Sample records for rat rabbit sheep

  1. A comparison of lipolysis and lipogenesis in sheep and rats

    (a) hormone sensitive lipase is four times more active in rat epididymal fat than in ... Keywords: Sheep, rats, epinephrine, adipose tissue, rate- limiting enzymes ... Methods. Animals. Male laboratory white rats aged 2 - 3 months and fed high.

  2. Purification of rabbit IgG, obtention of sheep anti rabbit IgG and their use in radioimmunoassay of avian leukosis virus p15

    Higuchi, Tomoko; Ogata, Hiroe; Veiga, Silvio Sanches; Nogueira, Zelia Maria [Instituto de Quimica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Souza Felippe, Julia Maria Martins de [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Virus


    Immunoglobulin from rabbit serum was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by chromatography on DEA-cellulose and gel filtration in Sephadex G-200. The efficiency of all steps was followed by protein determination and profiles in sodium dodecyl-sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Sheeps were immunized with purified IgG. The deep anti-rabbit IgG titre was evaluated by double immuno diffusion gel plates. The system rabbit serum vs sheep anti-rabbit IgG serum was used as precipitating system in radioimmunoassay of the retrovirus immunogens, in this case, p15 of avian leukosis virus. (author). 19 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Killing of Pseudomonas pseudomallei by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and peritoneal macrophages from chicken, sheep, swine and rabbits.

    Markova, N; Kussovski, V; Radoucheva, T


    Differences in the kinetics of Pseudomonas pseudomallei killing by peritoneal macrophages (PM) and polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) from chickens, sheep, swine and rabbits were found. P. pseudomallei was rapidly killed by porcine PM and PMNL. However the bacterial killing by ovine and lapine PM and PMNL proceeded at a slower rate. In contrast, chicken PM and PMNL ingested and killed the lowest number of P. pseudomallei bacteria. The differences in the bactericidal activity of PM and PMNL from different animal species correlated with the level of their acid phosphatase and glycolytic activity.

  4. The Year of the Rabbit


    Every year of the Chinese lunar calendar corresponds with an animal. The rat,ox, tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse,sheep, monkey, rooster, dog and pig make up the Chinese zodiac, which repeats in a12-year cycle. This year’s Chinese NewYear rings in the Year of the Rabbit.

  5. Oral teratogenicity studies of methyl bromide in rats and rabbits.

    Kaneda, M; Hojo, H; Teramoto, S; Maita, K


    Teratogenicity studies of methyl bromide, a widely used fumigant, were conducted in rats and rabbits. Methyl bromide was dissolved in corn oil and administered orally to groups of 24 copulated female Crj:CD (SD) rats at dose levels of 0 (corn oil), 3, 10 or 30 mg/kg/day on days 6-15 of gestation and to groups of 18 artificially inseminated female Kbl:JW rabbits at 0, 1, 3 or 10 mg/kg/day on days 6-18 of gestation. Maternal rats and rabbits were euthanized on respective days 20 and 27 of gestation. Foetuses were examined for survival, growth and teratological alterations. Maternal toxicity was evident in the high-dose groups for both species. In these groups, maternal body weight gains and food consumption were significantly decreased during the dosing and post-dosing periods. Necropsy of maternal rats also revealed erosive lesions in the stomach and the surrounding organs. However, no treatment-related adverse effects were found in foetuses of the treated groups for both rat and rabbit studies. These results led to the conclusion that methyl bromide was not foetotoxic or teratogenic to rat and rabbit foetuses up to dose levels of 30 and 10 mg/kg/day, respectively, at which maternal toxicity was evident for both species.

  6. Multispectral imaging of organ viability during uterine transplantation surgery in rabbits and sheep

    Clancy, Neil T.; Saso, Srdjan; Stoyanov, Danail; Sauvage, Vincent; Corless, David J.; Boyd, Michael; Noakes, David E.; Thum, Meen-Yau; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Smith, James Richard; Elson, Daniel S.


    Uterine transplantation surgery (UTx) has been proposed as a treatment for permanent absolute uterine factor infertility (AUFI) in the case of the congenital absence or surgical removal of the uterus. Successful surgical attachment of the organ and its associated vasculature is essential for the organ's reperfusion and long-term viability. Spectral imaging techniques have demonstrated the potential for the measurement of hemodynamics in medical applications. These involve the measurement of reflectance spectra by acquiring images of the tissue in different wavebands. Measures of tissue constituents at each pixel can then be extracted from these spectra through modeling of the light-tissue interaction. A multispectral imaging (MSI) laparoscope was used in sheep and rabbit UTx models to study short- and long-term changes in oxygen saturation following surgery. The whole organ was imaged in the donor and recipient animals in parallel with point measurements from a pulse oximeter. Imaging results confirmed the re-establishment of adequate perfusion in the transplanted organ after surgery. Cornual oxygenation trends measured with MSI are consistent with pulse oximeter readings, showing decreased StO2 immediately after anastomosis of the blood vessels. Long-term results show recovery of StO2 to preoperative levels.

  7. Experimentos com a polpa cítrica em ovinos e coelhos Experiments with citrus pulp in sheep and rabbits

    Carlos Hubinger Tokarnia


    Full Text Available Ovinos e coelhos receberam em sua alimentação polpa cítrica em quantidades elevadas durante períodos prolongados, com a finalidade de estabelecer um modelo experimental. A polpa cítrica para os experimentos realizados nos ovinos era a mesma usada por criador do município de Lorena, SP, que perdeu 5 de um total de 56 vacas em lactação, em um período de poucas semanas; a doença caracterizava-se histologicamente por lesões granulomatosas. Os 4 ovinos usados nos experimentos receberam 800g/dia/animal desta polpa cítrica durante 10 a 11 meses. Nenhum dos ovinos mostrou o quadro clínico-patológico da intoxicação pela polpa cítrica observado nos bovinos ou outras alterações. Nos experimentos com os coelhos foi usada polpa cítrica de duas procedências. Na primeira série de experimentos com 6 coelhos foi usada a mesma polpa cítrica dos experimentos com os ovinos; na segunda série de experimentos com mais 6 coelhos utilizou-se a polpa cítrica que causou lesões granulo-matosas em cães. Os coelhos da primeira série ingeriram em média 51,5 g/dia/animal, os da segunda série em média 35,2 g/dia/animal da polpa cítrica. Os coelhos foram sacrificados 2, 3 , 6 e 12 meses após o início dos experimentos. Nenhum dos coelhos mostrou o quadro clínico-patológico da intoxicação pela polpa cítrica ou outras alterações.Citrus pulp was fed to sheep and rabbits in high doses and during long periods, in order to find an experimental model. The citrus pulp used in the experiments in sheep was the same used by a cattle breeder in Lorena, State of São Paulo, who lost out of a total of 56 lactating cows during a period of a few weeks 5 animals by a disease characterized histologically by granulomatous lesions. The 4 sheep used in the experiments received 800g/day/animal of this citrus pulp during 10 to 11 months. They were euthanized at the end of the experiment. None of the sheep showed the clinical-pathological picture of citrus pulp

  8. Embryotoxicity/teratogenicity of isomalt in rats and rabbits.

    Waalkens-Berendsen, D H; Koëter, H B; van Marwijk, M W


    The embryotoxicity/teratogenicity of the sugar replacer isomalt was studied in Wistar rats and New Zealand White rabbits. Groups of 22-23 female rats were given diets containing isomalt at concentrations of 2.5, 5 or 10%, from day 0 to day 21 of pregnancy. The possible adverse effects of restricted feeding were studied in an additional group (food intake less than 80% of the control values). Groups of 36-37 female rabbits were given diets containing isomalt at concentrations of 2.5, 5 or 10%, from day 0 to day 29 of pregnancy. The female rats and rabbits were killed on days 21 and 29 of pregnancy, respectively. In both species no maternal toxicity occurred and no effects on reproductive performance nor on embryonic or foetal development were seen in any of the groups fed isomalt. The feeding of restricted amounts of stock diet to pregnant rats resulted in decreased maternal weight gain and lower uterus weights. Furthermore, this group had an increased number of resorptions and small foetuses, decreased foetus and placental weights and retarded bone development.

  9. Reported analgesic administration to rabbits, pigs, sheep, dogs and non-human primates undergoing experimental surgical procedures.

    Coulter, C A; Flecknell, P A; Richardson, C A


    Reported analgesic use following experimental surgery is low in rodents and there has been little published information on the frequency of analgesic use in other laboratory species. A structured literature review was conducted to examine analgesic administration in larger laboratory animals. The Scirus search engine was used to identify studies published in peer-reviewed journals that reported carrying out experimental surgery on 'large' laboratory animals, specifically rabbits, pigs, sheep, dogs and non-human primates. Seventy-four studies between 2000 and 2001 and 75 studies between 2005 and 2006 were included in the review. There was an increase in the reported administration of systemic analgesics to these species from 50% in 2000-2001 to 63% in 2005-2006. When all agents with analgesic properties were considered (systemic analgesics, local anaesthetics and anaesthetics with analgesic components), the proportion of papers that reported some form of analgesic administration to 'large' laboratory animals increased from 86% in 2000-2001 to 89% in 2005-2006. Overall rabbits, pigs, sheep, dogs and non-human primates were more likely to receive analgesics following potentially painful experimental procedures than has been reported in laboratory rodents but analgesic administration to 'large' laboratory species is still not optimal.

  10. Are rabbits a suitable model to study sheep-associated malignant catarrhal in susceptible hosts?

    Sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF), caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), is often a fatal syndrome affecting mainly ruminants. SA-MCF pathogenesis and vaccine studies rely solely on live animals, since OvHV-2 has not been successfully propagated in vitro. Thus, the identification...

  11. Effects of lead on the renin-angiotensin system. [Rabbits; rats

    Keiser, J.A.


    The renin-angiotensin system was evaluated in both acute and chronic lead-exposed rabbits and in unanaesthetized chronic lead-exposed rats. In addition, the acute effects of lead on in vitro secretion of renin were evaluated using rabbit and renal cortical slices. The clearance of renin was measured in chronic lead-exposed rats. Basal PRAs were significantly elevated in lead-exposed rats; renal renin activities were also significantly higher. In contrast, renin clearances were not different in the two groups. These findings support the hypothesis that the increase in basal PRA seen in lead-exposed rats is due to increased renin secretion not decreased hepatic removal of renin. In conclusion, we found no evidence for decreased renin degradation in the chronic lead-exposed rabbit or rat; rather, changes in renin secretion appear to account for observed increases in PRA. In contrast, acute lead-exposure inhibits both renin secretion and degradation in the rabbit.

  12. Effects of trypan blue on rat and rabbit embryos cultured in vitro.

    Ninomiya, H; Kishida, K; Ohno, Y; Tsurumi, K; Eto, K


    Mouse and rat whole embryo cultures are widely used in teratogenicity studies. We attempted to improve the technique of culturing rabbit embryo. Rabbit embryos of the Japanese White strain were explanted on day 9, 10 or 11 of gestation and cultured for 24 or 48 hr. Rabbit embryos on day 9 of gestation were cultured in 100% rabbit serum with a gas mixture containing 20% O(2) for the first 24 hr and 95% O(2) for the following 24 hr. Rabbit embryos on day 10 or 11 of gestation were cultured in 100, 80 or 60% rabbit serum with a gas mixture of 95% O(2) for 48 or 24 hr. The development of embryos cultured for 48 hr from day 9 or day 10 or for 24 hr from day 11 was nearly the same as that of embryos that had developed in vivo. These results indicate that rabbit embryo culture is a useful and promising technique in teratogenicity studies. We then examined the effects of trypan blue on cultured rat and rabbit embryos. Slc:SD rat embryos on day 9.5 of gestation were explanted and cultured in rat serum exposed to trypan blue (300-2700 mug/ml) for 48 hr. Rabbit embryos on day 9 or 10 of gestation were explanted and cultured in rabbit serum containing trypan blue (300-2700 mug/ml) for 48 or 24 hr. Cultured rat embryos exposed to trypan blue showed neural tube abnormalities, and all growth parameters were suppressed with increasing concentrations of trypan blue. However, trypan blue had no effect on cultured rabbit embryos. These results indicate that trypan blue has species-specific effects on embryos.

  13. Developmental Toxicity Studies with Atrazine and its Major Metabolites in Rats and Rabbits

    Scialli, Anthony R; DeSesso, John M; Breckenridge, Charles B


    Atrazine (ATR), hydroxyatrazine (OH-ATR), and the three chloro metabolites of ATR (deethylatrazine [DEA], deisopropylatrazine [DIA], diaminochlorotriazine [DACT]) were evaluated for developmental effects in rats and rabbits. Three developmental toxicity studies were conducted on ATR in rats (two studies) and rabbits and a developmental toxicity study was conducted in rats for each of the four ATR metabolites DEA, DIA, DACT, and OH-ATZ. ATR administration by gavage to pregnant rats and rabbits from implantation (gestation day [GD] 6 in rat, GD 7 in rabbit) through closure of the palate (GD 15 in rat and GD 19 in rabbit) did not statistically significantly alter the incidence of developmental abnormalities or malformations at dose levels up to 100 (rat) or 75 (rabbit) mg/kg bw/day. There were no effects on developmental toxicity parameters for DEA, DIA, DACT, or OH-ATR at oral dose levels up to 100, 100, 150, or 125 mg/kg bw/day, respectively, with the exception of reductions in fetal body weight by DACT and OH-ATR in the presence of decreased maternal body weight gain. ATR did not adversely affect developmental end points in a two-generation study conducted in rats exposed to dose levels up to 500 ppm (38.7 mg/kg/day) in the diet. The 500-ppm dose level resulted in significantly reduced maternal body weight gain. Overall, data show that neither ATR nor its metabolites statistically significantly affected rat or rabbit embryo-fetal development even at dose levels producing maternal toxicity. PMID:24797531

  14. Disposition of glycolic acid into rat and rabbit embryos in vitro.

    Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G; Moore, Nigel P; Marshall, Valerie A; Rasoulpour, Reza J; Carney, Edward W


    High dose gavage administration of ethylene glycol (EG) induces teratogenicity in rodents, but not in rabbits, resulting from saturation of intermediate EG metabolism and glycolic acid (GA) accumulation. In vivo, rat embryos sequester GA 2-4-fold higher than maternal blood, a phenomenon absent in rabbits and proposed not to occur in humans. This research explored the mechanisms of GA disposition into rat and rabbit conceptuses using whole embryo culture (WEC). Rat and rabbit embryos concentrated GA from the culture medium. In vitro to in vivo discordance in the rabbit plausibly stemmed from anatomical differences between these models. GA sequestration was attenuated at 4°C in both species. Rat embryos further demonstrated pH-dependence of GA sequestration and inhibition by D-lactic acid. These data suggest GA disposition into rat and rabbit embryos is energy- and pH-dependent, and carrier-mediated. Anatomical and maternal-to-conceptal pH gradient differences likely underlie the lack of enhanced GA disposition in non-rodent species.

  15. Developmental toxicity studies of methyl ethyl ketoxime (MEKO) in rats and rabbits.

    Derelanko, Michael J; Rinehart, William E; Rodwell, Dean E


    The developmental toxicity of methyl ethyl ketoxime (MEKO), an industrial antioxidant used primarily as an antiskinning agent in alkyd paint, was investigated in rats and rabbits. Following preliminary dose range finding studies, groups of 25 pregnant rats or 18 pregnant rabbits were dosed by gavage with aqueous solutions of MEKO at 0, 60, 200, or 600 mg/kg (rats) or 0, 8, 14, 24, or 40 mg/kg (rabbits) on gestation days 6-15 or 6-18, respectively. In rats, dose-dependent clinical signs of maternal toxicity including reduced body weight gains were noted at 200 and 600 mg/kg. At 60 mg/kg and above enlarged spleens were observed at necropsy. The preliminary study found methemoglobin formation and reticulocytosis indicative of anemia at these dose levels. No treatment-related gestational effects, malformations or developmental variations were observed in the rats. In rabbits, 3 females aborted and 8 females were found dead at 40 mg/kg between gestation days 11 and 24. Clinical signs of maternal toxicity were present in surviving doses at this dose level. Body weight gains were reduced at 24 and 40 mg/kg. The preliminary study indicated maternal hematological effects in the rabbits similar to the rats at dose levels as low as 10 mg/kg. MEKO was not considered to have produced any treatment-related gestational effects, malformations or developmental variations in the rabbit at dose levels at or below 24 mg/kg. Because of excessive maternal mortality and abortions at the 40 mg/kg dose level, only 6 rabbits produced litters. The severe maternal toxicity and limited number of litters precluded a full assessment of developmental toxicity at 40 mg/kg. Nonetheless, MEKO did not appear to be teratogenic to the rabbit at this dose level.

  16. The reproductive toxicology of intravenously administered MnDPDP in the rat and rabbit

    Grant, D. [Nycomed Imaging AS, Oslo (Norway). Research and Development; Blazak, W.F. [Nycomed Inc., Wayne, PA (United States). Research and Development; Brown, G.L. [Nycomed Inc., Wayne, PA (United States). Research and Development


    Purpose: The reproductive toxicology of mangafodipir trisodium (MnDPDP, Tesla-scan), a new hepatobiliary MR contrast agent, was evaluated in rats and rabbits. Material and Methods: Male and female fertility and post-natal development were examined in rats after repeated i.e. injections of MnDPDP. The developmental toxicity in rats was investigated after repeated daily i.v. injections during organogenesis with MnDPDP, MnCl{sub 2}, or DPDP, as well as with MnCl{sub 2} administered orally. The developmental toxicity of i.v. injected MnDPDP was also investigated in rabbits. Results: MnDPDP (100 {mu}mol/kg) had no adverse effects on rat fertility. However, both MnDPDP (10-40 {mu}mol/kg) and MnCl{sub 2} (30 {mu}mol/kg) caused skeletal abnormalities in the rat, but not in the rabbit given 20 {mu}mol MnDPDP/kg. Maternal treatment of rats with MnDPDP (40 {mu}mol/kg) reduced survival and body weights of neonates, and adversely affected their functional, but not physical development. No skeletal abnormalities were seen in the rat after i.v. administered DPDP (40 {mu}mol/kg) or MnCl{sub 2} (6 {mu}mol/kg), or after MnCl{sub 2} (400 {mu}mol/kg) given by oral gavage. Maternal toxicity was not seen in rats or rabbits given these doses. (orig./AJ).

  17. In vitro permeation characteristics of moxifloxacin from oil drops through excised goat, sheep, buffalo and rabbit corneas.

    Pawar, P K; Majumdar, D K


    The objective of present investigation was to study the in vitro permeation characteristics of moxifloxacin from oil drops through freshly excised goat, sheep, buffalo and rabbit corneas. Moxifloxacin, 0.043 to 0.048% (w/v) ophthalmic solutions with or without (0.5% v/v) benzyl alcohol were made in arachis, castor, cottonseed, olive, soybean, sunflower and sesame oils. Permeation studies were conducted by putting 1 ml oil formulation on cornea (0.50 cm2) fixed between donor and receptor compartments of an all glass modified Franz diffusion cell and measuring the drug permeated in receptor (containing 10 ml bicarbonate ringer, pH 7.4 at 37 degrees C under stirring) by spectrophotometry at 291 nm, after 120 min. Post permeation corneal hydration was measured to assess corneal damage. The study was designed with paired corneas i.e. one cornea of an animal received formulation without benzyl alcohol while the contralateral cornea received formulation with benzyl alcohol. Moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution in castor oil showed maximum permeation with all the corneas. Addition of benzyl alcohol, a preservative, to oil drops reduced permeation of moxifloxacin from each oil drop, with corneas of all the species. Partition experiments with moxifloxacin oil drops and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) indicated higher partitioning of drug in the oil phase, in presence of benzyl alcohol. Thus results of permeation are consistent with the partition characteristics of drug between oil and aqueous phase. Corneal hydration obtained with all the formulations was between 75 to 80% indicating no corneal damage.

  18. Teratology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Effects of Sulfur Mustard in Rats and Rabbits

    Hackett, P. L.; Rommereim, R. L.; Burton, F. G.; Buschbom, R. L.; Sasser, L . B.


    Sulfur mustard (HD) was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Rats were dosed daily from 6 through 15 days of gestation (dg) with 0. 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg of HD/kg; rabbits were dosed with 0, 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8 mg/kg on 6 through 19 dg. Maternal animals were weighed periodically and, at necropsy, were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performance; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defects. In rats, reductions in body weights were observed in maternal animals and their female fetuses at the lowest administered dose (0.5 mg/kg), but the incidence of fetal malformations was not increased. In rabbits the highest administered dose (0.8 mg/kg) induced maternal mortality and depressed body weight measures but did not affect fetal development. These results suggest that orally administered HD is not teratogenic in rats and rabbits since fetal effects were observed only at dose levels that induced frank maternal toxicity. Estimations of dose ranges for "no observable effects levels" in rats and rabbits, respectively, were: < 0.5 and < 0.4 mg/kg in maternal animals and < 0.5 and > 0.8 mg/kg in their fetuses.

  19. A 90-day toxicology study of meat from genetically modified sheep overexpressing TLR4 in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Bai, Hai; Wang, Zhixian; Hu, Rui; Kan, Tongtong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Jinlong; Lian, Ling; Han, Hongbing; Lian, Zhengxing


    Genetic modification offers alternative strategies to traditional animal breeding. However, the food safety of genetically modified (GM) animals has attracted increasing levels of concern. In this study, we produced GM sheep overexpressing TLR4, and the transgene-positive offsprings (F1) were confirmed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot. The expression of TLR4 was 2.5-fold compared with that of the wild-type (WT) sheep samples. During the 90-day safety study, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with three different dietary concentrations (3.75%, 7.5%, and 15% wt/wt) of GM sheep meat, WT sheep meat or a commercial diet (CD). Blood samples from the rats were collected and analyzed for hematological and biochemical parameters, and then compared with hematological and biochemical reference ranges. Despite a few significant differences among the three groups in some parameters, all other values remained within the normal reference intervals and thus were not considered to be affected by the treatment. No adverse diet-related differences in body weights or relative organ weights were observed. Furthermore, no differences were observed in the gross necropsy findings or microscopic pathology of the rats whose diets contained the GM sheep meat compared with rats whose diets contained the WT sheep meat. Therefore, the present 90-day rat feeding study suggested that the meat of GM sheep overexpressing TLR4 had no adverse effect on Sprague-Dawley rats in comparison with WT sheep meat. These results provide valuable information regarding the safety assessment of meat derived from GM animals.

  20. Follicle Development of Xenotransplanted Sheep Ovarian Tissue into Male and Female Immunodeficient Rats

    Leila Sadat Tahaei


    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to assess follicle survival after xenotransplantation of sheep ovarian tissue into male and female immunodeficient rats. We evaluated the effects of gonadotropin treatment on follicular development in the transplanted tissue. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, sheep ovarian cortical strips were transplanted into the neck back muscles of 8 male and 8 female immunodeficient, castrated rats. Fourteen days after surgery, each rat was treated with human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG for 9 weeks. One day after the last injection, ovarian tissues were removed and fixed for histology assessment. Histology analyses were performed before and after grafting. Estradiol (E2 levels were measured before and after gonadectomy, and at the end of the experiment. The control group consisted of 7 male and 7 female noncastrated/ non-grafted rats and the sham group comprised 7 male and 7 female castrated/ non-grafted rats for comparison of serum E2 concentrations. Results: The percentage of primordial follicles decreased after transplantation in male (25.97% and female (24.14% rats compared to the control group (ovarian tissue nongrafted; 37.51%. Preantral follicles increased in the male (19.5% and female (19.49% transplanted rats compared to the control group (11.4%. Differences in antral follicles between male (0.06 ± 0.0% and female (0.06 ± 0.0% rats were not noticeable compared to control (1.25 ± 0.0% rats. We observed a significantly higher percent of mean E2 secretion in grafted males compared to grafted females (P˂0.05. Conclusion: Despite significant differences in E2 secretion between xenografted male and female rats, we observed no statistical differences in terms of follicular development.

  1. NHE-1 isoform of the Na+/H+ antiport is expressed in the rat and rabbit esophagus.

    Shallat, S; Schmidt, L; Reaka, A; Rao, D; Chang, E B; Rao, M C; Ramaswamy, K; Layden, T J


    Rabbit esophageal cells show an amiloride-sensitive Na+/H+ antiporter activity. Several distinct molecular isoforms of the Na+/H+ exchanger family (NHE) are reported to be present in the gastrointestinal tract of rats and rabbits. The aim of this study was to examine which isoforms are present in rabbit and rat esophageal cells and whether this isoform could be up-regulated by serum factors. Specific primers designed from the rat NHE-1-4 and the rabbit NHE-1-3 isoform sequences were used for reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis with RNA from rabbit and rat esophageal cells. Ribonuclease protection assay was used to determine the serum-induced up-regulation of NHE-1. Antibodies raised against the NHE-1 C-terminal fragment were used for Western blotting with rabbit esophageal membranes. In both the rat and rabbit esophagus, only the NHE-1 isoform messenger RNA could be detected. The NHE-1 messenger RNA, detected in rabbit esophageal cells grown from tissue explants, was up-regulated by serum factors. The antibody detected a 95-kilodalton protein in esophageal cell membranes. The rabbit and rat esophagus exclusively express the NHE-1 isoform, hypothesized to be involved in cytoplasmic pH regulation. Therefore, the results of this study suggest a role for NHE-1 in protecting cells against gastric acid that is refluxed into the esophagus.

  2. Stereoselective degradation of metalaxyl and its enantiomers in rat and rabbit hepatic microsomes in vitro.

    Zhang, Ping; Shen, Zhigang; Xu, Xinyuan; Zhu, Wentao; Dang, Ziheng; Wang, Xinru; Liu, Donghui; Zhou, Zhiqiang


    The stereoselective degradations of racemate metalaxyl (rac-MX) and its single enantiomers in rat and rabbit hepatic microsomes were assayed by a chiral high-performance liquid chromatography method. The t(1/2) of (+)-S-MX in rat liver microsomes was between 7-8 min tested by rac-MX and the individual (+)-S-enantiomer, respectively, and that for (-)-R-MX was 15-16 min. In contrast, t(1/2) in rabbit liver microsomes was much longer and showed great difference when using racemate and single enantiomer, which was similar to the results of in vivo study. The enantioselectivity in rat hepatic microsomes was more evident and the degradations of MX enantiomers in rat and rabbit hepatic microsomes were Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent. Michaelis constant (K(m)) and intrinsic metabolic clearance (CL(int)) of (+)-S-MX were larger than that of (-)-R-MX and there was no chiral inversion from (+)-S-MX to (-)-R-MX or vice versa in both rat and rabbit hepatic microsomes.

  3. Developmental toxicity of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (PPD10558) in rats and rabbits.

    Faqi, Ali S; Prohaska, David; Lopez, Rocio; McIntyre, Gail


    PPD10558 is an orally active, lipid-lowering 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor (statin) being developed as a treatment for hypercholesterolemia in patients who have not been able to tolerate statins because of statin-associated myalgia. We have studied the potential developmental toxicity effects of PPD10558 in pregnant rats and rabbits given daily oral doses during the period of organogenesis. Rats were dosed with 0, 20, 80, or 320 mg/kg/day from Gestation Day (GD) 6 to 17 and rabbits received dose levels of 0, 12.5, 25, or 50 mg/kg/day from GD 6 to 18. Additional groups in both studies served as toxicokinetic animals and received the PPD10558 in the same manner as the main study groups at the same dose levels. Blood samples were collected from toxicokinetic animals at designated time points on GD 6 and 17 in rats and GD 6 and 18 in rabbits. Fetal exposure in rats was assessed on GD 20. Maternal and developmental parameters were evaluated in rats and rabbits on GD 20 and GD 29, respectively. No maternal and developmental toxicity was observed at any of the dose levels used in the rat study. Evidence of fetal exposure was determined in fetal plasma with mean fetal concentrations of PPD10558 and the metabolite (PPD11901) found to be between 1 and 6% of the mean maternal concentrations. In rabbits, marked maternal toxicity including mortality (eight deaths; 1 dose at 25 and 7 at 50 mg/kg/day), abortions (2 at 25 mg/kg/day and 6 at 50 mg/kg/day) and reduction in gestation body weight, gestation body weight changes and decreased food consumption were observed. In addition, fetal body weights of the combined sexes were significantly reduced at 50 mg/kg/day in comparison with the controls. Mean peak exposure (Cmax) and total exposure (AUC(0-24)) of PPD11901 in both rats and rabbits were higher than that of PPD10558 on GD 6 and GD 17 at each of the three dose levels.. Based on the results of these studies, the no observed adverse effect

  4. Flukicidal action of closantel against immature and mature Fasciola hepatica in experimentally infected rats and sheep.

    Maes, L; Lauwers, H; Deckers, W; Vanparijs, O


    The relative importance of peak level- and residual level-related flukicidal activity of closantel against immature and mature Fasciola hepatica was evaluated in a comparative efficacy trial using two animal species with a different plasma elimination pattern, that is, the rat and the sheep with an elimination half-life of less than one week and of two to three weeks, respectively. The rats were dosed orally with closantel at 20 mg kg-1 at two, four, six, eight and 10 weeks; the sheep at 10 mg kg-1 at eight, 10 and 12 weeks after artificial infection. Necropsy was performed either one week after treatment or 12 weeks after infection. Efficacy rates and the length of the recovered flukes were evaluated. It was demonstrated that the flukicidal effect of closantel is directly related to its peak plasma levels and less to its residual plasma concentrations. In the rat, a high efficacy (P less than 0.001) could be demonstrated against immature stages of four weeks or older. The two-week immature stages were less markedly affected. No significant differences in efficacy and size of the flukes were noted between the animals autopsied one week after treatment and those autopsied 12 weeks after infection. In the sheep, the efficacy against six-week and eight-week-old immature stages varied between 70.3 and 76.8 per cent and between 92.8 and 96.5 per cent, respectively. As in the rats, no marked differences in efficacy were noted between the animals autopsied one week after treatment and those autopsied 12 weeks after infection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Strain-specific response to anaesthetics and analgesics in rat and rabbit : A pharmacogenetic approach

    Avsaroglu, H.


    The response of (laboratory) animals to anaesthetics and analgesics is known to show intraspecies variability. Apart from environmental influences, this may also be caused by genetic factors. In this thesis, rabbit and rat inbred strains were used to identify differences in response to anaesthetics

  6. Strain-specific response to anaesthetics and analgesics in rat and rabbit : A pharmacogenetic approach

    Avsaroglu, H.


    The response of (laboratory) animals to anaesthetics and analgesics is known to show intraspecies variability. Apart from environmental influences, this may also be caused by genetic factors. In this thesis, rabbit and rat inbred strains were used to identify differences in response to anaesthetics

  7. Fibre type regionalisation in lower hindlimb muscles of rabbit, rat and mouse : a comparative study

    Wang, LC; Kernell, D


    The topographical distribution of different fibre types in muscles of the lower hindlimb in rabbits and mice was quantitatively determined. The results were compared to those previously obtained, using the same new quantification methods, in homologous muscles of the rat. Type I fibres ('slow') were

  8. An animal model for human masseter muscle: histochemical characterization of mouse, rat, rabbit, cat, dog, pig, and cow masseter muscle

    Tuxen, A; Kirkeby, S


    .4, type IM fibers react moderately, and type II fibers react strongly. Rat and mouse masseter muscles contained type II fibers only, as did some rabbit masseter muscles, whereas other rabbit masseter muscles possessed equal amounts of type I and II fibers. Cat and dog masseter muscles possessed both type...

  9. Antibody response in cattle, sheep and rats to infection with. gamma. -irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica

    Hughes, D.L.; Doy, T.G. (Agricultural Research Council, Compton (UK). Inst. for Research on Animal Diseases); Hanna, R.E.B. (Queen' s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (UK))


    Cattle, sheep and rats were infected orally with ..gamma..-irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica, or with normal metacercariae. The antibody response was monitored in each host to metacercarial tegument (T0), juvenile tegument (T1), adult tegument (T2) and gut antigens. The response was examined at weekly intervals for cattle and sheep throughout 15 weeks of infection and four weeks after infection in rats, using an indirect fluorescent antibody labelling technique. It was found that the irradiated metacercariae engendered a normal humoral response to T0, T1 and gut antigens in all three hosts although the antibody levels were somewhat reduced due to early death or stunting of the flukes. T0 and T1 appeared to be antigenically similar. Antibodies against T2 appeared late in the animals infected with ..gamma..-irradiated metacercariae and the titres attained were considerably lower than in the controls. The T2 antigen stimulus in the animals given ..gamma..-irradiated metacercariae was probably provided by flukes which 'broke through' the developmental barrier imposed by irradiation and which were found alive at autopsy.

  10. Oxidative and conjugative metabolism of xenobiotics by livers of cattle, sheep, swine and rats.

    Smith, G S; Watkins, J B; Thompson, T N; Rozman, K; Klaassen, C D


    Homogenate preparations from fresh livers of cattle, sheep, swine and rats were assayed for microsomal cytochrome P-450 content, for mixed-function oxidase activities and for a wide array of conjugative activities using numerous xenobiotic substrates. Results show that hepatic enzymatic capabilities toward xenobiotics do not parallel phylogenetic classifications, thus strengthening the view that most of the comparative data available at present is more descriptive than predictive of relationships among species. Livestock species differed widely from rats in having lower activities of benzo(alpha)pyrene hydroxylase, glutathione S-transferase and acetyltransferase toward isoniazid and sulfamethazine and UDP-glucuronosyl-transferase toward bilirubin. Acetyltransferase activities toward beta-naphthylamine and 2-aminofluorene were not detected in livers of livestock species studied. Cattle livers were remarkably high in activities of styrene oxide hydrolase, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, 2-naphthol sulfotransferase and p-aminobenzoic acid acetyltransferase; but notably low in activity of glutathione-S-transferase toward sulfobromophthalein and 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene. Swine livers had low activity of glutathione-S-transferase toward four of six substrates and low acetyltransferase activity toward four of five substrates. Sheep livers generally were higher than cattle livers in sulfo- and UDP-glucuronsyltransferase activities and lower in acetyl- and glutathionyl-S-transferase. Findings emphasize the risk of error in extra-polations among species and in extrapolations among substrates.

  11. Developmental toxicity of polyethylene glycol-g-polyvinyl alcohol grafted copolymer in rats and rabbits.

    Heuschmid, Franziska F; Schneider, Steffen; Schuster, Paul; Lauer, Birthe; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard


    Polyethylene glycol-g-polyvinyl alcohol (PEG-PVA) grafted copolymer was evaluated in developmental toxicity studies with Wistar rats and Himalayan rabbits. Pregnant Wistar rats were gavaged with 0 (vehicle control), 100, 300, or 1000 mg PEG-PVA grafted copolymer/kg bw/day from gestation day (GD) 6-15. Pregnant Himalayan rabbits received the same treatment from GD 6 to 19. On GD 20 and 29 for rats and rabbits, respectively, the animals were euthanized and were examined grossly. For each dam, corpora lutea were counted and number and distribution of implantation sites were determined. The fetuses were removed, sexed, weighed, and evaluated for any external, soft tissue, and skeletal findings. No significant findings were found that could be attributed to administration of PEG-PVA grafted copolymer. Under the conditions of these studies, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for maternal and developmental toxicity in both species was the highest dose tested of 1000 mg/kg bw/day.

  12. Nylon bands as bone cerclage - experimental study in rabbits and rats

    Claudia Valéria Seullner Brandão; Pedro Afonso Urgel Martins Costa Antunes; Caroline Abreu Estanislau; Maria Jaqueline Mamprim; Leandro Teixeira; Carlos Roberto Padovani; Paulo Vinicius Tertuliano Marinho; Bruno Watanabe Minto


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biocampatibility of the commercial nylon band used as bone cerclage, comparing with traditional metal cerclage wires. Twenty one rabbits and fifteen rats, healthy and without orthopedics problems were used. A commercial nylon band and a surgical stainless steel wire “0” were used in right (SN) and left (SA) rabbits’s hindlimb, respectively. Otherwise, on rats SN was on the left hindlimb, and SA on the right hindlimb. Both experimental species were div...

  13. Spatial distribution of Reissner's fiber glycoproteins in the filum terminale of the rat and rabbit.

    Molina, B; Rodríguez, E M; Peruzzo, B; Caprile, T; Nualart, F


    The subcommissural organ secretes into the third ventricle glycoproteins that condense to form the Reissner's fiber (RF). At the distal end of the central canal of the spinal cord, the RF-glycoproteins accumulate in the form of an irregular mass known as massa caudalis. Antibodies against RF-glycoproteins and a set of lectins were used at the light and electron microscopic level to investigate the spatial distribution of the massa caudalis material in the rat and rabbit filum terminale. In the sacral region of the rat, the central canal presents gaps between the ependymal cells through which RF-glycoproteins spread out. The bulk of massa caudalis material, however, escapes through openings in the dorsal wall of the terminal ventricle. In the rabbit, the massa caudalis is formed within the ependymal canal, at the level of the second coccygeal vertebra, it accumulates within preterminal and terminal dilatations of the central canal, and it escapes out through gaps in the dorsal ependymal wall of the terminal ventricle. The existence of wide intercellular spaces and a large orifice (neuroporous) in the dorsal ependymal wall of the terminal ventricle, and the passage of RF-material through them, appear to be conserved evolutionary features. After leaving the terminal ventricle of the rat and rabbit, RF-glycoproteins establish a close spatial association with the numerous blood vessels irrigating the filum terminale, suggesting that in these species the blood vessels are the site of destination of the RF-glycoproteins escaping from the central canal, thus resembling the situation found in lower vertebrates. When passing from the RF stage to the massa caudalis stage, the rabbit RF-glycoproteins lose their sialic acid residues, exposing galactose as the terminal residue. Since this sialic acid-galactose modification of RF-glycoproteins had also been described in lamprey larvae, it may be regarded as a conserved evolutionary feature associated with the formation of the

  14. Rabbit IgG distribution in skin, spinal cord and DRG following systemic injection in rat.

    Tonra, J R; Mendell, L M


    In order to determine the distribution of antibodies such as anti-NGF following systemic injection in neonates, immunocytochemical techniques were used to examine the localization of rabbit IgG in rat skin, DRG, and spinal cord after treatments with normal rabbit serum or purified rabbit IgG. Daily subcutaneous injections beginning on postnatal day 2 or on day 15 were given for three days. On the fourth day the animals were sacrificed and tissues were processed for rabbit IgG-IR. In the dorsal and ventral spinal cord, staining intensities suggest a substantial increase in the blood-brain barrier during the first two weeks after birth. Staining intensity in the epidermis of the glabrous skin from the hindpaw was substantially lower than in the adjacent dermis. In addition, IgG infrequently accumulated intracellularly in intensely stained patches in the epidermis. IgG was also able to reach relatively high intracellular concentrations in a small number of sensory neurons. The IgG staining pattern in the skin was similar when anti-NGF itself was administered to the animals. The results are discussed in the context of the effects of anti-NGF on the development of nociceptive afferents.

  15. The Year of the Rat


    Do you know what your Chinese sign of the zodiac is? According to the Chinese lunar calendar,every year corre- sponds to one of twelve animals(rat,ox,tiger,rabbit,dragon, snake,horse,sheep,monkey,rooster,dog and pig)and these animals are used to identify years. After the Lunar New Year in 2008 we enter the rat year. All those born in 1996,1984,1972.1960,1948,1936 or 1924, also have a rat as their sign.

  16. Teratology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Effects of Sulfur Mustard in Rats and Rabbits - Part 2, Appendices

    Hackett, P L; Rommereim, R L; Burton, F G; Buschbom, R L; Sasser, L B


    Sulfur mustard (HD) was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Rats were dosed daily from 6 through 15 days of gestation (dg) with o. 0.5, 1 .0 or 2.0 mg of HD/kg; rabbits were dosed with 0, 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8 mg/kg on 6 through 19 dg. Maternal animals were weighed periodically and, at necropsy, were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performance; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defects. In rats, reductions in body weights were observed in maternal animals and their female fetuses at the lowest administered dose (0.5 mg/kg), but the incidence of fetal malformations was not increased. In rabbits the highest administered dose (0.8 mg/kg) induced maternal mortality and depressed body weight measures but did not affect fetal development These results suggest that orally administered HD is not teratogenic in rats • and rabbits since fetal effects were obs~rved only at dose levels that induced frank maternal toxicity. Estimations of dose ranges for •no observable effects levers· in rats and rabbits, respectively, were: < 0.5 and < 0.4 mg/kg in maternal animals and < 0.5 and > 0.8 mg/kg in their fetuses.

  17. Renal and vascular studies of aqueous extract of Urtica dioica in rats and rabbits

    K.F. Dizaye


    Full Text Available Urtica dioica has a variety of uses in traditional medicine for genitourinary ailments kidney disorders, allergies, diabetes, anemia, gastrointestinal tract ailments, musculoskeletal aches and alopecia. However, only a few of these uses have scientific bases that support their clinical uses. This study was done to evaluate some of the in vivo and in vitro pharmacological actions of this plant. Eighteen local domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus were used for in vitro studies (effect of the plant extract on isolated pulmonary arteries and isolated urinary bladder smooth muscle and in vivo studies (effect of the extract on renal function. Six male albino rats were used for studying the effects of the plant extract on blood pressure and heart rate. Urtica dioica extract produced a significant increase in urine volume and urinary Na+ excretion without significant changes in K+ excretion rates in experimental rabbits. No changes occurred in Glomerular filtration rate and %Na+ reabsorption of filtered load. Neither vasodilatation nor vasoconstriction of isolated pulmonary arteries of the rabbit was seen after applying the aqueous extract of U. dioica. Besides it could not reverse the vasoconstrictor effect of phenylephrine. Urtica dioica has no detectable effects on the isolated bladder; moreover it did not reverse the contraction that was produced by pilocarpine. In experimental rats, the plant extract produced a profound drop in blood pressure associated with decreased heart rate. In conclusion the aqueous extract of U. dioica produced diuretic and natriuretic effects with out significant effect on the K+ excretion rate in rabbits. Moreover it produced a profound drop in blood pressure and heart rate.

  18. Two outer membrane lipoproteins from Histophilus somni are immunogenic in rabbits and sheep and induce protection against bacterial challenge in mice.

    Guzmán-Brambila, Carolina; Rojas-Mayorquín, Argelia E; Flores-Samaniego, Beatriz; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel


    Histophilus somni is an economically important pathogen of cattle and other ruminants and is considered one of the key components of the bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex, the leading cause of economic loss in the livestock industry. BRD is a multifactorial syndrome, in which a triad of agents, including bacteria, viruses, and predisposing factors or "stressors," combines to induce disease. Although vaccines against H. somni have been used for many decades, traditional bacterins have failed to demonstrate effective protection in vaccinated animals. Hence, the BRD complex continues to produce strong adverse effects on the health and well-being of stock and feeder cattle. The generation of recombinant proteins may facilitate the development of more effective vaccines against H. somni, which could confer better protection against BRD. In the present study, primers were designed to amplify, clone, express, and purify two recombinant lipoproteins from H. somni, p31 (Plp4) and p40 (LppB), which are structural proteins of the outer bacterial membrane. The results presented here demonstrate, to our knowledge for the first time, that when formulated, an experimental vaccine enriched with these two recombinant lipoproteins generates high antibody titers in rabbits and sheep and exerts a protective effect in mice against septicemia induced by H. somni bacterial challenge.

  19. Nylon bands as bone cerclage - experimental study in rabbits and rats

    Claudia Valéria Seullner Brandão


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the biocampatibility of the commercial nylon band used as bone cerclage, comparing with traditional metal cerclage wires. Twenty one rabbits and fifteen rats, healthy and without orthopedics problems were used. A commercial nylon band and a surgical stainless steel wire “0” were used in right (SN and left (SA rabbits’s hindlimb, respectively. Otherwise, on rats SN was on the left hindlimb, and SA on the right hindlimb. Both experimental species were divided into three groups according to the end of the evaluation period. Clinical, radiographic, macroscopic and histologically evaluation were performed at 30, 60 and 150 days postoperatively. All the animals showed normal limb function differences between groups were not observed at clinical and macroscopic evaluation. On both species, radiographic changes were slightly higher on SN. Histological differences were not observed in both species. Nylon bands do not cause foreign body reaction and other histological changes in rabbits and rats.

  20. Age-dependent effect of ozone on pulmonary eicosanoid metabolism in rabbits and rats

    Gunnison, A.F.; Finkelstein, I.; Weideman, P.; Su, W.Y.; Sobo, M.; Schlesinger, R.B. (New York Univ. Medical Center, New York (USA))


    Acute exposures to ozone have previously been shown to cause quantitative changes in the spectrum of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites in lung lavage fluid. Since age appears to be an important variable in the toxicity of inhaled ozone, we investigated its effect on ozone-induced changes in pulmonary eicosanoid metabolism. Rats and rabbits ranging in age from neonates to young adults were exposed either to air or to 1 ppm ozone for 2 hr. Lung lavage fluid was collected within 1 hr following exposure and analyzed for its content of selected eicosanoids. In both species, there was a pronounced effect of age on ozone-induced pulmonary eicosanoid metabolism. Ozone-exposed animals at the youngest ages examined had severalfold greater amounts of two products of the cyclooxygenase pathway, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha), than did age-matched controls. This effect lessened and eventually disappeared as the animals grew toward adulthood. In rabbits, ozone also induced increases in 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha and thromboxane B2, but these changes were of lesser magnitude and evident only in the youngest rabbits exposed. There was no observed effect of ozone on lung lavage content of leukothriene B4. Indices of nonspecific pulmonary damage, i.e., protein concentration in lung lavage fluid and total number and viability of lavaged lung cells, were affected by ozone exposure, but not in an age-dependent manner that correlated with changes in pulmonary eicosanoid metabolism. In vitro ozone exposure of lung macrophages from naive rabbits of the same age range as those exposed in vivo demonstrated that ozone is capable of stimulating the elaboration of PGF2 alpha and especially PGE2. However, the increase in lavage fluid PGE2 and PGF2 alpha caused by ozone inhalation could not be attributed to macrophage metabolism conclusively.

  1. Ectopic osteoid and bone formation by three calcium-phosphate ceramics in rats, rabbits and dogs.

    Liao Wang

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate ceramics with specific physicochemical properties have been shown to induce de novo bone formation upon ectopic implantation in a number of animal models. In this study we explored the influence of physicochemical properties as well as the animal species on material-induced ectopic bone formation. Three bioceramics were used for the study: phase-pure hydroxyapatite (HA sintered at 1200°C and two biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP ceramics, consisting of 60 wt.% HA and 40 wt.% TCP (β-Tricalcium phosphate, sintered at either 1100°C or 1200°C. 108 samples of each ceramic were intramuscularly implanted in dogs, rabbits, and rats for 6, 12, and 24 weeks respectively. Histological and histomorphometrical analyses illustrated that ectopic bone and/or osteoid tissue formation was most pronounced in BCP sintered at 1100°C and most limited in HA, independent of the animal model. Concerning the effect of animal species, ectopic bone formation reproducibly occurred in dogs, while in rabbits and rats, new tissue formation was mainly limited to osteoid. The results of this study confirmed that the incidence and the extent of material-induced bone formation are related to both the physicochemical properties of calcium phosphate ceramics and the animal model.

  2. Metabolism of bromopride in mouse, rat, rabbit, dog, monkey, and human hepatocytes.

    Dunne, Christine E; Bushee, Jennifer L; Argikar, Upendra A


    Bromopride (BRP) has been utilized clinically for treatment of nausea, vomiting and gastro-intestinal motility disorders. The pharmacokinetics of BRP have been characterized in dogs and humans; however, the metabolic profile of BRP has not been well studied. The present study was aimed at better understanding BRP metabolism across species. We investigated biotransformation of BRP in mouse, rat, rabbit, dog, monkey, and human hepatocytes with the help of LC-MS(n) and accurate mass measurement. Mice, rats, dogs, and monkeys are relevant in drug discovery and development as pre-clinical species to be compared with humans, whereas rabbits were efficacy models for BRP. Overall, twenty metabolites of BRP were identified across hepatocytes from the six species. Monkeys offered the most coverage for humans, in terms of number of metabolites identified. Interestingly, M14, an N-sulfate metabolite of BRP, was identified as a human-specific metabolite. BRP metabolism had only been reported in dog plasma and urine, historically. Our investigation is the first documentation of in vitro metabolism of BRP in the six species reported here. Metabolites M1, M2, M4-M10, M12, M13, and M15-M20 have not been previously reported. In summary, this report documents seventeen metabolites of BRP for the first time, thus providing a deeper insight into the biotransformation of BRP.

  3. Toxicokinetic assessment of methylphenidate (Ritalin) enantiomers in pregnant rats and rabbits.

    Bakhtiar, Ray; Tse, Francis L S


    Ritalin or methylphenidate (MPH) is prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. The present report describes the determination of plasma concentrations of D-threo- and L-threo-enantiomers of MPH in toxicokinetic (TK) studies in pregnant Wistar Hannover rats and New Zealand white rabbits following repeated daily oral dosing of D,L-MPH (racemate). A previously reported chiral liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method with a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 1.09 ng/mL was utilized. Oral (gavage) doses of 7, 25 and 75 mg/kg/day of racemic MPH were selected for the rat study. An over-proportional increase in exposure was observed with increasing doses of MPH racemate, the effect being more profound with the D- than the L-enantiomer. In contrast, Cmax values of both enantiomers were approximately proportional to the dose. Oral (gavage) doses of 20, 60 and 200 mg/kg were selected for the rabbit study. In general, for the D-isomer, an over-proportional increase in exposure was observed with increasing doses of MPH racemate. Conversely, for the L-isomer, a slight under-proportionality was detected in exposure with increasing doses of D,L-MPH. For mean Cmax, while L-isomer exhibited dose proportionality with increasing doses of MPH racemate, the D-isomer appeared to be over-proportional. Herein, the experimental design and observed TK parameters in each study are presented.

  4. Comparative analysis of the nuclear basic proteins in rat, human, guinea pig, mouse and rabbit spermatozoa.

    Calvin, H I


    Cysteine-rich protamines (Arg = 47-61%, Cys = 8-16%) were isolated from the sperm of an individual guinea pig, human and rabbit and from pooled samples of mouse and rat sperm. Appreciable concentrations of histones were not found in the sperm nuclei of these species. In addition to the protamines, a substance of relatively low molecular weight, which reacted with the Lowry reagent, appeared in crude acid-soluble extracts of sperm nucleoprotein. This unidentified contaminent was resolved from the protamines by chromatography on Bio-Rex 70. Heterogeneity of human and mouse protamines was revealed by electrophoresis at pH 2.7, in the presence of 2.5 M urea, and confirmed by amino acid analysis, which also suggested the presence of 2 or more species of protamine in the rabbit. By contrast, the guinea pig and rat preparations displayed nearly stoichiometric ratios of amino acid residues, approaching homogeneity by this criterion. The functional consequences of crosslinks between cysteine residues of these proteins and the possible species-specific significance of their differing percentages of histidine are discussed. Potentially analogous functions are suggested for phosphorylated serine and threonine, and for ionized cysteine and tyrosine, within the protamines of developing spermatids. Their amino acid compositions indicate that the protamines of eutherian mammals are coded by a C.G-rich genome which has been unusually susceptible to genetic drift. An especially high rate of G leads to A transitions seems to have occurred in the human protamine genes.

  5. Comparative analysis of NADPH-diaphorase positive neurons in the rat, rabbit and pheasant thoracic spinal cord. A histochemical study

    D Kluchová


    Full Text Available The distribution of NADPH-diaphorase (NADPHd activity was investigated and compared in the rat, rabbit and pheasant thoracic spinal cord. The investigation of all spinal cord regions (laminae in three experimental species revealed marked differences in the distribution of NADPH-d activity. Cross sectional analysis of the spinal cord of the rat, rabbit and pheasant confirmed differences in the shape of the gray matter in all examined species. More detailed investigation of Rexed´s laminas showed similar distribution of NADPH-d activity in the spinal cord of the rat and rabbit, which were different when compared with the spinal cord of the pheasant. Ventral horn of the rat and rabbit showed no labelling whereas in pheasant this area possessed a number of scattered, intensively stained neurons. In the location of autonomic preganglionic neurons, differences were found as well. In the rat there was seen a number of densely packed, clearly dark blue coloured neurons. Similarly, these neurons were present in the rabbit spinal cord but they were less numerous. No staining was found in this region of pheasant. Pericentral area (lamina X and intermediate zone (laminaVII revealed the presence of NADPH-d positive neurons in all examined species although they differed in number and shape of their bodies. The dorsal horn showed the presence of NADPH-d staining in all three animals but its distribution was different in medio - lateral direction. It can be suggested that observed differencies in the presence and distribution of NADPH-d activity across the examined species may reflect different fylogenetic development

  6. Autonomic nerves versus prostaglandins in the control of rat and rabbit testicular capsular contractions in vivo and in vitro

    Hargrove, J.L.; Ellis, L.C.


    The tonus and rate of spontaneous contractions measured in vivo from the tunica albuginea of rabbit testes were augmented by epinephrine, acetylcholine and prostaglandin (PG)F/sub 2 alpha/. Neither reserpine, dibenamine nor atropine decreased autorhythmic contractility. Indomethacin injections ip significantly decreased the mean amplitude of testicular contractions. This treatment effaced motility in two of eleven preparations. Injections of 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (TYA) did not significantly decrease the amplitude of contraction. Electrical stimulation of the spermatic artery (site of the spermatic nerve) in rabbits and in rats failed to alter testicular tonus or motility. The above evidence suggests that local factors such as PGs may contribute more to smooth muscle activity in the tunica albuginea of rabbit testes than do autonomic nerves. The rhythmical contractions observed in vivo, however, continued in the presence of indomethacin in the bathing medium, and may not require stimulation by PGs for their origination. Rat testes, unlike rabbit testes, did not contract rhythmically in vivo. Isolated rat testes contracted in response to administered PGF/2 alpha/, while PGE/sub 1/ abolished the induced contraction. Such modulators of muscular tonus feasibly could alter intratesticular pressure for the intact animal.

  7. Effect of paraquat on microsomal lipid peroxidation in vitro and in vivo. [Rats, rabbits, man, mice

    Kornbrust, D.J.; Mavis, R.D.


    Rat lung and liver microsomes did not undergo lipid peroxidation in the absence of iron when incubated with NADPH and concentrations of paraquat ranging from 10/sup -7/ to 10/sup -2/ M. Paraquat also did not stimulate rat liver and lung microsomal peroxidation induced by added iron and NADPH, and was inhibitory at concentrations above 10 Similarly, no stimulation of peroxidation was produced by paraquat in rabbit or human lung microsomes; however, under similar conditions, paraquat enhanced NADPH/iron-dependent peroxidation in mouse lung and liver microsomes obtained from rats sacrificed at 12, 18, and 24 hr following a lethal dose of paraquat (50 mg/kg, ip), there was no loss of vitamin E or increase in susceptibility to in vitro peroxidation which would be expected if lipid peroxidation had occurred in vivo although extensive lung damage developed during this time period. These results indicate that paraquat does not cause pulmonary toxicity by initiating peroxidation of lung lipids, and the decrease of palmitate in paraquat-damaged lungs is consistent with inhibition of fatty acid synthesis as an early event in the pathogenesis of paraquat toxicity.

  8. Nutritional evaluation of the white-rot fungus Sporotrichum pulverulentum as a feedstuff to rats, pigs, and sheep

    Thomke, S.; Rundgren, M.; Eriksson, S.


    The production of single-cell protein (SCP) based on cheap carbon sources such as spent liquor from paper mills is of interest for different reasons. The white-rot fungus (Sporotrichum pulverulentum) has earlier been shown to degrade cellulose and lignin. The nutritive value of this fungus was investigated with rats, pigs, and sheep. The effect of different drying processes was evaluated on rats. Experiments with piglets, growing pigs, and sheep were aimed at getting primary information on nutritive parameters with domestic animal species. Chemical analysis of S. pulverulentum showed that the sum of the amino acids corresponded to 70% and ammonia, GABA, and glucosamine to 20% of its crude protein content. Differences between drying treatments in their effect on protein digestibility were not noted. From a protein quality viewpoint, a tendency toward superiority was noted for two of the drying processes. The amino acid digestibility of S. pulverulentum was inferior to values for soybean oil meal given in textbooks. The piglet experiment confirmed the lower nutritive value of S. pulverulentum compared with soybean oil meal. In the piglet stage a content of metabolizable energy of S. pulverulentum was found which corresponded to 60% of that for soybean oil meal. With increasing age the ability of pigs to utilize the fungus increased. The limited nutritive value for monogastric animals is most certainly caused by the cell-wall structure of S. pulverulentum with poor digestibility of the carbohydrates. The experiment with sheep showed more satisfactory results than with monogastric species, with digestibility of crude protein of 82% and a content of metabolizable energy of 70% of soybean oil meal.

  9. Comparison of modeling methods for alveolar echinococcosis in rabbit and sheep%兔、羊脑泡型包虫病模型建立方法的比较

    马娟; 张德清; 王俭; 姜涛; 姚卫宏; 张黎敏; 刘文亚; 姜春晖


    Objective To explore the model building method of echinococcosis multilocularis in New Zealand rabbits and Xinjiang fine sheep and to evaluate its feasibility and practicability.Methods Fifty-seven rabbits were divided into 3 groups,and 13 sheep were divided into 2 batches.The different concentrations of Em suspension liquid were inoculated using the skull puncture method and cranial artery puncture method.The models were evaluated by clinical 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner and the pathological methods.Results The overall success modeling rate of the two kinds of models was 16.67%.The success rate of sheep and rabbit was 36.36% and 12.24% respectively.The success modeling rate of skull puncture method was 20.83%.The success rate of the needle depth less than 0.5 cm was 5.56%.The success rate of the needle depth between 0.5 cm and 1.0 cm was 30%.The success modeling rate for AE suspension liquid of 1 × 107/L was 16.22% and 36.37% for 2 × 107/L respectively.There was no success case of carotid artery puncture modeling method.MRI can detect the lesions after 30 days of rabbit model building.MRI detection rate and pathological detection rate showed no significant difference after 90 days of rabbit and sheep model building.Conclusion The AE model of New Zealand rabbit and Xinjiang fine sheep is feasible using skull direct puncture of the suspension of onchosphere six-hooked larva and germinal membrane.The two methods can simulate disease of natural focus of AE encephalopathy.It spends short time for rabbit model building,and has high economical efficiency and suitable for observation of early pathological changes.On the other hand,the life period of sheep model is long and its brain size is large.The sheep model is suitable for completely evaluating the pathological process clinically and by MRI.%目的 探讨泡状棘球蚴(Em)新西兰兔、新疆细绵羊脑病模型构建方法,并评价其可行性及实用性.方法 将57

  10. Damaged Neocortical Perineuronal Nets Due to Experimental Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Mice, Rats and Sheep.

    Härtig, Wolfgang; Mages, Bianca; Aleithe, Susanne; Nitzsche, Björn; Altmann, Stephan; Barthel, Henryk; Krueger, Martin; Michalski, Dominik


    As part of the extracellular matrix (ECM), perineuronal nets (PNs) are polyanionic, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG)-rich coatings of certain neurons, known to be affected in various neural diseases. Although these structures are considered as important parts of the neurovascular unit (NVU), their role during evolution of acute ischemic stroke and subsequent tissue damage is poorly understood and only a few preclinical studies analyzed PNs after acute ischemic stroke. By employing three models of experimental focal cerebral ischemia, this study was focused on histopathological alterations of PNs and concomitant vascular, glial and neuronal changes according to the NVU concept. We analyzed brain tissues obtained 1 day after ischemia onset from: (a) mice after filament-based permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO); (b) rats subjected to thromboembolic MACO; and (c) sheep at 14 days after electrosurgically induced focal cerebral ischemia. Multiple fluorescence labeling was applied to explore simultaneous alterations of NVU and ECM. Serial mouse sections labeled with the net marker Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) displayed largely decomposed and nearly erased PNs in infarcted neocortical areas that were demarcated by up-regulated immunoreactivity for vascular collagen IV (Coll IV). Subsequent semi-quantitative analyses in mice confirmed significantly decreased WFA-staining along the ischemic border zone and a relative decrease in the directly ischemia-affected neocortex. Triple fluorescence labeling throughout the three animal models revealed up-regulated Coll IV and decomposed PNs accompanied by activated astroglia and altered immunoreactivity for parvalbumin, a calcium-binding protein in fast-firing GABAergic neurons which are predominantly surrounded by neocortical PNs. Furthermore, ischemic neocortical areas in rodents simultaneously displayed less intense staining of WFA, aggrecan, the net components neurocan, versican and the cartilage link

  11. Damaged Neocortical Perineuronal Nets Due to Experimental Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Mice, Rats and Sheep

    Wolfgang Härtig


    Full Text Available As part of the extracellular matrix (ECM, perineuronal nets (PNs are polyanionic, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG-rich coatings of certain neurons, known to be affected in various neural diseases. Although these structures are considered as important parts of the neurovascular unit (NVU, their role during evolution of acute ischemic stroke and subsequent tissue damage is poorly understood and only a few preclinical studies analyzed PNs after acute ischemic stroke. By employing three models of experimental focal cerebral ischemia, this study was focused on histopathological alterations of PNs and concomitant vascular, glial and neuronal changes according to the NVU concept. We analyzed brain tissues obtained 1 day after ischemia onset from: (a mice after filament-based permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO; (b rats subjected to thromboembolic MACO; and (c sheep at 14 days after electrosurgically induced focal cerebral ischemia. Multiple fluorescence labeling was applied to explore simultaneous alterations of NVU and ECM. Serial mouse sections labeled with the net marker Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA displayed largely decomposed and nearly erased PNs in infarcted neocortical areas that were demarcated by up-regulated immunoreactivity for vascular collagen IV (Coll IV. Subsequent semi-quantitative analyses in mice confirmed significantly decreased WFA-staining along the ischemic border zone and a relative decrease in the directly ischemia-affected neocortex. Triple fluorescence labeling throughout the three animal models revealed up-regulated Coll IV and decomposed PNs accompanied by activated astroglia and altered immunoreactivity for parvalbumin, a calcium-binding protein in fast-firing GABAergic neurons which are predominantly surrounded by neocortical PNs. Furthermore, ischemic neocortical areas in rodents simultaneously displayed less intense staining of WFA, aggrecan, the net components neurocan, versican and the

  12. Teratology studies of lewisite and sulfur mustard agents: Effects of lewisite in rats and rabbits: Final report: Part 2, Appendices

    Hackett, P.L.; Sasser, L.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Cushing, J.A.; Buschbom, R.L.; Kalkwarf, D.R.


