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Sample records for rat peripheral nerve

  1. Immune Responses Following Mouse Peripheral Nerve Xenotransplantation in Rats

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    Lai-Jin Lu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Xenotransplantation offers a potentially unlimited source for tissues and organs for transplantation, but the strong xenoimmune responses pose a major obstacle to its application in the clinic. In this study, we investigate the rejection of mouse peripheral nerve xenografts in rats. Severe intragraft mononuclear cell infiltration, graft distension, and necrosis were detected in the recipients as early as 2 weeks after mouse nerve xenotransplantation. The number of axons in xenografts reduced progressively and became almost undetectable at week 8. However, mouse nerve xenotransplantation only led to a transient and moderate increase in the production of Th1 cytokines, including IL-2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α. The data implicate that cellular immune responses play a critical role in nerve xenograft rejection but that further identification of the major effector cells mediating the rejection is required for developing effective means to prevent peripheral nerve xenograft rejection.

  2. Variable spatial magnetic field influences peripheral nerves regeneration in rats.

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    Suszyński, Krzysztof; Marcol, Wiesław; Szajkowski, Sebastian; Pietrucha-Dutczak, Marita; Cieślar, Grzegorz; Sieroń, Aleksander; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna

    2014-09-01

    Generator of spatial magnetic field is one of most recent achievements among the magnetostimulators. This apparatus allows to obtain the rotating magnetic field. This new method may be more effective than other widely used techniques of magnetostimulation and magnetotherapy. We investigated the influence of alternating, spatial magnetic field on the regeneration of the crushed rat sciatic nerves. Functional and morphological evaluations were used. After crush injury of the right sciatic nerve, Wistar C rats (n = 80) were randomly divided into four groups (control and three experimental). The experimental groups (A, B, C) were exposed (20 min/day, 5 d/week, 4 weeks) to alternating spatial magnetic field of three different intensities. Sciatic Functional Index (SFI) and tensometric assessments were performed every week after nerve crush. Forty-eight hours before the sacrificing of animals, DiI (1,1'-di-octadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethyloindocarbocyanine perchlorate) was applied 5 mm distally to the crush site. Collected nerves and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were subjected to histological and immunohistochemical staining. The survival rate of DRG neurons was estimated. Regrowth and myelination of the nerves was examined. The results of SFI and tensometric assessment showed improvement in all experimental groups as compared to control, with best outcome observed in group C, exposed to the strongest magnetic field. In addition, DRG survival rate and nerve regeneration intensity were significantly higher in the C group. Above results indicate that strong spatial alternating magnetic field exerts positive effect on peripheral nerve regeneration and its application could be taken under consideration in the therapy of injured peripheral nerves.

  3. Gait analysis in rats with peripheral nerve injury.

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    Yu, P; Matloub, H S; Sanger, J R; Narini, P

    2001-02-01

    Rats are commonly used to study peripheral nerve repair and grafting. The traditional footprint method to assess functional recovery is messy, indirect, and not useful when contractures develop in the animal model. The aim of the present study was to establish an accurate, reproducible, but simple, method to assess dynamic limb function. The basic quantitative aspects of a normal gait were characterized from 59 recorded walks in 23 rats. The video was digitized and analyzed frame by frame on a personal computer. Seven parameters of the gait were assessed: (1) walking speed; (2) stance phase, swing phase and right to left stance/swing ratio; (3) step length and step length ratio; (4) ankle angles at terminal stance and midswing; (5) tail height; (6) midline deviation; and (7) tail deviation. These gait parameters were then applied to groups of animals with sciatic (group S), tibial (group T), and peroneal (group P) nerve injuries. A discriminant analysis was performed to analyze each parameter and to compute a functional score. We found that the video gait analysis was superior to the footprint method and believe it will be very useful in future studies on peripheral nerve injury.

  4. Functional evaluation of peripheral nerve regeneration in the rat : walking track analysis

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    Varejao, ASP; Meek, MF; Patricio, JAB; Cabrita, AMS

    2001-01-01

    The experimental model of choice for many peripheral nerve investigators is the rat. Walking track analysis is a useful tool in the evaluation of functional peripheral nerve recovery in the rat. This quantitative method of analyzing hind limbs performance by examining footprints, known as the sciati

  5. Vascular endothelial growth factor promotes peripheral nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve transection in rat

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    Mohammadi Rahim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To evaluate the local effect of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF on transected sciatic nerve regeneration. Methods: Sixty male white Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups randomly (n=15. In transected group the left sciatic nerve was transected and the stump was fixed to adjacent muscle. In treatment group the defect was bridged using a silicone graft filled with 10 µL VEGF. In silicone group the graft was filled with phosphate-buffered saline. In sham-operated group the sciatic nerve was ex- posed and manipulated. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups with five animals in each and nerve fibers were studied 4, 8 and 12 weeks after operation. Results: Behavioral test, functional study of sciatic nerve, gastrocnemius muscle mass and morphometric indi- ces confirmed a faster recovery of regenerated axons in VEGF group than in silicone group (P<0.05. In immunohistochemi- cal assessment, reactions to S-100 in VEGF group were more positive than that in silicone group. Conclusion: Local administration of VEGF will im- prove functional recovery and morphometric indices of sci- atic nerve. Key words: Peripheral nerves; Nerve regeneration; Sciatic nerve; Vascular endothelial growth factor

  6. Repairing peripheral nerve defects with tissue engineered artificial nerves in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ai-lin; LIU Shi-qing; TAO Hai-ying; PENG Hao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of tissue engineered nerves in repairing peripheral nerve defects ( about 1. 5 cm in length) in rats to provide data for clinical application.Methods: Glycerinated sciatic nerves (2 cm in length) from 10 Sprague Dawley ( SD) rats ( aged 4 months) were used to prepare homologous dermal acellular matrix. Other 10 neonate SD rats (aged 5-7 days) were killed by neck dislocation. After removing the epineurium, the separated sciatic nerve tracts were cut into small pieces, then digested by 2.5 g/L trypsin and 625 U/ml collagenase and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) for 3 weeks. After proliferation, the Schwann cells ( SCs) were identified and prepared for use. And other 40 female adult SD rats (weighing 200 g and aged 3 months) with sciatic nerve defects of 1.5 cm in length were randomly divided into four groups: the defects of 10 rats bridged with proliferated SCs and homologous dermal acellular matrix (the tissue engineered nerve group, Group A), 10 rats with no SCs but homologous dermal acellular matrix with internal scaffolds ( Group B ), 10 with autologous nerves ( Group C) , and the other 10 with nothing (the blank control group, Group D). The general status of the rats was observed, the wet weight of triceps muscle of calf was monitored, and the histological observation of the regenerated nerves were made at 12 weeks after operation.Results: The wounds of all 40 rats healed after operation and no death was found. No foot ulceration was found in Groups A, B and C, but 7 rats suffered from foot ulceration in Group D. The triceps muscles of calf were depauperated in the experimental sides in all the groups compared with the uninjured sides,which was much more obvious in Group D. The wet weight of triceps muscle of calf and nerve electrophysiologic monitoring showed no statistical difference between Group A and Group C,but statistical difference was found between Groups A and B and Groups B and D. And significant

  7. Electrical stimulation accelerates nerve regeneration and functional recovery in delayed peripheral nerve injury in rats.

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    Huang, Jinghui; Zhang, Yongguang; Lu, Lei; Hu, Xueyu; Luo, Zhuojing

    2013-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate the potential of brief electrical stimulation (ES; 3 V, 20 Hz, 20 min) in improving functional recovery in delayed nerve injury repair (DNIR). The sciatic nerve of Sprague Dawley rats was transected, and the repair of nerve injury was delayed for different time durations (2, 4, 12 and 24 weeks). Brief depolarizing ES was applied to the proximal nerve stump when the transected nerve stumps were bridged with a hollow nerve conduit (5 mm in length) after delayed periods. We found that the diameter and number of regenerated axons, the thickness of myelin sheath, as well as the number of Fluoro-Gold retrograde-labeled motoneurons and sensory neurons were significantly increased by ES, suggesting that brief ES to proximal nerve stumps is capable of promoting nerve regeneration in DNIR with different delayed durations, with the longest duration of 24 weeks. In addition, the amplitude of compound muscle action potential (gastrocnemius muscle) and nerve conduction velocity were also enhanced, and gastrocnemius muscle atrophy was partially reversed by brief ES, indicating that brief ES to proximal nerve stump was able to improve functional recovery in DNIR. Furthermore, brief ES was capable of increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the spinal cord in DNIR, suggesting that BDNF-mediated neurotrophin signaling might be one of the contributing factors to the beneficial effect of brief ES on DNIR. In conclusion, the present findings indicate the potential of using brief ES as a useful method to improve functional recovery for delayed repair of peripheral nerve lesions. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Glatiramer acetate immune system augmentation for peripheral nerve regeneration in rat crushed sciatic nerve model.

