Sample records for rat procedural techniques

  1. Comparison of surgical procedures for vascular and airway anastomoses that utilize a modified non-suture external cuff technique for experimental lung transplantation in rats.

    Mizobuchi, Teruaki; Sekine, Yasuo; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro; Fujisawa, Takehiko; Wilkes, David S


    Lung transplantation in rats is technically difficult and results may vary. The non-suture cuff technique (non-suture [NS]), which involves using a cuff for anastomoses of vessels and airways, is commonly utilized to perform transplant procedures. However, the standard bronchial cuff may occlude the lumen, resulting in diminished graft survival. In contrast, the non-suture cuff technique for vascular anastomoses with bronchial suturing (bronchial suture [BS]), although more technically difficult, is known to have prolonged bronchial patency. We developed a "modified" NS technique that uses a larger and longer cuff for anastomoses and compared the efficacy of this procedure to the BS technique for lung transplantation. The BS procedure was performed in 146 transplant procedures. The modified NS procedure, which uses a larger cuff than the standard NS procedure, was performed in 113 procedures. Although total ischemic times were comparable, the total operation time in the NS group was significantly shorter than in the BS group (p technique is widely acknowledged to provide prolonged patency of bronchial anastomosis, graft survival in the NS group was observed up 17 months post-transplant. These data show that the NS technique, which is less technically difficult, results in shorter operative times compared with the BS procedure, and results in durable anastomoses of lung grafts.

  2. A microsurgical procedure for middle cerebral artery occlusion by intraluminal monofilament insertion technique in the rat: a special emphasis on the methodology.

    Güzel, Aslan; Rölz, Roland; Nikkhah, Guido; Kahlert, Ulf D; Maciaczyk, Jaroslaw


    Although there are many experimental studies describing the methodology of the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in the literature, only limited data on these distinct anatomical structures and the details of the surgical procedure in a step by step manner. The aim of the present study simply is to examine the surgical anatomy of MCAO model and its modifications in the rat. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were used; 20 during the training phase and 20 for the main study. The monofilament sutures were prepared as described in the literature. All surgical steps of the study were performed under the operating microscope, including insertion of monofilament into middle cerebral artery through the internal carotid artery. After an extensive training period, we lost two rats in four weeks. The effects of MCAO were confirmed by the evidence of severe motor deficit during the recovery period, and histopathological findings of infarction were proved in all 18 surviving rats. In this study, a microsurgical guideline of the MCAO model in the rat is provided with the detailed description of all steps of the intraluminal monofilament insertion method with related figures.

  3. Extended Resin Composite Restorations: Techniques and Procedures

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Hilton, T.


    This article gives an overview of the state of the art of different restorative treatment procedures and techniques needed for placing extended posterior resin composite restorations. Clinical aspects related to the procedure are discussed and reviewed based on the current literature, such as the

  4. Cardiovascular procedures/diagnostic techniques and therapeutic procedures

    Tilkian, A.G.; Daily, E.K.


    This book covers the technical and therapeutic aspects of cardiovascular procedures in immense detail. There are large and appropriate diagrams and tables. The topics of the chapters are tools for catheterization, venous access, arterial access, hemodynamic monitoring, cardiac catheterization and coronary arteriography, ergonovine provocation testing for coronary artery spasm, pulmonary angiography, endomyocredial biopsy, electrophysiologic studies, pericardiocentesis and drainage, intraaortic balloon pumping, direct current cardioversion and defibrilaltion, pacemaker implantation of the automatic implantable cardioverter/defibrillator, coronary angioplasty, thrombolytic therapy, transluminal catheter extraction and resolution of intracardiac catheter knots, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, contrast media toxicity and allergic reactions, radiation hazards, and medicolegal concerns. An appendix and index follow these chapters. In general, each chapter covers historical aspects, indications, complications, techniques, and preoperative and postoperative care.

  5. Chipless RFID design procedure and detection techniques

    Rezaiesarlak, Reza


    This book examines the design of chipless RFID systems. The authors begin with the historical development of wireless identification systems and finally arrive at a representation of the chipless RFID system as a block diagram illustration. Chapter 2 is devoted to the theoretical bases for the design of chipless RFID tags and detection techniques in the reader. A rigorous mathematical formulation is presented based on the singularity expansion method (SEM) and characteristic mode theory (CMT) in order to study the scattered fields from an object in a general form. Th e authors attempt to explain some physical concepts behind the mathematical descriptions of the theories in this chapter. In Chapter 3, two design procedures based on complex natural resonance and CMT are presented for the design of the chipless RFID tag. By studying the effects of structural parameters on radiation and resonant behaviors of the tag, some design conclusions are presented in this chapter. Chapter 4 is dedicated to the time-frequen...

  6. Surgical technique of orthotopic liver transplantation in rats: the Kamada technique and a new splint technique for hepatic artery reconstruction.

    Ishii, Eiichi; Shimizu, Akira; Takahashi, Mikiko; Terasaki, Mika; Kunugi, Shinobu; Nagasaka, Shinya; Terasaki, Yasuhiro; Ohashi, Ryuji; Masuda, Yukinari; Fukuda, Yuh


    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in rats is technically feasible and useful for the assessment of clinical liver transplantation and analysis of inflammatory liver diseases. OLT in rats was pioneered by Lee et al. in 1973 using hand-suture techniques of all vessels. This model has not been widely used due to the long operative time and technical demand. The cuff method was introduced by Kamada in 1979, and today, the Kamada technique is the one most commonly used worldwide. However, this technique does not include hepatic artery reconstruction, although this procedure is routinely performed in clinical transplantation. Nevertheless, several techniques for hepatic artery reconstruction in rat OLT have been reported recently, and our group also developed a simple splint technique from recipient right renal artery to donor celiac axis bearing the hepatic artery. In the present article, we describe the Kamada technique, as a standard surgical method for rat OLT. In addition, we also describe our splint technique for hepatic artery reconstruction. Then, we compare the features of Kamada technique and our splint technique for hepatic artery reconstruction and all other surgical techniques currently in use for rat OLT. The widespread use of the rat OLT model should help to provide full assessment of transplant immunology and the mechanism and treatment of inflammatory liver diseases.

  7. Report on COTECH test procedure and characterization techniques

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul

    This deliverable report describes in detail the test steps that need to be executed in order to certify the final COTECH demonstrators for the specific application areas like health, biomedical, automotive, energy and information technology. It also defines and lists the capabilities and properties...... and material characterization techniques  Characterization techniques of the COTECH demonstrators  Functionality and lifecycle testing of the COTECH demonstrators Besides the general introduction and conclusion each section of the report is dedicated to the characterization techniques and test procedure.......Characterization techniques and test procedure requirements for innovative self-ligating dental brackets (EO) Section 5.Characterization techniques and test procedure requirements for smart diagnostic chips comprising a microfluidic channel system (GBO) Section 6.Characterization techniques and test procedure...

  8. The Gandhi Technique: A New Procedure for Intractable Problems.

    Schiff, Neil P.; Belson, Richard


    Notes problem of treating clients with intractable difficulties. Presents Gandhi Technique as simple, dramatic and seemingly effective procedure to resolve intractable difficulties. Describes technique and its application in different cases. Discusses several theories which may account for the efficacy of the technique. Proposes that Gandhi…

  9. Surgical procedures for a rat model of partial orthotopic liver transplantation with hepatic arterial reconstruction.

    Nagai, Kazuyuki; Yagi, Shintaro; Uemoto, Shinji; Tolba, Rene H


    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in rats using a whole or partial graft is an indispensable experimental model for transplantation research, such as studies on graft preservation and ischemia-reperfusion injury, immunological responses, hemodynamics, and small-for-size syndrome. The rat OLT is among the most difficult animal models in experimental surgery and demands advanced microsurgical skills that take a long time to learn. Consequently, the use of this model has been limited. Since the reliability and reproducibility of results are key components of the experiments in which such complex animal models are used, it is essential for surgeons who are involved in rat OLT to be trained in well-standardized and sophisticated procedures for this model. While various techniques and modifications of OLT in rats have been reported since the first model was described by Lee et al. in 1973, the elimination of the hepatic arterial reconstruction and the introduction of the cuff anastomosis technique by Kamada et al. were a major advancement in this model, because they simplified the reconstruction procedures to a great degree. In the model by Kamada et al., the hepatic rearterialization was also eliminated. Since rats could survive without hepatic arterial flow after liver transplantation, there was considerable controversy over the value of hepatic arterialization. However, the physiological superiority of the arterialized model has been increasingly acknowledged, especially in terms of preserving the bile duct system and the liver integrity. In this article, we present detailed surgical procedures for a rat model of OLT with hepatic arterial reconstruction using a 50% partial graft after ex vivo liver resection. The reconstruction procedures for each vessel and the bile duct are performed by the following methods: a 7-0 polypropylene continuous suture for the supra- and infrahepatic vena cava; a cuff technique for the portal vein; and a stent technique for the

  10. Levels of evidence in nursing techniques and procedures

    Montserrat Solís Muñoz


    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the levels of scientific evidence on nursing techniques and procedures.Selection of nursing techniques: According to the frequency of daily use, increase in scientific production in the last years, and variability in practise.Sources and data searching: 1. Books and manuals in Specialised libraries and using the Online Point Access Catalog (OPAC. 2. Clinical practise guidelines and protocols from hospitals taking part in the Evidence-Based Medicine network. 3. On-line manuals, clinical practise guidelines and protocols, using different searching strategies and specific language of PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, IBECS, and others.Revision method: 1. To retrieve the sources of information containing the techniques and procedures. 2. Their identification and description. 3. Assessment of the level of evidence of the studies cited in the sources through critical appraisal, by two observers. If disagreement, a third reviewer will assess the study. 4. Analysis of scientific evidence of techniques and procedures, applying specific criteria and using the highest level of evidence supporting them. 5. Assignment of the level of recommendation for the technique depending on the level of evidence.Analysis and data treatment: With a reference manager databases with sources and references will be created and related to each other.

  11. Modification of the Nuss Procedure: The Single-incision Technique

    Tetsushi Aizawa, MD


    Full Text Available Summary: The Nuss procedure is a prevalent minimally invasive surgery for pectus excavatum. Although the Nuss procedure has the advantage of leaving less obtrusive scars, the standard technique requires at least 3 skin incisions to insert several instruments. We experienced 7 cases of the modified Nuss procedure using a single incision during a 7-year period. To facilitate passing of the bar, a traction guide was created according to our unique method. There was no need for a bar stabilizer, and no severe intraoperative complications occurred. All patients exhibited satisfactory short-term results; however, 1 patient suffered from bar rotation and required repeat surgery for fixation. Two patients underwent bar removal via the same single incision without any difficulties.

  12. Modified techniques of heterotopic total small intestinal transplantation in rats

    Xiao-Ting Wu; Jie-Shou Li; Xiao-Fei Zhao; Wen Zhuang; Xie-Lin Feng


    AIM: To establish a successful model of heterotopictotal small intestinal transplantation (SIT) in rats inorder to reduce the complications and increase thesurvival rate.METHODS: A total of 196 Wistar rats underwentheterotopic SIT with microsurgical technique. Technicalmodifications included shortening fasting time andsupplying energy before surgery, administering optimalvolume of crystalloid fluid to the donor and recipientduring surgical procedures, reducing mechanical andischemic injuries to donor intestine, revascularizingsmall intestinal graft with a combination ofconventional aorta to aorta anastomosis and a cuffedportal vein to left renal vein anastomosis which resultedin an acceptably short warm ischemic time, and alsoan adequate blood supply and drainage of the graft.RESULTS: The average time for the donor surgery was86min±20min, the mean operative time for therecipient was 115min±20min and warm ischemia timewas shortened to 40min±5min. There was a shorterrevascularizing time of the graft, the abdominal aorta(AA) to AA anastomosis being 21min±10min, and thecuffed portal vein (PV) to the renal vein anastomosisbeing 5min±5min.The one-week survival rate of 98 ratswith SIT was 88.78% (87/98), without thrombosis andstenosis of anastomosis. The longest survival time ofrecipient rats was more than 389 days after SIT, therats were maintaining normal weight, with perfectintestinal function and intact intestinal histology.CONCLUSION: These modified techniques for SIT wouldremarkably reduce the complications and improve survival rate in rats, which provided a potentially more consistent and practical model for experimental andclinical studies.

  13. Kidney transplantation procedures in rats: assessments, complications, and management.

    Pahlavan, Payam S; Smallegange, Corry; Adams, Michael A; Schumacher, Martin


    Kidney transplantation in rats is an experimental model often used for the development of general microsurgical or transplantation techniques, for immunologic studies, and for analyzing transplant-associated long-term arterial blood-pressure changes. The aim of the present study was to analyze different surgical techniques of kidney transplantation in rats, with emphasis on minimizing surgical complications and establishing guidelines for their prevention and management. Complications were categorized into general (e.g., core body temperature drop, ischemic time) and surgically related vascular and urinary tract complications. In conclusion, a significant reduction of the complication rate in renal transplantation in rats can be achieved by placing the animal on a heating pad at an appropriate temperature. To reduce the risk of vascular thrombosis, ice-cold saline with heparin and careful flushing of the donor kidneys are recommended. Vascular complications can be avoided by performing "end-to-end" anastomosis techniques. The use of stents and cannulas in the urinary tract is associated with a high risk of urinary tract obstruction, and therefore is not recommended.

  14. Use of surgical techniques in the rat pancreas transplantation model

    Ma, Yi; Guo, Zhi-Yong


    ... (also called type 1 diabetes). With the improvement of microsurgical techniques, pancreas transplantation in rats has been the major model for physiological and immunological experimental studies in the past 20 years...

  15. [Orthotopic liver transplant in rats. Surgical technique, complications and treatment].

    Lausada, Natalia R; Gondolesi, G E; Ortiz, E; Dreizzen, E; Raimondi, J C


    The orthotopic rat liver transplant model is a widely used technique in transplantation research. It has many advantages over other animal transplant models because of its availability and low cost. However, it must be emphasized that success with the rat model requires thorough training. The aim of this paper is to describe the microsurgical technique involved in 60 rat liver transplants and to discuss the complications and their treatments. Forty-nine liver transplants were performed at the Experimental Laboratory of the University Hospital, Ontario, Canada (ELUH) and 11 were performed at the Laboratorio de Trasplante de Organos de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de La Plata, Buenos Aires. Argentina (LTO). Among the transplants performed at the ELUH, the observed complications were haemorrhage (n = 4), pneumothorax (n = 1), anastomotic failure (n = 15), bile leak (n = 3), and bile duct necrosis (n = 9). The remaining 17 rats at the ELUH were healthy at day 7 after surgery. Animal survival immediately postop, at 24 hours postop and at 7 days postop was achieved with the 9th, 20th and 21st transplants respectively. At the LTO, 3 rats died as a result of anaesthetic complications. Seven-day animal survival was achieved with the 11th transplant. We beleive that the description of the orthotopic rat liver transplantation technique, as well as the discussion regarding complications and their management, can be useful for researchers interested in performing liver transplantation in rats.

  16. Review of Surgical Techniques of Experimental Renal Transplantation in Rats.

    Shrestha, Badri; Haylor, John


    Microvascular surgical techniques of renal transplant in rats have evolved over the past 5 decades to achieve successful rat renal transplant; these modifications have included surgical techniques to address the anatomic variations in the renal blood vessels and those to reduce ischemic and operation durations. Here, we review the surgical techniques of renal transplant in rats and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of individual techniques of vascular and ureteric anastomoses. For this review, we performed a systematic literature search using relevant medical subject heading terms and included appropriate publications in the review. Since the first description of a rat model of renal transplant by Bernard Fisher and his colleagues in 1965, which used end-to-side anastomosis between the renal vein and renal artery to the recipient inferior vena cava and aorta, several vascular and ureteric anastomosis techniques have been modified. Vascular anastomosis techniques now include end-to-end anastomosis, use of donor aortic and inferior vena cava conduits, sleeve and cuff anastomoses, and application of fibrin glue. Likewise, restoration of the urinary tract can now be achieved by direct anastomosis of the donor ureter to the recipient bladder, end-to-end anastomosis between the donor and recipient ureters, and donor bladder cuff to the recipient bladder. There are advantages and disadvantages attributable to individual techniques. The range of vascular and ureteric anastomosis techniques that has emerged reflects the need for mastering more than one technique to suit the vascular anatomy of individual animals and to reduce operating time for achieving successful outcomes after renal transplant.

  17. Update on procedure-related risks for prenatal diagnosis techniques

    Tabor, Ann; Alfirevic, Zarko


    Introduction: As a consequence of the introduction of effective screening methods, the number of invasive prenatal diagnostic procedures is steadily declining. The aim of this review is to summarize the risks related to these procedures. Material and Methods: Review of the literature. Results: Data...... from randomised controlled trials as well as from systematic reviews and a large national registry study are consistent with a procedure-related miscarriage rate of 0.5-1.0% for amniocentesis as well as for chorionic villus sampling (CVS). In single-center studies performance may be remarkably good due...... not be performed before 15 + 0 weeks' gestation. CVS on the other hand should not be performed before 10 weeks' gestation due to a possible increase in risk of limb reduction defects. Discussion: Experienced operators have a higher success rate and a lower complication rate. The decreasing number of prenatal...

  18. European wind turbine procedure development blade test methods and techniques

    Bulder, B.H.; Dam, J.J.D. van; Delft, D.R.V. van [and others


    In this paper the preliminary results obtained by performing the second task of the `European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Development` project are presented. This project is performed within and with financial support of the Standards, Measurements and Testing programme of the European Commission. (au)

  19. A standardized surgical technique for rat superior cervical ganglionectomy

    Savastano, Luis Emilio; Castro, Analía Elizabeth; Fitt, Marcos René


    injury. Despite having several experimental applications in the rat, a thorough description of a standardized procedure has never been published. Here, we provide a brief review of the principal features and experimental uses of the SCGx, the surgical anatomy of the neck and sympathetic cervical chain......, and a step-by-step description of how to consistently remove the superior cervical ganglia through the omohyoid muscle or the carotid triangle. Furthermore, we suggest procedures and precautions to be taken during and after surgery to optimize results and describe tools to validate surgical success. We...

  20. Arts and technology - Mosaic new techniques and procedures

    Papiu, G. A.; Suciu, N.


    The relationship between art and technique has been along the time one that is inseparable and systematic, artists appealing to various technologies, tools and practices that help them stimulate their imagination. Today there is a new category of artists, coming from a technical or scientific field, that are being 'trapped’ in this ‘game of art”. The mosaic, even if it is an old technique, responded to the social requirements and it evolved over time, being constantly related to aesthetic and artistic thinking, discoveries of science, assimilating permanent new techniques and technologies, diversifying its artistic forms of expression and methods of transposition. Not being bound any more to a religious institution, which was its birth place, today, she migrated to all public spaces. Works of art in public space have become today an active factor in reshaping the urban aesthetic landscape.

  1. Single port robotic hysterectomy technique improving on multiport procedure

    John R Lue


    Full Text Available The benefits of laparoscopic surgery over conventional abdominal surgery have been well documented. Reducing postoperative pain, decreasing postoperative morbidity, hospital stay duration, and postoperative recovery time have all been demonstrated in recent peer-review literature. Robotic laparoscopy provides the added dimension of increased fine mobility and surgical control. With new single port surgical techniques, we have the added benefit of minimally invasive surgery and greater patient aesthetic satisfaction, as well as all the other benefits laparoscopic surgery offers. In this paper, we report a successful single port robotic hysterectomy and the simple process by which this technique is performed.

  2. Update on procedure-related risks for prenatal diagnosis techniques

    Tabor, Ann; Alfirevic, Zarko


    from randomised controlled trials as well as from systematic reviews and a large national registry study are consistent with a procedure-related miscarriage rate of 0.5-1.0% for amniocentesis as well as for chorionic villus sampling (CVS). In single-center studies performance may be remarkably good due...... to very skilled operators, but these figures cannot be used for general counselling. Amniocentesis performed prior to 15 weeks had a significantly higher miscarriage rate than CVS and mid-trimester amniocentesis, and also increased the risk of talipes equinovarus. Amniocentesis should therefore...

  3. Procedures for rat in situ skeletal muscle contractile properties.

    MacIntosh, Brian R; Esau, Shane P; Holash, R John; Fletcher, Jared R


    There are many circumstances where it is desirable to obtain the contractile response of skeletal muscle under physiological circumstances: normal circulation, intact whole muscle, at body temperature. This includes the study of contractile responses like posttetanic potentiation, staircase and fatigue. Furthermore, the consequences of disease, disuse, injury, training and drug treatment can be of interest. This video demonstrates appropriate procedures to set up and use this valuable muscle preparation. To set up this preparation, the animal must be anesthetized, and the medial gastrocnemius muscle is surgically isolated, with the origin intact. Care must be taken to maintain the blood and nerve supplies. A long section of the sciatic nerve is cleared of connective tissue, and severed proximally. All branches of the distal stump that do not innervate the medial gastrocnemius muscle are severed. The distal nerve stump is inserted into a cuff lined with stainless steel stimulating wires. The calcaneus is severed, leaving a small piece of bone still attached to the Achilles tendon. Sonometric crystals and/or electrodes for electromyography can be inserted. Immobilization by metal probes in the femur and tibia prevents movement of the muscle origin. The Achilles tendon is attached to the force transducer and the loosened skin is pulled up at the sides to form a container that is filled with warmed paraffin oil. The oil distributes heat evenly and minimizes evaporative heat loss. A heat lamp is directed on the muscle, and the muscle and rat are allowed to warm up to 37°C. While it is warming, maximal voltage and optimal length can be determined. These are important initial conditions for any experiment on intact whole muscle. The experiment may include determination of standard contractile properties, like the force-frequency relationship, force-length relationship, and force-velocity relationship. With care in surgical isolation, immobilization of the origin of the

  4. A laparoscopic technique of partial hepatectomy in the rat.

    Ypsilantis, Petros; Simopoulos, Constantinos


    Laparoscopic partial hepatectomy is an increasingly applied technique in the treatment of liver tumors and in living donor transplantation. There is a need for establishing an animal model that would facilitate experimental research on the technique. The aim of the present study was to describe a safe and efficient laparoscopic technique of 70% partial hepatectomy in the rat. Twenty-four male Wistar rats underwent either laparoscopic (group LAP-HEP) or open resection of the median and left lateral hepatic lobes (group HEP). In group LAP-HEP, a 5-mm Hg pneumoperitoneum was established. Three 5-mm trocars were introduced in the abdominal cavity. A self-made pretied ligature loop was used to ligate en bloc the pedicles of the hepatic lobes to be resected. A self-made sterile elastic specimen retrieval bag facilitated extraction of the resected liver tissue. In group HEP, the same liver lobes were resected by ligation of their pedicles after midline laparotomy. The percentage of resected liver parenchyma did not differ between groups. All animals returned to normal feeding activity by 48 h postoperation and had no complications. A simple, cost-effective, safe, and efficient laparoscopic technique for 70% partial hepatectomy in the rat was described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Multimodality Image Fusion-Guided Procedures: Technique, Accuracy, and Applications

    Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine, E-mail: [National Institutes of Health, Radiology and Imaging Sciences (United States); Kruecker, Jochen, E-mail: [Philips Research North America (United States); Kadoury, Samuel, E-mail: [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Department of Computer and Software Engineering, Institute of Biomedical Engineering (Canada); Kobeiter, Hicham, E-mail: [CHU Henri Mondor, UPEC, Departments of Radiology and d' imagrie medicale (France); Venkatesan, Aradhana M., E-mail:; Levy, Elliot, E-mail:; Wood, Bradford J., E-mail: [National Institutes of Health, Radiology and Imaging Sciences (United States)


    Personalized therapies play an increasingly critical role in cancer care: Image guidance with multimodality image fusion facilitates the targeting of specific tissue for tissue characterization and plays a role in drug discovery and optimization of tailored therapies. Positron-emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) may offer additional information not otherwise available to the operator during minimally invasive image-guided procedures, such as biopsy and ablation. With use of multimodality image fusion for image-guided interventions, navigation with advanced modalities does not require the physical presence of the PET, MRI, or CT imaging system. Several commercially available methods of image-fusion and device navigation are reviewed along with an explanation of common tracking hardware and software. An overview of current clinical applications for multimodality navigation is provided.

  6. Use of surgical techniques in the rat pancreas transplantation model

    Yi Ma; Zhi-Yong Guo


    BACKGROUND:Pancreas transplantation is currently considered to be the most reliable and effective treatment for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (also called type 1 diabetes). With the improvement of microsurgical techniques, pancreas transplantation in rats has been the major model for physiological and immunological experimental studies in the past 20 years. We investigated the surgical techniques of pancreas transplantation in rats by analysing the difference between cervical segmental pancreas transplantation and abdominal pancreaticoduodenal transplantation. METHODS:Two hundred and forty male adult Wistar rats weighing 200-300 g were used, 120 as donors and 120 as recipients. Sixty cervical segmental pancreas transplants and 60 abdominal pancreaticoduodenal transplants were carried out and vessel anastomoses were made with microsurgical techniques. RESULTS:The time of donor pancreas harvesting in the cervical and abdominal groups was 31±6 and 37.6±3.8 min, respectively, and the lengths of recipient operations were 49.2±5.6 and 60.6±7.8 min. The time for donor operation was not signiifcantly different (P>0.05), but the recipient operation time in the abdominal group was longer than that in the cervical group (P0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Both pancreas transplantation methods are stable models for immunological and physiological studies in pancreas transplantation. Since each has its own advantages and disadvantages, the designer can choose the appropriate method according to the requirements of the study.

  7. Thoracic Duct Narrowing-Innovative Technique Restraining Weight Gain in Rats.

    Rosenzweig, Barak; Barshack, Iris; Harats, Dror; Shaish, Aviv


    The lymphatic system is responsible for the absorption of fats from the digestive system, conveying 60-70 % of ingested fat to the blood stream. From the anatomical point of view, all the lymphatic drainage from the lower half of the body converges in the abdomen to enter the thoracic duct. This experimental study aim was to study the result of thoracic duct narrowing (TDN), an innovative surgical technique, on weight gain restrain in high-fat diet-fed rats. Forty-seven rats were allocated into three groups: thoracic duct narrowing ("S"-surgery), sham operation ("CS"-control surgery), and no surgery ("C"-control). All rats were fed with high-fat, cholesterol-rich diet. Food consumption and metabolic syndrome parameters including weight gain, plasma lipids and glucose, blood pressure, and viscera weight and histopathology were analyzed. Thoracic duct narrowing was proved simple and safe surgical procedure in the rat model. TDN induced weight gain restrain, associated with mild hepatic steatosis compared to moderate-severe hepatic steatosis in control groups. Splenomegaly and splenic fatty histiocytes were shown in the treated animals. TDN improved several parameters of the metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-fed rats. TDN carries the potential of innovative obesity treatment using the lymphatic route of lipid absorption.

  8. Impact of 3D Rotational Angiography on Liver Embolization Procedures: Review of Technique and Applications

    Lucatelli, Pierleone, E-mail:; Corona, Mario, E-mail:; Argirò, Renato, E-mail:; Anzidei, Michele, E-mail: [Sapienza University of Rome, Vascular and Interventional Radiology Unit, Department of Radiological, Oncological and Anatomo-Pathological Sciences (Italy); Vallati, Giulio, E-mail: [Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Regina Elena, Department of Angiography and Interventional Radiology (Italy); Fanelli, Fabrizio, E-mail:; Bezzi, Mario, E-mail:; Catalano, Carlo, E-mail: [Sapienza University of Rome, Vascular and Interventional Radiology Unit, Department of Radiological, Oncological and Anatomo-Pathological Sciences (Italy)


    In the last years, the interest into interventional applications of C-arm cone-beam CT (CBCT) progressively raised, widening its clinical application from the original field of interventional neuroradiology to the field of peripheral procedures. Liver embolization procedures, due to their complexity and potential treatment-related life-threatening complications, represent one of the main clinical applications of this novel angiographic technique. CBCT has been demonstrated to render procedures safer and technically easier, and to predict outcome as well as to avoid major complications in different treatment scenarios (trans-arterial embolization, trans-arterial chemoembolization, selective internal radiation therapy, percutaneous portal vein embolization). This review summarizes all technical, dosimetric and procedural aspects of CBCT techniques, underlying all its potential clinical advantages in the field of liver embolization procedures. Moreover, the paper provides all the instructions to obtain the best diagnostic performance out of this novel angiographic technique.

  9. Arthroscopically assisted Sauvé-Kapandji procedure: an advanced technique for distal radioulnar joint arthritis.

    Luchetti, Riccardo; Khanchandani, Prakash; Da Rin, Ferdinando; Borelli, Pierpaolo P; Mathoulin, Christophe; Atzei, Andrea


    Osteoarthritis of distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) leads to chronic wrist pain, weakness of grip strength, and limitation of motion, all of which affect the quality of life of the patient. Over the years, several procedures have been used for the treatment of this condition; however, this condition still remains a therapeutic challenge for the hand surgeons. Many procedures such as Darrach procedure, Bower procedure, Sauvé-Kapandji procedure, and ulnar head replacement have been used. Despite many advances in wrist arthroscopy, arthroscopy has not been used for the treatment of arthritis of the DRUJ. We describe a novel technique of arthroscopically assisted Sauvé-Kapandji procedure for the arthritis of the DRUJ. The advantages of this technique are its less invasive nature, preservation of the extensor retinaculum, more anatomical position of the DRUJ, faster rehabilitation, and a better cosmesis.

  10. Alveolar antral artery isolation during sinus lift procedure with the double window technique

    Maridati, Paolo; Stoffella, Enrico; Speroni, Stefano; Cicciu, Marco; Maiorana, Carlo


    The sinus lift technique, introduced in 1976 by Tatum and subsequently described by Boyne in 1980, is nowadays considered a safe and reliable procedure for the rehabilitation of the atrophic upper posterior maxilla...

  11. Establishment of reproducible osteosarcoma rat model using orthotopic implantation technique.

    Yu, Zhe; Sun, Honghui; Fan, Qingyu; Long, Hua; Yang, Tongtao; Ma, Bao'an


    In experimental musculoskeletal oncology, there remains a need for animal models that can be used to assess the efficacy of new and innovative treatment methodologies for bone tumors. Rat plays a very important role in the bone field especially in the evaluation of metabolic bone diseases. The objective of this study was to develop a rat osteosarcoma model for evaluation of new surgical and molecular methods of treatment for extremity sarcoma. One hundred male SD rats weighing 125.45+/-8.19 g were divided into 5 groups and anesthetized intraperitoneally with 10% chloral hydrate. Orthotopic implantation models of rat osteosarcoma were performed by injecting directly into the SD rat femur with a needle for inoculation with SD tumor cells. In the first step of the experiment, 2x10(5) to 1x10(6) UMR106 cells in 50 microl were injected intraosseously into median or distal part of the femoral shaft and the tumor take rate was determined. The second stage consisted of determining tumor volume, correlating findings from ultrasound with findings from necropsia and determining time of survival. In the third stage, the orthotopically implanted tumors and lung nodules were resected entirely, sectioned, and then counter stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathologic evaluation. The tumor take rate was 100% for implants with 8x10(5) tumor cells or more, which was much less than the amount required for subcutaneous implantation, with a high lung metastasis rate of 93.0%. Ultrasound and necropsia findings matched closely (r=0.942; ptechnique for measuring cancer at any stage. Tumor growth curve showed that orthotopically implanted tumors expanded vigorously with time-lapse, especially in the first 3 weeks. The median time of survival was 38 days and surgical mortality was 0%. The UMR106 cell line has strong carcinogenic capability and high lung metastasis frequency. The present rat osteosarcoma model was shown to be feasible: the take rate was high, surgical mortality was

  12. Effects of anesthesia and blood sampling techniques on plasma metabolites and corticosterone in the rat.

    Arnold, Myrtha; Langhans, Wolfgang


    Blood is routinely sampled from laboratory animals in biomedical research, and many of the commonly applied sampling techniques require anesthesia. Acute effects of many sampling and anesthesia procedures may confound the results, but those effects are incompletely characterized. We here compare the effects of four common anesthesia procedures (inhalation anesthesia with ether (EA) or isoflurane (IA) and intraperitoneal injection anesthesia with xylazin/ketamine (XKA) or medetomidine/midazolam/fentanyl (MMFA)) on plasma concentrations of glucose, lactate, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), and corticosterone in blood obtained from a previously implanted jugular vein (JV) catheter with the effect of JV blood sampling from non-anesthetized, freely-moving rats (JV-NA). Also, we included in the comparison two other blood sampling procedures usually performed without anesthesia (NA), i.e., puncture of the saphenic vein (SV) and tail incision (TI). Whereas the control procedure (JV-NA) did not significantly affect any of the target parameters, plasma glucose increased from 14 (JV-IA) to 44 (JV-MMFA) % (all Ps=0.05 when compared with the control procedure) in all blood samples collected in anesthesia and was 12 and 14% lower (both Pssamples, respectively. Plasma lactate increased from 74 (JV-IA) to 226% (SV-NA) (all Pssampling and anesthesia procedures except for JV-XKA and JV-MMF. Plasma NEFAs increased to 52% (P0.05). Finally, only the JV-EA and the JV-MMFA procedures increased plasma corticosterone (+525 and +353%, respectively, both Pssampling procedures can have profound acute effects on plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations. This must be considered for the design and interpretation of blood sampling experiments in laboratory animals. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. A Modified Counterconditioning Procedure Prevents the Renewal of Conditioned Fear in Rats

    Thomas, Brian L.; Cutler, Marlo; Novak, Cheryl


    Two studies using an ABA design examined the Extinction and renewal of conditioned barpress suppression. Following lights-off and foot shock pairings in Context A, rats were placed in Context B and were given either a standard counterconditioning procedure where the lights-off CS was paired with a novel food US delivered freely or a modified…

  14. The Bristow-Latarjet procedure, a historical note on a technique in comeback.

    van der Linde, J A; van Wijngaarden, R; Somford, M P; van Deurzen, D F P; van den Bekerom, M P J


    The Bristow-Latarjet procedure is a well-known surgical technique designed to treat shoulder instability. In this procedure, the coracoid process is transferred to the glenoid rim, to serve as augmentation of an associated bony defect. Because long-term results following a soft tissue procedure (Bankart repair) reveal that up to 21 and 33 % of the patients might experience recurrent instability and with the advent of the arthroscopic coracoid transfer, there is renewed interest in this procedure to treat shoulder instability. The aim of this study is to provide a historical overview, with emphasis on the original inventors Bristow and Latarjet, the complications and following modifications regarding the surgical approach, the coracoid transfer and the arthroscopic technique. Level of evidence V.

  15. A standardized surgical technique for rat superior cervical ganglionectomy.

    Savastano, Luis Emilio; Castro, Analía Elizabeth; Fitt, Marcos René; Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Romeo, Horacio Eduardo; Muñoz, Estela Maris


    Superior cervical ganglionectomy (SCGx) is a valuable microsurgical model to study the role of the sympathetic nervous system in a vast array of physiological and pathological processes, including homeostatic regulation, circadian biology and the dynamics of neuronal dysfunction and recovery after injury. Despite having several experimental applications in the rat, a thorough description of a standardized procedure has never been published. Here, we provide a brief review of the principal features and experimental uses of the SCGx, the surgical anatomy of the neck and sympathetic cervical chain, and a step-by-step description of how to consistently remove the superior cervical ganglia through the omohyoid muscle or the carotid triangle. Furthermore, we suggest procedures and precautions to be taken during and after surgery to optimize results and describe tools to validate surgical success. We expect that the following standardized and optimized protocol will allow researchers to organize knowledge into a cohesive framework in those areas where the SCGx is applied. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Free Nipple Graft Technique to Correct Nipple and Areola Malposition after Breast Procedures

    Mario Rietjens, MD


    Full Text Available Summary: Secondary correction of nipple areola complex (NAC malposition represents a major concern after breast reconstructive procedures. It is frequently requested by patients complaining about asymmetric areolas impairing the whole reconstructive procedure and asking for improved cosmetic outcomes. Several methods have been described to achieve a good symmetry between the 2 areolas, either natural or reconstructed. We describe our correction technique with free NAC graft. A total of 16 patients were treated with free NAC grafts between April 2010 and April 2013 at the European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy. This series focused on the surgical technique and its postoperative outcomes. Three cases of partial graft loss (18% were observed in the postoperative period. No total NAC necrosis occurred. No infection was observed. All the complications were managed with a conservative treatment, not requiring any further surgery. NAC malposition following breast reconstructive procedures can be corrected using the technique of free NAC graft with reliable and satisfactory results.

  17. What is a Bristow-Latarjet procedure? A review of the described operative techniques and outcomes.

    Cowling, P D; Akhtar, M A; Liow, R Y L


    A variety of operative techniques have been described as under the term 'Bristow-Latarjet' procedure. This review aims to define the original procedure, and compare the variation in techniques described in the literature, assessing any effect on clinical outcomes. A systematic review of 24 studies was performed to compare specific steps of the technique (coracoid osteotomy site, subscapularis approach, orientation and position of coracoid graft fixation and fixation method, additional labral and capsular repair) and detect any effect this variability had on outcomes. Overall recurrence rate was 5.36% (2.94% to 43%). Half of the studies performed the procedure for recurrent shoulder instability, with only five studies documenting glenoid bone loss as an indication: 12 studies used the procedure as the primary surgical intervention for recurrent instability. No change in outcome was noted when examining variation in the coracoid osteotomy site, the fixation site on the scapular neck, the fixation method or whether a capsular repair was also performed. Performing a horizontal split in subscapularis may preserve external rotation compared with performing a tenotomy. This is the first review to examine various operative techniques of the Bristow-Latarjet procedure, and their effect on outcome. We found that other than the approach through subscapularis, outcome was independent of the surgical technique, and depended more on patient selection. We would commend future publications on this procedure to provide a detailed description of the surgical technique, and as a minimum present rates of recurrence as an outcome measure. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1208-14. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  18. Total lymphoid irradiation in the Wistar rat: technique and dosimetry

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; de Jong, J.


    The technical and dosimetric aspects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in the Wistar rat were evaluated as part of a set-up to develop a new model for tumor xenotransplantation. Information obtained from anatomical dissections, radionuclide imaging of the spleen, lymphography and chromolymphography was used to standardize the localization portals cut out in a lead plate. The two portals encompassed the lymphoid tissue above and below the diaphragm. A specially designed masonite phantom was used to measure the dose distribution in the simulated target volumes. Ionization chamber dosimetery, thermoluminescence dosimetry and film densitometry were used for measuring exposure and absorbed dose. Irradiation was performed with 250 kV X rays (HVL 3.1 mm Cu). The dose rate was regulated by adjusting the treatment distance. The dose inhomogeneity measured in the target volumes varied between 80-100%. The side scatter dose to non target tissues under the shielded area between the two portals ranged between 20-30%. The technique and dosimetry of total lymphoid irradiation in Wistar rats are now standardized and validated and pave the way for tumor xenotransplantation experiments.

  19. Review of procedures involving separation and preconcentration for the determination of cadmium using spectrometric techniques

    Ferreira, Sergio L.C. [Instituto de Quimica, Campus Universitario Ondina, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia 40170-290 (Brazil)]. E-mail:; Andrade, Jailson B. de [Instituto de Quimica, Campus Universitario Ondina, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia 40170-290 (Brazil); Korn, Maria das Gracas A. [Instituto de Quimica, Campus Universitario Ondina, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia 40170-290 (Brazil); Pereira, Madson de G. [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra Campus 1-Cabula, Universidade do Estado da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia 41195-001 (Brazil); Lemos, Valfredo A. [Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica, Campus de Jequie, Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Jequie, Bahia 45200-190 (Brazil); Santos, Walter N.L. dos [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra Campus 1-Cabula, Universidade do Estado da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia 41195-001 (Brazil); Rodrigues, Frederico de Medeiros [Instituto de Quimica, Campus Universitario Ondina, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia 40170-290 (Brazil); Empresa Baiana de Desenvolvimento Agricola S.A., Avenida Dorival Caymmi 15649, Itapoan, Salvador, Bahia 41635-150 (Brazil); Souza, Anderson S. [Instituto de Quimica, Campus Universitario Ondina, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia 40170-290 (Brazil); Instituto Multidisciplinar em Saude, Campus AnisioTeixeira, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Vitoria da Conquista, Bahia 45055-090 (Brazil); Ferreira, Hadla S. [Instituto de Quimica, Campus Universitario Ondina, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia 40170-290 (Brazil); Silva, Erik G.P. da [Instituto de Quimica, Campus Universitario Ondina, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia 40170-290 (Brazil)


    Spectrometric techniques for the analysis of trace cadmium have developed rapidly due to the increasing need for accurate measurements at extremely low levels of this element in diverse matrices. This review covers separation and preconcentration procedures, such as electrochemical deposition, precipitation, coprecipitation, solid phase extraction, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and cloud point extraction (CPE), and consider the features of the their application with several spectrometric techniques.

  20. Anatomic and Biomechanical Comparison of the Classic and Congruent-Arc Techniques of the Latarjet Procedure.

    Montgomery, Scott R; Katthagen, J Christoph; Mikula, Jacob D; Marchetti, Daniel Cole; Tahal, Dimitri S; Dornan, Grant J; Dahl, Kimi D; Brady, Alex W; Turnbull, Travis Lee; Millett, Peter J


    The Latarjet procedure is commonly performed using either the classic or the congruent-arc technique. Each technique has potential clinical advantages and disadvantages. However, data on the anatomic and biomechanical effects, benefits, and limitations of each technique are limited. Hypothesis/Purpose: To compare the anatomy and biomechanical fixation strength (failure load) between the 2 techniques. It was hypothesized that the classic technique would have superior initial fixation when compared with the congruent-arc technique and that this would be affected by sex and coracoid size. Controlled laboratory study. A biomechanical cadaver study was performed with 20 pairs of male and female shoulders. One of each pair of shoulders was randomly assigned to receive the classic or congruent-arc technique. Coracoid and glenoid anatomic measurements were collected before biomechanical testing. A tensile force was applied through the conjoined tendon to replicate forces experienced by the coracoid graft in the early postoperative period, and the failure load was determined for each specimen. The mean ± SD surface area available for fixation was 263 ± 63 mm(2) in the classic technique compared with 177 ± 63 mm(2) in the congruent-arc group ( P Latarjet procedure provided a greater surface area for healing to the glenoid and superior initial fixation when compared with the congruent-arc technique. The congruent-arc technique allowed restoration of a larger glenoid defect. The classic and congruent-arc techniques of coracoid transfer have anatomic and biomechanical advantages and disadvantages that should be considered when choosing between the 2 techniques.

  1. Development of a New Technique for Reconstruction of Hepatic Artery during Liver Transplantation in Sprague-Dawley Rat.

    Xingmu Liu

    Full Text Available Sleeve anastomosis is the most common technique used to rearterialize orthotopic liver transplants (OLT. However, this technique has a number of disadvantages, including difficulty of performance of the technique visually unaided. We herein describe a novel rearterialized OLT model in the rat.Forty-six male Sprague Dawley rats (300-400 g were used as donors and recipients. Based on Kamada's cuff technique, the new model involved performing a modified "sleeve" anastomosis between the celiac trunk of the donor and common hepatic artery of the recipient to reconstruct blood flow to the hepatic artery. An additional ten male Sprague Dawley rats underwent liver transplantation without artery reconstruction. Liver grafts were retrieved from the two groups and histological examination was performed following surgery.Total mean operating times were ~42 minutes for the donor liver extraction and 57 minutes for the recipient transplantation. Graft preparation took an additional 15 minutes and the time to fix the arterial bracket was ~3 minutes. During transplantation, the anhepatic phase lasted 18 ± 2.5 min and the artery reconstruction only required ~3 minutes. The patency rate was 94.44% and the 4-week survival rate was 90%. Histology indicated obvious fibrosis in the liver grafts without artery reconstruction, while normal histology was observed in the arterialized graft.This new method allows for the surgical procedure to be performed visually unaided with good survival and patency rates and represents an alternative model investigating OLT in rats.

  2. A Technique of Distal Clavicle Fracture Fixation Using The Tightrope Procedure

    CJ Soh


    Full Text Available We present here a technique of fracture stabilization using the Tightrope procedure in a patient with a widely displaced Neer type IIB distal clavicle fracture. The Tightrope system, typically used for stabilization of acromioclavicular joint dislocation, has not been widely described for distal clavicle fractures. The patient achieved satisfactory results after surgery; we feel that this technique is appealing as it is simple, reproducible and avoids the complications associated with extensive metalwork. This technique may also appeal to the arthroscopic surgeon.

  3. Literature Review of Cosmetic Procedures in Men: Approaches and Techniques are Gender Specific.

    Cohen, Brandon E; Bashey, Sameer; Wysong, Ashley


    The proportion of men receiving non-surgical cosmetic procedures has risen substantially in recent years. Various physiologic, anatomic, and motivational considerations differentiate the treatments for male and female patients. Nevertheless, research regarding approaches to the male cosmetic patient is scarce. We sought to provide an overview and sex-specific discussion of the most popular cosmetic dermatologic procedures pursued by men by conducting a comprehensive literature review pertaining to non-surgical cosmetic procedures in male patients. The most common and rapidly expanding non-surgical interventions in men include botulinum toxin, filler injection, chemical peels, microdermabrasion, laser resurfacing, laser hair removal, hair transplantation, and minimally invasive techniques for adipose tissue reduction. Important sex-specific factors associated with each of these procedures should be considered to best serve the male cosmetic patient.

  4. Procedural guidance using advance imaging techniques for percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair.

    Quaife, Robert A; Salcedo, Ernesto E; Carroll, John D


    The complexity of structural heart disease interventions such as edge-to edge mitral valve repair requires integration of multiple highly technical imaging modalities. Real time imaging with 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiography is a relatively new technique that first, allows clear volumetric imaging of target structures such as the mitral valve for both pre-procedural diagnosis and planning in patients with degenerative or functional mitral valve regurgitation. Secondly it provides intra-procedural, real-time panoramic volumetric 3D view of structural heart disease targets that facilitates eye-hand coordination while manipulating devices within the heart. X-ray fluoroscopy and RT 3D TEE images are used in combination to display specific targets and movement of catheter based technologies in 3D space. This integration requires at least two different image display monitors and mentally fusing the individual datasets by the operator. Combined display technology such as this, allow rotation and orientation of both dataset perspectives necessary to define targets and guidance of structural disease device procedures. The inherently easy concept of direct visual feedback and eye-hand coordination allows safe and efficient completion of MitraClip procedures. This technology is now merged into a single structural heart disease guidance mode called EchoNavigator(TM) (Philips Medical Imaging Andover, MA). These advanced imaging techniques have revolutionized the field of structural heart disease interventions and this experience is exemplified by a cooperative imaging approach used for guidance of edge-to-edge mitral valve repair procedures.

  5. A Novel Technique of Impression Procedure in a Hemimaxillectomy Patient with Microstomia

    Suryakant C. Deogade


    Full Text Available A restricted mouth opening in hemimaxillectomy patient can create a significant problem with the insertion and the removal of the obturator prosthesis. Even it poses a problem in impression making due to small oral opening. A modification of the standard impression procedure is often necessary to accomplish an acceptable impression in the fabrication of a successful prosthesis. Sectional trays are a good option for such patients. This paper describes a novel technique of impression procedure and a method of fabricating a sectional tray with the anterior and the posterior locking mechanism for a hemimaxillectomy patient with limited oral opening.

  6. A novel technique of impression procedure in a hemimaxillectomy patient with microstomia.

    Deogade, Suryakant C


    A restricted mouth opening in hemimaxillectomy patient can create a significant problem with the insertion and the removal of the obturator prosthesis. Even it poses a problem in impression making due to small oral opening. A modification of the standard impression procedure is often necessary to accomplish an acceptable impression in the fabrication of a successful prosthesis. Sectional trays are a good option for such patients. This paper describes a novel technique of impression procedure and a method of fabricating a sectional tray with the anterior and the posterior locking mechanism for a hemimaxillectomy patient with limited oral opening.

  7. Antipanic procedures reduce the strychnine-facilitated wild running of rats.

    de Paula, H M G; Hoshino, Katsumasa


    Wild running (WR) behavior of rats seen in response to intense acoustic stimulation of audiogenic seizure-paradigm is very similar to the panic flight and can be facilitated by subconvulsive doses of strychnine. The present work aimed to test whether antipanic procedures, such as dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) lesion and imipramine treatments, affect the strychnine-facilitated WR. In study 1, six Wistar male adult rats with electrolytic lesion of dPAG had their WR completely blocked, whereas it was facilitated in 50% of sham-lesioned control rats by a dose of 0.5 mg/kg of strychnine administered intraperitoneal. This effect was not reproduced with a higher strychnine dose (1.0 mg/kg). In study 2, the effects of imipramine were investigated by testing 36 rats under a dose of strychnine that induces WR in 50% of subjects. They were assigned into three experimental groups: imipramine treatments of 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg, and infusions of saline. All these treatments were subchronical with three intraperitoneal injections within 24 h. Imipramine (10.0 mg/kg) reduced the incidence of WR in comparison to the saline results. It is concluded that strychnine-facilitated WR is reduced by antipanic procedures and, therefore, can be viewed as a manifestation closely related to panic.

  8. Landmine-detection rats: an evaluation of reinforcement procedures under simulated operational conditions.

    Mahoney, Amanda; Lalonde, Kate; Edwards, Timothy; Cox, Christophe; Weetjens, Bart; Poling, Alan


    Because the location of landmines is initially unknown, it is impossible to arrange differential reinforcement for accurate detection of landmines by pouched rats working on actual minefields. Therefore, provision must be made for maintenance of accurate responses by an alternative reinforcement strategy. The present experiment evaluated a procedure in which a plastic bag containing 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), the active ingredient in most landmines, was placed in contact with the ground in a disturbed area, then removed, to establish opportunities for reinforcement. Each of five rats continued to accurately detect landmines when extinction was arranged for landmine-detection responses and detections of TNT-contaminated locations were reinforced under a fixed-ratio 1 schedule. The results of this translational research study suggest that the TNT-contamination procedure is a viable option for arranging reinforcement opportunities for rats engaged in actual landmine-detection activities and the viability of this procedure is currently being evaluated on minefields in Angola and Mozambique.

  9. Modified pediatric Bentall procedure: A novel technique in a rare case

    Gananjay G Salve


    Full Text Available Aneurysms of ascending aorta are rarely seen in pediatric age group. Only few cases with Marfans syndrome have been reported in the literature. Preferred treatment for these children has been the standard Bentall procedure (aortic root replacement with composite graft prosthesis. We report a 4-year-old male child with huge aneurysm of ascending aorta and aortic root dilation with severe aortic regurgitation, having phenotypic features of Loeys-Dietz syndrome type I. He underwent Bentall procedure with a novel modification (medial trap-door technique for coronary reimplantation. Short-term result of this procedure is encouraging and he is asymptomatic for the last 14 months of follow-up.

  10. Adult bipolar diathermy circumcision and related procedures in adults – a safe and efficient technique

    Nalavenkata S


    Full Text Available Sunny Nalavenkata, Matthew Winter, Rachel Kour, Nam-Wee Kour, Paul RuljancichDepartment of Urology, Eastern Health, Box Hill Hospital, Box Hill, VIC, AustraliaObjectives: To present our novel technique and step-by-step approach to bipolar diathermy circumcision and related procedures in adult males.Methods: We reviewed our technique of bipolar circumcision and related procedures in 54 cases over a 22-month period at our day procedure center. Bipolar diathermy cutting and hemostasis was performed using bipolar forceps with a Valleylab machine set at 15. Sleeve circumcision was used. A dorsal slit was made, followed by frenulum release and ventral slit, and was completed with bilateral circumferential cutting. Frenuloplasties released the frenulum. Preputioplasties used multiple 2–3 mm longitudinal cuts to release the constriction, with frenulum left intact. All wounds were closed with interrupted 4/0 Vicryl Rapide™.Results: A total of 54 nonemergency bipolar circumcision procedures were carried out from November 2010–August 2012 (42 circumcisions, eight frenuloplasties, and four preputioplasties. Patients were aged 18–72 years (mean, 34 years. There was minimal to no intraoperative bleeding in all cases, allowing for precise dissection. All patients were requested to attend outpatient reviews; three frenuloplasty and two circumcision patients failed to return. Of the remaining 49, mean interval to review was 49 days, with a range of 9–121 days. Two circumcision patients reported mild bleeding with nocturnal erections within a week postoperatively, but they did not require medical attention. Two others presented to family practitioners with possible wound infections which resolved with oral antibiotics. All 49 patients had well-healed wounds.Conclusion: The bipolar diathermy technique is a simple procedure, easily taught, and reproducible. It is associated with minimal bleeding, is safe and efficient, uses routine operating equipment and

  11. The Application of Six Sigma Techniques in the Evaluation of Enzyme Measurement Procedures in China.

    Zhang, Chuanbao; Zhao, Haijian; Wang, Jing; Zeng, Jie; Wang, Zhiguo


    Recently, Six Sigma techniques have been adopted by clinical laboratories to evaluate laboratory performance. Measurement procedures in laboratories can be categorized as "excellent", "good", and "improvement needed" based on sigma (σ) metrics of σ ≥ 6, 3 ≤ σ 1.2 indicates that the trueness of the procedure needs to be improved; 0.8 ≤ QGI ≤ 1.2 indicates that both the precision and trueness of the procedure need to be improved. Fresh frozen sera containing seven enzymes (ALT, ALP, AMY, AST, CK, GGT, and LDH) were sent to 78 clinical laboratories in China. The biases for measurement procedures in each laboratory (Bias) were calculated based on the target values assigned by 18 laboratories performing IFCC (International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory medicine) recommended reference methods. The imprecision of each measurement procedure was represented by coefficient variations (CV) calculated based on internal quality control (IQC) data. The σ and QGI values were calculated as follows: σ = (TEa-Bias)/CV; QGI = Bias/(1.5 x CV). TEa is allowable total error for each enzyme derived from biological variation. Our study indicated that 7.9% (6/76, ALP) to 31.0% (18/58, AMY) of the participating laboratories were scored as "excellent" (σ ≥ 6), 21.1% (16/76, ALP) to 41.3% (31/75, CK) of the laboratories were scored as "good" (3 ≤ σ Six Sigma techniques still suggested that approximately 31.1% to 71.0% of the laboratories need to improve their enzyme measurement procedures, either in terms of precision, trueness, or both.

  12. Minimally invasive surgical technique integrating multiple procedures with large specimen extraction via inguinal hernia orifice

    Mani, Vishnu R.; Ahmed, Leaque


    While laparoscopic surgery can be performed using small skin incisions, any resected specimen must still be able to fit through these opening. For procedures, such as cholecystectomies and appendectomies, this is not usually a problem; however, for large specimens such as bowel or large tumors, this becomes problematic. Currently, the standard technique is to attempt piecemeal removal of the specimen or enlarge one of the laparoscopic incisions, effectively creating a mini laparotomy. Creatin...

  13. Glaucoma-inducing Procedure in an In Vivo Rat Model and Whole-mount Retina Preparation.

    Gossman, Cynthia A; Linn, David M; Linn, Cindy


    Glaucoma is a disease of the central nervous system affecting retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). RGC axons making up the optic nerve carry visual input to the brain for visual perception. Damage to RGCs and their axons leads to vision loss and/or blindness. Although the specific cause of glaucoma is unknown, the primary risk factor for the disease is an elevated intraocular pressure. Glaucoma-inducing procedures in animal models are a valuable tool to researchers studying the mechanism of RGC death. Such information can lead to the development of effective neuroprotective treatments that could aid in the prevention of vision loss. The protocol in this paper describes a method of inducing glaucoma - like conditions in an in vivo rat model where 50 µl of 2 M hypertonic saline is injected into the episcleral venous plexus. Blanching of the vessels indicates successful injection. This procedure causes loss of RGCs to simulate glaucoma. One month following injection, animals are sacrificed and eyes are removed. Next, the cornea, lens, and vitreous are removed to make an eyecup. The retina is then peeled from the back of the eye and pinned onto sylgard dishes using cactus needles. At this point, neurons in the retina can be stained for analysis. Results from this lab show that approximately 25% of RGCs are lost within one month of the procedure when compared to internal controls. This procedure allows for quantitative analysis of retinal ganglion cell death in an in vivo rat glaucoma model.

  14. The orthotopic left lung transplantation in rats: a valuable experimental model without using cuff technique.

    Zhang, Qing-chun; Wang, Dian-jun; Yin, Ni; Yin, Bang-liang; Fang, Rui-xin; Xiao, Xue-jun; Wu, Yue-Heng


    Advances in the field of clinical lung transplantation must rely on observations made in animal models. In this study, we introduced a new procedure in the rat, orthotopic left lung transplantation without using the cuff technique, in which the donor pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, and membranous parts of the bronchus were anastomosed continuously in the lumen using a mattress suture under a surgical microscope; meanwhile, a second, low-pressure perfusion through the pulmonary artery and turnover of the vascular stump were made, which also made the vessel anastomosis easy. Transplantations were completed in 68 rats (89.5%), the mean time used for suturing the left lung hilar structure was 23.5 +/- 4.6 min. All lung grafts had good life-sustaining function because of there being no cuff-induced granulation tissue in bronchial anastomotic stoma, and three out of 12 allografts were observed with active bronchiolitis obliterans lesions at 8 weeks after transplantation. This model is a simple, valuable experimental model for studying lung transplantation and new therapies for preventing acute or chronic rejection.

  15. Microextraction Techniques Used in the Procedures for Determining Organomercury and Organotin Compounds in Environmental Samples

    Małgorzata Rutkowska


    Full Text Available Due to human activities, the concentrations of organometallic compounds in all parts of the environment have increased in recent decades. The toxicity and some biochemical properties of mercury and tin present in the environment depend on the concentration and chemical form of these two elements. The ever-increasing demand for determining compounds at very low concentration levels in samples with complex matrices requires the elimination of interfering substances, the reduction of the final extract volume, and analyte enrichment in order to employ a detection technique, which is characterised by high sensitivity at low limits of quantification. On the other hand, in accordance with current trends, the analytical procedures should aim at the miniaturisation and simplification of the sample preparation step. In the near future, more importance will be given to the fulfilment of the requirements of Green Chemistry and Green Analytical Chemistry in order to reduce the intensity of anthropogenic activities related to analytical laboratories. In this case, one can consider the use of solvent-free/solvent-less techniques for sample preparation and microextraction techniques, because the use of the latter leads to lowering the quantity of reagents used (including solvents due to the reduction of the scale of analysis. This paper presents an overview of microextraction techniques (SPME and LPME used in the procedures for determining different chemical forms of mercury and tin.

  16. Monoplane 3D Overlay Roadmap versus Conventional Biplane 2D Roadmap Technique for Neurointervenional Procedures

    Jang, Dong-Kyu; Stidd, David A.; Schafer, Sebastian; Chen, Michael; Moftakhar, Roham


    Purpose We investigated whether a 3D overlay roadmap using monoplane fluoroscopy offers advantages over a conventional 2D roadmap using biplane fluoroscopy during endovascular aneurysm treatment. Materials and Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted for 131 consecutive cerebral aneurysm embolizations by three neurointerventionalists at a single institution. Allowing for a transition period, the periods from January 2012 to August 2012 (Time Period 1) and February 2013 to July 2013 (Time Period 2) were analyzed for radiation exposure, contrast administration, fluoroscopy time, procedure time, angiographic results, and perioperative complications. Two neurointerventionalists (Group 1) used a conventional 2D roadmap for both Time Periods, and one neurointerventionalist (Group 2) transitioned from a 2D roadmap during Time Period 1 to a 3D overlay roadmap during Time Period 2. Results During Time Period 2, Group 2 demonstrated reduced fluoroscopy time (p<0.001), procedure time (P=0.023), total radiation dose (p=0.001), and fluoroscopy dose (P=0.017) relative to Group 1. During Time Period 2, there was no difference of immediate angiographic results and procedure complications between the two groups. Through the transition from Time Period 1 to Time Period 2, Group 2 demonstrated decreased fluoroscopy time (p< 0.001), procedure time (p=0.022), and procedure complication rate (p=0.041) in Time Period 2 relative to Time Period 1. Conclusion The monoplane 3D overlay roadmap technique reduced fluoroscopy dose and fluoroscopy time during neurointervention of cerebral aneurysms with similar angiographic occlusions and complications rate relative to biplane 2D roadmap, which implies possible compensation of limitations of monoplane fluoroscopy by 3D overlay technique. PMID:27621947

  17. Cocaine versus food choice procedure in rats: environmental manipulations and effects of amphetamine.

    Thomsen, Morgane; Barrett, Andrew C; Negus, S Stevens; Caine, S Barak


    We have adapted a nonhuman primate model of cocaine versus food choice to the rat species. To evaluate the procedure, we tested cocaine versus food choice under a variety of environmental manipulations as well as pharmacological pretreatments. Complete cocaine-choice dose-effect curves (0-1.0 mg/kg/infusion) were obtained for each condition under concurrent fixed ratio schedules of reinforcement. Percentage of responding emitted on the cocaine-reinforced lever was not affected significantly by removal of cocaine-associated visual or auditory cues, but it was decreased after removal of response-contingent or response-independent cocaine infusions. Cocaine choice was sensitive to the magnitude and fixed ratio requirement of both the cocaine and food reinforcers. We also tested the effects of acute (0.32, 0.56, 1.0, 1.8 mg/kg) and chronic (0.1, 0.32 mg/kg/hr) d-amphetamine treatment on cocaine choice. Acute and chronic d-amphetamine had opposite effects, with acute increasing and chronic decreasing cocaine choice, similar to observations in humans and in nonhuman primates. The results suggest feasibility and utility of the choice procedure in rats and support its comparability to similar procedures used in humans and monkeys. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  18. Cocaine Versus Food Choice Procedure in Rats: Environmental Manipulations and Effects of Amphetamine

    Thomsen, Morgane; Barrett, Andrew C.; Negus, S. Stevens; Caine, S. Barak


    We have adapted a nonhuman primate model of cocaine versus food choice to the rat species. To evaluate the procedure, we tested cocaine versus food choice under a variety of environmental manipulations as well as pharmacological pretreatments. Complete cocaine-choice dose-effect curves (0–1.0 mg/kg/infusion) were obtained for each condition under concurrent fixed ratio schedules of reinforcement. Percentage of responding emitted on the cocaine-reinforced lever was not affected significantly by removal of cocaine-associated visual or auditory cues, but it was decreased after removal of response-contingent or response-independent cocaine infusions. Cocaine choice was sensitive to the magnitude and fixed ratio requirement of both the cocaine and food reinforcers. We also tested the effects of acute (0.32, 0.56, 1.0, 1.8 mg/kg) and chronic (0.1, 0.32 mg/kg/hr) d-amphetamine treatment on cocaine choice. Acute and chronic d-amphetamine had opposite effects, with acute increasing and chronic decreasing cocaine choice, similar to observations in humans and in nonhuman primates. The results suggest feasibility and utility of the choice procedure in rats and support its comparability to similar procedures used in humans and monkeys. PMID:23319458

  19. A rapid and simple cannulation technique for repeated sampling of cerebrospinal fluid in freely moving rats

    Bouman, H.J.; Wimersma Greidanus, T.B. van


    A cannulation technique for frequent sampling of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in unanaesthetized freely moving rats is described. A permanent stainless steel cannula, constructed in such a way that no loss of CSF occurs, is placed into the rat's cisterna magna and fixed to the skull by anchoring screws

  20. A modified technique of renal artery anastomosis in rat kidney transplantation.

    Zhang, G; Zhao, H; Sun, Z-Y


    To reduce warm ischemic time and avoid irreversible damage to the graft in rat kidney transplantation. After left nephrectomy, recipients were transplanted with syngeneic kidney grafts using microsurgical techniques. In control rats (n = 20), the renal artery anastomoses were performed with 8-9 interrupted sutures by the conventional technique. In experimental animals (n = 20), a modified anastomosis was performed using fewer (5-6) sutures and fibrin glue devoid of thrombin. The number of sutures in the control group was 8.09 + or - 0.35 while that in the experimental group was 5.65 + or - 0.48 (p experimental group (p experimental and control groups were 90 and 85%, respectively. Our modified technique for renal artery anastomosis significantly reduced the warm ischemic time in rat kidney transplantation. This technique would be a safe and reliable method for rat renal artery anastomosis as well as for other microarterial anastomoses, particularly for novice surgeons. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Endodontic filling removal procedure: an ex vivo comparative study between two rotary techniques

    Monica Sampaio do Vale


    Full Text Available In this study, we compared the ex vivo removal capacity of two endodontic rotary techniques and determined whether there was a significant quantitative difference in residual material when comparing root thirds. Forty extracted molars were used. The palatal roots were selected, and the canals were prepared using a step-back technique and filled using a lateral condensation technique with gutta-percha points and Endofill sealer. After two weeks of storage in a 0.9% saline solution at 37ºC in an oven, the specimens were divided into 2 groups of 20, with group 1 samples subjected to Gates-Glidden drills and group 2 samples subjected to the ProTaper retreatment System. Hedstroem files and eucalyptol solvent were used in both groups to complete the removal procedure. Then, the roots thirds were radiographed and the images were submitted to the NIH ImageJ program to measure the residual filling material in mm. Each root third was related to the total area of the root canals. The data were analyzed using Student's t test. There was a statistically significant difference between the two techniques as more filling material was removed by technique 2 (ProTaper than technique 1 (Gates-Glidden drills, p < 0.05. The apical third had a greater amount of residual filling material than the cervical and middle thirds, and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05. None of the selected techniques removed all filling material, and the material was most difficult to remove from the apical third. The ProTaper files removed more material than the Gates-Glidden drills

  2. Minimally invasive surgical technique integrating multiple procedures with large specimen extraction via inguinal hernia orifice

    Mani, Vishnu R.; Ahmed, Leaque


    While laparoscopic surgery can be performed using small skin incisions, any resected specimen must still be able to fit through these opening. For procedures, such as cholecystectomies and appendectomies, this is not usually a problem; however, for large specimens such as bowel or large tumors, this becomes problematic. Currently, the standard technique is to attempt piecemeal removal of the specimen or enlarge one of the laparoscopic incisions, effectively creating a mini laparotomy. Creating a larger incision adds many of the drawbacks of open laparotomy and should be avoided whenever possible. In this article, we present a new technique of combining the repair of an inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia with a duodenal tumor resection in order to extract the specimen through the inguinal hernia orifice. PMID:26703927

  3. The creation of new rotation arc to the rat latissimus dorsi musculo-cutaneous flap with delay procedures

    Aktas Alper


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap is one of the most frequently performed reconstructive techniques in surgery. Latissimus dorsi muscle has two arcs of rotation. It is classified as type V muscle. This muscle can be elevated on the thoracodorsal artery to cover large defects in the anterior chest and also, the muscle can be elevated on the segmental vessels to cover midline defects posteriorly. The aim of this study was to create a new arc of rotation on a vertical axis for the muscle and investigate effectiveness of vascular and chemical delays on the latissimus dorsi muscle flap with an inferior pedicle in an experimental rat model. We hypothesized that the latissimus dorsi muscle would be based on inferior pedicle by delay procedures. Methods We tested two different types of delay: vascular and combination of vascular and chemical. We also tried to determine how many days of "delay" can elicit beneficial effects of vascular and combination delays in an inferior pedicled latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap. To accomplish this, 48 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly subjected to vascular or combination delay (vascular and chemical. In addition, one ear of each rat was assigned into a delay procedure and the other ear was used as a control. Results were evaluated macroscopically, and micro-angiography and histological examinations were also performed. As a result, there was a significant difference in viable flap areas between vascular delay alone and control groups (p Results The higher rate of flap viability was obtained in seven-day vascular delay alone. However, there was no significant difference in the viability between seven-day vascular delay and five-day vascular delay (p Conclusion The combination of vascular and chemical delays increased the rate of viability. Nevertheless, there was no significant difference between vascular delay alone and combination of vascular and chemical delays. Chemical delay did

  4. Comprehensive and innovative techniques for livertransplantation in rats: A surgical guide

    Tomohide; Hori; Justin; H; Nguyen; Yasuhiro; Ogura; Toshiyuki; Hata; Shintaro; Yagi; Ann-Marie; T; Baine; Norifumi; Ohashi; Christopher; B; Eckman; Aimee; R; Herdt; Hiroto; Egawa; Yasutsugu; Takada; Fumitaka; Oike; Seisuke; Saka-moto; Mureo; Kasahara; Kohei; Ogawa; Koichiro; Hata; Taku; Iida; Yukihide; Yonekawa; Lena; Sibulesky; Kagemasa; Kuribayashi; Takuma; Kato; Kanako; Saito; Mie; Torii; Naruhiko; Sahara; Naoko; Kamo; Tomoko; Sahara; Motohiko; Yasutomi; Shinji; Uemoto


    AIM: To investigate our learning curves of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in rats and the most important factor for successful surgery. METHODS: We describe the surgical procedures for our rat OLT model, and determined the operator learning curves. The various factors that contributed to successful surgery were determined. The most important surgical factors were evaluated between successful and unsuccessful surgeries.RESULTS: Learning curve data indicated that 50 cases were required for operator tr...