    Lewisite was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Maternal animals were weighed periodically, and, at necropsy (20 dg (days of gestation) in rats and 30 dg in rabbits), were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performances; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defects. In rats, a dose level of 1.5 mg/kg did not induce toxic or teratogenic responses in maternal animals or their fetuses. At 2.0 mg/kg, 10% maternal mortality, trends in decreased maternal and fetal body weights and a significant reduction in the number of viable fetuses were evident. In rabbit studies, maternal mortality occured in all but one of the lewisite treatment groups and range from 13% to 100% at dose levels of 0.07 and 1.5 mg/kg, respectively. This mortality rate limited the sample size and impaired the detection of statistical significance among treatments. However, at the lowest dose level of the teratology study (0.07 mg/kg), maternal mortality was the only indicator of lewisite toxicity; at the highest dose (0.6 mg/kg), significant findings included 86% maternal mortality, a decrease in maternal body weight gains and an increase in the incidence of fetal stunting, although only a tendency in decreased fetal body weights was observed. These results suggest that maternal mortality was the most important factor in predicting the induction of maternal and fetal effects and, therefore, a ''no observable effect level'' in maternal animals and their fetuses would be between 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg in rats and less than 0.07 mg/kg in rabbits. Part 2 contains 6 appendices.

  13. Teratology studies of lewisite and sulfur mustard agents: Effects of lewisite in rats and rabbits: Final report

    Hackett, P L; Sasser, L B; Rommereim, R L; Cushing, J A; Buschbom, R L; Kalkwarf, D R


    Lewisite was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Maternal animals were weighed periodically, and, at necropsy (20 dg (days of gestation) in rats and 30 dg in rabbits), were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performances; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defect. In rats, a dose level of 1.5 mg/kg did not induce toxic or teratogenic responses in maternal and fetal body weights and a significant reduction in the number if viable fetuses were evident. In rabbit studies maternal mortality occurred in all but one of the lewisite treatment groups and ranged from 13% to 100% at dose levels of 0.07 and 1.5 mg/kg, respectively. This mortality rate limited the sample size and impaired the detection of statistical significance among treatments. However, at the lowest dose level of the teratology study (0.07 mg/kg, maternal mortality was the only indicator of lewisite toxicity; at the highst dose (0.6 mg/kg), significant findings included 86% maternal mortality, a decrease in maternal body weight gains and an increase in the incidence of fetal stunting, although only a tendency in decreased fetal body weights was observed. These results suggest that maternal mortality was the most important factor in predicting the induction of maternal and fetal effects and, therfore, a ''no observable effect level'' in maternal animals and their fetuses would be between 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg in rats and less than 0.07 mg/kg in rabbits. 50 refs., 6 figs., 29 tabs.

  14. Passive transfer of resistance to mice with sera from rabbits, rats or mice vaccinated with ultraviolet-attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum.

    Moloney, N A; Hinchcliffe, P; Webbe, G


    All serum transfers from donor rats or rabbits given single or multiple vaccinations of ultraviolet (u.v.)-attenuated Schistosoma japonicum cercariae conferred significant resistance against challenge to mice. Donors given 5 vaccinations, however, produced the most effective sera; rat sera giving up to 88% protection and rabbit sera up to 80%. This protective effect was species-specific and titratable. Sera from vaccinated rabbits and rats were were most effective when transferred to mice 2 h before challenge, but became progressively less effective when transferred with increasing time after challenge. These sera had no efficacy when given 6 days after challenge. Thus, sera from vaccinated rabbits and rats were effective against the early stage of migration, but did not necessarily have to act in the skin as all serum transfers were as effective against intraperitoneal as percutaneous challenge. By contrast, serum from multiply vaccinated mice had little or no protective effect when transferred to mice before challenge, but conferred 62% resistance when transferred 5 days after challenge. Further, there was an additive protective effect when vaccinated rat and mouse sera were given in combination at their optimum transfer times (days 0 and +5, respectively). Thus, there appears to be a stage-specific immune response induced by vaccination depending upon whether the vaccinated hosts are truly permissive or not. Vaccinated rats and rabbits respond to the early phase of migration and vaccinated mice make protective responses against the lung phase of migration.

  15. Tissue-specific expression, hormonal regulation and 5'-flanking gene region of the rat Clara cell 10 kDa protein: comparison to rabbit uteroglobin.

    Hagen, G; Wolf, M; Katyal, S L; Singh, G; Beato, M; Suske, G


    The amino acid sequence of rat Clara Cell 10 kDa secretory protein (CC10) shows 55% identity to rabbit uteroglobin. In order to define the relationship between rat CC10 and rabbit uteroglobin in detail, the tissue-specific expression and hormonal regulation of rat CC10 mRNA was analyzed. We report that like rabbit uteroglobin, rat CC10 mRNA is expressed in lung and esophagus, as well as in uteri of estrogen- and progesterone-treated females. Expression of CC10 mRNA in lung is regulated by glucocorticoids. The similarity in expression pattern of rat CC10 mRNA and rabbit uteroglobin mRNA is reflected by a striking similarity in the 5'-flanking regions of the two genes. Despite this overall similarity, two regions of 0.3 kb and 2.1 kb are absent in the rat CC10 upstream gene region. The larger region includes a cluster of hormone receptor binding sites, believed to be responsible for differential regulation of rabbit uteroglobin by glucocorticoids and progesterone. Thus, while the sequence identities in the coding and 5'-flanking regions point towards a common ancestor for the uteroglobin and CC10 gene, later events (deletions/insertions) might have caused species-specific differences in their regulation. Images PMID:2349092

  16. Extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus attenuate bupivacaine-induced spinal neurotoxicity in pregnant rats

    Rui Cui; Shiyuan Xu; Liang Wang; Hongyi Lei; Qingxiang Cai; Hongfei Zhang; Dongmei Wang


    Extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus can relieve pain and promote repair of nerve injury. The present study intraperitoneally injected extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus for 3 and 4 days prior to and following intrathecal injection of bupivacaine into pregnant rats. The pain threshold test after bupivacaine injection showed that the maximum possible effect of tail-flick latency peaked 1 day after intrathecal injection of bupivacaine in the extract-pretreatment group, and gradually decreased, while the maximum possible effect in the bupivacaine group continued to increase after intrathecal injection of bupivacaine. Histological observation showed that after 4 days of intrathecal injection of bupivacaine, the number of shrunken, vacuolated, apoptotic and caspase-9-positive cells in the dorsal root ganglion in the extract-pretreatment group was significantly reduced compared with the bupivacaine group. These findings indicate that extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus can attenuate neurotoxicity induced by intrathecal injection of bupivacaine in pregnant rats, possibly by inhibiting caspase-9 protein expression and suppressing nerve cell apoptosis.

  17. Distribution of /sup 14/C-labelled acrylamide and betaine in foetuses of rats, rabbits, beagle dogs and miniature pigs

    Ikeda, G.J.; Miller, E.; Sapienza, P.P.; Michel, T.C.; King, M.T.; Turner, V.A.; Blumenthal, H.; Jackson, W.E.; Levin, S.


    (/sup 14/C)Acrylamide and (/sup 14/C)betaine hydrochloride were administered in a single iv dose to pregnant rats, rabbits, beagle dogs and miniature pigs late in gestation (1-2 days before expected parturition). Dosages used were 10 mg/kg for rats and 5 mg/kg for the other species. The compounds were allowed to equilibrate in the animal (for 1 hr in rats and for 2 hr in the other species); the dam was then killed and the foetuses were removed by caesarean section. Each foetus was weighed and analysed for radioactivity, either by homogenization of the whole foetus (rat and rabbit) or by determining separately the radioactivity in individual organs and tissues (dog and pig). Foetal uptake of the polar compound betaine hydrochloride was much lower than that of the more lipophilic acrylamide. The sex of the foetus did not appear to affect uptake of either compound. There were no significant differences in total uptake of isotope attributable to the position of the foetus within the uterus in any of the four species given either acrylamide or betaine. Similarly, uterine position did not affect the uptake of acrylamide or betaine by individual tissues of foetal dogs or pigs. Since the distributions of /sup 14/C-labelled acrylamide and betaine hydrochloride were essentially uniform throughout a litter, it would not be necessary to sample all of the members of a litter to obtain a representative picture of foetal distribution.

  18. Antibody is responsible for the passive transfer of immunity to mice from rabbits, rats or mice vaccinated with attenuated Schistosoma japonicum cercariae.

    Moloney, N A; Webbe, G


    Sera from rabbits, rats and mice multiply-vaccinated with attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum conferred high levels of resistance against challenge to naive recipient mice (up to 97, 64 and 60% respectively). Vaccinated rabbit and rat sera were given before challenge and vaccinated mouse serum 5 days after challenge. To show that the protective factors in these sera were antibodies, vaccinated rabbit and mouse sera were fractionated by protein A-Sepharose and the fractions precipitated by 50% ammonium sulphate. The protein A-Sepharose binding or non-binding fractions in vaccinated rabbit serum transferred approximately equal levels of significant resistance to mice, suggesting that both the IgG and non-IgG components of vaccinated rabbit serum are protective. The major part of the protective activity in vaccinated mouse serum was transferred to recipients by the protein A-Sepharose binding fraction, i.e. the IgG antibodies. Heat inactivation of sera at 56 degrees C for 3 h affected the protective capacity of vaccinated rat sera, but not that of vaccinated rabbit or mouse sera.

  19. Immune responses in rats and sheep induced by a DNA vaccine containing the phosphoglycerate kinase gene of Fasciola hepatica and liver fluke infection.

    Wesołowska, Agnieszka; Zawistowska-Deniziak, Anna; Norbury, Luke J; Wilkowski, Przemysław; Januszkiewicz, Kamil; Pyziel, Anna M; Zygner, Wojciech; Wędrychowicz, Halina


    Immune responses of rats and sheep following vaccination with cDNA encoding phosphoglycerate kinase of Fasciola hepatica (cDNA-FhPGK/pCMV) and F. hepatica infection were investigated in the present study. cDNA-FhPGK/pCMV vaccinated female Sprague-Dawley rats were better protected by vaccination than their male counterparts - 48% reduction in fluke burden for females and no protection for males when compared with appropriate infection control groups. Moreover, male rats developed marked leukocytosis during the study with higher neutrophil, eosinophil and monocyte responses than females. Additionally, dynamics of eosinophil and monocyte responses varied between sexes. Increased titres of anti-FhPGK IgG1 and IgG2a correlated with the protective effect of vaccination that was observed among female rats. In the case of male sheep, no differences in worm burdens and in the course of the immune response were observed following vaccination. Titres of specific antibodies detected were low, and cellular responses were not significant. Apparently, sheep immune responses induced by cDNA-FhPGK/pCMV vaccination are not effective at controlling F. hepatica infection. Poor immunogenicity of DNA vaccines in large animals is still a major obstacle of this technology that has to be overcome.

  20. Hydrogen sulfide activates the carotid body chemoreceptors in cat, rabbit and rat ex vivo preparations.

    Jiao, Yingfu; Li, Qian; Sun, Biying; Zhang, Guohua; Rong, Weifang


    We and others previously reported experimental evidence suggesting an important role for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in oxygen sensing in murine carotid body chemoreceptors. More recent data implicated abnormal H2S-mediated chemoreceptor signaling in pathological conditions such as chronic heart failure and hypertension. However, the idea of H2S as a mediator of oxygen-sensing in chemoreceptors has been challenged. In particular, it was shown that exogenous H2S inhibited the release of neurotransmitters (ACh and ATP) from the cat carotid body, raising the possibility that there exists significant species difference in H2S-mediated signaling in chemoreceptors. This study was designed specifically to determine the effect of H2S on chemoreceptors in different species. We conducted multiunit extracellular recordings of the sinus nerve in the ex vivo carotid body preparation taken from the rat, the cat and the rabbit. As observed in the mouse carotid body, H2S donors (NaHS or Na2S) evoked qualitatively similar excitatory responses of the afferent sinus nerves of the species studied here. The excitatory effects of the H2S donors were concentration-dependent and reversible. The sinus nerve responses to H2S donors were prevented by blockade of the transmission between type I cells and the afferent terminals, as was the response to hypoxia. These results demonstrate that exogenous H2S exerts qualitatively similar excitatory effects on chemoreceptor afferents of different species. The role of endogenous H2S-mediated signaling in carotid body function in different species awaits further investigation.

  1. Isolation of Trichophyton mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes from naturally infected laboratory albino rats: experimental infection and treatment in rabbits

    N. A. Issa


    Full Text Available The present study demonstrated for the first time the occurrence of dermatophytosis in naturally infected rats and from asymptomatic and from breeding boxes of white rats kept in animal housing of college of Veterinary Medicine, University of Dohuk, Iraq. The prevalence rate of infection was (28%, clinically infected rats characterized by appearance of scaly ovoid type lesions with crusty edge and patch of hair loss mostly seen on the back, neck and face of the infected rats, itching was reported in some rats. Only one species of the trichophyton, T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes was isolated with growth rate (85.71% of samples collected from clinically infected rats, and (28.57% from asymptomatic and from breeding cages, the growth was observed within the 21 days at 25ºC on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar. Lacto phenol cotton blue staining slides of T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes revealed both microconidia and macroconidia. Microconidia found in numerous numbers often in dense cluster which were hyaline, smooth walled and predominantly spherical to sub spherical in shape, varying numbers of chlamydoconidia. Spiral hyphae and smooth, thin walled clavate shaped multicelled macroconidia were also present. The study also dealt with experimental infection in rabbits with T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes and treated by two drugs, natural herbal preparation of acidic pomegranate (Punica granatum fruit and synthetic nystatine ointment. The complete recovery of lesions was recorded after 14 days and 21 days of topical application of a pomegranate and nystatine ointment for 5 successive days respectively.

  2. Comparison of rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental toxicity data for 379 pharmaceuticals: on the nature and severity of developmental effects.

    Theunissen, Peter T; Beken, Sonja; Beyer, Bruce K; Breslin, William J; Cappon, Gregg D; Chen, Connie L; Chmielewski, Gary; De Schaepdrijver, Luc; Enright, Brian; Foreman, Jennifer E; Harrouk, Wafa; Hew, Kok-Wah; Hoberman, Alan M; Hui, Julia Y; Knudsen, Thomas B; Laffan, Susan B; Makris, Susan L; Martin, Matt; McNerney, Mary Ellen; Siezen, Christine L; Stanislaus, Dinesh J; Stewart, Jane; Thompson, Kary E; Tornesi, Belen; Van der Laan, Jan Willem; Weinbauer, Gerhard F; Wood, Sandra; Piersma, Aldert H


    Regulatory non-clinical safety testing of human pharmaceuticals typically requires embryo-fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) testing in two species (one rodent and one non-rodent). The question has been raised whether under some conditions EFDT testing could be limited to one species, or whether the testing in a second species could be decided on a case-by-case basis. As part of a consortium initiative, we built and queried a database of 379 compounds with EFDT studies (in both rat and rabbit animal models) conducted for marketed and non-marketed pharmaceuticals for their potential for adverse developmental and maternal outcomes, including EFDT incidence and the nature and severity of adverse findings. Manifestation of EFDT in either one or both species was demonstrated for 282 compounds (74%). EFDT was detected in only one species (rat or rabbit) in almost a third (31%, 118 compounds), with 58% (68 compounds) of rat studies and 42% (50 compounds) of rabbit studies identifying an EFDT signal. For 24 compounds (6%), fetal malformations were observed in one species (rat or rabbit) in the absence of any EFDT in the second species. In general, growth retardation, fetal variations, and malformations were more prominent in the rat, whereas embryo-fetal death was observed more often in the rabbit. Discordance across species may be attributed to factors such as maternal toxicity, study design differences, pharmacokinetic differences, and pharmacologic relevance of species. The current analysis suggests that in general both species are equally sensitive on the basis of an overall EFDT LOAEL comparison, but selective EFDT toxicity in one species is not uncommon. Also, there appear to be species differences in the prevalence of various EFDT manifestations (i.e. embryo-fetal death, growth retardation, and dysmorphogenesis) between rat and rabbit, suggesting that the use of both species has a higher probability of detecting developmental toxicants than either one alone.

  3. Beta-adrenergic agonist therapy accelerates the resolution of hydrostatic pulmonary edema in sheep and rats.

    Frank, J A; Wang, Y; Osorio, O; Matthay, M A


    To determine whether beta-adrenergic agonist therapy increases alveolar liquid clearance during the resolution phase of hydrostatic pulmonary edema, we studied alveolar and lung liquid clearance in two animal models of hydrostatic pulmonary edema. Hydrostatic pulmonary edema was induced in sheep by acutely elevating left atrial pressure to 25 cmH(2)O and instilling 6 ml/kg body wt isotonic 5% albumin (prepared from bovine albumin) in normal saline into the distal air spaces of each lung. After 1 h, sheep were treated with a nebulized beta-agonist (salmeterol) or nebulized saline (controls), and left atrial pressure was then returned to normal. beta-Agonist therapy resulted in a 60% increase in alveolar liquid clearance over 3 h (P Ringer lactate). beta-Agonist therapy resulted in a significant decrease in excess lung water (P < 0.01) and significant improvement in arterial blood gases by 2 h (P < 0.03). These preclinical experimental studies support the need for controlled clinical trials to determine whether beta-adrenergic agonist therapy would be of value in accelerating the resolution of hydrostatic pulmonary edema in patients.

  4. Kinetic analysis of interactions of paraoxon and oximes with human, Rhesus monkey, swine, rabbit, rat and guinea pig acetylcholinesterase.

    Worek, Franz; Aurbek, Nadine; Wille, Timo; Eyer, Peter; Thiermann, Horst


    Previous in vitro studies showed marked species differences in the reactivating efficiency of oximes between human and animal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibited by organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents. These findings provoked the present in vitro study which was designed to determine the inhibition, aging, spontaneous and oxime-induced reactivation kinetics of the pesticide paraoxon, serving as a model compound for diethyl-OP, and the oximes obidoxime, pralidoxime, HI 6 and MMB-4 with human, Rhesus monkey, swine, rabbit, rat and guinea pig erythrocyte AChE. Comparable results were obtained with human and monkey AChE. Differences between human, swine, rabbit, rat and guinea pig AChE were determined for the inhibition and reactivation kinetics. A six-fold difference of the inhibitory potency of paraoxon with human and guinea pig AChE was recorded while only moderate differences of the reactivation constants between human and animal AChE were determined. Obidoxime was by far the most effective reactivator with all tested species. Only minor species differences were found for the aging and spontaneous reactivation kinetics. The results of the present study underline the necessity to determine the inhibition, aging and reactivation kinetics in vitro as a basis for the development of meaningful therapeutic animal models, for the proper assessment of in vivo animal data and for the extrapolation of animal data to humans.

  5. Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) and propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME): inhalation fertility and teratogenicity studies in rats, mice and rabbits

    Hanley, T.R. Jr.; Young, J.T.; John, J.A.; Rao, K.S.


    A combined dominant lethal-fertility study was conducted in which male and female Sprague-Dawley (CD) rats were exposed to 0, 30, 100, or 300 ppm of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) vapor for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 13 weeks and then mated to untreated counterparts. Among males, fertility was completely suppressed after exposure to 300 ppm. A partial restoration of reproductive function was evident following 13 weeks of recovery. No treatment-related reproductive effects were observed among males exposed subchronically to 100 ppm, or among females exposed to 300 ppm or below of EGME. Studies to assess the effects of inhaled EGME on embryonal and fetal development were also conducted in Fischer 344 rats. CF-1 mice, and New Zealand White rabbits. Rats and rabbits were exposed to concentrations of 0, 3, 10, or 50 ppm for 6 hr/day on days 6-15 or 6-18 of gestation, respectively. Exposure of rabbits to 50 ppm resulted in significant teratologic effects, an increased resorption rate, and decreased fetal body weight. Slight fetotoxicity in the form of skeletal variations were observed among rats exposed to 50 ppm. Separate groups of pregnant rats and rabbits were exposed to 0, 500, 1500, or 3000 ppm of propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME) during organogenesis. Mild CNS depression was observed among rats and rabbits exposed to 3000 ppm of PGME. Fetal examination revealed no embryotoxic or teratogenic effects among either species. Thus, it was concluded that PGME was not teratogenic at exposure levels up to 3000 ppm.

  6. Comparing rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental toxicity studies for 379 pharmaceuticals: On systemic dose and developmental effects (Critical Reviews in Toxicology)

    A database of embryo-fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) studies of 379 pharmaceutical compounds in rat and rabbit was analyzed for species differences based on toxicokinetic parameters of area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax) at the developmental adverse ef...

  7. Comparison of rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental toxicity data for 379 pharmaceuticals: on the nature and severity of developmental effects (Critical Reviews in Toxicology)

    Regulatory non-clinical safety testing of human pharmaceutical compounds typically requires embryo fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) testing in two species, (one rodent and one non-rodent, usually the rat and the rabbit). The question has been raised whether under some conditio...

  8. Micro-computed tomographic analysis of the radial geometry of intrarenal artery-vein pairs in rats and rabbits: Comparison with light microscopy.

    Ngo, Jennifer P; Le, Bianca; Khan, Zohaib; Kett, Michelle M; Gardiner, Bruce S; Smith, David W; Melhem, Mayer M; Maksimenko, Anton; Pearson, James T; Evans, Roger G


    We assessed the utility of synchrotron-radiation micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) for quantification of the radial geometry of the renal cortical vasculature. The kidneys of nine rats and six rabbits were perfusion fixed and the renal circulation filled with Microfil. In order to assess shrinkage of Microfil, rat kidneys were imaged at the Australian Synchrotron immediately upon tissue preparation and then post fixed in paraformaldehyde and reimaged 24 hours later. The Microfil shrank only 2-5% over the 24 hour period. All subsequent micro-CT imaging was completed within 24 hours of sample preparation. After micro-CT imaging, the kidneys were processed for histological analysis. In both rat and rabbit kidneys, vascular structures identified in histological sections could be identified in two-dimensional (2D) micro-CT images from the original kidney. Vascular morphology was similar in the two sets of images. Radial geometry quantified by manual analysis of 2D images from micro-CT was consistent with corresponding data generated by light microscopy. However, due to limited spatial resolution when imaging a whole organ using contrast-enhanced micro-CT, only arteries ≥100 and ≥60 μm in diameter, for the rat and rabbit respectively, could be assessed. We conclude that it is feasible and valid to use micro-CT to quantify vascular geometry of the renal cortical circulation in both the rat and rabbit. However, a combination of light microscopic and micro-CT approaches are required to evaluate the spatial relationships between intrarenal arteries and veins over an extensive range of vessel size. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) and propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME): inhalation fertility and teratogenicity studies in rats, mice and rabbits.

    Hanley, T R; Young, J T; John, J A; Rao, K S


    A combined dominant lethal-fertility study was conducted in which male and female Sprague-Dawley (CD) rats were exposed to 0, 30, 100 or 300 ppm of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) vapor for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 13 weeks and then mated to untreated counterparts. Among males, fertility was completely suppressed after exposure to 300 ppm. A partial restoration of reproductive function was evident following 13 weeks of recovery. No treatment-related reproductive effects were observed among males exposed subchronically to 100 ppm, or among females exposed to 300 ppm or below of EGME. Studies to assess the effects of inhaled EGME on embryonal and fetal development were also conducted in Fischer 344 rats, CF-1 mice, and New Zealand White rabbits. Rats and rabbits were exposed to concentrations of 0, 3, 10 or 50 ppm for 6 hr/day on days 6-15 or 6-18 of gestation, respectively. Exposure of rabbits to 50 ppm resulted in significant teratologic effects, an increased resorption rate, and decreased fetal body weight. Slight fetotoxicity in the form of skeletal variations were observed among rats exposed to 50 ppm. Exposure of pregnant mice to 0, 10, or 50 ppm for 6 hr/day on days 6-15 of gestation resulted in slight fetotoxicity at 50 ppm. No significant treatment-related effects were observed at 10 ppm of EGME or below in any of the species tested. Separate groups of pregnant rats and rabbits were exposed to 0, 500, 1500 or 3000 ppm of propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME) during organogenesis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Determination of metabolic profile of novel triethylamine containing thiophene S006-830 in rat, rabbit, dog and human liver microsomes.

    Hidau, Mahendra Kumar; Singh, Yeshwant; Singh, Shio Kumar


    CDRI S006-830 is a potent triethylamine containing thiophene antitubercular compound of the Central Drug Research Institute, India. The present study aimed to conduct comprehensive metabolic investigations of CDRI S006-830 to corroborate its preclinical investigations. Preliminary metabolic investigations were performed to assess the metabolic stability, enzyme kinetics, reaction phenotyping, and metabolite identification of CDRI S006-830 in rat, rabbit, dog, and human liver microsomes using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. The observed in vitro t1/2 and Clint values were 9.9 ± 1.29, 4.5 ± 0.52, 4.5 ± 0.86, 17 ± 5.21 min and 69.60 ± 8.37, 152.0 ± 17.26, 152.34 ± 27.63, 33.62 ± 21.04 μL/min/mg in rat, rabbit, dog and human liver microsomes respectively. These observations suggested that CDRI S006-830 rapidly metabolized in the presence of NADPH in liver microsomes of rat, rabbit and dog while moderately metabolized in human liver microsomes. It was observed that CDRI S006-830 exhibited monophasic Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The metabolism of CDRI S006-830 was primarily mediated by CYP3A4 and was deduced by CYP reaction phenotyping with known potent inhibitors. CYP3A4 involvement was also confirmed by cDNA-expressed recombinant human isozyme activity with different CYPs. Four major phase-I metabolites of S006-830, (M-1 to M-4) were detected in rat, rabbit, dog (except M4) and human liver microsomes.

  11. Reflection on design and testing of pancreatic alpha-amylase inhibitors: an in silico comparison between rat and rabbit enzyme models

    Khalil-Moghaddam Shiva


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhibitors of pancreatic alpha-amylase are potential drugs to treat diabetes and obesity. In order to find compounds that would be effective amylase inhibitors, in vitro and in vivo models are usually used. The accuracy of models is limited, but these tools are nonetheless valuable. In vitro models could be used in large screenings involving thousands of chemicals that are tested to find potential lead compounds. In vivo models are still used as preliminary mean of testing compounds behavior in the whole organism. In the case of alpha-amylase inhibitors, both rats and rabbits could be chosen as in vivo models. The question was which animal could present more accuracy with regard to its pancreatic alpha-amylase. Results As there is no crystal structure of these enzymes, a molecular modeling study was done in order to compare the rabbit and rat enzymes with the human one. The overall result is that rabbit enzyme could probably be a better choice in this regard, but in the case of large ligands, which could make putative interactions with the −4 subsite of pancreatic alpha-amylase, interpretation of results should be made cautiously. Conclusion Molecular modeling tools could be used to choose the most suitable model enzyme that would help to identify new enzyme inhibitors. In the case of alpha-amylase, three-dimensional structures of animal enzymes show differences with the human one which should be taken into account when testing potential new drugs.

  12. Changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression after transplanting microencapsulated sciatic nerve cells of rabbits into injured spinal cord of rats


    BACKGROUND: Changes of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression reflect function of nerve cells; meanwhile, they play a significant role in researching interventions on plerosis of nerve injury.OBJECTIVE: To observe and compare the effects on changes of BDNF expression in rats with spinal cord injury between microencapsulated sciatic nerve cells of rabbits and only transplanting sciatic nerve cells of rabbits.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study.SETTING: Medical School of Jiujiang College.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Medical Science Researching Center, Jiujiang College from May 2004 to May 2006. A total of 90 healthy adult SD rats, weighing 250 - 300 g, of either gender; and 10 rabbits, weighing 2.0 - 2.5 kg, of either gender, were provided by Jiangxi Experimental Animal Center.METHODS: Sciatic nerve tissue of rabbits was separated to make cell suspension. After centrifugation,suspension was mixed with 15 g/L alginate saline solution and ejaculated to 20 mmol/L barium chloride saline solution by double-cavity ejaculator. The obtained cell microcapsules were suspended in saline. Rats were randomly divided into microencapsulated group, only suspension group, and only injured group with 30 animals in each group. After anesthesia, T10 spinous process and vertebra lamina of rats in the former two groups were exposed. Spinal cord tissue in 2-mm length was removed from rats by spinal cord right hemi-section. The gelatin sponges with the size of 2 mm × 2 mm × 2 mm were grafted as filing cage,and absorbed 10 μμ L microencapsulated sciatic nerve cells of rabbit in the microencapsulated group and 10 μ L sciatic nerve cells of rabbits in the only suspension group; respectively. No graft was placed in the only injured group.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: On the 1st, 3rd, 7th, 14th and 28th days after operation,immunohistochemistry (SABC technique) was used to detect distribution and amount of positive-reactive neurons in BDNF of spinal cord

  13. Effects of traditional herbal medicine, Hwaotang, on atherosclerosis using the spontaneous familial hypercholesterolemia model, Kurosawa and Kusanagi-hypercholesterolemic rabbits and the venous thrombosis rats.

    Park, Won-Hwan; Hong, Mun-Yeob; Chung, Kang-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Min; Lee, Young-Choon; Kim, Cheorl-Ho


    Hwaotang (HOT), a traditional Korean medicinal formulation, is a dried decoctum of a mixture of seven herbal medicines, consisting of Angelica gigantis Radix, Rehmanniae Radix, Paeoniae Radix, Ciniamomi Cortex, Cnidii Rhizoma, Persicae Semen and Carthami Flos. In the present study, the inhibitory effects and anti thrombic properties of HOT on the progression of atherosclerotic lesions were studied using the spontaneous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) model, Kurosawa and Kusanagi-hypercholesterolemic (KHC) rabbits and rats. Changes in blood chemistry, pathology and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation were measured in a control and HOT group. In the control group, the area of atheromatous plaques of the aorta progressed between week 12 (36.65%) and week 14 (46.22%). This progression of atherosclerotic lesions did not occur in the HOT-treated group after 12 (24.24%) and 14 (23.34%) weeks. Antioxidative effects on LDL were seen in the HOT in weeks 12 and 14. HOT improved the hypercholesterolemia in the KHC rabbits. On the other hand, HOT and five of the seven herbs, except Cnidii Rhizoma and Carthami Flos, inhibited the endotoxin-induced hepatic venous thrombosis in high cholesterol diet-treated rats. However, Ciniamomi Cortex showed a very weak inhibitory effect on the endotoxin-induced hepatic venous thrombosis. The extract also inhibited the endotoxin-induced decrease in blood platelets and fibrinogen, and endotoxin-induced increase in fibrin degradation products (FDP) on disseminated intravascular coagulation in normal rats. In conclusion, these results suggest that HOT has inhibitory effects on the development of atheromatous plaque formation in spontaneous FH rabbits. It is also suggested that the antioxidative effects of HOT on LDL led to the beneficial effects observed in this study. The protection by HOT and its herbs on the artificially induced ischemic infarction might be related to their inhibitory effects on disseminated intravascular coagulation

  14. Cardiotoxic Electrophysiological Effects of the Herbicide Roundup(®) in Rat and Rabbit Ventricular Myocardium In Vitro.

    Gress, Steeve; Lemoine, Sandrine; Puddu, Paolo-Emilio; Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Rouet, René


    Roundup (R), a glyphosate (G)-based herbicide (GBH), containing unknown adjuvants is widely dispersed around the world. Used principally by farmers, intoxications have increasingly been reported. We have studied R effects (containing 36 % of G) on right ventricular tissues (male Sprague-Dawley rats, up to 20,000 ppm and female New Zealand rabbits, at 25 and 50 ppm), to investigate R cardiac electrophysiological actions in vitro. We tested the reduced Ca(++) intracellular uptake mechanism as one potential cause of the electrical abnormalities after GBH superfusion, using the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitor ouabain or the 1,4-dihydropyridine L-type calcium channel agonist BAY K 8644 which increases I Ca. R concentrations were selected based on human blood ranges found after acute intoxication. The study showed dose-dependent V max, APD50 and APD90 variations during 45 min of R superfusion. At the highest concentrations tested, there was a high incidence of conduction blocks, and 30-min washout with normal Tyrode solution did not restore excitability. We also observed an increased incidence of arrhythmias at different doses of R. Ouabain and BAY K 8644 prevented V max decrease, APD90 increase and the cardiac inexcitability induced by R 50 ppm. Glyphosate alone (18 and 180 ppm) had no significant electrophysiological effects. Thus, the action potential prolonging effect of R pointing to I Ca interference might explain both conduction blocks and proarrhythmia in vitro. These mechanisms may well be causative of QT prolongation, atrioventricular conduction blocks and arrhythmias in man after GBH acute intoxications as reported in retrospective hospital records.

  15. Disposable rabbit

    Lewis, Leroy C.; Trammell, David R.


    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  16. Disposal rabbit

    Lewis, L.C.; Trammell, D.R.


    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  17. Effects of tyrosyl-arginine (kyotorphin), a new opioid dipeptide, on single neurons in the spinal dorsal horn of rabbits and the nucleus reticularis paragigantocellularis of rats.

    Satoh, M; Kawajiri, S; Yamamoto, M; Akaike, A; Ukai, Y; Takagi, H


    The effects of a new endogenous opioid dipeptide (Tyr-Arg), kyotorphin, on single unit activities recorded from the lamina V type neurons in the spinal dorsal horn and the neurons in nucleus reticularis paragigantocellularis (NRPG) of the medulla oblongata were investigated in the rabbit and rat, respectively. Microelectrophoretically applied kyotorphin predominantly depressed the lamina V type neurons but excited the NRPG neurons. Such predominant effects were antagonized by naloxone. These results suggest that kyotorphin has qualitatively similar actions to those of enkephalins in both central regions examined.

  18. Is phosphodiesterase inhibition arrhythmogenic? Electrophysiologic effects in pithed rats and in normoxic and hypoxic rabbit atria of enoximone, a new cardiotonic agent.

    Vaughan Williams, E M


    The positive inotropic and chronotropic actions of enoximone were confirmed. At concentrations within the clinical range, enoximone prolonged the chronotropic and hypotensive action of isoproterenol in pithed rats. Very high doses of both enoximone and isoproterenol caused ventricular fibrillation in only one of six rats. In isolated rabbit atria, the maximum frequency at which pacing stimuli were followed 1:1 was increased by enoximone, and atrial flutter was consistently induced, then terminated by greatly suprathreshold stimulation. Enoximone significantly shortened action potential duration (APD), but did not exacerbate the APD-shortening induced by hypoxia. Since such hypoxia-induced shortening occurred in the presence of glucose 11 mmol/L and oxygen 20%, it was concluded that it was unlikely to have been caused by the opening of ATP-regulated potassium channels. These animal experiments suggest that enoximone, at concentrations encountered clinically in humans, does not have any electrophysiologic actions that would be likely to increase the probability of arrhythmias.

  19. Dopamine D2 receptors labeled with ( sup 3 H)raclopride in rat and rabbit brains. Equilibrium binding, kinetics, distribution and selectivity

    Dewar, K.M.; Montreuil, B.; Grondin, L.; Reader, T.A. (Universite de Montreal, Quebec (Canada))


    The binding properties of the substituted benzamide raclopride to dopamine D2 receptors were studied with membrane preparations from rat and rabbit neostriatum. An analysis of the association kinetics suggested a single binding site but the data from the dissociation experiments were better described by a two-site model. Examination of saturation curves at equilibrium revealed a single class of binding sites in the neostriatum from both species (rat: maximum binding capacity (Bmax) = 247 fmol/mg of protein; rabbit: Bmax = 337 fmol/mg of protein). In cortical regions known to possess a distinct dopaminergic innervation (piriform-entorhinal areas and cingulate cortex) the Bmax values ranged between 9 and 22 fmol/mg of protein. ({sup 3}H)Raclopride binding sites (less than 12 fmol/mg of protein) were also detectable in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus as well as in the somatosensory and visual cortices. The selectivity in the neostriatum was examined by competition experiments with dopaminergic drugs. The rank of potency of agonists and antagonists to displace ({sup 3}H)raclopride binding revealed its selectivity for the dopamine D2 receptor and was essentially the same for both species. Antagonist competition curves could be fitted to a single site but inhibition by agonists was better described assuming a two-site model. The stereospecificity of binding was demonstrated by the use of the enantiomer pairs. These results validate the utilization of the novel benzamide ({sup 3}H)raclopride as a selective marker of dopamine D2 receptors.

  20. Effects of transplantation of microencapsulated rabbit sciatic nerve on nuclear factor-kappa B expression after spinal cord injury in rats

    Xiaolian Wang; Jianmin Ma; Hui Chen; Deming Liu


    BACKGROUND: It has been reported that nuclear factor-kappa B (NF- k B), activated after spinal cord injury in rats, plays a key role in inflammatory responses in the central nervous system.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of transplantation of microencapsulated rabbit sciatic nerve on NF- k B expression and motor function after spinal cord injury in rats, and to compare the results with the transplantation of rabbit sciatic nerve alone.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: This completely randomized, controlled study was performed at the Department of Neurobiology, Medical College of Nanchang University between December 2007 and July 2008.MATERIALS: A rabbit anti-NF- k B P65 monoclonal antibody was made by the Santa Cruz Company, USA and a streptavidin peroxidase immunohistochemical kit was provided by the Sequoia Company, China.METHODS: Eight rabbits were used to prepare a sciatic nerve cell suspension that was divided into two parts: one stored for transplantation, and the other mixed with a 1.5% sodium alginate solution. One hundred and twenty adult Sprague Dawley rats weighing 220-250 g were randomly divided into four groups: the microencapsulated cell group (n = 36), the non-encapsulated cell group (n = 36), the saline group (n = 36) and the sham operation group (n = 12). The first three groups underwent a right hemisection injury of the spinal cord at the T level, into which was transplanted a gelatin sponge soaked with 10 μ L of a microencapsulated nerve tissue/cell suspension (microencapsulated cell group), a tissue/cell suspension (non-encapsulated cell group) or physiological saline (saline group). In the sham operation group the vertebrae were exposed, but the spinal cord was not injured, and no implantation was given.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pathological changes were detected using hematoxylin-eosin staining; NF- K B expression was quantified using immunohistochemical staining; motor function was assessed using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) scale

  1. Teratology studies in the rabbit.

    Allais, Linda; Reynaud, Lucie


    The rabbit is generally the non-rodent species or second species after the rat recommended by the regulatory authorities and is part of the package of regulatory reproductive studies for the detection of potential embryotoxic and/or teratogenic effects of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, food additives, and other compounds, including vaccines (see Chapters 1-7).Its availability, practicality in housing and in mating as well as its large size makes the rabbit the preferred choice as a non-rodent species. The study protocols are essentially similar to those established for the rat (Chapter 9), with some particularities. The study designs are well defined in guidelines and are relatively standardized between testing laboratories across the world.As for the rat, large litter sizes and extensive background data in the rabbit are valuable criteria for an optimal assessment of in utero development of the embryo or fetus and for the detection of potential external or internal fetal malformations.

  2. Effect of chlorpromazine on lipid metabolism in aortas from cholesterol-fed rabbits and normal rats, in vitro: inhibition of sterol esterification and modification of phospholipid synthesis

    Bell, F.P.


    Chlorpromazine (CPZ), a major tranquilizer, was found to be a potent inhibitor of acylCoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT, EC in isolated arterial microsomes and in intact arterial tissue from the rat and cholesterol-fed rabbit in vitro. In isolated rabbit arterial microsomes, CPZ resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of ACAT with 50% inhibition of (1-14C)oleoylCoA incorporation into (14C)cholesteryl esters occurring at 0.1 mM CPZ. CPZ also effectively inhibited the incorporation of (14C)oleate into triglycerides without affecting incorporation into diglycerides. Additionally, CPZ altered the pattern of arterial phospholipids synthesized from (1-14C)oleate. Incorporation into phosphatidylcholine was depressed while incorporation into phosphatidylinositol was increased. Since diglyceride synthesis appeared to be unaffected by CPZ, a redirection of phosphatidic acid into the CDP-diglyceride pathway of glycerolipid synthesis does not adequately account for the effect of CPZ on arterial phospholipid and triglyceride synthesis in these experiments.

  3. Restoration of visual performance by d-serine in models of inner and outer retinal dysfunction assessed using sweep VEP measurements in the conscious rat and rabbit.

    Staubli, Ursula; Rangel-Diaz, Natalie; Alcantara, Miguel; Li, Yong-Xin; Yang, Jia-Ying; Zhang, Kai-Ming; Foster, Alan C


    The NMDA subtype of glutamate receptor and its co-agonist d-serine play a key role in synaptic function in the central nervous system (CNS), including visual cortex and retina. In retinal diseases such as glaucoma and macular degeneration, a loss of vision arises from malfunction of retinal cells, resulting in a glutamate hypofunctional state along the visual pathway in the affected parts of the visual field. An effective strategy to remedy this loss of function might be to increase extracellular levels of d-serine and thereby boost synaptic NMDA receptor-mediated visual transmission and/or plasticity to compensate for the impairment. We tested this idea in brain slices of visual cortex exhibiting long-term potentiation, and in rodent models of visual dysfunction caused by retinal insults at a time when the injury had stabilized to look for neuroenhancement effects. An essential aspect of the in vivo studies involved adapting sweep VEP technology to conscious rats and rabbits and combining it with intracortical recording while the animals were actively attending to visual information. Using this technology allowed us to establish complete contrast sensitivity function curves. We found that systemic d-serine dose-dependently rescued the contrast sensitivity impairment in rats with blue light-induced visual dysfunction. In rabbits with inner retinal dysfunction, both systemic and intravitreal routes of d-serine provided a rescue of visual function. In sum, we show that co-agonist stimulation of the NMDA receptor via administration of exogenous d-serine might be an effective therapeutic strategy to enhance visual performance and compensate for the loss of vision resulting from retinal disease.

  4. Water intake and consumption in sheep differing in growth potential ...

    To avoid obesity they were exercised daily in the morning by ..... intake on water, energy and nitrogen balance and thyroxine secretion in sheep and goats. ... model in genetic studies: different physiological phases in the rat. S.Afr J. Anim.

  5. Cloning and expression analysis of zygote arrest 1 (Zar1) in New Zealand white rabbits



    Zygote arrest 1 (Zar1) is an oocyte-specific maternal-effect gene. Previous studies indicate that Zar1 plays important role in early embryo development, but little is known about its function in rabbit. The objectives of this study were to clone the New Zealand white rabbit Zar1 gene and to investigate its expression in various organs in groups of animals with different reproductivetraits.We obtained a 709-bp Zar1 cDNA fragment consisting of an 8-bp exon 1, 161-bp exon 2, 75-bp exon 3, 271-bp exon 4 and 194-bp 3' sequences. The rabbit Zar1 nucleotide sequence showed per cent identities of 91, 88, 88, 87, 86, 87, 76 and 82% with Zar1 orthologues in human, cattle, sheep, pig, mouse, rat, zebrafish and Xenopus laevis, respectively, indicating a high homology with other species and evolutionary conservation. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed nonoocyte-specific Zar1 expression, with expression in spleen, lung, ovary, uterus, heart, liver and kidney. The expression level was highest in the lung. This study may lay the theoretical foundation for the study of ZAR1’s biological function.

  6. Determination of alternative pathway of complement activity in mouse serum using rabbit erythrocytes

    Dijk, H. van; Rademaker, P.M.; Willers, J.M.N


    Rabbit, mouse and sheep erythrocytes expressing different concentrations of membrane sialic acid were used to study possible modes of activation of the alternative complement (C) pathway in mouse, human and guinea pig serum. Mouse erythrocytes activated only human serum, whereas rabbit erythrocytes

  7. Effect of Diet Supplemented with Sheep Meat or Duck Meat on AQP2 Expression in Colon of Rats%饲喂羊肉和鸭肉对大鼠结肠AQP2表达的影响

    闫振国; 王思丹; 王虎虎; 徐幸莲; 舒蕊华; 董洋; 周光宏


    目的:为研究饲喂羊肉和鸭肉对大鼠结肠水通道蛋白2(AQP2)mRNA转录及其蛋白表达水平的影响。方法:将90只3周龄雄性SD大鼠随机均分成3组,分别饲喂豆粕饲料(对照组)、羊肉饲料和鸭肉饲料。饲喂14d和28d对大鼠血清抗利尿激素(AVP)、AQP2mRNA、AQP2蛋白表达及Na^+-K^+-ATP酶活性进行检测。结果:饲喂羊肉使大鼠的Na^+-K^+-ATP酶活性、AVP水平、结肠AQP2蛋白表达及其基因转录水平都升高,而饲喂鸭肉使上述指标降低。除结肠AQP2蛋白外,羊肉组和鸭肉组相比,差异显著(P〈0.05)。3个实验组大鼠的体质量差异显著,显著顺序为鸭肉组〉羊肉组〉豆粕组。结论:饲喂羊肉和鸭肉对大鼠结肠AQPz蛋白表达及其基因转录水平具有不同影响,饲喂羊肉使其上调,而饲喂鸭肉使其下调。因此,饲喂羊肉使机体向外利水的生理作用受限,而饲喂鸭肉使机体向外利水的生理作用增强。%Objective: To evaluate AQP2 mRNA transcription and protein expression levels in rats fed die supplemented with sheep meat or duck meat. Methods: Totally 90 three-week-old male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups, and fed a diet supplemented with soybean protein (control), sheep meat or duck meat, respectively. On the 14^th and 28^th day, serum antidiuretic vasopressin (AVP), aquaporin-2 (AQP2) mRNA transcription, AQP2 protein expression, and Na^+-K^+-ATP enzyme activity were determined. Results: The rats fed sheep meat had higher levels of AVP, Na^+-K^+-ATP enzyme activity, AQP2 mRNA transcription and protein expression than those fed duck meat. Significant differences in other indices except protein expression level between sheep meat group and duck meat group were observed. In addition, both feeding groups on the 14~ and 28~ day also showed a significant difference in body weight. Conclusion: Sheep meat and duck

  8. New generation of monomer-stabilized very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (VSOP) as contrast medium for MR angiography: preclinical results in rats and rabbits.

    Taupitz, M; Schnorr, J; Abramjuk, C; Wagner, S; Pilgrimm, H; Hünigen, H; Hamm, B


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the signal enhancement characteristics of very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (VSOP)-C63, a new monomer-coated, iron oxide-based magnetic resonance (MR) blood pool contrast medium with a very small particle size and optimized physical properties. Equilibrium MR angiography (MRA) of rats (thoracic and abdominal vessels) was performed at 1.5 T with a three-dimensional gradient-recalled echo (3D GRE) technique (TR/TE 6.6/2.3 msec, flip angle 25 degrees ) before and after (every 3-5 minutes up to 50 minutes) i.v. injection of VSOP-C63 [dosages: 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 micromol Fe/kg; diameter: 8 nm; relaxivities at 0.47 T: R1 = 30 l/(mmol * s); R2 = 39 l/(mmol * s)]. First-pass MRA images (3D-GRE, TR/TE 4.5/1.7 msec, flip angle 25 degrees ) were obtained with 45 micromol Fe/kg VSOP-C63 in comparison with 0.2 mmol Gd/kg of gadolinium diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd DTPA; before and every 5 seconds p.i.). MRA (3D GRE, TR/TE 4.5/1.7 msec, flip angle 25 degrees) of coronary vessels in rabbits was performed after i.v. injection of 45 micromol Fe/kg of VSOP-C63. In rats maximal S/N ratio in thoracic and abdominal arteries directly after i.v. injection of VSOP-C63 was 25 +/- 1, 43 +/- 2, 49 +/- 4, 57 +/- 3, 64 +/- 3, and 63 +/- 3 for the different dosages. Blood half-life was dose dependent (15 +/- 2, 20 +/- 3, 29 +/- 6, 37 +/- 5, 61 +/- 16, and 86 +/- 21 minutes). At a dose of 30 micromol Fe/kg even small intrarenal arteries were sharply delineated. First-pass MRA showed no significant difference in the S/N ratio between Gd-DTPA (71.5 +/- 11.5) and VSOP-C63 (65.1 +/- 18. 3). The proximal segments of the coronary arteries in rabbits were clearly depicted at a dose of 45 micromol Fe/kg. The monomer-coated, iron oxide-based contrast medium VSOP-C63 exhibits favorable properties as a blood pool agent for both equilibrium and first-pass MRA. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2000;12:905-911. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Rabbit hematology.

    Marshall, Kemba L


    Using laboratory animal medicine as an established resource, companion animal veterinarians have access to many physiologic and basic science studies that we can now merge with our clinical impressions. By working with reference laboratories, companion animal veterinarians are poised to accelerate our knowledge of the normal rabbit rapidly. The aim of this article is to discuss normal hematopoiesis and infectious and metabolic diseases that specifically target the hemolymphatic system. Additionally, photographic representation of cell types is provided.

  10. The potential role of wild rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis in domestic ruminants.

    Daniels, M J; Henderson, D; Greig, A; Stevenson, K; Sharp, J M; Hutchings, M R


    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, the organism responsible for paratuberculosis in cattle and sheep has been found in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in the east of Scotland. Few studies have investigated either the level of faecal contamination by rabbits on farms, or the potential infectivity of rabbit excreta. The rate of rabbit faecal contamination deposited and the numbers encountered were estimated for 21 fields on 4 farms with a paratuberculosis problem. 7357 +/- 2571 S.E.M. rabbit faecal pellets were deposited per hectare per day and up to 81,000 pellets/ha ('standing crop') were encountered in October/November 1998. Where access to rabbits was restricted, the standing crop of faeces encountered fell to 22,000 pellets/ha. The prevalence of infection with M. a. paratuberculosis was assessed for 83 rabbits from the four farms. M. a. paratuberculosis was isolated from rabbits on all farms with an overall prevalence of 17%. Out of 17 rabbits from which urine was available, M. a. paratuberculosis was isolated from two--the first reported isolation from urine in wild rabbits. The mean number of colony-forming units per gram of infected rabbit faeces was 7.6 x 10(5) +/- 5.2 x 10(5). A relative estimate of the input of M. a. paratuberculosis onto pasture, at the stocking levels found on the four farms, showed that sheep and cattle potentially contributed 4 and 125 times more organisms/ha per day respectively than rabbits. However, rabbits could still contribute millions of M. a. paratuberculosis organisms per ha per day. Existing rabbit control measures on farms may be inadequate in reducing the risk of transmission to livestock.

  11. Whole-body inhalation exposure to 1-bromopropane suppresses the IgM response to sheep red blood cells in female B6C3F1 mice and Fisher 344/N rats.

    Anderson, Stacey E; Munson, Albert E; Butterworth, Leon F; Germolec, Dori; Morgan, Daniel L; Roycroft, Joseph A; Dill, Jeffrey; Meade, B J


    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) is categorized as a high-production-volume chemical and is currently used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and other chemicals. Its usage is estimated to be around 5 million pounds per year, resulting in the potential for widespread exposure in the workplace. Case reports and animal studies have suggested exposure to this compound may cause adverse reproductive and neurological effects. Using a battery of immunological assays, the immunotoxicity of 1-BP after whole body inhalation exposure in both mice and rats was evaluated. Significant decreases in the spleen immunoglobulin (Ig) M response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) were observed in both mice (125-500 ppm) and rats (1000 ppm) after exposure to 1-BP for 10 wk. In addition, total spleen cells and T cells were significantly decreased after approximately 4 wk of 1-BP exposure in both mice (125-500 ppm) and rats (1000 ppm). No change in natural killer (NK) cell activity was observed. The observed alterations in spleen cellularity, phenotypic subsets, and impairment of humoral immune function across species raise further concern about human exposure to 1-BP and demonstrate the need for additional investigations into potential adverse health effects.

  12. Identification of Pasteurella multocida capsular types isolated from rabbits and other domestic animals in Mexico with respiratory diseases.

    Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo; Vega-Sánchez, Vicente; Zamora-Espinosa, José Luis; Acosta-Dibarrat, Jorge; Aguilar-Romero, Francisco; Negrete-Abascal, Erasmo


    Pasteurella multocida is the causative agent of pasteurellosis, a major disease in most domestic animals and livestock. In this study, a total of 34 isolates of P. multocida from rabbits and other domestic animals from Mexico with respiratory diseases underwent polymerase chain reaction-based capsular typing. One sheep isolate was found to belong to capsular serogroup D, whereas the rest of the rabbit, sheep, cattle, pig, goat, and duck isolates belonged to capsular serogroup A of P. multocida. This is the first report of capsular type A in P. multocida isolates from rabbits and duck origin in Mexico.

  13. [Use of culture media with sheep serum for maintenance and isolation of Leptospira strains].

    Nicolescu, M; Moldoveanu, G


    A study was carried out on the effects of a culture medium prepared with sheep serum inactivated at 68 degrees C on Leptospira cultures. Good results were obtained showing that the medium with sheep serum can be used for the cultivation of Leptospira in view of the preparation of antigens for microscopic agglutination and complement fixation. In experiments on the isolation of germs from organocultures and haemocultures the proportion of positive results obtained with sheep serum was smaller than with the media containing rabbit serum.

  14. Effect of hydrogen sulphide-donating sildenafil (ACS6) on erectile function and oxidative stress in rabbit isolated corpus cavernosum and in hypertensive rats.

    Shukla, Nilima; Rossoni, Giuseppe; Hotston, Matthew; Sparatore, Anna; Del Soldato, Piero; Tazzari, Valerio; Persad, Raj; Angelini, Gianni D; Jeremy, Jamie Y


    OBJECTIVE To study the effect of the H(2)S-donating derivative of sildenafil (ACS6) compared to sildenafil citrate and sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS) on relaxation, superoxide formation and NADPH oxidase and type 5 phosphodiesterase (PDE5) expression in isolated rabbit cavernosal tissue and smooth muscle cells (CSMCs), and in vivo on indices of oxidative stress induced with buthionine sulphoximine (BSO). MATERIALS AND METHODS Relaxation was studied in an organ bath in response to carbachol and after incubation with interleukin-1beta for 12 h. CSMCs were incubated with tumour-necrosis factor-alpha or the thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) analogue, U46619, with or with no sildenafil citrate, ACS6 or NaHS for 16 h. Superoxide formation and the expression of p47(phox) (an active subunit of the NADPH oxidase complex) and PDE5 protein was then assessed using Western blotting. Rats were also treated with BSO (with or with no sildenafil citrate or ACS6) for 7 days; cavernosal cGMP, cAMP, glutathionine and plasma TXA(2) and 8-isoprostane F(2alpha) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS ACS6 and sildenafil citrate relaxed cavernosal smooth muscle equipotently; NaHS alone had little effect at up to 100 microm. The formation of superoxide and expression of p47(phox) and PDE5 was reduced by ACS6, sildenafil citrate and NaHS (order of potency: ACS6 > sildenafil citrate > NaHS). The effects of ACS6 were blocked by inhibitors of protein kinase A (PKA) and PKG. In rats treated with BSO, both ASC6 and sildenafil citrate reduced the increased plasma levels of TXA(2) and 8-isoprostane F(2alpha) but increased cGMP, cAMP and glutathionine levels in corpus cavernosum. CONCLUSIONS By virtue of a dual action on PKA and PKG activation, ACS6 not only promotes erection, acutely, but might also have a long-term beneficial effect through inhibition of oxidative stress and downregulation of PDE5.

  15. Dairy Sheep Nutrition

    Rosanna Scipioni


    This book, edited by the colleague Giuseppe Pulina, is the result of the project "Further development of a diet formulation model for sheep and goat", supported by the Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies, in Italy.

  16. Alterations in the endometrium of rats, rabbits, and Macaca mulatta that received an implantation of copper/low-density polyethylene nanocomposite

    Hu LX


    Full Text Available Li-Xia Hu,1,* Hong Wang,1,* Meng Rao,1,* Xiao-Ling Zhao,1 Jing Yang,1 Shi-Fu Hu,1 Jing He,1,2 Wei Xia,1 Hefang Liu,1 Bo Zhen,1 Haihong Di,1 Changsheng Xie,3 Xianping Xia,3 Changhong Zhu,11Family Planning Research Institute, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China; 2Central Hospital of Wuhan, Wuhan, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A copper/low-density polyethylene nanocomposite (nano-Cu/LDPE, a potential intrauterine device component material, has been developed from our research. A logical extension of our previous work, this study was conducted to investigate the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, substance P (SP, and substance P receptor (SP-R in the endometrium of Sprague Dawley rats, New Zealand White rabbits, and Macaca mulatta implanted with nano-Cu/LDPE composite. The influence of the nano-Cu/LDPE composite on the morphology of the endometrium was also investigated. Animals were randomly divided into five groups: the sham-operated control group (SO group, bulk copper group (Cu group, LDPE group, and nano-Cu/LDPE groups I and II. An expression of PAI-1, SP, and SP-R in the endometrial tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry at day 30, 60, 90, and 180 postimplantation. The significant difference for PAI-1, SP, and SP-R between the nano-Cu/LDPE groups and the SO group (P<0.05 was identified when the observation period was terminated, and the changes of nano-Cu/LDPE on these parameters were less remarkable than those of the Cu group (P<0.05. The damage to the endometrial morphology caused by the nano-Cu/LDPE composite was much less than that caused by bulk copper. The nano-Cu/LDPE composite might be a potential substitute for conventional materials for intrauterine

  17. Epidermal growth factor in the rat lung

    Raaberg, Lasse; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba


    Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) in pharmacological doses is able to induce precoccious lung maturation in rabbits and sheeps. As EGF is probably acting in a para- or autocrine way, we have searched for EGF in the lungs. We report EGF immunoreactivity to be present in the type II pneumocytes...... of the rat from a couple of days prior to birth and throughout life. Further, we report EGF immunoreactivity to be present in cells in the bronchi and the bronchioles from day 20-21 of gestation and throughout life. G-200 gelchromatography of lung extracts indicates that the EGF-reactive material is a high...... molecular weight form of EGF. Since previous studies have shown that EGF in pharmacological doses is able to promote lung maturation, our results may imply a physiological role for EGF in the lungs....

  18. 饲喂羊肉和鸭肉日粮对大鼠血清甲状腺素水平的影响%Effects of sheep meat and duck meat supplemented diets on rat thyroid hormone levels

    张英君; 魏法山; 李春保; 冯宪超; 邓宇; 闫振国; 周光宏; 徐幸莲


    To investigate effects of sheep meat and duck meat supplemented diet on rat thyroid hormone function,40 male rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: sheep meat supplemented group, duck meat supplemented group, soy protein control group and normal group. After 30 days,levels of 3,3′,5-triiodoehyronine (T3 ), 3,5,3′5′-tetraiodothyronine ( T4 ), thyroid stimulating hermone ( TSH ),free T3( FT3 ) and FT4 were detected with the method of radioimmunoassay ( RIA ), and body temperatures were measured bythermometer. Results showed that: Body temperature and serum levels of T3 ,T4, FT3, FT4 increased in sheep meat supplemented group,reaching to(38.66±0.37)℃ ,(0.44±0. 1)ng·mL-1 , (76.29±30.97)ng·mL-1, (7.74±1.75)pmol·mL-1 and(4.37±1.88) pmol·mL-1 ,but decreased in duck meat supplemented group, reaching to( 38.01 ±0.55 )℃, (O. 37 ±0. 12) ng· mL-1 , (42.38 ± 20. 05 ) ng· mL-1, (5.50± 1.90) pmol· mL-1 and ( 3.76 ± 1. 63 ) pmol· mL-1 ( P<0.05 ). While, TSH level decreased to ( 1. 01 ±0. 12 ) MIU·L-1 in sheep meat supplemented group, while increased to (1.53±0.29) MIU· L-1 in duck meat supplemented group (P< O. 05 ). This confirmed that the sheep meat diet increased rat thyroid hormones ,while ,the duck meat supplemented diet decreased rat thyroid hormones in some degree.%将40只大鼠随机均分为4组,分别饲喂羊肉、鸭肉、豆粕(对照组)和普通日粮(对照组),采用放射免疫分析法(RIA)测定血清四碘甲腺原氨酸(T_4)、三碘甲腺原氨酸(T_3)、促甲状腺激素(TSH)、游离四碘甲腺原氨酸(FT_4)、游离二碘甲腺原氨酸(FT_3)水平和大鼠肝脏I型甲状腺原氨酸脱碘酶(5'-脱碘酶)活性的变化,并测量大鼠直肠温度.结果显示:饲喂羊肉的大鼠体温升高,第29天达到(38.66±0.37)℃,显著高于饲喂鸭肉组大鼠体温(38.01±0.55)℃;饲喂羊肉组大鼠血清中T_3、T_4和FT_3、FT_4升高,分别达到(0.44±0.10)、(76.29±30.97)ng·mL~(-1)和(7.74±1.75)、(4




    Tissue interactions with discs of dermal sheep collagen (DSC), subcutaneously implanted in rats, were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. DSC cross-linked with hexamethylenediisocyanate (HDSC) had already been tested previously. In the present study, we compared tissue interactions of

  20. Viral infections of rabbits.

    Kerr, Peter J; Donnelly, Thomas M


    Viral diseases of rabbits have been used historically to study oncogenesis (e.g. rabbit fibroma virus, cottontail rabbit papillomavirus) and biologically to control feral rabbit populations (e.g. myxoma virus). However, clinicians seeing pet rabbits in North America infrequently encounter viral diseases although myxomatosis may be seen occasionally. The situation is different in Europe and Australia, where myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease are endemic. Advances in epidemiology and virology have led to detection of other lapine viruses that are now recognized as agents of emerging infectious diseases. Rabbit caliciviruses, related to rabbit hemorrhagic disease, are generally avirulent, but lethal variants are being identified in Europe and North America. Enteric viruses including lapine rotavirus, rabbit enteric coronavirus and rabbit astrovirus are being acknowledged as contributors to the multifactorial enteritis complex of juvenile rabbits. Three avirulent leporid herpesviruses are found in domestic rabbits. A fourth highly pathogenic virus designated leporid herpesvirus 4 has been described in Canada and Alaska. This review considers viruses affecting rabbits by their clinical significance. Viruses of major and minor clinical significance are described, and viruses of laboratory significance are mentioned. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Studies on the absorption, excretion and distribution of aclacinomycin A: absorption, excretion and distribution of 14C- or 3H-aclacinomycin A in mice, rats and rabbits (author's transl)].