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    Luria, Shai; Waitayawinyu, Thanapong; Conniff, James; Morton, H Josette; Nemechek, Nicholas M; Sonnen, Joshua A; Katolik, Leonid I; Trumble, Thomas E

    2010-02-01

    Protective antiself response to nervous system injury has been reported to be mediated by a T-cell subpopulation that can recognize self-antigens. Immune cells have been shown to play a role in the regulation of motor neuron survival after a peripheral nerve injury. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of immune system augmentation with use of the antigen glatiramer acetate, which is known to affect T-cell immunity, on peripheral nerve regeneration. Wild-type and nude-type (T-cell-deficient) rats underwent crush injury of the sciatic nerve. Three and six weeks after the injury, the sciatic nerve was examined, both functionally (on the basis of footprint analysis and the tibialis anterior muscle response and weight) and histologically (on the basis of axon count). Significantly greater muscle responses were measured after three weeks in the group of wild-type rats that were treated with glatiramer acetate (control limb:injured limb ratio, 0.05 for the glatiramer acetate group [n = 9], compared with 0.51 for the saline solution group [n = 8]; p < 0.05). Higher axon counts were also found in this group (control limb:injured limb ratio, -0.07 for the glatiramer acetate group [n = 10], compared with 0.29 for the saline solution group [n = 8]; p < 0.05). The nude-type rats showed no response to the intervention after three weeks but showed a delayed response after six weeks. A second dose of glatiramer acetate, delivered forty-eight hours after the injury, did not result in an improved response as compared with the control groups. We found that a single treatment with glatiramer acetate resulted in accelerated functional and histological recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury. The role of T-cell immunity in the mechanism of glatiramer acetate was suggested by the partial and late response found in the T-cell-deficient rats.

  9. Ginsenoside Rg1 promotes peripheral nerve regeneration in rat model of nerve crush injury.

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    Ma, Junxiong; Li, Wenxian; Tian, Ruifeng; Lei, Wei

    2010-07-05

    Searching for effective drugs which are capable of promoting nerve regeneration after nerve injuries has gained extensive attention. Ginsenoside Rg1 (GRg1) is one of the bioactive compounds extracted from ginseng. GRg1 has been shown to be neuroprotective in many in vitro studies, which raises the possibility of using GRg1 as a neuroprotective agent after nerve injuries. However, such a possibility has never been tested in in vivo studies. The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of GRg1 in promoting nerve regeneration after nerve crush injury in rats. All rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=8 in each group) after crush injury and were intraperitoneally administrated daily for 4 weeks with 1mg/kg, or 5mg/kg GRg1 (low or high dose GRg1 groups), or 100mug/kg mecobalamin or normal saline, respectively. The axonal regeneration was investigated by retrograde labeling and morphometric analysis. The motor functional recovery was evaluated by electrophysiological studies, behavioral tests and histological appearance of the target muscles. Our data showed that high dose GRg1 achieved better axonal regeneration and functional recovery than those achieved by low dose GRg1 and mecobalamin. The final outcome of low dose GRg1 and mecobalamin was similar in both morphological and functional items, which was significantly better than that in saline group. These findings show that GRg1 is capable of promoting nerve regeneration after nerve injuries, suggesting the possibility of developing GRg1 a neuroprotective drug for peripheral nerve repair applications.

  10. Histopathological Analysis Of Gangliosides Use In Peripheral Nerve Regeneration After Axonotmesis In Rats

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    Camila Maria Beder Ribeiro; Belmiro Cavalcanti do Egito Vasconcelos; Joaquim Celestino da Silva Neto; Valdemiro Amaro da Silva Júnior; Nancy Gurgel Figueiredo

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To analyze the action of gangliosides in peripheral nerve regeneration in the sciatic nerve of the rat. METHODS: The sample was composed of 96 male Wistar rats. The animals were anaesthetized and, after identification of the anaesthesic plane, an incision was made in the posterior region of the thigh, followed by skin and muscle divulsion. The right sciatic nerve was isolated and compressed for 2 minutes. Continuous suture of the skin was performed. The animals were randomly divided ...

  11. Effects of intraneural and perineural injection and concentration of Ropivacaine on nerve injury during peripheral nerve block in Wistar rats

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    Ilvana Hasanbegovic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Injury during peripheral nerve blocks is relatively uncommon, but potentially devastating complication. Recent studies emphasized that location of needle insertion in relationship to the fascicles may be the predominant factor that determines the risk for neurologic complications. However, it is wellestablished that concentration of local anesthetic is also associated with the risk for injury. In this study, we examined the effect of location of injection and concentration of Ropivacaine on risk for neurologic complications. Our hypothesis is that location of the injection is more prognostic for occurrence of nerve injury than the concentration of Ropivacaine.Methods: In experimental design of the study fi fty Wistar rats were used and sciatic nerves were randomized to receive: Ropivacaine or 0.9% NaCl, either intraneurally or perineurally. Pressure data during application was acquired by using a manometer and was analyzed using software package BioBench. Neurologic examination was performed thought the following seven days, there after the rats were sacrificed while sciatic nerves were extracted for histological examination.Results: Independently of tested solution intraneural injections in most of cases resulted with high injection pressure, followed by obvious neurologic defi cit and microscopic destruction of peripheral nerves. Also, low injection pressure, applied either in perineural or intraneural extrafascicular area, resulted with transitory neurologic defi cit and without destruction of the nerve normal histological structure.Conclusions: The main mechanism which leads to neurologic injury combined with peripheral nerve blockade is intrafascicular injection. Higher concentrations of Ropivacaine during intrafascicular applications magnify nerve injury.

  12. Vascularized peripheral nerve trunk autografted in the spinal cord: a new experimental model in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of vascularized peripheral nerve trunk autografted in spinal cord. Methods: With modern microsurgical technique,vascularized peripheral median and ulnar nerve trunk autografted in the upper thoracic region of the spinal cord were established in 20 female adult rats. The origin and the termination of axons in the graft were studied by retrograde neuronal labeling with horseradish peroxidase (HRP).Cord, nerve grafts and some normal median and ulnar nerves in the right upper limb were removed and sectioned for Bielschowsky's silver stain and haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain. Light and electron microscopic examination and electrophysiological examination were applied.Results: The grafts were innervated by many new fibers. Studies with HRP indicated that new axons in graft were originated from intrinsic central nervous system (CNS) neurons with their cell bodies from brain stem to sacral segments of spinal cord. Other axons arose from dorsal root ganglia at the level of graft and at least 19 distal segments to them. Together with electron microscopy, electrophysiological examination, silver and H&E stain, the results demonstrated that vascularized peripheral nerve trunk grafted in spinal cord attracted many neurons to grow into the nerve grafts.Conclusions: The findings implicate that CNS is able to regenerate much better in vascularized nerve autografted in spinal cord.

  13. Immune system augmentation by glatiramer acetate of peripheral nerve regeneration-crush versus transection models of rat sciatic nerve.

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    Luria, Shai; Cohen, Avraham; Safran, Ori; Firman, Shimon; Liebergall, Meir

    2013-10-01

    Immune system augmentation, using the antigen glatiramer acetate (GA), which is known to affect cellular immunity, has been shown to have a positive effect on peripheral nerve regeneration. We aimed to compare the effect of GA on the regeneration of crushed versus transected nerves. Wild-type rats underwent crush or transection and repair of the sciatic nerve. They were examined 3 weeks postinjury histologically (axon count) and functionally (tibialis anterior muscle weight and footprint analysis). GA was found to augment regeneration both histologically and functionally. In the transected nerve, a significant increase in axon count distal to the injury site was seen in the GA group versus control. A similar yet statistically insignificant trend was found in the crushed nerve. Improvement was found in the footprint analysis between the GA and control groups in both crush and transected nerve groups. We found improvement in the footprint analysis in the crush versus transection group. GA was found to improve the regeneration of the peripheral nerve. Histologically, this was more pronounced in the transection injury. The discrepancy between the different functional measures examined may be explained by the distance of the reinnervated muscles evaluated from the injury site. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Carvedilol prevents functional deficits in peripheral nerve mitochondria of rats with oxaliplatin-evoked painful peripheral neuropathy.

