA314 significantly reduced the serum levels of renal dysfunction and injury markers, including creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase, compared to vehicle. The protective effect of RSVA405 and RSVA314 was also reflected on histologic evaluation. Both RSVAs reduced the number of apoptotic cells by more than 60% as determined by TUNEL assay, compared to vehicle. The renal ATP levels of the vehicle group was decreased to 52.4% of control, while those of the RSVA405 and RSVA314 groups were restored to 72.3% and 79.6% of control, respectively. Both RSVAs significantly reduced the protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitrotyrosine, and the mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β. Conclusions RSVA405 and RSVA314 attenuate I/R-induced renal injury through the modulation of energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and inflammation. PMID:25214260

  5. Effect of Cuscuta chinensis on renal function in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute renal failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sun; Lee, Yun Jung; Kim, Eun Ju; Lee, An Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2011-01-01

    The kidneys play a central role in regulating water, ion composition and excretion of metabolic waste products in the urine. Cuscuta chinensis has been known as an important traditional Oriental medicine for the treatment of liver and kidney disorders. Thus, we studied whether an aqueous extract of Cuscuta chinensis (ACC) seeds has an effect on renal function parameters in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute renal failure (ARF) rats. Administration of 250 mg/kg/day ACC showed that renal functional parameters including urinary excretion rate, osmolality, Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), creatinine clearance, solute-free water reabsorption were significantly recovered in ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF. Periodic acid Schiff staining showed that administration of ACC improved tubular damage in ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF. In immunoblot and immunohistological examinations, ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF decreased the expressions of water channel AQP 2, 3 and sodium potassium pump Na,K-ATPase in the renal medulla. However, administration of ACC markedly incremented AQP 2, 3 and Na,K-ATPase expressions. Therefore, these data indicate that administration of ACC ameliorates regulation of the urine concentration and renal functions in rats with ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF.

  6. Renal alterations in prediabetic rats with periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Carla Cruvinel Pontes; Holmstrup, Palle; Buschard, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Periodontitis was shown to have an impact on glucose levels in prediabetic and diabetic rats. The Zucker fatty rat (ZFR) is a well-characterized model of prediabetes presenting with impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and moderate hypertension. The aim...... IValpha1, fibronectin, and nephrin. Urinary albumin excretion and creatinine clearance were also evaluated. RESULTS: In prediabetic ZFRs, periodontitis was associated with kidney hypertrophy (P = 0.03) and a tendency for increased glomerular volume (P = 0.06). In lean littermates, elevated fibronectin m...

  7. Renal Denervation Findings on Cardiac and Renal Fibrosis in Rats with Isoproterenol Induced Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Kai; Wang, Shengchan; Lu, Dasheng; Li, Zhenzhen; Geng, Jie; Fang, Ping; Wang, Ying; Shan, Qijun

    2015-12-01

    Cardio-renal fibrosis plays key roles in heart failure and chronic kidney disease. We sought to determine the effects of renal denervation (RDN) on cardiac and renal fibrosis in rats with isoproterenol induced cardiomyopathy. Sixty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to Control (n = 10) and isoproterenol (ISO)-induced cardiomyopathy group (n = 50). At week 5, 31 survival ISO-induced cardiomyopathy rats were randomized to RDN (n = 15) and Sham group (n = 16). Compared with Control group, ejection fraction was decreased, diastolic interventricular septal thickness and left atrial dimension were increased in ISO-induced cardiomyopathy group at 5 week. After 10 weeks, cardio-renal pathophysiologic results demonstrated that the collagen volume fraction of left atrio-ventricular and kidney tissues reduced significantly in RDN group compared with Sham group. Moreover the pro-fibrosis factors (TGF-β1, MMP2 and Collagen I), inflammatory cytokines (CRP and TNF-α), and collagen synthesis biomarkers (PICP, PINP and PIIINP) concentration significantly decreased in RDN group. Compared with Sham group, RDN group showed that release of noradrenaline and aldosterone were reduced, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/angiotensin II (Ang II)/angiotensin II type-1 receptor (AT1R) axis was downregulated. Meanwhile, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin-1-7 (Ang-(1-7))/mas receptor (Mas-R) axis was upregulated. RDN inhibits cardio-renal fibrogenesis through multiple pathways, including reducing SNS over-activity, rebalancing RAAS axis.

  8. Neural regulation of the kidney function in rats with cisplatin induced renal failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, Niamh E.; Johns, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is often associated with a disturbed cardiovascular homeostasis. This investigation explored the role of the renal innervation in mediating deranged baroreflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and renal excretory function in cisplatin-induced renal failure. Methods: Rats were either intact or bilaterally renally denervated 4 days prior to receiving cisplatin (5 mg/kg i.p.) and entered a chronic metabolic study for 8 days. At day 8, other groups of rats were prepared for acute measurement of RSNA or renal function with either intact or denervated kidneys. Results: Following the cisplatin challenge, creatinine clearance was 50% lower while fractional sodium excretion and renal cortical and medullary TGF-β1 concentrations were 3–4 fold higher in both intact and renally denervated rats compared to control rats. In cisplatin-treated rats, the maximal gain of the high-pressure baroreflex curve was only 20% that of control rats, but following renal denervation not different from that of renally denervated control rats. Volume expansion reduced RSNA by 50% in control and in cisplatin-treated rats but only following bilateral renal denervation. The volume expansion mediated natriuresis/diuresis was absent in the cisplatin-treated rats but was normalized following renal denervation. Conclusions: Cisplatin-induced renal injury impaired renal function and caused a sympatho-excitation with blunting of high and low pressure baroreflex regulation of RSNA, which was dependent on the renal innervation. It is suggested that in man with CKD there is a dysregulation of the neural control of the kidney mediated by its sensory innervation. PMID:26175693

  9. Effects of renal denervation on tubular sodium handling in rats with CBL-induced liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, T.E.; Brond, L.; Torp, M.

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of bilateral renal denervation (DNX) on thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TAL) function in rats with liver cirrhosis induced by common bile duct ligation (CBL). The CBL rats had, as previously shown, sodium retention associated with hypertrophy...... renal sympathetic nerve activity known to be present in CBL rats plays a significant role in the formation of sodium retention by stimulating sodium reabsorption in the TAL via increased renal abundance of NKCC2....

  10. High-NaCl diet impairs dynamic renal blood flow autoregulation in rats with adenine-induced chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, Aso; DiBona, Gerald F; Grimberg, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 2 wk of high-NaCl diet on kidney function and dynamic renal blood flow autoregulation (RBFA) in rats with adenine-induced chronic renal failure (ACRF). Male Sprague-Dawley rats received either chow containing adenine or were pair-fed an identical diet without...... arterial pressure variability (SAPV), and heart rate variability were assessed by spectral analytical techniques. Rats with ACRF showed marked reductions in glomerular filtration rate and renal blood flow (RBF), whereas mean arterial pressure and SAPV were significantly elevated. In addition, spontaneous...... adenine (controls). After 10 wk, rats were randomized to either remain on the same diet (0.6% NaCl) or to be switched to high 4% NaCl chow. Two weeks after randomization, renal clearance experiments were performed under isoflurane anesthesia and dynamic RBFA, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), systolic...

  11. JBP485 improves gentamicin-induced acute renal failure by regulating the expression and function of Oat1 and Oat3 in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xinjin [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, Dalian (China); Meng, Qiang; Liu, Qi; Wang, Changyuan; Sun, Huijun; Peng, Jinyong; Ma, Xiaochi [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, Dalian (China); Provincial Key Laboratory for Pharmacokinetics and Transport, Dalian Medical University, Liaoning (China); Kaku, Taiichi [Japan Bioproducts Industry Co. Ltd., Tomigaya, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Liu, Kexin, E-mail: kexinliu@dlmedu.edu.cn [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, Dalian (China); Provincial Key Laboratory for Pharmacokinetics and Transport, Dalian Medical University, Liaoning (China)

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effects of JBP485 (an anti-inflammatory dipeptide and a substrate of OAT) on regulation of the expression and function of renal Oat1 and Oat3, which can accelerate the excretion of accumulated uremic toxins (e.g. indoxyl sulfate) in the kidney to improve gentamicin-induced ARF in rats. JBP485 caused a significant decrease in the accumulation of endogenous substances (creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and indoxyl sulfate) in vivo, an increase in the excretion of exogenous compounds (lisinopril and inulin) into urine, and up-regulation of the expressions of renal Oat1 and Oat3 in the kidney tissues and slices via substrate induction. To determine the effect of JBP485 on the accelerated excretion of uremic toxins mediated by Oat1 and Oat3, the mRNA and protein expression levels of renal basolateral Oats were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, western blot, immunohistochemical analysis and an immunofluorescence method. Gentamicin down-regulated the expression of Oats mRNA and protein in rat kidney, and these effects were reversed after administration of JBP485. In addition, JBP485 caused a significant decrease in MPO and MDA levels in the kidney, and improved the pathological condition of rat kidney. These results indicated that JBP485 improved acute renal failure by increasing the expression and function of Oat1 and Oat3, and by decreasing overoxidation of the kidney in gentamicin-induced ARF rats. - Highlights: • JBP485 could up-regulate function and expression of Oat1 and Oat3 in kidney. • Effects of JBP485 on ARF are mediated by stimulating excretion of uremic toxins. • JBP485 protected against gentamicin-induced ARF by decreasing MPO and MDA.

  12. Effects of dietary lipids on renal function of aged rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente Gamba C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal aging is accompanied by renal functional and morphological deterioration and dietetic manipulation has been used to delay this age-related decline. We examined the effects of chronic administration of diets containing 5% lipid-enriched diet (LD, w/w on renal function of rats at different ages. Three types of LD were tested: canola oil, fish oil and butter. Mean systemic tail-cuff blood pressure and glycemia remained within the normal range whatever the age and the diet of the animals. Proteinuria began to rise from the 8th month in the groups ingesting LD, while in the control group it increased significantly (above 10 mg/24 h only after the 10th month. With age, a significant and progressive decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR and renal plasma flow was observed in the LD groups but after 6 months of lipid supplementation, the decline in these parameters was more marked in the butter and fish oil groups. By the 18th month, the lowest GFR level was observed in the group ingesting the butter diet (2.93 ± 0.22 vs 5.01 ± 0.21 ml min-1 kg-1 in control, P<0.05. Net acid excretion, evaluated in 9- and 18-month-old rats, was stimulated in the fish oil group when compared both to control and to the other two LD groups. These results suggest that even low levels of LD in a chronic nutritional regimen can modify the age-related changes in renal function and that the impact of different types of lipid-supplemented diets on renal function depends on the kind of lipid present in the diet.

  13. Interaction between the Basolateral Amygdala and Dorsal Hippocampus Is Critical for Cocaine Memory Reconsolidation and Subsequent Drug Context-Induced Cocaine-Seeking Behaviorin Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Audrey M.; Lasseter, Heather C.; Xie, Xiaohu; Cowhey, Kate E.; Reittinger, Andrew M.; Fuchs, Rita A.

    2011-01-01

    Contextual stimulus control over instrumental drug-seeking behavior relies on the reconsolidation of context-response-drug associative memories into long-term memory storage following retrieval-induced destabilization. According to previous studies, the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dorsal hippocampus (DH) regulate cocaine-related memory…

  14. Post-Training Reversible Disconnection of the Ventral Hippocampal-Basolateral Amygdaloid Circuits Impairs Consolidation of Inhibitory Avoidance Memory in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gong-Wu; Liu, Jian; Wang, Xiao-Qin

    2017-01-01

    The ventral hippocampus (VH) and the basolateral amygdala (BLA) are both crucial in inhibitory avoidance (IA) memory. However, the exact role of the VH-BLA circuit in IA memory consolidation is unclear. This study investigated the effect of post-training reversible disconnection of the VH-BLA circuit in IA memory consolidation. Male Wistar rats…

  15. Exogenous and endogenous angiotensin-II decrease renal cortical oxygen tension in conscious rats by limiting renal blood flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emans, Tonja W.; Janssen, Ben J.; Pinkham, Maximilian I.; Ow, Connie P. C.; Evans, Roger G.; Joles, Jaap A.; Malpas, Simon C.; Krediet, C. T. Paul; Koeners, Maarten P.

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the role of hypoxia in the initiation and progression of renal disease remains rudimentary. We have developed a method that allows wireless measurement of renal tissue oxygen tension in unrestrained rats. This method provides stable and continuous

  16. Mathematical Model of Ammonia Handling in the Rat Renal Medulla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noiret, Lorette; Baigent, Stephen; Jalan, Rajiv; Thomas, S. Randall

    2015-01-01

    The kidney is one of the main organs that produces ammonia and release it into the circulation. Under normal conditions, between 30 and 50% of the ammonia produced in the kidney is excreted in the urine, the rest being absorbed into the systemic circulation via the renal vein. In acidosis and in some pathological conditions, the proportion of urinary excretion can increase to 70% of the ammonia produced in the kidney. Mechanisms regulating the balance between urinary excretion and renal vein release are not fully understood. We developed a mathematical model that reflects current thinking about renal ammonia handling in order to investigate the role of each tubular segment and identify some of the components which might control this balance. The model treats the movements of water, sodium chloride, urea, NH3 and NH4+, and non-reabsorbable solute in an idealized renal medulla of the rat at steady state. A parameter study was performed to identify the transport parameters and microenvironmental conditions that most affect the rate of urinary ammonia excretion. Our results suggest that urinary ammonia excretion is mainly determined by those parameters that affect ammonia recycling in the loops of Henle. In particular, our results suggest a critical role for interstitial pH in the outer medulla and for luminal pH along the inner medullary collecting ducts. PMID:26280830

  17. Dynamic modeling of renal blood flow in Dahl hypertensive and normotensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben; Elmer, Henrik; Knudsen, Morten H

    2004-01-01

    A method is proposed in this paper which allows characterization of renal autoregulatory dynamics and efficiency using quantitative mathematical methods. Based on data from rat experiments, where arterial blood pressure and renal blood flow are measured, a quantitative model for renal blood flow...

  18. Renal origin of rat urinary epidermal growth factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    The origin of rat urinary epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been investigated. Unilateral nephrectomy decreased the concentration, total output of EGF and EGF/creatinine ratio by approximately 50%, while the output of creatinine was unchanged. Removal of the submandibular glands and duodenal...... Brunner's glands, organs known to produce EGF, had no influence on the output of EGF in urine. Renal clearance of EGF exceeded that of creatinine, and after bilateral nephrectomy or bilateral ligation of the ureters, the concentration of creatinine in serum increased, while the concentration of EGF...

  19. Bradykinin receptor blockade restores the baroreflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity in cisplatin-induced renal failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, M H; Duff, M; Swanton, H; Johns, E J

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of renal bradykinin B1 and B2 receptor blockade on the high- and low-pressure baroreceptor reflex regulation of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in rats with cisplatin-induced renal failure. Cisplatin (5 mg/kg) or saline was given intraperitoneally 4 days prior to study. Following chloralose/urethane anaesthesia, rats were prepared for measurement of mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate and RSNA and received intrarenal infusions of either Lys-[des-Arg 9 , Leu 8 ]-bradykinin (LBK), a bradykinin B1 receptor blocker, or bradyzide (BZ), a bradykinin B2 receptor blocker. RSNA baroreflex gain curves and renal sympatho-inhibitory responses to volume expansion (VE) were obtained. In the control and renal failure groups, basal MAP (89 ± 3 vs. 80 ± 8 mmHg) and RSNA (2.0 ± 0.3 vs. 1.7 ± 0.6 μV.s) were similar but HR was lower in the latter group (331 ± 8 vs. 396 ± 9 beats/min). The baroreflex gain for RSNA in the renal failure rats was 39% (P renal failure rats. Intrarenal LBK infusion in the renal failure rats normalized the VE induced renal sympatho-inhibition whereas BZ only partially restored the response. These findings suggest that pro-inflammatory bradykinin acting at different receptors within the kidney generates afferent neural signals which impact differentially within the central nervous system on high- and low-pressure regulation of RSNA. © 2016 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Less contribution of mast cells to the progression of renal fibrosis in Rat kidneys with chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Asuka; Tachi, Masahiro; Ejima, Yutaka; Endo, Yasuhiro; Toyama, Hiroaki; Saito, Kazutomo; Abe, Nozomu; Yamauchi, Masanori; Miura, Chieko; Kazama, Itsuro

    2017-02-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) is histopathologically characterized by tubulointerstitial fibrosis in addition to glomerulosclerosis. Although mast cells are known to infiltrate into the kidneys with chronic inflammation, we know little about their contribution to the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis associated with CRF. The aim of this study was to reveal the involvement of mast cells in the progression of renal fibrosis in CRF. Using a rat model with CRF resulting from 5/6 nephrectomy, we examined the histopathological features of the kidneys and the infiltration of mast cells into the renal interstitium. By treating the rats with a potent mast cell stabilizer, tranilast, we also examined the involvement of mast cells in the progression of renal fibrosis associated with CRF. The CRF rat kidneys were characterized by the wide staining of collagen III and increased number of myofibroblasts, indicating the progression of renal fibrosis. Compared to T-lymphocytes or macrophages, the number of tryptase-positive mast cells was much smaller within the fibrotic kidneys and they did not proliferate in situ. The mRNA expression of mast cell-derived fibroblast-activating factors was not increased in the renal cortex isolated from CRF rat kidneys. Treatment with tranilast did not suppress the progression of renal fibrosis, nor did it ameliorate the progression of glomerulosclerosis and the interstitial proliferation of inflammatory leukocytes. This study demonstrated for the first time that mast cells are neither increased nor activated in the fibrotic kidneys of CRF rats. Compared to T-lymphocytes or macrophages that proliferate in situ within the fibrotic kidneys, mast cells were less likely to contribute to the progression of renal fibrosis associated with CRF. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  1. A local renal renin-angiotensin system activation via renal uptake of prorenin and angiotensinogen in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojo, Akihiro; Kinugasa, Satoshi; Fujita, Toshiro; Wilcox, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of activation of local renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has not been clarified in diabetes mellitus (DM). We hypothesized that the local renal RAS will be activated via increased glomerular filtration and tubular uptake of prorenin and angiotensinogen in diabetic kidney with microalbuminuria. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DM and control rats were injected with human prorenin and subsequently with human angiotensinogen. Human prorenin uptake was increased in podocytes, proximal tubules, macula densa, and cortical collecting ducts of DM rats where prorenin receptor (PRR) was expressed. Co-immunoprecipitation of kidney homogenates in DM rats revealed binding of human prorenin to the PRR and to megalin. The renal uptake of human angiotensinogen was increased in DM rats at the same nephron sites as prorenin. Angiotensin-converting enzyme was increased in podocytes, but decreased in the proximal tubules in DM rats, which may have contributed to unchanged renal levels of angiotensin despite increased angiotensinogen. The systolic blood pressure increased more after the injection of 20 μg of angiotensinogen in DM rats than in controls, accompanied by an increased uptake of human angiotensinogen in the vascular endothelium. In conclusion, endocytic uptake of prorenin and angiotensinogen in the kidney and vasculature in DM rats was contributed to increased tissue RAS and their pressor response to angiotensinogen.

  2. Renal handling of sodium and water in the hypothyroid rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Ulrich F.; Barenberg, Robert L.; Chavez, Rafaelita; Vaamonde, Carlos A.; Papper, Solomon

    1972-01-01

    Hypothyroid rats were examined with conventional renal clearance and micropuncture techniques to elicit the mechanism and site within the nephron responsible for the increased salt and water excretion observed in these animals. When compared with age-matched control rats, a decrease in inulin clearance of 30% (P < 0.001) and in Hippuran clearance of 32% (P < 0.005) was observed in the hypothyroid rats. Absolute excretion of sodium and water was increased 3-fold (P < 0.02) and 2-fold (P < 0.025), respectively, while fractional excretion of sodium and water was increased 4.3-fold (P < 0.02) and 2.9-fold (P < 0.05), respectively, in the hypothyroid animals. Fractional proximal reabsorption of sodium as assessed from proximal tubular fluid to plasma ratios of inulin ([TF/P]IN) was found to be decreased by 28% (P < 0.001) in the hypothyroid rats. Superficial single nephron filtration rate was reduced proportionately to the decrease in total filtration rate in the hypothyroid rats. These data indicate that the proximal tubule is one of the sites of diminished sodium and water reabsorption in the hypothyroid rat. The data also suggest that the observed decrease in glomerular filtration rate in the hypothyroid animals is not caused by a decrease in the number of functioning nephrons and that the observed increase in sodium and water excretion is not caused by a redistribution of filtrate from juxtamedullary to superficial nephrons. Although the exact mechanisms of the observed changes in proximal tubular function remain unknown, the data suggest that they are probably related to the lack of thyroid hormone. Whatever their mechanism, it appears that the enhanced sodium and water excretion observed in the hypothyroid animals must be determined by further reduction in tubular sodium reabsorption in the distal nephron. PMID:5024038

  3. Online feedback-controlled renal constant infusion clearances in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock-Kusch, Daniel; Shulhevich, Yury; Xie, Qing; Hesser, Juergen; Stsepankou, Dzmitry; Neudecker, Sabine; Friedemann, Jochen; Koenig, Stefan; Heinrich, Ralf; Hoecklin, Friederike; Pill, Johannes; Gretz, Norbert

    2012-08-01

    Constant infusion clearance techniques using exogenous renal markers are considered the gold standard for assessing the glomerular filtration rate. Here we describe a constant infusion clearance method in rats allowing the real-time monitoring of steady-state conditions using an automated closed-loop approach based on the transcutaneous measurement of the renal marker FITC-sinistrin. In order to optimize parameters to reach steady-state conditions as fast as possible, a Matlab-based simulation tool was established. Based on this, a real-time feedback-regulated approach for constant infusion clearance monitoring was developed. This was validated by determining hourly FITC-sinistrin plasma concentrations and the glomerular filtration rate in healthy and unilaterally nephrectomized rats. The transcutaneously assessed FITC-sinistrin fluorescence signal was found to reflect the plasma concentration. Our method allows the precise determination of the onset of steady-state marker concentration. Moreover, the steady state can be monitored and controlled in real time for several hours. This procedure is simple to perform since no urine samples and only one blood sample are required. Thus, we developed a real-time feedback-based system for optimal regulation and monitoring of a constant infusion clearance technique.

  4. Effect of Hydroalcholic Extract of Curcuma longa on Adriamycin-Induced Renal Damage in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    R. Mohebbati; A.A. Abbasnezhad; A. Khajavi Rad; M. Haghshenas; M.R. Khazdeir

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Adriamycin is one of the anti-cancer medications. Nevertheless, the medication causes renal damage. Curcuma longa has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Curcuma longa on renal damage due to Adriamycin in the rat. Materials & Methods: In the experimental study, 32 male Wistar rats were studied. Via simple random method, the rats were divided into four groups including control, Adriamycin (5mg/Kg)...

  5. Efferent pathways in sodium overload-induced renal vasodilation in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia O Amaral

    Full Text Available Hypernatremia stimulates the secretion of oxytocin (OT, but the physiological role of OT remains unclear. The present study sought to determine the involvement of OT and renal nerves in the renal responses to an intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline. Male Wistar rats (280-350 g were anesthetized with sodium thiopental (40 mg. kg(-1, i.v.. A bladder cannula was implanted for collection of urine. Animals were also instrumented for measurement of mean arterial pressure (MAP and renal blood flow (RBF. Renal vascular conductance (RVC was calculated as the ratio of RBF by MAP. In anesthetized rats (n = 6, OT infusion (0.03 µg • kg(-1, i.v. induced renal vasodilation. Consistent with this result, ex vivo experiments demonstrated that OT caused renal artery relaxation. Blockade of OT receptors (OXTR reduced these responses to OT, indicating a direct effect of this peptide on OXTR on this artery. Hypertonic saline (3 M NaCl, 1.8 ml • kg(-1 b.wt., i.v. was infused over 60 s. In sham rats (n = 6, hypertonic saline induced renal vasodilation. The OXTR antagonist (AT; atosiban, 40 µg • kg(-1 • h(-1, i.v.; n = 7 and renal denervation (RX reduced the renal vasodilation induced by hypernatremia. The combination of atosiban and renal denervation (RX+AT; n = 7 completely abolished the renal vasodilation induced by sodium overload. Intact rats excreted 51% of the injected sodium within 90 min. Natriuresis was slightly blunted by atosiban and renal denervation (42% and 39% of load, respectively, whereas atosiban with renal denervation reduced sodium excretion to 16% of the load. These results suggest that OT and renal nerves are involved in renal vasodilation and natriuresis induced by acute plasma hypernatremia.

  6. Alteration of renal excretion pathways in gentamicin-induced renal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan-Rong; Luo, Xuan; Wu, Yan-Fang; Zhang, Tiffany; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Wu, Xin-An

    2018-02-20

    The kidney plays a major part in the elimination of many drugs and their metabolites, and drug-induced kidney injury commonly alters either glomerular filtration or tubular transport, or both. However, the renal excretion pathway of drugs has not been fully elucidated at different stages of renal injury. This study aimed to evaluate the alteration of renal excretion pathways in gentamicin (GEN)-induced renal injury in rats. Results showed that serum cystatin C, creatinine and urea nitrogen levels were greatly increased by the exposure of GEN (100 mg kg -1 ), and creatinine concentration was increased by 39.7% by GEN (50 mg kg -1 ). GEN dose-dependently upregulated the protein expression of rOCT1, downregulated rOCT2 and rOAT1, but not affected rOAT2. Efflux transporters, rMRP2, rMRP4 and rBCRP expressions were significantly increased by GEN(100), and the rMATE1 level was markedly increased by GEN(50) but decreased by GEN(100). GEN(50) did not alter the urinary excretion of inulin, but increased metformin and furosemide excretion. However, GEN(100) resulted in a significant decrease of the urinary excretion of inulin, metformin and p-aminohippurate. In addition, urinary metformin excretions in vivo were significantly decreased by GEN(100), but slightly increased by GEN(50). These results suggested that GEN(50) resulted in the induction of rOCTs-rMATE1 and rOAT3-rMRPs pathway, but not changed the glomerular filtration rate, and GEN(100)-induced acute kidney injury caused the downregulated function of glomerular filtration -rOCTs-rMATE1 and -rOAT1-rMRPs pathway. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Blood transfusion improves renal oxygenation and renal function in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafrani, Lara; Ergin, Bulent; Kapucu, Aysegul; Ince, Can

    2016-12-20

    The effects of blood transfusion on renal microcirculation during sepsis are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of blood transfusion on renal microvascular oxygenation and renal function during sepsis-induced acute kidney injury. Twenty-seven Wistar albino rats were randomized into four groups: a sham group (n = 6), a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group (n = 7), a LPS group that received fluid resuscitation (n = 7), and a LPS group that received blood transfusion (n = 7). The mean arterial blood pressure, renal blood flow, and renal microvascular oxygenation within the kidney cortex were recorded. Acute kidney injury was assessed using the serum creatinine levels, metabolic cost, and histopathological lesions. Nitrosative stress (expression of endothelial (eNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)) within the kidney was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Hemoglobin levels, pH, serum lactate levels, and liver enzymes were measured. Fluid resuscitation and blood transfusion both significantly improved the mean arterial pressure and renal blood flow after LPS infusion. Renal microvascular oxygenation, serum creatinine levels, and tubular damage significantly improved in the LPS group that received blood transfusion compared to the group that received fluids. Moreover, the renal expression of eNOS was markedly suppressed under endotoxin challenge. Blood transfusion, but not fluid resuscitation, was able to restore the renal expression of eNOS. However, there were no significant differences in lactic acidosis or liver function between the two groups. Blood transfusion significantly improved renal function in endotoxemic rats. The specific beneficial effect of blood transfusion on the kidney could have been mediated in part by the improvements in renal microvascular oxygenation and sepsis-induced endothelial dysfunction via the restoration of eNOS expression within the kidney.

  8. Comparison of renal toxicity after injection of CT contrast medium and MR contrast medium: change of renal function in acute renal failure rat models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Young min; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Sang Won; Jin, Kong Young; Kim, Won; Chung, Gyung Ho

    2002-01-01

    To determine renal toxicity through changes in renal function after the injection of CT and MRI contrast media into rats in which acute renal failure (ARF) was induced. To cause acute renal failure, the abdominal cavity of 110 male rats each weighing 250-300 gm was opened via a midline incision under anesthesia. Microvascular clamps were placed on both renal arteries and veins to completely block renal blood flow for 45 minutes, and were then removed, allowing blood flow to return to the kidneys. ARF, defined as a two-fold difference in the creatinine level before ARF and 48 hours after, was successfully induced in 60 of the rats. These were divided into two groups: one was injected with CT contrast medium and the other with MRI contrast medium. Each CT and MRI group was divided into a low dose (0.5 cc/kg, 0.2 ml/kg), standard dose (2 cc/kg, 0.8 ml/kg), and high dose (8 cc/kg, 3.2 ml/kg) sub-group; thus, there was a total of six groups with ten rats in each. Blood samples were obtained before ARF, 48 hours after, and 48 hours after contrast injection, and CT scanning and MRI were performed after blood sampling at 48 hours. In each group, creatinine levels 48 hours after contrast injection were compared by means of the ANOVA test. There were no significant differences in creatinine levels between the CT and MRI contrast medium groups (p=0.116), nor between the animals to which different doses of CT and MRI contrast medium, were administered. After both standard and high doses, CT and MRI provided good images. In rats in which acute renal failure was induced, renal function did not change according to whether CT or MRI contrast medium was injected. Thus, the two media induce similar levels of toxicity

  9. Mixed organic solvents induce renal injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisong Qin

    Full Text Available To investigate the injury effects of organic solvents on kidney, an animal model of Sprague-Dawley (SD rats treated with mixed organic solvents via inhalation was generated and characterized. The mixed organic solvents consisted of gasoline, dimethylbenzene and formaldehyde (GDF in the ratio of 2:2:1, and were used at 12,000 PPM to treat the rats twice a day, each for 3 hours. Proteinuria appeared in the rats after exposure for 5-6 weeks. The incidences of proteinuria in male and female rats after exposure for 12 weeks were 43.8% (7/16 and 25% (4/16, respectively. Urinary N-Acetyl-β-(D-Glucosaminidase (NAG activity was increased significantly after exposure for 4 weeks. Histological examination revealed remarkable injuries in the proximal renal tubules, including tubular epithelial cell detachment, cloud swelling and vacuole formation in the proximal tubular cells, as well as proliferation of parietal epithelium and tubular reflux in glomeruli. Ultrastructural examination found that brush border and cytoplasm of tubular epithelial cell were dropped, that tubular epithelial cells were partially disintegrated, and that the mitochondria of tubular epithelial cells were degenerated and lost. In addition to tubular lesions, glomerular damages were also observed, including segmental foot process fusion and loss of foot process covering on glomerular basement membrane (GBM. Immunofluorescence staining indicated that the expression of nephrin and podocin were both decreased after exposure of GDF. In contrast, increased expression of desmin, a marker of podocyte injury, was found in some areas of a glomerulus. TUNEL staining showed that GDF induced apoptosis in tubular cells and glomerular cells. These studies demonstrate that GDF can induce both severe proximal tubular damage and podocyte injury in rats, and the tubular lesions appear earlier than that of glomeruli.

  10. Mixed organic solvents induce renal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Weisong; Xu, Zhongxiu; Lu, Yizhou; Zeng, Caihong; Zheng, Chunxia; Wang, Shengyu; Liu, Zhihong

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the injury effects of organic solvents on kidney, an animal model of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats treated with mixed organic solvents via inhalation was generated and characterized. The mixed organic solvents consisted of gasoline, dimethylbenzene and formaldehyde (GDF) in the ratio of 2:2:1, and were used at 12,000 PPM to treat the rats twice a day, each for 3 hours. Proteinuria appeared in the rats after exposure for 5-6 weeks. The incidences of proteinuria in male and female rats after exposure for 12 weeks were 43.8% (7/16) and 25% (4/16), respectively. Urinary N-Acetyl-β-(D)-Glucosaminidase (NAG) activity was increased significantly after exposure for 4 weeks. Histological examination revealed remarkable injuries in the proximal renal tubules, including tubular epithelial cell detachment, cloud swelling and vacuole formation in the proximal tubular cells, as well as proliferation of parietal epithelium and tubular reflux in glomeruli. Ultrastructural examination found that brush border and cytoplasm of tubular epithelial cell were dropped, that tubular epithelial cells were partially disintegrated, and that the mitochondria of tubular epithelial cells were degenerated and lost. In addition to tubular lesions, glomerular damages were also observed, including segmental foot process fusion and loss of foot process covering on glomerular basement membrane (GBM). Immunofluorescence staining indicated that the expression of nephrin and podocin were both decreased after exposure of GDF. In contrast, increased expression of desmin, a marker of podocyte injury, was found in some areas of a glomerulus. TUNEL staining showed that GDF induced apoptosis in tubular cells and glomerular cells. These studies demonstrate that GDF can induce both severe proximal tubular damage and podocyte injury in rats, and the tubular lesions appear earlier than that of glomeruli.

  11. Early life stress sensitizes the renal and systemic sympathetic system in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loria, Analia S; Brands, Michael W; Pollock, David M; Pollock, Jennifer S

    2013-08-01

    We hypothesized that maternal separation (MS), an early life stress model, induces a sensitization of the sympathetic system. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the renal and systemic sympathetic system in 12- to 14-wk-old male control or MS rats with the following parameters: 1) effect of renal denervation on conscious renal filtration capacity, 2) norepinephrine (NE) content in key organs involved in blood pressure control, and 3) acute systemic pressor responses to adrenergic stimulation or ganglion blockade. MS was performed by separating pups from their mothers for 3 h/day from day 2 to 14; controls were nonhandled littermates. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was examined in renal denervated (DnX; within 2 wk) or sham rats using I¹²⁵-iothalamate plasma clearance. MS-DnX rats showed significantly increased GFR compared with MS-SHAM rats (3.8 ± 0.4 vs. 2.4 ± 0.2 ml/min, respectively, P renal nerves regulate GFR in MS rats. NE content was significantly increased in organ tissues from MS rats (P renal and systemic sympathetic system. Conscious MS rats displayed a significantly greater increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) in response to NE (2 μg/kg ip) and a greater reduction in MAP in response to mecamylamine (2 mg/kg ip, P renal and systemic sympathetic system ultimately impairing blood pressure regulation.

  12. Differences in dynamic autoregulation of renal blood flow between SHR and WKY rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Y M; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1993-01-01

    by chaotic fluctuations. We sought to determine whether this change was associated with a change in the dynamic autoregulation of renal blood flow. In halothane-anesthetized 250- to 320-g SHR and WKY rats, renal blood flow was measured during "white noise" forcing of arterial blood pressure. The frequency...... conclude that the change in the dynamics of TGF leads to a change in the dynamic autoregulation of renal blood flow between SHR and WKY rats. This change results in a more efficient dynamic autoregulation of renal blood flow in the SHR compared with the WKY rats. The functional consequences of this......In halothane-anesthetized Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats the single-nephron blood flow and the proximal tubule pressure oscillate at a frequency of 35-50 mHz because of the operation of the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanism. In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) the oscillations are replaced...

  13. High-NaCl diet impairs dynamic renal blood flow autoregulation in rats with adenine-induced chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Aso; DiBona, Gerald F; Grimberg, Elisabeth; Nguy, Lisa; Mikkelsen, Minne Line Nedergaard; Marcussen, Niels; Guron, Gregor

    2014-03-15

    This study examined the effects of 2 wk of high-NaCl diet on kidney function and dynamic renal blood flow autoregulation (RBFA) in rats with adenine-induced chronic renal failure (ACRF). Male Sprague-Dawley rats received either chow containing adenine or were pair-fed an identical diet without adenine (controls). After 10 wk, rats were randomized to either remain on the same diet (0.6% NaCl) or to be switched to high 4% NaCl chow. Two weeks after randomization, renal clearance experiments were performed under isoflurane anesthesia and dynamic RBFA, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), systolic arterial pressure variability (SAPV), and heart rate variability were assessed by spectral analytical techniques. Rats with ACRF showed marked reductions in glomerular filtration rate and renal blood flow (RBF), whereas mean arterial pressure and SAPV were significantly elevated. In addition, spontaneous BRS was reduced by ∼50% in ACRF animals. High-NaCl diet significantly increased transfer function fractional gain values between arterial pressure and RBF in the frequency range of the myogenic response (0.06-0.09 Hz) only in ACRF animals (0.3 ± 4.0 vs. -4.4 ± 3.8 dB; P renal failure by facilitating pressure transmission to the microvasculature.

  14. Roles of the basolateral amygdala and hippocampus in social recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Maaswinkel, H.; Baars, A.M.; Spruijt, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    Lesions of the amygdala or hippocampus have a large impact on social behavior of rats. In this study we investigated whether a social recognition test was also affected by those lesions. An NMDA-induced lesion of the basolateral amygdala did not impair the ability to distinguish a familiar from an

  15. Exogenous and endogenous angiotensin-II decrease renal cortical oxygen tension in conscious rats by limiting renal blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emans, Tonja W; Janssen, Ben J; Pinkham, Maximilian I; Ow, Connie P C; Evans, Roger G; Joles, Jaap A; Malpas, Simon C; Krediet, C T Paul; Koeners, Maarten P

    2016-11-01

    Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the role of hypoxia in the initiation and progression of renal disease remains rudimentary. We have developed a method that allows wireless measurement of renal tissue oxygen tension in unrestrained rats. This method provides stable and continuous measurements of cortical tissue oxygen tension (PO2) for more than 2 weeks and can reproducibly detect acute changes in cortical oxygenation. Exogenous angiotensin-II reduced renal cortical tissue PO2 more than equi-pressor doses of phenylephrine, probably because it reduced renal oxygen delivery more than did phenylephrine. Activation of the endogenous renin-angiotensin system in transgenic Cyp1a1Ren2 rats reduced cortical tissue PO2; in this model renal hypoxia precedes the development of structural pathology and can be reversed acutely by an angiotensin-II receptor type 1 antagonist. Angiotensin-II promotes renal hypoxia, which may in turn contribute to its pathological effects during development of chronic kidney disease. We hypothesised that both exogenous and endogenous angiotensin-II (AngII) can decrease the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in the renal cortex of unrestrained rats, which might in turn contribute to the progression of chronic kidney disease. Rats were instrumented with telemeters equipped with a carbon paste electrode for continuous measurement of renal cortical tissue PO2. The method reproducibly detected acute changes in cortical oxygenation induced by systemic hyperoxia and hypoxia. In conscious rats, renal cortical PO2 was dose-dependently reduced by intravenous AngII. Reductions in PO2 were significantly greater than those induced by equi-pressor doses of phenylephrine. In anaesthetised rats, renal oxygen consumption was not affected, and filtration fraction was increased only in the AngII infused animals. Oxygen delivery decreased by 50% after infusion of AngII and renal blood flow (RBF) fell by 3.3 ml min -1 . Equi-pressor infusion of

  16. Exogenous and endogenous angiotensin‐II decrease renal cortical oxygen tension in conscious rats by limiting renal blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emans, Tonja W.; Janssen, Ben J.; Pinkham, Maximilian I.; Ow, Connie P. C.; Evans, Roger G.; Joles, Jaap A.; Malpas, Simon C.; Krediet, C. T. Paul

    2016-01-01

    Key points Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the role of hypoxia in the initiation and progression of renal disease remains rudimentary.We have developed a method that allows wireless measurement of renal tissue oxygen tension in unrestrained rats.This method provides stable and continuous measurements of cortical tissue oxygen tension (PO2) for more than 2 weeks and can reproducibly detect acute changes in cortical oxygenation.Exogenous angiotensin‐II reduced renal cortical tissue PO2 more than equi‐pressor doses of phenylephrine, probably because it reduced renal oxygen delivery more than did phenylephrine.Activation of the endogenous renin–angiotensin system in transgenic Cyp1a1Ren2 rats reduced cortical tissue PO2; in this model renal hypoxia precedes the development of structural pathology and can be reversed acutely by an angiotensin‐II receptor type 1 antagonist.Angiotensin‐II promotes renal hypoxia, which may in turn contribute to its pathological effects during development of chronic kidney disease. Abstract We hypothesised that both exogenous and endogenous angiotensin‐II (AngII) can decrease the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in the renal cortex of unrestrained rats, which might in turn contribute to the progression of chronic kidney disease. Rats were instrumented with telemeters equipped with a carbon paste electrode for continuous measurement of renal cortical tissue PO2. The method reproducibly detected acute changes in cortical oxygenation induced by systemic hyperoxia and hypoxia. In conscious rats, renal cortical PO2 was dose‐dependently reduced by intravenous AngII. Reductions in PO2 were significantly greater than those induced by equi‐pressor doses of phenylephrine. In anaesthetised rats, renal oxygen consumption was not affected, and filtration fraction was increased only in the AngII infused animals. Oxygen delivery decreased by 50% after infusion of AngII and renal blood flow (RBF) fell by 3.3 ml min−1

  17. Mechanisms of blood pressure changes following renal irradiation of intact, adrenalectomized, and adrenal regenerating rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenblum, M.

    1977-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the differences in changes in systolic arterial blood pressure following renal x irradiation (1100 R) in adrenal-intact, adrenalectomized, and adrenal-regenerating rats and to elucidate the involvement or roles of the kidneys and of the adrenal glands in the blood pressure changes. The parameters studied included the following: systolic blood pressure; body weight; food and fluid consumption; urine output; plasma and urine electrolytes; sodium balance; plasma renin activity; plasma corticosterone; renal vascular volume; renal vascular permeability (using 125 I-polyvinylpyrrolidone extravasation rate as an indicator); renal blood flow (using 42 K extraction); kidney weight; hematocrit; and total vascular, plasma, and red cell volumes. Renal x irradiation of intact rats caused polydipsia, polyuria, and reduced urine concentrations of sodium and potassium without significantly affecting blood pressure during the period of study (80 days); plasma renin activity was significantly lowered and had a positive correlation with blood volume; an abnormal blood volume-plasma renin activity relationship is suggested. Adrenalectomy caused prolonged hypotension in saline-maintained rats even though their sodium balance was more positive than that in adrenal-intact or adrenal-regenerating rats with normal or elevated blood pressure. The blood pressure of renally irrradiated, adrenalectomized rats was greater than non-irradiated adrenalectomized rats, but with only borderline significance; it is concluded that the absence of the adrenal glands does not affect the degree or duration of the effects of renal irradiation on blood pressure

  18. Innervation of the renal proximal convoluted tubule of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barajas, L.; Powers, K.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental data suggest the proximal tubule as a major site of neurogenic influence on tubular function. The functional and anatomical axial heterogeneity of the proximal tubule prompted this study of the distribution of innervation sites along the early, mid, and late proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) of the rat. Serial section autoradiograms, with tritiated norepinephrine serving as a marker for monoaminergic nerves, were used in this study. Freehand clay models and graphic reconstructions of proximal tubules permitted a rough estimation of the location of the innervation sites along the PCT. In the subcapsular nephrons, the early PCT (first third) was devoid of innervation sites with most of the innervation occurring in the mid (middle third) and in the late (last third) PCT. Innervation sites were found in the early PCT in nephrons located deeper in the cortex. In juxtamedullary nephrons, innervation sites could be observed on the PCT as it left the glomerulus. This gradient of PCT innervation can be explained by the different tubulovascular relationships of nephrons at different levels of the cortex. The absence of innervation sites in the early PCT of subcapsular nephrons suggests that any influence of the renal nerves on the early PCT might be due to an effect of neurotransmitter released from renal nerves reaching the early PCT via the interstitium and/or capillaries

  19. Aging aggravates long-term renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianlin; Fan, Min; He, Xiaozhou; Liu, Jipu; Qin, Jiandi; Ye, Jianan

    2014-03-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) has been considered as the major cause of acute kidney injury and can result in poor long-term graft function. Functional recovery after IRI is impaired in the elderly. In the present study, we aimed to compare kidney morphology, function, oxidative stress, inflammation, and development of renal fibrosis in young and aged rats after renal IRI. Rat models of warm renal IRI were established by clamping left pedicles for 45 min after right nephrectomy, then the clamp was removed, and kidneys were reperfused for up to 12 wk. Biochemical and histologic renal damage were assessed at 12 wk after reperfusion. The immunohistochemical staining of monocyte macrophage antigen-1 (ED-1) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and messenger RNA level of TGF-β1 in the kidney were analyzed. Renal IRI caused significant increases of malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine levels and a decrease of superoxide dismutase activity in young and aged IRI rats; however, these changes were more obvious in the aged rats. IRI resulted in severe inflammation and tubulointerstitial fibrosis with decreased creatinine (Cr) clearance and increased histologic damage in aged rats compared with young rats. Moreover, we measured the ratio of Cr clearance between young and aged IRI rats. It demonstrated that aged IRI rats did have poor Cr clearance compared with the young IRI rats. ED-1 and TGF-β1 expression levels in the kidney were significantly higher in aged rats than in young rats after IRI. Aged rats are more susceptible to IRI-induced renal failure, which may associate with the increased oxidative stress, increased histologic damage, and increased inflammation and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Targeting oxidative stress and inflammatory response should improve the kidney recovery after IRI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Renal aging in WKY rats: changes in Na+,K+ -ATPase function and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, E; Pinto, V; Simão, S; Serrão, M P; Afonso, J; Amaral, J; Pinho, M J; Gomes, P; Soares-da-Silva, P

    2010-12-01

    It has been suggested that alterations in Na(+),K(+)-ATPase mediate the development of several aging-related pathologies, such as hypertension and diabetes. Thus, we evaluated Na(+),K(+)-ATPase function and H(2)O(2) production in the renal cortex and medulla of Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats at 13, 52 and 91 weeks of age. Creatinine clearance, proteinuria, urinary excretion of Na(+) and K(+) and fractional excretion of Na(+) were also determined. The results show that at 91 weeks old WKY rats had increased creatinine clearance and did not have proteinuria. Despite aging having had no effect on urinary Na(+) excretion, urinary K(+) excretion was increased and fractional Na(+) excretion was decreased with age. In renal proximal tubules and isolated renal cortical cells, 91 week old rats had decreased Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity when compared to 13 and 52 week old rats. In renal medulla, 91 week old rats had increased Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, paralleled by an increase in protein expression of α(1)-subunit of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. In addition, renal H(2)O(2) production increased with age and at 91 weeks of age renal medulla H(2)O(2) production was significantly higher than renal cortex production. The present work demonstrates that although at 91 weeks of age WKY rats were able to maintain Na(+) homeostasis, aging was accompanied by alterations in renal Na(+),K(+)-ATPase function. The observed increase in oxidative stress may account, in part, for the observed changes. Possibly, altered Na(+),K(+)-ATPase renal function may precede the development of age-related pathologies and loss of renal function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The plasma carnitine concentration regulates renal OCTN2 expression and carnitine transport in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Schürch, R; Todesco, L; Novakova, K; Mevissen, M; Stieger, B; Krähenbühl, S

    2010-01-01

    Previous findings in rats and in human vegetarians suggest that the plasma carnitine concentration and/or carnitine ingestion may influence the renal reabsorption of carnitine. We tested this hypothesis in rats with secondary carnitine deficiency following treatment with N-trimethyl-hydrazine-3-propionate (THP) for 2 weeks and rats treated with excess L-carnitine for 2 weeks. Compared to untreated control rats, treatment with THP was associated with an approximately 70% decrease in plasma car...

  2. Chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition exacerbates renal dysfunction in cirrhotic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graebe, M.; Brond, L.; Christensen, S.

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated sodium balance and renal tubular function in cirrhotic rats with chronic blockade of the nitric oxide (NO) system. Rats were treated with the nonselective NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) starting on the day of common bile duct ligation...... (CBL). Three weeks of daily sodium balance studies showed that CBL rats developed sodium retention compared with sham-operated rats and that l-NAME treatment dose dependently deteriorated cumulative sodium balance by reducing urinary sodium excretion. Five weeks after CBL, renal clearance studies were...

  3. Postnatal early overnutrition causes long-term renal decline in aging male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Hyung Eun; Yoo, Kee Hwan; Bae, In Sun; Hong, Young Sook; Lee, Joo Won

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the influence of postnatal early overnutrition on renal pathophysiological changes in aging rats. Three or 10 male pups per mother were assigned to either the small litter (SL) or normal litter (control) groups, respectively, during the first 21 d of life. The effects of early postnatal overnutrition were determined at 12 mo. SL rats weighed more than controls between 4 d and 6 mo of age (P renal cortex were higher in SL rats (P aging SL rats (P aging kidney and can lead to systolic hypertension with reduced intrarenal renin activity.

  4. Donor dopamine treatment in brain dead rats is associated with an improvement in renal function early after transplantation and a reduction in renal inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeger, Simone; Reisenbuechler, Anke; Gottmann, Uwe; Doyon, Fabian; Braun, Claude; Kaya, Ziya; Seelen, Marc A.; van Son, Willem J.; Waldherr, Ruediger; Schnuelle, Peter; Yard, Benito A.

    Brain death (BD) is associated with tissue inflammation. As dopamine treatment of BD donor rats reduces renal monocyte infiltration, we tested if this treatment affects renal function and inflammation in recipients. BD was induced in F344 rats and was maintained for 6 h in all experiments. Dopamine

  5. Closure of multiple types of K+ channels is necessar to induce changes in renal vascular resistance in vivo in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Charlotte Mehlin; Giese, Isaiah; Braunstein, Thomas Hartig

    2011-01-01

    Inhibition of K(+) channels might mediate renal vasoconstriction. As inhibition of a single type of K(+) channel caused minor or no renal vasoconstriction in vivo in rats, we hypothesized that several classes of K(+) channels must be blocked to elicit renal vasoconstriction. We measured renal blo...

  6. PA21, a novel phosphate binder, improves renal osteodystrophy in rats with chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaguchi, Atsushi; Tatemichi, Satoshi; Takeda, Hiroo; Kobayashi, Mamoru

    2017-01-01

    The effects of PA21, a novel iron-based and non-calcium-based phosphate binder, on hyperphosphatemia and its accompanying bone abnormality in chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) were evaluated. Rats with adenine-induced chronic renal failure (CRF) were prepared by feeding them an adenine-containing diet for four weeks. They were also freely fed a diet that contained PA21 (0.5, 1.5, and 5%), sevelamer hydrochloride (0.6 and 2%) or lanthanum carbonate hydrate (0.6 and 2%) for four weeks. Blood biochemical parameters were measured and bone histomorphometry was performed for femurs, which were isolated after drug treatment. Serum phosphorus and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were higher in the CRF rats. Administration of phosphate binders for four weeks decreased serum phosphorus and PTH levels in a dose-dependent manner and there were significant decreases in the AUC0-28 day of these parameters in 5% PA21, 2% sevelamer hydrochloride, and 2% lanthanum carbonate hydrate groups compared with that in the CRF control group. Moreover, osteoid volume improved significantly in 5% of the PA21 group, and fibrosis volume and cortical porosity were ameliorated in 5% PA21, 2% sevelamer hydrochloride, and 2% lanthanum carbonate hydrate groups. These results suggest that PA21 is effective against hyperphosphatemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and bone abnormalities in CKD-MBD as sevelamer hydrochloride and lanthanum carbonate hydrate are, and that PA21 is a new potential alternative to phosphate binders.

  7. Spironolactone ameliorates transplant vasculopathy in renal chronic transplant dysfunction in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waanders, Femke; Rienstra, Heleen; Boer, Mark Walther; Zandvoort, Andre; Rozing, Jan; Navis, Gerjan; van Goor, Harry; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk

    Waanders F, Rienstra H, Walther Boer M, Zandvoort A, Rozing J, Navis G, van Goor H, Hillebrands JL. Spironolactone ameliorates transplant vasculopathy in renal chronic transplant dysfunction in rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 296: F1072-F1079, 2009. First published February 25, 2009;

  8. On the role of renal alpha-adrenergic receptors in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Jäger, S.; Casto, R.; Rettig, R.; Graf, C.; Printz, M.; Insel, P. A.; Philipp, T.; Brodde, O. E.

    1992-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a genetically determined increase in renal alpha-adrenergic receptor density might be a pathophysiologically important factor in the spontaneously hypertensive rat model of genetic hypertension. In a first study, we compared renal alpha 1 and alpha 2-adrenergic receptor

  9. Influence of fluid resuscitation on renal microvascular PO2 in a normotensive rat model of endotoxemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johannes, Tanja; Mik, Egbert G.; Nohé, Boris; Raat, Nicolaas J. H.; Unertl, Klaus E.; Ince, Can

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Septic renal failure is often seen in the intensive care unit but its pathogenesis is only partly understood. This study, performed in a normotensive rat model of endotoxemia, tests the hypotheses that endotoxemia impairs renal microvascular PO2 (microPO2) and oxygen consumption

  10. Effects of an Astragalus Polysaccharide and Rhein Combination on Apoptosis in Rats with Chronic Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghong Lian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effects and to analyze the mechanism of the combination of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS and Rhein on apoptosis in rats with chronic renal failure (CRF. Methods. Thirty-seven male Wistar rats were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, a low-dose APS and Rhein combination group, and a high-dose APS and Rhein combination group. CRF was induced by orogastric gavage with adenine. Rats were observed for renal function, electrolyte, and pathological changes for 7 weeks after administration. Renal tubular cell apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL and protein expressions of IRE1 and CHOP were detected by Western-blotting. Results. The combination of APS and Rhein decreased the kidney weight and index, improved renal pathological injury, maintained the stability of serum electrolytes, and reduced SCr and BUN levels in rat models. Moreover, APS and Rhein combination could effectively inhibit the apoptosis and reduce the protein expressions of IRE1and CHOP of renal tubular cells. Conclusions. The combination of APS and Rhein could improve renal function and reduce renal cell apoptosis to protect against further progression of CRF, whose mechanism may be related to alleviate endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS in the renal cells.

  11. Renal denervation attenuates NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative stress and hypertension in rats with hydronephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleli, Maria; Al-Mashhadi, Ammar; Yang, Ting; Larsson, Erik; Wåhlin, Nils; Jensen, Boye L; G Persson, A Erik; Carlström, Mattias

    2016-01-01

    Hydronephrosis is associated with the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. Studies have suggested that increased sympathetic nerve activity and oxidative stress play important roles in hypertension and the modulation of salt sensitivity. The present study primarily aimed to examine the role of renal sympathetic nerve activity in the development of hypertension in rats with hydronephrosis. In addition, we aimed to investigate if NADPH oxidase (NOX) function could be affected by renal denervation. Partial unilateral ureteral obstruction (PUUO) was created in 3-wk-old rats to induce hydronephrosis. Sham surgery or renal denervation was performed at the same time. Blood pressure was measured during normal, high-, and low-salt diets. The renal excretion pattern, NOX activity, and expression as well as components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system were characterized after treatment with the normal salt diet. On the normal salt diet, rats in the PUUO group had elevated blood pressure compared with control rats (115 ± 3 vs. 87 ± 1 mmHg, P < 0.05) and displayed increased urine production and lower urine osmolality. The blood pressure change in response to salt loading (salt sensitivity) was more pronounced in the PUUO group compared with the control group (15 ± 2 vs. 5 ± 1 mmHg, P < 0.05). Renal denervation in PUUO rats attenuated both hypertension (97 ± 3 mmHg) and salt sensitivity (5 ± 1 mmHg, P < 0.05) and normalized the renal excretion pattern, whereas the degree of renal fibrosis and inflammation was not changed. NOX activity and expression as well as renin and ANG II type 1A receptor expression were increased in the renal cortex from PUUO rats and normalized by denervation. Plasma Na(+) and K(+) levels were elevated in PUUO rats and normalized after renal denervation. Finally, denervation in PUUO rats was also associated with reduced NOX expression, superoxide production, and fibrosis in the heart. In conclusion, renal denervation attenuates

  12. Effects of taurine on oxidative-antioxidative status of renal tissue in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yingjian; Tu Xiaowen; Yin Qiuxia; Hu Chenjing

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of taurine on the oxidative-antioxidative status of renal tissue in diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetic models of rat were induced with streptozotocin. Half of the models (n=7) were treated with taurine for 4 weeks. Blood glucose, uric acid and MDA, 24h urinary albumin and renal cortical homogenate MDA, SOD, GSH-Px contents were determined with appropriate laboratory technics in 1) diabetic rats without taurine treatment, n=7 2) diabetic rats treated with taurine, n=7 and 3) control rats, n=7. Results: There were no significant differences between the blood glucose levels in the two groups of diabetic rats. Blood uric acid and 24h urinary albumin contents in the untreated diabetic rats were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01). However, in the taurine treated rats, the blood uric acid levels approximated to those in the controls, with decreased but still higher than normal 24h urinary albumin contents. In the untreated rats, the renal cortical SOD and GSH-Px activities were about the same as those in control rats but there were significantly higher levels of blood and cortical MDA contents (P<0.01). With taurine treatment, the SOD and GSH-Px activities were significantly higher than those in the two other groups (P<0.05); the MDA contents were lower than those in non-treated rats (P<0.05), but still higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Taurine could enhance the anti-oxidative capability and attenuated the oxidative stress in diabetic rats renal tissue with partial protection of renal function. (authors)

  13. The potential anti-inflammatory effect of tetrahydrobiopterin administration in renal mass reduction-induced chronic renal failure in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korish, Aida A.; Arafah, Maha M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to investigate the impact of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) supplementation on the markers of inflammation and on the histological picture of the kidney in chronic renal failure C-reactive protein (CRF) induced in rats by subtotal nephrectomy (SNx). This study was performed at the Faculty of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during the period from December 2005 to January 2007. Chronic renal failure was induced by 5/6 SNx in 20 male Wister rats and another 10 rats were sham operated by flank incision and served as controls. Ten SNx rats received 10 mg/kg-1 BH4 intraperitoneally daily for 4 weeks. Plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), interlukin-6 (IL-6), malondialdehyde (MDA) and kidney functions were measured in all rats. Histopathological examination of kidney tissues was also performed. Untreated CRF rats showed significant elevation of plasma CRP, IL-6 and MDA levels and significant decrease in plasma albumin and total protein levels, tubuloglomerular fibrosis and interstitial tubular infiltration with inflammatory cells in comparison with the sham-operated rats. Tetrahydrobiopterin treatment decreased CRP, IL-6, MDA levels and decreased tubuloglomerular fibrosis and interstitial inflammation in treated CRF rats. Supplementation with exogenous BH4 decreased markers of inflammation and protected the kidney against post-renal mass reduction histological damage. Restoration of intracellular BH4 balance could normalize nitrous oxide production. Therefore, BH4 might be a promising strategy in attenuating inflammation in CRF. This may decrease endothelial dysfunction and limit the associated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality of this disease. (author)

  14. Orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptor antagonism in the basolateral amygdala modulate long-term potentiation of the population spike in the perforant path-dentate gyrus-evoked field potential in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardeshiri, Motahareh Rouhi; Hosseinmardi, Narges; Akbari, Esmaeil

    2018-03-01

    Involvement of amygdalo-hippocampal substructures in patients with narcolepsy due to deficiencies in the orexinergic system, and the presence of hippocampus-dependent memory impairments in this disorder, have led us to investigate the effects of orexin 1 and 2 receptor antagonism in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) on long-term potentiation (LTP) of dentate gyrus (DG) granular cells. We used a 200-Hz high-frequency stimulation protocol in anesthetized rats. We studied the long-term synaptic plasticity of perforant path-dentate gyrus granule cells following the inactivation of orexin receptors before and after tetanic stimulation. LTP of the DG population spike was attenuated in the presence of orexin 1 and 2 receptor antagonism (treatment with SB-334867-A and TCS-OX2-29, respectively) in the BLA when compared to that observed following treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). However, the population excitatory post-synaptic potentials were not affected. Moreover, when orexin 1 and 2 receptors in the BLA were blocked after LTP induction, there were no differences between the DMSO and treatment groups. Our findings suggest that the orexinergic system of the BLA plays a modulatory role in the regulation of hippocampal plasticity in rats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Renal denervation attenuates NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative stress and hypertension in rats with hydronephrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peleli, Maria; Al-Mashhadi, Ammar; Yang, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Hydronephrosis is associated with development of salt-sensitive hypertension. Studies suggest that increased sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and oxidative stress play important roles in renovascular hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the link between renal SNA and NADPH oxidase (NOX......) regulation in the development of hypertension in rats with hydronephrosis. Hydronephrosis was induced by partial unilateral ureteral obstruction (PUUO) in young rats. Sham surgery or renal denervation was performed at the same time. Blood pressure was measured during normal, high and low salt diets. Renal...

  16. Effect of castration on renal glycosaminoglycans and their urinary excretion in male and female rats with chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, C.C.S.; Tovar, A.M.F.; Guimarães, M.A.M.; Bregman, R.