  5. Force reconstruction using the sum of weighted accelerations technique -- Max-Flat procedure

    Carne, T.G.; Mayes, R.L.; Bateman, V.I.


    Force reconstruction is a procedure in which the externally applied force is inferred from measured structural response rather than directly measured. In a recently developed technique, the response acceleration time-histories are multiplied by scalar weights and summed to produce the reconstructed force. This reconstruction is called the Sum of Weighted Accelerations Technique (SWAT). One step in the application of this technique is the calculation of the appropriate scalar weights. In this paper a new method of estimating the weights, using measured frequency response function data, is developed and contrasted with the traditional SWAT method of inverting the mode-shape matrix. The technique uses frequency response function data, but is not based on deconvolution. An application that will be discussed as part of this paper is the impact into a rigid barrier of a weapon system with an energy-absorbing nose. The nose had been designed to absorb the energy of impact and to mitigate the shock to the interior components.

  6. A Pavlovian procedure for improving sexual performance of noncopulating male rats.

    Cutmore, T R; Zamble, E


    Previous research has shown that Pavlovian conditioning, based on unconsummated arousal, can increase copulatory rate in laboratory rats. This investigation tested whether a similar procedure could improve the performance of males that initially fail to copulate successfully. Male rats that did not reach ejaculation with a receptive female on a pretest were randomly assigned to one of two groups: CS-US paired or CS-US unpaired. The CS consisted of a period of placement in a running wheel which allowed measurement of incidental activity. The US was (arousing) exposure to a female separated from the male by a wire mesh screen. The CS immediately preceded the US for the paired group but the two were unpaired for the control group. Following conditioning, CS and No-CS tests were given, with both copulation and activity measures taken. Subjects in the paired group were significantly more likely to achieve ejaculation on the CS test than those in the control group, and they were also more active during the test. In contrast, differences on the No-CS test were not significant, consistent with expectations from a Pavlovian explanation. These data show the efficacy of Pavlovian procedures in improving sexual performance, with a possible application to increase arousal to selected cues for human subjects, e.g., some individuals with erectile dysfunction.

  7. Intact neurobehavioral development and dramatic impairments of procedural-like memory following neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion in rats.

    Lecourtier, L; Antal, M-C; Cosquer, B; Schumacher, A; Samama, B; Angst, M-J; Ferrandon, A; Koning, E; Cassel, J-C; Nehlig, A


    Neonatal ventral hippocampal lesions (NVHL) in rats are considered a potent developmental model of schizophrenia. After NVHL, rats appear normal during their preadolescent time, whereas in early adulthood, they develop behavioral deficits paralleling symptomatic aspects of schizophrenia, including hyperactivity, hypersensitivity to amphetamine (AMPH), prepulse and latent inhibition deficits, reduced social interactions, and spatial working and reference memory alterations. Surprisingly, the question of the consequences of NVHL on postnatal neurobehavioral development has not been addressed. This is of particular importance, as a defective neurobehavioral development could contribute to impairments seen in adult rats. Therefore, at several time points of the early postsurgical life of NVHL rats, we assessed behaviors accounting for neurobehavioral development, including negative geotaxis and grip strength (PD11), locomotor coordination (PD21), and open-field (PD25). At adulthood, the rats were tested for anxiety levels, locomotor activity, as well as spatial reference memory performance. Using a novel task, we also investigated the consequences of the lesions on procedural-like memory, which had never been tested following NVHL. Our results point to preserved neurobehavioral development. They also confirm the already documented locomotor hyperactivity, spatial reference memory impairment, and hyperresponsiveness to AMPH. Finally, our rseults show for the first time that NVHL disabled the development of behavioral routines, suggesting dramatic procedural memory deficits. The presence of procedural memory deficits in adult rats subjected to NHVL suggests that the lesions lead to a wider range of cognitive deficits than previously shown. Interestingly, procedural or implicit memory impairments have also been reported in schizophrenic patients.

  8. Pulmonary angiography: a safe procedure with modern contrast media and technique

    Nilsson, T.; Maare, K. [Department of Radiology, Huddinge University Hospital, Huddinge (Sweden); Carlsson, A. [Department of Internal Medicine, Danderyd Hospital, Danderyd (Sweden)


    Pulmonary angiography (PA) for decades has been accepted as the gold standard for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE). Apprehensions that the procedure is expensive, invasive and thus associated with both fatal and non-fatal complications has more or less limited its use to patients presenting a non-diagnostic lung scan. However, this opinion originates from earlier studies. Increasing clinical demands for faster and safer diagnostics, together with improved techniques and safer contrast media, has led to an increased use of PA. In order to evaluate the complication rate, we retrospectively studied the case records of 707 consecutive patients who had undergone PA. During 1990-1994, 728 patients underwent PA at Danderyd and Huddinge University Hospital. Selective pulmonary angiography (cine or digital subtraction angiography), non-ionic, low-osmolar contrast media and modern pigtail catheters were used. Standard volumes were 40 ml at 2 s for each injection. Pressure measurements were made in 376 patients. A test injection was made in all patients in order to assess the flow rate. Experienced radiologists as well as residents performed the examinations and a total of 707 angiography protocols and clinical records were available for review in search of complications associated with the procedure. No deaths occurred. One major non-fatal complication (bleeding in the groin requiring surgery) was reported in one case. Moderate/minor complications (i. e. transient angina and cardiac failure, minor haematomas, urticaria) occurred in 10 patients (1.4 %). With modern contrast media and technique, pulmonary angiography is a safe procedure. (orig.) 19 refs.

  9. Effect of a water-maze procedure on the redox mechanisms in brain parts of aged rats.

    Krivova, Natalia A; Zaeva, Olga B; Grigorieva, Valery A


    The Morris water maze (MWM) is a tool for assessment of age-related modulations spatial learning and memory in laboratory rats. In our work was investigated the age-related decline of MWM performance in 11-month-old rats and the effect exerted by training in the MWM on the redox mechanisms in rat brain parts. Young adult (3-month-old) and aged (11-month-old) male rats were trained in the MWM. Intact animals of the corresponding age were used as the reference groups. The level of pro- and antioxidant capacity in brain tissue homogenates was assessed using the chemiluminescence method. A reduced performance in the MWM test was found in 11-month-old rats: at the first day of training they showed only 30% of successful MWM trials. However, at the last training day the percentage of successful trials was equal for young adult and aged animals. This indicates that the aged 11-month-old rats can successfully learn in MWM. Therewith, the MWM spatial learning procedure itself produces changes in different processes of redox homeostasis in 11-month-old and 3-month-old rats as compared to intact animals. Young adult rats showed a decrease in prooxidant capacity in all brain parts, while 11-month-old rats demonstrated an increase in antioxidant capacity in the olfactory bulb, pons + medulla oblongata and frontal lobe cortex. Hence, the MWM procedure activates the mechanisms that restrict the oxidative stress in brain parts. The obtained results may be an argument for further development of the animal training procedures aimed to activate the mechanisms that can prevent the age-related deterioration of performance in the learning test. This may be useful not only for the development of training procedures applicable to human patients with age-related cognitive impairments, but also for their rehabilitation.

  10. Arthroscopic Latarjet and Capsular Shift (ALCS) procedure: a new "freehand" technique for anterior shoulder instability associated with significant bone defects.

    Bhatia, Deepak N


    Anterior shoulder instability associated with significant bone loss has been described as "bony-instability," and this condition is usually treated with an anterior glenoid bone grafting procedure (Latarjet procedure). The Latarjet procedure involves transfer of the horizontal limb of the coracoid process along with the conjoint tendon to the anterior glenoid rim, and is traditionally performed as an open surgical procedure. Recently, an arthroscopic technique for the Latarjet procedure has been described; the technique necessitates the use of specialized instrumentation and involves excision of the entire anterior capsule to facilitate coracoid fixation. We describe a new "freehand" arthroscopic technique for the Latarjet procedure, and, in addition, a simultaneous capsular shift to further optimize mid and end range stability. This technique eliminates the use of additional instrumentation and can be done using routine arthroscopic instruments. Preliminary experience with this technique suggests that the arthroscopic Latarjet and capsular shift is a technically demanding procedure. Glenohumeral capsule can be preserved, and this should be attempted wherever possible to optimize stability. Additional specialized instrumentation would probably reduce surgical time; however, the procedure can be performed with routine instruments.

  11. "Non-filling" procedures for lip augmentation: a systematic review of contemporary techniques and their outcomes.

    Moragas, Joan San Miguel; Vercruysse, Herman Junior; Mommaerts, Maurice Y


    Ideal lip augmentation techniques have good longevity, low complication rates, and optimal functional and aesthetic results. No systematic review is currently available regarding the efficacy of lip augmentation techniques. This review will focus only on non-filling procedures for lip augmentation (NFPLAs). Current databases Elsevier Science Direct, PubMed, HighWire Press, Springer Standard Collection, SAGE, DOAJ, Sweetswise, Free E-Journals, Ovid Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Willey Online Library Journals and Cochrane Plus were scrutinized and relevant article reference sections were studied for additional publications. The search heading sequence used was ("Lip" or "Mouth" or "Perioral" or "Nasolabial") and ("Augmentation" or "Enhancement" or "Surgery" or "Lift" or "V-Y" or "Corner"). Exclusion criteria applied to 6436 initial keyword-search retrievals yielded 12 articles. Eight more articles were retrieved from reference sections, for a total of 18 papers assessed. Only one article made a direct comparison of efficacy between two surgical techniques for lip augmentation, and none directly compared complications associated with different NFPLAs. Although this systematic review revealed a lack of quality data in comparing the efficacy and complications among different NFPLAs, it is important to review and pool the existing studies to better suggest proper treatment to patients. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Testing declarative memory in laboratory rats and mice using the nonconditioned social discrimination procedure.

    Engelmann, Mario; Hädicke, Jana; Noack, Julia


    Testing declarative memory in laboratory rodents can provide insights into the fundamental mechanisms underlying this type of learning and memory processing, and these insights are likely to be applicable to humans. Here we provide a detailed description of the social discrimination procedure used to investigate recognition memory in rats and mice, as established during the last 20 years in our laboratory. The test is based on the use of olfactory signals for social communication in rodents; this involves a direct encounter between conspecifics, during which the investigatory behavior of the experimental subject serves as an index for learning and memory performance. The procedure is inexpensive, fast and very reliable, but it requires well-trained human observers. We include recent modifications to the procedure that allow memory extinction to be investigated by retroactive and proactive interference, and that enable the dissociated analysis of the central nervous processing of the volatile fraction of an individual's olfactory signature. Depending on the memory retention interval under study (short-term memory, intermediate-term memory, long-term memory or long-lasting memory), the protocol takes ~10 min or up to several days to complete.

  13. Percutaneous left atrial appendage closure: procedural techniques and outcomes.

    Saw, Jacqueline; Lempereur, Mathieu


    Percutaneous left atrial appendage closure technology for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation has significantly advanced in the past 2 decades. Several devices are under clinical investigation, and a few have already received Conformité Européene (CE)-mark approval and are available in many countries. The WATCHMAN device (Boston Scientific, Natick, Massachusetts) has the most supportive data and is under evaluation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for warfarin-eligible patients. The Amplatzer Cardiac Plug (St. Jude Medical, Plymouth, Minnesota) has a large real-world experience over the past 5 years, and a randomized trial comparing Amplatzer Cardiac Plug with the WATCHMAN device is anticipated in the near future. The Lariat procedure (SentreHEART Inc., Redwood City, California) has also gained interest lately, but early studies were concerning for high rates of serious pericardial effusion and major bleeding. The current real-world experience predominantly involves patients who are not long-term anticoagulation candidates or who are perceived to have high bleeding risks. This pattern of practice is expected to change when the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approves the WATCHMAN device for warfarin-eligible patients. This paper reviews in depth the procedural techniques, safety, and outcomes of the current leading devices. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiofrequency ablation of chondroblastoma: procedure technique, clinical and MR imaging follow up of four cases

    Christie-Large, M.; Evans, N.; Davies, A.M.; James, S.L.J. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom)


    The aim of this study is to describe the procedure technique, clinical and imaging outcomes of patients treated with radiofrequency ablation for chondroblastoma. Four patients (female/male, 3:1; mean age, 13 years; age range; 9-16 years) underwent the procedure. All had pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and symptomatic, biopsy-proven chondroblastomas (two proximal femur, two proximal tibia). The lesion size ranged from 1.5 to 2.5 cm in maximal dimension (mean size, 1.8 cm). Bone access was gained with a Bonopty biopsy needle system (mean number of radiofrequency needle placements, 5; mean ablation time, 31 min). Clinical and MRI follow-up was available in all cases (mean, 12.25 months; range, 5-18 months). All patients reported resolution of symptoms at 2-6 weeks post ablation. At their most recent clinical follow-up, three patients remained completely asymptomatic with full return to normal activities and one patient had minor local discomfort (different pain pattern) that was not limiting activity. All four patients' follow-up MRI studies demonstrated resolution of the oedema pattern around the lesion and temporal evolution of the internal signal characteristics with fatty replacement. Radiofrequency ablation for chondroblastoma provides an alternative to surgical curettage, and we have demonstrated both a clinical improvement in symptoms and the follow-up MRI appearances. (orig.)

  15. Comparison of two surgical techniques for creating an acute myocardial infarct in rats

    Luiz Guilherme Achcar Capriglione


    Full Text Available Objective: To perform a comparative assessment of two surgical techniques that are used creating an acute myocardial infarc by occluding the left anterior descending coronary artery in order to generate rats with a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 40%. Methods: The study was completely randomized and comprised 89 halothane-anaesthetised rats, which were divided into three groups. The control group (SHAM comprised fourteen rats, whose left anterior descending coronary artery was not occluded. Group 1 (G1: comprised by 35 endotracheally intubated and mechanically ventilated rats, whose left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded. Group 2 (G2: comprised 40 rats being manually ventilated using a nasal respirator whose left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded. Other differences between the two techniques include the method of performing the thoracotomy and removing the pericardium in order to expose the heart, and the use of different methods and suture types for closing the thorax. Seven days after surgery, the cardiac function of all surviving rats was determined by echocardiography. Results: No rats SHAM group had progressed to death or had left ventricular ejection fraction less than 40%. Nine of the 16 surviving G1 rats (56.3% and six of the 20 surviving G2 rats (30% had a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 40%. Conclusion: The results indicate a tendency of the technique used in G1 to be better than in G2. This improvement is probably due to the greater duration of the open thorax, which reduces the pressure over time from the surgeon, allowing occlusion of left anterior descending coronary artery with higher accuracy.

  16. Improvements of Surgical Technique in Establishment of Rat Orthotopic Pulmonary Transplantation Model Using Cuffs


    In order to establish more simple and effective rat orthotopic lung transplantation models, 20 rats were divided into donor and recipient groups. Rat lung transplantation models were established by using improved cuff technique. All the 10 operations were accomplished successfully.The mean operative time of recipients was 45±4 min. The survival time was over 30 days after lung transplantation. The checks of X-ray were almost ncrmal. There was no significant difference in the blood gas analysis before and after clipping the right hilum (P>. 05). This method is more simple,applicable and requires less time.

  17. The Per Oral Endoscopic Myotomy (POEM) technique: how many preclinical procedures are needed to master it?

    Hernández Mondragón, Oscar Víctor; Rascón Martínez, Dulce Maria; Muñoz Bautista, Aracely; Altamirano Castañeda, Maria Lourdes; Blanco-Velasco, Gerardo; Blancas Valencia, Juan Manuel


    Background and study aim: Per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a complex technique used in achalasia. Preclinical training is essential but little is known about the number of procedures needed. The aim of this study was to determine the number of procedures required to master POEM in an animal model. Patients and methods: This prospective comparative study was conducted in two swine models at a single institution in Mexico City between November 2012 and October 2014: Group 1 (G1) = 30 ex vivo and Group 2 (G2) = 20 live swine models. POEM was mastered after finishing the five steps without complications. Time, characteristics, and complications were recorded. Velocity of tunnelization and myotomy (VTM) was determined. Ex vivo analysis was done in G1 immediately after finishing POEM and at day 30 in G2. Results: A total of 50 POEM were done in both groups (G1 = 30, G2 = 20). The mean times were 90.17 min (G1) and 89.50 min (G2) (P = 0.92). Myotomy was faster in G2 (21.10 vs 27.97 min; P = 0.009) with a slightly slower tunnelization (40.35 vs 41.13 min; P = 0.86). Myotomy was longer in G2 (9.25 vs 8.83 cm; P = 0.26). VTM between the groups was similar (G1 = 0.159 vs G2 = 0.157 cm/min; P = 0.925). Complications were: mucosotomy (G1 = 18 %, G2 = 8 %; P = 0.430), mediastinal perforation (G1 = 12 %, G2 = 8 %; P = 1.0), and perforation at the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) level (G1 = 16 %, G2 = 4 %; P = 0.149). Seven models in G2 presented minor bleeding and there was one death not attributed to the procedure. Mastery was obtained after 26 cases. Conclusions: We suggest that centers interested in learning POEM consider 26 procedures in animal models to master it before performing it in patients with achalasia. PMID:26716112

  18. Monoplane 3D Overlay Roadmap versus Conventional Biplane 2D Roadmap Technique for Neurointervenional Procedures.

    Jang, Dong-Kyu; Stidd, David A; Schafer, Sebastian; Chen, Michael; Moftakhar, Roham; Lopes, Demetrius K


    We investigated whether a 3D overlay roadmap using monoplane fluoroscopy offers advantages over a conventional 2D roadmap using biplane fluoroscopy during endovascular aneurysm treatment. A retrospective chart review was conducted for 131 consecutive cerebral aneurysm embolizations by three neurointerventionalists at a single institution. Allowing for a transition period, the periods from January 2012 to August 2012 (Time Period 1) and February 2013 to July 2013 (Time Period 2) were analyzed for radiation exposure, contrast administration, fluoroscopy time, procedure time, angiographic results, and perioperative complications. Two neurointerventionalists (Group 1) used a conventional 2D roadmap for both Time Periods, and one neurointerventionalist (Group 2) transitioned from a 2D roadmap during Time Period 1 to a 3D overlay roadmap during Time Period 2. During Time Period 2, Group 2 demonstrated reduced fluoroscopy time (poverlay roadmap technique reduced fluoroscopy dose and fluoroscopy time during neurointervention of cerebral aneurysms with similar angiographic occlusions and complications rate relative to biplane 2D roadmap, which implies possible compensation of limitations of monoplane fluoroscopy by 3D overlay technique.

  19. Evaluation of patient perceptions after labial frenectomy procedure: A comparison of diode laser and scalpel techniques

    Kalakonda Butchibabu


    Full Text Available Background: Frenectomy is the complete excision of the frenum along with its attachment to the underlying bone. It can be done by conventional technique, electrosurgery or soft tissue lasers. Aim: To evaluate the effects of diode laser and scalpel technique on degree of post-operative pain and discomfort experienced by patients on the 1 st , 3 rd and the 7 th post-operative days after frenectomy. Materials and Methods: Ten patients who required frenectomy were randomly assigned to undergo treatment with diode laser or scalpel. The data were analyzed with paired t-test and intragroup comparison was determined by ANOVA. Results: Intergroup comparison of the mean VAS scores for discomfort and pain for both the groups showed significant difference. The VAS scores of pain and discomfort within scalpel group between 1 st and 3 rd day did not show any significant difference, however between 7 th day versus 3 rd and 1 st day difference was highly significant. The VAS scores of pain and discomfort within laser group between all the days showed significant difference. Conclusion: Taking into consideration the clinical outcome, the diode laser is a dependable alternative as it is an efficient and satisfactory option for procedures like frenectomy.

  20. Technical Description of the Use of Selective Perfusion Techniques During the Norwood Procedure for Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

    Chabot, David Leonard; Polimenakos, Anastasios C.


    Abstract: Since the introduction of the Norwood procedure for surgical palliation of hypoplastic left heart syndrome in 1983, refinements have been made to the original procedure to improve patient outcomes while still accomplishing the original goals of the procedure. One of these refinements has been the introduction of regional selective perfusion to limit the duration of circulatory arrest times and optimize the regional flow distribution. In this paper we describe our technique for performing selective cerebral and lower body perfusion during the Norwood procedure. PMID:22416608

  1. J-tube technique for double-j stent insertion during laparoscopic upper urinary tract surgical procedures.

    Kim, Hyung Suk; Lee, Byung Ki; Jung, Jin-Woo; Lee, Jung Keun; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Sang Eun; Jeong, Chang Wook


    Double-J stent insertion has been generally performed during laparoscopic upper urinary tract (UUT) surgical procedures to prevent transient urinary tract obstruction and postoperative flank pain from ureteral edema and blood clots. Several restrictive conditions that make this procedure difficult and time consuming, however, include the coiled distal ends of the flexible Double-J stent and the limited bending angle of the laparoscopic instruments. To overcome these limitations, we devised a Double-J stent insertion method using the new J-tube technique. Between July 2011 and May 2013, Double-J stents were inserted using the J-tube technique in 33 patients who underwent a laparoscopic UUT surgical procedure by a single surgeon. The mean stent placement time was 4.8±2.7 minutes, and there were no intraoperative complications. In conclusion, the J-tube technique is a safe and time-saving method for Double-J stent insertion during laparoscopic surgical procedures.

  2. Effect of precipitation procedure and detection technique on particle size distribution of CaCO 3

    Martos, C.; Coto, B.; Peña, J. L.; Rodríguez, R.; Merino-Garcia, D.; Pastor, G.


    The deposition of inorganic salts ("scales") such as calcium carbonate is an important flow assurance problem during crude oil production. The knowledge of the features of the precipitated solids, mainly the particle size and morphology, is crucial to understand the nature of the solids and to avoid or reduce the effect of their deposition. For instance, the use of additives is one of the most usual procedures to mitigate this problem. Additives interact with scale-forming substances either by increasing the induction time, or by inhibiting crystal growth, changing the morphology of solids. In this work, CaCO 3 was precipitated by two different experimental methods: by mixing sodium carbonate and calcium chloride at 25 °C (method 1), and by changing the pH (method 2). Precipitated solids were analyzed by means of the following techniques: laser diffraction (LD), focused-beam reflectance measurement (FBRM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), in order to select a method for the determination of particle size of solids similar to scales, in order to study these deposits at the beginning of their formation and to evaluate the effect of additives in the scales particle size. Results were compared to those of scale deposits extracted from crude oil pipelines. SEM and XRD characterization showed that both the precipitation methods lead to calcium carbonate as a mixture of calcite, aragonite and vaterite, with rhombohedral morphology for method 1 and spherical for method 2. The effects of temperature, kinetics and Mg 2+ presence in the morphology of CaCO 3 were evaluated. Thus, the solids obtained by static bottle test and real scales are mainly formed by long needle-shaped aragonite. The comparison of the several particle size characterization methods determinates that an LD is a fast and sensitive technique for spherical and non-spherical solids, and it is a convenient technique for the analysis of scales extracted from oil pipelines.

  3. Slightly modified technique of the original essed plication procedure for congenital penile deviation

    C Van Der Horst


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The Schroeder-Essed plication procedure is a standard technique for the correction of penile curvature. In a retrospective analysis we compared functional results and quality of life (LQ of the original technique with inverted sutures as described by Schroeder-Essed and our slight modification consisting of horizontal incisions into the tunica albuginea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients with congenital penis deviation were treated for penile deviation by the original Schroeder-Essed plication with inverted sutures (11 patients and by the described modification (15 patients. In case of modified technique, horizontal and parallel incisions 4 mm to 6 mm apart and about 8 mm - 10 mm long were made through the tunica albuginea. The outer edges of the incisions were then approximated with permanent inverted sutures (Gore-Tex® 3-0. Mean age was 21.6 years in the first group and 23.2 years in the second group. Average follow-up was 28 months and 13 months, respectively. The preoperative penile deviation angle was > 25º in all patients without difference between the 2 groups. RESULTS: All patients in both groups reported an improvement in their quality of life and full ability to engage in sexual intercourse. Nine patients (88% in the first group and 14 patients (93% in the second group were satisfied with the cosmetic result. In contrast, 10 patients (91% of the first and 13 patients (87% of the second group complained of penile shorting. Recurrence of deviation was only noticed in 2 males in the first group (18%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that this simple modification of the Schroeder-Essed plication offers good functional and cosmetic results. Most patients were satisfied with the penile angle correction results.

  4. A Modified Technique for Culturing Primary Fetal Rat Cortical Neurons

    Sui-Yi Xu


    Full Text Available The study explored a modified primary culture system for fetal rat cortical neurons. Day E18 embryos from pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were microdissected under a stereoscope. To minimize enzymatic damage to the cultured neurons, we applied a sequential digestion protocol using papain and Dnase I. The resulting sifted cell suspension was seeded at a density of 50,000 cells per cm2 onto 0.1 mg/mL L-PLL-covered vessels. After a four-hour incubation in high-glucose Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (HG-DMEM to allow the neurons to adhere, the media was changed to neurobasal medium that was refreshed by changing half of the volume after three days followed by a complete medium change every week. The cells displayed progressively robust neurite extension, and nonneuronal-like cells could barely be detected by five days in vitro (DIV; cell growth was still substantial at 14 DIV. Neurons were identified by β-tubulin III immunofluorescence, and neuronal purity within the cultures was assessed at over 95% by both flow cytometry and by dark-field counting of β-tubulin III-positive cells. These results suggest that the protocol was successful and that the high purity of neurons in this system could be used as the basis for generating various cell models of neurological disease.

  5. [Breast augmentation with autologous fat - experience of 96 procedures with the BEAULI-technique].

    Münch, D P


    Over the past 30 years, interest in the use of autologous fat for aesthetic body contouring, especially for breast augmentation has been continuously on the rise. The benefits of an autologous fat transplant include the absence of any inflammatory reaction to a foreign body, its harmonious appearance and a natural feeling. In earlier years, complications such as necrosis, infections or the formation of cysts, poor resorption rates as well as the difficulty of harvesting large amounts of fat within a reasonable amount of time provided grounds for criticism of the methodology of autologous fat transplantation. With the advent of the so-called BEAULI method, since 2007 a procedure is available for the efficient harvesting and processing of larger quantities of transplantable fat. The aim of the study is to describe the technique in detail and reproducibly and to present a detailed overview of autologous fat transfer due to the basis of our own clinical experience. Between 1 September 2010 and 30 June 2012 the author performed 96 fat transfer procedures on 84 patients. Patients aged 18-60 with a desire for a moderate augmentation of volume and shape of the breasts were selected for the procedure. The fat was harvested using water jet-assisted liposuction (Bodyjet) to flush out the fat cells and subsequent separation of the fat components with the Lipo-Collector. There were no occurrences of post-operative complications in any of the cases. The results were evaluated in the context of a check-up, a photographic comparison and with the completion of a questionnaire. With regard to the increase in size and/or shape enhancement of the breasts, 31% of the patients were very happy with the results, 45% indicated they were satisfied, 23% would have liked more volume, while 1% were dissatisfied. This study indicates that the autologous fat transplant into the female breast using the BEAULI method represents an excellent, safe method for the achievement of a moderate and

  6. Induction of habits in rats by a forced-choice procedure in T-maze and the effect of pre-test free exploration

    Moustgaard, Anette; Hau, Jann


    A forced-choice procedure in T-maze designed for the induction of habits was used to induce strong habits in rats. The response choices of rats in 20 free-choice trials were compared after the rats had been subjected to 1 or 200 forced-choice trials to one side of the T-maze. After 200 forced-cho...

  7. Operative procedures in warm humidified air: Can it reduce adhesion formation? A randomized experimental rat model

    Arild de Vries


    Conclusions: Rats in the study group had higher total adhesion, extent, severity and tenacity scores postoperatively compared to rats in the control group. A possible reason could be the observed higher bacterial load amongst the rats of the study group compared to the rats of the control group.

  8. Influence of polishing procedures on the surface roughness of dental ceramics made by different techniques.

    Oliveira-Junior, Osmir Batista; Buso, Leonardo; Fujiy, Fábio Hiroshi; Lombardo, Geraldo Henrique Leao; Campos, Fernanda; Sarmento, Hugo Ramalho; Souza, Rodrigo Othavio Assuncao


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of 2 different surface polishing procedures-glazing and manual polishing-on the roughness of ceramics processed by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) and conventional systems (stratification technique). Eighty ceramic discs (diameter: 8 mm, thickness: 1 mm) were prepared and divided among 8 groups (n = 10) according to the type of ceramic disc and polishing method: 4 GZ and 4 MP. Specimens were glazed according to each manufacturer's recommendations. Two silicone polishing points were used on the ceramic surface for manual polishing. Roughness was measured using a surface roughness tester. The roughness measurements were made along a distance of 2 mm on the sample surface and the speed of reading was 0.1 mm/s. Three measurements were taken for each sample. The data (μm) were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Qualitative analysis was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mean (± SD) roughness values obtained for GZ were: 1.1 ± 0.40 μm; 1.0 ± 0.31 μm; 1.6 ± 0.31 μm; and 2.2 ± 0.73 μm. For MP, the mean values were: 0.66 ± 0.13 μm; 0.43 ± 0.14 μm; 1.6 ± 0.55 μm; and 2.0 ± 0.63 μm. The mean roughness values were significantly affected by the ceramic type (P = 0.0001) and polishing technique (P = 0.0047). The SEM images confirmed the roughness data. The manually polished glass CAD/CAM ceramics promoted lower surface roughness than did the glazed feldspathic dental ceramics.

  9. Procedure for Decellularization of Rat Livers in an Oscillating-pressure Perfusion Device.

    Hillebrandt, Karl; Polenz, Dietrich; Butter, Antje; Tang, Peter; Reutzel-Selke, Anja; Andreou, Andreas; Napierala, Hendrik; Raschzok, Nathanael; Pratschke, Johann; Sauer, Igor M; Struecker, Benjamin


    Decellularization and recellularization of parenchymal organs may enable the generation of functional organs in vitro, and several protocols for rodent liver decellularization have already been published. We aimed to improve the decellularization process by construction of a proprietary perfusion device enabling selective perfusion via the portal vein and/or the hepatic artery. Furthermore, we sought to perform perfusion under oscillating surrounding pressure conditions to improve the homogeneity of decellularization. The homogeneity of perfusion decellularization has been an underestimated factor to date. During decellularization, areas within the organ that are poorly perfused may still contain cells, whereas the extracellular matrix (ECM) in well-perfused areas may already be affected by alkaline detergents. Oscillating pressure changes can mimic the intraabdominal pressure changes that occur during respiration to optimize microperfusion inside the liver. In the study presented here, decellularized rat liver matrices were analyzed by histological staining, DNA content analysis and corrosion casting. Perfusion via the hepatic artery showed more homogenous results than portal venous perfusion did. The application of oscillating pressure conditions improved the effectiveness of perfusion decellularization. Livers perfused via the hepatic artery and under oscillating pressure conditions showed the best results. The presented techniques for liver harvesting, cannulation and perfusion using our proprietary device enable sophisticated perfusion set-ups to improve decellularization and recellularization experiments in rat livers.

  10. Legal, ethical, and procedural bases for the use of aseptic techniques to implant electronic devices

    Mulcahy, Daniel M.


    The popularity of implanting electronic devices such as transmitters and data loggers into captive and free-ranging animals has increased greatly in the past two decades. The devices have become smaller, more reliable, and more capable (Printz 2004; Wilson and Gifford 2005; Metcalfe et al. 2012). Compared with externally mounted devices, implanted devices are largely invisible to external viewers such as tourists and predators; exist in a physically protected, thermally stable environment in mammals and birds; and greatly reduce drag and risk of entanglement. An implanted animal does not outgrow its device or attachment method as can happen with collars and harnesses, which allows young animals to be more safely equipped. However, compared with mounting external devices, implantation requires greater technical ability to perform the necessary anesthesia, analgesia, and surgery. More than 83% of publications in the 1990s that used radiotelemetry on animals assumed that there were no adverse effects on the animal (Godfrey and Bryant 2003). It is likely that some studies using implanted electronic devices have not been published due to a high level of unexpected mortality or to aberrant behavior or disappearance of the implanted animals, a phenomenon known as the “file drawer” problem (Rosenthal 1979; Scargle 2000). The near absence of such studies from the published record may be providing a false sense of security that procedures being used are more innocuous than they actually are. Similarly, authors sometimes state that it was unlikely that device implantation was problematic because study animals appeared to behave normally, or authors state that previous investigators used the same technique and saw no problems. Such statements are suppositions if no supporting data are provided or if the animals were equipped because there was no other way to follow their activity. Moreover, such suppositions ignore other adverse effects that affect behavior indirectly, and

  11. Solution Procedure for Transport Modeling in Effluent Recharge Based on Operator-Splitting Techniques

    Shutang Zhu


    Full Text Available The coupling of groundwater movement and reactive transport during groundwater recharge with wastewater leads to a complicated mathematical model, involving terms to describe convection-dispersion, adsorption/desorption and/or biodegradation, and so forth. It has been found very difficult to solve such a coupled model either analytically or numerically. The present study adopts operator-splitting techniques to decompose the coupled model into two submodels with different intrinsic characteristics. By applying an upwind finite difference scheme to the finite volume integral of the convection flux term, an implicit solution procedure is derived to solve the convection-dominant equation. The dispersion term is discretized in a standard central-difference scheme while the dispersion-dominant equation is solved using either the preconditioned Jacobi conjugate gradient (PJCG method or Thomas method based on local-one-dimensional scheme. The solution method proposed in this study is applied to the demonstration project of groundwater recharge with secondary effluent at Gaobeidian sewage treatment plant (STP successfully.

  12. Training a sophisticated microsurgical technique: interposition of external jugular vein graft in the common carotid artery in rats.

    Schleimer, Karina; Grommes, Jochen; Greiner, Andreas; Jalaie, Houman; Kalder, Johannes; Langer, Stephan; Koeppel, Thomas A; Jacobs, Michael; Kokozidou, Maria


    Neointimal hyperplasia is one the primary causes of stenosis in arterialized veins that are of great importance in arterial coronary bypass surgery, in peripheral arterial bypass surgery as well as in arteriovenous fistulas.(1-5) The experimental procedure of vein graft interposition in the common carotid artery by using the cuff-technique has been applied in several research projects to examine the aetiology of neointimal hyperplasia and therapeutic options to address it. (6-8) The cuff prevents vessel anastomotic remodeling and induces turbulence within the graft and thereby the development of neointimal hyperplasia. Using the superior caval vein graft is an established small-animal model for venous arterialization experiment.(9-11) This current protocol refers to an established jugular vein graft interposition technique first described by Zou et al., (9) as well as others.(12-14) Nevertheless, these cited small animal protocols are complicated. To simplify the procedure and to minimize the number of experimental animals needed, a detailed operation protocol by video training is presented. This video should help the novice surgeon to learn both the cuff-technique and the vein graft interposition. Hereby, the right external jugular vein was grafted in cuff-technique in the common carotid artery of 21 female Sprague Dawley rats categorized in three equal groups that were sacrificed on day 21, 42 and 84, respectively. Notably, no donor animals were needed, because auto-transplantations were performed. The survival rate was 100 % at the time point of sacrifice. In addition, the graft patency rate was 60 % for the first 10 operated animals and 82 % for the remaining 11 animals. The blood flow at the time of sacrifice was 8±3 ml/min. In conclusion, this surgical protocol considerably simplifies, optimizes and standardizes this complicated procedure. It gives novice surgeons easy, step-by-step instruction, explaining possible pitfalls, thereby helping them to gain

  13. Water jet dissection in neurosurgery: an update after 208 procedures with special reference to surgical technique and complications.

    Keiner, Doerthe; Gaab, Michael R; Backhaus, Vanessa; Piek, Juergen; Oertel, Joachim


    Water jet dissection represents a promising technique for precise brain tissue dissection with preservation of blood vessels. In the past, the water jet dissector has been used for various pathologies. A detailed report of the surgical technique is lacking. The authors present their results after 208 procedures with a special focus on surgical technique, intraoperative suitability, advantages, and disadvantages. Between March 1997 and April 2009, 208 patients with various intracranial neurosurgical pathologies were operated on with the water jet dissector. Handling of the device and its usefulness and extent of application were assessed. The pressures encountered, potential risks, and complications were documented. The patients were followed 1 to 24 months postoperatively. A detailed presentation of the surgical technique is given. Differences and limitations of the water jet dissection device in the various pathologies were evaluated. The water jet dissector was intensively used in 127 procedures (61.1%), intermittently used in 56 procedures (26.9%), and scarcely used in 25 procedures (12%). The device was considered to be very helpful in 166 procedures (79.8%) and helpful to some extent in 33 procedures (15.9%). In 8 (3.8%) procedures, it was not helpful, and in 1 procedure (0.5%), the usefulness was not documented by the surgeon. The water jet dissector can be applied easily and very safely. Precise tissue dissection with preservation of blood vessels and no greater risk of complications are possible. However, the clinical consequences of the described qualities need to be demonstrated in a randomized clinical trial.

  14. Resection of C6 gliomas in rats with the aid of the waterjet technique.

    Keiner, Doerthe; Heimann, Axel; Kronfeld, Andrea; Sommer, Clemens; Mueller-Forell, Wibke; Kempski, Oliver; Oertel, Joachim


    While clinically the safety and efficacy of waterjet resection of brain tumors have been shown, evidence that waterjet dissection improves tumor resection radicality in comparison with conventional techniques is still missing. In the present study, resection radicality and tumor-free long-term survival of both techniques were evaluated in a C6-glioma model. Fifty-thousand C6-glioma cells were stereotactically transplanted in the left frontal lobe of 100 male Sprague-Dawley rats. After MRI-scanning for evaluation of tumor extension, microsurgical tumor resection was performed with conventional techniques (n=50) or with the waterjet dissector at pressures of 6bar (n=50). Twenty-five animals of each group were sacrificed after surgery for histological analysis. For analysis of survival after tumor resection, twenty-five animals of each group were followed-up to analyze tumor-free survival using the Kaplan Meier method. In the waterjet group, the resection cavity was free of C6-tumor cells in 10/25 (40%) rats showing a trend (p=0.3) towards better resection radicality compared to the rats that were treated conventionally (7/10; 28%). R1-resection with up to 250C6 cells/object slice was found in 14/25 (56%) rats after waterjet dissection compared to 6/25 (24%) rats treated conventionally showing significance (prats. In this experimental model, waterjet tumor resection did reveal significantly better resection radicality compared to the conventional technique. Although a direct transfer of these results to human glioma surgery is prohibited, the waterjet technique might contribute to the best possible resection radicality in human gliomas. Nevertheless, tumor cell spreading remains a major problem. Further studies have to address that the surgical results - in deed - improve the postoperative outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Randomized clinical trial comparing ultrasound-guided procedure with the Seldinger's technique for placement of implantable venous ports.

    Miao, Jianzhong; Ji, Lijun; Lu, Jianjun; Chen, Jianqing


    The aim of this randomized controlled study was to compare ultrasound-guided procedure with the Seldinger's technique for placement of implantable venous ports. A total of 214 patients were randomized to receive TIAP placement by either ultrasound-guided procedure or the Seldinger's technique. Complications and pain perception were compared between these two groups. No severe perioperative or periinterventional complication occurred. Significantly (P venous thrombosis, fever of unknown origin, skin necrosis, and sepsis. In conclusion, both techniques, the TIAP implantation via ultrasound-guided jugular vein puncture and via Seldinger's technique subclavian vein puncture, are feasible and safe. Regarding intrainterventional pain perception and implantation-related complications, the jugular vein puncture under ultrasound guidance seems to be advantageous.

  16. Defining Prolonged Dwell Time: When Are Advanced Inferior Vena Cava Filter Retrieval Techniques Necessary? An Analysis in 762 Procedures.

    Desai, Kush R; Laws, James L; Salem, Riad; Mouli, Samdeep K; Errea, Martin F; Karp, Jennifer K; Yang, Yihe; Ryu, Robert K; Lewandowski, Robert J


    Despite growth in placement of retrievable inferior vena cava filters, retrieval rates remain low. Filters with extended implantation times present a challenge to retrieval, where standard techniques often fail. The development of advanced retrieval techniques has positively impacted retrieval of retrievable inferior vena cava filters with prolonged dwell times; however, there is no precise definition of the time point when advanced techniques become necessary. We aim to define prolonged retrievable inferior vena cava filters dwell time by determining the inflection point when the risk of standard retrieval technique failure increases significantly, necessitating advanced retrieval techniques to maintain overall technical success of retrieval. From January 2009 to April 2015, 762 retrieval procedures were identified from a prospectively acquired database. We assessed patient age/sex, filter dwell time, procedural technical success, the use of advanced techniques, and procedure-related adverse events. Overall retrieval success rate was 98% (n=745). When standard retrieval techniques failed, advanced techniques were used; this was necessary 18% of the time (n=138). Logistic regression identified that dwell time was the only risk factor for failure of standard retrieval technique (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.10; Ptechnique failure was 40.9%. Adverse events occurred at a rate of 2% (n=18; 15 minor and 3 major). The necessity of advanced techniques to maintain technical success of retrieval increases with dwell time. Patients with retrievable inferior vena cava filters in place beyond 7 months may benefit from referral to centers with expertise in advanced filter retrieval. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Comparison of the pain perception in children using comfort control syringe and a conventional injection technique during pediatric dental procedures

    M Langthasa


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate and compare the pain perception by the pediatric patients, while experiencing computerized injection device comfort control syringe (CCS and the conventional injection technique during dental clinical procedures. Materials and Methods: Fifty children (31 boys and 19 girls aged 6-14 years requiring local anaesthesia on both sides of the dental arch for various treatment procedures were selected for this study. The patients served as their own control, and on the appointed day CCS was used on one side of the dental arch and on the subsequent appointment, i.e., the very next day conventional injection technique was used. Visual analogue scale (VAS and faces pain rating scale (FRS were used to assess the child′s pain perception to each of the techniques immediately after the injection. Various physiological parameters were measured before, during and after the two injection procedures and compared for statistical variation. Results : Paired t-test revealed a statistically significant difference in the pain perception by children using VAS and FRS between computerized and conventional technique. No statistically significant difference was observed when physiological parameters (heart rate, blood pressure and temperature were compared at various intervals between the computerized and the conventional technique. Conclusion: Computerized injection device (CCS provides less painful injections when compared to the conventional injection technique.

  18. [A technique of rhesus monkey neural progenitor cells intravitreal transplant to rats].

    Bian, Hui; Fan, Yao-Dong; Guo, Li-Yun; Yu, Hua-Lin


    To investigate a simple and effective intraocular xenotransplant technique of rhesus monkey neural progenitor cells to rats, mechanical injury was induced in the rat's right retina. And the GFP-labeled rhesus monkey neural progenitor cells suspension was slowly injected into the vitreous space of the right injured and left control eye. Confocal image suggested that the xenografted cells survived in both the injured and control eye, meanwhile the cells integrated in the injured right retina. The results demonstrated that intravitreal xenotransplant could be adopted as a simple and reliable method.

  19. Interventional techniques in managing persistent pain after vertebral augmentation procedures: a retrospective evaluation.

    Georgy, Bassem A


    Based on systematic reviews, it appears that at least 10% of patients may continue to suffer with residual or persistent pain after successful vertebral or sacral augmentation procedures. To report and evaluate the incidence and prevalence of different spinal injections in patients who received vertebroplasty, kyphoplasty, and sacroplasty procedures for both benign and malignant compression fractures. A retrospective case review. Retrospective review of all cases of vertebroplasty, sacroplasty, and kyphoplasty performed in a 12-month period in a single outpatient setting of interventional radiology was conducted. In a 12-month period starting from October 2005 to September 2006, 144 patients underwent cement augmentation procedures. Of the 144, 34 patients required a spinal injection procedure for residual or persistent pain within a 1-year period after the augmentation procedure. Twenty-four patients required epidural steroid injections, 6 patients required intercostal nerve blocks, 5 patients required trigger point injections, 5 patients required sacroiliac joint injections, and 1 patient required facet joint injections. Nine patients who required lumbar epidural steroid injections and all patients who required intercostal nerve blocks and had underwent a thoracic cement augmentation procedure. A small proportion of patients undergoing percutaneous cement augmentation for vertebral compression fractures or sacral insufficiency fractures potentially require spinal injections to treat residual pain after the procedure.

  20. The Bristow and Latarjet procedures: why these techniques should not be considered synonymous.

    Giles, Joshua W; Degen, Ryan M; Johnson, James A; Athwal, George S


    Recurrent shoulder instability is commonly associated with glenoid bone defects. Coracoid transfer procedures, such as the Bristow and Latarjet procedures, are frequently used to address these bone deficiencies. Despite the frequent synonymous labeling of these transfers as the "Bristow-Latarjet" procedure, their true equivalence has not been demonstrated. Therefore, our purpose was to compare the biomechanical effects of these two procedures. Eight cadaveric specimens were tested on a custom shoulder simulator capable of loading nine muscle groups and of accurately orienting the joint throughout shoulder motion. The specimens were tested in the intact state, following Bristow and Latarjet reconstructions of a capsulolabral injury (0% glenoid defect), and following each procedure after creation of 15% and 30% glenoid bone defects. The reconstruction order was randomized. In each condition, joint stiffness (anterior stability) and occurrence of dislocation were assessed in shoulder adduction and abduction with neutral and external rotation. No significant differences (p Latarjet reconstructions for the 0% glenoid defect in any joint position. However, substantially greater joint stiffness occurred following the Latarjet procedure, as compared with the Bristow procedure, for the 15% and 30% glenoid bone-loss conditions in adduction with neutral rotation, adduction with external rotation, and abduction with external rotation (average across the three joint positions: 8.6 ± 4.4 N/mm versus 3.9 ± 1.26.7 N/mm [p = 0.034] with 15% bone loss and 7.5 ± 4.4 N/mm versus 3.4 ± 1.5 N/mm [p = 0.045] with 30% bone loss). The Latarjet reconstruction restored the stiffness that had been measured in the intact state in eleven of the twelve tested conditions, whereas the Bristow procedure was successful in only four of the twelve conditions. In addition, during instability testing, three more specimens dislocated following the Bristow reconstruction, compared with the Latarjet

  1. Salvage of the unstable Sauvé-Kapandji procedure: a new technique.

    Ross, Mark; Thomas, James; Couzens, Gregory; Coleman, Stephen


    The Sauvé-Kapandji procedure has been commonly performed in the setting of posttraumatic osteoarthritis of the distal radioulnar joint. A recognized complication is instability of the proximal ulnar stump, which may occur in up to 33% of cases. Salvage of the failed Sauvé-Kapandji procedure in this setting is difficult and can sometimes involve sacrifice of forearm rotation. We report the results of 3 cases of a new salvage procedure in this setting. The radioulnar pseudarthrosis was taken down; ulnar continuity was restored with an intercalary graft; and forearm rotation was restored with matched hemiresection and interposition arthroplasty at the site of previous radioulnar fusion. Postoperatively, all patients achieved good forearm rotation (mean supination, 60 degrees; mean pronation, 65 degrees), had no symptoms of instability, and were satisfied with the results of the procedure. Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand scores improved from preoperative mean of 55 to postoperative mean of 18.

  2. Novel technique for placement of hemodialysis catheters using a combined open procedure with the Seldinger micropuncture technique.

    Maa, J; Gosnell, J E; Chuter, T A M


    Percutaneous placement of large-diameter dialysis catheters via the Seldinger technique can be technically challenging in patients with coagulopathy, difficult anatomy, or several previous central line insertions. We describe a method for achieving safer access by combining an open approach to delineate the venous anatomy of the chest wall, with a micropuncture device and smaller diameter guidewire to gain intravascular access to the cephalic vein or its major tributaries. Serial dilation of otherwise unusable vessels can then permit successful and safer hemodialysis catheter insertion in these difficult cases.

  3. A recommended technique of renal vein anastomosis in rat kidney transplantation for trainee

    Ye Dongming; Heng Baoli; Lai Caiyong; Guo Zexiong; Su Zexuan


    Background Various rat kidney transplantation models have been introduced over the decades and the study on the models seems to lack novelty and necessity.However,vascular anastomosis,especially renal vein,is still very difficult for trainees.The aim of this study was to provide the modified renal venous anastomosis of rat kidney transplantation to substitute the currant method for trainees.Methods Male Wistar rats were used as donors and recipients,respectively.Left orthotopic transplantation was performed with a modified technique of renal vein anastomosis,combining the end-to-end sutures with epidural catheter.Meanwhile,the survival rate,warm ischemia time,renal venous anastomosis time,and complications were recorded to evaluate the merits of the modified technique compared with the current recommended technique of rat renal vein.Two trainees took part in the learning of the models in two methods for performing 30 operations,respectively.Results The difference in warm ischemia time (from (57.25±7.30) minutes in the first 10 operations to (30.05±1.85)minutes in the third 10 operations) and renal vein anastomosis time (from (32.80±3.80) minutes in the first 10 operations to (19.30±0.98) minutes in the third 10 operations) was significantly short (P<0.01) and the survival rate was statistically high (from (25±7)% in the first 10 operations to 70% in the third 10 operations) in equal number of operations (P<0.01) by comparing with the current recommended method ((47.60±7.19) minutes to (22.8±1.85) minutes,(22.40±3.10) minutes to (9.95±1.50) minutes,45%±7% to 80%±0,respectively).The intraoperative complications and postoperative complications of renal venous anastomosis were also significantly decreased (P<0.01).Conclusions The technique with epidural catheter can shorten the learning curve of the trainee learning rat kidney transplantation.It may replace the currently recommended technique of rat renal vein for trainees.

  4. A surgical rat model of sleeve gastrectomy with staple technique: long-term weight loss results.

    Patrikakos, Panagiotis; Toutouzas, Konstantinos G; Perrea, Despoina; Menenakos, Evangelos; Pantopoulou, Alkistis; Thomopoulos, Theodore; Papadopoulos, Stefanos; Bramis, John I


    Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is one of the surgical procedures applied for treating morbid obesity consisting of removing the gastric fundus and transforming the stomach into a narrow gastric tube. The aim of this experimental study is to create a functional model of SG and to present the long-term weight loss results. Twenty adult Wistar rats were fed with high fat diet for 12 weeks before being divided randomly in two groups of ten rats each. One group underwent SG performed with the use of staples, and the other group underwent a sham operation (control group). The animals' weight was evaluated weekly for 15 weeks after the operation. All animals survived throughout the experiment. After the operation both groups started to lose weight with maximum weight loss on the seventh postoperative day (POD) for the sham-operated group and on the 15th POD for the SG group. Thereafter, both groups started to regain weight but with different rates. By the fourth postoperative week (POW), the average weight of the sham group did not differ statistically significantly compared to the preoperative weight, while after the eighth POW, rats' average weight was statistically significantly increased compared to the preoperative value. On the other hand, average weight of the SG group was lower postoperatively until the end of the study compared to the preoperative average weight. We have created a surgical rat model of experimental SG model, enabling the further study of biochemical and hormonal parameters.

  5. Pain relief following thoracic surgical procedures: A literature review of the uncommon techniques.

    Alzahrani, Tariq


    Thoracic surgical procedures can be either thoracotomy or thoracoscopy. In thoracotomy, the incision could be either muscle-cutting or muscle-sparing incision. The posterolateral thoracotomy incision is used for most general thoracic surgical procedures. This incision, which involves division of the latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior muscles, affords excellent exposure of the thoracic cavity. However, it is associated with significant morbidity, including impaired pulmonary function, postoperative chest pain, and restricted arm and shoulder movement. Various muscle-sparing incisions have been proposed to decrease the morbidity. Postthoracotomy pain originates from pleural and muscular damage, costovertebral joint disruption, and intercostal nerve damage during surgery. Inadequate pain relief after surgery affects the quality of patient's recovery and exposes the patients to postoperative morbidities. There is a tendency nowadays among thoracic surgeons and anesthesiologists toward the area of enhanced recovery after thoracic surgery which requires careful titration of the anesthetic drugs in awake patients undergoing thoracoscopic procedures. There is a common feeling among thoracic anesthesiologists that potthoracoscopy procedures produce less pain intensity versus thoracotomy which is partially true. However, effective management of acute pain following either thoracotomy/thoracoscopy is needed and may prevent these complications and reduce the likelihood of developing chronic pain. In this report, we are going to review the newly introduced postthoracotomy/thoracoscopy pain relief modalities with special reference to the new tendency of awake thoracic surgical procedures and its impact on enhanced recovery after surgery.

  6. Pain relief following thoracic surgical procedures: A literature review of the uncommon techniques

    Tariq Alzahrani


    Full Text Available Thoracic surgical procedures can be either thoracotomy or thoracoscopy. In thoracotomy, the incision could be either muscle-cutting or muscle-sparing incision. The posterolateral thoracotomy incision is used for most general thoracic surgical procedures. This incision, which involves division of the latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior muscles, affords excellent exposure of the thoracic cavity. However, it is associated with significant morbidity, including impaired pulmonary function, postoperative chest pain, and restricted arm and shoulder movement. Various muscle-sparing incisions have been proposed to decrease the morbidity. Postthoracotomy pain originates from pleural and muscular damage, costovertebral joint disruption, and intercostal nerve damage during surgery. Inadequate pain relief after surgery affects the quality of patient's recovery and exposes the patients to postoperative morbidities. There is a tendency nowadays among thoracic surgeons and anesthesiologists toward the area of enhanced recovery after thoracic surgery which requires careful titration of the anesthetic drugs in awake patients undergoing thoracoscopic procedures. There is a common feeling among thoracic anesthesiologists that potthoracoscopy procedures produce less pain intensity versus thoracotomy which is partially true. However, effective management of acute pain following either thoracotomy/thoracoscopy is needed and may prevent these complications and reduce the likelihood of developing chronic pain. In this report, we are going to review the newly introduced postthoracotomy/thoracoscopy pain relief modalities with special reference to the new tendency of awake thoracic surgical procedures and its impact on enhanced recovery after surgery.

  7. Comparing and visualizing titanium implant integration in rat bone using 2D and 3D techniques.

    Arvidsson, Anna; Sarve, Hamid; Johansson, Carina B


    The aim was to compare the osseointegration of grit-blasted implants with and without a hydrogen fluoride treatment in rat tibia and femur, and to visualize bone formation using state-of-the-art 3D visualization techniques. Grit-blasted implants were inserted in femur and tibia of 10 Sprague-Dawley rats (4 implants/rat). Four weeks after insertion, bone implant samples were retrieved. Selected samples were imaged in 3D using Synchrotron Radiation-based μCT (SRμCT). The 3D data was quantified and visualized using two novel visualization techniques, thread fly-through and 2D unfolding. All samples were processed to cut and ground sections and 2D histomorphometrical comparisons of bone implant contact (BIC), bone area (BA), and mirror image area (MI) were performed. BA values were statistically significantly higher for test implants than controls (p 3D analysis was a valuable complement to 2D analysis, facilitating improved visualization. However, further studies are required to evaluate aspects of 3D quantitative techniques, with relation to light microscopy that traditionally is used for osseointegration studies.

  8. Common handling procedures conducted in preclinical safety studies result in minimal hepatic gene expression changes in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Yudong D He

    Full Text Available Gene expression profiling is a tool to gain mechanistic understanding of adverse effects in response to compound exposure. However, little is known about how the common handling procedures of experimental animals during a preclinical study alter baseline gene expression. We report gene expression changes in the livers of female Sprague-Dawley rats following common handling procedures. Baseline gene expression changes identified in this study provide insight on how these changes may affect interpretation of gene expression profiles following compound exposure. Rats were divided into three groups. One group was not subjected to handling procedures and served as controls for both handled groups. Animals in the other two groups were weighed, subjected to restraint in Broome restrainers, and administered water via oral gavage daily for 1 or 4 days with tail vein blood collections at 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours postdose on days 1 and 4. Significantly altered genes were identified in livers of animals following 1 or 4 days of handling when compared to the unhandled animals. Gene changes in animals handled for 4 days were similar to those handled for 1 day, suggesting a lack of habituation. The altered genes were primarily immune function related genes. These findings, along with a correlating increase in corticosterone levels suggest that common handling procedures may cause a minor immune system perturbance.

  9. A novel technique for rat liver transplantation using Quick Linker system: a preliminary result.

    Oldani, Graziano; Maestri, Marcello; Gaspari, Annalisa; Lillo, Ettore; Angelastri, Giacomo; Lenti, Luca Matteo; Rademacher, Johannes; Alessiani, Mario; Dionigi, Paolo


    The clinical success of liver transplantation is founded upon years of experimental research. Since Kamada and colleagues developed the "two-cuff" technique, the rat has become the best model for extensive investigations. Although the Kamada technique is technically complex and not easy to master, it is still the mainstay of orthotopic liver transplantation in rodents. We have developed a modified three-cuff version of this technique that facilitates anastomosis and markedly reduces warm ischemia time. The new technique involves a set of five microinstruments (the Quick-Linker system) designed and manufactured by our group. It was tested in male Lewis rats (group 1, donors n = 10, recipients n = 10). The graft was explanted as usual and standard cuffs were attached to the portal vein and the supra- and infrahepatic vena cavae. Corresponding vessels in the recipient were isolated, and Quicker-Linker holding rings were attached to each. The vessels were then clamped and the native organ removed. Once the graft was positioned in the recipient's abdomen, the holding rings attached to the recipient vessels and the cuffs applied to graft vessels were automatically aligned and joined with the aid of a special alignment tool. Warm ischemia times were always inferior to 6 minutes. Survival at postoperative day 10 was 80%. Liver function was well preserved in all of the surviving rats. The Quick-Linker technique significantly shortens warm ischemia time and allows rapid anastomosis that is relatively independent of operator skill. It can be considered a reliable option for microsurgeons looking for quick results and high success rates.

  10. Coracoid bone graft osteolysis after Latarjet procedure: A comparison study between two screws standard technique vs mini-plate fixation.

    Giacomo, Giovanni Di; Costantini, Alberto; de Gasperis, Nicola; De Vita, Andrea; Lin, Bernard K H; Francone, Marco; Beccaglia, Mario A Rojas; Mastantuono, Marco


    One of the reason for Latarjet procedure failure may be coracoid graft osteolysis. In this study, we aimed to understand if a better compression between the coracoid process and the glenoid, using a mini-plate fixation during the Latarjet procedure, could reduce the amount of coracoid graft osteolysis. A computed tomography scan analysis of 26 prospectively followed-up patients was conducted after modified Latarjet procedure using mini-plate fixation technique to determine both the location and the amount of coracoid graft osteolysis in them. We then compared our current results with results from that of our previous study without using mini-plate fixation to determine if there is any statistical significant difference in terms of corcacoid bone graft osteolysis between the two surgical techniques. The most relevant osteolysis was represented by the superficial part of the proximal coracoid, whereas the deep part of the proximal coracoid graft is least involved in osteolysis and has best bone healing. The current study showed a significant difference only for the deep part of the distal coracoid with our previous study (P Latarjet procedure. Our study suggests that there is a significant difference only for the deep part of the distal coracoid in terms of osteolysis. At clinical examination, this difference did not correspond with any clinical findings. Level 4. Prospective case series, Treatment study.

  11. Proceedings of the National Conference on Energy Resource Management. Volume 1: Techniques, Procedures and Data Bases

    Brumfield, J. O. (Editor); Schiffman, Y. M. (Editor)


    Topics dealing with the integration of remotely sensed data with geographic information system for application in energy resources management are discussed. Associated remote sensing and image analysis techniques are also addressed.

  12. Continuation of Development and Application of Data Processing Techniques and Analytic Procedures to Cloud Physics Data.


    aircraft is fully explained. Practical applications of various mathematical techniques (such as: Newton’s forward formula, least square curve fitting, Pappus-Guldinus Theorem etc) are fully delineated. (Author)

  13. Tent-shape technique: another procedure to repair P2 of posterior leaflet of mitral valve.

    Kassem, Samer; Moasis, Ghassan A; Biglioli, Paolo


    In this report, we describe a new procedure to repair the prolapsing high mid-scallop of the mitral valve (MV) posterior leaflet (P2) with detailed consideration of the anatomy and physiology of the MV. A new artificial chord is implanted in the body of the P2 at the same height of non-prolapsing P1 and P3, and the remaining part of the prolapsing P2 is anchored to the artificial chord taking the shape of a tent.

  14. Assessment of Competence in EVAR Procedures: A Novel Rating Scale Developed by the Delphi Technique.

    Strøm, M; Lönn, L; Bech, B; Schroeder, T V; Konge, L


    To develop a procedure specific global rating scale for assessment of operator competence in endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). A Delphi approach was used to achieve expert consensus. A panel of 32 international experts (median 300 EVAR procedures, range 200-3000) from vascular surgery (n = 21) and radiology (n = 11) was established. The first Delphi round was based on a review of endovascular skills assessment papers, stent graft instructions for use, and structured interviews. It led to a primary pool of 83 items that were formulated as global rating scale items with tentative anchors. Iterative Delphi rounds were executed. The panellists rated the importance of each item on a 5 point Likert scale. Consensus was defined as 80% of the panel rating an item 4 or 5 in the primary round and 90% in subsequent rounds. Consensus on the final assessment tool was defined as Cronbach's alpha > .8 after a minimum of three rounds. Thirty-two of 35 invited experts participated. Three rounds of surveys were completed with a completion rate of 100% in the first two rounds and 91% in round three. The 83 primary assessment items were supplemented with five items suggested by the panel and reduced to seven pivotal assessment items that reached consensus, Cronbach's alpha = 0.82. The seven item rating scale covers key elements of competence in EVAR stent placement and deployment. Each item has well defined grades with explicit anchors at unacceptable, acceptable, and superior performance on a 5 point Likert scale. The Delphi methodology allowed for international consensus on a new procedure specific global rating scale for assessment of competence in EVAR. The resulting scale, EndoVascular Aortic Repair Assessment of Technical Expertise (EVARATE), represents key elements in the procedure. EVARATE constitutes an assessment tool for providing structured feedback to endovascular operators in training. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier

  15. Monitoring techniques and alarm procedures for CMS Services and Sites in WLCG

    Molina-Perez, J.; Bonacorsi, D.; Gutsche, O.; Sciabà, A.; Flix, J.; Kreuzer, P.; Fajardo, E.; Boccali, T.; Klute, M.; Gomes, D.; Kaselis, R.; Du, R.; Magini, N.; Butenas, I.; Wang, W.


    The CMS offline computing system is composed of roughly 80 sites (including most experienced T3s) and a number of central services to distribute, process and analyze data worldwide. A high level of stability and reliability is required from the underlying infrastructure and services, partially covered by local or automated monitoring and alarming systems such as Lemon and SLS; the former collects metrics from sensors installed on computing nodes and triggers alarms when values are out of range, the latter measures the quality of service and warns managers when service is affected. CMS has established computing shift procedures with personnel operating worldwide from remote Computing Centers, under the supervision of the Computing Run Coordinator at CERN. This dedicated 24/7 computing shift personnel is contributing to detect and react timely on any unexpected error and hence ensure that CMS workflows are carried out efficiently and in a sustained manner. Synergy among all the involved actors is exploited to ensure the 24/7 monitoring, alarming and troubleshooting of the CMS computing sites and services. We review the deployment of the monitoring and alarming procedures, and report on the experience gained throughout the first two years of LHC operation. We describe the efficiency of the communication tools employed, the coherent monitoring framework, the proactive alarming systems and the proficient troubleshooting procedures that helped the CMS Computing facilities and infrastructure to operate at high reliability levels.