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    Areti, Aparna; Komirishetty, Prashanth; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2017-03-09

    Oxaliplatin use as chemotherapeutic agent is frequently limited by cumulative neurotoxicity which may compromise quality of life. Reports relate this neurotoxic effect to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in peripheral nerves and dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Carvedilol is an antihypertensive drug, has also been appreciated for its antioxidant and mitoprotective properties. Carvedilol co-treatment did not reduce the anti-tumor effects of oxaliplatin in human colon cancer cells (HT-29), but exhibited free radical scavenging activity against oxaliplatin-induced oxidative stress in neuronal cells (Neuro-2a). Hence, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of carvedilol in the experimental model of oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (OIPN) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Oxaliplatin reduced the sensory nerve conduction velocity and produced the thermal and mechanical nociception. Carvedilol significantly (Pmitochondrial superoxide dismutase expression in both sciatic nerve and DRG tissues. It improved the mitochondrial function and prevented the oxaliplatin-induced alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential in sciatic nerve thus prevented loss of intra epidermal nerve fiber density in the foot pads. Together the results prompt the use of carvedilol along with chemotherapy with oxaliplatin to prevent the peripheral neuropathy.

  15. Schwann cells originating from skin-derived precursors promote peripheral nerve regeneration in rats

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    Ping Zhang; Xiaocheng Lu; Jianghai Chen; Zhenbing Chen

    2014-01-01

    Artiifcial guidance channels containing Schwann cells can promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerve over long distances. However, primary Schwann cells are not suitable for autotransplantation. Under speciifc conditions, skin-derived progenitors can be induced to dif-ferentiate into Schwann cells. Therefore, adult rat dorsal skin (dermis)-derived progenitors were isolated and induced to differentiate with DMEM/F12 containing B27, neuregulin 1, and for-skolin. Immunolfuorescence staining and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) conifrmed that the resultant cells were indeed Schwann cells. Artiifcial guidance channels containing skin-derived progenitors, Schwann cells originating from skin-derived progenitors, or primary Schwann cells were used to bridge 5 mm sciatic nerve defects. Schwann cells originating from skin-derived progenitors signiifcantly promoted sciatic nerve axonal regeneration. The sig-niifcant recovery of injured rat sciatic nerve function after the transplantation of Schwann cells originating from skin-derived progenitors was conifrmed by electromyogram. The therapeutic effect of Schwann cells originating from skin-derived progenitors was better than that of skin-de-rived progenitors. These findings indicate that Schwann cells originating from skin-derived precursors can promote peripheral nerve regeneration in rats.

  16. Effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor on peripheral nerve regeneration in adult rat

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    CHEN Zhe-yu; LI Jian-hong; ZHENG Xing-dong; LU Chang-lin; HE Cheng

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic (GDNF) on adult peripheral nerve regeneration. Methods: Transectioned sciatic nerve in adult rats was sutured into silicone channel. GDNF or SAL solution was injected into the silicone channels during operation. Four weeks later, the effect of GDNF on axonal regeneration was evaluated by degenerative neurofiber staining and HRP retrograde tracing. Results: Compared with SAL group, the percentage of degenerative neurofiber areas decreased from 17.3% to 1.9% ( P<0.01 ) and the ratio of labeled spinal somas number was significantly increased from 43.5% to 68.3% ( P<0.01 ) in GDNF group. Conclusion: The results suggest that exogenous GDNF can obviously enhance adult peripheral nerve regeneration.

  17. Pre-differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells in combination with a microstructured nerve guide supports peripheral nerve regeneration in the rat sciatic nerve model.

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    Boecker, Arne Hendrik; van Neerven, Sabien Geraldine Antonia; Scheffel, Juliane; Tank, Julian; Altinova, Haktan; Seidensticker, Katrin; Deumens, Ronald; Tolba, Rene; Weis, Joachim; Brook, Gary Anthony; Pallua, Norbert; Bozkurt, Ahmet

    2016-02-01

    Many bioartificial nerve guides have been investigated pre-clinically for their nerve regeneration-supporting function, often in comparison to autologous nerve transplantation, which is still regarded as the current clinical gold standard. Enrichment of these scaffolds with cells intended to support axonal regeneration has been explored as a strategy to boost axonal regeneration across these nerve guides Ansselin et al. (1998). In the present study, 20 mm rat sciatic nerve defects were implanted with a cell-seeded microstructured collagen nerve guide (Perimaix) or an autologous nerve graft. Under the influence of seeded, pre-differentiated mesenchymal stromal cells, axons regenerated well into the Perimaix nerve guide. Myelination-related parameters, like myelin sheath thickness, benefitted from an additional seeding with pre-differentiated mesenchymal stromal cells. Furthermore, both the number of retrogradely labelled sensory neurons and the axon density within the implant were elevated in the cell-seeded scaffold group with pre-differentiated mesenchymal stromal cells. However, a pre-differentiation had no influence on functional recovery. An additional cell seeding of the Perimaix nerve guide with mesenchymal stromal cells led to an extent of functional recovery, independent of the differentiation status, similar to autologous nerve transplantation. These findings encourage further investigations on pre-differentiated mesenchymal stromal cells as a cellular support for peripheral nerve regeneration. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Functional deficits in peripheral nerve mitochondria in rats with paclitaxel- and oxaliplatin-evoked painful peripheral neuropathy.

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    Zheng, Huaien; Xiao, Wen Hua; Bennett, Gary J

    2011-12-01

    Cancer chemotherapeutics like paclitaxel and oxaliplatin produce a dose-limiting chronic sensory peripheral neuropathy that is often accompanied by neuropathic pain. The cause of the neuropathy and pain is unknown. In animal models, paclitaxel-evoked and oxaliplatin-evoked painful peripheral neuropathies are accompanied by an increase in the incidence of swollen and vacuolated mitochondria in peripheral nerve axons. It has been proposed that mitochondrial swelling and vacuolation are indicative of a functional impairment and that this results in a chronic axonal energy deficiency that is the cause of the neuropathy's symptoms. However, the significance of mitochondrial swelling and vacuolation is ambiguous and a test of the hypothesis requires a direct assessment of the effects of chemotherapy on mitochondrial function. The results of such an assessment are reported here. Mitochondrial respiration and ATP production were measured in rat sciatic nerve samples taken 1-2 days after and 3-4 weeks after induction of painful peripheral neuropathy with paclitaxel and oxaliplatin. Significant deficits in Complex I-mediated and Complex II-mediated respiration and significant deficits in ATP production were found for both drugs at both time points. In addition, prophylactic treatment with acetyl-l-carnitine, which inhibited the development of paclitaxel-evoked and oxaliplatin-evoked neuropathy, prevented the deficits in mitochondrial function. These results implicate mitotoxicity as a possible cause of chemotherapy-evoked chronic sensory peripheral neuropathy.

  19. Distribution of elements and water in peripheral nerve of streptozocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Lowery, J.M.; Eichberg, J.; Saubermann, A.J.; LoPachin, R.M. Jr. (Univ. of Houston, TX (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in Na, Ca, K, and other biologically relevant elements play a role in the mechanism of cell injury. The pathogenesis of experimental diabetic neuropathy is unknown but might include changes in the distribution of these elements in morphological compartments. In this study, this possibility was examined via electron-probe X-ray microanalysis to measure both concentrations of elements (millimoles of element per kilogram dry or wet weight) and cell water content (percent water) in frozen, unfixed, unstained sections of peripheral nerve from control and streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Our results indicate that after 20 wk of experimental diabetes, mitochondria and axoplasm from myelinated axons of proximal sciatic nerve displayed diminished K and Cl content, whereas in tibial nerve, the intraaxonal levels of these elements increased. In distal sciatic nerve, mitochondrial and axoplasmic levels of Ca were increased, whereas other elemental alterations were not observed. These regional changes resulted in a reversal of the decreasing proximodistal concentration gradients for K and Cl, which exist in nondiabetic rat sciatic nerve. Our results cannot be explained on the basis of altered water. Highly distinctive changes in elemental distribution observed might be a critical component of the neurotoxic mechanism underlying diabetic neuropathy.

  20. Local effect of celecoxib on peripheral nerve repair combined with silicone tubulization in rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rahim Mohammadi; Keyvan Amini; Alireza Yousefi; Mehdi Abdollahi-Pirbazari

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To assess local effect of celecoxib on nerve regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve transection model.Methods:Forty-five male healthy white Wistar rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n=15 for each):sham-operation (SHAM),control (SIL) and celecoxib treated (SIL/CLX) groups.In SHAM group after anesthesia left sciatic nerve was exposed and after homeostasis muscle was sutured.In SIL group the left sciatic nerve was exposed in the same way and transected proximal to tibioperoneal bifurcation leaving a 10 mm gap.Proximal and distal stumps were each inserted into a silicone tube and filled with 10 μl phosphate buffered solution.In SIL/CLX group defect was bridged using a silicone tube filled with 10 μl celecoxib (0.1 g/L).Results:Functional study and gastrocnemius muscle mass confirmed faster and better recovery of regenerated axons in SIL/CLX than in SIL group (P<0.05).Morphometric indices of regenerated fibers showed number and diameter of the myelinated fibers in SIL/CLX were significantly greater than those in control group.In immunohistochemistry,location of reactions to S-100 in SIL/CLX was clearly more positive than that in SIL group.Conclusion:Response to local treatment ofcelecoxib demonstrates that it influences and improves functional recovery of peripheral nerve regeneration.