    2013-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) participate in a variety of processes in the kidney, and evidence suggests that gender-related hormones participate in renal function. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship of GAGs, gender, and proteinuria in male and female rats with chronic renal failure (CRF). GAGs were analyzed in total kidney tissue and 24-h urine of castrated (c), male (M), and female (F) Wistar control (C) rats (CM, CMc, CF, CFc) and after 30 days of CRF induced by 5/6 nephrectomy (CRFM, CRFMc, CRFF, CRFFc). Total GAG quantification and composition were determined using agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, respectively. Renal GAGs were higher in CF compared to CM. CRFM presented an increase in renal GAGs, heparan sulfate (HS), and proteinuria, while castration reduced these parameters. However, CRFF and CRFFc groups showed a decrease in renal GAGs concomitant with an increase in proteinuria. Our results suggest that, in CRFM, sex hormones quantitatively alter GAGs, mainly HS, and possibly the glomerular filtration barrier, leading to proteinuria. The lack of this response in CRFMc, where HS did not increase, corroborates this theory. This pattern was not observed in females. Further studies of CRF are needed to clarify gender-dependent differences in HS synthesis

  17. Role of pressure in angiotensin II-induced renal injury: chronic servo-control of renal perfusion pressure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takefumi; Cowley, Allen W

    2004-04-01

    Renal perfusion pressure was servo-controlled chronically in rats to quantify the relative contribution of elevated arterial pressure versus angiotensin II (Ang II) on the induction of renal injury in Ang II-induced hypertension. Sprague-Dawley rats fed a 4% salt diet were administered Ang II for 14 days (25 ng/kg per minute IV; saline only for sham rats), and the renal perfusion pressure to the left kidney was continuously servo-controlled to maintain a normal pressure in that kidney throughout the period of hypertension. An aortic occluder was implanted around the aorta between the two renal arteries and carotid and femoral arterial pressure were measured continuously throughout the experiment to determine uncontrolled and controlled renal perfusion pressure, respectively. Renal perfusion pressure of uncontrolled, controlled, and sham kidneys over the period of Ang II or saline infusion averaged 152.6+/-7.0, 117.4+/-3.5, and 110.7+/-2.2 mm Hg, respectively. The high-pressure uncontrolled kidneys exhibited tubular necrosis and interstitial fibrosis, especially prominent in the outer medullary region. Regional glomerular sclerosis and interlobular artery injury were also pronounced. Controlled kidneys were significantly protected from interlobular artery injury, juxtamedullary glomeruli injury, tubular necrosis, and interstitial fibrosis as determined by comparing the level of injury. Glomerular injury was not prevented in the outer cortex. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and active NF-kappaB proteins determined by immunohistochemistry were colocalized in the uncontrolled kidney in regions of interstitial fibrosis. We conclude that the preferential juxtamedullary injury found in Ang II hypertension is largely induced by pressure and is probably mediated through the TGF-beta and NF-kappaB pathway.

  18. Effect of atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide in rats with adenine-induced chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C; Liu, C; Zhou, Q; Xie, Y C; Qiu, X M; Feng, X

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the therapeutic effects of Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide on adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats. Fifty male Sprague Dawley rats were selected and randomly divided in to 5 groups (n=10 rats per group): The normal control group, the chronic renal failure pathological control group, the dexamethasone treatment group and two Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide treatment groups, treated with two different concentrations of the polysaccharide, the Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide high group and the Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide low group. All the rats, except those in the normal control group were fed adenine-enriched diets, containing 10 g adenine per kg food for 3 weeks. After being fed with adenine, the dexamethasone treatment group, Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide high group and Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide low group rats were administered the drug orally for 2 weeks. On day 35, the kidney coefficient of the rats and the serum levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total protein and hemalbumin were determined. Subsequent to experimentation on a model of chronic renal failure in rats, the preparation was proven to be able to reduce serum levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and hemalbumin levels (Prenal function. Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide had reversed the majority of the indices of chronic renal failure in rats.

  19. Ketamine induced renal fibrosis in a ketamine addition rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yu Jang

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Ketamine treatment not only induced cystitis-like syndrome, but also renal fibrosis. These renal interstitial fibrosis changes may be induced by the TGF-β pathway. These preliminary results can provide valuable information from a clinical perspective.

  20. Renal sodium retention in cirrhotic rats depends on glucocorticoid-mediated activation of mineralocorticoid receptor due to decreased renal 11beta-HSD-2 activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiesson, Helle; Jensen, Boye L; Bistrup, Claus

    2007-01-01

    Downregulation of the renal glucocorticoid-metabolizing enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD-2) during liver cirrhosis may allow activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) by glucocorticoids and contribute to sodium retention. We tested this hypothesis in male Wistar...... rats with decompensated liver cirrhosis and ascites 7 wk after bile duct ligation (BDL). Renal 11beta-HSD-2 mRNA, protein, and activity were significantly decreased in decompensated rats. The urinary Na(+)/K(+) ratio was reduced by 40%. Renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) mRNA and immunostaining...... were only slightly affected. Complete metabolic studies, including fecal excretion, showed that the BDL rats had avid renal sodium retention. Treatment of the BDL rats with dexamethasone suppressed endogenous glucocorticoid production, normalized total sodium balance and renal sodium excretion...

  1. Protective effect of Urtica dioica L. on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayhan, Mustafa Burak; Kanter, Mehmet; Oguz, Serhat; Erboga, Mustafa

    2012-12-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury may occur after renal transplantation, thoracoabdominal aortic surgery, and renal artery interventions. This study was designed to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica L. (UD), in I/R induced renal injury. A total of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control, UD alone, I/R and I/R + UD; each group contain 8 animals. A rat model of renal I/R injury was induced by 45-min occlusion of the bilateral renal pedicles and 24-h reperfusion. In the UD group, 3 days before I/R, UD (2 ml/kg/day intraperitoneal) was administered by gastric gavage. All animals were sacrificed at the end of reperfusion and kidney tissues samples were obtained for histopathological investigation in all groups. To date, no more histopathological changes on intestinal I/R injury in rats by UD treatment have been reported. Renal I/R caused severe histopathological injury including tubular damage, atrophy dilatation, loss of brush border and hydropic epithelial cell degenerations, renal corpuscle atrophy, glomerular shrinkage, markedly focal mononuclear cell infiltrations in the kidney. UD treatment significantly attenuated the severity of intestinal I/R injury and significantly lowered tubulointerstitial damage score than the I/R group. The number of PCNA and TUNEL positive cells in the control and UD alone groups was negligible. When kidney sections were PCNA and TUNEL stained, there was a clear increase in the number of positive cells in the I/R group rats in the renal cortical tissues. However, there is a significant reduction in the activity of PCNA and TUNEL in kidney tissue of renal injury induced by renal I/R with UD therapy. Our results suggest that administration of UD attenuates renal I/R injury. These results suggest that UD treatment has a protective effect against renal damage induced by renal I/R. This protective effect is possibly due to its ability to inhibit I/R induced renal damage, apoptosis and cell proliferation.

  2. Taurine Ameliorates Renal Oxidative Damage and Thyroid Dysfunction in Rats Chronically Exposed to Fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedara, Isaac A; Ojuade, Temini Jesu D; Olabiyi, Bolanle F; Idris, Umar F; Onibiyo, Esther M; Ajeigbe, Olufunke F; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-02-01

    Excessive exposure to fluoride poses several detrimental effects to human health particularly the kidney which is a major organ involved in its elimination from the body. The influence of taurine on fluoride-induced renal toxicity was investigated in a co-exposure paradigm for 45 days using five groups of eight rats each. Group I rats received normal drinking water alone, group II rats were exposed to sodium fluoride (NaF) in drinking water at 15 mg/L alone, group III received taurine alone at a dose of 200 mg/kg group IV rats were co-administered with NaF and taurine (100 mg/kg), while group V rats were co-administered with NaF and taurine (200 mg/kg). Administration of taurine significantly reversed the fluoride-mediated decrease in absolute weight and organo-somatic index of the kidney in the exposed rats. Taurine significantly prevented fluoride-induced elevation in plasma urea and creatinine levels in the exposed rats. Moreover, taurine restored fluoride-mediated decrease in the circulatory concentrations of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and the ratio of triiodothyronine to thyroxine. Taurine ameliorated fluoride-mediated decrease in renal antioxidant status by significantly enhancing the antioxidant enzyme activities as well as glutathione level in the exposed rats. Additionally, taurine inhibited fluoride-induced renal oxidative damage by markedly decreasing the hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde levels as well as improved the kidney architecture in the treated rats. Collectively, taurine protected against fluoride-induced renal toxicity via enhancement of thyroid gland function, renal antioxidant status, and histology in rats.

  3. Functional disconnection of the orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala impairs acquisition of a rat gambling task and disrupts animals' ability to alter decision-making behavior after reinforcer devaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeb, Fiona D; Winstanley, Catharine A

    2013-04-10

    An inability to adjust choice preferences in response to changes in reward value may underlie key symptoms of many psychiatric disorders, including chemical and behavioral addictions. We developed the rat gambling task (rGT) to investigate the neurobiology underlying complex decision-making processes. As in the Iowa Gambling task, the optimal strategy is to avoid choosing larger, riskier rewards and to instead favor options associated with smaller rewards but less loss and, ultimately, greater long-term gain. Given the demonstrated importance of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) in acquisition of the rGT and Iowa Gambling task, we used a contralateral disconnection lesion procedure to assess whether functional connectivity between these regions is necessary for optimal decision-making. Disrupting the OFC-BLA pathway retarded acquisition of the rGT. Devaluing the reinforcer by inducing sensory-specific satiety altered decision-making in control groups. In contrast, disconnected rats did not update their choice preference following reward devaluation, either when the devalued reward was still delivered or when animals needed to rely on stored representations of reward value (i.e., during extinction). However, all rats exhibited decreased premature responding and slower response latencies after satiety manipulations. Hence, disconnecting the OFC and BLA did not affect general behavioral changes caused by reduced motivation, but instead prevented alterations in the value of a specific reward from contributing appropriately to cost-benefit decision-making. These results highlight the role of the OFC-BLA pathway in the decision-making process and suggest that communication between these areas is vital for the appropriate assessment of reward value to influence choice.

  4. Effect of benazepril on the transdifferentiation of renal tubular epithelial cells from diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tao; Wang, Jie; Zhen, Junhui; Hu, Zhao; Yang, Xiangdong

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of benazepril on the transdifferentiation of renal tubular epithelial cells from diabetic rats. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were included in the present study. Eight of the 30 rats were randomly selected and served as the normal control group (N group), while the remaining 22 rats, injected with streptozotocin (STZ), comprised the diabetic rat model. Rats with diabetes were randomly divided into the diabetic (DM group) and benazepril (B group) groups. The total course was conducted over 12 weeks. Blood glucose, body weight, kidney/body weight, 24-h urinary protein, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were measured at the start and end of the study. We observed the tubulointerstitial pathological changes, and applied immunohistochemistry and western blotting to detect the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in renal tissue. The levels of blood glucose, kidney/body weight, 24-h urinary protein, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and tubulointerstitial damage index (TII) in the DM group were significantly higher than that in the N group (pbenazepril significantly reduced the expression of α-SMA in renal tubular epithelial cells obtained from diabetic rats, inhibited the transdifferentiation of renal tubular epithelial cells and played an important role in kidney protection.

  5. Tributyltin chloride induces renal dysfunction by inflammation and oxidative stress in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, João V S; Freitas-Lima, Leandro C; Freitas, Frederico F C T; Freitas, Flávia P S; Podratz, Priscila L; Magnago, Rafaella P L; Porto, Marcella L; Meyrelles, Silvana S; Vasquez, Elisardo C; Brandão, Poliane A A; Carneiro, Maria T W D; Paiva-Melo, Francisca D; Miranda-Alves, Leandro; Silva, Ian V; Gava, Agata L; Graceli, Jones B

    2016-10-17

    Tributyltin chloride (TBT) is an organometallic pollutant that is used as a biocide in antifouling paints. TBT induces several toxic and endocrine-disrupting effects. However, studies evaluating the effects of TBT on renal function are rare. This study demonstrates that TBT exposure is responsible for improper renal function as well as the development of abnormal morphophysiology in mammalian kidneys. Female rats were treated with TBT, and their renal morphophysiology was assessed. Morphophysiological abnormalities such as decreased glomerular filtration rate and increased proteinuria levels were observed in TBT rats. In addition, increases in inflammation, collagen deposition and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) protein expression were observed in TBT kidneys. A disrupted cellular redox balance and apoptosis in kidney tissue were also observed in TBT rats. TBT rats demonstrated reduced serum estrogen levels and estrogen receptor-α (ERα) protein expression in renal cortex. Together, these data provide in vivo evidence that TBT is toxic to normal renal function and that these effects may be associated with renal histopathology complications, such as inflammation and fibrosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Interaction of renal failure and dyslipidaemia in the development of calcific aortic valve disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Kris; Roosens, Bram; Bala, Gezim; Remory, Isabel; Hernot, Sophie; Delvenne, Philippe; Mestrez, Fabienne; Droogmans, Steven; Cosyns, Bernard

    2017-10-01

    Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is currently the most common heart valve disease worldwide and is known to be an active process. Both renal failure and dyslipidaemia are considered to be promoting factors for the development of valvular calcifications. The aim of this study is to prospectively evaluate the respective contribution and interaction of renal failure and dyslipidaemia on CAVD in a rat model, using echocardiography and compared with histology. Sixty-eight male Wistar rats were prospectively divided in eight groups, each fed a different diet to induce renal failure alone and combined with hyperlipidaemia or hypercholesterolemia. CAVD was detected and quantified by calibrated integrated backscatter of ultrasound (cIB) and compared with the histological calcium score. The study follow-up was 20 weeks. At the end of the study, the cIB value and the calcium score of the aortic valve were significantly increased in the group with isolated renal failure but not with dyslipidaemia. The combination of renal failure with high cholesterol or high-fat diet did not significantly increase calcifications further. Renal failure alone does induce aortic valve calcifications in a rat model of CAVD, whereas dyslipidaemia alone does not. The combination of renal failure with dyslipidaemia does not increase calcification further. These findings suggest that a combination of atherosclerotic and calcifying factors is not required to induce aortic valve calcifications in this model.

  7. Roles of estrogen and progesterone in modulating renal nerve function in the rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graceli, J.B.; Cicilini, M.A.; Bissoli, N.S.; Abreu, G.R.; Moysés, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    The maintenance of extracellular Na + and Cl - concentrations in mammals depends, at least in part, on renal function. It has been shown that neural and endocrine mechanisms regulate extracellular fluid volume and transport of electrolytes along nephrons. Studies of sex hormones and renal nerves suggested that sex hormones modulate renal function, although this relationship is not well understood in the kidney. To better understand the role of these hormones on the effects that renal nerves have on Na + and Cl - reabsorption, we studied the effects of renal denervation and oophorectomy in female rats. Oophorectomized (OVX) rats received 17β-estradiol benzoate (OVE, 2.0 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 , sc) and progesterone (OVP, 1.7 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 , sc). We assessed Na + and Cl - fractional excretion (FE Na + and FE Cl - , respectively) and renal and plasma catecholamine release concentrations. FE Na + , FE Cl - , water intake, urinary flow, and renal and plasma catecholamine release levels increased in OVX vs control rats. These effects were reversed by 17β-estradiol benzoate but not by progesterone. Renal denervation did not alter FE Na + , FE Cl - , water intake, or urinary flow values vs controls. However, the renal catecholamine release level was decreased in the OVP (236.6±36.1 ng/g) and denervated rat groups (D: 102.1±15.7; ODE: 108.7±23.2; ODP: 101.1±22.1 ng/g). Furthermore, combining OVX + D (OD: 111.9±25.4) decreased renal catecholamine release levels compared to either treatment alone. OVE normalized and OVP reduced renal catecholamine release levels, and the effects on plasma catecholamine release levels were reversed by ODE and ODP replacement in OD. These data suggest that progesterone may influence catecholamine release levels by renal innervation and that there are complex interactions among renal nerves, estrogen, and progesterone in the modulation of renal function

  8. Cell-specific expression of calcineurin immunoreactivity within the rat basolateral amygdala complex and colocalization with the neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitermann, Randy J; Sajdyk, Tammy J; Urban, Janice H

    2012-10-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) produces potent anxiolytic effects via activation of NPY Y1 receptors (Y1r) within the basolateral amygdaloid complex (BLA). The role of NPY in the BLA was recently expanded to include the ability to produce stress resilience and long-lasting reductions in anxiety-like behavior. These persistent behavioral effects are dependent upon activity of the protein phosphatase, calcineurin (CaN), which has long been associated with shaping long-term synaptic signaling. Furthermore, NPY-induced reductions in anxiety-like behavior persist months after intra-BLA delivery, which together indicate a form of neuronal plasticity had likely occurred. To define a site of action for NPY-induced CaN signaling within the BLA, we employed multi-label immunohistochemistry to determine which cell types express CaN and if CaN colocalizes with the Y1r. We have previously reported that both major neuronal cell populations in the BLA, pyramidal projection neurons and GABAergic interneurons, express the Y1r. Therefore, this current study evaluated CaN immunoreactivity in these cell types, along with Y1r immunoreactivity. Antibodies against calcium-calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) and GABA were used to identify pyramidal neurons and GABAergic interneurons, respectively. A large population of CaN immunoreactive cells displayed Y1r immunoreactivity (90%). Nearly all (98%) pyramidal neurons displayed CaN immunoreactivity, while only a small percentage of interneurons (10%) contained CaN immunoreactivity. Overall, these anatomical findings provide a model whereby NPY could directly regulate CaN activity in the BLA via activation of the Y1r on CaN-expressing, pyramidal neurons. Importantly, they support BLA pyramidal neurons as prime targets for neuronal plasticity associated with the long-term reductions in anxiety-like behavior produced by NPY injections into the BLA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of astragalus and dopamine on changes of blood and renal tissue contents of NO, ET in experimental rat models of acute renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yajun; Zheng Bingjie; Shi Lan; Fan Yaping

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of intravenous or intra-renal-capsular administration of astragalus and dopamine on the serum NO and renal tissue NO, ET contents in rat models of acute renal failure. Methods: Experimental rat models of acute renal failure induced by intraperitoneal injection of E. Coli endotoxin (lipo-polysaccharide) were prepared (n=60). Treatment with astragalus and dopamine was administered via either intravenous on intra-renal-capsular route (n=20 in each group). Serum NO and renal tissue NO (with nitric acid reductase method), ET (with RIA) contents were determined at 4, 8, 12, 16h after injection of endotoxin. Twenty shock models were left untreated and additional twenty rats receiving saline injection only served as controls. Results: In the intravenously treated group, the increase of serum NO and renal tissue NO, ET contents were significantly less than those in the untreated group (P<0.05). In the group treated via the intracapsular route , the increase of renal tissue NO and ET contents were much less than those in the intravenous group at 12 and 16h (P<0.05). Conclusion: Combined treatment with astragalus and dopamine could abate the abnormally high renal tissue contents of NO and ET after endotoxin shock in experimental rats and treatment with intra capsular administration seems to be more effective. (authors)

  10. Cinnabar-Induced Subchronic Renal Injury Is Associated with Increased Apoptosis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the role of apoptosis in cinnabar-induced renal injury in rats. To test this role, rats were dosed orally with cinnabar (1 g/kg/day for 8 weeks or 12 weeks, and the control rats were treated with 5% carboxymethylcellulose solution. Levels of urinary mercury (UHg, renal mercury (RHg, serum creatinine (SCr, and urine kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1 were assessed, and renal pathology was analyzed. Apoptotic cells were identified and the apoptotic index was calculated. A rat antibody array was used to analyze expression of cytokines associated with apoptosis. Results from these analyses showed that UHg, RHg, and urine KIM-1, but not SCr, levels were significantly increased in cinnabar-treated rats. Renal pathological changes in cinnabar-treated rats included vacuolization of tubular cells, formation of protein casts, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and increase in the number of apoptotic tubular cells. In comparison to the control group, expression of FasL, Fas, TNF-α, TRAIL, activin A, and adiponectin was upregulated in the cinnabar-treated group. Collectively, our results suggest that prolonged use of cinnabar results in kidney damage due to accumulation of mercury and that the underlying mechanism involves apoptosis of tubular cells via a death receptor-mediated pathway.

  11. Effects of anesthesia on renal function and metabolism in rats assessed by hyperpolarized MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qi, Haiyun; Mariager, Christian Østergaard; Lindhardt, Jakob

    2018-01-01

    . In the present study, we aimed to investigate the renal functional and metabolic consequences of 3 typical rodent anesthetics used in preclinical MRI: sevoflurane, inaction, and a mixture of fentanyl, fluanisone, and midazolam (FFM). METHODS: The renal effects of 3 different classes of anesthetics (inactin......, servoflurane, and FFM) were investigated using functional and metabolic MRI. The renal glucose metabolism and hemodynamics was characterized with hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate MRI and by DCE imaging. RESULTS: Rats receiving sevoflurane or FFM had blood glucose levels that were 1.3-fold to 1.4-fold higher than...... rats receiving inactin. A 2.9-fold and 4.8-fold increased13C-lactate/13C-pyruvate ratio was found in the FFM mixture anesthetized group compared with the sevoflurane and the inactin anesthetized groups. The FFM anesthesia resulted in a 50% lower renal plasma flow compared with the sevoflurane...

  12. Ex vivo exposure of bone marrow from chronic kidney disease donor rats to pravastatin limits renal damage in recipient rats with chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppen, A. van; Papazova, D.A.; Oosterhuis, N.R.; Gremmels, H.; Giles, R.H.; Fledderus, J.O.; Joles, J.A.; Verhaar, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Healthy bone marrow cell (BMC) infusion improves renal function and limits renal injury in a model of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in rats. However, BMCs derived from rats with CKD fail to retain beneficial effects, demonstrating limited therapeutic efficacy. Statins have been reported

  13. Ex vivo exposure of bone marrow from chronic kidney disease donor rats to pravastatin limits renal damage in recipient rats with chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koppen, Arianne; Papazova, Diana A.; Oosterhuis, Nynke R.; Gremmels, Hendrik; Giles, Rachel H.; Fledderus, Joost O.; Joles, Jaap A.; Verhaar, Marianne C.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Healthy bone marrow cell (BMC) infusion improves renal function and limits renal injury in a model of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in rats. However, BMCs derived from rats with CKD fail to retain beneficial effects, demonstrating limited therapeutic efficacy. Statins have been reported

  14. High-NaCl intake impairs dynamic autoregulation of renal blood flow in ANG II-infused rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, Aso; Dibona, Gerald F; Marcussen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate dynamic autoregulation of renal blood flow (RBF) in ANG II-infused rats and the influence of high-NaCl intake. Sprague-Dawley rats received ANG II (250 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1) sc) or saline vehicle (sham) for 14 days after which acute renal clearance experiments...

  15. Neuropeptide Y-enhanced diuresis and natriuresis in anaesthetized rats is independent of renal blood flow reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bischoff, A.; Erdbrügger, W.; Smits, J.; Michel, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    1. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been reported to enhance diuresis and natriuresis in anaesthetized rats although it is a potent renal vasoconstrictor in vitro in vivo in several species. Therefore, we have investigated anaesthetized rats to see whether reduction in renal blood flow (RBF) and enhancement

  16. Heat-processed ginseng saponin ameliorates the adenine-induced renal failure in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eun Jin; Oh, Hyun-A; Choi, Hyuck Jai; Park, Jeong Hill; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Nam Jae

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the saponin of heat-processed ginseng (Sun ginseng, SG), we investigated the protective effect of SG total saponin fraction against adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats. SG saponin significantly decreased the levels of urea nitrogen and creatinine in the serum, but increased the urinary excretion of urea nitrogen and creatinine, indicating an improvement of renal function. SG saponin also inhibited adenine-induced kidney hypertrophy and edema. SG saponin red...

  17. Renal sympathetic denervation attenuates hypertension and vascular remodeling in renovascular hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Huang, Pei-Pei; Yang, Yun; Liu, Chi; Lu, Yan; Wang, Fang; Sun, Wei; Kong, Xiang-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Li P, Huang P, Yang Y, Liu C, Lu Y, Wang F, Sun W, Kong X. Renal sympathetic denervation attenuates hypertension and vascular remodeling in renovascular hypertensive rats. J Appl Physiol 122: 121-129, 2017. First published October 14, 2016; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01019.2015-Sympathetic activity is enhanced in patients with essential or secondary hypertension, as well as in various hypertensive animal models. Therapeutic targeting of sympathetic activation is considered an effective antihypertensive strategy. We hypothesized that renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) attenuates hypertension and improves vascular remodeling and renal disease in the 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K1C) rat model. Rats underwent 2K1C modeling or sham surgery; then rats underwent RSD or sham surgery 4 wk later, thus resulting in four groups (normotensive-sham, normotensive-RSD, 2K1C-sham, and 2K1C-RSD). Norepinephrine was measured by ELISA. Echocardiography was used to assess heart function. Fibrosis and apoptosis were assessed by Masson and TUNEL staining. Changes in mean arterial blood pressure in response to hexamethonium and plasma norepinephrine levels were used to evaluate basal sympathetic nerve activity. The 2K1C modeling success rate was 86.8%. RSD reversed the elevated systolic blood pressure induced by 2K1C, but had no effect on body weight. Compared with rats in the 2K1C-sham group, rats in the 2K1C-RSD group showed lower left ventricular mass/body weight ratio, interventricular septal thickness in diastole, left ventricular end-systolic diameter, and left ventricular posterior wall thickness in systole, whereas fractional shortening and ejection fraction were higher. Right kidney apoptosis and left kidney hypertrophy were not changed by RSD. Arterial fibrosis was lower in animals in the 2K1C-RSD group compared with those in the 2K1C-sham group. RSD reduced plasma norepinephrine and basal sympathetic activity in rats in the 2K1C-RSD group compared with rats in the 2K1C-sham group. These

  18. Effects of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Renal Ischaemia-reperfusion Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Qiu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aims to observe the function of umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs labelled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP in the repair of renal ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R injury, to determine the effects on inflammatory cascade in an established rat model and to explore possible pathogenesis. Materials and Methods Sixty rats were randomly divided into three groups: the sham-operated, I/R and UC-MSC treatment groups. All rats underwent right nephrectomy. Ischaemia was induced in the left kidney by occlusion of the renal artery and vein for 1hour, followed by reperfusion for 24 hours or 48 hours. Kidney samples were collected to observe morphological changes. Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1 in the renal tissue sample, as well as the number of infiltrating polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNLs and UC-MSCs with positive eGFP. Results Renal histopathological damages and the expression of ICAM-1 and PMNL increased significantly in the I/R group compared with those in the sham-operated group, whereas the damages were less conspicuous in the UC-MSC treatment group. Conclusions Renal ICAM-1, which mediated PMNL infiltration and contributed to renal damage, was significantly up-regulated in the I/R group. UC-MSCs were identified to inhibit these pathological processes and protect the kidney from I/R injury.

  19. Renal blood flow dynamics in inbred rat strains provides insight into autoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Mitrou, Nicholas G; Cupples, William A

    2014-01-01

    Renal autoregulation maintains stable renal blood flow in the face of constantly fluctuating blood pressure. Autoregulation is also the only mechanism that protects the delicate glomerular capillaries when blood pressure increases. In order to understand autoregulation, the renal blood flow response to changing blood pressure is studied. The steadystate response of blood flow is informative, but limits investigation of the individual mechanisms of autoregulation. The dynamics of autoregulation can be probed with transfer function analysis. The frequency-domain analysis of autoregulation allows investigators to probe the relative activity of each mechanism of autoregulation. We discuss the methodology and interpretation of transfer function analysis. Autoregulation is routinely studied in the rat, of which there are many inbred strains. There are multiple strains of rat that are either selected or inbred as models of human pathology. We discuss relevant characteristics of Brown Norway, Spontaneously hypertensive, Dahl, and Fawn-Hooded hypertensive rats and explore differences among these strains in blood pressure, dynamic autoregulation, and susceptibility to hypertensive renal injury. Finally we show that the use of transfer function analysis in these rat strains has contributed to our understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of autoregulation and hypertensive renal disease.Interestingly all these strains demonstrate effective tubuloglomerular feedback suggesting that this mechanism is not sufficient for effective autoregulation. In contrast, obligatory or conditional failure of the myogenic mechanism suggests that this component is both necessary and sufficient for autoregulation.

  20. Renal Podocyte Injury in a Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes Is Prevented by Metformin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyun Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia promotes oxidative stress and hence generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, which is known to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Metformin, an oral hypoglycemic drug, possesses antioxidant effects. The aim of this paper is to investigate the protective effects of metformin on the injury of renal podocytes in spontaneously diabetic Torii (SDT rats, a new model for nonobese type 2 diabetes. Metformin (350 mg/kg/day was given to SDT rats for 17 weeks. Blood glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c, and albuminuria were examined. Kidney histopathology, renal 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG levels and apoptosis were examined. In 43-week-old SDT rats, severe hyperglycemia was developed, and albuminuria was markedly increased. Diabetes induced significant alterations in renal glomerular structure. In addition, urinary and renal 8-OHdG levels were highly increased, and podocyte loss was shown through application of the TUNEL and synaptopodin staining. However, treatment of SDT rats with metformin restored all these renal changes. Our data suggested that diabetes-induced podocyte loss in diabetic nephropathy could be suppressed by the antidiabetes drug, metformin, through the repression of oxidative injury.

  1. Curcumin inhibits adenosine deaminase and arginase activities in cadmium-induced renal toxicity in rat kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele Jacob Akinyemi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of enzymes involved in degradation of renal adenosine and l-arginine was investigated in rats exposed to cadmium (Cd and treated with curcumin, the principal active phytochemical in turmeric rhizome. Animals were divided into six groups (n = 6: saline/vehicle, saline/curcumin 12.5 mg/kg, saline/curcumin 25 mg/kg, Cd/vehicle, Cd/curcumin 12.5 mg/kg, and Cd/curcumin 25 mg/kg. The results of this study revealed that the activities of renal adenosine deaminase and arginase were significantly increased in Cd-treated rats when compared with the control (p < 0.05. However, co-treatment with curcumin inhibits the activities of these enzymes compared with Cd-treated rats. Furthermore, Cd intoxication increased the levels of some renal biomarkers (serum urea, creatinine, and electrolytes and malondialdehyde level with a concomitant decrease in functional sulfhydryl group and nitric oxide (NO. However, co-treatment with curcumin at 12.5 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg, respectively, increases the nonenzymatic antioxidant status and NO in the kidney, with a concomitant decrease in the levels of malondialdehyde and renal biomarkers. Therefore, our results reinforce the importance of adenosine deaminase and arginase activities in Cd poisoning conditions and suggest some possible mechanisms of action by which curcumin prevent Cd-induced renal toxicity in rats.

  2. Acute Alcohol Intoxication Exacerbates Rhabdomyolysis-Induced Acute Renal Failure in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jen-Pi; Lee, Chung-Jen; Subeq, Yi-Maun; Lee, Ru-Ping; Hsu, Bang-Gee

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic and nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis can lead to acute renal failure (ARF), and acute alcohol intoxication can lead to multiple abnormalities of the renal tubules. We examined the effect of acute alcohol intoxication in a rat model of rhabdomyolysis and ARF. Intravenous injections of 5 g/kg ethanol were given to rats over 3 h, followed by glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis. Biochemical parameters, including blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cre), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), and creatine phosphokinase (CPK), were measured before and after induction of rhabdomyolysis. Renal tissue injury score, renal tubular cell expression of E-cadherin, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were determined. Relative to rats in the vehicle group, rats in the glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis group had significantly increased serum levels of BUN, Cre, GOT, GPT, and CPK, elevated renal tissue injury scores, increased expression of NF-κB and iNOS, and decreased expression of E-cadherin. Ethanol exacerbated all of these pathological responses. Our results suggest that acute alcohol intoxication exacerbates rhabdomyolysis-induced ARF through its pro-oxidant and inflammatory effects.

  3. Erhuang Formula ameliorates renal damage in adenine-induced chronic renal failure rats via inhibiting inflammatory and fibrotic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Yan; Zhu, Jian-Yong; Ye, Ying; Zhang, Miao; Zhang, Li-Jun; Wang, Su-Juan; Song, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Hong

    2017-11-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of Erhuang Formula (EHF) and explore its pharmacological mechanisms on adenine-induced chronic renal failure (CRF). The compounds in EHF were analyzed by HPLC/MS. Adenine-induced CRF rats were administrated by EHF. The effects were evaluated by renal function examination and histology staining. Immunostaining of some proteins related cell adhesion was performedin renal tissues, including E-cadherin, β-catenin, fibronectin and laminin. The qRT-PCR was carried out determination of gene expression related inflammation and fibrosis including NF-κB, TNF-α, TGF-β1, α-SMA and osteopontin (OPN). Ten compounds in EHF were identified including liquiritigenin, farnesene, vaccarin, pachymic acid, cycloastragenol, astilbin, 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptemthoxyflavone, physcion, emodin and curzerene. Abnormal renal function and histology had significant improvements by EHF treatment. The protein expression of β-catenin, fibronectin and laminin were significantly increased and the protein expression of E-cadherin significantly decreased in CRF groups. However, these protein expressions were restored to normal levels in EHF group. Furthermore, low expression of PPARγ and high expression of NF-κB, TNF-α, TGF-β1, α-SMA and OPN were substantially restored by EHF treatment in a dose-dependent manner. EHF ameliorated renal damage in adenine-induced CRF rats, and the mechanisms might involve in the inhibition of inflammatory and fibrotic responses and the regulation of PPARγ, NF-κB and TGF-β signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of Renal Nerves in the Treatment of Renovascular Hypertensive Rats with L-Arginine

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    Sonia Alves Gouvea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to determine the role of renal nerves in mediating the effects of antihypertensive treatment with L-arginine in a renovascular hypertension model. The 2K1C (two-kidney one-clip model hypertensive rats were submitted to bilateral surgical-pharmacological renal denervation. The animals were subdivided into six experimental groups: normotensive control rats (SHAM, 2K1C rats, 2K1C rats treated with L-arginine (2K1C + L-arg, denervated normotensive (DN rats, denervated 2K1C (2K1C + DN rats, and denervated 2K1C + L-arg (2K1C + DN + L-arg rats. Arterial blood pressure, water intake, urine volume, and sodium excretion were measured. The 2K1C rats exhibited an increase in the mean arterial pressure (MAP (from 106 ± 3 to 183 ± 5.8 mmHg, P<0.01, whereas L-arg treatment induced a reduction in the MAP (143 ± 3.4 mmHg without lowering it to the control level. Renal nerve denervation reduced the MAP to normotensive levels in 2K1C rats with or without chronic L-arg treatment. L-arg and denervation induced increases in water intake and urine volume, and L-arg caused a significant natriuretic effect. Our results suggest that renal sympathetic activity participates in the genesis and the maintenance of the hypertension and also demonstrate that treatment with L-arg alone is incapable of normalizing the MAP and that the effect of such treatment is not additive with the effect of kidney denervation.

  5. Nonlinear system analysis of renal autoregulation in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chon, K H; Chen, Y M; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1998-01-01

    We compared the dynamic characteristics in renal autoregulation of blood flow of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats (SDR) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), using both linear and nonlinear systems analysis. Linear analysis yielded only limited information about the differences in dynamics......, NMSE are significantly higher in SHR than SDR, suggesting a more complex nonlinear system in SHR. The contribution of the third-order kernel in describing the dynamics of renal autoregulation in arterial blood pressure and blood flow was found to be important. Moreover, we have identified the presence...

  6. Dynamic computed tomography (CT) in the rat kidney and application to acute renal failure models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Isao; Saito, Tadashi; Ishii, Hirofumi; Bansho, Junichi; Koyama, Yukinori; Tobita, Akira

    1995-01-01

    Renal dynamic CT scanning is suitable for determining the excretion of contrast medium in the cortex and medulla of the kidney, which is valuable for understanding the pathogenesis of disease processes in various conditions. This form of scanning would be convenient for use, if a method of application to the rat kidney were available. Therefore, we developed a method of applying renal dynamic CT to rats and evaluated the cortical and medullary curves, e.g., the corticomedullary junction time which is correlated to creatinine clearance, in various rat models of acute renal failure. The rat was placed in a 10deg oblique position and a bilateral hilar slice was obtained before and 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160 and 180 sec after administering 0.5 ml of contrast medium using Somatom DR. The width of the slice was 4 mm and the scan time was 3 sec. The corticomedullary junction time in normal rats was 23.0±10.5 sec, the peak value of the cortical curve was 286.3±76.7 Hounsfield Unit (HU) and the peak value of the medullary curve was 390.1±66.2 HU. Corticomedullary junction time after exposure of the kidney was prolonged compared to that of the unexposed kidney. In rats with acute renal failure, the excretion pattern of contrast medium was similar in both the glycerol- and HgCl2-induced acute renal failure models. The peak values of the cortical curve were maintained three hours after a clamp was placed at the hilar region of the kidney for one hour, and the peak values of the medullary curve were maintained during the administration of 10μg/kg/min of angiotensin II. Dynamic CT curves in the acute renal failure models examined were slightly different from those in human acute renal failure. These results suggest that rats do not provide an ideal model for human acute renal failure. However, the application of dynamic CT to the rat kidney models was valuable for estimating the pathogenesis of various human kidney diseases. (author)

  7. Sida rhomboidea.Roxb leaf extract ameliorates gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2010-10-28

    Sida rhomboidea.Roxb (SR) known as "Mahabala" in Ayurveda and marketed as "Shahadeyi" is used in ethnomedicine to treat ailments such as dysuria and urinary disorders. To evaluate nephroprotective potential of SR against gentamicin (GM) induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction. Nephrotoxicity was induced in rats with GM (100 mg/kg bodyweight (i.p.) for 8 days) and were treated with SR extract (200 and 400 mg/kg bodyweight (p.o.) for 8 days) or 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (vehicle). Plasma and urine urea and creatinine, renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants along with lipid peroxidation were evaluated in various experimental groups. GM treatment induced significant elevation (p<0.05) in plasma and urine urea, creatinine, renal lipid peroxidation along with significant decrement (p<0.05) in renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. SR treatment to GM treated rats (GM+SR) recorded significant decrement (p<0.05) in plasma and urine urea and creatinine, renal lipid peroxidation along with significant increment (p<0.05) in renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. SR leaf extract ameliorates GM induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction and thus validates its ethnomedicinal use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chinese herbal medicine Shenqi Detoxification Granule inhibits fibrosis in adenine induced chronic renal failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Min; Cai, Pingping; Ma, Hongbo; Meng, Hongyan; Xu, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Si, Guomin

    2014-01-01

    Progressive fibrosis accompanies all chronic renal disease, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF,) and platelet-derived growth factor-B, (PDGF-B,) play important roles in extra-cellular matrix abnormal accumulation, while endothelin-1 (ET-1) nitric oxide (NO,) are related to endothelial dysfunction, which mediates the progression of renal fibrosis. Shenqi Detoxification Granule (SDG), a traditional Chinese herbal formula, has been used for treatment of chronic renal failure in clinic for many years. In order to evaluate the efficacy, and explore the mechanism of SDG to inhibit the progression of renal fibrosis, study was carried out using the adenine-induced Wister rats as the CRF model, and losartan as postive control drug. Levels of serum creatinine [Scr], and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), albumin (ALB), 24hrs, urine protein (24hUP), triacylglycerol (TG), and cholesterol (CHO), together with ET-1, and NO were detected. Pathological changes of renal tissues were observed by HE, staining. In addition, CTGF and PDGF-B expression were analyzed by immuno-histo-chemistry. The results indicated that SDG can effectively reduce Scr, BUN, 24hUP, TG, and CHO levels, increase ALB levels, inhibit renal tissue damage in CRF rats, and the mechanism maybe reduce PDGF-B, CTGF expression and ET-1/NO. Shenqi Detoxification Granule is a beneficial treatment for chronic renal failure.

  9. The effects of angiotensin II receptor antagonist (candesartan on rat renal vascular resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supatraviwat, J

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the action of angiotensin II (AII on renal perfusion pressure and renal vascular resistance using noncompetitive AT1-receptor antagonist (candesartan or CV 11974. Experiments were performed in isolated kidney of adult male Wistar rats. Kreb's Henseleit solution was perfused into the renal artery at the rate of 3.5 ml/min. This flow rate was designed in order to maintain renal perfusion pressure between 80-120 mm Hg. Dose-response relationship between perfusion flow rate and AII concentration were studied. Renal perfusion pressure in response to 1, 10 and 100 nM AII were increased from basal perfusion pressure of 94±8 mm Hg to 127±6, 157±12 and 190±16 mm Hg, respectively. Administration of perfusate containing 11.4 μM candesartan for 30 min had no effect on the basal perfusion pressure. However, this significantly reduced renal perfusion pressure in the presence of AII (1, 10 and 100 nM by 39%, 47% and 61%, (n=7, P<0.05 respectively. At the basal perfusion pressure, calculated renal vascular resistance was 27±2 mm Hg · min · ml-1. However, the vascular resistance were found to be 41±1, 45±2 and 47±2 mm Hg · min · ml-1 when 1, 10 and 100 nM AII were added. Moreover, this dose of candesartan also showed a significant decrease in renal vascular resistance at the corresponding doses of AII by 38%, 48% and 43%, (n=7, P<0.05 respectively. The higher dose of candesartan (22.7 μM completely inhibited the action of 1, 10 and 100 nM AII on renal vasoconstriction. These results may indicate that the action of AII on renal vascular resistance is via AT1-receptor, at least in rat isolated perfusion kidney.

  10. Quercetin Attenuates Vascular Calcification through Suppressed Oxidative Stress in Adenine-Induced Chronic Renal Failure Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-ying Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study investigated whether quercetin could alleviate vascular calcification in experimental chronic renal failure rats induced by adenine. Methods. 32 adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups fed normal diet, normal diet with quercetin supplementation (25 mg/kg·BW/d, 0.75% adenine diet, or adenine diet with quercetin supplementation. All rats were sacrificed after 6 weeks of intervention. Serum renal functions biomarkers and oxidative stress biomarkers were measured and status of vascular calcification in aorta was assessed. Furthermore, the induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS/p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38MAPK pathway was determined to explore the potential mechanism. Results. Adenine successfully induced renal failure and vascular calcification in rat model. Quercetin supplementation reversed unfavorable changes of phosphorous, uric acid (UA and creatinine levels, malonaldehyde (MDA content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in serum and the increases of calcium and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity in the aorta (P<0.05 and attenuated calcification and calcium accumulation in the medial layer of vasculature in histopathology. Western blot analysis showed that iNOS/p38MAPK pathway was normalized by the quercetin supplementation. Conclusions. Quercetin exerted a protective effect on vascular calcification in adenine-induced chronic renal failure rats, possibly through the modulation of oxidative stress and iNOs/p38MAPK pathway.

  11. Quercetin Attenuates Vascular Calcification through Suppressed Oxidative Stress in Adenine-Induced Chronic Renal Failure Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xue-Ying; Cui, Lei; Wang, Xing-Zhi; Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Dan; Zhou, Xiao-Rong; Hao, Li-Rong

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether quercetin could alleviate vascular calcification in experimental chronic renal failure rats induced by adenine. 32 adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups fed normal diet, normal diet with quercetin supplementation (25 mg/kg·BW/d), 0.75% adenine diet, or adenine diet with quercetin supplementation. All rats were sacrificed after 6 weeks of intervention. Serum renal functions biomarkers and oxidative stress biomarkers were measured and status of vascular calcification in aorta was assessed. Furthermore, the induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)/p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) pathway was determined to explore the potential mechanism. Adenine successfully induced renal failure and vascular calcification in rat model. Quercetin supplementation reversed unfavorable changes of phosphorous, uric acid (UA) and creatinine levels, malonaldehyde (MDA) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in serum and the increases of calcium and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the aorta ( P chronic renal failure rats, possibly through the modulation of oxidative stress and iNOs/p38MAPK pathway.

  12. Quercetin Attenuates Vascular Calcification through Suppressed Oxidative Stress in Adenine-Induced Chronic Renal Failure Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xue-ying; Cui, Lei; Wang, Xing-zhi; Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Background This study investigated whether quercetin could alleviate vascular calcification in experimental chronic renal failure rats induced by adenine. Methods 32 adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups fed normal diet, normal diet with quercetin supplementation (25 mg/kg·BW/d), 0.75% adenine diet, or adenine diet with quercetin supplementation. All rats were sacrificed after 6 weeks of intervention. Serum renal functions biomarkers and oxidative stress biomarkers were measured and status of vascular calcification in aorta was assessed. Furthermore, the induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)/p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) pathway was determined to explore the potential mechanism. Results Adenine successfully induced renal failure and vascular calcification in rat model. Quercetin supplementation reversed unfavorable changes of phosphorous, uric acid (UA) and creatinine levels, malonaldehyde (MDA) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in serum and the increases of calcium and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the aorta (P chronic renal failure rats, possibly through the modulation of oxidative stress and iNOs/p38MAPK pathway. PMID:28691026

  13. Effects of acetylcysteine and probucol on contrast medium-induced depression of intrinsic renal glutathione peroxidase activity in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hsueh-Wei; Lee, Hsiang-Chun; Lai, Wen-Te; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung

    2007-04-01

    Antioxidants such as N-acetylcysteine and probucol have been used to protect patients from contrast media-induced nephrotoxicity. The mechanisms underlying these protective effects are not well understood. We hypothesized that acetylcysteine and probucol alter the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity. Four weeks after induction of diabetes with streptozotocin, diabetic and nondiabetic rats were divided into three groups. Group 1 rats did not receive any antioxidant agents. Group 2 rats were treated with acetylcysteine and group 3 rats with probucol for 1 week before injection of the contrast medium diatrizoate (DTZ). We found that diabetic rats had higher renal glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity than normal rats. DTZ suppressed renal GPx activity significantly in both group 1 diabetic and normal rats. Interestingly, renal GPx activity in both diabetic and normal rats pretreated with acetylcysteine or probucol was not inhibited by DTZ. Renal superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly in normal rats after DTZ injection, but not in diabetic rats. Finally, acetylcysteine or probucol did not significantly influence renal SOD. These findings suggest that the renal protective effects of acetylcysteine and probucol against contrast-induced oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity may be mediated by altering endogenous GPx activity.

  14. Effects of water deprivation on renal hydroelectrolytic excretion in chronically Trypanosoma cruzi-infected rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.T. Rosa

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an 8 hour-period of water deprivation on fluid and electrolyte renal excretion was investigated in male Wistar rats infected with the strain São Felipe (12SF of Trypanosoma cruzi, in comparison with age and sex matched non-infected controls. The median percent reductions in the urinary flow (-40% v -63% and excretion ofsodium (-57% v-79% were smaller in chagasic than in control rats, respectively. So, chagasic rats excreted more than controls. On the other hand, the median percent decrement in the clearance of creatinine was higher in chagasic (-51% than in controls (-39%. Thus, chagasic rats showed some disturbed renal hydroelectrolytic responses to water deprivation, expressed by smaller conservation, or higher excretion of water and sodium in association with smaller glomerularfiltration rate. This fact denoted an elevation in the fractional excretion of sodium and water.

  15. Chrysin, an anti-inflammatory molecule, abrogates renal dysfunction in type 2 diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahad, Amjid [Lipid Metabolism Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110062 (India); Ganai, Ajaz Ahmad [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110062 (India); Mujeeb, Mohd [Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110062 (India); Siddiqui, Waseem Ahmad, E-mail: was.sid121@gmail.com [Lipid Metabolism Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110062 (India)

    2014-08-15

    Diabetic nepropathy (DN) is considered as the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide, but the current available treatments are limited. Recent experimental evidences support the role of chronic microinflammation in the development of DN. Therefore, the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) pathway has emerged as a new therapeutic target for the treatment of DN. We investigated the nephroprotective effects of chrysin (5, 7-dihydroxyflavone) in a high fat diet/streptozotocin (HFD/STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic Wistar albino rat model. Chrysin is a potent anti-inflammatory compound that is abundantly found in plant extracts, honey and bee propolis. The treatment with chrysin for 16 weeks post induction of diabetes significantly abrogated renal dysfunction and oxidative stress. Chrysin treatment considerably reduced renal TNF-α expression and inhibited the nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-kB) activation. Furthermore, chrysin treatment improved renal pathology and suppressed transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), fibronectin and collagen-IV protein expressions in renal tissues. Chrysin also significantly reduced the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and IL-6. Moreover, there were no appreciable differences in fasting blood glucose and serum insulin levels between the chrysin treated groups compared to the HFD/STZ-treated group. Hence, our results suggest that chrysin prevents the development of DN in HFD/STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats through anti-inflammatory effects in the kidney by specifically targeting the TNF-α pathway. - Highlights: • Chrysin reduced renal oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic rats. • Chrysin reduced serum levels of pro-inflammatory in diabetic rats. • Chrysin exhibited renal protective effect by suppressing the TNF-α pathway.

  16. Chrysin, an anti-inflammatory molecule, abrogates renal dysfunction in type 2 diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahad, Amjid; Ganai, Ajaz Ahmad; Mujeeb, Mohd; Siddiqui, Waseem Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic nepropathy (DN) is considered as the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide, but the current available treatments are limited. Recent experimental evidences support the role of chronic microinflammation in the development of DN. Therefore, the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) pathway has emerged as a new therapeutic target for the treatment of DN. We investigated the nephroprotective effects of chrysin (5, 7-dihydroxyflavone) in a high fat diet/streptozotocin (HFD/STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic Wistar albino rat model. Chrysin is a potent anti-inflammatory compound that is abundantly found in plant extracts, honey and bee propolis. The treatment with chrysin for 16 weeks post induction of diabetes significantly abrogated renal dysfunction and oxidative stress. Chrysin treatment considerably reduced renal TNF-α expression and inhibited the nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-kB) activation. Furthermore, chrysin treatment improved renal pathology and suppressed transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), fibronectin and collagen-IV protein expressions in renal tissues. Chrysin also significantly reduced the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and IL-6. Moreover, there were no appreciable differences in fasting blood glucose and serum insulin levels between the chrysin treated groups compared to the HFD/STZ-treated group. Hence, our results suggest that chrysin prevents the development of DN in HFD/STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats through anti-inflammatory effects in the kidney by specifically targeting the TNF-α pathway. - Highlights: • Chrysin reduced renal oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic rats. • Chrysin reduced serum levels of pro-inflammatory in diabetic rats. • Chrysin exhibited renal protective effect by suppressing the TNF-α pathway

  17. Fluid resuscitation does not improve renal oxygenation during hemorrhagic shock in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Legrand, Matthieu; Mik, Egbert; Balestra, Gianmarco; Lutter, Rene; Pirracchio, Romain; Payen, Didier; Ince, Can

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The resuscitation strategy for hemorrhagic shock remains controversial, with the kidney being especially prone to hypoxia. Methods: The authors used a three-phase hemorrhagic shock model to investigate the effects of fluid resuscitation on renal oxygenation. After a 1-h shock phase, rats were randomized into four groups to receive either normal saline or hypertonic saline targeting a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of either 40 or 80 mmHg. After such resuscitation, rats w...

  18. Decreases in renal functional reserve and proximal tubular fluid output in conscious oophorectomized rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Camilla Birch; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Bruun, Jens Meldgaard

    2003-01-01

    Age-dependent glomerulosclerosis with reduced GFR develops earlier among men than among women. Therefore, whether female sex hormones could prevent the age-dependent decrease in GFR was investigated. The kidney function in oophorectomized rats treated with placebo (OOX group), estrogen (OOX+E(2...... effects were prevented with administration of estrogen. Sham-operated rats demonstrated values for renal functional reserve and fractional lithium excretion that were between those observed for the OOX group and the groups treated with sex hormones....

  19. Effect of magnesium deficiency on renal magnesium and calcium transport in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Carney, S L; Wong, N L; Quamme, G A; Dirks, J H

    1980-01-01

    Recollection of micropuncture experiments were performed on acutely thyroparathyroidectomized rats rendered magnesium deficient by dietary deprivation. Urinary magnesium excretion fell from a control of 15 to 3% of the filtered load after magnesium restriction. The loop of Henle, presumably the thick ascending limb, was the major modulator for renal magnesium homeostasis. The transport capacity for magnesium, however, was less in deficient rats than control animals. Absolute magnesium reabsor...

  20. Antihypertensive effect of rhizome part of Acorus calamus on renal artery occlusion induced hypertension in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinal Patel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The rhizomes part of Acorus calamus (AC having the calcium inhibitory effect and diuretic activity which may potentiate Na+ excretion in hypertension induced by occlusion of renal artery. Therefore this study was aimed to investigate the effect of AC on experimentally induced hypertension. Methods: Hypertension in rats was induced by clamping the left renal artery for 4h by arterial clamp (2K1C. At the end of experiment animal were anesthetized with ketamine (50 mg/kg. Carotid artery was cannulated which was connected to pressure transducer for estimation of blood pressure. Results: Ethyl acetate extract of Acorus calamus rhizomes (EAAC treated rats that underwent hypertension, demonstrated significant (P < 0.01 lower systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure when compared with 2K1C rats indicated blood pressure lowering activity. Plasma renin activity was significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in EAAC treated rats compared to 2K1C rats. EAAC treated rats that underwent hypertension demonstrated significant (P < 0.01 lower mean blood urea nitrogen and creatinine when compared with 2K1C rats. Lipid peroxidation was significantly (P < 0.001 decreased, where as nitric oxide level in tissue was significantly elevated in EAAC treated rats. Antioxidant enzymes like glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001 increased in EAAC treated rats when compared to 2K1C rats. Conclusions: In conclusions, EAAC treatment attenuated renal artery occlusion induced hypertension via nitric oxide generation and decreases the plasma renin activity.

  1. Improved Structure and Function in Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Rat Kidneys with Renal Tubular Cell Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, K J; Zhang, Jizhong; Han, Ling; Kamocka, Malgorzata; Miller, Caroline; Gattone, Vincent H; Dominguez, Jesus H

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease is a truly catastrophic monogenetic disease, causing death and end stage renal disease in neonates and children. Using PCK female rats, an orthologous model of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease harboring mutant Pkhd1, we tested the hypothesis that intravenous renal cell transplantation with normal Sprague Dawley male kidney cells would improve the polycystic kidney disease phenotype. Cytotherapy with renal cells expressing wild type Pkhd1 and tubulogenic serum amyloid A1 had powerful and sustained beneficial effects on renal function and structure in the polycystic kidney disease model. Donor cell engraftment and both mutant and wild type Pkhd1 were found in treated but not control PCK kidneys 15 weeks after the final cell infusion. To examine the mechanisms of global protection with a small number of transplanted cells, we tested the hypothesis that exosomes derived from normal Sprague Dawley cells can limit the cystic phenotype of PCK recipient cells. We found that renal exosomes originating from normal Sprague Dawley cells carried and transferred wild type Pkhd1 mRNA to PCK cells in vivo and in vitro and restricted cyst formation by cultured PCK cells. The results indicate that transplantation with renal cells containing wild type Pkhd1 improves renal structure and function in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease and may provide an intra-renal supply of normal Pkhd1 mRNA.

  2. Renal hemodynamics and oxygenation in transient renal artery occluded rats evaluated with iron-oxide particles and oxygenation-sensitive imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Michael; Aarhus Univ.; Univ. Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2; Laustsen, Christoffer; Perot, Vincent; Grenier, Nicolas; Basseau, Fabrice; Moonen, Chrit

    2010-01-01

    Mild or severe renal arterial occlusion is a phenomenon occasionally observed in daily clinical practice, potentially leading to renal ischemia and a general impairment of renal function. Secondly, closing the blood flow to the kidneys can also occur during kidney transplantation procedures. However, the exact physiological effects of these conditions on renal blood perfusion as well as the renal oxygen handling are poorly understood. The objectives of this study were therefore to measure the lateral changes of renal blood perfusion in rats subjected to transient unilateral arterial occlusion (RAS), and in addition, to measure the consequences on the intrarenal oxygenation. Experimental studies were performed using sixteen adolescent rats. The left renal artery was exposed through a flank incision and acute RAS for 45 min was achieved by placing a ligature around the renal artery. MRI was performed 3 days after the surgical procedure, where a blood oxygenation sensitive sequence (BOLD MRI) was performed, followed by a perfusion-weighted imaging sequence using a single bolus of the iron-oxide nanoparticle Sinerem. The renal oxygenation of blood was indirectly measured by the BOLD-parameter R2 * , and perfusion measures include relative renal blood flow, relative renal blood volume and mean transit time. Histopathologic changes through the outer stripe of the outer medulla showing typical histopathologic findings of ischemia. This study demonstrated that rats with transient renal arterial stenosis (for 45 min) showed a reduction in intrarenal oxygenation and intrarenal blood flow three days after the surgical procedure. A decreased R2 * was measured within the ipsilateral medulla in parallel with a decreased medullary blood flow, is probably related to a lower reabsorption load within the ipsilateral kidney. MRI may therefore be a promising tool in long-term evaluation of RAS. (orig.)

  3. Renal hemodynamics and oxygenation in transient renal artery occluded rats evaluated with iron-oxide particles and oxygenation-sensitive imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Michael [Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark). MR Research Centre; Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Experimental Clinical Medicine; Univ. Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2 (France). Lab. Imagerie Moleculaire et Fonctionnelle: de la physiologie a la therapie CNRS UMR 5231; Laustsen, Christoffer [Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark). MR Research Centre; Perot, Vincent; Grenier, Nicolas [Hopital Pellegrin, CHU Bordeaux (France). Service d' Imagerie Diagnostique et Therapeutique de l' Adulte; Basseau, Fabrice; Moonen, Chrit [Univ. Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2 (France). Lab. Imagerie Moleculaire et Fonctionnelle: de la physiologie a la therapie CNRS UMR 5231

    2010-07-01

    Mild or severe renal arterial occlusion is a phenomenon occasionally observed in daily clinical practice, potentially leading to renal ischemia and a general impairment of renal function. Secondly, closing the blood flow to the kidneys can also occur during kidney transplantation procedures. However, the exact physiological effects of these conditions on renal blood perfusion as well as the renal oxygen handling are poorly understood. The objectives of this study were therefore to measure the lateral changes of renal blood perfusion in rats subjected to transient unilateral arterial occlusion (RAS), and in addition, to measure the consequences on the intrarenal oxygenation. Experimental studies were performed using sixteen adolescent rats. The left renal artery was exposed through a flank incision and acute RAS for 45 min was achieved by placing a ligature around the renal artery. MRI was performed 3 days after the surgical procedure, where a blood oxygenation sensitive sequence (BOLD MRI) was performed, followed by a perfusion-weighted imaging sequence using a single bolus of the iron-oxide nanoparticle Sinerem. The renal oxygenation of blood was indirectly measured by the BOLD-parameter R2{sup *}, and perfusion measures include relative renal blood flow, relative renal blood volume and mean transit time. Histopathologic changes through the outer stripe of the outer medulla showing typical histopathologic findings of ischemia. This study demonstrated that rats with transient renal arterial stenosis (for 45 min) showed a reduction in intrarenal oxygenation and intrarenal blood flow three days after the surgical procedure. A decreased R2{sup *} was measured within the ipsilateral medulla in parallel with a decreased medullary blood flow, is probably related to a lower reabsorption load within the ipsilateral kidney. MRI may therefore be a promising tool in long-term evaluation of RAS. (orig.)

  4. The effect of zinc on healing of renal damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehipour, Mehdi; Monabbati, Ahmad; Ensafdaran, Mohammad Reza; Adib, Ali; Babaei, Amir Hossein

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have previously been performed to promote kidney healing after injuries. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of zinc on renal healing after traumatic injury in rats. Forty healthy female rats were selected and one of their kidneys was incised. Half of the incisions were limited only to the cortex (renal injury type I) and the other ones reached the pelvocalyceal system of the kidney (renal injury type II). All the rats in the zinc treated group (case group) received 36.3 mg zinc sulfate (contained 8.25 mg zinc) orally. After 28 days, the damaged kidneys were removed for histopathological studies. In the rats with type I injury, kidney inflammation of the case group was significantly lower than that of the control group. However, the result was not significant in rats with type II injury. Tissue loss and granulation tissue formation were significantly lower in the case group than the control group in both type I and II kidney injuries. Overall, Zinc can contribute to better healing of the rat's kidneys after a traumatic injury.

  5. L-Arginine metabolism in cardiovascular and renal tissue from hyper- and hypothyroid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Isabel; Moliz, Juan N; Quesada, Andrés; Montoro-Molina, Sebastian; Vargas-Tendero, Pablo; Osuna, Antonio; Wangensteen, Rosemary; Vargas, Félix

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the effects of thyroid hormones on the enzymes involved in l-arginine metabolism and the metabolites generated by the different metabolic pathways. Compounds of l-arginine metabolism were measured in the kidney, heart, aorta, and liver of euthyroid, hyperthyroid, and hypothyroid rats after 6 weeks of treatment. Enzymes studied were NOS isoforms (neuronal [nNOS], inducible [iNOS], and endothelial [eNOS]), arginases I and II, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), ornithine aminotransferase (OAT), and l-arginine decarboxylase (ADC). Metabolites studied were l-arginine, l-citrulline, spermidine, spermine, and l-proline. Kidney heart and aorta levels of eNOS and iNOS were augmented and reduced (P hyperthyroid rats and was decreased in kidney and aorta of hypothyroid rats (P hyperthyroid rats and remained unchanged in all organs of hypothyroid rats. The substrate for these enzymes, l-arginine, was reduced (P hyperthyroid rats. Levels of ODC and spermidine, its product, were increased and decreased (P metabolic pathways. The changes recorded in the abundance of eNOS, arginases I and II, and ADC protein in renal and cardiovascular tissues may play a role in the hemodynamic and renal manifestations observed in thyroid disorders. Furthermore, the changes in ODC and spermidine might contribute to the changes in cardiac and renal mass observed in thyroid disorders. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  6. Effect of glycation of albumin on its renal clearance in normal and diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layton, G.J.; Jerums, G.