  16. Improved technique of heterotopic auxiliary rat liver transplantation with portal vein arterialization.

    Schleimer, Karina; Stippel, Dirk L; Tawadros, Samir; Hölzen, J; Hölscher, A H; Beckurts, K Tobias E


    In acute, potentially reversible hepatic failure, auxiliary liver transplantation is a promising alternative approach. Using the auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation (APOLT) method--the orthotopic implantation of auxiliary segments--most of the technical problems (lack of space for the additional liver mass, the portal vein reconstruction, and the venous outflow) are avoided, but extensive resections of the native liver and the graft are necessary. Erhard described the heterotopic auxiliary liver transplantation (HALT) with portal vein arterialization (PVA). Initial clinical results demonstrated that an adequate liver function can be achieved using this technique. We developed and improved a technique of HALT with flow-regulated PVA in the rat to perform further investigations. The aim of this paper is to explain in detail this improved experimental surgical technique. Liver transplantations were performed in 122 male Lewis rats: After a right nephrectomy, the liver graft, which was reduced to about 30% of the original size, was implanted into the right upper quadrant of the recipient's abdomen. The infrahepatic caval vein was anastomosed end-to-side. The donor's portal vein was completely arterialized to the recipient's right renal artery in stent technique. Using a stent with an internal diameter of 0.3 mm, the flow in the arterialized portal vein was regulated to achieve physiologic parameters. The celiac trunk of the graft was anastomosed to the recipient's aorta, end-to-side. The bile duct was implanted into the duodenum. After improvements of the surgical technique, we achieved a perioperative survival of 90% and a 6-week survival of 80% in the last 112 transplantations. We developed a standardized and improved technique, which can be used for experiments of regeneration and inter-liver competition in auxiliary liver transplantation. Furthermore, this technique is suitable for the investigation of the influence of portal vein arterialization and


    Chamseddine, Ali Hassan; Abdallah, Amer Camille; Zein, Hadi Khaled


    Current algorithms for decision making in proximal humerus fractures consider the fracture pattern along with the patient characteristics and surgeon’s experience. Minimally invasive techniques for reduction and internal fixation of many types of these fractures have recently been widely promoted, especially with the use of the newly developed locking plate systems. Intramedullary flexible nailing is one of the oldest techniques using minimally invasive reduction and fixation of proximal humerus fractures. Kapandji technique uses the “Deltoid V” landmark as entry point for intramedullary insertion of the flexible nails into the humeral head. The authors report their experience with this procedure in twenty-six, relatively young patients with good bone quality, presenting with displaced 2- or 3-part extra-articular fracture of the proximal humerus, treated with percutaneous reduction and intramedullary flexible nailing as described by Kapandji. Nineteen medical records were available for this retrospective review, with 9 to 12 months follow-up. There were 15 excellent and 1 good results when patients were assessed for pain, function and range of motion of the shoulder. The authors submit that Kapandji technique is a valuable procedure for management of extra-articular displaced 2- and 3- part proximal humerus fractures in young patients with good bone quality.

  18. Acquisition of operant behavior in rats with delayed reinforcement: A retractable-lever procedure.

    McNamara, Andrew A; Johnson, Lyndsey E; Tate, Christopher; Chiang, Thomas; Byrne, Tom


    Experimentally naïve rats acquired lever pressing with delayed reinforcement when the immediate programmed consequence for lever pressing was the simultaneous retraction of two identical levers. Presses on one lever also produced access to sweetened condensed milk after a delay of 10s following retraction. Presses on the second lever resulted in retraction only. Lever retraction prevented the possibility of adventitious reinforcement of contacting the operanda during the reinforcement delays. Several measures indicated that the delayed reinforcers strengthened behavior. The majority of responses for all rats were on the lever that initiated reinforcer delivery. Responding for seven out of eight rats decreased during a subsequent extinction phase in which retraction was the only consequence arranged for lever pressing. Responding recovered rapidly when food reinforcement was available again. Furthermore, when contingencies on the two levers were switched, rats allocated their behavior accordingly, showing control by the delayed reinforcers.

  19. Modified Sauve-Kapandji procedure for disorders of the distal radioulnar joint in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Surgical technique.

    Fujita, Satoru; Masada, Kazuhiro; Takeuchi, Eiji; Yasuda, Masataka; Komatsubara, Yoshio; Hashimoto, Hideo


    The Sauvé-Kapandji procedure has become popular for the treatment of disorders of the distal radioulnar joint in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, but this procedure is impossible to perform in patients with poor bone quality in the distal part of the ulna. We have modified the procedure for patients with poor bone quality in the distal part of the ulna. The modified procedure involves resecting the distal part of the ulna, making a drill-hole in the ulnar cortex of the distal part of the radius, rotating the resected portion of the ulna 90 degrees, inserting it into the distal part of the radius, and fixing it at that site with use of an AO cancellous-bone screw. In the present report, we describe the new operative technique and report the results after a minimum duration of follow-up of three years. This operation was performed in fifty-six patients (sixty-six wrists) with rheumatoid arthritis. The mean age at the time of the operation was 59.3 years. The mean duration of follow-up was forty-eight months. Patients were evaluated in terms of wrist pain, grip strength, and range of motion. Radiographic evaluation included calculation of the carpal translation index to assess the extent of ulnar translation of the carpus. Osseous union was achieved in all cases. Wrist pain resolved or decreased in all patients. The mean total range of forearm rotation increased from 144 degrees preoperatively to 167 degrees at the time of the most recent follow-up (p Kapandji procedure results in rigid fixation of the grafted bone. The technique provides sufficient osseous support of the carpus even in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and poor bone quality in the distal part of the ulna.

  20. Hybrid PIV-PTV technique for measuring blood flow in rat mesenteric vessels.

    Ha, Hojin; Nam, Kweon-Ho; Lee, Sang Joon


    The micro-particle tracking velocimetry (μ-PTV) technique is used to obtain the velocity fields of blood flow in the microvasculature under in vivo conditions because it can provide the blood velocity distribution in microvessels with high spatial resolution. The in vivo μ-PTV technique usually requires a few to tens of seconds to obtain a whole velocity profile across the vessel diameter because of the limited number density of tracer particles under in vivo conditions. Thus, the μ-PTV technique alone is limited in measuring unsteady blood flows that fluctuate irregularly due to the heart beating and muscle movement in surrounding tissues. In this study, a new hybrid PIV-PTV technique was established by combining PTV and particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques to resolve the drawbacks of the μ-PTV method in measuring blood flow in microvessels under in vivo conditions. Images of red blood cells (RBCs) and fluorescent particles in rat mesenteric vessels were obtained simultaneously. Temporal variations of the centerline blood velocity were monitored using a fast Fourier transform-based cross-correlation PIV method. The fluorescence particle images were analyzed using the μ-PTV technique to extract the spatial distribution of the velocity vectors. Data from the μ-PTV and PIV methods were combined to obtain a better estimate of the velocity profile in actual blood flow. This technique will be useful in investigating hemodynamics in microcirculation by measuring unsteady irregular blood flows more accurately.

  1. Mini-invasive impression techniques in fixed prothesis: an alternative to traditional procedures



    SUMMARY The object of our work is the illustration of an alternative technique in the impress survey in fixed prosthesis. This method conceived from Doctor Casartelli, allowed us to utilize this technology in the day-to-day activity eliminating also the anaesthetic use, so give the possibility to operate patients with anticoagulant therapy. Moreover the mini-invasive techniques allow a lowering recessions, best tolerability from the patients, less pain and postoperative inflammation, “restitutio ad integrum” of tissue without morphological modifications. PMID:23285382

  2. Studies of Sociosexual Interactions in Rats in an Externally Valid Procedure: Are They Relevant for Understanding Human Sexual Behavior?

    Xi Chu


    Full Text Available When a prolonged observation of groups of rats in a seminatural environment is used as testing procedure, different behavioral patterns are shown compared with what observed in a pair housed in a small cage. Males and females copulate simultaneously, they show a promiscuously and random copulatory pattern. Females remain completely receptive from the first lordosis displayed in the period of behavioral estrus until the last. There is no reduction in paracopulatory behaviors and no increase in rejections towards the end of estrus. Female paracopulatory behavior and receptivity change in a most abrupt way at both initiation and termination of behavioral estrus. It appears that, in the seminatural environment, males copulate in bouts, and males do not pursue the females unless they are fully receptive. Non-sexual, social behavior including affiliative and nonaffiliative interaction among rats is rather unrelated to sexual activities in both sex.

  3. [Study on surgical techniques for cervical ectopic renal transplantation in rat].

    Zhu, Liang; Gong, Dezheng; Zou, Yuan; Li, Yousheng; Wu, Yunhong; Yuan, Bo; Guan, Lili; Wu, Qiong; Li, Hongyu; Liu, Jing


    To establish a simple and stable cervical ectopic renal transplantation rat model that increase surgical successful rate. A total of 208 male inbred Wistar rats (weighing 220-260 g) were randomly served as donors and recipients. The graft consisting of kidney, renal vein (RV) and renal artery (RA) was obtained, and perfused in situ. The donor RA was end-to-end anastomosed to the recipient left common carotid artery (CCA) by using of "sleeve" anastomosis, and the donor RV to the recipient right external jugular vein by using of "cuff" technique. The distal end of the ureter was brought out to form cervical cutaneous stomas. A total of 104 ectopic renal transplantations were performed in rats, including stages of the pre-experiment (62 operations) and experiment (42 operations). The success rates of the two stages were 80.6% and 95.2%, respectively. The causes of failure in the pre-experimental stage were anesthesia accidents, thrombosis of the arterial anastomosis, massive hemorrhage, air embolism and phlebemphraxis. In the experimental stage, 2 rats died due to late anastomotic hemorrhage and thrombosis. The remaining 40 transplanted kidney survived more than 6 months. The time for surgery was (40 +/- 6) minutes, the average time for donor surgery was (20 +/- 5) minutes, the preparation time for the graft was (8 +/- 2) minutes, the operative time for the recipient was (18 +/- 3) minutes, including the time for the arterial anastomosis (5 +/- 2) minutes and venous anastomosis (2 +/- 1) minutes, the cold ischemia time of graft was (15 +/- 3) minutes. The cervical ectopic renal transplantation technique has the advantages of easy-and fast-to-perform, shorter operation and cold ischemia time, higher successful rate.

  4. Laboratory procedures and data reduction techniques to determine rheologic properties of mass flows

    Holmes, R.R.; Huizinga, R.J.; Brown, S.M.; Jobson, H.E.


    Determining the rheologic properties of coarse- grained mass flows is an important step to mathematically simulate potential inundation zones. Using the vertically rotating flume designed and built by the U.S. Geological Survey, laboratory procedures and subsequent data reduction have been developed to estimate shear stresses and strain rates of various flow materials. Although direct measurement of shear stress and strain rate currently (1992) are not possible in the vertically rotating flume, methods were derived to estimate these values from measurements of flow geometry, surface velocity, and flume velocity.

  5. Procedure for studying population genetic aspects of marine organisms using biochemical techniques

    Menezes, M.R.

    .1.1.44); and general protein (PROT). Staining procedures ofenzymes and proteins (Menezes and Taniguchi, 1988) 1. NADP+ dependent Each mixture ofsubstrate staining solution is added with: Nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) 6mg Phenazine methosulphate... is added with: Nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) 6mg Phenazine methosulphate (PMS) 1mg 189 NBDBlDBTSponsored TraJnbrion T/UU)nOlrlJ, Genet/cs IUld Gene BanJdni ofCoastaJ and Marine BlorDO,m:es, elF£, MwnbaI --Nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) of 1...

  6. An improved brain image classification technique with mining and shape prior segmentation procedure.

    Rajendran, P; Madheswaran, M


    The shape prior segmentation procedure and pruned association rule with ImageApriori algorithm has been used to develop an improved brain image classification system are presented in this paper. The CT scan brain images have been classified into three categories namely normal, benign and malignant, considering the low-level features extracted from the images and high level knowledge from specialists to enhance the accuracy in decision process. The experimental results on pre-diagnosed brain images showed 97% sensitivity, 91% specificity and 98.5% accuracy. The proposed algorithm is expected to assist the physicians for efficient classification with multiple key features per image.

  7. Commander’s Guide to Money as a Weapons System: Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures


    events, diffuse potential unrest, and foster relations and stability with the local Afghan people. Provincial reconstruction teams (PRT) and...more advanced techniques such as reverse osmosis . The distribution of drinking water is accomplished via municipal water systems or as bottled water

  8. Proceedings of the National Conference on Energy Resource Management. Volume 1: Techniques, Procedures and Data Bases

    Brumfield, J.O.; Schiffman, Y.M.


    Topics dealing with the integration of remotely sensed data with geographic information system for application in energy resources management are discussed. Associated remote sensing and image analysis techniques are also addressed. For individual titles, see N83-26156 through N83-26175.

  9. Impact of Technique-Specific Operative Videos on First-Year Dental Students' Performance of Restorative Procedures.

    Patel, Shalizeh A; Barros, Juliana A; Clark, Christina M; Frey, Gary N; Streckfus, Charles F; Quock, Ryan L


    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of psychomotor operative video demonstrations on first-year dental students who are performing specific procedures for the first time in a preclinical setting. The class was randomly divided into two groups, and three restorative procedures were selected. On the date on which each procedure was to be performed in the preclinical laboratory for the first time, one group (experimental, n=50) was shown a technique video for that specific procedure immediately before commencing the exercise; the control cohort (n=50) did not view the video. Technical performance on procedures was evaluated by students and two calibrated and blinded examiners. The students' perceptions of the experience were also collected in a survey. All first-year students participated in the study, for a 100% response rate. A Mann-Whitney U test did not show any group differences in technical performance (mean values on preparation: 77.1 vs. 77.8; amalgam: 82.7 vs. 82.8; composite: 79.7 vs. 78.0). A Spearman rho test revealed a significantly higher correlation in 13 out of 25 evaluation categories between student self-assessment and blinded examiner assessment for the experimental group. A chi-square test of questionnaire responses revealed a positive student perception of administering these videos for the preparation (X(2)=4.8, pstudent performance on preclinical operative procedures, but they were well received by students and augmented self-assessment ability. These findings suggest that videos can be a useful teaching aid in a preclinical environment, especially regarding comprehension of concepts.

  10. Prioritization governmental insurance company according to BSC procedure by AHP group technique

    Amene Kiarazm


    Full Text Available Insurance industry is one of the industries that have special importance and validity in modern economy, domestic and foreign trade. Performance evaluation and grading the insurance company in addition to determining the general position of agency in industry, market and informing the beneficiaries, cause increase in competition, dynamism in industry, and development in community. On the other hand, organization strategic performance evaluation is always one the first and most basic prerequisites for compiling improvement programs in organizations and it has a high importance. One of the strategic efficient models in this aspect is BSC that equally analyses all aspects of organization. The statistical population in this research is consists of four governmental insurance (Iran, Asia, Dana and Alborz. For collecting data, haphazard sampling procedure was used. Study tool is questionnaire whose reliability was measured by consistency ratio and whose validity was measured by content-construct method by acquiring the opinions of experts and some managers in this field of study and the results showed appropriate reliability and validity. In analysis data section, the group integrative procedures AHP and BSC were used. The results showed that the D insurance company had the higher final score than the other companies. After that the C, A and B insurance companies were respectively.

  11. Stress facilitates late reversal learning using a touchscreen-based visual discrimination procedure in male Long Evans rats.

    Bryce, Courtney A; Howland, John G


    The stress response is essential to the survival of all species as it maintains internal equilibrium and allows organisms to respond to threats in the environment. Most stress research has focused on the detrimental impacts of stress on cognition and behavior. Reversal learning, which requires a change in response strategy based on one dimension of the stimuli, is one type of behavioral flexibility that is facilitated following some brief stress procedures. The current study investigated a potential mechanism underlying this facilitation by blocking glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) during stress. Thirty-seven male Long Evans rats learned to discriminate between two images on a touchscreen, one of which was rewarded. Once a criterion was reached, rats received stress (30 min of restraint stress or no stress) and drug (GR antagonist RU38486 or vehicle) administration prior to each of the first 3 days of reversal learning. We expected that stress would facilitate reversal learning and RU38486 (10 mg/kg) would prevent this facilitation in both early (50% correct in one session) stages of reversal learning. Results showed that stressed rats performed better than unstressed rats (fewer days for late reversal, fewer correction trials, and fewer errors) in the late but not early stage of reversal learning. RU38486 did not block the facilitation of RL by stress, although it dramatically increased response, but not reward, latencies. These results confirm the facilitation of late reversal by stress in a touchscreen-based operant task in rats and further our understanding of how stress affects higher level cognitive functioning and behavior.

  12. Diagnostic procedures in tularaemia with special focus on molecular and immunological techniques.

    Splettstoesser, W D; Tomaso, H; Al Dahouk, S; Neubauer, H; Schuff-Werner, P


    Tularaemia is a severe bacterial zoonosis caused by the highly infectious agent Francisella tularensis. It is endemic in countries of the northern hemisphere ranging from North America to Europe, Asia and Japan. Very recently, Francisella-like strains causing disease in humans were described from tropical northern Australia. In the last decade, efforts have been made to develop sensitive and specific immunological and molecular techniques for the laboratory diagnosis of tularaemia and also for the definite identification of members of the species F. tularensis and its four subspecies. Screening for the keyword 'Francisella' a Medline search over the last decade was performed and articles describing diagnostic methods for tularaemia and its causative agent were selected. Besides classical microbiological techniques (cultivation, biochemical profiling, susceptibility testing) several new immunological and molecular approaches to identify F. tularensis have been introduced employing highly specific antibodies and various polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Whereas direct antigen detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or immunofluorescence might allow early presumptive diagnosis of tularaemia, these methods--like all PCR techniques--still await further evaluation. Therefore, diagnosis of tularaemia still relies mainly on the demonstration of specific antibodies in the host. ELISA and immunoblot methods started to replace the standard tube or micro-agglutination assays. However, the diagnostic value of antibody detection in the very early clinical phase of tularaemia is limited. Francisella tularensis is regarded as a 'highest priority' biological agent (category 'A' according to the CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA), thus rapid and reliable diagnosis of tularaemia is required not only for a timely onset of therapy, the handling of outbreak investigations but also for the surveillance of endemic foci. Only very recently, evaluated test kits for

  13. Improved technique of vascular anastomosis for small intestinal transplantation in rats

    Yuan Xin Li; Jie Shou Li; Ning Li


    AIM To establish a new improved vascular anastomotic technique to simplify the surgical technique and increase the survivsl rate of small intestinal transplantation in rats. METHODS The graft removed en bloc consisted of entire small intestine, portal vein and aortic segment with superior mesenteric artery. The graft was perfused in situ and the gut lumen was irrigated during the operation.Heterotopic small bowel transplantation was performed by microvascular end-to-side anastomosis between the donor aortic segment with superior mesenteric artery and the recipient abdominal aorta, and by the formation of a "Cuff" anastomosis between the donor portal vein and the recipient left renal vein. Both ends of the grafts were exteriorized as stomas. RESULTS A total of 189 intestinal transplantations were performed in rats, 33 of which were involved in the formal experimental group, with a survival rate of 84.8%. The average time for the donor surgery was 80min ±10min; for graft repair 10min ± 3min; and for recipient surgery 95min ± 15min. The average time for the arterial anastomosis and the vein anastomosis was 18min ± 5min and imin,respectively. The warm ischemic time and cold ischemic time were 22min ± 5min and less than 60min, respectively. The whole operation was completed by a single surgeon, the operative time being about 3 hours. CONCLUSION The vascular anastomosis used in this study could simplify surgical technique,reduce the operative time and elevate the survival rate of small intestinal transplantation in rats.

  14. Complicated Crown-Root Fracture Treated Using Reattachment Procedure: A Single Visit Technique

    Akhil Rajput


    Full Text Available Complicated crown-root fracture of maxillary central and lateral incisors is common in case of severe trauma or sports-related injury. It happens because of their anterior positioning in oral cavity and protrusive eruptive pattern. On their first dental visit, these patients are in pain and need emergency care. Because of impaired function, esthetics, and phonetics, such patients are quite apprehensive during their emergency visit. Successful pain management with immediate restoration of function, esthetics and phonetics should be the prime objective while handling such cases. This paper describes immediate treatment of oblique crown root fracture of maxillary right lateral incisor with reattachment procedure using light transmitting fiber post. After two and half years, the reattached fragment still has satisfying esthetics and excellent function.

  15. The Darrach procedure defended: technique redefined and long-term follow-up.

    Tulipan, D J; Eaton, R G; Eberhart, R E


    Thirty-three patients with pain and decreased range of motion after traumatic derangement of the distal radioulnar and ulna-carpal joint were treated with a modified Darrach distal ulnar resection. Their ages ranged from 22 to 75 years (average, 50 years). Twenty-seven patients had Colles' or other distal radius fractures. Seven patients had ulnar resection for treatment of distal ulnar-carpal derangement. Follow-up averaged 54.4 months. The patients showed an average increase in extension of 58% and flexion increased by 40% (p less than 0.01). Pronation increased by 40% and supination increased by 60% (p less than 0.01). Average grip strength increased by 38% (p less than 0.05). Ninety-one percent good or excellent results were achieved with this procedure. The Darrach resection can predictably provide pain relief while improving strength and motion when attention is paid to minimal bony resection and meticulous soft tissue reconstruction.

  16. Monitoring techniques and alarm procedures for CMS services and sites in WLCG

    Molina-Perez, Jorge Amando


    The CMS offline computing system is composed of roughly 80 sites (including most experienced T3s) and a number of central services to distribute, process and analyze data worldwide. A high level of stability and reliability is required from the underlying infrastructure and services, partially covered by local or automated monitoring and alarming systems such as Lemon and SLS; the former collects metrics from sensors installed on computing nodes and triggers alarms when values are out of range, the latter measures the quality of service and warns managers when service is affected. CMS has established computing shift procedures with personnel operating worldwide from remote Computing Centers, under the supervision of the Computing Run Coordinator on duty at CERN. This dedicated 24/7 computing shift personnel is contributing to detect and react timely on any unexpected error and hence ensure that CMS workflows are carried out efficiently and in a sustained manner. Synergy among all the involved actors is explo...

  17. Evaluation of Patient Perceptions After Vestibuloplasty Procedure: A Comparison of Diode Laser and Scalpel Techniques.

    Kalakonda, Butchibabu; Farista, Sana; Koppolu, Pradeep; Baroudi, Kusai; Uppada, Udaykiran; Mishra, Ashank; Savarimath, Abhishek; Lingam, Amara Swapna


    Inadequate vestibular depth results in poor plaque control owing to an insufficient width of keratinized gingiva. Vestibuloplasty provides the necessary vestibular depth and can be performed either with a scalpel, electrocautery or lasers. To evaluate the patient perceptions related to pain and discomfort on the 1(st), 3(rd) and the 7(th) day post vestibuloplasty and also assess the healing outcomes related to the treatment of inadequate vestibular depth either with the diode laser or the scalpel. Twenty patients who had inadequate vestibular depth and required vestibuloplasty were assigned randomly to undergo the procedure either with the scalpel or the laser. The data obtained was analysed for intergroup comparison with an independent paired t-test and intragroup comparison was determined by a paired t-test. Intragroup comparison within the laser group for VAS scores of pain and discomfort within all the reported days exhibited a significant difference (pvestibuloplasty performed with the scalpel.

  18. A Novel Technique of Uterine Manipulation in Laparoscopic Pelvic Oncosurgical Procedures: “The Uterine Hitch Technique”

    S. P. Puntambekar


    Full Text Available Aim. To describe a new technique of uterine manipulation in laparoscopic management of pelvic cancers. Material and Methods. We used a novel uterine hitch technique in 23 patients from May 2008 to October 2008. These patients underwent pelvic oncologic surgery including laparoscopic radical hysterectomy (n=7, laparoscopic anterior resection (n=4, laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection (n=3, laparoscopic posterior exenteration (n=4, or laparoscopic anterior exenteration (n=5. The uterus was hitched to the anterior abdominal.wall by either a single suture in the fundus or by sutures through the round ligaments. Results. The uterine hitch technique was successfully accomplished in all procedures. It was performed in less than 5 minutes in all cases. It obviated the need for vaginal manipulation. An extra port for retraction could be avoided. There were no intraoperative complications. Conclusion. A practical, cheap and reproducible method for uterine manipulation, during pelvic oncologic surgery is described. It improves the stability of the uterus and also obviates the need for keeping an additional assistant for vaginal manipulation in any of the procedures.

  19. Coracoid bone graft osteolysis after Latarjet procedure: A comparison study between two screws standard technique vs mini-plate fixation

    Giovanni Di Giacomo


    Full Text Available Aims: One of the reason for Latarjet procedure failure may be coracoid graft osteolysis. In this study, we aimed to understand if a better compression between the coracoid process and the glenoid, using a mini-plate fixation during the Latarjet procedure, could reduce the amount of coracoid graft osteolysis. Materials and Methods: A computed tomography scan analysis of 26 prospectively followed-up patients was conducted after modified Latarjet procedure using mini-plate fixation technique to determine both the location and the amount of coracoid graft osteolysis in them. We then compared our current results with results from that of our previous study without using mini-plate fixation to determine if there is any statistical significant difference in terms of corcacoid bone graft osteolysis between the two surgical techniques. Results: The most relevant osteolysis was represented by the superficial part of the proximal coracoid, whereas the deep part of the proximal coracoid graft is least involved in osteolysis and has best bone healing. The current study showed a significant difference only for the deep part of the distal coracoid with our previous study (P < 0.01. Discussion: To our knowledge, there are no studies in literature that show the causes of coracoid bone graft osteolysis after Latarjet procedure. Conclusion: Our study suggests that there is a significant difference only for the deep part of the distal coracoid in terms of osteolysis. At clinical examination, this difference did not correspond with any clinical findings. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Clinical Relevance: Prospective case series, Treatment study.

  20. Liver transplantation in the rat: single-center experience with technique, long-term survival, and functional and histologic findings.

    Matevossian, E; Doll, D; Hüser, N; Brauer, R; Sinicina, I; Nährig, J; Friess, H; Stangl, M; Assfalg, V


    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in rats is frequently used as an experimental model. Numerous surgical techniques have been developed that enable the investigator to conduct clinically relevant studies. The objective of this study was to develop a rat model of acute and chronic rejection, to explicitly study technical modifications of vascular anastomoses with precision, and to examine histopathologic and functional changes in the graft. With DA-(RT1av1) rats as donors and Lewis-(RT1) rats as recipients, arterialized OLT was performed using a combined suture, cuff, and splint method. Recipients were divided into 5 groups: syngeneic control rats (group 1), allogeneic control rats (group 2), allogeneic OLT rats with low-dose tacrolimus (FK506) immunosuppression (group 3), allogeneic OLT rats with high-dose tacrolimus immunosuppression (group 4), and allogeneic OLT rats with high-dose tacrolimus immunosuppression and retrograde reperfusion via the infrahepatic caval vein (group 5). After OLT, serum parameters were determined and hepatic biopsy specimens were sampled. We examined the effects of acute rejection with or without immunosuppression therapy at histopathologic evaluation. Liver grafts in syngeneic and allogeneic rats (groups 1, 2, 4, and 5) demonstrated normal serum parameters and histopathologic findings at 10 days after OLT, and 93% survival at 3 months. The simplified technique using 1 suture and 2 cuff anastomoses provided the best short- and long-term survival after OLT in all groups. Retrograde perfusion via the infrahepatic caval vein resulted in lower postoperative liver enzyme values. The present model is feasible, enabling comprehensive preclinical experimental research on liver transplantation. Furthermore, we provide helpful instructions for learning this surgical technique.

  1. Assessment of liver steatosis and fibrosis in rats using integrated coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and multiphoton imaging technique

    Lin, Jian; Lu, Fake; Zheng, Wei; Xu, Shuoyu; Tai, Dean; Yu, Hanry; Huang, Zhiwei


    We report the implementation of a unique integrated coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), second-harmonic generation (SHG), and two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy imaging technique developed for label-free monitoring of the progression of liver steatosis and fibrosis generated in a bile duct ligation (BDL) rat model. Among the 21 adult rats used in this study, 18 rats were performed with BDL surgery and sacrificed each week from weeks 1 to 6 (n = 3 per week), respectively; whereas 3 rats as control were sacrificed at week 0. Colocalized imaging of the aggregated hepatic fats, collagen fibrils, and hepatocyte morphologies in liver tissue is realized by using the integrated CARS, SHG, and TPEF technique. The results show that there are significant accumulations of hepatic lipid droplets and collagen fibrils associated with severe hepatocyte necrosis in BDL rat liver as compared to a normal liver tissue. The volume of normal hepatocytes keeps decreasing and the fiber collagen content in BDL rat liver follows a growing trend until week 6; whereas the hepatic fat content reaches a maximum in week 4 and then appears to stop growing in week 6, indicating that liver steatosis and fibrosis induced in a BDL rat liver model may develop at different rates. This work demonstrates that the integrated CARS and multiphoton microscopy imaging technique has the potential to provide an effective means for early diagnosis and detection of liver steatosis and fibrosis without labeling.

  2. The ultrasound guided psoas-compartment-block fundamentals and technique for a new regional anaesthetic procedure

    Kirchmair, L P M


    Ultrasound (US) has proven to be an useful adjunct during the performance of peripheral nerve blocks. This study is the first dealing with the application of US guidance for the psoas-compartment-block which is used to achieve lumbar plexus blockades. A pilot study was carried out to establish the US anatomy of the lumbar paravertebral region and its blood vessels. Moreover, suitable transducers and US frequencies were assessed. The feasibility of US imaging of the psoas-compartment was studied on healthy volunteers (N=21) of varying body types (normal weight: N= 13; overweight: N=5; obese: N=3) in a first volunteer study. Additionally, the skin-plexus distances were measured. A second volunteer study (N=21) was carried out to investigate the US anatomy of the paravertebral blood vessels by means of power Doppler sonography. The technique of an US guided approach to the psoas-compartment was tested on embalmed cadavers (N=10) at the levels L2/L3, L3/L4 and L4/L5. Accuracy and safety of this technique were ver...

  3. Highly efficient sparse-matrix inversion techniques and average procedures applied to collisional-radiative codes

    Poirier, M


    The behavior of non-local thermal-equilibrium (NLTE) plasmas plays a central role in many fields of modern-day physics, such as laser-produced plasmas, astrophysics, inertial or magnetic confinement fusion devices, or X-ray sources. The proper description of these media in stationary cases requires to solve linear systems of thousands or more rate equations. A possible simplification for this arduous numerical task may lie in some type of statistical average, such as configuration or superconfiguration average. However to assess the validity of this procedure and to handle cases where isolated lines play an important role, it may be important to deal with detailed levels systems. This involves matrices with sometimes billions of elements, which are rather sparse but still involve thousands of diagonals. We propose here a numerical algorithm based on the LU decomposition for such linear systems. This method turns out to be orders of magnitude faster than the traditional Gauss elimination. And at variance with ...

  4. Pigeon (Columba livia) and rat (Rattus norvegicus) performance in the midsession reversal procedure depends upon cue dimensionality.

    McMillan, Neil; Kirk, Chelsea R; Roberts, William A


    Pigeons (Columba livia) produce many anticipatory and perseverative errors on discrimination tasks with a reversal of reward contingencies partway through the session. Prior comparative research has suggested that rats (Rattus norvegicus) do not show the same number of errors and produce results that more closely resemble those of humans. We examined pigeons' performance on a visual-spatial discrimination with the reversal point randomized within the session and found that they showed remarkably few errors. When these subjects were split into groups with the contingencies for reward unconfounded, the birds in the spatial-contingency group maintained their performance, and those in the visual-contingency group made many more anticipatory and perseverative errors. We also examined the performance of naïve pigeons on a spatial midsession reversal task and found a pattern of results similar to those shown by pigeons that had previously been trained on a visual-spatial reversal procedure. Finally, we studied rats on a T-maze using a spatial-discrimination midsession reversal task and found that the rats showed a large number of anticipatory and perseverative errors. Near-perfect performance on the midsession reversal task appears to be subject to the ability of the animal to orient spatially during the intertrial interval, rather than being due to broad species differences.

  5. The "bony Bankart bridge" procedure: a new arthroscopic technique for reduction and internal fixation of a bony Bankart lesion.

    Millett, Peter J; Braun, Sepp


    Arthroscopic treatment of bony Bankart lesions can be challenging. We present a new easy and reproducible technique for arthroscopic reduction and suture anchor fixation of bony Bankart fragments. A suture anchor is placed medially to the fracture on the glenoid neck, and its sutures are passed around the bony fragment through the soft tissue including the inferior glenohumeral ligament complex. The sutures of this anchor are loaded in a second anchor that is placed on the glenoid face. This creates a nontilting 2-point fixation that compresses the fragment into its bed. By use of the standard technique, additional suture anchors are used superiorly and inferiorly to the bony Bankart piece to repair the labrum and shift the joint capsule. We call this the "bony Bankart bridge" procedure.

  6. Endovascular stroke treatment now and then-procedural and clinical effectiveness and safety of different mechanical thrombectomy techniques over time.

    von Gadow, Niels; Nikoubashman, Omid; Freiherr, Jessica; Block, Frank; Reich, Arno; Fesl, Gunther; Wiesmann, Martin


    The most essential development in endovascular stroke treatment (EST) was the shift from intra-arterial thrombolysis to endovascular thrombectomy with dedicated thrombectomy devices, most notably the introduction of stent-retrievers. We evaluated procedural and clinical effectiveness and safety of different EST techniques over time. We retrospectively analyzed EST cases that were treated by the same interventionalist before (n=36) and after (n=50) stent-retrievers were established as the treatment device of first choice. EST techniques in the first cohort comprised intra-arterial thrombolysis (n=24), manual thrombus aspiration (n=15), the use of the Penumbra thrombectomy system (n=13) and the Phenox clot retriever (n=3), intracranial stenting (n=10), and EST with stent-retrievers as a salvage procedure (n=11). In the second cohort, EST with stent-retrievers was the treatment option of first choice (n=47). Intra-arterial thrombolysis (n=15) and stenting of the occluded vessel (n=1) were performed, whenever EST with stent-retrievers failed. In both cohorts, revascularization rates (TICI ≥2b) were high (91.7% and 86.0%, respectively). A significantly lower number of interventional techniques per case were required in the second cohort (mean ± SD, 1.4±0.5 vs. 2.1±0.9, P<0.001). Recanalization was achieved almost twice as fast in the second cohort (85 vs. 163 minutes on average, P<0.001). The rate of patients achieving good functional outcome (mRS ≤2) was higher in the second cohort (40.0% vs. 22.2%, P=0.083). Our findings imply that when stent-retrievers were established as first-line the treatment device a significantly lower number of interventional techniques per case were required and recanalization was achieved almost twice as fast.

  7. A systematic review of tongue base suspension techniques as an isolated procedure or combined with uvulopalatopharyngoplasty in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Bostanci, Asli; Turhan, Murat


    We aimed to evaluate existing research into the effectiveness and safety of two tongue base suspension (TBS) techniques (Repose(®) system and modified TBS) with or without uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) in obstructive sleep apnea. The literature review was performed using PubMed database. Searched terms used included the keywords "sleep apnea", "surgery", "tongue", "tongue base", "suspension", "Repose", "uvulopalatopharyngoplasty", and "hypopharynx". Levels of evidences and grades of recommendations were determined according to the hierarchy proposed by Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine. Seven studies including 113 patients met the eligibility criteria for TBS as a stand-alone procedure. Four of seven studies including 62 patients used the Repose(®), and three studies including 51 patients used the modified TBS. The success rates were higher in the studies that used modified technique (74.5 %) than those that used the Repose(®) (25.8 %), (p data of 413 patients were compared, the modified TBS was found to be associated with significantly higher success rates (73.7 vs. 56.7 %, p techniques with or without UPPP; although there is a trend toward improved outcome with modified technique.

  8. A new technique for accelerated liver regeneration: An experimental study in rats.

    Andersen, Kasper Jarlhelt; Knudsen, Anders Riegels; Jepsen, Betina Norman; Meier, Michelle; Gunnarsson, Anders Patrik Alexander; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen; Mortensen, Frank Viborg


    Associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) is used to accelerate growth of the future liver remnant. We investigated alternative methods for increasing the future liver remnant. A total of 152 rats were randomized as follows: (1) sham; (2) portal vein ligation; (3) portal vein ligation/surgical split (ALPPS); (4) portal vein ligation/split of the liver with a radiofrequency ablation needle; (5) portal vein ligation/radiofrequency ablation of the deportalized liver (portal vein ligation/radiofrequency ablation necrosis in the deportalized liver); (6) portal vein ligation/radiofrequency ablation of the future liver remnant (portal vein ligation/radiofrequency ablation-future liver remnant); and (7) controls. Animals were evaluated on postoperative days 2 and 4. Bodyweight, liver parameters, hepatic regeneration rate, proinflammatory cytokines, hepatocyte proliferation, and gene expression were measured. Hepatic regeneration rate indicated a steady increase in all intervention groups compared with sham rats (P rats. On postoperative day 4, we found a significantly higher proliferation in groups 3, 4, 5, and 6 compared to portal vein ligation. Gene analysis revealed upregulation of genes involved in cellular proliferation and downregulation of genes involved in cellular homeostasis in all intervention groups. Between the intervention groups, gene expression was nearly identical. Biochemical markers and proinflammatory cytokines were comparable between groups. The surplus liver regeneration after ALPPS is probably mediated through parenchymal damage and subsequent release of growth stimulators, which again upregulates genes involved in cellular regeneration and downregulates genes involved in cellular homeostasis. We also demonstrate that growth of the future liver remnant, comparable to that seen after ALPPS, could be achieved by radiofrequency ablation treatment of the deportalized liver, that is, a procedure in which the

  9. "The missing LINX" for gastroesophageal reflux disease: Operative techniques video for the Linx magnetic sphincter augmentation procedure.

    Kuckelman, John P; Barron, Morgan R; Martin, Matthew J


    In 2012 the FDA approved a magnetic sphincter augmentation (MSA) device (LINX, Torax Medical, Inc) for placement around the lower esophageal sphincter as an alternative approach to fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This is a relatively new procedure and there is not widespread familiarization with the standard indications and techniques of device placement. We present two operative videos to highlight the standard surgical technique and technical points needed for successful LINX placement. First will be placement in a standard indications setting of uncomplicated GERD with no hiatal hernia. Second will be placement with complicated anatomy due to alterations from prior gastric surgery and a hiatal hernia. Our experience has revealed that the LINX device can be placed safely in patients with normal or significantly altered anatomy but requires adherence to several key principles and technical points. This procedure offers a new option that is anatomically and physiologically unique compared to standard fundoplication, and that offers highly effective control of GERD with a less invasive approach. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Shaeer’s Technique: A Minimally Invasive Procedure for Monsplasty and Revealing the Concealed Penis


    Background: A concealed penis is a condition where part of the penis is invisible below the surface of the prepubic skin. Dermolipectomy can correct this condition, although it involves a long abdominal crease incision, or infrapubic incision around the base of the penis, and a possibility for genital lymphedema. This study describes Shaeer’s technique, a minimally invasive method for revealing the concealed penis. Methods: A 1- to 2-cm-long incision was cut over the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) on either side. A long curved blunt forceps was inserted from one incision, down to the base of the penis and then up to the contralateral ASIS. A 5-mm wide nonabsorbable tape was picked up by the forceps from 1 incision and pulled through to emerge from the other. Pulling on the tape cephalad pulled the mons pubis and revealed the penis. The tape was sutured to the periosteum overlying the ASIS on either side. Patients were followed up for 18 months for penile length, complications, and overall satisfaction. Results: Twenty patients were operated upon. Preoperatively, flaccid visible length was 3 ± 0.9 cm, and erect visible length was 8 ± 4.6 cm. Postoperatively, the flaccid visible length was 7.1 ± 2.1 cm, with a 57.9% improvement in length (P penis. PMID:27622092

  11. A procedure for the quantitative analysis of the sulphur amino acids of rat tissues.

    Gaitonde, M K; Gaull, G E


    1. A method is described for the quantitative separation of the sulphur compounds in a single sample of tissue by passing an extract through a serial assembly of ion-exchange resins in the order: Dowex 2 (Cl(-) form), Dowex 1 (CO(3) (2-) form), Amberlite CG-50 (H(+) form) and Zeo-Karb 225 (H(+) form). 2. Groups of sulphur amino acids were eluted separately from each column; the recovery of sulphur compounds after their labelling with (35)S in vivo by injection of l-[(35)S]-methionine was 91-106%. Individual sulphur compounds were further resolved by one-dimensional or two-dimensional paper chromatography. 3. Evidence is presented on the occurrence of S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine in rat liver and brain. Rat liver and brain contained 83.6 and 31.4mmu-moles/g. respectively of S-adenosylmethionine.

  12. Assessment Techniques to Detect Aspergillus fumigatus in Different Samples of Immunosuppressed Male Western Albino Rats.

    Niazi, Khalid; Khaled, Jamal Mohammed Ali; Kandeal, Saleh A; Khalel, Addulla Saleh


    There are several conventional, immunological and molecular techniques to diagnose the fungi that cause aspergillosis in biological samples; these methods have some advantages and disadvantages. The current study aimed to evaluate different methods used in identification and diagnosis of fungi causing aspergillosis. Male Western Albino rats were provided by Animal Care Unit at Faculty of Pharmacy, King Saud University. After adaptation for a reasonable period, rat's immunity was debilitated by injection of cyclophosphamide (i.p.); the infection was induced by injecting (i.v.) the prepared suspension of Aspergillus fumigatus spores. Blood samples, lung tissue, lung fluid smears and nasal fluid smears were obtained during the periods before and after injection. Isolation of fungus was carried out by synthetic media; and macro- and micro-characteristics were studied to identify the fungus. Enzyme-linked immunesorbent (ELISA) and LightCycler-based PCR was employed to check the existence of the fungus in blood samples. The results indicated that all methods were unable to diagnose the A. fumigatus on the following day of infection except ELISA method; however, culturing methods varied according to the type of vital samples where lung tissue and lung fluid smears were the best. Moreover, more than half of the samples used in the culturing techniques had negative results. The highest rate of the cases diagnosed by ELISA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was recorded during the second week following the infection, and then it declined gradually till the end of the experiment. The molecular methods showed high efficiency followed by ELISA. It could be concluded that the best methods to identify A. fumigatus were molecular methods; however, the early diagnosis requires the enzymatic-immunological methods (ELISA). The current study recommends the integration among all possible techniques whenever the facilities are available. But when only microbiological methods are used

  13. Paritaprevir and Ritonavir Liver Concentrations in Rats as Assessed by Different Liver Sampling Techniques.

    Venuto, Charles S; Markatou, Marianthi; Woolwine-Cunningham, Yvonne; Furlage, Rosemary; Ocque, Andrew J; DiFrancesco, Robin; Dumas, Emily O; Wallace, Paul K; Morse, Gene D; Talal, Andrew H


    The liver is crucial to pharmacology, yet substantial knowledge gaps exist in the understanding of its basic pharmacologic processes. An improved understanding for humans requires reliable and reproducible liver sampling methods. We compared liver concentrations of paritaprevir and ritonavir in rats by using samples collected by fine-needle aspiration (FNA), core needle biopsy (CNB), and surgical resection. Thirteen Sprague-Dawley rats were evaluated, nine of which received paritaprevir/ritonavir at 30/20 mg/kg of body weight by oral gavage daily for 4 or 5 days. Drug concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry on samples collected via FNA (21G needle) with 1, 3, or 5 passes (FNA1, FNA3, and FNA5); via CNB (16G needle); and via surgical resection. Drug concentrations in plasma were also assessed. Analyses included noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis and use of Bland-Altman techniques. All liver tissue samples had higher paritaprevir and ritonavir concentrations than those in plasma. Resected samples, considered the benchmark measure, resulted in estimations of the highest values for the pharmacokinetic parameters of exposure (maximum concentration of drug in serum [Cmax] and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h [AUC0-24]) for paritaprevir and ritonavir. Bland-Altman analyses showed that the best agreement occurred between tissue resection and CNB, with 15% bias, followed by FNA3 and FNA5, with 18% bias, and FNA1 and FNA3, with a 22% bias for paritaprevir. Paritaprevir and ritonavir are highly concentrated in rat liver. Further research is needed to validate FNA sampling for humans, with the possible derivation and application of correction factors for drug concentration measurements. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Manipulating epileptiform bursting in the rat hippocampus using chaos control and adaptive techniques.

    Slutzky, Marc W; Cvitanovic, Predrag; Mogul, David J


    Epilepsy is a relatively common disease, afflicting 1%-2% of the population, yet many epileptic patients are not sufficiently helped by current pharmacological therapies. Recent reports have suggested that chaos control techniques may be useful for electrically manipulating epileptiform bursting behavior in vitro and could possibly lead to an alternative method for preventing seizures. We implemented chaos control of spontaneous bursting in the rat hippocampal slice using robust control techniques: stable manifold placement (SMP) and an adaptive tracking (AT) algorithm designed to overcome nonstationarity. We examined the effect of several factors, including control radius size and synaptic plasticity, on control efficacy. AT improved control efficacy over basic SMP control, but relatively frequent stimulation was still necessary and very tight control was only achieved for brief stretches. A novel technique was developed for validating period-1 orbit detection in noisy systems by forcing the system directly onto the period-1 orbit. This forcing analysis suggested that period-1 orbits were indeed present but that control would be difficult because of high noise levels and nonstationarity. Noise might actually be lower in vivo, where regulatory inputs to the hippocampus are still intact. Thus, it may still be feasible to use chaos control algorithms for preventing epileptic seizures.

  15. Effects of melatonin and agomelatine in anxiety-related procedures in rats: interaction with diazepam.

    Loiseau, Florence; Le Bihan, Claudine; Hamon, Michel; Thiébot, Marie-Hélène


    The anxiolytic potential of melatonin and agomelatine, a potent MT(1/2) receptor agonist, and their combined effects with diazepam, were investigated in rats using the punished drinking test, the safety signal withdrawal operant paradigm, the elevated-plus-maze and hypophagia-induced novelty. In the punished drinking test, evening injections of melatonin (80 mg/kg, IP, but not 20 and 40 mg/kg) and agomelatine (40 mg/kg, IP) increased the number of foot shocks received. However, neither melatonin (40-80 mg/kg) nor agomelatine (20-40 mg/kg) released response suppression during the period associated with the safety signal withdrawal and affected rats' behaviour in the elevated-plus-maze. Furthermore, agomelatine (40 mg/kg) did not enhance food consumption in unfamiliar environment. However, the co-administration of melatonin (80 mg/kg) or agomelatine (20-40 mg/kg) with diazepam, at a dose (0.25 mg/kg) inactive on its own, induced an anxiolytic-like effect in the punished drinking test and the elevated plus-maze. These results indicate that, although mostly devoid of anxiolytic-like action per se, melatonin and agomelatine can potentiate the anxiolytic effects of diazepam.

  16. Survey of the results of acute sciatic nerve repair comparing epineural and perineurial techniques in the lower extremities of rat

    Hamid Karimi; Kamal Seyed Forootan; Gholamreza Moein; Seyed Jaber Mosavi; Batol Ghorbani Iekta


    Objective: To study the result of nerve repair in the two mentioned techniques in rats to find the proper answer to the existing disagreement. Methods: Twenty adult male rats were included in treatment group. Acutely disconnected sciatic nerve was repaired by Epineural technique in half of the rats;in the other half perineurial technique was applied. After 80 d, the number of grown axons of distal on the repair site was calculated through the use of an optical microscope. Additionally by studying the foot print of the rats the return of neural motor activity was evaluated. Results: In epineural group, SFI index was: (56.33±32.30) and in perineurial group: (55.71±30.31);P value=0.930 with their being no difference between these two techniques of surgery. However, in comparing epineural and perineurial groups in the groups themselves, statistical tests showed a significant difference showing functional improvement in comparison with the day before surgery P value=0.0001. Statistical tests showed that the average of axons' number distal to anastomosis site in the epineural group was (349±80) and in the perineurial group was (405±174). These groups have no significant difference regarding the number of axons (P value=0.36). Conclusion:The results of epineural and perineurial surgery techniques show no difference in nerve repair, SFI index, or axon counting in distal part.

  17. The potential of cell sheet technique on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in rat models

    Sakaguchi, Katsuhisa; Abumaree, Mohammed; Mohd Zin, Nur Khatijah; Shimizu, Tatsuya


    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered the 3rd leading cause of death by cancer worldwide with the majority of patients were diagnosed in the late stages. Currently, there is no effective therapy. The selection of an animal model that mimics human cancer is essential for the identification of prognostic/predictive markers, candidate genes underlying cancer induction and the examination of factors that may influence the response of cancers to therapeutic agents and regimens. In this study, we developed a HCC nude rat models using cell sheet and examined the effect of human stromal cells (SCs) on the development of the HCC model and on different liver parameters such as albumin and urea. Methods Transplanted cell sheet for HCC rat models was fabricated using thermo-responsive culture dishes. The effect of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSCs) and human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) on the developed tumour was tested. Furthermore, development of tumour and detection of the liver parameter was studied. Additionally, angiogenesis assay was performed using Matrigel. Results HepG2 cells requires five days to form a complete cell sheet while HepG2 co-cultured with UC-MSCs or BM-MSCs took only three days. The tumour developed within 4 weeks after transplantation of the HCC sheet on the liver of nude rats. Both UC-MSCs and BM-MSCs improved the secretion of liver parameters by increasing the secretion of albumin and urea. Comparatively, the UC-MSCs were more effective than BM-MSCs, but unlike BM-MSCs, UC-MSCs prevented liver tumour formation and the tube formation of HCC. Conclusions Since this is a novel study to induce liver tumour in rats using hepatocellular carcinoma sheet and stromal cells, the data obtained suggest that cell sheet is a fast and easy technique to develop HCC models as well as UC-MSCs have therapeutic potential for liver diseases. Additionally, the data procured indicates that stromal cells enhanced

  18. Designer drug 2,4,5-trimethoxyamphetamine (TMA-2): studies on its metabolism and toxicological detection in rat urine using gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric techniques.

    Ewald, Andreas H; Fritschi, Giselher; Maurer, Hans H


    Studies are described on the metabolism and the toxicological detection of the amphetamine-derived designer drug 2,4,5-trimethoxyamphetamine (TMA-2) in rat urine using gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) techniques. The identified metabolites indicated that TMA-2 was metabolized by oxidative deamination to the corresponding ketone followed by reduction to the corresponding alcohol, O-demethylation followed by oxidative deamination, and finally O,O-bis-demethylation. All metabolites carrying hydroxy groups were found to be partly excreted in urine as glucuronides and/or sulfates. The authors' systematic toxicological analysis (STA) procedure using full-scan GC/MS after acid hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction, and microwave-assisted acetylation allowed the detection, in rat urine, of an intake of TMA-2 that corresponds to a common drug users' dose. Assuming similar metabolism, the described STA procedure in human urine should be suitable as proof of an intake of TMA-2. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Intravascular ultrasound guidance of percutaneous coronary intervention in ostial chronic total occlusions: a description of the technique and procedural results.

    Ryan, Nicola; Gonzalo, Nieves; Dingli, Philip; Cruz, Oscar Vedia; Jiménez-Quevedo, Pilar; Nombela-Franco, Luis; Nuñez-Gil, Ivan; Trigo, María Del; Salinas, Pablo; Macaya, Carlos; Fernandez-Ortiz, Antonio; Escaned, Javier


    Inability to cross the lesion with a guidewire is the most common reason for failure in percutaneous revascularization (PCI) of chronic total occlusions (CTOs). An ostial or stumpless CTO is an acknowledged challenge for CTO recanalization due to difficulty in successful wiring. IVUS imaging provides the opportunity to visualize the occluded vessel and to aid guidewire advancement. We review the value of this technique in a single-centre experience of CTO PCI. This series involves 22 patients who underwent CTO-PCI using IVUS guidance for stumpless CTO wiring at our institution. CTO operators with extensive IVUS experience in non-CTO cases carried out all procedures. Procedural and outcome data was prospectively entered into the institutional database and a retrospective analysis of clinical, angiographic and technical data performed. 17 (77%) of the 22 procedures were successful. The mean age was 59.8 ± 11.5 years, and 90.9% were male. The most commonly attempted lesions were located in the left anterior descending 36.4% (Soon et al. in J Intervent Cardiol 20(5):359-366, 2007) and Circumflex artery (LCx) 31.8% (Mollet et al. in Am J Cardiol 95(2):240-243, 2005). Mean JCTO score was 3.09 ± 0.75 (3.06 ± 0.68, 3.17 ± 0.98 in the successful and failed groups respectively p = 0.35). The mean contrast volume was 378.7 ml ± 114.7 (389.9 ml ± 130.5, 349.2 ml ± 52.2 p = 0.3 in the successful and failed groups respectively). There was no death, coronary artery bypass grafting or myocardial infarction requiring intervention in this series. When the success rates were analyzed taking into account the date of adoption of this technique, the learning curve had no significant impact on CTO-PCI success. This series describes a good success rate in IVUS guided stumpless wiring of CTOs in consecutive patients with this complex anatomical scenario.

  20. A bark-shaving technique to deter rat snakes from climbing red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees

    Daniel Saenz; Christopher S. Collins; Richard N. Conner


    We developed a bark-shaving technique to deter rat snakes (Elaphe obsoleta) from climbing red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) trees as an aesthetically pleasing, more cost-effective, and safer alternative to other snake excluder devices. We used a drawknife to carefully shave the bark around the circumference of 4 treatment trees in a l-m-wide band to...

  1. Measurement of the cell membrane capacitance and conductance of colonic crypt cells of the rat using the patch clamp technique

    Schill, C


    Using the patch clamp technique the membrane capacitance and membrane conductance of colonic crypt cells of the rat was measured. The influence of the intracellular agonists Ca++, cAMP and of osmotic changes on the membrane capacitance and conductance was studied.

  2. The Optical Fractionator Technique to Estimate Cell Numbers in a Rat Model of Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    Olesen, Mikkel Vestergaard; Needham, Esther Kjær; Pakkenberg, Bente


    Stereological methods are designed to describe quantitative parameters without making assumptions about size, shape, orientation and distribution of cells or structures. These methods have been revolutionary for quantitative analysis of the mammalian brain, in which volumetric cell populations are too high to count manually, and stereology is now the technique of choice whenever estimates of three-dimensional quantities need to be extracted from measurements on two-dimensional sections. All stereological methods are in principle unbiased; however, they rely on proper knowledge about the structure of interest and the characteristics of the tissue. Stereology is based on Systematic Uniformly Random Sampling (SURS), with adjustment of sampling to the most efficient level in respect to precision, providing reliable, quantitative information about the whole structure of interest. Here we present the optical fractionator in conjunction with BrdU immunohistochemistry to estimate the production and survival of newly-formed neurons in the granule cell layer (including the sub-granular zone) of the rat hippocampus following electroconvulsive stimulation, which is among the most potent stimulators of neurogenesis. The optical fractionator technique is designed to provide estimates of the total number of cells from thick sections sampled from the full structure. Thick sections provide the opportunity to observe cells in their full 3-D extent and thus, allow for easy and robust cell classification based on morphological criteria. When correctly implemented, the sensitivity and efficiency of the optical fractionator provides accurate estimates with a fixed and predetermined precision.

  3. A new surgical technique for perfusion of the epididymal fat pad in situ in rats.

    Dauchy, Robert T; Blask, David E; Sauer, Leonard A


    We developed a new surgical technique for preparing the epididymal fat pad in rats for perfusion that maintains continuous blood flow. Epididymal fat pads can be perfused in situ using donor blood from either fed or fasted (24 h) animals. During the course of all perfusions, arterial and venous blood pH and gases were monitored and recorded. Total fatty acid (TFA) uptake and release by the epididymal fat depot was measured for the control and treatment perfusions; glycerol release was measured in all control perfusions. After addition of 14C-glucose to the donor-blood perfusate, all radioactivity appeared in the fat pad effluent blood; none appeared in the host systemic blood, and this finding indicated that the epididymal fat pad was separated from the host vasculature during perfusion in situ. The results presented here demonstrate excellent tissue function and metabolism, as a result of the perfusion technique. Our new surgical method for in vivo investigation of the epididymal fat pad, an important white adipose tissue, likely will have many applications in the study of lipid transport and metabolism, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and cancer cachexia.

  4. Estimations procedures with RATS 8.0 or higher for Introduction to time series and forecasting, book by Brockwell & Davis (2 ed)

    Josheski, Dushko


    This file consists of estimations in the time series software RATS (Regression Analysis of Time Series). In this file program files and procedures for the estimations in the book by Brockwell and Davis (2 ed ) had been provided. The order of estimations is by the book chapters

  5. Uniform procedure of 1H NMR analysis of rat urine and toxicometabonomics Part II : Comparison of NMR profiles classification of hepatotoxicity

    Schoonen, W.G.E.J.; Kloks, C.P.A.M.; Ploemen, J.-P.H.T.M.; Smit, M.J.; Zandberg, P.; Horbach, G.J.; Mellema, J.-R.; Zuylen, C.T. van; Tas, A.C.; Nesselrooij, J.H.J. van; Vogels, J.T.W.E.


    A procedure of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) urinalysis using pattern recognition is proposed for early detection of toxicity of investigational compounds in rats. The method is applied to detect toxicity upon administration of 13 toxic reference compounds and one nontoxic control compound

  6. Embryonic NOTES thoracic sympathectomy for palmar hyperhidrosis: results of a novel technique and comparison with the conventional VATS procedure.

    Zhu, Li-Huan; Chen, Long; Yang, Shengsheng; Liu, Daoming; Zhang, Jixue; Cheng, Xianjin; Chen, Weisheng


    To avoid the disadvantages of chronic pain and chest wall paresthesia associated with video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) procedures, we developed a novel surgical technique for performing sympathectomy by embryonic natural orifice transumbilical endoscopic surgery (E-NOTES) with a flexible endoscope. In this study, we compared the outcomes of E-NOTES with conventional VATS thoracic sympathectomy on palmar hyperhidrosis. From January 2010 to April 2011, a total of 66 patients with severe palmar hyperhidrosis were treated with thoracic sympathectomy in our department. Thirty-four transumbilical thoracic sympathectomies were performed via a 5-mm umbilicus incision with ultrathin gastroscope, then compared with 32 conventional needlescopic thoracic sympathectomies. Retrospective statistical analysis of a prospectively collected group of patients was performed. There was no significant difference with regard to gender, mean age, body mass index, and length of hospital stay between the two groups. The operative time for E-NOTES thoracic sympathectomy was longer than that of VATS thoracic sympathectomy (56.4 ± 10.8 vs. 40.3 ± 6.5 min, p sympathectomy reported successful treatment of their palmar hyperhidrosis. Compensatory hyperhidrosis was noticed in 7 (20.1 %) and 6 (18.8 %) patients in the E-NOTES and VATS groups, respectively (p > 0.05). Postoperative pain and paresthesia were significantly reduced in the E-NOTES group at each time interval, and the aesthetic effect of the incision was superior in the E-NOTES group. Transumbilical-diaphragmatic thoracic sympathectomy is a safe and efficacious alternative to the conventional approach. This novel procedure can further reduce postoperative pain and chest wall paresthesia as well as afford maximum cosmetic benefits by hiding the surgical incision in the umbilicus.

  7. "Heidelberg standard examination" and "Heidelberg standard procedures" - Development of faculty-wide standards for physical examination techniques and clinical procedures in undergraduate medical education.

    Nikendei, C; Ganschow, P; Groener, J B; Huwendiek, S; Köchel, A; Köhl-Hackert, N; Pjontek, R; Rodrian, J; Scheibe, F; Stadler, A-K; Steiner, T; Stiepak, J; Tabatabai, J; Utz, A; Kadmon, M


    The competent physical examination of patients and the safe and professional implementation of clinical procedures constitute essential components of medical practice in nearly all areas of medicine. The central objective of the projects "Heidelberg standard examination" and "Heidelberg standard procedures", which were initiated by students, was to establish uniform interdisciplinary standards for physical examination and clinical procedures, and to distribute them in coordination with all clinical disciplines at the Heidelberg University Hospital. The presented project report illuminates the background of the initiative and its methodological implementation. Moreover, it describes the multimedia documentation in the form of pocketbooks and a multimedia internet-based platform, as well as the integration into the curriculum. The project presentation aims to provide orientation and action guidelines to facilitate similar processes in other faculties.

  8. Experimental study on healing process of rat mandibular bone fracture examined by radiological procedures

    Iuchi, Yukio; Furumoto, Keiichi (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan))


    The healing process of rat mandibular fractures was stereoscopically observed daily, using plain roentgenography in the lateral-oblique and tooth axis directions and bone scintigraphy using 99m-Tc-methylene diphosphoric acid (Tc-99m-MDP). The findings were compared with microradiograms of regional polished specimens. X-ray findings included the following. Up to 3 days after bone fracture, the fracture mesiodistally showed distinct radiolucency, with sharp and irregular fracture stump. Radiopacity of the fracture site gradually increased 7 days or later, and bone trabecular formation by callus and stump bridging started to occur at 14 days. Findings similar to those in the control group were observed 49 days or later. The inside was difficult to differentiate, irrespective of the observation time. Bone scans in the mesiodistal and buccolingual planes revealed tracer uptake in the areas of mandibular and soft tissue damage one day after bone fracture. Tracer uptake began to be seen in the fracture site 3 days later, and became marked at 14 days. Then Tc-99m DMP began to be localized and returned to the findings similar to those at 49 days. Bone scanning tended to show wider areas earlier than roentgenography. Microradiographic mesiodistal examination revealed distinct radiopacy of the fracture line for 3 days after bone fracture. Seven days later, bone resorption cavity occurred in the cortical bone around the fracture stump, along with neogenesis of callus. Neogenesis and calcification began to occur gradually, and 14 days later, the fracture osteoremodeling of the internal bone trabeculae was observed. Bone trabecular formation within the bone, however, occurred later. (N.K.).

  9. A nonextinction procedure for long-term studies of classically conditioned enhancement of acoustic startle in the rat.

    Winston, C R; Leavell, B J; Ardayfio, P A; Beard, C; Commissaris, R L


    In the Fear-Potentiated Startle (FPS) paradigm, the reflexive response to a noise burst is enhanced when it is presented with a stimulus (typically a light) that previously had been paired with the presentation of an aversive stimulus, usually an electric shock. In the FPS paradigm, the conditioned effect is demonstrated under conditions of extinction, i.e., the light is not paired with the shock during FPS testing. Because of this, the FPS paradigm is of somewhat limited value as a longitudinal measure for studying classically conditioned enhancement of acoustic startle. The present studies report a simple and reliable nonshock procedure for studying classically conditioned potentiation of acoustic startle in the rat that does not utilize testing under conditions of extinction. Naive rats were exposed to 5-or 3-days/week startle test sessions for up to 20 weeks. Twenty (20) startle stimuli (115 dB noise bursts; 40 ms in duration) were presented during each session. Half of these startle stimuli were presented in darkness and half were immediately preceded by a 3500-ms presentation of a 15-W light. With this paradigm, the effects of pairing the light with the startle noise burst could be studied across many test sessions in the absence of extinction training. The light did not increase startle amplitude on the first few startle trials of the first test session. By the end of the first session, however, and continuing for many weeks of testing, startle responses in the presence of the light were significantly greater (by 30-40%) than in the absence of the light. The finding that the startle stimulus itself can serve as an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) to enhance subsequent startle responses replicates an earlier finding. The persistence of this Startle-Potentiated Startle (SPS) effect across multiple weeks of testing is in contrast to that earlier report.

  10. Antagonism of meta-chlorophenylpiperazine-induced inhibition of exploratory activity in an emergence procedure, the open field test, in rats.

    Meert, T F; Melis, W; Aerts, N; Clincke, G


    The effects of meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) were studied on exploratory behaviour in the open field test, using a procedure designed to evaluate the emergence of rats into a novel environment. mCPP reduced the exploratory activity in a dose-related manner after subcutaneous (s.c.), intraperitoneal (i.p.) and intravenous (i.v.) administration. The inhibition was manifest in all the parameters used to quantify the exploration of the open field area. Additional neuroendocrine experiments in a parallel group of rats revealed a dose-related increase in plasma prolactin and ACTH levels after i.v. mCPP, pointing to a general state of arousal in these mCPP-treated animals. A number of 5-HT antagonists were tested for their ability to prevent or reverse the behavioural inhibition induced by an i.v. injection of 1.0 g/kg mCPP given 15 min before testing in the open field. The antagonists were injected s.c. or given orally at various time intervals before mCPP, or they were injected i.v. 10 min after mCPP. The lowest active doses for the attentuation of the mCPP-induced behavioural inhibition after s.c., oral and i.v. administration, respectively, were 0.04, 40 and 10 mg/kg for pizotifen; 0.16, 0.16 and 0.16 mg/kg for mianserin; 0.63, 0.16 and 0.16 mg/kg for methysergide, and 0.16, 2.5 and 2.5 mg/kg for ritanserin. The lowest active doses of mirtazapine after s.c. and i.v. treatment were 0.01 and 0.16 mg/kg. These data indicate that mixed 5-HT1/5-HT2 receptor antagonists such as pizotifen and methysergide, and mixed 5-HT and catecholamine antagonists such as mianserin and mirtazapine are more potent antagonists of mCPP-induced behavioural inhibition in rats than the more selective 5-HT2A/5-HT2C antagonist ritanserin.

  11. [External canthopexy using the Edgerton-Montandon procedure in lagophthalmos of leprosy patients. Technique and indications. Apropos of 30 cases].

    Grauwin, M Y; Saboye, J; Cartel, J L


    This paper deals with the results observed in 21 ancient leprosy patients suffering from lagophthalmos (13 of whom suffered from bilateral lagophthalmos) and treated by the Edgerton-Montandon surgical procedure which associates lateral canthopexy and tarsorraphy. Eighteen of the 21 treated patients were reviewed at one month after the procedure and, overall, results could be evaluated for 30 eyes. Improvement was noted in all of the 30 eyes and, globally, the residual palpebral fissure (during voluntary closing of the eyes by the patient) decreased from 6.7 mm before the procedure to 1.8 after the procedure. The following recommendations may be proposed. For young patients with intact corneal sensation, the Gillies procedure remains the procedure of choice to correct lagophthalmos. For older patients with corneal anesthesia, at high risk of blindness, the Edgerton-Montandon procedure should be recommended.

  12. Kinetics of nucleotide transport in rat heart mitochondria studied by a rapid filtration technique

    Brandolin, G.; Marty, I.; Vignais, P.V. (LBIO/Laboratoire de Biochimie, Grenoble (France))


    A rapid filtration technique has been used to measure at room temperature the kinetics of ADP and ATP transport in rat heart mitochondria in the millisecond time range. Transport was stopped by cessation of the nucleotide supply, without the use of a transport inhibitor, thus avoiding any quenching delay. The kinetics of ({sup 14}C)ADP transport in energized mitochondria were apparently monophasic. The rate of transport of ({sup 14}C)ATP in energized mitochondria was 5-10 times lower than that of ({sup 14}C)ADP. Upon uncoupling, the rate of ({sup 14}C)ATP uptake was enhanced, and that of ({sup 14}C)ADP uptake was decreased. However, the two rates did not equalize, indicating that transport was not exclusively electrogenic. Transport of ({sup 14}C)ADP and ({sup 14}C)ATP by resting mitochondria followed biphasic kinetics. Depletion of nucleotides in resting mitochondria resulted in a greater decrease in the extent of the slow phase than of the rapid one. In addition, about half of the nucleotides taken up at the end of the rapid phase were not discharged into the medium upon addition of carboxyatractyloside. This suggested that matricial nucleotides are compartmentalized in two pools which are exchangeable at different rates with external nucleotides.