  1. Investigation of the effect of telmisartan on experimentally induced peripheral nerve injury in rats.

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    Yuksel, Tugba Nurcan; Halici, Zekai; Demir, Recep; Cakir, Murteza; Calikoglu, Cagatay; Ozdemir, Gokhan; Unal, Deniz

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of telmisartan on nerve healing in a rat peripheral nerve injury model. Thirty adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups: healthy, axonotmesis, anastomosis, axonotmesis+10 mg/kg telmisartan and anastomosis+10 mg/kg telmisartan. Walking track analyses were performed 4 weeks after the surgery. The right sciatic nerves of all the animals were examined histopathologically, stereologically and molecularly. Many badly damaged axons were detected in the axonotmesis group, in addition to enlarged spaces between the axons. In the anastomosis group, both ir- regular and degenerated axons at different severities were observed. The sections of the telmisartan group after the axonotmesis were similar to those of the healthy group. The sections of the telmisartan group after the anastomosis were similar to those of the healthy group and the telmisartan group after the axonotmesis. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) gene expression increased in both the axonotmesis and the anastomosis groups when compared with the healthy group. Telmisartan had a significant down-regulatory effect on IL-1β expression. Caspase-3 mRNA expression was significantly increased in the anastomosis group, and the administration of telmisartan in this group significantly decreased this rise in caspase-3 mRNA expression. As a functional outcome, telmisartan also increased the walking distance of the rats after axonotmesis and anastomosis. The histopathological, stereological, functional and molecular data suggest that telmisartan improves nerve regeneration in peripheral nerve injuries by inhibiting inflammatory cytokine IL-1β and apoptotic caspase-3.

  2. Adjacent regenerative peripheral nerve interfaces produce phase-antagonist signals during voluntary walking in rats.

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    Ursu, Daniel; Nedic, Andrej; Urbanchek, Melanie; Cederna, Paul; Gillespie, R Brent

    2017-04-24

    Regenerative Peripheral Nerve Interfaces (RPNIs) are neurotized muscle grafts intended to produce electromyographic signals suitable for motorized prosthesis control. Two RPNIs producing independent agonist/antagonist signals are required for each control axis; however, it is unknown whether signals from adjacent RPNIs are independent. The purpose of this work was to determine signaling characteristics from two adjacent RPNIs, the first neurotized by a foot dorsi-flexor nerve and the second neurotized by a foot plantar-flexor nerve in a rodent model. Two Control group rats had electrodes implanted onto the soleus (tibial nerve) and extensor digitorum longus (peroneal nerve) muscles in the left hind limb. Two Dual-RPNI group rats had two separate muscles grafted to the left thigh and each implanted with electrodes: the extensor digitorum longus was neurotized with a transected fascicle from the tibial nerve, and the tibialis anterior was implanted with a transected peroneal nerve. Four months post-surgery, rats walked on a treadmill, were videographed, and electromyographic signals were recorded. Amplitude and periodicity of all signals relative to gait period were quantified. To facilitate comparisons across groups, electromyographic signals were expressed as a percent of total stepping cycle activity for each stance and swing gait phase. Independence between peroneal and tibial nerve activations were assessed by statistical comparisons between groups during stance and swing. Electromyographic activity for Control and Dual-RPNI rats displayed alternating activation patterns coinciding with stance and swing. Significant signal amplitude differences between the peroneal and tibial nerves were found in both the Control and Dual-RPNI groups. Non-inferiority tests performed on Dual-RPNI group signal confidence intervals showed that activation was equivalent to the Control group in all but the peroneal RPNI construct during stance. The similar electromyographic activity

  3. Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts on peripheral nerves in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats.

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    Cui, Xiao-pei; Li, Bao-ying; Gao, Hai-qing; Wei, Na; Wang, Wei-ling; Lu, Mei

    2008-08-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common diabetic chronic complications. The aim of this study was to clarify whether grape seed proanthocyanidins extracts (GSPE) are therapeutic agents against DPN. In this study, we used streptozocin (STZ) to induce diabetic rats. GSPEs (250 mg/kg body weight/d) were administrated to diabetic rats for 24 wk. Motor nerve conductive velocity (MNCV) and mechanical hyperalgesia were determined in the rats. Serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined. Light and electron microscopy were used to observe the changes of nerval ultrastructure.GSPE significantly increased the MNCV, mechanical hyperalgesia and SOD of diabetic rats (pnerval damage. This study may provide a new recognition of natural medicine for the treatment of DPN.

  4. An experimental study of retrograde axonal plasmatic flow in the peripheral nerves of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguinetti, C; Tranquilli Leali, P; Grispigni, C

    1986-12-01

    Retrograde axonal flow (R.A.F.) in the sciatic nerve of Sprague Dowley rats was studied by injecting horseradish peroxidase (H.R.P.) peripherally and identifying its appearance in the related segment of the spinal cord. This called for a precise identification of the vertebro-medullary topography, the afferant root levels of the sciatic nerve, and the transport velocity of the H.R.P. Our study revealed a clear difference of neuromuscular end plate permeability as between new-born and adult animals. The vertebral column of the rat consists of 8 cervical metameres, 13 dorsal, 6 lumbar, 4 sacral, and 3 coccygeal. The sciatic nerve is derived principally from the roots L4, L5, L6 and in part from L3 and S1. The injection of H.R.P. in the sural triceps of the new-born rat produced granules in the anterior horn cells as early as 12 hours later. In similar experiments with adult rats H.R.P. in the motorneurons was never detected. In our experimental model the transport velocity of H.R.P. from the point of injection to the anterior horn cells was approximately 68 mm per day. These findings provide a foundation on which to base future studies of retrograde flows in conditions of induced pathology.

  5. Assessing Autophagy in Sciatic Nerves of a Rat Model that Develops Inflammatory Autoimmune Peripheral Neuropathies

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    Susana Brun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The rat sciatic nerve has attracted widespread attention as an excellent model system for studying autophagy alterations in peripheral neuropathies. In our laboratory, we have developed an original rat model, which we used currently in routine novel drug screening and to evaluate treatment strategies for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP and other closely related diseases. Lewis rats injected with the S-palmitoylated P0(180-199 peptide develop a chronic, sometimes relapsing-remitting type of disease. Our model fulfills electrophysiological criteria of demyelination with axonal degeneration, confirmed by immunohistopathology and several typical features of CIDP. We have set up a series of techniques that led us to examine the failures of autophagy pathways in the sciatic nerve of these model rats and to follow the possible improvement of these defects after treatment. Based on these newly introduced methods, a novel area of investigation is now open and will allow us to more thoroughly examine important features of certain autophagy pathways occurring in sciatic nerves.

  6. Peripheral nerve injury causes transient expression of MHC class I antigens in rat motor neurons and skeletal muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maehlen, J; Nennesmo, I; Olsson, A B

    1989-01-01

    After a peripheral nerve lesion (rat facial and sciatic) an induction of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens class I was detected immunohistochemically in skeletal muscle fibers and motor neurons. This MHC expression was transient after a nerve crush, when regeneration occurred......, but persisted after a nerve cut, when regeneration was prevented. Since the time course of MHC class I expression correlates to that of regeneration a role for this cell surface molecule in regeneration may be considered....

  7. PGC-1α Mediated Peripheral Nerve Protection of Tongxinluo in STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Xiaopei Cui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the effect of Tongxinluo (Txl, a Chinese herbal compound, on diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN. Methods and Results. Diabetic rat model was established by peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ. Txl ultrafine powder treatment for 16 weeks from the baseline significantly reversed the impairment of motor nerve conductive velocity (MNCV, mechanical hyperalgesia, and nerve structure. We further proved that Tongxinluo upregulates PGC-1α and its downstream factors including COX IV and SOD, which were involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. Conclusion. Our study indicates that the protective effect of Txl in diabetic neuropathy may be attributed to the induction of PGC-1α and its downstream targets. This finding may further illustrate the pleiotropic effect of the medicine.

  8. Effect of nerve growth factor on changes of myelin basic protein and functional repair of peripheral nerve following sciatic nerve injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵阳; 马海涵; 伍亚民; 陈恒胜; 曾琳; 李民; 龙在云; 李应玉; 杨恒文

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of nerve growth factor ( NGF ) on changes of myelin basic protein (MBP) and functional repair of sensory and motor nerve following sciatic nerve injury. Methods: The sciatic nerves of rats were injured by sectioning with shaver, and divided into 3 groups: NGF group ( Group A ), group of normal saline solution ( Group B), untreated group (Group C). The time point of observation was at the 4th week after operation. Sensory evoked potential (SEP) and motor evoked potential (MEP) were detected by Model WD-4000 nerve potential working diagnosis system. Immunohistochemical analysis was used for identification of MBP. Results: The latency of SEP in the Group A at the 4th week after operation was shorter than that in the Group B ( P < 0.05). The MEP was elicited in 76 % of the Group A and was higher than that in the Group B. Results of immunohistochemistry showed that there were less MBP-positive cells in the Group A than in the Group B in one and four weeks respectively. Conclusions: NGF can improve the conductive function of injured peripheral nerve and facilitate regeneration of nerve.