    Iguchi, H; Seryu, Y; Kiyosaki, T; Hori, S; Tone, H; Oki, T


    A new anthracycline antitumor antibiotic, aclacinomycin A, was labeled with 3H uniformly or with 14C simultaneously at the anthracycline nucleus and L-rhodosamine. These labeled drugs were administered intravenously to normal dd mice, solid type Sarcoma 180 tumor-bearing ICR mice, normal or pregnant Wistar rats and normal rabbits, respectively. 14C-Aclacinomycin A given to rabbits (5 mg/kg) was rapidly cleared from the blood and transferred to tissues. But low level of radioactivity (equivalent to about 0.5 mcg/ml) was remained in the blood even 8 approximately 10 hours after administration. About 45% of the radioactivity were recovered from the urine and 20% from the feces by 72 hours after administration. Tissue levels of 3H-14C-aclacinomycin A given to normal and tumor-bearing mice were highest in the lungs and spleen. Higher distribution was observed also in the liver and kidneys 2 hours after administration. Bioassay revealed that the drug was present in the lungs and spleen in biologically active form and in the liver and kidneys in inactive form, respectively. In the tumor tissue the radioactivity was low but it persisted for 48 hours. Autoradiography with 14C-aclacinomycin A in rats demonstrated that radioactivity due to the drug distributed in the lungs, spleen, kidneys, thymus, intestine, lymph nodes, bone marrow, salivary gland, hypophysis and pineal body but it was rapidly cleared. About 0.2% of radioactivity given to a pregnant rat were transferred to a fetus when 14C-aclacinomycin A was administered intravenously on the 18 approximately 19th day of pregnancy.

  2. The Rabbit Stream Cipher

    Boesgaard, Martin; Vesterager, Mette; Zenner, Erik


    The stream cipher Rabbit was first presented at FSE 2003, and no attacks against it have been published until now. With a measured encryption/decryption speed of 3.7 clock cycles per byte on a Pentium III processor, Rabbit does also provide very high performance. This paper gives a concise...... description of the Rabbit design and some of the cryptanalytic results available....

  3. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep?

    Schreuder, B.E.C.; Somerville, R.A.


    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep has not been identified under natural conditions at the time of writing and remains a hypothetical issue. However, rumours about the possible finding of a BSE-like isolate in sheep have led to great unrest within the sheep industry, among the general p

  4. Detection of specific Mycoplasma conjunctivae antibodies in the sera of sheep with infectious keratoconjunctivitis.

    Belloy, L; Giacometti, M; Abdo, E M; Nicolet, J; Krawinkler, M; Janovsky, M; Bruderer, U; Frey, J


    The serological cross reactions between Mycoplasma conjunctivae, the etiological agent of infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC), and the antigenetically and phylogenetically closely related Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, which is often found in sheep, were analysed. Cross reacting antigens were identified using sera from sheep with IKC and from sheep of herds known to be free of IKC, as well as rabbit hyperimmune serum specific to the two Mycoplasma species. Cross reactions were predominantly due to the strongly antigenic proteins of 42 kDa and 83 kDa. Serospecific antigens of M. conjunctivae could be separated from cross-reacting antigens by the extraction of Tween 20-soluble membrane proteins. The Tween 20-extracted proteins of the M. conjunctivae strain HRC/581T were used for the development of an indirect ELISA test. This ELISA test was shown to be a useful serological method for the diagnosis of M. conjunctivae infections and to identify infected sheep herds.

  5. Influence of human diets containing casein, soy protein isolate, and soy protein concentrate on serum cholesterol and lipoproteins in humans, rabbits and rats

    Raaij, van J.M.A.


    It is well known that feeding animals such as rabbits with semipurified diets containing animal proteins, as for example casein, results in hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. On the other hand, diets containing vegetable proteins such as soybean protein maintain low levels of serum cholestero

  6. [Sheep wool granuloma].

    Lambert, D; Terrussot, M C; Dalac, S; Boulitrop-Morvan, C


    We report the unusual case of cutaneous foreign body granulomas provoked by sheep wool. A 45-years old woman presented within one year two episodes of a papular eruption on her neck and limbs. She was working as a farmer's wife and each episode occurred after preparing the ewes for coupling. She had to keep a tight hold on the ewes while the farmer introduced warm and moist compresses in the genitals of the animals. Each diseased skin area was closely related to the tight contact with the sheep's wool and on histological slides each granuloma was centered by a tiny ply of wool. This foreign body reaction may be compared to the trichogranulomas of hairdressers. In sheep breeders this occupational practice is very usual and one may wonder why this type of reaction seems so rare.

  7. Variant rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus in young rabbits, Spain.

    Dalton, Kevin P; Nicieza, Inés; Balseiro, Ana; Muguerza, María A; Rosell, Joan M; Casais, Rosa; Álvarez, Ángel L; Parra, Francisco


    Outbreaks of rabbit hemorrhagic disease have occurred recently in young rabbits on farms on the Iberian Peninsula where rabbits were previously vaccinated. Investigation identified a rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus variant genetically related to apathogenic rabbit caliciviruses. Improved antivirus strategies are needed to slow the spread of this pathogen.

  8. Susceptibility of phagocytes from elk, deer, bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep to Pasteurella haemolytica cytotoxins.

    Silflow, R M; Foreyt, W J


    Alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood neutrophils from elk (Cervus elaphus), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), and domestic sheep were exposed to culture supernatants from Pasteurella haemolytica isolated from bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. In a second experiment, peripheral blood neutrophils from mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), elk, and bighorn sheep were exposed to culture supernatants from P. haemolytica isolated from elk, bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. Alveolar macrophages from elk, bighorn sheep and domestic sheep were resistant to killing by P. haemolytica supernatants from bighorn sheep and domestic sheep; susceptibility of neutrophils to cell death, as measured by release of lactate dehydrogenase, differed significantly (P sheep and domestic sheep neutrophils were susceptible to cytotoxin damage by the P. haemolytica isolates used; bighorn sheep neutrophils were four- to eight-fold more susceptible to cytotoxin damage than domestic sheep neutrophils. Neutrophils from deer and elk were resistant to killing by P. haemolytica cytotoxins from any species tested.

  9. Fatal pneumonia of bighorn sheep following association with domestic sheep.

    Foreyt, W J; Jessup, D A


    During 1979-1980 acute fibrinopurulent bronchopneumonia resulted in high mortality or total loss of herds of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in California and Washington. Contact with domestic sheep occurred shortly before the onset of disease in each case. Circumstantial evidence indicated that the apparently healthy domestic sheep transmitted pathogenic bacteria to the bighorns, resulting in mortality. Pasteurella multocida and Corynebacterium pyogenes were isolated from pulmonary tissue of dead bighorns. The presence of domestic sheep may have been an important stress which initiated or compounded the disease.

  10. Salmonella in Sheep in Iceland

    Gunnarsson E


    Full Text Available In 1995 several outbreaks of food poisoning in humans occurred in Iceland, that were traced to salmonella contamination of singed sheep heads. This prompted us to study the prevalence of salmonella infection in sheep and to trace where and how infection might have occurred. Faecal, intestinal contents and tonsillar samples were collected in the spring and autumn from sheep on 50 farms in the southwestern part of the country, where salmonellosis had been detected and from 5 farms in the northwestern part of the country. All faecal samples from the southwest were negative, whereas samples from 3 farms obtained in the autumn in the northwest were positive. Tonsillae taken in the autumn were positive in sheep from 3 farms in the southwest and 2 in the northwest. Our results show that salmonella infection is rare in Icelandic sheep but healthy carriers may harbour the bacteria in tonsillae. Salmonella was not detected in drainage from slaughterhouses nor in singed sheep heads.

  11. Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal..

    Grum, Charlotte; Svabo, Connie

    As a part of a 2015 group exhibition exploring the history and local myths of a woman living in a Danish heath landscape 150 years ago, artist Charlotte Grum connected herself to a live sheep for 4 hours a day, 5 days a week, for 5 weeks, turning the two into a hybrid relational assemblage, intra...... of posthuman performance.Engaging with matter and producing knowledge on mattering itself seems to call for multiple mediated modes of dissemination, embodying the complexities of becoming...

  12. Sheep botfly: ophthalmomyiasis externa.

    Harvey, J T


    Sheep botfly (Oestrus ovis) conjunctival infestation is rare in North America but is common in other parts of the world. The author treated 30 patients with this type of conjunctivitis in Jerusalem in 1981 and 1982. The conjunctivitis may vary from mild to severe (pseudo-orbital cellulitis). Features of the conjunctivitis include pale edema, linear superficial punctate keratopathy and the presence of larvae in the conjunctival sac. Conjunctival scrapings revealed a preponderance of polymorphonucleocytes.




    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Human temporal bones are difficult to procure now a days due to various ethical issues. Sheep temporal bone is a good alternative due to morphological similarities, easy to procure and less cost. Many middle ear exercises can be done easily and handling of instruments is done in the procedures like myringoplasty, tympanoplasty, stapedotomy, facial nerve dissection and some middle ear implants. This is useful for resident training programme.

  14. Autoantibody Production in Rabbits

    Asherson, G. L.; Rose, M. Elaine


    The finding that the serum of apparently healthy rabbits fixed complement with rabbit liver and kidney has been confirmed. Experimental infection of rabbits with Eimeria stiedae, the cause of hepatic coccidiosis, led to a rise in the titre of serum complement-fixing factors. The rise was statistically significant 14, 21 and 28 days after infection. The factors were regarded as antibodies because they behaved as macroglobulins on diethylaminoethyl—cellulose chromatography and sucrose gradient centrifugation, and as autoantibodies because they fixed complement with the kidney of the rabbits in which they occurred. The antibody reacted with widely distributed antigen(s) with high activity in brain and low activity in skeletal muscle. The possibility that coccidial infection may be responsible for the natural autoantibody of rabbits is discussed. PMID:13965167

  15. Fatal Pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia in bighorn sheep after direct contact with clinically normal domestic sheep.

    Foreyt, W J


    Six Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep were raised in captivity from birth (n = 5) or taken from the wild as a lamb (n = 1). After the bighorn sheep were in captivity for over a year, 6 clinically normal domestic sheep were placed on the 2 ha of pasture on which the bighorn sheep were kept. Nasal swab specimens were obtained from all sheep at the time the domestic sheep were introduced. Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from swab specimens obtained from 4 of 6 domestic sheep, but not from specimens obtained from the bighorn sheep. All 6 bighorn sheep died of acute hemorrhagic pneumonia after exposure to domestic sheep. Death in the bighorn sheep occurred on days 4, 27, 27, 29, 36, or 71 after initial exposure to domestic sheep. Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from respiratory tract tissue specimens of all bighorn sheep at the time of death. None of the domestic sheep were clinically ill during the study. At the end of the study, 3 of 6 domestic sheep were euthanatized, and at necropsy, P haemolytica was isolated from 2 of them. The most common serotypes in bighorn and domestic sheep were P haemolytica T-3 and A-2. Other serotypes isolated included P haemolytica A-1, A-9, and A-11 in bighorn sheep and A-1 in domestic sheep. On the basis of results of this study and of other reports, domestic sheep and bighorn sheep should not be managed in proximity to each other because of the potential fatal consequences in bighorn sheep.


    E.T. Setiatin


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to produce polyclonal antibody (rabbit anti-ovPAG which could detectPAG in the urine of pregnant ewes. Twelve rabbits were immunized against ovPG DEAE-TrisHCl (DT,DEAE-NaCl 20mM (DN2, DEAE-NaCl 40mM (DN4, DEAE-NaCl 80mM (DN8, DEAE-NaCl160mM (DN16, DEAE-NaCl 320mM (DN32 and DEAE-NaCl 1M (DN1 and NaCl 0.9 % as aplacebo. The 0.5 ml of isolate (purified from ovine cotyledon was emulsified in equal volume withcomplete and incomplete Freud’s adjuvant. The mixture of each isolate and adjuvant was injected atmutiple sites along the dorsal area of rabbits by subcutaneous route. Blood were collected from marginalear vein, starting before first injection (baseline and every 14 days. Rabbit anti-ovPAG were measuredusing Modified ELISA Technique. By using Western Blot Technique, DN32 showed the best immuneresponse among others and also could differenciate ovPAG in the urine of pregnant ewes It could beconcluded that ovPAG DN32 is a specific source of rabbit anti-ovPAG production. Protein of ovPAG atmolecular weight 31 kDa is a pregnancy protein marker of garut sheep and could be developed as amajor protein for producing antibodi.

  17. Breeding Practices in Sheep Farming

    M.A. Shejal


    Full Text Available The sheep is an important economic livestock species, contributing greatly to the Indian economy, especially in arid, semi arid and mountain areas. The current population in world is 1110.78 millions, around 44.85 millions (1987 sheeps in India (ICAR., 2002. Sheeps are mostly reared for meat and wool. The average annual wool production per sheep is between 3.5 to 5.5 kg of fine quality wool in Australia, New Zealand and U.S.S.R., where as in India except Magra sheep which annually yield more than 2 kg wool having staple length 5.8 cm, the average of rest of the wool produced is less than 1.0 kg per sheep of inferior quality (Banerjee G.C., 1998. Therefore many farmers in southern India adapted sheep rearing for meat production than for wool production. For yielding more production from sheep farming one should have sound knowledge of general information related to the reproduction and different breeding practices. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 43-44

  18. Immune Response and Pasteurella Resistance in Rabbits Fed Diets Containing Various Amounts of Black Cumin Seeds

    Nabiela M. El Bagir


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The consumption of black cumin (Nigella sativa seed has immunomodulatory and anti-bacterial activity, but in rabbits this had not yet been tested. Approach: In the present studies, rabbits were fed diets without or with black cumin seed and antibody production, phagocytotic activity, hypersensitivity and resistance against Pasteurellosis were assessed. Results: Feeding black cumin seed significantly increased serum concentrations of antibodies in response to intramusculary injected serum bovine albumin. Blood derived from rabbits fed the diets containing either 15 or 20% black cumin seed significantly reduced the growth of Staphylococcus aureus on sheep-blood agar plates. Skin thickness as index of hypersensitivity towards tuberculin was significantly reduced at 48 h after intradermal injection of the agent. Ingestion of black cumin seed significantly extended survival time after intraperitoneal administration of Pasteurella multocida. Conclusion: The feeding of black cumin seed to rabbits stimulated their immune system, but did not enhance inflammation.

  19. Zoonoses of rabbits and rodents.

    Hill, William Allen; Brown, Julie Paige


    Millions of households in the US own rabbits or rodents, including hamsters, guinea pigs, and gerbils. Activities such as hunting and camping also involve human interactions with wild rabbits and rodents. In many environments, feral rabbits and rodents live in close proximity to humans, domesticated animals, and other wildlife. Education of rodent and rabbit owners and individuals with occupational or recreational exposures to these species is paramount to reduce the prevalence of zoonoses associated with rabbit and rodent exposure.

  20. Rabbit orthopedic surgery.

    Rich, Gregory A


    Orthopedic surgery in rabbits poses several unique parameters for the veterinary surgeon. It is imperative for the veterinarian to be knowledgeable about the anatomic features of the surgical repair site and to become familiar with a rabbit's pain and discomfort often associated with orthopedic injuries. Handling the perioperative and postoperative pain and potential GI disturbances are crucial for a successful outcome of the surgical case. This article is designed to help the veterinary surgeon prepare for the orthopedic surgical procedure and the peripheral physiologic needs of the rabbit from presentation through recovery.

  1. RabbitMQ essentials

    Dossot, David


    This book is a quick and concise introduction to RabbitMQ. Follow the unique case study of Clever Coney Media as they progressively discover how to fully utilize RabbitMQ, containing clever examples and detailed explanations.Whether you are someone who develops enterprise messaging products professionally or a hobbyist who is already familiar with open source Message Queuing software and you are looking for a new challenge, then this is the book for you. Although you should be familiar with Java, Ruby, and Python to get the most out of the examples, RabbitMQ Essentials will give you the push y




    Full Text Available Through our researches were carried out at ICDCOC- Palas, Constantza, we proposed ourselves to establish the poly-parasitism structure on sheep, as well as elaborating efficientical methods for anti-parasitical prophylaxis and fighting in sheep populations and pasture sourfaces, in order to ensuring anti-parasitical protection in sheep exploitations The copro-parasitological examinations was carried ovoscopicaly (flotation - by Willis and Mc. Master methods; sediment – by polyvalent method and larvoscopicaly – by Baermann method. The parasitological examination of coprological smears which were harvested on sheep showed the presence of polyparasitism phenomenon with protozoans (coccidiae: Eimeria spp. and helmints (cestodae: Moniesia expansa; gastro-intestinal nemathodes: Trichostrongylus spp., Nematodirus spp., Strongyloides papillosus and pulmonary nemathodes: Müellerius capillaris, Protostrongylus rufescens, Dictyocaulus filaria. Also, we proposed ourselves to study the paresites and their intermediary stages on pastures which were exploited with sheep, comparatively with mowed pastures. In the ansamble of research activities a special place is occupied by testing differents methods, in order to prevention and fighting of parasitical infestations on sheep and pasture in sheep farms.

  3. Viral diseases of the rabbit.

    Krogstad, Aric P; Simpson, Janet E; Korte, Scott W


    Viral disease in the rabbit is encountered infrequently by the clinical practitioner; however, several viral diseases were reported to occur in this species. Viral diseases that are described in the rabbit primarily may affect the integument, gastrointestinal tract or, central nervous system or maybe multi-systemic in nature. Rabbit viral diseases range from oral papillomatosis, with benign clinical signs, to rabbit hemorrhagic disease and myxomatosis, which may result in significant clinical disease and mortality. The wild rabbit may serve as a reservoir for disease transmission for many of these viral agents. In general, treatment of viral disease in the rabbit is supportive in nature.

  4. Antigen-specific helper activity in serum of mice primed with sheep red cells I. Definition of the test system and comparison with other systems

    Dijk, H. van; Rademaker, P.M.; Slotboom, A.; Willers, J.M.


    An adoptive transfer system is described to measure serum helper activity in the primary antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC). Mice injected with a high dose of cyclophosphamide and reconstituted with rabbit anti-thymocyte serum-treated spleen cells were used as recipients. Serum obtain

  5. Effects of autoimmune NGF deprivation in the adult rabbit and offspring.

    Johnson, E M; Gorin, P D; Osborne, P A; Rydel, R E; Pearson, J


    An experimental autoimmune approach to the production of nerve growth factor deprivation, which we have previously described in the rat and guinea pig, has been applied to the rabbit. This species was chosen for study because of several potential advantages. The rabbit produces large litters and has a relatively short gestation period. More importantly, rabbits generate high titers of antibody against mouse NGF and large amounts of maternal antibody are passively transferred to the developing rabbit fetus compared to most other species, particularly the rat. The sympathetic nervous system of adult rabbit immunized against mouse NGF underwent degeneration with up to an 85% decrease in neuronal numbers in the superior cervical ganglion after 10 months of immunization, thus providing further evidence that NGF is required for the survival of mature sympathetic neurons. Despite the fact that newborn rabbits born to anti-NGF producing mothers had much higher titers of anti-NGF than did rats, the effects on the developing sympathetic and sensory nervous systems were not found to be any greater than in rats. Reductions in norepinephrine levels in the heart and spleen of adult rabbits born to anti-NGF producing mothers were greater than in small intestine. Prenatal exposure to maternal anti-NGF caused reductions (up to 70%) in the number of neurons in the dorsal root ganglia. Substance-P immunoreactivity was reduced in the substantia gelatinosa of the spinal cord of rabbit exposed to maternal anti-NGF. These changes, however, were not greater than seen in the rat. We conclude that although the rabbits offers some advantage in the study of the effects of NGF deprivation in the adult animal, it appears less well suited than the rat or guinea pig to the study of the effects of NGF deprivation on development.

  6. Rabbit lung injury induced by explosive decompression


    Objective: To study the mechanism of rabbit lunginjury caused by explosive decompression. Methods: A total of 42 rabbits and 10 rats were served as the experimental animals. A slow recompressiondecompression test and an explosive decompression test were applied to the animals, respectively. And the effects of the given tests on the animals were discussed. Results: The slow recompression-decompression did not cause an obvious lung injury, but the explosive decompression did cause lung injuries in different degrees. The greater the decompression range was, the shorter the decompression duration was, and the heavier the lung injuries were. Conclusions: Explosive decompression can cause a similar lung injury as shock wave does. The primary mechanical causes of the lung injury might be a tensile strain or stress in the alveolar wall and the pulmonary surface's impacts on the inside wall of the chest.

  7. CDH1, a Novel Surface Marker of Spermatogonial Stem Cells in Sheep Testis

    ZHANG Yan; WU Sachula; LUO Fen-hua; Baiyinbatu; LIU Lin-hong; HU Tian-yuan; YU Bo-yang; LI Guang-peng; WU Ying-ji


    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are unique stem cells in adult body that can transmit genetic information to the next generation. They have self-renewal potential and can continuously support spermatogenesis throughout life of a male animal. However, the SSC population is extremely small, isolation and puriifcation of the SSCs is challenging, especially for livestock animals. It has been conifrmed that CDH1 (cadherin-1, also known as E-cadherin) can be expressed in undifferentiated SSCs of mouse and rats, but it has not been veriifed in sheep. Here, CDH1 was found as a novel surface marker for sheep SSCs. In this paper, sheep anti-CDH1 polyclonal antibodies were prepared and its activity was checked. Using the obtained antibodies and immunohistochemistry analysis, we conifrmed that CDH1 can be expressed by SSCs in sheep testis.

  8. Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Excitability Score in Rabbit fed ...


    protect cells against oxidative stress in rats (Wang et al., 2000) and ... building for easy and effective cross-ventilation, and the cages were ... Graded level of Hibiscus sabdariffa alters erythrocyte membrane stability in rabbit. 114 ..... Haematological and serum biochemical response ... Vitamin C in human health and disease ...

  9. Transgenic Mouse Bioassay: Evidence That Rabbits Are Susceptible to a Variety of Prion Isolates.

    Enric Vidal


    Full Text Available Interspecies transmission of prions is a well-established phenomenon, both experimentally and under field conditions. Upon passage through new hosts, prion strains have proven their capacity to change their properties and this is a source of strain diversity which needs to be considered when assessing the potential risks associated with consumption of prion contaminated protein sources. Rabbits were considered for decades to be a prion resistant species until proven otherwise recently. To determine the extent of rabbit susceptibility to prions and to assess the effects of passage of different prion strains through this species a transgenic mouse model overexpressing rabbit PrPC was developed (TgRab. Intracerebral challenges with prion strains originating from a variety of species including field isolates (ovine SSBP/1 scrapie, Nor98- scrapie; cattle BSE, BSE-L and cervid CWD, experimental murine strains (ME7 and RML and experimentally obtained ruminant (sheepBSE and rabbit (de novo NZW strains were performed. On first passage TgRab were susceptible to the majority of prions (Cattle BSE, SheepBSE, BSE-L, de novo NZW, ME7 and RML tested with the exception of SSBP/1 scrapie, CWD and Nor98 scrapie. Furthermore, TgRab were capable of propagating strain-specific features such as differences in incubation periods, histological brain lesions, abnormal prion (PrPd deposition profiles and proteinase-K (PK resistant western blotting band patterns. Our results confirm previous studies proving that rabbits are not resistant to prion infection and show for the first time that rabbits are susceptible to PrPd originating in a number of other species. This should be taken into account when choosing protein sources to feed rabbits.

  10. Perceptions among university students in Seville (Spain of the rabbit as livestock and as a companion animal

    Pedro González-Redondo


    Full Text Available The rabbit has various utilities and roles, mainly as a meat-producing animal, game species, companion animal, laboratory animal or pest. Among these roles, rabbit breeding for meat has traditionally prevailed in the Mediterranean countries. However, in recent decades the practice of keeping this species as a companion animal has been on the rise; a factor that could be changing public perception of the rabbit. A survey of 492 university students from Seville, Andalusia, Spain, was conducted to determine young people’s perceptions of the rabbit as livestock and as a companion species. The rabbit received the lowest score when regarded as livestock compared to the pig, cow, goat, sheep and hen. Regarding companion animals, young Spanish people preferred the dog and cat, respectively. The rabbit and the hamster were rated at the same level as a pet, while the budgerigar was rated lower than these two mammals by women and higher by men. The goldfish occupied the last position among the pet species in the women’s perceptions. With regard to the perception of various rabbit breeds and varieties when evaluated as pets, it was found that the pet Lop Dwarf, Netherland Dwarf, Angora and Lionhead breeds were rated higher than a typical meat breed (New Zealand White and than the wild rabbit. The gender of the young people surveyed influenced their perception of the rabbit. Women rated the rabbit lower as livestock while they rated it higher as a pet, also rating the pet rabbit breeds higher than men did. It is proposed that, in keeping with the rabbit’s attributes related to its cuteness, conceptually linked with pets, young Andalusian people’s perception of the rabbit is ambivalent and this perception might partly be shifting from perceiving it as livestock to regarding it as a pet.

  11. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    Burt, S.A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; van der Poel, Wim H.M.


    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates. Dut

  12. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    Burt, Sara A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; Poel, van der Wim H.M.


    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  13. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    Burt, Sara A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; Poel, van der Wim H.M.


    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  14. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    Burt, S.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/140114432; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; van der Poel, Wim H.M.


    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  15. Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal

    Grum, Charlotte; Svabo, Connie


    Proposal for Performance Research, in response to the call Turning Animal: As a part of a 2015 group exhibition exploring the history and local myths of a woman living in a Danish heath landscape 150 years ago, artist Charlotte Grum connected herself to a live sheep for 4 hours a day, 5 days a we...... support the written account – together with graphic figurations of the many human and non-human actors playing a part of the mattering of “Becoming Sheep”, with an equal intention of performing multiple positions within and through the text......., for 5 weeks, turning the two into a hybrid relational assemblage, intra-acting and becoming with the heath habitat, the other by-passing human and non-human animals, the changing weather and their fluctuating biological needs. She wanted to explore the discursive and material effects of a site......-specific human-nonhuman animal intra-action, to challenge the gendered and anthropocentric reading of a particular historical subject and to explore the messy constituents of the very categories of women and animals. In general she is occupied with how to animate and perform the intra-active entanglement...

  16. Sheep-related Culture of Guizhou



    Sheep and goats, major livestock in Guizhou Steppe of southwest China, are of both practical and social value for local dwellers. As sheep is pronounced similar as "auspicious" in Chinese, its image is widely applied to every aspect of local society, including religious rites, calendar calculation, arts creation and architecture. Thus a sheep-related culture has been developed and prospered.


    heart and spleen from_male and femalerabbits were made, in rabbits fed graded levels (0, 4, 8, 12%) of oil palm indiets. ..... aeetyl CoA derived mainly from carbohydrate wasdepressed ... an integral part in the synthesis and metabolism of.

  18. A Clever Rabbit

    呼振璞; 付晓明


    1. Once there lived an elephant and a lion in the mountains, who both wanted to be the king of the beasts. One day the lion caught a rabbit. Before he ate it, he said, “Do you know I am the king here? ”

  19. Rabbit Repellent Paint

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Five gallons of rabbit repellent paint were sent to George Wilson to be applied on the trees of the Tewaukon tree plot. Mr. Wilson requires a 3 or 4 in. brush for...

  20. The Cutaneous Rabbit Revisited

    Flach, Rudiger; Haggard, Patrick


    In the cutaneous rabbit effect (CRE), a tactile event (so-called attractee tap) is mislocalized toward an adjacent attractor tap. The effect depends on the time interval between the taps. The authors delivered sequences of taps to the forearm and asked participants to report the location of one of the taps. The authors replicated the original CRE…

  1. Nerve growth factor enhances sleep in rabbits.

    Takahashi, S; Krueger, J M


    Nerve growth factor (NGF) elicits rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) in cats. Removal of NGF receptor-positive cholinergic basal forebrain neurons inhibits REMS in rats. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of NGF on sleep and brain temperature (Tbr) in rabbits. Male rabbits were implanted with electroencephalograph (EEG) electrodes, a brain thermistor and an intraventricular (i.c.v.) guide cannula. Rabbits received human beta-NGF i.c.v. (0.01, 0.1, 1.0 or 10 microg] and on a separate day, 25 microl pyrogen-free saline i.c.v. as control. EEG and Tbr were recorded for 23 h after injections. The highest two doses of NGF increased both non-REMS and REMS across the 23-h recording period. REMS was enhanced dose-dependently. Tbr was not affected by any dose of NGF. These results suggest that NGF is involved in both REMS and non-REMS regulation.




    The biocompatibility and tissue regenerating capacity of four crosslinked dermal sheep collagens (DSC) was studied. In vitro, the four DSC versions were found to be noncytotoxic or very low in cytoxicity. After subcutaneous implantation in rats, hexamethylenediisocyanate-crosslinked DSC (HDSC) seldo


    E.T. Setiatin


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to produce polyclonal antibody (rabbit anti-ovPAG which could detect PAG in the urine of pregnant ewes. Twelve rabbits were immunized against ovPG DEAE-TrisHCl (DT, DEAE-NaCl 20mM (DN2, DEAE-NaCl 40mM (DN4, DEAE-NaCl 80mM (DN8, DEAE-NaCl 160mM (DN16, DEAE-NaCl 320mM (DN32 and DEAE-NaCl 1M (DN1 and NaCl 0.9 % as a placebo. The 0.5 ml of isolate (purified from ovine cotyledon was emulsified in equal volume with complete and incomplete Freud’s adjuvant. The mixture of each isolate and adjuvant was injected at mutiple sites along the dorsal area of rabbits by subcutaneous route. Blood were collected from marginal ear vein, starting before first injection (baseline and every 14 days. Rabbit anti-ovPAG were measured using Modified ELISA Technique. By using Western Blot Technique, DN32 showed the best immune response among others and also could differenciate ovPAG in the urine of pregnant ewes It could be concluded that ovPAG DN32 is a specific source of rabbit anti-ovPAG production. Protein of ovPAG at molecular weight 31 kDa is a pregnancy protein marker of garut sheep and could be developed as a major protein for producing antibodi.

  4. Milk yield of some Croatian sheep breeds

    Kristijan Pandek; Boro Mioč; Zdravko Barać; Vesna Pavić; Neven Antunac; Zvonimir Prpić


    Among the most important breeds of sheep, used for the milk production in Croatia, are the sheep from Pag, Brač, Cres, Istrian and Travnik΄s sheep, different crossbreeds and, recently, East Friesian sheep. The aim of the research was to determine the genotype effect on lactation period, milk yield and protein and fat content, which are important in cheese making. The longest lactation period (213 days) had East Friesian sheep, while the highest total milk production (294 kg) and the highest p...

  5. Recombinant Sheep Pox Virus Proteins Elicit Neutralizing Antibodies

    Olga V. Chervyakova


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the immunogenicity and neutralizing activity of sheep pox virus (SPPV; genus Capripoxvirus, family Poxviridae structural proteins as candidate subunit vaccines to control sheep pox disease. SPPV structural proteins were identified by sequence homology with proteins of vaccinia virus (VACV strain Copenhagen. Four SPPV proteins (SPPV-ORF 060, SPPV-ORF 095, SPPV-ORF 117, and SPPV-ORF 122, orthologs of immunodominant L1, A4, A27, and A33 VACV proteins, respectively, were produced in Escherichia coli. Western blot analysis revealed the antigenic and immunogenic properties of SPPV-060, SPPV-095, SPPV-117 and SPPV-122 proteins when injected with adjuvant into experimental rabbits. Virus-neutralizing activity against SPPV in lamb kidney cell culture was detected for polyclonal antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the virus-neutralizing activities of antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins.


    Exposure to dibromoacetic acid (DBA), a commonly occurring water disinfection by-product, has detrimental effects on spermatogenesis and fertility in rats and rabbits. Despite indications of important reproductive consequences of DBA exposure in males, reproductive sequelae follo...


    Exposure to dibromoacetic acid (DBA), a commonly occurring water disinfection by-product, has detrimental effects on spermatogenesis and fertility in rats and rabbits. Despite indications of important reproductive consequences of DBA exposure in males, reproductive sequelae follo...

  8. Fatal pneumonia following inoculation of healthy bighorn sheep with Pasteurella haemolytica from healthy domestic sheep.

    Foreyt, W J; Snipes, K P; Kasten, R W


    In a series of three experiments, isolates of Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2, ribotype reference WSU-1, from healthy domestic sheep, were inoculated intratracheally into eight bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) and seven domestic sheep with doses of bacteria ranging from 5.3 x 10(8) to 8.6 x 10(11) colony forming units. Seven of eight inoculated bighorn sheep died from acute pneumonia within 48 hr of inoculation, whereas all seven domestic sheep inoculated with comparable or greater doses of bacteria remained healthy. One contact control bighorn sheep also died 6 days after its penmates received P. haemolytica. Three other noncontact control bighorn sheep remained healthy during the experiments. Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2, ribotype reference WSU-1 in the inocula was recovered from one or more tissues from all bighorns that died; whereas, it was not detected in any bighorn sheep before inoculation. Three different ribotypes of P. haemolytica A2 were recovered from bighorn sheep; however, only the ribotype reference WSU-1 in the domestic sheep-origin inoculum was recovered from all dead bighorn sheep, and was not recovered from bighorn sheep that survived the experiments. Thus, a relatively nonpathogenic and common isolate of P. haemolytica from healthy domestic sheep was lethal in bighorn sheep under experimental conditions.

  9. Laparoscopic ovariectomy in rabbits

    M. S. Al-Badrany


    Full Text Available A comparative evaluation of three different techniques of laparoscopic ovariectomy was carried out in 33 healthy female in rabbits, which included resection and removal of ovary after clip application, electrocautery of the ovary, then resection, and pulling ovary outside abdomen, ligation by silk, then ovary was removed. The ovaries and associated structures were better visualized by laparoscopy and all three techniques were carried out perfectly. All rabbits after operation were healthy and they were monitored for one month after operation. However, 3 of them died after operation, two of them died due to bleeding and the other of them died due to unknown causes. General anesthesia by using ketamine-xylazine i.m., was suitable for this technique, and the anesthesia provided good analgesia and good muscle relaxation. CO2 was used to establish pneumoperitoneum. In conclusion, resection and removal of the ovaries after clip application technique was found superior to the other two techniques.

  10. Ivermectin pharmacokinetics in lactating sheep

    Cerkvenik, V.; Grabnar, V.; Skubic, V.; Doganoc, D.Z.; Beek, W.M.J.; Keukens, H.J.; Kosorok, M.D.; Pogacnik, M.


    Ivermectin (IVM) concentrations in plasma and milk were studied in six Istrian Pramenka dairy sheep after a single subcutaneous dose of 0.2 mg/kg b.w. of IVM in the early lactation period to describe IVM disposition in milk and to evaluate the transfer of IVM residues via milk to suckling lambs. Lar

  11. Ventral hernia in the sheep.

    Tirgari, M


    Between November 1974 and November 1978, 11 sheep with ventral hernia were referred for surgical correction. The anatomy of the area, clinical findings, operative details, surgicopathological observations and postoperative results are described. A comparison of these cases with hernial correction in horses and cattle is made.

  12. The researchers developed luminous rabbit


    <正>Their efforts produced two rabbits out of a litter of eight that went from being a normal, fluffy(蓬松的) white to glowing green in the dark. The rabbits were born at the University of Istanbul as part of a collaboration between scientists from universities in Turkey and Hawaii. The rabbits glow to show that a genetic manipulation technique can work efficiently,

  13. Improving the Local Sheep in Gansu via Crossing with Introduced Sheep Breeds Dorset and Borderdale

    Sun; Xiaoping; Liu; Jianbin; Zhang; Wanlong; Lang; Xia; Yang; Bohui; Guo; Jian; Feng; Ruilin


    In order to improve the meat performance of local sheep in Gansu Province,Dorset and Borderdale were introduced to crossbreed with local sheep which were Tan sheep,Small-tail Han sheep and Mongolia sheep. The offspring under different crossbreeding combinations were sampled randomly at the different growing stage to measure their growth traits so as to select optimize the crossbreeding mode. The results indicated that,for the same crossbreeding mode,the growth rate of progeny was in order F3> F2> F1; for the F3 progeny,the combinations Dorset- Borderdale- Small tail Han sheep and Dorset- Borderdale- Mongolia sheep gave a higher growth rate,with a body weight of 1. 57%,3. 17%,8. 23%,1. 15% higher in male and female individuals than the counterparts of Dorset and Tan sheep and Small tail Han sheep; for the F2 progeny,the combinations Dorset- Borderdale- Small tail Han sheep and Dorset- Borderdale- Mongolia sheep also gave a higher growth rate,with a body weight of 2. 15%,4. 53%,9. 21% and 2. 75% higher in male and female individuals than the counterparts of Dorset and Tan sheep and Small tail Han sheep; for the F1 progeny,the combination Borderdale and Small tail Han sheep assumed a higher growth rate,with a body weight of 3. 23%,6. 07%,7. 42% and 8. 66% higher in male and female individuals than the counterparts of Borderdale- Mongolia sheep and Tan sheep- Small tail Han sheep,respectively. Therefore,in the Small-tail Han sheep and Mongolia sheep producing regions,the F2 or F3progeny bred by using Dorset or Borderdale sheep as male parent to cross with local breeds,or the hybrid lambs of Small-tail Han sheep and Borderdale sheep as highly qualified commodity,would produce significant economic benefit. Moreover,the novel breeds obtained by crossing were the valuable genetic resource for breeding meat sheep.

  14. The Levels of Genetic Differentiation of Small-Tailed Han Sheep and Tan Sheep Populations Using Structural Loci

    LU Sheng-xia; CHANG Hong; JI De-jun; Tsunoda Kenji; REN Zhan-jun; REN Xiang-lian; SUN Wei; YANG Zhang-ping; CHANG Guo-bin


    Using the method of "random sampling in typical colonies of the central area of the habitat" and several electrophoresis techniques, the variations of 17 structural loci encoding blood proteins in 60 Small-Tailed Han sheep and 73 Tan sheep were examined and compared with those of 14 other sheep populations in China and other countries to investigate their levels of genetic differentiation. The average heterozygosities of Small-Tailed Han sheep and Tan sheep were 0.2360 and 0.2587, respectively. The average polymorphic information content values were 0.1974 and 0.2102, respectively. The average effective numbers of alleles were 1.5723 and 1.5751, respectively. The coefficients of gene differentiation in the four groups (including 4, 6, 13, and 16 sheep populations, respectively) were 0.049323, 0.059987, 0.1728, and 0.201256,respectively, indicating that the degree of gene differentiation at the structural loci was the least in Hu sheep, Tong sheep,Small-Tailed Han sheep, and Tan sheep; followed by the above-mentioned four sheep populations and two Mongolian sheep populations; and was the highest in sheep populations belonging to the Mongolian sheep group, South Asian sheep, and European sheep. The earlier researchers' conclusions that both Small-Tailed Han sheep and Tan sheep evolved from Mongolian sheep were further verified by the results of this study. Hu sheep, Tong sheep, Small-Tailed Han sheep, and Tan sheep were decreasingly affected by the bloodline of Mongolian sheep to different degrees. The relationships among sheep populations were not closely related to the geographical distances among sheep populations.

  15. Ultrastructure of Reissner's membrane in the rabbit

    Qvortrup, K.; Rostgaard, Jørgen; Bretlau, P.


    Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit......Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit...

  16. Roles of the WHHL Rabbit in Translational Research on Hypercholesterolemia and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Tsutomu Kobayashi


    Full Text Available Conquering cardiovascular diseases is one of the most important problems in human health. To overcome cardiovascular diseases, animal models have played important roles. Although the prevalence of genetically modified animals, particularly mice and rats, has contributed greatly to biomedical research, not all human diseases can be investigated in this way. In the study of cardiovascular diseases, mice and rats are inappropriate because of marked differences in lipoprotein metabolism, pathophysiological findings of atherosclerosis, and cardiac function. On the other hand, since lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits closely resemble those in humans, several useful animal models for these diseases have been developed in rabbits. One of the most famous of these is the Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL rabbit, which develops hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis spontaneously due to genetic and functional deficiencies of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL receptor. The WHHL rabbit has been improved to develop myocardial infarction, and the new strain was designated the myocardial infarction-prone WHHL (WHHLMI rabbit. This review summarizes the importance of selecting animal species for translational research in biomedical science, the development of WHHL and WHHLMI rabbits, their application to the development of hypocholesterolemic and/or antiatherosclerotic drugs, and future prospects regarding WHHL and WHHLMI rabbits.

  17. Emerging parasitic diseases of sheep.

    Taylor, M A


    There have been changes in the emergence and inability to control of a number of sheep parasitic infections over the last decade. This review focuses on the more globally important sheep parasites, whose reported changes in epidemiology, occurrence or failure to control are becoming increasingly evident. One of the main perceived driving forces is climate change, which can have profound effects on parasite epidemiology, especially for those parasitic diseases where weather has a direct effect on the development of free-living stages. The emergence of anthelmintic-resistant strains of parasitic nematodes and the increasing reliance placed on anthelmintics for their control, can exert profound changes on the epidemiology of those nematodes causing parasitic gastroenteritis. As a consequence, the effectiveness of existing control strategies presents a major threat to sheep production in many areas around the world. The incidence of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, is inextricably linked to high rainfall and is particularly prevalent in high rainfall years. Over the last few decades, there have also been increasing reports of other fluke associated diseases, such as dicroceliosis and paramphistomosis, in a number of western European countries, possibly introduced through animal movements, and able to establish with changing climates. External parasite infections, such as myiasis, can cause significant economic loss and presents as a major welfare problem. The range of elevated temperatures predicted by current climate change scenarios, result in an elongated blowfly season with earlier spring emergence and a higher cumulative incidence of fly strike. Additionally, legislative decisions leading to enforced changes in pesticide usage and choices have resulted in increased reports and spread of ectoparasitic infections, particularly mite, lice and tick infestations in sheep. Factors, such as dip disposal and associated environmental concerns, and, perhaps more

  18. Photosenitization of sheep on kleingrass pasture.

    Muchiri, D J; Bridges, C H; Ueckert, D N; Bailey, E M


    The clinical appearance and serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity were studied in 5 groups of sheep (12 per group) on kleingrass (Panicum coloratum) pasture plots and in 1 group of sheep (10 animals) on native buffalograss (Buchloë dactyloides) pasture. Eleven sheep (at least 1 from each group on kleingrass pasture plots) had elevated serum GGT activity. Seven of 11 sheep with elevated serum GGT activity developed signs of photosensitization. None of the sheep on buffalograss pasture developed signs of photosensitization or elevated GGT activity. The pathologic findings were similar in the sheep that had signs of photosensitization. Grossly, there was icterus and subcutaneous edema. The livers had tapeworms (Thysanosoma actinioides) in the bile ducts, were slightly swollen, and varied in color from yellow to ochre in severe cases of biliary system derangements. Microscopically, there was cholangitis.

  19. Short communication: Absence of campylobacter spp. In intensive rabbit farming in eastern Spain, preliminary results

    C. Marín


    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis are the most frequently reported zoonoses and among the most common causes of diarrhoeal illness in the European Union and the United States, and their incidence appears to be increasing. Campylobacter species are routinely found in poultry, swine, cattle, dairy cows and sheep. So far, there are few descriptions of Campylobacter isolation from rabbits. Rabbit meat is a common item in the Mediterranean diet. In this context, the aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in healthy rabbits reared in intensive farms in the Alto Palancia region, eastern Spain. Caecal contents from 70 healthy does reared on 7 different farms were collected. Bacteriological culture was performed in accordance with ISO 10272-1:2006. All samples tested negative for Campylobacter spp. To our knowledge, this is the first study in which comprehensive monitoring was specifically carried out in order to provide data on the occurrence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in large intensive rabbit farms in Spain. However, further microbiological studies throughout the Spanish territory are needed to determine the prevalence and risk of other foodborne pathogens in rabbits at farm level.

  20. Welfare assessment in pet rabbits

    Schepers, F.; Koene, P.; Beerda, B.


    One million pet rabbits are kept in The Netherlands, but there are no data available on their behaviour and welfare. This study seeks to assess the welfare of pet rabbits in Dutch households and is a first step in the development of a welfare assessment system. In an internet survey, housing

  1. Royana: Successful Experience in Cloning the Sheep

    Saeed Kazemi Ashtiani; Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani; Sayyed Mortaza Hosseini; Fariba Moulavi; Mahdi Hajian; Mohsen Frouzanfar; Parvaneh Abedi; Maryam Meamar; Mojtaba Rezazadeh Valojerdi; Hamid Gourabi; Abdolhossein Shahverdi; Hossein Baharvand; Ahmad Vosough Dizaj; Hossein Imani; Poopak Eftekhari-Yazdi


    Objective: This study describes our experiences in reproductive cloning using two differentprocedures resulting in birth of the first successfully cloned sheep in Iran and theMiddle-East, nick-named "Royana".Materials and Methods: Abattoir-derived sheep oocytes were enucleated after in vitromaturation for 18-20hrs and then reconstructed by ear-derived sheep somatic cells usingtwo different procedures of renucleation (subzonary, intracytoplasmic), embryo culture (coculture,sequential medium) a...

  2. Sheep Feed and Scrapie, France

    Philippe, Sandrine; Ducrot, Christian; Roy, Pascal; Remontet, Laurent; Jarrige, Nathalie


    Scrapie is a small ruminant, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Although in the past scrapie has not been considered a zoonosis, the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, transmissible to humans and experimentally to sheep, indicates that risk exists for small ruminant TSEs in humans. To identify the risk factors for introducing scrapie into sheep flocks, a case-control study was conducted in France from 1999 to 2000. Ninety-four case and 350 control flocks were matched by location and main breed. Three main hypotheses were tested: direct contact between flocks, indirect environmental contact, and foodborne risk. Statistical analysis was performed by using adjusted generalized linear models with the complementary log-log link function, considering flock size as an offset. A notable effect of using proprietary concentrates and milk replacers was observed. The risk was heterogeneous among feed factories. Contacts between flocks were not shown to be a risk factor. PMID:16102318


    Rivers, T. M.


    The virus of infectious myxomatosis of rabbits (Sanarelli) induces multiple lesions in the skin, lymph glands, tunica vaginalis,epididymis, testicle, spleen, and lungs. Growth and destruction of cells in the epidermis overlying the myxomatous masses leads to the formation of vesicles. Cytoplasmic inclusions are found in affected epidermal cells. Occasionally, similar inclusions are seen in other involved epithelial cells. The nature of the inclusions is an open question. In the myxomatous masses situated in the subcutaneous and other tissues, evidences of alteration and growth of certain cells are observed. PMID:19869741

  4. The White Rabbit project

    Serrano, J; Gousiou, E; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M


    White Rabbit (WR) is a multi-laboratory, multi- company collaboration for the development of a new Ethernet-based technology which ensures sub-nanosecond synchronisation and deterministic data transfer. The project uses an open source paradigm for the development of its hardware, gateware and software components. This article provides an introduction to the technical choices and an explanation of the basic principles underlying WR. It then describes some possible applications and the current status of the project. Finally, it provides insight on current developments and future plans.

  5. Molecular cloning, sequence identification and tissue expression profile of three novel sheep (Ovis aries) genes - BCKDHA, NAGA and HEXA.

    Liu, G Y; Gao, S Z


    The complete coding sequences of three sheep genes- BCKDHA, NAGA and HEXA were amplified using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), based on the conserved sequence information of the mouse or other mammals. The nucleotide sequences of these three genes revealed that the sheep BCKDHA gene encodes a protein of 313 amino acids which has high homology with the BCKDHA gene that encodes a protein of 447 amino acids that has high homology with the Branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase El, alpha polypeptide (BCKDHA) of five species chimpanzee (93%), human (96%), crab-eating macaque (93%), bovine (98%) and mouse (91%). The sheep NAGA gene encodes a protein of 411 amino acids that has high homology with the alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (NAGA) of five species human (85%), bovine (94%), mouse (91%), rat (83%) and chicken (74%). The sheep HEXA gene encodes a protein of 529 amino acids that has high homology with the hexosaminidase A(HEXA) of five species bovine (98%), human (84%), Bornean orangután (84%), rat (80%) and mouse (81%). Finally these three novel sheep genes were assigned to GenelDs: 100145857, 100145858 and 100145856. The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the sheep BCKDHA, NAGA, and HEXA all have closer genetic relationships to the BCKDHA, NAGA, and HEXA of bovine. Tissue expression profile analysis was also carried out and results revealed that sheep BCKDHA, NAGA and HEXA genes were differentially expressed in tissues including muscle, heart, liver, fat, kidney, lung, small and large intestine. Our experiment is the first to establish the primary foundation for further research on these three sheep genes.

  6. Isolation of Leptospira noguchii from sheep.

    Silva, Everton F; Brod, Claudiomar S; Cerqueira, Gustavo M; Bourscheidt, Débora; Seyffert, Núbia; Queiroz, Adriano; Santos, Cleiton S; Ko, Albert I; Dellagostin, Odir A


    The main goal of this study was to obtain new isolates of Leptospira spp. from sheep. A total of 10 kidney samples and 44 blood samples were collected from sheep slaughtered in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. One isolate was obtained which was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and serogrouping to be Leptospira noguchii serogroup Autumnalis. Microscopic agglutination test (MAT) evaluation revealed that 4.5% of the sheep sera reacted against the Autumnalis serogroup. This is the first report of isolation of L. noguchii from sheep. Together these findings indicate that L. noguchii infections may be a potentially important veterinary problem in this domestic animal species.

  7. Sequence analysis of attachment gene of lumpy skin disease and sheep poxviruses.

    El-Kenawy, A A; El-Tholoth, M S


    In Egypt, protection of cattle against lumpy skin disease (LSD) was carried out using a sheep poxvirus (Kenyan strain) vaccination strategy. In the present study 15 skin nodules from LSD suspected cows and 5 scab samples from sheep pox (SP) suspected sheep were collected. Hyperimmune rabbit sera to Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV)/Ismailyia88 strain and sheep pox virus (SPV)/ Kenyan vaccinal strain were prepared. The causative agent in the collected samples was identified using immunoflourescence (IF) and immunoperoxidase techniques. Of the 15 skin nodules suspected of LSD, 10 showed a positive reaction and 3 out of 5 skin scabs suspected of sheeppox were found to be positive. An antigenic correlation between field skin isolate of LSDV, tissue culture adapted LSDV/Ismailyia88 strain, field skin isolate of SPV and SPV/Kenyan vaccinal strain was studied using prepared hyperimmune sera. Also, nucleotide sequence of the PCR amplified attachment gene fragments of field skin isolate of LSDV, tissue culture adapted LSDV/Ismailyia88 strain, field skin isolate of SPV and SPV /Kenyan vaccinal strain were compared. The results revealed that the four used viruses were antigenically identical. Sequence analysis indicated that field skin LSDV isolate is more related to tissue culture adapted LSDV/Ismailyia88 strain than to vaccinal SPV/ Kenyan strain and the skin isolate of SPV is more closely related to field skin isolate of LSDV than to SPV/Kenyan vaccinal strain. Thus, further study should be applied on the advantage of a LSD vaccine prepared from LSDV in protection of cattle against LSD compared to the commonly used sheep pox vaccine.

  8. An ecologic study comparing distribution of Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica between Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep, White Mountain bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep.

    Tomassini, Letizia; Gonzales, Ben; Weiser, Glen C; Sischo, William


    The prevalence and phenotypic variability of Pasteurella and Mannheimia isolates from Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae), White Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni), and domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from California, USA, were compared. The White Mountain bighorn sheep population had a recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality, whereas the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep population had no recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality. The domestic sheep flocks were pastured in areas geographically near both populations but were not known to have direct contact with either bighorn sheep population. Oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from healthy domestic and bighorn sheep and cultured to characterize bacterial species, hemolysis, biogroups, and biovariants. Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica were detected in all of the study populations, but the relative proportion of each bacterial species differed among sheep populations. Pasteurella trehalosi was more common than M. haemolytica in the bighorn sheep populations, whereas the opposite was true in domestic sheep. Mannheimia haemolytica was separated into 11 biogroups, and P. trehalosi was characterized into two biogroups. Biogroup distributions for M. haemolytica and P. trehalosi differed among the three populations; however, no difference was detected for the distribution of P. trehalosi biogroups between the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. The prevalence odds ratios (pOR) for the distribution of M. haemolytica biogroups suggested little difference between White Mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep compared with Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep, although these comparisons had relatively large confidence intervals for the point estimates. Hemolytic activity of the isolates was not different among the sheep populations for M. haemolytica but was different for P. trehalosi. No clear evidence of association was found in the

  9. Age-related loss of calcium binding proteins in rabbit hippocampus

    deJong, GI; Naber, PA; VANDERZEE, EA; Thompson, LT; Disterhoft, JF; Luiten, PGM


    Using immunocytochemistry hippocampal levels of the calcium binding proteins calbindin 28K (CB) and parvalbumin (PV) was studied in young (1 month) to very old (60 month) Albino rabbits. Young (3 month) and senescent (30 month) Wistar rats were also examined to compare the distribution and age dependency of PV and CB in both species. The distribution of PV-ir is similar in the rabbit and rat hippocampus. Aging in both species yielded a small loss of PV-ir in axon terminals. The presence of CB...

  10. Oculoscopy in Rabbits and Rodents.

    Jekl, Vladimir; Hauptman, Karel; Knotek, Zdenek


    Ophthalmic diseases are common in rabbits and rodents. Fast and definitive diagnosis is imperative for successful treatment of ocular diseases. Ophthalmic examination in rabbits and rodents can be challenging. Oculoscopy offers great magnification for the examination of the ocular structures in such animals, including the evaluation of cornea, anterior eye chamber, limbus, iris, lens, and retina. To date, oculoscopy has been described only sporadically and/or under experimental conditions. This article describes the oculoscopy technique, normal and abnormal ocular findings, and the most common eye disorders diagnosed with the aid of endoscopy in rabbits and rodents.

  11. I. Intake by sheep and production characteristics

    were of a good quality and will sustain satisfactory levels of animal production, ... objective was to quantify the intake and diet quality selected by sheep and measure yields at a ... supplement rainfall to ensure that moisture stress was not a limiting factor ..... State with special reference to the energy requirements of sheep.

  12. Enzyme and cytokine effects on the impaired onset of the murine foreign-body reaction to dermal sheep collagen

    Khouw, IMSL; van Wachem, PB; Plantinga, JA; de Leij, LFMH; van Luyn, MJA


    Subcutaneous implantation of biodegradable hexamethylenediisocyanate crosslinked dermal sheep collagen (HDSC) elicited little foreign-body reaction in mice in contrast to rats. If the factor(s) resulting in this minor foreign-body reaction are better understood, this knowledge can be used to modulat

  13. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi in domestic rabbits in Nigeria

    E.A. Okewole


    Full Text Available Serum samples from 237 randomized rabbits from the five ecological zones of Nigeria, i.e. Northwest (NW, Northeast (NE, Southeast (SE, Southwest (SW and Northcentral (NC, were evaluated for the presence of antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi by the indirect immunofluorescent antibodies test. A titre of 10 or more was taken as positive. Thirty-nine (16.5 % of the 237 samples were positive with 11, 10, 8, 6 and 4 seropositive rabbits occurring in the NW, NE, SE, SW and NC zones of Nigeria, respectively. Age, sex, live mass and access to grass as a feed supplement were not statistically (P > 0.05 associated with seropositivity, but cage type (single-versus multi-rabbit type, contact with free-range rats and previous illness were strongly (P < 0.05 associated with it. The practice of selling unscreened and untreated 5 to 10-week-old weaners to prospective buyers as foundation stock, use of multi-rabbit communal cages, occasional release of rabbits in runs and contact with free-range house rats should be discouraged. Regular prophylactic and curative treatments, occasional serological screening to remove carriers, and the practice of a high level of hygiene in rabbit colonies are effective control measures.

  14. Haemophilus somnus (Histophilus somni) in bighorn sheep.

    Ward, Alton C S; Weiser, Glen C; Anderson, Bruce C; Cummings, Patrick J; Arnold, Karen F; Corbeil, Lynette B


    Respiratory disease and poor lamb recruitment have been identified as limiting factors for bighorn-sheep populations. Haemophilus somnus (recently reclassified as Histophilus somni) is associated with respiratory disease in American bison, domestic sheep, and cattle. It is also harbored in their reproductive tracts and has been associated with reproductive failure in domestic sheep and cattle. Therefore, reproductive tract and lung samples from bighorn sheep were evaluated for the presence of this organism. Organisms identified as H. somnus were isolated from 6 of 62 vaginal but none of 12 preputial swab samples. Antigen specific to H. somnus was detected by immunohistochemical study in 4 of 12 formalin-fixed lung tissue samples of bighorn sheep that died with evidence of pneumonia. Notably, H. somnus was found in alveolar debris in areas of inflammation. The 6 vaginal isolates and 2 H. somnus isolates previously cultured from pneumonic lungs of bighorn sheep were compared with 3 representative isolates from domestic sheep and 2 from cattle. The profiles of major outer membrane proteins and antigens for all of the isolates were predominantly similar, although differences that may be associated with the host-parasite relationship and virulence were detected. The DNA restriction fragment length profiles of the bighorn-sheep isolates had similarities not shared with the other isolates, suggesting distinct phylogenetic lines. All of the isolates had similar antimicrobial profiles, but the isolates from the bighorn sheep produced less pigment than those from the domestic livestock, and growth of the former was not enhanced by CO2. Wildlife biologists and diagnosticians should be aware of the potential of these organisms to cause disease in bighorn sheep and of growth characteristics that may hinder laboratory detection.

  15. The cottontail rabbits of Virginia

    Llewellyn, L.M.; Handley, C.O.


    Five races of cottontail rabbits belonging to three species occur in Virginia. One of them, the Mearns cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus mearnsi), is reported here for the first time. It occurs in six southwestern counties of the state, while the eastern cottontail (S. f. mallurus) occurs in the remainder of the state with the exception of Smith and Fishermans islands off the eastern coast of Cape Charles, where it is replaced by Hitchens cottontail (S. f. hitchensi). The New England cottontail (S. transitionalis) is found on the higher mountain peaks, above 3000 feet, and the swamp rabbit (S. palustris) occurs in the Dismal Swamp region of southeastern Virginia.....The height of the breeding season for the eastern cottontail in Virginia is March and April, but breeding continues through the entire year except in December and January. The average litter size based on embryo counts was 4.7. The sex ratio of 234 specimens from all parts of the state, taken mostly in the December to February period, was 53 males to 47 females. That of a group of 145 rabbits live-trapped at Blacksburg during February and Marchwas 58 males to 42 females. The figures show that males are more active than females during the winter months, and therefore are more easily taken then....In transplanting cottontails from one section of the state to another, it is recommended that only cottontails of the same race as those originally present in the region being restocked be released there....Tularemia is not a common disease among rabbits in Virginia, but the rabbit ticks are often carriers of the disease and may transmit it to rabbits. Rabbit ticks are also found to be carriers of Rocky Mountain fever and American Q. fever. After the ticks drop off the rabbits to hibernate in the ground, which is likely to occur during mid-winter in Virginia, there is relatively little danger of humans contracting tularemia by contact with rabbits. Present laws in Virginia which prohibit rabbit hunting until the

  16. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133.184 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. (a) Description. (1) Roquefort...

  17. Induction of immunity in sheep to Fasciola hepatica with mimotopes of cathepsin L selected from a phage display library.