    1988-01-01

    Two independent techniques have been used to study the renal clearances of nonenzymatically glycated albumin and nonglycated albumin in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, 16 to 24 weeks after the onset of diabetes. In the first technique, serum and urinary endogenous glycated and nonglycated albumin were separated using m-aminophenylboronate affinity chromatography and subsequently quantified by radioimmunoassay. Endogenous glycated albumin was cleared approximately twofold faster than nonglycated albumin in normal and diabetic rats. However, no difference was observed in the glycated albumin/nonglycated albumin clearance ratios (Cga/Calb) in normal and diabetic rats, respectively (2.18 +/- 0.39 vs 1.83 +/- 0.22, P greater than 0.05). The second technique measured the renal clearance of injected 125I-labelled glycated albumin and 125I-labelled albumin. The endogenous results were supported by the finding that 125I-labelled glycated albumin was cleared more rapidly than 125I-labelled albumin in normal (P less than 0.01) and diabetic (P less than 0.05) rats. The Cga/Calb ratio calculated for the radiolabelled albumins was 1.4 and 2.0 in normal and diabetic rats, respectively. This evidence suggests that nonenzymatic glycation of albumin increases its renal clearance to a similar degree in normal and diabetic rats

  7. Tubuloglomerular feedback dynamics and renal blood flow autoregulation in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Wagner, A J; Marsh, D J

    1991-01-01

    To decide whether tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) can account for renal autoregulation, we tested predictions of a TGF simulation. Broad-band and single-frequency perturbations were applied to arterial pressure; arterial blood pressure, renal blood flow and proximal tubule pressure were measured....... Data were analyzed by linear systems analysis. Broad-band forcings of arterial pressure were also applied to the model to compare experimental results with simulations. With arterial pressure as the input and tubular pressure, renal blood flow, or renal vascular resistance as outputs, the model...... correctly predicted gain and phase only in the low-frequency range. Experimental results revealed a second component of vascular control active at 100-150 mHz that was not predicted by the simulation. Forcings at single frequencies showed that the system behaves linearly except in the band of 33-50 m...

  8. Cardiac and renal antioxidant enzymes and effects of tempol in hyperthyroid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Juan Manuel; Rodríguez Gómez, Isabel; Wangensteen, Rosemary; Osuna, Antonio; Bueno, Pablo; Vargas, Félix

    2005-11-01

    This study evaluated the activity of cardiac and renal antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione reductase (GR)] and whether chronic treatment with tempol, a cell membrane-permeable SOD mimetic, ameliorates the hypertension of hyperthyroidism. Two experiments were performed. In experiment I, the following four groups of male Wistar rats were used: control group and three groups that received thyroxine (T4) at 10, 50, or 75 microg x rat(-1) x day(-1). In experiment II, tempol was orally administered (18 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)) to control and T4-treated (75 microg x rat(-1) x day(-1)) rats. All treatments were maintained for 6 wk. Body weight, tail systolic blood pressure (BP), and heart rate were measured one time a week, and direct BP and morphological, metabolic, plasma, and renal variables were measured at the end of the experiment. Enzymatic activities were measured in renal cortex and medulla and right and left ventricles. In renal cortex, SOD activity was decreased in the T4-75 group, and there was a dose-related increase in CAT activity and decrease in GPX and GR activities in T4-treated groups. Activity of all antioxidant enzymes was reduced in left ventricle in T4-50 and T4-75 groups and in right ventricle in the T4-75 group. Tempol reduced BP, plasma malondialdehyde, and total urinary excretion of F2 isoprostanes in hypertensive hyperthyroid rats but not in controls. Tempol did not improve cardiac hypertrophy, proteinuria, or creatinine clearance in hyperthyroid rats. In conclusion, the results obtained indicate that the activity of SOD, GPX, and GR in renal and cardiac tissues is decreased in hyperthyroidism and that antioxidant treatment with tempol ameliorates T4-induced hypertension.

  9. Dynamic {sup 18}F-fluoride small animal PET to noninvasively assess renal function in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnoeckel, Uta; Stegger, Lars; Schaefers, Klaus P.; Hermann, Sven; Schober, Otmar; Schaefers, Michael [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Muenster (Germany); Reuter, Stefan; Schlatter, Eberhard; Gabriels, Gert [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik D, Experimentelle Nephrologie, Muenster (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    Renal function can be quantified by both laboratory and scintigraphic methods. In the case of small animal diagnostics, scintigraphic image-based methods are ideal since they can assess split renal function, work noninvasively, and can be repeated. The aim of this study is to validate a {sup 18}F-PET-based method to quantify renal function in rats. Fluoride clearance was calculated from a dynamic whole body listmode acquisition of 60 min length in a small animal PET scanner following an i.v. injection of 15 MBq {sup 18}F-fluoride. Volumes of interest (VOIs) were placed in the left ventricle and the bladder as well as traced around the kidney contours. The respective time-activity curves (TAC) were calculated. The renal {sup 18}F-clearance was calculated by the ratio of the total renal excreted activity (bladder VOI) and the integral of the blood TAC. PET-derived renal function was validated by intraindividual measurements of creatinine clearance (n=23), urea clearance (n=23), and tubular excretion rate (TER-MAG3). The split renal function was derived from the injection of the clinically available radionuclide {sup 99m}Tc-mercaptotriglycine by blood sampling and planar renography (n=8). In all animals studied, PET revealed high-quality TACs. PET-derived renal fluoride clearance was linearly correlated with intraindividual laboratory measures (PET vs. creatinine: r=0.78; PET vs. urea: r=0.73; PET vs. TER-MAG3: r=0.73). Split function was comparable ({sup 18}F-PET vs. MAG3-renography: r=0.98). PET-derived measures were highly reproducible. {sup 18}F-PET is able to noninvasively assess renal function in rats and provides a significant potential for serial studies in different experimental scenarios. (orig.)

  10. Dynamic 18F-fluoride small animal PET to noninvasively assess renal function in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnoeckel, Uta; Stegger, Lars; Schaefers, Klaus P.; Hermann, Sven; Schober, Otmar; Schaefers, Michael; Reuter, Stefan; Schlatter, Eberhard; Gabriels, Gert

    2008-01-01

    Renal function can be quantified by both laboratory and scintigraphic methods. In the case of small animal diagnostics, scintigraphic image-based methods are ideal since they can assess split renal function, work noninvasively, and can be repeated. The aim of this study is to validate a 18 F-PET-based method to quantify renal function in rats. Fluoride clearance was calculated from a dynamic whole body listmode acquisition of 60 min length in a small animal PET scanner following an i.v. injection of 15 MBq 18 F-fluoride. Volumes of interest (VOIs) were placed in the left ventricle and the bladder as well as traced around the kidney contours. The respective time-activity curves (TAC) were calculated. The renal 18 F-clearance was calculated by the ratio of the total renal excreted activity (bladder VOI) and the integral of the blood TAC. PET-derived renal function was validated by intraindividual measurements of creatinine clearance (n=23), urea clearance (n=23), and tubular excretion rate (TER-MAG3). The split renal function was derived from the injection of the clinically available radionuclide 99m Tc-mercaptotriglycine by blood sampling and planar renography (n=8). In all animals studied, PET revealed high-quality TACs. PET-derived renal fluoride clearance was linearly correlated with intraindividual laboratory measures (PET vs. creatinine: r=0.78; PET vs. urea: r=0.73; PET vs. TER-MAG3: r=0.73). Split function was comparable ( 18 F-PET vs. MAG3-renography: r=0.98). PET-derived measures were highly reproducible. 18 F-PET is able to noninvasively assess renal function in rats and provides a significant potential for serial studies in different experimental scenarios. (orig.)

  11. Increased renal adrenomedullin expression in rats with ureteral obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Rikke; Bødker, Tina; Jensen, Boye L

    2009-01-01

    Ureteral obstruction is characterized by decreased renal blood flow that is associated with hypoxia within the kidney. Adrenomedullin (AM) is a peptide hormone with tissue-protective capacity that is stimulated through hypoxia. We tested the hypothesis that ureteral obstruction stimulates...... increases in response to ureteral obstruction in agreement with expected oxygen gradients. Hypoxia acting through HIF-1alpha accumulation may be an important pathway for the renal response to ureteral obstruction....

  12. Renal Pathology in a Nontraditional Aging Model: The Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, M A; Kinsel, M J; Treuting, P M

    2016-03-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR; Heterocephalus glaber) is growing in popularity as a model for aging research due to its extreme longevity (up to 30 years), highly adapted physiology, and resistance to cancer, particularly when compared with traditional aging models such as laboratory mice and rats. Despite the NMR's seemingly lengthy health span, several age-related lesions have been documented. During a 15-year retrospective evaluation of a zoo-housed population, histologic changes in the kidneys were reported in 127 of 138 (92%) adult NMRs. Of these, renal tubular mineralization was very common (115 of 127; 90.6%) and found in NMRs without concurrent renal lesions (36 of 127; 28.3%). Many of the other described lesions were considered progressive stages of a single process, generally referred to as chronic nephritis or nephropathy, and diagnosed in 73 of 127 (57.5%), while end-stage renal disease was reported in only 12 (9.4%) NMRs. Renal lesions of these NMRs were comparable to disease entities reported in laboratory rats and certain strains of inbred and noninbred mice. Although many lesions of NMR kidneys were similar to those found in aged laboratory rodents, some common urinary diseases were not represented in the examined colonies. The goal of this study was to describe renal lesions in NMRs from a zoologic setting to familiarize investigators and pathologists with an apparently common and presumably age-related disease in this nontraditional model. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Basolateral P2X receptors mediate inhibition of NaCl transport in mouse medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, Rita D; de Bruijn, Pauline I.A.; Sørensen, Mads Vaarby

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular nucleotides regulate epithelial transport via luminal and basolateral P2 receptors. Renal epithelia express multiple P2 receptors, which mediate significant inhibition of solute absorption. Recently, we identified several P2 receptors in the medullary thick ascending limb (m...

  14. Dorsal hippocampal NMDA receptor blockade impairs extinction of naloxone-precipitated conditioned place aversion in acute morphine-treated rats by suppressing ERK and CREB phosphorylation in the basolateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Sheng; Chen, Zhong-Guo; Liu, Wen-Tao; Chi, Zhi-Qiang; He, Ling; Liu, Jing-Gen

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence shows that negative reinforcement resulting from the aversive affective consequences of opiate withdrawal may play a crucial role in drug relapse. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the loss (extinction) of conditioned aversion of drug withdrawal could facilitate the treatment of drug addiction. Naloxone-induced conditioned place aversion (CPA) of Sprague-Dawley rats was used to measure conditioned aversion. An NMDA receptor antagonist and MAPK kinase inhibitor were applied through intracranial injections. The phosphorylation of ERK and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) was detected using Western blot. The extinction of CPA behaviour increased the phosphorylation of ERK and CREB in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) and basolateral amygdala (BLA), but not in the central amygdala (CeA). Intra-DH injection of AP5 or intra-BLA injection of AP-5 or U0126 before extinction training significantly attenuated ERK and CREB phosphorylation in the BLA and impaired the extinction of CPA behaviour. Although intra-DH injections of AP-5 attenuated extinction training-induced activation of the ERK-CREB pathway in the BLA, intra-BLA injection of AP5 had no effect on extinction training-induced activation of the ERK-CREB pathway in the DH. These results suggest that activation of ERK and CREB in the BLA and DH is involved in the extinction of CPA behaviour and that the DH, via a direct or indirect pathway, modulates the activity of ERK and CREB in the BLA through activation of NMDA receptors after extinction training. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the extinction of conditioned aversion could facilitate the treatment of drug addiction. This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. Glucagon-like peptide-1 acutely affects renal blood flow and urinary flow rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats despite significantly reduced renal expression of GLP-1 receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronn, Jonas; Jensen, Elisa P; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J

    2017-01-01

    to increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and increased renal blood flow (RBF). In hypertensive animal models, GLP-1 has been reported both to increase and decrease MAP. The aim of this study was to examine expression of renal GLP-1 receptors in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and to assess the effect......Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone increasing postprandial insulin release. GLP-1 also induces diuresis and natriuresis in humans and rodents. The GLP-1 receptor is extensively expressed in the renal vascular tree in normotensive rats where acute GLP-1 treatment leads...... in the kidney from SHR. However, acute intrarenal infusion of GLP-1 increased MAP, RBF, dieresis, and natriuresis without affecting heart rate in both rat strains. These results suggest that the acute renal effects of GLP-1 in SHR are caused either by extrarenal GLP-1 receptors activating other mechanisms (e...

  16. Identification of key metabolic changes in renal interstitial fibrosis rats using metabonomics and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liangcai; Dong, Minjian; Liao, Shixian; Du, Yao; Zhou, Qi; Zheng, Hong; Chen, Minjiang; Ji, Jiansong; Gao, Hongchang

    2016-06-03

    Renal fibrosis is one of the important pathways involved in end-stage renal failure. Investigating the metabolic changes in the progression of disease may enhance the understanding of its pathogenesis and therapeutic information. In this study, (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics was firstly used to screen the metabolic changes in urine and kidney tissues of renal interstitial fibrotic rats induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after operation, respectively. The results revealed that reduced levels of bioenergy synthesis and branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), as well as elevated levels of indoxyl sulfate (IS) are involved in metabolic alterations of renal fibrosis rats. Next, by pharmacological treatment we found that reduction of IS levels could prevent the renal fibrotic symptoms. Therefore, we suggested that urinary IS may be used as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of renal fibrosis, and a therapeutic target for drugs. Novel attempt combining metabonomics and pharmacology was established that have ability to provide more systematic diagnostic and therapeutic information of diseases.

  17. The Role of Endothelin System in Renal Structure and Function during the Postnatal Development of the Rat Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertoni Borghese, María F; Ortiz, María C; Balonga, Sabrina; Moreira Szokalo, Rocío; Majowicz, Mónica P

    2016-01-01

    Renal development in rodents, unlike in humans, continues during early postnatal period. We aimed to evaluate whether the pharmacological inhibition of Endothelin system during this period affects renal development, both at structural and functional level in male and female rats. Newborn rats were treated orally from postnatal day 1 to 20 with vehicle or bosentan (Actelion, 20 mg/kg/day), a dual endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA). The animals were divided in 4 groups: control males, control females, ERA males and ERA females. At day 21, we evaluated renal function, determined the glomerular number by a maceration method and by morphometric analysis and evaluated possible structural renal alterations by three methods: 〈alpha〉-Smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) immunohistochemistry, Masson's trichrome and Sirius red staining. The pharmacological inhibition of Endothelin system with a dual ERA during the early postnatal period of the rat did not leads to renal damage in the kidneys of male and female rats. However, ERA administration decreased the number of glomeruli, the juxtamedullary filtration surface area and the glomerular filtration rate and increased the proteinuria. These effects could predispose to hypertension or renal diseases in the adulthood. On the other hand, these effects were more pronounced in male rats, suggesting that there are sex differences that could be greater later in life. These results provide evidence that Endothelin has an important role in rat renal postnatal development. However these results do not imply that the same could happen in humans, since human renal development is complete at birth.

  18. Impact of Iodinated Contrast on Renal Function and Hemodynamics in Rats with Chronic Hyperglycemia and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sheila Marques; Martins, Daniel Malisani; da Fonseca, Cassiane Dezoti; Watanabe, Mirian; Vattimo, Maria de Fátima Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Iodinated contrast (IC) is clinically used in diagnostic and interventional procedures, but its use can result in contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and chronic hyperglycemia (CH) are important predisposing factors to CI-AKI. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of iodinated contrast on the renal function and hemodynamics in rats with chronic hyperglycemia and chronic kidney disease. A total of 30 rats were divided into six groups; Sham: control of chronic renal disease; Citrate: control of chronic hyperglycemia (CH); Nx5/6: rats with 5/6 nephrectomy; Chronic Hyperglycemia: rats receiving Streptozotocin 65 mg/kg; Nx5/6 + IC: rats Nx5/6 received 6 mL/kg of IC; CH + IC: Chronic hyperglycemia rats receiving 6 mL/kg of IC. Renal function (inulin clearance; urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, NGAL) and hemodynamics (arterial blood pressure; renal blood flow; renal vascular resistance) were evaluated. Iodinated contrast significantly increased urinary NGAL and reduced inulin clearance, while the hemodynamics parameters showed changes in arterial blood pressure, renal blood flow, and renal vascular resistance in both CKD and CH groups. The results suggest that the iodinated contrast in risk factors models has important impact on renal function and hemodynamics. NGAL was confirmed to play a role of highlight in diagnosis of CI-AKI. PMID:27034930

  19. Impact of Iodinated Contrast on Renal Function and Hemodynamics in Rats with Chronic Hyperglycemia and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Marques Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodinated contrast (IC is clinically used in diagnostic and interventional procedures, but its use can result in contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI. Chronic kidney disease (CKD and chronic hyperglycemia (CH are important predisposing factors to CI-AKI. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of iodinated contrast on the renal function and hemodynamics in rats with chronic hyperglycemia and chronic kidney disease. A total of 30 rats were divided into six groups; Sham: control of chronic renal disease; Citrate: control of chronic hyperglycemia (CH; Nx5/6: rats with 5/6 nephrectomy; Chronic Hyperglycemia: rats receiving Streptozotocin 65 mg/kg; Nx5/6 + IC: rats Nx5/6 received 6 mL/kg of IC; CH + IC: Chronic hyperglycemia rats receiving 6 mL/kg of IC. Renal function (inulin clearance; urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, NGAL and hemodynamics (arterial blood pressure; renal blood flow; renal vascular resistance were evaluated. Iodinated contrast significantly increased urinary NGAL and reduced inulin clearance, while the hemodynamics parameters showed changes in arterial blood pressure, renal blood flow, and renal vascular resistance in both CKD and CH groups. The results suggest that the iodinated contrast in risk factors models has important impact on renal function and hemodynamics. NGAL was confirmed to play a role of highlight in diagnosis of CI-AKI.

  20. The effects of valproic acid on renal corpuscle of pregnant rats and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of valproic acid on renal corpuscle of pregnant rats and protective role of folic acid and vitamin E. Ayfer Aktas, Yusuf Nergız, Yusuf Nergız, Murat Akkus, Murat Akkus, Yasemin Nasır, Yasemin Nasır ...

  1. Serum metabonomic analysis of protective effects of Curcuma aromatica oil on renal fibrosis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liangcai; Zhang, Haiyan; Yang, Yunjun; Zheng, Yongquan; Dong, Minjian; Wang, Yaqiang; Bai, Guanghui; Ye, Xinjian; Yan, Zhihan; Gao, Hongchang

    2014-01-01

    Curcuma aromatica oil is a traditional herbal medicine demonstrating protective and anti-fibrosis activities in renal fibrosis patients. However, study of its mechanism of action is challenged by its multiple components and multiple targets that its active agent acts on. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics combined with clinical chemistry and histopathology examination were performed to evaluate intervening effects of Curcuma aromatica oil on renal interstitial fibrosis rats induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction. The metabolite levels were compared based on integral values of serum 1H NMR spectra from rats on 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after the medicine administration. Time trajectory analysis demonstrated that metabolic profiles of the agent-treated rats were restored to control levels after 7 days of dosage. The results confirmed that the agent would be an effective anti-fibrosis medicine in a time-dependent manner, especially in early renal fibrosis stage. Targeted metabolite analysis showed that the medicine could lower levels of lipid, acetoacetate, glucose, phosphorylcholine/choline, trimethylamine oxide and raise levels of pyruvate, glycine in the serum of the rats. Serum clinical chemistry and kidney histopathology examination dovetailed well with the metabonomics data. The results substantiated that Curcuma aromatica oil administration can ameliorate renal fibrosis symptoms by inhibiting some metabolic pathways, including lipids metabolism, glycolysis and methylamine metabolism, which are dominating targets of the agent working in vivo. This study further strengthens the novel analytical approach for evaluating the effect of traditional herbal medicine and elucidating its molecular mechanism.

  2. Mechanisms of blood pressure changes following renal irradiation of intact, adrenalectomized and adrenal regenerating rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenblum, M.

    1976-01-01

    Results are reported from studies on the differences in changes in systolic arterial blood pressure following renal x-irradiation (1100 R) in adrenal-intact, adrenalectomized, and adrenal-regenerating rats and the roles of the kidneys and of the adrenal glands in the blood pressure changes

  3. Using BOLD imaging to measure renal oxygenation dynamics in rats injected with diuretics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusakabe, Yoshinori; Matsushita, Taro; Honda, Saori; Okada, Sakie; Murase, Kenya

    2010-01-01

    We used blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD MRI) to measure renal oxygenation dynamics in rats injected with diuretics and evaluated diuretic effect on renal oxygenation. We performed BOLD MRI studies in 32 rats using a 1.5-tesla MR imaging system for animal experiments. We intravenously injected rats with saline (n=7), furosemide (n=7), acetazolamide (n=6), or mannitol (n=6). For controls, 6 rats were not injected with drugs. We estimated the apparent transverse relaxation rate (R 2 *) from the apparent transverse relaxation time (T 2 *)-weighted images and measured the time course of R 2 * at 4-min intervals over approximately 30 min. Compared with preadministration values, the R 2 * value did not change significantly in either the cortex or medulla in the control and mannitol groups but decreased significantly in the saline group; the R 2 * value significantly decreased in the medulla but did not change significantly in the cortex in the furosemide group; and the R 2 * value significantly increased in the medulla and significantly decreased in the cortex in the acetazolamide group. Our study results suggest that BOLD MRI is useful for evaluating the dynamics of renal oxygenation in response to various diuretics in the renal cortex and in the medulla. (author)

  4. Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat is prevented by a novel immune modulation therapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tremblay, J.; Chen, H.; Peng, J.; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Vu, M. D.; Der Sarkissian, S.; deBlois, D.; Bolton, A. E.; Gaboury, L.; Marshansky, V.; Gouadon, E.; Hamet, P.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 10 (2002), s. 1425-1433 ISSN 0041-1337 Grant - others:Vasogen Inc.(CA) - Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : renal ischemia * immune therapy * rat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.265, year: 2002

  5. Ochratoxin A induces rat renal carcinogenicity with limited induction of oxidative stress responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Xiaozhe; Yu, Tao; Zhu, Liye; Gao, Jing; He, Xiaoyun; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo; Xu, Wentao

    2014-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) has displayed nephrotoxicity and renal carcinogenicity in mammals, however, no clear mechanisms have been identified detailing the relationship between oxidative stress and these toxicities. This study was performed to clarify the relationship between oxidative stress and the renal carcinogenicity induced by OTA. Rats were treated with 70 or 210 μg/kg b.w. OTA for 4 or 13 weeks. In the rats administrated with OTA for 13 weeks, the kidney was damaged seriously. Cytoplasmic vacuolization was observed in the outer stripe of the outer medulla. Karyomegaly was prominent in the tubular epithelium. Kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) was detected in the outer stripe of the outer medulla in both low- and high-dose groups. OTA increased the mRNA levels of clusterin in rat kidneys. Interestingly, OTA did not significantly alter the oxidative stress level in rat liver and kidney. Yet, some indications related to proliferation and carcinogenicity were observed. A dose-related increase in proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was observed at 4 weeks in both liver and kidney, but at 13 weeks, only in the kidney. OTA down-regulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and up-regulated vimentin and lipocalin 2 in rat kidney at 13 weeks. The p53 gene was decreased in both liver and kidney at 13 weeks. These results suggest that OTA caused apparent kidney damage within 13 weeks but exerted limited effect on oxidative stress parameters. It implies that cell proliferation is the proposed mode of action for OTA-induced renal carcinogenicity. - Highlights: • We studied OTA toxicities in both the rat liver and kidney for 13 weeks. • OTA exerts limited effects on oxidative stress in the rat liver and kidney. • OTA induced renal carcinogenicity resulting from cell proliferation

  6. Ochratoxin A induces rat renal carcinogenicity with limited induction of oxidative stress responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Xiaozhe; Yu, Tao; Zhu, Liye; Gao, Jing [College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); He, Xiaoyun; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo [College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); The Supervision, Inspection and Testing Center of Genetically Modified Organisms, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100083 (China); Xu, Wentao, E-mail: xuwentao@cau.edu.cn [College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); The Supervision, Inspection and Testing Center of Genetically Modified Organisms, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-11-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) has displayed nephrotoxicity and renal carcinogenicity in mammals, however, no clear mechanisms have been identified detailing the relationship between oxidative stress and these toxicities. This study was performed to clarify the relationship between oxidative stress and the renal carcinogenicity induced by OTA. Rats were treated with 70 or 210 μg/kg b.w. OTA for 4 or 13 weeks. In the rats administrated with OTA for 13 weeks, the kidney was damaged seriously. Cytoplasmic vacuolization was observed in the outer stripe of the outer medulla. Karyomegaly was prominent in the tubular epithelium. Kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) was detected in the outer stripe of the outer medulla in both low- and high-dose groups. OTA increased the mRNA levels of clusterin in rat kidneys. Interestingly, OTA did not significantly alter the oxidative stress level in rat liver and kidney. Yet, some indications related to proliferation and carcinogenicity were observed. A dose-related increase in proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was observed at 4 weeks in both liver and kidney, but at 13 weeks, only in the kidney. OTA down-regulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and up-regulated vimentin and lipocalin 2 in rat kidney at 13 weeks. The p53 gene was decreased in both liver and kidney at 13 weeks. These results suggest that OTA caused apparent kidney damage within 13 weeks but exerted limited effect on oxidative stress parameters. It implies that cell proliferation is the proposed mode of action for OTA-induced renal carcinogenicity. - Highlights: • We studied OTA toxicities in both the rat liver and kidney for 13 weeks. • OTA exerts limited effects on oxidative stress in the rat liver and kidney. • OTA induced renal carcinogenicity resulting from cell proliferation.

  7. Effect of indomethacin and salt depletion on renal proton MR imaging; An experimental study in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyman, S.N.; Mammen, M. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Charles A Dana Research Inst. Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA (United States))

    1991-11-01

    Blockade of the synthesis of vasodilating prostaglandins with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) renders the renal medulla susceptible to hypoxic injury with reduced renal function, especially in clinical conditions characterized by volume depletion. Alterations in renal hemodynamics and urine production may effect renal MR imaging under these circumstances. We injected salt-depleted and control rats undergoing proton MR imaging with indomethacin 10 mg/kg. Indomethacin abolished the cortico-medullary T2-gradient and markedly diminished the overall renal signal in salt-depleted rats only. These changes, which progressed over a period of 40 min after indomethacin was injected, probably result from renal oligemia and decreased urine production, with an associated decrease in T2-values. We suggest that a history of consumption of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be obtained and taken into account in the evaluation of renal proton MR imaging, especially in the presence of salt and volume depletion. (orig.).

  8. Comparison of para-aminophenol cytotoxicity in rat renal epithelial cells and hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Bentzley, Catherine M; Tarloff, Joan B

    2005-04-01

    Several chemicals, including para-aminophenol (PAP), produce kidney damage in the absence of hepatic damage. Selective nephrotoxicity may be related to the ability of the kidney to reabsorb filtered water, thereby raising the intraluminal concentration of toxicants and exposing tubular epithelial cells to higher concentrations than would be present in other tissues. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that hepatocytes and renal epithelial cells exposed to equivalent concentrations of PAP would be equally susceptible to toxicity. Hepatocytes and renal epithelial cells were prepared by collagenase digestion of tissues obtained from female Sprague-Dawley rats. Toxicity was monitored using trypan blue exclusion, oxygen consumption and ATP content. We measured the rate of PAP clearance and formation of PAP-glutathione conjugate by HPLC. We found that renal epithelial cells accumulated trypan blue and showed declines in oxygen consumption and ATP content at significantly lower concentrations of PAP and at earlier time points than hepatocytes. The half-life of PAP in hepatocyte incubations was significantly shorter (0.71+/-0.07 h) than in renal epithelial cell incubations (1.33+/-0.23 h), suggesting that renal epithelial cells were exposed to PAP for longer time periods than hepatocytes. Renal epithelial cells formed significantly less glutathione conjugates of PAP (PAP-SG) than did hepatocytes, consistent with less efficient detoxification of reactive PAP intermediates by renal epithelial cells. Finally, hepatocytes contained significant more reduced glutathione (NPSH) than did renal epithelial cells, possibly explaining the enhanced formation of PAP-SG by this cell population. In conclusion, our data indicates that renal epithelial cells are intrinsically more susceptible to PAP cytotoxicity than are hepatocytes. This enhanced cytotoxicity may be due to longer exposure to PAP and/or reduced detoxification of reactive intermediates due to lower concentrations

  9. Blood pressure-renal blood flow relationships in conscious angiotensin II- and phenylephrine-infused rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polichnowski, Aaron J; Griffin, Karen A; Long, Jianrui; Williamson, Geoffrey A; Bidani, Anil K

    2013-10-01

    Chronic ANG II infusion in rodents is widely used as an experimental model of hypertension, yet very limited data are available describing the resulting blood pressure-renal blood flow (BP-RBF) relationships in conscious rats. Accordingly, male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 19) were instrumented for chronic measurements of BP (radiotelemetry) and RBF (Transonic Systems, Ithaca, NY). One week later, two or three separate 2-h recordings of BP and RBF were obtained in conscious rats at 24-h intervals, in addition to separate 24-h BP recordings. Rats were then administered either ANG II (n = 11, 125 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1)) or phenylephrine (PE; n = 8, 50 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) as a control, ANG II-independent, pressor agent. Three days later the BP-RBF and 24-h BP recordings were repeated over several days. Despite similar increases in BP, PE led to significantly greater BP lability at the heart beat and very low frequency bandwidths. Conversely, ANG II, but not PE, caused significant renal vasoconstriction (a 62% increase in renal vascular resistance and a 21% decrease in RBF) and increased variability in BP-RBF relationships. Transfer function analysis of BP (input) and RBF (output) were consistent with a significant potentiation of the renal myogenic mechanism during ANG II administration, likely contributing, in part, to the exaggerated reductions in RBF during periods of BP elevations. We conclude that relatively equipressor doses of ANG II and PE lead to greatly different ambient BP profiles and effects on the renal vasculature when assessed in conscious rats. These data may have important implications regarding the pathogenesis of hypertension-induced injury in these models of hypertension.

  10. Effect of metabolic acidosis on renal tubular sodium handling in rats as determined by lithium clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menegon L.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic metabolic acidosis is known to cause a decrease in salt and water reabsorption by the kidney. We have used renal lithium clearance to investigate the effect of chronic, NH4Cl-induced metabolic acidosis on the renal handling of Na+ in male Wistar-Hannover rats (200-250 g. Chronic acidosis (pH 7.16 ± 0.13 caused a sustained increase in renal fractional Na+ excretion (267.9 ± 36.4%, accompanied by an increase in fractional proximal (113.3 ± 3.6% and post-proximal (179.7 ± 20.2% Na+ and urinary K+ (163.4 ± 5.6% excretion when compared to control and pair-fed rats. These differences occurred in spite of an unchanged creatinine clearance and Na+ filtered load. A lower final body weight was observed in the acidotic (232 ± 4.6 g and pair-fed (225 ± 3.6 g rats compared to the controls (258 ± 3.7 g. In contrast, there was a significant increase in the kidney weights of acidotic rats (1.73 ± 0.05 g compared to the other experimental groups (control, 1.46 ± 0.05 g; pair-fed, 1.4 ± 0.05 g. We suggest that altered renal Na+ and K+ handling in acidotic rats may result from a reciprocal relationship between the level of metabolism in renal tubules and ion transport.

  11. Salt-induced changes in cardiac phosphoproteome in a rat model of chronic renal failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengxiu Su

    Full Text Available Heart damage is widely present in patients with chronic kidney disease. Salt diet is the most important environmental factor affecting development of chronic renal failure and cardiovascular diseases. The proteins involved in chronic kidney disease -induced heart damage, especially their posttranslational modifications, remain largely unknown to date. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy (chronic renal failure model or sham operation were treated for 2 weeks with a normal-(0.4% NaCl, or high-salt (4% NaCl diet. We employed TiO2 enrichment, iTRAQ labeling and liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry strategy for phosphoproteomic profiling of left ventricular free walls in these animals. A total of 1724 unique phosphopeptides representing 2551 non-redundant phosphorylation sites corresponding to 763 phosphoproteins were identified. During normal salt feeding, 89 (54% phosphopeptides upregulated and 76 (46% phosphopeptides downregulated in chronic renal failure rats relative to sham rats. In chronic renal failure rats, high salt intake induced upregulation of 84 (49% phosphopeptides and downregulation of 88 (51% phosphopeptides. Database searches revealed that most of the identified phospholproteins were important signaling molecules such as protein kinases, receptors and phosphatases. These phospholproteins were involved in energy metabolism, cell communication, cell differentiation, cell death and other biological processes. The Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes analysis revealed functional links among 15 significantly regulated phosphoproteins in chronic renal failure rats compared to sham group, and 23 altered phosphoproteins induced by high salt intake. The altered phosphorylation levels of two proteins involved in heart damage, lamin A and phospholamban were validated. Expression of the downstream genes of these two proteins, desmin and SERCA2a, were also analyzed.

  12. Fear extinction deficits following acute stress associate with increased spine density and dendritic retraction in basolateral amygdala neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroun, Mouna; Ioannides, Pericles J; Bergman, Krista L; Kavushansky, Alexandra; Holmes, Andrew; Wellman, Cara L

    2013-08-01

    Stress-sensitive psychopathologies such as post-traumatic stress disorder are characterized by deficits in fear extinction and dysfunction of corticolimbic circuits mediating extinction. Chronic stress facilitates fear conditioning, impairs extinction, and produces dendritic proliferation in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), a critical site of plasticity for extinction. Acute stress impairs extinction, alters plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex-to-BLA circuit, and causes dendritic retraction in the medial prefrontal cortex. Here, we examined extinction learning and basolateral amygdala pyramidal neuron morphology in adult male rats following a single elevated platform stress. Acute stress impaired extinction acquisition and memory, and produced dendritic retraction and increased mushroom spine density in basolateral amygdala neurons in the right hemisphere. Unexpectedly, irrespective of stress, rats that underwent fear and extinction testing showed basolateral amygdala dendritic retraction and altered spine density relative to non-conditioned rats, particularly in the left hemisphere. Thus, extinction deficits produced by acute stress are associated with increased spine density and dendritic retraction in basolateral amygdala pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, the finding that conditioning and extinction as such was sufficient to alter basolateral amygdala morphology and spine density illustrates the sensitivity of basolateral amygdala morphology to behavioral manipulation. These findings may have implications for elucidating the role of the amygdala in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Fear extinction deficits following acute stress associate with increased spine density and dendritic retraction in basolateral amygdala neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroun, Mouna; Ioannides, Pericles J.; Bergman, Krista L.; Kavushansky, Alexandra; Holmes, Andrew; Wellman, Cara L.

    2013-01-01

    Stress-sensitive psychopathologies such as post-traumatic stress disorder are characterized by deficits in fear extinction and dysfunction of corticolimbic circuits mediating extinction. Chronic stress facilitates fear conditioning, impairs extinction, and produces dendritic proliferation in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), a critical site of plasticity for extinction. Acute stress impairs extinction, alters plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex-to-BLA circuit, and causes dendritic retraction in the medial prefrontal cortex. Here, we examined extinction learning and basolateral amygdala pyramidal neuron morphology in adult male rats following a single elevated platform stress. Acute stress impaired extinction acquisition and memory, and produced dendritic retraction and increased mushroom spine density in basolateral amygdala neurons in the right hemisphere. Unexpectedly, irrespective of stress, rats that underwent fear and extinction testing showed basolateral amygdala dendritic retraction and altered spine density relative to non-conditioned rats, particularly in the left hemisphere. Thus, extinction deficits produced by acute stress are associated with increased spine density and dendritic retraction in basolateral amygdala pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, the finding that conditioning and extinction as such was sufficient to alter basolateral amygdala morphology and spine density illustrates the sensitivity of basolateral amygdala morphology to behavioral manipulation. These findings may have implications for elucidating the role of the amygdala in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. PMID:23714419

  14. Ameliorating activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract against lead induced renal toxicity in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Y Amarnath; Chalamaiah, M; Ramesh, B; Balaji, G; Indira, P

    2014-05-01

    Lead poisoning has been known to be associated with structural and functional abnormalities of multiple organ systems of human body. The aim of this investigation was to study the renal protective effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract in lead induced toxicity rats. In this study renal glutathione (GSH) level, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and catalase enzymes were measured in lead nitrate (300 mg/kg BW), and lead nitrate plus ginger extract (150 mg/kg BW) treated rat groups for 1 week and 3 weeks respectively. The glutathione level and GSH dependent antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase, and catalase significantly (P < 0.05) increased in ginger extract treated rat groups. In addition, histological studies showed lesser renal changes in lead plus ginger extract treated rat groups than that of lead alone treated rat groups. These results indicate that ginger extract alleviated lead toxic effects by enhancing the levels of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase and catalase.

  15. Does injection of metanephric mesenchymal cells improve renal function in rats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-qing Jiao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a massive global health-care problem. Cell therapy offers a potential treatment for CKD. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the administration of a population of stem cells could be used to treat adriamycin (ADR-induced glomerulopathy in rats, a form of CKD. We intravenously transplanted metanephric mesenchymal cells (MMCs into rats treated with ADR. We also induced MMC differentiation in vitro using a medium derived from serum and homogenates of ADR-induced glomerulopathy rats. We detected the induction of an early epithelial phenotype (cytokeratin-18 expression and a proximal tubule phenotype (vitamin D receptor expression in vitro, and MMC-derived epithelial cells corresponding to the proximal tubule and glomeruli in vivo. Transplantation of MMCs after induction of glomerulopathy significantly increased the creatinine clearance rate (Ccr, a marker for glomerular filtration rate, but had no significant effect on other parameters (24-hour urinary protein excretion, serum albumin, total cholesterol. In addition, there was no significant difference in blood urea nitrogen or serum creatinine levels in rats with and without ADR administration. Our results indicate that MMCs might survive, engraft and differentiate into renal epithelia in vivo when transplanted into ADR-treated rats. However, further studies are needed to determine whether MMC transplantation improves renal function and causes renal repair in this model.

  16. Protective effects of Rosmarinic acid against renal ischaemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozturk, H.; Ozturk, H.; Terzi, E.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the potential protective effects of Rosmarinic acid (RA) on rats exposed to ischaemia/reperfusion renal injury. Methods: The prospective study was conducted at Abant Izzet Baysal University, Turkey, and comprised 21 male Spraque Dawley rats weighing 250-270g each. They were divided into three equal groups. Unilaterally nephrectomised rats were subjected to 60 minutes of left renal ischaemia followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion. Group 1 had shamoperated animals; group 2 had ischaemia/reperfusion untreated animals; and group 3 had ischaemia/reperfusion animals treated with rosmarinic acid. Serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, tissue malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, and light microscopic findings were evaluated. SPSS 17 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Treatment of rats with rosmarinic acid produced a reduction in the serum levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen compared to the other groups. However, no statistically significant difference was found. The levels of malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase were decreased in the renal tissue of group 3, while glutathione peroxidose and superoxide dismutase levels remained unchanged. The injury score decreased in the treatment group rats compared to the untreated group. Rosmarinic acid significantly decreased focal glomerular necrosis, dilatation of Bowman's capsule, degeneration of tubular epithelium, necrosis in tubular epithelium, and tubular dilatation. Conclusions: Rosmarinic acid prevented ischaemia/reperfusion injury in the kidneys by decreasing oxidative stress. (author)

  17. Cordyceps sinensis attenuates renal fibrosis and suppresses BAG3 induction in obstructed rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feng; Li, Si; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Du, Zhen-Xian; Li, De-Tian; Wang, Hua-Qin; Liu, Bo; Miao, Jia-Ning; Bian, Xiao-Hui

    2015-01-01

    BAG3 regulates a number of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion and migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of BAG3 in renal tubular EMT and renal interstitial fibrosis remains elusive. This study aimed to examine the dynamic expression of BAG3 during renal fibrosis, and to investigate the efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) on renal fibrosis. A rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was established, and the expression of BAG3 and α-SMA, and the efficacy of C. sinensis on renal fibrosis induced by UUO were examined. The results showed that UUO led to collagen accumulation, which was significantly suppressed by C. sinensis. UUO increased the expression of BAG3 and α-SMA, a mesenchymal marker, while UUO induced BAG3 and α-SMA expression was significantly inhibited by C. sinensis. In addition, immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that BAG3 immunoreactivity was restricted to tubular epithelium. In conclusion, BAG3 is a potential target for the prevention and/or treatment of renal fibrosis, and C. Sinensis is a promising agent for renal fibrosis.

  18. Nonlinear analysis of renal autoregulation in rats using principal dynamic modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marmarelis, V Z; Chon, K H; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1999-01-01

    This article presents results of the use of a novel methodology employing principal dynamic modes (PDM) for modeling the nonlinear dynamics of renal autoregulation in rats. The analyzed experimental data are broadband (0-0.5 Hz) blood pressure-flow data generated by pseudorandom forcing and colle......This article presents results of the use of a novel methodology employing principal dynamic modes (PDM) for modeling the nonlinear dynamics of renal autoregulation in rats. The analyzed experimental data are broadband (0-0.5 Hz) blood pressure-flow data generated by pseudorandom forcing...... and collected in normotensive and hypertensive rats for two levels of pressure forcing (as measured by the standard deviation of the pressure fluctuation). The PDMs are computed from first-order and second-order kernel estimates obtained from the data via the Laguerre expansion technique. The results...

  19. Kefir administration reduced progression of renal injury in STZ-diabetic rats by lowering oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punaro, Giovana R; Maciel, Fabiane R; Rodrigues, Adelson M; Rogero, Marcelo M; Bogsan, Cristina S B; Oliveira, Marice N; Ihara, Silvia S M; Araujo, Sergio R R; Sanches, Talita R C; Andrade, Lucia C; Higa, Elisa M S

    2014-02-15

    This study aimed at assessing the effects of Kefir, a probiotic fermented milk, on oxidative stress in diabetic animals. The induction of diabetes was achieved in adult male Wistar rats using streptozotocin (STZ). The animals were distributed into four groups as follows: control (CTL); control Kefir (CTLK); diabetic (DM) and diabetic Kefir (DMK). Starting on the 5th day of diabetes, Kefir was administered by daily gavage at a dose of 1.8 mL/day for 8 weeks. Before and after Kefir treatment, the rats were placed in individual metabolic cages to obtain blood and urine samples to evaluate urea, creatinine, proteinuria, nitric oxide (NO), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and C-reactive protein (CRP). After sacrificing the animals, the renal cortex was removed for histology, oxidative stress and NOS evaluation. When compared to CTL rats, DM rats showed increased levels of glycemia, plasmatic urea, proteinuria, renal NO, superoxide anion, TBARS, and plasmatic CRP; also demonstrated a reduction in urinary urea, creatinine, and NO. However, DMK rats showed a significant improvement in most of these parameters. Despite the lack of differences observed in the expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) was significantly lower in the DMK group when compared to DM rats, as assessed by Western blot analysis. Moreover, the DMK group presented a significant reduction of glycogen accumulation within the renal tubules when compared to the DM group. These results indicate that Kefir treatment may contribute to better control of glycemia and oxidative stress, which is associated with the amelioration of renal function, suggesting its use as a non-pharmacological adjuvant to delay the progression of diabetic complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation on Renal Phenotype and Epigenotype in Early Weanling Intrauterine Growth Retarded Rats

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    Xiaori He

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The objective of this study was to examine the responses of p53 promoter methylation involved in kidney structure and function of early weaning intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR rats to dietary folic acid supplementation. Method: Sprague-Dawley rats were fed isocaloric diets containing either 21% protein diet (normal feed or 10% protein diet throughout pregnancy and normal feed during lactation. After weaning, Offspring were then fed onto normal feed and normal feed supplemented with 5 mg folic acid/kg feed for a month, this produced 4 dietary groups (maternal diet/ weanling diet: Con, Folic, IUGR and IUGR+Folic. Renal function, renal structure, p53 promoter methylation and protein expression of offspring rats were measured at postnatal 2 months and 3 months. Results: Glomerular volume, blood urea nitrogen, 24 hours urine protein were significantly elevated in IUGR rats compared with Con rats but were decreased by dietary folic acid supplementation. p53 protein expression in IUGR rats were significantly higher than that in Con rats, and p53 promoter methylation status in IUGR rats was reduced significantly compared with Con rats. However, the changes in p53 gene expression and DNA methylation status of IUGR rats were reversed by dietary folic acid supplementation. Conclusions: Our study showed for the first time that folic acid supplementation during early period of life could reverse the abnormality in renal p53 methylation status and protein expression, glomerular volume and renal function of IUGR rats offspring.

  1. Dynamics of renal blood flow autoregulation in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Wagner, A J; Marsh, D J

    1991-01-01

    Two separate components could be resolved in tests of the dynamic autoregulation of renal blood flow. The slow component corresponds to the frequency at which spontaneous proximal tubular pressure oscillations are found, and are most likely due to the operation of the TGF. The high frequency...

  2. Agmatine improves renal function in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kashef, Dalia H; El-Kenawi, Asmaa E; Abdel Rahim, Mona; Suddek, Ghada M; Salem, Hatem A

    2016-03-01

    The present study was designed to explore the possible protective effects of agmatine, a known nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. For this purpose, we quantitatively evaluated gentamicin-induced renal structural and functional alterations using histopathological and biochemical approaches. Furthermore, the effect of agmatine on gentamicin-induced hypersensitivity of urinary bladder rings to acetylcholine (ACh) was evaluated. Twenty-four male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, namely control, gentamicin (100 mg/kg, i.p.), and gentamicin plus agmatine (40 mg/kg, orally). At the end of the study, all rats were sacrificed and then blood and urine samples and kidneys were taken. Administration of agmatine significantly decreased kidney/body mass ratio, serum creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), renal malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), NO, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) while it significantly increased creatinine clearance and renal superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity when compared with the gentamicin-treated group. Additionally, agmatine ameliorated tissue morphology as evidenced by histological evaluation and reduced the responses of isolated bladder rings to ACh. Our study indicates that agmatine administration with gentamicin attenuates oxidative-stress associated renal injury by reducing oxygen free radicals and lipid peroxidation, restoring NO level and inhibiting inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α.

  3. Immunological tolerance induced by galectin-1 in rat allogeneic renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gaosi; Tu, Weiping; Xu, Chengyun

    2010-06-01

    The existed literatures indicated that galectin-1 has anti-inflammatory effects and plays a pivotal role in autoimmune diseases. Present study was to identify the roles of galectin-1 in acute animal renal allograft rejection. Rat acute rejection models were erected by allogeneic renal transplantation. Galectin-1 injection was performed in different concentrations in renal recipients post-transplantation. Recipient survivals, CD8+ T cell proliferation, production of IFN-gamma, levels of serum CD30, enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent spot assay (ELISPOT) and immunohistochemistry were observed or tested 7days after renal transplantation. Galectin-1 injection can prolong the recipient animal survival, reduce the serum levels of IFN-gamma, soluble CD30, percentage of CD8+ T cell subset, CD8+ T cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and IFN-gamma ELISPOT frequency for allograft recipients. The therapeutic effects of galectin-1 injection on recipient rats were dose-dependent. Galectin-1 plays an important role in CD8+ T cell-mediated renal rejection by inducing immunological tolerance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pharmacological investigations of Punica granatum in glycerol-induced acute renal failure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amrit Pal; Singh, Amteshwar Jaggi; Singh, Nirmal

    2011-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential and possible mechanism of hydroalcoholic extract of flowers of P. granatum in glycerol-induced acute renal failure (ARF) in rats. The rats were subjected to rhabdomyolytic ARF by single intramuscular injection of hypertonic glycerol (50% v/v; 8 ml/kg) and the animals were sacrificed after 24 hours of glycerol injection. The plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine clearance, and histopathological studies were performed to assess the degree of renal injury. Pretreatment with hydroalcoholic extract of flowers of P. granatum (125 and 250 mg/kg p.o. twice daily for 3 days) significantly attenuated hypertonic glycerol-induced renal dysfunction in a dose-dependent manner. BADGE (Bisphenol-A-diglycidyl ether) (30 mg/kg), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ antagonist, and N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg), nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, were employed to explore the mechanism of renoprotective effects of Punica granatum. Administration of BADGE (30 mg/kg) and L-NAME (40 mg/kg) abolished the beneficial effects of P. granatum in glycerol-induced renal dysfunction. Hydroalcoholic extract of flowers of P. granatum has ameliorative potential in attenuating myoglobinuric renal failure and its renoprotective effects involve activation of PPAR-γ and nitric oxide-dependent signaling pathway.

  5. Changes in renal uptake of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) in stone-forming rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAfee, J.G.; Thomas, F.D.; Roskopf, M.; Ritter, K.; Lyons, B.; Lilien, O.M.; Schoonmaker, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    A pyridoxine (vitamin B6)-deficient diet in rats was used as a model of early renal lithiasis to find out if stone-formers could be identified from control animals by differences in the biodistribution of Tc-99m MDP. The mean renal uptake of this agent at 3 hours was about 70% higher in test animals than in controls, but there was considerable overlap between the upper limits of the normal range and lower values in stone-formers. If these results were valid for humans, the metabolic abnormality in males with early stone-forming disease could not be identified with certainty by in vivo measurements of Tc-99m MDP renal uptake alone. However, the skeletal uptake of MDP in the stone-forming animals was depressed by 28 to 35%, compared with control rats. Consequently, the renal to skeletal MDP concentration ratio was invariably elevated in stone-formers beyond the 95 percentile normal range. Unexpectedly, 76% of the pyridoxine-deficient animals had a higher accumulation of MDP in the myocardium than the upper limit of the normal range. The pyridoxine-deficient diet induced no remarkable early changes in the biodistribution or renal clearance of I-131 Hippuran

  6. The protective effects of tadalafil on renal damage following ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Erol

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia-reperfusion injury can cause renal damage, and phosphodiesterase inhibitors are reported to regulate antioxidant activity. We investigated the prevention of renal damage using tadalafil after renal ischemia reperfusion (I/R injury in rats. A total of 21 adult male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three groups of seven, including Group 1-control, Group 2-I/R, and Group 3-tadalafil + I/R group (I/R-T group received tadalafil intraperitoneally at 30 minutes before ischemia. Inducible nitric oxide synthase, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, malondialdehyde, and total antioxidant capacity levels were evaluated, and histopathological changes and apoptosis in the groups were examined. Tadalafil decreased malondialdehyde levels in the I/R group and increased the total antioxidant capacity level. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings revealed that tadalafil decreased renal injury scores and the ratios of injured cells, as measured through apoptotic protease activating factor 1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase levels. We suggest that tadalafil has protective effects against I/R-related renal tissue injury.

  7. Perivascular radiofrequency renal denervation lowers blood pressure and ameliorates cardiorenal fibrosis in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Su, Linan; Zhang, Yunrong; Wang, Qiang; Yang, Dachun; Li, De; Yang, Yongjian; Ma, Shuangtao

    2017-01-01

    Background Catheter-based renal denervation (RDN) is a promising approach to treat hypertension, but innervation patterns limit the response to endovascular RDN and the post-procedural renal artery narrowing or stenosis questions the endovascular ablation strategy. This study was performed to investigate the anti-hypertensive and target organ protective effects of perivascular RDN in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods SHR and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were divided into sham group (n = 10), radiofrequency ablation group (n = 20) in which rats received bilateral perivascular ablation with radiofrequency energy (2 watts), and chemical (10% phenol in 95% ethanol) ablation group (n = 12). The tail-cuff blood pressure was measured before the ablation and on day 14 and day 28 after the procedure. The plasma levels of creatinine, urea nitrogen, and catecholamines, urinary excretion of electrolytes and protein, and myocardial and glomerular fibrosis were analyzed and compared among the groups on day 28 after the procedure. Results We identified that 2-watt is the optimal radiofrequency power for perivascular RDN in rats. Perivascular radiofrequency and chemical ablation achieved roughly comparable blood pressure reduction in SHR but not in WKY on day 14 and day 28 following the procedure. Radiofrequency-mediated ablation substantially destroyed the renal nerves surrounding the renal arteries of both SHR and WKY without damaging the renal arteries and diminished the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, the enzyme marker for postganglionic sympathetic nerves. Additionally, perivascular radiofrequency ablation also decreased the plasma catecholamines of SHR. Interestingly, both radiofrequency and chemical ablation decreased the myocardial and glomerular fibrosis of SHR, while neither increased the plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen nor affected the urinary excretion of electrolytes and protein when compared to sham group. Conclusions Radiofrequency

  8. Anti-inflammatory effects of royal jelly on ethylene glycol induced renal inflammation in rats

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    Zeyneb Aslan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: In this study, anti-inflammatory effects of Royal Jelly were investigated by inducing renal inflammation in rats with the use of ethylene glycol. For this purpose, the calcium oxalate urolithiasis model was obtained by feeding rats with ethylene glycol in drinking water. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided in five study groups. The 1st group was determined as the control group. The rats in the 2nd group received ethylene glycol (1% in drinking water. The rats in the 3rd group were daily fed with Royal Jelly by using oral gavage. The 4th group was determined as the preventive group and the rats were fed with ethylene glycol (1% in drinking water while receiving Royal Jelly via oral gavage. The 5th group was determined as the therapeutic group and received ethylene glycol in drinking water during the first 2 weeks of the study and Royal Jelly via oral gavage during the last 2 weeks of the study. Results: At the end of the study, proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-18 levels in blood and renal tissue samples from the rats used in the application were measured. Conclusion: The results have shown that ethylene glycol does induce inflammation and renal damage. This can cause the formation of reactive oxygen species. Royal Jelly is also considered to have anti-inflammatory effects due to its possible antiradical and antioxidative effects. It can have positive effects on both the prevention of urolithiasis and possible inflammation during the existing urolithiasis and support the medical treatment.

  9. Prevention of Renal Injury After Induction of Ozone Tolerance in Rats Submitted to Warm Ischaemia

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    E. Barber

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis that ozone (O3 can upregulate cellular antioxidant enzymes, a morphological, biochemical and functional renal study was performed in rats undergoing a prolonged treatment with O3 before renal ischaemia. Rats were divided into four groups: (1 control, a medial abdominal incision was performed to expose the kidneys; (2 ischaemia, in animals undergoing a bilateral renal ischaemia (30 min, with subsequent reperfusion (3 h; (3 O3 + ischaemia, as group 2, but with previous treatment with O3 (0.5 mg/kg per day given in 2.5 ml O2 via rectal administration for 15 treatments; (4 O2 + ischaemia, as group 3, but using oxygen (O2 alone. Biochemical parameters as fructosamine level, phospholipase A, and superoxide dismutases (SOD activities, as well as renal plasma flow (RPF and glomerular filtration rate (GFR, were measured by means of plasma clearance of p-amino-hippurate and inulin, respectively. In comparison with groups 1 and 3, the RPF and GFR were significantly decreased in groups 2 and 4. Interestingly, renal homogenates of the latter groups yielded significantly higher values of phospholipase A activity and fructosamine level in comparison with either the control (1 and the O3 (3 treated groups. Moreover renal SOD activity showed a significant increase in group 3 without significant differences among groups 1, 2 and 4. Morphological alterations of the kidney were present in 100%, 88% and 30% of the animals in groups 2, 4 and 3, respectively. It is proposed that the O3 protective effect can be ascribed to the substantial possibility of upregulating the antioxidant defence system capable of counteracting the damaging effect of ischaemia. These findings suggest that, whenever possible, ozone preconditioning may represent a prophylactic approach for minimizing renal damage before transplantation.

  10. Inbred Rats as a Model to Study Persistent Renal Leptospirosis and Associated Cellular Immune Responsiveness

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    Jarlath E. Nally

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic species of Leptospira cause leptospirosis, a bacterial zoonotic disease with a global distribution affecting over one million people annually. Rats are regarded as one of the most significant reservoir hosts of infection for human disease, and in the absence of clinical signs of infection, excrete large numbers of organisms in their urine. A unique biological equilibrium exists between pathogenic leptospires and reservoir hosts of infection, but surprisingly, little is known concerning the host's cellular immune response that facilitates persistent renal colonization. To address this deficiency, we established and applied an immunocompetent inbred rat model of persistent renal colonization; leptospires were detected in urine of experimentally infected rats by 3 weeks post-infection and remained positive until 8 weeks post-infection. However, there was little, if any, evidence of inflammation in colonized renal tubules. At 8 weeks post-infection, a robust antibody response was detected against lipopolysaccharide and protein outer membrane (OM components. Purified B and T cells derived from the spleen of infected and non-infected rats proliferated in response to stimulation with 0.5 μg of OM fractions of Leptospira, including CD4+ T cells, which comprised 40% of proliferating cells, compared to 25% in non-infected controls. However, analysis of gene expression did not determine which immunoregulatory pathways were activated. Lymphocytes purified from the lymph node draining the site of colonization, the renal lymph node, also showed an increase in percentage of proliferating B and T cells. However, in contrast to a phenotype of 40% CD4+ T cells in the spleen, the phenotype of proliferating T cells in the renal lymph node comprised 65% CD4+ T cells. These results confirm that the renal lymph node, the local lymphoid organ, is a dominant site containing Leptospira reactive CD4+ T cells and highlight the need to consider the local, vs

  11. [Renal excretion of total porphyrins and hippuric acid in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartzke, J; Burck, D

    1986-09-01

    The amounts of total porphyrins, hippuric acid and creatinine, excreted in urine by adult male Wistar rats, exhibited normal distributions for hippuric acid and creatinine, but a bimodal distribution for total porphyrins. This typical distribution of total porphyrins was still observed when creatinine was used as reference parameter. In biochemical and toxicological experiments in rats, the tested parameters should be therefore be investigated for homogeneity.

  12. TGF-beta1 immunohistochemistry and promoter methylation in chronic renal failure rats treated with Uremic Clearance Granules.

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    Cheng-Bin Chen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was the explain the mechanism related to therapeutic effects of Uremic Clearance Granules (Niaoduqing Keli in Chinese on adenine-induced Chronic Renal Failure in rats. Thirty 8-week-old male Wistar rats were selected and randomly divided in to 3 groups: Normal Control Group (NCGconsisted of 10 rats, Chronic Renal Failure Pathological Control Group (PCG 10 rats, and Uremic Clearance Granules Treatment Group (UCG 10 rats. Each rat in PCG and UCG was fed with adenine-enriched diets, containing 10 g adenine per kg food for 6 weeks. After fed with adenine, each rat in UCG was administered orally with 2 ml solution of Uremic Clearance Granules for 6 weeks. The concentration of Uremic Clearance Granules solution was 0.42 g/ml which was 10 times of human. On days 42 and 84, the serum levels of creatinine, Blood Urea Nitrogen and homocysteine were determined. The methylation of TGFbeta1 promoter was tested by methylation-specific PCR. TGF-beta1 mRNA and protein expression in rat renal cortex were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR and Immunohistochemistry. (1 Experimented on model of Chronic Renal Failure in rats, the preparation was proved to be able to reduce serum creatinine, Blood Urea Nitrogen, and homocysteine (p<0.05, improve renal function. (2 The expression of TGF-beta1 in mRNA and protein level were down-regulated. (3 TGF-beta1 promoter was demethylated at some loci in PCG, and was recovered in UCG. After treatment with Uremic Clearance Granules, the Chronic Renal Failure Wistar rat's kidney function was recovered. The recovery may be result of the remethylation of TGF-beta1 promoter and then lead to TGF-beta1 be transcripted and translated normally. The experimental study explain the molecular mechanism by which Uremic Clearance Granules treat Chronic Renal Failure.

  13. Protective effects of regular aerobic exercise on renal tissue injury following creatine monohydrate supplementation in rats

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    Davoud Rahimi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Creatine is one of the most common supplements for improvement of athletic performance which is used by athletes. The most important debate about creatine consumption is its adverse effect on kidneys due to increased protein load. This study was performed to evaluate the protective effects of aerobic exercise on renal tissue injury following consumption of creatine monohydrate in the rat. For this purpose, 30 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 animals each. Group 1, as control, received only standard food. Group 2 received 5 g/kg b.w. creatine monohydrate supplement daily for 8 weeks through gavage and group 3 received creatine monohydrate supplementation in the same manner30 minutes before aerobic exercise. Aerobic exercise was performed 5 times per week on treadmill at speed of 10-25m/min for 10-30 minutes with the slope of 5 degrees. At the end of 8 weeks, water intake and urinary excretion of rats were measured and blood samples were collected for measurement of serum renal function biomarkers including urea, uric acid and creatinine. Finally, the rats were euthanized for renal histopathology. In group 3, by doing regular aerobic exercise, water intake and urinary excretion rates were significantly (p

  14. Urinary excretion of furosemide in rats with HgCl sub 2 -induced acute renal damage

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    Fujimura, Akio; Sudoh, Toshiaki; Ohashi, Kyoichi; Ebihara, Akio (Jichi Medical School, Tochigi (Japan))

    1992-01-01

    To examine the influence of mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2})-induced acute renal damage on urinary excretion of furosemide, HgCl{sub 2} or its vehicle along was given intraperitoneally to Wistar rats. The following two experiments were done. Study 1: three percent body weight (b.w.) of 1% NaCl solution or furosemide in 3% b.w. of 1% NaCl solution was given orally before and after HgCl{sub 2} treatment, and an 8-hour urine was collected. Study 2: furosemide was given orally, and blood samples were obtained at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 hours after administration. Urinary excretion of N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase increased, and urine volume and urinary excretions of furosemide and sodium decreased in the HgCl{sub 2}-treated rats. There were significant correlations between the urinary furosemide and its diuretic effects. Regression lines after HgCl{sub 2} were significantly different from those before treatment. The values of absorption as well as elimination rate constant were smaller, while the time to maximum concentration and the elimination half-life were longer in the HgCl{sub 2}-treated rats compared to vehicle-treated animals. These results suggest that the urinary excretion of furosemide and the responsiveness of renal tubular cells to this agent are impaired in rats with HgCl{sub 2}-induced acute renal damage.