  13. Novel husbandry techniques support survival of naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) pups.

    Ke, Zhonghe; Vaidya, Amita; Ascher, Jill; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera


    The naked mole rat (NMR) is a small eusocial rodent. Because of its remarkable longevity (maximal lifespan, 32 y) and resistance to cancer, the NMR has emerged as a valuable model for aging and cancer research. However, breeding NMR can be difficult. Here, we report the successful introduction and acceptance of pups into a foreign colony with existing pups of different ages. Among the 7 NMR colonies in our satellite facility, one had a consistently poor record of pup viability, with nearly 100% preweaning mortality in multiple litters born over the course of 2 y. The queen of this colony gave birth to 18 pups in January 2013; by 2 d after parturition, it was evident that the pups were not receiving sufficient nourishment. To salvage the litter, the most vigorous pups were cross-fostered to another queen that had recently given birth. On postparturition day 1 (PD1), two pups from the poorly nourished donor litter were bathed with warm water, rolled in recipient colony bedding, and transferred to the recipient colony, which included 8 PD14 pups. The new pups were accepted by the recipient queen, who continued to produce milk in response to suckling by the donor pups well past the weaning of her own litter. This case report provides evidence of successful cross-fostering of NMR pups despite age differences between donor pups and those in the recipient litter; this technique may prove beneficial to researchers struggling with NMR breeding issues.

  14. Reduced Incidence of Slowly Progressive Heymann Nephritis in Rats Immunized With a Modified Vaccination Technique

    Arpad Z. Barabas


    Full Text Available A slowly progressive Heymann nephritis (SPHN was induced in three groups of rats by weekly injections of a chemically modified renal tubular antigen in an aqueous medium. A control group of rats received the chemically unmodified version of the antigen in an aqueous solution. One group of SPHN rats were pre- and post-treated with weekly injections of IC made up of rKF3 and rarKF3 IgM antibody at antigen excess (MIC (immune complexes [ICs] containing sonicated ultracentrifuged [u/c] rat kidney fraction 3 [rKF3] antigen and IgM antibodies specific against the antigen, at slight antigen excess. One group of SPHN rats were post-treated with MIC 3 weeks after the induction of the disease and one group of SPHN animals received no treatment. The control group of rats received pre- and post-treatment with sonicated u/c rKF3.

  15. Establishment of temporomandibular joint puncture technique in rats using in vivo micro-computed tomography (R_mCT®).

    Kameoka, S; Matsumoto, K; Kai, Y; Yonehara, Y; Arai, Y; Honda, K


    The aim of the report was to establish puncture techniques for the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) cavity in rats. The experimental sample comprised 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Under general anaesthesia the superior joint cavity of the rat was punctured either laterally (lateral puncture technique (LPT), n = 11), anteriorly (anterosuperior puncture technique (ASPT), n = 13) or anteroinferior puncture technique (AIPT), n = 6) using a 27-gauge needle. After the tip of the needle was confirmed by micro-CT (R-mCT®, Rigaku, Tokyo, Japan) located on the mandibular fossa, 0.05 ml of contrast media was injected under micro-CT fluoroscopic guidance. After confirmation that the joint cavity was filled with contrast media, micro-CT imaging was carried out. The puncture for LPT was accurate in 5 of the 11 animals. The ASPT was accurate in all 13 animals. The AIPT punctured 3 of the 6 animals. Furthermore, the ASPT and AIPT demonstrated improved preservation of the needle; it was harder to detach the needle, which led to greater stability. These results suggest that ASPT assisted by R-mCT® is useful for basic research, including drug discovery and pathogenesis of TMJ diseases.

  16. Influence of different fluid resuscitation techniques on the number of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in rats.

    Wang, Z J; Wang, H X; Li, L; Wang, L; Dou, H H


    We investigated the influence of different fluid resuscitation techniques on the number of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in rats. Seventy-two healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into groups that received sham operation (Sham group), hypertonic saline (HRS group), lactated ringer's solution (LRS group), or crystalloid solution (LCRS group). Six rats from each group were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at 12, 24, and 48 h after resuscitation. The spleens were harvested under sterile conditions and spleen cell suspension was prepared. The number of MDSCs was detected using flow cytometry. The number of MDSCs in the Sham group did not differ significantly among the different time points. Compared with the Sham group, the number of MDSCs after the use of the different fluid resuscitation techniques increased to varying extents and the differences among the groups were significant. The number of MDSCs in the HRS group was much lower than that of the LRS and LCRS groups at both 24 and 48 h (P number of MDSCs in the HRS group was significantly lower than that of the LRS group (P < 0.05). The differences between the HRS and LCRS groups were not statistically significant. Shortly after hemorrhagic shock resuscitation, the immune function of rats was suppressed to a varying extent and was gradually restored over time. Resuscitation with HRS alleviated the immunosuppression at the early stage after shock.

  17. The Maxillary Sinus Membrane Elevation Procedure: Augmentation of Bone around Dental Implants without Grafts—A Review of a Surgical Technique

    Christopher Riben


    Full Text Available Background. Long-term edentulism may in many cases result in resorption of the alveolar process. The sinus lift procedure aims to create increased bone volume in the maxillary sinus in order to enable installation of dental implants in the region. The method is over 30 years old, and initially autogenous bone grafts were used and later also different bone substitutes. Since 1997, a limited number of studies have explored the possibility of a graftless procedure where the void under the sinus membrane is filled with a blood clot that enables bone formation. Aim. To describe the evolution of the sinus-lift technique and to review the literature related to the technique with a focus on long-term studies related to the graft-less technique. Methods. The electronic database PubMed was searched, and a systematic review was conducted regarding relevant articles. Results. A relatively few long-term studies using the described technique were found. However, the technique was described as reliable considering the outcome of the existing studies. Conclusion. All investigated studies show high implant survival rates for the graftless technique. The technique is considered to be cost-effective, less time-consuming, and related to lower morbidity since no bone harvesting is needed.

  18. Obese and Lean Zucker Rats Demonstrate Differential Sensitivity to Rates of Food Reinforcement in a Choice Procedure

    Buckley, Jessica L.; Rasmussen, Erin B.


    The obese Zucker rat carries two recessive fa alleles that result in the expression of an obese phenotype. Obese Zuckers have higher food intake than lean controls in free-feed studies in which rats have ready access to a large amount of one type of food. The present study examined differences in obese and lean Zucker rats using concurrent schedules of reinforcement, which more ecologically models food selection using two food choices that have limited, but generally predictable, availability...

  19. Techniques and Materials Used by General Dentists during Root Canal Treatment Procedures: Findings from the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    Eleazer, Paul D.; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Funkhouser, Ellen; Reams, G.J.; Law, A.S.; Benjamin, Paul L.


    Background Little is known about which materials and techniques general dentists (GDs) use during root canal procedures. The objectives were to: (1) quantify GD’s use of specific endodontic armamentarium; (2) quantify inappropriate use; and (3) ascertain if inappropriate use is associated with dentists’ practice characteristics. Methods GDs in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network reported in a questionnaire materials and techniques they use during root canal procedures. Results 1,490 (87%) of eligible GDs participated. Most (93%; n=1,383) used sodium hypochlorite to irrigate. The most commonly used sealers were zinc oxide-eugenol (43%) and resin (40%), followed by calcium hydroxide (26%). A majority (62%; n=920) used a compaction obturation technique; 36% (n=534) used a carrier-based method. Most (96%; n=1,423) used gutta percha as a filler; 5% used paste fillers. Few used irrigants (n=46), sealers (n=4), techniques (n=49) or fillers (n=10) that investigators classified as ‘inappropriate’. Conclusions GDs use a broad range of endodontic techniques and materials, often adapting to newer technologies as they become available. Few GDs use armamentarium that the investigators classified as inappropriate. Practical Implications GDs use many types of endodontic techniques and materials, but only a very small percentage is not appropriate. PMID:26562726

  20. Obese and lean Zucker rats demonstrate differential sensitivity to rates of food reinforcement in a choice procedure.

    Buckley, Jessica L; Rasmussen, Erin B


    The obese Zucker rat carries two recessive fa alleles that result in the expression of an obese phenotype. Obese Zuckers have higher food intake than lean controls in free-feed studies in which rats have ready access to a large amount of one type of food. The present study examined differences in obese and lean Zucker rats using concurrent schedules of reinforcement, which more ecologically models food selection using two food choices that have limited, but generally predictable availability. Lever-pressing of ten lean (Fa/Fa or Fa/fa) and ten obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats was placed under three concurrent variable interval variable interval (conc VI VI) schedules of sucrose and carrot reinforcement, in which the programmed reinforcer ratios for 45-mg food pellets were 5:1, 1:1, and 1:5. Allocation of responses to the two food alternatives was characterized using the generalized matching equation, which allows sensitivity to reinforcer rates (a) and bias toward one alternative (log k) to be quantified. All rats showed a bias toward sucrose, though there were no differences between lean and obese Zucker rats. In addition, obese Zucker rats exhibited higher sensitivity to reinforcement rates than lean rats. This efficient pattern of responding was related to overall higher deliveries of food pellets. Effective matching for food, then, may be another behavioral pattern that contributes to an obese phenotype.

  1. Usefulness of lower extremity MR venography in 2D TOF sequence with fat suppression techniques and MTC, and study of different warming procedures

    Higashida, Mitsuji; Yamazaki, Masaru; Sahara, Tomohiro; Motozuka, Masayasu [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Hospital


    We evaluated the effect of fat suppression techniques (fatsat) and magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) for MR venography (MRV) using the 2D TOF sequence in the lower extremities. In addition, the improvement of vessel conspicuity resulting from three different warming procedures was evaluated. Three combinations of fatsat and MTC were performed. Both the signal intensity ratio (SIR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were measured at ROIs of vein, fat, and muscle in knee. The vessel conspicuity of MIP was evaluated by three radiologists. The experimental results indicated that MTC pulses did not affect fatsat. The combination techniques of fatsat and MTC improved SIR ({approx_equal}13%) and CNR ((applox =)5%) of the vein compared with techniques using fatsat only. The continuous warming procedure was better than temporary warming in terms of vessel conspicuity. We conclude that the combined techniques of fatsat and MTC with the continuous warming procedure were clearly useful for MRV using the 2D TOF sequence in the lower extremities. (author)

  2. Strauch's technique for epigastric free flaps in rats revisited: a simple and effective method to increase patency rates.

    Horibe, Elaine Kawano; Sacks, Justin Michael; Aksu, Ali Emre; Unadkat, Jignesh; Song, Dennis Yong; Ferreira, Lydia Masako; Feili-Hariri, Maryam; Lee, W P Andrew


    Described by Strauch and Murray in 1967, the rodent epigastric free flap remains a versatile tool for microsurgery research and training. We report herein three sequential phases of our quest to improve efficiency and effectiveness of the original technique, making it more accessible to more microsurgeons. Ninety-six allotransplants were performed. Surgical technique, complication rates, clinical findings, and histopathologic correlation of each phase are reported. In phase I, two experienced microsurgeons employed the original technique and succeeded in 77% of the procedures. In phase II, two junior microsurgeons achieved a patency rate of 16.6% using the same technique, as opposed to 100% in phase III, utilizing the not-yet-described simplified flow-thru technique. Although patency rate using the original method varies from 9 to 78% (according to other reports), this technical modification can increase even the less experienced microsurgeons' success rates, perpetuating the use of Strauch's epigastric flap in experimental microsurgery.

  3. Prenatal Diagnosis Procedures and Techniques to Obtain a Diagnostic Fetal Specimen or Tissue: Maternal and Fetal Risks and Benefits.

    Wilson, R Douglas; Gagnon, Alain; Audibert, François; Campagnolo, Carla; Carroll, June; Brock, Jo-Ann; Chong, Karen; Johnson, Jo-Ann; MacDonald, William; Okun, Nanette; Pastuck, Melanie; Vallee-Pouliot, Karine


    Objectif : Offrir aux fournisseurs de soins de maternité et à leurs patientes des lignes directrices factuelles contemporaines en ce qui concerne les services de counseling traitant des risques et des avantages maternels propres à la tenue des interventions diagnostiques prénatales orientées par échographie (et/ou des techniques permettant l’établissement d’un diagnostic génétique) nécessaires dans les cas où il a été établi pendant la période prénatale que la grossesse serait exposée à des risques, ainsi qu’en ce qui concerne la prise de décisions subséquentes quant à la prise en charge de la grossesse (questions abordant des aspects tels que le niveau du fournisseur de soins obstétricaux, la surveillance prénatale, le lieu où devraient se dérouler les soins et l’accouchement, et la décision de poursuivre ou d’interrompre la grossesse). La présente directive clinique se limite aux services de counseling traitant des risques et des avantages maternels, et aux décisions en matière de prise en charge de la grossesse pour les femmes qui nécessitent (ou qui envisagent) la mise en œuvre d’une intervention ou d’une technique effractive orientée par échographie aux fins de l’établissement d’un diagnostic prénatal. Population de patientes : Femmes enceintes identifiées, à la suite de la mise en œuvre de protocoles établis de dépistage prénatal (taux sériques maternels ± imagerie, résultats d’analyse de l’ADN acellulaire indiquant des risques élevés, résultats anormaux au moment de l’imagerie fœtale diagnostique ou antécédents familiaux de troubles héréditaires), comme étant exposées à un risque accru d’anomalie génétique fœtale. Ces femmes pourraient nécessiter ou demander des services de counseling au sujet des risques et des avantages pour la grossesse de la tenue d’une intervention effractive orientée par échographie visant à déterminer l’étiologie, le diagnostic, et/ou la

  4. Recanalization strategy for chronic total occlusions with tapered and stiff-tip guidewire. The results of CTO new techniQUE for STandard procedure (CONQUEST) trial.

    Mitsudo, Kazuaki; Yamashita, Takehiro; Asakura, Yasushi; Muramatsu, Toshiya; Doi, Osamu; Shibata, Yoshisato; Morino, Yoshihiro


    The success rate of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total coronary occlusion (CTO) lesions varies depending on the guidewire manipulation skills of the operator. The standardization of guidewire technique is very important. A new technique with a new tapered wire (Conquest, Confianza Pro) was tested to verify effectiveness for higher initial success rates and standardization of PCI for CTO. A prospective, multicenter registry was conducted at 6 investigational sites. In the CONQUEST trial, The CTO lesions were treated by using an intermediate guidewire to cross the lesion. If it did not cross, the guidewire was changed to the Conquest guidewire. If it did not cross, "seesaw-wiring" or the "parallel-wire technique" was performed. The primary endpoint was the initial procedural success rate. A total of 110 patients representing 116 CTO lesions were treated from July 2003 through March 2004. The procedural success rate was 86.2% on the first try, and 88.8% on the second try, respectively. The guidewire success rate on the second try was 90.5% during the hospital stay; no deaths, or acute myocardial infarctions were confirmed. Two patients deteriorated into tamponade, and surgical or percutaneous drainage was performed in each patient without any sequelae. A guidewire technique in PCI for CTOs that starts with the intermediate guidewire and moves to the Confianza Pro tapered guidewire, either alone or by performing a see-saw or parallel-wire technique, can achieve a high initial success rate with an acceptably low major complication rate.

  5. Application of modified two-cuff technique and multiglycosides tripterygium wilfordii in hamster-to-rat liver xenotransplant model

    Hua Guo; Yi-Jun Wu; Shu-Sen Zheng; Wei-Lin Wang; Jun Yu


    AIM: To modify the hamster-to-rat liver xenotransplant technique to prevent postoperative complications, and to study the inhibiting effect of multiglycosides tripterygium wilfordii (TⅡ) on immune rejection.METHODS: Female golden hamsters and inbred male Wistar rats were used as donors and recipients, respectively. One hundred and twelve orthotopic liver xenotransplants were performed by Kamada′s cuff technique with modifications.Over 72 hour survival of the animal after operation was considered as a successful operation. When the established surgical model became stable, 30 of the latest 42 cases were divided into untreated control group (n=15) and TⅡgroup (n=15) at random. Survival of recipients was observed. Liver specimens were collected at 2 and 72 h from the operated animals and postmortem, respectively, for histological study.RESULTS: The successfully operative rate of the 30operations was 80 %, and the survival of the control and TⅡ group was 7.1±0.35 was days and 7.2±0.52 days, respectively (t=0.087, P=0.931). The rate of conjunctival hyperemia in control group (100 %) differed significantly from that (31%)in TⅡ group (P=0.001). Rejection did not occur in both groups within 2 h postoperatively, but became obvious in control group at 72 h after surgery and mild in TⅡ group. Although rejections were obvious in both groups at death of recipients,it was less severe in TⅡ group than in control group.CONCLUSION: This modified Kamada′s technique can be used to establish a stable hamster-to-rat liver xenotransplant model. Monotherapy with multiglycosides tripteryguiumwilfordii prolong survival of recipients.

  6. Generation of 3D ultrasound biomicroscopic images: technique validation and in vivo volumetric imaging of rat lateral gastrocnemius

    Natália Santos da Fonseca Martins

    Full Text Available Introduction Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM is a technique for generating high-resolution images, with frequencies from 20 MHz to 100 MHz. For example, it has been used in animal research related to models of injury and diseases that mimic human conditions. With a three-dimensional ultrasound (3D image system, an organ can be viewed at various angles and the volume estimated, contributing to an accurate diagnosis. This work refers to the generation of 3D-UBM images, employing a 35 MHz ultrasound system, from multiple two-dimensional (2D images. Phantoms were used to validate the technique and to determine its reliability of volume measurements. Additionally, the technique was used to obtain 3D images of the rat gastrocnemius muscle. Methods Four different phantoms were used and ten acquisition sequences of 2D-images acquired for each one. Thereafter, 5 volume segmentations were performed for each acquisition sequence, resulting in 50 measured volumes for each phantom. The physical volumes of all phantoms were used to validate the technique based on the coefficient of variation (CV and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Images of the gastrocnemius muscle were acquired and the partial volume quantified. Results The CV and ICC confirmed the reliability of volume measurements obtained by segmentation. Moreover, cross-sectional 2D images of rat hindlimb were obtained, allowing to identify the gastrocnemius muscle and to partially quantify the muscle volume from 3D images. Conclusion The results indicated that the technique is valid to generate 3D images and quantify the volume of a muscle compatible with the dimensions of a small animal.

  7. Recombinase-driver rat lines: tools, techniques, and optogenetic application to dopamine-mediated reinforcement.

    Witten, Ilana B; Steinberg, Elizabeth E; Lee, Soo Yeun; Davidson, Thomas J; Zalocusky, Kelly A; Brodsky, Matthew; Yizhar, Ofer; Cho, Saemi L; Gong, Shiaoching; Ramakrishnan, Charu; Stuber, Garret D; Tye, Kay M; Janak, Patricia H; Deisseroth, Karl


    Currently there is no general approach for achieving specific optogenetic control of genetically defined cell types in rats, which provide a powerful experimental system for numerous established neurophysiological and behavioral paradigms. To overcome this challenge we have generated genetically restricted recombinase-driver rat lines suitable for driving gene expression in specific cell types, expressing Cre recombinase under the control of large genomic regulatory regions (200-300 kb). Multiple tyrosine hydroxylase (Th)::Cre and choline acetyltransferase (Chat)::Cre lines were produced that exhibited specific opsin expression in targeted cell types. We additionally developed methods for utilizing optogenetic tools in freely moving rats and leveraged these technologies to clarify the causal relationship between dopamine (DA) neuron firing and positive reinforcement, observing that optical stimulation of DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of Th::Cre rats is sufficient to support vigorous intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). These studies complement existing targeting approaches by extending the generalizability of optogenetics to traditionally non-genetically-tractable but vital animal models.

  8. Global expression analysis during late stage of embryonic pancreatic development of rats with microarray technique

    Qingxin Yuan; Chao Liu; Yan Zhong; Cuiping Liu; Li Yuan; Jinyong Zhou; Li-ping Teng; Jingjing Hu; Wei De


    Objective: To define gene expression profiles during late stage of embryonic pancreatic development of rats and to find out key genes in rat pancreatic functional development. Methods: Pancreata of rats in embryonic day 15.5(E15.5) and 18.5(E18.5)were dissected under microscope respectively. Genechips from Affymetrix company were applied to study gene expression profiles. Some differentially expressed genes were verified by RT-PCR. Results: Comparing El8.5 to El5.5, 8.3% genes were expressed differently 2-fold above, in which, 50.3% were up-regulated, including transcriptions related to metabolic development and various kinds of enzymes and hormones (both endocrine and exocrine) and 49.7% were down-regulated, including transcriptions related to cell differentiation. The percentage of genes having definite function was 63%, and that of expressed sequence tag(EST) was 37%. The result of RT-PCR is accordant to that of genechips. Conclusion: The metabolic function of rat pancreas may be further accomplished during late stage of embryonic day.

  9. Rat's time estimation under conditional discrimination procedure / Estimação de tempo em ratos submetidos a um procedimento de discriminação condicional

    José Lino Oliveira Bueno


    Full Text Available In a feature positive conditional discrimination procedure, a stimulus A is not followed by reinforcement when presented alone, but it is always followed by reinforcement when it is preceded by stimulus X. In the negative conditional discrimination procedure, a stimulus B is always followed by reinforcement when presented alone, but it is not followed by reinforcement when preceded by stimulus Y. This research examined if amodal information dealing with basic attributes, as duration, has the capability to acquire conditional properties in animals. Rats were submitted to positive or negative conditional discrimination procedures with stimulus X and Y, which were of the same physical modality, a light, but with different durations: X= 15 seg e Y= 5 seg (and A=5 seg, B=15 seg. The results showed that the animals discriminated excitatory and inhibitory properties related, respectively, to two different durations of the same stimulus, supporting the hypothesis that the duration, as an amodal stimulus component, can be associated to conditional properties, in rats.

  10. Evaluation of DNA damage by alkaline elution technique after inhalation exposure of rats and mice to 1,3-butadiene.

    Vangala, R R; Laib, R J; Bolt, H M


    The alkaline filter elution technique was used to evaluate single strand breaks (SSB), DNA-DNA (DDCL) and DNA-protein cross-links (DPCL) in liver and lung of male rats (Sprague-Dawley) and male mice (B6C3F1) after exposure to 2000 ppm 1,3-butadiene (BD) for 7 days (7 h/day and/or to 100, 250, 500, 1000) 2000 ppm BD for 7 h. SSB were detected in liver DNA of both species at 2000 ppm. Cross-links are more pronounced in mouse lung than in mouse liver. Elution rates of lung DNA from mice exposed for 7 h to different concentrations of BD revealed an increase in cross-links between 250 and 500 ppm, and a further increase in cross-links up to 2000 ppm. No such signs of genotoxicity could be observed for the lung of rats. Our data support the involvement of reactive metabolites (epoxybutene and especially diepoxybutane) in butadiene-induced carcinogenesis in the mouse but not to that extent in the rat.

  11. A precision 3D conformal treatment technique in rats: application to whole brain radiotherapy with hippocampal avoidance.

    Yoon, Suk W; Cramer, Christina K; Miles, Devin A; Reinsvold, Michael H; Joo, Kyeung M; Kirsch, David G; Oldham, Mark


    To develop and validate 3D conformal hippocampal sparing whole-brain radiation therapy (HA-WBRT) for Wistar rats utilizing precision 3D printed immobilization and micro-blocks. This technique paves the way for future pre-clinical studies investigating brain treatments that reduce neurotoxicity. A novel pre-clinical treatment planning and delivery process was developed to enable precision 3D conformal treatment and hippocampal avoidance capability for the Xrad 225cx small animal irradiator. A range of conformal avoidance plans were evaluated consisting of equi-angularly spaced co-planar axial beams, with plans containing 2, 4, 7, and 8 fields. The hippocampal sparing and coverage of these plans were investigated through Monte Carlo dose calculation (SmART-Plan Xrad 225cx planning system). Treatment delivery was implemented through a novel process where hippocampal block shapes were computer-generated from an MRI rat atlas which was registered to on-board cone-beam-CT of the rat in treatment position. The blocks were 3D-printed with a tungsten-doped filament at lateral resolution of 80μm. Precision immobilization was achieved utilizing a 3D-printed support system which enabled angled positioning of the rat head in supine position and bite-block to improve coverage of the central diencephalon. Treatment delivery was verified on rodent-morphic Presage(®) 3D dosimeters optically scanned at 0.2mm isotropic resolution. Biological verification of hippocampal avoidance was performed with immunohistologic staining. All simulated plans spared the hippocampus while delivering high dose to the brain (22.5-26.2Gy mean dose to brain at mean hippocampal dose of 7Gy). No significant improvement in hippocampal sparing was observed by adding beams beyond 4 fields. Dosimetric sparing of hippocampal region of the 4-field plan was verified with the Presage(®) dosimeter (mean dose = 9.6Gy, D100% = 7.1Gy). Simulation and dosimeter match at distance-to-agreement of 2mm and dose

  12. Bariatric Surgery Procedures

    ... Center Access to Care Toolkit EHB Access Toolkit Bariatric Surgery Procedures Bariatric surgical procedures cause weight loss by ... Bariatric procedures also often cause hormonal changes. Most weight loss surgeries today are performed using minimally invasive techniques (laparoscopic ...

  13. Study of transmembrane La3+ movement in rat ventricular myocytes by the patch-clamp technique


    We have studied transmembrane La3+ movement in rat ventricular myocytes for the first time by using the whole-cell patch-clamp recording mode. La3+ (0.01-5.0 mmol/L) could not bring out inward currents through the L-type calcium channel in rat ventricular myocytes, while it could enter the cells by the same way carried by 1μmol/L ionomycin. When the outward Na+ concentration gradient is formed, La3+ can enter the cells via Na-Ca exchange, and the exchange currentsincrease with the increase of external La3+ concentrations. But compared with Na-Ca exchange currents in the same concentration, the former is only 14%-38% of the latter. The patch-clamp experiment indicates that La3+ normally can not enter ventricular myocytes through L-type calcium channel, but it can enter the cells via Na-Ca exchange.

  14. Percutaneous Management of Accidentally Retained Foreign Bodies During Image-Guided Non-vascular Procedures: Novel Technique Using a Large-Bore Biopsy System.

    Cazzato, Roberto Luigi; Garnon, Julien; Ramamurthy, Nitin; Tsoumakidou, Georgia; Caudrelier, Jean; Thénint, Marie-Aude; Rao, Pramod; Koch, Guillaume; Gangi, Afshin


    To describe a novel percutaneous image-guided technique using a large-bore biopsy system to retrieve foreign bodies (FBs) accidentally retained during non-vascular interventional procedures. Between May 2013 and October 2015, five patients underwent percutaneous retrieval of five iatrogenic FBs, including a biopsy needle tip in the femoral head following osteoblastoma biopsy and radiofrequency ablation (RFA); a co-axial needle shaft within a giant desmoid tumour following cryoablation; and three post-vertebroplasty cement tails within paraspinal muscles. All FBs were retrieved immediately following original procedures under local or general anaesthesia, using combined computed tomography (CT) and fluoroscopic guidance. The basic technique involved positioning a 6G trocar sleeve around the FB long axis and co-axially advancing an 8G biopsy needle to retrieve the FB within the biopsy core. Retrospective chart review facilitated analysis of procedures, FBs, technical success, and complications. Mean FB size was 23 mm (range 8-74 mm). Four FBs were located within 10 mm of non-vascular significant anatomic structures. The basic technique was successful in 3 cases; 2 cases required technical modifications including using a stiff guide-wire to facilitate retrieval in the case of the post-cryoablation FB; and using the central mandrin of the 6G trocar to push a cement tract back into an augmented vertebra when initial retrieval failed. Overall technical success (FB retrieval or removal to non-hazardous location) was 100 %, with no complications. Percutaneous image-guided retrieval of iatrogenic FBs using a large-bore biopsy system is a feasible, safe, effective, and versatile technique, with potential advantages over existing methods.

  15. Metabolism of radioiodinated salmon calcitonin in rats. [/sup 125/I tracer technique

    Scarpace, P.J.; Neuman, W.F.; Raisz, L.G.


    Synthetic salmon calcitonin (CT) was iodinated by an electrolytic method. The iodinated hormone retained full biological activity as determined in both an in vivo and in vitro bioassay. The metabolism of this hormone was studied in rats of two different ages, 24 days and 8 months old. Two types of uptake were observed: Rapid accumulation followed by rapid loss or degradation, as represented by the liver, and sustained accumulation with slow degradation, as represented by the kidney and bone. The liver accumulated a large fraction of the dose in 1 minute. Most of this was degraded or gone by 10 min and nearly all by 30 min. The kidney was a primary target organ in terms of concentrating the hormone. Nearly 50% of the initially accumulated CT, however, remained undegraded 60 min post-injection. The bone, to a lesser extent, concentrated the hormone where 70% remained undegraded 60 min post-injection. The bone accumulated significantly less CT while the kidney and liver accumulated more in 8-month-old rats compared to 24-day-old rats. This suggests that the relative ineffectiveness of CT in older animals as a hypocalcemic agent may be due in part to the inability of the bone to accumulate available hormone.

  16. Facilitating endoscopic submucosal dissection: the suture-pulley method significantly improves procedure time and minimizes technical difficulty compared with conventional technique: an ex vivo study (with video)

    Aihara, Hiroyuki; Kumar, Nitin; Ryou, Marvin; Abidi, Wasif; Ryan, Michele B.; Thompson, Christopher C.


    Background The lack of countertraction in endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) results in increased technical demand and procedure time. Although the suture-pulley method for countertraction has been reported, its effectiveness compared with the traditional ESD technique remains unclear. Objective To objectively analyze efficacy of countertraction using the suture-pulley method for ESD. Design Prospective ex vivo animal study. Setting Animal laboratory. Interventions Twenty simulated gastric lesions were created in porcine stomachs by using a standard circular template 30 mm in diameter. In the control arm (n = 10), ESD was performed by using the standard technique. In the suture-pulley arm (N = 10), a circumferential incision was made, and an endoscopic suturing device was used to place the suture pulley. Main Outcome Measurements The primary outcome of this study was total procedure time. Results The median total procedure time with the suture-pulley method was significantly shorter than the traditional ESD technique (median, 25% to 75%, interquartile range [IQR]: 531 seconds [474.3–549.3 seconds] vs 845 seconds [656.3–1547.5 seconds], P < .001). The median time (IQR) for suture-pulley placement was 160.5 seconds (150.0–168.8 seconds). Although there was a significantly longer procedure time for proximal versus middle/lower stomach lesions with traditional ESD (median, 1601 seconds; IQR, 1547.5–1708.8 seconds vs median, 663 seconds; IQR, 627.5–681.8 seconds; P =.01), there was no significant difference in procedure time for lesions of various locations when using the suture-pulley method. Compared with traditional ESD, the suture-pulley method was less demanding in all categories evaluated by the NASA Task Load Index. Limitations Ex vivo study. Conclusions The suture-pulley method facilitates direct visualization of the submucosal layer during ESD and significantly reduces procedure time and technical difficulty. In addition, the benefit of the suture

  17. Procedure of Forecasting Operational and Extremal State of Critical Systems of the Rocket Technique Under Repeated Thermo-Force Loading

    Shevchenko Yu.M.


    Full Text Available The mathematical model for investigation of the thermoelastoplastic stress-strain state and the strength of the rocket technique systems under the repeated starting is proposed. The thermal conductivity equation and constitutive equations of thermoplasticity for the repeated elastic-plastic deformation processes of isotropic materials along small-curvature paths, the strength and low-cyclic fatigue criteria, numerical methods for solving the boundary-value heat conduction problems and corresponding computer software are used.

  18. Determining quantitative road safety targets by applying statistical prediction techniques and a multi-stage adjustment procedure.

    Wittenberg, P; Sever, K; Knoth, S; Sahin, N; Bondarenko, J


    Due to substantial progress made in road safety in the last ten years, the European Union (EU) renewed the ambitious agreement of halving the number of persons killed on the roads within the next decade. In this paper we develop a method that aims at finding an optimal target for each nation, in terms of being as achievable as possible, and with the cumulative EU target being reached. Targets as an important component in road safety policy are given as reduction rate or as absolute number of road traffic deaths. Determination of these quantitative road safety targets (QRST) is done by a top-down approach, formalized in a multi-stage adjustment procedure. Different QRST are derived under consideration of recent research. The paper presents a method to break the national target further down to regional targets in case of the German Federal States. Generalized linear models are fitted to data in the period 1991-2010. Our model selection procedure chooses various models for the EU and solely log-linear models for the German Federal States. If the proposed targets for the EU Member States are attained, the sum of fatalities should not exceed the total value of 15,465 per year by 2020. Both, the mean level and the range of mortality rates within the EU could be lowered from 28-113 in 2010 to 17-41 per million inhabitants in 2020. This study provides an alternative to the determination of safety targets by political commitments only, taking the history of road fatalities trends and population into consideration.

  19. Changes in 5-HT1A and NMDA binding sites by a single rapid transcranial magnetic stimulation procedure in rats

    Kole, MHP; Fuchs, E; Ziemann, U; Paulus, W; Ebert, U


    The effects of a single rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) exposure on neurotransmitter binding sites in the rat brain 24 h after the stimulation were examined. Quantification by in vitro-autoradiography showed no differences for H-3-paroxetine binding (5-HT uptake sites) between rT

  20. Endoscopy-assisted surgery for the management of benign breast tumors: technique, learning curve, and patient-reported outcome from preliminary 323 procedures.

    Lai, Hung-Wen; Lin, Hui-Yu; Chen, Shu-Ling; Chen, Shou-Tung; Chen, Dar-Ren; Kuo, Shou-Jen


    Endoscopy-assisted breast surgery (EABS), a technique that optimizes cosmetic outcome because it is performed through small wounds hidden in inconspicuous areas, could be an alternative surgical technique for benign breast tumors. In this study, we report the preliminary results of 323 EABS procedures performed at our institution for the management of benign breast tumors. The medical records of patients who underwent EABS for benign breast lesions during the periods August 2010 to December 2015 were collected from the Changhua Christian Hospital EABS database. Data on clinicopathologic characteristics, type of surgery, hospital stay, and complications were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the procedure for benign breast tumors. The operating time with the number of procedure performed was analyzed for learning curve evaluation. Patient satisfaction with cosmetic outcome was evaluated with a self-report questionnaire. A total of 323 EABS procedures were performed in 286 patients with benign breast lesions, including 249 (90.5%) patients with unilateral lesions. The mean age was 36 years, the mean tumor size was 2.2 cm, and the mean distance from the nipple to the tumor was 5.2 cm. Most (93.8%, 303/323) of these tumors were excised through a transareolar wound, 2.4% (8/323) through an axillary wound, and 0.3% (1/323) through the infra-mammary fold. Histopathologic analysis revealed that 63.5% (202/318) of the tumors were fibroadenoma-related lesions. The mean operative time was 81.4 min (59~89 min), which was decreased with experience increased. The overall rate of complications was 6.5%, and all were minor and wound-related. Among the 110 patients who participated in the self-report cosmetic outcome evaluation, 85.4% reported being satisfied with the cosmetic result, and almost all were satisfied with breast symmetry. Of the patients interviewed, 92.7% reported that they would choose the same procedure if they had to undergo the operation again. Our

  1. Evaluation of Decalcification Techniques for Rat Femurs Using HE and Immunohistochemical Staining

    Haixia Liu


    Full Text Available Aim. In routine histopathology, decalcification is an essential step for mineralized tissues. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of different decalcification solutions on the morphological and antigenicity preservation in Sprague Dawley (SD rat femurs. Materials and Methods. Four different decalcification solutions were employed to remove the mineral substances from rat femurs, including 10% neutral buffered EDTA, 3% nitric acid, 5% nitric acid, and 8% hydrochloric acid/formic acid. Shaking and low temperature were used to process the samples. The stainings of hematoxylin-eosin (HE and immunohistochemical (IHC were employed to evaluate the bone morphology and antigenicity. Key Findings. Different decalcification solutions may affect the quality of morphology and the staining of paraffin-embedded sections in pathological examinations. Among four decalcifying solutions, 3% nitric acid is the best decalcifying agent for HE staining. 10% neutral buffered EDTA and 5% nitric acid are the preferred decalcifying agents for IHC staining. Significance. The current study investigated the effects of different decalcifying agents on the preservation of the bone structure and antigenicity, which will help to develop suitable protocols for the analyses of the bony tissue.

  2. A procedure for estimating Bacillus cereus spores in soil and stream-sediment samples - A potential exploration technique

    Watterson, J.R.


    The presence of bacterial spores of the Bacillus cereus group in soils and stream sediments appears to be a sensitive indicator of several types of concealed mineral deposits, including vein-type gold deposits. The B. cereus assay is rapid, inexpensive, and inherently reproducible. The test, currently under investigation for its potential in mineral exploration, is recommended for use on a research basis. Among the aerobic spore-forming bacilli, only B. cereus and closely related strains produce an opaque zone in egg-yolk emulsion agar. This characteristic, also known as the Nagler of lecitho-vitellin reaction, has long been used to rapidly indentify and estimate presumptive B. cereus. The test is here adapted to permit rapid estimation of B. cereus spores in soil and stream-sediment samples. Relative standard deviation was 10.3% on counts obtained from two 40-replicate pour-plate determinations. As many as 40 samples per day can be processed. Enough procedural detail is included to permit investigation of the test in conventional geochemical laboratories using standard microbiological safety precautions. ?? 1985.

  3. Application of Self Nulling Eddy Current Probe Technique to the Detection of Fatigue Crack Initiation and Control of Test Procedures

    Namkung, M.; Nath, S.; Wincheski, B.; Fulton, J. P.


    A major part of fracture mechanics is concerned with studying the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks. This typically requires constant monitoring of crack growth during fatigue cycles and the knowledge of the precise location of the crack tip at any given time. One technique currently available for measuring fatigue crack length is the Potential Drop method. The method, however, may be inaccurate if the direction of crack growth deviates considerably from what was assumed initially or the curvature of the crack becomes significant. Another popular approach is to optically view the crack using a high magnification microscope, but this entails a person constantly monitoring it. The present proposed technique uses an automated scheme, in order to eliminate the need for a person to constantly monitor the experiment. Another technique under development elsewhere is to digitize an optical image of the test specimen surface and then apply a pattern recognition algorithm to locate the crack tip. A previous publication showed that the self nulling eddy current probe successfully tracked a simulated crack in an aluminum sample. This was the impetus to develop an online real time crack monitoring system. An automated system has been developed which includes a two axis scanner mounted on the tensile testing machine, the probe and its instrumentation and a personal computer (PC) to communicate and control all the parameters. The system software controls the testing parameters as well as monitoring the fatigue crack as it propagates. This paper will discuss the experimental setup in detail and demonstrate its capabilities. A three dimensional finite element model is utilized to model the magnetic field distribution due to the probe and how the probe voltage changes as it scans the crack. Experimental data of the probe for different samples under zero load, static load and high cycle fatigue load will be discussed. The final section summarizes the major accomplishments

  4. The optimization of essential oils supercritical CO2 extraction from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic steps procedure and semi-continuous technique using response surface method.

    Kamali, Hossein; Aminimoghadamfarouj, Noushin; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Nematollahi, Alireza


    The aim of this study was to examine and evaluate crucial variables in essential oils extraction process from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic and semi-continuous techniques using response surface method. Essential oil components were extracted from Lavandula hybrida (Lavandin) flowers using supercritical carbon dioxide via static-dynamic steps (SDS) procedure, and semi-continuous (SC) technique. Using response surface method the optimum extraction yield (4.768%) was obtained via SDS at 108.7 bar, 48.5°C, 120 min (static: 8×15), 24 min (dynamic: 8×3 min) in contrast to the 4.620% extraction yield for the SC at 111.6 bar, 49.2°C, 14 min (static), 121.1 min (dynamic). The results indicated that a substantial reduction (81.56%) solvent usage (kg CO2/g oil) is observed in the SDS method versus the conventional SC method.

  5. A simple standard technique for labyrinthectomy in the rat: A methodical communication with a detailed description of the surgical process.

    Nádasy, G L; Raffai, G; Fehér, E; Schaming, G; Monos, E


    Aims Labyrinthectomized rats are suitable models to test consequences of vestibular lesion and are widely used to study neural plasticity. We describe a combined microsurgical-chemical technique that can be routinely performed with minimum damage. Methods Caudal leaflet of the parotis is elevated. The tendinous fascia covering the bulla is opened frontally from the sternomastoid muscle's tendon while sparing facial nerve branches. A 4 mm diameter hole is drilled into the bulla's hind lower lateral wall to open the common (in rodents) mastoid-tympanic cavity. The cochlear crista (promontory) at the lower posterior part of its medial wall is identified as a bony prominence. A 1 mm diameter hole is drilled into its lower part. The perilymphatic/endolymphatic fluids with tissue debris of the Corti organ are suctioned. Ethanol is injected into the hole. Finally, 10 µL of sodium arsenite solution (50 µM/mL) is pumped into the labyrinth and left in place for 15 min. Simple closure in two layers (fascia and skin) is sufficient. Results and conclusion All rats had neurological symptoms specific for labyrinthectomy (muscle tone, body position, rotatory movements, nystagmus, central deafness). Otherwise, their behavior was unaffected, drinking and eating normally. After a few days, they learned to balance relying on visual and somatic stimuli (neuroplasticity).

  6. Improved Cuff Technique for Establishing a Mouse-Rat Heterotopic Cardiac Xenotransplantation Model.

    Li, C; Qi, F; Liu, T; Wang, H; Wang, P-Z


    The small animal model of cardiac transplantation is the most common model in organ transplantation studies. The cervical heterotopic transplantation is widely performed because this allows for direct observation of the graft heartbeat and contributes to early prediction of graft rejection. A mouse-rat cervical heterotopic cardiac xenotransplantation model was modified with respect to the anesthesia method, cardiac graft harvesting method, and perioperative treatment. These improvements ensure the stability and reliability of xenotransplantation models for in vivo studies of immune-mediated graft rejection. After establishing isoflurane inhalation anesthesia, the donors' hearts were harvested. The experimental method involved separate ligation of the left and right superior venae cavae; the other blood vessels were ligated in a cluster. Both the donor and recipient animals were placed on a heating pad intraoperatively to maintain a body temperature of 37-40 °C. The model establishment was divided into 3 stages: practice, stabilization, and stereotyping. The surgical success rate and operation time were recorded. Specimens were harvested at different time points for histopathological examination. The anesthetic effect of isoflurane was well maintained, and no animals died of adverse anesthetic events. Body temperature was maintained at 37-40 °C which effectively shortened the time to restoration. The modification of the cardiac graft harvesting method is conducive to rebeating of the donor heart. The success rates in the stabilization and stereotyping stages were significantly higher than that in the practice stage (P rat cervical heterotopic cardiac xenotransplantation model is the ideal animal model for studying xenograft rejection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of the ideal sampling technique to reduce repeated procedures:a comparative study including 393 fine-needle aspirations for thyroid nodules.

    Uzunkaya, Fatih; Özden, Ahmet


    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy is an established method for the evaluation of thyroid nodules, but it has not been standardized worldwide yet. Adequacy of the aspirations is affected by several factors. The aim of this study is to determine the main factors affecting the adequacy and to suggest a procedural technique expected to reduce repeated procedures. A total of 393 aspiration procedures performed using either 22-gauge or 27-gauge needles were included in the study. The samplings were classified as inadequate or adequate according to the cytopathological reports, and results were compared. The rate of adequate samplings was higher in the 27-gauge group and the difference was statistically significant. Neither the size of nodules nor the number of slides used for smearing affected the adequacy. There was not a statistically significant relation between the needle size and the nodule size or the number of slides in terms of adequacy. Needle size is an important factor that affects the adequacy of samplings. The nodule size and the number of slides do not affect the adequacy. However, bloody and thicker smears are difficult for pathologists to evaluate and result in inadequacy.

  8. Epineural Sheath Jacket as a New Surgical Technique for Neuroma Prevention in the Rat Sciatic Nerve Model.

    Siemionow, Maria; Bobkiewicz, Adam; Cwykiel, Joanna; Uygur, Safak; Francuzik, Wojciech


    Terminal neuromas resulting from severe nerve injuries and traumatic or surgical limb amputations can become a source of pain, and significantly impair patients' quality of life. Recently, the number of patients with peripheral nerve injuries increased due to modern war conflicts, natural disasters, and traffic accidents. This study investigated the efficacy of the epineural sheath jacket (ESJ) as a novel technique for neuroma prevention in the rat sciatic nerve model. A 20-mm segment of the right sciatic nerve was excised in 18 Lewis rats, and the animals were divided into 3 experimental groups (n = 6/group): group I-control, nerve stump without protection; group II-muscle burying group, nerve stump buried in the muscle; group III-ESJ group, nerve stump protected by ESJ. The ESJ was created from the excised sciatic nerve and applied as a "cap" over the proximal nerve stump. The presence of neuropathic pain was assessed weekly by pinprick test and Tinel sign, up to 24 weeks postsurgery. At 24 weeks, assessments, such as macroscopic evaluation, retrograde neuronal labeling analysis, histomorphometry, and neural/connective tissue ratio were performed. Epineural sheath jacket significantly reduced neuroma formation, which was associated with decreased Tinel sign (16.7%, P < 0.05) response compared with the nerve stump control. Moreover, ESJ reduced axonal sprouting, bulb-shaped nerve ending formation and perineural adhesions, as confirmed by macroscopic evaluation. Histological evaluation confirmed that nerve stumps protected with the ESJ showed less fibrosis and presented well-organized axonal structure. Neural/connective tissue ratio and retrograde neuronal labeling analysis revealed significantly improved results in the ESJ group compared to the control nerve stump group (P = 0.032 and P = 0.042, respectively). The protective effect of the ESJ against neuroma formation was confirmed by behavioral and histological analyses, showing outcomes comparable to the muscle

  9. Optimization Correction Strength Using Contra Bending Technique without Anterior Release Procedure to Achieve Maximum Correction on Severe Adult Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Ahmad Jabir Rahyussalim


    Full Text Available Adult scoliosis is defined as a spinal deformity in a skeletally mature patient with a Cobb angle of more than 10 degrees in the coronal plain. Posterior-only approach with rod and screw corrective manipulation to add strength of contra bending manipulation has correction achievement similar to that obtained by conventional combined anterior release and posterior approach. It also avoids the complications related to the thoracic approach. We reported a case of 25-year-old male adult idiopathic scoliosis with double curve. It consists of main thoracic curve of 150 degrees and lumbar curve of 89 degrees. His curve underwent direct contra bending posterior approach using rod and screw corrective manipulation technique to achieve optimal correction. After surgery the main thoracic Cobb angle becomes 83 degrees and lumbar Cobb angle becomes 40 degrees, with 5 days length of stay and less than 800 mL blood loss during surgery. There is no complaint at two months after surgery; he has already come back to normal activity with good functional activity.

  10. Diffusion and clearance of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles infused into the rat striatum studied by MRI and histochemical techniques

    Wang, F H; Yoshitake, T; Kehr, J [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Kim, D K [Department of Materials Science, Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Johansson, S M; Muhammed, M [Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Bjelke, B, E-mail: [Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)


    The purpose of the present study was to investigate, by MRI and histochemical techniques, the diffusion and clearance abilities of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) coated with dextran (Dextran-SPION) and gold (Au-SPION) following their local infusions into the rat brain. In separate groups of anesthetized rats, the Dextran-SPION and Au-SPION were infused at concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 5 {mu}g Fe/0.5 {mu}l and at the flow rate of 0.5 {mu}l min{sup -1} into the left and right striata, respectively. Repetitive T2-weighted spin-echo MRI scans were performed at time intervals of 1, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 h, and one, two and eight weeks after inoculation. Following infusion of Dextran-SPION (0.1 {mu}g and 1 {mu}g Fe), the maximal distribution volume was observed at about 12-24 h after inoculation and two weeks later the Fe signals were undetectable for the lower dose. On the other hand, Au-SPION remained tightly localized in the closest vicinity of the infusion site as revealed by unchanged MRI signal intensities and strong histochemical staining of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions in the corresponding brain slices. Immunohistochemical staining of astrocytic and microglial reactions revealed that there were no marked differences in GFAP, VIM or OX-42 labeling observed between the nanoparticle types, however the astrocytic reaction was more pronounced in rats receiving nanoparticles compared to the control (aCSF-infused) rats. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that the viral-sized Dextran-SPION were able to diffuse freely through the interstitial space of the brain being progressively cleared out from the infusion site within two weeks. Thus, Dextran-SPION could be beneficially used in MRI-guided diagnostic applications such as in experimental oncology or as labels and carriers for targeted drug delivery, whereas Au-SPION could be used for labeling and tracking the transplanted stem cells in experimental MRI.

  11. Does the Papilla Preservation Flap Technique Induce Soft Tissue Modifications over Time in Endodontic Surgery Procedures?

    Taschieri, Silvio; Del Fabbro, Massimo; Francetti, Luca; Perondi, Isabella; Corbella, Stefano


    The aim of the present controlled clinical trial was to compare 2 incision techniques, papilla base incision (PBI) and sulcular incision (IS), evaluating changes in papilla and recession height over a 12-month period. A total of 24 subjects requiring endodontic surgery on a single tooth were enrolled. PBI was used in 1 group and IS in the other group. The primary outcomes were changes in gingival recession of the tooth affected by periapical lesions and the mesial and distal teeth and the mesial and distal papilla height using the treated tooth as the reference. Outcome variables were assessed at baseline and 12 months after the surgical intervention. Statistical analysis was performed by a blinded operator through appropriate tests, with significance set at a P value equal to .05. In the PBI group, the papilla height at the 12-month follow-up in the mesial and distal aspect decreased 0.10 ± 0.32 mm and 0.10 ± 0.32 mm, respectively, and 0.23 ± 0.68 mm and 0.25 ± 0.40 mm, respectively, in the IS group without any significant differences. There were no differences found for recession change values between groups. The PBI and IS approaches in endodontic surgery showed similar results in terms of papilla height preservation and recession changes. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Spatial reference- (not working- or procedural-) memory performance of aged rats in the water maze predicts the magnitude of sulpiride-induced facilitation of acetylcholine release by striatal slices.

    Cassel, Jean-Christophe; Lazaris, Anelise; Birthelmer, Anja; Jackisch, Rolf


    Cluster analysis of water-maze reference-memory performance distinguished subpopulations of young adult (3-5 months), aged (25-27 months) unimpaired (AU) and aged impaired (AI) rats. Working-memory performances of AU and AI rats were close to normal (though young and aged rats differed in exploration strategies). All aged rats showed impaired procedural-memory. Electrically evoked release of tritium was assessed in striatal slices (preloaded with [(3)H]choline) in the presence of oxotremorine, physostigmine, atropine+physostigmine, quinpirole, nomifensine or sulpiride. Aged rats exhibited reduced accumulation of [(3)H]choline (-30%) and weaker transmitter release. Drug effects (highest concentration) were reductions of release by 44% (oxotremorine), 72% (physostigmine), 84% (quinpirole) and 65% (nomifensine) regardless of age. Sulpiride and atropine+physostigmine facilitated the release more efficiently in young rats versus aged rats. The sulpiride-induced facilitation was weaker in AI rats versus AU rats; it significantly correlated with reference-memory performance. The results confirm age-related alterations of cholinergic and dopaminergic striatal functions, and point to the possibility that alterations in the D(2)-mediated dopaminergic regulation of these functions contribute to age-related reference-memory deficits.

  13. Visceral hybrid reconstruction of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm after open repair of type a aortic dissection by the Bentall procedure with the elephant trunk technique: A case report

    Marjanović Ivan


    Full Text Available Introduction. Reconstruction of chronic type B dissection and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA remaining after the emergency reconstruction of the ascending thoracic aorta and aortic arch for acute type A dissection represents one of the major surgical challenges. Complications of chronic type B dissection are aneurysmal formation and rupture of an aortic aneurysm with a high mortality rate. We presented a case of visceral hybrid reconstruction of TAAA secondary to chronic dissection type B after the Bentall procedure with the elephant trunk technique due to acute type A aortic dissection in a high-risk patient. Case report. A 62 year-old woman was admitted to our institution for reconstruction of Crawford type I TAAA secondary to chronic dissection. The patient had had an acute type A aortic dissection 3 years before and undergone reconstruction by the Bentall procedure with the elephant trunk technique with valve replacement. On admission the patient had coronary artery disease (myocardial infarction, two times in the past 3 years, congestive heart disease with ejection fraction of 25% and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. On computed tomography (CT of the aorta TAAA was revealed with a maximum diameter of 93 mm in the descending thoracic aorta secondary to chronic dissection. All the visceral arteries originated from the true lumen with exception of the celiac artery (CA, and the end of chronic dissection was below the origin of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA. The patient was operated on using surgical visceral reconstruction of the SMA, CA and the right renal artery (RRA as the first procedure. Postoperative course was without complications. Endovascular TAAA reconstruction was performed as the second procedure one month later, when the elephant trunk was used as the proximal landing zone for the endograft, and distal landing zone was the level of origin of the RRA. Postoperatively, the patient had no neurological deficit and

  14. Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 11: interbody techniques for lumbar fusion.

    Mummaneni, Praveen V; Dhall, Sanjay S; Eck, Jason C; Groff, Michael W; Ghogawala, Zoher; Watters, William C; Dailey, Andrew T; Resnick, Daniel K; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Sharan, Alok; Wang, Jeffrey C; Kaiser, Michael G


    Interbody fusion techniques have been promoted as an adjunct to lumbar fusion procedures in an effort to enhance fusion rates and potentially improve clinical outcome. The medical evidence continues to suggest that interbody techniques are associated with higher fusion rates compared with posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) in patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis who demonstrate preoperative instability. There is no conclusive evidence demonstrating improved clinical or radiographic outcomes based on the different interbody fusion techniques. The addition of a PLF when posterior or anterior interbody lumbar fusion is performed remains an option, although due to increased cost and complications, it is not recommended. No substantial clinical benefit has been demonstrated when a PLF is included with an interbody fusion. For lumbar degenerative disc disease without instability, there is moderate evidence that the standalone anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) has better clinical outcomes than the ALIF plus instrumented, open PLF. With regard to type of interbody spacer used, frozen allograft is associated with lower pseudarthrosis rates compared with freeze-dried allograft; however, this was not associated with a difference in clinical outcome.

  15. An influence of delayed reinforcement on the effectiveness of psychostimulants to enhance indices of attention under a five-choice serial reaction time procedure in male rats.

    Slezak, Jonathan M; Katz, Jonathan L


    The five-choice serial reaction time (5-CSRT) procedure has been considered a translational tool for assessments of the psychopharmacology of attention in preclinical research. Because greater sensitivity to delayed reinforcement may promote the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, effects of reinforcer delay and psychostimulants on performances under a 5-CSRT procedure were determined. Male rats were trained to respond under a 5-CSRT procedure with different delay-of-reinforcement conditions (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 s), and effects of d-amphetamine, methylphenidate, and morphine (as a negative control) were assessed at 0- and 16-s delays. Under nondrug conditions, as the delay increased both response latency and the number of trials in which a response did not occur (omissions) increased, and the percent correct on trials when responses were emitted decreased. Only modest increases in the percent correct were found with psychostimulants during the 0-s delay condition; however, more substantial enhancements were found with a 16-s delay. Consistent effects of both psychostimulants at either delay on omissions and response latency were not observed. Morphine increased omissions and response latency at both delays and decreased the percent correct (16-s delay). Generally, responses during the intertrial interval were not systematically affected under any condition. The current results demonstrate that measures of attention in a 5-CSRT procedure are sensitive to changes in the delay to reinforcer delivery. More important, psychostimulants significantly enhanced a measure of attention only when reinforcers were delayed, which may be reflective of the psychopharmacological mechanisms involved with clinical treatment of ADHD symptoms.

  16. Microsurgical technique of simultaneous pancreas/kidney transplantation in the rat: clinical experience and review of the literature.

    Matevossian, E; Doll, D; Sinicina, I; Kern, H; Bald, C; Nährig, J; Stangl, M; Thorban, S; Hüser, N


    For experimental basic research, standardized transplantation models reflecting technical and immunologic aspects are necessary. This article describes an experimental model of combined pancreas/kidney transplantation (PKTx) in detail. Donor rats underwent en bloc pancreatectomy and nephrectomy. Revascularization was performed using the aorta with the superior mesenteric artery and the inferior vena cava with the portal vein. Exocrine drainage of the pancreas took place over a segment of the duodenum which was transplanted side-to-side to the jejunum. The kidney vessels were transplanted end-to-side. The ureter was anastomosed by patch technique. Postoperatively, serum parameters were monitored daily. Biopsies for histopathology were taken on days 5, 8 and 12. All 12 recipients survived the combined PKTx without serious surgical complications. One thrombosis of the portal vein led to organ failure. Blood glucose levels were normal by the 3rd postoperative day. The transplanted duodenal segment showed slight villous atrophy, and the kidneys were well perfused without vascular complications. The anastomosis between ureter and bladder was leakproof. Excellent graft function and survival rates can be achieved due to simplified operation technique and short operation time. It may thus have high clinical relevance to immunologic issues within the scope of basic research. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Prediction of neural differentiation fate of rat mesenchymal stem cells by quantitative morphological analyses using image processing techniques.

    Kazemimoghadam, Mahdieh; Janmaleki, Mohsen; Fouani, Mohamad Hassan; Abbasi, Sara


    Differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into neural cells has received significant attention in recent years. However, there is still no practical method to evaluate differentiation process non-invasively and practically. The cellular quality evaluation method is still limited to conventional techniques, which are based on extracting genes or proteins from the cells. These techniques are invasive, costly, time consuming, and should be performed by relevant experts in equipped laboratories. Moreover, they cannot anticipate the future status of cells. Recently, cell morphology has been introduced as a feasible way of monitoring cell behavior because of its relationship with cell proliferation, functions and differentiation. In this study, rat BMSCs were induced to differentiate into neurons. Subsequently, phase contrast images of cells taken at certain intervals were subjected to a series of image processing steps and cell morphology features were calculated. In order to validate the viability of applying image-based approaches for estimating the quality of differentiation process, neural-specific markers were measured experimentally throughout the induction. The strong correlation between quantitative imaging metrics and experimental outcomes revealed the capability of the proposed approach as an auxiliary method of assessing cell behavior during differentiation.

  18. Robotic-assisted transperitoneal nephron-sparing surgery for small renal masses with associated surgical procedures: surgical technique and preliminary experience.

    Ceccarelli, Graziano; Codacci-Pisanelli, Massimo; Patriti, Alberto; Ceribelli, Cecilia; Biancafarina, Alessia; Casciola, Luciano


    Small renal masses (T1a) are commonly diagnosed incidentally and can be treated with nephron-sparing surgery, preserving renal function and obtaining the same oncological results as radical surgery. Bigger lesions (T1b) may be treated in particular situations with a conservative approach too. We present our surgical technique based on robotic assistance for nephron-sparing surgery. We retrospectively analysed our series of 32 consecutive patients (two with 2 tumours and one with 4 bilateral tumours), for a total of 37 robotic nephron-sparing surgery (RNSS) performed between June 2008 and July 2012 by a single surgeon (G.C.). The technique differs depending on tumour site and size. The mean tumour size was 3.6 cm; according to the R.E.N.A.L. Nephrometry Score 9 procedures were considered of low, 14 of moderate and 9 of hight complexity with no conversion in open surgery. Vascular clamping was performed in 22 cases with a mean warm ischemia time of 21.5 min and the mean total procedure time was 149.2 min. Mean estimated blood loss was 187.1 ml. Mean hospital stay was 4.4 days. Histopathological evaluation confirmed 19 cases of clear cell carcinoma (all the multiple tumours were of this nature), 3 chromophobe tumours, 1 collecting duct carcinoma, 5 oncocytomas, 1 leiomyoma, 1 cavernous haemangioma and 2 benign cysts. Associated surgical procedures were performed in 10 cases (4 cholecystectomies, 3 important lyses of peritoneal adhesions, 1 adnexectomy, 1 right hemicolectomy, 1 hepatic resection). The mean follow-up time was 28.1 months ± 12.3 (range 6-54). Intraoperative complications were 3 cases of important bleeding not requiring conversion to open or transfusions. Regarding post-operative complications, there were a bowel occlusion, 1 pleural effusion, 2 pararenal hematoma, 3 asymptomatic DVT (deep vein thrombosis) and 1 transient increase in creatinine level. There was no evidence of tumour recurrence in the follow-up. RNSS is a safe and feasible technique


    Giselle Kamenetzky


    Full Text Available This study evaluated consummatory responses in infant rats exposed to different magnitude of reward, and after the devaluation (i.e., consummatory successive negative contrast or omission (i.e., extinction of reward. In Experiment 1, 8-10 post-natal days (PND pups were intraorally infused with 12%, 10%, 5% or 2% sucrose (preshift phase, 2 daily trials. Subsequently, all groups received 2% sucrose (postshift phase. In Experiment 2, 10-14 day-old pups received 12% or 2% sucrose in 4 daily trials in the preshift phase, followed by 2% in a postshift trial. Both experiments indicated that during preshift, animals exposed to 12% sucrose exhibited higher sucrose consumption than those receiving lower concentration solutions. This phenomenon, indicative of a magnitude of reinforcement effect was not accompanied by evidence of successive negative contrast. In Experiment 3 we evaluated the magnitude of reinforcement extinction effect in 7-12 PND rats. Animals received 12% sucrose or water in preshift phase and both groups received a neutral solution (i.e., water in the second phase. A magnitude of reinforcement acquisition effect was again observed, yet there were no differences between groups in extinction phase. In Experiment 4 we used an anticipatory contrast procedure in 10-16 PND pups. A magnitude of reinforcement, but not an anticipatory contrast effect was observed. Overall the results indicate that: (a rats from - at least- 8 PND discriminate between different concentrations of sucrose, and (b until the second week of life the response to rewards is mainly regulated by their absolute value and not by their relative value. Results are discussed terms of the ontogeny of paradoxical effects of reward and its relationship to Amsel’s theory.

  20. Ro 04-6790-induced cognitive enhancement: no effect in trace conditioning and novel object recognition procedures in adult male Wistar rats.

    Thur, K E; Nelson, A J D; Cassaday, H J


    The evidence for cognitively enhancing effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine6 (5-HT6) receptor antagonists such as Ro 04-6790 is inconsistent and seems to depend on the behavioral test variant in use. Trace conditioning holds promise as a behavioral assay for hippocampus-dependent working memory function. Accordingly, Experiment 1 assessed the effect of Ro 04-6790 (5 and 10mg/kg i.p.) on associating a noise conditioned stimulus paired with foot shock (unconditioned stimulus) at a 3 or 30s trace interval in adult male Wistar rats. Contextual conditioning was measured as suppression to the contextual cues provided by the experimental chambers and as suppression to a temporally extended light background stimulus which provided an experimental context. Experiment 2 assessed the effect of Ro 04-6790 (5 and 10mg/kg i.p.) on recognition memory as tested by the exploration of novel relative to familiar objects in an open arena. In Experiment 1, Ro 04-6790 (5 and 10mg/kg) was without effect on trace and contextual conditioning. In Experiment 2, there was no indication of the expected improvement under Ro 04-6790 at the same doses previously found to enhance recognition memory as measured in tests of novel object exploration. Thus, there was no evidence that treatment with the 5-HT6 receptor antagonist Ro 04-6790 acted as a cognitive enhancer in either trace conditioning or object recognition procedures. We cannot exclude the possibility that the experimental procedures used in the present study would have been sensitive to the cognitive enhancing effects of Ro 04-6790 in a different dose range, behavioral test variant, or in a different strain of rat. Nonetheless the drug treatment was not ineffective in that object exploration was reduced under 10mg/kg Ro 04-6790.

  1. Stress facilitates late reversal learning using a touchscreen-based visual discrimination procedure in male Long Evans rats

    Bryce, Courtney A.; Howland, John G.


    The stress response is essential to the survival of all species as it maintains internal equilibrium and allows organisms to respond to threats in the environment. Most stress research has focused on the detrimental impacts of stress on cognition and behavior. Reversal learning, which requires a change in response strategy based on one dimension of the stimuli, is one type of behavioral flexibility that is facilitated following some brief stress procedures. The current study investigated a po...

  2. Giant African Pouched Rats as Detectors of Tuberculosis in Human Sputum: Comparison of Two Techniques for Sputum Presentation

    Wray, Alisha M.; Mahoney, Amanda; Weetjens, Bart J.; Cox, Christophe; Jubitana, Maureen; Kazwala, Rudovic; Mfinanga, Godfrey S.; Durgin, Amy; Poling, Alan


    Previous studies have shown that pouched rats can detect the presence of "Mycobacterium tuberculosis," which causes tuberculosis, in human sputum samples obtained from clinical facilities. Although pouched rats evaluate sputum samples quickly, preparing the samples is relatively slow. The present study evaluated whether the rats can detect…

  3. Visceral fat mass determination in rodent: validation of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and anthropometric techniques in fat and lean rats

    Courteix Daniel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because abdominal obesity is predisposed to various metabolic disorders, it is of major importance to assess and track the changes with time of this specific fat mass. The main issue for clinicians or researchers is to use techniques for assessing abdominal fat deposition and its accumulation or changes over time, without sacrificing of experimental subjects. In the rat, techniques to investigate in-vivo visceral fat mass are lacking. The purpose of the study was to validate indirect Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry technique and abdominal circumference measurement as tools to predict visceral adipose tissue in rats. Forty-three Wistar male rats from different body weight, fat mass and ages were included in the study. Visceral fat mass was assessed by weighing the total perirenal and peri-epididymal adipose tissues after dissection. Statistical methods were used to discriminate the best region of interest allowing the in-vivo measure of Central Fat Mass by DXA. Abdominal circumference was measured at the same time as the DXA scan. Results A region of interest including Central Fat Mass from the whole body DXA scan (extending from L2 to L5 vertebrae, correlated strongly with ex-vivo Fat Mass (r = 0.94, p ex-vivo Fat Mass (r = 0.82, p ex-vivo Fat Mass but disappeared for the lean group between abdominal circumference and ex-vivo Fat Mass. Conclusions This study validates the Central Fat Mass determined by DXA as a non-sacrificial technique to assess visceral fat for in-vivo investigations in rats. The abdominal circumference measure appears useful in studying overweight or obese rats. These two techniques could be convenient tools in follow-up and longitudinal studies.