    Villa-Mancera, A; Quiroz-Romero, H; Correa, D; Ibarra, F; Reyes-Pérez, M; Reyes-Vivas, H; López-Velázquez, G; Gazarian, K; Gazarian, T; Alonso, R A


    An M13 phage random 12-mers peptide library was used to screen cathepsin L mimotopes of Fasciola hepatica and to evaluate their immunogenicity in sheep. Seven clones showed positive reactivity to a rabbit anti-cathepsin L1/L2 antiserum in ELISA, and their amino acid sequences deduced by DNA sequencing were tentatively mapped on the protein. Twenty sheep were randomly allocated into 4 groups of 5 animals each, for immunization with 1x10(14) phage particles of clones 1, 20, a mixture of 7 clones and PBS, without adjuvant at the beginning, and 4 weeks later. All groups were challenged with 300 metacercariae at week 6 and slaughtered 16 weeks later. The mean worm burdens after challenge were reduced by 47.61% and 33.91% in sheep vaccinated with clones 1 and 20, respectively; no effect was observed in animals inoculated with the clone mixture. Also, a significant reduction in worm size and burden was observed for those sheep immunized with clone 1. Animals receiving clone 20, showed a significant reduction in egg output. Immunization induced a reduction of egg viability ranging from 58.92 to 82.11%. Furthermore, vaccinated animals produced clone-specific antibodies which were boosted after challenge with metacercariae of F. hepatica.

  18. Rats

    Alexey Kondrashov


    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  19. Observation on the subpleural pulmonary microvasculature on sheep under the scanning electron microscope%绵羊肺胸膜下微血管的扫描电镜观察

    杜晓霞; 郭建强; 刘英


    The present study characterized the subpleural pulmonary microvascular architecture of sheep by vascular corrosion cast and scanning electron microscopy. Results show that two-layered vascular networks are found on the pleura, and the subpleural vascular networks are found in most observed areas, while the sparse vascular network overlaid onto the subpleural network in some areas. The subpleural microvascular network is mainly branched by the arteriole, terminal arteriole, precapillary arteriole and capillary in order. The obvious circular imprints are found on the arteriole and terminal arteriole cast surface. The interlobular microvessels and the superficial pleural microvessels are transitional. The subpleural pulmonary microvascular architecture of sheep is similar to that of newborn yak and bactrian camel, but there are the significant differences between sheep and human, canine, monkey, rabbit and rat.%用血管铸型和扫描电镜技术对绵羊肺胸膜下的微血管构筑特征进行观察.结果显示:胸膜面有两层微血管网分布,大部分视野仅见胸膜下微血管网,但局部区域在胸膜下微血管网的表面还匍匐有一层稀疏的微血管网;胸膜下微血管网按照微动脉、终末微动脉、毛细血管前微动脉和毛细血管的形式分支构成,微动脉和终末微动脉的铸型表面可见明显的环状缢痕;小叶间隔内分布的微血管与胸膜面浅层的微血管相互移行.绵羊肺胸膜下微血管的构筑特征与新生牦牛和双峰驼相近,但与文献报道中对人和犬、猴、兔、鼠等动物的描述差别较大.

  20. 绵羊肺泡毛细血管的扫描电镜观察%Observation on the microvasculature of pulmonary parenchyma in sheep under the scanning electron microscope

    杜晓霞; 郭建强; 刘英


    运用血管铸型和扫描电镜技术对绵羊肺实质内微血管的构筑特征进行了观察,旨在揭示绵羊肺泡毛细血管的分布特征,为哺乳动物肺微血管的研究积累资料,并为牦牛肺微血管的进一步研究奠定基础。观察结果显示,低倍镜下,在截面上可见肺实质内的微血管网均呈大小不等的蜂窝状结构,肺泡囊和肺泡的轮廓清晰可见;高倍镜下肺泡毛细血管网呈网络状,视野内大部分肺泡毛细血管网伸展良好。经与文献中有关动物肺泡毛细血管的研究结果相比较,本试验中绵羊肺泡毛细血管的构筑特征与新生牦牛、双峰驼相近,而与人、犬、猴、兔、鼠等动物差别较大。%The construction characteristics of pulmonary microvasculature in sheep were studied using the technology of vascular corrosion cast and scanning electron microscopy,in order to reveal the distribution characteristics of pulmonary microvessels,and accumulate materials for the research of the pulmonary microvessels on mammals,and lay the foundation of the further study on pulmonary microvasculature in yak.The results showed that in the parenchyma the pulmonary alveolar capillary networks were honey-comb like on the cut surface at a low magnification,and the outlines of alveolar sac and alveolar were clearly observed.The pulmonary alveolar capillary networks were network at a high magnification.The most alveolar capillary extended well in the fields of view.Compared with the results of pulmonary microvasculature on related animals,the characteristics of pulmonary microvasculature of sheep is similar to that of newborn yak and bactrian camel,but there are the significant differences between sheep and human,canine,monkey,rabbit and rat.

  1. The White Rabbit Project

    Serrano, J; Cattin, M; Garcia Cota, E; Lewis, J; Moreira, P; Wlostowski, T; Gaderer, G; Loschmidt, P; Dedic, J; Bär, R; Fleck, T; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S


    Reliable, fast and deterministic transmission of control information in a network is a need formany distributed systems. One example is timing systems, where a reference frequency is used to accurately schedule time-critical messages. TheWhite Rabbit (WR) project is a multi-laboratory and multi-company effort to bring together the best of the data transfer and timing worlds in a completely open design. It takes advantage of the latest developments for improving timing over Ethernet, such as IEEE 1588 (Precision Time Protocol) and Synchronous Ethernet. The presented approach aims for a general purpose, fieldbus-like transmission system, which provides deterministic data and timing (sub-ns accuracy and ps jitter) to around 1000 stations. It automatically compensates for fiber lengths in the order of 10 km. This paper describes the WR design goals and the specification used for the project. It goes on to describe the central component of the WR system structure - the WR switch - with theoretical considerations a...

  2. Rumen protozoa in South African sheep with a summary of the worldwide distribution of sheep protozoa

    Dirk Booyse


    Full Text Available Protozoa species were identified in rumen contents of four domestic sheep (Ovis aries from South Africa. All animals were fed a forage diet which consisted of 50% lucerne and 50% teff hay. Ten new host records were identified, bringing the total number of species and forms observed in sheep in South Africa to 30. The occurrence and geographic distribution of ciliate protozoa in both domestic and wild sheep from around the world are summarised. It was found that 15 genera and 131 species occur in domestic sheep globally.

  3. Paratuberculosis in sheep and goats.

    Windsor, P A


    Paratuberculosis is a chronic insidious, often serious, disease of the global small ruminant industries, mainly causing losses from mortalities and reduced productivity on-farm, interference in trading and, in Australia, profound socio-economic impacts that have periodically compromised harmony of rural communities. The pathogenesis, diagnosis, impacts and disease management options for ovine and caprine paratuberculosis are reviewed, comparing current controls in the extensive management system for sheep in wool flocks in Australia with the semi-intensive system of dairy flocks/herds in Greece. Improved understanding of the immune and cellular profiles of sheep with varying paratuberculosis outcomes and the recognition of the need for prolonged vaccination and biosecurity is considered of relevance to future control strategies. Paratuberculosis in goats is also of global distribution although the prevalence, economic impact and strategic control options are less well recognized, possibly due to the relatively meagre resources available for goat industry research. Although there have been some recent advances, more work is required on developing control strategies for goats, particularly in dairy situations where there is an important need for validation of improved diagnostic assays and the recognition of the potential impacts for vaccination. For all species, a research priority remains the identification of tests that can detect latent and subclinical infections to enhance removal of future sources of infectious material from flocks/herds and the food chain, plus predict the likely outcomes of animals exposed to the organism at an early age. Improving national paratuberculosis control programs should also be a priority to manage disease risk from trade. The importance of strong leadership and communication, building trust within rural communities confused by the difficulties in managing this insidious disease, reflects the importance of change management

  4. Age-related loss of calcium binding proteins in rabbit hippocampus

    deJong, GI; Naber, PA; VanderZee, EA; Thompson, LT; Disterhoft, JF; Luiten, PGM


    Using immunocytochemistry hippocampal levels of the calcium binding proteins calbindin 28K (CB) and parvalbumin (PV) was studied in young (1 month) to very old (60 month) Albino rabbits. Young (3 month) and senescent (30 month) Wistar rats were also examined to compare the distribution and age depen

  5. Visuo-Vestibular Information Processing by Unipolar Brush Cells in the Rabbit Flocculus

    R.A. Hensbroek (Robert); T.J.H. Ruigrok (Tom); B.J. van Beugen (Boeke); J. Maruta (Jun); J.I. Simpson (John)


    textabstractThe unipolar brush cell (UBC) is a glutamatergic granular layer interneuron that is predominantly located in the vestibulocerebellum and parts of the vermis. In rat and rabbit, we previously found using juxtacellular labeling combined with spontaneous activity recording that cells with

  6. Whole Body Inhalation Exposure to 1-Bromopropane Suppresses the IgM Response to Sheep Red Blood Cells in Female B6C3F1 Mice and Fisher 344/N Rats

    Anderson, Stacey. E.; Munson, Albert E.; Butterworth, Leon F.; Germolec, Dori; Morgan, Daniel L.; Roycroft, Joseph A.; Dill, Jeffrey; Meade, B. J.


    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) is categorized as a high-production volume chemical currently used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, pesticides and other chemicals. Its usage is estimated to be around 5 million pounds/year resulting in the potential for widespread exposure in the workplace. Case reports and animal studies have suggested exposure to this compound may cause adverse reproductive and neurological effects. Using a battery of immunological assays, the immunotoxicity of 1-BP after whole body inhalation exposure in both mice and rats was evaluated. Significant decreases in the spleen IgM response to SRBC were observed in both mice (125-500 ppm) and rats (1000 ppm) after exposure to 1-BP for 10 weeks. In addition, total spleen cells and T-cells were significantly decreased after approximately 4 weeks of 1-BP exposure in both mice (125-500 ppm) and rats (1000 ppm). No change in natural killer (NK) cell activity was observed. The observed alterations in spleen cellularity, phenotypic subsets and impairment of humoral immune function across species, raises further concern about human exposure to 1-BP and demonstrates the need for additional investigations into potential adverse health effects. PMID:20041805

  7. Pharmacokinetics of fenbendazole in sheep.

    Marriner, S E; Bogan, J A


    Concentrations of fenbendazole and its sulfoxide, oxfendazole, and sulfone metabolites were determined in 6 sheep after oral administration of fenbendazole (10 mg/kd of body weight). Mean peak concentrations in plasma of fenbendazole, oxfendazole, and sulfone of 0.15, 0.29, and 0.17 micrograms/ml occurred 24, 30, and 36 hours after administration, respectively. Mean peak concentrations in abomasal fluid were 1.82, 0.66, and 0.07 micrograms/ml occurring at 30, 48, and 72 hours, respectively. Fenbendazole and oxfendhzole were detectable in plasma and abomasal fluids for 5 days after administration. Much of the anthelmintic activity of fenbendazole may be due to the oxfendazole metabolite. Plasma concentrations of fenbendazole were less and persisted for a shorter period after intra-abomasal administration than after oral administration.

  8. Maternal transmission studies of BSE in sheep.

    Foster, J D; Goldmann, W; McKenzie, C; Smith, A; Parnham, D W; Hunter, N


    If BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) infected the UK sheep population concurrently with cattle, it would only now be maintained by transmission between sheep by routes which could include from mother to lamb either in utero or via perinatal close contact. In this study of experimental BSE, Cheviot ewes challenged orally with BSE cattle brain produced lambs of various PrP genotypes over the next 7 years. Of 72 surviving to >30 months of age, 29 are of the most susceptible PrP genotype (AQ/AQ) and born to mothers that were challenged with BSE. None of the progeny have shown any signs of disease. The results suggest that in these sheep, BSE could only transmit by the maternal route at a frequency of less than one in four (95 % confidence limit) from clinically affected ewes, a rate which if replicated in other breeds may not be sufficient to maintain BSE within the sheep population.

  9. Selective breeding for scrapie resistance in sheep

    Cristina Santos Sotomaior


    Full Text Available It is well known that the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is determined by the host’s prion protein gene (PRNP. PRNP polymorphisms at codons 136 (alanine, A/valine, V, 154 (histidine, H/arginine, R and 171 (glutamine, Q/histidine, H/arginine, R are the main determinants of sheep susceptibility/resistance to classical scrapie. There are four major variants of the wild-type ARQ allele: VRQ, AHQ, ARH and ARR. Breeding programs have been developed in the European Union and the USA to increase the frequency of the resistant ARR allele while decreasing the frequency of the susceptible VRQ allele in sheep populations. In Brazil, little PRNP genotyping data are available for sheep, and thus far, no controlled breeding scheme for scrapie has been implemented. This review will focus on important epidemiological aspects of scrapie and the use of genetic resistance as a tool in breeding programs to control the disease.

  10. Technological suitability of sheep milk for processing

    Romualda Danków


    Full Text Available Annual world sheep milk production is estimated at the level of 8.2 million tons and constitutes 1.5% of the total milk production obtained from various species of mammals. Majority of this milk is used to manufacture cheeses and fermented beverages. These products are commonly considered as regional articles and are protected by legal regulations which guarantee their taste and aroma typical for a given region and which they owe to traditional production technologies. In Poland, sheep are reared, primarily, in mountainous areas (Podhale, Bieszczady but also in Wielkopolska and Podlasie. The sheep population in Poland is estimated at 223 000 animals but milk is obtained only from a small number of animals and its annual production is assessed at the level of 1000 t. The nutritional value of sheep milk is higher in comparison with goat or cow milk. Sheep milk protein is characterised by a high biological value comparable with the biological value of the whole chicken egg. In addition, products manufactured from sheep milk possess high nutritive value. Due to its rich chemical composition, sheep milk provides an excellent raw material for processing into maturing soft and hard cheeses (75-80% of protein is casein, for fermented beverages, both natural and with different tastes, as well as butter, ghee and ice-cream. High proportion of dry matter (up to 18% found in sheep milk does not require application of any thickeners in production of fermented beverages. That is why these beverages are fully natural and free of additives.

  11. Technological suitability of sheep milk for processing

    Romualda Danków; Jan Pikul


    Annual world sheep milk production is estimated at the level of 8.2 million tons and constitutes 1.5% of the total milk production obtained from various species of mammals. Majority of this milk is used to manufacture cheeses and fermented beverages. These products are commonly considered as regional articles and are protected by legal regulations which guarantee their taste and aroma typical for a given region and which they owe to traditional production technologies. In Poland, sheep are re...

  12. Sudanese live sheep and mutton exports competitiveness

    Babiker Idris Babiker


    Full Text Available The livestock sector of Sudan provides livelihood for about 17% of the population. Sudanese livestock products meet the domestic demand for meat in addition to a substantial excess for export amounting to about 22% of total country exports. It contributes about 19% of GDP. Sheep marketing in Sudan is characterised by traditional operations and is informally organised, although, recently there are great efforts by the formal livestock authorities to organise some secondary and terminal livestock markets. These markets are deficient in basic infrastructures and systematic marketing research. The system as a whole is faced by various complex obstacles and constraints, which decrease the contribution of livestock in general, and sheep in particular, to the national economy, and suppress the optimum exploitation of this resource. These obstacles are represented in the lack of transportation networks that connect the production and consumption centres to break the seasonality of supply that creates shortages and high prices at the consumption centres. This paper employs the policy analysis matrix (PAM technique to examine the Sudanese live sheep and mutton competitiveness in the international market. The results indicated that the market price was greater than the border price implying a positive incentive as an implicit subsidy to the live sheep exporter. The mutton exporters were found subsidised as well. The international value added (IVA indicted a positive foreign exchange earnings or savings. Exported live sheep and mutton coefficient of competitiveness (CIC implied that sheep and mutton exports are profitable and internationally competitive.

  13. Uterine metabolism of the pregnant rabbit under chronic steady-state conditions

    Johnson, R.L.; Gilbert, M.; Block, S.M.; Battaglia, F.C.


    The study of uterine metabolism in pregnancy under chronic steady-state conditions has been confined to large mammals and, more recently, to the guinea pig. The pregnant rabbit is of interest because of its short gestation and large litter size. We developed an indirect approach involving retrograde catheterization of the uterine venous drainage, permitting measurement of both uterine metabolic quotients and uterine uptakes. Radioactive microspheres were used to measure blood flow. A large lactate and ammonia efflux from the uterus was found. In the fed state, ketogenic substrates were taken up in small amounts. However, during starvation a significant increase in ketoacid uptake was observed with a concurrent fall in acetate uptake. There was a large glucose/oxygen quotient across the uterus, but the glucose plus lactate/oxygen quotient was comparable to that found in the sheep and guinea pig (0.6 +/- 0.1). It is apparent that in all three species studied under chronic steady-state conditions (sheep, guinea pig, and rabbit) there is a large glucose uptake associated with a net lactate production, and fuels other than glucose and lactate must be used by the uterus.

  14. [Review] Mary Toft's Rabbit Tale

    Jones, Emrys


    Originally broadcast in April 2011 and aired again by BBC Radio 4 this November, Mary Toft’s Rabbit Tale is a radio drama retelling the story of its titular fraudster’s brief notoriety. With a high-profile cast – including singer Will Young as Toft’s husband and Rupert Graves as man-midwife, John Howard – the play explores a number of issues related to the alleged rabbit births of 1726 and their impact on public discourse of the time.

  15. Translational neurophysiology in sheep: measuring sleep and neurological dysfunction in CLN5 Batten disease affected sheep.

    Perentos, Nicholas; Martins, Amadeu Q; Watson, Thomas C; Bartsch, Ullrich; Mitchell, Nadia L; Palmer, David N; Jones, Matthew W; Morton, A Jennifer


    Creating valid mouse models of slowly progressing human neurological diseases is challenging, not least because the short lifespan of rodents confounds realistic modelling of disease time course. With their large brains and long lives, sheep offer significant advantages for translational studies of human disease. Here we used normal and CLN5 Batten disease affected sheep to demonstrate the use of the species for studying neurological function in a model of human disease. We show that electroencephalography can be used in sheep, and that longitudinal recordings spanning many months are possible. This is the first time such an electroencephalography study has been performed in sheep. We characterized sleep in sheep, quantifying characteristic vigilance states and neurophysiological hallmarks such as sleep spindles. Mild sleep abnormalities and abnormal epileptiform waveforms were found in the electroencephalographies of Batten disease affected sheep. These abnormalities resemble the epileptiform activity seen in children with Batten disease and demonstrate the translational relevance of both the technique and the model. Given that both spontaneous and engineered sheep models of human neurodegenerative diseases already exist, sheep constitute a powerful species in which longitudinal in vivo studies can be conducted. This will advance our understanding of normal brain function and improve our capacity for translational research into neurological disorders.

  16. Determinants of sheep prices in the highlands of northeastern Ethiopia: implication for sheep value chain development.

    Kassa, Beneberu Teferra; Haile, Anteneh Girma; Essa, John Abdu


    In order to assess and identify the determinants of sheep price and price variation across time, a time series data were collected from four selected markets in North Shewa, Northeastern Ethiopia on weekly market day basis for a period of 2 years. Data on animal characteristics and purpose of buying were collected on a weekly basis from randomly selected 15-25 animals, and a total of 7,976 transactions were recorded. A general linear model technique was used to identify factors influencing sheep price, and the results showed that sheep price (liveweight sheep price per kilogram taken as a dependent variable) is affected by animal characteristics such as weight, sex, age, condition, season, and color. Most of the markets' purpose for which the animal was purchased did not affect significantly the price per kilogram. This may be due to the similarity of the markets in terms of buyer's purpose. The results suggest that there will be benefit from coordinated fattening, breeding, and marketing programs to take the highest advantage from the preferred animals' characteristics and selected festival markets. Finally, the study recommends for a coordinated action to enhance the benefit generated for all participant actors in the sheep value chain through raising sheep productivity, improving the capacity of sheep producers and agribusiness entrepreneurs to access and use latest knowledge and technologies; and strengthening linkages among actors in the sheep value chain.

  17. Sutureless end-to-end bowel anastomosis in rabbit using Iow-power CO2 laser

    Zhong Rong Li; Yong Long Chi; Run Cong Ke


    The use of laser energy to weld biological tissues and produce sutureless anastomosis has its advantages over conventional silk-sutured anastomosis since it was reported in small vessels[1] and fallopian tubes[2], in the late 1970s. Since then, more investigators have welded a larger variety of tissues[3-13] and have expanded its application to welding trials of entertomies of rabbit and rat small intestine[14-17] Sauer et al[18] reported results from Nd: YAG laser in reconstruction of end-to-end welding in rabbit small intestine. Recently, controlled temperature during YAG and argon laser-assisted welding of entertomies of rabbit and rat was implemented to eliminate exponential increases in the rate of denaturation associated with rapidly increasing temperature[19,20]. Yet there was no report of sutureless end-to-end bowel anastomosis using low-power CO2 laser. This is a report of a circumferential end-to-end laser welding bowel anastomosis in rabbit by using 3 different CO2 laser powers to explore the feasibility of CO2 laser welding of a circumferential intestinal tissue and to determine the optimal laser-welding parameter. Then the appropriate CO2 laser power was chosen to weld bowels in rabbit and its long-term healing effect was evaluated.

  18. Oral administration of dextran sodium sulphate induces a caecum-localized colitis in rabbits.

    Leonardi, Irina; Nicholls, Flora; Atrott, Kirstin; Cee, Alexandra; Tewes, Bernhard; Greinwald, Roland; Rogler, Gerhard; Frey-Wagner, Isabelle


    Trichuris suis ova (TSO) have shown promising results in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) but the mechanisms which underlies this therapeutic effect cannot be studied in mice and rats as T. suis fails to colonize the rodent intestine, whilst hatching in humans and rabbits. As a suitable rabbit IBD model is currently not available, we developed a rabbit colitis model by administration of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS). White Himalayan rabbits (n = 12) received 0.1% DSS in the daily water supply for five days. Clinical symptoms were monitored daily, and rabbits were sacrificed at different time points. A genomewide expression analysis was performed with RNA isolated from caecal lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) and intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). The disease activity index of DSS rabbits increased up to 2.1 ± 0.4 (n = 6) at day 10 (controls colitis. Localization of the inflammation in the caecum and its similarities to IBD make this model particularly suitable to study TSO therapy in vivo.

  19. Isoform specificity of N-deacetyl ketoconazole by human and rabbit flavin-containing monooxygenases.

    Rodriguez, R J; Miranda, C L


    N-Deacetyl ketoconazole (DAK) is the major metabolite of orally administered ketoconazole. This major metabolite has been demonstrated to be further metabolized predominately by the flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) to the secondary hydroxylamine, N-deacetyl-N-hydroxyketoconazole (N-hydroxy-DAK) by adult and postnatal rat hepatic microsomes. Our current investigation evaluated the FMO isoform specificity of DAK in a pyrophosphate buffer (pH 8.8) containing the glucose 6-phosphate NADPH-generating system. cDNA-expressed human FMOs (FMO1, FMO3, and FMO5) and cDNA-expressed rabbit FMOs (FMO1, FMO2, FMO3, and FMO5) were used to assess the metabolism of DAK to its subsequent FMO-mediated metabolites by HPLC analysis. Human and rabbit cDNA-expressed FMO3 resulted in extensive metabolism of DAK in 1 h (71.2 and 64.5%, respectively) to N-hydroxy-DAK (48.2 and 47.7%, respectively) and two other metabolites, metabolite 1 (11.7 and 7.8%, respectively) and metabolite 3 (10.5 and 10.0%, respectively). Previous studies suggest that metabolite 1 is the nitrone formed after successive FMO-mediated metabolism of N-hydroxy-DAK. Moreover, these studies display similar metabolic profiles seen with adult and postnatal rat hepatic microsomes. The human and rabbit FMO1 metabolized DAK predominately to the N-hydroxy-DAK in 1 h (36.2 and 25.3%, respectively) with minimal metabolism to the other metabolites (DAK to N-hydroxy-DAK (15.9%) and metabolite 1 (6.6%). Last, DAK did not appear to be a substrate for human or rabbit FMO5. Heat inactivation of cDNA-expressed FMOs abolished DAK metabolite formation. These results suggest that DAK is a substrate for human and rabbit FMO1 and FMO3, rabbit FMO2, but not human or rabbit FMO5.

  20. A Study on Genes of Bayanbulak Sheep

    Beiyao Zuo


    Full Text Available The average twin lambing rate of Bayanbulak sheep is 2% to 3%. However, a flock of sheep with a close genetic relationship and an average of 2 to 3 lambs per birth has been found recently. To determine the major genes controlling the prolificacy of the flock in the present study, the flock was designated A while 100 normal Bayanbulak sheep were randomly selected to comprise the control flock B. Ligase detection reaction method was applied to detect and analyze the 10 mutational loci of the 3 candidate prolificacy genes including bone morphogenetic protein type I receptors, bone morphogenetic protein 15, and growth differentiation factor 9. The 10 mutational loci are as follows: FecB locus of the BMPR-IB gene; FecXI, FecXB, FecXL, FecXH, FecXG, and FecXR of the BMP15 gene; and G1, G8, and FecTT of the GDF9 gene. Two mutations including BMPR-IB/FecB and GDF9/G1 were found in Bayanbulak sheep. Independence test results of the two flocks demonstrate that the FecB locus has a significant effect on the lambing number of Bayanbulak sheep. However, the mutation frequency of the G1 locus in GDF9 is very low. Independence test results demonstrate that the GDF9 locus does not have a significant impact on the lambing performance of Bayanbulak sheep. Among the 10 detected loci, BMPR-IB/FecB is the major gene that influences the high lambing rate of Bayanbulak sheep.

  1. Breeding objectives for Targhee sheep.

    Borg, R C; Notter, D R; Kuehn, L A; Kott, R W


    Breeding objectives were developed for Targhee sheep under rangeland production conditions. Traits considered were those for which EPD were available from the US National Sheep Improvement Program and included direct and maternal effects on 120-d weaning weight (WW and MM, respectively); yearling weight (YW); yearling fleece weight, fiber diameter, and staple length; and percent lamb crop (PLC), measured as the number of lambs born per 100 ewes lambing. A bioeconomic model was used to predict the effects of a change of 1 additive SD in EPD for each trait, holding all other traits constant at their mean, on animal performance, feed requirements, feed costs, and economic returns. Resulting economic weightings were then used to derive selection indexes. Indexes were derived separately for 3 prolificacy levels (1.41, 1.55, and 1.70 lambs/ewe lambing), 2 triplet survival levels (50 and 67%), 2 lamb pricing policies (with or without discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs), and 3 forage cost scenarios (renting pasture, purchasing hay, or reducing flock size to accommodate increased nutrient requirements for production). Increasing PLC generally had the largest impact on profitability, although an increase in WW was equally important, with low feed costs and no discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs. Increases in PLC were recommended at all 3 prolificacy levels, but with low triplet survival the value of increasing PLC eventually declined as the mean litter size increased to approximately 2.15 lambs/ewe lambing and above. Increasing YW (independent of WW) increased ewe maintenance costs and reduced profitability. Predicted changes in breeding values for WW and YW under index selection varied with lamb pricing policy and feed costs. With low feed costs or no discounts for heavy lambs, YW increased at a modest rate in association with increasing WW, but with high feed costs or discounting of heavy lambs, genetic trends in WW were reduced by approximately 50% to

  2. Reprogramming of sheep fibroblasts into pluripotency under a drug-inducible expression of mouse-derived defined factors.

    Yang Li

    Full Text Available Animal embryonic stem cells (ESCs provide powerful tool for studies of early embryonic development, gene targeting, cloning, and regenerative medicine. However, the majority of attempts to establish ESC lines from large animals, especially ungulate mammals have failed. Recently, another type of pluripotent stem cells, known as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, have been successfully generated from mouse, human, monkey, rat and pig. In this study we show sheep fibroblasts can be reprogrammed to pluripotency by defined factors using a drug-inducible system. Sheep iPSCs derived in this fashion have a normal karyotype, exhibit morphological features similar to those of human ESCs and express AP, Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and the cell surface marker SSEA-4. Pluripotency of these cells was further confirmed by embryoid body (EB and teratoma formation assays which generated derivatives of all three germ layers. Our results also show that the substitution of knockout serum replacement (KSR with fetal bovine serum in culture improves the reprogramming efficiency of sheep iPSCs. Generation of sheep iPSCs places sheep on the front lines of large animal preclinical trials and experiments involving modification of animal genomes.

  3. Paternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA in the sheep (Ovine aries)

    Zhao, Xingbo; Chu, Mingxing; Li, Ning; Wu, Changxin


    Paternal inheritance of mitochondria DNA in sheep was discovered by examination of 152 sheep from 38 hybrid families for mtDNA D-loop polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP, amplification of repeated sequence...

  4. Study on common phenotypic traits for purchasing sheep and their ...

    width as criteria for selecting sheep of their choice. Brownish ... considered by sheep consumers/breeders during marketing and the association of these ... and restaurants) compared to those for other uses (P< 0.001). .... influencing factors.

  5. Livestock Update : Beef-Horse-Poultry-Sheep-Swine

    Greiner, Scott Patrick; McCann, Mark A.; Neil, Scott J.; Harmon, Deidre D.; Whittier, W. Dee


    Includes articles on August herd management, phosphorus supplementation of beef cattle, 2013 across-breed EPD table, Applied Reproduction in Beef Cattle event, sheep breeding season tips, and a sheep update.

  6. Assessment of Quality Characteristics of Cellulose, Sheep and Goat ...

    Assessment of Quality Characteristics of Cellulose, Sheep and Goat Casings as Sausage Containers. ... Sheep casing is recommended as substitute to imported cellulose casing for stuffing sausages produced in Nigeria. ... Article Metrics.

  7. Microbiological quality of rabbit meat.

    Rodríguez-Calleja, Jose M; Santos, Jesús A; Otero, Andrés; García-López, María-Luisa


    World rabbit meat production is estimated to be over 1 million tons, and Spain is the third largest producer. Although rabbit meat is marketed and consumed worldwide, information on microbiological quality is very scarce. Here, we report indicator organisms, spoilage flora, sensory quality, and some physicochemical traits of 24 h postmortem chilled rabbit carcasses and prepackaged rabbit meat stored chilled in air for 0 to 3 days at the retail level. The mean total bacterial count (4.01 +/- 0.48 log CFU/g) for carcasses dressed at a small abattoir by a manual process was significantly lower (P Pseudomonas, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts. These microorganisms and Brochothrix thermosphacta were dominant on carcasses from the large abattoir. On prepacked hind legs (pH 6.26 +/- 0.18) stored at -1 to +1 degree C (supermarket 1), mean aerobic mesophilic count was 5.87 +/- 1.03 log CFU/g, and the major microbial groups were Pseudomonas, yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, and B. thermosphacta. On prepacked whole carcasses (pH 6.37 +/- 0.18) displayed at -1 to +5 degrees C (supermarket 2), mean aerobic mesophilic count was 6.60 +/- 1.18 and the same microbial groups were dominant. Relative Escherichia coli incidence was supermarket 2 > large abattoir > supermarket 1 > small abattoir. Overall, low numbers of coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, psychrotrophic clostridia, coagulase-positive staphylococci, and molds were found. Sensory scores, pH values, and L-lactic acid content differentiated fresh carcasses from retail samples. Data obtained suggest that the microflora of chilled rabbit meat are different from those found on the meat of other animals.

  8. Liver function of Streptozotocin- Induced Diabetic Rats Orally ...

    phytochemicals (especially saponins), carbohydrate and food energy ... The role of the liver in metabolism, including detoxification ... in lipid metabolism and increased gluconeogenesis and ..... Hypoglycemic Activities in Rats and Rabbits.

  9. Sheep and Goats: Final Estimates 1989-93


    This publication presents final sheep and goat inventory estimates for the period 1989-1993 and wool and mohair estimates for the period 1988-1992. made by the Agricultural Statistics Board including some revisions and continues the official series published in Statistical Bulletin No. 800 "Sheep and Goats: Final Estimates 1984-88" issued January 1990. This series includes annual estimates for sheep and goat inventory, sheep and lambs on feed for January 1. 1993, lamb crop. wool and mohair pr...

  10. RPR test for serological survey of rabbit syphilis in companion rabbits.

    Saito, Kumiko; Tagawa, Masayo; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko


    Since the RPR (rapid plasma regain) test was found to be useful for the diagnosis of rabbit syphilis, serological survey by this test has been carried out in Japanese companion rabbits. A hundred virgin household rabbits kept alone and without signs and history of syphilis were examined by RPR test from April 2001 to March 2002, in Tokyo, Japan. The test was positive in 35 cases and negative in 65 cases. RPR negative rabbits should be selected for breeding to prevent the spread of rabbit syphilis in companion rabbits in Japan.

  11. Medetomidine-midazolam sedation in sheep.

    Raekallio, M; Tulamo, R M; Valtamo, T


    Seven sheep were sedated 3 times: with medetomidine (15 micrograms kg-1), with midazolam (0.1 mg kg-1) and with a combination of the drugs. All drugs were administered intravenously. Heart and respiratory rates were measured. Arterial blood samples were collected, and PaO2, PaCO2, pH, haemoglobin concentration and saturation, and base excess were determined. Systolic and mean arterial pressures were recorded before and after the treatment with medetomidine-midazolam. Midazolam increased the time of recumbency induced by medetomidine. After administration of midazolam alone, 4 of the 7 sheep were sedated and the other 3 were excited. Heart rate decreased after both medetomidine and medetomidine-midazolam. One sheep suffered a cardiac arrest after medetomidine-midazolam injection, and it required resuscitation. PaO2 and haemoglobin oxygen saturation decreased after medetomidine, and medetomidine-midazolam caused a marked hypoxaemia. PaCO2 increased after medetomidine, both alone and combined with midazolam, but arterial pH was within the reference values after all drug administrations. Systolic and mean arterial pressures decreased after medetomidine-midazolam. This study indicates that though in sheep midazolam potentiates the sedative effect of medetomidine, the combination of medetomidine and midazolam also reduces the in PaO2 and haemoglobin oxygen saturation more than medetomidine alone. The results indicate that a medetomidine-midazolam combination is unsafe for sheep at the doses studied.

  12. Proteomic evaluation of sheep serum proteins

    Chiaradia Elisabetta


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The applications of proteomic strategies to ovine medicine remain limited. The definition of serum proteome may be a good tool to identify useful protein biomarkers for recognising sub-clinical conditions and overt disease in sheep. Findings from bovine species are often directly translated for use in ovine medicine. In order to characterize normal protein patterns and improve knowledge of molecular species-specific characteristics, we generated a two-dimensional reference map of sheep serum. The possible application of this approach was tested by analysing serum protein patterns in ewes with mild broncho-pulmonary disease, which is very common in sheep and in the peripartum period which is a stressful time, with a high incidence of infectious and parasitic diseases. Results This study generated the first reference 2-DE maps of sheep serum. Overall, 250 protein spots were analyzed, and 138 identified. Compared with healthy sheep, serum protein profiles of animals with rhino-tracheo-bronchitis showed a significant decrease in protein spots identified as transthyretin, apolipoprotein A1 and a significant increase in spots identified as haptoglobin, endopin 1b and alpha1B glycoprotein. In the peripartum period, haptoglobin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, apolipoprotein A1 levels rose, while transthyretin content dropped. Conclusions This study describes applications of proteomics in putative biomarker discovery for early diagnosis as well as for monitoring the physiological and metabolic situations critical for ovine welfare.

  13. Survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in the absence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Yamada, Catherine; Potter, Kathleen A; Herndon, Caroline; Foreyt, William J; Knowles, Donald P; Srikumaran, Subramaniam


    To test the hypothesis that Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is an important agent of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) pneumonia that has previously inevitably followed experimental commingling with domestic sheep (Ovis aries), we commingled M. ovipneumoniae-free domestic and bighorn sheep (n=4 each). One bighorn sheep died with acute pneumonia 90 days after commingling, but the other three remained healthy for >100 days. This unprecedented survival rate is significantly different (P=0.002) from that of previous bighorn-domestic sheep contact studies but similar to (P>0.05) bighorn sheep survival following commingling with other ungulates. The absence of epizootic respiratory disease in this experiment supports the hypothesized role of M. ovipneumoniae as a key pathogen of epizootic pneumonia in bighorn sheep commingled with domestic sheep.

  14. Bartonella melophagi in Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) collected from sheep in northern Oromia, Ethiopia.

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina


    Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) is one of the most common ectoparasites that contributes to enormous economic losses in the productivity of sheep in many countries. The present study was conducted from January 2012 to July 2013 on M. ovinus collected from sheep at three sites in Ethiopia. Of the sheep studied, 65.7% (88/134) were infested with M. ovinus. The prevalence of M. ovinus was 76% (76/100), 47% (8/17) and 23.5% (4/17) at the Kimbibit, Chacha and Shano sites, respectively. An overall number of 229 M. ovinus specimens (138 females, 86 males and five pupae) and 554 M. ovinus specimens (272 females, 282 males) were collected from young and adult sheep, respectively. Bartonella DNA was detected in 89% (694/783) of M. ovinus using a quantitative Bartonella genus-specific PCR assay targeting the 16S/23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. The sequencing of the PCR products of fragments of the gltA and rpoB genes showed 99.6-100% and 100% homology, respectively, with B. melophagi. Statistically significant variation was not noted in the overall prevalence of Bartonella DNA between female and male M. ovinus. All of the sheep infested with M. ovinus 100% (88/88) harbored at least one M. ovinus specimen that contained Bartonella DNA. This study highlights that B. melophagi in M. ovinus from sheep in highlands in Ethiopia possibly has certain zoonotic importance.

  15. Milk yield and quality of Cres sheep and their crosses with Awassi and East Friesian sheep

    Boro Mioč


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish the impact of crossing the indigenous Cres sheep with Awassi and, respectively, Awassi and East Friesian sheep on the milk yield and quality. For this purpose, through regular monthly milk yield recordings a total of 824individual milk samples from 139 sheep in the second lactation of the same flock were collected, of which: 46 purebred Cres sheep, CS; 33 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep and 50 % Awassi, CA; 60 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep, 25 % Awassi and 25 % East Friesian, CAEF. The obtained results show a significant (P<0.05; P<0.01 impact of the genotype and the lactation stage on the yield and chemical composition of milk, and the somatic cell count. The most milk was yielded by CAEF crosses (690 mL/ewe/day, i.e., 133.8 L per lactation and the least by CS (340 mL/ewe/day, i.e., 58.48 L per lactation. The content of total solids, fat and protein increased as lactation advanced, whereas the trend of the lactose content was opposite. The highest content of total solids, fat and protein were established in the milk of the indigenous Cres sheep. A positive correlation was established between the amount of yielded milk and the somatic cell count, whereas a negative correlation was established between the amount of milk and the content of solids, fat and proteins.

  16. Breeding strategies to make sheep farms resilient to uncertainty

    Rose, I.J.


    The sheep industry in Western Australian has had many challenges over the last 20 years which have caused sheep numbers to decline. This decline is because sheep farms are not resilient to uncertain pasture growth and commodity prices. One way to improve resilience and profitability of farming syste

  17. Breeding strategies to make sheep farms resilient to uncertainty

    Rose, I.J.


    The sheep industry in Western Australian has had many challenges over the last 20 years which have caused sheep numbers to decline. This decline is because sheep farms are not resilient to uncertain pasture growth and commodity prices. One way to improve resilience and profitability of farming syste

  18. Characterization of a concealed antigen Hq05 from the hard tick Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis and its effect as a vaccine against tick infestation in sheep.

    Gao, Jinliang; Luo, Jianxun; Fan, Ruiquan; Schulte-Spechtel, Ulrike C; Fingerle, Volker; Guan, Guiquan; Zhao, Haiping; Li, Youquan; Ren, Qiaoyun; Ma, Miling; Liu, Zhijie; Liu, Aihong; Dang, Zhisheng; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Yin, Hong


    Positive clone Hq05 of Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis (named following those cDNA clones cloned from the tick before) was obtained by differentially screening of a cDNA library of the tick with rabbit anti-tick salivary gland serum and rabbit anti-tick saliva serum. Hq05 contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 540bp that codes for 179amino acid residues with a coding capacity of 20kDa. Sequence similarity and phylogenetic analyses indicated that Hq05 was a novel gene. Expression analysis by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction indicated that the gene was expressed in nymphal and adult stage of H. qinghaiensis tick and its salivary glands, but not in midguts. The cDNA was expressed as glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fused protein in a procariotic system. Western blot showed that only rabbit anti-H. qinghaiensis salivary gland serum could recognize the expressed GST-Hq05 (46kDa) protein, while both rabbit negative serum and rabbit anti-H. qinghaiensis saliva serum could not react with the expressed protein. This proved the recombinant protein was a "concealed" antigen of H. qinghaiensis. Vaccination of sheep with rHq05 conferred a significant protective immunity in sheep, resulting in a 40% reduction of the amount of eggs laid by each tick and the hatching capability of eggs decreased by 37% compared to the controls. These results showed that rHq05 could be a candidate tick vaccine molecule for the control of H. qinghaiensis.

  19. Schmallenberg virus experimental infection of sheep

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Bréard, Emmanuel


    Since late 2011, a novel orthobunyavirus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), has been implicated in many cases of severely malformed bovine and ovine offspring in Europe. In adult cattle, SBV is known to cause a mild transient disease; clinical signs include short febrile episodes, decreased milk...... production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited.In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures....... Various experimental set-ups were used. Sampling included blood collection at different time points during the experimental period and selected organ material at autopsy.Data from this study showed, that the RNAemic period in sheep was as short as reported for cattle; viral genome was detectable for about...

  20. Elaeophorosis in bighorn sheep in New Mexico.

    Boyce, W; Fisher, A; Provencio, H; Rominger, E; Thilsted, J; Ahlm, M


    Two bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in New Mexico (USA) were found to be naturally infected with Elaeophora schneideri. An adult ram examined in 1997 in the Fra Cristobal Mountains had 26 nematodes in the carotid and iliac arteries, and microfilariae were present in the skin, nasal mucosa, brain, and lungs. This ram was markedly debilitated prior to euthanasia and extensive crusty, scabby lesions were observed on its head. In 1998, a yearling ewe found dead adjacent to Watson Mountain near the Gila Wilderness area was found to have 13 nematodes present in its heart. This is the first report of E. schneideri in bighorn sheep, and we suggest that bighorn sheep are susceptible to E. schneideri infection wherever they coexist with mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and appropriate tabanid vectors.

  1. Liver flukes promote cholelithiasis in sheep.

    Katsoulos, Panagiotis D; Christodoulopoulos, Georgios; Karatzia, Maria A; Pourliotis, Konstantinos; Minas, Anastasios


    The main objective of this study was to investigate whether cholelithiasis in sheep is related to parasitism or other commonly observed disorders such as liver abscesses. Additionally, the features of the observed biliary calculi are described. The livers of 254 randomly selected clinically healthy adult dairy sheep were used. All visible concretions in the bile were considered as stones. Based on the macroscopical examination, 60 livers were normal, 40 were parasitized with Fasciola hepatica, 42 were parasitized with Dicrocoelium dendriticum, 28 were parasitized with both D. dendriticum and F. hepatica, 40 livers had abscesses and 44 had hydatid cysts. Biliary calculi were detected in 40 livers. Twenty livers had pigment stones and 20 livers had cholesterol stones. The percentage of cholelithiasis was significantly higher in livers parasitized with flukes compared with the others (Pcholelithiasis in sheep. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Myxomatosis in wild rabbit: design of control programs in Mediterranean ecosystems.

    García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Astorga, Rafael Jesús; Napp, Sebastián; Casal, Jordi; Huerta, Belén; Borge, Carmen; Arenas, Antonio


    A cross-sectional study was carried out in natural wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations from southern Spain to identify risk factors associated to myxoma virus infection. Blood samples from 619 wild rabbits were collected, and questionnaires which included variables related to host, disease, game management and environment were completed. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate the associations between myxomatosis seropositivity (dependent variable) across 7 hunting estates and an extensive set of explanatory variables obtained from the questionnaires. The prevalence of antibodies against myxomatosis virus was 56.4% (95% CI: 52.5-60.3) and ranged between 21.4% (95% CI: 9.0-33.8) and 70.2% (95% CI: 58.3-82.1) among the different sampling areas. The logistic regression analysis showed that autumn (OR 9.0), high abundance of mosquitoes (OR 8.2), reproductive activity (OR 4.1), warren's insecticide treatment (OR 3.7), rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) seropositivity (OR 2.6), high hunting pressure (OR 6.3) and sheep presence (OR 6.4) were associated with seropositivity to myxomatosis. Based on the results, diverse management measures for myxomatosis control are proposed.

  3. Effect of thyrotropin-releasing hormone on cerebral free radical reactions following acute brain injury in rabbits

    牛光明; 顾秀娟; 苏玉林; 万锋; 苏芳忠; 薛德麟


    Objective: To investigate the early effect of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) on cerebral free radical reactions after acute brain injury in rabbits.Methods: 30 healthy white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: Group A (n=10), Group B (n=12) and Group C (n=8). The rabbits in Group A and Group B were injured by direct hit. At 0.5-4 hours after injury, the rabbits in Group A were injected with TRH (8 mg/kg body weight) through a vein and the rabbits in Group B were injected with normal saline of equal volume. The rabbits in Group C served as the normal control. Then all the rabbits were killed and brain tissues were obtained. The content of lipoperoxide (LPO), the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the water content of the brain tissues were measured.Results: The contents of LPO and water in brain tissues in Group A were lower and the activity of SOD was higher than those of Group B (P<0.05). After injury, intracranial pressure (ICP) rose rapidly and continuously with time passing by. When TRH was given to the animals in Group A, the rising speed of ICP slowed down significantly.Conclusions: TRH can decrease the cerebral free radical reactions and cerebral edema after acute brain injury in rats.

  4. Cloning non-transformed sheep B cells.

    Griebel, P J; Beskorwayne, T; Godson, D L; Popowych, Y; Hein, W


    The capacity to clone B cells and establish permanent B cell lines has greatly facilitated a wide variety of studies characterising the growth, differentiation, and gene expression of murine and human B cells. Similar investigations of B cell biology for other species have been severely restricted by an inability to culture or clone B cells. This is the first report of a method to clone non-transformed sheep B cells using a culture system based on murine CD154 and a combination of human gamma chain-common cytokines. Sheep Peyer's patch B cells were cultured for 120 days and then cloned by limiting dilution culture. The parental B cell culture contained both surface immunoglobulin (sIg)M(+) and sIgG1(+) B cells and both types of B cell were cloned. Clonality was confirmed by PCR analysis of Ig heavy chain (HC) and light chain (LC) expression and DNA sequencing of HC V genes. There was agreement between the PCR and flow cytometric analyses of HC isotype expression on the B cell clones but the available monoclonal antibodies specific for sheep lambda and kappa LC did not react with all clones. Soluble Ig was detected in the culture supernatant of sIgG1(+) clones but not sIgM(+) clones. The B cell clones remained dependent upon CD154 and gamma chain-common cytokine co-stimulation for sustained growth and maintained stable Ig expression. The cloning of non-transformed sheep B cells should provide a valuable tool for studying sheep B cell biology, establishing Ig HC- and LC-specific monoclonal antibodies, analysing the B cell Ig repertoire, and may be used to produce sheep monoclonal antibodies.


    Jakaria; M.S.A. Zein; S. Sulandari; Subandriyo,; Muladno


    The purpose of this research was to study genetic diversity in Indonesian sheep population using microsatellite markers. A total of 18 microsatellite loci have been used for genotyping Indonesian sheep. Total sheep blood 200 samples were extracted from garut sheep of fighting and meat types, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep populations by using a salting out method. Microsatellite loci data were analyzed using POPGENE 3.2 software. Based on this study obtained 180 alleles from ...

  6. Cloned Sheep May Age Prematurely

    Joseph; B.Verrengia; 孙颖


    1996年的头条科技新闻之一是:多利羊被克隆成功。世人曾为消息雀跃,以为克隆技术马上可以造福人类了,而且科幻作家也开始忙碌起来。而今,当多利羊过3岁生日时,人们却伤感地发现: In Dolly’s case,she is 3,but her genetic material is aging at the rate of the6-year-old sheep from which she was cloned. 这就是所谓aging prematurely。这则消息给人们带来的忧虑有两条。一是:被克隆的动物的预期寿命比人们想象的要短;二是:人们是否能够有效利用克隆的人体细胞去治疗疾病。目前,科学家们的担心还是集中于后者。本书收入的另一篇有关克隆的文章(It’s A Boy!Scientists Clone First Male Mammal)和本篇构成了强烈的对照,可谓一喜一忧。然而,无论喜忧,人类在克隆技术方面正在以坚实的步伐向前迈进。

  7. Immunosuppression abrogates resistance of young rabbits to Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD).

    Marques, Raquel M; Teixeira, Luzia; Aguas, Artur P; Ribeiro, Joana C; Costa-e-Silva, António; Ferreira, Paula G


    Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD) is caused by a calicivirus (RHDV) that kills 90% of infected adult European rabbits within 3 days. Remarkably, young rabbits are resistant to RHD. We induced immunosuppression in young rabbits by treatment with methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) and challenged the animals with RHDV by intramuscular injection. All of these young rabbits died within 3 days of infection due to fulminant hepatitis, presenting a large number of RHDV-positive dead or apoptotic hepatocytes, and a significant seric increase in cytokines, features that are similar to those of naïve adult rabbits infected by RHDV. We conclude that MPA-induced immunosuppression abrogates the resistance of young rabbits to RHD, indicating that there are differences in the innate immune system between young and adult rabbits that contribute to their distinct resistance/susceptibility to RHDV infection.

  8. A B-lymphoma cell line that forms rosettes with neuraminidase-treated sheep erythrocytes through monoclonal surface immunoglobulin.

    Tsutsumi, Y; Suzuki, S; Mikata, A; Suzuki, H; Kageyama, K; Watanabe, S; Minato, K; Shimoyama, M


    Undifferentiated lymphoma from a 39-year-old female became serially xenotransplantable to preirradiated nude mice. The tumor cells (KT) possessed a monoclonal surface immunoglobulin (SIg mu, kappa) and formed rosettes with neuraminidase-treated sheep erythrocytes (SEn). Precise characterizations of the SEn rosette, however, revealed the following facts: (1) Neuraminidase-untreated or 2-aminoethylisothiuronium bromide (AET) treated sheep erythrocytes were not bound to the KT cells. (2) SEn rosettes on the KT cells did not show a temperature dependency. (3) Neuraminidase-treated erythrocytes from man, horse, mouse, and rabbit were not bound to the KT cells. (4) Preincubation of the KT cells with antipolyvalent immunoglobulin or anti-kappa-chain serum abolished the SEn rosette formation. (5) Trypsinization decreased both SEn rosettes and SIg on the KT cells. (6) SEn rosettes on the KT cells were too loose to be separated from nonrosetting cells by a Percoll gradient centrifugation method. Summarizing these results, the monoclonal SIg on the KT cells recognized sheep erythrocyte antigen(s) that were exposed only after the neuraminidase treatment. Therefore, this was considered to be a case with peculiar B-lymphoma cells that bound SEn through their SIg.

  9. Development of a specific radioimmunoassay to measure physiological changes of circulating leptin in cattle and sheep.

    Ehrhardt, R A; Slepetis, R M; Siegal-Willott, J; Van Amburgh, M E; Bell, A W; Boisclair, Y R


    Studies of leptin in large domestic ruminants have been limited to measurements of gene expression because methods to measure circulating levels are not available. To develop a bovine leptin radioimmunoassay, we produced recombinant bovine leptin and used it to immunize rabbits, and to prepare bovine leptin tracer and standards. A single antiserum with sufficient affinity and titer was identified. Using this antiserum, logit-transformed binding of (125)I-labeled bovine leptin was linearly related (R(2)= 0.99) to the log of added bovine or ovine leptin between 0.1 to 2.0 ng. Serial dilution of bovine and ovine plasma, chicken serum and bovine milk gave displacement curves that were parallel to those of bovine or ovine leptin. Recoveries of external addition of bovine leptin in ewe and cow plasma ranged between 94 and 104%. Plasma leptin concentration measured by this assay was directly related to the plane of! nutrition in growing calves and lambs. At 11-14 weeks of age, ewe lambs had a higher circulating leptin concentration than ram lambs. Finally, plasma leptin concentration was linearly related to the fat content of the empty carcass in growing cattle and to body condition score in lactating dairy cows. We conclude that circulating leptin in sheep and cattle is increased by fatness and plane of nutrition, consistent with results in humans and rodents. This assay provides an important tool to investigate mechanisms that regulate plasma leptin in cattle and sheep.

  10. White Rabbit Status and Prospects

    Serrano, J; Cattin, M; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M; Beck, D; Hoffmann, J; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S; Terpstra, W W; Zweig, M


    The White Rabbit (WR) project started off to provide a sequencing and synchronisation solution for the needs of CERN and GSI. Since then, many other users have adopted it to solve problems in the domain of distributed hard realtime systems. The paper discusses the current performance of WR hardware, along with present and foreseen applications. It also describes current efforts to standardise WR under IEEE 1588 and recent developments on reliability of timely data distribution, finishing with an outline of future plans.

  11. Doe productivity indices and sire effects of a heterogeneous rabbit ...


    Doe productivity indices are important in evaluating rabbit population since it influences the efficiency and profitability of rabbit ... Key words: Heterogeneous rabbit population, Doe productivity, Sire families). ..... Paris, France, 11-14. Cited in:.

  12. Cardiovascular physiology and diseases of the rabbit.

    Pariaut, Romain


    This article reviews what is known about the diagnosis and management of cardiovascular diseases in the pet rabbit. Current knowledge is based on anecdotal reports, derived from research data using the rabbit as an animal model of human cardiovascular diseases, but most importantly canine and feline cardiology. It is likely that, as cardiovascular diseases are more often recognized, more specific information will soon become available for the treatment of the pet rabbit with cardiac disease.

  13. Welfare aspects in rabbit rearing and transport

    Claudio Cavani; Massimiliano Petracci; Fabio Luzi; Marina Verga


    The review starts with the description of the rabbits’ (Oryctolagus cuniculus) main habits and the current situation concerning the rabbit husbandry and management systems, as well as their effects on the welfare of these animals. As far as the intensive rabbit husbandry systems are concerned, the main problems are related to the time since rabbits have been domesticated and their adaptive capacity and coping styles as respects the farming environment and management systems. Both these ...

  14. Rabbits' eye globe sonographic biometry.

    Toni, Maria Carolina; Meirelles, Adriana Érica Wilkes Burton; Gava, Fábio Nelson; Camacho, Aparecido Antônio; Laus, José Luiz; Canola, Júlio Carlos


    To measure intraocular structures in New Zealand White breed rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus, 1758) using A-mode and B-mode ultrasound with a 20 MHz transducer. In this study, the eyes of 15 rabbits were evaluated for determination of intraocular measurements using an ophthalmic ultrasound unit able to operate in both A and B-modes. The distances from the cornea to the anterior capsule of the lens (D1), from the anterior capsule of the lens to the posterior capsule of the lens (D2), from the posterior capsule of the lens to the retina (D3) and the complete length of the eye, which corresponds to the distance from the cornea to the retina (D4) were taken. The mean values obtained were 2.70 mm (± 0.22 mm) for D1, 7.32 mm (± 0.40 mm) for D2, 7.10 mm (± 0.45 mm) for D3 and 17.12 mm (± 0.41 mm) for D4. Statistical analyses using the Student's t-test showed that there were no differences between the eyes. The study was feasible without the need of pharmacological restraint and yielded normal mean values for ocular sonographic biometry in rabbits. © 2010 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  15. Computational Studies of the Structural Stability of Rabbit Prion Protein Compared to Human and Mouse Prion Proteins

    Zhang, Jiapu


    Prion diseases are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases affecting humans and animals. The neurodegenerative diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases, Gerstmann-Str$\\ddot{a}$ussler-Scheinker syndrome, Fatal Familial Insomnia, Kuru in humans, scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (or 'mad-cow' disease) and chronic wasting disease in cattle belong to prion diseases. By now there have not been some effective therapeutic approaches to treat all these prion diseases. Dogs, rabbits and horses were reported to be resistant to prion diseases. By the end of year 2010 all the NMR structures of dog, rabbit and horse prion proteins (X-ray for rabbits too) had been finished to release into protein data bank. Thus, at this moment it is very worth studying the NMR and X-ray molecular structures of horse, dog and rabbit prion proteins to obtain insights into their immunity prion diseases. The author found that dog and horse prion proteins have sta...

  16. Immunostimulant Effect of Egyptian Propolis in Rabbits

    Nassar, Somya A; Mohamed, Amira H; Soufy, Hamdy; Nasr, Soad M; Mahran, K. M


    The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of ethanolic extract of Egyptian propolis given alone or in combination with inactivated Pasteurella multocida vaccine on rabbits challenged...

  17. Assessment of the rabbit as a wildlife reservoir of bovine viral diarrhoea virus: serological analysis and generation of trans-placentally infected offspring

    Dawn M Grant


    Full Text Available Eradication of Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV is ongoing in many European countries and is based on removal of persistently infected (PI cattle. In this context, low-level risks, including alternative reservoirs of infection, may become more important as the number of BVDV-free herds increases. Alternative reservoirs include livestock, such as sheep and goats, as well as wildlife, including deer and rabbits. Due to the extensive nature of the beef industry in Scotland, where eradication started in 2010, contact between cattle and alternative reservoir hosts is common.Seroprevalence to BVDV in rabbit populations can be high. In addition, rabbits can be infected with BVDV by natural routes, indicating that they could be a wildlife reservoir of infection. We analysed the potential risk to livestock from rabbit populations in the UK by two approaches. First, approximately 260 serum samples from free-ranging wild rabbits in Scotland and northern England were tested for BVDV-specific antibodies by ELISA. Only three samples exhibited low level BVDV-specific reactivity, suggesting that BVDV infection of rabbits was not frequent. Second, rabbits were challenged with BVDV at day 7 or 12 of pregnancy. This did not lead to any clinical signs in the infected animals or obvious increases in abortion or stillbirth in the infected dams. Samples from the dams, placental material and approximately 130 offspring were tested by BVDV-specific RT-PCR and antibody ELISA. Positive PCR results in the placentas and in the tissues and body fluids of rabbits up to 10 days old showed that trans-placental infection of rabbits with BVDV had occurred. Many of the offspring had BVDV-specific antibodies.These data support the view that a wildlife reservoir of BVDV in rabbit poses a small but non-zero risk of re-infection for BVDV-free cattle herds. Rabbits are susceptible to infection with BVDV but a small proportion of free-living rabbits in the UK appear to have been

  18. Changes in plasma apolipoproteins following whole-body irradiation in rabbit

    Feliste, R. (INSERM, Toulouse, France); Dousset, N.; Carton, M.; Douste-Blazy, L.


    Male New Zealand white rabbits were whole-body-irradiated with a linear electron accelerator at 800 rad (LD/sub 50/ in 30 days). This treatment induced a pronounced hypertriglyceridemia. The apoprotein composition of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL, d < 1.006 g/ml) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL, d = 1.063 - 1.21 g/ml) from irradiated rabbits was studied and compared to those of normal rabbits. Significant changes were observed in both very low density apolipoproteins and high-density apolipoproteins. (1) In the VLDL fraction from irradiated rabbits, there appeared in high proportion two apolipoproteins with electrophoretic mobility in urea/polyacrylamide gels similar to apoA-I and A-II but which were distinctly different in their apparent molecular weights, their isoelectric points, and their amino acid composition from these latter proteins. These proteins had apparent molecular weights of about 10,000. They focused into three bands with pI values of 6.1, 6.4, and 6.6. Their amino acid composition was characterized by a very low content of threonine and serine and a high content of aspartic acid, glycine, alanine, and arginine. In addition, a marked increase of an apolipoprotein with an apparent molecular weight of about 43,000 and with an amino acid composition similar to rat apoA-IV was also observed in rabbit VLDL after irradiation. Apolipoprotein C constituents with slowmobility decreased significantly. (2) The irradiated rabbit HDL apolipoproteins showed an important increase of the proteins with molecular weight 10,000 and isoelectric points 6.1, 6.4, and 6.6. Compared to normal rabbit HDL apolipoproteins, a significant decrease of apoA-IV occurred. These modifications were also observed with lower radiation doses (200 and 400 rad).

  19. Evolutionary dynamics of endogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retroviruses proliferation in the domestic sheep, mouflon and Pyrenean chamois.

    Sistiaga-Poveda, M; Jugo, B M


    The oncogenic exogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), responsible for ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma, has several endogenous counterparts termed enJSRVs. Although many of these elements have been inactivated over time by the accumulation of deleterious mutations or internal recombination leading to solo long terminal repeat (LTR) formation, several members of enJSRVs have been identified as nearly intact and probably represent recent integration events. To determine the level of enJSRV polymorphism in the sheep population and related species, we have undertaken a study by characterizing enJSRVs copies and independent integration sites in six domestic sheep and two wild species of the sheep lineage. enJSRVs copies were detected by amplifying the env-LTR region by PCR, and for the detection of the insertion sites, we used two approaches: (1) an in silico approach based on the recently published Sheep Reference Genome Assembly (OARv3.0) and (2) an experimental approach based on PCR suppression and inverse PCR techniques. In total, 103 enJSRV sequences were generated across 10 individuals and enJSRV integrations were found on 11 of the 28 sheep chromosomes. These findings suggest that there are still uncharacterized enJSRVs, and that some of the integration sites are variable among the different species, breeds of the same species, subspecies and geographic locations.