  15. Renal and Myocardial Histopathology and Morphometry in Rats with Adenine - Induced Chronic Renal Failure: Influence of Gum Acacia

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    Badreldin H. Ali

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with increased occurrence of cardiovascular system dysfunction. Previous studies have revealed a number of alterations in the kidneys and heart during CKD. However, unbiased quantitative studies on these structures in this disease have so far not been addressed. Materials and Methods: We induced CKD in rats by feeding adenine (0.75% w/w, four weeks and using unbiased stereological methods, investigated the effect of the ensuing CKD on the kidneys and left ventricular structure. Since gum acacia (GA has previously been shown to ameliorate the severity of CKD in humans and rodents, we investigated the effect of giving GA (15% w/v in the drinking water concomitantly with adenine on the kidneys and left ventricular structure using the above model. Results: The CKD was confirmed by standard biochemical indices in plasma and urine and by accumulation of the uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate. Additionally, it increased blood pressure. In rats with CKD absolute volume of left ventricle was significantly increased, and the volume density and absolute volume of myocardial capillaries were decreased, whilst the same parameters of myocardium and interstitial tissue were increased. Renal morphometry demonstrated significant increase in kidney volume and interstitial tissue in adenine- treated rats. Similarly, glomerular Bowman's capsule was significantly thickened. The myocardial and renal changes were significantly mitigated by GA treatment. Conclusions: These results add to our existing knowledge of the pathophysiology of adenine - CKD and provides plausible histopathological and morphometric evidence for the usefulness of GA in CKD.

  16. Cordyceps sinensis protects against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua-Pin; Liu, Ching-Wen; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Tsai, Jen-Wei; Sung, Ya-Zhu; Chang, Li-Ching

    2013-03-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (CS) is an entomogenous fungus used as a tonic food and Chinese medicine to replenish health. This study investigated the protective effects of CS in rats post-renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) sequence by analyzing the influence on stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α and chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) expressions and senescence during recovery. Chemokine SDF-1 [now called chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 12 (CXCL12)] and its receptor CXCR4 are crucial in kidney repair after ischemic acute renal failure. CS treatment significantly alleviated I/R-induced renal damage assessed by creatinine levels (p < 0.05) and abated renal tubular damages assessed by periodic acid-Schiff with diastase (PASD) staining. CS induced early SDF-1α expression and increased CXCR4 expression 1-6 h post-reperfusion. Histology studies have revealed that CS induced SDF-1α in squamous cells of Bowman's capsule, mesangial cells, distal convoluted tubules (DCT), and proximal convoluted tubules (PCT). CS also improved renal repair in I/R-induced injury by increasing Ki-67 staining. I/R induced renal senescence after 3 and 6 h of reperfusion. However, CS alleviated I/R-induced senescence at early stage (1 and 3 h). We conclude that CS protects against I/R injury via the SDF-1/CXCR4-signaling axis and alleviates senescence.

  17. Simultaneous characterization of metabolic, cardiac, vascular and renal phenotypes of lean and obese SHHF rats.

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    Youcef, Gina; Olivier, Arnaud; L'Huillier, Clément P J; Labat, Carlos; Fay, Renaud; Tabcheh, Lina; Toupance, Simon; Rodriguez-Guéant, Rosa-Maria; Bergerot, Damien; Jaisser, Frédéric; Lacolley, Patrick; Zannad, Faiez; Laurent Vallar; Pizard, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) are prone to develop heart failure (HF). However, the deleterious effects of MetS on the continuum of events leading to cardiac remodeling and subsequently to HF are not fully understood. This study characterized simultaneously MetS and cardiac, vascular and renal phenotypes in aging Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure lean (SHHF(+/?) regrouping (+/+) and (+/cp) rats) and obese (SHHF(cp/cp), "cp" defective mutant allele of the leptin receptor gene) rats. We aimed to refine the milestones and their onset during the progression from MetS to HF in this experimental model. We found that SHHF(cp/cp )but not SHHF(+/?) rats developed dyslipidemia, as early as 1.5 months of age. This early alteration in the lipidic profile was detectable concomitantly to impaired renal function (polyuria, proteinuria but no glycosuria) and reduced carotid distensibility as compared to SHHF(+/?) rats. By 3 months of age SHHFcp/cp animals developed severe obesity associated with dislipidemia and hypertension defining the onset of MetS. From 6 months of age, SHHF(+/?) rats developed concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) while SHHF(cp/cp) rats developed eccentric LVH apparent from progressive dilation of the LV dimensions. By 14 months of age only SHHF(cp/cp) rats showed significantly higher central systolic blood pressure and a reduced ejection fraction resulting in systolic dysfunction as compared to SHHF(+/?). In summary, the metabolic and hemodynamic mechanisms participating in the faster decline of cardiac functions in SHHF(cp/cp) rats are established long before their physiological consequences are detectable. Our results suggest that the molecular mechanisms triggered within the first three months after birth of SHHF(cp/cp) rats should be targeted preferentially by therapeutic interventions in order to mitigate the later HF development.

  18. Maternal separation diminishes α-adrenergic receptor density and function in renal vasculature from male Wistar-Kyoto rats.

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    Loria, Analia S; Osborn, Jeffrey L

    2017-07-01

    Adult rats exposed to maternal separation (MatSep) are normotensive but display lower glomerular filtration rate and increased renal neuroadrenergic drive. The aim of this study was to determine the renal α-adrenergic receptor density and the renal vascular responsiveness to adrenergic stimulation in male rats exposed to MatSep. In addition, baroreflex sensitivity was assessed to determine a component of neural control of the vasculature. Using tissue collected from 4-mo-old MatSep and control rats, α 1 -adrenergic receptors (α 1 -ARs) were measured in renal cortex and isolated renal vasculature using receptor binding assay, and the α-AR subtype gene expression was determined by RT-PCR. Renal cortical α 1 -AR density was similar between MatSep and control tissues (B max = 44 ± 1 vs. 42 ± 2 fmol/mg protein, respectively); however, MatSep reduced α 1 -AR density in renal vasculature (B max = 47 ± 4 vs. 62 ± 4 fmol/mg protein, P adrenergic receptor expression and function in the renal vasculature could develop secondary to MatSep-induced overactivation of the renal neuroadrenergic tone. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Histopathological study on the effects of turmeric (Curcuma longa linn. powdwer on renal ischemia-reperfusion injuryin rats

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    D Mohajeri

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury is a major cause of acute renal failure (ARF, which is faced in many clinical situations. This study was designed to investigate the effect of pre-treatment with turmeric (Curcuma longa linn powder on kidney histopathology and function markers in renal ischemia / reperfusion (IR induced injury in the rats. A total of 80 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: sham, IR model and two I/R+TREE (2%and4% - treated groups (n=20 per group. I/R groups’ kidneys were subjected to 60 min of global ischemia at 37oc followed by 30min of reperfusion. After 24h of reperfusion period, the rats were sacrificed. Kidney function tests and histopathological examination were also performed. Results were compared with a group of rats with sham operation. High serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and uric acid were observed in I/R rats compared to the sham rats. Pre-treatment of turmeric powder for 30 days prior to IR operation improved renal function reduced IR induced renal inflammatory and oxidative injury. The results of this study showed that turmeric powder significantly prevented renal I/R-induced functional and histological injuries.

  20. Chronic administration of sildenafil improves erectile function in a rat model of chronic renal failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuz, Nilgun; Kol, Arif; Ipekci, Tumay; Ates, Erhan; Baykal, Asli; Usta, Mustafa F

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between erectile dysfunction (ED) and chronic renal failure (CRF) has been reported in several studies. This study aimed to investigate whether the chronic use of sildenafil could enhance the erectile capacity in CRF-induced rats. In addition, we assessed the effect of that treatment on certain molecules, which have been suggested to play crucial roles in erectile physiology and CRF-related ED as well. Three groups of animals were utilized: (1) age-matched control rats, (2) CRF-induced rats, (3) CRF-induced rats treated with chronic administration of sildenafil (5 mg kg−1 p.o. for 6 weeks [treatment started after 6 weeks of CRF induction]). At 3 months, all animals underwent cavernosal nerve stimulation (CNS) to assess erectile function. Penile tissue advanced glycation end products (AGE's)/5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, malondialdehyde (MDA), cGMP (ELISA), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and neuronal NOS (nNOS) (Western blot) analyses were performed in all rat groups. CRF-induced rats had a significant decrease in erectile function when compared to control rats (P chronic sildenafil administration on erectile function in CRF-induced rats. PMID:25652632

  1. Influence of specific and non-specific endothelin receptor antagonists on renal morphology in rats with surgical renal ablation.

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    Nabokov, A; Amann, K; Wagner, J; Gehlen, F; Münter, K; Ritz, E

    1996-03-01

    Studies in experimental models of chronic renal failure suggest an important role for the endothelin system in the development of renal scarring. Endothelin receptor (ETR) anatagonists interfere with progression, but it has not been resolved (i) whether this is true for all models of renal damage, (ii) to what extent the effect is modulated by systemic blood pressure and (iii) whether the effect is similar for ETAR and ETA/ETBR antagonists. 5/6 subtotal nephrectomy (SNX) by surgical ablation in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Comparison of ACE inhibitor Trandolapril (0.1 mg/kg/day), ETAR antagonist BMS 182874 (30 mg/kg/day) and ETAR/ETBR antagonist Ro 46-2005 (30 mg/kg/day) by gavage. Duration of the experiment eight weeks. Systolic blood pressure by tail plethysmography. Perfusion fixation of kidneys and morphometric analysis ET-1 and ETA/ETBR by quantitative PCR. SNX caused a significant (P < 0.01) increase of systolic blood pressure (170 +/- 8.6 mmHg) compared to sham operated controls (131 +/- 5.3 mmHg). Blood pressure was significantly (P < 0.001) lower with Trandolapril (128 +/- 5.3 mmHg), but not with BMS 182874 (153 +/- 5.9 mmHg) or Ro 46-2005 (167 +/- 7.6 mmHg). Compared to sham operated rats (0.03 +/- 0.01) glomerulosclerosis index (GSI) was significantly (P < 0.01) higher in the untreated SNX group (0.9 +/- 0.15). Significantly lower GSI was found in Trandolapril treated (0.29 +/- 0.04), BMS 182874 treated (0.36 +/- 0.05), and Ro 46-2005 treated animals (0.45 +/- 0.11). The effect of BMS 182874 was accompanied by lower tubulointerstitial damage index. Mean glomerular volume was dramatically increased (P < 0.001) in SNX rats as compared to sham operated animals. This glomerular enlargement was partially prevented by Trandolapril (P < 0.05), but not by either ETR antagonist. ET-1 mRNA tended to be higher in SNX irrespective of treatment, while ETAR and ETBR mRNA were significantly lower. Both specific (ETAR) and non-specific (ETA/ETBR) endothelin antagonists

  2. Acute Urinary Bladder Distension Triggers ICAM-1-mediated Renal Oxidative Injury via the Norepinephrine–renin–angiotensin II System in Rats

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    Show-Shing Chen

    2009-08-01

    Conclusion: Acute urinary retention enhances renal sympathetic activity, which causes renal vasoconstriction and increases oxidative stress, adhesion-molecule expression and leukocyte infiltration in the rat kidney via the angiotensin II type 1 receptor pathway.

  3. Differential regulation of renal Klotho and FGFR1 in normal and uremic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Castañeda, Juan R; Herencia, Carmen; Pendón-Ruiz de Mier, Maria Victoria; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Maria Encarnación; Diaz-Tocados, Juan M; Vergara, Noemi; Martínez-Moreno, Julio M; Salmerón, Maria Dolores; Richards, William G; Felsenfeld, Arnold; Kuro-O, Makoto; Almadén, Yolanda; Rodríguez, Mariano

    2017-09-01

    In renal failure, hyperphosphatemia occurs despite a marked elevation in serum fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23. Abnormal regulation of the FGFR1-Klotho receptor complex may cause a resistance to the phosphaturic action of FGF23. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the regulation of renal Klotho and FGF receptor (FEFR)-1 in healthy and uremic rats induced by 5/6 nephrectomy. In normal rats, the infusion of rat recombinant FGF23 enhanced phosphaturia and increased renal FGFR1 expression; however, Klotho expression was reduced. Uremic rats on a high-phosphate (HP) diet presented hyperphosphatemia with marked elevation of FGF23 and an increased fractional excretion of phosphate (P) that was associated with a marked reduction of Klotho expression and an increase in FGFR1. After neutralization of FGF23 by anti-FGF23 administration, phosphaturia was still abundant, Klotho expression remained low, and the FGFR1 level was reduced. These results suggest that the expression of renal Klotho is modulated by phosphaturia, whereas the FGFR1 expression is regulated by FGF23. Calcitriol (CTR) administration prevented a decrease in renal Klotho expression. In HEK293 cells HP produced nuclear translocation of β-catenin, together with a reduction in Klotho. Wnt/β-catenin inhibition with Dkk-1 prevented the P-induced down-regulation of Klotho. The addition of CTR to HP medium was able to recover Klotho expression. In summary, high FGF23 levels increase FGFR1, whereas phosphaturia decreases Klotho expression through the activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway.-Muñoz-Castañeda, J. R., Herencia, C., Pendón-Ruiz de Mier, M. V., Rodriguez-Ortiz, M. E., Diaz-Tocados, J. M., Vergara, N., Martínez-Moreno, J. M., Salmerón, M. D., Richards, W. G., Felsenfeld, A., Kuro-O, M., Almadén, Y., Rodríguez, M. Differential regulation of renal Klotho and FGFR1 in normal and uremic rats. © FASEB.

  4. Urinary aminopeptidase activities as early and predictive biomarkers of renal dysfunction in cisplatin-treated rats.

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    Andrés Quesada

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the fluorimetric determination of alanyl- (Ala, glutamyl- (Glu, leucyl-cystinyl- (Cys and aspartyl-aminopeptidase (AspAp urinary enzymatic activities as early and predictive biomarkers of renal dysfunction in cisplatin-treated rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 8 each group received a single subcutaneous injection of either saline or cisplatin 3.5 or 7 mg/kg, and urine samples were taken at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 14 days after treatment. In urine samples we determined Ala, Glu, Cys and AspAp activities, proteinuria, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG, albumin, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL. Plasma creatinine, creatinine clearance and renal morphological variables were measured at the end of the experiment. CysAp, NAG and albumin were increased 48 hours after treatment in the cisplatin 3.5 mg/kg treated group. At 24 hours, all urinary aminopeptidase activities and albuminuria were significantly increased in the cisplatin 7 mg/kg treated group. Aminopeptidase urinary activities correlated (p0.259 with plasma creatinine, creatinine clearance and/or kidney weight/body weight ratio at the end of the experiment and they could be considered as predictive biomarkers of renal injury severity. ROC-AUC analysis was made to study their sensitivity and specificity to distinguish between treated and untreated rats at day 1. All aminopeptidase activities showed an AUC>0.633. We conclude that Ala, Cys, Glu and AspAp enzymatic activities are early and predictive urinary biomarkers of the renal dysfunction induced by cisplatin. These determinations can be very useful in the prognostic and diagnostic of renal dysfunction in preclinical research and clinical practice.

  5. Biodegradable Magnesium (Mg) Implantation Does Not Impose Related Metabolic Disorders in Rats with Chronic Renal Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiali; Xu, Jiankun; Liu, Waiching; Li, Yangde; Qin, Ling

    2016-05-01

    Mg and its alloys have been considered as one of the most promising biodegradable medical devices, but it was still unclear whether hypermagnesemia involved health risks would occur in persons with kidney disease due to their deteriorated kidney function for Mg ions excretion from their body. In this study, we established a chronic renal failure (CRF) model in rats induced by adenine administration prior to Mg implantation, aiming to predict if CRF patients are suitable for the use of Mg implants. The results showed that Mg levels in serum, urine, feces and internal organs had no significant changes after Mg implantation for both normal and CRF rats. Biochemical indices detection and histopathological analysis in kidney, liver and heart tissue confirmed that Mg implants did not induce any extra damage in animals even with renal failure. Our study indicates that Mg based orthopaedic medical device may be considered for use in CRF patients without biosafety concerns.

  6. Pathological research on acute hepatic and renal tissue damage in Wistar rats induced by cocoa

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    Chiedozie Onyejiaka Ibegbulem

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The pattern of alanine aminotransferase activity being more active than aspartate aminotransferase one in serum appeared to correlate with the extent of disarrangement of hepatic tissue architecture. The experimental rat groups exhibited no hyperbilirubinemia. Also, diets containing processed cocoa bean and raw cocoa bean products did not substantially interfere with the capacity of the hepatocytes to biosynthesize plasma proteins and the functionality of renal tissues.

  7. Spontaneous Renal Tumors Suspected of Being Familial in Sprague-Dawley Rats

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    Kudo, Kayoko; Hoshiya, Toru; Nakazawa, Tomomi; Saito, Tsubasa; Shimoyama, Natsumi; Suzuki, Isamu; Tamura, Kazutoshi; Seely, John Curtis

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous renal tubule tumors (RTTs), with a distinctive morphological phenotype, were present in three Sprague-Dawley rats, 1 male and 2 females, out a total of 120 animals of each sex from untreated and placebo control groups in a 2-year carcinogenicity study. One female had one carcinoma, adenoma and hyperplasia, and the other female had five adenomas and many hyperplastic lesions; the male case had one carcinoma. From these cases, a biological continuum of hyperplasia, adenoma and carci...

  8. The effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide on gastric emptying in rats suffering from moderate renal insufficiency

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    Rigatto S.Z.P.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the response of rats suffering from moderate renal insufficiency to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, or endotoxin. The study involved 48 eight-week-old male SPF Wistar rats (175-220 g divided into two groups of 24 animals each. One group underwent 5/6 nephrectomy while the other was sham-operated. Two weeks after surgery, the animals were further divided into two subgroups of 12 animals each and were fasted for 20 h but with access to water ad libitum. One nephrectomized and one sham-treated subgroup received E. coli LPS (25 µg/kg, iv while the other received a sterile, pyrogen-free saline solution. Gastric retention (GR was determined 10 min after the orogastric infusion of a standard saline test meal labeled with phenol red (6 mg/dl. The gastric emptying of the saline test meal was studied after 2 h. Renal function was evaluated by measuring the plasma levels of urea and creatinine. The levels of urea and creatinine in 5/6 nephrectomized animals were two-fold higher than those observed in the sham-operated rats. Although renal insufficiency did not change gastric emptying (median %GR = 26.6 for the nephrectomized subgroup and 29.3 for the sham subgroup, LPS significantly retarded the gastric emptying of the sham and nephretomized groups (median %GR = 42.0 and 61.0, respectively, and was significantly greater (P<0.01 in the nephrectomized rats. We conclude that gastric emptying in animals suffering from moderate renal insufficiency is more sensitive to the action of LPS than in sham animals

  9. Fetal development and renal function in adult rats prenatally subjected to sodium overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Henriqueta D; Cabral, Edjair V; Vieira-Filho, Leucio D; Vieyra, Adalberto; Paixão, Ana D O

    2009-10-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate two factors that affect fetal development--placental oxidative stress (Ox) and plasma volume (PV)--in dams with sodium overload and (2) to correlate possible alterations in these factors with subsequent modifications in the renal function of adult offspring. Wistar dams were maintained on 0.17 M NaCl instead of water from 20 days before mating until either the twentieth pregnancy day/parturition or weaning. Colorimetric methods were used to measure Ox in maternal and offspring tissues, PV, 24-h urinary protein (U(Prot24 h)) and serum triacylglycerols (TG) and cholesterol (Chol). Renal hemodynamics was evaluated in the offspring at 90 days of age using a blood pressure transducer, a flow probe and inulin clearance to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), respectively. The number of nephrons (NN) was counted in kidney suspensions. Dams showed unchanged PV, placental Ox and fetal weight but increased U(Prot24 h) (150%, P sodium-overloaded pups showed increased U(Prot24 h) (45%, P sodium-overloaded rats showed increased U(Prot24 h) (27%, P sodium-overloaded group. We conclude that salt overload from the prenatal stage until weaning leads to alterations in lipid metabolism and in the renal function of the pups, which are additional to those alterations seen in rats only overloaded prenatally.

  10. Basolateral BMP signaling in polarized epithelial cells.

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    Masao Saitoh

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs regulate various biological processes, mostly mediated by cells of mesenchymal origin. However, the roles of BMPs in epithelial cells are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that, in polarized epithelial cells, BMP signals are transmitted from BMP receptor complexes exclusively localized at the basolateral surface of the cell membrane. In addition, basolateral stimulation with BMP increased expression of components of tight junctions and enhanced the transepithelial resistance (TER, counteracting reduction of TER by treatment with TGF-β or an anti-tumor drug. We conclude that BMPs maintain epithelial polarity via intracellular signaling from basolaterally localized BMP receptors.

  11. Renal effects of in utero exposure to mercuric chloride in rats

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    Bernard, A.M.; Collette, C.; Lauwerys, R. (Catholic Univ. of Louvain, Industrial Toxicology and Occupational Medicine Unit, Brussels (Belgium))

    1992-08-01

    The transplacental nephrotoxicity of mercuric chloride has been studied in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Mercuric chloride was injected s.c. to rats at the dose of 1 mg/kg during the last 8 gestational days or the whole pregnancy. Both mothers and newborns developed a transient renal dysfunction resulting in an increased urinary excretion of beta[sub 2]-microglobulin and albumin. In mothers and their female offspring, these effects were completely reversible and did not influence the subsequent evolution of the renal function. In the male offspring, however, transitory changes in protein excretion were again observed a few months later, concomitantly with an enhanced accumulation of alpha[sub 2u]-globulin in the kidney. The transfer of mercury from maternal to fetal tissues was very small. The kidney concentrations of mercury in newborns were more than 300 times lower than in mothers. The barrier role of the placenta is not sufficient to prevent the occurrence of renal effects in the offspring of rats treated with inorganic mercury during pregnancy. (orig.).

  12. Renal hypertension prevents run training modification of cardiomyocyte diastolic Ca2+ regulation in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, B M; Lynch, J M; Snyder, S M; Moore, R L

    2001-06-01

    The combined effects of endurance run training and renal hypertension on cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) dynamics and Na+-dependent Ca2+ regulation in rat left ventricular cardiomyocytes were examined. Male Fischer 344 rats underwent stenosis of the left renal artery [hypertensive (Ht), n = 18] or a sham operation [normotensive (Nt), n = 20]. One-half of the rats from each group were treadmill trained for >16 wk. Cardiomyocyte fura 2 fluorescence ratio transients were recorded for 7 min during electrical pacing at 0.5 Hz, 2 mM extracellular Ca2+ concentration, and 29 degrees C. The rate of [Ca2+]c decline was not changed by run training in the Nt group but was reduced in the Ht group. At 7 min, cardiomyocytes were exposed to 10 mM caffeine in the absence of Na+ and Ca2+, which triggered sarcoplasmic reticular Ca2+ release and suppressed Ca2+ efflux via Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. External Na+ was then added, and Na+-dependent Ca2+ efflux rate was recorded. Treadmill training significantly enhanced Na+-dependent Ca2+ efflux rate under these conditions in the Nt group but not in the Ht group. These data provide evidence that renal hypertension prevents the normal run training-induced modifications in diastolic [Ca2+]c regulation mechanisms, including Na+/Ca2+ exchanger.

  13. Dynamic renal scintigraphic estimation of deceased donor kidneys in a rat model

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    Huseyin Aydin Mitil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present a large number of the renal transplantations are being performed from the deceased donors. The success of these transplantations depends on the viability of the deceased donor kidneys. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of scintigraphic estimation of function of deceased donor kidneys by comparing the histopathologic and scintigraphic findings. Ten rats were included in the study (2–3 months old, 250–300 g, all male. Control scintigraphy was performed to all the rats by injection of 37 MBq Tc-99m DTPA from the tail vein in a dynamic manner. Brain death of the rats was achieved by inflation of a Fogartys catheter in the cranial cavity. Immediately, after brain death confirmation, dynamic renal scintigraphy was performed with the same parameters of control scintigraphy. In the comparison of scintigraphies obtained in the before and just after brain death period, there was impairment of tubular functions, concentration and excretion functions in the postbrain death period. In the immediate postbrain death period, there was a significant elevation in the glomerular filtration rate and time to maximum concentration values. In the histopathological evaluation of the kidney samples in the postbrain death period, there were definitive findings of tubular impairment. Dynamic renal scintigraphy also demonstrated definite impairment of tubular system and tubular functions in the deceased donor kidneys. This could explain the reason of the increased frequency of acute tubular necrosis seen among deceased donor kidneys.

  14. Glucagon-like peptide-1 acutely affects renal blood flow and urinary flow rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats despite significantly reduced renal expression of GLP-1 receptors.

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    Ronn, Jonas; Jensen, Elisa P; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Holst, Jens Juul; Sorensen, Charlotte M

    2017-12-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone increasing postprandial insulin release. GLP-1 also induces diuresis and natriuresis in humans and rodents. The GLP-1 receptor is extensively expressed in the renal vascular tree in normotensive rats where acute GLP-1 treatment leads to increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and increased renal blood flow (RBF). In hypertensive animal models, GLP-1 has been reported both to increase and decrease MAP. The aim of this study was to examine expression of renal GLP-1 receptors in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and to assess the effect of acute intrarenal infusion of GLP-1. We hypothesized that GLP-1 would increase diuresis and natriuresis and reduce MAP in SHR. Immunohistochemical staining and in situ hybridization for the GLP-1 receptor were used to localize GLP-1 receptors in the kidney. Sevoflurane-anesthetized normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats and SHR received a 20 min intrarenal infusion of GLP-1 and changes in MAP, RBF, heart rate, dieresis, and natriuresis were measured. The vasodilatory effect of GLP-1 was assessed in isolated interlobar arteries from normo- and hypertensive rats. We found no expression of GLP-1 receptors in the kidney from SHR. However, acute intrarenal infusion of GLP-1 increased MAP, RBF, dieresis, and natriuresis without affecting heart rate in both rat strains. These results suggest that the acute renal effects of GLP-1 in SHR are caused either by extrarenal GLP-1 receptors activating other mechanisms (e.g., insulin) to induce the renal changes observed or possibly by an alternative renal GLP-1 receptor. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  15. Amelioration of renal lesions associated with diabetes by dietary curcumin in streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Babu, P; Srinivasan, K

    1998-04-01

    Curcumin, the coloring principle of the commonly used spice turmeric (Curcuma longa) was fed at 0.5% in the diet to streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats for 8 weeks. Renal damage was assessed by the amount of proteins excreted in the urine and the extent of leaching of renal tubular enzymes: NAG, LDH, AsAT, AlAT, alkaline and acid phosphatases. The integrity of kidney was assessed by measuring the activities of several key enzymes of the renal tissue: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and LDH (Carbohydrate metabolism), aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase (polyol pathway), transaminases, ATPases and membrane PUFA/SFA ratio (membrane integrity). Data on enzymuria, albuminuria, activity of kidney ATPases and fatty acid composition of renal membranes in diabetic condition suggested that dietary curcumin brought about significant beneficial modulation of the progression of renal lesions in diabetes. These findings were also corroborated by histological examination of kidney sections. It is inferred that this beneficial ameliorating influence of dietary curcumin on diabetic nephropathy is possibly mediated through its ability to lower blood cholesterol levels.

  16. Inhibition of renal Na+/H+ exchange in cadmium-intoxicated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Do Whan; Chung, Jin Mo; Kim, Jee Yeun; Kim, Kyoung Ryong; Park, Yang Saeng

    2005-01-01

    Chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd) results in bicarbonaturia, leading to metabolic acidosis. To elucidate the mechanism(s) by which renal bicarbonate reabsorption is inhibited, we investigated changes in renal transporters and enzymes associated with bicarbonate reabsorption in Cd-intoxicated rats. Cd intoxication was induced by subcutaneous injections of CdCl 2 (2 mg Cd/kg per day) for 3 weeks. Cd intoxication resulted in a significant reduction in V max of Na + /H + antiport with no changes in K Na in the renal cortical brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Western blotting of BBM proteins and indirect immunohistochemistry in renal tissue sections, using an antibody against Na + /H + exchange-3 (NHE3), showed a diminished expression of NHE3 protein in the BBM. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that NHE3 mRNA expression was reduced in the renal cortex. The activity of carbonic anhydrase IV (CA IV) in BBM was not changed. The protein abundance of Na + -HCO 3 - cotransporter-1 (NBC1) in whole kidney membrane fractions was slightly attenuated, whereas that of the Na + -K + -ATPase α-subunit was markedly elevated in Cd-intoxicated animals. These results indicate that Cd intoxication impairs NHE3 expression in the proximal tubule, thereby reducing the capacity for bicarbonate reabsorption, leading to bicarbonaturia in an intact animal

  17. Follistatin, an Activin Antagonist, Ameliorates Renal Interstitial Fibrosis in a Rat Model of Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akito Maeshima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Activin, a member of the TGF-β superfamily, regulates cell growth and differentiation in various cell types. Activin A acts as a negative regulator of renal development as well as tubular regeneration after renal injury. However, it remains unknown whether activin A is involved in renal fibrosis. To clarify this issue, we utilized a rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO. The expression of activin A was significantly increased in the UUO kidneys compared to that in contralateral kidneys. Activin A was detected in glomerular mesangial cells and interstitial fibroblasts in normal kidneys. In UUO kidneys, activin A was abundantly expressed by interstitial α-SMA-positive myofibroblasts. Administration of recombinant follistatin, an activin antagonist, reduced the fibrotic area in the UUO kidneys. The number of proliferating cells in the interstitium, but not in the tubules, was significantly lower in the follistatin-treated kidneys. Expression of α-SMA, deposition of type I collagen and fibronectin, and CD68-positive macrophage infiltration were significantly suppressed in the follistatin-treated kidneys. These data suggest that activin A produced by interstitial fibroblasts acts as a potent profibrotic factor during renal fibrosis. Blockade of activin A action may be a novel approach for the prevention of renal fibrosis progression.

  18. Cardiovascular-renal and metabolic characterization of a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanes, Licy L; Romero, Damian G; Moulana, Mohaddetheh; Lima, Roberta; Davis, Deborah D; Zhang, Huimin; Lockhart, Rachel; Racusen, Lorraine C; Reckelhoff, Jane F

    2011-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common reproductive dysfunction in premenopausal women. PCOS is also associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease when PCOS first occurs and later in life. Hypertension, a common finding in women with PCOS, is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms responsible for hypertension in women with PCOS have not been elucidated. This study characterized the cardiovascular-renal consequences of hyperandrogenemia in a female rat model. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 4-6 weeks) were implanted with dihydrotestosterone or placebo pellets lasting 90 days. After 10 to 12 weeks, blood pressure (by radiotelemetry), renal function (glomerular filtration rate, morphology, protein, and albumin excretion), metabolic parameters (plasma insulin, glucose, leptin, cholesterol, and oral glucose tolerance test), inflammation (plasma tumor necrosis factor-α), oxidative stress (mRNA expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunits, p22(phox), p47(phox), gp91(phox), and NOX4), nitrate/nitrite excretion and mRNA expression of components of the renin-angiotensin system (angiotensinogen, angiotensin-I-converting enzyme [ACE], and AT1 receptor) were determined. Plasma dihydrotestosterone increased 3-fold in hyperandrogenemic female (HAF) rats, whereas plasma estradiol levels did not differ compared with control females. HAF rats exhibited estrus cycle dysfunction. They also had increased food intake and body weight, increased visceral fat, glomerular filtration rate, renal injury, insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction, oxidative stress, and increased expression of angiotensinogen and ACE and reduced AT1 receptor expression. The HAF rat is a unique model that exhibits many of the characteristics of PCOS in women and is a useful model to study the mechanisms responsible for PCOS-mediated hypertension. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Altered regulation of renal sodium transporters in salt-sensitive hypertensive rats induced by uninephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji Yong; Lee, Jay Wook; Kim, Sejoong; Jung, Eun Sook; Jang, Hye Ryoun; Han, Jin Suk; Joo, Kwon Wook

    2009-12-01

    Uninephrectomy (uNx) in young rats causes salt-sensitive hypertension (SSH). Alterations of sodium handling in residual nephrons may play a role in the pathogenesis. Therefore, we evaluated the adaptive alterations of renal sodium transporters according to salt intake in uNx-SSH rats. uNx or sham operations were performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats, and normal-salt diet was fed for 4 weeks. Four experimental groups were used: sham-operated rats raised on a high-salt diet for 2 weeks (CHH) or on a low-salt diet for 1 week after 1 week's high-salt diet (CHL) and uNx rats fed on the same diet (NHH, NHL) as the sham-operated rats were fed. Expression of major renal sodium transporters were determined by semiquantitative immunoblotting. Systolic blood pressure was increased in NHH and NHL groups, compared with CHH and CHL, respectively. Protein abundances of Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC2) and Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) in the CHH group were lower than the CHL group. Expression of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)-γ increased in the CHH group. In contrast, expressions of NKCC2 and NCC in the NHH group didn't show any significant alterations, compared to the NHL group. Expressions of ENaC-α and ENaC-β in the NHH group were higher than the CHH group. Adaptive alterations of NKCC2 and NCC to changes of salt intake were different in the uNx group, and changes in ENaC-α and ENaC-β were also different. These altered regulations of sodium transporters may be involved in the pathogenesis of SSH in the uNx rat model.

  20. Renal handling of drugs in renal failure. I: Differential effects of uranyl nitrate- and glycerol-induced acute renal failure on renal excretion of TEAB and PAH in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.H.; Lin, T.H.

    1988-01-01

    Two etiologically different models of experimental acute renal failure were induced in rats by administration of either glycerol or uranyl nitrate. Both compounds caused a substantial decrease in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the net tubular secretion of tetraethylammonium bromide (TEAB) and para-aminohippuric acid (PAH). The degree of renal impairment induced by uranyl nitrate and glycerol appeared to be dose related. Deprivation of drinking water 24 hr before the administration of glycerol potentiated the renal damage. In uranyl nitrate-induced renal failure, the decline of the net tubular secretion for TEAB and PAH was not proportional to the decrease in GFR; the secretion process deteriorated faster than the GFR. For example, when 0.5 mg/kg uranyl nitrate was administered, GFR fell to approximately 65% of normal, whereas the net tubular secretion was decreased to 30% of normal. These results suggest that the tubular transport was preferentially affected by uranyl nitrate. In contrast, in glycerol-induced renal failure, the decline of TEAB secretion fell in a parallel fashion with the GFR, suggesting that the glomeruli and the proximal tubules were equally damaged by glycerol. However, in this latter model, the decline of PAH secretion did not parallel the decrease in GFR, contradicting the proposal that glycerol affects equally the glomeruli and the proximal tubules. This discrepancy may be due to the selective competitive inhibition of PAH secretion by the accumulation of naturally occurring organic acids

  1. Renal accumulation of [{sup 111}In]DOTATOC in rats: influence of inhibitors of the organic ion transport and diuretics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, A.R. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Department of Radiology, Essen (Germany); Wagner, B.; Heemann, U.; Lutz, J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Nephrology, Munich (Germany); Poethko, T.; Perutka, M.; Wester, H.J.; Essler, M.; Schwaiger, M. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    Radiation exposure to the kidney limits therapy with radiometal labelled DOTATOC. This study evaluates the organic anion and cation transport (inhibitors: probenecid and cimetidine/dexamethason) as well as diuresis (furosemide and mannitol) regarding renal uptake of [{sup 111}In]DOTATOC. One hundred eight male Fisher rats were injected with [{sup 111}In]DOTATOC via the tail vein. Prior to activity injection a total of 84 rats underwent injection with probenecid vs. sodium chloride 0.9% (48 rats), cimetidine vs. dexamethasone vs. sodium chloride 0.9% (18 rats), and furosemide vs. mannitol vs. sodium chloride 0.9% (18 rats). Rats were sacrificed at predetermined time points up to 48 h after activity injection. Kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, spleen, blood, liver, and muscle were harvested and injected activity per gram tissue was determined. Autoradiographic images of the kidneys were acquired in a total of 24 rats. Probenecid led to a reduction in renal uptake by up to 30% while not significantly changing the activity accumulation in the other organs investigated. This reduction was attributable to the renal cortex (ratio cortex/medulla 1.72 vs. 1.99; p = 0.006). Cimetidine and dexamethasone had no effect in any of the organs. Furosemide led to a 44% increase in renal activity accumulation attributable to enhanced renal medullary uptake (ratio cortex/medulla 1.44 versus 1.69; p = 0.006). Mannitol had no effect on renal activity uptake. Inhibition of the organic anion transport by probenecid may help reduce renal uptake regarding therapy with radiometal labelled DOTATOC. The enhancing effect of furosemide may be unfavourable for therapy. The results must be confirmed by human studies. (orig.)

  2. Amelioration of Gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (Lindane induced renal toxicity by Camellia sinensis in Wistar rats

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    W. L. N. V. Vara Prasad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A study to assess the toxic effects of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH (lindane and ameliorative effects of Camellia sinensis on renal system has been carried out in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats with 18 each were maintained under standard laboratory hygienic conditions and provided feed and water ad libitum. γ-HCH was gavaged at 20 mg/kg b.wt. using olive oil as vehicle to Groups II. C. sinensis at 100 mg/kg b.wt. was administered orally in distilled water to Group IV in addition to γ-HCH 20 mg/kg b.wt. up to 45 days to study ameliorative effects. Groups I and III were treated with distilled water and C. sinensis (100 mg/kg b.wt., respectively. Six rats from each group were sacrificed at fortnight intervals. Serum was collected for creatinine estimation. The kidney tissues were collected in chilled phosphate buffer saline for antioxidant profile and in also 10% buffered formalin for histopathological studies. Results: γ-HCH treatment significantly increased serum creatinine and significantly reduced the renal antioxidative enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. Grossly, severe congestion was noticed in the kidneys. Microscopically, kidney revealed glomerular congestion, atrophy, intertubular hemorrhages, degenerative changes in tubular epithelium with vacuolated cytoplasm, desquamation of epithelium and urinary cast formation. A significant reduction in serum creatinine levels, significant improvement in renal antioxidant enzyme activities and near to normal histological appearance of kidneys in Group IV indicated that the green tea ameliorated the effects of γ-HCH, on renal toxicity. Conclusion: This study suggested that C. sinensis extract combined with γ-HCH could enhance antioxidant/detoxification system which consequently reduced the oxidative stress thus potentially reducing γ-HCH toxicity and tissue damage.

  3. Disruption of spindle checkpoint function in rats following 28 days of repeated administration of renal carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Mizukami, Sayaka; Watanabe, Yousuke; Hasegawa-Baba, Yasuko; Onda, Nobuhiko; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2016-02-01

    We previously reported that 28-day exposure to hepatocarcinogens that facilitate cell proliferation specifically alters the expression of G1/S checkpoint-related genes and proteins, induces aberrant early expression of ubiquitin D (UBD) at the G2 phase, and increases apoptosis in the rat liver, indicating G1/S and spindle checkpoint dysfunction. The present study aimed to determine the time of onset of carcinogen-specific cell-cycle disruption after repeated administration of renal carcinogens for up to 28 days. Rats were orally administered the renal carcinogens nitrofurantoin (NFT), 1-amino-2,4-dibromoantraquinone (ADAQ), and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) or the non-carcinogenic renal toxicants 1-chloro-2-propanol, triamterene, and carboxin for 3, 7 or 28 days. Both immunohistochemical single-molecule analysis and real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that carcinogen-specific expression changes were not observed after 28 days of administration. However, the renal carcinogens ADAQ and TCP specifically reduced the number of cells expressing phosphorylated-histone H3 at Ser10 in both UBD(+) cells and proliferating cells, suggestive of insufficient UBD expression at the M phase and early transition of proliferating cells from the M phase, without increasing apoptosis, after 28 days of administration. In contrast, NFT, which has marginal carcinogenic potential, did not induce such cellular responses. These results suggest that it may take 28 days to induce spindle checkpoint dysfunction by renal carcinogens; however, induction of apoptosis may not be essential. Thus, induction of spindle checkpoint dysfunction may be dependent on carcinogenic potential of carcinogen examined, and marginal carcinogens may not exert sufficient responses even after 28 days of administration.

  4. TELMISARATAN PROVIDES BETTER RENAL PROTECTION THAN VALSARTAN IN A RAT MODEL OF METABOLIC SYNDROME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Hye; Imig, John D.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Angiotension receptor blockers (ARB), telmisartan and valsartan were compared for renal protection in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) fed high fat diet. We hypothesized that in cardiometabolic syndrome, telmisartan an ARB with PPAR-γ activity will offer better renal protection. METHODS SHR were fed either normal (SHR-NF, 7% fat) or high fat (SHR-HF, 36% fat) diet and treated with an ARB for 10 weeks. RESULTS Blood pressure was similar between SHR-NF (190±3 mmHg) and SHR-HF (192±4 mmHg) at the end of the 10 week period. Telmisartan and valsartan decreased blood pressure to similar extents in SHR-NF and SHR-HF groups. Body weight was significantly higher in SHR-HF (368±5g) compared to SHR-NF (328±7g). Telmisartan but not valsartan significantly reduced the body weight gain in SHR-HF. Telmisartan was also more effective than valsartan in improving glycemic and lipid status in SHR-HF. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), an inflammatory marker, was higher in SHR-HF (24±2 ng/d) compared to SHR-NF (14±5 ng/d). Telmisartan reduced MCP-1 excretion in both SHR-HF and SHR-NF to a greater extent than valsartan. An indicator of renal injury, urinary albumin excretion increased to 85±8 mg/d in SHR-HF compared to 54±9 mg/d in SHR-NF. Telmisartan (23±5 mg/d) was more effective than valsartan (45±3 mg/d) in lowering urinary albumin excretion in SHR-HF. Moreover, telmisartan reduced glomerular damage to a greater extent than valsartan in the SHR-HF. CONCLUSIONS Collectively, our data demonstrate that telmisartan was more effective than valsartan in reducing body weight gain, renal inflammation, and renal injury in a rat model of cardiometabolic syndrome. PMID:21415842

  5. Valsartan attenuates cardiac and renal hypertrophy in rats with experimental cardiorenal syndrome possibly through down-regulating galectin-3 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M-J; Gu, Y; Wang, H; Zhu, P-F; Liu, X-Y; Wu, J

    2016-01-01

    Aortocaval fistula (AV) induced chronic volume overload in rats with preexisting mild renal dysfunction (right kidney remove: UNX) could mimic the type 4 cardiorenal syndrome (CRS): chronic renocardiac syndrome. Galectin-3, a β-galactoside binding lectin, is an emerging biomarker in cardiovascular as well as renal diseases. We observed the impact of valsartan on cardiac and renal hypertrophy and galectin-3 changes in this model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (200-250 g) were divided into S (Sham, n = 7), M (UNX+AV, n = 7) and M+V (UNX+AV+valsartan, n = 7) groups. Eight weeks later, cardiac function was measured by echocardiography. Renal outcome was measured by glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, renal blood flow and 24 hours albuminuria. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR were used to evaluate the expressions of galectin-3 in heart and renal. Cardiac hypertrophy and renal hypertrophy as well as cardiac enlargement were evidenced in this AV shunt induced chronic volume overload rat model with preexisting mild renal dysfunction. Cardiac and renal hypertrophy were significantly attenuated but cardiac enlargement was unaffected by valsartan independent of its blood pressure lowering effect. 24 hours urine albumin was significantly increased, which was significantly reduced by valsartan in this model. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR evidenced significantly up-regulated galectin-3 expression in heart and kidney and borderline increased myocardial collagen I expression, which tended to be lower post valsartan treatment. Up-regulated galectin-3 signaling might also be involved in the pathogenesis in this CRS model. The beneficial effects of valsartan in terms of attenuating cardiac and renal hypertrophy and reducing 24 hours albumin in this model might partly be mediated through down-regulating galectin-3 signal pathway.

  6. Altered renal expression of angiotensin II receptors, renin receptor, and ACE-2 precede the development of renal fibrosis in aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, Ivonne Hernandez; Zhou, Ming-Sheng; Treuer, Adriana V; Chadipiralla, Kiranmai; Hare, Joshua M; Raij, Leopoldo

    2010-01-01

    The susceptibility to fibrosis and progression of renal disease is mitigated by inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). We hypothesized that activation of the intrarenal RAS predisposes to renal fibrosis in aging. Intrarenal expression of angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)R), type 2 (AT(2)R), and (pro)renin receptors, ACE and ACE-2, as well as pro- and antioxidant enzymes were measured in 3-month-old (young), 14-month-old (middle-aged), and 24-month-old (old) male Sprague-Dawley rats. Old rats manifested glomerulosclerosis and severe tubulointerstitial fibrosis with increased fibronectin and TGF-β expression (7-fold). AT(1)R /AT(2)R ratios were increased in middle-aged (cortical 1.6-fold, medullary 5-fold) and old rats (cortical 2-fold, medullary 4-fold). Similarly, (pro)renin receptor expression was increased in middle-aged (cortical 2-fold, medullary 3-fold) and old (cortical 5-fold, medullary 3-fold) rats. Cortical ACE was increased (+35%) in old rats, whereas ACE-2 was decreased (-50%) in middle-aged and old rats. NADPH oxidase activity was increased (2-fold), whereas antioxidant capacity and expression of the mitochondrial enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (cortical -40%, medullary -53%) and medullary endothelial nitric oxide synthase (-48%) were decreased in old rats. Age-related intrarenal activation of the RAS preceded the development of severe renal fibrosis, suggesting that it contributes to the increased susceptibility to renal injury observed in the elderly. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Vitamin D-dependent rat renal calcium-binding protein: development of a radioimmunoassay, tissue distribution, and immunologic identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenberg, J.; Pansini, A.R.; Christakos, S.

    1984-01-01

    A sensitive double antibody RIA has been developed for the 28,000 mol wt rat renal vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein. Using this assay, concentrations of calcium-binding protein (CaBP) as low as 30 ng can be measured. The assay is precise (intraassay variability, 5.0%) and reproductible (interassay variability, 8.2%). Measurements of renal CaBP by RIA showed a good correlation with measurements of CaBP by the chelex resin assay and by polyacrylamide gel analysis by densitometric tracing using a purified CaBP marker. The concentration of CaBP in the vitamin D-replete rat kidney is 7.3 +/- 1.0 (mean +/- SEM) micrograms/mg protein. In vitamin D-deficient rats the level of renal CaBP is 2.6 +/- 0.3 micrograms/mg protein. Tissue distribution of immunoreactive rat renal CaBP showed the highest concentration of CaBP in the rat cerebellum (38.3 +/- 5.1 micrograms/mg protein). Lower concentrations of immunoreactive CaBP were detected in several other rat tissues. No immunoreactive CaBP was detected in rat or human serum. In necropsy human kidney and cerebellum, high levels of immunoreactive CaBP were also detected (1.5 +/- 0.1 and 27.3 +/- 2.1 micrograms/mg protein, respectively). When extracts of rat kidney and brain and human cerebellum and kidney were assayed at several dilutions, immunodisplacement curves parallel to that of pure renal CaBP were observed, indicating immunochemical similarity. Fractionation of extracts of rat cerebellum, human kidney, and human cerebellum on Sephadex G-100 revealed immunoreactivity and calcium-binding activity in the 28,000 mol wt region similar to rat kidney

  8. Renal myogenic constriction protects the kidney from age-related hypertensive renal damage in the Fawn-Hooded rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vavrinec, Peter; Henning, Robert H.; Goris, Maaike; Landheer, Sjoerd W.; Buikema, Hendrik; van Dokkum, Richard P. E.

    Introduction:Intact myogenic constriction plays a role in renal blood flow autoregulation and protection against pressure-related (renal) injury. However, to what extent alterations in renal artery myogenic constriction are involved in development of renal damage during aging is unknown. Therefore,

  9. Change in iron metabolism in rats after renal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

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    Guang-Liang Xie

    Full Text Available Previous studies have indicated that hepcidin, which can regulate iron efflux by binding to ferroportin-1 (FPN1 and inducing its internalization and degradation, acts as the critical factor in the regulation of iron metabolism. However, it is unknown whether hepcidin is involved in acute renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI. In this study, an IRI rat model was established via right renal excision and blood interruption for 45 min in the left kidney, and iron metabolism indexes were examined to investigate the change in iron metabolism and to analyze the role of hepcidin during IRI. From 1 to 24 h after renal reperfusion, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were found to be time-dependently increased with different degrees of kidney injury. Regular variations in iron metabolism indexes in the blood and kidneys were observed in renal IRI. Renal iron content, serum iron and serum ferritin increased early after reperfusion and then declined. Hepcidin expression in the liver significantly increased early after reperfusion, and its serum concentration increased beginning at 8 h after reperfusion. The splenic iron content decreased significantly in the early stage after reperfusion and then increased time-dependently with increasing reperfusion time, and the hepatic iron content showed a decrease in the early stage after reperfusion. The early decrease of the splenic iron content and hepatic iron content might indicate their contribution to the increase in serum iron in renal IRI. In addition, the duodenal iron content showed time-dependently decreased since 12 h after reperfusion in the IRI groups compared to the control group. Along with the spleen, the duodenum might contribute to the decrease in serum iron in the later stage after reperfusion. The changes in iron metabolism indexes observed in our study demonstrate an iron metabolism disorder in renal IRI, and hepcidin might be involved in maintaining iron homeostasis in renal IRI. These

  10. Mitochondrial autophagy involving renal injury and aging is modulated by caloric intake in aged rat kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing; Shi, Suozhu; Sun, Xuefeng; Cai, Guangyan; Cui, Shaoyuan; Hong, Quan; Chen, Xiangmei; Bai, Xue-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    A high-calorie (HC) diet induces renal injury and promotes aging, and calorie restriction (CR) may ameliorate these responses. However, the effects of long-term HC and CR on renal damage and aging have been not fully determined. Autophagy plays a crucial role in removing protein aggregates and damaged organelles to maintain intracellular homeostasis and function. The role of autophagy in HC-induced renal damage is unknown. We evaluated the expression of LC3/Atg8 as a marker of the autophagosome; p62/SQSTM1; polyubiquitin aggregates as markers of autophagy flux; Ambra1, PINK1, Parkin and Bnip3 as markers of mitophagy; 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as a marker of DNA oxidative damage; and p16 as a marker of organ aging by western blot and immunohistochemical staining in the kidneys of 24-month-old Fischer 344 rats. We also observed mitochondrial structure and autolysosomes by transmission electron microscopy. Expression of the autophagosome formation marker LC3/Atg8 and markers of mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy) were markedly decreased in the kidneys of the HC group, and markedly increased in CR kidneys. p62/SQSTM1 and polyubiquitin aggregates increased in HC kidneys, and decreased in CR kidneys. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that HC kidneys showed severe abnormal mitochondrial morphology with fewer autolysosomes, while CR kidneys exhibited normal mitochondrial morphology with numerous autolysosomes. The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was increased in HC kidneys and decreased in CR kidneys. Markers of aging, such as p16 and senescence-associated-galactosidase, were increased significantly in the HC group and decreased significantly in the CR group. The study firstly suggests that HC diet inhibits renal autophagy and aggravates renal oxidative damage and aging, while CR enhances renal autophagy and ameliorates oxidative damage and aging in the kidneys.

  11. Renal dysfunction induced by long-term exposure to depleted uranium in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Guoying; Xiang, Xiqiao; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Lihua; Hu, Heping; Weng, Shifang [Fudan University, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Shanghai (China)

    2009-01-15

    Depleted uranium (DU) is a kind of radioactive heavy metal which can enter into the body via inhalation (aerosols), ingestion (drinking and eating) and wounds (embedded), and causes chemical and/or radiation-induced toxicities. In this study, male Sprague Dawley rats were surgically implanted in gastrocnemius muscle with DU fragments at three dose levels (low-dose, medium-dose and high-dose), with biologically inert tantalum (Ta) fragments served as controls. At 1 day, 7 days, and 3, 6, and 12 months after implantation, the rats were euthanized and tissue samples were collected, and uranium levels were measured in a variety of tissues by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to analyze the dynamic changes and distribution of uranium in rats. Thereafter, at 3, 6 and 12 months after implantation, the rats were euthanized after the collection of 24 h urine, blood and kidney samples were collected for analysis of DU-induced renal histopathologic changes and renal dysfunction. It was observed that DU concentrations in all the DU implanted groups were higher than that in Ta control group, and DU concentrations in the kidney increased with the implanted times, peaked at the 90 days after implantation, with a high correlation to the implanted DU doses, and then began to decrease gradually and slowly, and the DU concentrations in kidney still maintained at a relatively high level even at the 360 days after implantation. Otherwise, chronic DU contamination could induce the pathological changes of renal glomeruli, tubules and mesenchyme, such as interstitial fibrosis, enlarged interstice of renal tubular epithelial cells, tumefactions and necrosis of epithelial cells, shrinkage and disappearance of cavity of Bowman's capsule. By TEM, it was shown that the basement membrane of glomerulus was incrassated, mitochondrial of kidney proximal tubule had visible tumefaction and became bigger, and the mitochondrial cristae became shorter and disorderly in

  12. Renal dysfunction induced by long-term exposure to depleted uranium in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Guoying; Xiang, Xiqiao; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Lihua; Hu, Heping; Weng, Shifang

    2009-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is a kind of radioactive heavy metal which can enter into the body via inhalation (aerosols), ingestion (drinking and eating) and wounds (embedded), and causes chemical and/or radiation-induced toxicities. In this study, male Sprague Dawley rats were surgically implanted in gastrocnemius muscle with DU fragments at three dose levels (low-dose, medium-dose and high-dose), with biologically inert tantalum (Ta) fragments served as controls. At 1 day, 7 days, and 3, 6, and 12 months after implantation, the rats were euthanized and tissue samples were collected, and uranium levels were measured in a variety of tissues by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to analyze the dynamic changes and distribution of uranium in rats. Thereafter, at 3, 6 and 12 months after implantation, the rats were euthanized after the collection of 24 h urine, blood and kidney samples were collected for analysis of DU-induced renal histopathologic changes and renal dysfunction. It was observed that DU concentrations in all the DU implanted groups were higher than that in Ta control group, and DU concentrations in the kidney increased with the implanted times, peaked at the 90 days after implantation, with a high correlation to the implanted DU doses, and then began to decrease gradually and slowly, and the DU concentrations in kidney still maintained at a relatively high level even at the 360 days after implantation. Otherwise, chronic DU contamination could induce the pathological changes of renal glomeruli, tubules and mesenchyme, such as interstitial fibrosis, enlarged interstice of renal tubular epithelial cells, tumefactions and necrosis of epithelial cells, shrinkage and disappearance of cavity of Bowman's capsule. By TEM, it was shown that the basement membrane of glomerulus was incrassated, mitochondrial of kidney proximal tubule had visible tumefaction and became bigger, and the mitochondrial cristae became shorter and disorderly in alignment

  13. Effect of strenuous maternal exercise before and during pregnancy on rat progeny renal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira A.O.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of strenuous exercise before and during pregnancy on the renal function and morphological alterations of the progeny were determined in a study on female Wistar rats. This research was done based on a previous study carried out in our laboratory, which showed morphological alterations in rats submitted to this kind of exercise. As the form is related to the function, the physiological relevance of submitting a pregnant female to a high-intensity exercise training regimen could be explained by the fact that morphological alterations can influence kidney function. The animals were assigned to one of two groups: control animals that did not exercise during pregnancy and trained animals that swam for 120 min 5 days a week for 8 weeks before pregnancy and daily for 60 min over a period of 8 weeks starting on the second day of pregnancy. Seven rats of each group were analyzed for morphological alterations and for renal function. The progeny of the rats used for morphological evaluation were born by cesarean section and the progeny of the animals used to evaluate renal function were born normally. The progeny were two months old when renal function was evaluated. Fertility and morbidity were the same for both groups. Strenuous maternal exercise had no significant influence on glomerular filtration rate (GFR but renal plasma flow was lower in the progeny of the trained group (mean ± SD, 16.65 ± 3.77 ml min-1 kg-1 compared to the progeny of the control group (33.42 ± 2.56 ml min-1 kg-1. Antidiuretic and antinatriuretic effects on the progeny of the trained group were observed, since urine flow as percentage of GFR and the fraction of urinary sodium excretion were lower in this group (1.38 ± 0.10 and 0.60 ± 0.04%, respectively compared to the progeny of the control group (2.36 ± 0.11 and 1.55 ± 0.20%, respectively. Moreover, in this exercise program, fetuses from trained animals were small-sized (2.45 ± 0.19 vs 4.66 ± 2.45 g for

  14. Spontaneous renal tumors suspected of being familial in sprague-dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Kayoko; Hoshiya, Toru; Nakazawa, Tomomi; Saito, Tsubasa; Shimoyama, Natsumi; Suzuki, Isamu; Tamura, Kazutoshi; Seely, John Curtis

    2012-12-01

    Spontaneous renal tubule tumors (RTTs), with a distinctive morphological phenotype, were present in three Sprague-Dawley rats, 1 male and 2 females, out a total of 120 animals of each sex from untreated and placebo control groups in a 2-year carcinogenicity study. One female had one carcinoma, adenoma and hyperplasia, and the other female had five adenomas and many hyperplastic lesions; the male case had one carcinoma. From these cases, a biological continuum of hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma could be recognized. The tumors were present in the renal cortex and appeared as solid lobulated growths with occasional central necrosis. The lobules were divided by a small amount of fibrovascular tissue. Occasionally the larger tumors contained a cystic area. Tumor cells appeared distinctive and exhibited variable amounts of eosinophilic/amphophilic and vacuolated cytoplasm. Nuclei were round to oval with a prominent nucleolus. Mitotic figures were uncommon, and no distant metastasis was noted. The tumors were seen as multiple and bilateral lesions in two animals and had no apparent relationship to chronic progressive nephropathy (CPN). Foci of tubule hyperplasia were also noted to contain the same type of cellular morphology. The morphological and biological features of these 3 cases resembled the amphophilic-vacuolar (AV) variant of RTT that has been posited to be of familial origin. This is a report of spontaneous familial renal tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats from Japan.

  15. Citrus bergamia Risso & Poiteau juice protects against renal injury of diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, Ada; Taviano, Maria F; Pergolizzi, Simona; Campolo, Loredana; De Pasquale, Rita; Miceli, Natalizia

    2010-04-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of treatment with Citrus bergamia juice (1 mL/day, for 30 days) against hypercholesterolemic diet-induced renal injury in rat.C. bergamia juice provoked a significant reduction in the plasma levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL, and an increase in HDL levels, versus hyperlipidemic controls (p juice administration significantly decreased MDA levels elevations compared with hyperlipidemic controls (4.10 +/- 0.10 nmol/mg protein and 4.78 +/- 0.15 nmol/mg protein, respectively).Histological observations of the kidney supported the biochemical data and indicated a protective effect of C. bergamia juice on the development of renal damage in hypercholesterolemic rats.The antioxidant potential of C. bergamia juice was examined in two in vitro systems: in the DPPH test the juice showed a noticeable effect on scavenging free radicals (IC(50) = 25.01 +/- 0.70 +/-L); in the reducing power assay it showed a strong activity, too (1.44 +/- 0.01 ASE/mL).These findings suggest that C. bergamia juice has a protective role in hypercholesterolemic diet-induced renal damage, which may be attributed to its antioxidant properties. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Transient renal impairment in rats after oral exposure to diethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundt, K J; Weis, N

    1989-10-01

    Volume, specific gravity, creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), beta-galactosidase (GAL), leucocytes, erythrocytes, nitrite, protein (albumin), glucose, ketone, urobilinogen, bilirubin and pH were estimated in urine of rats after single (by gavage) or repeated (via drinking water) oral administration of diethylene glycol (DEG). Following single or repetitive doses (daily over 90 days) of 0.2 g DEG kg-1 body weight, no change in renal function was observed (no effect level). In urine of rats treated once with 0.7 g DEG kg-1 body weight, LDH activity was significantly enhanced one day after treatment. A single dose of 2.0 g DEG kg-1 body weight resulted in an additional rise in urinary GAL activity two days after treatment, a significant rise of urinary volume and a decrease in creatinine concentration and pH on the first day. One day following a single dose of 8.0 g DEG kg-1 body weight, in addition to the changes mentioned before, LAP activity was significantly elevated and the specific gravity decreased. However, in all experiments the wet weight of the kidneys remained normal as compared to controls. The results thus show dose-dependent changes in several renal parameters, indicating a slight-to-moderate and reversible renal impairment.