  4. Analysis of ovariectomy and estrogen effects on body composition in rats by X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging techniques.

    Sharp, J C; Copps, J C; Liu, Q; Ryner, L N; Sebastian, R A; Zeng, G Q; Smith, S; Niere, J O; Tomanek, B; Sato, M


    Resistance of bone to fracture--bone strength--has been shown to depend on both the amount of bone and its architectural spatial organization. In vivo magnetic resonance (MR) techniques have the capability of imaging bone tissue, including the trabecular microarchitecture and the marrow composition. We have applied in vivo and ex vivo MR methods to the tibia in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis. Specifically, in vivo high-resolution three-dimensional MR imaging and localized MRS were facilitated by specialized coils and high field magnets, resulting in enhanced sensitivity of detection. As a result, in vivo and ex vivo differences in marrow composition were found between sham-ovariectomized, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized animals treated with 17-beta-estradiol. Estrogen effects were detected in vivo 7 days after surgery (3 days into treatment) as a decrease in the tibial fat signal level. The in vivo effects of ovariectomy were observed 56 days after surgery as an increase in MR image fat signal level and spectral fat/water ratio in the proximal tibia. Ex vivo measurements of tibial marrow water signal discriminated clearly between the sham and ovariectomized groups and showed increased individual variations in the treatment group. Imaging further showed that the highest fat content is observed in the epiphysis. Computed tomography confirmed ovariectomy-induced loss of bone in the proximal tibial metaphysis compared with the sham group. This loss of cancellous bone with ovariectomy is consistent with the MR observations of increases in both fat and water in the metaphysis. These data showed that MR techniques complement X-ray techniques in the bone, water, and fat compositional analysis of the appendicular skeleton in response to ovariectomy and pharmacological treatment.

  5. The impact of loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) for CIN 2,3 on spontaneous preterm delivery in twin pregnancies by assisted reproductive technique: preliminary data.

    Ciavattini, Andrea; Stortoni, Piergiorgio; Mancioli, Francesca; Puglia, Danila; Tranquilli, Andrea Luigi; Liverani, Carlo Antonio


    The objective of this study was to compare the frequency of spontaneous preterm delivery before 35 weeks in 7 dichorionic twin pregnancies obtained after loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2,3 with respect to 21 twin pregnancies without previous cervical treatment. All the pregnancies were obtained after assisted reproduction techniques (ART). Same age at delivery was observed between two groups (p = 0.81) and none of our twin pregnancies after LEEP had a threatened preterm labor while four controls (19%) underwent a spontaneous preterm delivery (p = 0.35). These preliminary data seem to indicate that LEEP may not be responsible of spontaneous preterm delivery in twin pregnancies subsequent to ART.

  6. Quality of Life Shift after Aortic Valve Replacement in the Era of TAVI: Single-Center Class Comparison Study Between Different Procedural Techniques.

    Blehm, Alexander; Sorokin, Vitaly A; Hartman, Mikael; Wai, Khin Lay; Schmitz, Karoline; Lichtenberg, Artur


    The health-related quality of life (QOL) is one of the most important outcome indicators for elderly people undergoing aortic valve interventions, and should be assessed across different interventions, including emerging percutaneous techniques. The study aim was to assess the change in QOL after different procedures for aortic valve replacement (AVR). QOL was assessed using the Short Form-36 questionnaire (SF-36) for 59 patients after conventional AVR; of these patients, 28 had AVR via a J-sternotomy, a transapical approach was used in 20 patients, and a transfemoral approach in 34. The early mortality during hospitalization was not significantly different among all four groups. The inverse probability weighted propensity scores adjusted Kaplan-Meier curve revealed that the transapical group had the lowest survival rate. The treatment effect analysis was most prominent in the transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) group across all domains for QOL. The multivariate hierarchical linear mixed final fitted model shows that the transapical TAVI procedure and NYHA class (III-IV) had a significant negative effect on the physical domain and overall QOL score. Changes in QOL after interventions on the aortic valve were determined by the patient's preoperative status and the surgical intervention. The transcatheter intervention, even in 'sicker' patients, provided a gain in QOL comparable with that after an open-heart procedure. Transfemoral TAVI was shown to have advantages over transapical TAVI in terms of QOL improvement at three months and six months, and should be considered the first choice for patients in the high-risk surgical group.

  7. Estimação de tempo em ratos submetidos a um procedimento de discriminação condicional Rat's time estimation under conditional discrimination procedure

    José Lino Oliveira Bueno


    Full Text Available Num procedimento de discriminação condicional (DC de característica positiva, um mesmo estímulo alvo A não é seguido de reforço quando apresentado sozinho, mas é seguido de reforço quando precedido de um estímulo X. Na DC de característica negativa, um mesmo estímulo alvo B é seguido de reforço quando apresentado sozinho, mas nunca quando precedido do estímulo Y. Nesta pesquisa, procurou-se examinar se uma informação amodal relativa a atributos básicos de estímulos, como a duração, tem capacidade de adquirir propriedades condicionais em animais. Ratos foram submetidos a procedimentos de DC positiva e negativa com estímulos X e Y de mesma modalidade física, uma luz, mas com durações diferentes: X= 15-seg e Y= 5-seg; as durações dos estímulos alvo foram A= 5-seg e B= 15-seg. Os resultados mostraram que os animais discriminaram as propriedades condicionais excitatórias (X e inibitórias (Y relativas, respectivamente, a duas durações diferentes de um mesmo estímulo, sustentando a hipótese de que a duração, um componente amodal de estímulo, pode ser associada a propriedades condicionais, em ratos.In a feature positive conditional discrimination procedure, a stimulus A is not followed by reinforcement when presented alone, but it is always followed by reinforcement when it is preceded by stimulus X. In the negative conditional discrimination procedure, a stimulus B is always followed by reinforcement when presented alone, but it is not followed by reinforcement when preceded by stimulus Y. This research examined if amodal information dealing with basic attributes, as duration, has the capability to acquire conditional properties in animals. Rats were submitted to positive or negative conditional discrimination procedures with stimulus X and Y, which were of the same physical modality, a light, but with different durations: X= 15 seg e Y= 5 seg (and A=5 seg, B=15 seg. The results showed that the animals discriminated

  8. The optimization of essential oils supercritical CO 2 extraction from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic steps procedure and semi-continuous technique using response surface method

    Hossein Kamali


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to examine and evaluate crucial variables in essential oils extraction process from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic and semi-continuous techniques using response surface method. Materials and Methods: Essential oil components were extracted from Lavandula hybrida (Lavandin flowers using supercritical carbon dioxide via static-dynamic steps (SDS procedure, and semi-continuous (SC technique. Results: Using response surface method the optimum extraction yield (4.768% was obtained via SDS at 108.7 bar, 48.5° C , 120 min (static: 8×15, 24 min (dynamic: 8×3 min in contrast to the 4.620% extraction yield for the SC at 111.6 bar, 49.2° C , 14 min (static, 121.1 min (dynamic. Conclusion: The results indicated that a substantial reduction (81.56% solvent usage (kg CO 2 /g oil is observed in the SDS method versus the conventional SC method.

  9. Fetoplacental transport of various trace elements in pregnant rat using the multitracer technique

    Enomoto, Shuichi; Hirunuma, Rieko [Radioisotope Technology Division, Cyclotron Center, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako, Saitama (Japan)


    The placenta functions as the barrier between fetus and mother, providing means of regulation of heat exchange, respiration, nutrition, and excretion for the fetus. In this paper, the multitracer technique was applied to study the maternal transport of trace elements via the placenta to the fetus. In this experiment, the multitracer solution used contained the following nuclides: {sup 7}Be, {sup 22}Na, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 48}V, {sup 52}Mn, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 56}Co, {sup 65}Zn, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 74}As, {sup 75}Se, {sup 84}Rb, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 87}Y, {sup 88}Zr, {sup 96}Tc, {sup 101m}Rh, and {sup 103}Ru. We examined the time dependence of the uptake amounts about various elements. From these results, we observed a large difference in the time dependencies between elements and the elements were classified into three groups. Group I elements, such as Be, Sc, V, As, Y, Zr, Tc, Rh, and Ru, are transported to the placenta from the maternal blood and only accumulates in the placenta. Group II elements, such as Na, Co, Ga, Rb, and Sr, are transported to the placenta from the maternal blood and accumulate in the placenta, fetus, and amniotic fluid. Group III elements, such as Mn, Fe, Zn, and Se, are transported to the placenta from the maternal blood and mainly accumulate in the fetus. From these results, it was considered that the placenta is a highly selective filters because essential elements such as Group III elements are readily transported from the placental membrane to the growing fetus, whereas nonessential metals such as Group I elements have difficulty penetrating the placental barrier that protects the fetus from the toxic effects of these elements. (author)

  10. SU-E-I-42: Normalized Embryo/fetus Doses for Fluoroscopically Guided Pacemaker Implantation Procedures Calculated Using a Monte Carlo Technique

    Damilakis, J; Stratakis, J; Solomou, G [University of Crete, Heraklion (Greece)


    Purpose: It is well known that pacemaker implantation is sometimes needed in pregnant patients with symptomatic bradycardia. To our knowledge, there is no reported experience regarding radiation doses to the unborn child resulting from fluoroscopy during pacemaker implantation. The purpose of the current study was to develop a method for estimating embryo/fetus dose from fluoroscopically guided pacemaker implantation procedures performed on pregnant patients during all trimesters of gestation. Methods: The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport code was employed in this study. Three mathematical anthropomorphic phantoms representing the average pregnant patient at the first, second and third trimesters of gestation were generated using Bodybuilder software (White Rock science, White Rock, NM). The normalized embryo/fetus dose from the posteroanterior (PA), the 30° left-anterior oblique (LAO) and the 30° right-anterior oblique (RAO) projections were calculated for a wide range of kVp (50–120 kVp) and total filtration values (2.5–9.0 mm Al). Results: The results consist of radiation doses normalized to a) entrance skin dose (ESD) and b) dose area product (DAP) so that the dose to the unborn child from any fluoroscopic technique and x-ray device used can be calculated. ESD normalized doses ranged from 0.008 (PA, first trimester) to 2.519 μGy/mGy (RAO, third trimester). DAP normalized doses ranged from 0.051 (PA, first trimester) to 12.852 μGy/Gycm2 (RAO, third trimester). Conclusion: Embryo/fetus doses from fluoroscopically guided pacemaker implantation procedures performed on pregnant patients during all stages of gestation can be estimated using the method developed in this study. This study was supported by the Greek Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs, General Secretariat for Research and Technology, Operational Program ‘Education and Lifelong Learning’, ARISTIA (Research project: CONCERT)

  11. Combined thoracoscopic and laparoscopic robotic-assisted minimally invasive esophagectomy using a four-arm platform: experience, technique and cautions during early procedure development.

    Sarkaria, Inderpal S; Rizk, Nabil P; Finley, David J; Bains, Manjit S; Adusumilli, Prasad S; Huang, James; Rusch, Valerie W


    This study reports an early, single-institution experience of combined thoracoscopic and laparoscopic robotic-assisted minimally invasive esophagectomy (RAMIE) using a four-arm robotic platform, with special attention given to the pitfalls and complications during procedure development. We conducted a prospective, single-cohort, observational study of patients undergoing RAMIE at a single institution. A total of 21 patients (median age, 62 years [range, 37-83 years]) underwent RAMIE with a four-arm robotic platform (17 by Ivor Lewis and 4 by McKeown). Of the patients, 17 (81%) had a complete (R0) resection, and 16 (76%) received induction treatment, the majority (14/21 [67%]) with combined chemoradiation. The median operative time was 556 min (range, 395-807 min), which decreased to 414 min (range, 405-543 min) for the last 5 cases in the series. The median estimated blood loss was 307 cm(3) (range, 200-500 cm(3)), and the median length of hospital stay was 10 days (range, 7-70 days). The median number of lymph nodes resected was 20 (range, 10-49). Five (24%) patients were converted to open procedures. Five patients (24%) had major complications. One (5%) died of complications on postoperative Day 70, and 3 (14%) had clinically significant anastomotic leaks (Grade II or greater, by Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0). Three patients (14%) in this early experience developed airway fistulas. While four-arm RAMIE may offer advantages over standard minimally invasive esophagectomy approaches, its adoption in a structured program, with critical evaluation of adverse events and subsequent adjustment of technique, is paramount to maximize patient safety, minimize complications and improve the conduct of operation early in the learning curve. Particular technical consideration should be given to prevention of airway complications.

  12. Authentication of Galician (N.W. Spain) quality brand potatoes using metal analysis. Classical pattern recognition techniques versus a new vector quantization-based classification procedure.

    Peña, R M; García, S; Iglesias, R; Barro, S; Herrero, C


    The objective of this work was to develop a classification system in order to confirm the authenticity of Galician potatoes with a Certified Brand of Origin and Quality (CBOQ) and to differentiate them from other potatoes that did not have this quality brand. Elemental analysis (K, Na, Rb, Li, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Mg and Ca) of potatoes was performed by atomic spectroscopy in 307 samples belonging to two categories, CBOQ and Non-CBOQ potatoes. The 307 x 10 data set was evaluated employing multivariate chemometric techniques, such as cluster analysis and principal component analysis in order to perform a preliminary study of the data structure. Different classification systems for the two categories on the basis of the chemical data were obtained applying several commonly supervised pattern recognition procedures [such as linear discriminant analysis, K-nearest neighbours (KNN), soft independent modelling of class analogy and multilayer feed-forward neural networks]. In spite of the fact that some of these classification methods produced satisfactory results, the particular data distribution in the 10-dimensional space led to the proposal of a new vector quantization-based classification procedure (VQBCP). The results achieved with this new approach (percentages of recognition and prediction abilities > 97%) were better than those attained by KNN and can be compared advantageously with those provided by LDA (linear discriminant analysis), SIMCA (soft independent modelling of class analogy) and MLF-ANN (multilayer feed-forward neural networks). The new VQBCP demonstrated good performance by carrying out adequate classifications in a data set in which the classes are subgrouped. The metal profiles of potatoes provided sufficient information to enable classification criteria to be developed for classifying samples on the basis of their origin and brand.

  13. Expanded eggshell procedure combined with closing-opening technique (a modified vertebral column resection) for the treatment of thoracic and thoracolumbar angular kyphosis.

    Liu, Xinyu; Yuan, Suomao; Tian, Yonghao; Wang, Lianlei; Zheng, Yanping; Li, Jianmin


    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a modified vertebral column resection for the treatment of thoracolumbar angular kyphosis. A total of 13 patients (8 male, 5 female) with thoracolumbar kyphosis (kyphotic angle > 60°) were included in this study (Group A). There were 3 patients with failure of spinal formation (Type 1 deformity), 6 patients with old thoracic or lumbar compression fracture, and 4 patients with old spinal tuberculosis (including 1 case of T3-5 vertebral malunion). The average preoperative kyphotic angle was 67.3° (range 62°-75°). Each patient underwent an expanded eggshell procedure combined with the closing-opening technique for the treatment of thoracolumbar angular kyphosis. Sixteen patients who were previously treated with a closing-opening wedge osteotomy in the same spine classification group (kyphotic angle > 60°) were used as a control group (Group B). In Group A, the average (± SD) operative time was 400 ± 60 minutes, and the average blood loss was 960 ± 120 ml. There were no surgery-related complications observed during or after the operations. The average local kyphotic angle was 20.3° (range 18°-24.5°), and the average correction rate was 68.7%. In Group B, the average operative time was 470 ± 90 minutes, and the average blood loss was 2600 ± 1600 ml (range 1200-8200 ml). There were segmental vessels and spinal canal venous plexus injury in 1 case, spinal cord injury in 1 case, dural tearing in 2 cases, pleural rupture in 2 cases, and hemothorax and pneumothorax in 1 case. Each patient had more than 2 years of follow-up. At the latest follow-up examination, the average regional kyphotic angle was 19.9° ± 9.1° (range 19°-34°), and there was no significant loss of correction (p > 0.05). There was greater blood loss and a higher complication rate in Group B than in Group A (p < 0.05). An expanded eggshell procedure combined with the closing-opening technique for the treatment of thoracolumbar

  14. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of bones in adult rats by repeated intraperitoneal administration of paclitaxel (taxol) using radioisotope EDXRF technique

    Oezdemir, Y. E-mail:; Iyiguen, Ibrahim; Durak, Ridvan


    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of right back leg bone samples taken from adult female rats administered paclitaxel (taxol) was carried out using standard addition method. Because qualitative and quantitative data analysis of rat bone samples is not found in the literature, comparison was not made with other experimental results. Our experimental results are presented and discussed in this study.

  15. Rapid Analysis Procedures for Triglycerides and Fatty Acids as Pentyl and Phenethyl Esters for the Detection of Butter Adulteration Using Chromatographic Techniques

    Daniele Naviglio


    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of three methods for quality control, fraud detection, and authentication of butter fat and other oils/fats using chromatographic techniques, with one method for triglycerides and two methods for fatty acids (FAs. The procedure for the analysis of triglycerides requires only dissolution of the sample in n-hexane and gas chromatography (GC analysis using a capillary column. The second method is based on the transesterification of triglycerides as pentyl esters in a single-step reaction using sodium pentanoate in pentanol. The reaction proceeds at room temperature and is similar to the potassium hydroxide-catalysed transesterification of triglycerides with methanol and even more similar to the sodium methoxide method and sodium butanoate method. The advantage of using pentyl esters includes reducing the volatility of short-chain FAs, and substantial recoveries were obtained compared with methyl ester analysis. The third method involves the transesterification of triglycerides in fat through reaction with 2-phenylethanol in a single step; 2-phenylethanol possesses a chromophore, and the phenethyl esters formed are analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with UV detection.

  16. Rats

    Alexey Kondrashov


    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  17. Biodistribution of technetium-{sup 99m} pertechnetate after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (Capella technique) in rats

    Rego, Amalia Cinthia Meneses do; Jacome, Daniel Torres; Ramalho, Rachel de Alcantara Oliveira [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Araujo-Filho, Irami; Azevedo, Italo Medeiros; Medeiros, Aldo Cunha, E-mail: aldo@ufrnet.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. of Surgery


    Purpose: The biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate, the most used radiopharmaceutical in nuclear medicine, has not been studied in details after bariatric surgery. The objective was to investigate the effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate (Na{sup 99m}Tc-) in organs and tissues of rats. Methods: Twelve rats were randomly divided into two groups of 6 animals each. The RYGB group rats were submitted to the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and the control group rats were not operated. After 15 days, all rats were injected with 0.1mL of Na{sup 99m}Tc- via orbital plexus with average radioactivity of 0.66 MBq. After 30 minutes, liver, stomach, thyroid, heart, lung, kidney and femur samples were harvested, weighed and percentage of radioactivity per gram (%ATI/g) of each organ was determined by gamma counter Wizard Perkin-Elmer. We applied the Student t test for statistical analysis, considering p<0.05 as significant. Results: Significant reduction in mean %ATI/g was observed in the liver, stomach and femur in the RYGB group animals, compared with the control group rats (p<0.05). In other organs no significant difference in %ATI/g was observed between the two groups. Conclusion: This work contributes to the knowledge that the bariatric surgery RYGB modifies the pattern of biodistribution of Na{sup 99m}Tc{sup -}. (author)

  18. Analysis of maturation states of rat bone marrow-derived dendritic cells using an improved culture technique.

    Grauer, Oliver; Wohlleben, Gisela; Seubert, Silvia; Weishaupt, Andreas; Kämpgen, Eckhart; Gold, Ralf


    In this study, we examined in more detail the development of rat bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC). A two-stage culture system was used to propagate BMDC from rat bone marrow precursors. BMDC developed within clusters of proliferating cells after repetitive addition of rat granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor and rat interleukin (IL)-4 at a concentration of 5 ng/ml to the cultures. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis performed at an early stage of development (day 6) revealed an immature phenotype with intermediate levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression and low levels of the costimulator molecules CD80 and CD86. Upon further culture, a strong upregulation of MHC class II, costimulatory and adhesion molecules could be observed, whereas macrophage marker antigens were downregulated. Late-stage BMDC (day 10) showed a high expression of MHC class I and II, ICAM-1, Ox62 and CD11c, and revealed a split pattern of B7-1 and B7-2. The cell yield was about 40% of the initially plated bone marrow cells with 80% MHC class II-high and less than 20% MHC class II-low positive cells. Full maturation of rat BMDC (day 12) with an almost uniform expression of B7 was achieved by subsequent subculture and further stimulation with rat tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or soluble CD40 ligand (CD40L). Analysis of the cell supernatant revealed a strong IL-12 production after LPS or CD40L, and to a lesser extent after TNF-alpha stimulation. Additionally, LPS-treated, but not CD40L-treated BMDC secreted TNF-alpha into the supernatant. Early-stage BMDC sufficiently triggered a T cell receptor (TCR) downregulation, but did not stimulate naive T cells in an allogeneic mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR) and revealed a low stimulatory capacity in an antigen-specific T cell assay. In contrast, late-stage BMDC and especially fully mature BMDC strongly induced TCR internalisation, elicited high T cell responses

  19. Táticas e técnicas endovasculares para retirada de corpos estranhos intravenosos Endovascular techniques and procedures, methods for removal of intravascular foreign bodies

    Joaquim Maurício da Motta-Leal Filho


    malfunction is the most likely signal of embolization, since patients are usually asymptomatic. OBJECTIVE: To report the method of removing intravascular foreign bodies, catheters with the use of various endovascular techniques and procedures. METHODS: This is a two-year retrospective study of 12 patients: seven women and five men. The average age was 29 years (ranging from two months to 65 years. RESULTS: Technical performance was 100% successful. Ten port-a-caths, one intra-cath and one PICC were extracted. The most common sites for the lodging of one of the ends of the intravascular foreign bodies were the right atrium (41.6% and the right ventricle (33.3%. In 100% of the cases, only one venous access was used for extraction of foreign bodies, and in 91.6% of the cases (11 catheters the femoral access was used. The loop-snare was used in 10 cases (83.3%. The most common cause of intravascular foreign body insertion was a catheter fracture, which occurred in 66.6% of the cases (eight cases. One major complication, the atrial fibrillation, occurred (8.3%, which was related to the intravascular foreign body extraction. The mortality rate in 30 days was zero. CONCLUSION: Percutaneous retrieval of intravascular foreign bodies is considered gold standard treatment because it is a minimally invasive, relatively simple, safe procedure, with low complication rates compared to conventional surgical treatment

  20. Tratamiento periodontal quirúrgico: Revisión. Conceptos. Consideraciones. Procedimientos. Técnicas Periodontal surgical therapy: Review. Concepts. Considerations. Procedures. Techniques

    R. Matos Cruz


    considered as an adjunct to cause-related periodontal therapy. The kind of surgery performed, the number of sites included and the moment at which it should performed is decided after evaluating for the initial cause-related therapy results. The ultimate objective of periodontal surgical treatment is the long term preservation of the periodontium. Periodontal surgery can contribute to this end creating accessibility for an adequate scaling and root planning therefore restoring the gingival morphology which facilitates the automatic plaque control of the patient. Developed surgical techniques must be evaluated on the basis of their potential to facilitate the elimination of subgingival deposits, as well as facilitate plaque control and thus improve the long term preservation of the periodontium. In the present article the authors review the basis of surgical periodontal treatment as well as related concepts and considerations, objectives, indications and contraindications, procedures and factors that determine the selection of one or the other surgical technique.

  1. The application of a non-linear analysis technique to the monitoring of anesthetic effects in the rat

    Broek, P.L.C. van den; Egmond, J. van; Rijn, C.M. van; Dirksen, R.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Booij, L.H.D.J.


    To find a new measure from the EEG that quantifies the effects of anesthetics during surgery, the correlation dimension (CD) of the EEG of eight rats was estimated. To get informed about the anesthetic state, the noxious induced withdrawal reflex (NIWR) was measured, i.e. the force elicited by trans

  2. Monoolein and chitosan gels as potential carriers of the rhBMP-2, using decortication surgical technique in Wistar rats as experimental model.

    Issa, João Paulo Mardegan; Spadaro, Augusto César Cropanese; Bentley, Maria Vitória L B; Iyomasa, Mamie Mizusaki; Siéssere, Selma; Regalo, Simone Cecílio Hallak; Defino, Helton Luiz Aparecido


    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the new bone tissue, comparing two different carriers for rhBMP-2, monoolein and chitosan gels, using the decortication and nondecorticatication surgical technique in rat mandibles, evaluated by histomorphometrical method. It was used 56 male Wistar rats (300 g), divided into 8 groups according to the rhBMP-2 carrier used, monoolein or chitosan gels; surgical technique, bone decortication or nondecortication; and period of time, 3 or 6 weeks until the sacrifice by perfusion. Results obtained in this study showed that the rhBMP-2/monoolein and rhBMP-2/chitosan used in this experimental model was able to induce osteogenesis, contributing to the bone healing process. The bone repair process was time dependent, so that at 6 weeks there was an improved amount of new bone in relation to 3 weeks, considered each analyzed group, and the decortication was able to expose the bone marrow and speed up the bone healing process, which was showed by histomorphometrical methods. Both of carriers were capable to adapt to the bone surgical area, according to the clinical observations, and had favorable properties in relation to protein releasing, revealed by the amount of new bone tissue found in the histological analysis.

  3. Study on multielemental speciation analysis of Cr(VI), As(III) and As(V) in water by advanced hyphenated technique HPLC/ICP-DRC-MS. Fast and reliable procedures.

    Marcinkowska, Monika; Komorowicz, Izabela; Barałkiewicz, Danuta


    Analytical procedures for multielemental speciation analysis of arsenite - As(III), arsenate - As(V) and hexavalent chromium - Cr(VI) in water using high performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC/ICP-DRC-MS) hyphenated technique have been developed. A dynamic reaction cell (DRC) for spectral interferences elimination has been involved in the experiment. Application of oxygen and ammonia as reaction gases in the DRC under various conditions has been verified. Optimization of the following chromatographic conditions: mobile phase composition, concentration of particular components, mobile phase pH and flow rate, injection volume and column temperature, has been conducted. Species separation has been carried out on anion-exchange chromatographic column using isocratic elution with: 22 mM (NH4)2HPO4, 25 mM NH4NO3 (for procedure A) and 22 mM (NH4)2HPO4, 65 mM NH4NO3 (for procedure B) as mobile phases. Detection limits (LD) for procedure A were 0.16 µg L(-1), 0.090 µg L(-1), 0.073 µg L(-1), and for procedure B were 0.14 µg L(-1), 0.062 µg L(-1), 0.15 µg L(-1) for As(III), As(V) and Cr(VI), respectively. Linearity was tested at two concentration ranges of: (0.5-10.0) µg L(-1) for procedure A and (5-50) µg L(-1) for procedure B, and showed correlation coefficients for each of the analytes to be above 0.999. Repeatability values obtained for spiked real water samples were in the range of (4.2-7.6)% and (2.0-2.4)% for procedure A and B respectively. Accuracy was calculated based on the analysis of spiked real water samples at three concentration levels. Obtained recoveries were from 94% to 102%.

  4. Evaluation of the Cell Proliferation Process of Ovarian Follicles in Hypothyroid Rats by Proliferation Cell Nuclear Antigen Immunohistochemical Technique

    M. Moghaddam Dorafshani


    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The normal females reproductive function , needs hypothalamus-hypophysis-ovarian extensive hormonal messages. Primary hypothyroidism is characterized by reduced production and secretion of thyroid hormones. During follicular growth PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen and cycklin D complex play an important role in regulating cell proliferation .This study aimed to determine the cell proliferation index and how this process changes induced by thyroid hormone decreased in rat ovarian follicles.Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, 20 Wistar female rats were divided into experimental and control groups. Experimental group was chemically thyroidectomized by administering propylthiouracil (PTU (500 mg per liter of drinking water. The control group received normal drinking water. After three weeks rats were killed and their ovaries dissected and fixed for the histological preparation. Cell proliferation was determined by PCNA and stereological methods were used for counting cells.Results: Cell proliferation index showed a significant decrease in the frequency of follicular growth from prenatal to graafian follicles in hypothyroidism groups(P0.05 . PCNA expression determined that Primary follicle growth begins earlier. Positive PCNA cells were not observed in primordial follicles of the groups.Conclusion: According to the results of our study, this hypothesis is raised that granulosa cells in growing follicles may be increased by follicle adjacent cells in ovarian stroma . Hormonal changes following the reduction of thyroid hormones may greatly affect the cell proliferation index and lead to faster follicle degeneration.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012; 19 (3:5-15

  5. [Standardizing the manipulation procedure of acupuncture-moxibustion, reinforcing the training of' clinical skill: learning experience of Acupuncture-moxibustion Clinical Skills Training: Chapter of Commonly Used Needling and Moxibustion Techniques].

    Tian, Hongfang; Yang, Chao; Tang, Jie; Qin, Qiuguo; Zhao, Mingwen; Zhao, Jiping


    The book Acupuncture-moxibustion Clinical Skills Training is one of "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" in novative teaching materials, which is published by People's Medical Publishing House. Through learning the first half of the book commonly used needling and moxibustion techniques, it is realized that the selection of book content is reasonable and much attention is paid to needling and moxibustion techniques; the chapter arrangement is well-organized, and the form is novel, which is concise and intuitive; for every technique, great attention is paid to standardize the manipulation procedure and clarify the technique key, simultaneously the safety of acupuncture and moxibustion is also emphasized. The characteristics of the book, including innovativeness, practicability, are highlighted, and it greatly helps to improve students' clinical skills and examination ability.

  6. Technical success, technique efficacy and complications of minimally-invasive imaging-guided percutaneous ablation procedures of breast cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Mauri, Giovanni; Sconfienza, Luca Maria; Pescatori, Lorenzo Carlo; Fedeli, Maria Paola; Alì, Marco; Di Leo, Giovanni; Sardanelli, Francesco


    To systematically review studies concerning imaging-guided minimally-invasive breast cancer treatments. An online database search was performed for English-language articles evaluating percutaneous breast cancer ablation. Pooled data and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Technical success, technique efficacy, minor and major complications were analysed, including ablation technique subgroup analysis and effect of tumour size on outcome. Forty-five studies were analysed, including 1,156 patients and 1,168 lesions. Radiofrequency (n=577; 50%), microwaves (n=78; 7%), laser (n=227; 19%), cryoablation (n=156; 13%) and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU, n=129; 11%) were used. Pooled technical success was 96% (95%CI 94-97%) [laser=98% (95-99%); HIFU=96% (90-98%); radiofrequency=96% (93-97%); cryoablation=95% (90-98%); microwave=93% (81-98%)]. Pooled technique efficacy was 75% (67-81%) [radiofrequency=82% (74-88); cryoablation=75% (51-90); laser=59% (35-79); HIFU=49% (26-74)]. Major complications pooled rate was 6% (4-8). Minor complications pooled rate was 8% (5-13%). Differences between techniques were not significant for technical success (p=0.449), major complications (p=0.181) or minor complications (p=0.762), but significant for technique efficacy (p=0.009). Tumour size did not impact on variables (p>0.142). Imaging-guided percutaneous ablation techniques of breast cancer have a high rate of technical success, while technique efficacy remains suboptimal. Complication rates are relatively low. • Imaging-guided ablation techniques for breast cancer are 96% technically successful. • Overall technique efficacy rate is 75% but largely inhomogeneous among studies. • Overall major and minor complication rates are low (6-8%).

  7. Estimation of the unbound brain concentration of P-glycoprotein substrates or nonsubstrates by a serial cerebrospinal fluid sampling technique in rats.

    Mariappan, T Thanga; Kurawattimath, Vishwanath; Gautam, Shashyendra Singh; Kulkarni, Chetan P; Kallem, Rajareddy; Taskar, Kunal S; Marathe, Punit H; Mandlekar, Sandhya


    The unbound concentration in plasma drives the transport of the drug into the brain, and the unbound drug concentration in the central nervous system (CNS) drives the interaction with the target eliciting the pharmacological effect. Delivery of the drug to the CNS is a challenge because of the unique neurovascular unit, which restricts the passage of drugs into the brain. The efflux transporters [especially P-glycoprotein (P-gp)] present at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) act as one of the major detractors for keeping drugs outside the CNS. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drug concentration has been used as a surrogate for unbound brain concentrations and has proven to be a good indicator to relate to CNS activity. Herein, we have established a serial CSF sampling technique in rats, which allowed CSF sampling from a single animal and reduced the number of animals required, as well as the interanimal variance associated with a composite/terminal study design. Concentrations in the CSF sampled from the cisterna magna serially from the same rat were compared with the concentrations obtained from discrete CSF sampling and with brain concentrations. The serial CSF sampling technique was also authenticated by ensuring no change in the barrier without any indication of damage caused by the repeated puncture of cisterna magna. This technique was corroborated using three passively permeable compounds (carbamazepine, theophylline, and propranolol), three P-gp substrates (quinidine, verapamil, and digoxin), and one l-amino acid uptake transporter substrate (gabapentin). The P-gp substrates were also used in separate studies with the P-gp inhibitor elacridar to assess the effect on CSF concentration versus brain concentration on P-gp inhibition. The CSF concentration and unbound brain concentration were comparable (within 3-fold) for all compounds, including P-gp substrates even in the presence of elacridar. Therefore, this technique can prove to be beneficial for predicting the

  8. Analysis of Millard Ⅱ Technique and Lip Adhesion Procedure for Correcting Unilateral Complete Cleft Lip%唇粘连术与Millard Ⅱ式联合修复单侧完全性唇裂疗效分析

    谢锋; 张正文; 李昊; 李磊


    目的:分析唇粘连术与Millard Ⅱ式手术联合矫正单侧完全性唇裂的优点与手术要点.方法:2003年3月至2009年9月对42例单侧完全性唇裂接受过唇粘连术患者采用MillardⅡ式手术矫正.结果:所有患者术后切口愈合良好,随访3~6个月,患侧鼻小柱延长,两侧鼻孔对称,人中嵴对称,唇弓形态好,无瘢痕增生.结论:唇粘连术与MillardⅡ式手术联合是矫正单侧完全性唇裂的理想术式.%Objective: To analyze the Millard Ⅱ technique and lip adhesion procedure for correcting of unilateral complete cleft lip.Methods: The Millard Ⅱ technique was used to correct unilateral complete cleft lip made correction through lip adhesion procedure in 42 patients from March of 2003 to September of 2009.Results: The postoperative follow-ups of 3-6 months revealed good results of the symmetrical nostrils and philtrums, prolonged columella nasi, good-shaped cupids bow, and invisible scar.Conclusion: The Millard Ⅱ technique and lip adhesion procedure could be an ideal method to correct unilateral complete cleft lip.

  9. Bone mass density estimation: Archimede’s principle versus automatic X-ray histogram and edge detection technique in ovariectomized rats treated with germinated brown rice bioactives

    Muhammad, Sani Ismaila; Maznah, Ismail; Mahmud, Rozi Binti; Esmaile, Maher Faik; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria


    Background Bone mass density is an important parameter used in the estimation of the severity and depth of lesions in osteoporosis. Estimation of bone density using existing methods in experimental models has its advantages as well as drawbacks. Materials and methods In this study, the X-ray histogram edge detection technique was used to estimate the bone mass density in ovariectomized rats treated orally with germinated brown rice (GBR) bioactives, and the results were compared with estimated results obtained using Archimede’s principle. New bone cell proliferation was assessed by histology and immunohistochemical reaction using polyclonal nuclear antigen. Additionally, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium and zinc concentrations were detected using a chemistry analyzer and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Rats were divided into groups of six as follows: sham (nonovariectomized, nontreated); ovariectomized, nontreated; and ovariectomized and treated with estrogen, or Remifemin®, GBR-phenolics, acylated steryl glucosides, gamma oryzanol, and gamma amino-butyric acid extracted from GBR at different doses. Results Our results indicate a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium, and zinc and ash content in the treated groups compared with the ovariectomized nontreated group (P Archimede’s principle and the edge detection technique between the treated groups (r2 = 0.737, P = 0.004). Conclusion Our study shows that GBR bioactives increase bone density, which might be via the activation of zinc formation and increased calcium content, and that X-ray edge detection technique is effective in the measurement of bone density and can be employed effectively in this respect. PMID:24187491

  10. Bipolar radiofrequency-induced thermofusion of intestinal anastomoses--feasibility of a new anastomosis technique in porcine and rat colon.

    Holmer, Christoph; Winter, Hanno; Kröger, Matthias; Nagel, Alexandra; Jaenicke, Annika; Lauster, Roland; Kraft, Marc; Buhr, Heinz J; Ritz, Jörg-Peter


    In recent years, vessel sealing has become a well-established method in surgical practice for sealing and transecting vessels. Since this technology depends on the fusion of collagen fibers abundantly present in the intestinal wall, it should also be possible to create intestinal anastomoses by thermofusion. Bipolar radiofrequency-induced thermofusion of intestinal tissue may replace traditionally used staples or sutures in the future. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of fusing intestinal tissue ex vivo by bipolar radiofrequency-induced thermofusion. An experimental setup for temperature-controlled bipolar radiofrequency-induced thermofusion of porcine (n = 30) and rat (n = 18) intestinal tissue was developed. Colon samples were harvested and then anastomosed, altering compressive pressure to examine its influence on anastomotic bursting pressure during radiofrequency-induced anastomotic fusion. For comparison, mechanical stapler anastomoses of porcine colonic samples and conventional suturing of rat colonic samples identical to those used for fusion experiments were prepared, and burst pressure was measured. All thermofused colonic anastomoses were primarily tight and leakage proof. For porcine colonic samples, an optimal interval of compressive pressure (1,125 mN/mm(2)) with respect to a high amount of burst pressure (41 mmHg) was detected. The mean bursting pressure for mechanical stapler anastomosis was 60.7 mmHg and did not differ from the thermofusion (p = 0.15). Furthermore, the mean bursting pressure for thermofusion of rat colonic samples was up to 69.5 mmHg for a compressive pressure of 140 mN/mm(2). These results confirm the feasibility to create experimental intestinal anastomoses using bipolar radiofrequency-induced thermofusion. The stability of the induced thermofusion showed no differences when compared to that of conventional anastomoses. Bipolar radiofrequency-induced thermofusion of intestinal tissue

  11. Influence of the surface averaging procedure of the current density in assessing compliance with the ICNIRP low-frequency basic restrictions by means of numerical techniques

    Zoppetti, N; Andreuccetti, D [IFAC-CNR (' Nello Carrara' Institute for Applied Physics of the Italian National Research Council), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)], E-mail:, E-mail:


    Although the calculation of the surface average of the low-frequency current density distribution over a cross-section of 1 cm{sup 2} is required by ICNIRP guidelines, no reference averaging algorithm is indicated, neither in the ICNIRP guidelines nor in the Directive 2004/40/EC that is based on them. The lack of a general standard algorithm that fulfils the ICNIRP guidelines' requirements is particularly critical in the prospective of the 2004/40/EC Directive endorsement, since the compliance to normative limits refers to well-defined procedures. In this paper, two case studies are considered, in which the calculation of the surface average is performed using a simplified approach widely used in the literature and an original averaging procedure. This analysis, aimed at quantifying the expected differences and to single out their sources, shows that the choice of the averaging algorithm represents an important source of uncertainty in the application of the guideline requirements.

  12. Comparison of pre-procedural anxiety and depression scores for patients undergoing chorion villus sampling and amniocentesis: An alternative perspective on prenatal invasive techniques.

    Sanhal, Cem Yasar; Mendilcioglu, Inanc; Ozekinci, Murat; Simsek, Mehmet; Bozkurt, Selen


    To compare the pre-procedural anxiety and depression levels of patients undergoing chorion villus sampling (CVS) and amniocentesis (AC). Patients referred to our department for fetal karyotype analysis with a positive first or second trimester screening test for aneuploidy between January 2013 to June 2015 were included. CVS and AC procedures were performed in patients with gestation periods of between 11-14 and 16-20 weeks, respectively. Anxiety was evaluated using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and depression was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II). A total of 1,400 patients were included. Compared to first trimester controls, patients undergoing CVS had significantly higher STAI-state and BDI-II results. Likewise, patients undergoing AC had higher STAI-state and BDI-II scores than controls in the second trimester. In terms of STAI-trait results, no difference was found between the groups. Our results also showed that, compared to AC group, patients undergoing CVS had similar STAI-state, STAI-trait and but higher BDI-II scores. We conclude that evaluating the stress and depression levels of these patients should be one of the routine procedures in pregnancy follow-up.

  13. Rapid acquisition of operant conditioning in 5-day-old rat pups: a new technique articulating suckling-related motor activity and milk reinforcement.

    Arias, Carlos; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan Carlos; Molina, Agustin; Molina, Juan Carlos


    Newborn rats are capable of obtaining milk by attaching to a surrogate nipple. During this procedure pups show a gradual increase in head and forelimb movements oriented towards the artificial device that are similar to those observed during nipple attachment. In the present study the probability of execution of these behaviors was analyzed as a function of their contingency with intraoral milk infusion using brief training procedures (15 min). Five-day-old pups were positioned in a smooth surface having access to a touch-sensitive sensor. Physical contact with the sensor activated an infusion pump which served to deliver intraoral milk reinforcement (Paired group). Yoked controls received the reinforcer when Paired neonates touched the sensor. Paired pups trained under a continuous reinforcement schedule emitted significantly more responses than Yoked controls following two (Experiment 1) or one training session (Experiment 2). These differences were also observed during an extinction session conducted immediately after training. The level of maternal deprivation before training (3 or 6 hr) or the volume of milk delivered (1.0 or 1.5 microl per pulse) did not affect acquisition or extinction performances. In addition, it was observed that the rate of responding of Paired pups during the early phase of the extinction session significantly predicted subsequent levels of acceptance of the reinforcer. These results indicate that the frequency of suckling-related behaviors can be rapidly modified by means of associative operant processes. The operant procedure here described represents an alternative tool for the ontogenetic analysis of self-administration or behavior processes of seeking.

  14. Finite element procedures

    Bathe, Klaus-Jürgen


    Finite element procedures are now an important and frequently indispensable part of engineering analyses and scientific investigations. This book focuses on finite element procedures that are very useful and are widely employed. Formulations for the linear and nonlinear analyses of solids and structures, fluids, and multiphysics problems are presented, appropriate finite elements are discussed, and solution techniques for the governing finite element equations are given. The book presents general, reliable, and effective procedures that are fundamental and can be expected to be in use for a long time. The given procedures form also the foundations of recent developments in the field.

  15. Short Nuss bar procedure


    The Nuss procedure is now the preferred operation for surgical correction of pectus excavatum (PE). It is a minimally invasive technique, whereby one to three curved metal bars are inserted behind the sternum in order to push it into a normal position. The bars are left in situ for three years and then removed. This procedure significantly improves quality of life and, in most cases, also improves cardiac performance. Previously, the modified Ravitch procedure was used with resection of cartilage and the use of posterior support. This article details the new modified Nuss procedure, which requires the use of shorter bars than specified by the original technique. This technique facilitates the operation as the bar may be guided manually through the chest wall and no additional stabilizing sutures are necessary. PMID:27747185

  16. Widespread calcium deposits, as detected using the alizarin red S technique, in the nervous system of rats treated with dimethyl mercury.

    Mori, F; Tanji, K; Wakabayashi, K


    It has been reported that the alizarin red S technique may be used to visualize both intracellular and extracellular calcium deposits. Using this method histologic observations of the nervous system were made in rats that were given dimethyl mercury at 5 mg/kg per day for 12 consecutive days, and killed on days 1, 4, 7, 10, 12, 24, 32, 49, 100 and 140 (day 0 was the day that the final dose was administered). Neuronal degeneration with calcium deposition was found in the nervous system from day 4 onward. In the cerebellum alizarin red S-positive granules became gradually larger with time after dimethyl mercury administration, and large calcospherites were observed from day 32 onward. In contrast, the visualization of calcium deposits in the cerebral cortex was restricted to days 10-12. Calcium deposits were found in the ascending axons of the dorsal root ganglion neurons (dorsal fascicles of the spinal cord), but not in their perikarya. These findings suggest that widespread calcium deposition could occur in the nervous system following dimethyl mercury exposure, and that in the rat the mechanism of calcium deposition differs depending upon the brain region.

  17. Use of the gamma-ray absorption technique as a quality control procedure in the manufacture of powder metal shaped charge liners

    Lawrie, JJ


    Full Text Available The use of the gamma-ray absorption technique as a tool in evaluating the quality of manufactured powder metal liners was investigated. With powder metal liners, it is not only of interest to know whether the liner conforms geometrically...

  18. Aplicacion de nuevas tecnicas y procedimientos para la ensenanza de la lectura-escritura (Application of the New Techniques and Procedures for Teaching Reading-Writing).

    Instituto Nacional de Pedagogia (Mexico).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of experiments performed in Mexico, D. F. by way of introducing new techniques for teaching reading and writing, particularly in the remedial classes. The first part of the document deals with a series of experiments carried out with first grade remedial groups as follows:…

  19. Aplicacion de nuevas tecnicas y procedimientos para la ensenanza de la lectura-escritura (Application of the New Techniques and Procedures for Teaching Reading-Writing).

    Instituto Nacional de Pedagogia (Mexico).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of experiments performed in Mexico, D. F. by way of introducing new techniques for teaching reading and writing, particularly in the remedial classes. The first part of the document deals with a series of experiments carried out with first grade remedial groups as follows:…

  20. Effects of apple cider vinegars produced with different techniques on blood lipids in high-cholesterol-fed rats.

    Budak, Nilgun H; Kumbul Doguc, Duygu; Savas, Cagri M; Seydim, Atif C; Kok Tas, Tugba; Ciris, Metin I; Guzel-Seydim, Zeynep B


    Red delicious apples were used to produce natural apple cider with and without inclusion of maceration. Traditional surface and industrial submersion methods were then applied to make vinegar from apple ciders. Apple cider vinegar samples produced with inclusion of maceration in the surface method had the highest total phenolic content, chlorogenic acid, ORAC, and TEAC levels. Cholesterol and apple vinegar samples were administered using oral gavage to all groups of rats except the control group. Apple cider vinegars, regardless of the production method, decreased triglyceride and VLDL levels in all groups when compared to animals on high-cholesterol diets without vinegar supplementation. Apple cider vinegars increased total cholesterol and HDL and LDL cholesterol levels and decreased liver function tests when compared to animals on a high-cholesterol diet without vinegar supplementation. A high-cholesterol diet resulted in hepatic steatosis. VSBM and VSB groups significantly decreased steatosis.

  1. 动力固结流-固耦合模型的求解方法%Numerical simulation for a foundation reinforcement procedure using dynamic consolidation technique

    李尧臣; 陈洁; 周顺华


     A model for simulating and analyzing a dynamic consolidation procedure is presented in this paper. Based on the governing equations for analyzing 3-dimensional fluid-solid coupled problems in porous media,a variational principle and the corresponding finite element method are proposed. Procedure of single-point and single-time ramming is simulated by using the finite element method for axisymmetric problems. The solution method is introduced in detail. Finally,a sample problem is provided and the computational results then obtained are compared with the data measured in a construction site.%以三维多孔介质中基本方程为基础,提出了动力固结问题的力学模型,给出了相应的变分原理及其有限元格式,用轴对称问题的有限单元法模拟了单点单次夯击过程,给出了详细的求解方法及算例,并将计算结果与现场实测资料作了比较.

  2. A Procedure of Combination of Sequential Internal Thoracic Artery Grafting and Cooley's Technique for Complicated Case With Multi-vessel Disease,Left Ventricular Aneurysm and Mitral Regurgitation

    Meng-ya LIANG; Guang-xian CHEN; Zhong-kai WU; Xi ZHANG


    @@ INTRODUCTION Left ventricular aneurysm and ischemic mitral regurgitation are two of most common complications of acute myocardial infarction (AMI).Combination of both these two fatal complications is not rare and the management of these complicated cases is always a challenge to cardiac surgeon because of its relatively high mortality[1]. We reported a rare case of AMI in which a singlestage correction of mitral valve replacement with preservation of mitral apparatus, sequential left internal thoracic artery (ITA) grafting and Cooley's technique.

  3. Speciation of mercury compounds by gas chromatography with atomic emission detection. Simultaneous optimization of a headspace solid-phase microextraction and derivatization procedure by use of chemometric techniques

    Carro, A.M.; Neira, I.; Rodil, R.; Lorenzo, R. A. [Univ. Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dpto. Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia


    A method is proposed for the extraction and determination of organomercury compounds and Hg(II) in seawater samples by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with capillary gas chromatography-microwave-induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The mercury species were derivatized with sodium tetraphenylborate, sorbed on a polydimethylsiloxane-coated fused-silica fibre, and desorbed in the injection port of the GC, in splitless mode. Experimental design methodology was used to evaluate the effect of six HS-SPME-derivatization variables: sample volume, NaBPh{sub 4} volume, pH, sorption time, extraction-derivatization temperature, and rate of stirring. Use of a multicriterion decision-making approach, with the desirability function, enabled determination of the optimum working conditions of the procedure for simultaneous analysis of three mercury species. (orig.)

  4. Técnica para preparo angioarquitetônico hepático de ratos Preparation technique for angioarquitetonic liver model in rats

    Vitormauro Araújo da Silva


    Full Text Available Os métodos de injeção-corrosão são os principais métodos utilizados para o estudo da anatomia vascular do fígado. Alguns autores mencionam a técnica para estudo de fígado de cães, porcos, hamsters, coelhos e gatos, entretanto são escassos os trabalhos que mencionam o estudo da anatomia hepática de ratos. Desta forma é importante o conhecimento de novas técnicas de preparo para modelos angioarquitetônico de fígados, possibilitando um melhor conhecimento da anatomia e por conseguinte, aperfeiçoando significativamente a abordagem operatória deste órgão. Em função disso o objetivo do presente estudo é demonstrar a técnica para realização de angioarquitetura venosa do fígado de ratos. Foram utilizados 10 Rattus norvegicus albinus (Wistar, com massa corporal entre 250 e 300g, para verificar a funcionalidade do método. A técnica para preparo de modelo vascular apresenta três tempos fundamentais: cateterização da veia porta, veia cava intra-abdominal e veia cava intra-torácica; preparo e infusão da solução de acrílico; corrosão em ácido clorídrico e maceração da peça. Concluímos que, esta técnica é factível e apresenta como vantagem um baixo custo (30 dólares e com a utilização de duas cores diferentes de tinta pode-se separar o sistema vascular portal do sistema de drenagem supra-hepático, portanto sendo capaz de moldar a estrutura vascular hepática de ratos.The injection-erosion methods are the principal methods used for the study of the vascular anatomy of the liver. Some authors mention the technique for study of liver of dogs, pigs, hamsters, rabbits and cats, however they are scarce the works that mention the study of the hepatic anatomy of rats. This way it is important the knowledge of new preparation techniques for angioarquitetonic livers' models, making possible a better knowledge of the anatomy and consequently, improving the operative approach of this organ significantly. Due above of that

  5. Determination of salicylic acid using a magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-based solid-phase extraction procedure followed by an online concentration technique through micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    Chang, Yu-Hsuan; Huang, Chang-Wei; Fu, Shih-Feng; Wu, Mei-Yao; Wu, Tsunghsueh; Lin, Yang-Wei


    In this study, a magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-based solid-phase extraction procedure combined with the online concentration and separation of salicylic acid (SA) through micellar electrokinetic chromatography-UV detection (MEKC-UV) was developed. Under optimal experimental conditions, a good linearity in the range of 0.01-100μmolL(-1) was obtained with a coefficient of correlation of 0.9999. The detection sensitivity of the proposed method exhibited an approximately 1026-fold improvement compared with a single MEKC method without online concentration, and the detection limit (S/N=3) was 3.80nmolL(-1). The repeatability of the method was evaluated using intraday and interday RSDs (11.5% and 17.0%, respectively). The method was used to determine SA concentrations in tobacco leaves (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Samsun) from the NN genotype, nn genotype, and Nt-NahG mutant strains, as well as in shampoo and ointment samples. Rapid extraction and separation (<50min), acceptable repeatability (RSD<17.0%), and high spiked recoveries (95.8%-102.4%) were observed for plants, detergents, and pharmaceuticals.

  6. Standardization procedure for the nasal nitric oxide measurement method using Niox MINO® and the tidal-breathing technique with velum-closure.

    Gelardi, M; Abbattista, G; Quaranta, V N; Quaranta, N; Seccia, V; Buttafava, S; Frati, F; Ciprandi, G


    Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecule that performs many functions in the human body. The entire respiratory tract can produce NO, but the highest production occurs in the upper respiratory tract, in the paranasal sinuses in particular. The aim of the present study was to assess a new nasal NO (nNO) measurement method using the Niox MINO Nasal® device (Aerocrine AB, Solna, Sweden) and a special procedure, in order to compare the nNO values obtained in 32 healthy subjects with the values found in the international literature. The measured normal nNO values were equal to 426.76±143.27 ppb, with a 95% confidence interval [160.22-733.30]. Males had an average nNO value equal to 446.76±133.63 [178.64 – 714.02], whereas in females the average value was 403.80±154.90 [94.00-713.60]. This study allows us to confirm that we have been able to establish the normal range of nitric oxide quantity produced in the nasal/sinus cavities of healthy individuals using the Niox MINO Nasal® device and tidal-breathing with velum-closure manoeuvre.

  7. Block bone graft fixation (onlay): a modification of the surgical technique.

    Gealh, Walter Cristiano; dos Santos, Pâmela Letícia; Pereira, Cassiano Costa Silva; Okamoto, Tetuo; Antoniali, Cristina; Okamoto, Roberta


    Several reconstructive methods of the alveolar ridge have been reported to make possible future rehabilitations with implants. Many of these methods come from studies done in animals, mainly rats. With this clinical practice based on scientific evidence, any experimental procedure that can be undertaken in real life is fundamental. Thus, any research that emulates as closely as possible those techniques used in humans are important. This study describes the modification of the technique for block bone graft fixation (onlay) in rats using the "lag screw"-type technique, normally used in clinical procedures for grafts in humans. The conclusion was that the execution of the described procedures minimizes interference of blood flow in the area because of the maintenance of the muscle insertion in the buckle aspect of the most anterior region of the mandible, providing better stability to the graft and better contact interface of the graft and receptor bed.

  8. Effects of Propyithiouracil (PTU) Administration on the Synthesis and Secretion of Thyroglobulin in the Rat Thyroid Gland: A Quantitative Immuno-electron Microscopic Study Using Immunogold Technique.

    Yi, Xue; Yamamoto, Koichi; Shu, Lu; Katoh, Ryohei; Kawaoi, Akira


    To clarify the effects of an antithyroid drug on the kinetics of thyroglobulin synthesis, secretion, and reabsorption in the thyroid follicles, propylthiouracil (PTU) was administered to rats and the thyroid glands were examined by a refined post-embedding immunogold technique during and after withdrawal of PTU. Seven-wk-old male Wistar rats were administered with S mg of PTU/d through a gastric tube, and sacrificed at 1 and 2 wk of administration and at 1, 2, and 3 d, and 1, 2, 3, and 4 wk, after discontinuation. The administration of PTU caused a remarkable dilatation of the rER and Golgi apparatus, but these areas gradually recovered after withdrawal of PTU. During the experiment, no significant change in the density of thyroglobulin (Tg) was observed except for a transient increase immediately after withdrawal of PTU. The expression of Tg on subapical vesicles (SV) and follicular colloid took a relatively parallel course; increasing during administration of PTU and decreasing with a transient peak immediately after treatment was discontinued. In contrast to the remarkable changes in the morphology of compartments involved in Tg synthesis, the development of colloid droplets and formation of secondary lysosomes were suppressed during and after discontinuing administration of PTU. However, the basic pattern of the gradient of Tg density among the cellular compartments was essentially retained in the experimental group. Thus the present immunoelectron-microscopic study provided evidence that administration of PTU stimulates the synthesis and secretion of Tg in the follicular epithelium in vivo, and, also, suppresses reabsorption and degradation of Tg. Further, it was speculated that the density gradient of Tg among the compartments involved in Tg synthesis, secretion and storage is regulated by an unknown constitutive mechanism and not by the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-TSH receptor-mediated system.

  9. SU-E-T-67: A Quality Assurance Procedure for VMAT Delivery Technique with Multiple Verification Metric Using TG-119 Protocol

    Katsuta, Y; Kadoya, N; Shimizu, E; Matsunaga, K; Inoue, M; Majima, K; Jingu, K [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)


    Purpose: A successful VMAT plan delivery includes precise modulations of dose rate, gantry rotational and multi-leaf collimator shapes. The purpose of this research is to construct routine QA protocol which focuses on VMAT delivery technique and to obtain a baseline including dose error, fluence distribution and mechanical accuracy during VMAT. Methods: The mock prostate, head and neck (HN) cases supplied from AAPM were used in this study. A VMAT plans were generated in Monaco TPS according to TG-119 protocol. Plans were created using 6 MV and 10 MV photon beams for each case. The phantom based measurement, fluence measurement and log files analysis were performed. The dose measurement was performed using 0.6 cc ion chamber, which located at isocenter. The fluence distribution were acquired using the MapCHECK2 mounted in the MapPHAN. The trajectory log files recorded inner 20 leaf pairs and gantry angle positions at every 0.25 sec interval were exported to in-house software developed by MATLAB and determined those RMS values. Results: The dose difference is expressed as a ratio of the difference between measured and planned doses. The dose difference for 6 MV was 0.91%, for 10 MV was 0.67%. In turn, the fluence distribution using gamma criteria of 2%/2 mm with a 50% minimum dose threshold for 6 MV was 98.8%, for 10 MV was 97.5%, respectively. The RMS values of MLC for 6 MV and 10 MV were 0.32 mm and 0.37 mm, of gantry were 0.33 degree and 0.31 degree. Conclusion: In this study, QA protocol to assess VMAT delivery accuracy is constructed and results acquired in this study are used as a baseline of VMAT delivery performance verification.

  10. New procedure for multielemental speciation analysis of five toxic species: As(III), As(V), Cr(VI), Sb(III) and Sb(V) in drinking water samples by advanced hyphenated technique HPLC/ICP-DRC-MS.

    Marcinkowska, Monika; Komorowicz, Izabela; Barałkiewicz, Danuta


    Analytical procedure dedicated for multielemental determination of toxic species: As(III), As(V), Cr(VI), Sb(III) and Sb(V) in drinking water samples using high performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC/ICP-DRC-MS) technique was developed. Optimization of the detection and separation conditions was conducted. Dynamic reaction cell (DRC) with oxygen as a reaction gas was involved in the experiments. Obtained analytical signals for species separation were symmetrical, as studied by anion-exchange chromatography. Applied mobile phase consisted of 3 mM of EDTANa2 and 36 mM of ammonium nitrate. Full separation of species in the form of the following forms: H3AsO3, H2AsO4(-), SbO2(-), Sb(OH)6(-), CrO4(2-) was achieved in 15 min with use of gradient elution program. Detailed validation of analytical procedure proved the reliability of analytical measurements. The procedure was characterized by high precision in the range from 1.7% to 2.4%. Detection limits (LD) were 0.067 μg L(-1), 0.068 μg L(-1), 0.098 μg L(-1), 0.083 μg L(-1) and 0.038 μg L(-1) for As(III), As(V), Cr(VI), Sb(III) and Sb(V), respectively. Obtained recoveries confirmed the lack of interferences' influence on analytical signals as their values were in the range of 91%-110%. The applicability of the proposed procedure was tested on drinking water samples characterized by mineralization up to 650 mg L(-1).

  11. SU-F-T-647: Linac-Based Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) in the Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia: Detailed Description of SRS Procedural Technique and Reported Clinical Outcomes

    Pokhrel, D; Sood, S; Badkul, R; Jiang, H; Stepp, T; Camarata, P; Wang, F [University of Kansas Hospital, Kansas City, KS (United States)


    Purpose: SRS is an effective non-invasive alternative treatment modality with minimal-toxicity used to treat patients with medically/surgically refractory trigeminal neuralgia root(TNR) or those who may not tolerate surgical intervention. We present our linac-based SRS procedure for TNR treatment and simultaneously report our clinical outcomes. Methods: Twenty-eight TNR-patients treated with frame-based SRS at our institution (2009–2015) with a single-fraction point-dose of 60-80Gy to TNR were included in this IRB-approved study. Experienced neurosurgeon and radiation oncologist delineated the TNR on 1.0mm thin 3D-FIESTA-MRI that was co-registered with 0.7mm thin planning-CT. Treatment plans were generated in iPlan (BrainLAB) with a 4-mm diameter cone using 79 arcs with differential-weighting for Novalis-TX 6MV-SRS(1000MU/min) beam and optimized to minimize brainstem dose. Winston-Lutz test was performed before each treatment delivery with sub-millimeter isocenter accuracy. Quality assurance of frame placement was maintained by helmet-bobble-measurement before simulation-CT and before patient setup at treatment couch. OBI-CBCT scan was performed for patient setup verification without applying shifts. On clinical follow up, treatment response was assessed using Barrow Neurological Institute Pain Intensity Score(BNI-score:I–V). Results: 26/28 TNR-patients (16-males/10-females) who were treated with following single-fraction point-dose to isocenter: 80Gy(n=22),75Gy(n=1),70Gy(n=2) and 60Gy(n=1, re-treatment) were followed up. Median follow-up interval was 8.5-months (ranged:1–48.5months). Median age was 70-yr (ranged:43–93-yr). Right/left TNR ratio was 15/11. Delivered total # of average MUs was 19034±1204. Average beam-on-time: 19.0±1.3min. Brainstem max-dose and dose to 0.5cc were 13.3±2.4Gy (ranged:8.1–16.5Gy) and 3.6±0.4Gy (ranged:3.0–4.9Gy). On average, max-dose to optic-apparatus was ≤1.2Gy. Mean value of max-dose to eyes/lens was 0.26Gy/0.11Gy


    类彦立; 徐奎栋


    Marine microbenthos comprise unicellular prokaryotes and eukaryotes including benthic bacteria, microalgae, and protozoa.These organisms constitute the basic and key components in marine microbial food webs and may play important roles in carbon and energy flows as well as in the marine biogeochemical cycle.Nevertheless, methodological shortcomings have long been the main problems in estimating the ecological roles of these microorganisms.The current regulations of ‘Specifications for Oceanographic Survey-Part 6: Marine Biological Survey’ of the National Standard of China involved only marine meio- and macrobenthos, but marine microbenthos were absolutely neglected.This situation impeded the understandings of the carbon and energy flow and ecological interactions among micro-, meio- and macrobenthos within the entire marine food webs.The present study provides a series of standard methods and protocols for the surveys of marine microbenthos including: sample collection, fixation, extraction and staining, the quantitative and partially qualitative analyses of benthic bacteria, microalgae, and protozoa.The methods and protocols have been adopted by the Oceanographic Professional Standard as the ‘Specifications for the Survey of Marine Microbenthos’.These techniques could be applied in diverse marine sediments, such as intertidal flat, shallow sea, and deep sea to the investigation of microbenthos, as well as their applications in marine environmental monitoring and assessment.%海洋微型底栖生物包括底栖细菌、底栖微藻及底栖原生动物等单细胞原核和真核生物,是底栖微食物网中能量传递的基础和关键环节,在海洋生物地球化学循环过程中起着重要作用.然而我国现有的国家标准中有关底栖生物的研究仅涉及利用网筛分选的大型和小型底栖动物,缺少微型底栖生物调查的方法与规程,严重制约了对海洋整体食物网能流研究,以及微型

  13. Bone mass density estimation: Archimede’s principle versus automatic X-ray histogram and edge detection technique in ovariectomized rats treated with germinated brown rice bioactives

    Muhammad SI


    Full Text Available Sani Ismaila Muhammad,1,2 Ismail Maznah,1,3 Rozi Binti Mahmud,4 Maher Faik Esmaile,5 Zuki Abu Bakar Zakaria6 1Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, 2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; 3Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 4Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 5Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, 6Department of Pre-clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia Background: Bone mass density is an important parameter used in the estimation of the severity and depth of lesions in osteoporosis. Estimation of bone density using existing methods in experimental models has its advantages as well as drawbacks. Materials and methods: In this study, the X-ray histogram edge detection technique was used to estimate the bone mass density in ovariectomized rats treated orally with germinated brown rice (GBR bioactives, and the results were compared with estimated results obtained using Archimede’s principle. New bone cell proliferation was assessed by histology and immunohistochemical reaction using polyclonal nuclear antigen. Additionally, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium and zinc concentrations were detected using a chemistry analyzer and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Rats were divided into groups of six as follows: sham (nonovariectomized, nontreated; ovariectomized, nontreated; and ovariectomized and treated with estrogen, or Remifemin®, GBR-phenolics, acylated steryl glucosides, gamma oryzanol, and gamma amino-butyric acid extracted from GBR at different doses. Results: Our results indicate a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium, and zinc and ash content in the treated groups compared with the ovariectomized

  14. Dynamic characteristics of the cutaneous vasodilator response to a local external pressure application detected by the laser Doppler flowmetry technique on anesthetized rats

    Humeau, Anne; Koitka, Audrey; Saumet, Jean-Louis; L'Huillier, Jean-Pierre


    The laser Doppler flowmetry technique has recently been used to report a significant transient increase of the cutaneous blood flow signal when a local non-noxious pressure is applied progressively on the skin (11.1 Pa/s). The present work analyses the dynamic characteristics of this vasodilatory reflex response on anaesthetised rats. A de-noising algorithm using wavelets is proposed to obtain accurate values of these dynamic characteristics. The blood flow peak and the time to reach this peak are computed on the de-noised recordings. The results show that the mean time to reach the peak of perfusion is 85.3 s (time t = 0 at the beginning of the pressure application). The mean peak value is 188.3 arbitrary units (a.u.), whereas the mean value of the perfusion before the pressure application is 113.4 a.u. The mean minimum value obtained at the end of the experiment is 60.7 a.u. This latter value is, on the average, reached 841.3 s after the beginning of the pressure application. The comparison of the dynamic characteristics, computed with the de-noising algorithm on signals obtained in other situations, will give a better understanding on some cutaneous lesions such as those present on diabetic people.

  15. Simultaneous determination of D-aspartic acid and D-glutamic acid in rat tissues and physiological fluids using a multi-loop two-dimensional HPLC procedure.