  9. Survival and migration of Schwann cells after the vascularized peripheral nerve grafted into spinal cord in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Qing-shan; WANG Ai-min; WANG Xiao-jun; SUN Hong-zhen; DU Quan-yin

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To study the survival and ability of inducing axonal regeneration of the Schwann cells after the peripheral nerve being grafted into spinal cord. Methods:A total of 30 adult female Wistar rats were randomly divided into the VN (vascularized peripheral nerve) and PN (peripheral nerve) groups. A 5-mm spinal cord defect of the left posterior column was made at the T1-3 vertebral level. The defect was grafted with the vascularized or isolated peripheral nerve respectively. The survival and proliferation of the Schwann cells were assessed by histological and morphometric analysis 8 weeks after the operation. Results:In the VN group, the peripheral nerve grew into the cord with lots of Schwann cells survived and proliferated, and had more NF and S-100 positive fibers than in the PN group. Conclusion:The vascularized peripheral nerve enhances the survival and proliferation of the Schwann cells and prompts the regeneration of injured axon of the central nerve system to certain degree.

  10. Effects of Extracellular ATP and Its Receptors on Peripheral Nerve Regeneration in SD Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王栓科; 张致英; 洪光祥; 王同光; 王发斌; 康皓

    2003-01-01

    To explore the effect of the extracellular ATP and its receptors on axon regeneration in the sciatic nerve defect in rats, 0. 5 cm defect of the sciatic nerve was made and repaired with long arm silicon tube like a "Y" type. The single arm of the silicon tube was sutured to proximal of the sciatic nerve. 10μl 1 mmol/L ATP in physiological saline was injected into the left chamber of the silicon tube (experimental group) and physiological saline injected into another silicon tube as a control group. In another model 1 mmol/L 10 μl ATP and 1 mmol/L 10μl ATP+0.2 mg/ml suramin were injected respectively into two arms of the silicon tube. After 4 and 8 weeks the specimens were obtained from the silicon tube for examining the axon regeneration histologically and image analysis. All the regeneration axons grew into the silicon tube containing the ATP, but there was no axon regeneration in the silicon tube containing the ATP+Suramin or physiological saline. It was demonstrated that extracellular ATP had a powerful attraction to the regenerated axon of peripheral nerve. The suramin inhibited the axon induction of the extracellular ATP completely via the ATP receptors.

  11. [Morphological changes of peripheral nerve rats under chronic micromercurialism and its pharmacological correction in different terms after injury

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    Shamalо S.N.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Search for new pharmacological agents that activate processes of traumatized nerve regeneration at the condition of mercurial intoxication remains urgent. Objective. The aim of this study was a comparative morphometric analysis of rat peripheral nerve under micromercurialism using antioxidant drug without pharmacotherapy. Methods. Experimental model of sciatic nerve trauma under conditions of chronic micromercurialism was investigated in experiments on two groups of white rats. Micromercurialism was modeled by intraperitoneal injection of mercuric chloride during 10 weeks before sciatic nerve trauma. The rats of the first group received no pharmacological drugs in postoperative period. The second group of animals received 100 μg/kg solution of Thiotriazolinum intraperitoneally daily during 2 weeks after operation. The morphological organization and morphometric data of regenerative neuroma and adjoining parts (proximal and distal of sciatic nerve were studied in 6 and 12 weeks after damage using morphometric and statistic methods. Results. Basing on the results of the second group of animals the average angle of axon deviation from the axis of the nerve in the neuroma sufficiently decreases and distribution density of neuron fibers in distal part increases comparing with the first group. Conclusion. Taken together these data evidence that Thiotriazolinum improves the process of traumatized nerve regeneration. Citation: Shamalо SN. [Morphological changes of peripheral nerve rats under chronic micromercurialism and its pharmacological correction in different terms after injury]. Morphologia. 2015;9(3:95-8. Ukrainian.

  12. [Peripheral facial nerve palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Y; Ukkola-Pons, E; Ballivet de Régloix, S; Champagne, C; Raynal, M; Lepage, P; Kossowski, M

    2013-06-01

    Facial palsy can be defined as a decrease in function of the facial nerve, the primary motor nerve of the facial muscles. When the facial palsy is peripheral, it affects both the superior and inferior areas of the face as opposed to central palsies, which affect only the inferior portion. The main cause of peripheral facial palsies is Bell's palsy, which remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The prognosis is good in most cases. In cases with significant cosmetic sequelae, a variety of surgical procedures are available (such as hypoglossal-facial anastomosis, temporalis myoplasty and Tenzel external canthopexy) to rehabilitate facial aesthetics and function.

  13. Large-area irradiated low-level laser effect in a biodegradable nerve guide conduit on neural regeneration of peripheral nerve injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chiung-Chyi; Yang, Yi-Chin; Liu, Bai-Shuan

    2011-08-01

    This study used a biodegradable composite containing genipin-cross-linked gelatin annexed with β-tricalcium phosphate ceramic particles (genipin-gelatin-tricalcium phosphate, GGT), developed in a previous study, as a nerve guide conduit. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of a large-area irradiated aluminium-gallium-indium phosphide (AlGaInP) diode laser (660 nm) on the neural regeneration of the transected sciatic nerve after bridging the GGT nerve guide conduit in rats. The animals were divided into two groups: group 1 comprised sham-irradiated controls and group 2 rats underwent low-level laser (LLL) therapy. A compact multi-cluster laser system with 20 AlGaInP laser diodes (output power, 50mW) was applied transcutaneously to the injured peripheral nerve immediately after closing the wound, which was repeated daily for 5 min for 21 consecutive days. Eight weeks after implantation, walking track analysis showed a significantly higher sciatic function index (SFI) score (Pregenerated nerve tissue in the laser-treated group were superior to those of the sham-irradiated group. Thus, the motor functional, electrophysiologic and histomorphometric assessments demonstrate that LLL therapy can accelerate neural repair of the corresponding transected peripheral nerve after bridging the GGT nerve guide conduit in rats.

  14. Peripheral nerve metabolism and zinc levels in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Effect of diets high in fish and corn oil

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    Burke, J.P.; Fenton, M.R. (Pennsylvania College of Podiatric Medicine, Philadelphia (United States))

    1991-03-15

    This study was designed to assess the effects of diets high in fish and corn oil on peripheral nerve metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. A type I diabetic state was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats by injection of STZ. Animals were divided into three dietary groups; normal rat chow, high corn oil diet and high fish oil diet. After 4 weeks animals were analyzed for nerve conduction velocity, bled and then sacrificed. Sciatic nerves were removed, processed and several biochemical parameters determined. Plasma zinc levels were elevated in the STZ normal chow group compared to non-diabetic controls. Both corn oil and fish oil diets tended to eliminate the rise in plasma zinc. Differences in subcellular distribution of zinc in sciatic nerves were also observed. Normal chow STZ animals displayed a 20% decrease in nerve conduction velocity compared to control. Dietary supplementation with either fish or corn oil seemed to ameliorate these effects. Biochemical analysis of Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase and protein kinase C revealed a decrease in activity in normal chow animals compared to control groups. Again, dietary intervention with either fish or corn oil seemed to return these activities back to normal. The results suggest a link between zinc metabolism and peripheral nerve metabolism which can be modified by dietary intervention.

  15. Raman microspectroscopy for visualization of peripheral nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamikawa, Takeo; Harada, Yoshinori; Koizumi, Noriaki; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2013-02-01

    The peripheral nervous system plays an important role in motility, sensory, and autonomic functions of the human body. Preservation of peripheral nerves in surgery is essential for improving quality of life of patients. To preserve peripheral nerves, detection of ne peripheral nerves that cannot be identi ed by human eye or under white light imaging is necessary. In this study, we sought to provide a proof-of-principle demonstration of a label-free detection technique of peripheral nerve tissues against adjacent tissues that employs spontaneous Raman microspectroscopy. A line-illumination confocal Raman microscope was used for the experiment. A laser operating at the wavelength of 532 nm was used as an excitation laser light. We obtained Raman spectra of peripheral nerve, brous connective tissue, skeletal muscle, blood vessel, and adipose tissue of Wistar rats, and extracted speci c spectral features of peripheral nerves and adjacent tissues. By applying multivariate image analysis, peripheral nerves were clearly detected against adjacent tissues without any preprocessing neither xation nor staining. These results suggest the potential of the Raman spectroscopic observation for noninvasive and label-free nerve detection, and we expect this method could be a key technique for nerve-sparing surgery.