  17. Renal response to L-arginine in diabetic rats. A possible link between nitric oxide system and aquaporin-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C Ortiz

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate whether L-Arginine (L-Arg supplementation modifies nitric oxide (NO system and consequently aquaporin-2 (AQP2 expression in the renal outer medulla of streptozotocin-diabetic rats at an early time point after induction of diabetes. Male Wistar rats were divided in four groups: Control, Diabetic, Diabetic treated with L-Arginine and Control treated with L-Arginine. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS activity was estimated by [14C] L-citrulline production in homogenates of the renal outer medulla and by NADPH-diaphorase staining in renal outer medullary tubules. Western blot was used to detect the expression of AQP2 and NOS types I and III; real time PCR was used to quantify AQP2 mRNA. The expression of both NOS isoforms, NOS I and NOS III, was decreased in the renal outer medulla of diabetic rats and L-Arg failed to prevent these decreases. However, L-Arg improved NO production, NADPH-diaphorase activity in collecting ducts and other tubular structures, and NOS activity in renal homogenates from diabetic rats. AQP2 protein and mRNA were decreased in the renal outer medulla of diabetic rats and L-Arg administration prevented these decreases. These results suggest that the decreased NOS activity in collecting ducts of the renal outer medulla may cause, at least in part, the decreased expression of AQP2 in this model of diabetes and constitute additional evidence supporting a role for NO in contributing to renal water reabsorption through the modulation of AQP2 expression in this pathological condition. However, we cannot discard that another pathway different from NOS also exists that links L-Arg to AQP2 expression.

  18. Oxidative damage parameters in renal tissues of aged and young rats based on gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzun D

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Duygu Uzun,1 Gülcan Güntas Korkmaz,2 Mustafa Erinç Sitar,3 Tamer Cebe,4 Karolin Yanar,3 Ufuk Çakatay,3 Seval Aydin3 1Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Kirklareli University, School of Health, Kirklareli, Turkey; 3Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Istanbul, Turkey; 4Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey Purpose: Aging is characterized by a gradual functional decrease of all systems including the kidneys. Growing evidence links altered lipid protein redox-homeostasis with renal dysfunction. The effect of sexual dimorphism on the lipid protein redox-homeostasis mechanisms in the aging kidney is obscure. In the current study, we aimed to investigate redox homeostasis as it related to sexual dimorphism on protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation parameters, as protein carbonyl (PCO, total thiol (T-SH, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, malondialdehyde, glutathione (GSH, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, as potential aging biomarkers, which may contribute to an analysis of the free radical theory of aging. Materials and methods: The study was carried out with 16 naturally aged rats (24 months old; eight males and eight females and their corresponding young rat groups as controls (6 months old; eight males and eight females. All of the aforementioned parameters (PCO, T-SH, AOPP, MDA, GSH, SOD were measured manually instead of automated devices or ELISA kits. Results: PCO, AOPP, and malondialdehyde levels in aged rats were significantly higher in the older rat group than in the younger rat group, whereas SOD activities were significantly lower in old rats. T-SH levels were not significantly different in male groups; however, T-SH levels were lower in the aged female group than in the young female control group. In addition, GSH levels were significantly different between the aged rat group and the corresponding

  19. Arctigenin suppresses renal interstitial fibrosis in a rat model of obstructive nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ao; Zhang, Xiaoxun; Shu, Mao; Wu, Mingjun; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jingyao; Wang, Rui; Li, Peng; Wang, Yitao

    2017-07-01

    Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is commonly the final result of a variety of progressive injuries and leads to end-stage renal disease. There are few therapeutic agents currently available for retarding the development of renal TIF. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the role of arctigenin (ATG), a lignan component derived from dried burdock (Arctium lappa L.) fruits, in protecting the kidney against injury by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in rats. Rats were subjected to UUO and then administered with vehicle, ATG (1 and 3mg/kg/d), or losartan (20mg/kg/d) for 11 consecutive days. The renoprotective effects of ATG were evaluated by histological examination and multiple biochemical assays. Our results suggest that ATG significantly protected the kidney from injury by reducing tubular dilatation, epithelial atrophy, collagen deposition, and tubulointerstitial compartment expansion. ATG administration dramatically decreased macrophage (CD68-positive cell) infiltration. Meanwhile, ATG down-regulated the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), in the obstructed kidneys. This was associated with decreased activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). ATG attenuated UUO-induced oxidative stress by increasing the activity of renal manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2), leading to reduced levels of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, ATG inhibited the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of renal tubules by reducing the abundance of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and its type I receptor, suppressing Smad2/3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, and up-regulating Smad7 expression. Notably, the efficacy of ATG in renal protection was comparable or even superior to losartan. ATG could protect the kidney from UUO-induced injury and fibrogenesis by suppressing inflammation, oxidative

  20. Protective role of female gender in programmed accelerated renal aging in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijacka, Wioletta; Clifford, Bethan; Tilburgs, Chantal; Joles, Jaap A; Langley-Evans, Simon; McMullen, Sarah

    2015-04-01

    The aging kidney exhibits a progressive decline in glomerular filtration rate, accompanied by inflammatory and oxidative damage. We hypothesized that accelerated, age-related progression of renal injury is ovarian hormones-dependant. To address this we used an established model of developmentally programmed accelerated renal aging in the rat, superimposed by ovariectomy to assess interactions between ovarian hormones and the aging process. Under our experimental conditions, we found that kidney function worsens with age, that is GFR reduces over 18 month analyzed time-course and this was worsened by fetal exposure to maternal low-protein diet and absence of estrogen. Reduction in GFR was followed by increases in albuminuria, proteinuria, inflammatory markers, and tissue carbonyls, all suggesting inflammatory response and oxidative stress. This was associated with changes in AGTR2 expression which was greater at 18 months of age compared to earlier time points, but in MLP offspring only. Our studies show an influence of ovarian hormones on programmed accelerated renal aging and the AGTR2 across the lifespan. The main findings are that ovariectomy is a risk factor for increased aging-related renal injury and that this and oxidative damage might be related to changes in AGTR2 expression. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  1. Shenqiwan Ameliorates Renal Fibrosis in Rats by Inhibiting TGF-β1/Smads Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongshu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT refers to the transition of epithelial cells into mesenchymal cells. Emerging evidence suggests that EMT is a key point in renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF. Traditional Chinese Medicine Shenqiwan (SQW is widely used in clinical treatment of chronic kidney disease, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of SQW on renal fibrosis and its association with TGF-β1/Smads signaling pathway. A rat model of adenine (150 mg/kg was established and intragastrically treated with various concentrations of SQW at dose of 1.5 g/kg, 3 g/kg, and 6 g/kg. Control group and model group were given the same volume of saline. Meanwhile, the positive control group was treated with Enalapril (4 mg/kg. Animals were sacrificed on 21st day after administration. The results showed that SQW could significantly relieve renal pathological damage caused by adenine, increase gene and protein expression of E-cadherin, and decrease the expression of Vimentin in kidney samples. In addition, SQW efficiently inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of p-Smad2/3 by upregulating Smad7. These results suggest that SQW could slow down the progression of renal fibrosis, possibly by inhibiting TGF-β1/Smads signaling pathway.

  2. Combination Anti-Apoptotic Effect of Erythropoietin and Melatonin on Ischemia Reperfusion-Induced Renal Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokofeh Banaei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR contributes to the development of acute renal failure (ARF. Oxygen free radicals are considered to be principal components involved in the pathophysiological tissue alterations observed during renal IR. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combination effect of melatonin (MEL and erythropoietin (EPO, which are a potent antioxidant and anti-apoptotic agents, in IR-induced renal injury in rats. Wistar Albino rats were unilaterally nephrectomized and subjected to 45 min of renal pedicle occlusion followed by 24 h reperfusion. MEL (10 mg/kg, i.p and EPO (5000 U/kg, i.p were administered prior to ischemia. After 24 h reperfusion, following decapitation, blood samples were collected for the determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and malondialdehyde (MDA levels. Also, renal samples were taken for histological evaluation and apoptosis assay. Ischemia-reperfusion increased SOD, GPx, MDA levels, and TUNEL positive cells. Histopathological findings of the IR group confirmed that there was renal impairment in the tubular epithelium. Treatment with EPO and MEL decreased SOD, GPx, and MDA levels, histopathological changes, and TUNEL positive cells. These results indicated that the combination of MEL and EPO could not exert more nephroprotective and anti-apoptotic effects than MEL treatment in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  3. Erythropoietin-enhanced endothelial progenitor cell recruitment in peripheral blood and renal vessels during experimental acute kidney injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakiroglu, Figen; Enders-Comberg, Sora Maria; Pagel, Horst; Rohwedel, Jürgen; Lehnert, Hendrik; Kramer, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Beneficial effects of erythropoietin (EPO) have been reported in acute kidney injury (AKI) when administered prior to induction of AKI. We studied the effects of EPO administration on renal function shortly after ischemic AKI. For this purpose, rats were subjected to renal ischemia for 30 min and EPO was administered at a concentration of 500 U/kg either i.v. as a single shot directly after ischemia or with an additional i.p. dose until 3 days after surgery. The results were compared with AKI rats without EPO application and a sham-operated group. Renal function was assessed by measurement of serum biochemical markers, histological grading, and using an isolated perfused kidney (IPK) model. Furthermore, we performed flow cytometry to analyze the concentration of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the peripheral blood and renal vessels. Following EPO application, there was only a statistically non-significant tendency of serum creatinine and urea to improve, particularly after daily EPO application. Renal vascular resistance and the renal perfusion rate were not significantly altered. In the histological analysis, acute tubular necrosis was only marginally ameliorated following EPO administration. In summary, we could not demonstrate a significant improvement in renal function when EPO was applied after AKI. Interestingly, however, EPO treatment resulted in a highly significant increase in CD133- and CD34-positive EPC both in the peripheral blood and renal vessels. © 2015 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  4. In vivo tracking of magnetically labeled mesenchmal stem cells injected via renal arteries in kidney failure rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Junhui; Teng Gaojun; Ju Shenghong; Ma Zhanlong; Mai Xiaoli; Zhang Yu; Ma Ming

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate in vivo depiction and tracking for magnetically labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stern cells (MSCs) in a renal failure rat model injected intravascularly using a 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. Methods: Rat MSCs were isolated, purified, expanded and then incubated with home synthesized Fe 2 O 3 -PLL. Prussian blue stain was employed for identifying intracellular irons. An acute renal failure in rat was induced by intramuscular injection of glycerol and MSCs were injected into renal arteries of 11 recipients (labeled cells in six, unlabeled cells in five). MR images of kidneys were obtained respectively before injection of MSCs, and immediately, 1, 3, 5, and 8 clays after transplantation. MR imaging findings were analyzed, which were correlated with histological findings. Results: Rat MSCs were successfully labeled, and labeling efficiency was almost 100%. Prussian blue staining of Fe 2 O 3 -PLL labeled cells revealed the presence of iron-containing vesicles or endosomes in the cytoplasm. In the renal failure model of rats, the labeled MSCs were demonstrated as signal intensity loss in renal cortex on T 2 * -weighted MR images. The signal intensity decrease was visualized up to days 8 after transplantation. Histological analyses showed that most Prussian blue staining-positive cells were well correlated with the area where a signal intensity loss was observed in MRI. Signal intensity decrease was not detected after transplantation of unlabeled cells. Conclusion: The rat MSCs can be effectively labeled with Fe 2 O 3 -PLL. 1.5-T MR imaging seems to be a good technique to monitor the magnetically labeled MSCs in vivo in renal failure rat model intravascularly administered, which may have much more potential values for studying the engraftment of stem cells in kidneys. (authors)

  5. Comparative assessment of onion and garlic extracts on endogenous hepatic and renal antioxidant status in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suru, Stephen M; Ugwu, Chidiebere E

    2015-07-01

    Despite growing claims of functional health benefits in folkloric medicine, the safety of chronic/elevated intakes of onion and garlic cannot be assumed. Therefore, this study assesses oral administration of varied doses of onion and garlic on some biomarkers of hepatic and renal functions in rats. Animals were divided into five groups: control group received vehicle and extract-treated groups received varied doses of onion or garlic extract (0.5 mL and 1.0 mL/100 g bwt/day) for 6 weeks. Both doses of onion caused marked (pgarlic elicited similar trend except in hepatic CAT, renal SOD and GST levels. A high dose of garlic only caused marked (pgarlic significantly (pgarlic, while high dose of garlic elicited pro-oxidant conditions.

  6. Intermittent hypoxia alters dose dependent caffeine effects on renal prostanoids and receptors in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beharry, Kay D; Cai, Charles L; Soontarapornchai, Kultida; Ahmad, Taimur; Valencia, Gloria B; Aranda, Jacob V

    2018-01-01

    Caffeine, one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in preterm neonates, is given in standard or suprapharmacologic doses. Although known as a diuretic, its effects in the neonatal kidneys are not well studied. We tested the hypothesis that neonatal intermittent hypoxia (IH) and high caffeine doses (HCD) alter renal regulators of vasomotor tone and water balance. Newborn rats were randomized to room air, hyperoxia, or IH and treated with standard or high caffeine doses; or placebo saline. Renal prostanoids; histopathology; and cyclooxygenase (COX), prostanoid receptor, and aquaporin (AQP) immunoreactivity were determined. HCD in IH caused severe pathological changes in the glomeruli and proximal tubules, consistent with acute kidney injury. This was associated with reductions in anthropometric growth, PGI 2, and IP, DP, and AQP-4 immunoreactivity, well as a robust increase in COX-2, suggesting that the use of HCD should be avoided in preterm infants who experience frequent IH episodes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Noninvasive measurement of renal blood flow by magnetic resonance imaging in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Cesar A; Cabral, Glauber; Knight, Robert A; Ding, Guangliang; Peterson, Edward L; Carretero, Oscar A

    2018-01-01

    Renal blood flow (RBF) provides important information regarding renal physiology and nephropathies. Arterial spin labeling-magnetic resonance imaging (ASL-MRI) is a noninvasive method of measuring blood flow without exogenous contrast media. However, low signal-to-noise ratio and respiratory motion artifacts are challenges for RBF measurements in small animals. Our objective was to evaluate the feasibility and reproducibility of RBF measurements by ASL-MRI using respiratory-gating and navigator correction methods to reduce motion artifacts. ASL-MRI images were obtained from the kidneys of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats on a 7-Tesla Varian MRI system with a spin-echo imaging sequence. After 4 days, the study was repeated to evaluate its reproducibility. RBF was also measured in animals under unilateral nephrectomy and in renal artery stenosis (RST) to evaluate the sensitivity in high and low RBF models, respectively. RBF was also evaluated in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats and spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR). In SD rats, the cortical RBFs (cRBF) were 305 ± 59 and 271.8 ± 39 ml·min -1 ·100 g tissue -1 in the right and left kidneys, respectively. Retest analysis revealed no differences ( P = 0.2). The test-retest reliability coefficient was 92 ± 5%. The cRBFs before and after the nephrectomy were 296.8 ± 30 and 428.2 ± 45 ml·min -1 ·100 g tissue -1 ( P = 0.02), respectively. The kidneys with RST exhibited a cRBF decrease compared with sham animals (86 ± 17.6 vs. 198 ± 33.7 ml·min -1 ·100 g tissue -1 ; P < 0.01). The cRBFs in SD, Dahl-SS, and SHR rats were not different ( P = 0.35). We conclude that ASL-MRI performed with navigator correction and respiratory gating is a feasible and reliable noninvasive method for measuring RBF in rats.

  8. The effect of intermittent hypobaric-hypoxia treatments on renal glutathione peroxidase activity of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramita, I. A.; Jusman, S. W. A.

    2017-08-01

    Many people living at high altitudes experiencing a condition called intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH). Some people even create IHH condition as an exercise for pilots, athletes, and mountaineers. In this experiment, we aimed to determine whether the protective effect of IHH is mediated through glutathione peroxidase (GPX) enzyme. The experiment’s sample is two-month-old healthy Sprague-Dawley rat kidneys weighing 200-250 g. Intermittent hypobaric hypoxia treatment is done using a Hypobaric Chamber type I that can mimic air pressure at certain altitudes: 35,000 (one minute), 30,000 (three minutes), 25,000 (five minutes), and 18,000 (30 minutes) feet. The rats were divided into five treatment groups, including a control group, hypobaric-hypoxia group, and intermittent hypobaric-hypoxia 1x, 2x, and 3x groups with each group consisting of three rats. The specific activity of GPX was measured using RANDOX and RANSEL methods. The statistical analysis of one way-ANOVA did not show significant differences between the groups (p > 0.05), although specific activities of the renal GPX of rats exposed to hypobaric-hypoxia were higher than the control group. This may be caused by the other antioxidants’ activities. In conclusion, the IHH treatment did not affect GPX activity in the rat kidneys.

  9. Regional blood flows in the established stage of reduced renal mass (RRM) hypertension in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smits, G.J.; Lombard, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Regional blood flows were measured with 15 μm 153 Gd-labelled microspheres in 21 anesthetized (pentobarbital-50 mg/kg, i.p.) male Sprague Dawley rats 5-6 weeks after a 75% reduction in renal mass and in 6 sham operated controls (SOC). RRM rats were maintained on either a high salt (HS-RRM) diet, i.e., choice of 1% NaCl or tap water (n = 11), or on a salt-restricted (SR-RRM) diet (n = 10). Mean arterial blood pressure was significantly elevated (mean +/- SE) in the HS-RRM (168 +/- 5 mmHg) vs. either the SR-RRM (147 +/- 6 mmHg) or the SOC (138 +/- 4 mmHg). Although blood flow to the skin and femur were elevated in HS-RRM and SR-RRM relative to SOC, there were no significant differences in blood flow to skeletal muscle, spleen, liver, small intestine, stomach or testes between any of the groups. Absolute renal blood flow and renal blood flow/gm of tissue were significantly lower in HS-RRM (7.2 +/- 0.7 ml/min or 3.4 +/- 0.5 ml/min/gm) and SR-RRM (6.3 +/- 0.6 ml/min or 3.2 +/- 0.3 ml/min/gm) than in SOC (15.1 +/- 0.97 ml/min or 5.5 +/- 0.2 ml/min/gm). The present results suggest that regional blood flow is unchanged in most vascular beds during the established stage of RRM hypertension in rats

  10. Renal toxicological evaluations of sulphonated nanocellulose from Khaya sengalensis seed in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewuyi, Adewale; Otuechere, Chiagoziem A; Adebayo, Olusegun L; Anazodo, Chibuzo; Pereira, Fabiano V

    2018-03-25

    Nanocellulose is currently gaining attention due to its unique properties. This attention includes its application as building blocks for developing novel functional materials, plant drug and also in drug delivery systems. However, its safety remains largely untested or less understood. Thus, sulphonated nanocellulose (KSS) was prepared from cellulose (KSC) isolated from Khaya senegalensis seed (KS). KS, KSC and KSS were characterized using Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), particle size distribution (PSD), zeta potential and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The impact of KSS on selected renal markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in Wistar rats was also investigated. Thus, male rats were randomly assigned to four groups of five animals each and were treated with KSS (0, 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg BW) for 14 days. Thereafter, biomarkers of renal oxidative damage, inflammation and immunohistochemical expressions of iNOS, COX-2, Bcl-2 and p53 were evaluated. The results revealed KSS to have crystallinity of 70.40%, it was monomodal and has a flaky surface with agglomerations. KSS had no effect on markers of kidney function and oxidative damage, although there was a generalized hypernatremia after 14 days of exposure. Lastly, KSS enhanced the antioxidant status and immunohistochemical expressions of iNOS and COX-2 in the kidney of the rats. While the biomedical applications of KSS may appear plausible, our data suggests that it could induce renal toxicity via the combined impacts of electrolyte imbalance and inflammation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Gum acacia mitigates genetic damage in adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, B H; Al Balushi, K; Al-Husseini, I; Mandel, P; Nemmar, A; Schupp, N; Ribeiro, D A

    2015-12-01

    Subjects with chronic renal failure (CRF) exhibit oxidative genome damage, which may predispose to carcinogenesis, and Gum acacia (GumA) ameliorates this condition in humans and animals. We evaluated here renal DNA damage and urinary excretion of four nucleic acid oxidation adducts namely 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoGua), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), 8-oxoguanosine (8-oxoGuo) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanisone (8-OHdg) in rats with adenine (ADE)-induced CRF with and without GumA treatment. Twenty-four rats were divided into four equal groups and treated for 4 weeks. The first group was given normal food and water (control). The second group was given normal food and GumA (15% w/v) in drinking water. The third group was fed powder diet containing adenine (ADE) (0·75% w/w in feed). The fourth group was fed like in the third group, plus GumA in drinking water (15%, w/v). ADE feeding induced CRF (as measured by several physiological, biochemical and histological indices) and also caused a significant genetic damage and significant decreases in urinary 8-oxo Gua and 8-oxoGuo, but not in the other nucleic acids. However, concomitant GumA treatment reduced the level of genetic damage in kidney cells as detected by Comet assay and significantly reversed the effect of adenine on urinary 8-oxoGuo. Treatment with GumA is able to mitigate genetic damage in renal tissues of rats with ADE-induced CRF. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  12. Effect of soy protein on obesity-linked renal and pancreatic disorders in female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, H.F.; El-Sherbiny, E.M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of soy protein based diet on renal and pancreatic disorders in female obese rats. Animals assigned into group I in which 30 rats fed on a balanced diet. Group II contained 30 rats fed on a diet containing 30% fats for 4 weeks. At the end of the 4 th week, one-half of each group was treated as group III which contain 15 rats (half of group I) fed on diet containing 25% soy protein for 3 weeks and represents soy protein group, and the other half served as control. Group IV contained 15 rats (half of group II) fed on a diet containing 25% soy protein for 3 weeks and served as obese + soy protein group, and the other half fed on a normal balanced diet for 3 weeks and represents the obese group. Body weights of rats were recorded every week during the experimental period. Renal and pancreatic functions were measured as urea, creatinine, glomerular filtration rate (creatinine clearance), ammonia, sodium and potassium ions, total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose, insulin and alpha-amylase activity. Feeding with soy protein led to a very high significant increase in urea while creatinine was significantly decreased and creatinine clearance was significantly increased in the groups fed on soy protein. Ammonia concentration was increased in all groups and there was non-significant alteration in sodium and potassium ion concentrations. In soy protein groups (groups III and IV), total protein, albumin and globulin levels were increased. Glucose level was increased in obese rats and significantly decreased in groups III and IV. In group IV, insulin level was decreased which implicated to insulin excess in obesity. Soy protein decreased alpha-amylase activity in groups III and IV as compared to control rats. From these results, soy protein have a direct and protective effect on glomerular disorders and pancreatic secretions. This may be due to isoflavone contents in soy which can modulate the disturbance in metabolism

  13. THE FAILURE OF CHLOROFORM ADMINISTERED IN THE DRINKING WATER TO INDUCE RENAL TUBULAR CELL NEOPLASIA IN MALE F344/N RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The failure of chloroform administered in drinking water to induce renal tubular cell neoplasia in male F344/N rats Chloroform (TCM) has been demonstrated to be a renal carcinogen in the male Osborne-Mendel rat when administered either by corn oil gavage or in drin...

  14. Urinary cystatin C as a renal biomarker and its immunohistochemical localization in anti-GBM glomerulonephritis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Yuko; Imura, Naoko; Miyamoto, Yohei

    2013-11-01

    The usefulness of urinary cystatin C for the early detection of renal damage in anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) glomerulonephritis rats was investigated and compared to other biomarkers (β2-microglobulin, calbindin, clusterin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), alpha-glutathione S-transferase (GST-α), mu-glutathione S-transferase (GST-μ), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), osteopontin, tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-1 (TIMP-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)). Urinary levels of cystatin C increased in anti-GBM glomerulonephritis rats, whereas the conventional markers, plasma creatinine and UN did not, demonstrating its usefulness for the early detection of renal damage associated with anti-GBM glomerulonephritis. As well as cystatin C, urinary β2-microglobulin, clusterin, GST-α, GST-μ, KIM-1, and NGAL also had the potential to detect renal damage associated with anti-GBM glomerulonephritis. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical localization of cystatin C in the kidney was examined. Cystatin C expression was mainly observed in the proximal renal tubules in anti-GBM glomerulonephritis rats, and its expression barely changed with the progression of glomerulonephritis. Cystatin C expression was also observed in the tubular lumen of the cortex and medulla when glomerulonephritis was marked, which was considered to be characteristic of renal damage. In conclusion, urinary cystatin C, β2-microglobulin, clusterin, GST-α, GST-μ, KIM-1, and NGAL could be useful biomarkers of renal damage in anti-GBM glomerulonephritis rats. Immunohistochemical cystatin C expression in the proximal renal tubules was barely changed by the progression of glomerulonephritis, but it was newly observed in the tubular lumen when renal damage was apparent. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Absence of functional renal effects of uro-angiographic contrast media on post-ischemic rat kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbaeys, A.; Maele, G. van; Sy, W. de; Ringoir, S.; Lameire, N.; University Hospital, Ghent; University Hospital, Ghent

    1991-01-01

    Water soluble ionic contrast media (CM) and glucose 5% were administered to Sprague-Dawley rats 36 hours after bilateral warm renal ischemia for 45 min. In all animals (n=28) the renal ischemia caused a decrease of the absolute urinary creatinine output. Intraarterial injection of glucose 5% or CM did not produce different patterns of absolute urinary creatinine output. The serum creatinine increased after 36 hours of reflow. When compared by means of a Mann-Whitney U-test to a normal median serum creatinine obtained in a separate group of 22 normal rats, the increase was statistically significant (p≤0.01). The serum creatinine medians returned to a normal level after 24 hours. It seems therefore that 45 min of warm renal ischemia and 36 hours of reflow is an insufficient challenge to the rat kidney for the detection of the nephrotoxic properties of CM as opposed to when CM are injected during ischemia. (orig.)

  16. Characterization of hemodynamics and oxygenation in the renal cortex of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosenick, Dirk; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Macdonald, Rainer; Niendorf, Thoralf; Cantow, Kathleen; Flemming, Bert; Arakelyan, Karen; Seeliger, Erdmann

    2015-03-01

    We have performed a pre-clinical study on 13 rats to investigate the potential of near-infrared spectroscopy for quantification of hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in the renal cortex of small animals. These measurements were combined with laser-Doppler fluxmetry and a fluorescence quenching technique for quantification of tissue oxygen tension. Hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation were determined from experimental data by a Monte Carlo model. The methods were applied to investigate and compare temporal changes during several types of interventions such as arterial and venous occlusions, as well as hyperoxia, hypoxia and hypercapnia induced by different mixtures of the inspired gas.

  17. Differential expression of proteoglycans in tissue remodeling and lymphangiogenesis after experimental renal transplantation in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen Rienstra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic transplant dysfunction explains the majority of late renal allograft loss and is accompanied by extensive tissue remodeling leading to transplant vasculopathy, glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. Matrix proteoglycans mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and play key roles in tissue remodeling. The aim of this study was to characterize differential heparan sulfate proteoglycan and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan expression in transplant vasculopathy, glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis in renal allografts with chronic transplant dysfunction. METHODS: Renal allografts were transplanted in the Dark Agouti-to-Wistar Furth rat strain combination. Dark Agouti-to-Dark Agouti isografts and non-transplanted Dark Agouti kidneys served as controls. Allograft and isograft recipients were sacrificed 66 and 81 days (mean after transplantation, respectively. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan (collXVIII, perlecan and agrin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (versican expression, as well as CD31 and LYVE-1 (vascular and lymphatic endothelium, respectively expression were (semi- quantitatively analyzed using immunofluorescence. FINDINGS: Arteries with transplant vasculopathy and sclerotic glomeruli in allografts displayed pronounced neo-expression of collXVIII and perlecan. In contrast, in interstitial fibrosis expression of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan versican dominated. In the cortical tubular basement membranes in both iso- and allografts, induction of collXVIII was detected. Allografts presented extensive lymphangiogenesis (p<0.01 compared to isografts and non-transplanted controls, which was associated with induced perlecan expression underneath the lymphatic endothelium (p<0.05 and p<0.01 compared to isografts and non-transplanted controls, respectively. Both the magnitude of lymphangiogenesis and perlecan expression correlated with severity of interstitial fibrosis and impaired graft function

  18. Quantitative arterial spin labelling perfusion measurements in rat models of renal transplantation and acute kidney injury at 3 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, Fabian; Schad, Lothar R.; Zoellner, Frank G. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Klotz, Sarah; Hoeger, Simone; Yard, Benito A.; Kraemer, Bernhard K. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Medicine V

    2017-05-01

    To employ ASL for the measurement of renal cortical perfusion in particular renal disorders typically associated with graft loss and to investigate its potential to detect and differentiate the related functional deterioration i.e., in a setting of acute kidney injury (AKI) as well as in renal grafts showing acute and chronic transplant rejection. 14 Lewis rats with unilateral ischaemic AKI and 43 Lewis rats with renal grafts showing acute or chronic rejections were used. All ASL measurements in this study were performed on a 3 T MR scanner using a FAIR True-FISP approach to assess renal blood flow (RBF). Perfusion maps were calculated and the cortical blood flow was determined using a region-of-interest based analysis. RBF of healthy and AKI kidneys as well as of both rejection models, were compared. In a subsample of 20 rats, creatinine clearance was measured and correlated with cortical perfusion. RBF differs significantly between healthy and AKI kidneys (P < 0.001) with a mean difference of 213 ± 80 ml/100 g/min. Renal grafts with chronic rejections show a significantly higher (P < 0.001) mean cortical perfusion (346 ± 112 ml/100 g/min) than grafts with acute rejection (240 ± 66 ml/100 g/min). Both transplantation models have a significantly (P < 0.001) lower perfusion than healthy kidneys. Renal creatinine clearance is significantly correlated (R = 0.85, P < 0.001) with cortical blood flow. Perfusion measurements with ASL have the potential to become a valuable diagnostic tool, regarding the detection of renal impairment and the differentiation of disorders that lead to a loss of renal function and that are typically associated with graft loss.

  19. Quantitative arterial spin labelling perfusion measurements in rat models of renal transplantation and acute kidney injury at 3 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, Fabian; Schad, Lothar R.; Zoellner, Frank G.; Klotz, Sarah; Hoeger, Simone; Yard, Benito A.; Kraemer, Bernhard K.

    2017-01-01

    To employ ASL for the measurement of renal cortical perfusion in particular renal disorders typically associated with graft loss and to investigate its potential to detect and differentiate the related functional deterioration i.e., in a setting of acute kidney injury (AKI) as well as in renal grafts showing acute and chronic transplant rejection. 14 Lewis rats with unilateral ischaemic AKI and 43 Lewis rats with renal grafts showing acute or chronic rejections were used. All ASL measurements in this study were performed on a 3 T MR scanner using a FAIR True-FISP approach to assess renal blood flow (RBF). Perfusion maps were calculated and the cortical blood flow was determined using a region-of-interest based analysis. RBF of healthy and AKI kidneys as well as of both rejection models, were compared. In a subsample of 20 rats, creatinine clearance was measured and correlated with cortical perfusion. RBF differs significantly between healthy and AKI kidneys (P < 0.001) with a mean difference of 213 ± 80 ml/100 g/min. Renal grafts with chronic rejections show a significantly higher (P < 0.001) mean cortical perfusion (346 ± 112 ml/100 g/min) than grafts with acute rejection (240 ± 66 ml/100 g/min). Both transplantation models have a significantly (P < 0.001) lower perfusion than healthy kidneys. Renal creatinine clearance is significantly correlated (R = 0.85, P < 0.001) with cortical blood flow. Perfusion measurements with ASL have the potential to become a valuable diagnostic tool, regarding the detection of renal impairment and the differentiation of disorders that lead to a loss of renal function and that are typically associated with graft loss.

  20. Inhibition of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases Ameliorates Hypertension-Induced Renal Vascular Remodeling in Rat Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jing

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, on high blood pressure and related vascular changes. Blood pressure was recorded, thicknesses of renal small artery walls were measured and ERK1/2 immunoreactivity and erk2 mRNA in renal vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and endothelial cells were detected by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization in normotensive wistar kyoto (WKY rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and PD98059-treated SHR. Compared with normo-tensive WKY rats, SHR developed hypertension at 8 weeks of age, thickened renal small artery wall and asymmetric arrangement of VSMCs at 16 and 24 weeks of age. Phospho-ERK1/2 immunoreactivity and erk2 mRNA expression levels were increased in VSMCs and endothelial cells of the renal small arteries in the SHR. Treating SHR with PD98059 reduced the spontaneous hypertension-induced vascular wall thickening. This effect was associated with suppressions of erk2 mRNA expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in VSMCs and endothelial cells of the renal small arteries. It is concluded that inhibition of ERK1/2 ameliorates hypertension induced vascular remodeling in renal small arteries.

  1. Trichloroethylene and trichloroethanol-induced formic aciduria and renal injury in male F-344 rats following 12 weeks exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaqoob, Noreen; Evans, Andrew; Foster, John R.; Lock, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is widely used as a cleaning and decreasing agent and has been shown to cause liver tumours in rodents and a small incidence of renal tubule tumours in male rats. The basis for the renal tubule injury is believed to be related to metabolism of TCE via glutathione conjugation to yield the cysteine conjugate that can be activated by the enzyme cysteine conjugate β-lyase in the kidney. More recently TCE and its major metabolite trichloroethanol (TCE-OH) have been shown to cause formic aciduria which can cause renal injury after chronic exposure in rats. In this study we have compared the renal toxicity of TCE and TCE-OH in rats to try and ascertain whether the glutathione pathway or formic aciduria can account for the toxicity. Male rats were given TCE (500 mg/kg/day) or TCE-OH at (100 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks and the extent of renal injury measured at several time points using biomarkers of nephrotoxicity and prior to termination assessing renal tubule cell proliferation. The extent of formic aciduria was also determined at several time points, while renal pathology and plasma urea and creatinine were determined at the end of the study. TCE produced a very mild increase in biomarkers of renal injury, total protein, and glucose over the first two weeks of exposure and increased Kim-1 and NAG in urine after 1 and 5 weeks exposure, while TCE-OH did not produce a consistent increase in these biomarkers in urine. However, both chemicals produced a marked and sustained increase in the excretion of formic acid in urine to a very similar extent. The activity of methionine synthase in the liver of TCE and TCE-OH treated rats was inhibited by about 50% indicative of a block in folate synthesis. Both renal pathology and renal tubule cell proliferation were reduced after TCE and TCE-OH treatment compared to controls. Our findings do not clearly identify the pathway which is responsible for the renal toxicity of TCE but do provide some support for

  2. Trichloroethylene and trichloroethanol-induced formic aciduria and renal injury in male F-344 rats following 12 weeks exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqoob, Noreen; Evans, Andrew; Foster, John R; Lock, Edward A

    2014-09-02

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is widely used as a cleaning and decreasing agent and has been shown to cause liver tumours in rodents and a small incidence of renal tubule tumours in male rats. The basis for the renal tubule injury is believed to be related to metabolism of TCE via glutathione conjugation to yield the cysteine conjugate that can be activated by the enzyme cysteine conjugate β-lyase in the kidney. More recently TCE and its major metabolite trichloroethanol (TCE-OH) have been shown to cause formic aciduria which can cause renal injury after chronic exposure in rats. In this study we have compared the renal toxicity of TCE and TCE-OH in rats to try and ascertain whether the glutathione pathway or formic aciduria can account for the toxicity. Male rats were given TCE (500mg/kg/day) or TCE-OH at (100mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks and the extent of renal injury measured at several time points using biomarkers of nephrotoxicity and prior to termination assessing renal tubule cell proliferation. The extent of formic aciduria was also determined at several time points, while renal pathology and plasma urea and creatinine were determined at the end of the study. TCE produced a very mild increase in biomarkers of renal injury, total protein, and glucose over the first two weeks of exposure and increased Kim-1 and NAG in urine after 1 and 5 weeks exposure, while TCE-OH did not produce a consistent increase in these biomarkers in urine. However, both chemicals produced a marked and sustained increase in the excretion of formic acid in urine to a very similar extent. The activity of methionine synthase in the liver of TCE and TCE-OH treated rats was inhibited by about 50% indicative of a block in folate synthesis. Both renal pathology and renal tubule cell proliferation were reduced after TCE and TCE-OH treatment compared to controls. Our findings do not clearly identify the pathway which is responsible for the renal toxicity of TCE but do provide some support for metabolism

  3. Blood transfusion improves renal oxygenation and renal function in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Zafrani (Lara); B. Ergin (Bulent); Kapucu, A. (Aysegul); C. Ince (Can)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The effects of blood transfusion on renal microcirculation during sepsis are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of blood transfusion on renal microvascular oxygenation and renal function during sepsis-induced acute kidney injury. Methods: Twenty-seven Wistar

  4. Measurement of renal blood flow by 131I-labelled sodium iodohippurate imaging in a rat model of herpes encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleator, G.M.; Klapper, P.E.; Lewis, A.G.; Sharma, H.L.; Smith, A.M.; Manchester Univ.

    1990-01-01

    Renal blood flow was assessed qualitatively over a 30 min period in a rat model of herpes encephalitis by extra-renal scintigraphic imaging following the injection of 131 I-labelled sodium iodohippurate. No significant differences were observed for renal blood flow in either kidney between (or within) infected and control groups. Our data suggest that kidney function is not compromised in this animal model of encephalitis. The results are discussed in the context of the development of a non-invasive protocol for the in vivo diagnosis of herpes encephalitis. (orig.)

  5. Surgical Anatomy and Microvascular Surgical Technique Relevant to Experimental Renal Transplant in Rat Employing Aortic and Inferior Venacaval Conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Badri Man; Haylor, John

    2017-11-15

    Rat models of renal transplant are used to investigate immunologic processes and responses to therapeutic agents before their translation into routine clinical practice. In this study, we have described details of rat surgical anatomy and our experiences with the microvascular surgical technique relevant to renal transplant by employing donor inferior vena cava and aortic conduits. For this study, 175 rats (151 Lewis and 24 Fisher) were used to establish the Fisher-Lewis rat model of chronic allograft injury at our institution. Anatomic and technical details were recorded during the period of training and establishment of the model. A final group of 12 transplanted rats were studied for an average duration of 51 weeks for the Lewis-to-Lewis isografts (5 rats) and 42 weeks for the Fisher-to-Lewis allografts (7 rats). Functional measurements and histology confirmed the diagnosis of chronic allograft injury. Mastering the anatomic details and microvascular surgical techniques can lead to the successful establishment of an experimental renal transplant model.

  6. Effects of age and caloric restriction in the vascular response of renal arteries to endothelin-1 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Sara; García-Villalón, Angel Luis; Rubio, Carmen; Carrascosa, Jose Ma; Monge, Luis; Fernández, Nuria; Martín-Carro, Beatriz; Granado, Miriam

    2017-02-01

    Cardiovascular alterations are the most prevalent cause of impaired physiological function in aged individuals with kidney being one the most affected organs. Aging-induced alterations in renal circulation are associated with a decrease in endothelium-derived relaxing factors such as nitric oxide (NO) and with an increase in contracting factors such as endothelin-1(ET-1). As caloric restriction (CR) exerts beneficial effects preventing some of the aging-induced alterations in cardiovascular system, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of age and caloric restriction in the vascular response of renal arteries to ET-1 in aged rats. Vascular function was studied in renal arteries from 3-month-old Wistar rats fed ad libitum (3m) and in renal arteries from 8-and 24-month-old Wistar rats fed ad libitum (8m and 24m), or subjected to 20% caloric restriction during their three last months of life (8m-CR and 24m-CR). The contractile response to ET-1 was increased in renal arteries from 8m and 24m compared to 3m rats. ET-1-induced contraction was mediated by ET-A receptors in all experimental groups and also by ET-B receptors in 24m rats. Caloric restriction attenuated the increased contraction to ET-1 in renal arteries from 8m but not from 24m rats possibly through NO release proceeding from ET-B endothelial receptors. In 24m rats, CR did not attenuate the aging-increased response of renal arteries to ET-1, but it prevented the aging-induced increase in iNOS mRNA levels and the aging-induced decrease in eNOS mRNA levels in arterial tissue. In conclusion, aging is associated with an increased response to ET-1 in renal arteries that is prevented by CR in 8m but not in 24m rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of spironolactone on renal and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in Type 2 diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Suwan; Li Sumei; Zhai Fei; Zhang Li; Zhang Rong; Ru Yan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the influence of spironolactone on the serum and urine intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) level, and the change of renal structure and function of type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: 30 healthy male SD rats were chosen 10 of them were randomly selected as normal controls (group NC) n=10; Then these rats were randomly divided into type 2 diabetes group (group DM) n=10 and type 2 diabetes + spironolactone treated group (group SPI) n=10. After 8 weeks, the levels of blood glucose, serum lipids, urine biochemical, renal pathological changes were examined; while the serum and urine ICAM-1 levels changes were also detected. Results: 1. Compared with group NC, the levels of fBG and HbA1c were significantly increased in group DM and group SPI (P 0.05). 2. After 8 weeks,the levels of ACR, URBP, UICAM-1, SICAM-1 and kidney/body weight ratio in group DM and group SPI were higher than group NC (P<0.05); the five indexes were significantly lower in group SPI compared with group DM (P<0.05). In addition, UICAM-1 excretion rate and SICAM-1 level showed positive correlations with ACR, URBP excretion rate and kidney/body weight ratio (P<0.01). 3. Pathology showed that the extent of glomerular lesions in rats in group SPI apparently reduced, ICAM-1 expression was decreased compared with that in group DM (P<0.01). Conclusion: Spironolactone can definitely protect type 2 diabetic kidney,and this protective effect was independent on the hypoglycemic effect. The mechanisms might be associated with its inhibition effect on ICAM-1 expression and its excretion. (authors)

  8. Calcium, zinc and vitamin E ameliorate cadmium-induced renal oxidative damage in albino Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeepkiran Jangampalli Adi

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to examine the protective effects of supplementation with calcium + zinc (Ca + Zn or vitamin E (Vit-E on Cd-induced renal oxidative damage. Young albino Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g (n = 6 control rats, Cd, Cd + Ca + Zn, and Cd + Vit-E experimental groups and the experimental period was 30 days. Rats were exposed to Cd (20 mg/kg body weight alone treated as Cd treated group and the absence or presence of Ca + Zn (2 mg/kg each or Vit-E (20 mg/kg body weight supplementation treated as two separate groups. The activities of the stress marker enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and lipid peroxidase (LPx were determined in renal mitochondrial fractions of experimental rats. We observed quantitative changes in SOD isoenzymatic patterns by non-denaturing PAGE analysis, and quantified band densities. These results showed that Cd exposure leads to decreases in SOD, CAT, GR, and GPx activities and a concomitant increase in LPx and GST activities. Ca + Zn and Vit-E administration with Cd significantly reversed Cd-induced perturbations in oxidative stress marker enzymes. However, Vit-E showed more inhibitory activity against Cd than did Ca + Zn, and it protected against Cd-induced nephrotoxicity. Keywords: Cadmium (Cd, Oxidative stress, Lipid peroxidation, Nephrotoxicity, PAGE analysis

  9. Grape Seed oil as Anti hepatic and Anti renal Dysfunction agent in Paracetamol Administrated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.F.; Osman, N.N.; Darwish, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    The protection conferred by dietary grape seed oil (GSO) against paracetamol (PCL)-induced liver and kidney dysfunction have been evaluated in adult male albino Wistar rats. The animals (180-200 g) were randomly divided into four groups of seven rats each. Group l: normal control, group II: animals received GSO (3.7 g Kg-1 body wt/day orally), group III: animals received PCL (4 g Kg-1 body wt/day orally) and group IV: animals received PCL plus GSO. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (AP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), urea (U), creatinine (Cr) and albumin (A) levels in serum and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were measured. In addition, the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the liver and kidney homogenates were chosen for assessing. The PCL induced a significant elevation in the serum AST, ALT, AP and GGT. Moreover, a significant increase in serum U, Cr, A and BUN were evident. Furthermore, a significant rise in TBARS, while a significant declined activity of SOD and CAT and GSH content in liver and kidney homogenates were also observed. Oral administration of GSO resulted in a significant reduction in liver and kidney markers in serum, BUN as well hepatic and renal TBARS accompanied by a significant improvement in the tissue antioxidants and A, when compared with PCL damaged rats. It was suggested that GSO has potent hepatic and renal protective effects against the oxidative damage induced in rats due to PCL treatment, perhaps by its antioxidative effects hence eliminating the deleterious effects of PCL.

  10. Brown Norway chromosome 1 congenic reduces symptoms of renal disease in fatty Zucker rats.

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    Craig H Warden

    Full Text Available We previously reported that a congenic rat with Brown Norway (BN alleles on chromosome 1 reduces renal disease of 15-week old fatty Zucker rats (ZUC. Development of renal disease in fatty BN congenic and fatty ZUC rats from 9 through 28 weeks is now examined. Analysis of urine metabolites by (1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy revealed a significantly increased urinary loss of glucose, myo-inositol, urea, creatine, and valine in ZUC. Food intake was lower in the BN congenic rats at weeks 9-24, but they weighed significantly more at 28 weeks compared with the ZUC group. Fasting glucose was significantly higher in ZUC than congenic and adiponectin levels were significantly lower in ZUC, but there was no significant genotype effect on Insulin levels. Glucose tolerance tests exhibited no significant differences between ZUC and congenic when values were normalized to basal glucose levels. Quantitative PCR on livers revealed evidence for higher gluconeogenesis in congenics than ZUC at 9 weeks. Plasma urea nitrogen and creatinine were more than 2-fold higher in 28-week ZUC. Twelve urine protein markers of glomerular, proximal and distal tubule disease were assayed at three ages. Several proteins that indicate glomerular and proximal tubular disease increased with age in both congenic and ZUC. Epidermal growth factor (EGF level, a marker whose levels decrease with distal tubule disease, was significantly higher in congenics. Quantitative histology of 28 week old animals revealed the most significant genotype effect was for tubular dilation and intratubular protein. The congenic donor region is protective of kidney disease, and effects on Type 2 diabetes are likely limited to fasting glucose and adiponectin. The loss of urea together with a small increase of food intake in ZUC support the hypothesis that nitrogen balance is altered in ZUC from an early age.

  11. A magnesium based phosphate binder reduces vascular calcification without affecting bone in chronic renal failure rats.

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    Ellen Neven

    Full Text Available The alternative phosphate binder calcium acetate/magnesium carbonate (CaMg effectively reduces hyperphosphatemia, the most important inducer of vascular calcification, in chronic renal failure (CRF. In this study, the effect of low dose CaMg on vascular calcification and possible effects of CaMg on bone turnover, a persistent clinical controversy, were evaluated in chronic renal failure rats. Adenine-induced CRF rats were treated daily with 185 mg/kg CaMg or vehicle for 5 weeks. The aortic calcium content and area% calcification were measured to evaluate the effect of CaMg. To study the effect of CaMg on bone remodeling, rats underwent 5/6th nephrectomy combined with either a normal phosphorus diet or a high phosphorus diet to differentiate between possible bone effects resulting from either CaMg-induced phosphate deficiency or a direct effect of Mg. Vehicle or CaMg was administered at doses of 185 and 375 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks. Bone histomorphometry was performed. Aortic calcium content was significantly reduced by 185 mg/kg/day CaMg. CaMg ameliorated features of hyperparathyroid bone disease. In CRF rats on a normal phosphorus diet, the highest CaMg dose caused an increase in osteoid area due to phosphate depletion. The high phosphorus diet combined with the highest CaMg dose prevented the phosphate depletion and thus the rise in osteoid area. CaMg had no effect on osteoblast/osteoclast or dynamic bone parameters, and did not alter bone Mg levels. CaMg at doses that reduce vascular calcification did not show any harmful effect on bone turnover.

  12. N-acetylcysteine protects rats with chronic renal failure from gadolinium-chelate nephrotoxicity.

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    Leonardo Victor Barbosa Pereira

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Gd-chelate on renal function, iron parameters and oxidative stress in rats with CRF and a possible protective effect of the antioxidant N-Acetylcysteine (NAC. Male Wistar rats were submitted to 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx to induced CRF. An ionic-cyclic Gd (Gadoterate Meglumine was administrated (1.5 mM/KgBW, intravenously 21 days after Nx. Clearance studies were performed in 4 groups of anesthetized animals 48 hours following Gd- chelate administration: 1--Nx (n = 7; 2--Nx+NAC (n = 6; 3--Nx+Gd (n = 7; 4--Nx+NAC+Gd (4.8 g/L in drinking water, initiated 2 days before Gd-chelate administration and maintained during 4 days (n = 6. This group was compared with a control. We measured glomerular filtration rate, GFR (inulin clearance, ml/min/kg BW, proteinuria (mg/24 hs, serum iron (µg/dL; serum ferritin (ng/mL; transferrin saturation (%, TIBC (µg/dL and TBARS (nmles/ml. Normal rats treated with the same dose of Gd-chelate presented similar GFR and proteinuria when compared with normal controls, indicating that at this dose Gd-chelate is not nephrotoxic to normal rats. Gd-chelate administration to Nx-rats results in a decrease of GFR and increased proteinuria associated with a decrease in TIBC, elevation of ferritin serum levels, transferrin oversaturation and plasmatic TBARS compared with Nx-rats. The prophylactic treatment with NAC reversed the decrease in GFR and the increase in proteinuria and all alterations in iron parameters and TBARS induced by Gd-chelate. NAC administration to Nx rat did not modify the inulin clearance and iron kinetics, indicating that the ameliorating effect of NAC was specific to Gd-chelate. These results suggest that NAC can prevent Gd-chelate nephrotoxicity in patients with chronic renal failure.

  13. Experimental selective elevation of renal medullary blood flow in hypertensive rats: evidence against short-term hypotensive effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bądzyńska, B; Sadowski, J

    2012-08-01

    Renal medullary blood flow (MBF) can be selectively increased by intrarenal or systemic infusion of bradykinin (Bk) in anaesthetized normotensive rats. We reproduced this effect in a number of rat models of arterial hypertension and examined whether increased perfusion of the renal medulla can cause a short-term decrease in blood pressure (BP) that is not mediated by increased renal excretion and depletion of body fluids. In uninephrectomized Sprague-Dawley rats, BP was elevated to approx. 145 mmHg by acute i.v. infusion of noradrenaline (NA) or angiotensin II (Ang II) (groups 1, 2), 2-week exposure to high-salt diet (3), high-salt diet + chronic low-dose infusion of Ang II using osmotic minipumps (4) or chronic high-dose Ang II infusion on normal diet (5). Uninephrectomized spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) were also examined (6,7). To selectively increase medullary perfusion, in anaesthetized rats, bradykinin was infused during 30-75 min into the renal medullary interstitium or intravenously. Bradykinin increased outer- and inner-medullary blood flow (laser-Doppler fluxes) by 10-20% in groups (1, 2), by 30-50% in groups (3, 4, 5) and approx. 20% in SHR (6, 7). The concurrent increase in total renal blood flow (Transonic probe) was < 3%. A minor (<3%) decrease in BP was seen only in rats acutely rendered hypertensive by NA or Ang II infusions; however, the decreases in BP and increases in medullary perfusion were not correlated. Thus, there was no evidence that in hypertensive rats, substantial selective increases in medullary perfusion can cause a short-term decrease in BP. © 2012 The Authors Acta Physiologica © 2012 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  14. Effect of Regular Exercise on the Histochemical Changes of d-Galactose-Induced Oxidative Renal Injury in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sok; Kim, Chan-Sik; Lee, Jin; Suk Kim, Jung; Kim, Junghyun

    2013-01-01

    Renal lipid accumulation exhibits slowly developing chronic kidney disease and is associated with increased oxidative stress. The impact of exercise on the obese- and oxidative stress-related renal disease is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a high-fat diet (HFD) would accelerate d-galactose-induced aging process in rat kidney and to examine the preventive effect of regular exercise on the obese- and oxidative stress-related renal disease. Oxidative stress was induced by an administration of d-galactose (100 mg/kg intraperitoneally injected) for 9 weeks, and d-galactose-treated rats were also fed with a high-fat diet (60% kcal as fat) for 9 weeks to induce obesity. We investigated the efficacy of regular exercise in reducing renal injury by analyzing Nε-carboxymethyllysine (CML), 8-hydroxygluanine (8-OHdG) and apoptosis. When rats were fed with a HFD for 9 weeks in d-galactose-treated rats, an increased CML accumulation, oxidative DNA damage and renal podocyte loss were observed in renal glomerular cells and tubular epithelial cells. However, the regular exercise restored all these renal changes in HFD plus d-galactose-treated rats. Our data suggested that long-term HFD may accelerate the deposition of lipoxidation adducts and oxidative renal injury in d-galactose-treated rats. The regular exercise protects against obese- and oxidative stress-related renal injury by inhibiting this lipoxidation burden

  15. Influence of X-radiation on the renal function as studied in the unilaterally nephrectomized rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sittner, A.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of X-ray radiation on the renal function was studied in 83 Wistar rats. The rats received either only whole-body irradiation or were exposed to whole-body irradiation at certain intervals after unilateral nephrectomy. When the interval between operation and irradiation was shortened from 10 to 2 days, early lethality increased, although it has not yet been established whether the operation or the lack of a kidney plays a greater role here. The weight behaviour of non-nephrectomized or unilaterally nephrectomized rats is a function of the radiation dose; inappetence, dehydration and decreased intestinal absorption are influencing factors. Animals that died had exhibited another loss of weight after the 10th day p.r. The non-nephrectomized rats having undergone whole-body irradiation exhibited a decrease in serum urea on the 2nd and 10th day p.r. Animals unilaterally nephrectomized and then exposed to whole-body irradiation exhibited an increase in serum urea which was the more pronounced the earlier irradiation had taken place after unilateral nephrectomy. This raised urea level in the nephrectomized animals may be attributed to the compensatory hypertrophy not yet existing and to the reduced filtrate. (orig.) [de

  16. Stanniocalcin 1 effects on the renal gluconeogenesis pathway in rat and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Vanessa; Kucharski, Luiz C; Guerreiro, Pedro M G; Martins, Tiago Leal; Morgado, Isabel; Power, Deborah M; Canario, Adelino V M; da Silva, Roselis S M

    2015-10-15

    The mammalian kidney contributes significantly to glucose homeostasis through gluconeogenesis. Considering that stanniocalcin 1 (STC1) regulates ATP production, is synthesized and acts in different cell types of the nephron, the present study hypothesized that STC1 may be implicated in the regulation of gluconeogenesis in the vertebrate kidney. Human STC1 strongly reduced gluconeogenesis from (14)C-glutamine in rat renal medulla (MD) slices but not in renal cortex (CX), nor from (14)C-lactic acid. Total PEPCK activity was markedly reduced by hSTC1 in MD but not in CX. Pck2 (mitochondrial PEPCK isoform) was down-regulated by hSTC1 in MD but not in CX. In fish (Dicentrarchus labrax) kidney slices, both STC1-A and -B isoforms decreased gluconeogenesis from (14)C-acid lactic, while STC1-A increased gluconeogenesis from (14)C-glutamine. Overall, our results demonstrate a role for STC1 in the control of glucose synthesis via renal gluconeogenesis in mammals and suggest that it may have a similar role in teleost fishes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Renal handling of technetium-99m DMSA in rats with proximal tubular dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provoost, A.P.; Van Aken, M.

    1985-01-01

    The renal handling of technetium-/sup 99m/ dimercaptosuccinic acid ([/sup 99m/Tc]DMSA) was studied in rats before and after treatment with Na-maleate (2 mmol/kg i.v.). In the control period, when measured 2 hr after the intravenous injection of [/sup 99m/Tc]DMSA, 39.9% of the injected dose was in the kidneys and 14.6% was in the bladder. After Na-maleate treatment, only 6.4% of the injected dose of [/sup 99m/Tc]DMSA was retained in the kidneys while 37.9% was found in the bladder. Subsequent studies revealed that Na-maleate produced a fall in the glomerular filtration rate, the effective renal plasma flow, and a generalized proximal tubular dysfunction. The latter was characterized by polyuria and an increased excretion of glucose, protein, albumin, calcium, and inorganic phosphate. It was concluded that proximal tubular dysfunction markedly alters the renal handling of [/sup 99m/Tc]DMSA. Whether this augmented urinary excretion is due to an inhibition of reabsorption or an enhanced cellular efflux of [/sup 99m/Tc]DMSA remains to be answered

  18. Effect of olive leaf alcoholic extract on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammadreza nasirzade

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R is present at various degrees in kidney transplants. Several studies suggest that renal ischemia reperfusion (RIR can induce acute kidney injury.  Liver diseases and neurological disorders related to kidney injury is a common clinical problem. Olive leaf is a significant source of bioactive phenolic compounds. They have better antioxidant capacity, anti-inflammatory and radical scavenging. In this study 50 male rats were allocated randomly into 5 groups: control (intact animals, group-1(I/R 60min+olive leaf extract, group-2 (I/R 60min, group-3(I/R 120min+olive leaf extractand group-4(I/R 120min.The animals  received 100 mg/kg olive leaf extract in0.5 ml drinking water using gavage for 28 days. Other animals received 0.5 ml normal saline by gavages. At the end of the treatment, the level of antioxidant enzymes including TAC, MDA, SOD and GPX were determined in renal tissue. Administration of olive leaf extract can significantly increase activity of TAC, GPX and SOD in group1and 3compared with group2and4. Also, MDA level in renal tissue of treated groups was significantly lower than ischemia-reperfusion groups (p

  19. A study on renal damage in rats induced by different concentrations and osmolarities of diatrizoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ki Soon; Sung, Dong Wook; Yoon, Yup; Lim, Jae Hoon

    1992-01-01

    There has been few papers regarding the pathologic changes of kidney induced by contrast media, especially in terms of iodine concentration or osmolarity. In order to evaluate histopathologic changes, a series of rat kidneys, after injection of iodinated contrast media, were examined. A total of 220 rats were divided into two groups:those given Urografin-60% by 6.3ml/Kg(1840mg/6.3ml):those given Urografin-76% by 5ml/Kg(1850mg/5ml). The kidneys were removed and microscopically examined on 1, 2, 3, 5, 7,10th days, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 6th and 12th weeks after injection of contrast media, respectively. The results were as follows: Renal pathologic changes induced by contrast media were congestion and ectatic change of the interstitial vessels, epithelial degeneration and necrosis of the collecting ducts. Congestion of interstitial vessels and epithelial degeneration and necrosis of the collecting ducts were serve in the higher iodine concentration Urografin-76% group(2100 Osm/Kg H 2 O) than the Urografin-60% group (1500 Osm/Kg H 2 O). And above pathological changes persisted for 12 weeks without significant interval changes. The authors conclude that the renal damage induced by ionic contrast media becomes more severe in higher concentrations or osmolarities in spite of the same amount of iodine and that the pathologic changes persisted until 12 weeks without improvement

  20. Gold nanoparticles ameliorate acetaminophen induced hepato-renal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshi, Mohd Salim; Shrivastava, Sadhana; Jaswal, Amita; Sinha, Neelu; Uthra, Chhavi; Shukla, Sangeeta

    2017-04-04

    Valuable effects of gold particles have been reported and used in complementary medicine for decades. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) against acetaminophen (APAP) induced toxicity. Albino rats were administered APAP at a dose of 2g/kg p.o. once only. After 24h of APAP intoxication, animals were treated with three different doses of AuNPs (50μg/kg, 100μg/kg, 150μg/kg) orally or silymarin at a dose of 50mg/kg p.o., once only. Animals of all the groups were sacrificed after 24h of last treatment. APAP administered group showed a significant rise in the AST, ALT, SALP, LDH, cholesterol, bilirubin, albumin, urea and creatinine in serum which indicated the hepato-renal damage. A significantly enhanced LPO and a depleted level of GSH were observed in APAP intoxicated rats. Declined activities of SOD and Catalase, after acetaminophen exposure indicated oxidative stress in liver and kidney. The activities of ATPase and glucose-6-Phosphatase were significantly inhibited after APAP administration. AuNPs treatment reversed all variables significantly towards normal level and was found nontoxic. Thus it is concluded that gold nanoparticles played a beneficial role in reducing acetaminophen induced toxicity and can be used in the development of drug against hepatic as well as renal diseases, after further preclinical and clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. The pedunculopontine tegmentum controls renal sympathetic nerve activity and cardiorespiratory activities in nembutal-anesthetized rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Fink

    Full Text Available Elevated renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA accompanies a variety of complex disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Understanding pathophysiologic renal mechanisms is important for determining why hypertension is both a common sequelae and a predisposing factor of these disorders. The role of the brainstem in regulating RSNA remains incompletely understood. The pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPT is known for regulating behaviors including alertness, locomotion, and rapid eye movement sleep. Activation of PPT neurons in anesthetized rats was previously found to increase splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure, in addition to altering breathing. The present study is the first investigation of the PPT and its potential role in regulating RSNA. Microinjections of DL-homocysteic acid (DLH were used to probe the PPT in 100-μm increments in Nembutal-anesthetized rats to identify effective sites, defined as locations where changes in RSNA could be evoked. A total of 239 DLH microinjections were made in 18 rats, which identified 20 effective sites (each confirmed by the ability to evoke a repeatable sympathoexcitatory response. Peak increases in RSNA occurred within 10-20 seconds of PPT activation, with RSNA increasing by 104.5 ± 68.4% (mean ± standard deviation from baseline. Mean arterial pressure remained significantly elevated for 30 seconds, increasing from 101.6 ± 18.6 mmHg to 135.9 ± 36.4 mmHg. DLH microinjections also increased respiratory rate and minute ventilation. The effective sites were found throughout the rostal-caudal extent of the PPT with most located in the dorsal regions of the nucleus. The majority of PPT locations tested with DLH microinjections did not alter RSNA (179 sites, suggesting that the neurons that confer renal sympathoexcitatory functions comprise a small component of the PPT. The study also underscores the importance of further investigation to

  2. Proximal renal tubular injury in rats sub-chronically exposed to low fluoride concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cárdenas-González, Mariana C.; Del Razo, Luz M. [Departmento de Toxicología, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), México, D. F., México (Mexico); Barrera-Chimal, Jonatan [Unidad de Fisiología Molecular, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México and Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, México, D. F., México (Mexico); Jacobo-Estrada, Tania [Departmento de Toxicología, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), México, D. F., México (Mexico); López-Bayghen, Esther [Departamento de Genética y Biología Molecular, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), México, D. F., México (Mexico); and others

    2013-11-01

    Fluoride is usually found in groundwater at a very wide range of concentration between 0.5 and 25 ppm. At present, few studies have assessed the renal effects of fluoride at environmentally relevant concentrations. Furthermore, most of these studies have used insensitive and nonspecific biomarkers of kidney injury. The aim of this study was to use early and sensitive biomarkers to evaluate kidney injury after fluoride exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations. Recently weaned male Wistar rats were exposed to low (15 ppm) and high (50 ppm) fluoride concentrations in drinking water for a period of 40 days. At the end of the exposure period, kidney injury biomarkers were measured in urine and renal mRNA expression levels were assessed by real time RT-PCR. Our results showed that the urinary kidney injury molecule (Kim-1), clusterin (Clu), osteopontin (OPN) and heat shock protein 72 excretion rate significantly increased in the group exposed to the high fluoride concentration. Accordingly, fluoride exposure increased renal Kim-1, Clu and OPN mRNA expression levels. Moreover, there was a significant dose-dependent increase in urinary β-2-microglobulin and cystatin-C excretion rate. Additionally, a tendency towards a dose dependent increase of tubular damage in the histopathological light microscopy findings confirmed the preferential impact of fluoride on the tubular structure. All of these changes occurred at early stages in which, the renal function was not altered. In conclusion using early and sensitive biomarkers of kidney injury, we were able to found proximal tubular alterations in rats sub-chronically exposed to fluoride. - Highlights: • Exposure to low concentrations of fluoride induced proximal tubular injury • Increase in urinary Kim-1, Clu, OPN and Hsp72 in 50 ppm fluoride-exposed group • Increase in urinary B2M and CysC in 15 and 50 ppm fluoride-exposed groups • Fluoride exposure increased renal Kim, Clu and OPN mRNA expression levels.