    Han, Hai; Miyoshi, Yurika; Ueno, Kyoko; Okamura, Chieko; Tojo, Yosuke; Mita, Masashi; Lindner, Wolfgang; Zaitsu, Kiyoshi; Hamase, Kenji


    For a metabolomics study focusing on the analysis of aspartic and glutamic acid enantiomers, a fully automated two-dimensional HPLC system employing a microbore-ODS column and a narrowbore-enantioselective column was developed. By using this system, a detailed distribution of D-Asp and D-Glu besides L-Asp and L-Glu in mammals was elucidated. For the total analysis concept, the amino acids were first pre-column derivatized with 4-fluoro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-F) to be sensitively and fluorometrically detected. For the non-stereoselective separation of the analytes in the first dimension a monolithic ODS column (750 mm × 0.53 mm i.d.) was adopted, and a self-packed narrowbore-Pirkle type enantioselective column (Sumichiral OA-2500S, 250 mm × 1.5 mm i.d.) was selected for the second dimension. In the rat plasma, RSD values for intra-day and inter-day precision were less than 6.8%, and the accuracy ranged between 96.1% and 105.8%. The values of LOQ of D-Asp and D-Glu were 5 fmol/injection (0.625 nmol/g tissue). The present method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of free aspartic acid and glutamic acid enantiomers in 7 brain areas, 11 peripheral tissues, plasma and urine of Wistar rats. Biologically significant D-Asp values were found in various tissue samples whereas for D-Glu the values were very low possibly indicating less significance.

  16. Short Nuss bar procedure

    Pilegaard, Hans Kristian


    The Nuss procedure is now the preferred operation for surgical correction of pectus excavatum (PE). It is a minimally invasive technique, whereby one to three curved metal bars are inserted behind the sternum in order to push it into a normal position. The bars are left in situ for three years...

  17. Comparison of ischaemic preconditioning with surgical delay technique to increase the viability of single pedicle island venous flaps: an experimental study.

    Ceylan, Refika; Kaya, Burak; Çaydere, Muzaffer; Terzioğlu, Ahmet; Aslan, Gürcan


    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ischaemic preconditioning compared with the surgical delay procedure in an effort to increase the survival rate of single pedicle island venous flaps. Eighteen male Wistar albino rats (250-350 g) were included. A 3 × 4 cm flap was planned at the right lower abdomen of the rat. Superficial epigastric vein constituted the pedicle of the flap. The rats were divided into three groups, each consisting of six rats. In the control group, a single pedicle venous island flap was elevated on each rat and no other surgical procedure was performed. In the ischaemic preconditioning group, ischaemic preconditioning was performed and, in the surgical delay procedure group, the surgical delay technique was performed before flap elevation. The mean necrosis areas were 56.85 ± 14.60%, 28.73 ± 15.60%, and 12.08 ± 3.65% in the control, ischaemic preconditioning, and surgical delay procedure groups, respectively. The necrosis areas were significantly smaller in the ischaemic preconditioning group and surgical delay procedure groups compared to the control group (p = 0.004 and p surgical delay procedure groups. Histopathological parameters including necrosis, abscess formation, and skin ulceration scores were significantly lower in the ischaemic preconditioning group than in the control group, whereas the study groups were similar. In conclusion, ischaemic preconditioning may serve as an adjuvant technique in increasing venous island flap viability.

  18. Dental Procedures.

    Ramponi, Denise R


    Dental problems are a common complaint in emergency departments in the United States. There are a wide variety of dental issues addressed in emergency department visits such as dental caries, loose teeth, dental trauma, gingival infections, and dry socket syndrome. Review of the most common dental blocks and dental procedures will allow the practitioner the opportunity to make the patient more comfortable and reduce the amount of analgesia the patient will need upon discharge. Familiarity with the dental equipment, tooth, and mouth anatomy will help prepare the practitioner for to perform these dental procedures.

  19. Cyber fraud tactics, techniques and procedures

    Howard, Rick


    Written and edited by known experts in the field, the content is indeed of high quality and very informative. The logical structure and writing style are excellent, which is a challenging task when there are so many contributors. The book is a must-read for several reader categories. I strongly recommend some of the technical chapters to advanced undergraduate and graduate computer science students. Law students can use the book to grasp the necessary technical background material for investigating cyber fraud. Finally, it is also for readers who wish to learn about the current state of

  20. Microelectronics Failure Analysis Techniques. A Procedural Guide


    been the rule An occasional report of chronic poisoning dcscribcs an anemia and leucopenia , with biopsy showing a hone miarrow, h)poplasia These ZI...added to animal feeds. Also leucopenia and enlarged liver may be found in rate cases a dietary supplement food additive (Section 10) A common air

  1. Citologia de impressão da superfície ocular: técnica de exame e de coloração Impression cytology of the ocular surface: examination technique and staining procedure

    Jeison de Nadai Barros


    Full Text Available Objetivo: Apresentar uma técnica de exame e de coloração de amostras de citologia de impressão da superfície ocular desenvolvida em serviço de referência. Método: Obtiveram-se 28 amostras de citologia de impressão de pacientes com alterações da superfície ocular no Setor de Doenças Externas Oculares no período de julho a novembro de 1999. Coraram-se e avaliaram-se as amostras microscopicamente no Laboratório de Microbiologia Ocular, do Departamento de Oftalmologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo - Escola Paulista Medicina. Resultados: Desenvolveu-se um modelo de papel de filtro com ápice, base e abertura lateral, que forneceu seu posicionamento correto no olho no momento da colheita e na lâmina para a fixação e coloração. A técnica de coloração descrita, que usa ácido periódico-Schiff, hematoxilina e Papanicolaou, é um procedimento econômico e fácil, cora as células caliciformes de róseo e as epiteliais de roxo. Conclusões: A técnica de exame mostrou-se ideal na avaliação celular das amostras de citologia de impressão. A citologia de impressão é um método bastante confiável para o estudo da superfície ocular, no acompanhamento da evolução de patologias externas, e provou ser um procedimento realmente simples, mais barato e mais confortável para o paciente que as biópsias invasivas.Purpose: To present an examination technique and to standardize the staining procedure of samples of impression cytology of the ocular surface in a reference service. Methods: 28 samples of impression cytology were obtained from patients with ocular surfaces alterations of the External Eye Diseases Sector in the period of July to November 1999. They were stained and microscopically evaluated in the Ocular Microbiology Laboratory of the Federal University of São Paulo. Results: We developed a design of a filter paper with apex, base and lateral opening that promoted its adequate position both in the eye at collection

  2. TIP技术在安眠药物减药过程中的应用%Thought imprint psychotherapy under lower resistance (TIP) techniques used during the hypnotics reduction procedure

    王芳; 王亚娜; 李桂侠; 洪兰; 汪卫东


    许多失眠尤其是慢性失眠患者多用各类的安眠药物,但长期服用安眠药物可能导致药物依赖.如何顺利减药成为临床医生面对的难题之一.安眠药的依赖主要表现在两个方面:一是心理依赖,二是生理性依赖.因此,心理治疗在减药过程中的应用有其优势,将传统气功导引、放松训练与现代临床心理中的认知行为疗法结合起来的“低阻抗意念导入疗法(简称TIP)”是适合中国人特点的心理治疗方法.将TIP技术应用于安眠药减药过程的方法已日趋完善.%Many patients suffering from insomnia,especially chronic insomnia are treated by hypnotics.While taking hypnotics for long time will lead to drug dependence.How to fulfill gradual reduction of hypnotics has become one of the big problems doctor meet clinically.Drug dependence can be classified into two aspects.One is psychological,the other is pathological.Psychological treatment has advantage in the procedure of reducing drug.Thought imprint psychotherapy under lower resistance (TIP) which combines traditional Qigong,relaxation and cognitive-behavioral therapy of modern clinical psychology is a psychotherapy fit for Chinese.TIP techniques used during reduction procedure of hypnotics have been improved.

  3. Radical perineal prostatectomy - the contemporary resurgence of a genuinely minimally invasive procedure: Procedure outline. Comparison of the advantages, disadvantages, and outcomes of different surgical techniques of treating organ-confined prostate cancer (PCa). A literature review with special focus on perineal prostatectomy.

    Wroński, Stanisław


    Surgery plays a central role in the management of organ-confined prostate cancer (PCa). Four types of prostatectomy are currently practiced: perineal, retropubic, laparoscopic, and robot-assisted. The qualification criteria for all types are similar. Radical perineal prostatectomy (RPP) was the first method introduced into clinical practice, however, it has been neglected in favor of other procedures. Its resurgence has been facilitated by a multitude of advantages. Unfortunately, nowadays most urologists are not familiar with the perineal approach though many centers have begun to implement it. This manuscript presents the technique of RPP used in the author's institution. It also reviews a vast body of literature on the four techniques of prostatectomy including their advantages and outcomes. The data was collected from the literature and medical databases. RPP proves to be a very efficacious, cost-effective treatment option for localized PCa. The outcomes of RPP, as defined by continence, potency, and complication rate, are equivalent to those accomplished by other methods.

  4. Training rats to voluntarily dive underwater: investigations of the mammalian diving response.

    McCulloch, Paul F


    Underwater submergence produces autonomic changes that are observed in virtually all diving animals. This reflexly-induced response consists of apnea, a parasympathetically-induced bradycardia and a sympathetically-induced alteration of vascular resistance that maintains blood flow to the heart, brain and exercising muscles. While many of the metabolic and cardiorespiratory aspects of the diving response have been studied in marine animals, investigations of the central integrative aspects of this brainstem reflex have been relatively lacking. Because the physiology and neuroanatomy of the rat are well characterized, the rat can be used to help ascertain the central pathways of the mammalian diving response. Detailed instructions are provided on how to train rats to swim and voluntarily dive underwater through a 5 m long Plexiglas maze. Considerations regarding tank design and procedure room requirements are also given. The behavioral training is conducted in such a way as to reduce the stressfulness that could otherwise be associated with forced underwater submergence, thus minimizing activation of central stress pathways. The training procedures are not technically difficult, but they can be time-consuming. Since behavioral training of animals can only provide a model to be used with other experimental techniques, examples of how voluntarily diving rats have been used in conjunction with other physiological and neuroanatomical research techniques, and how the basic training procedures may need to be modified to accommodate these techniques, are also provided. These experiments show that voluntarily diving rats exhibit the same cardiorespiratory changes typically seen in other diving animals. The ease with which rats can be trained to voluntarily dive underwater, and the already available data from rats collected in other neurophysiological studies, makes voluntarily diving rats a good behavioral model to be used in studies investigating the central aspects of the

  5. Contraceptive procedures.

    Beasley, Anitra; Schutt-Ainé, Ann


    Although most women desire to control the size and spacing of their family, the rate of unintended pregnancy in the United States remains high, with approximately half of all pregnancies being unintended. Reducing unintended pregnancy is a national public health goal, and the increased use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) (intrauterine devices and implants) can help meet this goal. LARCs are among the most effective forms of contraception available. There are few contraindications to their use, and insertion and removal are straightforward procedures that are well tolerated in the outpatient office setting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dissociation of glucose tracer uptake and glucose transporter distribution in the regionally ischaemic isolated rat heart: application of a new autoradiographic technique

    Southworth, Richard; Medina, Rodolfo A.; Garlick, Pamela B. [Department of Radiological Sciences, Guy' s, King' s and St Thomas' School of Medicine, Guy' s Campus, London, SE1 9RT (United Kingdom); Dearling, Jason L.J.; Flynn, Aiden A.; Pedley, Barbara R. [Cancer Research UK Targeting and Imaging Group, Academic Department of Oncology, University College London, Royal Free Campus, London, NW3 2PF (United Kingdom)


    Fluorine-18 fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ({sup 18}FDG) and carbon-14 2-deoxyglucose ({sup 14}C-2-DG) are both widely used tracers of myocardial glucose uptake and phosphorylation. We have recently shown, using positron emission tomography (PET) and nuclear magnetic resonance, that ischaemia-reperfusion (I-R) causes differential changes in their uptake. We describe here the novel application of an autoradiographic technique allowing the investigation of this phenomenon at high resolution, using tracer concentrations of both analogues in the dual-perfused isolated rat heart. We also investigate the importance of glucose transporter (GLUT 1 and GLUT 4) distribution in governing the observed phosphorylated analogue accumulation. Hearts (n=5) were perfused with Krebs buffer for 40 min, made regionally zero-flow ischaemic for 40 min and reperfused for 60 min with Krebs containing tracer {sup 18}FDG (200 MBq) and tracer {sup 14}C-2-DG (0.37 MBq). Hearts were then frozen and five sections (10 {mu}m) were cut per heart, fixed and exposed on phosphor storage plates for 18 h (for {sup 18}FDG) and then for a further 9 days (for {sup 14}C-2-DG). Quantitative digital images of tracer accumulation were obtained using a phosphor plate reader. The protocol was repeated in a second group of hearts and GLUT 1 and GLUT 4 distribution analysed. Post-ischaemic accumulation of {sup 18}FDG-6-P was inhibited by 38.2%{+-}1.7% and {sup 14}C-DG-6-P by 19.0%{+-}2.2%, compared with control (P<0.05). After placing seven ''lines of interrogation'' across each heart section and analysing the phosphorylated tracer accumulation along them, a transmural gradient of both tracers was observed; this was highest at the endocardium and lowest at the epicardium. GLUT 4 translocated to the sarcolemma in the ischaemic/reperfused region (from 24%{+-}3% to 59%{+-}5%), while there was no cellular redistribution of GLUT 1. We conclude that since decreased phosphorylated tracer accumulation occurs

  7. 颈部袖套法建立小鼠-大鼠异种心脏移植模型*☆%Establishment of a mouse-rat cervical cardiac xenotransplantation model by cuff technique

    李川; 戚峰; 刘彤; 李富新; 王鹏志


    BACKGROUND: Smal animal heart transplantation model is a common model and an important mean for basic and clinical research of organ transplantation, and the transplant part is often the neck and abdomen. The biggest advantage of cervical heterotopic transplantation is that the transplanted heart wil located in the neck subcutaneous, which is conducive to the direct observation of the beating of donor heart, thus early anticipating the rejection. OBJECTIVE: To improve the anesthesia, surgical procedures and perioperative management of the mouse-rat cervical cardiac xenotransplantation model, in order to establish a more stable animal model. METHODS: The mouse-rat heterotopic cardiac xenotransplantation models were established by modified cuff technique to transfer the donor heart of mouse to the right side of the neck of rat, the method to remove the donor heart was improved, and the models received inhalation anesthesia of isoflurane with smal animal anesthesia machine. The experimental levels of establishing the models were divided into practicing, stable and skil ed stages. Part samples were taken for the histopathological examination. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In the three stages (practicing, stable, skil ed) of establishing the models, the successful rates of surgery were 53.33%, 85.71%, and 96.15% respectively. The successful rate in stable and skil ed stages was higher than that in the practicing stage (P < 0.05). The total operation time in the stable and skil ed stages was significantly shorter than that in the practicing stage (P < 0.05). Histopathological examination results showed that the cardiovascular endothelial injury, thrombosis, myocardial parenchymal damage, interstitial hemorrhage and inflammatory cel infiltration after heterotopic cardiac xenotransplantation were more serious compared with normal heart transplantation and cardiac al ograft, and showed a time-depend manner, which identify the reliability of the model. It suggests that the mouse-rat

  8. Training for advanced endoscopic procedures.

    Feurer, Matthew E; Draganov, Peter V


    Advanced endoscopy has evolved from diagnostic ERCP to an ever-increasing array of therapeutic procedures including EUS with FNA, ablative therapies, deep enteroscopy, luminal stenting, endoscopic suturing and endoscopic mucosal resection among others. As these procedures have become increasingly more complex, the risk of potential complications has also risen. Training in advanced endoscopy involves more than obtaining a minimum number of therapeutic procedures. The means of assessing a trainee's competence level and ability to practice independently continues to be a matter of debate. The use of quality indicators to measure performance levels may be beneficial as more advanced techniques and procedures become available.

  9. Significance of using a nonlinear analysis technique, the Lyapunov exponent, on the understanding of the dynamics of the cardiorespiratory system in rats.

    Zeren, Tamer; Özbek, Mustafa; Kutlu, Necip; Akilli, Mahmut


    Pneumocardiography (PNCG) is the recording method of cardiac-induced tracheal air flow and pressure pulsations in the respiratory airways. PNCG signals reflect both the lung and heart actions and could be accurately recorded in spontaneously breathing anesthetized rats. Nonlinear analysis methods, including the Lyapunov exponent, can be used to explain the biological dynamics of systems such as the cardiorespiratory system. In this study, we recorded tracheal air flow signals, including PNCG signals, from 3 representative anesthetized rats and analyzed the nonlinear behavior of these complex signals using Lyapunov exponents. Lyapunov exponents may also be used to determine the normal and pathological structure of biological systems. If the signals have at least one positive Lyapunov exponent, the signals reflect chaotic activity, as seen in PNCG signals in rats; the largest Lyapunov exponents of the signals of the healthy rats were greater than zero in this study. A method was proposed to determine the diagnostic and prognostic values of the cardiorespiratory system of rats using the arrangement of the PNCG and Lyapunov exponents, which may be monitored as vitality indicators.

  10. 用于膜片钳研究的大鼠背根神经节细胞急性分离技术的改良%Modification of the procedure for dissociating rats' dorsal root ganglion cells used for patch clamp

    邱方; 刘艳红; 姜雨鸽; 张树卓; 刘晓燕; 米卫东


    目的 通过技术改良,进一步摸索适于膜片钳实验的成年大鼠背根神经节(dorsal root ganglion,DRG)细胞的急性分离方法.方法 应用显微外科技术获取成年大鼠DRG,采用改良的双酶顺序消化(先胶原酶,后胰蛋白酶)及双血清(胎牛血清+马血清)共同培养法,急性分离培养DRG.倒置显微镜下观察神经元的形态,选取已贴壁的细胞,用全细胞膜片钳技术记录其基本膜电生理特性.加入河豚毒素(tetrodotoxin,TTX)后再次记录DRG神经元的钠离子电流变化.结果 本实验可获得形态良好、结构完整的单个DRG神经元,表面光亮,胞膜完整清晰,呈圆形或椭圆形.其静息膜电位为(55.22±4.39)mV,加入TTX后可记录到缓慢失活的河豚毒素不敏感(tetrodotoxin-resistant,TTX-r)的钠离子电流.其中,中等直径DRG神经元高阻封接成功率为73.2%,高于小直径和大直径DRG神经元的封接成功率(P<0.05).结论 经改良的DRG急性分离方法分离效率高、可操作性强.分离得到的中等直径DRG神经元状态良好,更适合膜片钳实验.%Objective To modify the previous procedure for dissociating rats' dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells used for whole-cell patch-clamp studies. Methods The rats' DRGs were obtained by microsurgical techniques, and then the DRG cells were acutely dissociated and acquired with optimized culture method including dual enzyme digestion and dual serum incubation. After a short-time of culture, the DRG neurons were observed under inverted microscope and those with normal morphologic characterstics were selected for the further studies. The basic electrophysiological membrane characteristics and sodium channel currents were recorded by whole-cell patch-clamp technique before and after the administration of TTX, respectively. Results The cultured DRG cells, which were acutely dissociated and acquired with optimized method, were morphologically intact with a round or oval shape and smooth

  11. Detection of neural stem cells function in rats with traumatic brain injury by manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    TANG Hai-liang; SUN Hua-ping; WU Xing; SHA Hong-ying; FENG Xiao-yuan; ZHU Jian-hong


    Background Previously we had successfully tracked adult human neural stem cells (NSCs) labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIOs) in host human brain after transplantation In vivo non-invasively by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, the function of the transplanted NSCs could not be evaluated by the method. In the study, we applied manganese-enhanced MRI (ME-MRI) to detect NSCs function after implantation in brain of rats with traumatic brain injury (TBI) In vivo.Methods Totally 40 TBI rats were randomly divided into 4 groups with 10 rats in each group. In group 1, the TBI rats did not receive NSCs transplantation. MnCl2-4H2O was intravenously injected, hyperosmolar mannitol was delivered to disrupt rightside blood brain barrier, and its contralateral forepaw was electrically stimulated. In group 2, the TBI rats received NSCs (labeled with SPIO) transplantation, and the ME-MRI procedure was same to group 1. In group 3, the TBI rats received NSCs (labeled with SPIO) transplantation, and the ME-MRI procedure was same to group 1, but diltiazem was introduced during the electrical stimulation period. In group 4, the TBI rats received phosphate buffered saline (PBS) injection, and the ME-MRI procedure was same to group 1.Results Hyperintense signals were detected by ME-MRI in the cortex areas associated with somatosensory in TBI rats of group 2. These signals, which could not be induced in TBI rats of groups 1 and 4, disappeared when diltiazem was introduced in TBI rats of group 3.Conclusion In this initial study, we mapped implanted NSCs activity and its functional participation within local brain area in TBI rats by ME-MRI technique, paving the way for further pre-clinical research.


    Y. V. Tsitovich


    Full Text Available To ensure the safety of radiation oncology patients needed to provide a consistent functional characteristics of the medical linear electron accelerators, which affect the accuracy of dose delivery. To this end, their quality control procedures, which include the calibration of radiation output of the linear accelerator, the error in determining the dose reference value during which must not exceed 2 %, is provided. The aim is to develop a methodology for determining the error in determining this value, depending on the mechanical charachteristics of the linac’s gantry. To achieve the objectives have been carried out dosimetric measurements of Trilogy S/N 3567 linac dose distributions, on the basis of which dose errors depending on the accuracy setting the zero position of the gantry and the deviation of the gantry rotation isocenter were obtained. It was found that the greatest impact on the value of the error has gantry rotation isocenter deviation in a plane perpendicular to the plane of incidence of the radiation beam (up to 3,64% for the energy of 6 MeV. Dose errors caused by tilting the gantry and its isocenter deviation in the plane of incidence of the beam were highest for 18 MeV energy and reached –0,7 % and –0,9 % respectively. Thus, it is possible to express the results of periodic quality control of the linear accelerator ganty in terms of dose and use them to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the possibility of clinical use of a linear accelerator for oncology patients irradiation in case of development of techniques that allow to analyze the influence of the rest of its technical and dosimetric parameters for error in dose.

  13. Investigation of DNA synthesis in experimentally induced Long-Evans rat myeloschisis by the BrdU/antiBrdU technique.

    Chono, Y; Abe, H; Iwasaki, Y; Nagashima, K


    The volume and DNA synthesis of the neuroepithelium in induced myeloschisis in Long-Evans rats as shown by hematoxylin-eosin and BrdU/antiBrdU immunohistochemical staining patterns were examined at different stages of embryonal development. On day 14 of gestation, control animals contained BrdU-incorporating cells mainly at the alar plate of the closed neural tube. On the same day, the everted neural plate of rats with myeloschisis showed active, diffuse uptake of BrdU in the cells of the matrix layer, although an increase in the volume of the everted neural plate was not yet identifiable. On day 21 of gestation, rats with myeloschisis showed a marked increase in the volume of the neuroepithelium compared with controls. Our investigations suggest that, in myeloschisis, more neuroepithelial cells than normal retain their capability for DNA synthesis on day 14 of gestation, and the overgrowth of the neuroepithelium found on day 21 is possibly a secondary effect of failure of neural tube closure.

  14. TECHNIQUE OF ESTIMATION OF ERROR IN THE REFERENCE VALUE OF THE DOSE DURING THE LINEAR ACCELERATOR RADIATION OUTPUT CALIBRATION PROCEDURE. Part 2. Dependence on the characteristics of collimator, optical sourse-distance indicator, treatment field, lasers and treatment couch

    Y. V. Tsitovich


    Full Text Available To ensure the safety of radiation oncology patients needed to provide consistent functional characteristics of the medical linear accelerators, which affect the accuracy of dose delivery. To this end, their quality control procedures, which include the calibration of radiation output of the linac, the error in determining the dose reference value during which must not exceed 2 %, is provided. The aim is to develop a methodology for determining the error (difference between a measured value of quantity and its true value in determining this value, depending on the characteristics of the collimator, the source to surface distance pointer, lasers, radiation field and treatment table. To achieve the objectives have been carried out dosimetric measurements of Trilogy S/N 3567 linac dose distributions, on the basis of which dose errors depending on the accuracy setting the zero position of the collimator, the deviation of the collimator rotation isocenter, the sourcesurface distance pointer accuracy, field size accuracy, the accuracy of lasers and treatment table positioning were obtained. It was found that the greatest impact on the value of the error has the error in the optical SSD indication and the error in the lasers position in the plane perpendicular to the plane of incidence of the radiation beam (up to 3.64 % for the energy of 6 MV. Dose errors caused by error in the field size were different for two photon energies, and reached 2.54 % for 6 MeV and 1.33% for 18 MeV. Errors caused by the rest of the characteristic do not exceed 1 %. Thus, it is possible to express the results of periodic quality control of these devices integrated in linac in terms of dose and use them to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the possibility of clinical use of a linear accelerator for oncology patients irradiation on the basis of the calibration of radiation output in case of development of techniques that allow to analyze the influence dosimetric

  15. Loop electrosurgical excisional procedure.

    Mayeaux, E J; Harper, M B


    Loop electrosurgical excisional procedure, or LEEP, also known as loop diathermy treatment, loop excision of the transformation zone (LETZ), and large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ), is a new technique for outpatient diagnosis and treatment of dysplastic cervical lesions. This procedure produces good specimens for cytologic evaluation, carries a low risk of affecting childbearing ability, and is likely to replace cryotherapy or laser treatment for cervical neoplasias. LEEP uses low-current, high-frequency electrical generators and thin stainless steel or tungsten loops to excise either lesions or the entire transformation zone. Complication rates are comparable to cryotherapy or laser treatment methods and include bleeding, incomplete removal of the lesion, and cervical stenosis. Compared with other methods, the advantages of LEEP include: removal of abnormal tissue in a manner permitting cytologic study, low cost, ease of acquiring necessary skills, and the ability to treat lesions with fewer visits. Patient acceptance of the procedure is high. Widespread use of LEEP by family physicians can be expected.

  16. Tuberculosis Detection by Giant African Pouched Rats

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Durgin, Amy; Mahoney, Amanda


    In recent years, operant discrimination training procedures have been used to teach giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis (TB) in human sputum samples. This article summarizes how the rats are trained and used operationally, as well as their performance in studies published to date. Available data suggest that pouched rats, which can…

  17. Tuberculosis Detection by Giant African Pouched Rats

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Durgin, Amy; Mahoney, Amanda


    In recent years, operant discrimination training procedures have been used to teach giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis (TB) in human sputum samples. This article summarizes how the rats are trained and used operationally, as well as their performance in studies published to date. Available data suggest that pouched rats, which can…

  18. Digital replantation teaching model in rats.

    Ad-El, D D; Harper, A; Hoffman, L A


    Replant surgery is a complex procedure that requires advanced microsurgical skills and is usually performed as an emergency operation, lasting many hours. For these reasons, teaching replantation is difficult. Although teaching models exist, they are often too general or complicated for routine use and do not simulate the stages and the pitfalls of human replant surgery. We have designed a model that is simple and imitates human replant surgery. After reviewing the rat anatomy, students dissect and replant a rat hind limb that has been sharply amputated by the instructor. They follow the same principles of "real" surgery like debridement, minimizing ischemia time, and stable fixation before anatomosis of vessels. After marking the structures, bony fixation followed by vessel and nerve anastomosis are performed. Muscle is reattached to the skin and limb vascularity evaluated. After we designed this model, plastic surgery residents performed the technique on 10 rats. An 80% limb viability rate was achieved. This model is simple to perform, simulates all the relevant structures and pitfalls of human surgery, and the rats are relatively cheap and can be used for other parallel projects.

  19. Voluntary Oral Administration of Losartan in Rats.

    Diogo, Lucília N; Faustino, Inês V; Afonso, Ricardo A; Pereira, Sofia A; Monteiro, Emília C; Santos, Ana I


    Gavage is a widely performed technique for daily dosing in laboratory rodents. Although effective, gavage comprises a sequence of potentially stressful procedures for laboratory animals that may introduce bias into experimental results, especially when the drugs to be tested interfere with stress-dependent parameters. We aimed to test vehicles suitable for drug delivery by voluntary ingestion in rats. Specifically, Male Wistar rats (age, 2 to 3 mo) were used to test nut paste (NUT), peanut butter (PB), and sugar paste (SUG) as vehicles for long-term voluntary oral administration of losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker. Vehicles were administered for 28 d without drug to assess effects on the glucose level and serum lipid profile. Losartan was mixed with vehicles and either offered to the rats or administered by gavage (14 d) for subsequent quantification of losartan plasma levels by HPLC. After a 2-d acclimation period, all rats voluntarily ate the vehicles, either alone or mixed with losartan. NUT administration reduced blood glucose levels. The SUG group had higher concentrations of losartan than did the gavage group, without changes in lipid and glucose profiles. Our results showed that NUT, PB, and SUG all are viable for daily single-dose voluntary ingestion of losartan and that SUG was the best alternative overall. Drug bioavailability was not reduced after voluntary ingestion, suggesting that this method is highly effective for chronic oral administration of losartan to laboratory rodents.

  20. Single Operation with Simplified Incisions to Build an Experimental Cerebral Aneurysm Model by Induced Hemodynamic Stress and Estrogen Deficiency in Rats.

    Wu, Cong; Liu, Yi; He, Min; Zhu, Lei; You, Chao


    To implement a surgical technique consisting of simplified incisions that allows all required procedures to be performed in one single operation for the purpose of reducing surgical stress in experimental animals. Experimental animals (rats) were assigned to one of four groups: Group 0 was the (normal) control group, Group 1 consisted of rats that had an operation using multiple incisions, Group 2 consisted of rats who received a midline incision and were raised for 3 months, and Group 3 consisted of rats who also received a midline incision, but had been raised for 6 months. Rat blood pressure was measured by tail cuff method. The surgical characteristics and outcomes of the rats in Groups 1 and 2 were compared. Aneurysmal lesions of both branching and non-branching sites were compared amongst the 4 groups by observation of the cerebral vascular corrosion casts through a scanning electron microscope. Histological analyses of the induced aneurysms were performed. The simplified incision technique significantly reduced the length of surgery and need for anesthesia redose during the operation. No aneurysms formed in the normal control rats. The incidence of saccular aneurysm formation significantly increased in Group 3. Histological analyses confirmed the aneurysms induced in the rats shared the same characteristics as human aneurysms. Our modified surgical method reduced the surgical stress in rats. It also successfully induced both saccular and fusiform cerebral aneurysms. While longer incubation duration for aneurysm formation could be applied in future researches.

  1. Crown lengthening procedures

    AA. Khoshkhonejad


    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to recent developments and researches in dental science, it is possible to preserve and restore previously extracted cases such as teeth with extensive caries, fractured or less appropriate cases for crown coverage as well as teeth with external perforation caused by restorative pins. In order to restore the teeth with preservation of periodontium, we should know thoroughly physiological aspects of periodontium and protection of Biologic Width which is formed by epithelial and supracrestal connective tissue connections. Considering biologic width is one of the principal rules of teeth restoration, otherwise we may destruct periodontal tissues. Several factors are involved in placing a restoration and one of the most important ones is where the restoration margin is terminated. Many studies have been conducted on the possible effects of restoration margin on the gingiva and due to the results of these studies it was concluded that restoration margin should be finished supragingivally. However, when we have to end the restoration under Gingival Crest, First a healthy gingival sulcus is required. Also, we should not invade the biological width. Since a normal biologic with is reported 2 mm and sound tooth tissue should be placed at least 2 mm coronal to the epithelial tissue, the distance between sound tooth tissue and crown margin should be at least 4mm. Thus, performing crown lengthening is essential to increase the clinical crown length. Basically, two objectives are considered: 1 restorative 2 esthetic (gummy smile Surgical procedure includes gingivectomy and flap procedure. Orthodontic procedure involves orthodontic extrusion or force eruption technique which is controlled vertical movements of teeth into occlusion. Besides, this procedure can also used to extrude teeth defects from the gingival tissue. By crown lengthening, tooth extraction is not required and furthermore, adjacent teeth preparation for placing a fixed

  2. Study of the variability in upper and lower airway morphology in Sprague-Dawley rats using modern micro-CT scan-based segmentation techniques.

    De Backer, Jan W; Vos, Wim G; Burnell, Patricia; Verhulst, Stijn L; Salmon, Phil; De Clerck, Nora; De Backer, Wilfried


    Animal models are being used extensively in pre-clinical and safety assessment studies to assess the effectiveness and safety of new chemical entities and delivery systems. Although never entirely replacing the need for animal testing, the use of computer simulations could eventually reduce the amount of animals needed for research purposes and refine the data acquired from the animal studies. Computational fluid dynamics is a powerful tool that makes it possible to simulate flow and particle behavior in animal or patient-specific respiratory models, for purposes of inhaled delivery. This tool requires an accurate representation of the respiratory system, respiration and dose delivery attributes. The aim of this study is to develop a representative airway model of the Sprague-Dawley rat using static and dynamic micro-CT scans. The entire respiratory tract was modeled, from the snout and nares down to the central airways at the point where no distinction could be made between intraluminal air and the surrounding tissue. For the selection of the representative model, variables such as upper airway movement, segmentation length, airway volume and size are taken into account. Dynamic scans of the nostril region were used to illustrate the characteristic morphology of this region in anaesthetized animals. It could be concluded from this study that it was possible to construct a highly detailed representative model of a Sprague-Dawley rat based on imaging modalities such as micro-CT scans.

  3. Double-labeling techniques demonstrate that rod bipolar cells are under GABAergic control in the inner plexiform layer of the rat retina.

    Kim, I B; Lee, M Y; Oh, S; Kim, K Y; Chun, M


    The synaptic connectivity between rod bipolar cells and GABAergic neurons in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the rat retina was studied using two immunocytochemical markers. Rod bipolar cells were stained with an antibody specific for protein kinase C (PKC, alpha isoenzyme), and GABAergic neurons were stained with an antiserum specific for glutamic-acid decarboxylase (GAD). Some amacrine cells were also labeled with the anti-PKC antiserum. All PKC-labeled amacrine cells examined showed GABA immunoreactivity, indicating that PKC-labeled amacrine cells constitute a subpopulation of GABAergic amacrine cells in the rat retina. A total of 150 ribbon synapses established by rod bipolar cells were observed in the IPL. One member of the postsynaptic dyads was always an unlabeled AII amacrine cell process, and the other belonged to an amacrine-cell process showing GAD immunoreactivity. The majority (n=92) (61.3%) of these processes made reciprocal synapses back to the axon terminals of rod bipolar cells. In addition, 78 conventional synapses onto rod bipolar axons were observed, and among them 52 (66.7%) were GAD-immunoreactive. Thus GABA provides the major inhibitory input to rod bipolar cells.

  4. Identification of adenovirus type 12 candidate transformation proteins by radioimmunoprecipitation with antisera to EcoRI-C-fragment. [/sup 35/S tracer technique, rats

    Wold, W.S.M. (St. Louis Univ. School of Medicine, MO); Chinnadurai, G.; Green, M.; Mak, S.


    Experiments were performed to identify polypeptides coded by early gene block 1 (which includes the transforming region) of human adenoviruses in group A (Ad12, 18, 31). Two lines, C-1 and C-2, of rat cells transformed by transfection with Ad12 EcoRI-C fragment (left 16% of genome) were inoculated into syngeneic rats to produce tumors (F. Graham and S. Mak, unpublished data). The tumor sera were used to immunoprecipitate (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled polypeptides from Ad12-early-infected human cells. The polypeptides were resolved by electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels, and visualized by fluorography. Two additional sera were also used, from hamsters bearing tumors induced by inoculation with Ad12 or Ad18 virions. The immunoprecipitation results suggest (but do not prove) that early gene block 1 of group A Ads may code a family of related polypeptides with apparent molecular weights ranging from 4OK to 46K or 4OK to 65K, as well as polypeptides of 16.5 K and 10.5K. One or more of these polypeptides may play a role in the initiation and/or maintenance of cell transformation.

  5. Animal models in bariatric surgery--a review of the surgical techniques and postsurgical physiology.

    Rao, Raghavendra S; Rao, Venkatesh; Kini, Subhash


    Bariatric surgery is considered the most effective current treatment for morbid obesity. Since the first publication of an article by Kremen, Linner, and Nelson, many experiments have been performed using animal models. The initial experiments used only malabsorptive procedures like intestinal bypass which have largely been abandoned now. These experimental models have been used to assess feasibility and safety as well as to refine techniques particular to each procedure. We will discuss the surgical techniques and the postsurgical physiology of the four major current bariatric procedures (namely, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy, and biliopancreatic diversion). We have also reviewed the anatomy and physiology of animal models. We have reviewed the literature and presented it such that it would be a reference to an investigator interested in animal experiments in bariatric surgery. Experimental animal models are further divided into two categories: large mammals that include dogs, cats, rabbits, and pig and small mammals that include rats and mice.

  6. Interventional procedures in the chest.

    Vollmer Torrubiano, I; Sánchez González, M


    Many thoracic conditions will require an interventional procedure for diagnosis and/or treatment. For this reason, radiologists need to know the indications and the technique for each procedure. In this article, we review the various interventional procedures that radiologists should know and the indications for each procedure. We place special emphasis on the potential differences in the diagnostic results and complications between fine-needle aspiration and biopsy. We also discuss the indications for radiofrequency ablation of lung tumors and review the concepts related to the drainage of pulmonary abscesses. We devote special attention to the management of pleural effusion, covering the indications for thoracocentesis and when to use imaging guidance, and to the protocol for pleural drainage. We also discuss the indications for percutaneous treatment of pericardial effusion and the possible complications of this treatment. Finally, we discuss the interventional management of mediastinal lesions and provide practical advice about how to approach these lesions to avoid serious complications.

  7. Absolute absorbed dose measurements with an array of ionization chambers as part of a routine procedure of quality control for the VMAT technique; Medidas de dosis absorbida absoluta con un array de camaras de ionizacion como parte de un procedimiento rutinario de control de calidad para la tecnica VMAT

    Clemente Gutierrez, F.; Cabello Murillo, E.; Ramirez Ros, J. C.; Casa de Julian, M. A. de la


    Arcotheraphy techniques volumetric modulated (VMAT) treatments involve continuous variation of the gantry rotation speed, positions of the sheets and dose rate. Since all treatments are administered by continuous arcs, these techniques require quality control procedures to ensure quick and easy constancy of the calibration factor (total absorbed dose) for any gantry angle. We report here a simple method of quality control for the measurement of the calibration factor using an array of ionization chambers. The measurements were performed on a unit of 6 MV Elekta Synergy with VMAT, belonging to the Radiation Oncology service of the Defense Central Hospital Gomez Ulla.

  8. Application of multivariate techniques in the optimization of a procedure for the determination of bioavailable concentrations of Se and As in estuarine sediments by ICP OES using a concomitant metals analyzer as a hydride generator.

    Lopes, Watson da Luz; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal; Oliveira, Eliane Padua; de Carvalho, Maria de Fátima Batista; Bezerra, Marcos Almeida


    A procedure has been developed for the determination of bioavailable concentrations of selenium and arsenic in estuarine sediments employing inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) using a concomitant metals analyzer device to perform hydride generation. The optimization of hydride generation was done in two steps: using a two-level factorial design for preliminary evaluation of studied factors and a Doehlert design to assess the optimal experimental conditions for analysis. Interferences of transition metallic ions (Cd(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(3+) and Ni(2+)) to selenium and arsenic signals were minimized by using higher hydrochloric acid concentrations. In this way, the procedure allowed the determination of selenium and arsenic in sediments with a detection limit of 25 and 30 microg kg(-1), respectively, assuming a 50-fold sample dilution (0.5 g sample extraction to 25 mL sample final volume). The precision, expressed as a relative standard deviation (% RSD, n=10), was 0.2% for both selenium and arsenic in 200 microg L(-1) solutions, which corresponds to 10 microg g(-1) in sediment samples after acid extraction. Applying the proposed procedure, a linear range of 0.08-10 and 0.10-10 microg g(-1) was obtained for selenium and arsenic, respectively. The developed procedure was validated by the analysis of two certified reference materials: industrial sludge (NIST 2782) and river sediment (NIST 8704). The results were in agreement with the certified values. The developed procedure was applied to evaluate the bioavailability of both elements in four sediment certified reference materials, in which there are not certified values for bioavailable fractions, and also in estuarine sediment samples collected in several sites of Guanabara Bay, an impacted environment in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  9. Culturing rat hippocampal neurons.

    Audesirk, G; Audesirk, T; Ferguson, C


    Cultured neurons are widely used to investigate the mechanisms of neurotoxicity. Embryonic rat hippocampal neurons may be grown as described under a wide variety of conditions to suit differing experimental procedures, including electrophysiology, morphological analysis of neurite development, and various biochemical and molecular analyses.

  10. Bariatric Surgery Procedures

    ... Center Access to Care Toolkit EHB Access Toolkit Bariatric Surgery Procedures Bariatric surgical procedures cause weight loss by restricting the ... Online Education Directory Search Patient Learning Center Bariatric Surgery ... Surgery Procedures BMI Calculator Childhood and Adolescent Obesity ...

  11. “Heidelberg standard examination” and “Heidelberg standard procedures” – Development of faculty-wide standards for physical examination techniques and clinical procedures in undergraduate medical education

    Nikendei, C.


    Full Text Available The competent physical examination of patients and the safe and professional implementation of clinical procedures constitute essential components of medical practice in nearly all areas of medicine. The central objective of the projects “Heidelberg standard examination” and “Heidelberg standard procedures”, which were initiated by students, was to establish uniform interdisciplinary standards for physical examination and clinical procedures, and to distribute them in coordination with all clinical disciplines at the Heidelberg University Hospital. The presented project report illuminates the background of the initiative and its methodological implementation. Moreover, it describes the multimedia documentation in the form of pocketbooks and a multimedia internet-based platform, as well as the integration into the curriculum. The project presentation aims to provide orientation and action guidelines to facilitate similar processes in other faculties.

  12. Assessment Techniques To Enhance Organizational Learning.

    Lyons, Paul

    This paper addresses the need for group-based or team-based techniques to facilitate organizational learning. It identifies two process-oriented strategies: the role analysis technique (RAT) and the diagnostic window technique. These techniques can be used in meetings to model the intellectual tasks that need to occur in today's learning…

  13. Scintigraphic imaging with technetium-99M-labelled ceftizoxime is a reliable technique for the diagnosis of deep sternal wound infection in rats

    Costa, Paulo Henrique Nogueira; Diniz, Simone Odilia Fernandes; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Tarabal, Bernardo; Takenaka, Isabella; Braga, Otavio; Vidigal, Paula Vieira Teixeira; Gelape, Claudio Leo; Araujo, Ivana Duval, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    Purpose: to evaluate whether scintigraphy with technetium-99m-labeled ceftizoxime ({sup 99m}Tc-CFT) can differentiate mediastinitis from aseptic inflammation associated with sternotomy. Methods: twenty female Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four groups: S (control) -partial upper median sternotomy with no treatment; SW (control) - sternotomy and treatment of sternal wounds with bone wax; SB - sternotomy and infection with Staphylococcus aureus; SWB - sternotomy with bone wax treatment and bacterial infection. Scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-CFT was performed eight days after surgery and images were collected 210 and 360 min after infusion of the radiopharmaceutical. Results: no animals exhibited clinical signs of wound infection at the end of the experiment, although histological data verified acute inflammatory response in those experimentally infected with bacteria. Scintigraphic images revealed that tropism of {sup 99m}Tc-CFT to infected sternums was greater than to their non-infected counterparts. Mean counts of radioactivity in bacteria-infected sternal regions (SB and SWB) were significantly higher (p = 0.0007) than those of the respective controls (S and SW).Conclusion: scintigraphy with technetium-99m-labeled ceftizoxime is a method that can potentially detect infection post sternotomy and differentiate from aseptic inflammation in animals experimentally inoculated with S. aureus (author)

  14. A comparison of tabun-inhibited rat brain acetylcholinesterase reactivation by three oximes (HI-6, obidoxime, and K048) in vivo detected by biochemical and histochemical techniques.

    Bajgar, Jiri; Hajek, Petr; Zdarova, Jana Karasova; Kassa, Jiri; Paseka, Antonin; Slizova, Dasa; Krs, Otakar; Kuca, Kamil; Jun, Daniel; Fusek, Josef; Capek, Lukas


    Tabun belongs to the most toxic nerve agents. Its mechanism of action is based on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition at the peripheral and central nervous systems. Therapeutic countermeasures comprise administration of atropine with cholinesterase reactivators able to reactivate the inhibited enzyme. Reactivation of AChE is determined mostly biochemically without specification of different brain structures. Histochemical determination allows a fine search for different structures but is performed mostly without quantitative evaluation. In rats intoxicated with tabun and treated with a combination of atropine and HI-6, obidoxime, or new oxime K048, AChE activities in different brain structures were determined using biochemical and quantitative histochemical methods. Inhibition of AChE following untreated tabun intoxication was different in the various brain structures, having the highest degree in the frontal cortex and reticular formation and lowest in the basal ganglia and substantia nigra. Treatment resulted in an increase of AChE activity detected by both methods. The highest increase was observed in the frontal cortex. This reactivation was increased in the order HI-6 tabun, reactivation in various parts of the brain is not of the same physiological importance. AChE activity in the pontomedullar area and frontal cortex seems to be the most important for the therapeutic effect of the reactivators. HI-6 was not a good reactivator for the treatment of tabun intoxication.

  15. Study on the Metabolic Characteristics of Aconite Alkaloids in the Extract of Radix aconiti under Intestinal Bacteria of Rat by UPLC/MSn Technique

    辛杨; 皮子凤; 宋凤瑞; 刘志强; 刘淑莹


    The extract of Radix aconiti was incubated with rat intestinal bacteria in vitro. Further, aconitine and hypaconitine standard were incubated at the same condition as the extract of Radix aconiti, respectively. Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography/Multi-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC/MSn) was used for detecting and identifying all the aco- nite alkaloids. Results showed that there were four metabolites which were identified as 8-butyryl-14-benzoylmesa- conine (m/z 660), 8-propionyl-14-benzoylaconine (m/z 660), 8-butyryl-14-benzoylaconine (m/z 674) and 8-valeryl-14-benzoylmesaconine (m/z 674) in the metabolized sample of the extract of Radix aconiti. The relative area ratio of them presented increasing trend during 6 d. On the basis of all results, we could concluded that substi- tution at N atom mainly influenced the metabolizing rate of diester-diterpenoid alkaloids (DDAs), C-8 substitute was active metabolized site, intestinal bacterial metabolites of the aconite alkaloids in the extract of Radix aconiti were mainly the substitute with propionyl group, butyl group or valeryl group at C-8. This paper illustrated holistic metabolizing profile of the extract of Radix aconiti in vitro and possible metabolizing reaction type of main DDAs, which could provide reference for finding out potential bioactive components in the extract and the prescription of Chinese Medicine.

  16. Investigation of techniques to quantify in vivo lesion volume based on comparison of water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps with histology in focal cerebral ischemia of rats.

    Kazemi, Mark; Silva, Matthew D; Li, Fuhai; Fisher, Marc; Sotak, Christopher H


    Stroke lesion-volume estimates derived from calculated water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps provide a quantitative surrogate end-point for investigating the efficacy of drug treatment or studying the temporal evolution of cerebral ischemia. Methodology is described for estimating ischemic lesion volumes in a rat model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) based on absolute and percent-reduction threshold values of the water ADC at 3 h post-MCAO. Volume estimates derived from average ADC (ADC(av)) maps were compared with those derived from post-mortem histological sections. Optimum ADC thresholds were established as those that provided the best correlation and one-to-one correspondence between ADC- and histologically derived lesion-volume estimates. At 3 h post-MCAO, an absolute-ADC(av) threshold of 47 x 10(-5) mm(2)/s (corresponding to a 33% reduction in ADC(av) based on a contralateral hemisphere comparison) provided the most accurate estimate of percent hemispheric lesion volume (%HLV). Experimental and data analysis issues for improving and validating the usefulness of DWI as a surrogate endpoint for the quantification of ischemic lesion volume are discussed.

  17. Serum N-glycome biomarker for monitoring development of DENA-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rat

    Fang Meng


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a demand for serum markers for the routine assessment of the progression of liver cancer. We previously found that serum N-linked sugar chains are altered in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Here, we studied glycomic alterations during development of HCC in a rat model. Results Rat HCC was induced by the hepatocarcinogen, diethylnitrosamine (DENA. N-glycans were profiled using the DSA-FACE technique developed in our laboratory. In comparison with control rats, DENA rats showed a gradual but significant increase in two glycans (R5a and R5b in serum total N-glycans during progression of liver cirrhosis and cancer, and a decrease in a biantennary glycan (P5. The log of the ratio of R5a to P1 (NGA2F and R5b to P1 [log(R5a/P1 and log(R5b/P1] were significantly (p Conclusions: We found an increase in core-α-1,6-fucosylated glycoproteins in serum and liver of rats with HCC, which demonstrates that fucosylation is altered during progression of HCC. Our GlycoTest model can be used to monitor progression of HCC and to follow up treatment of liver tumors in the DENA rat. This GlycoTest model is particularly important because a rapid non-invasive diagnostic procedure for tumour progression in this rat model would greatly facilitate the search for anticancer drugs.

  18. Interventional chest procedures in pregnancy.

    Morgan, Ross K


    Interventional pulmonology encompasses diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopic procedures, and pleural interventions. In the last 10 years older techniques have been refined and exciting new technologies have extended the reach and application of the instruments used. The main areas within pulmonary medicine for which these interventions have a role are malignant and nonmalignant airway disease, pleural effusion, pneumothorax, and artificial airways. There are no data from well-designed prospective trials to guide recommendations for interventional pulmonary procedures in pregnancy. The recommendations provided in this article are based on critical review of reported case series, opinion from recognized experts, and personal observations.

  19. Interventional chest procedures in pregnancy.

    Morgan, Ross K


    Interventional pulmonology encompasses diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopic procedures, and pleural interventions. In the last 10 years older techniques have been refined and exciting new technologies have extended the reach and application of the instruments used. The main areas within pulmonary medicine for which these interventions have a role are malignant and nonmalignant airway disease, pleural effusion, pneumothorax, and artificial airways. There are no data from well-designed prospective trials to guide recommendations for interventional pulmonary procedures in pregnancy. The recommendations provided in this article are based on critical review of reported case series, opinion from recognized experts, and personal observations.

  20. Effect of sample size and P-value filtering techniques on the detection of transcriptional changes induced in rat neuroblastoma (NG108 cells by mefloquine

    Dow Geoffrey S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no known biochemical basis for the adverse neurological events attributed to mefloquine. Identification of genes modulated by toxic agents using microarrays may provide sufficient information to generate hypotheses regarding their mode of action. However, this utility may be compromised if sample sizes are too low or the filtering methods used to identify differentially expressed genes are inappropriate. Methods The transcriptional changes induced in rat neuroblastoma cells by a physiological dose of mefloquine (10 micro-molar were investigated using Affymetrix arrays. A large sample size was used (total of 16 arrays. Genes were ranked by P-value (t-test. RT-PCR was used to confirm (or reject the expression changes of several of the genes with the lowest P-values. Different P-value filtering methods were compared in terms of their ability to detect these differentially expressed genes. A retrospective power analysis was then performed to determine whether the use of lower sample sizes might also have detected those genes with altered transcription. Results Based on RT-PCR, mefloquine upregulated cJun, IkappaB and GADD153. Reverse Holm-Bonferroni P-value filtering was superior to other methods in terms of maximizing detection of differentially expressed genes but not those with unaltered expression. Reduction of total microarray sample size ( Conclusions Adequate sample sizes and appropriate selection of P-value filtering methods are essential for the reliable detection of differentially expressed genes. The changes in gene expression induced by mefloquine suggest that the ER might be a neuronal target of the drug.

  1. Comparison of commonly used procedures, including the doubly-labelled water technique, in the estimation of total energy expenditure of women with special reference to the significance of body fatness.

    Lof, Marie; Hannestad, Ulf; Forsum, Elisabet


    According to the report of the World Health Organization (1985), total energy expenditure (TEE) in human subjects can be calculated as BMR x physical activity level (PAL). However, other reports have pointed out limitations in the suggested procedure related to the % body fat of the subjects. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the World Health Organization (1985) procedure in thirty-four healthy women with BMI 18-39 kg/m2. BMR and TEE were measured using indirect calorimetry (BMRmeas) and the doubly-labelled water method (TEEref) respectively. When assessed using the doubly-labelled water and skinfold-thickness methods, the women had 34 (SD 8) and 33 (SD 6) % body fat respectively. On the basis of guidelines provided by the World Health Organization (1985), 1.64 was selected to represent the average PAL of the women. Furthermore, PAL was also assessed by means of an accelerometer (PALacc), heart-rate recordings (PAL(HR)) and a questionnaire (PALq). These estimates were: PALacc 1.71 (SD 0.17), PAL(HR) 1.76 (SD 0.24), PALq 1.86 (SD 0.27). These values were lower than TEEref/BMRref, which was 1.98 (SD 0.21). BMR assessed using equations recommended by the World Health Organization (1985) (BMRpredicted) overestimated BMR by 594 (SD 431) kJ/24 h. However, when TEE was calculated as BMRpredicted x PALacc, BMRpredicted x PAL(HR) and BMRpredicted x PALq respectively, average results were in agreement with TEEref. Furthermore, TEE values based on BMRpredicted and PALacc, PAL(HR), PALq as well as on PAL = 1.64, minus TEEref, were significantly correlated with body fatness. When the same PAL value (1.64) was used for all subjects, this correlation was particularly strong. Thus, the World Health Organization (1985) procedure may give TEE results that are biased with respect to the body fatness of subjects.

  2. A technique of rhesus monkey neural progenitor cells intravitreal transplant to rats%在大鼠玻璃体内移植猕猴神经前体细胞的方法探索

    边慧; 范耀东; 郭立云; 余化霖


    探索一种简单、可行的异种神经前体细胞眼内移植方法.采用机械性损伤方法造成大鼠视网膜局部受损,然后在损伤眼及对照眼玻璃体内移植绿色荧光蛋白(green fluorescence protein,GFP)标记的猕猴神经前体细胞,观察细胞能否存活.结果显示:经激光共聚焦显微镜检查发现移植细胞在损伤眼及对照眼内均可存活并整合至损伤眼视网膜.实验表明,玻璃体内异种移植GFP标记的猕猴神经前体细胞可以存活并整合,是一种可行的移植方法.%To investigate a simple and effective intraocular xenotransplant technique of rhesus monkey neural progenitor cells to rats, mechanical injury was induced in the rat's right retina. And the GFP-labeled rhesus monkey neural progenitor cells suspension was slowly injected into the vitreous space of the right injured and left control eye. Confocal image suggested that the xenografted cells survived in both the injured and control eye, meanwhile the cells integrated in the injured right retina. The results demonstrated that intravitreal xenotransplant could be adopted as a simple and reliable method.

  3. Rat traps: filling the toolbox for manipulating the rat genome

    van Boxtel, Ruben; Cuppen, Edwin


    The laboratory rat is rapidly gaining momentum as a mammalian genetic model organism. Although traditional forward genetic approaches are well established, recent technological developments have enabled efficient gene targeting and mutant generation. Here we outline the current status, possibilities and application of these techniques in the rat.

  4. New quantitative and multi-modal approach for in-vivo studies of small animals: coupling of the {beta}-microprobe with magnetic techniques and development of voxelized rat and mouse phantoms; Nouvelle approche multimodale et quantitative pour les etudes in vivo chez le petit animal: couplage de la {beta}-MicroProbe aux techniques magnetiques et developpement de fantomes de rat et de souris voxelises

    Desbree, A


    For the last 15 years, animal models that mimic human disorders have become ubiquitous participants to understand biological mechanisms and human disorders and to evaluate new therapeutic approaches. The necessity to study these models in the course of time has stimulated the development of instruments dedicated to in vivo small animal studies. To further understand physiopathological processes, the current challenge is to couple simultaneously several of these methods. Given this context, the combination of the magnetic and radioactive techniques remains an exciting challenge since it is still limited by strict technical constraints. Therefore we propose to couple the magnetic techniques with the radiosensitive Beta-Microprobe, developed in the IPB group and which shown to be an elegant alternative to PET measurements. In this context, the thesis was dedicated to the study of the coupling feasibility from a physical point of view, by simulation and experimental characterizations. Then, the determination of a biological protocol was carried out on the basis of pharmacokinetic studies. The experiments have shown the possibility to use the probe for radioactive measurements under intense magnetic field simultaneously to anatomical images acquisitions. Simultaneously, we have sought to improve the quantification of the radioactive signal using a voxelized phantom of a rat brain. Finally, the emergence of transgenic models led us to reproduce pharmacokinetic studies for the mouse and to develop voxelized mouse phantoms. (author)

  5. Complications of the Latarjet procedure.

    Gupta, Ashish; Delaney, Ruth; Petkin, Kalojan; Lafosse, Laurent


    The Latarjet procedure is an operation performed either arthroscopically or open for recurrent anterior shoulder instability, in the setting of glenoid bone loss; with good to excellent functional results. Despite excellent clinical results, the complication rates are reported between 15 and 30 %. Intraoperative complications such as graft malpositioning, neurovascular injury, and graft fracture can all be mitigated with meticulous surgical technique and understanding of the local anatomy. Nonunion and screw breakage are intermediate-term complications that occur in less than 5 % of patients. The long-term complications such as graft osteolysis are still an unsolved problem, and future research is required to understand the etiology and best treatment option. Recurrent instability after the Latarjet procedure can be managed with iliac crest bone graft reconstruction of the anterior glenoid. Shoulder arthritis is another complication reported after the Latarjet procedure, which poses additional challenges to both the surgeon and patient.

  6. Key details of the duodenal-jejunal bypass in type 2 diabetes mellitus rats

    Li-Ou Han; Li-Hong Zhou; Su-Jun Cheng; Chun Song; Chun-Fang Song


    AIM: To investigate which surgical techniques and perioperative regimens yielded the best survival rates for diabetic rats undergoing gastric bypass.METHODS: We performed Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with reserved gastric volume, a procedure in which gastrointestinal continuity was reestablished while ex?cluding the entire duodenum and proximal jejunal loop. We observed the procedural success rate, long-term survival, and histopathological sequelae associated with a number of technical modifications. These included: use of anatomical markers to precisely identify Treitz's ligament; careful dissection along surgical planes; care?ful attention to the choice of regional transection sites; reconstruction using full-thickness anastomoses; use of a minimally invasive procedure with prohemostatic pre-treatment and hemorrhage control; prevention of hypo-thermic damage; reduction in the length of the proce?dure; and accelerated surgical recovery using fast-track surgical modalities such as perioperative permissive underfeeding and goal-directed volume therapy.RESULTS: The series of modifications we adopted reduced operation time from 110.02 ± 12.34 min to 78.39 ± 7.26 min (P < 0.01), and the procedural success rate increased from 43.3% (13/30) to 90% (18/20) (P < 0.01), with a long-term survival of 83.3% (15/18) (P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: Using a number of fast-track and damage control surgical techniques, we have success?fully established a stable model of gastric bypass in diabetic rats.

  7. Tubuloglomerular feedback in Dahl rats

    Karlsen, F M; Leyssac, P P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H


    in both Dahl-S and salt-resistant Dahl rats on high- and low-salt diets. TGF was investigated in the closed-loop mode with a videometric technique, in which the response in late proximal flow rate to perturbations in Henle flow rate was measured. All Dahl rats showed a similar compensatory response...

  8. Growth hormone aggregates in the rat adenohypophysis

    Farrington, M.; Hymer, W. C.


    Although it has been known for some time that GH aggregates are contained within the rat anterior pituitary gland, the role that they might play in pituitary function is unknown. The present study examines this issue using the technique of Western blotting, which permitted visualization of 11 GH variants with apparent mol wt ranging from 14-88K. Electroelution of the higher mol wt variants from gels followed by their chemical reduction with beta-mercaptoethanol increased GH immunoassayability by about 5-fold. With the blot procedure we found 1) that GH aggregates greater than 44K were associated with a 40,000 x g sedimentable fraction; 2) that GH aggregates were not present in glands from thyroidectomized rats, but were in glands from the thyroidectomized rats injected with T4; 3) that GH aggregates were uniquely associated with a heavily granulated somatotroph subpopulation isolated by density gradient centrifugation; and 4) that high mol wt GH forms were released from the dense somatotrophs in culture, since treatment of the culture medium with beta-mercaptoethanol increased GH immunoassayability by about 5-fold. Taken together, the results show that high mol wt GH aggregates are contained in secretory granules of certain somatotrophs and are also released in aggregate form from these cells in vitro.

  9. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)


    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  10. Non-terminal blood sampling techniques in guinea pigs.

    Birck, Malene M; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken M; Lykkesfeldt, Jens


    Guinea pigs possess several biological similarities to humans and are validated experimental animal models(1-3). However, the use of guinea pigs currently represents a relatively narrow area of research and descriptive data on specific methodology is correspondingly scarce. The anatomical features of guinea pigs are slightly different from other rodent models, hence modulation of sampling techniques to accommodate for species-specific differences, e.g., compared to mice and rats, are necessary to obtain sufficient and high quality samples. As both long and short term in vivo studies often require repeated blood sampling the choice of technique should be well considered in order to reduce stress and discomfort in the animals but also to ensure survival as well as compliance with requirements of sample size and accessibility. Venous blood samples can be obtained at a number of sites in guinea pigs e.g., the saphenous and jugular veins, each technique containing both advantages and disadvantages(4,5). Here, we present four different blood sampling techniques for either conscious or anaesthetized guinea pigs. The procedures are all non-terminal procedures provided that sample volumes and number of samples do not exceed guidelines for blood collection in laboratory animals(6). All the described methods have been thoroughly tested and applied for repeated in vivo blood sampling in studies within our research facility.

  11. Sentinel-lymph node procedure in breast, uterine cervix, prostate, vulva and penile cancers: Practical methodology; La pratique de la technique du ganglion sentinelle dans diverses indications: sein, col uterin, prostate, vulve et verge. Methodologie pratique

    Brenot-Rossi, I. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 13 - Marseille (France)


    The nodal status is the strongest prognostic factor in early stage cancers. The sentinel-lymph node (S.L.N.) is defined as the first draining lymph node of an organ; the lymph node status is determined by the histological results of S.L.N.. The lymphadenectomy, with high morbidity, is realised only in case of metastatic S.L.N.. The S.L.N. identification, in most of cases, is performed using the combination of blue dye and radiocolloid {sup 99m}Tc injections. The purpose of this article is to give some practical details about the S.L.N. isotopic procedure in breast cancer, vulva and penile cancer, uterine cervix and prostate cancer. (author)

  12. Computerized procedures system

    Lipner, Melvin H.; Mundy, Roger A.; Franusich, Michael D.


    An online data driven computerized procedures system that guides an operator through a complex process facility's operating procedures. The system monitors plant data, processes the data and then, based upon this processing, presents the status of the current procedure step and/or substep to the operator. The system supports multiple users and a single procedure definition supports several interface formats that can be tailored to the individual user. Layered security controls access privileges and revisions are version controlled. The procedures run on a server that is platform independent of the user workstations that the server interfaces with and the user interface supports diverse procedural views.

  13. Clause Elimination Procedures for CNF Formulas

    Heule, Marijn; Järvisalo, Matti; Biere, Armin

    We develop and analyze clause elimination procedures, a specific family of simplification techniques for conjunctive normal form (CNF) formulas. Extending known procedures such as tautology, subsumption, and blocked clause elimination, we introduce novel elimination procedures based on hidden and asymmetric variants of these techniques. We analyze the resulting nine (including five new) clause elimination procedures from various perspectives: size reduction, BCP-preservance, confluence, and logical equivalence. For the variants not preserving logical equivalence, we show how to reconstruct solutions to original CNFs from satisfying assignments to simplified CNFs. We also identify a clause elimination procedure that does a transitive reduction of the binary implication graph underlying any CNF formula purely on the CNF level.

  14. Concepción de un procedimiento utilizando herramientas cuantitativas para mejorar el desempeño empresarial / Conception of a procedure using quantitative techniques in order to improve the business performance

    Rosario Garza-Ríos


    Full Text Available La necesidad de hacer organizaciones eficientes y utilizar racionalmente los recursos, y la responsabilidad de ahorrar recursos energéticos para dar satisfacción a un cliente cada vez más exigente, consciente y preparado; ha provocado que haya que cambiar el paradigma decisional en cuanto a que las decisiones se tomen empíricamente, considerando la experiencia del personal involucrado, hacia un enfoque cuantitativo donde se obtienen soluciones que modelan racionalmente la forma de actuar del decisor. En este trabajo se muestra la concepción de un procedimiento para la utilización de herramientas cuantitativas de apoyo a la toma de decisiones empresariales, exponiéndose las premisas y requerimientos para su aplicación, así como las diferentes fases y pasos que lo componen. El procedimiento fue validado al ser aplicado en la solución de problemas en un restaurante de comida criolla y en una empresa de servicios de seguridad y protección, obteniéndose una mejoría en todos los indicadores analizados. / There is necessity to make efficient organizations and to use the resources rationally, as well as a responsibility of saving energetic resources in order to satisfy a more and more demanding, conscious and prepared client. This has caused the need to a change in the paradigm related to empirical decisions, considering the experience of the involved personnel, toward a quantitative focus, where the solutions that model rationally the way of acting of the person who takes the decisions, are obtained. In this work is showed the conception of a procedure for the using of quantitative tools that support the decision-making process in business, and also are exposed the premises and requirements for its application, as well as the different phases and steps that compose it. This procedure was validated when it was applied in order to solve problems at a creole food restaurant and at a safety and protection services company, obtaining an

  15. Internal septorhinoplasty technique.

    Waite, Peter D


    The internal septorhinoplasty was the standard operating procedure until the popularity of the external or open rhinoplasty technique. The internal technique of the rhinoplasty should be in the armamentarium of every cosmetic surgeon. There will always be indications for both internal and external rhinoplasty. The advantages of the internal technique are several. Rhinoplasty should be treatment planned based on the individual diagnosis. With experience, most surgeons find the internal rhinoplasty to be successful and extremely rewarding. A simple internal rhinoplasty will produce a good result and satisfied patients.

  16. Cardiac Procedures and Surgeries

    ... Procedure Learn more about cardiac medications , including dual antiplatelet therapy, that you may need to take after your ... Procedure Learn more about cardiac medications , including dual antiplatelet therapy, that you may need to take after your ...