  16. Regeneration of long-distance peripheral nerve defects after delayed reconstruction in healthy and diabetic rats is supported by immunomodulatory chitosan nerve guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Lena; Stößel, Maria; Ronchi, Giulia; Geuna, Stefano; Yin, Yaobin; Mommert, Susanne; Mårtensson, Lisa; Metzen, Jennifer; Grothe, Claudia; Dahlin, Lars B; Haastert-Talini, Kirsten

    2017-07-18

    Delayed reconstruction of transection or laceration injuries of peripheral nerves is inflicted by a reduced regeneration capacity. Diabetic conditions, more frequently encountered in clinical practice, are known to further impair regeneration in peripheral nerves. Chitosan nerve guides (CNGs) have recently been introduced as a new generation of medical devices for immediate peripheral nerve reconstruction. Here, CNGs were used for 45 days delayed reconstruction of critical length 15 mm rat sciatic nerve defects in either healthy Wistar rats or diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats; the latter resembling type 2 diabetes. In short and long-term investigations, we comprehensively analyzed the performance of one-chambered hollow CNGs (hCNGs) and two-chambered CNGs (CFeCNGs) in which a chitosan film has been longitudinally introduced. Additionally, we investigated in vitro the immunomodulatory effect provided by the chitosan film. Both types of nerve guides, i.e. hCNGs and CFeCNGs, enabled moderate morphological and functional nerve regeneration after reconstruction that was delayed for 45 days. These positive findings were detectable in generally healthy as well as in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats (for the latter only in short-term studies). The regenerative outcome did not reach the degree as recently demonstrated after immediate reconstruction using hCNGs and CFeCNGs. CFeCNG-treatment, however, enabled tissue regrowth in all animals (hCNGs: only in 80% of animals). CFeCNGs did further support with an increased vascularization of the regenerated tissue and an enhanced regrowth of motor axons. One mechanism by which the CFeCNGs potentially support successful regeneration is an immunomodulatory effect induced by the chitosan film itself. Our in vitro results suggest that the pro-regenerative effect of chitosan is related to the differentiation of chitosan-adherent monocytes into pro-healing M2 macrophages. No considerable differences appear for the delayed nerve regeneration

  17. Electrical stimulation at distinct peripheral sites in spinal nerve injured rats leads to different afferent activation profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Chung, Chih-Yang; Wacnik, Paul W; Carteret, Alene F; McKelvy, Alvin D; Meyer, Richard A; Raja, Srinivasa N; Guan, Yun

    2011-11-07

    The neurophysiological basis by which neuromodulatory techniques lead to relief of neuropathic pain remains unclear. We investigated whether electrical stimulation at different peripheral sites induces unique profiles of A-fiber afferent activation in nerve-injured rats. At 4-6weeks after subjecting rats to L5 spinal nerve injury (SNL) or sham operation, we recorded the orthodromic compound action potential (AP) at the ipsilateral L4 dorsal root in response to (1) transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS, a patch electrode placed on the dorsum of the foot), (2) subcutaneous electrical stimulation (SQS, electrode inserted subcutaneously along the dorsum of the foot), (3) peroneal nerve stimulation (PNS, electrode placed longitudinally abutting the nerve), and (4) sciatic nerve stimulation (SNS). The area under the Aα/β compound AP was measured as a function of the bipolar, constant-current stimulus intensity (0.02-6.0 mA, 0.2 ms). In both nerve-injured and sham-operated groups, the stimulus-response (S-R) functions of the Aα/β compound APs differed substantially with the stimulation site; SNS having the lowest threshold and largest compound AP waveform, followed by PNS, SQS, and TENS. The S-R function to PNS was shifted to the right in the SNL group, compared to that in the sham-operated group. The Aα/β-threshold to PNS was higher in the SNL group than in the sham-operated group. The S-R functions and Aα/β-thresholds to TENS and SQS were comparable between the two groups. Electrical stimulation of different peripheral targets induced distinctive profiles of A-fiber afferent activation, suggesting that the neuronal substrates for the various forms of peripheral neuromodulatory therapies may differ. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Progress of peripheral nerve repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峥嵘

    2002-01-01

    Study on repair of peripheral nerve injury has been proceeding over a long period of time. With the use of microsurgery technique since 1960s,the quality of nerve repair has been greatly improved. In the past 40 years, with the continuous increase of surgical repair methods, more progress has been made on the basic research of peripheral nerve repair.

  19. Progesterone and peripheral nerve regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Fan; Haichao Li; Yuwei Wang; Yanglin Zheng; Lianjun Jia; Zhihui Wang

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of progesterone on peripheral nerve regeneration.DATA SOURCES: An online search of Medline and OVID databases was under taken to identify articles about progesterone and peripheral nerve regeneration published in English between January 1990 and June 2004 by using the keywords of "peripheral nerve, injury, progesterone, regeneration".STUDY SELECTION: The data were primarily screened, those correlated with progesterone and peripheral nerve regeneration were involved, and their original articles were further searched, the repetitive studies or reviews were excluded.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally 59 articles about progesterone and peripheral nerve regeneration were collected, and 26 of them were involved, the other 33 excluded ones were the repetitive studies or reviews.DATA SYNTHESIS: Recent researches found that certain amount of progesterone could be synthetized in peripheral nervous system, and the expression of progesterone receptor could be found in sensory neurons and Schwann cells. After combined with the receptor, endogenous and exogenous progesterone can accelerate the formation of peripheral nerve myelin sheath, also promote the axonal regeneration.CONCLUSION: Progesterone plays a role in protecting neurons, increasing the sensitivity of nerve tissue to nerve growth factor, and accelerating regeneration of nerve in peripheral nerve regeneration, which provides theoretical references for the treatment of demyelinated disease and nerve injury, as well as the prevention of neuroma, especially that the in vivo level of progesterone should be considered for the elderly people accompanied by neuropathy and patients with congenital luteal phase defect, which is of positive significance in guiding the treatment.

  20. The efficacy of a scaffold-free Bio 3D conduit developed from human fibroblasts on peripheral nerve regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurie, Hirofumi; Ikeguchi, Ryosuke; Aoyama, Tomoki; Kaizawa, Yukitoshi; Tajino, Junichi; Ito, Akira; Ohta, Souichi; Oda, Hiroki; Takeuchi, Hisataka; Akieda, Shizuka; Tsuji, Manami; Nakayama, Koichi; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2017-01-01

    Background Although autologous nerve grafting is the gold standard treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, several alternative methods have been developed, including nerve conduits that use supportive cells. However, the seeding efficacy and viability of supportive cells injected in nerve grafts remain unclear. Here, we focused on a novel completely biological, tissue-engineered, scaffold-free conduit. Methods We developed six scaffold-free conduits from human normal dermal fibroblasts using a Bio 3D Printer. Twelve adult male rats with immune deficiency underwent mid-thigh-level transection of the right sciatic nerve. The resulting 5-mm nerve gap was bridged using 8-mm Bio 3D conduits (Bio 3D group, n = 6) and silicone tube (silicone group, n = 6). Several assessments were conducted to examine nerve regeneration eight weeks post-surgery. Results Kinematic analysis revealed that the toe angle to the metatarsal bone at the final segment of the swing phase was significantly higher in the Bio 3D group than the silicone group (-35.78 ± 10.68 versus -62.48 ± 6.15, respectively; p < 0.01). Electrophysiological studies revealed significantly higher compound muscle action potential in the Bio 3D group than the silicone group (53.60 ± 26.36% versus 2.93 ± 1.84%; p < 0.01). Histological and morphological studies revealed neural cell expression in all regions of the regenerated nerves and the presence of many well-myelinated axons in the Bio 3D group. The wet muscle weight of the tibialis anterior muscle was significantly higher in the Bio 3D group than the silicone group (0.544 ± 0.063 versus 0.396 ± 0.031, respectively; p < 0.01). Conclusions We confirmed that scaffold-free Bio 3D conduits composed entirely of fibroblast cells promote nerve regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve model. PMID:28192527

  1. Hypertension-induced peripheral neuropathy and the combined effects of hypertension and diabetes on nerve structure and function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Joshua A; Jolivalt, Corinne G; Goor, Jared; Mizisin, Andrew P; Calcutt, Nigel A

    2012-10-01

    Diabetic neuropathy includes damage to neurons, Schwann cells and blood vessels. Rodent models of diabetes do not adequately replicate all pathological features of diabetic neuropathy, particularly Schwann cell damage. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that combining hypertension, a risk factor for neuropathy in diabetic patients, with insulin-deficient diabetes produces a more pertinent model of peripheral neuropathy. Behavioral, physiological and structural indices of neuropathy were measured for up to 6 months in spontaneously hypertensive and age-matched normotensive rats with or without concurrent streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Hypertensive rats developed nerve ischemia, thermal hyperalgesia, nerve conduction slowing and axonal atrophy. Thinly myelinated fibers with supernumerary Schwann cells indicative of cycles of demyelination and remyelination were also identified along with reduced nerve levels of myelin basic protein. Similar disorders were noted in streptozotocin-diabetic rats, except that thinly myelinated fibers were not observed and expression of myelin basic protein was normal. Superimposing diabetes on hypertension compounded disorders of nerve blood flow, conduction slowing and axonal atrophy and increased the incidence of thinly myelinated fibers. Rats with combined insulinopenia, hyperglycemia and hypertension provide a model for diabetic neuropathy that offers an opportunity to study mechanisms of Schwann cell pathology and suggests that hypertension may contribute to the etiology of diabetic neuropathy.