  3. Changes in expression of renal Oat1, Oat3 and Mrp2 in cisplatin-induced acute renal failure after treatment of JBP485 in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tao; Meng, Qiang; Wang, Changyuan; Liu, Qi; Guo, Xinjin; Sun, Huijun; Peng, Jinyong

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the effect of cyclo-trans-4-L-hydroxyprolyl-L-serine (JBP485) on acute renal failure (ARF) induced by cisplatin is related to change in expression of renal Oat1, Oat3 and Mrp2 in rats. JBP485 reduced creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and indoxyl sulfate (IS) in plasma and malondialdehyde (MDA) in kidney, and recovered the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in cisplatin-treated rats. The plasma concentration of PAH (para-aminohippurate) determined by LC–MS/MS was increased markedly after intravenous administration of cisplatin, whereas cumulative urinary excretion of PAH and the uptake of PAH in kidney slices were significantly decreased. qRT-PCR and Western-blot showed a decrease in mRNA and protein of Oat1 and Oat3, an increase in mRNA and protein of Mrp2 in cisplatin-treated rats, and an increase in IS (a uremic toxin) after co-treatment with JBP485. It indicated that JBP485 promoted urinary excretion of toxins by upregulating renal Mrp2. This therefore gives in part the explanation about the mechanism by which JBP485 improves ARF induced by cisplatin in rats. -- Highlights: ► Cisplatin induces acute renal failure (ARF). ► The expression of Oat1, Oat3 and Mrp2 were changed during ARF. ► The regulated expression of Oat1, Oat3 and Mrp2 is an adaptive protected response. ► JBP485 could facilitate the adaptive protective action.

  4. Changes in expression of renal Oat1, Oat3 and Mrp2 in cisplatin-induced acute renal failure after treatment of JBP485 in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tao, E-mail: liutaomedical@qq.com [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, 9 West Section, Lvshun South Road, Lvshunkou District, Dalian 116044 (China); Meng, Qiang, E-mail: mengq531@yahoo.cn [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, 9 West Section, Lvshun South Road, Lvshunkou District, Dalian 116044 (China); Provincial Key Laboratory for Pharmacokinetics and Transport, Liaoning, Dalian Medical University (China); Wang, Changyuan, E-mail: wangcyuan@163.com [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, 9 West Section, Lvshun South Road, Lvshunkou District, Dalian 116044 (China); Provincial Key Laboratory for Pharmacokinetics and Transport, Liaoning, Dalian Medical University (China); Liu, Qi, E-mail: llaqii@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, 9 West Section, Lvshun South Road, Lvshunkou District, Dalian 116044 (China); Provincial Key Laboratory for Pharmacokinetics and Transport, Liaoning, Dalian Medical University (China); Guo, Xinjin, E-mail: guo.xinjin@163.com [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, 9 West Section, Lvshun South Road, Lvshunkou District, Dalian 116044 (China); Sun, Huijun, E-mail: sunhuijun@hotmail.com [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, 9 West Section, Lvshun South Road, Lvshunkou District, Dalian 116044 (China); Provincial Key Laboratory for Pharmacokinetics and Transport, Liaoning, Dalian Medical University (China); Peng, Jinyong, E-mail: jinyongpeng2005@163.com [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, 9 West Section, Lvshun South Road, Lvshunkou District, Dalian 116044 (China); Provincial Key Laboratory for Pharmacokinetics and Transport, Liaoning, Dalian Medical University (China); and others

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the effect of cyclo-trans-4-L-hydroxyprolyl-L-serine (JBP485) on acute renal failure (ARF) induced by cisplatin is related to change in expression of renal Oat1, Oat3 and Mrp2 in rats. JBP485 reduced creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and indoxyl sulfate (IS) in plasma and malondialdehyde (MDA) in kidney, and recovered the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in cisplatin-treated rats. The plasma concentration of PAH (para-aminohippurate) determined by LC–MS/MS was increased markedly after intravenous administration of cisplatin, whereas cumulative urinary excretion of PAH and the uptake of PAH in kidney slices were significantly decreased. qRT-PCR and Western-blot showed a decrease in mRNA and protein of Oat1 and Oat3, an increase in mRNA and protein of Mrp2 in cisplatin-treated rats, and an increase in IS (a uremic toxin) after co-treatment with JBP485. It indicated that JBP485 promoted urinary excretion of toxins by upregulating renal Mrp2. This therefore gives in part the explanation about the mechanism by which JBP485 improves ARF induced by cisplatin in rats. -- Highlights: ► Cisplatin induces acute renal failure (ARF). ► The expression of Oat1, Oat3 and Mrp2 were changed during ARF. ► The regulated expression of Oat1, Oat3 and Mrp2 is an adaptive protected response. ► JBP485 could facilitate the adaptive protective action.

  5. Tranilast prevents renal interstitial fibrosis by blocking mast cell infiltration in a rat model of diabetic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Dan-Dan; Luo, Jun-Hui; Zhao, Zhu-Ye; Liao, Ying-Jun; Li, Ying

    2018-05-01

    Renal interstitial fibrosis is a final pathway that is observed in various types of kidney diseases, including diabetic kidney disease (DKD). The present study investigated the effect of tranilast on renal interstitial fibrosis and the association between its role and mast cell infiltration in a rat model of DKD. A total of 30 healthy 6‑week‑old male Sprague‑Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following four groups: Normal control group; DKD model group; low‑dose tranilast group (200 mg/kg/day); and high‑dose tranilast group (400 mg/kg/day). The morphological alterations of tubulointerstitial fibrosis were evaluated by Masson's trichrome staining, while mast cell infiltration into the renal tubular interstitium was measured by toluidine blue staining and complement C3a receptor 1 (C3aR) immunohistochemical staining (IHC). The expression of fibronectin (FN), collagen I (Col‑I), stem cell factor (SCF) and proto‑oncogene c‑kit (c‑kit) was detected by IHC, western blotting and reverse transcription‑quantitative‑polymerase chain reaction. The results demonstrated that tubulointerstitial fibrosis and mast cell infiltration were observed in DKD model rats, and this was improved dose‑dependently in the tranilast treatment groups. The expression of FN, Col‑I, SCF and c‑kit mRNA and protein was upregulated in the tubulointerstitium of DKD model rats compared with the normal control rats, and tranilast inhibited the upregulated expression of these markers. Furthermore, the degree of SCF and c‑kit expression demonstrated a significant positive correlation with C3aR‑positive mast cells and the markers of renal interstitial fibrosis. The results of the present study indicate that mast cell infiltration may promote renal interstitial fibrosis via the SCF/c‑kit signaling pathway. Tranilast may prevent renal interstitial fibrosis through inhibition of mast cell infiltration mediated through the SCF/c-kit signaling pathway.

  6. Angiotensin II stimulates basolateral 50-pS K channels in the thick ascending limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingxiao; Luan, Haiyan; Wu, Peng; Fan, Lili; Wang, Lijun; Duan, Xinpeng; Zhang, Dandan; Wang, Wen-Hui; Gu, Ruimin

    2014-03-01

    We used the patch-clamp technique to examine the effect of angiotensin II (ANG II) on the basolateral K channels in the thick ascending limb (TAL) of the rat kidney. Application of ANG II increased the channel activity and the current amplitude of the basolateral 50-pS K channel. The stimulatory effect of ANG II on the K channels was completely abolished by losartan, an inhibitor of type 1 angiotensin receptor (AT1R), but not by PD123319, an AT2R antagonist. Moreover, inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) also abrogated the stimulatory effect of ANG II on the basolateral K channels in the TAL. This suggests that the stimulatory effect of ANG II on the K channels was induced by activating PLC and PKC pathways. Western blotting demonstrated that ANG II increased the phosphorylation of c-Src at tyrosine residue 416, an indication of c-Src activation. This effect was mimicked by PKC stimulator but abolished by calphostin C. Moreover, inhibition of NADPH oxidase (NOX) also blocked the effect of ANG II on c-Src tyrosine phosphorylation. The role of Src-family protein tyrosine kinase (SFK) in mediating the effect of ANG II on the basolateral K channel was further suggested by the experiments in which inhibition of SFK abrogated the stimulatory effect of ANG II on the basolateral 50-pS K channel. We conclude that ANG II increases basolateral 50-pS K channel activity via AT1R and that activation of AT1R stimulates SFK by a PLC-PKC-NOX-dependent mechanism.

  7. Strontium incorporates at sites critical for bone mineralization in rats with renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oste, Line; Verberckmoes, Steven C.; Behets, Geert J.; Dams, Geert; Bervoets, An R.; De Broe, Marc E.; D'Haese, Patrick C.; Van Hoof, Viviane O.; Bohic, Sylvain; Drakopoulos, Michael

    2007-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the development of a mineralization defect during strontium administration and its reversibility after withdrawal in rats with chronic renal failure. Recently, strontium ranelate has been introduced as a therapeutic agent for osteoporosis. However, caution has to be taken, as this bone disorder mainly develops in elderly people who may present a moderately decreased renal function. In order to assess the ultra-structural localization of strontium in bone and thereby to get a better insight into the element's systemic effects on bone, synchrotron-based x-ray micro-fluorescence was applied, which showed that after 2 weeks of strontium loading (2 g l -1 in drinking water) in rats with renal failure, concomitant with the development of impaired mineralization, the element was localized mainly at the outer edge of the mineralized bone, while after longer loading periods, a more homogeneous distribution was found. After washout, strontium was found at sites deeper within the trabeculae, while newly deposited low-strontium-containing mineral was found at the outer edges. Synchrotron x-ray micro-diffraction analysis showed that strontium is incorporated in the apatite crystal lattice through exchange with calcium. The results show that strontium is initially incorporated in bone at sites of active bone mineralization, close to the osteoid/mineralization front.Most likely, strontium binds to matrix proteins serving as crystal nucleation points and by hetero-ionic substitution with calcium within the hydroxyapatite crystals, thereby impairing further hydroxyapatite formation. After withdrawal, strontium is released from these sites, by which mineralization is restored and the previously formed strontium-containing hydroxyapatite is buried under a new layer of mineralized bone. (authors)

  8. The effect of Aqueous Purslane (Portulaca Oleracea Extract on Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rat

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    syead Reza Fatemi Tabatabaei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the previous studies Portulaca oleracea (PO has antioxidative effects and several factors such as oxidative stress is involved in the renal injury caused by ischemia - reperfusion (I/R. Therefore, the goal of present study is to evaluate the renal I/R injury in rats received aqueous extracts of PO (AEPO. Material and Methods: First, the right nephrectomy was performed in adult male Wistar rats and after 20 days they were divided into 5 groups (6=n. Sham operated+vehicle (sham, sham operated+ AEPO300mg/kg (AEPO group, I/R, AEPO150+I/R and AEPO300+I/R. Each group was treated orally for 5 consecutive days by 150 or 300 mg/kg of either AEPO or saline. On the fifth day of treatment, I/R (45 min ischemia/24 hours reperfusion or sham operation was performed on the left kidney and amounts of urea and creatinine in serum and malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione (GSH and total antioxidant activity (TAA in the kidney tissue were measured. Comparisons between groups were analyzed by ANOVA and LSD test. P values of 0.05 or less were considered statistically significant. Results: Induction of I/R increased urea and creatinine levels. AEPO had no effect on serum urea and creatinine, of non-ischemic animals, but increased the levels of urea and creatinine in I/R and treatment groups. SOD activity was significantly higher in all groups (except AEPO300 group compared to the sham group. However the levels of MDA, GSH and TAA of I/R and treatment groups did not show any significant differences in comparison to sham group. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the PO aqueous extract did not ameliorate the I/R injury and even possibly some ingredients in the extract aggravate the renal I/R injury.

  9. Mesenchymal stem cells in renal function recovery after acute kidney injury: use of a differentiating agent in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Manna, Gaetano; Bianchi, Francesca; Cappuccilli, Maria; Cenacchi, Giovanna; Tarantino, Lucia; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Valente, Sabrina; Della Bella, Elena; Cantoni, Silvia; Claudia, Cavallini; Neri, Flavia; Tsivian, Matvey; Nardo, Bruno; Ventura, Carlo; Stefoni, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major health care condition with limited current treatment options. Within this context, stem cells may provide a clinical approach for AKI. Moreover, a synthetic compound previously developed, hyaluronan monoesters with butyric acid (HB), able to induce metanephric differentiation, formation of capillary-like structures, and secretion of angiogenic cytokines, was tested in vitro. Thereafter, we investigated the effects of human mesenchymal stem cells from fetal membranes (FMhMSCs), both treated and untreated with HB, after induction of ischemic AKI in a rat model. At reperfusion following 45-min clamping of renal pedicles, each rat was randomly assigned to one of four groups: CTR, PBS, MSC, and MSC-HB. Renal function at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days was assessed. Histological samples were analyzed by light and electron microscopy and renal injury was graded. Cytokine analysis on serum samples was performed. FMhMSCs induced an accelerated renal functional recovery, demonstrated by biochemical parameters and confirmed by histology showing that histopathological alterations associated with ischemic injury were less severe in cell-treated kidneys. HB-treated rats showed a minor degree of inflammation, both at cytokine and TEM analyses. Better functional and morphological recovery were not associated to stem cells' regenerative processes, but possibly suggest paracrine effects on microenvironment that induce retrieval of renal damaged tissues. These results suggest that FMhMSCs could be useful in the treatment of AKI and the utilization of synthetic compounds could enhance the recovery induction ability of cells.

  10. Direct conscious telemetry recordings demonstrate increased renal sympathetic nerve activity in rats with chronic kidney disease

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    Ibrahim M Salman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with sympathetic hyperactivity and impaired blood pressure control reflex responses, yet direct evidence demonstrating these features of autonomic dysfunction in conscious animals is still lacking. Here we measured renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP using telemetry-based recordings in a rat model of CKD, the Lewis Polycystic Kidney (LPK rat, and assessed responses to chemoreflex activation and acute stress. Male LPK and Lewis control animals (total n=16 were instrumented for telemetric recording of RSNA and MAP. At 12–13 weeks-of-age, resting RSNA and MAP, sympathetic and haemodynamic responses to both peripheral (hypoxia: 10% O2 and central chemoreflex (hypercapnia: 7% CO2 activation and acute stress (open-field exposure, were measured. As indicators of renal function, urinary protein (UPro and creatinine (Ucr levels were assessed. LPK rats had higher resting RSNA (1.2±0.1 vs. 0.6±0.1 µV, p<0.05 and MAP (151±8 vs. 97±2 mmHg, p<0.05 compared to Lewis. MAP was negatively correlated with Ucr (r=-0.80, p=0.002 and positively correlated with RSNA (r=0.66, p=0.014, with multiple linear regression modeling indicating the strongest correlation was with Ucr. RSNA and MAP responses to activation of the central chemoreflex and open-field stress were reduced in the LPK relative to the Lewis (all p<0.05. This is the first description of dual conscious telemetry recording of RSNA and MAP in a genetic rodent model of CKD. Elevated RSNA is likely a key contributor to the marked hypertension in this model, while attenuated RSNA and MAP responses to central chemoreflex activation and acute stress in the LPK indicate possible deficits in the neural processing of autonomic outflows evoked by these sympathoexcitatory pathways.

  11. Effect of chronic fish oil supplementation on renal function of normal and cachectic rats

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    R. Fernandez

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we determined the effect of chronic diet supplementation with n-3 PUFA on renal function of healthy and cachectic subjects by providing fish oil (1 g/kg body weight to female rats throughout pregnancy and lactation and then to their offspring post-weaning and examined its effect on renal function parameters during their adulthood. The animals were divided into four groups of 5-10 rats in each group: control, control supplemented with fish oil (P, cachectic Walker 256 tumor-bearing (W, and W supplemented with fish oil (WP. Food intake was significantly lower in the W group compared to control (12.66 ± 4.24 vs 25.30 ± 1.07 g/day. Treatment with fish oil significantly reversed this reduction (22.70 ± 2.94 g/day. Tumor growth rate was markedly reduced in the P group (16.41 ± 2.09 for WP vs 24.06 ± 2.64 g for W. WP group showed a significant increase in mean glomerular filtration rate compared to P and control (1.520 ± 0.214 ml min-1 kg body weight-1; P < 0.05. Tumor-bearing groups had low urine osmolality compared to control rats. The fractional sodium excretion decreased in the W group compared to control (0.43 ± 0.16 vs 2.99 ± 0.87%; P < 0.05, and partially recovered in the WP group (0.90 ± 0.20%. In summary, the chronic supplementation with fish oil used in this study increased the amount of fat in the diet by only 0.1%, but caused remarkable changes in tumor growth rate and cachexia, also showing a renoprotective function.

  12. Interaction of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum and renal irradiation on renal function in the young and adult rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongejan, H.T.M.; Provoost, A.P.; Molenaar, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    In the present study the age-dependence has been investigated of renal injury following the combined administration of c-DDP and irradiation. Single doses of c-DDP and radiation, causing a limited renal function decline on their own, were applied in combination. Following treatment, renal function and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were measured for 6 months. 25 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  13. The Protective Role of Tempol Against Oxidative Stress-Related Renal Impairment Induced by Gamma Rays in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekawy, H.M.S.; Elkhouly, W.A.; Tawfik, S.S.

    2015-01-01

    Tempol (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine-1 oxyl) is a naturally occurring substance that counteracts the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues and has been reported to permeate the biological membranes. In this study, tempol with dose of 18 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks has been shown to be effective in preventing several of the adverse consequences of oxidative stress and inflammation that underlie radiation damage. Adult rats were exposed to a total dose of 6 Gy gamma rays to determine the protective role of tempol on the biochemistry of the injured kidney because gamma rays displayed significant augmentation in renal oxidative modifications markers.The results indicated that plasma renal function tests; urea (Ur), creatinine (Cr), uric acid (UA) and sodium (Na), and plasma renal tubular injury markers; γ -glutamyltransferase ( γ -GT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), were increased significantly in gamma rays group. In addition, the renal oxidative stress parameters; malondialdehyde (MDA), total cholesterol (TC) and protein carbonyl (PC), were increased significantly, and reduced glutathione (GSH) was decreased significantly in gamma rays group. Moreover, the levels of renal antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), were decreased significantly, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) was in creased significantly in gamma rays group.The antioxidant treatment with tempol ameliorates gamma rays-induced biochemical alterations and dysfunction of kidney.Tempol, at levels within tolerable nutritional strategy, reduced the oxidative modification-related renal impairment induced by gamma radiation in rats.

  14. Role of Mas receptor in renal blood flow response to angiotensin-(1-7) in ovariectomized estradiol treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi, Shadan; Dehghani, Aghdas; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    The angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7), is abundantly produced in kidneys and antagonizes the function of angiotensin II through Mas receptor (MasR) or other unknown mechanisms. In the current study, the role of MasR and steroid hormone estrogen on renal blood flow response to Ang 1-7 administration was investigated in ovariectomized (OV) female rats. OV female Wistar-rats received estradiol (500 μg/kg/week) or vehicle for two weeks. In the day of the experiment, the animals were anesthetized, cannulated, and the responses including mean arterial pressure, renal blood flow (RBF), and renal vascular resistance at the constant level of renal perfusion pressure to graded infusion of Ang 1-7 at 0, 100 and 300 ng/kg/min were determined in OV and OV estradiol-treated (OVE) rats, treated with vehicle or MasR antagonist; A779. RBF response to Ang 1-7 infusion increased dose-dependently in vehicle (Pdose <0.001) and A779-treated (Pdose <0.01) animals. However, when MasR was blocked, the RBF response to Ang 1-7 significantly increased in OV animals compared with OVE rats (P<0.05). When estradiol was limited by ovariectomy, A779 increased RBF response to Ang 1-7 administration, while this response was attenuated in OVE animals.

  15. Alpha 1A and alpha 1B-adrenoceptors enhance inositol phosphate generation in rat renal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Büscher, R.; Philipp, T.; Brodde, O. E.

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the role of alpha 1A- and alpha 1B-adrenoceptors in noradrenaline- and methoxamine-stimulated inositol phosphate accumulation in rat renal cortical slices. [3H]Prazosin binding studies with and without inactivation of alpha 1B-adrenoceptors by chloroethylclonidine treatment suggested

  16. Central inhibitory effect of α-methyldopa on blood pressure, heart rate and body temperature of renal hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, F.P.; Ezer, Joseph; Jong, Wybren de

    The central inhibitory effect of α-methyldopa on blood pressure, heart rate and body temperature was studied in conscious renal hypertensive rats. Systemic administration of α-methyldopa decreased mean arterial blood pressure and body temperature and caused a short lasting increase in heart rate

  17. Effect of saline loading on uranium-induced acute renal failure in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishida, A.; Yonemura, K.; Ohishi, K.; Yamada, M.; Honda, N.

    1988-01-01

    Studies were performed to examine the effect of saline loading on uranium-induced acute renal failure (ARF) in rats. Forty-eight hours after the i.v. injection of uranyl acetate (UA, 5 mg/kg), inulin clearance rate (Cin) decreased to approximately 43% of the control value in water drinking rats (P less than 0.005). Animals receiving continuous isotonic saline infusion following UA showed higher urine flow and Cin (60% of control, P less than 0.01), and lessened intratubular cast formation when compared with water-drinking ARF rats. A short-term saline infusion following UA did not attenuate the decline in Cin (43% of control). An inverse relationship was found between Cin and the number of casts (r = -0.75, P less than 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed that standardized partial regression coefficient is statistically significant between Cin and cast formation (-0.69, P less than 0.05), but not between Cin and tubular necrosis (-0.07, P greater than 0.05). Renin depletion caused by DOCA plus saline drinking did not attenuate the decline in Cin in ARF (47% of control). No significant difference was found in urinary uranium excretion between water-drinking and saline-infused ARF rats. The findings suggest that continuous saline infusion following UA attenuates the decline in Cin in ARF rats; and that this beneficial effect of saline loading is associated with lessened cast formation rather than with suppressed renin-angiotensin activity or enhanced urinary-uranium excretion

  18. Modulatory effect of fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric on intestinal and renal disaccharidases in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G Suresh; Shetty, A K; Salimath, P V

    2005-06-01

    To elucidate the effect of feeding fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric (10%) on disaccharidases activities, the specific activities of intestinal and renal disaccharidases viz., sucrase, maltase and lactase were measured in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Specific activities of intestinal disaccharidases were increased significantly during diabetes and amelioration of these activities during diabetes was clearly visible by supplementing fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric in the diet. However during diabetes renal disaccharidases activities were significantly lower than those in the control rats. Fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric supplementations were beneficial in alleviating the reduction in maltase activity during diabetes, however not much change in the activities of sucrase and lactase was observed upon feeding. This positive influence of feeding fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric on intestinal and renal disaccharidases clearly indicates their beneficial role in the management of diabetes.

  19. Preclinical evaluation of nephroprotective potential of a probiotic formulation LOBUN on Cyclosporine-A induced renal dysfunction in Wistar rats

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    Kambham Venkateswarlu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of present study was to evaluate the nephroprotective effect of probiotic formulation LOBUN on Cyclosporine A (CsA induced renal dysfunction in Wistar rats. CsA (20 mg/kg body weight s.c was administered for 15 days to cause renal dysfunction in Wistar rats. The probiotic formulation LOBUN was administered with the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight (p.o for twice (TGI and thrice a day (TGII. The samples were analyzed for the parameters like blood urine nitrogen (BUN, serum creatinine, serum uric acid, total serum protein and urine proteins, urine potassium, urine sodium. The renal functional and histopathological studies revealed that the oral administration of probiotic formulation LOBUN has provided appreciable renoprotection and possibly alleviated the symptoms of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight administered thrice a day and also the results were supported by histopathological findings.

  20. Comparison of the effects of dexmedetomidine administered at two different times on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

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    Edip Gonullu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: We investigated the effect of dexmedetomidine on ischemic renal failure in rats. Methods: In the present study, 26 male adult Wistar albino rats weighting 230–300 g were randomly separated into four groups: sham-operated (n = 5, ischemia reperfusion (IR (IR group, n = 7, IR/reperfusion treatment with dexmedetomidine (Dex. R group, n = 7 and IR/pre-ischemic treatment with dexmedetomidine (Dex. I group, n = 7. In the first group, sham operation was achieved and renal clamps were not applied. For the IR group, renal ischemia was induced by occlusion of the bilateral renal arteries and veins for 60 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h. For the Dex. R and Dex. I groups, the same surgical procedure as in the IR group was performed, and dexmedetomidine (100 mcg/kg intraperitoneal was administrated at the 5th min after reperfusion and before ischemia. At the end of reperfusion, blood samples were drawn, the rats were sacrificed, and the left kidney was processed for histopathology. Results: The blood urea nitrogen (BUN levels in groups Dex. R and Dex. I were significantly lower than in the IR group (p = 0.015, p = 0.043, although urine flow was significantly higher in group Dex. R (p = 0.003. The renal histopathological score in the IR group was significantly higher than in the other groups. There was no significant difference between the Dex. R and Dex. I groups. Conclusions: The results were shown that administration of dexmedetomidine reduced the renal IR injury histomorphologically. Administration of dexmedetomidine in the reperfusion period was considered as more effective due to increase in urinary output and decrease in BUN levels. Keywords: Kidney, Ischemia/reperfusion, Dexmedetomidine, Acute renal failure

  1. Ultrastructural changes and nestin expression accompanying compensatory renal growth after unilateral nephrectomy in adult rats

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    Eladl MA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed Ahmed Eladl,1,2 Wael M Elsaed,2,3 Hoda Atef,4 Mohamed El-Sherbiny2 1Department of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates; 2Anatomy and Embryology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt; 3Anatomy and Embryology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Taibah University, Madinah, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Histology, University of Mansoura, Mansoura, Egypt Background: Several renal disorders affect the glomerular podocytes. Compensatory structural and functional changes have been observed in animals that have undergone unilateral renal ablation. These changes occur as a pliant response to quench the increased functional demand to maintain homeostasis of fluid and solutes. Nestin is an intermediate filament protein present in the glomerular podocytes of the adult kidney and is linked with the maintenance of its foot process structure. Structural changes in the podocytes ultimately restructure the filtration barrier. Very few studies related to the ultrastructural and histopathologic changes of the podocytes are documented. The present study aimed to assess the histopathologic changes at the ultrastructural level in the adapted kidney at different time intervals following unilateral renal ablation in adult rats and its relation with nestin.Methods: Forty-eight rats were divided into four groups (n=12 in each group. The animals of Group A were control naïve rats, while the group B, group C and group D animals underwent left unilateral nephrectomy and the remaining right kidney was removed on days 10, 20 and 30, respectively. Each group included four sham-operated rats, which were sacrificed at the same time as the naïve rats. Each nephrectomized sample was weighed and its sections were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin examination, transmission electron microscopic study as well as immunostaining using the intermediate filament protein nestin.Results: No difference was found

  2. Melatonin protects against lead-induced hepatic and renal toxicity in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sokkary, Gamal H.; Abdel-Rahman, Gamal H.; Kamel, Esam S.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the potential protective effect of melatonin against the hepatic and renal toxicity of lead in male rats. Three groups of animals were used in this study (control, lead acetate-treated (100 mg/kg), and lead acetate plus melatonin (10 mg/kg) for 30 days. Levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) products, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, total glutathione (GSH), histopathological changes in the liver and kidneys were investigated. In addition, nuclear area (NA), nuclear volume (NV) and the ratio of nuclear volume/cellular volume (N/C) were measured in the liver. The results revealed increased LPO and decreased SOD, GSH, NA, NV and N/C in the studied organs of lead-treated rats. Histopathological observations showed severe damage in the liver and kidneys. Melatonin co-treatment to the lead-administered rats attenuated the increase of LPO and restored the activity of SOD and levels of GSH as well as the mean values of NA, NV and N/C. Also, the morphological damage in the liver and kidneys was reduced and the tissues appeared like those of controls. The present study suggests that melatonin may be useful in combating free radical-induced damage due to lead toxicity

  3. Renal content and output of epidermal growth factor in long-term adrenergic agonist-treated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Nexø, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the renal and urinary levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in rats under long-term treatment with alpha- or beta-adrenergic agonists. Urine samples were obtained on days 7, 14 and 21, and renal tissue samples on day 21. EGF was quantified by ELISA and tissue sections were...... material in the distal tubules. Concomitantly, reduced levels of EGF and EGF mRNA were observed, and also the urinary levels of EGF were reduced. Together, these observations indicate alpha-adrenergic treatment to affect the distal tubules. Treatment with the beta-adrenergic agonist did not change...... fractional kidney weight, but initially the urinary excretion of EGF was reduced. The data add further evidence to the suggestion that activity of the sympathetic nervous system influences renal homeostasis of EGF, either directly or indirectly through renal histopathological changes....

  4. The Protective Effect of Omega-3 Against Thioacetamide Induced Lipid and Renal Dysfunction in Male Rats

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    Davood Moghadamnia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Thioacetamide causes lipid and kidney dysfunction.Omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids prevent the progression of renal diseases. Objectives This study aimed to assess the protective effects of omega-3 fish oil supplement on thioacetamide induced lipid and kidney dysfunction in male rats. Methods In this experimental study, 42 male rats were divided into 6 groups of 7: control group sham group which received 0.4 mL olive oil as a solvent, Thioacetamide group receiving thioacetamide at a dose of 150 mg/kg once as intraperitoneal injection, Experimental groups of 1, 2 and 3 which received omega-3 fish oil supplement at the doses of 100, 200, 300 mg/kg orally for 3 months respectively and then they received thioacetamide at the dose of 150 mg/kg intraperitoneally for once. The levels of serum creatinine, BUN, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, FBS, triglyceride, sodium and potassium were measured. The pathological changes of tissue samples of the kidneys were studied after hematoxylin-eosin staining. The data were analyzed by SPSS-18 software and using one way ANOVA and Tukey as post hoc test. Significant level was considered to be P < 0.05. Results The mean serum levels of potassium in the second experimental group significantly decreased (5.26 ± 0.02 compared to the group receiving thioacetamide (6.50 ± 0. The mean serum sodium in all experimental groups decreased significantly compared to the group receiving thioacetamide. The mean serum levels of total cholesterol in experimental group 3 (66.80 ± 1.46 significantly decreased compared to the group receiving thioacetamide (84 ± 0.57. No significant changes were observed in the mean serum levels of FBS, BUN, HDL, LDL, triglycerides and creatinine in all experimental groups compared to the group receiving thioacetamide. All the experimental groups improved renal histological changes induced by thioacetamide and these protective effects were dose-dependent (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusions The results of

  5. Protective effect of zinc aspartate against acetaminophen induced hepato-renal toxicity in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, E.T.; Said, A.I.; El-Sayed, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Zinc is an essential nutrient that is required in humans and animals for many physiological functions, including antioxidant functions. The evidence to date indicates that zinc is an important element that links antioxidant system and tissue damage. Acetaminophen (AP), a widely used analgesic and antipyretic, produces hepatocyte and renal tubular necrosis in human and animals following overdose. In human, AP is one of the most common causes of acute liver failure as a result of accidental or deliberate overdose. Moreover, the initial event in AP toxicity is a toxic metabolic injury with the release of free radicals and subsequent cellular death by necrosis and apoptosis. This study was designed to evaluate the potential protective role of zinc aspartate in case of acetaminophen induced hepato-renal toxicity in rats. A total number of 32 adult male albino rats were divided into 4 equal groups: group I (control group), group II (zinc aspartate treated group), group III (acetaminophen treated group; by a single oral dose of 750 mg/kg body weight) and group IV acetaminophen plus zinc treated group; (zinc aspartate was intraperitoneally given one hour after acetaminophen administration in a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight). Serum levels of: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, direct bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, xanthine oxidase (XO), glutathione (GSH), malonaldehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) were assessed in all groups. The results of this study showed that treatment with acetaminophen alone (group III) produced a significant increase in serum levels of the liver enzymes and direct bilirubin. Moreover, in the same group there was a significant increase in the blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine compared to the control group. In addition, there was a significant increase in XO and MDA and a significant decrease in GSH and NO level. Injection of rats with zinc aspartate after acetaminophen treatment could produce a

  6. Renovascular hypertension in spontaneous hypertensive rats: an experimental model of renal artery stenosis superimposed on essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, T; Bass, A; Grossman, E; Shani, M; Griffel, B; Adar, R

    1987-09-01

    Renovascular hypertension superimposed on essential hypertension, a condition encountered in the elderly, was studied. An experimental animal model consisting of a two-kidney one-clip Goldblatt preparation in the spontaneous hypertensive (SHR) rat, that would simulate this condition, was designed. A 0.25 mm silver clip was placed on the left renal artery of SHR male rats. The same procedure performed on WKY rats served as control. All experiments were performed on low, normal, and rich sodium diet. Systolic blood pressure (BP) was measured by tail-cuff method. Plasma renin concentration (PRC) was determined before and after clipping of the renal artery. Results were as follows: Mean systolic BP increased significantly in clipped rats fed with normal and rich sodium diets. SHR showed an increase from 144 +/- 3 (mean + s.e.m.) to 168 +/- 3 mmHg, and WKY rats showed an increase from 120 +/- 2 to 139 +/- 5 mmHg. There was a two- to threefold rise in PRC. A low-salt diet given prior to clipping prevented the appearance of renovascular hypertension despite a significant rise in PRC. We concluded that renal artery narrowing plays a significant role in the rise of BP in the basically essential type of hypertension.

  7. The effect of exposure of rats during prenatal period to radiation spreading from mobile phones on renal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedir, Recep; Tumkaya, Levent; Şehitoğlu, İbrahim; Kalkan, Yıldıray; Yilmaz, Adnan; Şahin, Osman Zikrullah

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exposure to a 900-MHz electromagnetic field (EMF) produced by mobile phones on the renal development of prenatal rats. Histopathological changes and apoptosis in the kidneys, together with levels of urea, creatinine and electrolyte in serum were determined. A total of 14 Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Pregnant rats were divided into two equal groups: a control group and an EMF-exposed group. The study group was exposed to 900-MHz of EMF during the first 20 days of pregnancy, while the control group was unexposed to EMF. Sections obtained from paraffin blocks were stained for caspase-3 by immunohistochemistry, hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome. Mild congestion and tubular defects, and dilatation of Bowman's capsule were observed in the kidney tissues of rats in the exposed group. Apoptosis was evaluated using anti-caspase-3; stronger positive staining was observed in the renal tubular cells in the study group than those of the control group. Although there was a significant difference between the study and control groups in terms of K+ level (p0.05). Our study shows that the electromagnetic waves propagated from mobile phones have harmful effects on the renal development of prenatal rats.

  8. Role of Calcium Sensing Receptor in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Exposed to Renal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

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    Bo Hu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury (RI/RI is a common complication of diabetes, and it may be involved in altering intracellular calcium concentrations at its onset, which can result in inflammation, abnormal lipid metabolism, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and nitroso-redox imbalance. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR is a G-protein coupled receptor, however, the functional involvement of CaSR in diabetic RI/ RI remains unclear. The present study was intended to investigate the role of CaSR on RI/RI in diabetes mellitus (DM. Methods: The bilateral renal arteries and veins of streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats were subjected to 45-min ischemia followed by 2-h reperfusion with or without R-568 (agonist of CaSR and NPS-2143 (antagonist of CaSR at the beginning of I/R procedure. DM without renal I/R rats served as control group. The expressions of CaSR, calmodulin (CaM, and p47phox in the renal tissue were analyzed by qRT-PCR and Western blot. The renal pathomorphology, renal function, oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and calcium disorder were evaluated by detection of a series of indices by hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining, transmission electron microscope (TEM, commercial kits, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and spectrophotofluorometry, respectively. Results: Results showed that the expressions of CaSR, CaM, and p47phox in I/R group were significantly up-regulated as compared with those in DM group, which were accompanied by renal tissue injury, increased calcium, oxidative stress, inflammation, and nitroso-redox imbalance. Conclusion: These results suggest that activation of CaSR is involved in the induction of damage of renal tubular epithelial cell during diabetic RI/RI, resulting in lipid peroxidation, inflammatory response, nitroso-redox imbalance, and apoptosis.

  9. Uptake and washout of I-123-MIBG in neuronal and non-neuronal sites in rat hearts. Relationship to renal clearance

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    Arbab, A.S.; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Araki, Tsutomu

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the uptake and washout of I-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) in neuronal (both intra-and extravesicular) and non-neuronal sites in the heart and its relationship to renal clearance. Acute renal failure was induced in rats by ligating the renal vessels, and the findings were compared with those of sham-operated rats. Each group consisted of control, reserpine-treated and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-treated subgroups. Rats were sacrificed at 10 minutes and 4 hours after injection of MIBG. MIBG activity was calculated in specimens of heart, spleen, lung and blood. At 10 minutes, no significant difference in MIBG uptake in the heart was observed among the subgroups or between sham-operated and renal failure rats despite a significantly higher blood MIBG activity in the latter. At 4 hours, however, the hearts of both reserpine-treated and 6-OHDA-treated rats showed significantly lower MIBG uptake than control rats. Furthermore, the hearts of renal failure rats showed higher MIBG uptake in the control and reserpine-treated rats than in the corresponding subgroups in sham-operated rats. Intra and extravesicular neuronal uptake of MIBG in the heart were estimated using control, reserpine-treated and 6-OHDA-treated rats. Vesicular uptake values were similar in both the sham-operated group (0.51% ID/g) and the renal failure group (0.44% ID/g). But extravesicular neuronal uptake values were quite different in the renal failure group (0.86% ID/g) and the sham-operated group (0.19% ID/g). In conclusion, uptake to and washout from extravesicular neuronal sites may depend on the concentration of MIBG in the blood or the state of renal clearance, but vesicular uptake may be independent of these factors. (author)

  10. Noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala modulates the consolidation of object-in-context recognition memory

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    Barsegyan, Areg; McGaugh, James L.; Roozendaal, Benno

    2014-01-01

    Noradrenergic activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) is well known to enhance the consolidation of long-term memory of highly emotionally arousing training experiences. The present study investigated whether such noradrenergic activation of the BLA also influences the consolidation of object-in-context recognition memory, a low-arousing training task assessing episodic-like memory. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to two identical objects in one context for either 3 ...

  11. Non-invasive imaging of acute renal allograft rejection in rats using small animal F-FDG-PET.

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    Stefan Reuter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: At present, renal grafts are the most common solid organ transplants world-wide. Given the importance of renal transplantation and the limitation of available donor kidneys, detailed analysis of factors that affect transplant survival are important. Despite the introduction of new and effective immunosuppressive drugs, acute cellular graft rejection (AR is still a major risk for graft survival. Nowadays, AR can only be definitively by renal biopsy. However, biopsies carry a risk of renal transplant injury and loss. Most important, they can not be performed in patients taking anticoagulant drugs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a non-invasive, entirely image-based method to assess AR in an allogeneic rat renal transplantation model using small animal positron emission tomography (PET and (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG. 3 h after i.v. injection of 30 MBq FDG into adult uni-nephrectomized, allogeneically transplanted rats, tissue radioactivity of renal parenchyma was assessed in vivo by a small animal PET-scanner (post operative day (POD 1,2,4, and 7 and post mortem dissection. The mean radioactivity (cps/mm(3 tissue as well as the percent injected dose (%ID was compared between graft and native reference kidney. Results were confirmed by histological and autoradiographic analysis. Healthy rats, rats with acute CSA nephrotoxicity, with acute tubular necrosis, and syngeneically transplanted rats served as controls. FDG-uptake was significantly elevated only in allogeneic grafts from POD 1 on when compared to the native kidney (%ID graft POD 1: 0.54+/-0.06; POD 2: 0.58+/-0.12; POD 4: 0.81+/-0.06; POD 7: 0.77+/-0.1; CTR: 0.22+/-0.01, n = 3-28. Renal FDG-uptake in vivo correlated with the results obtained by micro-autoradiography and the degree of inflammatory infiltrates observed in histology. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that graft FDG-PET imaging is a new option to non-invasively, specifically, early detect, and follow

  12. Prospects of N-Acetylcysteine and Melatonin as Treatments for Tramadol-Induced Renal Toxicity in Albino Rats

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    Elias Adikwu, Bonsome Bokolo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tramadol (TD has played an important role in the treatment of pain. However, renal toxicity due to TD abuse is a serious clinical challenge. This study assessed the effects of n-acetylcysteine (NAC and melatonin (MT on TD-induced renal toxicity in albino rats. Methods: Rats were randomized into groups and treated with MT (10mg/kg/day, NAC (10mg/kg/day and TD (15, 30, and 45mg/kg/day respectively. Rats were pretreated with MT (10mg/kg/day and NAC (10mg/kg/day prior to treatment with TD (15, 30, and 45mg/kg/day intraperitonialy for 7days respectively. Rats were sacrificed, serum extracted and evaluated for creatinine, urea and uric acid. The kidneys were evaluated for malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase, (CAT, and glutathione (GSH levels. Results: Treatment with MT and NAC did not produce significant (P>0.05 effects on serum creatinine, urea, uric acid and kidney MDA, SOD, CAT, and GSH levels when compare to saline control. In contrast, serum creatinine, urea, uric acid and kidney MDA levels were increased while kidney SOD, CAT, and GSH levels were decreased significantly (P<0.05 and in a dose-dependent manner in TD-treated rats. Kidneys of TD-treated rats showed varying degrees of damage which were dose-dependent. However, in all evaluated parameters, TD-induced alterations were abrogated in NAC and MT pretreated rats. Abrogations were most evident in rats pretreated with combined doses of NAC and MT. Conclusion: The present study showed prospects of n-acetylcysteine and melatonin as remedies for tramadol associated renal toxicity.

  13. S3226, a novel NHE3 inhibitor, attenuates ischemia-induced acute renal failure in rats.

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    Hropot, M; Juretschke, H P; Langer, K H; Schwark, J R

    2001-12-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) remains a major problem in clinical nephrology characterized by sudden loss of the kidney function due to ischemia, trauma, and/or nephrotoxic drugs. The current therapy of ARF is symptomatic with mortality rates exceeding 50%. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an intravenous infusion of S3226 (3-[2-(3-guanidino-2-methyl-3-oxopropenyl)-5-methyl-phenyl]-N-isopropylidene-2-methyl-acrylamide dihydrochloride), a selective Na+/H+ exchange subtype 3 (NHE3) blocker, in ischemia-induced ARF in rats. In a second series of experiments cytosolic pH (pHi) changes in the kidney during ARF were continuously measured by means of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). ARF was induced by bilateral occlusion of renal arteries for 40 minutes in three groups of anaesthetized Wistar rats. Control rats (N = 12) were infused with saline (6.25 mL/kg over 30 min) before occlusion and the compound groups (each N = 12) were infused with S3226 at a dose of 20 mg/kg over 30 minutes either before initiation of ischemia or immediately after release of clamps. Plasma creatinine (PCr), creatinine clearance (CCr), urine volume, sodium, and potassium excretion were determined up to seven days after release of clamps. In the second series of experiments in anaesthetized rats the left kidney was exposed by flank incision and fixed in a non-magnetic device. An inflatable cuff was positioned around the pedicle to induce ischemia without removing animals from the magnet. A double-tuned 1H-31P home-built surface coil was placed above the exposed kidney for the detection of pHi. At day 1 after ischemia CCr in the control group was significantly lower as compared to S3226-treated animals (control 0.30 +/- 0.05 vs. before 0.90 +/- 0.26 and reperfusion 0.83 +/- 0.15 mL/min/kg, respectively). PCr increased from 18 +/- 0.1 micromol/L before occlusion to 245 +/- 7 micromol/L in the control. The increase in PCr was significantly lower in the S3226 treated

  14. Sinvastatina e lesão renal aguda isquêmica em ratos Simvastatina y lesión renal aguda isquémica en ratas Simvastatin and acute ischemic renal injury in rats

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    Claudia Akemi Shibuya Teshima

    2012-01-01

    minutes. METHODS: Ischemia was obtained by clamping bilateral renal pedicles for 30 minutes, followed by reperfusion. Male Wistar rats were used, weighing between 250-300g, distributed into the following groups: SHAM (control, without clamping renal, Ischemia (renal ischemia for 30 minutes, Ischemia + Statin (simvastatin 0.5 mg/kg, orally for three days. Renal function (creatinine clearance, Jaffé method, urinary osmolality, and urinary peroxides were evaluated. RESULTS: The results showed that the statin improved renal function, and reduced urinary osmolality along with excretion of PU. CONCLUSION: In summary, the study confirmed the protective renal effects of statins, with an antioxidant action that protects the kidney.

  15. Cardiovascular and Renal Effects of Birdseed Associated with Aerobic Exercise in Rats.

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    Passos, Clévia Santos; Ribeiro, Rosemara Silva; Rosa, Thiago Santos; Neves, Rodrigo Vanerson Passos; Costa, Fernando; Ginoza, Milton; Boim, Mirian Aparecida

    2016-10-01

    Phalaris canariensis L. (Pc), known as birdseed, is rich in tryptophan. The aqueous extract of Pc (AEPc) treatment reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) via mechanisms mediated by the tryptophan metabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Hypertension is a risk factor to cardiovascular and renal diseases. Considering that physical exercise improves hypertension and cardiovascular function, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether the benefits of exercise (Ex) would be enhanced by concomitant AEPc treatment (400 mg·kg·d p.o.). Vascular reactivity was assessed in aorta rings from SHR treated with AEPc for 4 wk. Training intensity was based on maximal lactate steady state obtained during the 2-wk adaptation period in a treadmill running. Then exercised (60 min running, five times per week during 8 wk) or sedentary SHR were untreated or treated with AEPc during 8 wk. SBP was estimated by plethysmograph. Heart mass and body mass were used to obtain the index of cardiac hypertrophy. Glucose tolerance test was evaluated by oral glucose overload, and the mRNA expressions of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and IL-10 in the kidney were obtained by real time polymerase chain reaction. AEPc induced endothelial-mediated vascular relaxation. AEPc or Ex alone reduced SBP, the index of cardiac hypertrophy and ventricular fibrosis, improved glucose metabolism, and attenuated proteinuria and the renal expression of the proinflammatory IL-1β with an overexpression in the anti-inflammatory IL-10. AEPc potentiated the benefits of the Ex on the cardiovascular system, metabolic parameters, and renal inflammation. Birdseed reduced cardiovascular risk related to hypertension and had positive effects when associated to physical exercise.

  16. Toxoplasma gondii infection induces dendritic retraction in basolateral amygdala accompanied by reduced corticosterone secretion

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    Rupshi Mitra

    2013-03-01

    Pathological anxiety is thought to reflect a maladaptive state characterized by exaggerated fear. Naturally occurring perturbations that reduce fear can be crucial in the search for new treatments. The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii invades rat brain and removes the fear that rats have of cat odors, a change believed to be parasitic manipulation of host behavior aimed at increasing parasite transmission. It is likely that mechanisms employed by T. gondii can be used as a heuristic tool to understand possible means of fear reduction in clinical settings. Male Long-Evans rats were infected with T. gondii and compared with sham-infected animals 8 weeks after infection. The amount of circulating plasma corticosterone and dendritic arborization of basolateral amygdala principal neurons were quantified. Previous studies have shown that corticosterone, acting within the basolateral amygdala, enhances the fear response to environmental stimuli. Here we show that T. gondii infection causes a dendritic retraction in basolateral amygdala neurons. Such dendritic retraction is accompanied by lower amounts of circulating corticosterone, both at baseline and when induced by an aversive cat odor. The concerted effects of parasitism on two pivotal physiological nodes of the fear response provide an animal model relevant to interactions between stress hormones and amygdalar plasticity.

  17. Microbubbles induce renal hemorrhage when exposed to diagnostic ultrasound in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wible, James H; Galen, Karen P; Wojdyla, Jolette K; Hughes, Michael S; Klibanov, Alexander L; Brandenburger, Gary H

    2002-01-01

    The generation of ultrasound (US) bioeffects using a clinical imaging system is controversial. We tested the hypothesis that the presence of microbubbles in the US field of a medical imager induces biologic effects. Both kidneys of anesthetized rats were insonified for 5 min using a medical imaging system after the administration of microbubbles. One kidney was insonified using a continuous mode (30 Hz) and the opposite kidney was insonified using an intermittent (1 Hz) technique. The microbubbles were exposed to three different transducer frequencies and four transducer output powers. After insonification, the animals were euthanized, the kidneys were removed and their gross appearance scored under "blinded" conditions using a defined scale. After the administration of microbubbles, US imaging of the kidney caused hemorrhage in the renal tissue. The severity and area of hemorrhage increased with an increase in the transducer power and a decrease in the transducer frequency. Intermittent insonification in the presence of microbubbles produced a greater degree of renal hemorrhage than continuous imaging techniques.

  18. Prenatal programming of renal salt wasting resets postnatal salt appetite, which drives food intake in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwasel, Saleh H; Barker, David J P; Ashton, Nick

    2012-03-01

    Sodium retention has been proposed as the cause of hypertension in the LP rat (offspring exposed to a maternal low-protein diet in utero) model of developmental programming because of increased renal NKCC2 (Na+/K+/2Cl- co-transporter 2) expression. However, we have shown that LP rats excrete more rather than less sodium than controls, leading us to hypothesize that LP rats ingest more salt in order to maintain sodium balance. Rats were fed on either a 9% (low) or 18% (control) protein diet during pregnancy; male and female offspring were studied at 4 weeks of age. LP rats of both sexes held in metabolism cages excreted more sodium and urine than controls. When given water to drink, LP rats drank more and ate more food than controls, hence sodium intake matched excretion. However, when given a choice between saline and water to drink, the total volume of fluid ingested by LP rats fell to control levels, but the volume of saline taken was significantly larger [3.8±0.1 compared with 8.8±1.3 ml/24 h per 100 g of body weight in control and LP rats respectively; Psodium content and ECF (extracellular fluid) volumes were greater in LP rats. These results show that prenatal programming of renal sodium wasting leads to a compensatory increase in salt appetite in LP rats. We speculate that the need to maintain salt homoeostasis following malnutrition in utero stimulates greater food intake, leading to accelerated growth and raised BP (blood pressure).

  19. Role of Mas receptor in renal blood flow response to angiotensin (1-7) in male and female rats.

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    Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Safari, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic and clinical studies have shown that progression of renal disease in male is faster than that in female. However, the exact mechanisms are not well recognized. Angiotensin (1-7) (Ang 1-7) receptor, called "Mas", is an element in the depressor arm of renin angiotensin system (RAS), and its expression is enhanced in females. We test the hypothesis that Mas receptor (MasR) blockade (A779) attenuates renal blood flow (RBF) in response to infusion of graded doses of Ang 1-7 in female rats. Male and female Wistar rats were anesthetized and catheterized. Then, the mean arterial pressure (MAP), RBF, and controlled renal perfusion pressure (RPP) responses to infusion of graded doses of Ang 1-7 (100-1000 ng/kg/min i.v.) with and without A779 were measured in the animals. Basal MAP, RPP, RBF, and renal vascular resistance (RVR) were not significantly different between the two groups. After Ang 1-7 administration, RPP was controlled at a constant level. However, RBF increased in a dose-related manner in response to Ang 1-7 infusion in both male and female rats (Pdoserenal diseases.

  20. Efficacy of lycopene on modulation of renal antioxidant enzymes, ACE and ACE gene expression in hyperlipidaemic rats.

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    Khan, Nazish Iqbal; Noori, Shafaq; Mahboob, Tabassum

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of lycopene on renal tissue antioxidant enzymes and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene expression and serum activity in diet-induced hyperlipidaemia. Thirty-two female Wistar albino rats (200-250 g weight), 5-6 months of age, were randomly selected and divided into four groups. Group I received normal diet; group II received 24 g high fat diet/100 g of daily diet; group III received 24 g high fat diet/100 g daily diet and 200 ml of lycopene extract (twice a week) for 8 weeks; and group IV received 200 ml oral lycopene extract twice a week for 8 weeks. A marked increase was observed in plasma urea and creatinine levels, serum C-reactive protein, kidney weight, tissue renal malonyldialdehyde level, ACE gene expression and serum level, while a decrease catalase level among hyperlipidaemic rats was observed. Histologically, interstitial inflammation and proliferation was seen. Lycopene supplementation significantly decreased plasma urea and creatinine, serum ACE, renal tissue malonyldialdehyde level and C-reactive protein level, while it increased tissue antioxidant enzymes level and total protein. Tissue inflammation and proliferation was improved. This finding suggests that supplementation of lycopene is effective for renal antioxidant enzymes, ACE gene expression and ACE serum level in hyperlipidaemic rats. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Change of expression of renal alpha1-adrenergic receptor and angiotensin II receptor subtypes with aging in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Fang; Cao, Xiao-Jing; Bai, Xue-Yuan; Lin, Shu-Peng; Shi, Shu-Tian

    2010-04-01

    It has been considered that the functional decline of renal vasoconstriction during senescence is associated with an alteration in renal alpha1-adrenergic receptor (alpha1-AR) expression. While alterations in renal angiotensin II receptor (ATR) expression was considered to have an effect on renal structure and function, until now little information has been available concerning alpha1-AR and ATR expression variations over the entire aging continuum. The present study was undertaken to examine the expression levels of alpha1-AR and ATR subtypes in renal tissue during the spectrum running from young adulthood, to middle age, to the presenium, and to the senium. Semiquantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and Western Blot were used to quantify the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of alpha1-AR and ATR subtypes in renal tissue in 3-month-old (young adult), 12-month-old (middle age), 18-month-old (presenium) and 24-month-old (senium) Wistar rats. alpha1A-AR expression decreased gradually with aging: it was decreased during middle age, the presenium and the senium, compared, respectively, with young adult values (page and in the senium with respect to the presenium. alpha1B-AR and alpha1D-AR expression were unmodified during senescence. AT1R expression was unaffected by aging during young adulthood and middle age, but exhibited a remarkable downregulation in the presenium and senium periods (prenal alpha1-AR and ATR subtypes during aging. alpha1A-AR expression downregulation may account for the reduced reactivity of renal alpha1-AR to vasoconstrictors and to renal function decline in the senium. Both the downregulation of AT1R and the upregulation of AT2R may be influential in maintaining normal physiological renal function during aging.

  2. Comparison of the effects of dexmedetomidine administered at two different times on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

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    Edip Gonullu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: We investigated the effect of dexmedetomidine on ischemic renal failure in rats. Methods: In the present study, 26 male adult Wistar albino rats weighting 230-300 g were randomly separated into four groups: sham-operated (n = 5, ischemia reperfusion (IR (IR group, n = 7, IR/reperfusion treatment with dexmedetomidine (Dex. R group, n = 7 and IR/pre-ischemic treatment with dexmedetomidine (Dex. I group, n = 7. In the first group, sham operation was achieved and renal clamps were not applied. For the IR group, renal ischemia was induced by occlusion of the bilateral renal arteries and veins for 60 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h. For the Dex. R and Dex. I groups, the same surgical procedure as in the IR group was performed, and dexmedetomidine (100 mcg/kg intraperitoneal was administrated at the 5th min after reperfusion and before ischemia. At the end of reperfusion, blood samples were drawn, the rats were sacrificed, and the left kidney was processed for histopathology. Results: The blood urea nitrogen (BUN levels in groups Dex. R and Dex. I were significantly lower than in the IR group (p = 0.015, p = 0.043, although urine flow was significantly higher in group Dex. R (p = 0.003. The renal histopathological score in the IR group was significantly higher than in the other groups. There was no significant difference between the Dex. R and Dex. I groups. Conclusions: The results were shown that administration of dexmedetomidine reduced the renal IR injury histomorphologically. Administration of dexmedetomidine in the reperfusion period was considered as more effective due to increase in urinary output and decrease in BUN levels.

  3. Low Protein Diet Inhibits Uric Acid Synthesis and Attenuates Renal Damage in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Jianmin Ran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Several studies indicated that hyperuricemia may link to the worsening of diabetic nephropathy (DN. Meanwhile, low protein diet (LPD retards exacerbation of renal damage in chronic kidney disease. We then assessed whether LPD influences uric acid metabolism and benefits the progression of DN in streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic rats. Methods. STZ-induced and control rats were both fed with LPD (5% and normal protein diet (18%, respectively, for 12 weeks. Vital signs, blood and urinary samples for UA metabolism were taken and analyzed every 3 weeks. Kidneys were removed at the end of the experiment. Results. Diabetic rats developed into constantly high levels of serum UA (SUA, creatinine (SCr and 24 h amounts of urinary albumin excretion (UAE, creatintine (UCr, urea nitrogen (UUN, and uric acid (UUA. LPD significantly decreased SUA, UAE, and blood glucose, yet left SCr, UCr, and UUN unchanged. A stepwise regression showed that high UUA is an independent risk factor for DN. LPD remarkably ameliorated degrees of enlarged glomeruli, proliferated mesangial cells, and hyaline-degenerated tubular epithelial cells in diabetic rats. Expression of TNF-α in tubulointerstitium significantly decreased in LPD-fed diabetic rats. Conclusion. LPD inhibits endogenous uric acid synthesis and might accordingly attenuate renal damage in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  4. CNS sites activated by renal pelvic epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) in response to hypertonic saline in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwill, Vanessa S; Terrill, Christopher; Hopewood, Ian; Loewy, Arthur D; Knuepfer, Mark M

    2017-05-01

    In some patients, renal nerve denervation has been reported to be an effective treatment for essential hypertension. Considerable evidence suggests that afferent renal nerves (ARN) and sodium balance play important roles in the development and maintenance of high blood pressure. ARN are sensitive to sodium concentrations in the renal pelvis. To better understand the role of ARN, we infused isotonic or hypertonic NaCl (308 or 500mOsm) into the left renal pelvis of conscious rats for two 2hours while recording arterial pressure and heart rate. Subsequently, brain tissue was analyzed for immunohistochemical detection of the protein Fos, a marker for neuronal activation. Fos-immunoreactive neurons were identified in numerous sites in the forebrain and brainstem. These areas included the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), the lateral parabrachial nucleus, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) and the supraoptic nucleus (SON). The most effective stimulus was 500mOsm NaCl. Activation of these sites was attenuated or prevented by administration of benzamil (1μM) or amiloride (10μM) into the renal pelvis concomitantly with hypertonic saline. In anesthetized rats, infusion of hypertonic saline but not isotonic saline into the renal pelvis elevated ARN activity and this increase was attenuated by simultaneous infusion of benzamil or amiloride. We propose that renal pelvic epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) play a role in activation of ARN and, via central visceral afferent circuits, this system modulates fluid volume and peripheral blood pressure. These pathways may contribute to the development of hypertension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of a combined treatment with erythropoietin and melatonin on renal ischemia reperfusion injury in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadiasl, Nasser; Banaei, Shokofeh; Alihemati, Alireza; Baradaran, Behzad; Azimian, Ehsan

    2014-12-01

    Renal ischemia reperfusion (IR) is an important cause of renal dysfunction. It contributes to the development of acute renal failure. Oxidative damage from reactive oxygen species is considered to be the principal component involved in the pathophysiological tissue alterations observed during IR. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a combined treatment with erythropoietin (EPO) plus melatonin (MEL), which are known anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents, in IR-induced renal injury in rats. Wistar Albino rats were unilaterally nephrectomized and subjected to 45 min of renal pedicle occlusion followed by 24 h of reperfusion. MEL (10 mg/kg, i.p) and EPO (5000 U/kg, i.p) were administered prior to ischemia. After 24 h of reperfusion, blood samples were collected for the determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), plasma levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) and serum urea level. Also, renal samples were taken for histological evaluation. Ischemia reperfusion significantly increased urea, blood SOD, and GPx levels. Histological findings of the IR group indicated that there was increase in tubular and glomerular hyaline cast, thickening of Bowman capsule basement membrane, and renal impairment in the glomerular epithelium. Treatment with EPO and MEL significantly decreased blood SOD, GPx, and urea levels and increased TAC level. In the EPO + MEL group, while the histopathological changes were lower than those in EPO group, they were the same as MEL group. EPO and MEL combination treatment exerted more nephroprotective effects than EPO treatment and nearly had protective effects similar to MEL treatment.