  20. Minimum Effective Dose of Cattle and Sheep BSE for Oral Sheep Infection.

    Gillian McGovern

    Full Text Available The minimum dose required to cause infection of Romney and Suffolk sheep of the ARQ/ARQ or ARQ/ARR prion protein gene genotypes following oral inoculation with Romney or Suffolk a sheep Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE-derived or cattle BSE-derived agent was investigated using doses ranging from 0.0005g to 5g. ARQ/ARQ sheep which were methionine (M / threonine (T heterozygous or T/T homozygous at codon 112 of the Prnp gene, dosed ARQ/ARR sheep and undosed controls did not show any evidence of infection. Within groups of susceptible sheep, the minimum effective oral dose of BSE was found to be 0.05g, with higher attack rates following inoculation with the 5g dose. Surprisingly, this study found no effect of dose on survival time suggesting a possible lack of homogeneity within the inoculum. All clinical BSE cases showed PrPd accumulation in brain; however, following cattle BSE inoculation, LRS involvement within Romney recipients was found to be significantly lower than within the Suffolk sheep inoculated group which is in agreement with previous reports.

  1. Is there a difference between hare syphilis and rabbit syphilis? Cross infection experiments between rabbits and hares

    Lumeij, J.T.; Mikalová, L.; Smajs, D.


    Abstract Cross infection of rabbits and hares with Treponema paraluiscuniculi from rabbits and the related microorganism from hares, which was provisionally named "Treponema paraluisleporis", revealed that T. paraluiscuniculi affects rabbits clinically, but only causes seroconversion in hares withou

  2. Immunobiological effect of bitemporal exposure of rabbits to microwaves

    Bogolyubov, V.M.; Pershin, S.B.; Frenkel' , I.D.; Sidorov, V.D.; Galenchik, A.I.; Ponomarev, Yu.T.; Bobkova, A.S.; Kuz' min, S.N.; Moshiashvili, I.Ya.; Kozlova, N.N.; Korovkina, E.G.; Agibalov, Yu.V.


    The authors investigate the effects of microwave radiation on the immunological behavior of the thyroid and various hormones of rabbits. Irradiation was carried out on the heads of the animals. They were then divided into four groups depending on the period of exposure. The number of hemolysis-forming cells against sheep red blood cells and the concentration of serum immunoglobulins were determined. Levels of TSH, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, testosterone and prostaglandins in serum or blood plasma were determined by radioimmunoassay and the concentration of total 11-hydroxycorticosteroids in the adrenals and plasma were determined by fluorimetry. Microwave radiation of the temporo-parietal region of the head was found to decrease the number of background hemolysis-forming cells. An increase in glucocorticoid function was recorded. Thyroid function was depressed. The plasma 11-hydroxycorticosteroid level was significantly raised. It is concluded in general that microwave irradiation leads to activation of the hypothalamo-hypophyseo-adrenal system with consequent enhancement of the glucocorticoid function of the adrenal cortex and depression of thyroid function.

  3. Development of pneumonia in desert bighorn sheep after exposure to a flock of exotic wild and domestic sheep.

    Callan, R J; Bunch, T D; Workman, G W; Mock, R E


    From 1986 to 1989, 5 desert bighorn sheep (3 Ovis canadensis mexicana and 2 O c nelsoni), ranging in age from 2 to 3 years, were exposed to a flock of exotic wild and domestic sheep to potentially achieve naturally acquired pneumonia. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from nasal samples from 4 of 6 sheep randomly sampled from the flock. Bighorn sheep were exposed individually and each exposure period was a trial. Treatment before and after exposure varied and included combinations of alpha interferon, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and vaccines. Treatments were chosen on the basis of recommendations of others for treating pneumonia in desert bighorn sheep as well as our own experience in sheep and cattle. Regardless of treatment used, bighorn sheep in trials 1 to 4 developed signs of pneumonia within 10 to 14 days of exposure. Bighorn sheep in trials 1 to 3 died within 11 to 17 days of initial exposure. In trial 4, the bighorn sheep was isolated from the carrier sheep for treatment of pneumonia on day 14 and died on day 30. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from lung tissue in 3 of the 4 bighorn sheep. On the basis of results of trials 1 to 4, a more in depth clinical study was conducted in trial 5. Nasal and blood specimens were collected prior to and during trial 5 for bacteriologic culturing and serologic testing for bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3 virus, and respiratory syncytial virus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. The ABCG2 efflux transporter from rabbit placenta: Cloning and functional characterization.

    Halwachs, Sandra; Kneuer, Carsten; Gohlsch, Katrin; Müller, Marian; Ritz, Vera; Honscha, Walther


    In human placenta, the ATP-binding cassette efflux transporter ABCG2 is highly expressed in syncytiotrophoblast cells and mediates cellular excretion of various drugs and toxins. Hence, physiological ABCG2 activity substantially contributes to the fetoprotective placenta barrier function during gestation. Developmental toxicity studies are often performed in rabbit. However, despite its toxicological relevance, there is no data so far on functional ABCG2 expression in this species. Therefore, we cloned ABCG2 from placenta tissues of chinchilla rabbit. Sequencing showed 84-86% amino acid sequence identity to the orthologues from man, rat and mouse. We transduced the rabbit ABCG2 clone (rbABCG2) in MDCKII cells and stable rbABCG2 gene and protein expression was shown by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The rbABCG2 efflux activity was demonstrated with the Hoechst H33342 assay using the specific ABCG2 inhibitor Ko143. We further tested the effect of established human ABCG2 (hABCG2) drug substrates including the antibiotic danofloxacin or the histamine H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine on H33342 accumulation in MDCKII-rbABCG2 or -hABCG2 cells. Human therapeutic plasma concentrations of all tested drugs caused a comparable competitive inhibition of H33342 excretion in both ABCG2 clones. Altogether, we first showed functional expression of the ABCG2 efflux transporter in rabbit placenta. Moreover, our data suggest a similar drug substrate spectrum of the rabbit and the human ABCG2 efflux transporter.

  5. Pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep

    Keulen, van L.J.M.; Vromans, M.E.W.; Dolstra, C.H.; Bossers, A.; Zijderveld, van F.G.


    The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrPSc) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrPSc was dete

  6. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats

    Brom, Van den R.; Engelen, van E.; Roest, H.I.J.; Hoek, van der W.; Vellema, P.


    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirt

  7. Dynamics of Sheep Production in Brazil

    Samuel Rezende Paiva


    Full Text Available Sheep production is present on all continents and has been practiced in Brazil since the colonization. In this study, the multitemporal dynamics of sheep production in Brazil is examined using official government data (Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics-IBGE from 1976 to 2010. Maps of flock growth rates and growth acceleration maps by municipality were elaborated. The Southern states are seen to show a reduction in production mainly due to the wool crisis in the 1970s and 80s. The Northeast is seen to be important for meat production. More recently, centerwest and northern states have shown an increase in growth rates but this is still incipient. The maps of growth, acceleration and midpoint for sheep production showed a noticeable return to an increase in production in the South in recent years. The midpoint of production flow was in the northeast direction, which has stagnated. There was great dynamics in sheep production over the whole Brazilian territory, which affected supply chains due to the expansion of domestic and foreign markets. Areas with higher fluctuations in production are more vulnerable in terms of investment policies.

  8. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats

    Brom, Van den R.; Engelen, van E.; Roest, H.I.J.; Hoek, van der W.; Vellema, P.


    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and

  9. Fermentation of methanol in the sheep rumen.

    Pol, A.; Demeyer, D. I.


    Sheep fed a hay-concentrate diet were adapted to pectin administration and ruminal infusion of methanol. Both treatments resulted in a strong increase in the rate of methanogenesis from methanol. Quantitative data show that methanol was exclusively converted into methane. Treatments did not influence ruminal volatile fatty acid percentages.

  10. Analysis of wolves and sheep. Final report

    Hogden, J.; Papcun, G.; Zlokarnik, I.; Nix, D.


    In evaluating speaker verification systems, asymmetries have been observed in the ease with which people are able to break into other people`s voice locks. People who are good at breaking into voice locks are called wolves, and people whose locks are easy to break into are called sheep. (Goats are people that have a difficult time opening their own voice locks.) Analyses of speaker verification algorithms could be used to understand wolf/sheep asymmetries. Using the notion of a ``speaker space``, it is demonstrated that such asymmetries could arise even though the similarity of voice 1 to voice 2 is the same as the inverse similarity. This explains partially the wolf/sheep asymmetries, although there may be other factors. The speaker space can be computed from interspeaker similarity data using multidimensional scaling, and such speaker space can be used to given a good approximation of the interspeaker similarities. The derived speaker space can be used to predict which of the enrolled speakers are likely to be wolves and which are likely to be sheep. However, a speaker must first enroll in the speaker key system and then be compared to each of the other speakers; a good estimate of a person`s speaker space position could be obtained using only a speech sample.

  11. 9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.


    ...-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or if it has ever been in an infected flock, source flock, or trace flock, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79; or if it is the progeny... be identified by eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator. 3 except that sheep for export...

  12. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats

    Brom, Van den R.; Engelen, van E.; Roest, H.I.J.; Hoek, van der W.; Vellema, P.


    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirt

  13. Prevalence of paratuberculosis infection in sheep

    Vidić Branka


    Full Text Available Paratuberculosis is an incurable chronic disease of ruminants, which is manifested with clinical signs of diarrhea and progressive weight loss. Causative agent is Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and the disiase occurs in cattle, sheep and goats. The outspread of paratuberculosis is huge in the whole world, especially in the countries where animal breeding is a developed branch of economy. Animals get infected with food and water contaminated with feces of infected animals. The infection spreads within infected pastures and also when trading animals with latent infection. Clinical manifestation of the disease can firstly be noticed in young categories of sheep, which is different than in cattle. Primary clinical symptom is chronic weight loss. It is rather hard to determine the level of prevalence of the disease, in a certain region, because the diagnostic procedure is complex and not always reliable enough. Detection of antibodies with ELISA test is considered a method of choice for diagnostic of paratuberculosis, because of fast gaining of the results and relatively low price of the test. By applying the ELISA test, we have analysed 2000 sheep blood samples. Positive results for paratuberculosis were found in 66 ( 3,30% animals in total. In sheep samples from southern Backa region, positive findings were gained from 42 (3,89% samples, and in Srem region, positive finding were found in samples from 24 sheep (2,60%. Control programs are based on the removal of all infected animals, application of general preventive measures and vaccination. Application of vaccination aims for elimination of clinical form of the disease. An effective treatment has not been determined so far.

  14. Salivary prions in sheep and deer.

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Richt, Jürgen A; Hamir, Amir N; Greenlee, Justin J; Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Young, Alan J; Glidden, David V; Johnson, Natrina L; Giles, Kurt; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B


    Scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids are transmissible prion diseases. Milk and placenta have been identified as sources of scrapie prions but do not explain horizontal transmission. In contrast, CWD prions have been reported in saliva, urine and feces, which are thought to be responsible for horizontal transmission. While the titers of CWD prions have been measured in feces, levels in saliva or urine are unknown. Because sheep produce ~17 L/day of saliva, and scrapie prions are present in tongue and salivary glands of infected sheep, we asked if scrapie prions are shed in saliva. We inoculated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing ovine prion protein, Tg(OvPrP) mice, with saliva from seven Cheviot sheep with scrapie. Six of seven samples transmitted prions to Tg(OvPrP) mice with titers of -0.5 to 1.7 log ID₅₀ U/ml. Similarly, inoculation of saliva samples from two mule deer with CWD transmitted prions to Tg(ElkPrP) mice with titers of -1.1 to -0.4 log ID₅₀ U/ml. Assuming similar shedding kinetics for salivary prions as those for fecal prions of deer, we estimated the secreted salivary prion dose over a 10-mo period to be as high as 8.4 log ID₅₀ units for sheep and 7.0 log ID₅₀ units for deer. These estimates are similar to 7.9 log ID₅₀ units of fecal CWD prions for deer. Because saliva is mostly swallowed, salivary prions may reinfect tissues of the gastrointestinal tract and contribute to fecal prion shedding. Salivary prions shed into the environment provide an additional mechanism for horizontal prion transmission.

  15. 藏绵羊脂蛋白脂酶基因克隆及序列分析%Tibetan Sheep LPL Gene Clone and Bioinformatic Analysis

    高思; 徐亚欧; 毛亮; 邵欢欢; 杨虎林; 舒浩国


    [目的]为深入研究藏绵羊肉用性能的遗传调控与营养代谢关系.[方法]利用RT-PCR和T-A克隆技术获得了藏绵羊LPL基因,并对其进行生物信息学分析.[结果]藏绵羊LPL编码基因全长1437 bp,编码478个氨基酸.将藏绵羊LPL基因及氨基酸序列分别与GenBank中公布的11种动物进行序列一致率比对,发现藏绵羊与所选动物的LPL基因序列一致率在84.6%-99.6%,LPL氨基酸序列一致率在88.8%-99.0%.藏绵羊与普通绵羊LPL基因存在6个位点核苷酸差异,其中有一个核苷酸位点的差异没有引起相应氨基酸的改变,其余5个住点核苷酸的不同都引起了氨基酸的差异.[结论]该研究可为了解LPL基因的演化关系及作用机理提供资料.%[ Objective ] The aim was to deeply study the relationship between the genetic regulation of meat performance of Tibetan sheep and nutrition and metabolism. [ Method ] The LPL coding gene of Tibetan sheep was cloned by reverse-translation PCR and T-A clone technology,then it was analyzed by Bioinformatics software. [ Result] The results showed that LPL gene of Tibetan sheep contained 1437 bp nucleotides and encoded 478 amino acids. The multiple sequence alignment such as Tibetan sheep, sheep, goat, cattle, yak, pig, dog, cat, baboon, orangutan, human, Norway rat and rattus showed that the total homologous rate of LPL gene was 84.6% - 99.6%, and the homologous rate of amino acids was 88.8% ~ 99.0%. Moreover,6 different nucleotides were foumd between Tibetan sheep and common sheep. One of these nucleotide was synonymous codon so that the amino acid which the synonymous codon encoded was identical between Tibetan sheep and common sheep,and the other five nucleotides which encoded different amino acids between Tibetan sheep and common sheep. [ Conclusion ] The study can provide reference for knowing the evolution relation of LPL gene and its mechanism of action.

  16. Molecular characterization and expression of the GDF9 gene in New Zealand white rabbits



    Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) has been shown to be involved in regulating follicular development and reproduction in many mammalian species. However, related information about the effect of the GDF9 gene onreproductive traits of New Zealand white rabbits was rarely reported. In this study, rabbits were distributed into two groups (poor and prolific offspring productions) and cloning and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) were employed tocharacterize the rabbit GDF9 gene. By cloning, 2515-bp genomic DNA and 1359-bp cDNA sequences were obtained. Comparing the two cDNA sequences, three potential mutation sites (C.539C>T,C.562G>C and C.718C>G) in exon2 of the GDF9 gene were found, and the corresponding amino acids changed (P.183T>M, P.188E>Q and P.240L>V). The qPCR results revealed that GDF9 was not tissue-specific, but rather expressed in all collected tissues. The expression level of the GDF9 gene was highest in the ovary, and was significantly increased (P< 0.05) compared with the other tissues. The liver had the second highest expression, and the heart and spleen had the least expression in New Zealand white rabbits. In the prolific group, the expression quantity of the GDF9 gene significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the heart, spleen, ovary, liver and uterus (P < 0.01) than the other groups. The amino acid sequence identities of human, sheep, goat, mouse, cattle, pig, cat, donkey, Nancy Ma’s night monkey and olive baboon were 72, 68, 69, 66, 69, 71, 67, 73, 75 and 73%, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis was executed, and a random coil was determined to be the primary secondary structure.

  17. Cloning, expression analysis and RNA interference of FGF5 gene in sheep%绵羊FGF5基因的克隆、表达及RNA干扰

    刘伍限; 贾斌; 石国庆; 任建功; 刘卡; 马润林


    The cDNA of fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) gene in sheep was cloned, and the nucleotides sequence ho-mology oiFGFS was compared with other six mammal. In addition, the expression of FGF5 in different tissues was analysed. Gene FGF5 was then recombined into prokaryotic expression vector (pGEX-4T-2) and RNA interference vector (pSilencer 5.1 HI) to study its pression in fibroblast cell lines. Results showed that the open reading frame (ORF) of cDNA in sheep consisted of 813 nucleotide acids encoding 270 amino acids, with the molecular mass of 29.58 kDa and theoretical pi of 10.59. The amino acids sequence of FGF5 gene in sheep shared high identity with those in cow, human, mouse, rat,dog, cat and rabbit. In addition, analysis on tissue expression showed that FGF5 expressed in skin, heart, kidney, liver, pancreas, spleen, lung, and small intestine, especially presenting high levels in skin. The expression of FGF5 in E. Coli was induced with IPTG, which produced a protein band with the expected size of 56 kDa on SDS-PAGE, while the expression of FGF5 in sheep fibroblast cell line was knocked down remarkably with the help of integrated RNAi vector.%根据牛的成纤维细胞内生长因子5(Fibroblast growth factor 5,FGF5)基因cDNA序列设计引物,PCR扩增得到绵羊FGF5基因cDNA的开放阅读框序列,并比较和其他6种高等哺乳动物的序列同源性;同时研究该基因在绵羊多种组织的表达情况,以及研究以细胞模型RNA干扰下的表达情况.结果表明,绵羊FGF5基因ORF全长为813 bp,编码270个氨基酸,分子量约为29.58 kDa,理论等电点10.59.绵羊FGF5基因cDNA序列与牛、人、小鼠、大鼠、犬和猫的对应序列同源性高度保守,预测氨基酸序列同源性同样具有高度保守性.RT-PCR分析表明FGF5在绵羊皮肤、小肠、肾脏、心脏、肝脏、脾脏、胰脏和肺中均有表达,皮肤中表达量最高.构建该基因的原核表达载体和RNAi载体,IPTG诱导在大

  18. Fate of TR-2, the hepatic metabolite of the tremorgenic mycotoxin verruculogen, in sheep.

    Laws, I; Mantle, P G; Rodrigues, L; Penny, R H


    1. Verruculogen is eliminated in bile after transformation to TR-2, only a trace of which was excreted as such in faeces of sheep given verruculogen per os. Negligible TR-2 was present free in urine; no glucuronide was found. 2. An isomer of TR-2, a minor component of the bile of sheep given verruculogen, has been defined by 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy and the isomerism involves the disposition of the two adjacent hydroxyl groups with a concomitant change in the conformation of the ring adjacent to the indole. 3. 14C-TR-2, added to the perfusate of isolated rat liver, was excreted unchanged in the bile, implying no significant loss of any biliary TR-2 subject to enterohepatic recycling in vivo. 4. 14C-TR-2 incubated anaerobically in sheep ileum contents was 95% transformed into more polar metabolites, the majority of the radiolabelled metabolites isolated being water soluble. 5. The principal fate of biliary TR-2 is as a metabolic substrate for the intestinal microflora.

  19. Genome-wide DNA methylation patterns and transcription analysis in sheep muscle.

    Christine Couldrey

    Full Text Available DNA methylation plays a central role in regulating many aspects of growth and development in mammals through regulating gene expression. The development of next generation sequencing technologies have paved the way for genome-wide, high resolution analysis of DNA methylation landscapes using methodology known as reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS. While RRBS has proven to be effective in understanding DNA methylation landscapes in humans, mice, and rats, to date, few studies have utilised this powerful method for investigating DNA methylation in agricultural animals. Here we describe the utilisation of RRBS to investigate DNA methylation in sheep Longissimus dorsi muscles. RRBS analysis of ∼1% of the genome from Longissimus dorsi muscles provided data of suitably high precision and accuracy for DNA methylation analysis, at all levels of resolution from genome-wide to individual nucleotides. Combining RRBS data with mRNAseq data allowed the sheep Longissimus dorsi muscle methylome to be compared with methylomes from other species. While some species differences were identified, many similarities were observed between DNA methylation patterns in sheep and other more commonly studied species. The RRBS data presented here highlights the complexity of epigenetic regulation of genes. However, the similarities observed across species are promising, in that knowledge gained from epigenetic studies in human and mice may be applied, with caution, to agricultural species. The ability to accurately measure DNA methylation in agricultural animals will contribute an additional layer of information to the genetic analyses currently being used to maximise production gains in these species.

  20. Satin and their crossbred rabbit production

    Bram Brahmantiyo


    Full Text Available Rabbit productivity in intensive management to be evaluated considering development in the rabbit farming were rapidly increased. Rex, Satin and their crossbred (Reza rabbits have been developed in Research Institute for Animal Production and productivity information of each breed can be used as basis for policy or model of cultivation and breeding in the community. Research conducted by evaluating the productivity of growth, carcass and the carcass proportion of the three strains of rabbit. Rex and satin growth were no different, and Reza was higher at 12-14 weeks of age. Carcass production comes from cutting the rabbit at the age of six months, this trait is strongly influenced by the weight of rabbits, and Reza gives the lowest performance compared to Rex and Satin. Rex, Satin and Reza were medium type rabbits with dual-purpose product (fur and meat. These rabbits showed the child's growth is good enough, to adapt the environment temperature and high food and have adequate carcass production.

  1. Congenital Transmission of Schistosoma japonicumin the Rabbit

    QianBao-zhen; H.O.Bogh; M.V.Johansen; WangPeng-peng


    Fourteen pregnant rabbits were each infected with 300 cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum and divided into two groups.Group M (n =8)was infected during mid-gestation (the organogenetic stage)and group L (n=6)was infected during late-gestation (the post-organogenetic stage).Mother rabbits and rabbit kittens were killed 45-60 days after infection and perfused in order to obtain worm counts.Furthermore,faecal egg counts and tissue egg counts from livers were obtained from the mother rabbits as well as the rabbit kittens.All mother rabbits became infected harbouring 207.6+20.2 and 220.0+27.5 adult worms in group M and L,respectively.In groups M and L, 13.5%and 46.7% of the kittens were infected,respectively,In 12 of 14 litters at least one kitten was infected.Tne infected kittens harboured between one and three adult S.japonicum.The livers of the kittens infected with a worm pair displaced lesions,as a result of egg deposition.The results, therefore,show that congenital transmission of S.japonicum can occur in rabbits.The close anatomical resemblance between the rabbit and human placenta may be indicative of the presence of congenital transmssion of S.japomcum infection in humans.

  2. Viral skin diseases of the rabbit.

    Meredith, Anna L


    This article describes the viral skin diseases affecting the domestic rabbit, the most important being myxomatosis. Transmission and pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and control are described and the article will be of interest to veterinary practitioners who treat rabbits. Shope fibroma virus, Shope papilloma virus, and rabbitpox are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel Calicivirus Identified in Rabbits, Michigan, USA

    Wise, Annabel G.; Bolin, Steven R.; Mullaney, Thomas P.; Kiupel, Matti; Maes, Roger K.


    We report a disease outbreak in a Michigan rabbitry of a rabbit calicivirus distinct from the foreign animal disease agent, rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV). The novel virus has been designated Michigan rabbit calicivirus (MRCV). Caliciviruses of the Lagovirus genus other than RHDV have not been described in US rabbit populations. The case-fatality rate was 32.5% (65/200). Clinical signs included hemorrhage and sudden death, with hepatic necrosis. Analysis of viral RNA sequence from >95% of the viral genome showed an average similarity of 79% with RHDV. Similarity of the predicted MRCV capsid amino acid sequence ranged from 89.8% to 91.3%, much lower than the 98% amino acid similarity between RHDV strains. Experimentally infected rabbits lacked clinical disease, but MRCV was detected in tissues by PCR. We propose that MRCV primarily causes subclinical infection but may induce overt RHD-like disease under certain field conditions. PMID:19961675




    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study genetic diversity in Indonesian sheep population using microsatellite markers. A total of 18 microsatellite loci have been used for genotyping Indonesian sheep. Total sheep blood 200 samples were extracted from garut sheep of fighting and meat types, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep populations by using a salting out method. Microsatellite loci data were analyzed using POPGENE 3.2 software. Based on this study obtained 180 alleles from 17 microsatellite loci, while average number of alleles was 6.10 alleles (6 to 18 alleles from five Indonesian sheep populations (garut sheep of fighting type, garut sheep of meat type, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep population. The average of observed heterozygosity (Ho and expected heterozygosity (He values were 0.5749 and 0.6896, respectively, while the genetic differentiation for inbreeding among population (FIS, within population (FIT and average genetic differentiation (FST were 0.1006, 0.1647 and 0.0712, respectively. Genetic distance and genetic tree showed that Indonesian sheep population was distinct from garut sheep of fighting and meat types, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep population. Based on this results were needed a strategy for conservation and breeding programs in each Indonesian sheep population.

  5. A large animal neuropathic pain model in sheep: a strategy for improving the predictability of preclinical models for therapeutic development

    Wilkes D


    Full Text Available Denise Wilkes,1 Guangwen Li,2 Carmina F Angeles,3 Joel T Patterson,4 Li-Yen Mae Huang21Department of Anesthesiology, 2Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, 3Department of Neurosurgery University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA; 4Neurospine Institute, Eugene, OR, USABackground: Evaluation of analgesics in large animals is a necessary step in the development of better pain medications or gene therapy prior to clinical trials. However, chronic neuropathic pain models in large animals are limited. To address this deficiency, we developed a neuropathic pain model in sheep, which shares many anatomical similarities in spine dimensions and cerebrospinal fluid volume as humans.Methods: A neuropathic pain state was induced in sheep by tight ligation and axotomy of the common peroneal nerve. The analgesic effect of intrathecal (IT morphine was investigated. Interspecies comparison was conducted by analyzing the ceiling doses of IT morphine for humans, sheep, and rats.Results: Peroneal nerve injury (PNI produced an 86% decrease in von-Frey filament-evoked withdrawal threshold on postsurgery day 3 and the decrease lasted for the 8-week test period. Compared to the pre-injury, sham, and contralateral hindlimb, the IT morphine dose that produces 50% of maximum analgesia (ED50 for injured PNI hindlimb was 1.8-fold larger and Emax, the dose that produces maximal analgesia, was 6.1-fold lower. The sheep model closely predicts human IT morphine ceiling dose by allometric scaling. This is in contrast to the approximately 10-fold lower morphine ceiling dose predicted by the rat spinal nerve ligated or spared nerve injury models.Conclusion: PNI sheep model has a fast onset and shows stable and long-lasting pain behavioral characteristics. Since the antinociceptive properties of IT morphine are similar to those observed in humans, the PNI sheep model will be a useful tool for the development of analgesics. Its large size and consistent chronic pain

  6. Blood group comparisons between European mouflon sheep and north American desert bighorn sheep.

    Bunch, T D; Nguyen, T C


    Blood group systems in true sheep (Ovis) provide an additional method by which phylogenetic relationships can be measured. Of the eight genetic systems of blood groups identified in domestic sheep, all appeared to have their homologue in European mouflons and at least six might have their equivalent in North American desert bighorns. The red cells of the European mouflon, which is believed to be ancestral to domestic sheep, cross-reacted with domestic sheep blood-group typing reagents much more strongly and extensively than did the red cells of desert bighorn sheep. It also was noted that all the Mexican desert bighorns tested were Da positive, but their blood factor was not observed in the Nelson desert bighorns sampled. This observation indicated that the two subspecies might differ from each other with respect to the D blood group system. Transferrin type D was observed in the mouflons, while Tfs D and E were in the desert bighorns. Hemoglobins B and AB were observed in the mouflons but only Hb B occurred in the desert bighorns. The systematic implications of blood group polymorphisms are discussed.

  7. Cytogenetical anchoring of sheep linkage map and syntenic groups using a sheep BAC library

    Cribiu Edmond-Paul


    Full Text Available Abstract In order to simultaneously integrate linkage and syntenic groups to the ovine chromosomal map, a sheep bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library was screened with previously assigned microsatellites using a sheep-hamster hybrid panel and genetic linkage. Thirty-three BACs were obtained, fluorescently labelled and hybridised on sheep-goat hybrid metaphases (2n = 57. This study allowed us, (i, to anchor all linkage groups on sheep chromosomes, (ii, to give information on the probable position of the centromere on the linkage map for the centromeric chromosomes, (iii, to contradict the previous orientation of the ovine × linkage group by the mapping of BMS1008 on OARXq38. Concerning our somatic cell hybrid panel, this study resulted in the assignment of all the previously unassigned groups to ovine chromosomes and a complete characterisation of the hybrid panel. In addition, since hybridisations were performed on a sheep-goat hybrid, new marker/anchoring points were added to the caprine cytogenetic map.

  8. Paternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA in the sheep (Ovine aries)


    Paternal inheritance of mitochondria DNA in sheep was discovered by examination of 152 sheep from 38 hybrid families for mtDNA D-loop polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP, amplification of repeated sequence somain, and PCR-SSCP of the D-loop 5′ end region of a 253 bp fragment. Our findings have provided the first evidence of paternal inheritance of mtDNA in sheep and possible mechanisms of paternal inheritance were discussed.

  9. Research Progress on Technique of Frozen Embryo Transfer in Sheep

    SHE Qiu-sheng; HU Jian-ye; LOU Peng-yan; TAO Jing; XIE Zhao-hui


    The paper introduced the research progress on the technique of frozen embryo transfer in sheep, illustrated selection of donors and receptors, superovulation, synchronization of estrus, embryo cryopreservation and embryo transplantation. Frozen embryo transfer in sheep is another breakthrough in the high-quality sheep raising, and this technique in China is in its infancy recommendation stage, but it will be comprehensively popularized in the future.

  10. 9 CFR 354.124 - Quarantine of diseased rabbits.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased rabbits. 354... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Procedures; Ante-Mortem Inspections § 354.124 Quarantine of diseased rabbits. If live rabbits, which...

  11. Clinical aspects of lagomorph dental anatomy: the rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Crossley, D A


    The lagomorphs most commonly encountered as pets are rabbits. There are many breeds of domestic rabbit, varying from dwarf varieties with an adult weight of under one kilogram to giants weighing 10 kg. This article provides a working knowledge of the dental anatomy and physiology of rabbits so that veterinarians can interpret clinical and radiographic findings when investigating rabbits with suspected dental disease.

  12. Lak of influence of glucagon on glucose homeostasis after prolonged exercise in rats

    Galbo, H; Richter, Erik; Holst, J J;


    The significance of glucagon for post-exercise glucose homeostasis has been studied in rats fasted overnight. Immediately after exhaustive swimming either rabbit-antiglucagon serum or normal rabbit serum was injected by cardiac puncture. Cardiac blood and samples of liver and muscle tissue were...

  13. Experimental studies of chronic pneumonia of sheep.

    Gilmour, J S; Jones, G E; Rae, A G


    Strains of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Pasteurella haemolytica isolated from sheep affected with chronic pneumonia were inoculated by endobronchial route to conventionally-reared and SPF (Specific Pathogen-Free) lambs. Changes resembling those of the naturally-occurring disease were produced in most lambs given the organisms in combination and in some given M. ovipneumoniae alone. Similar but less extensive changes were seen in SPF lambs and fewer animals were affected. Different strains of M. ovipneumoniae did not affect the extent of changes produced in SPF lambs. M. ovipneumoniae became established in the lungs of both types of sheep; P. haemolytica did so less readily. It was concluded that chronic pneumonia may be reproduced in conventional animals by combined inoculation of M. ovipneumoniae and P. haemolytica. Age and status of immunity to mycoplasmas may account for the different responses of conventional and SPF lambs.

  14. Sheep internal parasites on Rab and Pag

    Relja Beck


    Full Text Available The purpose of our research was to determine which groups and species of internal parasites endanger the health of sheep on the islands of Rab and Pag. The research was carried out in 10 flocks on both islands taking the fresh dung out of 30% of the total number of sheep in each flock. It was ascertained that the gastrointestinal parasites and protozoa of Eimeria genus are present in most flocks on both islands. The presence of the fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum was ascertained in considerably larger number of flocks on the island of Rab than on the island of Pag. On the other hand, the presence of parasites of Moniezia and Nematodirus genus was ascertained in larger number of flocks on the island of Pag. In two flocks on Rab parasites of Protostrongylus genus were ascertained while on the island of Pag they were not found in any flock.

  15. Mapping risk foci for endemic sheep scab.

    Rose, H; Learmount, J; Taylor, M; Wall, R


    Psoroptic mange in sheep, resulting from infestation by the astigmatid mite Psoroptes ovis, is increasingly prevalent in Europe and other parts of the world. As a step towards improved national control, regional or local scab management programmes that target high-risk areas and aim to maintain the number of outbreaks below an acceptable level may be an effective initial use of time and resource. To facilitate such a management approach, in this paper scab outbreak farms are identified using a questionnaire survey of sheep farmers, the data from which are then used to build a national scab risk model for Great Britain. The questionnaire results indicate a national prevalence of scab, between March 2007 and February 2008, of 8.6% (+/-1.98). However, previous exposure to sheep scab significantly affected the respondent's probability of reporting a scab outbreak during the survey period (chi(2)=53.2, d.f.=1, P<0.001); 85% of the farms that reported at least one scab outbreak had experienced outbreaks in previous years, 27% had experienced outbreaks in more than five of the previous 10 years. In contrast, 76% of farms that did not report scab had not had a previous outbreak. The highest prevalence areas were in Northern England, Wales, Southwest England and Scotland. Modelling the distribution of the reported scab outbreaks identified height above sea level, temperature and rainfall as significant predictors of the probability of an outbreak, superimposed on an underlying pattern of sheep abundance. It is argued that scab management programmes directed at these foci have the potential to allow a more targeted approach to scab control and significantly reduce the prevalence of scab in the UK and other European countries.

  16. Ural-Tweed Bighorn Sheep Investigation.


    downward adjustment in the sheep population through a general decrease in productivity and lamb survival. Through time, ecological succession has been a...are S described below: 1) Rockland is characterized by a low total canopy coverage of bryopbytic as well as non- bryophytic vegetation. Lichens, mosses...classes; snow condition was classed as wet, powder, packed, crusted or frozen; substrate was classed as bedrock, talus, rocky soil, or developed soil

  17. Formate metabolism in fetal and neonatal sheep


    By virtue of its role in nucleotide synthesis, as well as the provision of methyl groups for vital methylation reactions, one-carbon metabolism plays a crucial role in growth and development. Formate, a critical albeit neglected component of one-carbon metabolism, occurs extracellularly and may provide insights into cellular events. We examined formate metabolism in chronically cannulated fetal sheep (gestation days 119–121, equivalent to mid-third trimester in humans) and in their mothers as...

  18. Proteomic evaluation of sheep serum proteins

    Chiaradia Elisabetta; Avellini Luca; Tartaglia Micaela; Gaiti Alberto; Just Ingo; Scoppetta Fausto; Czentnar Zoltan; Pich Andreas


    Abstract Background The applications of proteomic strategies to ovine medicine remain limited. The definition of serum proteome may be a good tool to identify useful protein biomarkers for recognising sub-clinical conditions and overt disease in sheep. Findings from bovine species are often directly translated for use in ovine medicine. In order to characterize normal protein patterns and improve knowledge of molecular species-specific characteristics, we generated a two-dimensional reference...

  19. Ocular injury secondary to sheep bile exposure

    Okullo, Alfin Taddeo; Low, Tim; Baker, Louise Leslie


    A 57-year-old abattoir worker was seen at a general practitioner after sheep bile splashed into his left eye. Flourescein examination revealed extensive ulceration involving at least two-thirds of the corneal surface. Copious irrigation with normal saline, application of chloramphenicol ointment and an eye patch resulted in excellent healing within 2 days with return to normal vision for the patient thereafter. PMID:23208813

  20. Helicobacter canis colonization in sheep: a Zoonotic link.

    Swennes, Alton G; Turk, Michelle L; Trowel, Elise M; Cullin, Cassandra; Shen, Zeli; Pang, Jassia; Petersson, Katherine H; Dewhirst, Floyd E; Fox, James G


    Helicobacter canis has been associated with hepatobiliary and gastrointestinal disease in dogs, cats, and humans. Infection has not been documented in other species. Sheep feces subjected to microaerobic culture. Isolates were characterized by genus-specific PCR, restriction fragment length polymorphism, biochemical profiling, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Helicobacter canis was isolated from sheep feces and confirmed by the above methods. These isolates are distinct from other sheep-origin enterohepatic Helicobacter species previously isolated. This study identifies sheep as H. canis reservoirs potentially important in zoonotic or foodborne transmission. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Studies on Phylogenetic Relationship of Sheep Population in East and South of Central Asia

    SUN Wei; CHANG Hong; YANG Zhang-ping; GENG Rong-qing; LU Sheng-xia; DU Lei; NI Da-xing; FAN Bao-sheng; Tsunoda K


    This paper was based on the Hu sheep in China, after collecting the same data about 9 Asiasheep populations and 5 European sheep (breeds in Japan) populations. It clustered 15 populations in terms ofthe gene frequency of 10 loci and 33 allele in blood enzyme and other protein variations. The result of Hierar-chy Clustering showed that the sheep populations in the East and South of Central Asia could be classified intothree genetic groups: Mongolia sheep, South Asia sheep and European sheep, and the Hu sheep belonged toMongolia sheep.

  2. Ação do soro de cabra anti-soro de coelho imunizado ou não com células linfóides do doador sobre o alotransplante cardíaco em ratos: immunosupression of goat antiserum against rabbit serum immunized or not with donor lymphoid cells Cardiac allograft in rats

    Haylton Jorge Suaid


    rejeição aguda dos corações transplantados não apresentaram anticorpos citotóxicos circulantes. O fator causador do bloqueio parace n��o estar vinculado aos bloqueios de citotoxicidade "in vitro" e do teor de precepitinas do SAL.OBJECTIVE: To study the immunosupression efficacy an specific anti-antilymphocytic serum prepared in goats in a model of cardiac allografts in rats. METHODS: Three rabbits were immunized with lymphoid cells obtained from mesenteric lymphatic nodes of Wistar rats. Each one received subcutaneously 3x10(9 cells mixed with Freund's adjuvant. After 2 weeks, they were injected with the same amount of cells at weekly intervals for 4 additional times. In the 5th week they were bled and their serum were mixed. This serum, which had a cytotoxic titer of 1:1024, was used to immunize 2 goats that gave rise to the anti-antilymphocytic serum (AAS-1 and AAS-2. As control we immunized 1 additional goat with normal rabbit serum (ANS. The gel diffusion technique (AAS x rabbit serum showed precipitation bands against till the following dilution: AAS-1 - 1/64, AAS-2 - 1/128 and ANS 1/124. Both AAS were able to block the in vitro lymphocytotoxity of goat antilymphocytic serum till dilution of 1:2 while ANS did not. The hearts from Wistar rats (donors were transplanted in Holtzman rats. The transplanted rats were divide in groups: C1 - 11 animals (control that received no serum; C2 - 5 animals (control that received 1ml of goat normal serum; A- 19 animals - A1 with 5 rats injected intravenously in the day of surgery with 0.5ml of AAS-1, A2 with 7 rats injected with 1ml of AAS-1 only in the of surgery, and A3 with 7 rats that received 1ml of AAS-1 in days 0, 1 and 2 postoperatively; and group B with 19 rats (B1, B2 and B3 treated as group A except with the AAS-2 serum. RESULTS: Mean heart survival in groups C1 and C2 was respectively 11.9 and 14.6 days Survival range in the subgroups A1 and A2 were respectively 9 to 230 days and 23 to 230 days. In subgroup A

  3. Resveratrol treatment delays growth plate fusion and improves bone growth in female rabbits.

    Elham Karimian

    Full Text Available Trans-resveratrol (RES, naturally produced by many plants, has a structure similar to synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol, but any effect on bone growth has not yet been clarified. Pre-pubertal ovary-intact New Zealand white rabbits received daily oral administration of either vehicle (control or RES (200 mg/kg until growth plate fusion occurred. Bone growth and growth plate size were longitudinally monitored by X-ray imaging, while at the endpoint, bone length was assessed by a digital caliper. In addition, pubertal ovariectomized (OVX rabbits were treated with vehicle, RES or estradiol cypionate (positive control for 7 or 10 weeks and fetal rat metatarsal bones were cultured in vitro with RES (0.03 µM-50 µM and followed for up to 19 days. In ovary-intact rabbits, sixteen-week treatment with RES increased tibiae and vertebrae bone growth and subsequently improved final length. In OVX rabbits, RES delayed fusion of the distal tibia, distal femur and proximal tibia epiphyses and femur length and vertebral bone growth increased when compared with controls. Histomorphometrical analysis showed that RES-treated OVX rabbits had a wider distal femur growth plate, enlarged resting zone, increased number/size of hypertrophic chondrocytes, increased height of the hypertrophic zone, and suppressed chondrocyte expression of VEGF and laminin. In cultured fetal rat metatarsal bones, RES stimulated growth at 0.3 µM while at higher concentrations (10 μM and 50 μM growth was inhibited. We conclude that RES has the potential to improve longitudinal bone growth. The effect was associated with a delay of growth plate fusion resulting in increased final length. These effects were accompanied by a profound suppression of VEGF and laminin expression suggesting that impairment of growth plate vascularization might be an underlying mechanism.

  4. Awassi sheep reproduction and milk production: review.

    Talafha, Abdelsalam Q; Ababneh, Mohammed M


    Awassi is the local breed of sheep in Jordan and is the most important breed in the semi-arid regions of the near east countries. Awassi ram and ewe lambs reach puberty at around 8 and 9 months of age, respectively. The breeding season of Awassi ewes starts as early as April and lasts through September. After puberty, Awassi rams are sexually active throughout the year. The normal estrous cycle in Awassi ewes is 15-20 days (average 17 days). Estrus ranges from 16-59 h (average 29 h) during the breeding season. The reproductive performance of unimproved Awassi sheep has been low while improved Awassi has the highest fertility and milk production and are the heaviest among all Awassi populations. The gestation length varies from 149 to 155 days (average 152 days). Hormones that are commonly used for induction and synchronization of estrus in Awassi ewes include progestins, gonadotropins and PGF2α. An Awassi ewe produces 40-60 and 70-80 kg of milk per 150-day lactation period under traditional and improved production systems, respectively, in addition to the suckled milk left for lambs until weaning. The improved Awassi has the highest milk production among all Awassi populations and may reach 506 L over 214-day lactation period. The objective of this review is to summarize the reproductive pattern and milk production of Awassi sheep in the Middle East region.

  5. Parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares

    Ilić Tamara


    Full Text Available The paper presents the most important parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares, which harmful effect in this animal population is manifested as a gradual weakening of the immune system, reduction in fertility, weight loss and constant exhaustion. Order of Lagomorpha (hares or lagomorphs belongs to superorder of higher mammals which includes the family of rabbits (Leporidae which are represented in Europe as well as the family of whistleblowers (Ochotonidae which live only in North America and Northern regions of Asia. The most important representatives of Leporidae family are European hare (Lepus europeus and wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The most important endoparasitosis of hares and wild rabbits are: coccidiosis, encephalitozoonosis (nosemosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, protostrongylosis, trichostrngylodosis, passalurosis, anoplocephalidosis, cysticercosis and fasciolosis. The most frequent ectoparasites of rabbits and wild hares are fleas, lice and ticks. Reduction in hare population, which is noticed in whole Europe including Serbia, is caused by changed living conditions, quantitatively and qualitatively insufficient nutrition, increased use of herbicides as well as various infectious diseases and the diseases of parasitic etiology. Since wild rabbits and hares pose a threat to health of domestic rabbits and people, knowledge of parasitic fauna of these wild animals is of extreme epizootiological and epidemiological importance.

  6. Welfare aspects in rabbit rearing and transport

    Claudio Cavani


    Full Text Available The review starts with the description of the rabbits’ (Oryctolagus cuniculus main habits and the current situation concerning the rabbit husbandry and management systems, as well as their effects on the welfare of these animals. As far as the intensive rabbit husbandry systems are concerned, the main problems are related to the time since rabbits have been domesticated and their adaptive capacity and coping styles as respects the farming environment and management systems. Both these aspects have implications in the present and future of rabbit rearing for different purposes. Examples are given on the effects of different housing and management systems on rabbit welfare, as well as examples of the ethological, physiological and productive indicators used to evaluate these effects. Transportation and, more generally, preslaughter phases including catching, fasting and lairage at the abattoir are considered major stressors for farmed rabbits and might have deleterious effects on health, well-being, performance, and finally, product quality. A general statement of the recent scientific studies considering the effects of pre-slaughter factors on physiological and productive measurements are reported. Finally, some indications in order to improve rabbit welfare, already present at the European level, are also outlined, together with the European Food Safety Authority opinions.

  7. Epidemic pasteurellosis in a bighorn sheep population coinciding with the appearance of a domestic sheep.

    George, Janet L; Martin, Daniel J; Lukacs, Paul M; Miller, Michael W


    A pneumonia epidemic reduced bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) survival and recruitment during 1997-2000 in a population comprised of three interconnected wintering herds (Kenosha Mountains, Sugarloaf Mountain, Twin Eagles) that inhabited the Kenosha and Tarryall Mountain ranges in central Colorado, USA. The onset of this epidemic coincided temporally and spatially with the appearance of a single domestic sheep (Ovis aires) on the Sugarloaf Mountain herd's winter range in December 1997. Although only bighorns in the Sugarloaf Mountain herd were affected in 1997-98, cases also occurred during 1998-99 in the other two wintering herds, likely after the epidemic spread via established seasonal movements of male bighorns. In all, we located 86 bighorn carcasses during 1997-2000. Three species of Pasteurella were isolated in various combinations from affected lung tissues from 20 bighorn carcasses where tissues were available and suitable for diagnostic evaluation; with one exception, beta-hemolytic mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica (primarily reported as biogroup 1(G) or 1(alphaG)) was isolated from lung tissues of cases evaluated during winter 1997-98. The epidemic dramatically lowered adult bighorn monthly survival in all three herds; a model that included an acute epidemic effect, differing between sexes and with vaccination status, that diminished linearly over the next 12 mo best represented field data. In addition to the direct mortality associated with epidemics in these three herds, lamb recruitment in years following the pneumonia epidemic also was depressed as compared to years prior to the epidemic. Based on observations presented here, pasteurellosis epidemics in free-ranging bighorn sheep can arise through incursion of domestic sheep onto native ranges, and thus minimizing contact between domestic and bighorn sheep appears to be a logical principle for bighorn sheep conservation.

  8. Newer antipsychotics and the rabbit syndrome

    Masalehdan Azadeh


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rabbit syndrome is a movement disorder that is associated with long-term exposure to neuroleptic medications. Of particular interest and importance is the risk of rabbit syndrome with exposure to the newer atypical antipsychotics. Our recent experience with such a case brought to light the importance of exploring this risk. Methods MEDLINE and PubMed (1972–2006 databases were searched for English language articles using the keywords rabbit syndrome, tardive dyskinesia, antipsychotic, extrapyramidal symptoms and side effects. A recent case study is used to expand upon the literature available on newer antipsychotics and rabbit syndrome. Results We reviewed papers that addressed the following aspects of rabbit syndrome 1 the clinical manifestations 2 prevalence and risk factors, 3 etiopathogenesis 4 older antipsychotics and rabbit syndrome 5 newer antipsychotics, 6 treatment options. Moreover, we report a case of RS in a 50 year old white female, diagnosed with bipolar I disorder, that, after the discontinuation of risperidone, developed involuntary movements of the mouth that were fine, rhythmic and rapid, along the vertical axis, and without involvement of the tongue. After the re-introduction of risperidone, the symptoms decreased in a few hours and disappeared after 3 days. Conclusion Eleven cases of rabbit syndrome have been documented since the implementation of newer antipsychotics. Future research is needed to better understand the etiopathogenesis of rabbit syndrome in psychiatric populations treated with the atypical antipsychotics. Understanding the differences and similarities of rabbit syndrome and tardive dyskinesia is crucial to the creation of a successful treatment paradigm.

  9. Production of peptide antisera specific for mouse and rat proinsulin C-peptide 2

    Blume, N; Madsen, O D; Kofod, Hans;


    Mice and rats have two functional non-allelic insulin genes. By using a synthetic peptide representing a common sequence in mouse and rat C-peptide 2 as antigen, we have produced rabbit antisera specific for an epitope which is not present in mouse or rat C-peptide 1. Long-term immunization did n...

  10. Application of rabbits in biomedical research: a review.

    Bosze, Zs.; Houdebine, L M


    The first transgenic rabbits were obtained two decades ago by pronuclear microinjection. Several characteristics of rabbit made it the first and classical model for the study of lipoproteins and atherosclerosis. Rabbit models include normal cholesterol-fed rabbits, spontaneous mutants for lipid metabolism and transgenic rabbits. Though most molecular investigations of the cardiovascular system have used transgenic mice, the small rodents do not accurately reflect crucial facets of human cardi...

  11. Bobcat attack on a cottontail rabbit

    Biggins, D.E.; Biggins, D.M.


    We observed an attack by a bobcat (Lynx rufus) on a cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus) that involved stealthy approach by the cat for >1 h, followed by a 12.3-s chase covering 116.0 m for the cat and 128.4 m for the rabbit. During the chase, the route of the cat from starting point to kill site was more direct than the semi-circular route of the rabbit. Stride lengths for the cat and total distance covered by the chase were longer than those previously reported for bobcats.

  12. Benign Rabbit Calicivirus in New Zealand.

    Nicholson, Leila J; Mahar, Jackie E; Strive, Tanja; Zheng, Tao; Holmes, Edward C; Ward, Vernon K; Duckworth, Janine A


    The Czech v351 strain of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV1) is used in Australia and New Zealand as a biological control agent for rabbits, which are important and damaging introduced vertebrate pests in these countries. However, nonpathogenic rabbit caliciviruses (RCVs) can provide partial immunological cross-protection against lethal RHDV infection and thus interfere with effective rabbit biocontrol. Antibodies that cross-reacted against RHDV antigens were found in wild rabbits before the release of RHDV1 in New Zealand in 1997, suggesting that nonpathogenic RCVs were already present in New Zealand. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of nonpathogenic RCV in New Zealand and describe its geographical distribution. RCV and RHDV antibody assays were used to screen serum samples from 350 wild rabbits from 14 locations in New Zealand. The serological survey indicated that both RCV and RHDV are widespread in New Zealand wild rabbits, with antibodies detected in 10 out of 14 and 12 out of 14 populations, respectively. Two closely related RCV strains were identified in the duodenal tissue from a New Zealand wild rabbit (RCV Gore-425A and RCV Gore-425B). Both variants are most closely related to Australian RCV strains, but with 88% nucleotide identity, they are genetically distinct. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the New Zealand RCV strains fall within the genetic diversity of the Australian RCV isolates, indicating a relatively recent movement of RCVs between Australia and New Zealand.IMPORTANCE Wild rabbits are important and damaging introduced vertebrate pests in Australia and New Zealand. Although RHDV1 is used as a biological control agent, some nonpathogenic RCVs can provide partial immunological cross-protection against lethal RHDV infection and thus interfere with its effectiveness for rabbit control. The presence of nonpathogenic RCVs in New Zealand wild rabbits has been long hypothesized, but earlier attempts to isolate a New Zealand RCV

  13. Implants delivering bisphosphonate locally increase periprosthetic bone density in an osteoporotic sheep model. A pilot study

    GVA Stadelmann


    Full Text Available It is a clinical challenge to obtain a sufficient orthopaedic implant fixation in weak osteoporotic bone. When the primary implant fixation is poor, micromotions occur at the bone-implant interface, activating osteoclasts, which leads to implant loosening. Bisphosphonate can be used to prevent the osteoclastic response, but when administered systemically its bioavailability is low and the time it takes for the drug to reach the periprosthetic bone may be a limiting factor. Recent data has shown that delivering bisphosphonate locally from the implant surface could be an interesting solution. Local bisphosphonate delivery increased periprosthetic bone density, which leads to a stronger implant fixation, as demonstrated in rats by the increased implant pullout force. The aim of the present study was to verify the positive effect on periprosthetic bone remodelling of local bisphosphonate delivery in an osteoporotic sheep model. Four implants coated with zoledronate and two control implants were inserted in the femoral condyle of ovariectomized sheep for 4 weeks. The bone at the implant surface was 50% higher in the zoledronate-group compared to control group. This effect was significant up to a distance of 400µm from the implant surface. The presented results are similar to what was observed in the osteoporotic rat model, which suggest that the concept of releasing zoledronate locally from the implant to increase the implant fixation is not species specific. The results of this trial study support the claim that local zoledronate could increase the fixation of an implant in weak bone.

  14. Neonatal Treatment with Antiserum to Prolactin Lowers Blood Pressure in Rats

    Mills, David E.; Buckman, Maire T.; Peake, Glenn T.


    Prolactin administration reportedly increases blood pressure in rats and rabbits. To study the effects of prolactiin deficiency on blood pressure, rats were given saline, normal rabbit serum, or rabbit antiserum to rat prolactin on postnatal days 2 to 5. Both males and females given antiserum had significantly lower blood pressure at 14 weeks than rats given saline or normal rabbit serum. Blood pressure differences between females given antiserum and females given saline disappeared during and following pregnancy. The antiserum also lowered the concentration of prolactin in plasma 49 percent in males and decreased the prolactin response to ether stress in both sexes. These results suggest that endogenous prolactin is involved in blood pressure regulation.

  15. The phylogeographic system survey of native sheep breeds in the eastern and southern Central Asia.

    Sun, W; Chang, H; Tsunoda, K; Musa, H H; Yang, Z P; Ma, Y H; Guan, W J


    The genetic diversity and phylogenetic survey of native sheep breeds in the eastern and southern Central Asia were assessed in the present study. The clustering, principal components, structure and F statistics all demonstrate that the native sheep breeds in these regions be classified into two genetic groups: Mongolia-Tibetan sheep group and South-Southeast Asia sheep group. The Mongolia sheep group and the Tibetan sheep group had a certain degree of gene communication from the ancient times. In the present study we demonstrated that the Chinese native sheep populations belonged to Mongolia-Tibetan sheep group. However, the relationships among the sheep populations in Mongolia sheep group in China were not closely related to the geographical distance among sheep populations.

  16. Serological and molecular survey of sheep infected with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in Xinjiang, China.

    Cheng, Chen; Jun, Qiao; Qingling, Meng; Zhengxiang, Hu; Yu, Ma; Xuepeng, Cai; Zibing, Cheng; Jinsheng, Zhang; Zaichao, Zhang; Kuojun, Cai; Chuangfu, Chen


    Mycoplasma pneumonia is one of the most important infectious diseases that threaten sheep production. In order to investigate the epidemic status of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae infection in sheep, indirect hemagglutination assay was used to analyze 1679 serum samples collected from four different breeds of sheep (Kazak sheep, Hu sheep, Merino sheep, and Duolang sheep) in six regions in Xinjiang between 2012 and 2014. One thousand one hundred sixty-nine sheep nasal swabs and 180 lungs were PCR analyzed. The results showed that the average positive rates of the serum samples were 17.75 %. The positive rates were between 9.76 and 30.61 % in the four breeds. Among them, the Hu sheep had a significantly higher rate than other breeds (P sheep imported from inland, and effective immunization should be implemented in sheep susceptible to M. ovipneumoniae in Xinjiang, China.

  17. Splenic autotransplantation in rabbits: no restoration of response to host defense


    Objective:TO explore the effectiveness of splenic tissue autotransplantation in restoring host defense. Methods: Rabbits were divided into three groups,Sham Operation(SO), Splenic Autotransplantation(SA)and Total Splenectomy(TS), and dynamic changes in histology and immunology were observed for over 24 weeks. Results: Histologic study shows that the white pulps were poorly developed and central arterioles disappeared in the regenerated splenic tissue. The weight of regenerated spleens recovered six months later in SA was 11% of that in SO, and was significantly reduced comparing with the implanted weight( P <0.05). Tere were no significant difference in the number of T lymphocytes and the levels of serum lysozyme among the three groups. A poor antibody response by the rabbits of SA and TS as compared to those of SO was noted after the primary intravenous administration with sheep red blood cells. After the challenge with type 3 pneumococci intravenously, pneumococcal clearance from bloodstream in SA did not differ significantly from that in TS,but was marKedly delayed compared with that in SO(P<0.01). Conclusion: The results indicate that the low quantity and poor quality of the regenerated spleens may contribute to the inferior immunoprotective ability of 1/3 splenic autotransplantation. Therefore, it implies that the regenerated spleens can not fully compensate the original one in im-munology, especially, host resistance to infection.

  18. Characterization of introduced breed of sheep and pattenl of conservation of Sumatera thin tail (STT sheep in North Sumatera

    Priyanto D


    Full Text Available Sumatera thin tail (STT sheep are highly adapted to the local environment, no seasonal reproductive activity, and highresistance to internal parasite, but they have small body size and low mature body weight. "On Fann research" to identify morphological characteristics of intoduced breed and STT sheep, as well as an altemative conservation pattem were conducted in two location, i.e. Pulahan village, Air Batu District, Asahan Regency as the potensial area for STT sheep and Pulo Gambar village, Galang District, Deli Serdang Regency as the development area of introduced breed of sheep. The approach of Agroecosystem analysis, quantitative and qualitative characteristics of STT and introduced breed of sheep as well as interview to the farmer that raised STT in order to get recommendation of conservation pattern were aplied. The study show that STT sheep were isolated from the other area, and the populations tend to decrease from year to year. Qualitative characteristics of STT indicated smaller linear body measurements than those of introducted breed of sheep at the same age. Qualitative characteristics indicated that STT possess dominance body color of light brown and white (50.93% vs 41.28%. The STT mostly have one body color pattern (61.75%. The dominance spotted pattem were 1-10% of the body (60.29%, while the dominance of the head color was light brown (48.40%. Conservation pattern of STT are through natural process, in which the farmers are directly conserved, therefore the farmers do not have opportunity to develop their sheep farming. Therefore the conservation pattern recomnendation for STT sheep are by defending the location as "in situ conservation" or "on farm conservation" and giving "compensation program" to fanner because STT sheep farming less benefit than those of introduced breed of sheep.

  19. Molecular cloning, characterization and in vitro expression of SERPIN B1 of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and domestic sheep (Ovis aries), and comparison with that of other species.

    Subramaniam, Renuka; Dassanayake, Rohana P; Norimine, Junzo; Brown, Wendy C; Knowles, Donald P; Srikumaran, Subramaniam


    Mannheimia haemolytica infection results in enhanced PMN-mediated tissue damage in the lungs of bighorn sheep (BHS) compared to that of domestic sheep (DS). SERPIN B1 is an inhibitor of PMN-derived serine proteases. It prevents lung tissue injury by inhibiting the serine proteases released as a result of PMN lysis and degranulation. It is conceivable that PMNs of BHS exhibit decreased quantity and/or activity of SERPIN B1 which results in enhanced tissue injury and decreased bacterial clearance in pneumonic lungs of BHS. The objective of this study was to clone and express SERPIN B1 of BHS and DS, and develop antibodies to facilitate quantification of SERPIN B1. The 1,134bp cDNA of SERPIN B1 of BHS and DS encodes a polypeptide of 377 amino acids. SERPIN B1 of BHS and DS exhibits 100% identity at the nucleotide and amino acid levels. The amino acid sequence of ovine (BHS/DS) SERPIN B1 displays 69%, 71%, 74%, 78% and 80% identity with that of rats, dogs, mice, humans and horses, respectively. Ovine SERPIN B1 expressed in Escherichia coli was used to develop polyclonal antibodies in mice. Western blot analysis revealed the specificity of these antibodies for ovine rSERPIN B1.

  20. Protective effect of policosanol on atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits with exogenous hypercholesterolemia

    Arruzazabala M.L.


    Full Text Available Policosanol is a mixture of higher aliphatic alcohols purified from sugar cane wax, with cholesterol-lowering effects demonstrable in experimental models and in patients with type II hypercholesterolemia. The protective effects of policosanol on atherosclerotic lesions experimentally induced by lipofundin in rabbits and rats and spontaneously developed in stumptail monkeys have been described. The present study was conducted to determine whether policosanol administered orally to rabbits with exogenous hypercholesterolemia also protects against the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Male New Zealand rabbits weighing 1.5 to 2 kg were randomly divided into three experimental groups which received 25 or 200 mg/kg policosanol (N = 7 orally for 60 days with acacia gum as vehicle or acacia gum alone (control group, N = 9. All animals received a cholesterol-rich diet (0.5% during the entire period. Control animals developed marked hypercholesterolemia, macroscopic lesions and arterial intimal thickening. Intima thickness was significantly less (32.5 ± 7 and 25.4 ± 4 µm in hypercholesterolemic rabbits treated with policosanol than in controls (57.6 ± 9 µm. In most policosanol-treated animals, atherosclerotic lesions were not present, and in others, thickness of fatty streaks had less foam cell layers than in controls. We conclude that policosanol has a protective effect on the atherosclerotic lesions occurring in this experimental model.

  1. A valid and reproducible protocol for testing maximal oxygen uptake in rabbits.

    Gaustad, Svein Erik; Rolim, Natale; Wisløff, Ulrik


    Physiological studies of long-term cardiovascular adaptation to exercise require adequate testing procedures to quantify the outcome. Such test procedures are well established in rats and mice. However, the use of these species may have limitations, and to study several physiological parameters mimicking 'the human adaptation' larger animal models may be preferable. Here, we established a valid and reproducible exercise test protocol for measuring maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in rabbits. The VO2max protocol was studied in six adult female New Zealand White rabbits running on a treadmill at inclinations ranging from 0 to 20 degrees. VO2max was reached at all inclinations indicating that the rabbits reach exhaustion independent of inclination. Average VO2max for test and retest were 35.1+/-4.2 and 35.8+/-4.0 ml/kg per min, respectively. Oxygen uptake and heart rate increased linearly with increased running speed. Average running speed at VO2max was 0.51+/-0.09 m/s, and there was an increase oxygen pulse up to the intensity corresponding to VO2max, where it leveled off and declined. This study shows that rabbit is a suitable species for studying responses to training and could be of great importance for showing novel cellular cardiac adaptations to training.