  2. The efficacy of a scaffold-free Bio 3D conduit developed from human fibroblasts on peripheral nerve regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurie, Hirofumi; Ikeguchi, Ryosuke; Aoyama, Tomoki; Kaizawa, Yukitoshi; Tajino, Junichi; Ito, Akira; Ohta, Souichi; Oda, Hiroki; Takeuchi, Hisataka; Akieda, Shizuka; Tsuji, Manami; Nakayama, Koichi; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2017-01-01

    Although autologous nerve grafting is the gold standard treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, several alternative methods have been developed, including nerve conduits that use supportive cells. However, the seeding efficacy and viability of supportive cells injected in nerve grafts remain unclear. Here, we focused on a novel completely biological, tissue-engineered, scaffold-free conduit. We developed six scaffold-free conduits from human normal dermal fibroblasts using a Bio 3D Printer. Twelve adult male rats with immune deficiency underwent mid-thigh-level transection of the right sciatic nerve. The resulting 5-mm nerve gap was bridged using 8-mm Bio 3D conduits (Bio 3D group, n = 6) and silicone tube (silicone group, n = 6). Several assessments were conducted to examine nerve regeneration eight weeks post-surgery. Kinematic analysis revealed that the toe angle to the metatarsal bone at the final segment of the swing phase was significantly higher in the Bio 3D group than the silicone group (-35.78 ± 10.68 versus -62.48 ± 6.15, respectively; p 3D group than the silicone group (53.60 ± 26.36% versus 2.93 ± 1.84%; p 3D group. The wet muscle weight of the tibialis anterior muscle was significantly higher in the Bio 3D group than the silicone group (0.544 ± 0.063 versus 0.396 ± 0.031, respectively; p 3D conduits composed entirely of fibroblast cells promote nerve regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve model.

  3. Engineered neural tissue with aligned, differentiated adipose-derived stem cells promotes peripheral nerve regeneration across a critical sized defect in rat sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Melanie; Golding, Jon P; Loughlin, Alison J; Kingham, Paul J; Phillips, James B

    2015-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells were isolated from rats and differentiated to a Schwann cell-like phenotype in vitro. The differentiated cells (dADSCs) underwent self-alignment in a tethered type-1 collagen gel, followed by stabilisation to generate engineered neural tissue (EngNT-dADSC). The pro-regenerative phenotype of dADSCs was enhanced by this process, and the columns of aligned dADSCs in the aligned collagen matrix supported and guided neurite extension in vitro. EngNT-dADSC sheets were rolled to form peripheral nerve repair constructs that were implanted within NeuraWrap conduits to bridge a 15 mm gap in rat sciatic nerve. After 8 weeks regeneration was assessed using immunofluorescence imaging and transmission electron microscopy and compared to empty conduit and nerve graft controls. The proportion of axons detected in the distal stump was 3.5 fold greater in constructs containing EngNT-dADSC than empty tube controls. Our novel combination of technologies that can organise autologous therapeutic cells within an artificial tissue construct provides a promising new cellular biomaterial for peripheral nerve repair.

  4. Effects of Valproic Acid on Axonal Regeneration and Recovery of Motor Function after Peripheral Nerve Injury in the Rat

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    Ting Rao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:   Valproic acid (VPA is used to be an effective anti-epileptic drug and mood stabilizer. It has recently been demonstrated that VPA could promote neurite outgrowth, activate the extracellular signal regulated kinase pathway, and increases bcl-2 and growth cone-associated protein 43 levels in spinal cord. In the present research we demonstrate the effect of VPA on peripheral nerve regeneration and recovery of motor function following sciatic nerve transaction in rats. Methods:   The rats in VPA group and control group were administered with valproic acid (300mg/kg and sodium chloride respectively after operation. Each animal was observed sciatic nerve index (SFI at 2-week intervals and studied electrophysiology at 4-week intervals for 12 weeks. Histological and morphometrical analyses were performed 12 weeks after operation. Using the digital image-analysis system, thickness of the myelin sheath was measured, and total numbers of regenerated axons were counted. Results:   There was a significant difference in SFI, electrophysiological index (motor-nerve conduct velocity, and morphometrical results (regenerated axon number and thickness of myelin sheath in nerve regeneration between the VPA group and controls (   P

  5. The impact of low-dose insulin on peripheral nerve insulin receptor signaling in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

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    Kazuhiro Sugimoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The precise mechanisms of the neuroprotective effects of insulin in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic animals remain unknown, but altered peripheral nerve insulin receptor signaling due to insulin deficiency might be one cause. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Diabetes was induced in 10-week-old, male Wistar rats by injecting them with STZ (45 mg/kg. They were assigned to one group that received half of an insulin implant (∼1 U/day; I-group, n = 11 or another that remained untreated (U-group, n = 10 for 6 weeks. The controls were age- and sex-matched, non-diabetic Wistar rats (C-group, n = 12. Low-dose insulin did not change haemoglobin A1c, which increased by 136% in the U-group compared with the C-group. Thermal hypoalgesia and mechanical hyperalgesia developed in the U-group, but not in the I-group. Sensory and motor nerve conduction velocities decreased in the U-group, whereas sensory nerve conduction velocity increased by 7% (p = 0.0351 in the I-group compared with the U-group. Western blots showed unaltered total insulin receptor (IR, but a 31% decrease and 3.1- and 4.0-fold increases in phosphorylated IR, p44, and p42 MAPK protein levels, respectively, in sciatic nerves from the U-group compared with the C-group. Phosphorylated p44/42 MAPK protein decreased to control levels in the I-group (p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Low-dose insulin deactivated p44/42 MAPK and ameliorated peripheral sensory nerve dysfunction in rats with STZ-induced diabetes. These findings support the notion that insulin deficiency per se introduces impaired insulin receptor signaling in type 1 diabetic neuropathy.

  6. Peripheral vagus nerve stimulation significantly affects lipid composition and protein secondary structure within dopamine-related brain regions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surowka, Artur Dawid; Krygowska-Wajs, Anna; Ziomber, Agata; Thor, Piotr; Chrobak, Adrian Andrzej; Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    Recent immunohistochemical studies point to the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve as the point of departure of initial changes which are related to the gradual pathological developments in the dopaminergic system. In the light of current investigations, it is likely that biochemical changes within the peripheral nervous system may influence the physiology of the dopaminergic system, suggesting a putative role for it in the development of neurodegenerative disorders. By using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy, coupled with statistical analysis, we examined the effect of chronic, unilateral electrical vagus nerve stimulation on changes in lipid composition and in protein secondary structure within dopamine-related brain structures in rats. It was found that the chronic vagal nerve stimulation strongly affects the chain length of fatty acids within the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, substantia nigra, striatum, dorsal motor nucleus of vagus and the motor cortex. In particular, the level of lipid unsaturation was found significantly increasing in the ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra and motor cortex as a result of vagal nerve stimulation. When it comes to changes in protein secondary structure, we could see that the mesolimbic, mesocortical and nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways are particularly affected by vagus nerve stimulation. This is due to the co-occurrence of statistically significant changes in the content of non-ordered structure components, alpha helices, beta sheets, and the total area of Amide I. Macromolecular changes caused by peripheral vagus nerve stimulation may highlight a potential connection between the gastrointestinal system and the central nervous system in rat during the development of neurodegenerative disorders.