  17. Effects of spaceflight in the adductor longus muscle of rats flown in the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2044. A study employing neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) immunocytochemistry and conventional morphological techniques (light and electron microscopy)

    D'Amelio, F.; Daunton, N. G.


    The effects of spaceflight upon the "slow" muscle adductor longus were examined in rats flown in the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2044. The techniques employed included standard methods for light microscopy, neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Light microscopic observations revealed myofiber atrophy and segmental necrosis accompanied by cellular infiltrates composed of macrophages, leukocytes and mononuclear cells. Neural cell adhesion molecule immunoreactivity (N-CAM-IR) was seen on the myofiber surface and in regenerating myofibers. Ultrastructural alterations included Z band streaming, disorganization of myofibrillar architecture, sarcoplasmic degradation, extensive segmental necrosis with apparent preservation of the basement membrane, degenerative phenomena of the capillary endothelium and cellular invasion of necrotic areas. Regenerating myofibers were identified by the presence of increased amounts of ribosomal aggregates and chains of polyribosomes associated with myofilaments. The principal electron microscopic changes of the neuromuscular junctions showed axon terminals with a decrease or absence of synaptic vesicles replaced by microtubules and neurofilaments, degeneration of axon terminals, vacant axonal spaces and changes suggestive of axonal sprouting. The present observations suggest that alterations such as myofibrillar disruption and necrosis, muscle regeneration and denervation and synaptic remodeling at the level of the neuromuscular junction may take place during spaceflight.

  18. RGST - Rat Gene Symbol Tracker, a database for defining official rat gene symbols

    Ståhl Fredrik


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The names of genes are central in describing their function and relationship. However, gene symbols are often a subject of controversy. In addition, the discovery of mammalian genes is now so rapid that a proper use of gene symbol nomenclature rules tends to be overlooked. This is currently the situation in the rat and there is a need for a cohesive and unifying overview of all rat gene symbols in use. Based on the experiences in rat gene symbol curation that we have gained from running the "Ratmap" rat genome database, we have now developed a database that unifies different rat gene naming attempts with the accepted rat gene symbol nomenclature rules. Description This paper presents a newly developed database known as RGST (Rat Gene Symbol Tracker. The database contains rat gene symbols from three major sources: the Rat Genome Database (RGD, Ensembl, and NCBI-Gene. All rat symbols are compared with official symbols from orthologous human genes as specified by the Human Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC. Based on the outcome of the comparisons, a rat gene symbol may be selected. Rat symbols that do not match a human ortholog undergo a strict procedure of comparisons between the different rat gene sources as well as with the Mouse Genome Database (MGD. For each rat gene this procedure results in an unambiguous gene designation. The designation is presented as a status level that accompanies every rat gene symbol suggested in the database. The status level describes both how a rat symbol was selected, and its validity. Conclusion This database fulfils the important need of unifying rat gene symbols into an automatic and cohesive nomenclature system. The RGST database is available directly from the RatMap home page:

  19. Enzymatic Cell Isolation and Explant Cultures of Rat Calvarial Osteoblast Cells


    Osteoblast cells were isolated from the calvarial bones of newborn Wistar rats and cultured in vitro via both collagenase digestion method and explant technique, and a comparative study was carried out on the two culture methods. The biologic characteristics of tbs osteoblast cells were studied via cell number counting,morphology observation, alkaline phosphatase staining of the cells and alizarine- red staining of the calcified nodules. The results show that osteoblast cells can be cultured in vitro via collagenase digestion method and explant technique, and the obtained cells are of good biologic characteristics. In comparison with the explant techniqne,the operative procedure of the enzymatic digestion method is more complicated. The digestion time must be carefully controlled. However, with this method, one can obtain a lager number of cells in a short time. The operative procedure of the explant technique is simpler, but it usually takes longer time to obtain cells of desirable number.

  20. Conflict among Testing Procedures?


    AM4ONG TESTING PROCEDURES? Daniel F . Kohler April 1982 ( i’ 4:3 rpis tsnlb u lailtsd P-6765 8 8 O1 V 068 The Rand Paper Series Papers are issued by...TESTING PROCEDURES? Daniel F . Kohler April 1982 : i ! ,I I CONFLICT AMONG TESTING PROCEDURES? 1. Introduction "- Savin [1976] and Berndt and Savin [19771

  1. [New microbiological techniques].

    Schubert, S; Wieser, A; Bonkat, G


    Microbiological diagnostic procedures have changed rapidly in recent years. This is especially true in the field of molecular diagnostics. Classical culture-based techniques are still the gold standard in many areas; however, they are already complemented by automated and also molecular techniques to guarantee faster and better quality results. The most commonly used techniques include real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based systems and nucleic acid hybridization. These procedures are used most powerfully from direct patient samples or in assays to detect the presence of nonculturable or fastidious organisms. Further techniques such as DNA sequencing are not yet used routinely for urological samples and can be considered experimental. However, in conjunction with dropping prices and further technical developments, these techniques promise to be used much more in the near future. Regarding bacterial identification from culture, mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has become the technique of choice in recent years especially in Europe. It has tremendously shortened the time to result. This is now going to be extended to antibiotic susceptibility testing. This is of paramount importance in view of ever rising antimicrobial resistance rates. Techniques described in this review offer a faster and better microbiological diagnosis. Such continuous improvements are critical especially in times of cost pressure and rising antimicrobial resistance rates. It is in our interest to provide the best possible care for patients and in this regard a good and effective communication between the laboratory and the clinician is of vital importance.

  2. An unconditioned stimulus retrieval extinction procedure to prevent the return of fear memory.

    Liu, Jianfeng; Zhao, Liyan; Xue, Yanxue; Shi, Jie; Suo, Lin; Luo, Yixiao; Chai, Baisheng; Yang, Chang; Fang, Qin; Zhang, Yan; Bao, Yanping; Pickens, Charles L; Lu, Lin


    Conditioned fear memories can be updated by extinction during reconsolidation, and this effect is specific to the reactivated conditioned stimulus (CS). However, a traumatic event can be associated with several cues, and each cue can potentially trigger recollection of the event. We introduced a technique to target all diverse cues associated with an aversive event that causes fear. In human experiments, 161 subjects underwent modified fear conditioning, in which they were exposed to an unconditioned stimulus (US) or unreinforced CS to reactivate the memory and then underwent extinction, spontaneous recovery, and reinstatement. In animal experiments, 343 rats underwent contextual fear conditioning under a similar protocol as that used in the human experiments. We also explored the molecular alterations after US reactivation in rats. Presentation of a lower intensity US before extinction disrupted the associations between the different CS and reactivated US in both humans and rats. This effect persisted for at least 6 months in humans and was selective to the reactivated US. This procedure was also effective for remote memories in both humans and rats. Compared with the CS, the US induced stronger endocytosis of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid glutamate receptors 1 and 2 and stronger activation of protein kinase A, p70S6 kinase, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein in the dorsal hippocampus in rats. These findings demonstrate that a modified US retrieval extinction strategy may have a potential impact on therapeutic approaches to prevent the return of fear. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Changes in urological surgical techniques

    Oktay Üçer


    Full Text Available Recently, laparoscopic and afterwards robotic techniques have constituted most of urologic surgery procedures. Open surgery may give place to robotic surgery due to possible widespread use of robots in the future. Studies, that compare these two techniques are usually designed about radical prostatectomy, since it is the most common operation performed by using these techniques. In literature,robotic surgery seems more advantageous than other techniques but the most important disadvantage of this technique is cost-effective problems. In present review,history of open, laparoscopic and robotic surgery, and comparison of advantages, disadvantages and cost of these techniques have been discussed with literature.

  4. Attention and stimulus processing in the rat.

    Muir, J L


    There is little doubt that rats are an essential species in laboratory testing. Given the substantial amount of anatomical and pharmacological information which is available for this species, rats are the animal of choice for many initial neurobiological investigations of the basic mechanisms of learning and memory as well as for pharmacological screening. Indeed, the study of brain-behaviour interactions is greatly facilitated in the rat given the ease with which brain transmitter systems and structures can be selectively manipulated, in contrast to the technical difficulties involved in undertaking such techniques in non-human primates. However, when considering the processing of information that occurs during cognitive processes such as learning and memory it is important to remember that fundamental to such processes are mechanisms of attention. When considering the concept of attentional functioning, it is important to keep in mind that attention is not a unitary construct but consists of several distinct mechanisms: vigilance, divided attention and selective attention, not all of which have been adequately modelled in the rat. Furthermore, attentional processes are also involved in learning operant discrimination tasks and appear to be quite different from those involved in maintaining high levels of trained performance. Consideration of discrimination learning is important given that firstly, during such learning the animal must select from the environment those stimuli which are relevant and secondly, that this type of learning is obviously inherent in many other tests used to assess cognitive function, such as delayed matching-to-sample procedures. Such issues will therefore form the basis of the following discussion.

  5. Comparative study of different insertion techniques of pedicle screw in minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) procedure%微创TLIF术中不同椎弓根螺钉置入技术的对比研究

    李振宙; 吴闻文; 宋科冉; 商卫林; 侯树勋


    [ Objective] To prospectively compare the outcomes of minimally invasive TLIF with different pedicle screw insertion techniques in the treatment of degenerative disc disease. [ Methods] From April 2008 to April 2010, 25 minimally invasive TLIF with conventional free hand pedicle screw insertion technique through expandable retractor (mini -TLIF) were match paired with 25 minimally invasive TLIF with percutaneous pedicle screw insertion technique under X - ray fluoroscopy guidance (p -TLIF) , with each group composed of 17 cases mono - segment lumbar disk herniation combined with segmental instability and 8 cases mono - segment discogenic low back pain. Patient demographics and operative data were collected. Clinical assessment in terms of Visual Analogue Scores of low back pain and sciatica were performed before surgery, 1 week, 6 months, 12 months and 24 months after surgery. Operation time, fluoroscopic time, blood loss, total morphine use, hospital stay and Mac-Nab scores of 24 postoperative months were compared between two groups. [ Results ] VAS scores of low back pain and sciatica of 1 week, 6 months, 12 months and 24 months postoperatively are decreased significantly compared to that of preoperative in both groups (P 0. 05) . Fluoroscopic time and operative time were longer in p - TLIF cases ( P 0. 05) . Two cases in p -TLIF group complicated with chronic low back pain underwent endoscopic exploration of medial branches of spinal nerves of fusion segment. Medial branches were compressed by pedicle screws and low back pain relieved after endoscopic dorsal rhizotomy. [Conclusion] Outcomes of 2 -year follow - up showed similar effect between two pedicle screw insertion techniques. Mini -TLIF keeps the advantages of p -TLIF (low tissue damage, low blood loss and low narcotics use) while avoid the disadvantage of p - TLIF ( high radiation exposure, long operation time) . Long - term outcomes still remain to be determined.%[目的]前瞻性对照研究不同椎

  6. Maternal anesthesia via isoflurane or ether differentially affects pre-and postnatal behavior in rat offspring.

    Ronca, April E; Abel, Regina A; Alberts, Jeffrey R


    Our understanding of prenatal behavior has been significantly advanced by techniques for direct observation and manipulation of unanesthetized, behaving rodent fetuses with intact umbilical connections to the mother. These techniques involve brief administration of an inhalant anesthesic, enabling spinal transection of the rat or mouse dam, after which procedures can continue with unanesthetized dams and fetuses. Because anesthetics administered to the mother can cross the placental barrier, it is possible that fetuses are anesthetized to varying degrees. We compared in perinatal rats the effects of prenatal maternal exposure to two inhalant anesthetics: ether and isoflurane. Fewer spontaneous fetal movements and first postpartum nipple attachments were observed following maternal exposure to ether as compared to isoflurane. Neonatal breathing frequencies and oxygenation did not account for group differences in nipple attachment. Our results provide evidence that the particular inhalant anesthetic employed in prenatal manipulation studies determines frequencies of perinatal behavior. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Crack and flip phacoemulsification technique.

    Fine, I H; Maloney, W F; Dillman, D M


    The crack and flip phacoemulsification technique combines the advantages of circumferential division of the nucleus and nucleofactis techniques. As such, it adds safety and control to the procedure. We describe each of the surgical maneuvers, including machine settings, and explain the rationale for maneuvers and machine settings.

  8. YF-16 flight flutter test procedures

    Brignac, W. J.; Ness, H. B.; Johnson, M. K.; Smith, L. M.


    The Random Decrement technique (Randomdec) was incorporated in procedures for flight testing of the YF-16 lightweight fighter prototype. Damping values obtained substantiate the adequacy of the flutter margin of safety. To confirm the structural modes which were being excited, a spectral analysis of each channel was performed using the AFFTC time/data 1923/50 time series analyzer. Inflight test procedure included the careful monitoring of strip charts, three axis pulses, rolls, and pullups.

  9. Influência da técnica de anestesia no tempo de ocupação de sala cirúrgica nas operações anorretais Influence of the anesthetic technique on the time spent in operating rooms in anorectal procedures

    Paulo Gustavo Kotze


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: atualmente cerca de 90% das operações anorretais são realizadas em regime ambulatorial. A técnica anestésica é fator fundamental na busca de reduzido tempo de internação, agilidade no ambiente cirúrgico e redução de custos nestes procedimentos. Não há consenso na literatura sobre qual o melhor tipo de anestesia para essas operações. OBJETIVO: comparar o tempo de ocupação de sala cirúrgica em pacientes submetidos a operações anorretais através da técnica de raquianestesia com bupivacaína 0,5% isobárica comparada com a técnica de anestesia venosa com propofol associada ao bloqueio perianal local com lidocaína a 2% e bupivacaína 0,5%. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos 99 pacientes divididos em 2 grupos: grupo I (raquianestesia, composto por 50 pacientes e grupo II (anestesia combinada, composto por 49 pacientes. Foram estudados os procedimentos cirúrgicos e o tempo de procedimento anestésico-cirúrgico, e medida indireta da ocupação da sala cirúrgica. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença estatística significativa entre os grupos estudados em relação ao tipo de procedimento cirúrgico, sexo e idade. O tempo médio do procedimento anestésico-cirúrgico, no grupo I foi de 53,1 min e de 44,08 min no grupo II (p=0,034. CONCLUSÕES: As duas técnicas estudadas foram eficazes. Houve menor tempo de procedimento anestésico-cirúrgico nos pacientes operados com anestesia combinada, com significância estatística.INTRODUCTION: around ninety percent of anorectal surgical procedures are performed as day cases. The choice of a proper anesthetic technique is important to achieve reduced time in the operating rooms, hospital stay and low costs. There is no evidence in the literature that a superior type of anesthesia for these procedures exists. OBJECTIVE: to compare the time spent on operating rooms in patients submitted to anorectal surgical procedures through spinal anesthesia (0,5% bupivacaine with combined anesthesia

  10. [Seldinger modified technique].

    Ramos Cuenca, Francisco; Linares Escudero, Joaquín; Romo García, Raquel; Cubo Amaya, Manuel; Climent Villanueva, Magdalena; Santos Sarria, Remedios


    The authors describe the procedure to insert central blood vessel catheters through peripheral blood vessel catheters using the Seldinger modified technique since critically ill patients service at the Carlos Haya Regional University Hospital in Malaga cares for a high number of patients who need to have canalized a central blood vessel catheter to maximize the treatment they receive. In many cases it is not possible to insert a DRUM type central blood vessel catheter due to an insufficient blood vessel caliber and then the nursing team at this hospital opts to carry out a procedure to canalize a central blood vessel using the Seldinger modified technique. This report was presented at the III National Social-Sanitary Nursing Congress.

  11. [Clinical psychodiagnosis using psychophysiologic procedures].

    Grünberger, J; Linzmayer, L; Saletu, B


    The present paper presents several new psychophysiological test methods and measures, which have been developed by the authors for utilization in the field of psychopathology and psychopharmacology. The main advantage of these new techniques seems to lie in the fact, that control and evaluation procedures are microprocessor-assisted which ensures objectivity, reliability and validity. The multidimensionality, e.g. the possibility to concomitantly evaluate several variables at the same time, and the economics, e.g. the short time effort involved in completing the tests, are further advantages. By means of the newly developed techniques several sensitive measures may be obtained which are of great value in the diagnostic process as well as in the assessment of drug effects in clinical psychopharmacology.

  12. Actor-Network Procedures

    Pavlovic, Dusko; Meadows, Catherine; Ramanujam, R.; Ramaswamy, Srini


    In this paper we propose actor-networks as a formal model of computation in heterogenous networks of computers, humans and their devices, where these new procedures run; and we introduce Procedure Derivation Logic (PDL) as a framework for reasoning about security in actor-networks, as an extension

  13. Civil Procedure In Denmark

    Werlauff, Erik

    The book contains an up-to-date survey of Danish civil procedure after the profound Danish procedural reforms in 2007. It deals with questions concerning competence and function of Danish courts, commencement and preparation of civil cases, questions of evidence and burden of proof, international...

  14. An improved technique for oral administration of solutions of test ...



    Mar 20, 2009 ... The oral administration of solution of drugs or test substances to experimental rats is often necessary in various pharmacological, toxicological and other biomedical ... procedure to avoid damage to it from the animal's bite.

  15. Safe monsplasty technique.

    Patoué, Audrey; De Runz, Antoine; Carloni, Raphael; Aillet, Sylvie; Watier, Eric; Bertheuil, Nicolas


    To improve their health and quality of life, obese patients undergo consultation after weight loss. In these patients, the sub-umbilical abdominal and pubic regions are often characterized by redundant skin, creating aesthetic and functional discomfort. Monsplasty is an important step in abdominoplasty or bodylift procedures. We report on an original technique used to correct deformity in the pubic region following weight loss. All interventions were performed by the same surgeon between April and December 2015. On stretched skin, we drew two lines 5 cm lateral to the median line on both sides and connected them with the arc of a circle placed 7 cm from the vulvar fork. Then, monsplasty marks extend to abdominal fold. During lower abdominal contouring, we performed monsplasty with three separate stitches between the camper fascia and aponeurosis of the abdominal muscle. The aim was to bring tension to the pubic region without additional surgical procedure. We report on 21 consecutive cases of monsplasty following lower trunk contouring. No reoperation was performed due to complication or aesthetic demand (no under- or over-correction occurred). No complication (e.g. edema, seroma, disturbance of sensibility) was observed in the pubic area. The results were stable 1 year after surgery. We report on a simple, rapid, and reproducible monsplasty technique for all stages of Pittsburgh classifications, which achieved favorable results with no complication. We recommend performance of this effective technique simultaneously with abdominoplasty or bodylift procedures. IV.

  16. Flexible calibration procedure for fringe projection profilometry

    Vargas, Javier; Quiroga Mellado, Juan Antonio; Terrón López, María José


    A novel calibration method for whole field three-dimensional shape measurement by means of fringe projection is presented. Standard calibration techniques, polynomial-and model-based, have practical limitations such as the difficulty of measuring large fields of view, the need to use precise z stages, and bad calibration results due to inaccurate calibration points. The proposed calibration procedure is a mixture of the two main standard techniques, sharing their benefits and avoiding their m...

  17. Play vs. Procedures

    Hammar, Emil

    Through the theories of play by Gadamer (2004) and Henricks (2006), I will show how the relationship between play and game can be understood as dialectic and disruptive, thus challenging understandings of how the procedures of games determine player activity and vice versa. As such, I posit some...... analytical consequences for understandings of digital games as procedurally fixed (Boghost, 2006; Flannagan, 2009; Bathwaite & Sharp, 2010). That is, if digital games are argued to be procedurally fixed and if play is an appropriative and dialectic activity, then it could be argued that the latter affects...

  18. Penile Enhancement Procedures with Simultaneous Penile Prosthesis Placement

    Tariq S. Hakky


    Full Text Available Here we present an overview of various techniques performed concomitantly during penile prosthesis surgery to enhance penile length and girth. We report on the technique of ventral phalloplasty and its outcomes along with augmentation corporoplasty, suprapubic lipectomy, suspensory ligament release, and girth enhancement procedures. For the serious implanter, outcomes can be improved by combining the use of techniques for each scar incision. These adjuvant procedures are a key addition in the armamentarium for the serious implant surgeon.

  19. Interactions between Zn and Cu in LEC rats, an animal model of Wilson's disease.

    Santon, Alessandro; Giannetto, Sabrina; Sturniolo, Giacomo Carlo; Medici, Valentina; D'Incà, Renata; Irato, Paola; Albergoni, Vincenzo


    The effect of oral Zn treatment was studied in the liver and kidneys of 26 male Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats (mutant animals, 5 weeks old) in relation to both the interaction between Zn and Cu and the localisation and concentration of metallothionein (MT). Rats receiving 80 mg zinc acetate daily by gavage and control rats receiving no treatment were killed after 1 or 2 weeks. By immunohistochemical and analytical chemical techniques we revealed that treated rats had higher levels of MT in the hepatic and renal cells compared to untreated ones. Tissue Zn concentrations were significantly higher in treated rats compared to untreated whereas Cu concentrations decreased in the liver and kidneys as indicated by analytical chemical analyses. MT levels also decreased with treatment period. A histochemical procedure, obtained using autofluorescence of Cu-metallothioneins, confirms these findings: after 2 weeks, the signal decreased in both the liver and kidney sections. This gives a greater understanding of the mechanism of Cu metabolism in the two tissues considered. These results suggest that Zn acts both to compete for absorption on the luminal side of the intestinal epithelium and to induce the synthesis of MT.

  20. Quantitative autoradiographic assessment of sup 55 Fe-RBC distribution in rat brain

    Lin, S.Z.; Nakata, H.; Tajima, A.; Gruber, K.; Acuff, V.; Patlak, C.; Fenstermacher, J. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook (USA))


    A simple in vivo technique of labeling erythrocytes (RBCs) with {sup 55}Fe was developed for quantitative autoradiography (QAR). This procedure involved injecting 5-6 ml of ({sup 55}Fe)ferrous citrate solution (1 mCi/ml) intraperitoneally into donor rats. The number of labeled RBCs reached a maximum at around 7 days and declined very slowly thereafter. Labeled RBCs were harvested from donor rats and used for RBC volume measurement in awake rats. Brain radioactivity was assayed by QAR, which yielded spatial resolution of greater than 50 microns. Tight nearly irreversible binding of {sup 55}Fe to RBCs was found in vivo and in vitro. More than 99.5% of the {sup 55}Fe in the blood of donor rats was bound to RBCs. Because of this, labeled blood can be taken from donors and injected into recipients without further preparation. The tissue absorption of {sup 55}Fe emissions was the same in gray and white matter. Microvascular RBC volumes measured with {sup 55}Fe-labeled RBCs agreed with those assayed with {sup 51}Cr-labeled RBCs for many, but not all, brain areas. In conclusion, {sup 55}Fe-RBCs can be readily prepared by this technique and accurately quantitated in brain tissue by QAR.

  1. Soldiers’ Toolbox for Developing Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTP)



  2. Accelerating MRO procedures for composite materials using innovative detection techniques

    Boer, R.J.; Pelt, M.; Schoemaker, C.; Borst, M.; Groves, R.M.


    The development of large commercial aircraft such as the Airbus A350 and the Boeing 787, together with military aircraft such as the Lockheed Martin F35, with a large share of composite components of up to 50%, make it necessary for attention to be focussed on the development of new and effective ma

  3. Measuring Student Growth: Techniques and Procedures for Occupational Education.

    Erickson, Richard C.; Wentling, Tim L.

    Designed for current and future occupational instructors, counselors, and administrators, the comprehensive measurement text is directed toward all subject areas in occupational education--industrial, business/distributive, home economics, agriculture, health occupations, and personal/public services. It offers necessary guidelines to select,…

  4. Linguistics, Procedure and Technique in CALL Teacher Education

    Torsani, Simone


    Research in CALL education has identified a series of goals and constraints for technology in language education that need to be taken into account when designing a CALL syllabus. This article presents a theoretical framework for syllabus design based on the identification of three areas of expertise within CALL: linguistic knowledge, procedural…

  5. Desert Operations Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures. Southwest Asia Focus


    identify and/or kill the snake. Take it to medical personnel for inspection / identification. TREAT ALL SNAKEBITES AS POISONOUS . The treatment prescribed...Reconnaissance .......................................................................... 5-1 BATTLEFIELD AREA OF EVALUATION, and may be seen coiled in shady spots during the day. DON’T PLAY WITH SNAKES! PIT POISON SAC FANGS EYE EYE Viper Cobra 1-3 ChapterI - The Area

  6. Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTP) for Migrant Camp Operations


    provisions should be made for the protection of minors and unaccompanied children . 11 The sending and receiving of mail should be allowed. 12 Material...will require that humanitarian assistance be provided to displaced civilians--either refugees or migrants. This may include providing short-term...domestic organizations will be involved. The international agencies may include the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), International

  7. Joint Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Laser Designation Operations


    Man-transportable, tripod mounted Employment: To provide forward observers, NGF spotters, and FACs the capability to accurately determine location and... reproduction is authorized and access to unclassified publications is unrestricted. However, access to and reproduction authorization for classified...message to observer MULE modular universal laser equipment NFLIR navigation forward-looking infrared NGF naval gun fire NOHD nominal ocular hazard distance

  8. Accelerating MRO procedures for composite materials using innovative detection techniques

    Boer, R.J.; Pelt, M.; Schoemaker, C.; Borst, M.; Groves, R.M.


    The development of large commercial aircraft such as the Airbus A350 and the Boeing 787, together with military aircraft such as the Lockheed Martin F35, with a large share of composite components of up to 50%, make it necessary for attention to be focussed on the development of new and effective

  9. Methods and Measures for Communicating Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures


    known IEDs, practice routes, and indentify behaviors of insurgents. Video reenactments are 6 also being utilized to help troops learn cultural... reenactments of roadside bomb attacks. National Defense Magazine. 30 Jentsch, F., Bowers, C

  10. Joint Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Close Air Support (CAS)


    Airfields. g. Recovery (1) C2. (2) Recovery Type. (a) Primary. (b) Secondary. (3) NVD Stowage . (4) Formation Break-up. (5) Landing. (a) Primary. (b... rack -ejection velocity. 3. Relationships Between Weapon Impact and Point of Intersection For all determinations in Figure D-1, the position of a prone

  11. Decision-making Procedures

    Aldashev, Gani; Kirchsteiger, Georg; Sebald, Alexander Christopher


    is crucial for the effort exerted by agents. This prediction is tested in a field experiment, where some subjects had to type in data, whereas others had to verify the data inserted by the typists. The controllers' wage was 50% higher than that of the typists. In one treatment the less attractive typists......It is a persistent finding in psychology and experimental economics that people's behavior is not only shaped by outcomes but also by decision-making procedures. In this paper we develop a general framework capable of modelling these procedural concerns. Within the context of psychological games we...... define procedures as mechanisms that influence the probabilities of reaching different endnodes. We show that for such procedural games a sequential psychological equilibrium always exists. Applying this approach within a principal-agent context we show that the way less attractive jobs are allocated...

  12. Canalith Repositioning Procedure

    ... repositioning procedure can help relieve benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), a condition in which you have brief, ... dizziness that occur when you move your head. Vertigo usually comes from a problem with the part ...

  13. Procedures for Sampling Vegetation

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines vegetation sampling procedures used on various refuges in Region 3. The importance of sampling the response of marsh vegetation to management...

  14. A Choice Procedure to Assess the Aversive Effects of Drugs in Rodents

    Podlesnik, Christopher A.; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina; Woods, James H.


    The goal of this series of experiments was to develop an operant choice procedure to examine rapidly the punishing effects of intravenous drugs in rats. First, the cardiovascular effects of experimenter-administered intravenous histamine, a known aversive drug, were assessed to determine a biologically active dose range. Next, rats responded on…

  15. Novel Foraminal Expansion Technique

    Senturk, Salim; Ciplak, Mert; Oktenoglu, Tunc; Sasani, Mehdi; Egemen, Emrah; Yaman, Onur; Suzer, Tuncer


    The technique we describe was developed for cervical foraminal stenosis for cases in which a keyhole foraminotomy would not be effective. Many cervical stenosis cases are so severe that keyhole foraminotomy is not successful. However, the technique outlined in this study provides adequate enlargement of an entire cervical foraminal diameter. This study reports on a novel foraminal expansion technique. Linear drilling was performed in the middle of the facet joint. A small bone graft was placed between the divided lateral masses after distraction. A lateral mass stabilization was performed with screws and rods following the expansion procedure. A cervical foramen was linearly drilled medially to laterally, then expanded with small bone grafts, and a lateral mass instrumentation was added with surgery. The patient was well after the surgery. The novel foraminal expansion is an effective surgical method for severe foraminal stenosis. PMID:27559460

  16. The selected response procedure: a variation on Appelbaum's altered atmosphere procedure for the Rorschach.

    Jaffe, L


    This article introduces the Selected Response Procedure, which is a supplementary technique for expanding the scope of the Rorschach test. The procedure is conducted as follows: After the standard administration of the Rorschach test, patients are asked to look through all of the cards a second time and select one more response from any card of their choice. A rationale for this procedure is developed through a comparison to another supplementary Rorschach technique, the Altered Atmosphere Procedure. The importance of understanding the selected response within a theoretical framework, as well as the clinical context of each selected response, is highlighted by a clinical example using object relations theory. Finally, a number of didactic questions are offered as potential ways to query the possible meaning of selected responses.

  17. Epineurial sheath tube (EST) technique: an experimental peripheral nerve repair model.

    Bozkurt, Ahmet; Dunda, Sebastian E; Mon O'Dey, Dan; Brook, Gary A; Suschek, Christoph V; Pallua, Norbert


    Here we present the epineurial sheath tube (EST) technique as a modified microsurgical rat sciatic nerve model. The EST technique provides a cavity or pouch consisting of an outer epineurial sleeve that has been freed from nerve fascicles. This cavity may be appropriate to test the effectiveness and biocompatibility of implanted growth factors, cell suspensions (embedded in solutions or gels), or bioartificial nerve guide constructs. A total number of 10 rats underwent the surgical procedure for the EST technique. Cylinders made of fibrin gel served as implants and place-holders. Three animals were euthanized directly after operation, while the others survived for 6 weeks. After immersion fixation (3·9% glutaraldehyde), both conventional histology [semi-thin sections (1 μm), toluidine blue] and scanning electron microscopy were performed. Conventional histology and scanning electron microscopy of samples that had been fixed directly after the surgical procedure displayed the integrity of the closed epineurial tube with the fibrin cylinder in its center. Even after 6 weeks, the outer epineurium was not lacerated, the stitches did not loosen, and the lumen did not collapse, but remained open. The practicability of the EST technique could be verified regarding feasibility, reproducibility, mechanical stability, and openness of the lumen. The EST technique can be adapted to other nerve models (e.g. median or facial nerve). It provides a cavity or pouch, which can be used for different neuroscientific approaches including concepts to improve the therapeutic benefit of autologous nerve grafting or therapies to be used as an alternative to autologous nerve grafting.

  18. Mobile Energy Laboratory Procedures

    Armstrong, P.R.; Batishko, C.R.; Dittmer, A.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Stoops, J.L.


    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been tasked to plan and implement a framework for measuring and analyzing the efficiency of on-site energy conversion, distribution, and end-use application on federal facilities as part of its overall technical support to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) Procedures establish guidelines for specific activities performed by PNL staff. PNL provided sophisticated energy monitoring, auditing, and analysis equipment for on-site evaluation of energy use efficiency. Specially trained engineers and technicians were provided to conduct tests in a safe and efficient manner with the assistance of host facility staff and contractors. Reports were produced to describe test procedures, results, and suggested courses of action. These reports may be used to justify changes in operating procedures, maintenance efforts, system designs, or energy-using equipment. The MEL capabilities can subsequently be used to assess the results of energy conservation projects. These procedures recognize the need for centralized NM administration, test procedure development, operator training, and technical oversight. This need is evidenced by increasing requests fbr MEL use and the economies available by having trained, full-time MEL operators and near continuous MEL operation. DOE will assign new equipment and upgrade existing equipment as new capabilities are developed. The equipment and trained technicians will be made available to federal agencies that provide funding for the direct costs associated with MEL use.

  19. Laparoscopy of rats with experimental liver metastases

    Kobaek-Larsen, Morten; Rud, Lene; Østergaard-Sørensen, Finn


    condition. Liver metastases were modelled by hepatic subcapsular injection of a syngeneic rat colon cancer cell line (DHD/K12-PROb) in BDIX/OrlIco rats. In this study, we present a detailed description of a laparoscopic technique for the direct inspection of liver metastases. That way a qualitative...

  20. Best practices for minimally invasive procedures.

    Ulmer, Brenda C


    Techniques and instrumentation for minimally invasive surgical procedures originated in gynecologic surgery, but the benefits of surgery with small incisions or no incisions at all have prompted the expansion of these techniques into numerous specialties. Technologies such as robotic assistance, single-incision laparoscopic surgery, natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery have led to the continued expansion of minimally invasive surgery into new specialties. With this expansion, perioperative nurses and other members of the surgical team are required to continue to learn about new technology and instrumentation, as well as the techniques and challenges involved in using new technology, to help ensure the safety of their patients. This article explores the development of minimally invasive procedures and offers suggestions for increasing patient safety.

  1. Handbook of Procedures for Estimating Computer System Sizing and Timing Parameters. Volume I. Procedures and Techniques.


    Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations, ESD-TR-66-671, December 1966. AD-646-867 103. Gradwohl, Alan J., Wootan, Wolford 0., Jr., Phase II Final... Larry R., Computer Resources Acquisition and Support for Air Force Weapons System, Defense Systems Management School, Report No. DSMS-PMC-750-1, Vol

  2. In vivo biosynthesis of L-(/sup 35/S)Cys-arginine vasopressin, -oxytocin, and -somatostatin: rapid estimation using reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography. [Rats

    Franco-Bourland, R.E.; Fernstrom, J.D.


    L(/sup 35/S)Cys-arginine vasopressin, -oxytocin, and -somatostatin were purified from hypothalami and neurohypophyses 4 h after rats received L(/sup 35/S)Cys via the third ventricle. After acetic acid extraction, Sephadex G-25 filtration, and chemoadsorption to C18-silica (Sep-Pak cartridges), the labeled peptides were rapidly separated by gradient elution, reversed phase, high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The identity and isotopic purity of the labeled peptides were determined by several reversed phase HPLC procedures in conjunction with chemical modification. The labeled peptide fractions were at least 50% radiochemically pure. Using this HPLC isolation procedure, incorporation of L-(/sup 35/S)Cys into each peptide was determined in hydrated and dehydrated rats. Label incorporation into arginine vasopressin and oxytocin in the hypothalamus and the neurohypophysis of dehydrated rats was 2-3 times greater than that in hydrated rats. Incorporation of label into hypothalamic and neurohypophyseal somatostatin was unaffected by the hydration state of the animal. This procedure thus provides a very rapid, but sensitive, set of techniques for studying the control of small peptide biosynthesis in the brain.

  3. Variación cultural, técnicas y procedimientos estilísticos a propósito de las autotraducciones al castellano de Carme Riera / Cultural variation, techniques and stylistic procedures used by Carme Riera to Spanish self-translation

    Luisa Cotoner Cerdó


    Full Text Available Resumen: El propósito de este artículo es hacer un repaso de las técnicas y procedimientos estilísticos que la escritora Carme Riera utiliza al traspasar sus propias obras desde el original catalán al castellano. La intención de causar un mismo efecto estético en un nuevo público lector en lengua castellana hace que la autora se sienta absolutamente libre para modificar, adaptar, modular, ampliar o suprimir el texto original. Riera considera sus traducciones solo como ejercicio de recreación. Desde esa perspectiva, sus recreaciones consiguen seducir también al público lector hispano, al tiempo que reflejan una de las características esenciales de su obra: la visión poliédrica de la realidad, ya que sus autotraducciones guardan una estrecha correspondencia con la pluralidad de cosmovisiones inherente a la diversidad de lenguas. Sus procedimientos pueden ser a veces discutibles, pero el resultado final desemboca en una nueva y enriquecedora mirada.Summary: The purpose of this article is to survey the techniques and stylistic procedures used by the writer Carme Riera to transfer her own work from the original Catalan to Spanish. The process of seeking to create the same aesthetic impact on a new Spanish readership has the effect of liberating the author, enabling her to modify, adapt, vary, enlarge or omit passages of the original text. Riera considers translation only as an exercise in recreation. As a product of this perspective, her recreations are not only successful in captivating a Spanish readership but also reflect one of the essential characteristics of her work: a multifaceted vision of reality, since her self-translations are a close parallel to the multiplicity of world views inherent in the diversity of languages. Her procedures may at times be questionable, but they lead to a new and enriching final standpoint.

  4. Procedure and Program Examples

    Britz, Dieter

    Here some modules, procedures and whole programs are described, that may be useful to the reader, as they have been, to the author. They are all in Fortran 90/95 and start with a generally useful module, that will be used in most procedures and programs in the examples, and another module useful for programs using a Rosenbrock variant. The source texts (except for the two modules) are not reproduced here, but can be downloaded from the web site &issn=1616-6361&volume=666 (the two lines form one contiguous URL!).

  5. Arianespace streamlines launch procedures

    Lenorovitch, Jeffrey M.


    Ariane has entered a new operational phase in which launch procedures have been enhanced to reduce the length of launch campaigns, lower mission costs, and increase operational availability/flexibility of the three-stage vehicle. The V50 mission utilized the first vehicle from a 50-launcher production lot ordered by Arianespace, and was the initial flight with a stretched third stage that enhances Ariane's performance. New operational procedures were introduced gradually over more than a year, starting with the V42 launch in January 1991.

  6. Safety of propofol sedation for pediatric outpatient procedures.

    Larsen, Reagan; Galloway, David; Wadera, Sheetal; Kjar, Dean; Hardy, David; Mirkes, Curtis; Wick, Lori; Pohl, John F


    Propofol sedation is used more frequently in pediatric procedures because of its ability to provide varying sedation levels. The authors evaluated all outpatient pediatric procedures using propofol sedation over a 6-year period. All sedation was provided by pediatric intensivists at a single institution. In all, 4716 procedures were recorded during the study period; 15% of procedures were associated with minor complications, whereas only 0.1% of procedures were associated with major complications. Significantly more major complications associated with propofol occurred during bronchoscopy (P = .001). Propofol administered by a pediatric intensivist is a safe sedation technique in the pediatric outpatient setting.

  7. Nitrogenase Assembly: Strategies and Procedures.

    Sickerman, Nathaniel S; Hu, Yilin; Ribbe, Markus W


    Nitrogenase is a metalloenzyme system that plays a critical role in biological nitrogen fixation, and the study of how its metallocenters are assembled into functional entities to facilitate the catalytic reduction of dinitrogen to ammonia is an active area of interest. The diazotroph Azotobacter vinelandii is especially amenable to culturing and genetic manipulation, and this organism has provided the basis for many insights into the assembly of nitrogenase proteins and their respective metallocofactors. This chapter will cover the basic procedures necessary for growing A. vinelandii cultures and subsequent recombinant transformation and protein expression techniques. Furthermore, protocols for nitrogenase protein purification and substrate reduction activity assays are described. These methods provide a solid framework for the assessment of nitrogenase assembly and catalysis. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Rat sperm motility analysis: methodologic considerations

    The objective of these studies was to optimize conditions for computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) of rat epididymal spermatozoa. Methodologic issues addressed include sample collection technique, sampling region within the epididymis, type of diluent medium used, and sample c...


    Morar Ioan Dan


    Full Text Available Fiscal science advertise in most analytical situations, while the principles reiterated by specialists in the field in various specialized works The two components of taxation, the tax system relating to the theoretical and the practical procedures relating to tax are marked by frequent references and invocations of the underlying principles to tax. This paper attempts a return on equity fiscal general vision as a principle often invoked and used to justify tax policies, but so often violated the laws fiscality . Also want to emphasize the importance of devising procedures to ensure fiscal equitable treatment of taxpayers. Specific approach of this paper is based on the notion that tax equity is based on equality before tax and social policies of the executive that would be more effective than using the other tax instruments. I want to emphasize that if the scientific approach to justify the unequal treatment of the tax law is based on the various social problems of the taxpayers, then deviates from the issue of tax fairness justification explaining the need to promote social policies usually more attractive to taxpayers. Modern tax techniques are believed to be promoted especially in order to ensure an increasing level of high efficiency at the expense of the taxpayers obligations to ensure equality before the law tax. On the other hand, tax inequities reaction generates multiple recipients from the first budget plan, but finalities unfair measures can not quantify and no timeline for the reaction, usually not known. But while statistics show fluctuations in budgetary revenues and often find in literature reviews and analysis relevant to a connection between changes in government policies, budget execution and outcome. The effects of inequality on tax on tax procedures and budgetary revenues are difficult to quantify and is among others to this work. Providing tax equity without combining it with the principles of discrimination and neutrality

  10. The effects of local nitroglycerin on the surgical delay procedure in prefabricated flaps by vascular implant in rats Efeitos da nitroglicerina tópica na autonomização de retalhos pré-fabricados por implante vascular em ratos

    Jairo Zacchê de Sá


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of local nitroglycerin on the viable area of a prefabricated flap for vascular implant in rats, and to investigate the surgical delay procedure. METHODS: A femoral pedicle was implanted under the skin of the abdominal wall in forty Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups of ten: group 1 - without surgical delay procedure and local nitroglycerin; group 2 - with surgical delay procedure, but without local nitroglycerin; group 3 - without surgical delay procedure, but with local nitroglycerin; and group 4 - with simultaneous surgical delay procedure and local nitroglycerin. The percentages of the viable areas, in relation to the total flap, were calculated using AutoCAD R 14. RESULTS: The mean percentage value of the viable area was 8.9% in the group 1. 49.4% in the group 2; 8.4% in the group 3 and 1.1% in the group 4. There was significant difference between groups 1 and 2 (p=0.005, 1 and 4 (p=0.024, 2 and 3 (p=0.003, 2 and 4 (p=0.001. These results support the hypothesis that the closure of the arterial venous channels is responsible for the phenomenon of surgical delay procedure. CONCLUSION: Local nitroglycerin did not cause an increase in the prefabricated viable flap area by vascular implantation and decreased the viable flap area that underwent delay procedures.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da nitroglicerina tópica sobre a área viável de um modelo de retalho pré-fabricado por implante vascular em ratos e analisar o mecanismo de autonomização cirúrgica aplicada a retalhos pré-fabricados. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 40 ratos Wistar. No primeiro tempo cirúrgico - 20 ratos foram submetidos a implante do pedículo femoral na região subdérmica da parede abdominal, e 20 submetidos à autonomização cirúrgica de retalho cutâneo de parede abdominal e, simultaneamente, implante do pedículo femoral na região subdérmica deste retalho. No segundo tempo - após três semanas e em todos os animais

  11. Acquired Techniques

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen; Halse, Karianne


    Acquired Techniques - a Leap into the Archive, at Aarhus School of Architecture. In collaboration with Karianne Halse, James Martin and Mika K. Friis. Following the footsteps of past travelers this is a journey into tools and techniques of the architectural process. The workshop will focus upon...... architectural production as a conglomerate of various analogue and digital methods, and provide the basics, the tips/tricks - and how the tool themselves becomes operational for spatial/thematic investigations. Eventually, this will become a city, exhibition and phamplet inhabited by the (by...

  12. Computer assisted audit techniques

    Dražen Danić


    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to point to the possibilities of more efficient auditing. In the encirclement of more and more intensive use of computer techniques that help to CAAT all the aims and the volume of auditing do not change when the audit is done in the computer-informatics environment. The computer assisted audit technique (CAATs can improve the efficiency and productivity of audit procedures. In the computerized information system, the CAATs are the ways in which an auditor can use computer to gather or as help in gathering auditing evidence. There are more reasons why the auditors apply computer techniques that help in auditing. Most often, they do it to achieve improvement of auditing efficiency when the data volume is large. It depends on several factors whether the auditors will apply the computer techniques that help auditing and to what degree respectively. If they do it, the most important are the computer knowledge, professional skill, experience of auditors, and availability of computer technique, and adequacy of computer supports, infeasibility of hand tests, efficiency and time limit. Through several examples from practice, we showed the possibilities of ACL as one of the CAAT tools.

  13. Magnetic Particle Technique: Lab Case of CAMAN

    Sonia Ruth Rincón Urbina


    Full Text Available This article presents the general procedure for the use of the technique of magnetic particles; generally describes the main characteristics of the test and inspection procedure from CAMAN Lab developed at the Graduate School of the Colombian Air Force. The method used in the research and development of the project was documentary, in order to establish the rules and regulations required for certification of the magnetic particles technique in nondestructive testing laboratory by the Aeronautical Authority. Finally, based on the data analysis, an Inspection Procedure Manual was developed in order to certify the magnetic particles technique.

  14. Simulating Laboratory Procedures.

    Baker, J. E.; And Others


    Describes the use of computer assisted instruction in a medical microbiology course. Presents examples of how computer assisted instruction can present case histories in which the laboratory procedures are simulated. Discusses an authoring system used to prepare computer simulations and provides one example of a case history dealing with fractured…

  15. Educational Accounting Procedures.

    Tidwell, Sam B.

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" reviews the functions, procedures, and reports with which school business officials must be familiar in order to interpret and make decisions regarding the school district's financial position. Among the accounting functions discussed are financial management, internal auditing,…

  16. Synergistic effect of polonium-210 and cigarette smoke in rats. Final report

    Black, S.C.; Bretthauer, E.W.


    An experimental procedure was devised to test the possible synergistic effect of polonium-210 and cigarette smoke in rats. Appropriate techniques were developed to expose the rats to cigarette smoke through mouth-breathing and to add known amounts of polonium-210 to the cigarette smoke. The findings from this experiment included: (1) lung deposition of polonium-210 was 31 plus or minus 2%, (2) early retention of polonium was two-phased with half-times of 4 and 84 hours, and (3) bronchitis, emphysema and lung tumors were observed in the experimental animals. Though the spontaneous occurrence of two lung tumors in the number of animals at risk was highly improbable, any conclusion that this resulted from the exposure to cigarette smoke must be highly qualified. (GRA)

  17. Application of C-arm CT-guided targeted puncturing technique in performing non-vascular interventional procedures%C臂CT引导经皮靶向穿刺术在非血管介入诊疗中的应用

    何玉圣; 周春泽; 吕维富


    Objective To investigate the clinical value of C-arm CT-guided targeted puncturing technique in performing non-vascular interventional procedures.Methods DSA-guided percutaneous puncturing biopsy or interventional therapy was performed in 33 patients, and the clinical effect and complication were observed and analyzed.Results Percutaneous puncturing interventional therapy was performed successfully in 15 patients,and percutaneous puncturing biopsy was performed in 18 patients and pathological results were obtained in 17 pa-tients.Conclusion The percutaneous targeted puncturing technique with C-arm CT-guidance combines the advantages of both CT and X-ray,which can meet the need of accuracy,efficiency and safety in non-vascular interventional therapy.%目的:探讨C臂CT引导下靶向穿刺技术在非血管介入诊疗中的应用价值。方法33例患者在DSA引导下行经皮穿刺活检术或经皮穿刺介入治疗,观察分析临床效果、并发症等。结果经皮穿刺介入治疗15例,均取得成功,另外18例为经皮穿刺病理活检,17例取得明确病理结果。结论 C臂CT引导下靶向穿刺技术实现了CT和X线透视优势互补,达到精确、高效、安全的非血管介入诊疗要求,值得推广应用。

  18. Translation Techniques

    Marcia Pinheiro


    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because artistic translation focuses on reactions, judging the quality of an artistic translation work is one of the most difficult things one can do. We end up having a score of complexity and humanity for each one of the mentioned techniques: Literal translation would be the closest thing we have to the machines world and artistic translation would be the closest thing we have to the purely human world. By creating these classifications and studying the subtleties of each one of them, we are adding degrees of quality to our courses and to translation as a professional field. The main contribution of this paper is then the formalization of such a piece of knowledge. We, however, also lay the foundations for studies of this type.

  19. Experimental Techniques

    Engelfried, J


    In this course we will give examples for experimental techniques used in particle physics experiments. After a short introduction, we will discuss applications in silicon microstrip detectors, wire chambers, and single photon detection in Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counters. A short discussion of the relevant physics processes, mainly different forms of energy loss in matter, is enclosed.

  20. Sentinel node techniques in cancer of the vulva.

    de Hullu, Joanne A; van der Zee, Ate G J


    The sentinel lymph node procedure, with the combined technique (preoperative lymphoscintigraphy with (99m)Technetium-labeled Nanocolloid and Patente Blue V ), is a promising staging technique for patients with vulvar cancer. The clinical implementation of the sentinel lymph node procedure and the role of additional histopathologic techniques of the sentinel lymph nodes are under investigation.

  1. Analytical Procedures for Testability.


    diagnostics. In chemical engineering Himmelblau (1978) discussed the use of fault detection and isolation techniques in chemical plants. Chemical plants...Diagnosing Design Techniques", General Electric, Publication Number AFAL-TR-78-183 (1981). Himmelblau , D.M., Fault Detection and Diagnosis In Chemical...Chemical and Petrochemical Processes", by David M. Himmelblau (1978). 246 II V-I TITLE: A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF FAULT TOLERANT COMPUTING. AUTHOR: Carroll

  2. Establecimiento del cálculo del diámetro de cresta exterior de un engranaje cónico con técnicas de grafos. // Procedure for the calculation of outer tip diameter on straight bevel gear by means of graphs technique.

    G. González Rey


    Full Text Available Mediante un modelo matemático son dadas las principales relaciones entre los parámetros geométricos básicos requeridosen la evaluación del diámetro de cresta exterior de un engranaje ortogonal de ruedas cónicas con dientes rectos y suma decorrecciones radiales iguales a cero. Adicionalmente, serán brindados algunos resultados que asocian la correspondenciaentre una geometría racional y la capacidad de carga de un engranaje cónico con restricciones del diámetro de crestaexterior. Para la determinación de los procedimientos de cálculo, los problemas planteados sobre los modelos matemáticoshan sido serán representados por medio de grafos bicromáticos.Palabras claves: Engranajes cónicos, diseño racional, modelo matemático._______________________________________________________________________________Abstract:By means of a mathematical model, the main relations for the evaluation of the outer tip diameter on straight bevelgear with sum of the profile shift coefficients equal to zero are given. Additionally, some results associated with arational geometry and high load capacities of straight bevel gear with restrictions in the outer tip diameter arepresented. For the determination of the calculation procedures based on mathematical models was used thetechnique of representation by means of graphs.Key words: Straight bevel gear, rational design, mathematical models, graphs technique.

  3. Online feedback-controlled renal constant infusion clearances in rats.

    Schock-Kusch, Daniel; Shulhevich, Yury; Xie, Qing; Hesser, Juergen; Stsepankou, Dzmitry; Neudecker, Sabine; Friedemann, Jochen; Koenig, Stefan; Heinrich, Ralf; Hoecklin, Friederike; Pill, Johannes; Gretz, Norbert


    Constant infusion clearance techniques using exogenous renal markers are considered the gold standard for assessing the glomerular filtration rate. Here we describe a constant infusion clearance method in rats allowing the real-time monitoring of steady-state conditions using an automated closed-loop approach based on the transcutaneous measurement of the renal marker FITC-sinistrin. In order to optimize parameters to reach steady-state conditions as fast as possible, a Matlab-based simulation tool was established. Based on this, a real-time feedback-regulated approach for constant infusion clearance monitoring was developed. This was validated by determining hourly FITC-sinistrin plasma concentrations and the glomerular filtration rate in healthy and unilaterally nephrectomized rats. The transcutaneously assessed FITC-sinistrin fluorescence signal was found to reflect the plasma concentration. Our method allows the precise determination of the onset of steady-state marker concentration. Moreover, the steady state can be monitored and controlled in real time for several hours. This procedure is simple to perform since no urine samples and only one blood sample are required. Thus, we developed a real-time feedback-based system for optimal regulation and monitoring of a constant infusion clearance technique.

  4. delta. t tuneup procedure for the LAMPF 805-MHz linac

    Crandall, K.R.


    An important part of tuning the LAMPF accelerator is the adjustment of the phases and amplitudes in the 805-MHz linac. The technique used is called the procedure because of the time-of-flight measurements that are required. The theory behind the procedure, a brief description of the hardware, and a description of the many computer programs that have been written to implement the procedure are presented.

  5. Modeling diabetic sensory neuropathy in rats.

    Calcutt, Nigel A


    The procedures to induce insulin-deficient diabetes in rats using streptozotocin are described along with a number of insulin treatment regimes that can be used to maintain these animals at different degrees of glycemia for periods of weeks to months. Streptozotocin-diabetic rats develop tactile allodynia, hyperalgesia following paw formalin injection and abnormal responses to thermal stimulation and the detailed methods used to evaluate these behavioral indices of abnormal sensory function are provided.

  6. Permanent catheterization of the carotid artery induces kidney infection and inflammation in the rat

    Fonseca, Uno Nicolas Kjærup; Nielsen, Sanne Gram; Hau, Jann


    Catheterization of the carotid artery and the jugular vein is one of the most commonly applied techniques used to gain intravascular access in pharmacology studies on rodents. We catheterized 10 rats by conventional clean techniques, 10 rats by aseptic techniques and 10 rats by conventional clean...... techniques using a heparin-coated catheter rather than an ordinary non-coated polyvinyl chloride catheter. In all groups, approximately 80% of the rats developed kidney infection and 10-30% of the rats were septicaemic. Clinical chemistry did not indicate severe kidney damage, but serum haptoglobin and body...

  7. Civil Procedure In Denmark

    Werlauff, Erik

    , enforcement in Denmark of judgments pronounced by Danish or foreign courts, as well as arbitration in Danish and international arbitral cases, based on the extensive Danish arbitral reform 2005, taking the Uncitral pattern arbitration law as its model. The book is written parly based on traditional legal...... on the author's extensive personal experience as arbitrator in numerous Danish and international arbitral proceedings.......The book contains an up-to-date survey of Danish civil procedure after the profound Danish procedural reforms in 2007. It deals with questions concerning competence and function of Danish courts, commencement and preparation of civil cases, questions of evidence and burden of proof, international...

  8. A new Calculation Procedure for Spatial Impulse Responses in Ultrasound

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    A new procedure for the calculation of spatial impulse responses for linear sound fields is introduced. This calculation procedure uses the well known technique of calculating the spatial impulse response from the intersection of a circle emanating from the projected spherical wave with the bound...

  9. Electronic-Imen-Delphi (EID): An Online Conferencing Procedure.

    Passig, David; Sharbat, Aviva


    Examines the efficiency of the Imen-Delphi (ID) technique as an electronic procedure for conferencing that helps participants clarify their opinions and expectations regarding preferable and possible futures. Describes an electronic version of the original ID procedure and tested its efficiency among a group of experts on virtual reality and…

  10. Intensity techniques

    Jacobsen, Finn


    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook...... will present topics on signal processing which are important in a specific area of acoustics. These will be of interest to specialists in these areas because they will be presented from their technical perspective, rather than a generic engineering approach to signal processing. Non-specialists, or specialists...... from different areas, will find the self-contained chapters accessible and will be interested in the similarities and differences between the approaches and techniques used in different areas of acoustics....

  11. CTO PCI Procedural Planning.

    Lembo, Nicholas J; Karmpaliotis, Dimitri; Kandzari, David E


    Chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention (CTO PCI) procedural planning involves much thought and deliberation before one actually attempts to cross the CTO lesion in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Careful preprocedural angiographic assessment is a key to successful CTO PCI. CTO PCI represents the most complex PCI one can perform, and thus operator and staff training as well as the concept of CTO days are all essential for a successful CTO PCI program. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Electrochemical Techniques

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe


    Sensitive and selective detection techniques are of crucial importance for capillary electrophoresis (CE), microfluidic chips, and other microfluidic systems. Electrochemical detectors have attracted considerable interest for microfluidic systems with features that include high sensitivity, inherent miniaturization of both the detection and control instrumentation, low cost and power demands, and high compatibility with microfabrication technology. The commonly used electrochemical detectors can be classified into three general modes: conductimetry, potentiometry, and amperometry.

  13. Modern dermabrasion techniques: a personal appraisal.

    Fulton, J E


    Improvements in dermabrasion techniques have upgraded the therapeutic results for the removal of acne scars, sun-damaged skin, and related skin lesions in selected patients. To help patient compliance and therapeutic response, and to avoid pitfalls, extensive step-by-step predermabrasion evaluation and patient selection procedures are helpful. Standard checklists, operative techniques, and patient follow-up procedures have improved the results. Currently, the optimal dermabrasion procedure consists not only of an extensive facial planing, but the use of Loo punch or scalpel excision and the suturing of large cysts and scars during the procedure and the filling of valley-like depressions with liquid collagen or silicone after the procedure. These methods of extensive standard procedures and protocols, rigid patient selection, and pre-, during, and postdermabrasion follow-ups are presented so medical staffs can avoid common pitfalls.

  14. Unassisted blood collection from unanesthetized rats and gerbils.

    Alworth, Leanne C; Kelly, Lisa M; Cooper, Tanya L; Salyards, Greg W


    Blood collection is a common procedure in animal research. This column describes humane methods of collecting blood from the rat and the gerbil that can be carried out by a single person on an awake animal.

  15. Automatic Training of Rat Cyborgs for Navigation.

    Yu, Yipeng; Wu, Zhaohui; Xu, Kedi; Gong, Yongyue; Zheng, Nenggan; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Pan, Gang


    A rat cyborg system refers to a biological rat implanted with microelectrodes in its brain, via which the outer electrical stimuli can be delivered into the brain in vivo to control its behaviors. Rat cyborgs have various applications in emergency, such as search and rescue in disasters. Prior to a rat cyborg becoming controllable, a lot of effort is required to train it to adapt to the electrical stimuli. In this paper, we build a vision-based automatic training system for rat cyborgs to replace the time-consuming manual training procedure. A hierarchical framework is proposed to facilitate the colearning between rats and machines. In the framework, the behavioral states of a rat cyborg are visually sensed by a camera, a parameterized state machine is employed to model the training action transitions triggered by rat's behavioral states, and an adaptive adjustment policy is developed to adaptively adjust the stimulation intensity. The experimental results of three rat cyborgs prove the effectiveness of our system. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to tackle automatic training of animal cyborgs.

  16. Procedure di record linkage in epidemiologia: uno studio multicentrico italiano, Record-linkage procedures in epidemiology: an italian multicentre study

    Fornai, Carla; Madotto, Fabiana; Romanelli, Anna; Pepe, Pasquale; Raciti, Mauro; Tancioni, Valeria; Chini, Francesco; Trerotoli, Paolo; Bartolomeo, Nicola; Serio, Gabriella; Cesana, Giancarlo; Corrao, Giovanni


    Abstract Objective: to compare record linkage (RL) procedures adopted in several Italian settings and a standard probabilistic RL procedure for matching data from electronic health care databases. Design: two health care archives are matched: the hospital discharges (HD) archive and the population registry of four Italian areas. Exact deterministic, stepwise deterministic techniques and a standard probabilistic RL procedure are applied to match HD for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and dia...

  17. Robotic pyeloplasty: technique and results.

    Peschel, Reinhard; Neururer, Richard; Bartsch, Georg; Gettman, Matthew T


    The da Vinci robotic system can be used to perform dismembered and nondismembered pyeloplasty techniques effectively. Robotics not only seems to improve dexterity and surgical precision but also provides an ergonomic surgical environment for a surgeon performing complex reconstructive procedures such as pyeloplasty. Although performance-enhancing features of the da Vinci robot seem to decrease the difficulty of intracorporeal suturing, a learning curve also exists for telerobotic procedures. This learning curve may decrease as experience with telerobotics increases and as advances in technology are introduced. Presently, the interaction between the primary and assistant surgeon seems crucial to the success of the procedure. Although the early clinical experience with robotic pyeloplasty is favorable, continuing clinical evaluation and careful follow-up are required to determine if the procedure is as efficacious in the long run as open pyeloplasty and laparoscopic pyeloplasty.

  18. How rats combine temporal cues.

    Guilhardi, Paulo; Keen, Richard; MacInnis, Mika L M; Church, Russell M


    The procedures for classical and operant conditioning, and for many timing procedures, involve the delivery of reinforcers that may be related to the time of previous reinforcers and responses, and to the time of onsets and terminations of stimuli. The behavior resulting from such procedures can be described as bouts of responding that occur in some pattern at some rate. A packet theory of timing and conditioning is described that accounts for such behavior under a wide range of procedures. Applications include the food searching by rats in Skinner boxes under conditions of fixed and random reinforcement, brief and sustained stimuli, and several response-food contingencies. The approach is used to describe how multiple cues from reinforcers and stimuli combine to determine the rate and pattern of response bouts.

  19. Review of traffic conflicts technique studies.

    Hondel, M. van den & Kraay, J.H.


    A review of literature concerning traffic conflicts technique studies is presented. The 101 references arranged alphabetically by authors' names are given with abstract. The procedure used in compiling this survey is outlined.

  20. treated rats



    Jan 8, 2014 ... Our results show, for the first time, that oral administration of C. edulis ... the exact mechanisms of these hematological changes produced by .... Hematological analysis .... rats are subjected to the additional stress of hypoxia to.

  1. A surrogate based multistage-multilevel optimization procedure for multidisciplinary design optimization

    Yao, W.; Chen, X.; Ouyang, Q.; Van Tooren, M.


    Optimization procedure is one of the key techniques to address the computational and organizational complexities of multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO). Motivated by the idea of synthetically exploiting the advantage of multiple existing optimization procedures and meanwhile complying with

  2. The calcaneo-stop procedure.

    Usuelli, F G; Montrasio, U Alfieri


    Flexible flatfoot is one of the most common deformities. Arthroereisis procedures are designed to correct this deformity. Among them, the calcaneo-stop is a procedure with both biomechanical and proprioceptive properties. It is designed for pediatric treatment. Results similar to endorthesis procedure are reported. Theoretically the procedure can be applied to adults if combined with other procedures to obtain a stable plantigrade foot, but medium-term follow up studies are missing.




    To partly or completely satisfy the increasing demand for insulin, pregnant rats were infused SC with human insulin (2.4 or 4.8 IU/day) from day 14 to day 20 of gestation. Cyclic control rats underwent the same procedure of 6 days of insulin-treatment. During the treatment all,stoups of rats were hy



    To partly or completely satisfy the increasing demand for insulin, pregnant rats were infused SC with human insulin (2.4 or 4.8 IU/day) from day 14 to day 20 of gestation. Cyclic control rats underwent the same procedure of 6 days of insulin-treatment. During the treatment all,stoups of rats were

  5. Oral methylphenidate establishes a conditioned place preference in rats

    Wooters, Thomas E.; Walton, Matthew T.; Bardo, Michael T.


    Emerging data suggest that illicit methylphenidate abuse is a growing problem. Although abuse of the drug typically occurs by the intranasal route, oral (per os; p.o.) methylphenidate also has abuse potential. The present study compared the effects of p.o. and intraperitoneal (i.p.) methylphenidate in rats using the conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure. Young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to consume oyster crackers injected initially with saline. Next, rats were randomly...

  6. Teratology studies in the rat.

    Leroy, Mariline; Allais, Linda


    The rat is the rodent species of choice for the regulatory safety testing of xenobiotics, such as medicinal products, food additives, and other chemicals. Many decades of experience and extensive data have accumulated for both general and developmental toxicology investigations in this species. The high fertility and large litter size of the rat are advantages for teratogenicity testing. The study designs are well defined in the regulatory guidelines and are relatively standardized between testing laboratories across the world. Teratology studies address maternal- and embryo-toxicity following exposure during the period of organogenesis. This chapter describes the design and conduct of a teratology study in the rat in compliance with the regulatory guidelines. The procedures for the handling and housing of the pregnant animals, the caesarean examinations and the sampling of fetuses for morphological examinations are described. The utility and design of preliminary studies and the inclusion of satellite animals in the main study for toxicokinetic sampling are discussed.

  7. Relationship between Plasma Albumin Concentration and Plasma Volume in 5 Inbred Rat Strains.

    Rose, Rajiv; Klemcke, Harold G


    Using the Evans Blue procedure, we previously found strain-related differences in plasma volumes in 5 inbred rat strains. Because albumin binds strongly with Evans blue, this protein is important in the Evans blue method of plasma volume determination. Therefore, we speculated that interstrain differences in plasma albumin concentration (PAC) could distort calculated plasma volumes. To address this concern, we used ELISA techniques to measure PAC in these inbred rat strains. In study A, the blood volume was measured by using Evans blue dye, and albumin was measured at the start of hemorrhage. In study B, blood volume was not measured, and albumin was measured twice, near the start and end of hemorrhage (approximately 14 min apart). Neither study revealed any interstrain differences in PAC, which decreased after hemorrhage in all 5 strains. No correlation was found between PAC and plasma volume, survival time, blood lactate, or blood base excess. Percentage changes in PAC during hemorrhage were greater in salt-sensitive compared with Lewis rats. Moreover, these percentage changes were associated with survival time in Fawn hooded hypertensive rats. Our data show that the plasma volumes we measured previously were not misrepresented due to variations in PAC.

  8. [Physical restraint and procedure].

    Van de Vyvere, A; Dumont, C


    The widespread practice of physical restraint of the elderly has used in most case in order to protect elders against injuries after falls or to manage behaviour agitation during delirium for example. However, "protect" isn't correct because of the adverse effects have been reported as falls increase, pressures sores, depression, aggression and death. In fact, efficacy of restraints for safeguarding patients from injury has not been demonstrated clinically. This paper reviews the current medico-legal knowledge regarding physical restraint use in this frail population and suggests some considerations about ethical practice and procedure evaluation.

  9. CELT optics Alignment Procedure

    Mast, Terry S.; Nelson, Jerry E.; Chanan, Gary A.; Noethe, Lothar


    The California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT) is a project to build a 30-meter diameter telescope for research in astronomy at visible and infrared wavelengths. The current optical design calls for a primary, secondary, and tertiary mirror with Ritchey-Chretién foci at two Nasmyth platforms. The primary mirror is a mosaic of 1080 actively-stabilized hexagonal segments. This paper summarizes a CELT report that describes a step-by-step procedure for aligning the many degrees of freedom of the CELT optics.

  10. Interventional radiology neck procedures.

    Zabala Landa, R M; Korta Gómez, I; Del Cura Rodríguez, J L


    Ultrasonography has become extremely useful in the evaluation of masses in the head and neck. It enables us to determine the anatomic location of the masses as well as the characteristics of the tissues that compose them, thus making it possible to orient the differential diagnosis toward inflammatory, neoplastic, congenital, traumatic, or vascular lesions, although it is necessary to use computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging to determine the complete extension of certain lesions. The growing range of interventional procedures, mostly guided by ultrasonography, now includes biopsies, drainages, infiltrations, sclerosing treatments, and tumor ablation.