  2. Amplification of rabbit hepatocyte growth factor and detection of its expression in COS-7 cell line.

    Yao, H; Han, J; Wang, J; Wang, L; Gong, C; Li, L; Liang, Z; Tian, Y


    We used RT-PCR, nested PCR to acquire the partial 5'- race fragment of rabbit HGF cDNA and the partial 3'- race fragment of rabbit HGF cDNA. Then, we used recombination PCR to acquire rabbit HGF successfully. Homology analysis was conducted among the sequence of RABHGF and known human and rat HGF by DNAStar. It was proved that high level of homology existed among the sequences of those three HGF genes. We used the acquired gene of RABHGF to construct its recombinant eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1(+)-RABHGF (pRABHGF). The identification of the eukaryotic expression vector pRABHGF by PCR, restriction enzyme and sequencing analysis showed that rabbit HGF gene was correctly inserted into the vector. pRABHGF and pcDNA3.1(+) as controls were transfected into COS-7 cells by lipofectamine. It takes 24h-36h after transfection to detect the expression of RABHGF protein by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The proliferation of cos-7 cells were evaluated by MTT assay. The result displayed positive effect of RABHGF protein on the proliferation of COS-7 cells. This study lays the foundation for a new gene therapy method for ischemic heart disease.

  3. A Review on the Salt Bridge Between ASP177 and ARG163 of Wild-Type Rabbit Prion Protein

    Zhang, Jiapu


    Prion diseases are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases that affect a wide variety of mammalian species such as sheep and goats, cattle, deer, elks, humans and mice etc., but rabbits have a low susceptibility to be infected by prion diseases with respect to other species. The stability of rabbit prion protein is due to its highly ordered beta2-alpha2 loop [PLoS One 5 (10) e13273 (2010); Journal of Biological Chemistry 285 (41) 31682-31693 (2010)] and a helix-capping motif within this loop [PLoS One 8 (5) e63047 (2013)]. The beta2-alpha2 loop has been a focus in prion studies. For this loop we found a salt bridge linkage ASP177-ARG163 (O-N) [Journal of Theoretical Biology 342 (7 February 2014) 70-82 (2014)]. Some scientists said on the 2FJ3.pdb NMR file of the rabbit prion protein, the distance of ASP177-ARG163 (O-N) gives the salt bridge of about 10 angstroms which is nearly null in terms of energy thus think our result is wrong. This opinion is clearly wrong simply due to the 3O7...

  4. Molecular dynamics studies on the NMR structures of rabbit prion protein wild-type and mutants: surface electrostatic charge distributions

    Zhang, Jiapu


    Prion is a misfolded protein found in mammals that causes infectious diseases of the nervous system in humans and animals. Prion diseases are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases that affect a wide variety of mammalian species such as sheep and goats, cattle, deer, elk and humans etc. Recent studies have shown that rabbits have a low susceptibility to be infected by prion diseases with respect to other animals including humans. The present study employs molecular dynamics (MD) means to unravel the mechanism of rabbit prion proteins (RaPrPC) based on the recently available rabbit NMR structures (of the wild-type and its two mutants of two surface residues). The electrostatic charge distributions on the protein surface are the focus when analysing the MD trajectories. It is found that we can conclude that surface electrostatic charge distributions indeed contribute to the structural stability of wild-type RaPrPC; this may be useful for the medicinal treatment of prion diseases.

  5. Identification of Rabbit Myostatin Gene Polymorphisms

    T. I. Amalianingsih


    Full Text Available The existence of selection on the rabbits with potential for meat has only been seen from phenotypic aspects including performance and productivity, while the molecular genetic studies are still very rare. One of the candidate genes for meat production traits in rabbit is myostatin. Totally 50 blood samples of male rabbits from Rex, Satin, Reza (crossing from Rex and Satin, Flemish Giant and FZ3 (crossing from Flemish Giant and Reza breed were used at Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production (IRIAP. Genetic polymorphism by Polymerase Chain Reaction – Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method used FspBI restriction enzyme. PCR-RFLP data were analyzed by calculating allele and genotype frequencies. Sequencing was performed in rabbit with different genotypes which represents each of the samples. Genotype of AT had two cut points of the FspBI restriction enzyme at the base position of 508 bp and 444 bp. The cut point at the base position of 446 bp was site mutation base T became A. Genotype of TT had one cut point at the base position of 508 bp and no mutation site. Allele T had higher frequency than allele A and just Rex and Reza rabbit breeds had two alleles. The other rabbits (Satin, Flemish Giant and FZ3 only had one allele i.e., allele T. PCR - RFLP analysis of the MSTN|FspBI gene segments was polymorphic in Rex and Reza rabbit breeds. All of rabbit breeds in this study did not have AA genotype.

  6. Organophosphorus poisoning in two Rex rabbits.

    Jones, J M


    A case of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning in two Rex rabbits is described. Three animals were diagnosed as having dermatitis characterised by pruritus and alopecia due to infestation with Cheyletiella parasitivorax. Two of the animals were dipped in 2% malathion solution: one died within 15 hours post-dipping, the other was euthanased subsequent to the onset of convulsions. A procedure for the future dipping of rabbits is suggested, and a recommendation is made for a lower concentration of malathion to be used.


    Sprunt, Douglas H.


    Pregnancy in rabbits alters the reactivity of the tissues to the virus of infectious myxomatosis. The livers of pregnant animals with the myxoma have a central acidophilic necrosis. Secondary lesions in the lungs are much more numerous and larger in the pregnant than in the non-gravid animals. In like manner the lesions in the spleen are more extensive in the pregnant rabbit. On the other hand the skin lesions of the pregnant animal are decreased in size. PMID:19870088

  8. Survey on coenurosis in sheep and goats in Egypt

    Enas A. Desouky


    Full Text Available A total of 75 sheep and goats from apparently healthy and from clinically affected flocks were examined for Coenurus cerebralis cysts from different localities in Egypt. Of 25 animals examined from clinically diseased sheep and goats, 25 (100% revealed the presence of infestation with one to four coenuri in the brain. The sites of predilection were the left hemisphere (48%, followed by the right hemisphere (40% and the cerebellum (12%. There was no apparent effect of the age of sheep and goats on susceptibility to infestation with C. cerebralis. Another 50 animals from apparently healthy sheep and goat herds presented no C. cerebralis cysts. The cysts from infested sheep could infest newborn puppies experimentally, with a prepatent period of 60 days post infestation. A total of 15 immature worms that were recovered from one puppy did not reach patency until 105 days post infestation with C. cerebralis cyst scolices. Pathological changes in C. cerebralis-infested sheep brain revealed parasitic elements, demyelinated nerve tracts, hyperaemic blood vessels with round cell infiltration, encephalomalacia with round cell infiltration and palisading macrophages and giant cells, as well as focal replacement of the brain parenchyma with caseated and calcified materials. The morphological characteristics of both the larval stage from sheep and goats and adult worms of Taenia multiceps from experimentally infested dogs are described. The results conclude that C. cerebralis is one of the principal causes of nervous manifestations of coenurosis in clinically diseased sheep and goats in Egypt.

  9. Physiological and behavioral responses of sheep to gaseous ammonia.

    Phillips, C J C; Pines, M K; Latter, M; Muller, T; Petherick, J C; Norman, S T; Gaughan, J B


    Ammonia can accumulate in highly stocked sheep accommodation, for example during live export shipments, and could affect sheep health and welfare. Thus, the objective of this experiment was to test the effects of 4 NH(3) concentrations, 4 (control), 12, 21, and 34 mg/m(3), on the physiology and behavior of wether sheep. Sheep were held for 12 d under a micro-climate and stocking density similar to shipboard conditions recorded on voyages from Australia to the Middle East during the northern hemispheric summer. Ammonia increased macrophage activity in transtracheal aspirations, indicating active pulmonary inflammation; however, it had no effect (P > 0.05) on hematological variables. Feed intake decreased (P = 0.002) in proportion to ammonia concentration, and BW gain decreased (P sheep were less active, with less locomotion, pawing, and panting. Twenty-eight days after exposure to NH(3), the pulmonary macrophage activity and BW of the sheep returned to that of sheep exposed to only 4 mg/m(3). It was concluded that NH(3) induced a temporary inflammatory response of the respiratory system and reduced BW gain, which together indicated a transitory adverse effect on the welfare of sheep.

  10. Alzheimer's disease markers in the aged sheep (Ovis aries).

    Reid, Suzanne J; Mckean, Natasha E; Henty, Kristen; Portelius, Erik; Blennow, Kaj; Rudiger, Skye R; Bawden, C Simon; Handley, Renee R; Verma, Paul J; Faull, Richard L M; Waldvogel, Henry J; Zetterberg, Henrik; Snell, Russell G


    This study reports the identification and characterization of markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in aged sheep (Ovis aries) as a preliminary step toward making a genetically modified large animal model of AD. Importantly, the sequences of key proteins involved in AD pathogenesis are highly conserved between sheep and human. The processing of the amyloid-β (Aβ) protein is conserved between sheep and human, and sheep Aβ1-42/Aβ1-40 ratios in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are also very similar to human. In addition, total tau and neurofilament light levels in CSF are comparable with those found in human. The presence of neurofibrillary tangles in aged sheep brain has previously been established; here, we report for the first time that plaques, the other pathologic hallmark of AD, are also present in the aged sheep brain. In summary, the biological machinery to generate the key neuropathologic features of AD is conserved between the human and sheep, making the sheep a good candidate for future genetic manipulation to accelerate the condition for use in pathophysiological discovery and therapeutic testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Early and late pathogenesis of natural scrapie infection in sheep

    Keulen, van L.J.M.; Vromans, M.E.W.; Zijderveld, van F.G.


    The pathogenesis of scrapie infection was studied in sheep carrying the PrPVRQ/PrPVRQ genotype, which is associated with a high susceptibility for natural scrapie. The sheep were killed at sequential time points during a scrapie infection covering both the early and late stages of scrapie pathogenes

  12. Doramectin and albendazole resistance in sheep in the Netherlands

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Dercksen, D.D.; Huijbers, R.


    A faecal egg count reduction test was conducted on a sheep farm with suspected avermectin resistance. Five groups of 10 sheep were formed. Group 1 was the untreated control group. Groups 2¿5 were treated according to weight with the recommended dose of, respectively, levamisole, doramectin, moxidect

  13. Prevalence and Incidence of Abnormal Behaviours in Individually Housed Sheep.

    Lauber, Mariko; Nash, Judy A; Gatt, Allan; Hemsworth, Paul H


    This study examined the prevalence and incidence of abnormal behaviour in sheep housed individually indoors. Ninety-six castrated Merino sheep were observed using 15-min instantaneous sampling between 08:15 and 18:15 h for two consecutive days over a 3-week period. Sheep on average spent 62% of their time idle, 17% feeding, 1% drinking, 5% pacing, 10% chewing pen fixtures and 4% nosing pen fixtures. Pacing behaviour was predominantly seen in the morning with sheep on average spending 14% of their time pacing. Sheep on average spent 4% of their time in the morning and 13% of their time in the afternoon chewing pen fixtures. In the afternoon, the predominant behaviour was idle with sheep on average spending 71% of their time idle. Seventy-one percent of the sheep displayed one or more of the behaviours of pacing, and chewing and nosing pen fixtures for more than 10% of the day and 47% displayed one or more of these behaviours for more than 20% of the day. The prevalence and incidence of these 'abnormal' behaviours appears high, especially in relation to that of sheep grazed outdoors on pasture, and raises the question of the welfare risk to these animals. However, without a more comprehensive appreciation of other aspects of the animal's biology, such as stress physiology and fitness characteristics, it is difficult to understand the welfare implications of these behaviours.

  14. Toxoplasma gondii infections in sheep in Sicily, southern Italy

    Vesco, G; Buffolano, W; La Chiusa, S


    The aim of the study was to determine the burden of Toxoplasma gondii-infections in sheep in Sicily, southern Italy and the risk factors for infection. Sera from 1961 sheep were collected just before slaughtering from 62 farms located in 8 out of 9 Sicilian administrative districts. The sera were...

  15. Poisoning by Poiretia punctata in cattle and sheep

    Poiretia punctata (Willd.) Desv. was associated with cattle and sheep poisoning on nine farms in the State of Sergipe, northeastern Brazil. The animals were found dead or died later after showing clinical signs for up to 18 hours. Two sheep that ingested 40g/kg body weight (g/kg) of fresh P punctata...

  16. Maxillary sinus augmentation with microstructured tricalcium phosphate ceramic in sheep.

    Klijn, R.J.; Hoekstra, J.W.M.; Beucken, J.J.J.P van den; Meijer, G.J.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.


    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological performance of osteoinductive microstructured tricalcium phosphate (MSTCP) particles in maxillary sinus floor augmentation surgery in sheep. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sinus floor augmentation was performed in eight Swifter sheep. In e

  17. Veterinary and medical aspects of abortion in Danish sheep

    Agerholm, Jørgen S.; Aalbæk, Bent; Fog-Larsen, Anne Marie


    The Danish sheep population totals around 144,000 animals, but little is known of the causes and prevalance of diseases. This study focuses on the causes of abortion in Danish sheep. During one breeding season, aborted foetuses and stillbirths with signs of intrauterine death or malformation were...

  18. Doramectin and albendazole resistance in sheep in the Netherlands

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Dercksen, D.D.; Huijbers, R.


    A faecal egg count reduction test was conducted on a sheep farm with suspected avermectin resistance. Five groups of 10 sheep were formed. Group 1 was the untreated control group. Groups 2¿5 were treated according to weight with the recommended dose of, respectively, levamisole, doramectin,

  19. Characterization of the A2B adenosine receptor from mouse, rabbit, and dog.

    Auchampach, John A; Kreckler, Laura M; Wan, Tina C; Maas, Jason E; van der Hoeven, Dharini; Gizewski, Elizabeth; Narayanan, Jayashree; Maas, Garren E


    We have cloned and pharmacologically characterized the A(2B) adenosine receptor (AR) from the dog, rabbit, and mouse. The full coding regions of the dog and mouse A(2B)AR were obtained by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and the rabbit A(2B)AR cDNA was obtained by screening a rabbit brain cDNA library. It is noteworthy that an additional clone was isolated by library screening that was identical in sequence to the full-length rabbit A(2B)AR, with the exception of a 27-base pair deletion in the region encoding amino acids 103 to 111 (A(2B)AR(103-111)). This 9 amino acid deletion is located in the second intracellular loop at the only known splice junction of the A(2B)AR and seems to result from the use of an additional 5' donor site found in the rabbit and dog but not in the human, rat, or mouse sequences. [(3)H]3-Isobutyl-8-pyrrolidinoxanthine and 8-[4-[((4-cyano-[2,6-(3)H]-phenyl)carbamoylmethyl)oxy]phenyl]-1,3-di(n-propyl)xanthine ([(3)H]MRS 1754) bound with high affinity to membranes prepared from human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells expressing mouse, rabbit, and dog A(2B)ARs. Competition binding studies performed with a panel of agonist (adenosine and 2-amino-3,5-dicyano-4-phenylpyridine analogs) and antagonist ligands identified similar potency orders for the A(2B)AR orthologs, although most xanthine antagonists displayed lower binding affinity for the dog A(2B)AR compared with A(2B)ARs from rabbit and mouse. No specific binding could be detected with membranes prepared from HEK 293 cells expressing the rabbit A(2B)AR(103-111) variant. Furthermore, the variant failed to stimulate adenylyl cyclase or calcium mobilization. We conclude that significant differences in antagonist pharmacology of the A(2B)AR exist between species and that some species express nonfunctional variants of the A(2B)AR due to "leaky" splicing.

  20. Light colour preference of growing rabbits

    Zsolt Szendrő


    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the light colour preference of growing rabbits placed in a free-choice cage. The experiment was carried out on 128 Pannon White growing rabbits weaned at the age of 5 weeks and placed into blocks (2m2 of four cages. The rabbits could move freely among the four cages (0.5m2 each through swing doors. The cages differed only in the colour of the light applied (white, yellow, green or blue. The lighting schedule was 16L: 8D. From 6 until 10 weeks of age, infrared video recording was performed once a week (24 hours. The number of rabbits in each cage was counted every 15 minutes. Feed consumption was measured weekly. Between 6 and 10 weeks of age the rabbits significantly preferred white light (28.0%. The preference order was the following: yellow (26.3%, blue (23.4% and green (22.3% (P<0.001. No significant differences were recorded in the feed consumption among the cages. In conclusion, the cage preference of the rabbits was slightly affected by the light colour.

  1. Sheep Collisions: the Good, the Bad, and the TBI

    Courtney, Michael


    The title page of Chapter 9 in Fundamentals of Physics (Halliday, Resnick, and Walker, 8th Edition, p. 201) shows a dramatic photograph of two Big Horn sheep butting heads and promises to explain how sheep survive such violent clashes without serious injury. However, the answer presented in sample problem 9-4 (p. 213) errs in presuming an interaction time of 0.27 s which results in an unrealistically long stopping distance of 0.62 m. Furthermore, the assertion that the horns provide necessary cushioning of the blow is inconsistent with the absence of concussions in domestic breeds of hornless sheep. Results from traumatic brain injury (TBI) research allow acceleration tolerance of sheep to be estimated as 450 g facilitating an analysis of sheep collisions that is more consistent with available observations (stopping distance less than 1 cm, impact time of roughly 2 ms).

  2. Cloning and functional analysis of sheep U6 promoters.

    Hu, Shengwei; Ni, Wei; Hazi, Wureli; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Na; Meng, Ren; Chen, Chuangfu


    Gene silencing mediated by small interfering RNA has become a powerful biological tool for the regulation of gene expression. In order to develop an effective short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vector, specifically for use in sheep species, we have identified two sheep U6 promoters based on the highly conserved polymerase III promoter elements. Promoter activity was measured by U6 promoter-driven shRNA to suppress enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression. The knock down assay demonstrated that the two sheep U6 promoters and mouse U6 promoter induced a similar level of EGFP knockdown. These results suggest that the two sheep U6 promoters could efficiently drive shRNA expression for gene silencing and may have applications in RNAi-based sheep research.


    R. Mazzette


    Full Text Available The hygienic status and the presence of some pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes e Salmonella spp. at slaughterhouses was evaluated in different matrix of sheep and lambs (carcass surface, faeces, fleeces and mesenteric lymph nodes according to the Com. Reg. (EC No 2073/2005. The 48% of sheep and 68.9% of lamb sampled carcasses resulted allocated into the marginal category for Aerobic colony count, while the 28% and 42.2% respectively were allocated into unacceptable category for Enterobacteriaceae. S.aureus was isolated more frequently in fleeces (11.5%, carcasses (12.6% of lambs than sheep. L. monocytogenes was found in fleeces and carcass of two sheep and in faeces of four lambs, while Salmonella spp. was detected only in sheep carcasses of a single plant.

  4. Genotyping and surveillance for scrapie in Finnish sheep

    Hautaniemi Maria


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression of scrapie is known to be influenced by the amino acid polymorphisms of the host prion protein (PrP gene. There is no breeding programme for TSE resistance in sheep in Finland, but a scrapie control programme has been in place since 1995. In this study we have analysed PrP genotypes of total of 928 purebred and crossbred sheep together with the data of scrapie survey carried out in Finland during 2002–2008 in order to gain knowledge of the genotype distribution and scrapie prevalence in Finnish sheep. Results The ARQ/ARQ genotype was the most common genotype in all breeds studied. ARR allele frequency was less than 12% in purebred Finnish sheep and in most genotypes heterozygous for ARR, the second allele was ARQ. The VRQ allele was not detected in the Grey race sheep of Kainuu or in the Aland sheep, and it was present in less than 6% of the Finnish Landrace sheep. Leucine was the most prominent amino acid found in codon 141. In addition, one novel prion dimorphisms of Q220L was detected. During the scrapie survey of over 15 000 sheep in 2002–2008, no classical scrapie cases and only five atypical scrapie cases were detected. Conclusions The results indicate that the Finnish sheep populations have genetically little resistance to classical scrapie, but no classical scrapie was detected during an extensive survey in 2002–2008. However, five atypical scrapie cases emerged; thus, the disease is present in the Finnish sheep population at a low level.

  5. Techniques for capturing bighorn sheep lambs

    Smith, Joshua B.; Walsh, Daniel P.; Goldstein, Elise J.; Parsons, Zachary D.; Karsch, Rebekah C.; Stiver, Julie R.; Cain, James W.; Raedeke, Kenneth J.; Jenks, Jonathan A.


    Low lamb recruitment is a major challenge facing managers attempting to mitigate the decline of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and investigations into the underlying mechanisms are limited because of the inability to readily capture and monitor bighorn sheep lambs. We evaluated 4 capture techniques for bighorn sheep lambs: 1) hand-capture of lambs from radiocollared adult females fitted with vaginal implant transmitters (VITs), 2) hand-capture of lambs of intensively monitored radiocollared adult females, 3) helicopter net-gunning, and 4) hand-capture of lambs from helicopters. During 2010–2012, we successfully captured 90% of lambs from females that retained VITs to ≤1 day of parturition, although we noted differences in capture rates between an area of high road density in the Black Hills (92–100%) of South Dakota, USA, and less accessible areas of New Mexico (71%), USA. Retention of VITs was 78% with pre-partum expulsion the main cause of failure. We were less likely to capture lambs from females that expelled VITs ≥1 day of parturition (range = 80–83%) or females that were collared without VITs (range = 60–78%). We used helicopter net-gunning at several sites in 1999, 2001–2002, and 2011, and it proved a useful technique; however, at one site, attempts to capture lambs led to lamb predation by golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). We attempted helicopter hand-captures at one site in 1999, and they also were successful in certain circumstances and avoided risk of physical trauma from net-gunning; however, application was limited. In areas of low accessibility or if personnel lack the ability to monitor females and/or VITs for extended periods, helicopter capture may provide a viable option for lamb capture.

  6. Molecular evidence for the subspecific differentiation of blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) and polyphyletic origin of dwarf blue sheep (Pseudois schaeferi).

    Tan, Shuai; Zou, Dandan; Tang, Lei; Wang, Gaochao; Peng, Quekun; Zeng, Bo; Zhang, Chen; Zou, Fangdong


    Blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), a Central Asian ungulate with restricted geographic distribution, exhibits unclear variation in morphology and phylogeographic structure. The composition of species and subspecies in the genus Pseudois is controversial, particularly with respect to the taxonomic designation of geographically restricted populations. Here, 26 specimens including 5 dwarf blue sheep (Pseudois schaeferi), which were collected from a broad geographic region in China, were analyzed for 2 mitochondrial DNA fragments (cytochrome b and control region sequences). In a pattern consistent with geographically defined subspecies, we found three deeply divergent mitochondrial lineages restricted to different geographic regions. The currently designated two subspecies of blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur nayaur and Pseudois nayaur szechuanensis, were recognized in the phylogenetic trees. In addition, the Helan Mountain population showed distinct genetic characteristics from other geographic populations, and thus should be classified as a new subspecies. In contrast, dwarf blue sheep clustered closely with some blue sheep from Sichuan Province in the phylogenetic trees. Therefore, dwarf blue sheep appear to be a subset of Pseudois nayaur szechuanensis. After considering both population genetic information and molecular clock analysis, we obtained some relevant molecular phylogeographic information concerning the historical biogeography of blue sheep. These results also indicate that western Sichuan was a potential refugium for blue sheep during the Quaternary period.

  7. Adult rabbits acquire resistance to lethal calicivirus infection by adoptive transfer of sera from infected young rabbits.

    Ferreira, P G; Dinís, M; Costa-E-Silva, A; Aguas, A P


    Calicivirus infection of adult rabbits induces the so-called rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) that kills 90% or more of the infected animals; in contrast, young rabbits (up to 8-week-old animals) are resistant to the same infectious agent. We report that calicivirus inoculation of young rabbits induced moderate titres of antiviral antibodies. When these rabbits reached adulthood, a second calicivirus inoculation resulted in resistance to RHD and boosting of antibody titres in half of the rabbits. Adoptive transfer of sera from calicivirus-infected young rabbits to naïve adult rabbits conferred resistance to RHD. We conclude that calicivirus infection of young rabbits induces specific anti-calicivirus antibodies that will protect them from RHD when they reach adulthood.

  8. Development of mammary glands of fat sheep submitted to restricted feeding during late pregnancy

    Nørgaard, J V; Nielsen, M O; Theil, P K;


    Mammary gland development in sheep occurs mainly during puberty and pregnancy. We have investigated the effects of a late gestation feed restriction on mammary gland development in sheep.......Mammary gland development in sheep occurs mainly during puberty and pregnancy. We have investigated the effects of a late gestation feed restriction on mammary gland development in sheep....

  9. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.


    ... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must be... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to...

  10. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.


    ... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep, and... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep,...

  11. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: advantages of cELISA in assessing immunity in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Zheng, Tao; Parkes, John P


    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is an acute fatal disease of domestic and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) caused by RHD virus (RHDV). Accurate assessment of immunity is of great importance for the conservation and control of wild rabbits. We evaluated a competitive ELISA (cELISA) against isotype ELISAs for assessing the protective immunity against the disease by challenging 50 wild-caught rabbits with a lethal dose of RHDV. Death or survival to the challenge was used as a criterion to determine the performance characteristics of the assay for the assessment of immunity in rabbits. At 1:10 dilution, a serum exhibiting ≥ 25% inhibition (1:10(25)) was regarded as the presence of RHDV-specific antibodies. Eleven of 16 (68.8%) rabbits with antibodies at 1:10(25) (rabbit calicivirus, which interfered with isotype ELISAs, had little impact on the specificity of the cELISA for the diagnosis of RHDV infection. The presence of RHDV-specific antibody at 1:10(50) by the cELISA is a reliable indicator for the protective immunity. In contrast to isotype ELISAs, the cELISA is a valuable specific tool for monitoring the herd immunity to RHD for the conservation and management of wild rabbits in the field.

  12. [The purification and isolation of a new type of rabbit-origin lipopolysaccharide binding protein and the study of its biological function in vitro].

    Ge, Xiao-Dong; Liu, You-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Pan, Feng; Zhou, Ping


    To isolate and purify a new type of lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) from burn rabbit serum, and to investigate its biological functions. Rabbits subjected to burn injury and endotoxemia were employed. The serum from the rabbits was purified by two-steps of ion-exchange chromatography (Bio-Rex 70 Resin, Mono-Q) and gel chromatography. Furthermore, the serum was identified by flow cytometry analysis, agglomeration test with sheep erythrocyte, and amino end amino acid residue sequencing. The obtained protein was applied to cultured human monocytes (U937), and the cytokine secretion such as TNFalpha from the U937 was observed. The molecular weight of the harvested protein was 48 kDa, and the 10 amino acid sequence at N end was arranged as GSQGTFTSEE, which was different to the amino acid sequence in NCBI protein bank and was so named P48. P48 possessed similar function to that of LBP and could promote the binding of LPS in a very low concentration with peripheral blood monocytes (PBMC), and also promote the TNFalpha secretion from U937. P48, a new type of LBP, could be isolated and purified from the burn rabbit serum. P48 possessed similar biological activities to that of LBP and could promote the process of inflammatory reaction.

  13. Swine and rabbits are the main reservoirs of hepatitis E virus in China: detection of HEV RNA in feces of farmed and wild animals.

    Xia, Junke; Zeng, Hang; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Yulin; Liu, Peng; Geng, Jiabao; Wang, Lin; Wang, Ling; Zhuang, Hui


    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is recognized as a zoonosis. The prevalence of HEV RNA and anti-HEV antibodies in many animal species has been reported, but the host range of HEV is unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate HEV infection in various animal species and to determine the reservoirs of HEV. Eight hundred twenty-two fecal samples from 17 mammal species and 67 fecal samples from 24 avian species were collected in China and tested for HEV RNA by RT-nPCR. The products of PCR were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. The positive rates of HEV RNA isolated from pigs in Beijing, Shandong, and Henan were 33%, 30%, and 92%, respectively, and that from rabbits in Beijing was 5%. HEV RNA was not detectable in farmed foxes, sheep or sika deer, or in wild animals in zoos, including wild boars, yaks, camels, Asiatic black bears, African lions, red pandas, civets, wolves, jackals and primates. Sequence analysis revealed that swine isolates had 97.8%-98.4% nucleotide sequence identity to genotype 4d isolates from patients in Shandong and Jiangsu of China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that swine HEV isolates belong to genotype 4, including subgenotype 4h in Henan and 4d in Beijing and Shandong. The rabbit HEV strains shared 93%-99% nucleotide sequence identity with rabbit strains isolated from Inner Mongolia. In conclusion, swine and rabbits have been confirmed to be the main reservoirs of HEV in China.

  14. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in sheep in South Africa

    N. Abu Samraa


    Full Text Available Serum samples from 600 sheep were collected from 5 different provinces randomly chosen in South Africa. Two sheep abattoirs (representing formal slaughter of sheep and 1 rural location (representing informal slaughter of sheep per province were also selected randomly. The serum samples were tested for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies using 2 different serological tests : an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA test and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test available as a commercial kit. This study provides the first published data on seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in sheep in South Africa, although positive titres have been found previously in wild felids, ferrets, chinchillas and a dog. Data on seroprevalence in sheep is considered important because consumption of mutton is universally considered to be a source of zoonotic transfer to humans. Seroprevalence in humans in South Africa was previously found to be 20% and it is postulated that this may be linked to the informal slaughter and consumption of mutton. During this study, the overall national seroprevalence per province in sheep was found to be 5.6 % (IFA and 4.3 % (ELISA, respectively. This is lower than in other countries, possibly because South Africa has an arid climate. Differences in seroprevalence in different areas studied suggested an association with the climate and a significant correlation (P > 0.05 was detected between the prevalence of T. gondii and the minimum average temperature. The seroprevalence was found to be significantly higher (P < 0.01 in sheep originating from commercial farms (7.9 % than in rural sheep in the informal sector (3.4 %. Also, sheep managed extensively had a seroprevalence of 1.8 %, which was significantly lower (P < 0.05 than the seroprevalence in sheep under semi-intensive or intensive management systems (5.3 %. An incidental finding of interest was the considerable movement of sheep to abattoirs and mutton after slaughter. The

  15. A Survey on Prevalence and Pathological Findings of Gallstones in Lori-Bakhtiari Sheep in Iran

    Afshin Raoofi


    Full Text Available In a survey of 430 Lori-Bakhtiari sheep at a slaughterhouse in Iran, gallstones were found in the gallbladder of 7 sheep (1.6%. Biliary calculi were more frequent in adult and female sheep (<0.05. Chemical analysis of the gallstones revealed 6 sheep with pigment (bilirubin stones and 1 sheep with cholesterol stones. Chemical composition of bile in these sheep was evaluated. Bacteriologic analysis of the bile in the affected sheep revealed bacteria (Streptococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. in 5 sheep. Microscopic examination of gallbladders revealed focal calcification, cystic glands, necrosis and atrophy of mucosal layer, edema, diffuse and focal infiltration of lymphocytes in submucosal layer, and hypertrophy of smooth muscles in sheep with gallstones. It was concluded that the prevalence of both types of gallstones in Lori-Bakhtiari sheep is low. Cholelithiasis can cause chronic inflammation of the gallbladder, but it is not likely to become clinically significant.




    Full Text Available This review highlights the current status of rabbit production, challenges facing the industry and opportunities available. Rabbit farming in Botswana is in its infancy and the rabbit population is estimated to be less than 1000. However, this value is a gross underestimate due to poor monitoring by government extension services. In Botswana, rabbits are mainly kept in the backyards, indicating that intensive systems have not yet been developed. Rabbits have small body size, short gestation period, high reproductive potential, rapid growth rate and ability to utilize forages. Compared to beef, chicken, mutton, chevon and chicken, rabbit meat has low cholesterol, high protein and low fat contents. Rabbit production can be integrated into small farming systems, with the rabbits being fed on crop residues, weeds, poultry droppings, and kitchen and garden wastes. The manure can be used to fertilize soils. The major challenges in rabbit production are inadequacy of breeding stock, inadequate rabbit feeds, poor management (feeding, housing and health care, lack of research support, lack of technical support from extension services, lack of access to credit and inadequate supply of equipment. The major opportunity available to the rearers is that the market is vast due to the small rabbit population in the country. The attributes of rabbits suggest that rabbit farming is likely to play an important role in nutrition, poverty alleviation and food security, especially in countries with higher unemployment levels and HIV/AIDS prevalence rates such as Botswana.

  17. Pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep.

    van Keulen, L J M; Vromans, M E W; Dolstra, C H; Bossers, A; van Zijderveld, F G


    The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrP(Sc) was detected after 6 months in the tonsil and the ileal Peyer's patches. At 9 months postinfection, PrP(Sc) accumulation involved all gut-associated lymphoid tissues and lymph nodes as well as the spleen. At this time point, PrP(Sc) accumulation in the peripheral neural tissues was first seen in the enteric nervous system of the caudal jejunum and ileum and in the coeliac-mesenteric ganglion. In the central nervous system, PrP(Sc) was first detected in the dorsal motor nucleus of the nervus Vagus in the medulla oblongata and in the intermediolateral column in the spinal cord segments T7-L1. At subsequent time points, PrP(Sc) was seen to spread within the lymphoid system to also involve all non-gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In the enteric nervous system, further spread of PrP(Sc) involved the neural plexi along the entire gastrointestinal tract and in the CNS the complete neuraxis. These findings indicate a spread of the BSE agent in sheep from the enteric nervous system through parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves to the medulla oblongata and the spinal cord.

  18. Retroviral Vector Biosafety: Lessons from Sheep

    Van den Broeke Anne


    Full Text Available The safety of retroviral-based systems and the possible transmission of replication-competent virus to patients is a major concern associated with using retroviral vectors for gene therapy. While much effort has been put into the design of safe retroviral production methods and effective in vitro monitoring assays, there is little data evaluating the risks resulting from retroviral vector instability at post-transduction stages especially following in vivo gene delivery. Here, we briefly describe and discuss our observations in an in vivo experimental model based on the inoculation of retroviral vector-transduced tumor cells in sheep. Our data indicates that the in vivo generation of mosaic viruses is a dynamic process and that virus variants, generated by retroviral vector-mediated recombination, may be stored and persist in infected individuals prior to selection at the level of replication. Recombination may not only restore essential viral functions or provide selective advantages in a changing environment but also reestablish or enhance the pathogenic potential of the particular virus undergoing recombination. These observations in sheep break new ground in our understanding of how retroviral vectors may have an impact on the course of a preestablished disease or reactivate dormant or endogenous viruses. The in vivo aspects of vector stability raise important biosafety issues for the future development of safe retroviral vector-based gene therapy.

  19. H1 histone subfractions of mammalian testes. 2. Organ specificity in mice and rabbits.

    Seyedin, S M; Kistler, W S


    H1 histones were examined in testes and somatic organs from mice and rabbits. They were extracted from washed chromatin by aqueous 5% (w/v) trichloroacetic acid and analyzed by several electrophoretic systems as well as column chromatography employing Bio-Rex 70. In each species the testicular H1 population contains at least two components that are scarce or absent in the somatic organs examined. The unusual testicular species do not appear to be phosphorylated derivatives. The studies in this and the accompanying report [Seyedin, S.M., & Kistler, W.S. (1979) biochemistry 18 (preceding paper in this issue) confirm that marked changes from the isomatic type H1 population are associated with spermatogenesis in mice, rabbits, and rats. However, in terms of electrophoretic and chromatographic behavior, the pattern of change in species specific.




    The effects of the transplacental transfusion of heterologous rabbit-anti-rat antiserum (RAR antiserum) and subsequent immunological interaction on the development of 9-10 days old rat embryos (stages 8-10 somites) were studied using an in vitro whole rat embryo culture. Transplacental transfusion w

  1. Differential Susceptibility of Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) and Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries) Neutrophils to Mannheimia haemolytica Leukotoxin is not due to Differential Expression of Cell Surface CD18.

    Dassanayake, Rohana P; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Liu, Weiguo; Casas, Eduardo; Srikumaran, Subramaniam


    Bighornsheep ( Ovis canadensis ) are more susceptible to pneumonia caused by Mannheimia haemolytica than are domestic sheep ( Ovis aries ). Leukotoxin produced by M. haemolytica is the principal virulence factor involved in pneumonia pathogenesis. Although leukotoxin is cytolytic to all subsets of ruminant leukocytes, neutrophils are the most susceptible subset. Bighorn sheep neutrophils are four- to eightfold more susceptible to leukotoxin-induced cytolysis than are domestic sheep neutrophils. We hypothesized that the higher susceptibility of bighorn sheep neutrophils, in comparison to domestic sheep neutrophils, is due to higher expression of CD18, the receptor for leukotoxin on leukocytes. Our objective was to quantify CD18 expression on neutrophils of bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. Cell-surface CD18 expression on bighorn sheep and domestic sheep neutrophils was measured as antibody binding capacity of cells by flow cytometric analysis with two fluorochrome-conjugated anti-CD18 monoclonal antibodies (BAQ30A and HUH82A) and microspheres. Contrary to our expectations, CD18 expression was higher (Psheep neutrophils in comparison to bighorn sheep neutrophils. These findings suggest that the higher in vitro susceptibility to leukotoxin of bighorn sheep neutrophils compared to domestic sheep neutrophils is not due to higher expression of the leukotoxin receptor CD18 on bighorn sheep neutrophils.

  2. Finite element modeling of blast lung injury in sheep.

    Gibbons, Melissa M; Dang, Xinglai; Adkins, Mark; Powell, Brian; Chan, Philemon


    A detailed 3D finite element model (FEM) of the sheep thorax was developed to predict heterogeneous and volumetric lung injury due to blast. A shared node mesh of the sheep thorax was constructed from a computed tomography (CT) scan of a sheep cadaver, and while most material properties were taken from literature, an elastic-plastic material model was used for the ribs based on three-point bending experiments performed on sheep rib specimens. Anesthetized sheep were blasted in an enclosure, and blast overpressure data were collected using the blast test device (BTD), while surface lung injury was quantified during necropsy. Matching blasts were simulated using the sheep thorax FEM. Surface lung injury in the FEM was matched to pathology reports by setting a threshold value of the scalar output termed the strain product (maximum value of the dot product of strain and strain-rate vectors over all simulation time) in the surface elements. Volumetric lung injury was quantified by applying the threshold value to all elements in the model lungs, and a correlation was found between predicted volumetric injury and measured postblast lung weights. All predictions are made for the left and right lungs separately. This work represents a significant step toward the prediction of localized and heterogeneous blast lung injury, as well as volumetric injury, which was not recorded during field testing for sheep.

  3. Behaviour characteristics estimation tool of genetic distance between sheep breeds

    Eko Handiwirawan


    Full Text Available Information on the estimation of genetic distances and differentiation among sheep breeds are needed in crossing and conservation programs. This research aims to study of utilizing behaviour characteristic variables to differentiate and estimate genetic distance between the sheep breeds. The study was conducted at Cilebut and Bogor Animal House of Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production. Five sheep breeds used were Barbados Black Belly Cross (BC, Garut Composite (KG, Garut Local (LG, Sumatera Composite (KS and St. Croix Cross (SC, with total sample of 50 heads. A total of 10 variables of behavior traits were observed in this study. Analysis of variances and significance tests were applied to compare between sheep breeds and performed for all of behavior traits using PROC GLM of SAS Program ver. 9.0. PROC CANDISC was used for canonical discriminant analyses, the hierarchical clustering was performed using the PROC CLUSTER by Average Linkage method (Unweighted Pair-Group Method Using Arithmetic Averages, UPGMA, and the dendogram for the five sheep breeds was described using PROC TREE. The differentiator variables for the behavior traits were standing and feeding duration. The canonical plotting based on behavioral characteristics could differentiate BC, KS and LG (with KG and SC sheeps. Estimation of genetic distance based on the behavior traits is less accurate for grouping of sheep breeds.

  4. Forecast of the Heterosis of Imported Meat Sheep by Genetic Polymorphism of Microsatellite DNA

    ZHANG Ying-jie; LIU Yue-qin; SUN Hong-xin; SUN Shao-hua; LI Yu


    Forecast of the heterosis of Small Tail Han sheep crossed with imported meat sheep by genetic polymorphism of microsatellite DNA was done in different sheep breeds. The gene frequency, the polymorphism information contents, the number of effective alleles, the heterozygosity, and the genetic distances were studied in four imported meat sheep and Small Tail Han sheep using five microsatellite loci. The crossing effects on the Small Tail Han sheep with four imported meat sheep were tested. The results indicate that there are genetic polymorphisms at five microsatellite loci in five sheep breeds. Five microsatellite loci can be used for genetic diversity evaluation in sheep breeds. The genetic variability of Dorset is the highest, and that of the Small Tail Han sheep is the lowest in the five sheep breeds. The order of heterosis from large to small in four imported meat sheep by the analysis of genetic relationship is White-Suffolk, Black-Suffolk,Dorset, and Texel. This accords with the testing results of actual heterosis. It is feasible to forecast the heterosis of Small Tail Han sheep crossed with imported meat sheep by genetic polymorphism of microsatellite DNA, which will have an important value for sheep breeding in the future.

  5. Economics Of Rabbit Production In Abeokuta South Local ...

    Economics Of Rabbit Production In Abeokuta South Local Government Area Of Ogun State, Nigeria. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... It involved the collection of primary data from a sample of SO rabbit farmers spread over 10 ...

  6. Overweight in young males reduce fertility in rabbit model

    Francisco Marco-Jiménez; José Salvador Vicente


    ... parameters and fertility success in randomized controlled trial in a rabbit model. Fourteen male rabbits were randomly assigned to a control group in which nutritional requirements were satisfied or a group fed...

  7. Hypercholesterolemia Impaired Sperm Functionality in Rabbits

    Monclus, Maria A.; Cabrillana, Maria E.; Clementi, Marisa A.; Espínola, Leandro S.; Cid Barría, Jose L.; Vincenti, Amanda E.; Santi, Analia G.; Fornés, Miguel W.


    Hypercholesterolemia represents a high risk factor for frequent diseases and it has also been associated with poor semen quality that may lead to male infertility. The aim of this study was to analyze semen and sperm function in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Twelve adult White New Zealand male rabbits were fed ad libitum a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.05% cholesterol. Rabbits under cholesterol-enriched diet significantly increased total cholesterol level in the serum. Semen examination revealed a significant reduction in semen volume and sperm motility in hypercholesterolemic rabbits (HCR). Sperm cell morphology was seriously affected, displaying primarily a “folded head”-head fold along the major axe-, and the presence of cytoplasmic droplet on sperm flagellum. Cholesterol was particularly increased in acrosomal region when detected by filipin probe. The rise in cholesterol concentration in sperm cells was determined quantitatively by Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. We also found a reduction of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in sperm incubated under capacitating conditions from HCR. Interestingly, the addition of Protein Kinase A pathway activators -dibutyryl-cyclic AMP and iso-butylmethylxanthine- to the medium restored sperm capacitation. Finally, it was also reported a significant decrease in the percentage of reacted sperm in the presence of progesterone. In conclusion, our data showed that diet-induced hypercholesterolemia adversely affects semen quality and sperm motility, capacitation and acrosomal reaction in rabbits; probably due to an increase in cellular cholesterol content that alters membrane related events. PMID:20976152

  8. Review of experimental models: sinusitis in rabbits

    André Coura Perez


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In order to better understand the pathophysiology of rhinosinusitis, several attempts have been made to create the disease in an animal model. Among the studied rodents each has its advantages and disadvantages. Rabbits are considered more appropriate for studies that require surgical manipulation or invasive procedures. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the most viable experimental model of rhinosinusitis in rabbits to be adopted in future studies. METHODS: An electronic search for studies with experimental models of rhinosinusitis in rabbits published in English and Portuguese between July of 1967 and January of 2013 was conducted in Medline, Pub Med, Cochrane, and CAPES databases, using the keywords "sinusitis", "rabbits", and "polyps". RESULTS: A total of 256 studies were retrieved, but in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria, only ten studies were selected. Many different methods of response assessment were used in these studies. CONCLUSION: To date, there is no ideal experimental model for induction of acute or chronic rhinosinusitis in rabbits, but the rhinogenic model appears to be the most viable option for the continuity of studies of the disease.

  9. Genotoxic effects of copper sulfate in rabbits

    Georgieva S.


    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the genotoxic effects of oral application of CuSO4 in rabbits by the chromosome aberration (CA and sister chromatid exchange (SCE tests. Ten male New Zealand rabbits (5 months old, weighing 3.5-4.0 kg were allocated into two groups. The first group received CuSO4 (5H2O in drinking water for 6 consecutive days. The second group was used as a control. On the 7th day, blood samples were taken from the ear marginal vein and the SCE and CA tests in peripheral lymphocytes were used as genotoxicity and mutagenicity endpoints, respectively. Results showed a significant increase in the frequencies of the aberrant cells (7.4±0.24, P<0.001 and CA (chromatid fragments 3.2±0.37, chromosome fragments 4.2±0.37, P<0.001, and total aberrations (7.4±0.24, P<0.001 after the treatment with CuSO4 when compared with the control group. The level of SCE per cell in the CuSO4-treated rabbits (9.66±0.062 was significantly higher than in rabbits from the control group. These findings show that copper exhibits a genotoxic and mutagenic potential in rabbits.

  10. Hypercholesterolemia impaired sperm functionality in rabbits.

    Tania E Saez Lancellotti

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia represents a high risk factor for frequent diseases and it has also been associated with poor semen quality that may lead to male infertility. The aim of this study was to analyze semen and sperm function in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Twelve adult White New Zealand male rabbits were fed ad libitum a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.05% cholesterol. Rabbits under cholesterol-enriched diet significantly increased total cholesterol level in the serum. Semen examination revealed a significant reduction in semen volume and sperm motility in hypercholesterolemic rabbits (HCR. Sperm cell morphology was seriously affected, displaying primarily a "folded head"-head fold along the major axe-, and the presence of cytoplasmic droplet on sperm flagellum. Cholesterol was particularly increased in acrosomal region when detected by filipin probe. The rise in cholesterol concentration in sperm cells was determined quantitatively by Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. We also found a reduction of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in sperm incubated under capacitating conditions from HCR. Interestingly, the addition of Protein Kinase A pathway activators -dibutyryl-cyclic AMP and iso-butylmethylxanthine- to the medium restored sperm capacitation. Finally, it was also reported a significant decrease in the percentage of reacted sperm in the presence of progesterone. In conclusion, our data showed that diet-induced hypercholesterolemia adversely affects semen quality and sperm motility, capacitation and acrosomal reaction in rabbits; probably due to an increase in cellular cholesterol content that alters membrane related events.

  11. The electrocardiographic Holter monitoring in experimental veterinary practice

    Scheer, P; Svoboda, P; Sepsi, M; Janecková, K; Doubek, J


    .... The Holter system can be used in mini-pig, sheep, dog, cat, rabbit, ferret, and rat. In this paper hardware, software, and anesthesia requirements are summarized with respect to the experimental work with various species...

  12. Potentially Dangerous Items for Your Pet

    ... toxic, even deadly, to birds, rabbits, horses, and ruminants such as cattle, goats, and sheep) Caffeine (found ... Antifreeze Fabric softener sheets Ice melting products Insecticides Liquid potpourri Rat and mouse bait Various household cleaners ( ...

  13. Trends in the U.S. Sheep Industry

    Jones, Keithly G.


    The U.S. sheep industry has changed greatly since the end of World War II. Both sheep meat and wool production have seen rapid declines. So, too, have revenues and the number of sheep operations. The wool industry has suffered from increased use of synthetic fivers, which were found to be less expensive than wool and, when blended with natural fibers, more attractive to consumers. Historically, lamb meat was a byproduct of the wool industry, but wool's decline has changed that. Lamb meat prod...

  14. The use of cattle to protect sheep from bluetongue infection.

    Nevill, E M


    Studies on the host preferences of Culicoides imicola, the vector of bluetongue virus in South Africa, are reviewed. There is agreement that this species prefers to feed on cattle but will also feed on other bovidae and sheep. Over a seven year period cattle kept near sheep on a Natal farm appear to have appreciably reduced the incidence of bluetongue in the sheep. In addition to immunization this "decoy" approach is therefore recommended to assist in the protection of stock from insect borne diseases such as bluetongue and possibly African horsesickness and Rift Valley fever.

  15. Diagnosis of dental problems in pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)


    Dental problems are very common in pet rabbits. To establish a correct diagnosis of rabbit dental pathology, a general knowledge of normal dental anatomy and physiology is necessary. The specific anatomy and the most common pathologies of rabbit dentition are reviewed. Techniques for diagnosing dental abnormalities - such as clinical examination, radiography and computed tomography (CT) - are summarized. Finally two clinical cases of rabbits with dental pathologies are described.

  16. Rabbit meat processing: historical perspective to future directions

    Massimiliano Petracci; Claudio Cavani


    In past centuries, because rabbits are relatively small, animals slaughtered for consumption were generally eaten immediately. However, since a single rabbit would offer little more product than could be consumed at one sitting, little effort was devoted to developing preserved rabbit products (such as salted or dried meat, sausages, etc.). For this reason, although there is a rich history of recipes using rabbit meat in the Mediterranean area, there are few traditional further-processed prod...

  17. SPF rabbits infected with rabbit hepatitis E virus isolate experimentally showing the chronicity of hepatitis.

    Han, Jian; Lei, Yaxin; Liu, Lin; Liu, Peng; Xia, Junke; Zhang, Yulin; Zeng, Hang; Wang, Lin; Wang, Ling; Zhuang, Hui


    This study focused on investigating the pathogenesis seen in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) rabbits following infection with a homologous rabbit HEV isolate (CHN-BJ-rb14) and comparing it to that seen following infection with a heterologous swine genotype 4 HEV isolate (CHN-XJ-SW13). Three of the four animals inoculated with the homologous rabbit HEV became infected, exhibiting an intermittent viremia, obvious fluctuations of liver function biomarkers alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and persistent fecal virus shedding throughout the nine month study. In addition, liver histopathology showed both chronic inflammation and some degree of fibrosis. Both positive and negative-stranded HEV RNA and HEV antigen expression were detected in liver, brain, stomach, duodenum and kidney from the necropsied rabbits. Inflammation of extrahepatic tissue (duodenum and kidney) was also observed. Three of the four rabbits inoculated with the heterologous genotype 4 swine HEV also became infected, showing similar levels of anti-HEV antibody to that generated following infection with the homologous virus isolate. The duration of both viremia and fecal shedding of virus was however shorter following infection with the heterologous virus and there was no significant elevation of liver function biomarkers. These results suggest that rabbit HEV infection may cause more severe hepatitis and prolong the course of the disease, with a possible chronic trend of hepatitis in SPF rabbits.

  18. Serological Survey for RHD Antibodies in Rabbits from Two Types of Rabbit Breeding Farms.

    Fitzner, A; Niedbalski, W


    Seroprevalence studies of RHDV antibodies in domestic rabbits were conducted between 2008-2014. A total of 12,169 sera from the provinces of central, southern and south-east Poland, including 7,570 samples collected from mixed-breed rabbits reared in smallholder farms and nearly 4,600 sera taken mainly from unvaccinated rabbits kept in industrial farms, were examined using ELISA tests. Additionally, cross-reactivity of selected tested and control archival sera using both classic RHDV and RHDVa antigens was determined by HI assay. The overall seroprevalence was 13.3%. In rabbits with unkown history of immunisation or RHD infection which came from small farms, RHDV antibodies were detected in 6.1% ranging between 1.0% to 17.2% of animals. In rabbits of the same group, but with a declared vaccination status, or confirmed exposure to an infectious virus, or coming from exposed females, the seroprevalence ranged from 83% to 100%. Among unvaccinated meat rabbits aged 71 to 90 days from industrial farms, low (1.85%, 4.17%, 11%), medium (34%, 54%) or high rates (98.7%) of seropositivity were detected. The seroconversion recorded in adult vaccinated females from industrial farms was 70% and 95%. Generally, the antibody levels examined by ELISAs and HI were comparable. However, a number of sera from the rabbits from small farms, as well as archival sera, showed clear differences. Several-fold differences in antibody titers, evidenced mainly in the postoutbreak sera, indictaed the contact of animals with RHDVa antigen. The overall results of the survey revealed a great proportion of seronegative rabbits potentially highly susceptible to RHD infection. In combination with the emergence of a novel pathogenic RHD virus type (RHDV2), it poses a severe risk of a next wave of fatal disease cases spreading in the native population of domestic rabbits, especially in farms with a traditional system of husbandry.

  19. Effect of trichlorfon on selenium distribution in rabbits.

    Kossakowski, S; Dziura, A


    The investigations were performed on 94 rabbits intoxicated with trichlorfon which were untreated or treated. The intoxicated rabbits were given per os Na75SeO3. Selenium distribution in different organs and tissues was examined radiometrically. In intoxicated untreated rabbits and in those at the beginning of treatment decreased selenium level was found.

  20. problems and prospects of rabbit production in nigeria


    with the rabbits being fed on crop residues, weeds, waste fruits, vegetables and poultry droppings. The manure can .... descendants of the European wild rabbit, Oryctolagus ... most popular in commercial rabbit industries in the .... and a water supply for cleaning purposes (Aduku and ..... Journal of Biotechnology, 2:6 34-39.

  1. A Preliminary internet survey of pet rabbit owners’ characteristics

    J.A. Oxley


    Full Text Available This study aimed to conduct a preliminary survey to investigate basic ownership factors, frequency of microchipping and insurance and views of pet rabbit owners  n these areas and general rabbit management. More specifically, we aimed to investigate whether owners possess insurance, whether their rabbits are microchipped, and owners’ views on the recommendations relating to rabbits (e.g. recommended enclosure sizes and the law. A questionnaire was designed and promulgated through social media sites and rabbit forums. A total of 1183 responses were received. Just over 29% of respondents sourced their rabbits through rescue centres. 73.9% (867/1174 of owners stated that they had no pet insurance for their rabbits. Concerning microchips, 78.3% (919/1173 of rabbits were not microchipped, while 21.7% (254/1173 were. This preliminary study found that the majority of individuals are of the opinion that the relevant law is insufficiently publicised. A more detailed study would be beneficial to investigate and provide further insight into rabbit owners and their views and concerns for rabbits. The results of such a study could help formulate rabbit-related information and guidelines which in turn could have a direct impact on pet rabbit welfare.

  2. Effects of Rosiglitazone on Rabbit Atherosclerosis

    ZHAO Qing; WEI Meng; ZHAO Bing-hui


    We sought to validate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for documenting the effects of rosiglitazone on rabbit atherosclerosis and the possible mechanism by treatment on the lesions.24 New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into normal group,control group and treatment group.After 4 weeks,all rabbits underwent MRI.After examination,the number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and level of lipid,glucose,nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion (O-2.) were measured.MRI demonstrated the regression of atherosclerotic lesions by rosiglitazone which has good correlation with histopathology.Treatment not only increased the level of EPCs and NO,but also raised the ability of inhibition of O-2..MRI is a promising noninvasive technology to detect the effects of therapeutic interventions.Rosiglitazone slows the progression of atherosclerosis that may in part attribute to its improvement of mobilization of EPCs and the reduced oxidative stress.

  3. Transmission of Mannheimia haemolytica from domestic sheep (Ovis aries) to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis): unequivocal demonstration with green fluorescent protein-tagged organisms.

    Lawrence, Paulraj K; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Dassanayake, Rohana P; Subramaniam, Renuka; Herndon, Caroline N; Knowles, Donald P; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Foreyt, William J; Wayman, Gary; Marciel, Ann Marie; Highlander, Sarah K; Srikumaran, Subramaniam


    Previous studies demonstrated that bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) died of pneumonia when commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) but did not conclusively prove that the responsible pathogens were transmitted from domestic to bighorn sheep. The objective of this study was to determine, unambiguously, whether Mannheimia haemolytica can be transmitted from domestic to bighorn sheep when they commingle. Four isolates of M. haemolytica were obtained from the pharynx of two of four domestic sheep and tagged with a plasmid carrying the genes for green fluorescent protein (GFP) and ampicillin resistance (AP(R)). Four domestic sheep, colonized with the tagged bacteria, were kept about 10 m apart from four bighorn sheep for 1 mo with no clinical signs of pneumonia observed in the bighorn sheep during that period. The domestic and bighorn sheep were then allowed to have fence-line contact for 2 mo. During that period, three bighorn sheep acquired the tagged bacteria from the domestic sheep. At the end of the 2 mo of fence-line contact, the animals were allowed to commingle. All four bighorn sheep died 2 days to 9 days following commingling. The lungs from all four bighorn sheep showed gross and histopathologic lesions characteristic of M. haemolytica pneumonia. Tagged M. haemolytica were isolated from all four bighorn sheep, as confirmed by growth in ampicillin-containing culture medium, PCR-amplification of genes encoding GFP and Ap(R), and immunofluorescent staining of GFP. These results unequivocally demonstrate transmission of M. haemolytica from domestic to bighorn sheep, resulting in pneumonia and death of bighorn sheep.

  4. Production and milk quality of Pag sheep

    Zoran Vukašinović


    Full Text Available eep milk production and processing in last ten years show significant increase in Croatia. Market has recognized the product quality of sheep milk, so today even more number of cheese producers is interested for obtaining the protected geographical indication of products. Because of specific climate conditions on island Pag, as well as specific herbal cover, numerous aromatic plant varieties, milk, i.e. cheese, has specific taste and smell which consumers recognize, search and appreciate. Because of milk production increase and achieving better quality, production regularly controls and chemical composition analyzes and hygiene quality of sheep milk are conducted. In that propose during 2003 and 2004 years, research was carried out, which had for aim to explore milk quality of Pag sheep and to determine influence of paragenetic factors (year - climate on production, chemical composition (milk fat and proteins content and hygiene milk quality (number of somatic cells count, in two herds (A and B. Climate characteristics in 2003 and 2004 were different, regarding precipitations quantity and vegetation. Milking capacity control was carried out according to AT method. Chemical composition analyzes and hygiene quality of milk was carried out with infrared spectrometry and fluoro-opto-electronic method. During milking period in 2004, on island Pag, there were considerably more precipitations and due to the fact, vegetation was exuberant, which influenced on bigger total milk production in lactation (P<0.01 regarding to 2003. Average milk fat content (% in milk was in 2003 on family farm A, higher regarding on family farm B (P<0.01. However, because of higher quantities of produced milk on family farm B, total yield of milk fat (9.43 kg was higher (P<0.01 regarding to family farm A (7,93 kg. During 2004, differences in milk fat yield were very small and were not significant. Average daily milk quantity was from 689 mL (year 2003 to 940 mL (year 2004 on

  5. Images in Rabbit, Run from Archetypal Perspective%Images in Rabbit,Run from Archetypal Perspective



    John Updike is regarded as one of the greatest American novelists in the 20th century. His Rabbit series brought him a worldwide reputation, especially the first one Rabbit, Run is considered as his magnum opus and has drawn the most concern from the critics. This thesis is intended to shed light on Rabbit, Run by applying some important archetypal terms, especially the archetypal images. By sorting out the employment of images, this thesis aims to prove Harry's plight and to dig out the theme of the empty mental condition of the whole society. Therefore, it hopes to provide a new way to interpret this novel.

  6. Anatomical features for an adequate choice of experimental animal model in biomedicine: II. Small laboratory rodents, rabbit, and pig.

    Lossi, Laura; D'Angelo, Livia; De Girolamo, Paolo; Merighi, Adalberto


    The anatomical features distinctive to each of the very large array of species used in today's biomedical research must be born in mind when considering the correct choice of animal model(s), particularly when translational research is concerned. In this paper we take into consideration and discuss the most important anatomical and histological features of the commonest species of laboratory rodents (rat, mouse, guinea pig, hamster, and gerbil), rabbit, and pig related to their importance for applied research.

  7. Teratogenic effect of formaldehyde in rabbits

    A. A. Al–Saraj


    Full Text Available Thirty three pregnant rabbits were exposed to vapour of 10% formaldehyde (12 ppm throughout the gestation period to know its effect on newborns. The results showed no abortion or foetal mortality but there were some anomalies (23.8% among the newborns rabbits which includes: meromelia (6.8%, encephalocele (6.1%, Oligodactyly (4.1%, Umbilical hernia (3.4% and Short tail (3.4%; besides that small for date and decrease in the body weight of the newborns were also noticed. These findings suggest that formaldehyde is a teratogenic agent.

  8. Plasma PIVKA proteins in rabbits given warfarin.

    Zivelin, A; Rao, L V; Rapaport, S I


    The presence of partially carboxylated forms of the vitamin K dependent coagulation factors (PIVKA) was evaluated in the plasma of rabbits treated with warfarin. Excess antigen over activity as measured in rabbit specific assays was taken as evidence for PIVKA. Our data confirm a previous report of the absence of plasma PIVKA prothrombin. In contrast, plasma PIVKA factors VII, IX, and X were demonstrable. A striking excess of plasma factor IX antigen over activity was measured and a large fraction of the factor IX antigen persisted in the plasma after its adsorption with barium citrate.

  9. Chromate reduction by rabbit liver aldehyde oxidase

    Banks, R.B.; Cooke, R.T. Jr.