  6. Morphological and cytohistochemical evaluation of renal effects of cadmium-doped silica nanoparticles given intratracheally to rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccini, T; Roda, E; Manzo, L; Barni, S

    2013-01-01

    Renal morphological parameters were determined in rats intratracheally instilled with model cadmium-containing silica nanoparticles (Cd-SiNPs, 1mg/rat), also exploring whether their potential modifications would be associated with toxicogenomic changes. Cd-SiNP effects, evaluated 7 and 30 days post-exposure, were assessed by (i) histopathology (Haematoxylin/Eosin Staining), (ii) characterization of apoptotic features by TUNEL staining. Data were compared with those obtained by CdCl 2 (400μg/rat), SiNPs (600μg/rat), 0.1 ml saline. Area-specific cell apoptosis was observed in all treatment groups: cortex and inner medulla were the most affected regions. Apoptotic changes were apparent at 7 days post-exposure in both areas, and were still observable in inner medulla 30 days after treatment. Increase in apoptotic frequency was more pronounced in Cd-SiNP-treated animals compared to either CdCl 2 or SiNPs. Histological findings showed comparable alterations in the renal glomerular (cortex) architecture occurring in all treatment groups at both time-points considered. The glomeruli appeared often collapsed, showing condensed, packed mesangial and endothelial cells. Oedematous haemorrhagic glomeruli were also observed in Cd-SiNPs-treated animals. Bare SiNPs caused morphological and apoptotic changes without modifying the renal gene expression profile. These findings support the concept that multiple assays and an integrated testing strategy should be recommended to characterize toxicological responses to nanoparticles in mammalian systems.

  7. Morphological and cytohistochemical evaluation of renal effects of cadmium-doped silica nanoparticles given intratracheally to rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccini, T.; Roda, E.; Barni, S.; Manzo, L.

    2013-04-01

    Renal morphological parameters were determined in rats intratracheally instilled with model cadmium-containing silica nanoparticles (Cd-SiNPs, 1mg/rat), also exploring whether their potential modifications would be associated with toxicogenomic changes. Cd-SiNP effects, evaluated 7 and 30 days post-exposure, were assessed by (i) histopathology (Haematoxylin/Eosin Staining), (ii) characterization of apoptotic features by TUNEL staining. Data were compared with those obtained by CdCl2 (400μg/rat), SiNPs (600μg/rat), 0.1 ml saline. Area-specific cell apoptosis was observed in all treatment groups: cortex and inner medulla were the most affected regions. Apoptotic changes were apparent at 7 days post-exposure in both areas, and were still observable in inner medulla 30 days after treatment. Increase in apoptotic frequency was more pronounced in Cd-SiNP-treated animals compared to either CdCl2 or SiNPs. Histological findings showed comparable alterations in the renal glomerular (cortex) architecture occurring in all treatment groups at both time-points considered. The glomeruli appeared often collapsed, showing condensed, packed mesangial and endothelial cells. Oedematous haemorrhagic glomeruli were also observed in Cd-SiNPs-treated animals. Bare SiNPs caused morphological and apoptotic changes without modifying the renal gene expression profile. These findings support the concept that multiple assays and an integrated testing strategy should be recommended to characterize toxicological responses to nanoparticles in mammalian systems.

  8. Effect of high saturated free fatty acids feeding on progression of renal failure in rat model of experimental nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid O. Ibraheem

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluates the impact of high saturated fat feeding in rat model of experimental nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin. Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200 g were randomized into four groups; the first one received the standard rodents chow for 8 weeks and was treated as control, the second group (HFDreceived an experimental high fat diet rich in palm kernel oil (40% of Calories as fat for the same period. The third group (HFDG was given 80 mg/kg (body weight/day gentamicin sulphate intraperitoneally during the last 24 days of the feeding period while the fourth group was given gentamicin as above along with the standard rodents chow. Renal function was assessed through measuring serum creatinine, creatinine clearance and absolute and fractional excretion of both sodium and potassium. At the end, rats underwent a surgical procedure for blood pressure measurement. Renal function study showed a stronger nephrotoxicity for HFDG group. Hypertension was observed in HFD group while the pressure declined after gentamicin co-administration. Overall, changing the feeding behavior toward using more SAFFAs for rats injected with gentamicin promotes the progression of renal failure.

  9. Honey Supplementation in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Elicits Antihypertensive Effect via Amelioration of Renal Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo O. Erejuwa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis and/or maintenance of elevated blood pressure in hypertension. This study investigated the effect of honey on elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. It also evaluated the effect of honey on the amelioration of oxidative stress in the kidney of SHR as a possible mechanism of its antihypertensive effect. SHR and Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats were randomly divided into 2 groups and administered distilled water or honey by oral gavage once daily for 12 weeks. The control SHR had significantly higher SBP and renal malondialdehyde (MDA levels than did control WKY. The mRNA expression levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 and glutathione S-transferase (GST were significantly downregulated while total antioxidant status (TAS and activities of GST and catalase (CAT were higher in the kidney of control SHR. Honey supplementation significantly reduced SBP and MDA levels in SHR. Honey significantly reduced the activities of GST and CAT while it moderately but insignificantly upregulated the Nrf2 mRNA expression level in the kidney of SHR. These results indicate that Nrf2 expression is impaired in the kidney of SHR. Honey supplementation considerably reduces elevated SBP via amelioration of oxidative stress in the kidney of SHR.

  10. Renoprotective Effect of Egyptian Cape Gooseberry Fruit (Physalis peruviana L. against Acute Renal Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamiaa Ali Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the renoprotective effect of Physalis peruviana L. extract (PPE on acute renal injury in rats. Adult male rats (n=36 were divided into six groups that were fed with basal diet throughout the experiment (33 days. The first group was normal group, the second and the third groups were administered orally with 100 and 150 mg PPE/kg body weight (BW respectively, the fourth group was injected intraperitoneally with 5 mg/kg BW cisplatin once on the 28th day to induced ARI, and the fifth and sixth groups were treated like the second and the third groups and were injected with cisplatin on the 28th day. Many bioactive compounds were found in PPE. PPE did not cause any changes in the second and third groups compared to normal control group. Administration of PPE prior to cisplatin injection caused significant reduction in relative kidney weight, serum creatinine, urea, blood urea nitrogen, and significant increments in body weight, feed intake, total protein, albumin, and total globulin compared to cisplatin group. Pretreatment with PPE improved kidney histology and diminished the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and enhanced other antioxidant enzymes in kidney homogenate compared to cisplatin group.

  11. Renoprotective effect of Egyptian cape gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.) against acute renal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Lamiaa Ali

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the renoprotective effect of Physalis peruviana L. extract (PPE) on acute renal injury in rats. Adult male rats (n = 36) were divided into six groups that were fed with basal diet throughout the experiment (33 days). The first group was normal group, the second and the third groups were administered orally with 100 and 150 mg PPE/kg body weight (BW) respectively, the fourth group was injected intraperitoneally with 5 mg/kg BW cisplatin once on the 28th day to induced ARI, and the fifth and sixth groups were treated like the second and the third groups and were injected with cisplatin on the 28th day. Many bioactive compounds were found in PPE. PPE did not cause any changes in the second and third groups compared to normal control group. Administration of PPE prior to cisplatin injection caused significant reduction in relative kidney weight, serum creatinine, urea, blood urea nitrogen, and significant increments in body weight, feed intake, total protein, albumin, and total globulin compared to cisplatin group. Pretreatment with PPE improved kidney histology and diminished the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and enhanced other antioxidant enzymes in kidney homogenate compared to cisplatin group.

  12. The 6-hydroxychromanol derivative SUL-109 ameliorates renal injury after deep hypothermia and rewarming in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelaar, Pieter C; Roorda, Maurits; de Vrij, Edwin L; Houwertjes, Martin C; Goris, Maaike; Bouma, Hjalmar; van der Graaf, Adrianus C; Krenning, Guido; Henning, Robert H

    2018-04-11

    Mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in kidney damage in various pathologies, including acute and chronic kidney injury and diabetic nephropathy. In addition to the well-studied ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, hypothermia/rewarming (H/R) also inflicts acute kidney injury. Substituted 6-hydroxychromanols are a novel class of mitochondrial medicines that ameliorate mitochondrial oxidative stress and protect the mitochondrial network. To identify a novel 6-hydroxychromanol that protects mitochondrial structure and function in the kidney during H/R, we screened multiple compounds in vitro and subsequently assessed the efficacy of the 6-hydroxychromanol derivatives SUL-109 and SUL-121 in vivo to protect against kidney injury after H/R in rats. Human proximal tubule cell viability was assessed following exposure to H/R for 48/4 h in the presence of various 6-hydroxychromanols. Selected compounds (SUL-109, SUL-121) or vehicle were administered to ketamine-anaesthetized male Wistar rats (IV 135 µg/kg/h) undergoing H/R at 15°C for 3 h followed by rewarming and normothermia for 1 h. Metabolic parameters and body temperature were measured throughout. In addition, renal function, renal injury, histopathology and mitochondrial fitness were assessed. H/R injury in vitro lowered cell viability by 94 ± 1%, which was counteracted dose-dependently by multiple 6-hydroxychomanols derivatives. In vivo, H/R in rats showed kidney injury molecule 1 expression in the kidney and tubular dilation, accompanied by double-strand DNA breaks and protein nitrosylation. SUL-109 and SUL-121 ameliorated tubular kidney damage, preserved mitochondrial mass and maintained cortical adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) levels, although SUL-121 did not reduce protein nitrosylation. The substituted 6-hydroxychromanols SUL-109 and SUL-121 ameliorate kidney injury during in vivo H/R by preserving mitochondrial mass, function and ATP levels. In addition, both 6-hydroxychromanols

  13. A high-fat diet increases oxidative renal injury and protein glycation in D-galactose-induced aging rats and its prevention by Korea red ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sok; Kim, Chan-Sik; Min, Jinah; Lee, Soo Hwan; Jung, Yi-Sook

    2014-01-01

    Declining renal function is commonly observed with age. Obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) may reduce renal function. Korean red ginseng (KRG) has been reported to ameliorate oxidative tissue injury and have an anti-aging effect. This study was designed to investigate whether HFD would accelerate the D-galactose-induced aging process in the rat kidney and to examine the preventive effect of KRG on HFD and D-galactose-induced aging-related renal injury. When rats with D-galactose-induced aging were fed an HFD for 9 wk, enhanced oxidative DNA damage, renal cell apoptosis, protein glycation, and extracellular high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), a signal of tissue damage, were observed in renal glomerular cells and tubular epithelial cells. However, treatment of rats with HFD- plus D-galactose-induced aging with KRG restored all of these renal changes. Our data suggested that a long-term HFD may enhance D-galactose-induced oxidative renal injury in rats and that this age-related renal injury could be suppressed by KRG through the repression of oxidative injury.

  14. A Mechanism for the induction of renal tumours in male Fischer 344 rats by short-chain chlorinated paraffins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnasuriya, Gayathri D; Elcombe, Barbara M; Foster, John R; Elcombe, Clifford R

    2010-03-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) cause kidney tumours in male rats, but not in female rats or mice of either sex. Male rat-specific tumours also occur in rats dosed with a range of compounds including 1,4- dichlorobenzene (DCB) and d-limonene (DL). These compounds bind to a male rat-specific hepatic protein, alpha-2-urinary globulin (α2u), and form degradationresistant complexes in the kidney. The resulting accumulation of α2u causes cell death and sustained regenerative cell proliferation, which in turn leads to the formation of renal tumours. To investigate whether the SCCP, Chlorowax 500C (C500C), causes tumours via the accumulation of α2u male rats were orally dosed with either C500C (625 mg/kg of body weight), DCB (300 mg/kg of body weight), or DL (150 mg/kg of body weight) for 28 consecutive days. An increase in renal α2u and cell proliferation was observed in DCB- and DL-treated rats but not in C500C-treated rats. C500C caused peroxisome proliferation and a down-regulation of α2u synthesis in male rat liver. This down-regulation occurred at the transcriptional level. Since less α2u was produced in C500C-treated rats, there was less available for accumulation in the kidney hence a typical α2u nephropathy did not appear. However, the administration of a radiolabelled SCCP, [14C]polychlorotridecane (PCTD), to male rats demonstrated its binding to renal α2u. Thus, it is possible that SCCPs bind to α2u and cause a slow accumulation of the protein in the kidney followed by delayed onset of α2u nephropathy. As a consequence of these findings in the current experiments, while evidence exists implicating α2u-globulin in the molecular mechanism of action of the C500C, the classic profile of a α2u-globulin nephropathy seen with other chemicals such as DCB and DL was not reproduced during this experimental protocol.

  15. Rosiglitazone Affects Nitric Oxide Synthases and Improves Renal Outcome in a Rat Model of Severe Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Betz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nitric oxide (NO-signal transduction plays an important role in renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. NO produced by endothelial NO-synthase (eNOS has protective functions whereas NO from inducible NO-synthase (iNOS induces impairment. Rosiglitazone (RGZ, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ agonist exerted beneficial effects after renal I/R injury, so we investigated whether this might be causally linked with NOS imbalance. Methods. RGZ (5 mg/kg was administered i.p. to SD-rats (f subjected to bilateral renal ischemia (60 min. Following 24 h of reperfusion, inulin- and PAH-clearance as well as PAH-net secretion were determined. Morphological alterations were graded by histopathological scoring. Plasma NOx-production was measured. eNOS and iNOS expression was analyzed by qPCR. Cleaved caspase 3 (CC3 was determined as an apoptosis indicator and ED1 as a marker of macrophage infiltration in renal tissue. Results. RGZ improves renal function after renal I/R injury (PAH-/inulin-clearance, PAH-net secretion and reduces histomorphological injury. Additionally, RGZ reduces NOx plasma levels, ED-1 positive cell infiltration and CC3 expression. iNOS-mRNA is reduced whereas eNOS-mRNA is increased by RGZ. Conclusion. RGZ has protective properties after severe renal I/R injury. Alterations of the NO pathway regarding eNOS and iNOS could be an explanation of the underlying mechanism of RGZ protection in renal I/R injury.

  16. Cellular transport of l-arginine determines renal medullary blood flow in control rats, but not in diabetic rats despite enhanced cellular uptake capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Patrik; Fasching, Angelica; Teerlink, Tom; Hansell, Peter; Palm, Fredrik

    2017-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with decreased nitric oxide bioavailability thereby affecting renal blood flow regulation. Previous reports have demonstrated that cellular uptake of l-arginine is rate limiting for nitric oxide production and that plasma l-arginine concentration is decreased in diabetes. We therefore investigated whether regional renal blood flow regulation is affected by cellular l-arginine uptake in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Rats were anesthetized with thiobutabarbital, and the left kidney was exposed. Total, cortical, and medullary renal blood flow was investigated before and after renal artery infusion of increasing doses of either l-homoarginine to inhibit cellular uptake of l-arginine or N ω -nitro- l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) to inhibit nitric oxide synthase. l-Homoarginine infusion did not affect total or cortical blood flow in any of the groups, but caused a dose-dependent reduction in medullary blood flow. l-NAME decreased total, cortical and medullary blood flow in both groups. However, the reductions in medullary blood flow in response to both l-homoarginine and l-NAME were more pronounced in the control groups compared with the diabetic groups. Isolated cortical tubular cells displayed similar l-arginine uptake capacity whereas medullary tubular cells isolated from diabetic rats had increased l-arginine uptake capacity. Diabetics had reduced l-arginine concentrations in plasma and medullary tissue but increased l-arginine concentration in cortical tissue. In conclusion, the reduced l-arginine availability in plasma and medullary tissue in diabetes results in reduced nitric oxide-mediated regulation of renal medullary hemodynamics. Cortical blood flow regulation displays less dependency on extracellular l-arginine and the upregulated cortical tissue l-arginine may protect cortical hemodynamics in diabetes. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. TEM and SEM observation of uranium induced renal necrosis and the result of chelates treatment on rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Shiquan; Li Baoxing; Lai Chixiang; You Zhanyun

    1987-01-01

    The TEM (transmission electron microscope) and SEM (scanning electron microscope) observation of uranium induced renal necrosis and the result of chelates treatment on rats are reported. Ultrastructural changes in kidney related with the impairment of intracellular fluid transportation can be found after acute uranium intoxication in rats, such as: condensation and swelling of mitochondria, matrix edema, dilatation of intercellular space, disappearance of basal folds, thickening of basal web, intensification of basal lamina of the proximal convoluted tubule epithelium cells, and foot processes swelling, diminishing of endothelium fenestrae of the renal glomerulus. Heavy metal chelates DTPA and H-73-10 treatment may result in intracellular fluid accumulation and condensed grannule formation in lysosome. Treatment with these chelates in the critical stage of uranium intoxication may accelerate the necrosis instead of diminishing. This may be related to the augment of the load of lysosome and intracellular system of fluid transportation

  18. Amelioration of pancreatic and renal derangements in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by polyphenol extracts of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeem, Mutiu Idowu; Akanji, Musbau Adewunmi; Yakubu, Musa Toyin

    2015-12-01

    Free and bound polyphenol extracts of Zingiber officinale rhizome were investigated for their antidiabetic potential in the pancreatic and renal tissues of diabetic rats at a dose of 500mg/kg body weight. Forty Wistar rats were completely randomized into five groups: A-E consisting of eight animals each. Group A (control) comprises normal healthy animals and were orally administered 1.0mL distilled water on a daily basis for 42 days while group B-E were made up of 50mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Group C and D received 1.0mL 500mg/kg body weight free and bound polyphenol extracts respectively while group E received 1.0mL 0.6mg/kg of glibenclamide. Administration of the extracts to the diabetic rats significantly reduced (pZingiber officinale could ameliorate diabetes-induced pancreatic and renal derangements in rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Knockout of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor results in distinct hepatic and renal phenotypes in rats and mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrill, Joshua A. [The Hamner Institute for Health Sciences, Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, RTP, NC 27709 (United States); Hukkanen, Renee R.; Lawson, Marie; Martin, Greg [The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI 48640 (United States); Gilger, Brian [North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States); Soldatow, Valerie [University of North Carolina, Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); LeCluyse, Edward L. [The Hamner Institute for Health Sciences, Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, RTP, NC 27709 (United States); Budinsky, Robert A.; Rowlands, J. Craig [The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI 48640 (United States); Thomas, Russell S., E-mail: RThomas@thehamner.org [The Hamner Institute for Health Sciences, Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, RTP, NC 27709 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor which plays a role in the development of multiple tissues and is activated by a large number of ligands, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In order to examine the roles of the AHR in both normal biological development and response to environmental chemicals, an AHR knockout (AHR-KO) rat model was created and compared with an existing AHR-KO mouse. AHR-KO rats harboring either 2-bp or 29-bp deletion mutation in exon 2 of the AHR were created on the Sprague–Dawley genetic background using zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) technology. Rats harboring either mutation type lacked expression of AHR protein in the liver. AHR-KO rats were also insensitive to thymic involution, increased hepatic weight and the induction of AHR-responsive genes (Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1, Ahrr) following acute exposure to 25 μg/kg TCDD. AHR-KO rats had lower basal expression of transcripts for these genes and also accumulated ∼ 30–45-fold less TCDD in the liver at 7 days post-exposure. In untreated animals, AHR-KO mice, but not AHR-KO rats, had alterations in serum analytes indicative of compromised hepatic function, patent ductus venosus of the liver and persistent hyaloid arteries in the eye. AHR-KO rats, but not AHR-KO mice, displayed pathological alterations to the urinary tract: bilateral renal dilation (hydronephrosis), secondary medullary tubular and uroepithelial degenerative changes and bilateral ureter dilation (hydroureter). The present data indicate that the AHR may play significantly different roles in tissue development and homeostasis and toxicity across rodent species. - Highlights: • An AHR knockout rat was generated on a Sprague–Dawley outbred background. • AHR-KO rats lack expression of AHR protein. • AHR-KO rats are insensitive to TCDD-mediated effects. • Data suggests difference in the role of AHR in tissue development of rats and mice. • Abnormalities in vascular

  20. Knockout of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor results in distinct hepatic and renal phenotypes in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrill, Joshua A.; Hukkanen, Renee R.; Lawson, Marie; Martin, Greg; Gilger, Brian; Soldatow, Valerie; LeCluyse, Edward L.; Budinsky, Robert A.; Rowlands, J. Craig; Thomas, Russell S.

    2013-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor which plays a role in the development of multiple tissues and is activated by a large number of ligands, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In order to examine the roles of the AHR in both normal biological development and response to environmental chemicals, an AHR knockout (AHR-KO) rat model was created and compared with an existing AHR-KO mouse. AHR-KO rats harboring either 2-bp or 29-bp deletion mutation in exon 2 of the AHR were created on the Sprague–Dawley genetic background using zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) technology. Rats harboring either mutation type lacked expression of AHR protein in the liver. AHR-KO rats were also insensitive to thymic involution, increased hepatic weight and the induction of AHR-responsive genes (Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1, Ahrr) following acute exposure to 25 μg/kg TCDD. AHR-KO rats had lower basal expression of transcripts for these genes and also accumulated ∼ 30–45-fold less TCDD in the liver at 7 days post-exposure. In untreated animals, AHR-KO mice, but not AHR-KO rats, had alterations in serum analytes indicative of compromised hepatic function, patent ductus venosus of the liver and persistent hyaloid arteries in the eye. AHR-KO rats, but not AHR-KO mice, displayed pathological alterations to the urinary tract: bilateral renal dilation (hydronephrosis), secondary medullary tubular and uroepithelial degenerative changes and bilateral ureter dilation (hydroureter). The present data indicate that the AHR may play significantly different roles in tissue development and homeostasis and toxicity across rodent species. - Highlights: • An AHR knockout rat was generated on a Sprague–Dawley outbred background. • AHR-KO rats lack expression of AHR protein. • AHR-KO rats are insensitive to TCDD-mediated effects. • Data suggests difference in the role of AHR in tissue development of rats and mice. • Abnormalities in vascular

  1. BOLD quantified renal pO2 is sensitive to pharmacological challenges in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Jon; Zhang, Jeff L; Franklin, Tammy; Prasad, Pottumarthi

    2017-07-01

    Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MRI has been effectively used to monitor changes in renal oxygenation. However, R2* (or T2*) is not specific to blood oxygenation and is dependent on other factors. This study investigates the use of a statistical model that takes these factors into account and maps BOLD MRI measurements to blood pO2. Spin echo and gradient echo images were obtained in six Sprague-Dawley rats and R2 and R2* maps were computed. Measurements were made at baseline, post-nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME), and post-furosemide administration. A simulation of each region was performed to map R2' (computed as R2*-R2) to blood pO2. At baseline, blood pO2 in the outer medulla was 30.5 ± 1.2 mmHg and 51.9 ± 5.2 mmHg in the cortex, in agreement with previous invasive studies. Blood pO2 was found to decrease within the outer medulla following L-NAME (P pO2 in the cortex increased following furosemide (P pO2 is sensitive to pharmacological challenges, and baseline pO2 is comparable to literature values. Reporting pO2 instead of R2* could lead to a greater clinical impact of renal BOLD MRI and facilitate the identification of hypoxic regions. Magn Reson Med 78:297-302, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  2. Exposure to an open-field arena increases c-Fos expression in a distributed anxiety-related system projecting to the basolateral amygdaloid complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, M.W.; Hay-Schmidt, A.; Mikkelsen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Anxiety states and anxiety-related behaviors appear to be regulated by a distributed and highly interconnected system of brain structures including the basolateral amygdala. Our previous studies demonstrate that exposure of rats to an open-field in high- and low-light conditions results in a marked...... increase in c-Fos expression in the anterior part of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (BLA) compared with controls. The neural mechanisms underlying the anatomically specific effects of open-field exposure on c-Fos expression in the BLA are not clear, however, it is likely that this reflects activation...... to this region in combination with c-Fos immunostaining to identify cells responding to exposure to an open-field arena in low-light (8-13 lux) conditions (an anxiogenic stimulus in rats). Adult male Wistar rats received a unilateral microinjection of 4% CTb in phosphate-buffered saline into the basolateral...

  3. The urinary excretion of metformin, ceftizoxime and ofloxacin in high serum creatinine rats: Can creatinine predict renal tubular elimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan-Rong; Zhou, Yan; Huang, Jing; Qin, Hong-Yan; Wang, Pei; Wu, Xin-An

    2018-03-01

    The renal excretion of creatinine and most drugs are the net result of glomerular filtration and tubular secretion, and their tubular secretions are mediated by individual transporters. Thus, we hypothesized that the increase of serum creatinine (SCr) levels attributing to inhibiting tubular transporters but not glomerular filtration rate (GFR) could be used to evaluate the tubular excretion of drugs mediated by identical or partial overlap transporter with creatinine. In this work, we firstly developed the creatinine excretion inhibition model with normal GFR by competitively inhibiting tubular transporters, and investigated the renal excretion of metformin, ceftizoxime and ofloxacin in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that the 24-hour urinary excretion of metformin and ceftizoxime in model rats were decreased by 25% and 17% compared to that in control rats, respectively. The uptake amount and urinary excretion of metformin and ceftizoxime could be inhibited by creatinine in renal cortical slices and isolated kidney perfusion. However, the urinary excretion of ofloxacin was not affected by high SCr. These results showed that the inhibition of tubular creatinine transporters by high SCr resulted to the decrease of urinary excretion of metformin and ceftizoxime, but not ofloxacin, which implied that the increase of SCr could also be used to evaluate the tubular excretion of drugs mediated by identical or partial overlap transporter with creatinine in normal GFR rats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels in rats with cirrhosis: correlationship with sympathetic activity and renal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Martins Monte

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to perform a direct analysis ofKATP mRNA expression by RT-PCR in kidney and isolated aorta fromrats with cirrhosis (induced by carbon tetrachloride and controls.The present study also analyses the relation between induced cirrhosisand urinary excretion of sodium and sympathetic activity in cirrhoticrats. Methods: Rats were placed in metabolic cages and allowedfree access to food and water. Cirrhosis was induced by repeateddoses of carbon tetrachloride by gastric gavage. After some weeks,the kidney and aorta were dissected and utilized for RNA extraction.Blood and urine were analyzed for electrolytes. Renal function wasestimated by creatinine clearance and sodium urinary excretion.Serum catecholamines were measured by HPLC analysis. Results:First, RT-PCR analysis showed that KATP mRNA is expressed in liverwith cirrhosis and intense fibrosis, but not with moderate fibrosis.Second, RT-PCR analysis revealed that KATP mRNA was detectedonly in aorta dissected from rats with cirrhosis. Finally, an enhancedreabsorption of sodium without renal failure suggests a potentialmediator would increase the activity of the sympathetic system.Conclusion: These results suggest that KATP mRNA is expressed incirrhotic rats with sympathetic activation and renal dysfunction. Thischannel might be involved in another route where the vascular tonecan be modulated in cirrhosis.

  5. Resveratrol Increases Nephrin and Podocin Expression and Alleviates Renal Damage in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Rong Pan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is well known for its anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant properties, and has been shown to be effective in alleviating the development of obesity. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the effect of resveratrol on renal damage in obese rats induced by a high-fat diet (HFD and its possible mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, HFD, and HFD plus resveratrol (treated with 100 mg/kg/day resveratrol. Body weight, serum and urine metabolic parameters, and kidney histology were measured. Meanwhile, the activities of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and superoxide dismutase (SOD, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA, and the protein levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, nephrin and podocin in kidney were detected. Our work showed that resveratrol alleviated dyslipidemia and renal damage induced by HFD, decreased MDA level and increased SOD activity. Furthermore, the elevated NF-κB activity, increased TNF-α and MCP-1 levels, and reduced expressions of nephrin and podocin induced by HFD were significantly reversed by resveratrol. These results suggest resveratrol could ameliorate renal injury in rats fed a HFD, and the mechanisms are associated with suppressing oxidative stress and NF-κB signaling pathway that in turn up-regulate nephrin and podocin protein expression.

  6. Clinical diagnostic indicators of renal and bone damage in rats intramuscularly injected with depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, S.; Ikeda, M.; Chiba, M.; Kaneko, K.

    2006-01-01

    The toxic effects and changes in biochemical markers related to kidney and bone in depleted uranium (DU)-injected rats were examined in order to clarify the relation between clinical biochemical markers and the degree of damage in these organs. Male Wistar rats received a single injection in the femoral muscles of 0.2, 1.0 or 2.0 mg kg -1 of DU which was dissolved in nitric acid solution adjusted to pH 3.2, for comparison with the group injected with nitric acid solution, and the control group. Urine and faeces were collected periodically over a 24 h period. Thereafter, the rats were killed at 28 d after DU injection. The body weights of the DU-injected groups decreased dose-dependently for the first 3-7 d, and then began to increase. The DU concentrations in the urine and faeces decreased rapidly within 3-7 d after DU injection. Urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG)/ creatinine peaked at the third day after DU injection, with a high correlation to the injected DU doses. There were high correlations among the injected DU doses, DU concentrations in the kidney and urinary NAG/ creatinine values that were obtained at 28 d, respectively. The blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine in the serum also showed a high correlation with the DU-injected doses. The results indicated that urinary NAG/creatinine, BUN and creatinine in serum were useful indicators to diagnose the renal damage by DU, as well as to estimate the DU intake and concentration in the kidney when the intake is >2 mg kg -1 DU. The total bone mineral density of the proximal metaphysis of the tibia decreased in the 2 mg kg -1 DU group. In addition, alterations of the trabecular bone structure by inhibiting bone formation and promoting bone resorption were observed by bone histo-morphometry. The bone biochemical markers osteo-calcin, tartrate-resistance acid phosphatase, pyridinoline and rat-parathyroid hormone increased in all the DU injected groups, indicating that these markers were useful as

  7. Soluble epoxide hydrolase contamination of specific catalase preparations inhibits epoxyeicosatrienoic acid vasodilation of rat renal arterioles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Lauren; Harder, Adam; Isbell, Marilyn; Imig, John D.; Gutterman, David D.; Falck, J. R.; Campbell, William B.

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome P-450 metabolites of arachidonic acid, the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), are important signaling molecules in the kidney. In renal arteries, EETs cause vasodilation whereas H2O2 causes vasoconstriction. To determine the physiological contribution of H2O2, catalase is used to inactivate H2O2. However, the consequence of catalase action on EET vascular activity has not been determined. In rat renal afferent arterioles, 14,15-EET caused concentration-related dilations that were inhibited by Sigma bovine liver (SBL) catalase (1,000 U/ml) but not Calbiochem bovine liver (CBL) catalase (1,000 U/ml). SBL catalase inhibition was reversed by the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitor tAUCB (1 μM). In 14,15-EET incubations, SBL catalase caused a concentration-related increase in a polar metabolite. Using mass spectrometry, the metabolite was identified as 14,15-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (14,15-DHET), the inactive sEH metabolite. 14,15-EET hydrolysis was not altered by the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-ATZ; 10–50 mM), but was abolished by the sEH inhibitor BIRD-0826 (1–10 μM). SBL catalase EET hydrolysis showed a regioisomer preference with greatest hydrolysis of 14,15-EET followed by 11,12-, 8,9- and 5,6-EET (Vmax = 0.54 ± 0.07, 0.23 ± 0.06, 0.18 ± 0.01 and 0.08 ± 0.02 ng DHET·U catalase−1·min−1, respectively). Of five different catalase preparations assayed, EET hydrolysis was observed with two Sigma liver catalases. These preparations had low specific catalase activity and positive sEH expression. Mass spectrometric analysis of the SBL catalase identified peptide fragments matching bovine sEH. Collectively, these data indicate that catalase does not affect EET-mediated dilation of renal arterioles. However, some commercial catalase preparations are contaminated with sEH, and these contaminated preparations diminish the biological activity of H2O2 and EETs. PMID:21753077

  8. Effect of tempol and tempol plus catalase on intra-renal haemodynamics in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone (SHSP) and Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmeda, Ahmad F; Rae, Mark G; Al Otaibi, Mohammed F; Anweigi, Lamyia M; Johns, Edward J

    2017-05-01

    Vasoconstriction within the renal medulla contributes to the development of hypertension. This study investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in regulating renal medullary and cortical blood perfusion (MBP and CBP respectively) in both stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) and Wistar rats. CBP and MBP were measured using a laser-Doppler flow meter before and after intra-renal infusion of tempol, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic or tempol plus catalase, the hydrogen peroxide-degrading enzyme. Tempol infusion significantly elevated blood perfusion within the renal medulla (MBP) in both SHRSP (by 43 ± 7%, P catalase and tempol were co-infused, MBP was again significantly increased in SHRSP (by 57 ± 6%, P < 0.001) and Wistar rats (by 33 ± 6%, P < 0.001), with a significantly greater increase in perfusion being induced in the SHRSP relative to the Wistar rats (P < 0.01). Notably, this increase was significantly greater than in those animals infused with tempol alone (P < 0.01). These results suggest that ROS plays a proportionally greater role in reducing renal vascular compliance, particularly within the renal medulla, in normotensive and hypertensive animals, with effects being greater in the hypertensive animals. This supports the hypothesis that SHRSP renal vasculature might be subjected to elevated level of oxidative stress relative to normotensive animals.

  9. Potential Cardiovascular and Renal Protective Effects of Vitamin D and Coenzyme Q10 in l-NAME-Induced Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamardl, Hanan A; El-Ashmony, Sahar M; Kamel, Hala F; Fatani, Sameer H

    2017-08-01

    Hypertension is one of the primary modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Adequate vitamin D (vit D) levels have been shown to reduce vascular smooth muscle contraction and to increase arterial compliance, which may be beneficial in hypertension. Further, coenzyme Q10 (COQ10) through its action to lower oxidative stress has been reported to have beneficial effects on hypertension and heart failure. This study examined the possible cardiac and renal protective effects of vit D and COQ10 both separately and in combination with an angiotensin II receptor blocker, valsartan (vals) in l-NAME hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced in rats by l-NAME administration. Following induction of hypertension, the rats were assigned into the following 6 subgroups: an l-NAME alone group and treated groups receiving the following drugs intraperitoneally for 6 weeks; vals, vit D, COQ10 and combination of vals with either vit D or COQ10. A group of normotensive rats were used as negative controls. At the end of the treatment period, blood pressure, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, lipids and serum, cardiac and renal parameters of oxidative stress were measured. Compared to the l-NAME only group, all treatments lowered systolic, diastolic, mean arterial pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and creatinine levels as well as TNF-α and malondialdehyde. Further, the agents increased serum, cardiac and renal total antioxidant capacity. Interestingly, the combination of agents had further effects on all the parameters compared to treatment with each single agent. The study suggests that the additive protective effects of vit D and COQ10 when used alone or concurrent with vals treatment in hypertensive rats may be due to their effects as antioxidants, anticytokines and blood pressure conservers. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanism of norepinephrine release elicited by renal nerve stimulation, veratridine and potassium chloride in the isolated rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    el-Din, M.M.; Malik, K.U.

    1987-01-01

    We have investigated the mechanism by which renal nerve stimulation (RNS), veratridine (Vt) and KCl promote release of norepinephrine in the isolated rat kidney perfused with Tyrode's solution and prelabeled with [ 3 H]norepinephrine by examining the overflow of tritium elicited by these stimuli during 1) extracellular Ca++ depletion, 2) alterations in extracellular Na+ concentration and 3) administration of tetrodotoxin, amiloride, LiCl and calcium channel blockers. RNS (1-4 Hz), Vt (15-90 nmol) and KCl (150-500 mumol) produced renal vasoconstriction and enhanced the tritium overflow in a frequency- and concentration-dependent manner, respectively. Omission of Ca++ (1.8 mM) from the perfusion fluid abolished the renal vasoconstriction and the increase in tritium overflow elicited by RNA and KCl and substantially reduced that caused by Vt. Lowering the Na+ concentration in the perfusion medium (from 150 to 25 mM) reduced the overflow of tritium and the renal vasoconstriction caused by RNS (2 Hz) or Vt (45 nmol); the increase in tritium overflow in response to these stimuli was positively correlated with extracellular Na+ (25-150 mM). In contrast, KCl-induced tritium overflow was negatively correlated with extracellular Na+ concentration. Tetrodotoxin (0.3 microM) abolished the effect of RNS and Vt, but not that of KCl, to increase overflow of tritium and to produce renal vasoconstriction. Administration of amiloride (180 microM) enhanced the overflow of tritium but attenuated the associated renal vasoconstriction produced by RNS, Vt and KCl. Replacement of NaCl (75 mM) with equimolar concentration of LiCl enhanced the overflow of tritium elicited by RNS, Vt and KCl; the associated renal vasoconstriction remained unaltered

  11. Structural transition of kidney cystatin in dimethylnitrosamine-induced renal cancer in rats: identification as a novel biomarker for kidney cancer and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi, Anas; Ahmed, Azaj; Bano, Bilqees

    2017-04-01

    In our study, renal cancer is induced in rats making use of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN). G1 - Group 1 were control rats and G2 - Group 2 rats were given a single intra-peritoneal injection of DMN of 50 mg/kg body weight resulting in 100% incidences of renal tumors after 12 months. SEM and histopathology confirmed the presence of renal cancer in the DMN-treated rats. Making use of ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-100HR column, a thiol protease inhibitor was isolated from kidney of control rats known as Rat kidney Cystatin (RKC) as well as from kidney of cancerous rat called as Cancerous Rat Kidney Cystatin (CRKC). Both these inhibitors were characterized, and interestingly, it was found that CRKC showed greater anti-papain activity and also it was stable in a broad pH and temperature range thus implying that CRKC is more stable as compared to RKC. UV and fluorescence spectroscopy point out in structural difference between RKC and CRKC which was further confirmed by Circular dichroism (CD) and FTIR spectroscopy. Our study clearly showed that kidney cystatin is structurally modified in the case of renal cancer and performs its role in a more efficacious manner.

  12. Renal and vascular studies of aqueous extract of Urtica dioica in rats and rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.F. Dizaye

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Urtica dioica has a variety of uses in traditional medicine for genitourinary ailments kidney disorders, allergies, diabetes, anemia, gastrointestinal tract ailments, musculoskeletal aches and alopecia. However, only a few of these uses have scientific bases that support their clinical uses. This study was done to evaluate some of the in vivo and in vitro pharmacological actions of this plant. Eighteen local domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus were used for in vitro studies (effect of the plant extract on isolated pulmonary arteries and isolated urinary bladder smooth muscle and in vivo studies (effect of the extract on renal function. Six male albino rats were used for studying the effects of the plant extract on blood pressure and heart rate. Urtica dioica extract produced a significant increase in urine volume and urinary Na+ excretion without significant changes in K+ excretion rates in experimental rabbits. No changes occurred in Glomerular filtration rate and %Na+ reabsorption of filtered load. Neither vasodilatation nor vasoconstriction of isolated pulmonary arteries of the rabbit was seen after applying the aqueous extract of U. dioica. Besides it could not reverse the vasoconstrictor effect of phenylephrine. Urtica dioica has no detectable effects on the isolated bladder; moreover it did not reverse the contraction that was produced by pilocarpine. In experimental rats, the plant extract produced a profound drop in blood pressure associated with decreased heart rate. In conclusion the aqueous extract of U. dioica produced diuretic and natriuretic effects with out significant effect on the K+ excretion rate in rabbits. Moreover it produced a profound drop in blood pressure and heart rate.

  13. The effects of dietary fish oil on inflammation, fibrosis and oxidative stress associated with obstructive renal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Jonathan M; Gobe, Glenda C; Fassett, Robert G; Coombes, Jeff S

    2011-03-01

    We examined whether dietary supplementation with fish oil modulates inflammation, fibrosis and oxidative stress following obstructive renal injury. Three groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (n=16 per group) were fed for 4 wk on normal rat chow (oleic acid), chow containing fish oil (33 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 26 g docosahexaenoic acid per kg diet), or chow containing safflower oil (60 g linoleic acid per kg diet). All diets contained 7% fat. After 4 wk, the rats were further subdivided into four smaller groups (n=4 per group). Unilateral ureteral obstruction was induced in three groups (for 4, 7 and 14 days). The fourth group for each diet did not undergo surgery, and was sacrificed as controls at 14 days. When rats were sacrificed, plasma and portions of the kidneys were removed and frozen; other portions of kidney tissue were fixed and prepared for histology. Compared with normal chow and safflower oil, fish oil attenuated collagen deposition, macrophage infiltration, TGF-β expression, apoptosis, and tissue levels of arachidonic acid, MIP-1α, IL-1β, MCP-1 and leukotriene B(4). Compared with normal chow, fish oil increased the expression of HO-1 protein in kidney tissue. Fish oil intake reduced inflammation, fibrosis and oxidative stress following obstructive renal injury. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Comparison of the therapeutic effects of thymoquinone and methotrexate on renal injury in pristane induced arthritis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faisal, R.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effect of thymoquinone and methotrexate on blood urea and serum creatinine in arthritic rats. Study Design:Experimental, comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Postgraduate Medical Institute, Lahore, from March to August 2013. Methodology: Thirty two female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four equal groups (n=8); group A(healthy control), group B (positive control), group C (Thymoquinone treated) and group D (Methotrexate treated). Arthritis developed within two weeks after a single pristane injection. Total leukocyte count, blood urea and serum creatinine were taken at day 0, 15 and 30. While clinical score of inflammation was taken at day 0 and then on every alternate day. Results: Development of arthritis and renal involvement was accompanied by significant raise in total leukocyte count, clinical score of inflammation, blood urea and serum creatinine as compared to healthy control rats (group A) till day 15 (p < 0.001). From day 15 to day 30 both thymoquinone (group C) and methotrexate (group D) significantly lowered the total leukocyte count, clinical score of inflammation and improved blood urea and serum creatinine as compared to arthritic rats (group B) (p < 0.001). Methotrexate was found a bit more effective than thymoquinone. Conclusion: Evaluation of results supported the beneficial effects of thymoquinone in renal injury produced by rheumatoid arthritis. (author)

  15. Effect of alpha interferon on glucose and alanine transport by rat renal brush border membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batuman, V.; Chadha, I.

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the pathogenetic mechanisms of interferon nephrotoxicity, we studied the effect of recombinant interferon alfa-2b on the uptake of 14 C-D-glucose and 14 C-L-alanine by rat renal brush-border-membrane vesicles. Interferon significantly inhibited 20 sec. sodium-dependent and 5 and 10 min. equilibrium uptake of both glucose and alanine. The inhibitory effect was dose dependent with maximum effect achieved at interferon concentration of 5 x 10 -8 M in the uptake media. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations, IC 50 , of interferon on glucose uptake was 1.8 x 10 -8 M, and 5.4 x 10 -9 M on alanine uptake. Dixon plot analysis of uptake data was consistent with pure non-competitive inhibition. The inhibition constants, K i , 1.5 x 10 -8 M for glucose uptake, and 7.3 x 10 -9 M for alanine uptake, derived from Dixon plots were in close agreement with the IC 50 s calculated from the semilog dose response curves. These observations reveal that direct interactions at the proximal tubule cell membrane are involved in the pathogenesis of interferon nephrotoxicity, and that its mechanism of nephrotoxicity is similar to that of other low molecular weight proteins

  16. The effects of rhodium on the renal function of female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Leso, Veruscka; Fontana, Luca; Marinaccio, Alessandro; Bergamaschi, Antonio; Calabrese, Edward J

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, the increased use of rhodium (Rh) as an active catalyst material in modern three-way automobile catalytic converters has led to a parallel rise in environmental levels of this metal. In spite of this, the literature contains few studies of the effects of Rh on human health. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of Rh on the renal function of female Wistar rats. Our findings show that sub-acute exposure to six increasing concentrations, ranging from 0.001 to 1 mg L(-1), of Rh (III) chloride hydrate in drinking water does not induce alterations in urinary albumin levels, while, at concentrations from 0.1 to 1 mg L(-1), a significant rise in urinary levels of Retinol Binding Protein is evident and an increasing trend in urinary β2-microglobulin, which becomes significant at 1 mg L(-1), is observed. These results therefore demonstrate a nephrotoxic action of Rh at tubular level in a wide range of doses. Interestingly, because of the recent increase in environmental Rh levels, these findings may have relevant implications both for occupationally exposed subjects and for the general population, especially children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fasting induces basolateral uptake transporters of the SLC family in the liver via HNF4alpha and PGC1alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Christoph G; Martin, Ina V; Porn, Anne C; Voigt, Sebastian; Gartung, Carsten; Trautwein, Christian; Geier, Andreas

    2007-09-01

    Fasting induces numerous adaptive changes in metabolism by several central signaling pathways, the most important represented by the HNF4alpha/PGC-1alpha-pathway. Because HNF4alpha has been identified as central regulator of basolateral bile acid transporters and a previous study reports increased basolateral bile acid uptake into the liver during fasting, we hypothesized that HNF4alpha is involved in fasting-induced bile acid uptake via upregulation of basolateral bile acid transporters. In rats, mRNA of Ntcp, Oatp1, and Oatp2 were significantly increased after 48 h of fasting. Protein expression as determined by Western blot showed significant increases for all three transporters 72 h after the onset of fasting. Whereas binding activity of HNF1alpha in electrophoretic mobility shift assays remained unchanged, HNF4alpha binding activity to the Ntcp promoter was increased significantly. In line with this result, we found significantly increased mRNA expression of HNF4alpha and PGC-1alpha. Functional studies in HepG2 cells revealed an increased endogenous NTCP mRNA expression upon cotransfection with either HNF4alpha, PGC-1alpha, or a combination of both. We conclude that upregulation of the basolateral bile acid transporters Ntcp, Oatp1, and Oatp2 in fasted rats is mediated via the HNF4alpha/PGC-1alpha pathway.

  18. Effects of lornoxicam and intravenous ibuprofen on erythrocyte deformability and hepatic and renal blood flow in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpacı, Hande; Çomu, Faruk Metin; Küçük, Ayşegül; Kösem, Bahadır; Kartal, Seyfi; Şıvgın, Volkan; Turgut, Hüseyin Cihad; Aydın, Muhammed Enes; Koç, Derya Sebile; Arslan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Change in blood supply is held responsible for anesthesia-related abnormal tissue and organ perfusion. Decreased erythrocyte deformability and increased aggregation may be detected after surgery performed under general anesthesia. It was shown that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs decrease erythrocyte deformability. Lornoxicam and/or intravenous (iv) ibuprofen are commonly preferred analgesic agents for postoperative pain management. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of lornoxicam (2 mg/kg, iv) and ibuprofen (30 mg/kg, iv) on erythrocyte deformability, as well as hepatic and renal blood flows, in male rats. Eighteen male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three groups as follows: iv lornoxicam-treated group (Group L), iv ibuprofen-treated group (Group İ), and control group (Group C). Drug administration was carried out by the iv route in all groups except Group C. Hepatic and renal blood flows were studied by laser Doppler, and euthanasia was performed via intra-abdominal blood uptake. Erythrocyte deformability was measured using a constant-flow filtrometry system. Lornoxicam and ibuprofen increased the relative resistance, which is an indicator of erythrocyte deformability, of rats (P=0.016). Comparison of the results from Group L and Group I revealed no statistically significant differences (P=0.694), although the erythrocyte deformability levels in Group L and Group I were statistically higher than the results observed in Group C (P=0.018 and P=0.008, respectively). Hepatic and renal blood flows were significantly lower than the same in Group C. We believe that lornoxicam and ibuprofen may lead to functional disorders related to renal and liver tissue perfusion secondary to both decreased blood flow and erythrocyte deformability. Further studies regarding these issues are thought to be essential.

  19. In Vivo MR Imaging of Magnetically Labeled Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Rat Model of Renal Ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Sung Il [Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hyup [Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyo Cheol; Chung, Se Young; Moon, Woo Kyung; Kim, Hoe Suk [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jong Sun [Dongguk University International Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Min Hoan [Cheil General Hospital and Women' s Healthcare Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Kyu Ri; Sung, Chang Kyu [Seoul National University Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    This study was designed to evaluate in vivo MR imaging for the depiction of intraarterially injected superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-labeled mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in an experimental rat model of renal ischemia. Left renal ischemia was induced in 12 male Sprague- Dawley rats by use of the catheter lodging method. In vivo MR signal intensity variations depicted on T2*-weighted sequences were evaluated in both the left and right kidneys prior to injection (n = 2), two hours (n = 4), 15 hours (n = 2), 30 hours (n = 2) and 72 hours (n = 2) after injection of SPIO-labeled MSCs in both kidneys. Signal intensity variations were correlated with the number of Prussian blue stain-positive cells as visualized in histological specimens. In an in vivo study, it was determined that there was a significant difference in signal intensity variation for both the left and right cortex (40.8 {+-} 4.12 and 26.4 {+-} 7.92, respectively) and for both the left and right medulla (23.2 {+-} 3.32 and 15.2 {+-} 3.31, respectively) until two hours after injection (p < 0.05). In addition, signal intensity variation in the left renal cortex was well correlated with the number of Prussian blue stain-positive cells per high power field (r = 0.98, p < 0.05). Intraarterial injected SPIO-labeled MSCs in an experimental rat model of renal ischemia can be detected with the use of in vivo MR imaging immediately after injection.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of S-Allyl-l-cysteine in Rats Is Characterized by High Oral Absorption and Extensive Renal Reabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Hirotaka; Kazamori, Daichi; Itoh, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    S-Allylcysteine (SAC) is a key component of aged garlic extract, one of many garlic products. However, information on its pharmacokinetics has been scant except for data from a few animal studies. We designed this study to determine the overall pharmacokinetics of SAC in rats. After oral or intravenous administration of SAC to rats at a dose of 5 mg/kg, the plasma concentration-time profile of SAC and its metabolites, as well as the amounts excreted in bile and urine, were analyzed by using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After oral administration, SAC was well absorbed with a bioavailability of 98%. Two major metabolites of SAC, N-acetyl-S-allylcysteine (NAc-SAC) and N-acetyl-S-allylcysteine sulfoxide (NAc-SACS), were detected in plasma, but their concentrations were markedly lower than those of SAC. SAC was metabolized to a limited extent, but most of the orally absorbed SAC was excreted into urine in the form of its N-acetylated metabolites. The amounts of SAC, NAc-SAC, and NAc-SACS excreted in urine over 24 h were 2.9%, 80%, and 11% of the orally administered SAC, respectively. The very low renal clearance (0.016 L ⋅ h(-1) ⋅ kg(-1)) of SAC indicated that it undergoes extensive renal reabsorption. These results collectively suggested that SAC was ultimately metabolized to NAc-SAC and NAc-SACS through the cycles of urinary excretion, renal reabsorption, and systemic recirculation. The pharmacokinetics of SAC in rats were characterized by high oral absorption, limited metabolism, and extensive renal reabsorption, all of which potentially contribute to its high and relatively long-lasting plasma concentrations. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Effects of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa on renal Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase activities in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Lawrence A; Usman, Taofeek O; Adebayo, Joseph O; Olatunji, Victoria A

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the effects of oral administration of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa on renal Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase activities in rats. The 25 and 50 mg/(kg·d) of aqueous extracts of H. sabdariffa were respectively given to rats in the experimental groups for 28 d, and rats in the control group received an appropriate volume of distilled water as vehicle. Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase activities in the kidney were assayed by spectrophotometric method. Administrations of 25 and 50 mg/(kg·d) of aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa significantly decreased the Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase activity in the kidney of rats (Psabdariffa may preserve the renal function despite a decreased renal Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase activity.

  2. Glyoxalase-1 overexpression reduces endothelial dysfunction and attenuates early renal impairment in a rat model of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwers, Olaf; Niessen, Petra M G; Miyata, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In diabetes, advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and the AGE precursor methylglyoxal (MGO) are associated with endothelial dysfunction and the development of microvascular complications. In this study we used a rat model of diabetes, in which rats transgenically overexpressed...... the MGO-detoxifying enzyme glyoxalase-I (GLO-I), to determine the impact of intracellular glycation on vascular function and the development of early renal changes in diabetes. METHODS: Wild-type and Glo1-overexpressing rats were rendered diabetic for a period of 24 weeks by intravenous injection...... podocyte number and diabetes-induced elevation of urinary markers albumin, osteopontin, kidney-inflammation-molecule-1 and nephrin) were attenuated by Glo1 overexpression. In line with this, downregulation of Glo1 in cultured endothelial cells resulted in increased expression of inflammation...

  3. Functional characterization of apical transporters expressed in rat proximal tubular cells (PTCs) in primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Takeo; Fukushi, Akimasa; Sato, Masanobu; Yoshifuji, Mayuko; Gose, Tomoka; Shirasaka, Yoshiyuki; Ohe, Kazuyo; Kobayashi, Masato; Kawai, Keiichi; Tamai, Ikumi

    2011-12-05

    Since in vitro cell culture models often show altered apical transporter expression, they are not necessarily suitable for the analysis of renal transport processes. Therefore, we aimed here to investigate the usefulness of primary-cultured rat proximal tubular cells (PTCs) for this purpose. After isolation of renal cortical cells from rat kidneys, PTCs were enriched and the gene expression and function of apical transporters were analyzed by means of microarray, RT-PCR and uptake experiments. RT-PCR confirmed that the major apical transporters were expressed in rat PTCs. Na(+)-dependent uptake of α-methyl-d-glucopyranoside (αMG), ergothioneine and carnitine by the PTCs suggests functional expression of Sglts, Octn1 and Octn2, respectively. Inhibition of pH-dependent glycylsarcosine uptake by low concentration of cephalexin, which is a β-lactam antibiotics recognized by Pepts, indicates a predominant role of high affinity type Pept2, but not low affinity type Pept1, in the PTCs. Moreover, the permeability ratio of [(14)C]αMG (apical to basolateral/basolateral to apical) across PTCs was 4.3, suggesting that Sglt-mediated reabsorptive transport is characterized. In conclusion, our results indicate that rat PTCs in primary culture are found to be a promising in vitro model to evaluate reabsorption processes mediated at least by Sglts, Pept2, Octn1 and Octn2.

  4. Protective effect of Petroselinum crispum extract in abortion using prostadin-induced renal dysfunction in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Rezazad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Present study investigated the effects of parsley extract on pregnant rat kidneys which have undergone clinical abortion using prostaglandins. The renal protective effect of parsley extract was evaluated in pregnant rats which had an abortion. Parsley was used due to its antioxidant properties. Materials and Methods:  Fifty-four female rats were divided in 9 groups of 6: control pregnant, two pregnant groups which received parsley extract and prostadin, two non-pregnant groups treated with parsley extract and prostadin, a group administered with both treatments, and three groups which received parsley extract in pre-implantation, implantation, and post-implantation periods of embryos. Ethanolic extract (5 mg/kg was given daily to animals for 18 days of pregnancy period. Parameters such as malondialdehyde (MDA, total antioxidant statues (TAS, creatinine, and urea were measured using biochemical assays. Histopathologic studies were also done with Hematoxylin-Eosin staining method. Results: After 18 days of treatment, significant differences were observed in serum creatinine, urea, and MDA and TAS levels. Kidney cross-sections showed edema in prostadin-treated rats while improvements in parsley + prostadin -treated rats were observed. Conclusion: These results suggested that ethanolic extract of Petroselinum crispum reduced the dysfunction in rats kidney caused by prostadin-induced abortion and could have beneficial effect in reducing the progression of prostaglandin-induced edema.

  5. Endothelin-like action of Pausinystalia yohimbe aqueous extract on vascular and renal regional hemodynamics in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, A A; Newaz, M; Hercule, H; Saleh, M; Bode, C O; Oyekan, A O

    2003-12-01

    The bark of the African tree Pausinystalia yohimbe has been used as a food additive with aphrodisiac and penile erection enhancing properties. The effect of an aqueous extract of P. yohimbe (CCD-X) on renal circulation was assessed in order to test the hypothesis that it possesses additional effects on nitric oxide production and/or endothelin-1 (ET-1)-like actions. In vivo studies with CCD-X in Sprague Dawley rats demonstrated a dose-dependent (1-1000 ng/kg) increase in mean blood pressure (p < 0.001) and an increase in medullary blood flow (MBF) (p < 0.001). Both the pressor action and renal medullary vasodilation were blocked by endothelinA (ETA) receptor antagonist BMS182874 and endothelinB (ETB) receptor antagonist BQ788 in combination. L-Nomega-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10 mg/kg) also inhibited the increase in MBF induced by CCD-X. In vitro studies in isolated perfused kidney and in pressurized renal microvessels confirmed the dose-dependent vasoconstrictor action of this extract. ETA receptor antagonist BQ610 and ETB receptor antagonist BQ788 separately and significantly attenuated the renal vasoconstrictor actions of the extract (p < 0.001 ANOVA). These preliminary observations indicate that, in addition to the alpha-adrenergic antagonist actions that characterize yohimbine, CCD-X possesses endothelin-like actions and affects nitric oxide (NO) production in renal circulation. These findings suggest a strong possibility of post-receptor cross-talk between alpha2-adrenoceptors and endothelin, as well as a direct effect of alpha2-adrenoceptors on renal NO production. (c) 2003 Prous Science

  6. Effects of compound Shenhua tablet on renal tubular Na+-K+-ATPase in rats with acute ischemic reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Wei, Ri-bao; Zheng, Xiao-yong; Qiu, Qiang; Cui, Shao-yuan; Yin, Zhong; Shi, Suo-zhu; Chen, Xiang-mei

    2014-03-01

    To observe the effect of Compound Shenhua Tablet (, SHT) on the sodium-potassium- exchanging adenosinetriphosphatase (Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase) in the renal tubular epithelial cells of rats with acute ischemic reperfusion and to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of SHT on renal ischemic reperfusion injury (RIRI). Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the sham surgery group, model group, astragaloside group [150 mg/(kg·d)], SHT low-dose group [1.5 g/(kg·d)] and SHT high-dose group [3.0 g/(kg·d)], with 10 rats in each group. After 1 week of continuous intragastric drug administration, surgery was performed to establish the model. At either 24 or 72 h after the surgery, 5 rats in each group were sacrificed, blood biochemistry, renal pathology, immunoblot and immunohistochemical examinations were performed, and double immunofluorescence staining was observed under a laser confocal microscope. Compared with the sham surgery group, the serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were significantly increased, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase protein level was decreased, and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) protein level was increased in the model group after the surgery (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the SCr, BUN, pathological scores, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, and the KIM-1 protein level of the three treatment groups were significantly improved at 72 h after the surgery (P<0.05 or P<0.01). And the SCr, BUN of the SHT low- and high-dose groups, and the pathological scores of the SHT high-dose group were significantly lower than those of the astragaloside group (P<0.05). The localizations of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and megalin of the model group were disrupted, with the distribution areas overlapping with each other and alternately arranged. The severity of the disruption was slightly milder in three treatment groups compared with that of the model group. The results of immunofluorescence staining showed that the SHT high-dose group had a

  7. Effects of Coptis chinensis decoction on the metabolic index and renal protection in rats with metabolism syndrome

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    Xiao-qing CHEN

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the protective effects of Coptis chinensis decoction on the metabolic index and renal function of rats with fructose-induced metabolism syndrome (MS. Methods From 56 male Wistar rats, 6 were randomly selected as normal control group, the other rats were daily fed with 10% fructose water for 8 weeks to reproduce the MS model. Twenty-four rats were established successfully as MS model and randomly divided into 4 groups (6 each: model group, Coptis decoction group, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA group and berberine hydrochloride (BH group. The body weight, visceral fat weight, fasting blood glucose (FBG, fasting insulin (FINS, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR, cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosidase (NAG, urine microalbumin (m-ALB, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and serum creatinine (Scr levels were compared between the groups, and the renal pathological changes were observed by light microscopy and electron microscopy. Results The levels of body weight, visceral fat weight, FINS, HOMA- IR, TC, TG, SBP, DBP and urinary NAG were obviously higher in the four MS model groups than in normal control group (P0.05. After the intervention, the levels of body weight, visceral fat weight, FINS, HOMA-IR, TC, TG, SBP and DBP decreased significantly in Coptis decoction group than in model group (P0.05. It was observed in model group by light microscopy and electron microscopy that the glomerular swelled obviously, the capillary basement membrane of glomerular and renal tubules thickened, mesangial region and interstitial substances hyperplasia, podocytes swelled markedly and most of fusion, the epithelial cells of renal tubules serious vacuolar degeneration, and a lot of secondary lysosomes formed, autophagy of organelles occurred, and most of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria disappeared. The kidney pathological damage reduced obviously after

  8. Gender Difference in Renal Blood Flow Response to Angiotensin II Administration after Ischemia/Reperfusion in Rats: The Role of AT2 Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Maryam; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is one of the major causes of kidney failure, and it may interact with renin angiotensin system while angiotensin II (Ang II) type 2 receptor (AT2R) expression is gender dependent. We examined the role of AT2R blockade on vascular response to Ang II after I/R in rats. Methods. Male and female rats were subjected to 30 min renal ischemia followed by reperfusion. Two groups of rats received either vehicle or AT2R antagonist, PD123319. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), and renal blood flow (RBF) responses were assessed during graded Ang II (100, 300, and 1000 ng/kg/min, i.v.) infusion at controlled renal perfusion pressure (RPP). Results. Vehicle or antagonist did not alter MAP, RPP, and RBF levels significantly; however, 30 min after reperfusion, RBF decreased insignificantly in female treated with PD123319 (P = 0.07). Ang II reduced RBF and increased renal vascular resistance (RVR) in a dose-related fashion (P dose renal I/R injury appears to be sexually dimorphic. PD123319 infusion promotes these hemodynamic responses in female more than in male rats.