  11. Plugin procedure in segmentation and application to hyperspectral image segmentation

    Girard, R


    In this article we give our contribution to the problem of segmentation with plug-in procedures. We give general sufficient conditions under which plug in procedure are efficient. We also give an algorithm that satisfy these conditions. We give an application of the used algorithm to hyperspectral images segmentation. Hyperspectral images are images that have both spatial and spectral coherence with thousands of spectral bands on each pixel. In the proposed procedure we combine a reduction dimension technique and a spatial regularisation technique. This regularisation is based on the mixlet modelisation of Kolaczyck and Al.

  12. Electrochemical Techniques for the Study of Brain Chemistry.

    Schenk, James O.; And Others


    Using ascorbic acid enzyme assays in conjunction with chronoamperometric measurements, reliable values for the principal electroactive components in the rat caudate extracellular fluid were established. Techniques used in the study are discussed. (JN)

  13. Variability in the distribution of callosal projection neurons in the adult rat parietal cortex.

    Ivy, G O; Gould, H J; Killackey, H P


    Previous reports have shown that the barrel field area of the parietal cortex of the adult rat contains relatively few callosal projection neurons, even though callosal projection neurons are abundant in this cortical region in the neonatal rat. Furthermore, it has been shown that many of the callosal neurons which seem to disappear as the animal matures do not die, but project to ipsilateral cortical areas. These findings rely on the ability of retrograde transport techniques which utilize injections of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or of fluorescent dyes into one hemisphere. We now show that several technical modifications of the HRP technique yield a wider distribution of HRP-containing neurons in the contralateral barrel field area of the adult rat than previously reported. These include implants of HRP pellets into transected axons of the corpus callosum, the addition of DMSO and nonidet P40 to Sigma VI HRP, wheat germ agglutinin HRP and the use of tetramethyl benzidine as the chromogen in the reaction procedure. Our findings have implications for transport studies in general and for the development of the cortical barrel field in particular.

  14. Novel method for functional brain imaging in awake minimally restrained rats.

    Chang, Pei-Ching; Procissi, Daniel; Bao, Qiyuan; Centeno, Maria Virginia; Baria, Alex; Apkarian, A Vania


    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in rodents holds great promise for advancing our knowledge about human brain function. However, the use of anesthetics to immobilize rodents during fMRI experiments has restricted the type of questions that can be addressed using this technique. Here we describe an innovative procedure to train rats to be constrained without the need of any anesthesia during the whole procedure. We show that with 8-10 days of acclimation rats can be conscious and remain still during fMRI experiments under minimal stress. In addition, we provide fMRI results of conscious rodents in a variety of commonly used fMRI experimental paradigms, and we demonstrate the improved quality of these scans by comparing results when the same rodents were scanned under anesthesia. We confirm that the awake scanning procedure permits an improved evaluation of brain networks and brain response to external stimuli with minimal movement artifact. The present study further advances the field of fMRI in awake rodents, which provide more direct, forward and reverse, translational opportunities regarding brain functional correspondences between human and rodent research. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Regulations and Procedures Manual

    Young, Lydia J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The purpose of the Regulations and Procedures Manual (RPM) is to provide LBNL personnel with a reference to University and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL or Laboratory) policies and regulations by outlining normal practices and answering most policy questions that arise in the day-to-day operations of Laboratory organizations. Much of the information in this manual has been condensed from detail provided in LBNL procedure manuals, Department of Energy (DOE) directives, and Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231. This manual is not intended, however, to replace any of those documents. RPM sections on personnel apply only to employees who are not represented by unions. Personnel policies pertaining to employees represented by unions may be found in their labor agreements. Questions concerning policy interpretation should be directed to the LBNL organization responsible for the particular policy. A link to the Managers Responsible for RPM Sections is available on the RPM home page. If it is not clear which organization is responsible for a policy, please contact Requirements Manager Lydia Young or the RPM Editor.

  16. Designing Flight Deck Procedures

    Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl


    Three reports address the design of flight-deck procedures and various aspects of human interaction with cockpit systems that have direct impact on flight safety. One report, On the Typography of Flight- Deck Documentation, discusses basic research about typography and the kind of information needed by designers of flight deck documentation. Flight crews reading poorly designed documentation may easily overlook a crucial item on the checklist. The report surveys and summarizes the available literature regarding the design and typographical aspects of printed material. It focuses on typographical factors such as proper typefaces, character height, use of lower- and upper-case characters, line length, and spacing. Graphical aspects such as layout, color coding, fonts, and character contrast are discussed; and several cockpit conditions such as lighting levels and glare are addressed, as well as usage factors such as angular alignment, paper quality, and colors. Most of the insights and recommendations discussed in this report are transferable to paperless cockpit systems of the future and computer-based procedure displays (e.g., "electronic flight bag") in aerospace systems and similar systems that are used in other industries such as medical, nuclear systems, maritime operations, and military systems.

  17. Regulations and Procedures Manual

    Young, Lydia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The purpose of the Regulations and Procedures Manual (RPM) is to provide Laboratory personnel with a reference to University and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory policies and regulations by outlining the normal practices and answering most policy questions that arise in the day-to-day operations of Laboratory departments. Much of the information in this manual has been condensed from detail provided in Laboratory procedure manuals, Department of Energy (DOE) directives, and Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231. This manual is not intended, however, to replace any of those documents. The sections on personnel apply only to employees who are not represented by unions. Personnel policies pertaining to employees represented by unions may be found in their labor agreements. Questions concerning policy interpretation should be directed to the department responsible for the particular policy. A link to the Managers Responsible for RPM Sections is available on the RPM home page. If it is not clear which department should be called, please contact the Associate Laboratory Director of Operations.

  18. Laughing rats are optimistic.

    Rafal Rygula

    Full Text Available Emotions can bias human decisions- for example depressed or anxious people tend to make pessimistic judgements while those in positive affective states are often more optimistic. Several studies have reported that affect contingent judgement biases can also be produced in animals. The animals, however, cannot self-report; therefore, the valence of their emotions, to date, could only be assumed. Here we present the results of an experiment where the affect-contingent judgement bias has been produced by objectively measured positive emotions. We trained rats in operant Skinner boxes to press one lever in response to one tone to receive a food reward and to press another lever in response to a different tone to avoid punishment by electric foot shock. After attaining a stable level of discrimination performance, the animals were subjected to either handling or playful, experimenter-administered manual stimulation - tickling. This procedure has been confirmed to induce a positive affective state in rats, and the 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalisations (rat laughter emitted by animals in response to tickling have been postulated to index positive emotions akin to human joy. During the tickling and handling sessions, the numbers of emitted high-frequency 50-kHz calls were scored. Immediately after tickling or handling, the animals were tested for their responses to a tone of intermediate frequency, and the pattern of their responses to this ambiguous cue was taken as an indicator of the animals' optimism. Our findings indicate that tickling induced positive emotions which are directly indexed in rats by laughter, can make animals more optimistic. We demonstrate for the first time a link between the directly measured positive affective state and decision making under uncertainty in an animal model. We also introduce innovative tandem-approach for studying emotional-cognitive interplay in animals, which may be of great value for understanding the emotional

  19. Applications of timing theories to a peak procedure.

    Yi, Linlin


    This article describes applications of scalar expectancy theory (SET), learning-to-time theory (LeT), and Packet theory to data from a peak procedure. Twelve rats were trained in a multiple cued-interval procedure with two fixed intervals (60 and 120 s) signaled by houselight and white noise. Twenty-five percent of the cycles were nonfood cycles, which were 360 s long and had no reinforcement. Mean and individual response rates on nonfood cycles were fitted with explicit solutions of SET, LeT and Packet theory. Applications of the three timing theories were compared in terms of goodness of fit and complexity.

  20. Measuring temperature rise during orthopaedic surgical procedures.

    Manoogian, Sarah; Lee, Adam K; Widmaier, James C


    A reliable means for measuring temperatures generated during surgical procedures is needed to recommend best practices for inserting fixation devices and minimizing the risk of osteonecrosis. Twenty four screw tests for three surgical procedures were conducted using the four thermocouples in the bone and one thermocouple in the screw. The maximum temperature rise recorded from the thermocouple in the screw (92.7±8.9°C, 158.7±20.9°C, 204.4±35.2°C) was consistently higher than the average temperature rise recorded in the bone (31.8±9.3°C, 44.9±12.4°C, 77.3±12.7°C). The same overall trend between the temperatures that resulted from three screw insertion procedures was recorded with significant statistical analyses using either the thermocouple in the screw or the average of several in-bone thermocouples. Placing a single thermocouple in the bone was determined to have limitations in accurately comparing temperatures from different external fixation screw insertion procedures. Using the preferred measurement techniques, a standard screw with a predrilled hole was found to have the lowest maximum temperatures for the shortest duration compared to the other two insertion procedures. Future studies evaluating bone temperature increase need to use reliable temperature measurements for recommending best practices to surgeons.

  1. Nuss bar procedure: past, present and future

    Obermeyer, Robert J.; Kelly, Robert E.


    Repair of pectus excavatum began at the beginning of the 20th century before endotracheal intubation was standard practice. Surgeons therefore developed techniques that corrected the deformity using an open procedure via the anterior chest wall. Initial techniques were unsatisfactory, but by the 1930s the partial rib resection and sternal osteotomy technique had been developed and was used in combination with external traction post-operatively to prevent the sternum from sinking back into the chest. In 1949, Ravitch recommended complete resection of the costal cartilages and complete mobilization of the sternum without external traction, and in 1961 Adkins and Blades introduced the concept of a substernal strut for sternal support. The wide resection resulted in a very rigid anterior chest wall, and in some instances, the development of asphyxiating chondrodystrophy. The primary care physicians therefore became reluctant to refer the patients for repair. In 1987, Nuss developed a minimally invasive technique that required no cartilage or sternal resection and relied only on internal bracing by means of a sub-sternal bar, which is inserted into the chest through two lateral thoracic incisions and guided across the mediastinum with the help of thoracoscopy. After publication of the procedure in 1998, it became widely accepted and a flood of new patients suddenly started to appear, which allowed for rapid improvements and modifications of the technique. New instruments were developed specifically for the procedure, complications were recognized, and the steps taken to prevent them included the development of a stabilizer and the use of pericostal sutures to prevent bar displacement. Various options were developed for sternal elevation prior to mediastinal dissection to prevent injury to the mediastinal structures, allergy testing was implemented, and pain management improved. The increased number of patients coming for repair permitted studies of cardiopulmonary

  2. Combinatorial techniques

    Sane, Sharad S


    This is a basic text on combinatorics that deals with all the three aspects of the discipline: tricks, techniques and theory, and attempts to blend them. The book has several distinctive features. Probability and random variables with their interconnections to permutations are discussed. The theme of parity has been specially included and it covers applications ranging from solving the Nim game to the quadratic reciprocity law. Chapters related to geometry include triangulations and Sperner's theorem, classification of regular polytopes, tilings and an introduction to the Eulcidean Ramsey theory. Material on group actions covers Sylow theory, automorphism groups and a classification of finite subgroups of orthogonal groups. All chapters have a large number of exercises with varying degrees of difficulty, ranging from material suitable for Mathematical Olympiads to research.

  3. Role of Malabsorptive Endoscopic Procedures in Obesity Treatment

    Park, Jae Myung


    The incidence of obesity is increasing, and more definitive treatment modalities are needed. Endoluminal procedures, including restrictive endoscopic procedures, endoscopic gastroplasty, and malabsorptive endoscopic procedures, can reduce weight in obese patients and control obesity-related comorbidities. Malabsorptive endoscopic interventions also offer the potential for an ambulatory procedure that may be safer and more cost-effective compared with laparoscopic surgery. Malabsorptive endoscopic intervention can induce weight reduction and improve obesity-related metabolic parameters, despite complications such as device migration, obstruction, and abdominal pain. Improvement in technique will follow the development of new devices. PMID:28147470

  4. Diagnostics procedures in rabies

    Malovrh Tadej


    Full Text Available Rabies is a major zoonosis for which diagnostic techniques can only be performed in the laboratory. Laboratory techniques are preferably oriented on tissue removed from the cranium: hippocampus (Ammon's horn, cerebellum and the medulla oblongata or tissue liquids. Clinical observation may only lead to a suspicion of rabies. The only way to perform a reliable diagnosis of the disease is to identify the virus or some of its specific components using laboratory tests such as histological identification of characteristic cell lesions, immunochemical identification of rabies virus antigen and virus isolation. Serological tests are rarely used in epidemiological surveys but much more frequently in control of the vaccination programs (e.g. oral vaccination. Most commonly used serological tests are the virus neutralization test on cell culture (FAVN, virus neutralization in mice and ELISA.

  5. The Cognition of Priapo. Caricature procedures in Carlo Emilio Gadda’s Eros e Priapo

    Paolo Gervasi


    .... The present paper scrutinises rhetorical and stylistic procedures through which Gadda elaborates within literary writing both the techniques and the perceptive and cognitive bases of caricature...

  6. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass operation in rats.

    Bueter, Marco; Abegg, Kathrin; Seyfried, Florian; Lutz, Thomas A; le Roux, Carel W


    Currently, the most effective therapy for the treatment of morbid obesity to induce significant and maintained body weight loss with a proven mortality benefit is bariatric surgery. Consequently, there has been a steady rise in the number of bariatric operations done worldwide in recent years with the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (gastric bypass) being the most commonly performed operation. Against this background, it is important to understand the physiological mechanisms by which gastric bypass induces and maintains body weight loss. These mechanisms are yet not fully understood, but may include reduced hunger and increased satiation, increased energy expenditure, altered preference for food high in fat and sugar, altered salt and water handling of the kidney as well as alterations in gut microbiota. Such changes seen after gastric bypass may at least partly stem from how the surgery alters the hormonal milieu because gastric bypass increases the postprandial release of peptide-YY (PYY) and glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1), hormones that are released by the gut in the presence of nutrients and that reduce eating. During the last two decades numerous studies using rats have been carried out to further investigate physiological changes after gastric bypass. The gastric bypass rat model has proven to be a valuable experimental tool not least as it closely mimics the time profile and magnitude of human weight loss, but also allows researchers to control and manipulate critical anatomic and physiologic factors including the use of appropriate controls. Consequently, there is a wide array of rat gastric bypass models available in the literature reviewed elsewhere in more detail. The description of the exact surgical technique of these models varies widely and differs e.g. in terms of pouch size, limb lengths, and the preservation of the vagal nerve. If reported, mortality rates seem to range from 0 to 35%. Furthermore, surgery has been carried out almost exclusively in male

  7. Parachute technique for partial penectomy

    Fernando Korkes


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Penile carcinoma is a rare but mutilating malignancy. In this context, partial penectomy is the most commonly applied approach for best oncological results. We herein propose a simple modification of the classic technique of partial penectomy, for better cosmetic and functional results. TECHNIQUE: If partial penectomy is indicated, the present technique can bring additional benefits. Different from classical technique, the urethra is spatulated only ventrally. An inverted "V" skin flap with 0.5 cm of extension is sectioned ventrally. The suture is performed with vicryl 4-0 in a "parachute" fashion, beginning from the ventral portion of the urethra and the "V" flap, followed by the "V" flap angles and than by the dorsal portion of the penis. After completion of the suture, a Foley catheter and light dressing are placed for 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Several complex reconstructive techniques have been previously proposed, but normally require specific surgical abilities, adequate patient selection and staged procedures. We believe that these reconstructive techniques are very useful in some specific subsets of patients. However, the technique herein proposed is a simple alternative that can be applied to all men after a partial penectomy, and takes the same amount of time as that in the classic technique. In conclusion, the "parachute" technique for penile reconstruction after partial amputation not only improves the appearance of the penis, but also maintains an adequate function.

  8. Standard Operating Procedure


    l^m .:#,"■• y’’:>’£l’S ABO GROUP CONFIRMED |[ Rh OF .NEGATIVE UNITS CONFIRMED fe^/w’H’o’^Ä^ ■ •:.■.■:•• •■’ .Tv-v^l^.>’-V.^^V’ir;i-.^K-V.^’vV-i...using 0.02 ml of whole blood diluted with 5.98 ml of Drabkin’s reagent (1:251 dilution). 51 I. Measure the supernatant hemoglobin concentration...34NcUiod fef*ɜ 17-0? STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Red Blood Cells Collected in the CPDA-1 800 ml Primary PVC Plastic Bag Collection System and

  9. Preschooler test or procedure preparation

    ... them less likely to cry and resist the procedure. Research shows that lowering anxiety can decrease the sensation ... days or weeks in advance. Here are some general guidelines for ... Explain the procedure in language your child understands, ...

  10. Mucogingival surgical procedures: a review of the literature.

    Haeri, A; Serio, F G


    This article provides an in-depth review of the literature on mucogingival surgical techniques. Indications and contraindications of various surgical procedures are discussed with reference to the literature. Surgical techniques and indications for increasing the zone of keratinized tissue, such as free autogenous grafts, applications of freeze-dried skin, and dermal matrix allografts, are described. Procedures to attain root coverage, such as various autogenous grafts and guided tissue regeneration techniques, along with application of chemicals such as citric acid to improve their success, are also described.

  11. Automatic Training of Rat Cyborgs for Navigation

    Yipeng Yu


    Full Text Available A rat cyborg system refers to a biological rat implanted with microelectrodes in its brain, via which the outer electrical stimuli can be delivered into the brain in vivo to control its behaviors. Rat cyborgs have various applications in emergency, such as search and rescue in disasters. Prior to a rat cyborg becoming controllable, a lot of effort is required to train it to adapt to the electrical stimuli. In this paper, we build a vision-based automatic training system for rat cyborgs to replace the time-consuming manual training procedure. A hierarchical framework is proposed to facilitate the colearning between rats and machines. In the framework, the behavioral states of a rat cyborg are visually sensed by a camera, a parameterized state machine is employed to model the training action transitions triggered by rat’s behavioral states, and an adaptive adjustment policy is developed to adaptively adjust the stimulation intensity. The experimental results of three rat cyborgs prove the effectiveness of our system. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to tackle automatic training of animal cyborgs.

  12. Dragging technique versus blanching technique for endometrial ablation with the Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of chronic menorrhagia.

    Lomano, J M


    Endometrial ablation performed with the Nd:YAG laser was developed to treat patients with chronic menorrhagia as an alternative to hysterectomy. The original dragging technique may result in an obscured operating field and fluid overload. This study compares results of endometrial ablation performed in 62 patients. The first 17 procedures were performed by use of the dragging technique; the last 45 procedures were performed with a blanching technique. Both procedures were performed at the same institution and by the same surgeon. Sixty-five percent of patients undergoing the blanching technique became amenorrheic after the procedure versus 12% of those undergoing the dragging technique. Moreover, the blanching technique required less time, fewer joules of energy, and resulted in less fluid absorption by the patient. The blanching technique is apparently more effective, easier to accomplish, and safer for the patient than the dragging technique.

  13. Quantization Procedures; Sistemas de cuantificacion

    Cabrera, J. A.; Martin, R.


    We present in this work a review of the conventional quantization procedure, the proposed by I.E. Segal and a new quantization procedure similar to this one for use in non linear problems. We apply this quantization procedures to different potentials and we obtain the appropriate equations of motion. It is shown that for the linear case the three procedures exposed are equivalent but for the non linear cases we obtain different equations of motion and different energy spectra. (Author) 16 refs.


    Singh R.K


    Full Text Available The Sushruta Samhita is an Ayurvedic text, by the legendary Sushruta, foundational to Ayurvedic medicine (Indian traditional medicine, with innovative chapters mainly on surgery. There is a general impression that Sushruta Samhita is only an ancient Indian Ayurvedic text book of surgery. Sushruta Samhita contains 184 chapters and description of 1120 illnesses, 700 medicinal plants, a detailed study on anatomy, 64 preparations from mineral sources and 57 preparations based on animal sources. It still retains the land mark position in the field of surgical texts. In addition to his worldwide known work of historical significance on plastic surgery, he also made similar unique contributions on numerous aspects of medicine, such as fracture and dislocations, urinary stones, skin diseases including leprosy, Pancha Karma (Purification procedures, toxicology, pediatrics, eye diseases, psychiatry, obstetrics and gynaecology, etc. A very limited conceptual work has been performed on the selected chapters of Sushruta Samhita. Therefore a review conceptual study has been carried out on the various surgical concepts of Sushruta Samhita. Outcome of this study shows, Sushruta Samhita is written in the aphorism form and the techniques described in it are eminently in line with technical abilities of the times. It is need of the hour to explore the hidden truth by decoding the versions of the texts.

  15. Experimental Techniques

    Wyer, Jean


    Gas-phase ion spectroscopy requires specialised apparatus, both when it comes to measuring photon absorption and light emission (fluorescence). The reason is much lower ion densities compared to solution-phase spectroscopy. In this chapter different setups are described, all based on mass spectro...... in data interpretation, and the advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques are clarified. New instrumental developments involving cryo-cooled storage rings, which show great promise for the future, are briefly touched upon.......Gas-phase ion spectroscopy requires specialised apparatus, both when it comes to measuring photon absorption and light emission (fluorescence). The reason is much lower ion densities compared to solution-phase spectroscopy. In this chapter different setups are described, all based on mass...... to circumvent this is discussed based on a chemical approach, namely tagging of ammonium groups by crown ether. Prompt dissociation can sometimes be identified from the total beam depletion differing from that due to statistical dissociation. Special emphasis in this chapter is on the limitations and pitfalls...

  16. [Mood induction procedures: a critical review].

    Gilet, A-L


    For a long period in the history of psychological research, emotion and cognition have been studied independently, as if one were irrelevant to the other. The renewed interest of researchers for the study of the relations between cognition and emotion has led to the development of a range of laboratory methods for inducing temporary mood states. This paper aims to review the main mood induction procedures allowing the induction of a negative mood as well as a positive mood, developed since the pioneer study of Schachter and Singer [Psychol Rev 69 (1962) 379-399] and to account for the usefulness and problems related to the use of such techniques. The first part of this paper deals with the detailed presentation of some of the most popular mood induction procedures according to their type: simple (use of only one mood induction technique) or combined (association of two or more techniques at once). The earliest of the modern techniques is the Velten Mood Induction Procedure [Behav Res Ther 6 (1968) 473-482], which involves reading aloud sixty self-referent statements progressing from relative neutral mood to negative mood or dysphoria. Some researchers have varied the procedure slightly by changing the number of the statements [Behav Res Ther 21 (1983) 233-239, Br J Clin Psychol 21 (1982) 111-117, J Pers Soc Psychol 35 (1977) 625-636]. Various other mood induction procedures have been developed including music induction [Cogn Emotion 11 (1997) 403-432, Br J Med Psychol 55 (1982) 127-138], film clip induction [J Pers Soc Psychol 20 (1971) 37-43, Cogn Emotion 7 (1993) 171-193, Rottenberg J, Ray RR, Gross JJ. Emotion elicitation using films. In: Coan JA, Allen JJB, editors. The handbook of emotion elicitation and assessment. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007], autobiographical recall [J Clin Psychol 36 (1980) 215-226, Jallais C. Effets des humeurs positives et négatives sur les structures de connaissances de type script. Thèse de doctorat non publi

  17. Surgical procedures in pinniped and cetacean species.

    Higgins, Jennifer L; Hendrickson, Dean A


    Significant advances in veterinary diagnostic and surgical techniques have been made over the past several decades. Many of these advances, however, have not reached the field of marine mammal medicine. A number of limitations exist: risks of anesthesia, anatomical challenges, difficulties with wound closure, environmental constraints, equipment limitations, and perceived risks. Despite these limitations, surgical treatments have been successfully utilized in marine mammals. While surgery is performed in pinnipeds more frequently than in cetaceans, studies conducted in the 1960s and 1970s on dolphin sleep and hearing demonstrated that general anesthesia can be successfully induced in cetaceans. Since this pioneering work, a small number of successful surgeries have been performed in dolphins under both general anesthesia and heavy sedation. While these surgical procedures in pinnipeds and cetaceans have typically been limited to wound management, dentistry, ophthalmic procedures, fracture repair, and superficial biopsy, a number of abdominal surgeries have also been performed. Recently there have been pioneering successes in the application of minimally invasive surgery in marine mammals. Many of the anatomical challenges that almost prohibit traditional laparotomies in cetacean species and present challenges in pinnipeds can be overcome through the use of laparoscopic techniques. Due to the limited number of pinnipeds and cetaceans in captivity and, thus, the limited case load for veterinarians serving marine mammal species, it is vital for knowledge of surgical procedures to be shared among those in the field. This paper reviews case reports of surgical procedures, both traditional and laparoscopic, in pinnipeds and cetaceans. Limitations to performing surgical procedures in marine mammals are discussed and surgical case reports analyzed in an effort to determine challenges that must be overcome in order to make surgery a more feasible diagnostic and treatment

  18. Monitoring of experimental rat lung transplants by high-resolution flat-panel volumetric computer tomography (fpVCT).

    Greschus, Susanne; Kuchenbuch, Tim; Plötz, Christian; Obert, Martin; Traupe, Horst; Padberg, Winfried; Grau, Veronika; Hirschburger, Markus


    Noninvasive assessment of experimental lung transplants with high resolution would be favorable to exclude technical failure and to follow up graft outcome in the living animal. Here we describe a flat-panel Volumetric Computed Tomography (fpVCT) technique using a prototype scanner. Lung transplantation was performed in allogeneic as well as in corresponding syngeneic rat strain combinations. At different time points post-transplantation, fpVCT was performed. Lung transplants can be visualized in the living rat with high-spatial resolution. FpVCT allows a detailed analysis of the lung and the bronchi. Infiltrates developing during rejection episodes can be diagnosed and follow-up studies can easily be performed. With fpVCT it is possible to control the technical success of the surgical procedure. Graft rejection can be visualized individually in the living animal noninvasively, which is highly advantageous for studying the pathogenesis of chronic rejection or to monitor new therapies.

  19. Evolutionary Statistical Procedures

    Baragona, Roberto; Poli, Irene


    This proposed text appears to be a good introduction to evolutionary computation for use in applied statistics research. The authors draw from a vast base of knowledge about the current literature in both the design of evolutionary algorithms and statistical techniques. Modern statistical research is on the threshold of solving increasingly complex problems in high dimensions, and the generalization of its methodology to parameters whose estimators do not follow mathematically simple distributions is underway. Many of these challenges involve optimizing functions for which analytic solutions a

  20. Transthoracic Adrenal Biopsy Procedure Using Artificial Carbon Dioxide Pneumothorax as Outpatient Procedure

    Favelier, Sylvain [CHU (University Hospital), Department of Radiology (France); Guiu, Severine [Georges-Francois Leclerc Cancer Center, Department of Oncology (France); Cherblanc, Violaine; Cercueil, Jean-Pierre; Krause, Denis; Guiu, Boris, E-mail: [CHU (University Hospital), Department of Radiology (France)


    Many routes have been described for percutaneous adrenal gland biopsy. They require either a complex non-axial path or a long hydrodissection or even pass through an organ thereby increasing complications. We describe here an approach using an artificially-induced carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) pneumothorax, performed as an outpatient procedure in a 57-year-old woman. Under local anaesthesia, 200 ml of CO{sub 2} was injected in the pleural space through a Veress needle under computed tomography fluoroscopy, to clear the lung parenchyma from the biopsy route. Using this technique, transthoracic adrenal biopsy can be performed under simple local anaesthesia as an safely outpatient procedure.

  1. Studies on the metabolism of the Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol precursor Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (Delta9-THCA-A) in rat using LC-MS/MS, LC-QTOF MS and GC-MS techniques.

    Jung, Julia; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H; Neusüss, Christian; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Auwärter, Volker


    In Cannabis sativa, Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (Delta9-THCA-A) is the non-psychoactive precursor of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC). In fresh plant material, about 90% of the total Delta9-THC is available as Delta9-THCA-A. When heated (smoked or baked), Delta9-THCA-A is only partially converted to Delta9-THC and therefore, Delta9-THCA-A can be detected in serum and urine of cannabis consumers. The aim of the presented study was to identify the metabolites of Delta9-THCA-A and to examine particularly whether oral intake of Delta9-THCA-A leads to in vivo formation of Delta9-THC in a rat model. After oral application of pure Delta9-THCA-A to rats (15 mg/kg body mass), urine samples were collected and metabolites were isolated and identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and high resolution LC-MS using time of flight-mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) for accurate mass measurement. For detection of Delta9-THC and its metabolites, urine extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The identified metabolites show that Delta9-THCA-A undergoes a hydroxylation in position 11 to 11-hydroxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (11-OH-Delta9-THCA-A), which is further oxidized via the intermediate aldehyde 11-oxo-Delta9-THCA-A to 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (Delta9-THCA-A-COOH). Glucuronides of the parent compound and both main metabolites were identified in the rat urine as well. Furthermore, Delta9-THCA-A undergoes hydroxylation in position 8 to 8-alpha- and 8-beta-hydroxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A, respectively, (8alpha-Hydroxy-Delta9-THCA-A and 8beta-Hydroxy-Delta9-THCA-A, respectively) followed by dehydration. Both monohydroxylated metabolites were further oxidized to their bishydroxylated forms. Several glucuronidation conjugates of these metabolites were identified. In vivo conversion of Delta9-THCA-A to Delta9-THC was

  2. Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (ESCi)-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry with novel mass spectrometry(Elevated Energy) (MS(E)) data collection technique: determination and pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and biliary excretion study of ergone in rat.

    Zhao, Ying-Yong; Cheng, Xian-Long; Wei, Feng; Bai, Xu; Lin, Rui-Chao


    Ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (ergone) has been proved to have novel antitumor effects on HepG2 cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and biliary excretion of ergone in rats following a single oral administration (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg). The levels of ergone in plasma, tissues, and bile were measured by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (ESCi)-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry with novel mass spectrometry(Elevated Energy) (MS(E)) data collection technique method. The results show ergone was distributed and eliminated from rat plasma and in non-linear pharmacokinetics from a dose range of 5-20 mg/kg. The ergone was found to distribute widely in the internal organs, with tissue concentrations in order of lungs, spleen, liver, intestine, kidneys, heart, stomach, parorchis, teasticles, and brain. At 12 h after dosing, the tissue concentrations in the organs were markedly decreased. The lungs, spleen, and liver were the dominant organs with high tissue concentrations that might be the primary sites for metabolism and elimination of ergone. Total recoveries of ergone within 24 h in bile were 34.14%.

  3. Review of the Draw a Person: Screening Procedure for Emotional Disturbance.

    Trevisan, Michael S.


    The Draw a Person: Screening Procedures for Emotional Disturbance (DAP:SPED) is a projective technique used in the initial assessment of children suffering from emotional problems, and unlike most projective techniques, features sound psychometric development. (Author)

  4. The selective therapeutic apheresis procedures.

    Sanchez, Amber P; Cunard, Robyn; Ward, David M


    Selective apheresis procedures have been developed to target specific molecules, antibodies, or cellular elements in a variety of diseases. The advantage of the selective apheresis procedures over conventional therapeutic plasmapheresis is preservation of other essential plasma components such as albumin, immunoglobulins, and clotting factors. These procedures are more commonly employed in Europe and Japan, and few are available in the USA. Apheresis procedures discussed in this review include the various technologies available for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis, double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP), cryofiltration, immunoadsorption procedures, adsorption resins that process plasma, extracorporeal photopheresis, and leukocyte apheresis.

  5. Establishment of a rat and guinea pig aortic interposition graft model reveals model-specific patterns of intimal hyperplasia.

    Gregory, Elaine K; Vercammen, Janet M; Flynn, Megan E; Kibbe, Melina R


    Although the aortic interposition bypass model has been widely used to evaluate biomaterials for bypass grafting, there is no comprehensive description of the procedure or of the distribution of intimal hyperplasia that results. The objectives of this study were to (1) review and summarize approaches of aortic interposition grafting in animal models, (2) determine the pertinent anatomy for this procedure, (3) validate this model in the rat and guinea pig, and (4) compare the distribution of intimal hyperplasia that develops in each species. A literature search was performed in PubMed from 1980 to the present to analyze the use of anesthesia, anticoagulation, antiplatelet agents, graft material, suture, and anastomotic techniques. Using 10-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats and Hartley guinea pigs, we established pertinent aortic anatomy, developed comparable models, and assessed complications for each model. At 30 days, the graft and associated aorta were explanted, intimal formation was assessed morphometrically, and cellularity was assessed via nuclear counting. We reviewed 30 articles and summarized the pertinent procedural findings. Upon establishing both animal models, key anatomic differences between the species that affect this model were noted. Guinea pigs have a much larger cecum, increased retroperitoneal fat, and lack the iliolumbar vessels compared with the rat. Surgical outcomes for the rat model included a 53% technical success rate and a 32% technical error rate. Surgical outcomes for the guinea pig model included a 69% technical success rate and a 31% technical error rate. These two species demonstrated unique distribution of intimal hyperplasia at 30 days. Intimal hyperplasia in the rat model was greatest at two areas, the proximal graft (5400 μm(2); P hyperplasia throughout the graft (4500-5100 μm(2); P < .01). In this report, we summarize the literature on the aortic interposition graft model, present a detailed description of the anatomy

  6. Phaco rolling technique.

    Güell, Jose L; Vázquez, Mercedes; Lucena, Jose; Velasco, Fortino; Manero, Felicidad


    We describe a phacoemulsification technique for soft and medium-hard cataracts to decrease phaco time and enhance the safety of the procedure. After conventional hydrodissection and hydrodelamination are performed, a 15- or 30-degree phaco tip is positioned on the peripheral lens beside the capsulorhexis edge and in contact with the nucleus-epinucleus interface. The lens is then aspirated onto the phaco tip. Phacoemulsification is started with the ultrasound energy level limited to 15% to 25% depending on the nuclear hardness and with linear aspiration power up to 250 mmHg. The phaco tip is slightly displaced to the vertex of the pupil to keep it occluded, and the lens is rotated. The phaco tip is placed in the same area and a modified manipulator used to keep the lens in a horizontal position during rotational movement. The small, hard, central nucleus is usually emulsified at the end.

  7. DNA isolation from rat tail or ear

    Cuppen, E.


    This protocol describes a rapid procedure for isolating DNA from rat tail or ear punches. The simplest version of the protocol can be scaled for use in 96-well (deep-well) plates. The quality of the DNA is sufficient for any polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping approach.

  8. Cardiac Muscle Studies with Rat Ventricular Strips

    Whitten, Bert K.; Faleschini, Richard J.


    Details undergraduate physiology laboratory experiments that demonstrate mechanical properties of cardiac muscle, using strips from the ventricle of a rat heart. Includes procedures for obtaining length-tension curves, demonstrating the role of calcium in excitation-contraction coupling, and showing effects of several cardiovascular drugs…

  9. DNA isolation from rat tail or ear

    Cuppen, E.


    This protocol describes a rapid procedure for isolating DNA from rat tail or ear punches. The simplest version of the protocol can be scaled for use in 96-well (deep-well) plates. The quality of the DNA is sufficient for any polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping approach.

  10. Neuropeptides and social behavior of rats tested in dyadic encounters

    Niesink, R.J.M.; Ree, J.M. van


    The effects of various neuropeptides on social behavior was studied in a test procedure in which 7-day isolated animals were tested together with non-isolated partners in dyadic encounters. The short-term isolation procedure increased the frequency and duration of social activities of the rats, but

  11. Neuropeptides and social behavior of rats tested in dyadic encounters

    Niesink, R.J.M.; Ree, J.M. van


    The effects of various neuropeptides on social behavior was studied in a test procedure in which 7-day isolated animals were tested together with non-isolated partners in dyadic encounters. The short-term isolation procedure increased the frequency and duration of social activities of the rats, but

  12. Functional magnetic resonance imaging and immunohistochemical study of hypothalamic function following oral glucose ingestion in rats

    CHEN Min; ZHAO Wei-feng; LI Sa-ying; WANG Zhi; ZHANG Yun-ting; LI Guo-zhen; ZHANG Tie-mei; LUO Sen-lin; ZHOU Cheng; WU Xiao-meng; ZHOU Ni-na; CAI Kui; YANG Zhen-han; WANG Wen-chao


    Background The hypothalamus plays a central role in the regulation of metabolism by sensing metabolic demands and releasing regulatory neurotransmitters. This study investigated the response of the hypothalamus to glucose ingestion in rats by blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) and immunohistochemical techniques to determine the role of the hypothalamus in glycoregulation during disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism.Methods The signal intensity of the hypothalamus was monitored by fMRI for 60 minutes after oral glucose intake in 48 healthy rats (age 14 months), which included 24 normal weight rats (weighing (365±76.5) g) and 24 overweight rats (weighing (714±83.5) g). Then, 12 rats (6 normal, 6 overweight) underwent a repeat fMRI scan after consuming an equivalent amount of water without glucose on a separate day. The procedure for fMRI with water intake was the same as for glucose ingestion. fMRI data was processed using time cluster analysis and intensity averaging method. After fMRI,the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the hypothalamus of all rats was determined by immunohistochemistry. Positive cells for NPY or 5-HT were counted.Results There was a transient, but significant, decrease in fMRI signal intensity in all rats (mean (3.12±0.78)%) in the hypothalamus within 19.5-25.5 minutes of oral glucose ingestion. In overweight rats, the decrease in signal intensity in response to the glucose ingestion was more markedly attenuated than that observed in normal weight rats ((2.2±1.5)%vs (4.2±0.7)% inhibition, t=2.12, P<0.05). There was no significant response in the hypothalamus after oral water ingestion. The percentage of NPY positive cells in obese rats were slightly lower than those in control group (21% vs 23%,t=0.71, P>0.05); but there was no significant difference between the two groups; the percentage of 5-HT positive cells in obese rats were significantly lower than

  13. NASA trend analysis procedures


    This publication is primarily intended for use by NASA personnel engaged in managing or implementing trend analysis programs. 'Trend analysis' refers to the observation of current activity in the context of the past in order to infer the expected level of future activity. NASA trend analysis was divided into 5 categories: problem, performance, supportability, programmatic, and reliability. Problem trend analysis uncovers multiple occurrences of historical hardware or software problems or failures in order to focus future corrective action. Performance trend analysis observes changing levels of real-time or historical flight vehicle performance parameters such as temperatures, pressures, and flow rates as compared to specification or 'safe' limits. Supportability trend analysis assesses the adequacy of the spaceflight logistics system; example indicators are repair-turn-around time and parts stockage levels. Programmatic trend analysis uses quantitative indicators to evaluate the 'health' of NASA programs of all types. Finally, reliability trend analysis attempts to evaluate the growth of system reliability based on a decreasing rate of occurrence of hardware problems over time. Procedures for conducting all five types of trend analysis are provided in this publication, prepared through the joint efforts of the NASA Trend Analysis Working Group.

  14. Cryopreservation and orthotopic transplantation of rat ovaries.

    Dorsch, Martina; Wedekind, Dirk


    The number of rat strains increased considerably in the last decade and will increase continuously during the next years. This requires enough space for maintaining vital strains and techniques for cryobanking, which can be applied not only in specialised rat resource centres but also in regular animal houses. Here we describe an easy and fast method for the cryopreservation and transplantation of frozen-thawed ovaries of the rat. With dimethyl sulfoxide as cryoprotectant rat ovaries can be stored at -196 degrees C for unlimited time. For revitalisation thawed ovaries have to be orthotopically transplanted into appropriate ovarectomised recipients. Reestablishment of the reproductive cycle in the recipients can be confirmed by vaginal cytology shortly after transplantation. The recipients are able to produce 2-3 litters after mating with males of an appropriate strain. Cyropreservation of ovaries thus can be considered a reliable method to preserve scientifically and economically important stocks and strains of rats that are currently not required.

  15. Transpositional flap technique for mandibular vestibuloplasty.

    Wessberg, G A; Hill, S C; Epker, B N


    Various surgical techniques for a mandibular vestibuloplasty have been advocated. A transpositional labial flap technique used by us for 23 patients since May 1976, and based on a procedure described by Edlan, has been presented with results of nine-month follow-up examinations of six patients. Clinical, radiographic, and histological evaluations completed at three-month intervals showed that this transpositional vestibuloplasty compared favorably with other similar techniques in postoperative time of healing, condition of attached mucosa, stability of increased vestibular depth, and amount of resorption of labial bone. Advantages of this procedure over other mandibular vestibuloplasty techniques are its simplicity, low morbidity, decreased operating time, feasibility of use of local anesthesia and conscious sedation on an outpatient basis, and elimination of the need for a graft. The disadvantage of the procedure is that it requires healthy preexisting vestibular mucosa for optimal results.

  16. Barley Transformation Using Biolistic Techniques

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Smedley, Mark A.

    Microprojectile bombardment or biolistic techniques have been widely used for cereal transformation. These methods rely on the acceleration of gold particles, coated with plasmid DNA, into plant cells as a method of directly introducing the DNA. The first report of the generation of fertile, transgenic barley plants used biolistic techniques. However, more recently Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been adopted as the method of choice for most cereals including barley. Biolistic procedures are still important for some barley transformation applications and also provide transient test systems for the rapid checking of constructs. This chapter describes methods for the transformation of barley using biolistic procedures and also highlights the use of the technology in transient assays.

  17. Anesthesic techniques in ocular surgery in dogs

    Newton Nunes


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to show several anesthesic managements to surgical procedures in the eye of the dogs. For this purpose, there are discussed techniques that can be used in the clinical practice by the anesthesiologist or ophthalmologist. The paper discusses general anesthesia, dissociative anesthesia anti other techniques. The eye position, pupilar size, intraocular pressure and other reflexes are also discussed. The authors showed the advantages of the patient monitoring and induction techniques.

  18. Robust procedures in chemometrics

    Kotwa, Ewelina

    -way chemometrical methods, such as PCA and PARAFAC models for analysing spatial and depth profiles of sea water samples, defined by three data modes: depth, variables and geographical location. Emphasis was also put on predicting fluorescence values, as being a natural measure of biological activity, by applying....... applying a multivariate and multi-way data analytical frame-work in fields where less sophisticated data analysis methods are currently used, and 2. developing new, more robust alternatives to already existing multivariate tools. The first part of the study was realised by applying two- and three...... and comparing the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression technique with its multi-way alternative, N-PLS. Results of the analysis indicated superiority of the three-way frame-work, potentially constituting a novel assessment of the sea water measurements. Particularly in the case of regression models...

  19. Thermal measurements and inverse techniques

    Orlande, Helcio RB; Maillet, Denis; Cotta, Renato M


    With its uncommon presentation of instructional material regarding mathematical modeling, measurements, and solution of inverse problems, Thermal Measurements and Inverse Techniques is a one-stop reference for those dealing with various aspects of heat transfer. Progress in mathematical modeling of complex industrial and environmental systems has enabled numerical simulations of most physical phenomena. In addition, recent advances in thermal instrumentation and heat transfer modeling have improved experimental procedures and indirect measurements for heat transfer research of both natural phe

  20. The sauvé-kapandji procedure.

    Lluch, Alberto


    Arthrodesis is the most reliable and durable surgical procedure for the treatment of a joint disorder, and its only disadvantage is the loss of motion of the fused joint. The distal radioulnar joint can be arthrodesed, while forearm pronation and supination are maintained or even improved by creating a pseudoarthrosis of the ulna just proximal to the arthrodesis. This is known as the Sauvé-Kapandji (S-K) procedure. The Sauvé-Kapandji differs from the Darrach procedure in that it preserves ulnar support of the wrist, as the distal radioulnar ligaments and ulnocarpal ligaments are maintained. Aesthetic appearance is also superior after the S-K procedure, as the normal prominence of the ulnar head, most noticeable when the forearm is in pronation, is maintained. However, the S-K is not free of possible complications, such as nonunion or delayed union of the arthrodesis, fibrous or osseous union at the pseudoarthrosis, and painful instability at the proximal ulna stump. All of these complications can be prevented if a careful surgical technique is used.

  1. Padronização da técnica para captação do potencial evocado motor em ratos através da estimulação elétrica transcraniana Standardization of motor evoked potential captivation technique in rats through transcranial electric stimulus

    Ricardo Ferreira


    Full Text Available Os autores demonstram experimentalmente a padronização da técnica para obtenção do potencial evocado motor em ratos através da estimulação elétrica transcraniana. Foram utilizados 50 ratos Wistar devidamente anestesiados e preparados de acordo com as normas vigentes no Laboratório de Estudos do Traumatismo Raquimedular e Nervos Periféricos do Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de São Paulo. A latência mínima média das respostas dos membros superiores foi de 2,5 ms e de membros inferiores foi de 6,5 ms. A amplitude média das respostas foi de 3,0 mV e de 2,5 mV nos membros superiores e membros inferiores, respectivamente. Os autores concluem que a técnica para captação do potencial evocado motor em ratos apresentada neste estudo é eficaz na análise da evolução eletrofisiológica da lesão medular, inédita no nosso meio, podendo ser reproduzida de modo simples, além de apresentar padrões de qualidade e aplicabilidade semelhantes aos observados na literatura mundial.Experimentally, the authors demonstrate the standardization of the technique for captivating the motor evoked potential in rats through transcranial electric stimulus. Fifty Wistar rats, under anesthesia, were prepared according to the current rules of the Laboratory of Spinal Cord Trauma and Peripheric Nerves Studies of the Orthopaedics and Traumatology Institute of Hospital das Clínicas, Medical School of São Paulo. Average minimal latency of the upper limb responses was 2.5 ms and of the lower limb 6.5 ms. Average amplitude of the responses was 3.0 mV and 2.5 mV on upper and lower limbs, respectively. The authors conclude that the technique for obtaining motor evoked potential in rats, as presented in this study, is efficient for the analysis of the electrophysiological evolution of medullar lesions, unprecedent in our field, and it can be reproduced in a simple way, and presents quality and


    Daniel Petru VARTEIU


    The audit of EU-funded projects is an audit based on agreed-upon procedures, which are established by the Managing Authority or the Intermediate Body. Agreed-upon procedures can be defined as engagements made in accordance with ISRS 4400, applicable to agreed-upon procedures, where the auditor undertakes to carry out the agreed-upon procedures and issue a report on factual findings. The report provided by the auditor does not express any assurance. It allows users to form their own opinions about the conformity of the expenses with the project budget as well as the eligibility of the expenses.


    Daniel Petru VARTEIU


    The audit of EU-funded projects is an audit based on agreed-upon procedures, which are established by the Managing Authority or the Intermediate Body. Agreed-upon procedures can be defined as engagements made in accordance with ISRS 4400, applicable to agreed-upon procedures, where the auditor undertakes to carry out the agreed-upon procedures and issue a report on factual findings. The report provided by the auditor does not express any assurance. It allows users to form their own opinions about the conformity of the expenses with the project budget as well as the eligibility of the expenses.

  4. Method for functional study of mitochondria in rat hypothalamus.

    Benani, Alexandre; Barquissau, Valentin; Carneiro, Lionel; Salin, Bénédicte; Colombani, Anne-Laure; Leloup, Corinne; Casteilla, Louis; Rigoulet, Michel; Pénicaud, Luc


    Different roles of mitochondria in brain function according to brain area are now clearly emerging. Unfortunately, no technique is yet described to investigate mitochondria function in specific brain area. In this article, we provide a complete description of a procedure to analyze the mitochondrial function in rat brain biopsies. Our two-step method consists in a saponin permeabilization of fresh brain tissues in combination with high-resolution respirometry to acquire the integrated respiratory rate of the biopsy. In the first part, we carefully checked the mitochondria integrity after permeabilization, defined experimental conditions to determine the respiratory control ratio (RCR), and tested the reproducibility of this technique. In the second part, we applied our method to test its sensitivity. As a result, this method was sensitive enough to reveal region specificity of mitochondrial respiration within the brain. Moreover, we detected physiopathological modulation of the mitochondrial function in the hypothalamus. Thus this new technique that takes all cell types into account, and does not discard or select any mitochondria sub-population is very suitable to analyze the integrated mitochondrial respiration of brain biopsies.

  5. Biomechanical comparison of open and arthroscopic Latarjet procedures.

    Schulze-Borges, Johanna; Agneskirchner, Jens D; Bobrowitsch, Evgenij; Patzer, Thilo; Struck, Melena; Smith, Tomas; Wellmann, Mathias


    To biomechanically compare the effectiveness of the standard open and arthroscopic techniques of the Latarjet procedure to address a critical anterior glenoid defect in combination with a capsular insufficiency. Translation testing of 12 human cadaveric shoulder specimens was performed in a robot-assisted setup under 3 different conditions: (1) intact/vented shoulder joint, (2) combined anterior glenoid bone and capsular defect, and (3) open and arthroscopic Latarjet procedures. Testing was performed for each condition in 2 test positions: 60° of glenohumeral abduction with neutral rotation (ABD position) and 60° of abduction and external rotation (ABER position). Each position was tested with a passive humerus load of 30 N in the anterior, inferior, and anteroinferior directions. Translational movement of the humeral head was evaluated with and without the application of a 10-N load to the conjoint tendon (CJT). In the ABD position, translations after the open Latarjet procedure significantly differed from the arthroscopic technique in the anterior and anteroinferior directions when testing was performed with loading of the CJTs (CJT loading). Without CJT loading, the open Latarjet technique showed significantly lower translations in the anterior, inferior (P = .004), and anteroinferior (P = .001) testing directions in the ABD position. In the ABER position, the arthroscopic procedure showed no significant difference compared with the standard open procedure. We found a superior stabilization effect of the open Latarjet technique in the ABD position. The difference is ascribed to the anterior capsular repair, which was performed within the open technique and omitted during the arthroscopic procedure. The reduction of translation in a pure abduction position of the arm is more effectively performed with a conventional open Latarjet technique that includes a capsular repair. In combined ABER position, there was no difference found between the open and

  6. Nanofiber nets in prevention of cicatrization in spinal procedures. Experimental study.

    Andrychowski, Jarosław; Frontczak-Baniewicz, Małgorzata; Sulejczak, Dorota; Kowalczyk, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Tomasz; Czernicki, Zbigniew; Kowalewski, Tomasz Aleksander


    Excessive cicatrisation or epidural fibrosis in the operative field is an inappropriate event occasionally occurring after neurosurgical procedures (i.e., spine procedures and craniotomies). This excessive process may disturb the postoperative course and render reoperations more difficult and risky. The literature describes this phenomenon as accompanying up to 20% of neurosurgical procedures. The scar tissue that forms postoperatively adheres to the dura mater, penetrates into the spinal canal and can cause narrowing symptoms, neurological deficits and pain. The incidence and spread of this excessive scar or epidural fibrosis can be prevented through the modification of the surgical technique by incorporating endoscopic or microscopic access to minimize the operative field and the use of isolating substances (autogenous or heterogeneous) administered intraoperatively. The aim of this experimental study was to morphologically assess the cicatrization process, adhesion and to prevent excessive scar formation with the local use of membranes manufactured by an electrospinning process (nanotechnology). We also investigated whether the biodegradable nanofibrous net triggers or modifies the immunological response or the local inflammatory process. Micro-nanofibrous membranes were produced by the electrospinning process. A biodegradable, medically certified copolymer poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLCL) was used as the electrospun material. An experimental rat model was used in this study. Experimental and control groups were formed with specified follow-up times of 4, 14 and 30 days. During the operation, a two-level laminectomy in the thoracic segment was performed. The operative field was divided into two regions. Isolating material was used on the dura mater and surface of the spinal cord in the area where the laminectomy was performed. The material was analysed with the use of light and electron microscopy. Local cicatrisation can be modified using nanomaterials

  7. [Our technique in orthotopic neobladder].

    Del Boca, C; Colloi, D; Guardamagna, A; Giuberti, A C; Ferrari, C


    The strive in the field of orthotopic neobladders derives from the need to improve their morphofunctional aspects and to simplify the surgical procedures. The Authors propose their experience on a new method of orthotopic neobladder in 8 patients submitted to radical cystectomy for advanced bladder neoplasia from march 91 until june 93. The surgical technique was to prepare a reservoir with a simile Camey 2 type procedure modified by them using 50 cm of ileus, 30 of which detubularized and reconfigured into a simile spheric shape with Polygia 75 staplers. The remaining length was left intact for the ureteral anastomosis performing the Wallace 1 type procedure. The advantages of this technique are that: the neobladder is prepared rapidly using staplers, thus reducing operating time the presence of an isoperistaltic segment of ileus for ureteral anastomosis permits an reduced ureteral mobilization with a low probability of reflux a simple reconversion in ileal conduit in case of reservoir failure or neoplastic urethral recurrence is possible. The criteria for selecting the patients are reported and the diagnostic algorithm regarding the follow-up presented. The latter is done with biochemical, echographic, radiological and pressure studies, every 4-6 or 12 months. Particular attention has been focused on the quality of life in relation to the diurnal/nocturnal continence and micturation interval. They conclude that this technique is surgically simple and rapid with satisfactory clinical and urodynamic results.

  8. Consequences of superovulation and ART procedures.

    Weinerman, Rachel; Grifo, Jamie


    Superovulation procedures and assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have provided the means for significant improvement in infertility care. Although generally safe, these procedures are associated with complications that, albeit rare, can have significant morbidity. Complications from superovulation include ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, thromboembolism, and adnexal torsion. Complications from oocyte retrieval include infection, bleeding, bowel injury, and anesthetic complications. Early pregnancy complications from in vitro fertilization include multiple gestations, ectopic pregnancy, and heterotopic pregnancy. Stimulation, retrieval, and transfer techniques can be modified to minimize these risks and prevent complications. Further research in the field is needed to continue to improve the safety of superovulation and ART. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. A Technique: Exposure Therapy

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU


    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure with response prevention is an effective treatment for all anxiety disorders. According to the behavioral learning theories, fears which are conditioned via classical conditioning are reinforced by respondent conditioning. Avoidance and safety seeking behaviors prevent disconfirmation of anxious beliefs. In exposure client faces stimulates or cues that elicit fear or distress, by this avoidance is inhibited. Clients are also encouraged to resists performing safety seeking behaviors or rituals that they utilize to reduce fear or distress. Accomplishing these habituation or extinction is achieved. In addition to this clients learn that feared consequences does not realize or not harmful as they believed by experiencing. Emotional processing is believed to be the mechanism of change in exposure.Objective: The aim of this review is to provide a definition of exposure and its effectiveness briefly, and describe how to implement exposure, its steps and remarkable aspects using. Exposure therapies and treatments that involve exposure are proved to be effective in all anxiety disorders. Exposure therapy can be divided in three parts: Assessment and providing a treatment rationale, creating an exposure hierarchy and response prevention plan, implementing exposure sessions. Clients must also continue to perform exposure between sessions. Therapy transcripts are also provided to exemplify these parts. Conclusion: Exposure with response prevention is a basic and effective technique. Every cognitive behavior therapist must be able to implement this technique and be cognizant of pearls of this procedure.

  10. Simultaneous quantification of chrysophanol and physcion in rat plasma by ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and application of the technique to comparative pharmacokinetic studies of Radix et Rhei Rhizoma extract alone and Dahuang Fuzi Decoction.

    Liu, Xiao; Li, Huan; Wu, Li; Xing, Jiangwa; Poh, Yanhong; Cai, Hao; Cai, Bao Chang


    Most herbal medicines are prescribed in combination based on the theory of TCM to obtain synergistic effects or diminish the possible adverse reactions. Compatibility refers to the combination of two or more herbs based on the clinical settings and the properties of herbs. Chrysophanol and physcion are the main effective compounds in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei and Dahuang Fuzi Decoction which is the combination of Radix et Rhizoma Rhei, Radix Aconiti Lateralis Praeparata and Radix et Rhizoma Asari. However, chrysophanol and physcion are difficult to detect in vivo because of their low concentration and interference from endogenous compounds. The aim of this study is to develop a rapid, specific and sensitive ultra high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass method to simultaneously quantify chrysophanol and physcion in rat plasma, in order to better understand the pharmacokinetics and compatibility mechanism of Dahuang Fuzi Decoction for the first time. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was applied for the quantitation at [M-H](-)m/z 253.0→m/z 225.1 for chrysophanol, [M-H](-) for m/z 283.1→m/z 240.0 physcion and [M-H](-)m/z 239.0→m/z 211.0 for IS. The analytes were separated on an Agilent Eclipse plus C18 column (100mm×2.1mm, 1.8μm) column within a total running time of 6.5min using a mixture of 3mM ammonium acetate in water and methanol (95:5, v/v) with a time program flow gradient according to the "plus gradient chromatography" theory. The inclusion of the ammonium acetate in the UFLC mobile phase dramatically improved the detection limit of the tested compounds and decreased the interference by matrix effects, which have been referred to as "LC-electrolyte effects". Finally, we demonstrated the application of a validated method in a comparative pharmacokinetic study of rats receiving an oral dose of Dahuang Fuzi Decoction or Radix et Rhei Rhizoma, the monarch drug in the prescription. Pharmacokinetic parameters showed

  11. The Effects of Maternal Hyperthyroidism on Histologic Changes in Parietal Lobe in Rat Embryos

    Fatemeh Mirsafi


    Full Text Available Background Maternal hyperthyroidism causes developmental defects on the nervous system of fetuses. Objectives The present study was designed to study the effects of maternal hyperthyroidism on the development of the parietal lobe in the brain of rat embryos. Methods In this experimental study, thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. The control group received no injections, the sham group received intraperitoneal injections of distilled water solution containing salt and polysorbate (solvent of levothyroxine, and the experimental group received once-daily, intraperitoneal injections of 0.5 mg/kg levothyroxine for a 10-day period to become hyperthyroid rats. The hyperthyroid rats were then mated, and all pregnant rats were killed on the 20th day of gestation. Fetuses were removed, fixed, and processed for histological procedures. The fetuses were sagitally sectioned at 5 µ thickness and stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H and E technique. The sections were examined using a light microscope and Motic software. Results The results showed no significant difference in the studied variables between the sham and control groups. A significantly increase in body weight and a significant decrease in crown-rump length of embryos was observed in the experimental group when compared to the control group. The mean total thickness of the parietal cortex, ventricular layer, and intermediate layer of embryos showed a significant decrease in the experimental group compared to the control and sham groups. The mean number of cells also showed a significant decrease in the intermediate and ventricular layers in the experimental group compared to the control and sham groups. Conclusions This study showed that maternal hyperthyroidism leads to a reduction in development of the parietal cortex in embryos. Maternal hyperthyroidism can disturb the growth and development of embryos.

  12. Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis

    Zimmerman, John; Jacobsen, Jerrold J.


    Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis is a visual library of techniques used in making volumetric measurements. This 40-minute VHS videotape is designed as a resource for introducing students to proper volumetric methods and procedures. The entire tape, or relevant segments of the tape, can also be used to review procedures used in subsequent experiments that rely on the traditional art of quantitative analysis laboratory practice. The techniques included are: Quantitative transfer of a solid with a weighing spoon Quantitative transfer of a solid with a finger held weighing bottle Quantitative transfer of a solid with a paper strap held bottle Quantitative transfer of a solid with a spatula Examples of common quantitative weighing errors Quantitative transfer of a solid from dish to beaker to volumetric flask Quantitative transfer of a solid from dish to volumetric flask Volumetric transfer pipet A complete acid-base titration Hand technique variations The conventional view of contemporary quantitative chemical measurement tends to focus on instrumental systems, computers, and robotics. In this view, the analyst is relegated to placing standards and samples on a tray. A robotic arm delivers a sample to the analysis center, while a computer controls the analysis conditions and records the results. In spite of this, it is rare to find an analysis process that does not rely on some aspect of more traditional quantitative analysis techniques, such as careful dilution to the mark of a volumetric flask. Figure 2. Transfer of a solid with a spatula. Clearly, errors in a classical step will affect the quality of the final analysis. Because of this, it is still important for students to master the key elements of the traditional art of quantitative chemical analysis laboratory practice. Some aspects of chemical analysis, like careful rinsing to insure quantitative transfer, are often an automated part of an instrumental process that must be understood by the

  13. Historical perspectives on the evolution of surgical procedures in endodontics.

    Gutmann, James L; Gutmann, Marylou S


    The historical pathway to current surgical endodontic procedures and their applications has been tortuous and tumultuous. Influenced heavily in their development by the European sector, these surgical procedures faced many challenges over the decades. Fortunately for today's practitioners, influential members of the oral surgery community, and a few staunch believers in retaining devitalized teeth, persisted in their investigation of and search for improved procedures that had predictable outcomes. Many so-called "revolutionary" or newer techniques practiced today are but a re-emergence of surgical concepts that were lost in the archives of time. With the advent of evidence-based endodontics, these procedures are now supported extensively by science and by the integration of science into materials usage, technique applications and outcomes research. However, in many respects, this story is just beginning, as the "roots" of surgical endodontics are explored.

  14. Documenting Laboratory Procedures with Video.

    Wyttenbach, Robert A


    Demonstrating laboratory procedures in person during class time can be time-consuming. When procedures are done under a microscope, live demonstration is also impractical because of the limited number of students who can view the demonstration at once. Creating videos beforehand, which students can watch before class and review during lab sessions, solves both of these problems. This article suggests ways to make and distribute high quality video of microscopic procedures.

  15. Electronic Procedures for Medical Operations


    Electronic procedures are replacing text-based documents for recording the steps in performing medical operations aboard the International Space Station. S&K Aerospace, LLC, has developed a content-based electronic system-based on the Extensible Markup Language (XML) standard-that separates text from formatting standards and tags items contained in procedures so they can be recognized by other electronic systems. For example, to change a standard format, electronic procedures are changed in a single batch process, and the entire body of procedures will have the new format. Procedures can be quickly searched to determine which are affected by software and hardware changes. Similarly, procedures are easily shared with other electronic systems. The system also enables real-time data capture and automatic bookmarking of current procedure steps. In Phase II of the project, S&K Aerospace developed a Procedure Representation Language (PRL) and tools to support the creation and maintenance of electronic procedures for medical operations. The goal is to develop these tools in such a way that new advances can be inserted easily, leading to an eventual medical decision support system.

  16. Guidelines for hazard evaluation procedures


    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi 1 . Hazard Evaluation Procedures ... Management Overview ... ... Part I Preface 11 Introduction to the Guidelines 1.1 Background ... 1.2 Relationship...

  17. Endoscopic thyroidectomy: Our technique

    Puntambekar Shailesh


    Full Text Available Minimally invasive surgery is widely employed for the treatment of thyroid diseases. Several minimal access approaches to the thyroid gland have been described. The commonly performed surgeries have been endoscopic lobectomies. We have performed endoscopic total thyroidectomy by the anterior chest wall approach. In this study, we have described our technique and evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of this procedure. Materials and Methods: From June 2005 to August 2006, 15 cases of endoscopic thyroidectomy were done at our institute. Five patients were male and 10 were female. Mean age was 45 years. (Range 23 to 71 years. Four patients had multinodular goiter and underwent near-total thyroidectomy; four patients had follicular adenoma and underwent hemithyroidectomy. Out of the seven patients of papillary carcinoma, four were low-risk and so a hemithyroidectomy was performed while three patients in the high risk group underwent total thyroidectomy. A detailed description of the surgical technique is provided. Results : The mean nodule size was 48 mm (range 20-80 mm and the mean operating time was 85 min (range 60-120 min. In all cases, the recurrent laryngeal nerve was identified and preserved intact, the superior and inferior parathyroids were also identified in all patients. No patients required conversion to an open cervicotomy. All patients were discharged the day after surgery. All thyroidectomies were completed successfully. No recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies or postoperative tetany occurred. The postoperative course was significantly less painful and all patients were satisfied with the cosmetic results. Conclusions : It is possible to remove large nodules and perform as well as total thyroidectomies using our endoscopic approach. It is a safe and effective technique in the hands of an appropriately trained surgeon. The patients get a cosmetic benefit without any morbidity.

  18. New modification of modified bentall procedure (A single centre experience)

    Hussain, Ghulam; Ahmad, Naseem; Ahmad, Sohail; Baig, Mirza Ahmad Raza; Zaheer, Sara; Furkan, Aamir


    Background and Objectives: Modified Bentall procedure has become a gold standard in the treatment of combined aortic root and aortic valve diseases. Bleeding is an important predictor of morbidity and mortality after the Bentall operation. Our objective was to evaluate the early outcomes of Modified Button-Bentall procedure with cuff technique for aortic root replacement surgery regarding hemostasis. Methods: A total number of 32 patients who underwent elective Bentall operation from January ...

  19. Standard operating procedure to prepare agar phantoms

    Souza, R. M.; Santos, T. Q.; Oliveira, D. P.; Souza, R. M.; Alvarenga, A. V.; Costa-Felix, R. P. B.


    Agar phantoms are widely used as soft tissue mimics and some preparation techniques are described in the literature. There are also standards that describe the recipe of a soft tissue mimicking material (TMM). However some details of manufacture process are not clearly defined. The standardization of the phantom's preparation can produce a metrological impact on the results of the acoustic properties measured. In this direction, this paper presents a standard operating procedure (SOP) to prepare the agar TMM described on the IEC 60601-237.

  20. Development and Execution of Autonomous Procedures Onboard the International Space Station to Support the Next Phase of Human Space Exploration

    Beisert, Susan; Rodriggs, Michael; Moreno, Francisco; Korth, David; Gibson, Stephen; Lee, Young H.; Eagles, Donald E.


    Now that major assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) is complete, NASA's focus has turned to using this high fidelity in-space research testbed to not only advance fundamental science research, but also demonstrate and mature technologies and develop operational concepts that will enable future human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. The ISS as a Testbed for Analog Research (ISTAR) project was established to reduce risks for manned missions to exploration destinations by utilizing ISS as a high fidelity micro-g laboratory to demonstrate technologies, operations concepts, and techniques associated with crew autonomous operations. One of these focus areas is the development and execution of ISS Testbed for Analog Research (ISTAR) autonomous flight crew procedures intended to increase crew autonomy that will be required for long duration human exploration missions. Due to increasing communications delays and reduced logistics resupply, autonomous procedures are expected to help reduce crew reliance on the ground flight control team, increase crew performance, and enable the crew to become more subject-matter experts on both the exploration space vehicle systems and the scientific investigation operations that will be conducted on a long duration human space exploration mission. These tests make use of previous or ongoing projects tested in ground analogs such as Research and Technology Studies (RATS) and NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO). Since the latter half of 2012, selected non-critical ISS systems crew procedures have been used to develop techniques for building ISTAR autonomous procedures, and ISS flight crews have successfully executed them without flight controller involvement. Although the main focus has been preparing for exploration, the ISS has been a beneficiary of this synergistic effort and is considering modifying additional standard ISS procedures that may increase crew efficiency, reduce operational costs, and