    Chromate was reduced during the oxidation of 1-methylnicotinamide chlorine by partially purified rabbit liver aldehyde oxidase. In addition to l-methylnicotinamide, several other electron donor substrates for aldehyde oxidase were able to support the enzymatic chromate reduction. The reduction required the presence of both enzyme and the electron donor substrate. The rate of the chromate reduction was retarded by inhibitors or aldehyde oxidase but was not affected by substrates or inhibitors of xanthine oxidase. These results are consistent with the involvement of aldehyde oxidase in the reduction of chromate by rabbit liver cytosolic enzyme preparations.

  10. Detection of pathological lesions in slaughtered rabbits

    Guido Grilli


    Full Text Available The slaughterhouse is considered an important control point for the monitoring of rabbit diseases. In our study, 59,440 rabbit carcasses were examined, but only 1% of pathological lesions were recorded at postmortem inspection. Mainly affected were tegumentary, digestive and urinary systems. The most consistent lesion was the subcutaneous abscess; nephritis, probably caused by Encephalitozoon cuniculi, was also frequent. Pathological alterations of the liver, classified as “necrotizing hepatitis” and localized at the caudate lobe, were observed for the first time.

  11. Sensitivity of rabbit fibrochondrocytes to mycoplasmas

    Nascimento Carlos Manuel de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Primary cell culture from rabbit meniscus (fibrochondrocytes-FcrC was infected for 24 hours with different inocula (10² to 10(7 Colony Forming Units-CFU of Mycoplasma hominis PG-21, M. pneumoniae FH and 1428 or M. arthritidis PG-6. The severity of the different obtained cytophatic effects-CPE was inoculum, Mycoplasma species and strain dependant. These bacteria were recovered from all infected FcrC and the SP4 medium for mycoplasmas also caused toxic effect on the FcrC. It was concluded that rabbit fibrochondrocytes were sensitive to mycoplasma infection, as well as to the SP4 mycoplasma medium.

  12. Biocompatibility and Chemical Reaction Kinetics of Injectable, Settable Polyurethane/Allograft Bone Biocomposites


    degrade to non-cytotoxic breakdown products in metaphyseal bone defects in rats, rabbits, and sheep [15–17]. In contrast to non-setting pastes, PURs...I, and the extent of cell apoptosis (as assessed by TUNEL staining) was comparable with the empty defect control [13]. Macrophages infiltrated the...toxicity [14,24,58] and support new bone formation in bone defects in rats, rabbits, and sheep [21,32,33,59]. 5. Conclusions In this study we have

  13. [Immunological reactivity of rats exposed on the Kosmos-605 and 690 biosatellites].

    Ivanov, A A; Shvets, V N


    Immunological reactivity of rats flown aboard the biosatellites Cosmos-605 and Cosmos-690 was compared with respect to the complementary activity of serum and frequency antibodies to sheep red blood cells. Cosmos-605 rats showed changes that rapidly returned to the normal whereas Cosmos-690 rats irradiated inflight with a dose of 800 rad exhibited significant and stable changes in immunological reactivity. Those latter seemed to be associated with the combined effect of ionizing radiation and other space flight factors.

  14. Kleingrass (Panicum coloratum L.) poisoning in sheep.

    Bridges, C H; Camp, B J; Livingston, C W; Bailey, E M


    Twenty-four lambs grazing pastures of Panicum coloratum developed photosensitization secondary to hepatic dysfunction. Lesions were necrosis of scattered hepatocytes, obstruction of small bile ducts and bile canaliculi by small aggregates of birefringent crystals, and accumulation of birefringent crystals in phagocytes within sinusoids. The number of crystals in livers of affected sheep varied, depending on the amount of time of exposure to toxic plants and severity of hepatic abnormalities. Crystals in the liver were soluble in acidified ethyl alcohol, acetic acid, pyridine, chloral hydrate, and methanol, but not in xylene, petroleum ether, diethyl ether, acetone, water, or cold ethyl alcohol. Crystals were not stained by oil red O. There was necrosis of epithelial cells in renal distal convoluted tubules, papillary muscles of the heart, and the adrenal cortex. Lesions of Panicum coloratum-associated disease are similar to those associated with photosensitization induced by Tribulus terrestris, Agave lecheguilla, and Nolina texana.

  15. Olfaction in the female sheep botfly

    Poddighe, Simone; Dekker, Teun; Scala, Antonio; Angioy, Anna Maria


    The nasal botfly Oestrus ovis (Diptera, Cyclorrhapha: Oestridae) is a myiasis-causing insect species, which affects the health of sheep, goats and humans. Gravid females are viviparous and larviposit into the animal’s nostrils. Host-searching and larvipositing flies are visually guided and influenced by climatic conditions, whereas olfaction seemed to play no role in this process. However, here, we show that the antennae of adult O. ovis female flies are relatively small but well developed and inhabited by several types of olfactory sensilla. Further, we show that the antennal lobes of this species receive input from antennal afferents and consist of a clearly defined glomerular organisation. We also give the first evidence of the fly’s ability to detect several synthetic odour compounds. Our findings provide a morpho-functional basis for future investigations on olfactory-mediated behaviour of this insect pest.

  16. Issues and perspectives in dairy sheep breeding

    Pierlorenzo Secchiari


    Full Text Available The present review consists of two parts. In the first part, the authors briefly describe the state of the art of breedingprogrammes for Italian dairy sheep; then they report new models for genetic evaluation and consider the problem ofgenotype x environment interaction and the impact of farming systems on the genetic merit of animals. In the secondpart new breeding goals regarding the evolution of milk quality concept and the increasing importance of functional traitsare reported. Regarding milk quality, the authors especially focus on the traits related to cheese-making ability and onthe nutraceutical aspects of milk. Among functional traits, resistance to diseases (mastitis and Scrapie has been highlightedfor its great importance in livestock species. Finally, the perspectives of marker-assisted selection have also beenreported.

  17. [Subclinical mastitis in sheep milked mechanically].

    Vitkov, M


    Studied were the occurrence and the etiologic structure of subclinical mastitis of ewes with which mechanical milking was practiced. It was found that as many as 21,9 per cent of the animals responded positively after the Bernburg test. Eight per cent out of the 875 ewes studied were affected with subclinical mastitis. Etiologically, Staphylococcus aureus and Staph. epidermidis were found to take part in the incidence of the disease. Predisposing factors contributing to the outbreak of this type of mastitis were the traumatic injuries of the udder due to the so-called blind milking and the individual deviations in the morphology of the mammary gland. Secretory troubles were found in 11.7 per cent of the sheep.

  18. Vitamin and water requirements of dairy sheep

    Fulvia Bovera


    Full Text Available The authors review the physiological role and the daily requirement of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K, vitamin C  and water in dairy sheep. Regarding the vitamins, classical clinical symptoms and/or non-specific parameters, such as  lowered production and reproduction rates are associated with their deficiencies or excesses. Until the last decade,  these compounds were considered important only for the prevention of such alterations; currently, there is more  emphasis on their function as the vitamins can play a key role in optimising animal health. In this respect, of particu-  lar interest is the action of the antioxidant vitamins (especially vitamin C, vitamin E and beta-carotene in improving  the efficiency of the immune system. 

  19. A Case Report of Respiratory Mannheimiosis in Sheep and Goat ...

    In January 2007, an outbreak of acute respiratory disease in a flock of sheep and ... of the National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria, for investigation. ... In addition Bordetella parapertussis was isolated from the lung lesions of the ...

  20. Genetic and phenotypic parameters of body weight in Zandi sheep



    Nov 2, 2011 ... from the Khojir Sheep Breeding Station, Tehran, Iran. Number of ..... food intake and performance in the young lamb; although this trend was not also .... genetic parameters and genetic trends for live weight and fleece traits.

  1. [Black sheep effect and ingroup favoritism in social identity perspective].

    Oishi, Chitose; Yoshida, Fujio


    Black sheep effect (Marques, Yzerbyt, & Leyens, 1988) and ingroup favoritism (Tajfel, Billig, Bundy, & Flament, 1971) appear to contradict each other with respect to the evaluation of inferior ingroup members. In addition to examining the relationship between the two phenomena, this study also examined the effect of ingroup identification on them. Sixty-one female student-nurses participated in the study. To measure black sheep effect, superior and inferior ingroup and outgroup members were rated on 20 adjectives. Distribution matrices (Tajfel et al., 1971) were used to measure ingroup favoritism. The participants were median split according to their level of group identification. Black sheep effect was found only among high-identification participants, who also showed ingroup favoritism. Ingroup identification had a positive correlation with both ingroup favoritism and black sheep effect. Overall, ingroup favoritism had a positive correlation with the evaluation of superior members, while it had a negative correlation with that of inferior ingroup members.

  2. characterisation of the indigenous sheep of kenya using


    Characterization of sheep populations of Kenya using microsatellite markers: Implications ... 1 Departmentof Botany, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology, P.O. Box 62000-00200 Nairobi, .... Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania State.

  3. Species identification of skins and development of sheep wool

    Brandt, Luise Ørsted

    to the development of a sheep wool that could be used for textile production in the Danish LN II or EBA I (2000-1500 BC). Changes of the wool seem to again take place in the Roman Iron Age (AD 1-400). The genetic analysis of DNA from wool textiles and sheep bones aimed at extracting the entire mitogenome and nuclear...... markers mapped to the reference genome. The resolution of sheep mitochondrial DNA is, however, too low to generate detailed information of sheep population history and therefore nuclear DNA should be the focus in the future. Three studies focused on the species identification of skins. Traditional species...... and skin production, fresh approaches are needed, including new methods. This thesis investigates archaeological and historical skin garments and textiles using an interdisciplinary approach that combines biomolecular methods, archaeology and textile research. The aims of this thesis are first...

  4. Perceptions and actions of Dutch sheep farmers concerning worm infections

    Ploeger, H W; Antonis, A F G; Verkaik, J C; Vellema, P; Bokma-Bakker, M H


    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections are considered among one of the toughest challenges sheep farmers face worldwide. Control still is largely based on the use of anthelmintics, but anthelmintic resistance is becoming rampant. To facilitate implementation of alternative nematode control strate

  5. Sheep Smarter than Thought(高二适用)



    LONDON-Sheep, like turkeys and ostriches, are not considered the most clever animals. But British scientists said last Wednesday humans may have underestimated (低估) the woolly creatures. They could be much smarter than we think.

  6. Estimation of genetic diversity between three Saudi sheep breeds ...


    amplified distinguishable 40 bands with an average of 96% polymorphism revealing that Saudi sheep ... complemented by molecular markers and sophisticated ... Information on genetic relationships in livestock within ... monomorphic bands.

  7. Digestion and microbial protein synthesis in sheep as affected by ...

    Useni , Alain

    microbial protein synthesis (MPS) in sheep of a milled substrate consisting of a 50 : 50 .... presence of soluble sugars would supply sufficient additional available carbohydrates to shorten .... digestion and milk production of lactating dairy cows.

  8. Genotypic frequency of calpastatin gene in lori sheep by polymerase ...



    May 7, 2014 ... meat. Genomic DNA was extracted from 100 sheep blood sample. Polymerase chain ... The effect of calpains gene polymorphism on ... dation and meat tenderness after slaughter. Increased ... to -20°C freezer. Genomic DNA ...

  9. A serological survey of leptospirosis in sheep in Chile.

    Zamora, J; Riedemann, S; Tadich, N


    In order to investigate exposure to Leptospira spp. in sheep in the Xth Region in the south of Chile, 629 ovine serum samples were collected from 11 convenience selected sheep farms, using within farm random sampling. The sera collected were examined for antibodies to the following serovars; icterohaemorrhagiae, autumnalis, hardjo, pomona, ballum, and canicola, using the Microscopic Agglutination Test. Ten out of eleven flocks had sheep which were seropositive for at least one Leptospira spp. Positive tests, the majority at low titres, were obtained from 36/629 (5.7%) of all the serum samples tested. The most frequently detected serovars were, in descending order: icterohaemorrhagiae, autumnalis and hardjo. The greatest proportion of positive samples came from sheep which were over 30 months old.

  10. OSTEOPENIA in cancellous bone of sheep induced by Glucocorticoid alone

    Ding, Ming; Cheng, L.; Bollen, Peter;


    Introduction: There is a great need for suitable large animal models that closely resemble osteoporosis in humans, and that they have adequate bone size for bone prosthesis and biomaterial research. Previous investigations have shown that osteoporotic sheep model requires glucocorticoid (GC......) treatment for a long period of time after ovariectomy (OVX) to induce osteoporosis (1). However, no information in literature is available whether osteoporosis (OP) in sheep can be induced by application of GC alone. This study aimed to investigate effects of GC alone without OVX on three-dimensional (3-D......) microarchitectural properties and mechanical properties of sheep cancellous bone after a 7 months steroid treatment; and thus to validate a large animal model for orthopaedic implant/biomaterial research. Materials and Methods: Eighteen female sheep were randomly allocated into 3 groups: group 1 (GC-1) received GC...

  11. Spatio‐temporal dynamics of pneumonia in bighorn sheep

    Cassirer, E. Frances; Plowright, Raina K; Manlove, Kezia R; Cross, Paul C; Dobson, Andrew P; Potter, Kathleen A; Hudson, Peter J; White, Andrew


    Bighorn sheep mortality related to pneumonia is a primary factor limiting population recovery across western North America, but management has been constrained by an incomplete understanding of the disease...

  12. Experimental infection of wild-caught European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with Sarcoptes scabiei from a naturally infected wild rabbit.

    Millán, J; Casais, R; Colomar, V; Bach, E; Prieto, J M; Velarde, R


    Scabies was recently reported for the first time in the European wild rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus (Lagomorpha: Leporidae). We experimentally exposed 10 seronegative wild-caught rabbits to skin from a mangy wild rabbit. Serological, physiological, parasitological and histopathological changes were recorded. Three rabbits developed antibodies at 2-5 weeks post-infection (w.p.i.), two of which then developed lesions at 7 w.p.i. One of these had a small area of alopecia on the hind limb that healed naturally within 1 week; the other developed more extensive lesions restricted to the hind limbs (as typically observed in wild rabbits) that lasted until the rabbit died (12.5 w.p.i.). The third rabbit died of trauma 5 w.p.i. before developing any lesions. Antibodies in the healed rabbit disappeared from serum at 8 w.p.i., whereas antibody levels in the sick rabbit increased until its death. Disseminated intravascular coagulation and hepatic necrosis, probably arising from a concomitant infection with rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus, were the likely final cause of death in this rabbit. The mangy rabbit that served as a donor died of a multifocal fibrinosuppurative pneumonia that may have been secondary to the skin bacterial pyoderma.

  13. Changes in hypothalamus in continuously irradiated sheep

    Arendarcik, J.; Stanikova, A.; Rajtova, V.; Molnarova, M. (Vysoka Skola Veterinarska, Kosice (Czechoslovakia))


    Neurosecretion, PAS-positive mucopolysaccharides and the Nissl substance were studied in the neurons of the rostral, medial and caudal hypothalamus of continuously irradiated ewes. The study was performed on 21 ewes of the Slovak Merino breed of a live weight of 34 kg. The animals were in the period of physiological anoestrus and their age was two to three years. The first group of six ewes was the control. The second group included 15 sheep irradiated with a total dose of 6.7 Gy (700 R) for seven days. Co/sup 60/ was used as the source of irradiation. The animals of this group were killed seven days following treatment. The ewes in the third group were left for the study of mortality. The brains were perfused with 2% buffered paraformaldehyde immediately after the bleeding of the sheep; then the brains were removed from the skulls and fixed in buffered picroformol. Paraffin slices were stained with haematoxylin-eosine, aldehyde-fuchsine and alcian blue for neurosecretion, by the PAS reaction for mucopolysaccharides and with cresyl violet for the Nissl substance. It was found that irradiation of the whole body inhibited the activity of neurosecretory cells in the rostral and medial hypothalamus, thus reducing neurosecretion. These regions also showed a reduced activity of the PAS reaction used for the demonstration of mucopolysaccharides. The observed changes also included damage of the endothelium of blood vessels with the occurrence of erythrocyte extravasates and with haemorrhages. In this way, the trophism of neurosecretory cells was affected, which is ascribed to the decrease in the amount of neurosecretory material. In the caudal hypothalamus, neurosecretion and PAS-positivity were slightly stimulated by irradiation. The Nissl substance disappeared as a result of irradiation.

  14. A Probability Analysis of Historical Pregnancy and Fetal Data from Dutch Belted and New Zealand White Rabbit Strains from Embryo-Fetal Development Studies.

    Posobiec, Lorraine M; Cox, Estella M; Solomon, Howard M; Lewis, Elise M; Wang, Kai-fen; Stanislaus, Dinesh


    Embryo-fetal development (EFD) studies, typically in pregnant rats and rabbits, are conducted prior to enrolling females of reproductive age in clinical trials. Common rabbit strains used are the New Zealand White (NZW) and Dutch Belted (DB). As fetal abnormalities can occur in all groups, including controls, Historical Control Data (HCD) is compiled using data from control groups of EFD studies, and is used along with each study's concurrent control group to help determine whether fetal abnormalities are caused by the test article or are part of background incidences. A probability analysis was conducted on 2014 HCD collected at Charles River Inc., Horsham PA on Covance NZW, Covance DB, and Charles River (CR) NZW rabbits. The analysis was designed to determine the probability of 2 or 3 out of a group of 22 does aborting their litter or of having a fetal abnormality by chance. Results demonstrate that pregnancy parameters and fetal observations differ not only between strains, but between sources of rabbits of the same strain. As a result the probability of these observations occurring by chance in two or three litters was drastically different. Although no one single strain is perfect, this analysis highlights the need to appreciate the inherent differences in pregnancy and fetal abnormalities between strains, and points out that an apparent isolated increased incidence of an observation in one strain will not necessarily be test-article related in another strain. A robust HCD is critical for interpretation of EFD rabbit studies, regardless of the rabbit strain used.

  15. Survey on coenurosis in sheep and goats in Egypt.

    Desouky, Enas A; Badawy, Ahmed I; Refaat, Refaat A


    A total of 75 sheep and goats from apparently healthy and from clinically affected flocks were examined for Coenurus cerebralis cysts from different localities in Egypt. Of 25 animals examined from clinically diseased sheep and goats, 25 (100%) revealed the presence of infestation with one to four coenuri in the brain. The sites of predilection were the left hemisphere (48%), followed by the right hemisphere (40%) and the cerebellum (12%). There was no apparent effect of the age of sheep and goats on susceptibility to infestation with C. cerebralis. Another 50 animals from apparently healthy sheep and goat herds presented no C. cerebralis cysts. The cysts from infested sheep could infest newborn puppies experimentally, with a prepatent period of 60 days post infestation. A total of 15 immature worms that were recovered from one puppy did not reach patency until 105 days post infestation with C. cerebralis cyst scolices. Pathological changes in C. cerebralis-infested sheep brain revealed parasitic elements, demyelinated nerve tracts, hyperaemic blood vessels with round cell infiltration, encephalomalacia with round cell infiltration and palisading macrophages and giant cells, as well as focal replacement of the brain parenchyma with caseated and calcified materials. The morphological characteristics of both the larval stage from sheep and goats and adult worms of Taenia multiceps from experimentally infested dogs are described. The results conclude that C. cerebralis is one of the principal causes of nervous manifestations of coenurosis in clinically diseased sheep and goats in Egypt.

  16. Selective brain cooling reduces water turnover in dehydrated sheep.

    W Maartin Strauss

    Full Text Available In artiodactyls, arterial blood destined for the brain can be cooled through counter-current heat exchange within the cavernous sinus via a process called selective brain cooling. We test the hypothesis that selective brain cooling, which results in lowered hypothalamic temperature, contributes to water conservation in sheep. Nine Dorper sheep, instrumented to provide measurements of carotid blood and brain temperature, were dosed with deuterium oxide (D2O, exposed to heat for 8 days (40 ◦C for 6-h per day and deprived of water for the last five days (days 3 to 8. Plasma osmolality increased and the body water fraction decreased over the five days of water deprivation, with the sheep losing 16.7% of their body mass. Following water deprivation, both the mean 24h carotid blood temperature and the mean 24h brain temperature increased, but carotid blood temperature increased more than did brain temperature resulting in increased selective brain cooling. There was considerable inter-individual variation in the degree to which individual sheep used selective brain cooling. In general, sheep spent more time using selective brain cooling, and it was of greater magnitude, when dehydrated compared to when they were euhydrated. We found a significant positive correlation between selective brain cooling magnitude and osmolality (an index of hydration state. Both the magnitude of selective brain cooling and the proportion of time that sheep spent selective brain cooling were negatively correlated with water turnover. Sheep that used selective brain cooling more frequently, and with greater magnitude, lost less water than did conspecifics using selective brain cooling less efficiently. Our results show that a 50 kg sheep can save 2.6L of water per day (~60% of daily water intake when it employs selective brain cooling for 50% of the day during heat exposure. We conclude that selective brain cooling has a water conservation function in artiodactyls.

  17. Productivity Change in the Australian Sheep Industry Revisited

    Villano, Renato A.; Fleming, Euan M.; Farrell, Terence C.; Fleming, Pauline


    Recent low estimates of total factor productivity change for wool producers in the Australian sheep industry indicate that they are struggling to improve their performance. This evidence is at odds with the views of many technical observers of industry performance, prompting us to re-estimate total factor productivity change for farmers in a benchmarking group in south-west Victoria who had been the subject of such a negative finding. An important transformation in sheep production in Austral...

  18. The Sheep as an Animal Model in Orthopaedic Research

    J.C. Potes; Reis, J.; Capela e Silva, Fernando; Relvas, C; A.S. Cabrita; Simões, J A


    The use of sheep as model in remodeling process in cancelous and cortical bone for the assessment of new orthopaedic biomaterials and implants, in biomechanical studies and as model for tissue-engineered bone constructs has been described in the literature. Sheep are a well accepted model for in vivo studies in orthopaedic research to address the biomechanical, biochemical and histological processes of bone biology, due to similarities with humans in weight, size, bone and joint structure and...

  19. Pig model vs sheep model in undergraduate periodontal surgical training.

    Larsen, Patryk Daniel; Tronsen, Eyvind; Bøen, Kim Reisæter


    Objective: The objective of this study was to further develop the sheep model for periodontal surgical training to undergraduate students, and compare it to the more commonly used pig model. Method: Periodontal measurements as pocket depth and gingival width were measured on a total number of 10 sheep and 9 pigs, and a pre-established list of surgical procedures were performed on both types of specimen in different areas of the dentition; gingivectomy, modified access flap w...

  20. Study on the Prevention of Rabbit Hair from Loss

    刘世春; 张华鹏; 姚穆


    A new method is presented to solve the problem of loss of rabbit hair by using ES fiber blending with rabbit hair. ES fiber is used to bond the rabbit hair to prevent the rabbit hair from losing after heat setting. The factors affecting hair loss are heat setting temperature, rabbit hair/ES fiber blend ratio, fabric heating setting, twistsof yarn, etc. Temperature of heat setting and ES fiber content are the two key factors This method has almost no detrimental effect on the coziness of the fabric, which is better than other hair loss prevention methods.

  1. Angiotensin metabolism in renal proximal tubules, urine, and serum of sheep: evidence for ACE2-dependent processing of angiotensin II.

    Shaltout, Hossam A; Westwood, Brian M; Averill, David B; Ferrario, Carlos M; Figueroa, Jorge P; Diz, Debra I; Rose, James C; Chappell, Mark C


    Despite the evidence that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)2 is a component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), the influence of ACE2 on angiotensin metabolism within the kidney is not well known, particularly in experimental models other than rats or mice. Therefore, we investigated the metabolism of the angiotensins in isolated proximal tubules, urine, and serum from sheep. Radiolabeled [(125)I]ANG I was hydrolyzed primarily to ANG II and ANG-(1-7) by ACE and neprilysin, respectively, in sheep proximal tubules. The ACE2 product ANG-(1-9) from ANG I was not detected in the absence or presence of ACE and neprilysin inhibition. In contrast, the proximal tubules contained robust ACE2 activity that converted ANG II to ANG-(1-7). Immunoblots utilizing an NH(2) terminal-directed ACE2 antibody revealed a single 120-kDa band in proximal tubule membranes. ANG-(1-7) was not a stable product in the tubule preparation and was rapidly hydrolyzed to ANG-(1-5) and ANG-(1-4) by ACE and neprilysin, respectively. Comparison of activities in the proximal tubules with nonsaturating concentrations of substrate revealed equivalent activities for ACE (ANG I to ANG II: 248 +/- 17 fmol x mg(-1) x min(-1)) and ACE2 [ANG II to ANG-(1-7): 253 +/- 11 fmol x mg(-1) x min(-1)], but lower neprilysin activity [ANG II to ANG-(1-4): 119 +/- 24 fmol x mg(-1) x min(-1); P < 0.05 vs. ACE or ACE2]. Urinary metabolism of ANG I and ANG II was similar to the proximal tubules; soluble ACE2 activity was also detectable in sheep serum. In conclusion, sheep tissues contain abundant ACE2 activity that converts ANG II to ANG-(1-7) but does not participate in the processing of ANG I into ANG-(1-9).

  2. Possible interaction between myxomatosis and calicivirosis related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease affecting the European rabbit.

    Marchandeau, S; Bertagnoli, S; Peralta, B; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Letty, J; Reitz, F


    Serological data on myxoma virus, rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) virus and RHD-like viruses in juvenile rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) trapped in 1995, 1996 and 1997 in two areas of France were analysed. For each disease, the effects of bodyweight, year, month and seropositivity for the other disease were modelled by using logistic regressions. In one area, a model including RHD seropositivity was selected to explain the myxoma virus seropositivity. Models including myxoma virus seropositivity were selected to explain the RHD seropositivity in both areas, and the odds of a rabbit being seropositive to both viruses were 5.1 and 8.4 times higher than the odds of a rabbit being seronegative to myxoma virus and seropositive to RHD. The year and bodyweight had significant effects for myxomatosis in one area and for RHD in both areas.

  3. Prediction of sheep responses by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    Eckman, D D; Shenk, J S; Wangsness, P J; Westerhaus, M O


    Prediction of animal response from near infrared reflectance spectra of feeds was compared with predictions from chemical analyses. Sixty samples of pure and mixed forage-based diets were obtained from sheep intake and digestion trials. Sheep responses measured were digestible energy, dry matter intake, and calculated intake of digestible energy. Diets were analyzed chemically for protein, neutral detergent fiber, and in vitro dry matter disappearance. Coefficients of multiple determination and standard errors for fitting the sheep responses to these 60 diverse diets by regression equations developed from chemical analyses (.62 to .70) or spectra (.63 to .72) were similar. The 60 diets were divided into two sets of 30; one set was used to develop calibration equations for each sheep response, and the second set was used to test the equations. Calibration and errors of prediction were similar. When wavelengths chosen for each of the laboratory measurements were used to fit the sheep responses, standard errors were higher than when responses of sheep were predicted directly from spectra. The scanning instrument has the capability of predicting laboratory analyses and shows potential for predicting animal response as accurately as animal response can be predicted from laboratory analyses.

  4. Prevalence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in desert bighorn sheep in Arizona

    Justice-Allen, Anne E.; Luedtke, Clint J.; Overstreet, Matthew; Cain, James W.; Stephenson, Thomas R.


    To assess the potential for an epizootic of pneumonia to result from either natural immigration or translocation, we compared the seroprevalence to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in several populations of desert bighorn sheep in Arizona. We collected blood samples and nasal or oropharyngeal swabs from 124 desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) from 6 populations in Arizona in 2009 and 2010. M. ovipneumoniae organisms were detected by PCR in 22%, whereas antibodies to M. ovipneumoniae were detected in 47% of tested bighorn sheep. Mycoplasma antibodies were not found in 2 of 6 populations, indicating some bighorn sheep populations in Arizona are naïve to this bacterium. In contrast, others had seroprevalence rates up to 80%. We were able to compare seroprevalence rates and titers over time in 9 individuals (7 individuals included in the 124 bighorn sheep sampled in 2009 and 2010, and 2 individuals originally captured in 2006). Antibody titers persisted for 12 months in individuals from the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge (n = 7) while antibody titers appeared to decline in the Kanab Creek population (n = 2). M. ovipneumoniae is present or has been present in several, but not all, populations of bighorn sheep in Arizona. The results demonstrate the importance of routine health testing for future translocation efforts to reduce disease risk for naive populations.

  5. Towards a unique and transmissible vaccine against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease for rabbit populations

    Angulo, Elena; Bárcena, Juan


    Currently available vaccines against myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) are not suited to immunise wild rabbit populations, as vaccines need to be delivered individually by conventional veterinary practices. As an alternative approach, research in Spain has focused on the development of a transmissible vaccine. A recombinant virus has been constructed based on a naturally attenuated myxoma virus (MV) field strain, expressing the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). Following inocu...

  6. Towards a unique and transmissible vaccine against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease for rabbit populations

    Angulo, Elena; Bárcena, Juan


    Currently available vaccines against myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) are not suited to immunise wild rabbit populations, as vaccines need to be delivered individually by conventional veterinary practices. As an alternative approach, research in Spain has focused on the development of a transmissible vaccine. A recombinant virus has been constructed based on a naturally attenuated myxoma virus (MV) field strain, expressing the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). Following inocu...

  7. 消炎镇痛液混合牛痘疫苗致炎兔皮提取物对大鼠坐骨神经损伤的效应%Effect of anti-inflammation-analgesic injection combined with extract from rabbit skin inflamed by vaccinia virus on sciatic nerve injury in rats

    魏淑明; 赵志辉; 陈晶; 王秀丽


    目的 评价消炎镇痛液混合牛痘疫苗致炎兔皮提取物(ERSVV)对大鼠坐骨神经损伤的效应.方法 成年SD大鼠50只,雌雄各半,体重260~300 g,采用随机数字表法,将大鼠随机分为5组(n=10):假手术组(S组)、坐骨神经慢性压迫性损伤组(CCI组)、消炎镇痛液组(A组)、EBSVV组(E组)和混合用药组(A+E组).CCI组、A组、E组和A+E组制备大鼠坐骨神经慢性压迫性损伤模型;S组仅暴露坐骨神经.在坐骨神经旁置管,于术后14 d开始给药,A组注射消炎镇痛液0.2Ml[地塞米松棕榈酸酯0.05ml(4 mg/ml)、2%利多卡因0.05 ml、维生素B120.05 ml(0.5 mg/ml)和注射用水0.05ml)];E组注射ERSVV 0.2ml(40 U/ml);A+E组注射消炎镇痛液(去掉注射用水0.05 ml)+ERSVV0.05 ml共0.2 ml.第1天给药后,地塞米松棕榈酸酯改为注射用水,持续给药14 d.分别于术前1 d(基础状态)、术后1、5、7、14、21、28 d时测定机械缩足阈值(MWT).5组分别于术后14、28 d时取5只大鼠,暴露坐骨神经,测定运动神经传导速度(NCV)及复合肌肉运动电位波幅(AP),然后取结扎处坐骨神经,光镜下观察病理学结果,计数轴突数,并测定髓鞘厚度.结果 与S组比较,CCI组MW、AP、轴突计数和髓鞘厚度降低,NCV减慢(P<0.01);与CCI组比较,A组和E组MWT、AP、轴突计数和髓鞘厚度升高,NCV增快(P<0.05);与A组或E组比较,A+E组MWT、AP、轴突计数和髓鞘厚度升高,NCV增快(P<0.05或0.01).结论 与消炎镇痛液或ERSVV比较,两种药物混合应用可进一步减轻大鼠慢性压迫性坐骨神经损伤.%Objective To investigate the effect of anti-inflammation-analgesic injection (AIAI) combined with extract from rabbit skin inflamed by vaccinia virus (ERSVV) on repair of the damaged sciatic nerve in rats.Methods Fifty adult SD rats of both sexes weighing 260-300 g were randomly divided into 5 gronps ( n = 10each): sham operation group (group S); sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury group

  8. Prevalence and pathological study on rabbit hepatic coccidiosis in Taiwan.

    Wang, J S; Tsai, S F


    Five breeds of rabbits, which included the New Zealand, Californian, Spot, Rex and Angora rabbit, were found from a survey of 1,152 rabbits in Taiwan. The prevalence of coccidia in young rabbits (weaning-2 months old) was 95% to 100%. Adult female rabbits usually acted as carriers within the farm and transmitted the parasite to young rabbits, which caused severe infection with clinical signs and even death. Parasitism of hepatic coccidia (Eimeria stiedai) in the rabbit led to severe mortality. Numerous and scattered white nodules about 0.1 to 0.5 cm in diameter were seen on the liver surface and dark greenish mucoid exudate was found in intestinal lumen. Histopathologic lesions included hyperplasia of the bile duct epithelium with different developmental stages of coccidia within. Oocysts could be seen in the lumen, and granuloma tissues encircle the bile duct with infiltration of inflammatory cells. The other organs were not infected.

  9. Encephalitozoonosis in household pet Nederland Dwarf rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Valencakova, A; Balent, P; Petrovova, E; Novotny, F; Luptakova, L


    The paper presents the results of examination of 32 domestically bred rabbits, the breed Nederland Dwarf of Oryctolagus cuniculus, for the presence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi microsporidian species. The results of serological tests for E. cuniculi in 32 rabbits are reviewed along with other follow-up studies of clinical cases. Blood samples were taken from 7 asymptomatic rabbits and 25 rabbits showing neurological and ocular signs suggestive of encephalitozoonosis. In the asymptomatic group, 5 out of 7 rabbits were seropositive (71%). 16 rabbits with clinical diseases showed neurological sings, including torticollis, circus-like movements, loss of weight; 6 of them also showed ataxia, anorexia, asthenia of hind-limbs and 3 showed ocular signs. All 25 rabbits were seropositive. The spores of E. cuniculi were isolated from the faecal samples or kidneys and brain of an animal and subsequently were used for DNA isolation and PCR analysis.

  10. Regulation of sheep α-TTP by dietary vitamin E and preparation of monoclonal antibody for sheep α-TTP.

    Liu, Kun; Luo, Hai-Ling; Zuo, Zhao-Yun; Jia, Hui-Na; Zhang, Yu-Wei; Chang, Yan-Fei; Jiao, Li-Juan


    α-Tocopherol transfer protein (α-TTP) is a cytosolic protein that plays an important role in regulating concentrations of plasma α-tocopherol (the most bio-active form of vitamin E). Despite the central roles that α-TTP plays in maintaining vitamin E adequacy, we have only recently proved the existence of the α-TTP gene in sheep and, for the first time, cloned its full-length cDNA. However, the study of sheep α-TTP is still in its infancy. In the present study, thirty-five local male lambs of Tan sheep with similar initial body weight were randomly divided into five groups and fed with diets supplemented with 0 (control group), 20, 100, 200, 2000IU·sheep(-1)·d(-1) vitamin E for 120 days. At the end of the experiment, the plasma and liver vitamin E contents were analyzed first and then α-TTP mRNA and protein expression levels were determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western-blot analysis, respectively. In addition, as no sheep α-TTP antibody was available, a specific monoclonal antibody (McAb) against the ovine α-TTP protein was prepared. The effect of vitamin E supplementation was confirmed by the significant changes in the concentrations of vitamin E in the plasma and liver. As shown by qRT-PCR and Western-blot analysis, dietary vitamin E does not affect sheep α-TTP gene expression, except for high levels of vitamin E supplementation, which significantly increased expression at the protein level. Importantly, the specific sheep anti-α-TTP McAb we generated could provide optimal recognition in ELISA, Western-blot and immunohistochemistry assays, which will be a powerful tool in future studies of the biological functions of sheep α-TTP.

  11. Ultrastructural researches on rabbit myxomatosis. Lymphnodal lesions.

    Marcato, P S; Simoni, P


    Ultrastructural examination of head and neck lymph nodes in rabbits with spontaneous subacute myxomatosis showed fusion of immature reticuloendothelial cells which lead to the formation of polykarocytes. There was no ultrastructural evidence of viral infection of these polykaryocytes. Histiosyncytial lymphadenitis can be considered a specific lesion of myxomatosis.

  12. Rabbit trochlear model of osteochondral allograft transplantation.

    To, Nhat; Curtiss, Shane; Neu, Corey P; Salgado, Christopher J; Jamali, Amir A


    Allografting and autografting of osteochondral tissues is a promising strategy to treat articular cartilage lesions in damaged joints. We developed a new model of fresh osteochondral allografting using the entire rabbit trochlea. The objective of the current study was to demonstrate that this model would achieve reproducible graft-host healing and maintain normal articular cartilage histologic, immunolocalization, and biochemical characteristics after transplantation under diverse storage and transplantation conditions. New Zealand white (n = 8) and Dutch belted (n = 8) rabbits underwent a 2-stage transplantation operation using osteochondral grafts that had been stored for 2 or 4 wk. Trochlear grafts harvested from the left knee were transplanted to the right knee as either autografts or allografts. Grafts were fixed with 22-gauge steel wire or 3-0 nylon suture. Rabbits were euthanized for evaluation at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 12 wk after transplantation. All grafts that remained in vivo for at least 4 wk demonstrated 100% interface healing by microCT. Trabecular bridging was present at the host-graft interface starting at 2 wk after transplantation, with no significant difference in cartilage histology between the various groups. The combined histology scores indicated minimal evidence of osteoarthritis. Immunostaining revealed that superficial zone protein was localized at the surface of all transplants. The rabbit trochlear model met our criteria for a successful model in regard to the ease of the procedure, low rate of surgical complications, relatively large articular cartilage surface area, and amount of host-graft bone interface available for analysis.

  13. Strategies for rearing of rabbit does

    Rommers, J.M.


    This thesis describes the effects of different rearing strategies for young rabbit does on body development and reproduction performance. In current rearing, does are often fed to appetite from weaning to first insemination. First insemination is applied when 75 to 80% of mature body weight (BW) is

  14. Immunostimulant Effect of Egyptian Propolis in Rabbits

    Nassar, Somya A.; Mohamed, Amira H.; Soufy, Hamdy; Nasr, Soad M.; Mahran, K. M.


    The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of ethanolic extract of Egyptian propolis given alone or in combination with inactivated Pasteurella multocida vaccine on rabbits challenged with a virulent strain of Pasteurella multocida. Fifty-six New-Zealand rabbits, 6–8 weeks old and non-vaccinated against pasteurellosis, were randomly divided into eight equal groups. The first group was kept as a control for the experiment. The other groups received different treatments with propolis extract, inactivated vaccine, or both. The experiment continued for seven weeks during which clinical signs, body weight, and mortality rate were monitored, and blood samples were collected weekly for evaluating the leukogram, serum biochemistry, and immune response in all groups of animals. At the end of the seventh week, the animals were subjected to challenge with a virulent strain of Pasteurella multocida. Two weeks later, tissue specimens were collected from different organs for histopathological examination. Results showed that rabbits of the groups treated with both propolis and the vaccine by different routes appeared healthy after challenge. It has been concluded that alcoholic extract of propolis administrated in combination with inactivated Pasteurella multocida vaccine has no adverse effects on the general health conditions and enhances immune response in rabbits. PMID:22654648

  15. Strategies for rearing of rabbit does

    Rommers, J.M.


    This thesis describes the effects of different rearing strategies for young rabbit does on body development and reproduction performance. In current rearing, does are often fed to appetite from weaning to first insemination. First insemination is applied when 75 to 80% of mature body weight (BW) is

  16. Cells involved in the immune response. XXIX Establishment of optimal conditions for the primary and secondary immune responses by rabbit lymphoid cells in vitro.

    Richter, M; Behelak, Y


    Attempts were made to initiate the primary and secondary humoral immune responses to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) in vitro as determined by the hemolytic plaque-forming cell (PFC) response, with cell suspensions prepared from a variety of lymphoid organs of the rabbit- thymus, bone marrow, spleen, appendix, sacculus rotundus, Peyer's patches, popliteal lymph node and circulating leukocytes. A number of different media and gaseous phases were utilized in order to establish the optimal conditions for the immune response in vitro. The induction of a secondary PFC response was consistently obtained with 'memory' spleen cells obtained from rabbits 3-6 months following intravenous immunization with SRBC but not with cells of any of the other lymphoid organs, and this response probably represents the activity of memory cells which reside in the rabbit spleen. A primary response was observed only with 'normal' spleen cells, and the medium which faciliated the response was different from that which facilitated the induction of the secondary response in vitro. It was also observed, using a medium in which normal spleen cells were incapable of generating PFC', that mixed cultures of normal spleen and normal appendix or bone marrow cells could give a marked PFC reponse in vitro. Whether the PFC response to SRBCs obtained with the lymphoid cells of normal, unimmunized rabbits represent a true primary response, a secondary response, or a response of a different nature as a consequence of continuous subthreshold immunization of the rabbit with enteric microorganisms which cross-react with the antigen, remains to be determined. However, out initial successes with cultures consisting of cells of at least two distinct lymphoid organs in cases where the cells of any one of these organs could not respond, suggest that interaction of at least two functionally distinct cells is required and that the repsonse observed in vitro is probably a primary immune response.

  17. The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), a source of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis.

    Robinson, G; Chalmers, R M


    Cryptosporidium spp. have been found in the faeces of over 150 mammalian host species, but the risks to public health from wildlife are poorly understood. In summer 2008, the Cryptosporidium sp. rabbit genotype was identified as the aetiological agent in an outbreak of waterborne human cryptosporidiosis. The source was a wild rabbit that had entered a treated water tank. To establish current knowledge about Cryptosporidium spp. infecting lagomorphs, especially the host range and biological characteristics of the rabbit genotype, and the potential risks to public health that rabbits may pose in the transmission of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis, we undertook a literature and data review. The literature returned demonstrates that although the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) has been the most widely studied lagomorph, few large scale studies were found. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in wild rabbit populations in the two large scale studies was 0.9% (95%CI 0.2-5.0) and 0.0% (95%CI 0.0-1.6). Neither study provided age nor sex profiles nor typing of Cryptosporidium isolates. The infecting Cryptosporidium species was confirmed in just four other studies of rabbits, all of which showed the rabbit genotype. Human-infectious Cryptosporidium species including Cryptosporidium parvum have caused experimental infections in rabbits and it is likely that this may also occur naturally. No published studies of the host range and biological features of the Cryptosporidium rabbit genotype were identified, but information was generated on the identification and differentiation of the rabbit genotype at various genetic loci. Both pet and wild rabbits are a potential source of human cryptosporidiosis and as such, good hygiene practices are recommended during and after handling rabbits or exposure to their faeces, or potentially contaminated surfaces. Water supplies should be protected against access by wildlife, including rabbits.

  18. Risk of zoonotic transmission of HEV from rabbits.

    Lhomme, Sébastien; Dubois, Martine; Abravanel, Florence; Top, Sokunthea; Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Guerin, Jean-Luc; Izopet, Jacques


    Hepatitis E virus strains from rabbits indicate that these mammals may be a reservoir for HEVs that cause infection in humans. Further issues remain to be clarified, including whether the genotype of rabbit HEV differs from human and swine HEV genotype 3 and whether rabbit HEV can infect human and other animals. HEV was found in farmed rabbits in several geographic areas of China, in USA and more recently in France. The prevalence of antibodies against HEV was 36%, 57% and 55% in rabbits from Virginia (USA), Gansu Province and Beijing (China), respectively. HEV RNA was detected in 16.5% of serum samples from farmed rabbits in Virginia, 7.5% in Gansu Province and 7.0% in Beijing. HEV RNA was detected in 7% of bile samples from farmed rabbits and in 23% of liver samples from wild rabbits in France. The full-length genomic sequences analysis indicates that all the rabbit strains belong to the same clade. Nucleotide sequences were 72.2-78.2% identical to HEV genotypes 1-4. Comparison with HEV sequences of human strains circulating in France and reference sequences identified a human strain closely related to rabbit HEV. A 93-nucleotide insertion in the X domain of the ORF1 of the human strain and in all the rabbit HEV strains was found. Moreover, the ability of rabbit HEV to cause cross-species infection in a pig model has recently been demonstrated. Rabbit HEV can replicate efficiently in human cell lines. Collectively, these data support the possibility of zoonotic transmission of HEV from rabbits.

  19. The performance of probiotic fermented sheep milk and ice cream sheep milk in inhibiting enamel mineral loss.

    Nadelman, P; Frazão, J V; Vieira, T I; Balthazar, C F; Andrade, M M; Alexandria, A K; Cruz, A G; Fonseca-Gonçalves, A; Maia, L C


    The study aimed to evaluate the effects of two different sheep milk-based food matrices - fermented sheep milk and ice cream - with added probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus casei 431) on dental enamel subjected to an in vitro highly cariogenic challenge. Sixty enamel blocks were selected and randomly allocated into five treatment groups (n=12): conventional fermented sheep milk (CFSM), probiotic fermented sheep milk (PFSM), conventional sheep milk ice cream (CSMIC), probiotic sheep milk ice cream (PSMIC) and control using deionized water. The blocks were subjected to highly cariogenic pH cycling and the products were applied (5min), in a blinded way, once a day to simulate a daily use for 8 consecutive days. A microhardness test was performed before and after the treatment to estimate the percentage of microhardness surface loss (% SML). Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) was performed to confirm the mineral loss. All groups had lost microhardness after the experiment. However, CFSM and PFSM exhibited the most positive findings when compared to the control in both ice creams. Scanning electron microscopy showed less mineral loss in CFSM and PFSM compared with CSMIC, PSMIC and control after the cariogenic challenge. Overall, fermented milk decreased mineral loss from enamel subjected to a highly cariogenic challenge, regardless of the presence of probiotics in their composition, which had a higher efficacy compared to ice cream. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of antioxidants in the treatment of obstruction-mediated rabbit urinary bladder dysfunction

    Tasmina Hydery


    Full Text Available Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH is a common medical problem; more than 80% of males 50 years of age and older have some degree of bladder outlet obstruction secondary to BPH. In order to understand the effects of outlet obstruction on bladder structure and function, animal models have been developed using several species including rat, rabbit, guinea pig, and pig. Although there are marked differences in bladder size, capacity, compliance, physiology and pharmacology among these species, their responses to outlet obstruction have many common characteristics. Recent reviews have enumerated these responses of animal bladders to partial outlet obstruction; their relevance to progressive bladder dysfunction secondary to BPH in men. We have found that the rabbit is most similar to man in that the rabbit urinates between 3 and 5 times per day, we can evaluate bladder function through urodynamics performed similar to that used in man, and cystoscopy can be performed using a pediatric cystiscope. [J Exp Integr Med 2011; 1(1: 23-35

  1. Suppressed peripheral blood lymphocyte blastogenesis in pre- and postpartal sheep by chronic heat-stress, and suppressive property of heat-stressed sheep serum on lymphocytes.

    Niwano, Y; Becker, B A; Mitra, R; Caldwell, C W; Abdalla, E B; Johnson, H D


    Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A)-induced blastogenesis of peripheral blood lymphocytes was examined in heat-stressed pre- and postpartal sheep. The peak responses of lymphocytes to PHA and Con A in heat-stressed sheep revealed significant reduction before and after parturition compared with those in the corresponding control animals kept under thermoneutral conditions. Furthermore, the effect of serum from control or heat-stressed sheep on PHA-induced lymphocyte blastogenesis was examined. Supplementation of serum from heat-stressed sheep significantly suppressed the blastogenesis of lymphocytes obtained from healthy sheep, bovine, and human donors. Unlike dexamethasone, heat-stressed sheep serum did not inhibit IL-2 production by PHA-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes. These results indicate that the immunosuppression of heat-stressed sheep is in part mediated by serum factor(s) that can modulate T-cell function in a species nonspecific manner.

  2. Detection and localization of rabbit hepatitis e virus and antigen in systemic tissues from experimentally intraperitoneally infected rabbits.

    Mao, Jingjing; Zhao, Yue; She, Ruiping; Cao, Binbin; Xiao, Peng; Wu, Qiaoxing; Guo, Zhaojie; Ma, Longhuan; Soomro, Majid Hussain


    Rabbit hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a novel genotype of HEV, and is considered to pose a risk of zoonotic transmission. Research into the systemic distribution of rabbit HEV in rabbits during different periods of infection has rarely been reported. To better understand this virus, we infected rabbits with second-passage rabbit HEV via an intraperitoneal route. After inoculation, the infection showed two types, temporary and constant infection. The detection of HEV RNA in the feces varied with time, and serum antigen correlated with fecal HEV RNA. Viremia only appeared 72 days after inoculation. The rabbits remained antibody negative throughout the experimental period. When HEV was localized, several organs besides the liver were HEV RNA positive. Tissue antigen was observed immunohistochemically in the different cells of various organs, especially in parts of the small intestine and the characteristic rabbit gut-associated lymphoid tissue. These data provide valuable information for future research into the pathogenesis of HEV.

  3. Features of the diagnostic methods to identify the sheep subclinical mastitis in according to infectious etiology

    Eliane Vale Tanaka


    Full Text Available Mastitis is an infection of the mammary gland mainly caused by bacteria. In sheep, besides it causes chemical and physical changes in milk with the loss in quality, mastitis changes the glandular tissue which may lead to premature cull-out from the herd. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic features of the California Mastitis Test (CMT and somatic cell count (SCC to the identification of subclinical mastitis in sheep according to the micro-organisms isolated. The work is at an early stage and CMT was performed in all ewes. It was considered positive results all degrees of reaction, while the negative reaction was considered when there was not viscosity. Subsequently, samples were collected aseptically from milk and were sent for microbiological analysis. A total of 160 milk samples were analyzed from 85 Santa Inês sheep belonging to the Embrapa Southeast Livestock in São Carlos, São Paulo. Samples were plated on sheep blood agar to 5% and incubated for 24h/72h at 35 ° C. In samples with growth, tests to the identification of the microorganisms were performed, macroscopic characteristics of the colonies and the production or absence of hemolysis, Gram staining, catalase test, coagulase test with rabbit plasma and verification of acetoin production. The sensitivity of the diagnostic tests were determined in accordance to the ratio of the positive tests and the presence of the disease, while the specificities were calculated according to the ratio of the negative results and the absence of disease. The efficiency was based on the percentage of true results that the test was able to provide diagnosis. SCC in milk was determined using the somatic cell count Somacount 300 (Bentley and the presence of the disease was given when isolated coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS, coliforms and other microorganisms (Corinebacteria, strep and association of two bacteria in a same sample. It was used the limit

  4. Susceptibility of Dall sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) to pneumonia caused by Pasteurella haemolytica.

    Foreyt, W J; Silflow, R M; Lagerquist, J E


    We evaluated susceptibility of Dall sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) to bacterial pneumonia induced by two strains of Pasteurella haemolytica of domestic sheep origin by evaluating the sensitivity of blood neutrophils of eight Dall sheep to lysis by cytotoxins of P. haemolytica, and by intratracheal inoculation of three Dall sheep, two bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and two domestic sheep with 3.7 x 10(6) or 2.5 x 10(7) colony forming units of P. haemolytica. Neutrophils from the Dall sheep were more sensitive to lysis by cytotoxins from supernatants of a P. haemolytica, biotype A, serotype 2 (A2), of domestic sheep origin, than were neutrophils from six bighorn sheep. This cytotoxic bacterium was the same isolate that was used for intratracheal inoculation of two Dall sheep and two domestic sheep. Inoculation of this cytotoxic P. haemolytica A2 resulted in fatal fibrinopurulent pleuropneumonia in the first Dall sheep within 24 hr of inoculation, and pneumonic lesions in the second Dall sheep before it was euthanized 52 hr after inoculation. This strain of P. haemolytica A2 did not cause respiratory disease when inoculated into two domestic sheep. A noncytotoxic strain of P. haemolytica; biotype T, serotype 3,4,10 of domestic sheep origin did not result in pneumonia in the third Dall sheep or two bighorn sheep. Prior to inoculation, P. haemolytica, biotype T isolates were obtained from all three Dall sheep, but none of these isolates was cytotoxic. At necropsy, cytotoxic P. haemolytica A2 was isolated from lungs and other tissues of the two pneumonic Dall sheep. Based on these results, we conclude that Dall sheep appear to be at least as sensitive as bighorn sheep to pneumonia caused by P. haemolytica A2 of domestic sheep origin. Because in vitro and in vivo results appear closely correlated in this and other studies, we believe with additional evaluation and standardization, neutrophil cytotoxicity tests may serve as a substitute for live animal challenges in future

  5. Crossbreeding effects on rabbit reproduction from four maternal lines of rabbits.

    Ragab, M; Sánchez, J P; Mínguez, C; Baselga, M


    Litter size is essential for an efficient production of rabbit meat. A diallel cross between four maternal lines was carried out and the analysis of the components of litter size has been already done. This paper presents the analysis of litter size traits themselves (total born (TB), number born alive (NBA), number weaned (NW)) and kindling interval (KI), that complete the analysis of the reproductive performance. The 16 genetic groups were distributed in four Spanish farms. The V line was present in all farms in order to be used as reference group. A total of 34 546 parities from 7111 does, were analysed. The crossbreeding parameters were estimated according to Dickerson model. The differences between lines performance were of low magnitude and not significant for litter size traits. The LP line showed the shortest KI followed by H respect to lines A and V. These differences reflected the differences between direct and maternal genetic effects. The differences between the average of all crosses and line V were found to be significant and seemed to be important, being 0.46 for TB, 0.56 for NBA, 0.75 for NW and -2.21 days for KI. The differences between reciprocal crosses for litter size were of low magnitude and non-significant, which indicate that the maternal effects are not important between these lines. In general, the lines did not show significant differences in direct and maternal genetic effects for TB, NBA and NW but there were some significant differences for KI, which ranged from 1.54 to 6.85 days in direct effects and from 0.63 to 3.38 days for maternal effects. A positive and, in some cases, relevant heterosis was found. The largest heterosis was for TB in the HV cross (1.05 rabbits), followed by the AH (0.74 rabbits), AV (0.57 rabbits) and LH (0.55 rabbits) crosses. For NBA, significant heterosis was found in HV (1.11 rabbits) and AV (0.49 rabbits) and for NW in AV (0.90 rabbits), LH (0.70 rabbits) and LV (0.58 rabbits). Favourable and significant

  6. Globally dispersed Y chromosomal haplotypes in wild and domestic sheep.

    Meadows, J R S; Hanotte, O; Drögemüller, C; Calvo, J; Godfrey, R; Coltman, D; Maddox, J F; Marzanov, N; Kantanen, J; Kijas, J W


    To date, investigations of genetic diversity and the origins of domestication in sheep have utilised autosomal microsatellites and variation in the mitochondrial genome. We present the first analysis of both domestic and wild sheep using genetic markers residing on the ovine Y chromosome. Analysis of a single nucleotide polymorphism (oY1) in the SRY promoter region revealed that allele A-oY1 was present in all wild bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), two subspecies of thinhorn sheep (Ovis dalli), European Mouflon (Ovis musimon) and the Barbary (Ammontragis lervia). A-oY1 also had the highest frequency (71.4%) within 458 domestic sheep drawn from 65 breeds sampled from Africa, Asia, Australia, the Caribbean, Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia. Sequence analysis of a second locus, microsatellite SRYM18, revealed a compound repeat array displaying fixed differences, which identified bighorn and thinhorn sheep as distinct from the European Mouflon and domestic animals. Combined genotypic data identified 11 male-specific haplotypes that represented at least two separate lineages. Investigation of the geographical distribution of each haplotype revealed that one (H6) was both very common and widespread in the global sample of domestic breeds. The remaining haplotypes each displayed more restricted and informative distributions. For example, H5 was likely founded following the domestication of European breeds and was used to trace the recent transportation of animals to both the Caribbean and Australia. A high rate of Y chromosomal dispersal appears to have taken place during the development of domestic sheep as only 12.9% of the total observed variation was partitioned between major geographical regions.

  7. Executive decision-making in the domestic sheep.

    A Jennifer Morton

    Full Text Available Two new large animal models of Huntington's disease (HD have been developed recently, an old world monkey (macaque and a sheep. Macaques, with their large brains and complex repertoire of behaviors are the 'gold-standard' laboratory animals for testing cognitive function, but there are many practical and ethical issues that must be resolved before HD macaques can be used for pre-clinical research. By contrast, despite their comparable brain size, sheep do not enjoy a reputation for intelligence, and are not used for pre-clinical cognitive testing. Given that cognitive decline is a major therapeutic target in HD, the feasibility of testing cognitive function in sheep must be explored if they are to be considered seriously as models of HD. Here we tested the ability of sheep to perform tests of executive function (discrimination learning, reversal learning and attentional set-shifting. Significantly, we found that not only could sheep perform discrimination learning and reversals, but they could also perform the intradimensional (ID and extradimensional (ED set-shifting tasks that are sensitive tests of cognitive dysfunction in humans. Their performance on the ID/ED shifts mirrored that seen in humans and macaques, with significantly more errors to reach criterion in the ED than the ID shift. Thus, sheep can perform 'executive' cognitive tasks that are an important part of the primate behavioral repertoire, but which have never been shown previously to exist in any other large animal. Sheep have great potential, not only for use as a large animal model of HD, but also for studying cognitive function and the evolution of complex behaviours in normal animals.


    El sayed A. Osman MD, Nasr N. Zaki MD, Samia M. M. Elshiaty MD, Hanan T. Emam MD and Fatma F. Hendawi


    Full Text Available The discovery of the f-channel and its role in regulating pacemaker activity lead to the development of new pharmacological agents such as ivabradine, which target these f-channels causing a reduction in heart rate by inhibiting the /fcurrent. The aim of the present work was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of ivabradine on experimentally- induced myocardial infarction and adrenaline-induced arrhythmia in rats. In addition, the present work studied the effect of ivabradine on isolated rabbit's aortic spiral strip and isolated rabbit's heart. Acute myocardial infarction in rats was induced by isoperameline (150mg/kg subcutenous injection, once 24 rats were divided into the following groups: group (1 control normal rats, group (II myocardial infarction – induced rats with no previous treatment, group (III myocardial infarction – induced rats pretreated with ivabradine (10mg/kg/day for one week and group (IV myocardial infarction – induced rats pretreated with carvedilol (1mg/kg/day for one week. Electrophysiological, biochemical and histopathological parameters were estimated. pretreatment with either ivabradine or carvedilol show significant improvement in all these parameters with insignificant difference between them. In the current work 20 rats were used to investigate the protective effects of ivabradine (10mg/kg and carvedilol (1mg/kg on adrenaline- induced arrhythmia in anaesthetized rats and the results revealed that both drugs had a prophylactive effect. Also data obtained in the present work pointed out that ivabradine in gradually increasing doses produce no significant effect on the isolated rabbit's aortic strip and basal myocardial contractility of isolated rabbit's heart. Both ivabradine and carvedilol have cardioprotective effect against acute MI as well as adrenaline- induced arrhythmia with no significant difference between them, also ivabradine has no effect on contractility of the heart. So, the choice of

  9. Adverse reactions in a population of Sydney pet rabbits vaccinated against rabbit calicivirus.

    Tung, T; Phalen, D; Toribio, J-Alml


    To determine the general clinical presentation and incidence of adverse reactions to Cylap® RCD vaccinations, of a nature serious enough for veterinary attention, in a Sydney population of pet rabbits. A retrospective survey using hospital databases. Nine veterinary hospitals in Sydney participated in a database search for the number of rabbits vaccinated within a 2-year period. The hospitals involved had an identified interest in rabbit medicine and included general, specialist and teaching hospitals. Details of the rabbit, vaccination event and any possible reaction were collected and analysed. Of 933 events recorded in 705 rabbits, 17 (1.8%) adverse reactions were observed. Of the adverse events, local injection site reactions (alopecia, abrasions and scabbing) were most common. Other reactions, including systemic signs of gastrointestinal tract stasis, lethargy and forelimb lameness, were also documented. Overall, rabbits presented for vaccination were mostly male (57.7%) and desexed (71.3%), with an average age of 28.1 months (median 19.0, range 1.4-149.8 months) and an average weight at first vaccination of 2.12 kg (median 2.08 kg, range 0.18-5.6 kg). A significant association between increasing age and decreased incidence of adverse events was demonstrated (P value, 0.038). The benefits of vaccination against RCV outweigh the risks of an adverse reaction occurring. Data from this study show that adverse reactions occur infrequently, are generally mild and self-resolving, and decrease in incidence with increasing age. These results are similar to previous field research on wild rabbit colonies and reports from government and industry. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  10. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England.

    Ross, J; Sanders, M F


    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times.In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed.The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level.

  11. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England*

    Ross, J.; Sanders, M. F.


    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times. In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed. The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level. PMID:270526

  12. Changes in bone structure of Corriedale sheep with inherited rickets: a peripheral quantitative computed tomography assessment.

    Dittmer, Keren E; Firth, Elwyn C; Thompson, Keith G; Marshall, Jonathan C; Blair, Hugh T


    An inherited skeletal disease with gross and microscopic features of rickets has been diagnosed in Corriedale sheep in New Zealand. The aim of this study was to quantify the changes present in tibia from sheep with inherited rickets using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. In affected sheep, scans in the proximal tibia, where metaphysis becomes diaphysis, showed significantly greater trabecular bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD). The sheep with inherited rickets had significantly greater BMC and bone area in the mid-diaphysis of the proximal tibia compared to control sheep. However, BMD in the mid-diaphysis was significantly less in affected sheep than in controls, due to the greater cortical area and lower voxel density values in affected sheep. From this it was concluded that the increased strain on under-mineralised bone in sheep with inherited rickets led to increased bone mass in an attempt to improve bone strength.