  9. Effects of low-molecular-weight-chitosan on the adenine-induced chronic renal failure rats in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Xuan; Han, Baoqin; Sui, Xianxian; Hu, Rui; Liu, Wanshun

    2015-02-01

    The effects of low-molecular-weight-chitosan (LMWC) on chronic renal failure (CRF) rats induced by adenine were investigated in vivo and in vitro. Chitosan were hydrolyzed using chitosanase at pH 6-7 and 37° for 24 h to obtain LMWC. In vitro, the effect of LMWC on the proliferation of renal tubular epithelial cells (RTEC) showed that it had no cytotoxic effect and could promote cell growth. For the in vivo experiment, chronic renal failure rats induced by adenine were randomly divided into control group, Niaoduqing group, and high-, medium- and low-dose LMWC groups. For each group, we detected serum creatinine (SCR), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), glutathione oxidase (GSH-Px) activities of renal tissue, and obtained the ratio of kidney weight/body weight, pathological changes of kidney. The levels of serum SCR, BUN were higher in the adenine-induced rats than those in the control group, indicating that the rat chronic renal failure model worked successfully. The results after treatment showed that LMWC could reduce the SCR and BUN levels and enhance the activities/levels of T-SOD and GSH-PX in kidney compared to control group. Histopathological examination revealed that adenine-induced renal alterations were restored by LMWC at three tested dosages, especially at the low dosage of 100 mg kg-1 d-1.

  10. Renal targeting potential of a polymeric drug carrier, poly-L-glutamic acid, in normal and diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chai HJ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hann-Juang Chai,1 Lik-Voon Kiew,1 Yunni Chin,1 Anwar Norazit,2 Suzita Mohd Noor,2 Yoke-Lin Lo,3,4 Chung-Yeng Looi,1 Yeh-Siang Lau,1 Tuck-Meng Lim,5 Won-Fen Wong,6 Nor Azizan Abdullah,1 Munavvar Zubaid Abdul Sattar,7 Edward J Johns,8 Zamri Chik,1 Lip-Yong Chung3 1Department of Pharmacology, 2Department of Biomedical Science, 3Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 4School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, 5Department of Chemical Science, Faculty of Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Kampar, 6Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 7School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, Malaysia; 8Department of Physiology, University College Cork, Cork, Republic of Ireland Background and purpose: Poly-L-glutamic acid (PG has been used widely as a carrier to deliver anticancer chemotherapeutics. This study evaluates PG as a selective renal drug carrier.Experimental approach: 3H-deoxycytidine-labeled PGs (17 or 41 kDa and 3H-deoxycytidine were administered intravenously to normal rats and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The biodistribution of these compounds was determined over 24 h. Accumulation of PG in normal kidneys was also tracked using 5-(aminoacetamido fluorescein (fluoresceinyl glycine amide-labeled PG (PG-AF. To evaluate the potential of PGs in ferrying renal protective anti-oxidative stress compounds, the model drug 4-(2-aminoethylbenzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF was conjugated to 41 kDa PG to form PG-AEBSF. PG-AEBSF was then characterized and evaluated for intracellular anti-oxidative stress efficacy (relative to free AEBSF.Results: In the normal rat kidneys, 17 kDa radiolabeled PG (PG-Tr presents a 7-fold higher, while 41 kDa PG-Tr shows a 15-fold higher renal accumulation than the free radiolabel after 24 h post injection. The accumulation of PG-AF was primarily found in the renal tubular

  11. Effect of Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Renal Dysfunction in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iroaganachi, Mercy; Eleazu, Chinedum; Okafor, Polycarp

    2015-03-20

    Although unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) are used as single plants to manage diabetes mellitus in Nigeria, the possibility of combining them in a typical diabetic diet and the glycemic response elicited as a result of such combination has not been investigated. To determine the effect of unripe plantain and ginger on serum total proteins, albumin, creatinine and urea levels of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Twenty four male albino rats were used and were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1 (non-diabetic) received standard rat feeds; Group 2 (diabetic) received standard rat feeds; Group 3 received unripe plantain pellets and Group 4 received unripe plantain+ginger pellets. There were significant increases (P=0.045) of both serum urea and creatinine, but significant decreases (P=0.045) of both serum total protein and albumin levels, in Group 2 rats compared with Group 1. There were significant decreases (P=0.033) of both serum urea and creatinine levels of Group 3 and 4 rats compared with Group 2. In addition, there were significant increases of both serum total protein and albumin levels (P=0.033) in Group 3 rats compared with Group 2, but the comparison of serum total protein and albumin levels between Group 4 and Group 2 did not reach the significant level (P=0.056 and P=0.065 for serum total protein and albumin levels, respectively. Combination of unripe plantain and ginger at the ratio used in the management of renal dysfunction in diabetics was not very effective compared with unripe plantain alone.

  12. Effect of kefir and low-dose aspirin on arterial blood pressure measurements and renal apoptosis in unhypertensive rats with 4 weeks salt diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbak, Güngör; Uzuner, Kubilay; Kuşat Ol, Kevser; Oğlakçı, Ayşegül; Kartkaya, Kazım; Şentürk, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We aim to study the effect of low-dose aspirin and kefir on arterial blood pressure measurements and renal apoptosis in unhypertensive rats with 4 weeks salt diet. Forty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: control, high-salt (HS) (8.0% NaCl), HS+aspirin (10 mg/kg), HS+kefir (10.0%w/v), HS+aspirin +kefir. We measured sistolic blood pressure (SBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic pressure, pulse pressure in the rats. Cathepsin B, L, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activities were determined from rat kidney tissues and rats clearance of creatinine calculated. Although HS diet increased significantly SBP, MAP, diastolic pressure, pulse pressure parameters compared the control values. They were not as high as accepted hypertension levels. When compared to HS groups, kefir groups significantly decrease Cathepsin B and DNA fragmentation levels. Caspase levels were elevated slightly in other groups according to control group. While, we also found that creatinine clearance was higher in HS+kefir and HS+low-dose aspirin than HS group. Thus, using low-dose aspirin had been approximately decreased of renal function damage. Kefir decreased renal function damage playing as Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. But, low-dose aspirin together with kefir worsened rat renal function damage. Cathepsin B might play role both apoptosis and prorenin-processing enzyme. But not caspase pathway may be involved in the present HS diet induced apoptosis. In conclusion, kefir and low-dose aspirin used independently protect renal function and renal damage induced by HS diet in rats.

  13. The Renal Protective Effect of Jiangya Tongluo Formula, through Regulation of Adrenomedullin and Angiotensin II, in Rats with Hypertensive Nephrosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of Jiangya Tongluo (JYTL formula on renal function in rats with hypertensive nephrosclerosis. A total of 21 spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs were randomized into 3 groups: valsartan (10 mg/kg/d valsartan, JYTL (14.2 g/kg/d JYTL, and a model group (5 mL/kg/d distilled water; Wistar Kyoto rats comprised the control group (n = 7, 5 mL/kg/d distilled water. Treatments were administered by gavage every day for 8 weeks. Blood pressure, 24-h urine protein, pathological changes in the kidney, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN levels were estimated. The contents of adrenomedullin (ADM and angiotensin II (Ang II in both the kidney and plasma were evaluated. JYTL lowered BP, 24-h urine protein, serum creatinine, and BUN. ADM content in kidneys increased and negatively correlated with BP, while Ang II decreased and negatively correlated with ADM, but there was no statistically significant difference of plasma ADM between the model and the treatment groups. Possibly, activated intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS plays an important role in hypertensive nephrosclerosis and the protective function of ADM via local paracrine. JYTL may upregulate endogenous ADM level in the kidneys and antagonize Ang II during vascular injury by dilating renal blood vessels.

  14. Omega-3 attenuates high fat diet-induced kidney injury of female rats and renal programming of their offsprings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamseldeen, Asmaa Mohammed; Ali Eshra, Mohammed; Ahmed Rashed, Laila; Fathy Amer, Marwa; Elham Fares, Amal; Samir Kamar, Samaa

    2018-05-09

    Maternal diet composition could influence fetal organogenesis. We investigated effects of high fat diet (HFD) intake alone or combined with omega 3 during pregnancy, lactation and early days of weaning on nephrogenesis of pups and maternal renal function and morphology. Mothers and their pups included in each group were supplied with the same diet composition. Rats were divided into group I, II and III supplied with chow of either 10 kcal%, 45 kcal% or 45 kcal% from fat together with omega-3 respectively. Group II showed increased serum urea and creatinine, renal TNF-α, IL1β. Structural injury was observed in mothers and their pups as Bowman's capsule and tubular dilatation and increased expression of PCNA that were decreased following omega-3 supplementation added to down regulation of Wnt4, Pax2 gene and podocin expression. Omega-3 supplementation improves lipid nephrotoxicity observed in mothers and their pups.

  15. Locally formed dopamine inhibits Na+-K+-ATPase activity in rat renal cortical tubule cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seri, I.; Kone, B.C.; Gullans, S.R.; Aperia, A.; Brenner, B.M.; Ballermann, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    Dopamine, generated locally from L-dopa, inhibits Na + -K + -ATPase in permeabilized rat proximal tubules under maximum transport rate conditions for sodium. To determine whether locally formed dopamine inhibits Na + -K + -ATPase activity in intact cortical tubule cells we studied the effect of L-dopa on ouabain-sensitive oxygen consumption rate (Qo 2 ) and 86 Rb uptake in renal cortical tubule cell suspensions. L-Dopa did not affect ouabain-insensitive Qo 2 or mitochondrial respiration. However, L-dopa inhibited ouabain-sensitive Qo 2 in a concentration-dependent manner, with half-maximal inhibition (K 0.5 ) of 5 x 10 -7 M and a maximal inhibition of 14.1 ± 1.5% at 10 -4 M. L-Dopa also blunted the nystatin-stimulated Qo 2 in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating the L-dopa directly inhibits Na + -K + -ATPase activity and not sodium entry. Ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb uptake was also inhibited by L-dopa. Carbidopa, an inhibitor of the conversion of L-dopa to dopamine, eliminated the effect of L-dopa on ouabain-sensitive Qo 2 and 86 Rb uptake, indicating that dopamine rather than L-dopa was the active agent. The finding that the L-dopa concentration-response curve was shifted to the left by one order of magnitude in the presence of nystatin suggests that the inhibitory effect is enhanced when the intracellular sodium concentration is increased. By studying the effect of L-dopa on ouabain-sensitive Qo 2 at increasing extracellular sodium concentrations in the presence of nystatin, the authors demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of locally formed dopamine on the Na + -K + -ATPase is indeed dependent on the sodium available for the enzyme and occurs in an uncompetitive manner

  16. Effect of methanolic fraction of Kalanchoe crenata on metabolic parameters in adriamycin-induced renal impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgang, René; Foyet, Angèle F; Essame, Jean-Louis O; Ngogang, Jeanne Y

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of Kalanchoe crenata methanolic fraction (MEKC) on proteinuria, glucosuria, and some other biochemical parameters in adriamycin-induced renal impairment in rats. Ether anesthetized rats received three intravenous injections (days 0, 14, and 28) of 2 mg/kg body weight of adriamycin. Repeated doses of the extract (0, 50, and 68 mg/kg b.w.) and losartan (10 mg/kg b.w.) were administered orally once daily, for 6 weeks, to these rats. Kidney functions were assessed through biochemical parameters. MEKC decreased proteinuria and also the urinary excretion of creatinine, glucose, and urea significantly in diseased rats. A decrease in serum levels of creatinine, urea, potassium, alkaline phosphatase, conjugate bilirubin, and alanine transaminase level was also recorded in nephropathic rats, but plasma levels of uric acid and glucose remained unchanged. Moreover, the plant extract markedly (P < 0.05) increased plasma sodium and decreased (P < 0.01) the urinary sodium and potassium levels. The results indicated that the treatment with the methanolic fraction of K. crenata may improve proteinuria and all other symptoms due to adriamycin-induced nephropathy and, more than losartan, could ameliorate kidney and liver functions. K. crenata could be a potential source of new oral antinephropathic drug.

  17. High resolution molecular and histological analysis of renal disease progression in ZSF1 fa/faCP rats, a model of type 2 diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dower, Ken; Zhao, Shanrong; Schlerman, Franklin J; Savary, Leigh; Campanholle, Gabriela; Johnson, Bryce G; Xi, Li; Nguyen, Vuong; Zhan, Yutian; Lech, Matthew P; Wang, Ju; Nie, Qing; Karsdal, Morten A; Genovese, Federica; Boucher, Germaine; Brown, Thomas P; Zhang, Baohong; Homer, Bruce L; Martinez, Robert V

    2017-01-01

    ZSF1 rats exhibit spontaneous nephropathy secondary to obesity, hypertension, and diabetes, and have gained interest as a model system with potentially high translational value to progressive human disease. To thoroughly characterize this model, and to better understand how closely it recapitulates human disease, we performed a high resolution longitudinal analysis of renal disease progression in ZSF1 rats spanning from early disease to end stage renal disease. Analyses included metabolic endpoints, renal histology and ultrastructure, evaluation of a urinary biomarker of fibrosis, and transcriptome analysis of glomerular-enriched tissue over the course of disease. Our findings support the translational value of the ZSF1 rat model, and are provided here to assist researchers in the determination of the model's suitability for testing a particular mechanism of interest, the design of therapeutic intervention studies, and the identification of new targets and biomarkers for type 2 diabetic nephropathy.

  18. Ginger extract diminishes chronic fructose consumption-induced kidney injury through suppression of renal overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Liu, Changjin; Jiang, Jian; Zuo, Guowei; Lin, Xuemei; Yamahara, Johji; Wang, Jianwei; Li, Yuhao

    2014-05-27

    The metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of development and progression of chronic kidney disease. Renal inflammation is well known to play an important role in the initiation and progression of tubulointerstitial injury of the kidneys. Ginger, one of the most commonly used spices and medicinal plants, has been demonstrated to improve diet-induced metabolic abnormalities. However, the efficacy of ginger on the metabolic syndrome-associated kidney injury remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impact of ginger on fructose consumption-induced adverse effects in the kidneys. The fructose control rats were treated with 10% fructose in drinking water over 5 weeks. The fructose consumption in ginger-treated rats was adjusted to match that of fructose control group. The ethanolic extract of ginger was co-administered (once daily by oral gavage). The indexes of lipid and glucose homeostasis were determined enzymatically, by ELISA and/or histologically. Gene expression was analyzed by Real-Time PCR. In addition to improve hyperinsulinemia and hypertriglyceridemia, supplement with ginger extract (50 mg/kg) attenuated liquid fructose-induced kidney injury as characterized by focal cast formation, slough and dilation of tubular epithelial cells in the cortex of the kidneys in rats. Furthermore, ginger also diminished excessive renal interstitial collagen deposit. By Real-Time PCR, renal gene expression profiles revealed that ginger suppressed fructose-stimulated monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and its receptor chemokine (C-C motif) receptor-2. In accord, overexpression of two important macrophage accumulation markers CD68 and F4/80 was downregulated. Moreover, overexpressed tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, transforming growth factor-beta1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 were downregulated. Ginger treatment also restored the downregulated ratio of urokinase-type plasminogen activator to PAI-1. The present results

  19. Renal denervation improves cardiac function in rats with chronic heart failure: Effects on expression of β-adrenoceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hong; Liu, Xuefei; Sharma, Neeru M.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic activation of the sympathetic drive contributes to cardiac remodeling and dysfunction during chronic heart failure (HF). The present study was undertaken to assess whether renal denervation (RDN) would abrogate the sympathoexcitation in HF and ameliorate the adrenergic dysfunction and cardiac damage. Ligation of the left coronary artery was used to induce HF in Sprague-Dawley rats. Four weeks after surgery, RDN was performed, 1 wk before the final measurements. At the end of the protocol, cardiac function was assessed by measuring ventricular hemodynamics. Rats with HF had an average infarct area >30% of the left ventricle and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) >20 mmHg. β1- and β2-adrenoceptor proteins in the left ventricle were reduced by 37 and 49%, respectively, in the rats with HF. RDN lowered elevated levels of urinary excretion of norepinephrine and brain natriuretic peptide levels in the hearts of rats with HF. RDN also decreased LVEDP to 10 mmHg and improved basal dP/dt to within the normal range in rats with HF. RDN blunted loss of β1-adrenoceptor (by 47%) and β2-adrenoceptor (by 100%) protein expression and improved isoproterenol (0.5 μg/kg)-induced increase in +dP/dt (by 71%) and −dP/dt (by 62%) in rats with HF. RDN also attenuated the increase in collagen 1 expression in the left ventricles of rats with HF. These findings demonstrate that RDN initiated in chronic HF condition improves cardiac function mediated by adrenergic agonist and blunts β-adrenoceptor expression loss, providing mechanistic insights for RDN-induced improvements in cardiac function in the HF condition. PMID:27288440

  20. Maternal diet during gestation and lactation modifies the severity of salt-induced hypertension and renal injury in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Aron M; Mattson, David L; Liu, Pengyuan; Cabacungan, Erwin; Skelton, Meredith M; Kurth, Theresa M; Yang, Chun; Endres, Bradley T; Klotz, Jason; Liang, Mingyu; Cowley, Allen W

    2015-02-01

    Environmental exposure of parents or early in life may affect disease development in adults. We found that hypertension and renal injury induced by a high-salt diet were substantially attenuated in Dahl SS/JrHsdMcwiCrl (SS/Crl) rats that had been maintained for many generations on the grain-based 5L2F diet compared with SS/JrHsdMcwi rats (SS/Mcw) maintained on the casein-based AIN-76A diet (mean arterial pressure, 116±9 versus 154±25 mm Hg; urinary albumin excretion, 23±12 versus 170±80 mg/d). RNAseq analysis of the renal outer medulla identified 129 and 82 genes responding to a high-salt diet uniquely in SS/Mcw and SS/Crl rats, respectively, along with minor genetic differences between the SS substrains. The 129 genes responding to salt in the SS/Mcw strain included numerous genes with homologs associated with hypertension, cardiovascular disease, or renal disease in human. To narrow the critical window of exposure, we performed embryo-transfer experiments in which single-cell embryos from 1 colony (SS/Mcw or SS/Crl) were transferred to surrogate mothers from the other colony, with parents and surrogate mothers maintained on their respective original diet. All offspring were fed the AIN-76A diet after weaning. Salt-induced hypertension and renal injury were substantially exacerbated in rats developed from SS/Crl embryos transferred to SS/Mcw surrogate mothers. Conversely, salt-induced hypertension and renal injury were significantly attenuated in rats developed from SS/Mcw embryos transferred to SS/Crl surrogate mothers. Together, the data suggest that maternal diet during the gestational-lactational period has substantial effects on the development of salt-induced hypertension and renal injury in adult SS rats. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. The Role of Vasodilator Receptors of Renin-angiotensin System on Nitric Oxide Formation and Kidney Circulation after Angiotensin II Infusion in Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Maryam; Hasanshahi, Jalal; Moslemi, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) as a vasodilator factor has renoprotective effect against renal ischemia. The balance between angiotensin II (Ang II) and NO can affect kidney homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine NO alteration in response to renin-Ang system vasodilator receptors antagonists (PD123319; Ang II type 2 receptor antagonist and A779; Mas receptor antagonist) in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) in rats. Sixty-three Wistar male and female rats were used. Animals from each gender were divided into four groups received saline, Ang II, PD123319 + Ang II, and A779 + Ang II after renal IRI. Renal IRI induced with an adjustable hook. Blood pressure and renal blood flow (RBF) measured continuously. The nitrite levels were measured in serum, kidney, and urine samples. In female rats, the serum and kidney nitrite levels increased significantly by Ang II ( P < 0.05) and decreased significantly ( P < 0.05) when PD123319 was accompanied with Ang II. Such observation was not seen in male. Ang II decreased RBF significantly in all groups ( P < 0.05), while PD + Ang II group showed significant decrease in RBF in comparison with the other groups in female rats ( P < 0.05). Males show more sensibility to Ang II infusion; in fact, it is suggested that there is gender dimorphism in the Ang II and NO production associated with vasodilator receptors.

  2. Developmental programming of aortic and renal structure in offspring of rats fed fat-rich diets in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armitage, James A.; Lakasing, Lorin; Taylor, Paul D.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence from human and animal studies suggests that maternal nutrition can induce developmental programming of adult hypertension in offspring. We have previously described a model of maternal dietary imbalance in Sprague-Dawley rats whereby administration of a maternal diet rich in animal lard......-Dawley rats fed a control diet (OC) or lard-rich diet (OHF) during pregnancy and suckling followed by a control diet post-weaning. To gain further insight, we assessed aortic reactivity and elasticity in an organ bath preparation and renal renin and Na+,K+-ATPase activity. Plasma aldosterone concentration...... weight, glomerular number or volume in OHF compared with OC, but renin and Na+,K+-ATPase activity were significantly reduced in OHF compared with controls. Programmed alterations to aortic structure and function are consistent with previous observations that exposure to maternal high fat diets produces...

  3. On the efficacy of linear system analysis of renal autoregulation in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chon, K H; Chen, Y M; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1993-01-01

    In order to assess the linearity of the mechanisms subserving renal blood flow autoregulation, broad-band arterial pressure fluctuations at three different power levels were induced experimentally and the resulting renal blood flow responses were recorded. Linear system analysis methods were...

  4. A method for induction of chronic renal failure in rats | Odigie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic Renal Disease (CRD) is a major health burden, which has recieved increased attention in recent times and has thus become one major focus of intensive research. All is agreed that the complex interplay of major pathophysiological factors that are characteristic of CRD and end stage renal failure (ESRF) is of ...

  5. The impact of maternal protein restriction during rat pregnancy upon renal expression of angiotensin receptors and vasopressin-related aquaporins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornock Ruth

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal protein restriction during rat pregnancy is known to impact upon fetal development, growth and risk of disease in later life. It is of interest to understand how protein undernutrition influences the normal maternal adaptation to pregnancy. Here we investigated the mechanisms regulating renal haemodynamics and plasma volume during pregnancy, in the context of both normal and reduced plasma volume expansion. The study focused on expression of renal angiotensin receptors (ATR and vasopressin-related aquaporins (AQP, hypothesising that an alteration in the balance of these proteins would be associated with pregnancy per se and with compromised plasma volume expansion in rats fed a low-protein diet. Methods Female Wistar rats were mated and fed a control (18% casein or low-protein (9% casein diet during pregnancy. Animals were anaesthetised on days 5, 10, 15 and 20 of gestation (n = 8/group/time-point for determination of plasma volume using Evans Blue dye, prior to euthanasia and collection of tissues. Expression of the ATR subtypes and AQP2, 3 and 4 were assessed in maternal kidneys by PCR and western blotting. 24 non-pregnant Wistar rats underwent the same procedure at defined points of the oestrous cycle. Results As expected, pregnancy was associated with an increase in blood volume and haemodilution impacted upon red blood cell counts and haemoglobin concentrations. Expression of angiotensin II receptors and aquaporins 2, 3 and 4 was stable across all stages of the oestrus cycle. Interesting patterns of intra-renal protein expression were observed in response to pregnancy, including a significant down-regulation of AQP2. In contrast to previous literature and despite an apparent delay in blood volume expansion in low-protein fed rats, blood volume did not differ significantly between groups of pregnant animals. However, a significant down-regulation of AT2R protein expression was observed in low-protein fed animals

  6. Effect of Shenkang granules on the progression of chronic renal failure in 5/6 nephrectomized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, YU; ZHOU, NAN; WANG, HONGYING; WANG, SICEN; HE, JIANYU

    2015-01-01

    Shenkang granules (SKGs) are a Chinese herbal medicinal formula, consisting of rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L.), Salvia miltiorrhiza, milkvetch root [Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge] and safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of SKG on chronic renal failure (CRF) in 5/6 nephrectomized (5/6 Nx) rats. The rats were randomly divided into seven groups (n=10 per group) as follows: (i) 5/6 Nx (model group; 2.25 ml/kg/day normal saline); (ii) SKGL (low dose; 5/6 Nx treated with 2 g crude drug/kg/day SKG); (iii) SKGM (moderate dose; 5/6 Nx treated with 4 g crude drug/kg/day SKG); (iv) SKGH (high dose; 5/6 Nx treated with 8 g crude drug/kg/day SKG); (v) benazepril treatment group (5/6 Nx treated with 5 mg/kg/day benazepril); (vi) Shenkang injection (SKI) group (5/6 Nx with 13.3 ml/kg/day SKI); and (vii) sham-operated group (2.25 ml/kg/day normal saline). After 30 days, the levels of microalbumin, total protein, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and serum lipid were found to be significantly decreased in the SKGL and SKGM rats, showing histological improvement compared with the untreated 5/6 Nx rats, as determined by hematoxylin and eosin, and Masson's trichrome staining. In addition, SKG was found to significantly improve the levels of glutathione peroxidase and reduce the damage caused by free radicals to the kidney tissues. Furthermore, SKG prevented the accumulation of extracellular matrix by decreasing the expression of collagen I and III and inhibiting the expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and −9 in the renal tissue, as determined by western blot analysis. SKG was also shown to decrease the concentrations of serum transforming growth factor-β1, as determined by ELISA, and kidney angiotensin II, as determined using a radioimmunoassay kit. In conclusion, SKG was demonstrated to ameliorate renal injury in a 5/6 Nx rat model of CRF. Thus, SKG may exert a good therapeutic effect on CRF. PMID:26136932

  7. The persistent inhibitory properties of saxagliptin on renal dipeptidyl peptidase-4: Studies with HK-2 cells in vitro and normal rats in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Uchii

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Saxagliptin, a potent and selective DPP-4 inhibitor, exhibits a slow dissociation from DPP-4. We investigated the sustained effects of saxagliptin on renal DPP-4 activity in a washout study using renal tubular (HK-2 cells, and in a pharmacodynamic study using normal rats. In HK-2 cells, the inhibitory potency of saxagliptin on DPP-4 activity persisted after washout, while that of sitagliptin was clearly reduced. In normal rats, a single treatment of saxagliptin or sitagliptin inhibited the plasma DPP-4 activity to similar levels. The inhibitory action of saxagliptin on the renal DPP-4 activity was retained, even when its inhibitory effect on the plasma DPP-4 activity disappeared. However, the inhibitory action of sitagliptin on the renal DPP-4 activity was abolished in correlation with the inhibition of the plasma DPP-4 activity. In situ staining showed that saxagliptin suppressed the DPP-4 activity in both glomerular and tubular cells and its inhibitory effects were significantly higher than those of sitagliptin. Saxagliptin exerted a sustained inhibitory effect on the renal DPP-4 activity in vitro and in vivo. The long binding action of saxagliptin in renal tubular cells might involve the sustained inhibition of renal DPP-4.

  8. Angiotensin-(1-7 relieved renal injury induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia in rats by reducing inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lu

    Full Text Available We aimed to study the renal injury and hypertension induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH and the protective effects mediated by angiotensin 1-7 [Ang(1-7]. We randomly assigned 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats (body weight 180-200 g to normoxia control, CIH, Ang(1-7-treated normoxia, and Ang(1-7-treated CIH groups. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was monitored at the start and end of each week. Renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA was recorded. CTGF and TGF-β were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Tissue parameters of oxidative stress were also determined. In addition, renal levels of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, nitrotyrosine, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α were determined by immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, and ELISA. TUNEL assay results and cleaved caspase 3 and 12 were also determined. Ang(1-7 induced a reduction in SBP together with a restoration of RSNA in the rat model of CIH. Ang(1-7 treatment also suppressed the production of reactive oxygen species, reduced renal tissue inflammation, ameliorated mesangial expansion, and decreased renal fibrosis. Thus, Ang(1-7 treatment exerted renoprotective effects on CIH-induced renal injury and was associated with a reduction of oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis. Ang(1-7 might therefore represent a promising therapy for obstructive sleep apnea-related hypertension and renal injury.

  9. Icariin protects rats against 5/6 nephrectomy-induced chronic kidney failure by increasing the number of renal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongdi; He, Liqun; Huang, Di; Lei, Shi; Gao, Jiandong

    2015-10-21

    Chronic kidney disease poses a serious health problem worldwide with increasing prevalence and lack of effective treatment. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of icariin in alleviating chronic renal failure induced by 5/6 nephrectomy in rats. The chronic renal failure model was established by a two-phased 5/6 nephrectomy procedure. The model rats were given daily doses of water or icariin for 8 weeks. The kidney morphology was checked by HE staining. The levels of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and serum uric acid were measured by colometric methods. The expression of specified genes was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemical staining. The number of renal stem/progenitor cells was analyzed by CD133 and CD24 immunohistochemical staining. Icariin protected against CDK-caused damages to kidney histology and improved renal function, significantly reduced levels of BUN, creatinine, and uric acid. Icariin inhibited the expression level of TGF-β1 whereas upregulated HGF, BMP-7, WT-1, and Pax2 expression. Moreover, ccariin significantly increased the expression of CD24, CD133, Osr1, and Nanog in remnant kidney and the numbers of CD133(+)/CD24(+) renal stem/progenitor cells. These data demonstrated that icariin effectively alleviated 5/6 nephrectomy induced chronic renal failure through increasing renal stem/progenitor cells.

  10. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid ameliorates, but rapeseed oil and safflower oil accelerate renal injury in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats as compared with soybean oil, which is associated with expression for renal transforming growth factor-beta, fibronectin and renin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, M; Takemura, N; Watanabe, S; Hata, N; Misawa, Y; Okuyama, H

    2000-01-03

    We have noted that n-3 fatty acid-rich oils, such as fish oil, perilla oil and flaxseed oil as well as ethyl docosahexaenoate (DHA) prolonged the survival time of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) rats by approximately 10% as compared with linoleate (n-6)-rich safflower oil. Rapeseed oil with a relatively low n-6/n-3 ratio unusually shortened the survival time by approximately 40%, suggesting the presence of minor components unfavorable to SHRSP rats. This study examined the effects of dietary oils and DHA on renal injury and gene expression related to renal injury in SHRSP rats. Rats fed rapeseed oil- and safflower oil-supplemented diets developed more severe proteinuria than those fed soybean oil-supplemented diet used as a control, but there were no significant differences in blood pressure. In contrast, the DHA-supplemented diet inhibited the development of proteinuria and suppressed hypertension. The mRNA levels for renal TGF-beta, fibronectin and renin were higher in the rapeseed oil and safflower oil groups after 9 weeks of feeding of the experimental diet than in the soybean oil and DHA groups. The fatty acid composition of kidney phospholipids was markedly affected by these diets. These results indicate that the renal injury observed in the groups fed safflower oil with a high n-6/n-3 ratio and rapeseed oil with presumed minor components is accompanied by increased expression of the TGF-beta, renin and fibronectin genes, and that dietary DHA suppresses renal injury and gene expression as compared with soybean oil.

  11. Differential changes in functional activity of organic cation transporters in rats with uranyl nitrate-induced acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Han-Joo; Shim, Won-Sik; Ahn, Sun-Joo; Yu, Sang-Soo; Kim, Dae-Duk; Shim, Chang-Koo; Chung, Suk-Jae

    2012-08-01

    We studied the impact of experimental kidney failure on the pharmacokinetics of a model organic cation and investigated the underlying mechanism(s) of the organic cation transporters. The systemic pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of triethylmethylammonium (TEMA), a model organic cation, were characterized after intravenous doses of 0.3-30 μmol/kg in rats with or without uranyl nitrate-induced acute renal failure (UN-ARF). To study the effect of endogenous substrates in plasma from UN-ARF rats on organic cation transport, rOCT- or rOCT2-dependent uptake of tetraethylammonium (TEA) was studied in rOCT1-transfected or rOCT2-transfected LLC-PK1 cells, respectively. As a result, the AUC for TEMA was increased, probably because of decreased total clearance, and the tissue-to-plasma concentration ratio (T/P ratio) of TEMA was unchanged in the liver but decreased significantly in the kidneys of UN-ARF rats. In vitro, the uptake of TEA was decreased significantly by adding UN-ARF plasma, compared with control plasma, in rOCT2-overexpressing LLC-PK1 cells, but not in rOCT1-overexpressing LLC-PK1 cells. These observations suggest that the induction of UN-ARF leads to an accumulation of endogenous organic cation(s), probably rOCT2 substrate(s), in the plasma, thereby affecting the TEMA pharmacokinetics and distribution to the kidneys in rats.

  12. The effects of Mucuna pruriens on the renal oxidative stress and transcription factors in high-fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulu, Ramazan; Gozel, Nevzat; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Orhan, Cemal; Yiğit, İrem Pembegül; Dogukan, Ayhan; Telceken, Hafize; Üçer, Özlem; Kemeç, Zeki; Kaman, Dilara; Juturu, Vijaya; Sahin, Kazim

    2018-05-31

    In the present study, we evaluated the effects of M. pruriens administration on metabolic parameters, oxidative stress and kidney nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathways in high-fructose fed rats. Male rats (n = 28) were divided into 4 groups as control, M. pruriens, fructose, and M. pruriens plus fructose. All rats were fed a standard diet supplemented or no supplemented with M. pruriens (200 mg/kg/d by gavage). Fructose was given in drinking water for 8 weeks. High fructose consumption led to an increase in the serum level of glucose, triglyceride, urea and renal malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Although M. pruriens treatment reduced triglyceride and MDA levels, it did not affect other parameters. M. pruriens supplementation significantly decreased the expression of NF-ҡB and decreased expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 proteins in the kidney. This study showed that the adverse effects of high fructose were alleviated by M. pruriens supplementation via modulation of the expression of kidney nuclear transcription factors in rats fed high fructose diet. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Urinary excretion of epidermal growth factor and Tamm-Horsfall protein in three rat models with increased renal excretion of urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Jørgensen, P E; Torffvit, O

    1997-01-01

    were examined in three groups of rats with increased renal excretion of urine: uninephrectomy, non-osmotic polyuria and diabetic osmotic polyuria. Twenty-four hour urine samples were obtained after 7, 14 and 21 days. The urinary volume per kidney was doubled in uninephrectomy when compared to controls....... There was a seven-fold increase in urinary volume in rats with non-osmotic polyuria and diabetic osmotic polyuria, as compared to controls. Uninephrectomy, non-osmotic polyuria and diabetes all affected the urinary excretion of EGF and THP differently. The EGF excretion in uninephrectomized rats was 60......-80% of that of the controls, whereas THP excretion was unchanged, indicating that EGF excretion varied with renal tissue mass. Non-osmotic polyuria caused a five-fold increase in THP excretion but no change in EGF excretion. THP excretion in the diabetic rats was increased three-fold after 21 days when compared to controls...

  14. Role of the availability of substrates on hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis in the fasted late pregnant rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorzano, A.; Lasuncion, M.A.; Herrera, E.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were conducted to examine the role of gluconeogenetic substrate availability on glucose production in the fasted late pregnant rat. Virgin and 21-day pregnant rats were studied after 24 hours' food deprivation. Pregnant animals showed decreased circulating glucose and gluconeogenic amino acid and increased plasma glycerol concentration. Glucose formation was studied in vivo two, five, and ten minutes after the intravenous administration of two concentrations of 14 C-alanine, 14 C-pyruvate, or 14 C-glycerol. Concentrations of 0.2 mmols of 14 C-glycerol or 14 C-pyruvate, but not of 14 C-alanine, enhanced 14 C-glucose production in pregnant rats, whereas 1 mmol of any of the three 14 C-substrates always enhanced 14 C-glucose production in these rats. Both 1 mmol/L and 5 mmol/L 14 C-alanine increased 14 C-glucose formation in 90-minute-incubated liver slices of fasted pregnant rats, in spite of decreased cytosolic activity of alanine aminotransferase. The three substrates enhanced in vitro renal gluconeogenesis in pregnant rats. Under all experimental conditions studied, labeled glycerol was converted more efficiently into glucose than equivalent amounts of any other substrate used, and this difference was greater in pregnant, than in virgin animals. Results indicate that, in spite of enhanced gluconeogenetic activity, maternal glucose production in the fasted state at late gestation is limited by the deficiency of certain substrates, such as amino acids. It is proposed that glycerol derived from enhanced maternal adipose tissue lipolysis constitutes a preferential gluconeogenetic substrate in comparison with others, such as alanine, that are more efficiently transferred through the placenta to the fetus

  15. Curcumin and dexmedetomidine prevents oxidative stress and renal injury in hind limb ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, M A; Yalcin, S; Aydogan, H; Büyükfirat, E; Kücük, A; Kocarslan, S; Yüce, H H; Taskın, A; Aksoy, N

    2016-06-01

    Curcumin and dexmedetomidine have been shown to have protective effects in ischemia-reperfusion injury on various organs. However, their protective effects on kidney tissue against ischemia-reperfusion injury remain unclear. We aimed to determine whether curcumin or dexmedetomidine prevents renal tissue from injury that was induced by hind limb ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Fifty rats were divided into five groups: sham, control, curcumin (CUR) group (200 mg/kg curcumin, n = 10), dexmedetomidine (DEX) group (25 μg/kg dexmedetomidine, n = 10), and curcumin-dexmedetomidine (CUR-DEX) group (200 mg/kg curcumin and 25 μg/kg dexmedetomidine). Curcumin and dexmedetomidine were administered intraperitoneally immediately after the end of 4 h ischemia, just 5 min before reperfusion. The extremity re-perfused for 2 h and then blood samples were taken and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidative status (TOS) levels, and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured, and renal tissue samples were histopathologically examined. The TAC activity levels in blood samples were significantly lower in the control than the other groups (p OSI were found to be significantly increased in the control group compared to others groups (p model.

  16. Role of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins-7 (BMP-7 in the Renal Improvement Effect of DangGui (Angelica sinensis in Type-1 Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hua Yeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia induced reactive oxygen species (ROS generation is believed as major factors leading to diabetic nephropathy (DN. DangGui (Angelica sinensis is mentioned to show renal protective effect in combination with other herbs. Bone morphogenetic proteins-7 (BMP-7 is produced merit in protection of DN. The role of BMP-7 in DangGui-induced renal improvement is not clear. The present study investigated the effects of DangGui on renal functions, BMP-7 expression and the levels of ROS in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats and high glucose-exposed rat mesangial cells (RMCs. After 1- or 4-week treatment, DangGui improved renal functions and increased renal BMP-7 expression in diabetic rats. The BMP-7 expression in RMCs was reduced by high glucose treatment and this could be reversed by DangGui. Moreover, RMCs exposed to high glucose were expired by BMP-7 RNAi transfection but those cells remained alive by scramble transfection. Thus, we employed regular RMCs to knock down BMP-7 with RNAi and we found that DangGui increased BMP-7 expression in these RMCs. Direct activation of BMP-7 expression by DangGui could be considered. The results of DPPH assay, DHE stain and lucigenin assay indicated that DangGui could inhibit high glucose-induced ROS in RMCs. These results suggest that DangGui has an ability to improve renal functions in STZ-diabetic rats through increasing endogenous BMP-7 expression and decreasing oxidative stress in kidney. The present study suggest that DangGui could be applied to improve renal functions in diabetic disorders.

  17. Locally formed dopamine inhibits Na sup + -K sup + -ATPase activity in rat renal cortical tubule cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seri, I.; Kone, B.C.; Gullans, S.R.; Aperia, A.; Brenner, B.M.; Ballermann, B.J. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA) Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1988-10-01

    Dopamine, generated locally from L-dopa, inhibits Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase in permeabilized rat proximal tubules under maximum transport rate conditions for sodium. To determine whether locally formed dopamine inhibits Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase activity in intact cortical tubule cells we studied the effect of L-dopa on ouabain-sensitive oxygen consumption rate ({dot Q}o{sub 2}) and {sup 86}Rb uptake in renal cortical tubule cell suspensions. L-Dopa did not affect ouabain-insensitive {dot Q}o{sub 2} or mitochondrial respiration. However, L-dopa inhibited ouabain-sensitive {dot Q}o{sub 2} in a concentration-dependent manner, with half-maximal inhibition (K{sub 0.5}) of 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} M and a maximal inhibition of 14.1 {plus minus} 1.5% at 10{sup {minus}4}M. L-Dopa also blunted the nystatin-stimulated {dot Q}o{sub 2} in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating the L-dopa directly inhibits Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase activity and not sodium entry. Ouabain-sensitive {sup 86}Rb uptake was also inhibited by L-dopa. Carbidopa, an inhibitor of the conversion of L-dopa to dopamine, eliminated the effect of L-dopa on ouabain-sensitive {dot Q}o{sub 2} and {sup 86}Rb uptake, indicating that dopamine rather than L-dopa was the active agent. The finding that the L-dopa concentration-response curve was shifted to the left by one order of magnitude in the presence of nystatin suggests that the inhibitory effect is enhanced when the intracellular sodium concentration is increased. By studying the effect of L-dopa on ouabain-sensitive {dot Q}o{sub 2} at increasing extracellular sodium concentrations in the presence of nystatin, the authors demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of locally formed dopamine on the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase is indeed dependent on the sodium available for the enzyme and occurs in an uncompetitive manner.

  18. The anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt on high-glucose-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced diabetic renal damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lan; Li, Linlin; Li, Xinxia; Li, Hui; Zhang, Yujie; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Jian; Mao, Xinmin

    2015-09-07

    Diabetic nephropathy is a serious complication of diabetes whose development process is associated with inflammation, renal hypertrophy, and fibrosis. Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt, traditionally used as a healthcare tea, has anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemia, and glycemic regulation activities. The aim of our study was to investigate the renal protective effect of ethyl acetate extract of C. tinctoria Nutt (AC) on high-glucose-fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. A diabetic rat model was induced by high-glucose-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of 35 mg/kg STZ. After treatment with AC at a daily dose of 150, 300 or, 600 mg/kg for 4 weeks, metabolic and renal function parameters of serum and urine were examined. Degree of renal damage, renal proinflammatory cytokines, and fibrotic protein expression were analyzed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Renal AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/Smad signaling pathway were determined by western blotting. Diabetic rats showed obvious renal dysfunction, inflammation and fibrosis. However, AC significantly reduced levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and urinary albumin, as well as expression of kidney proinflammatory cytokines of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. AC also ameliorated renal hypertrophy and fibrosis by reducing fibronectin and collagen IV and suppressing the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway. Meanwhile, AMPKα as a protective cytokine was markedly stimulated by AC. In summary, AC controls blood glucose, inhibits inflammatory and fibrotic processes, suppresses the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway, and activates phosphorylation of AMPKα in the kidneys, which confirms the protective effects of AC in the early stage of diabetic kidney disease.

  19. Renal structure and function evaluation of rats from dams that received increased sodium intake during pregnancy and lactation submitted or not to 5/6 nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Evelyn Cristina Santana; Balbi, Ana Paula Coelho; Francescato, Heloísa Della Coletta; Alves da Silva, Cleonice Giovanini; Costa, Roberto Silva; Coimbra, Terezila M

    2008-01-01

    Adult rats submitted to perinatal salt overload presented renin-angiotensin system (RAS) functional disturbances. The RAS contributes to the renal development and renal damage in a 5/6 nephrectomy model. The aim of the present study was to analyze the renal structure and function of offspring from dams that received a high-salt intake during pregnancy and lactation. We also evaluated the influence of the prenatal high-salt intake on the evolution of 5/6 nephrectomy in adult rats. A total of 111 sixty-day-old rat pups from dams that received saline or water during pregnancy and lactation were submitted to 5/6 nephrectomy (nephrectomized) or to a sham operation (sham). The animals were killed 120 days after surgery, and the kidneys were removed for immunohistochemical and histological analysis. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), albuminuria, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were evaluated. Increased SBP, albuminuria, and decreased GFR were observed in the rats from dams submitted to high-sodium intake before surgery. However, there was no difference in these parameters between the groups after the 5/6 nephrectomy. The scores for tubulointerstitial lesions and glomerulosclerosis were higher in the rats from the sham saline group compared to the same age control rats, but there was no difference in the histological findings between the groups of nephrectomized rats. In conclusion, our data showed that the high-salt intake during pregnancy and lactation in rats leads to structural changes in the kidney of adult offspring. However, the progression of the renal lesions after 5/6 nephrectomy was similar in both groups.

  20. Effects of intravenous bumetanide administration on renal haemodynamics and proximal and distal tubular sodium reabsorption in conscious rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalmi, M.; Petersen, J.S.; Christensen, S. (Department of pharmacology, University of Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1989-01-01

    The renal effects of 0.02-62.5 mg/kg bumetanide given as intravenous bolus injections were studied in water diuretic conscious rats. Clearances of {sup 14}C-tetraethylammonium, {sup 3}H-inulin and lithium were used as markers for renal plasma flow (RPF), glomerular filtion rate (GFR) and proximal tubular output, respectively. Bumetanide caused biphasic, transient and dose-independent changes in the renal haemodynamics without significant alterations of the filtration fraction. At dose-levels above 0.02 mg/kg bumetanide increased urine flow, absolute and fractional Na excretion as well as the indices for fractional output of Na from the proximal tubules (C{sub Li}/C{sub I}n) and the distal nephron segments (C{sub Na}/C{sub Li}). The changes in C{sub Li}/C{sub In} became maximal at doses above 0.5 mg/kg, whereas C{sub Na}/C{sub Li} was increased with the dose up to 12.5 mg/kg. Paradoxically, doses above 12.5 mg/kg were less natriuretic due to a decrease of C{sub Na}/C{sub Li}. It is concluded that in rats bumetanide is an effective although short-acting diuretic when administered intravenously. When comparing peak responses bumetanide is equipotent to furosemide but has a lower maximal efficacy. Judged from the changes in fractional lithium excretion, the natriuretic effect of bumetanide is effected by inhibition of Na reabsorption in the proximal tubule in addition to the well-known effect on the distal nephron segment. (author).

  1. The Antihypertensive Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Allium Eriophyllum Leaves on Rats with Simultaneous Type 2 Diabetes and Renal Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mozafari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some species of Allium family are known to have antihypertensive, anti-diabetic, and lipid lowering effects. Objectives: This study aimed to examine the possible mechanisms of antihypertensive, anti-diabetic, and anti-lipid activities of Allium eriophyllum which grows in Fars province, Iran in a rat model of simultaneous type 2 diabetes and renal hypertension. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on six groups of male Spargue-Dawley rats each containing 8 - 10 animals, including a sham-control, a diabetic, a renal hypertensive, and three simultaneously hypertensive–diabetic groups receiving vehicle or 30 or 100 mg/kg/day hydroalcoholic extract of Allium eriophyllum. Four weeks after induction of diabetes, renal hypertension was induced and the animals started receiving the vehicle or extract for the subsequent four weeks. Afterwards, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and markers of oxidative stress were measured, and isolated studies were performed on aortic rings. Results: Systolic blood pressure, heart rate, fasting blood sugar, maximal response, and effective concentrations 50 (EC50 of phenylephrine and acetylcholine of the hypertensive-diabetic group receiving vehicle were significantly higher compared to those of the sham-control group, and treatment with the extract led to a significant reduction in these variables. Moreover, serum superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase and maximal response of acetylcholine were significantly lower in the hypertensive-diabetic group receiving vehicle in comparison to the sham-control group, and treatment with the extract significantly reduced these variables. Conclusions: The present study findings indicated that antihypertensive, anti-diabetic, and anti-lipid effects of the extract might be partly due to its antioxidant mechanism. It was also revealed that its antihypertensive effects may be additionally mediated by improving the release

  2. [Effects of qishenyiqi gutta pills on calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II in rats with renal hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-ying; Wei, Wan-lin; Shu, Chang-cheng; Zhang, Ling; Tian, Guo-xiang

    2013-02-05

    To explore the effects of qishenyiqi gutta pills on myocardial hypertrophy of left ventricle and calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CAMK II) in rats with renal hypertension and elucidate its intervention mechanism for myocardial hypertrophy. A total of 50 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups of sham-operation, control, high-dose qishenyiqi gutta pills, low-dose qishenyiqi gutta pills and valsartan (n = 10 each). The rat model of myocardial hypertrophy with renal hypertension was established by the 2-kidney 1-clip (2K1C) method. The experimental animals were divided into control, high-dose, low-dose and valsartan groups. At Week 5 postoperation, valsartan group received an oral dose of valsartan (30 mg×kg(-1)×d(-1)), high-dose and low-dose groups took qishenyiqi gutta pills (250 and 125 mg×kg(-1)×d(-1)) while sham-operation and control groups had the same dose of normal saline solution. Tail arterial pressure was detected weekly and continued for 8 weeks. At the end of Week 12, the animals were sacrificed to harvest myocardial tissue of left ventricle for detecting left ventricular mass index (LVMI). The collagen volume fraction (CVF) of myocardium was examined by Van Gieson staining, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the expression of CAMK II was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. (1) Blood pressures were significantly higher in high-dose, low-dose and control groups than those in sham-operation and valsartan groups ((167.66 ± 11.48), (166.72 ± 13.51), (174.34 ± 14.52) vs (119.57 ± 6.30), (131.80 ± 12.49) mm Hg, P pills may retard myocardial hypertrophy of left ventricle in rats with renal hypertension. And the mechanism is probably be correlated with its antioxidant activity and inhibited expression of myocardial CAMK II.

  3. Mechanism of petroleum-induced sex-specific protein droplet nephropathy and renal cell proliferation in Fischer-344 rats: relevance to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, M.; Short, B.G.; Lock, E.A.; Swenberg, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Acute inhalation exposure of male rats to vaporized unleaded gasoline causes a protein droplet-nephropathy syndrome, whereas chronic exposure produces a significant increase renal tumor incidence. The renal lesions produced by chronic or acute exposure to UG have not been observed in kidneys of female rats, or either sex of mice. The assessment of the genotoxic properties of unleaded gasoline by a battery of tests has shown that unleaded gasoline is non-genotoxic. A 21-day histoautoradiographic study in male rats exposed to inhaled unleaded gasoline or gavaged with 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (TMP), a nephrotoxic component of unleaded gasoline selected as a model compound, has shown a dose-dependent increase in cell proliferation specifically in the proximal tubule, segments that have an increased protein droplet formation. A disposition study in male and female rats showed that after a single dose of [ 14 C]-TMP, TMP-derived radiolabel was retained in kidneys of male rats. An increase in the renal α2u-globulin concentration was concomitantly observed in male but not female rats

  4. Long-term effects of maternal diabetes on blood pressure and renal function in rat male offspring.

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    Jie Yan

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is increasing rapidly worldwide. Previous animal models were established to study consequences of offspring after exposure to severe intrauterine hyperglycemia. In this study we are aiming to characterize the blood pressure levels and renal function of male offspring obtained from diabetic mothers with moderate hyperglycemia. METHODS: We established a rat model with moderate hyperglycemia after pregnancy by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ. The male offspring were studied and fed with either normal diet or high salt diet after weaning. Arterial pressure and renal function were measured. RESULTS: Arterial pressure of male offspring increased from 12 weeks by exposure to intrauterine moderate hyperglycemia. At 20 weeks, high salt diet accelerated the blood pressure on diabetic offspring compared to diabetic offspring fed with normal diet. We found offspring exposed to intrauterine moderate hyperglycemia had a trend to have a higher creatinine clearance rate and significant increase of urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG excretion indicating an early stage of nephropathy progression. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We observed the high blood pressure level and early renal dysfunction of male offspring obtained from diabetic mothers with moderate hyperglycemia. Furthermore, we investigated high salt diet after weaning on offspring exposed to intrauterine hyperglycemia could exacerbate the blood pressure and renal function. Renin angiotensin system (RAS plays an important role in hypertension pathogenesis and altered gene expression of RAS components in offspring with in utero hyperglycemia exposure may account for the programmed hypertension. Therefore, our study provides evidence "fetal programming" of maternal diabetes is critical for metabolic disease development.

  5. Effect of Intervention in Mast Cell Function Before Reperfusion on Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats

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    Fei Tong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Mast cells are sparsely distributed in the kidneys under normal conditions; however, the number of mast cells increases dramatically during renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (RI/RI. When mast cells are stimulated, numerous mediators are released, and under pathological conditions, they produce a wide range of biological effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intervention in mast cell function before reperfusion on RI/RI. Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD rats (n=50 were randomized into five groups: sham group, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R group, cromolyn sodium treatment group (CS+I/R group, ketotifen treatment group (K+I/Rgroup, and compound 48/80 treatment group (C+I/R group. I/R injury was induced by bilateral renal artery and vein occlusion for 45 min followed by 24 h of reperfusion. The agents were intravenously administered 5 min before reperfusion through the tail vein. The serum levels of blood urea nitrogen(BUN, serum creatinine (Scr and histamine and the kidney levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 were assessed. The expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 in renal tissue was also measured. Results: I/R injury resulted in severe renal injury, as demonstrated by a large increase in injury scores; serum levels of BUN, Scr and histamine; and kidney levels of MDA, TNF-α, and IL-6; this was accompanied by reduced SOD activity and upregulated ICAM-1 expression. Treatment with cromolyn sodium or ketotifen markedly alleviated I/R-mediated kidney injury, whereas compound 48/80 further aggravated kidney injury. Conclusion: Intervention in mast cell activity prior to reperfusionhas a strong effect on RI/RI.

  6. [Volume Homeostasis and Renal Function in Rats Exposed to Simulated and Actual Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Bryan J.

    1993-01-01

    This project has investigated mechanisms that influence alterations in compartmental fluid and electrolyte balance in microgravity and evaluates countermeasures to control renal fluid and electrolyte losses. Determining the alterations due to space flight in fluid compartments and renal function is an important component in understanding long term adaptation to spaceflight and the contribution to post-flight orthostatic intolerance. Four definition phase studies and two studies examining neuro-humoral and vascular mechanisms have been completed.

  7. Age-related differences in renal side-effects of radiation and chemotherapy in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Jongejan, Mieke

    1988-01-01

    textabstractThe improved life-expectancy of cancer patient has brought to light late sequelae of oncology therapy. This is especially true for pediatric patients. Renal damage is one of the adverse side-effects of anti-tumor therapy that may occur. Studies conceming damaging effects of radiotherapy or chemotherapy on the kidney have generally been performed in adults. There is scant experimental or clinical information on renal function after anti -tumor therapy in the young. Rapid growth occ...

  8. Hemorheological and metabolic consequences of renal ischemia-reperfusion and their modulation by N,N-dimethyl-tryptamine on a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peto, Katalin; Nemeth, Norbert; Mester, Anita; Magyar, Zsuzsanna; Ghanem, Souleiman; Somogyi, Viktoria; Tanczos, Bence; Deak, Adam; Bidiga, Laszlo; Frecska, Ede; Nemes, Balazs

    2018-04-13

    Micro-rheological relations of renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) have not been completely elucidated yet. Concerning anti-inflammatory agents, it is supposed that sigma-1 receptor agonist N,N-dimethyl-tryptamin (DMT) can be useful to reduce I/R injury. To investigate the micro-rheological and metabolic parameters, and the effects of DMT in renal I/R in rats. In anesthetized rats from median laparotomy both kidneys were exposed. In Control group (n = 6) no other intervention happened. In I/R group (n = 10) the right renal vessels were ligated and after 60 minutes the organ was removed. The left renal vessels were clamped for 60 minutes followed by 120-minute reperfusion. In I/R+DMT group (n = 10) DMT was administered 15 minutes before the ischemia. Blood samples were taken before/after ischemia and during the reperfusion for testing hematological, metabolic parameters, erythrocyte deformability and aggregation. Lactate concentration significantly increased and accompanied with decreased blood pH. Enhanced erythrocyte aggregation and impaired deformability were observed from the 30th minute of reperfusion. In I/R+DMT group we found diminished changes compared to the I/R group (lactate, pH, electrolytes, red blood cell deformability and aggregation). Metabolic and micro-rheological parameters impair during renal I/R. DMT could reduce but not completely prevent the changes in this rat model.

  9. Effect of mitochondrial potassium channel on the renal protection mediated by sodium thiosulfate against ethylene glycol induced nephrolithiasis in rat model

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    N. Baldev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Sodium thiosulfate (STS is clinically reported to be a promising drug in preventing nephrolithiasis. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of mitochondrial KATP channel in the renal protection mediated by STS. Materials and Methods: Nephrolithiasis was induced in Wistar rats by administrating 0.4% ethylene glycol (EG along with 1% ammonium chloride for one week in drinking water followed by only 0.75% EG for two weeks. Treatment groups received STS, mitochondrial KATP channel opener and closer exclusively or in combination with STS for two weeks. Results: Animals treated with STS showed normal renal tissue architecture, supported by near normal serum creatinine, urea and ALP activity. Diazoxide (mitochondria KATP channel opening treatment to the animal also showed normal renal tissue histology and improved serum chemistry. However, an opposite result was shown by glibenclamide (mitochondria KATP channel closer treated rats. STS administered along with diazoxide negated the renal protection rendered by diazoxide alone, while it imparted protection to the glibenclamide treated rats, formulating a mitochondria modulated STS action. Conclusion: The present study confirmed that STS render renal protection not only through chelation and antioxidant effect but also by modulating the mitochondrial KATP channel for preventing urolithiasis.

  10. Effects of telmisartan and olmesartan on insulin sensitivity and renal function in spontaneously hypertensive rats fed a high fat diet

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    Hayato Yanagihara

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although telmisartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB, has an agonistic action for proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ in vitro, it remains to be determined whether telmisartan exerts such an action in vivo using a non-toxic dose (<5 mg/kg in rats. To address the issue, telmisartan (2 mg/kg and olmesartan (2 mg/kg, another ARB without PPAR-γ agonistic action, were given to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR fed a high fat diet (HFD. HFD decreased plasma adiponectin, and caused insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and renal damage, which were improved by ARBs. Protective effects of telmisartan and olmesartan did not significantly differ. In addition, in vitro study showed that 1 μM of telmisartan did not elevate the mRNA expression of adipose protein 2, which is a PPAR-γ-stimulated adipogenic marker gene, in preadipocytes with 3% albumin. To obtain 1 μM of plasma concentration, oral dose of telmisartan was calculated to be 6 mg/kg, which indicates that PPAR-γ agonistic action is negligible with a non-toxic dose of telmisartan (<5 mg/kg in rats. This study showed that 2 mg/kg of telmisartan and olmesartan ameliorated insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and renal damage in SHR fed a HFD. As beneficial effects of telmisartan and olmesartan did not significantly differ, these were mediated through the PPAR-γ-independent actions.

  11. Mechanisms responsible for postmenopausal hypertension in a rat model: Roles of the renal sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranon, Rodrigo O; Reckelhoff, Jane F

    2016-02-01

    Hypertension in postmenopausal women is less well controlled than in age-matched men. The aging female SHR is a model of postmenopausal hypertension that is mediated in part by activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and by the renal sympathetic nervous system. In this study, the hypothesis was tested that renal denervation would lower the blood pressure in old female SHR and would attenuate the antihypertensive effects of AT1 receptor antagonism. Retired breeder female SHR were subjected to right uninephrectomy (UNX) and left renal denervation (RD) or UNX and sham, and 2 weeks later, baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP; radiotelemetry) was measured for 4 days, and then rats were treated with angiotensin (AT1) receptor antagonist, losartan (40 mg/kg/day po) for 6 days. Renal denervation reduced MAP in old females compared to sham (172 ± 6 vs. 193 ± 6 mm Hg; P renal sympathetic nervous system and the RAS have independent effects to control the blood pressure in old female SHR. Since the denervated rats treated with losartan remained hypertensive, the data also suggest that other mechanisms than the RAS and renal sympathetic nervous system contribute to the hypertension in old female SHR. The data also suggest that multiple mechanisms may mediate the elevated blood pressure in postmenopausal women. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  12. Noradrenaline concentration and turnover in nuclei of the hypothalamus and the medulla oblongata at two stages in the development of renal hypertension in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnen, H.J.L.M.; Kloet, E.R. de; Versteeg, D.H.G.; Jong, Wybren de

    1980-01-01

    The noradrenaline concentration and the α-methyl-para-tyrosine (α-MPT)-induced disappearance of noradrenaline were determined in several nuclei of the hypothalamus and the medulla oblongata of renal hypertensive rats (two-kidney Goldblatt hypertension). A decreased α-MPT-induced disappearance of

  13. Alpha and beta-adrenoceptors in hypertension. I. Cardiac and renal alpha 1-, beta 1-, and beta 2-adrenoceptors in rat models of acquired hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Kanczik, R.; Khamssi, M.; Knorr, A.; Siegl, H.; Beckeringh, J. J.; Brodde, O. E.

    1989-01-01

    To determine whether adrenoceptor changes in genetic hypertension occur primary or secondary to blood pressure elevation, we measured cardiac and renal alpha 1- (by [125I]Be 2254 binding) and beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors (by (-)-[125I]iodocyanopindolol binding) densities in various