  13. Influence of direct-fed exogenous fibrolytic enzyme on ruminal fibrolityc activity in sheep

    Giraldo, L. A.; Tejido, María L.; Ranilla, María José; Ramos, Sonia; Mantecón, Ángel R.; Carro Travieso, Mª Dolores


    6 pages, 3 tables.--Contributed to: 12th Seminar of the FAO-CIHEAM Sub-NetWork on Sheep and Goat Nutrition. "Nutritional and foraging ecology of sheep and goats"(Thessalonica, Grecia, Oct 11-13, 2007).

  14. Use of exposure history to identify patterns of immunity to pneumonia in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis)

    Plowright, Raina K; Manlove, Kezia; Cassirer, E Frances; Cross, Paul C; Besser, Thomas E; Hudson, Peter J


    ... in captive environments. Our research on bighorn sheep pneumonia elucidates how individual bighorn sheep respond to infection with pneumonia pathogens by examining the relationship between exposure history and survival in situ...

  15. [Origin and genetic diversity of Mongolian and Chinese sheep using mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequences].

    Luo, Yu-Zhu; Cheng, Shu-Ru; Batsuuri, Lkhagva; Badamdorj, D; Olivier, Hanotte; Han, Jian-Lin


    To determine the origin and gene diversity of the Chinese and Mongolian domestic sheep, a partial fragment of mitochondrial DNA D-loop was sequenced for total number of 314 individuals from nine Chinese sheep populations and 11 Mongolian sheep populations. The results show no difference in nucleotide composition between Chinese and Mongolian sheep mtDNA D-loop sequences. However, more variables were identified in Mongolian sheep (26.85% of the sites) than that in Chinese sheep (24.22%). In China, mtDNA haplotype diversity was the highest in Qinghai Tibetan sheep, followed then by Gansu Tibetan sheep, Gansu Alpine Merino, Qinghai Merino, Gannan Tibetan sheep, Small-tailed Han sheep, Tan sheep, Hu sheep and Minxian Black Fur sheep. In Mongolian sheep, mtDNA haplotype diversity was the highest in Bayad and Baidrag populations and the lowest in the Gobi-Altai population. In general, Mongolian sheep have a richer genetic diversity than the Chinese ones with larger number of haplotypes (86.06% (142/165) versus 78.83% (108/137)), higher haplotype diversity (Hd; 0.976 versus 0.936), higher nucleotide diversity (Pi (pi); 0. 036 versus 0.034) and higher average number of nucleotide differences (k; 23.50 versus 22.48). Phylogenetic analysis of the 217 haplotypes identified in both Mongolian and Chinese sheep supported the same origin of their domestication with three distinct maternal lineages defined as major haplotypes A, B and C, of which haplotype A are the commonest in all Chinese sheep populations and in the majority of Mongolian sheep populations (9/11) with an average frequency of 58.73%, followed by haplotype B present in eight of Chinese population and in all Mongolian sheep populations with an average frequency of 24.68%, and haplotype C present in eight Chinese and in 10 Mongolian sheep populations with an average frequency of 16.59%. Further network analysis of the phylogenetic relationship of the 87 haplotypes identified from 91 sequences retrieved from Gen

  16. Transposon-Based Reporter Marking Provides Functional Evidence for Intercellular Bridges in the Male Germline of Rabbits.

    Orsolya I Hoffmann

    Full Text Available The Sleeping Beauty transposon system was established as a robust and efficient method for germline transgenesis in different mammalian species. The generation of transgenic mice, rats, rabbits and swine carrying an identical Venus reporter construct delivered by transposon-mediated gene transfer enables comparative studies of gene expression in these lines of mammalian models. Whereas comparable expression patterns of the Venus reporter were found in somatic tissues, preliminary studies suggested that a striking difference in reporter expression may exist in mature spermatozoa of these species. Here we clearly show the differential expression of Venus reporter protein during spermatogenesis of the two compared species, the laboratory rabbit and mice. We provide evidence for the functionality of intercellular bridges in the male germline and genotype-independent transgenic phenotype of rabbit spermatids. Our data suggest that the reporter rabbit line may be a suitable tool to identify molecular mechanisms in testicular development, and may contribute to develop better animal models for male infertility in men.

  17. Uterine biology in pigs and sheep

    Bazer Fuller W


    Full Text Available Abstract There is a dialogue between the developing conceptus (embryo-fetus and associated placental membranes and maternal uterus which must be established during the peri-implantation period for pregnancy recognition signaling, implantation, regulation of gene expression by uterine epithelial and stromal cells, placentation and exchange of nutrients and gases. The uterus provide a microenvironment in which molecules secreted by uterine epithelia or transported into the uterine lumen represent histotroph required for growth and development of the conceptus and receptivity of the uterus to implantation. Pregnancy recognition signaling mechanisms sustain the functional lifespan of the corpora lutea (CL which produce progesterone, the hormone of pregnancy essential for uterine functions that support implantation and placentation required for a successful outcome of pregnancy. It is within the peri-implantation period that most embryonic deaths occur due to deficiencies attributed to uterine functions or failure of the conceptus to develop appropriately, signal pregnancy recognition and/or undergo implantation and placentation. With proper placentation, the fetal fluids and fetal membranes each have unique functions to ensure hematotrophic and histotrophic nutrition in support of growth and development of the fetus. The endocrine status of the pregnant female and her nutritional status are critical for successful establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. This review addresses the complexity of key mechanisms that are characteristic of successful reproduction in sheep and pigs and gaps in knowledge that must be the subject of research in order to enhance fertility and reproductive health of livestock species.

  18. Productivity of prolific sheep : Economic analysis

    I. Inounu


    Full Text Available The existence of major gene in the Indonesian sheep breeds has been revealed in three different genotypes which are further implied that different levels of feeding and management are necessary to realize the potential benefits for each genotype . The variability in the ewe production as a result of the differences in genotype and management levels were then evaluated by economic analysis . The result shows that improvement in management practices resulted in an increase of production ofindividual breeding ewe (BS. However, since these increases in performance required additional cost for higher input value, as it was indicated in the total production cost, attention must be given toward the decision as to which genotype to raise at what level of feeding management . This study has shown promising results to facilitate the decision makers in that direction, for example, ewes with FecJFFecJ` genotype gained the highest gross margin when they were treated with high level of feeding management. The next best alternative was followed by FecJ FFecJ F genotype. Furthermore, in the situation where low level of feeding management being practiced, ewes carrying the FecJF gene did not show their superiority since they gained lower gross margin compared with the non-carrier ewes.

  19. Noise and determinism in synchronized sheep dynamics

    Grenfell, B. T.; Wilson, K.; Finkenstädt, B. F.; Coulson, T. N.; Murray, S.; Albon, S. D.; Pemberton, J. M.; Clutton-Brock, T. H.; Crawley, M. J.


    A major debate in ecology concerns the relative importance of intrinsic factors and extrinsic environmental variations in determining population size fluctuations. Spatial correlation of fluctuations in different populations caused by synchronous environmental shocks,, is a powerful tool for quantifying the impact of environmental variations on population dynamics,. However, interpretation of synchrony is often complicated by migration between populations,. Here we address this issue by using time series from sheep populations on two islands in the St Kilda archipelago. Fluctuations in the sizes of the two populations are remarkably synchronized over a 40-year period. A nonlinear time-series model shows that a high and frequent degree of environmental correlation is required to achieve this level of synchrony. The model indicates that if there were less environmental correlation, population dynamics would be much less synchronous than is observed. This is because of a threshold effect that is dependent on population size; the threshold magnifies random differences between populations. A refined model showsthat part of the required environmental synchronicity can be accounted for by large-scale weather variations. These results underline the importance of understanding the interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic influences on population dynamics.

  20. Estrus synchronization in sheep with synthetic progestagens.

    Awel, Hayatu; Eshetu, Lisanework; Tadesse, Gebrehiwot; Birhanu, Alemselam; Khar, S K


    Sixteen female sheep of Degua breed were assigned to receive either the full dose of norgestomet ear implant and injectable solution containing norgestomet and estradiol valerate (n = 8) or half the dose (n = 8). The ear implants were removed in both groups on day 12. All ewes received an intramuscular administration of 500 IU PMSG at implant withdrawal. Synchronized ewes were individually hand mated twice at 48 and 60 hours after implant removal. One ewe in each group however refused mating on both occasions. Pregnancy diagnosis was conducted by bimanual external palpation 90 to 100 days post mating. The conception rates (3/7, 42.85%) and (5/7, 71.42%) were recorded in the two treatment groups, respectively. All eight ewes lambed between 145 to 153 days post mating. In group I ewes carried only singletons (prolificity rate 1.0) whereas in group II two ewes delivered twins, producing 7 lambs with prolificity rate of 1.4 (N.S). From this preliminary investigation it appears that the lower dose of norgestomet ear implants offers better option for estrus synchronization accompanied by higher fertility.

  1. Factors of welfare reduction in dairy sheep and goats

    Antonio Pazzona


    Full Text Available Scientific research on factors causing the reduction of well-being in sheep and goats is rather recent, as are studies of strategies to minimize the adverse effects of environmental challenges and improper management practices on flock welfare. Sheep and goats, considered very rustic animals, are reared prevalently under extensive production systems and are widespread mainly in marginal areas. For these reasons, only few studies on the welfare of these species have been carried out in the past. More recently, the scenario has changed, due to a gradual diffusion of intensive and semi-intensive production systems, especially in dairy sheep and goat breeds, to the growing concern of consumers about the life conditions of farmed animals, and to the issuing of a number of rules and laws on the safety of animal products and well-being of farmed livestock. As a consequence, several research groups have turned their attention to the welfare of sheep and goats. Nevertheless, information on this topic is still scarce. This paper reviews major critical points regarding the endangerment of welfare in farmed sheep and goats. Climatic extremes and seasonal fluctuations in herbage amount and quality are discussed as important causes of the reduction of well-being in extensive production systems, which can impair production efficiency of grazing animals and dramatically affect the welfare and health status of sheep and goats. Space allowance and structures of sheep and goat houses are described as the main potential sources of discomfort for housed flocks, together with inadequate control of micro-environment, and inappropriate milking procedures and human-animal interactions. Recent studies on the impact of high ambient temperature, different ventilation regimes, high stocking densities, reduced airspace and poor litter management on behaviour, immune and endocrine response, and on performance of sheep and goats are discussed. The effects of inadequate milking

  2. The sheep as a large osteoporotic model for orthopaedic research in humans

    Cheng, L.; Ding, Ming; Li, Z.;


    Although small animals as rodents are very popular animals for osteoporosis models , large animals models are necessary for research of human osteoporotic diseases. Sheep osteoporosis models are becoming more important because of its unique advantages for osteoporosis reseach. Sheep are docile...... intake restriction and glucocorticoid application are the most effective methods for sheep osteoporosis model. Sheep osteoporosis model is an ideal animal model for studying various medicines reacting to osteoporosis and other treatment methods such as prosthetic replacement reacting to osteoporotic...

  3. Risk assessment of the risk of introduction and distribution of Sheep and goat pox in Bulgaria

    Grigorova, Krasimira


    Sheep pox and Goat pox (Variola ovina; Variola caprina; Sheep pox, Goat pox) is a contagious viral disease of small ruminants. The disease can take place with moderate clinical presentations of local breeds, but for animals that have met for the first time the virus ends with death. Caused by a virus of Sheep pox and a virus of Goat pox, genus Capripoxvirus, family Poxviridae. Economic losses come from reduced milk production, lowering the quality of the leather, wool and more. Sheep...

  4. Balancing consumer and societal requirements for sheep meat production: an Australasian perspective.

    Ferguson, D M; Schreurs, N M; Kenyon, P R; Jacob, R H


    Although there has been a decline in sheep numbers in Australia and New Zealand, both countries remain significant producers and exporters of sheep meat. The ongoing demand for more sustainable and ethical animal farming systems and practices requires sheep production industries to be both vigilant and responsive to consumer and the broader societal needs. Demonstration of continuous improvement in animal welfare is paramount and the welfare risks and challenges confronting Australasian sheep industries now and into the future are discussed.

  5. Effects of Epinephrine, Phenoxybenzamine and Propranolol on Maximal Exercise in Sheep


    EXERCISE IN SHEEP D TIC 6. AUTHOR(5 EELECTF ’ Thomas G. Mundie, Adolph J. Januszkiewicz , and FEB 2 31993, Gary R. Ripple 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...1 k mg , i.v..) on maximal exercise in normal sheep, was investigated. Maximal exercise in control sheep showed a mean maximum oxygen consumption...Science 31 ’. t 1492 Effects of Epinephrine, Phenoxybenzamine, and Propranolol on Maximal Exercise in Sheep Thomas G. Mundie, Adolph J. Januszkiewicz , and

  6. Efficacy of epidural administration of morphine with bupivacaine for orthopaedic surgery in sheep

    Durej M.; Ledecký V.; Michalák D.; Hluchý M.; Kòazovický D.


    The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that epidural administration of morphine with bupivacaine provides more intense and sufficient perioperative analgesia compared with parenterally administrated butorphanol during orthopaedic surgery. Sheep were assigned to group C (control group, 6 sheep) and group E (epidural, 5 sheep). Sheep from group C were pre-medicated with midazolam (0.3 mg/kg, i.m.) and butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg, i.m.). Propofol was used ...

  7. Sheep milk: physical-chemical characteristics and microbiological quality.

    Merlin Junior, Ivandré Antonio; Santos, Joice Sifuentes dos; Costa, Ligia Grecco; Costa, Renan Grecco; Ludovico, Agostinho; Rego, Fabiola Cristine de Almeida; Santana, Elsa Helena Walter de


    Sheep milk is the third most consumed milk in Brazil. It is much appreciated for its nutritional status and is important for children that have problems with cow milk. Little information is known about the chemical, physical and microbiological composition of sheep milk from South Brazil. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe chemical and microbiological characteristics of sheep milk produced on two rural properties located in southern Brazil (ParanA and Rio Grande do Sul). The chemical composition of sheep milk was 17.32 g/100 g total solids, 5.86 g/100 g total protein, 4.46 g/100 g casein, 1.08 g/100 g whey protein, 7.28 g/100 g fat, 0.93 g/100 g ash, and 3.41 g/100 g lactose. High somatic cell count (1.7x106 cells/mL), total mesophilic bacterias (16.0 x 106 CFU/mL) and psychrotrophics (5.8 x 106 CFU/mL) were observed. Growth of Staphylococcus aureus, enterobacteria and coliforms occurred in 100% of the samples, and 45% of the samples showed growth of Escherichia coli. The sheep milk physical-chemical and microbiology parameters are similar to those presented in the literature for other countries but somatic cell count presented high levels.




    ABSTRACT Objective: Based on a literature review and on our own experience, this study proposes sheep as an experimental model to evaluate the bioactive capacity of bone substitute biomaterials, dental implant systems and orthopedics devices. The literature review covered relevant databases available on the Internet from 1990 until to date, and was supplemented by our own experience. Methods: For its resemblance in size and weight to humans, sheep are quite suitable for use as an experimental model. However, information about their utility as an experimental model is limited. The different stages involving sheep experiments were discussed, including the care during breeding and maintenance of the animals obtaining specimens for laboratory processing, and highlighting the unnecessary euthanasia of animals at the end of study, in accordance to the guidelines of the 3Rs Program. Results: All experiments have been completed without any complications regarding the animals and allowed us to evaluate hypotheses and explain their mechanisms. Conclusion: The sheep is an excellent animal model for evaluation of biomaterial for bone regeneration and dental implant osseointegration. From an ethical point of view, one sheep allows for up to 12 implants per animal, permitting to keep them alive at the end of the experiments. Level of Evidence II, Retrospective Study. PMID:28149193

  9. Epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic aspects of sheep conidiobolomycosis in Brazil

    Carla Weiblen


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Conidiobolomycosis is an emerging disease caused by fungi of the cosmopolitan genus Conidiobolus . Particular strains of Conidiobolus coronatus, Conidiobolus incongruus and Conidiobolus lamprauges , mainly from tropical or sub-tropical origin, cause the mycosis in humans and animals, domestic or wild. Lesions are usually granulomatous and necrotic in character, presenting two clinical forms: rhinofacial and nasopharyngeal. This review includes the main features of the disease in sheep, with an emphasis on the epidemiology, clinical aspects, and diagnosis of infections caused by Conidiobolus spp. in Brazil. In this country, the disease is endemic in the Northeast and Midwest, affecting predominantly woolless sheep breeds and occasioning death in the majority of the studied cases. The species responsible for infections of sheep are C. coronatus and C. lamprauges and the predominant clinical presentation is nasopharyngeal. These fungal infections are very important, since they compromise the health status of the sheep flock and cause serious economic losses to the sheep industry. Thus, research is needed to investigate faster tools for diagnosis and effective methods for the control and treatment of conidiobolomycosis.


    Muzaiyan Ahmed Khan


    Full Text Available Infections with Giardia lamblia are one of the most common intestinal maladies in the world. These infections can lead to acute diarrhea, cramps, and nausea, although asymptomatic infections are the most common. Although most infections are controlled by an effective immune response, some individuals develop chronic disease. The effects of Giardia lamblia infection on D-glucose uptake and brush border enzymes was studied in ethanol fed sheep. Giardia lamblia trophozoite counts were significantly lower in the intestine of ethanol fed sheep than in the controls. Also sodium dependant uptake of D-glucose and brush border enzymes was significantly reduced in the Giardia lamblia infected sheep intestine. There was no change in sodium dependent D-glucose transporter (SGLT-1 and brush border lactase was reduced in Giardia lamblia infected sheep compared with those of controls. However, the mRNA levels encoding these proteins in ethanol fed animals and control animals were in the sheep intestine. The D-glucose malabsorption was observed and probably it causes a significant decrease in activity of disaccharidases in Giardia lamblia infection.

  11. Chronic arsenic toxicity in sheep of Kurdistan province, western Iran.

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Seradj, Afsaneh; Akbari, Zahra; Moore, Farid; Shahraki, Alireza Rahmani; Pourjafar, Mehrdad


    After the detection of arsenic (As) toxicity in sheep from Ebrahim-abad and Babanazar villages in Kurdistan province, the concentration of this element in drinking water, cultivated soil, alfalfa hay, wool, and blood samples was evaluated. Total As concentrations ranged from 119 to 310 μg/L in drinking water, 46.70-819.20 mg/kg in soil 1.90-6.90 mg/kg in vegetation 1.56-10.79 mg/kg in sheep's wool, and 86.30-656 μg/L in blood samples. These very high As contents, in all parts of the biogeochemical cycle, exceed the recommended normal range for this element compared with a control area. Results indicate that As has moved through all compartments of the biogeochemical cycle by way of direct or indirect pathways. The present investigation illustrated decreased packed cell volume and hemoglobin in sheep from the As-contaminated zone. It was concluded that sheep from the contaminated areas suffer from anemia. Chronic As exposure of the liver was determined by liver function tests. For this purpose, blood aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were measured. The results show that serum ALT and AST activities are increased significantly (p < 0.01) in the sheep population exposed to As in the contaminated zone. Moreover, chronic As exposure causes injury to hepatocytes and damages the liver.

  12. Transvaginal ultrasound ovarian diathermy: sheep as an experimental model

    Pimentel Anita M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some techniques of transvaginal ovarian drilling have been previously described. Nevertheless a monopolar transvaginal ovarian cauterization, that use the expertise and safety of transvaginal puncture for oocyte captation seems to be an easier and feasible approach. The aim of this study was to develop a minimally invasive ovarian cauterization technique under transvaginal ultrasound control, and to evaluate the safety of the transvaginal ovarian monopolar cauterization, female sheep at reproductive age were used as an experimental model. Findings An experimental study was performed in a university research center. Seventeen female sheep (15 Corriedale e 2 Suffolk in reproductive age were submitted to transvaginal ovarian cauterization with a monopolar Valleylab Force 2 electrocautery. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions were assessed. Ovarian size were 1.31 cm2 ± 0,43 (Corriedale and 3.41 cm2 ± 0,64 (Suffolk. From 30 ovaries from Corriedale sheep punctured, only 3 were cauterized, presenting macroscopic and typical microscopic lesion. In the Suffolk sheep group, only one ovary was cauterized. No lesion could be found in the needle path. Conclusions This is the first experimental animal model described for ovarian cauterization needle guided by transvaginal ultrasound. The sheep does not seem to be the ideal animal model to study this technique. Another animal model, whose ovaries are better identified by transvaginal ultrasound should be sought for this technique, theoretically less invasive, before it could be offered safely to women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  13. Prevalence of Tick Infestation and Theileriosis in Sheep and Goats

    Nausheen Irshad, M. Qayyum, M. Hussain1 and M. Qasim Khan1*


    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of tick infestation and theileriosis in small ruminants maintained at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC Islamabad and Barani Livestock Production Research Institute (BLPRI Kherimurat district Attock, Pakistan. A total of 662 animals (219 sheep and 443 goats were screened for the presence of ticks. Of these, 95(43.37% sheep and 184(41.53% goats were found infested with different species of ticks. The difference in prevalence of ticks between two farms in sheep and goats (combined was statistically significant (P≤0.01. Difference in the prevalence during different months of study at NARC was non significant (χ2=0.95596, whereas at BLPRI this difference was significant (P≤ 0.01. Ticks were identified on the basis of their morphological features. Rhipicephalus spp was found to be the most abundant tick infesting both in sheep and goats. Prevalence of theileriosis in sheep was 7.36% (7/95, while in goats it was 3.8% (7/184, the difference being statistically non significant (χ2=0.6427.

  14. Pestivirus infection in sheep and goats in West Austria.

    Krametter-Froetscher, R; Duenser, M; Preyler, B; Theiner, A; Benetka, V; Moestl, K; Baumgartner, W


    Blood samples from 3112 sheep (185 flocks) and 1196 goats (163 flocks) from the Western region of Austria were tested for pestivirus-specific RNA. In this area, communal Alpine pasturing of sheep, cattle and goats is an important part of farming. The prevalence of sheep persistently-infected (PI) with pestivirus was 0.32% (10 animals) and the PI animals originated from five flocks (2.7% of those investigated). In goats, only one PI animal (0.08%) was detected. Sequence analysis of the 5'-end untranslated region (UTR) revealed that the strains of Border disease virus (BDV) detected were closely related to genotype 3 but the PI animals did not show any clinical signs of Border disease. The goat was PI with bovine viral diarrhoea virus-1 (BVDV-1). On one farm a high abortion rate among sheep had been observed 1year before the study was carried out but the other farms did not show any evidence of reproductive failures. Pestiviruses are endemic in small ruminants in some Alpine regions of Austria and PI healthy animals as described here have a key epidemiological role. A successful BVDV eradication programme in Austria will create highly pestivirus-susceptible cattle populations. Sheep and goats present a high risk for the reintroduction of pestiviruses to cattle herds because they are less likely to be considered to be PI. The results underline the need for the immediate consideration of small ruminants in eradication programmes.

  15. Phosphorus metabolic disorder of Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep.

    Xiaoyun Shen

    Full Text Available Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep are affected by a disease, characterized by emaciation, lameness, stiffness in the gait, enlargement of the costochondral junctions, and abnormal curvature in the long bones. The objective of this study was to determine possible relationships between the disease and mineral deficiencies. Samples of tissue and blood were collected from affected and unaffected sheep. Samples of soil and forage were collected from affected and unaffected areas. The samples were used for biochemical analyses and mineral nutrient measurements. Results showed that phosphorus (P concentrations in forage samples from affected areas were significantly lower than those from unaffected areas (P < 0.01 and the mean ratio of calcium (Ca to P in the affected forage was 12:1. Meanwhile, P concentrations of blood, bone, tooth, and wool from the affected sheep were also significantly lower than those from the unaffected group (P < 0.01. Serum P levels of the affected animals were much lower than those of the unaffected ones, whereas serum alkaline phosphatase levels from the affected were significantly higher than those from the unaffected (P < 0.01. Inorganic P levels of the affected sheep were about half of those in the control group. Oral administration of disodium hydrogen phosphate prevented and cured the disease. The study clearly demonstrated that the disease of Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep was mainly caused by the P deficiency in forage, as a result of fenced pasture and animal habitat fragmentation.

  16. Phosphorus Metabolic Disorder of Guizhou Semi-Fine Wool Sheep

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Jinhua; Zhang, Renduo


    Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep are affected by a disease, characterized by emaciation, lameness, stiffness in the gait, enlargement of the costochondral junctions, and abnormal curvature in the long bones. The objective of this study was to determine possible relationships between the disease and mineral deficiencies. Samples of tissue and blood were collected from affected and unaffected sheep. Samples of soil and forage were collected from affected and unaffected areas. The samples were used for biochemical analyses and mineral nutrient measurements. Results showed that phosphorus (P) concentrations in forage samples from affected areas were significantly lower than those from unaffected areas (P < 0.01) and the mean ratio of calcium (Ca) to P in the affected forage was 12:1. Meanwhile, P concentrations of blood, bone, tooth, and wool from the affected sheep were also significantly lower than those from the unaffected group (P < 0.01). Serum P levels of the affected animals were much lower than those of the unaffected ones, whereas serum alkaline phosphatase levels from the affected were significantly higher than those from the unaffected (P < 0.01). Inorganic P levels of the affected sheep were about half of those in the control group. Oral administration of disodium hydrogen phosphate prevented and cured the disease. The study clearly demonstrated that the disease of Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep was mainly caused by the P deficiency in forage, as a result of fenced pasture and animal habitat fragmentation. PMID:24586803

  17. Quantitative trait loci underlying milk production traits in sheep.

    Gutiérrez-Gil, B; El-Zarei, M F; Alvarez, L; Bayón, Y; de la Fuente, L F; San Primitivo, F; Arranz, J-J


    Improvement of milk production traits in dairy sheep is required to increase the competitiveness of the industry and to maintain the production of high quality cheese in regions of Mediterranean countries with less favourable conditions. Additional improvement over classical selection could be reached if genes with significant effects on the relevant traits were specifically targeted by selection. However, so far, few studies have been undertaken to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) in dairy sheep. In this study, we present a complete genome scan performed in a commercial population of Spanish Churra sheep to identify chromosomal regions associated with phenotypic variation observed in milk production traits. Eleven half-sib families, including a total of 1213 ewes, were analysed following a daughter design. Genome-wise multi-marker regression analysis revealed a genome-wise significant QTL for milk protein percentage on chromosome 3. Eight other regions, localized on chromosomes 1, 2, 20, 23 and 25, showed suggestive significant linkage associations with some of the analysed traits. To our knowledge, this study represents the first complete genome scan for milk production traits reported in dairy sheep. The experiment described here shows that analysis of commercial dairy sheep populations has the potential to increase our understanding of the genetic determinants of complex production-related traits.

  18. Puma predation on radiocollared and uncollared bighorn sheep

    Johnson Christine K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We used Global Positioning System (GPS data from radiocollared pumas (Puma concolor to identify kill sites of pumas preying upon an endangered population of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis in southern California. Our aims were to test whether or not pumas selected radiocollared versus uncollared bighorn sheep, and to identify patterns of movement before, during, and after kills. Findings Three pumas killed 23 bighorn sheep over the course of the study, but they did not preferentially prey on marked (radiocollared versus unmarked bighorn sheep. Predation occurred primarily during crepuscular and nighttime hours, and 22 kill sites were identified by the occurrence of 2 or more consecutive puma GPS locations (a cluster within 200 m of each other at 1900, 0000, and 0600 h. Conclusion We tested the "conspicuous individual hypothesis" and found that there was no difference in puma predation upon radiocollared and uncollared bighorn sheep. Pumas tended to move long distances before and after kills, but their movement patterns immediately post-kill were much more restricted. Researchers can exploit this behaviour to identify puma kill sites and investigate prey selection by designing studies that detect puma locations that are spatially clustered between dusk and dawn.

  19. Implications of Genotype by Environment Interactions in Dairy Sheep Welfare

    Dinu Gavojdian


    Full Text Available Small ruminants are the most extensively farmed livestock species in Europe, as a result being extremely exposed to natural hazards which leads to strong interactions between genotype and environment. Aim of the current review was to outline and discuss the main welfare issues and economic implications with regards to the genotype by environment interactions in dairy sheep. Researches concerning the additive genetic effect on milk yield, shown that this accounts only for 10%, while the milk production is 90% influenced by environmental factors, highlighting the major role that management and nutrition play in the dairy production of sheep. Nowadays, dairy sheep breeds (e.g. Eastern Friesian and Lacaune, are being introduced and reared in various countries under an extremely wide range of rearing conditions, without adequate knowledge on their acclimatization to the new specific conditions. It was concluded that a welfare assessment protocol for dairy sheep does not exist up today, moreover, there is a serious lack of data concerning the genetic and environmental factors affecting the welfare status of dairy sheep at farm level under different production systems.

  20. Growth characterisics of Garut sheep and its crossbred

    Ismeth Inounu


    Full Text Available Based on previous study it is agreed that Von Bertalanffy model is the best fitted growth curve model with highest acuracy compared to Gompertz or Logistic models. For that reason in this study Von Bertalanffy model was used to study growth characterisics of Garut sheep and its crossbred. Relative superiority of crossbred sheep compared to Garut sheep in mature size parameter (A based on Von Bertalanffy model were respectively: M. charolain X Garut = 19.26%; Hair sheep X Garut = 8.08% and MG X HG or HG X MG = 4.22%. While relative superiority of crossbreds compared to Garut in rate of maturing (k were respectively: MG = -4.91%; HG = -1.34% dan MHG/HMG = 6.05%. Based on its relative superiority mature size parameter (A and rate of maturing (k MHG sheep had prospect for more developed due to its performance in term of high mature body weight, faster in reaching standard of slaughter body weight (35 kg at 440 days, and it is considere as more eficient in biological and economicaly.

  1. Handmade cloned transgenic sheep rich in omega-3 Fatty acids.

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Peng; Dou, Hongwei; Chen, Lei; Chen, Longxin; Lin, Lin; Tan, Pingping; Vajta, Gabor; Gao, Jianfeng; Du, Yutao; Ma, Runlin Z


    Technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been adapted worldwide to generate transgenic animals, although the traditional procedure relies largely on instrumental micromanipulation. In this study, we used the modified handmade cloning (HMC) established in cattle and pig to produce transgenic sheep with elevated levels of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids. Codon-optimized nematode mfat-1 was inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector and was transferred into the genome of primary ovine fibroblast cells from a male Chinese merino sheep. Reverse transcriptase PCR, gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select nuclear donor cells capable of converting omega-6 (n-6) into n-3 fatty acids. Blastocysts developed after 7 days of in vitro culture were surgically transplanted into the uterus of female ovine recipients of a local sheep breed in Xinjiang. For the HMC, approximately 8.9% (n  =925) of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Four recipients became pregnant after 53 blastocysts were transplanted into 29 naturally cycling females, and a total of 3 live transgenic lambs were produced. Detailed analyses on one of the transgenic lambs revealed a single integration of the modified nematode mfat-1 gene at sheep chromosome 5. The transgenic sheep expressed functional n-3 fatty acid desaturase, accompanied by more than 2-folds reduction of n-6/n-3 ratio in the muscle (psheep produced by the HMC. Compared to the traditional SCNT method, HMC showed an equivalent efficiency but proved cheaper and easier in operation.

  2. Airway blood flow response to dry air hyperventilation in sheep

    Parsons, G.H.; Baile, E.M.; Pare, P.D.


    Airway blood flow (Qaw) may be important in conditioning inspired air. To determine the effect of eucapneic dry air hyperventilation (hv) on Qaw in sheep the authors studied 7 anesthetized open-chest sheep after 25 min. of warm dry air hv. During each period of hv the authors have recorded vascular pressures, cardiac output (CO), and tracheal mucosal and inspired air temperature. Using a modification of the reference flow technique radiolabelled microspheres were injected into the left atrium to make separate measurements after humid air and dry air hv. In 4 animals a snare around the left main pulmonary artery was used following microsphere injection to prevent recirculation (entry into L lung of microspheres from the pulmonary artery). Qaw to the trachea and L lung as measured and Qaw for the R lung was estimated. After the final injection the sheep were killed and bronchi (Br) and lungs removed. Qaw (trachea plus L lung plus R lung) in 4 sheep increased from a mean of 30.8 to 67.0 ml/min. Airway mucosal temp. decreased from 39/sup 0/ to 33/sup 0/C. The authors conclude that dry air hv cools airway mucosa and increases Qaw in sheep.

  3. Attention bias to threat indicates anxiety differences in sheep.

    Lee, Caroline; Verbeek, Else; Doyle, Rebecca; Bateson, Melissa


    Humans and animals show increased attention towards threatening stimuli when they are in increased states of anxiety. The few animal studies that have examined this phenomenon, known as attention bias, have applied environmental manipulations to induce anxiety but the effects of drug-induced anxiety levels on attention bias have not been demonstrated. Here, we present an attention bias test to identify high and low anxiety states in sheep using pharmacological manipulation. Increased anxiety was induced using 1-methyl-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) and decreased anxiety with diazepam, and then we examined the behaviour of sheep in response to the presence of a dog as a threat. Increased attention towards the threat and increased vigilance were shown in sheep that received the m-CPP and reduced in sheep receiving the diazepam. The modulated attention towards a threat displayed by the m-CPP and diazepam animals suggests that attention bias can assess different levels of anxiety in sheep. Measuring attention bias has the potential to improve animal welfare assessment protocols.

  4. Characterization of a biologically derived rabbit tracheal scaffold.

    Lange, P; Shah, H; Birchall, M; Sibbons, P; Ansari, T


    There is a clinical need to provide replacement tracheal tissue for the pediatric population affected by congenital defects, as current surgical solutions are not universally applicable. A potential solution is to use tissue engineered scaffold as the framework for regenerating autologous tissue. Rabbit trachea were used and different detergents (Triton x-100 and sodium deoxycholate) and enzymes (DNAse/RNAse) investigated to create a decellularization protocol. Each reagent was initially tested individually and the outcome used to design a combined protocol. At each stage the resultant scaffold was assessed histologically, molecularly for acellularity and matrix preservation. Immunogenicity of the final scaffold was assessed by implantation into a rat model for 4 weeks. Both enzymes and detergents were required to produce a completely acellular (DNA content 42.78 ng/mg) scaffold with preserved collagen and elastin however, GAG content were reduced (8.78 ± 1.35 vs. 5.5 ± 4.8). Following in vivo implantation the scaffold elicited minimal immune response and showed significant cellular infiltration and vasculogenesis. The luminal aspect of the implanted scaffold showed infiltration of host derived cells, which were positive for pan cytokeratin. It is possible to create biologically derived biocompatible scaffolds to address specific pediatric clinical problems. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2016.

  5. Application of AMOR in craniofacial rabbit bone bioengineering.

    Freire, Marcelo; Choi, Jeong-Ho; Nguyen, Anthony; Chee, Young Deok; Kook, Joong-Ki; You, Hyung-Keun; Zadeh, Homayoun H


    Endogenous molecular and cellular mediators modulate tissue repair and regeneration. We have recently described antibody mediated osseous regeneration (AMOR) as a novel strategy for bioengineering bone in rat calvarial defect. This entails application of anti-BMP-2 antibodies capable of in vivo capturing of endogenous osteogenic BMPs (BMP-2, BMP-4, and BMP-7). The present study sought to investigate the feasibility of AMOR in other animal models. To that end, we examined the efficacy of a panel of anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and a polyclonal Ab immobilized on absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) to mediate bone regeneration within rabbit calvarial critical size defects. After 6 weeks, de novo bone formation was demonstrated by micro-CT imaging, histology, and histomorphometric analysis. Only certain anti-BMP-2 mAb clones mediated significant in vivo bone regeneration, suggesting that the epitopes with which anti-BMP-2 mAbs react are critical to AMOR. Increased localization of BMP-2 protein and expression of osteocalcin were observed within defects, suggesting accumulation of endogenous BMP-2 and/or increased de novo expression of BMP-2 protein within sites undergoing bone repair by AMOR. Considering the ultimate objective of translation of this therapeutic strategy in humans, preclinical studies will be necessary to demonstrate the feasibility of AMOR in progressively larger animal models.

  6. Evaluation of the currently used diagnostic procedures for the detection of Brucella melitensis in sheep

    Bercovich, Z.; Guler, L.; Baysal, T.; Schreuder, B.E.C.; Zijderveld, van F.G.


    A study was conducted to determine whether the use of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) improves detection of brucellosis in individual sheep. Sera from 132 sheep that aborted due to B. melitensis were used to assess the efficacy of the ELISA to detect brucellosis in sheep. ELISA results

  7. Quantitating PrP polymorphisms present in prions from heterozygous scrapie-infected sheep

    Scrapie is a prion (PrPSc) disease of sheep. The incubation period of sheep scrapie is strongly influenced by polymorphisms at positions 136, 154, and 171 of a sheep’s normal cellular prion protein (PrPC). Chymotrypsin was used to digest sheep recombinant PrP to identify a set of characteristic pept...

  8. Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence and risk factors on commercial sheep farms in The Netherlands

    Schimmer, B.; Lange, M.M. De; Hautvast, J.L.A.; Vellema, P.; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van


    Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence was assessed on Dutch dairy and non-dairy sheep farms using ELISA. Risk factors for seropositivity on non-dairy sheep farms were identified at farm and sheep level by univariate and multivariate multilevel analyses. Based on 953 dairy and 5671 non-dairy serum samples

  9. Fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia; an essential resource for smallholders.

    Udo, H.M.J.; Budisatria, I.G.S.


    This paper discusses the historical development of fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia, the dynamics of production systems, production and reproduction performances under farmers’ conditions, and roles of sheep in livelihoods. In the eighteenth and nineteenth century, fat-tailed sheep from southwest Asia

  10. Estimates of genetic parameters and genetic trends for live weight and fleece traits in Menz sheep

    Gizaw, S.; Lemma, S.; Komen, J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.


    Menz sheep are indigenous to the highlands of Ethiopia, and highly valued for their meat and wool production. The area is characterized as a low input mixed barley-sheep production system. In 1998, a selection experiment was set up to evaluate the response of Menz sheep to selection for yearling liv

  11. Fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia; an essential resource for smallholders.

    Udo, Henk Mathijs Johannes; Budisatria, I Gede Suparta


    This paper discusses the historical development of fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia, the dynamics of production systems, production and reproduction performances under farmers' conditions, and roles of sheep in livelihoods. In the eighteenth and nineteenth century, fat-tailed sheep from southwest Asia and Africander sheep from South Africa were introduced. Crossing of fat-tailed sheep with the local thin-tailed sheep produced the Javanese fat-tailed sheep. Main motives for the gradual change-over to fat-tailed sheep have been their potential larger body size and the preference of consumers for their meat. Management systems are changing in response to the intensification of land use. The reproductive performances of fat-tailed sheep are good. Households keep four to six animals, housed close to the family quarters. This results in very high levels of faecal bacteria contamination of drinking water sources. Sheep provide a small income, manure, security and help to accumulate capital. Sheep also play a key role in religious festivities. Farmers hardly profit from the increased demand for the feast of sacrifice; animals are sold mainly when the owners have urgent cash needs. Systematic sheep fattening can contribute to higher economic results, if sufficient family labour and crop residues are available.

  12. Genetic testing for TMEM154 mutations associated with lentivirus susceptibility in sheep

    Ovine lentiviruses cause incurable, progressive, lymphoproliferative diseases that affect millions of sheep worldwide. Genetic variation in the ovine transmembrane protein 154 gene (TMEM154) has been recently associated with lentivirus infections in U.S. sheep. Sheep with the two most common TMEM1...

  13. Cerebrospinal fluid immunoglobulins in sheep with visna, a slow virus infection of the central nervous system

    Martin, J.R.; Goudswaard, J.; Palsson, P.A.; Georgsson, G.; Petursson, G.; Klein, J.; Nathanson, N.


    Icelandic sheep were injected intracerebrally with visna virus, which produces a persistent infection of the CNS accompanied by encephalomyelitis and focal demyelinating lesions. Studies were conducted on two groups of sheep, with short-term infections (25 sheep sampled 1–3 months after infection) a


    G. Paci


    Full Text Available pH, colour and oxidative status were evaluated to study the effect of rabbit genotype on meat quality. Commercial Hybrids, selected for high growth rate and a local population, characterized by slow growing, were used. Meat quality characteristics of L. lumborum and B. femoris muscles showed significant differences between genotypes. Local population had higher pHu values but lower pH fall values than Hybrids. Hybrids showed higher lightness values and TBARS contents than local population. Meat quality parameters were influenced by genotype. The differences between genotypes could be related to the different degree of maturity because the rabbits, in relation to the different growth rate, were slaughtered at the same weight but at different age.

  15. Sex Difference in the Repolarization Currents of Rabbit Ventricular Cells

    RUAN Yanfei; LIU Nian; ZHOU Qiang; LI Yang; WANG Lin


    Summary: The current difference between male and female rabbit ventricular myocytes was investigated for elucidating the mechanism of longer QT interval and higher incidence of drug-associated torsade de pointes in female rabbits than in male rabbits. Whole cell patch clamp technique was used to record APD, Ito, IK,tail, IK1 and ICa,L of myocytes from left ventricular apex. There was no difference in the membrane capacitance between male and female rabbit myocytes. APD90 was longer in female rabbits (560.4±26.5 ms, n=15) than in male ones (489.0±20.7 ms, n=14), P0.05). The lower IK,tail of female rabbit myocytes may contribute to the longer repolarization and the higher incidence of drug-associated torsade de pointes.

  16. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Swamp rabbit

    Allen, Arthur W.


    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  17. Control of oxyuriasis in rabbits by fenbendazole.

    Düwel, D; Brech, K


    Death, poor condition and unsatisfactory breeding performance in a rabbit colony was attributed to infection with Passalurus ambiguus. The trouble disappeared after treatment with 50 ppm fenbendazole in the food for 5 days. In laboratory trials 12.5 ppm for 5 days eliminated more than 99% of adult and most immature pinworms, 25 and 50 ppm eliminated all immature and adult pinworms. These doses were also effective against Obeliscoides cuniculi.

  18. Rabbit gastric ulcer models: comparison and evaluation of acetic acid-induced ulcer and mucosectomy-induced ulcer.

    Maeng, Jin Hee; Lee, Eunhye; Lee, Don Haeng; Yang, Su-Geun


    In this study, we examined rabbit gastric ulcer models that can serve as more clinically relevant models. Two types of ulcer model were studied: acetic acid-induced ulcers (AAU) and mucosal resection-induced ulcers (MRU). For AAU, rabbit gastric mucosa was exposed by median laparotomy and treated with bottled acetic acid. MRU was examined as a model for endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). Normal saline was injected into the submucosal layer and the swollen mucosa was resected with scissors. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is frequently performed for treatment of early gastric cancers. This procedure inevitably leads to ulcers and bleeding. Bleeding control is the major concern in endoscopic mucosectomy, and some endoscopic hemostatic agents are currently under clinical and preclinical studies. MRU was developed as a model for these induced ulcers and the evaluation of the healing process. The clinical relevancy of those models was compared with that of rat models. Progressive healing was observed for 7 days based on histology. Rabbit models demonstrate round, deep ulcers with clear margins and well-defined healing stages that were difficult to define in rat models.

  19. Status of sheep sera to bluetongue, peste des petits ruminants and sheep pox in a few northern states of India

    Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan


    Full Text Available Bluetongue (BT, peste des petits ruminants (PPR and sheep pox are the most economically important viral diseases of sheep in India. Serum samples obtained from sheep in five northern states of the country were screened for antibody against these agents to explore the extent of spread of these infections. A total of 516 serum samples were screened for the presence of antibodies against BT and PPR viruses. Of these, 155 samples were also tested for antibodies against sheep pox virus. BT antibodies were found in 293 (56.8% animals, PPR virus antibodies in 215 (41.7% and sheep pox virus antibodies in 106 (68.3%. Of the serum samples tested, 25.2% were positive for antibodies against all three viruses. These findings clearly demonstrated not only the enzootic nature of disease, but also the co-existence of antibodies to more than one of these viruses which would indicate that concurrent infections were common. Therefore, control measures should focus in combating all three diseases simultaneously by exploring the possibility of a trivalent vaccine or the use of multiple genes expressing vectored vaccine.

  20. The rabbit pup, a natural model of nursing anticipatory activity

    Caba, Mario; González-Mariscal, Gabriela


    Mother rabbits nurse their young once a day with circadian periodicity. Nursing bouts are brief (ca. 3 min) and occur inside the maternal burrow. Despite this limited contact mother rabbits and their pups are tuned to each other to ensure that the capacities of each party are used efficiently to ensure the weaning of a healthy litter. In this review we present behavioral, hormonal, metabolic and hormonal correlates of this phenomenon in mother rabbits and their pups. Research is revealing tha...

  1. Medetomidine--ketamine--diazepam anesthesia in the rabbit.

    Mero, M; Vainionpää, S; Vasenius, J; Vihtonen, K; Rokkanen, P


    Orthopaedic operations were performed in 340 rabbits when developing biodegradable rods for the fixation of fractures. The rabbits were anaesthesized by injecting medetomidine combined with ketamine and diazepam (MKD) subcutaneously. The mortality due to the anaesthesia was zero. Arterial blood gas analyses showed a moderate decrease in the haemoglobin oxygen saturation and compensated respiratory acidosis, which was well tolerated by the animals. It is concluded that MKD anaesthesia is well suited for orthopaedic operations in the rabbit.

  2. Transgenic rabbit that expresses a functional human lipoprotein (a)

    Rouy, Didier; Duverger, Nicolas; Emmanuel, Florence; Denefle, Patrice; Houdebine, Louis-Marie; Viglietta, Celine; Rubin, Edward M.; Hughes, Steven D.


    A transgenic rabbit which has in its genomic DNA sequences that encode apolipoprotein (a) and apolipoprotein B polypeptides which are capable of combining to produce lipoprotein (a), a process for creating such a rabbit, and the use of the rabbit to identify compounds which are effective in the treatment of human diseases which are associated with, induced and/or exacerbated by Lp(a) expression.

  3. Myxomatosis in farmland rabbit populations in England and Wales.

    Ross, J; Tittensor, A. M.; Fox, A. P.; Sanders, M. F.


    The overall pattern and consequences of myxomatosis in wild rabbit populations were studied at three farmland sites in lowland southern England and upland central Wales between 1971 and 1978. When results from all years were combined, the disease showed a clear two-peaked annual cycle, with a main autumn peak between August and January, and a subsidiary spring peak during February to April. Rabbit fleas, the main vectors of myxomatosis in Britain, were present on full-grown rabbits in suffici...

  4. Exogenous Streptococcus pneumoniae Endophthalmitis in Diabetic Rabbits

    Benton, Angela H.; Fulton, Linda K.; Marquart, Mary E.


    Diabetics are at increased risk for eye infections including bacterial endophthalmitis. It is unclear whether the severity of endophthalmitis is greater in these patients due to confounding factors such as pre-existing ocular diseases in some but not others. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that disease severity and/or bacterial loads would be significantly higher in a Type I diabetic rabbit model of Streptococcus pneumoniae endophthalmitis. Rabbits were treated with alloxan to destroy pancreatic islet cells, or mock-treated with vehicle, and maintained for 10 days before intravitreal infection with S. pneumoniae E353. Clinical scoring of the eyes was performed 24 and 48 hours after infection, followed by euthanasia and vitreous harvest to quantitate bacterial loads. There were no significant differences in clinical scores (P ≥ 0.440) or bacterial loads (P = 0.736), however, 4/12 (33%) of the diabetic rabbits became bacteremic. This finding not only indicates a breakdown in the blood-ocular barrier, but also prompts further investigation into the exploitation of the diabetic eye by the streptococci. PMID:28387365

  5. Reproductive activity and welfare of rabbit does

    C. Castellini


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the relationships between reproductive performance and welfare of the rabbit does. In the last 10 years the profitability of rabbit farms has increased mainly due to improvements in management and genetic selection but several problems mainly related to animal welfare have also occurred. The mortality and rates of female replacement per year are very high and the replaced females often show poor body condition and low performance. The effect of kindling order, litter size, genetic strain, weaning age and reproduction rhythm on the reproductive performance and welfare of females and some mechanisms implicated in these effects are discussed. Modern rabbit does produce a lot of milk which have a high energetic value which leads to a mobilization of body fat which results in an energy deficit. In the current reproductive rhythms, there is an extensive overlap between lactation and gestation. The resulting energetic and hormonal antagonism reduces the fertility rate and lifespan of the doe. Strategies to improve the fertility, lifespan and welfare of does are discussed. An approach which combines various strategies seems to be required to meet these objectives. Since the factors involved in this productive system are fixed (genetic strain, environment the most powerful way to improve doe welfare is to choose a reproductive rhythm that is adapted to the physiology of the does.

  6. Intravitreal memantine retinal toxicity in rabbits.

    Moreno Páramo, D; Reyna Vielma, S; Rodríguez Reyes, A; Hernández Ayuso, I; Quiroz Mercado, H


    To histologically evaluate whether the intravitreal application of memantine produces retinal toxicity in rabbits. A cross-sectional design, experimental, descriptive study was performed on 16 eyes of 16 New Zealand rabbits of 3 kg, divided in 4 groups of 4 rabbits. A dose of 70 ng/ml of intravitreal memantine was administered in Group A, a dose of 150 ng/ml in Group B, a dose of 400 ng/ml in Group C, and Group D received 1 ml of balanced salt solution. The injected eye of half of each group was enucleated 15 days after the injection, and the rest within 30 days after injection. Following enucleation, each eye was placed in 10% formaldehyde. Histopathological analysis was performed on all enucleated eyes. The animals were treated according to the guidelines of the Association for Research on Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO). Groups A, B and D did not show any histopathological changes after their enucleation at 15 and 30 days. Group C showed changes in the photoreceptor layer after enucleation at 15 and 30 days. In our study, it was observed that memantine concentrations at 70 ng/ml and 150 ng/ml are safe when administered intravitreally; however, doses of 400 ng/ml produced retinal structural changes. This research should continue to assess its clinical usefulness. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Sodium nitroprusside induces apoptosis of rabbit chondrocytes

    Liang, Qian; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Tong-Sheng


    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by a slowly progressing degradation of the matrix and destruction of articular cartilage. Apoptosis of chondrocyte is accounted for the mechanism of OA. Nitric oxide (NO), as a stimulus, has been shown to induce chondrocyte apoptosis by activating the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), increasing the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and the level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), inhibiting the proteoglycan synthesis and type II collagen expression. In this study, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was administered to be the NO donor to explore the mechanism of NO-induced apoptosis of rabbit chondrocytes obtained from six weeks old New Zealand rabbits. CCK-8 assay revealed the inhibitory effect of SNP on cell viability. We used flow cytometry (FCM) to assess the form of cell death by Annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining, and evaluate the change of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). We found that the SNP induced chondrocyte apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner and an observable reduction of ΔΨm. In conclusion, our findings indicate that SNP induces apoptosis of rabbit chondrocytes via a mitochondria-mediated pathway.

  8. Milkweed control by food imprinted rabbits.

    Ducs, Anita; Kazi, Andrea; Bilkó, Ágnes; Altbäcker, Vilmos


    Many species of invasive plants are spreading out rapidly in Europe. The common milkweed occupies increasingly more area. Being poisonous, most animals will not graze on it however rabbits would be an effective organism for the biological control of milkweed. Rabbit kittens can learn the maternal diet in various ways. They prefer aromatic foods which their mother had eaten during pregnancy or lactation period, -even if it is poisonous- but they can also learn the maternal diet from the fecal pellets deposited by the mother into the nest during the nursing events. The present study was aimed to investigate if rabbit kittens can learn that the common milkweed is a potential food also. In the first 10days of their lives kits got fecal pellets originating from individuals having fed on common milkweed previously. When weaned on day 28 postpartum, these pups preferred the milkweed in the 3-way food choice test, opposite to the control group. Most surprisingly in a second experiment it was also shown that the common milkweed was also preferred by the kittens if their mother ate it not during, but one month before pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors influencing dissipation of avermectins in sheep faeces.

    Virant Celestina, Tina; Kolar, Lucija; Gobec, Ivan; Kuzner, Jernej; Flajs, Vesna Cerkvenik; Pogacnik, Milan; Erzen, Nevenka Kozuh


    Factors influencing fate of avermectins (abamectin, doramectin) in faeces of treated sheep were investigated under different experimental conditions. In the laboratory, concentrations of both avermectins were declined in homogenised faeces of treated animals until day 14 of exposure, regardless of experimental conditions. After that day, no significant decrease in concentrations was observed till the end of the experiment. Established DT(50) did not exceed 9 days. In the karst pasture, an average DT(50) of 27 days was established for abamectin and 23 days for doramectin in natural faeces of treated sheep. In the compost mixture, doramectin concentration was decreased by 38.9+/-2.6% during 21 days of the thermophilic phase of composting. Therefore, DT(50) was not established. A possible influence of moisture content of sheep faeces on concentrations of avermectins was observed.

  10. Prevalence of Theileria and Babesia species in Tunisian sheep.

    Rjeibi, Mohamed R; Darghouth, Mohamed A; Gharbi, Mohamed


    In this study, the prevalence of Theileria and Babesia species in sheep was assessed with Giemsastained blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction to identify the different piroplasms in 270 sheep from three Tunisian bioclimatic zones (north, centre, and south). The overall infection prevalence by Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. in Giemsa-stained blood smears was 2.9% (8/270) and 4.8% (13/270) respectively. The molecular results showed that sheep were more often infected by Theileria ovis than Babesia ovis with an overall prevalence of 16.3% (44/270) and 7.8% (21/270) respectively (p = 0.01). The molecular prevalence by Babesia ovis was significantly higher in females than in males (p distribution.

  11. Transmission of BSE by blood transfusion in sheep.

    Houston, F; Foster, J D; Chong, A; Hunter, N; Bostock, C J


    We have shown that it is possible to transmit bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to a sheep by transfusion with whole blood taken from another sheep during the symptom-free phase of an experimental BSE infection. BSE and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) In human beings are caused by the same infectious agent, and the sheep-BSE experimental model has a similar pathogenesis to that of human vCJD. Although UK blood transfusions are leucodepleted--a possible protective measure against any risk from blood transmission--this report suggests that blood donated by symptom-free vCJD-infected human beings may represent a risk of spread of vCJD infection among the human population of the UK.

  12. Studies on tail length of Rambouillet and Mouflon sheep.

    Shelton, M


    Data are presented on tail length of various breeds or crosses of sheep and various combinations of Mouflon X Rambouillet breeding. Mouflons sheep had 11 coccygeal vertebrae, and Rambouillet had 18-24. Others were intermediate between these types. Finewool sheep (Merino or Rambouillet) had longer tails than medium wool (Dorset, Suffolk or Hampshire), crossed, or Rambouillet breeds. Heritability estimates for tail length of Rambouillet were 0.387 (intra-sire regression), 0.344 (half-sib method), and 0.706 for inter se matings in a population containing some Mouflon breeding. In the Rambouillet breed, tail length was shown to be correlated with various measures of wool production. However, this relationship was low and only wool covering and staple length were significant. The significance of this to the development of long tails in animals under domestication is discussed.

  13. [Cell count of the milk from sheep in machine milking].

    Vitkov, M; Vitanov, S


    A number of microbiological and parallel direct and indirect cytological studies were carried out on sheep milk, obtained by machine-milking. It was established that the sheep milk containing up to 183,000 somatic cells per cm3 showed a negative reaction if Bernburg's mastite test was applied. Samples of cellular elements from 200,000 up to 400,000 per cm3 showed a weak positive reaction of the test, and above 420,000 per cm3 proved to be strongly positive. Polynuclear heterophils and a high percentage of infected samples were found in a quantity of cells above 500,000 per cm3. The data obtained showed good correlation between the bacterial find and the cell contents and are a reliable prerequisite for the application of Bernburg's test in studying sheep milk.

  14. Pressure and volume controlled mechanical ventilation in anaesthetized pregnant sheep.

    Davis, J; Musk, G C


    Optimal mechanical ventilation of the pregnant ewe during anaesthesia is of vital importance for maintaining fetal viability. This study aimed to compare peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), oxygenation and cardiovascular parameters with pressure-control (PCV) or volume-control (VCV) mechanical ventilation of anaesthetized pregnant sheep. Twenty ewes at 110 days gestation underwent general anaesthesia in dorsal recumbency for fetal surgery in a research setting. All the sheep were mechanically ventilated; one group with PCV (n = 10) and another with VCV (n = 10) to maintain normocapnia. PIP, direct arterial blood pressure, heart rate, arterial pH and arterial oxygen tension were recorded. PIP was lower in the PCV group (P sheep anaesthetized in dorsal recumbency, though PCV may provide superior oxygenation at a lower PIP.

  15. Fatal systemic cladosporiosis in a merino sheep flock.

    Haligur, Mehmet; Ozmen, Ozlem; Dorrestein, Gerry M


    Systemic cladosporiosis is described in 25 merino sheep from a flock consisting 250 animals. The fungal pneumonia appeared after an intensive antibiotic treatment, because of a respiratory system disorder. The pen of the flock was humid and crowded, and animals had signs of respiratory distress, coughing, fever and anorexia. All of the ill animals died, and necropsy was performed on 10 sheep. The lesions were characterized by a multifocal pyogranulomatous pneumonia and an abomasitis. Severe hemorrhages were observed in the lungs. At the histopathological examination, severe vasculitis with thrombosis was observed in various organs, especially in the lungs and abomasums, suggestive for a hematogenous dissemination of the infection in these organs. Numerous PAS-positive fungal elements were seen in the pyogranulomatous foci. Dark green fungal colonies were seen in the blood agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar that were identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides. This report highlights that phaeohyphomycosis can cause a severe systemic and fatal disease in merino sheep under insufficient management conditions.

  16. Clinical and microbiological study of otitis externa in sheep

    M. I. Al-Farwachi


    Full Text Available In this study one hundred Awassi sheep were examined clinically and bacteriologically for isolation and identification of the bacterial agents of otitis externa in sheep. The main clinical signs appeared included weakness, pale mucus membrane, auricular discharge, cough, anorexia, emaciation, and nasal discharge. Results revealed isolation of bacteria from (45% examined swabs. The most being from right ear. Younger animals were more frequently infected than older animals. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Staph. epidermidis, Pasteurella multocida, Streptococcus spp., Acintobacter spp., Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia were isolated. The results revealed that the most bacterial isolates were resistance to the bactericidal effect of the normal serum included Streptococcus pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica. While the most bacterial isolates were produced hydroxymate siderophore included Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Streptococcus pneumonia. The obtained results indicated to the importance of determination of serum resistance as a bacterial virulence factor in otitis externa in sheep.

  17. Assessment of a Novel Vaccine Against Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus in Young Rabbits.

    Pacho, Sonsoles; Dahdouh, Elias; Merino, Javier; Suárez, Monica


    Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDVb) is the new variant of the classical RHDV, a virulent pathogen responsible for an acute disease in young rabbits. The virus invades internal organs, especially the liver, spleen, kidneys, and gut; prevents coagulation; and causes liver necrosis. This eventually leads to quick death of the animal because of hemorrhage. In this study, we evaluated the effects of a new vaccine against RHDVb in rabbits at a young age, after experimental infection using four different viral isolates. Our findings show that the vaccine had a protective effect with survival rates reaching 80-100% against the different isolates. These results suggest that this vaccine, when applied to young animals, is an effective tool to protect against the disease caused by RHDVb in rabbitries.

  18. Receptor activity on some mesenchymal cells in CNS of normal rabbits. Indications of the monocytic origin of intracerebral perivascular cells, epiplexus cells and mononuclear phagocytes in the subarachnoid space.

    Oehmichen, M


    The surface receptor activity for various cell types within rabbit CNS was investigated. Sheep red blood cells (E) used as markers were washed, sensitized with the IgG-fraction of E-antibodies (EA) or additionally coated with complement (EAC) and incubated with CNS cells. The inhibitory effect produced by the addition of soluble IgG was investigated. Incubation (1 h) with red cells was undertaken in three ways: 1. Rabbit leptomeninx was stripped and incubated. 2. Rabbits were killed, the brain was perfused with warm buffer and red cell complexes were then injected intracerebrally, intrathecally and intraventricularly into the perfused brains. 3. E, EA and EAC were injected intracerebrally, intrathecally and intra-ventricularly into living rabbits. Using these methods, receptor sites for IgG and complement of mononuclear cells from the subarachnoid space, epiplexus cells and perivascular cells from intracerebral vessels could be demonstrated. In other areas of the body, these receptors have been demonstrated using similar methods only on cells from the monocyte-macrophage series. The common derivation of these three cell types from the monocytes as well as their comparable function within the immune response is discussed.

  19. Effect of Erythropoietin on Microvascular Anastomosis in Rat

    accelerated re-endothelialization in rat femoral arteries following microvascular anastomosis. Keywords: .... significance levels were two-tailed and set at p <. 0.05. ... vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) cultures in ... injection, to maintain a high EPO concentration in blood, the .... replacement for endothelial cells in the rabbit. Circ.

  20. An Annotated Bibliography on the Rabbit Novels by John Updike


    Se presenta un registro comentado de los principales estudios, libros y artículos sobre la serie narrativa del novelista estadounidense John Updike, conocida bajo el título común de novelas sobre Conejo (Corre, Conejo; El regreso de Conejo; Conejo es rico, etc.).This annotated bibliography includes a brief introduction to the Rabbit novels and comments on the main studies, books and articles on these novels by the U.S. writer John Updike (Rabbit, Run; The Redux of Rabbit; Rabbit Is Rich, etc....