  7. Long-lasting neonatal inflammation enhances pain responses to subsequent inflammation, but not peripheral nerve injury in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eun Jeong; Back, Seung Keun; Kim, Myung Ah; Li, Chengjin; Lee, Jaehee; Jeong, Keun Yeong; Na, Heung Sik

    2009-05-01

    The early postnatal period has been suggested to be the vulnerable time for structural and functional reorganization of sensory systems, and painful stimuli at this time may alter neuronal circuits, thereby leading to changes in an individual's response to pain later in life. In the present study, we examined whether inflammatory experience in the early life can affect pain responses to subsequent noxious insults later in life. The two groups of neonatal rats, treated with an inflammatory irritant and untreated, were subjected to inflammation and peripheral nerve injury in adulthood. Neonatal inflammation was induced by injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA, 25 microl) into the hindpaw or tail of newborn rat pups. Adult rats which had suffered from neonatal paw inflammation at P0 were subjected to re-injection of CFA into the paw neonatally exposed to CFA or L5 spinal nerve ligation. Paw thickness and histology of inflamed paw were examined to assess the neonatal inflammation. Adult animals whose tail had been subjected to CFA injection on P3 received tail-innervating nerve injury. The results showed that the neonatal CFA-treated rats suffered from chronic inflammation, confirmed by persistent increase of paw thickness and histological result of inflamed paw. These animals showed enhanced pain responses to re-inflammatory challenge by injection of CFA (200 microl) into the neonatally inflamed paw 8 weeks after birth compared with the neonatally untreated animals. However, neuropathic pain on the hindpaw and the tail which had been induced by peripheral nerve injury in the neonatal CFA-treated group were not different from those of the untreated group. The present data suggest that early neonatal long-lasting inflammation differentially affects pain responses later in life, depending on the types of subsequent noxious insults.

  8. Cytidine 5′-diphosphocholine administration prevents peripheral neuropathic pain after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emril, Dessy R; Wibowo, Samekto; Meliala, Lucas; Susilowati, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Background Cytidine 5′-diphosphocholine (citicoline) has been shown to have beneficial effects in central nervous system injury as well as in motoric functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. This study aimed to examine the effect of citicoline on prevention of neuropathic pain in a rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury. Methods Forty experimental rats were divided into four groups. In three groups, the right sciatic nerves were crushed in the mid-thigh region, and a gelatin sponge moistened with 0.4 or 0.8 mL of 100 µmol/L citicoline, or saline 0.4 mL in the control group, was applied. The fourth group of rats was sham-operated, ie the sciatic nerve was exposed with no crush. Functional assessments were performed 4 weeks after crush injury. von Frey filaments (100 g threshold) were used to assess neuropathic pain. In addition, the sciatic functional index and extensor postural thrust (EPT) tests were used to assess motoric function. Results The crush/citicoline 0.4 mL group had a lower percentage of pain (23.53%, n=17) compared with the crush/saline group (53.33%, n=15, Pciticoline 0.4 mL group also showed better motoric recovery, as seen in stronger EPT results (Pciticoline 0.8 mL group showed a higher percentage of pain (66.67%, n=18) and less EPT recovery. These results may be explained by more severe nerve injury due to compression with a larger administered volume. Conclusion In situ administration of 0.4 mL of 100 µmol/L citicoline prevents the occurrence of neuropathic pain and induces motoric recovery, evaluated by EPT test, 4 weeks after sciatic nerve injury. PMID:27284264

  9. Effect of crush lesion on radiolabelling of ganglioside in rat peripheral nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman-Harty, M.; Warner, J.K.; Mancini, M.E.; Pearl, D.K.; Yates, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Left sciatic nerves of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were crushed and allowed to recover for 0, 1, 2, 4, 7, or 14 days. At each of these times both L-5 dorsal root ganglia were injected with 100 microCi of (/sup 3/H)glucosamine. Two days later, dorsal root ganglia, lumbosacral trunks, and sciatic nerves were removed bilaterally. The amounts of radiolabelled ganglioside in crushed lumbosacral trunks were consistently higher than in the controls, with the largest difference occurring within 2 days from simultaneous crush and injection to killing (specimens labelled day 0). The largest difference in the amount of radiolabelled ganglioside between crushed and control sciatic nerve (4-9 days from crush to killing) occurred later than that of lumbosacral trunk, but no significant difference occurred within the first 3 days following crush. There was only a slightly higher radioactivity in gangliosides totalled from all three anatomical specimens of crushed than in control nerves. The neutral nonganglioside lipid and acid-precipitable fraction followed patterns of synthesis and accumulation similar to those of the gangliosides. These findings indicate that after nerve crush gangliosides, glucosamine-labelled neutral nonganglioside lipids, and glycoproteins accumulate close to the proximal end of the regenerating axon. This accumulation could serve as a reservoir to increase the ganglioside concentration in the growth cone membrane.

  10. Acellular Nerve Allografts in Peripheral Nerve Regeneration: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Amy M.; MacEwan, Matthew; Santosa, Katherine B.; Chenard, Kristofer E.; Ray, Wilson Z.; Hunter, Daniel A.; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Johnson, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Processed nerve allografts offer a promising alternative to nerve autografts in the surgical management of peripheral nerve injuries where short deficits exist. Methods Three established models of acellular nerve allograft (cold-preserved, detergent-processed, and AxoGen® -processed nerve allografts) were compared to nerve isografts and silicone nerve guidance conduits in a 14 mm rat sciatic nerve defect. Results All acellular nerve grafts were superior to silicone nerve conduits in support of nerve regeneration. Detergent-processed allografts were similar to isografts at 6 weeks post-operatively, while AxoGen®-processed and cold-preserved allografts supported significantly fewer regenerating nerve fibers. Measurement of muscle force confirmed that detergent-processed allografts promoted isograft-equivalent levels of motor recovery 16 weeks post-operatively. All acellular allografts promoted greater amounts of motor recovery compared to silicone conduits. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that differential processing for removal of cellular constituents in preparing acellular nerve allografts affects recovery in vivo. PMID:21660979

  11. Origins, actions and dynamic expression patterns of the neuropeptide VGF in rat peripheral and central sensory neurones following peripheral nerve injury

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    Costigan Michael

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of the neurotrophin regulated polypeptide, VGF, has been investigated in a rat spared injury model of neuropathic pain. This peptide has been shown to be associated with synaptic strengthening and learning in the hippocampus and while it is known that VGFmRNA is upregulated in dorsal root ganglia following peripheral nerve injury, the role of this VGF peptide in neuropathic pain has yet to be investigated. Results Prolonged upregulation of VGF mRNA and protein was observed in injured dorsal root ganglion neurons, central terminals and their target dorsal horn neurons. Intrathecal application of TLQP-62, the C-terminal active portion of VGF (5–50 nmol to naïve rats caused a long-lasting mechanical and cold behavioral allodynia. Direct actions of 50 nM TLQP-62 upon dorsal horn neuron excitability was demonstrated in whole cell patch recordings in spinal cord slices and in receptive field analysis in intact, anesthetized rats where significant actions of VGF were upon spontaneous activity and cold evoked responses. Conclusion VGF expression is therefore highly modulated in nociceptive pathways following peripheral nerve injury and can cause dorsal horn cell excitation and behavioral hypersensitivity in naïve animals. Together the results point to a novel and powerful role for VGF in neuropathic pain.

  12. Cytidine 5’-diphosphocholine administration prevents peripheral neuropathic pain after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emril DR

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dessy R Emril,1 Samekto Wibowo,2 Lucas Meliala,2 Rina Susilowati3 1Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, 2Department of Neurology, 3Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, IndonesiaBackground: Cytidine 5’-diphosphocholine (citicoline has been shown to have beneficial effects in central nervous system injury as well as in motoric functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. This study aimed to examine the effect of citicoline on prevention of neuropathic pain in a rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury.Methods: Forty experimental rats were divided into four groups. In three groups, the right sciatic nerves were crushed in the mid-thigh region, and a gelatin sponge moistened with 0.4 or 0.8 mL of 100 µmol/L citicoline, or saline 0.4 mL in the control group, was applied. The fourth group of rats was sham-operated, ie the sciatic nerve was exposed with no crush. Functional assessments were performed 4 weeks after crush injury. von Frey filaments (100 g threshold were used to assess neuropathic pain. In addition, the sciatic functional index and extensor postural thrust (EPT tests were used to assess motoric function.Results: The crush/citicoline 0.4 mL group had a lower percentage of pain (23.53%, n=17 compared with the crush/saline group (53.33%, n=15, P<0.005. The crush/citicoline 0.4 mL group also showed better motoric recovery, as seen in stronger EPT results (P<0.001. However, the sciatic functional index analysis did not show significant differences between groups (P=0.35. The crush/citicoline 0.8 mL group showed a higher percentage of pain (66.67%, n=18 and less EPT recovery. These results may be explained by more severe nerve injury due to compression with a larger administered volume.Conclusion: In situ administration of 0.4 mL of 100 μmol/L citicoline prevents the occurrence of neuropathic pain and induces motoric recovery

  13. Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Peripheral Nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Zarina S; Pisapia, Jared M; Ma, Tracy S; Zager, Eric L; Heuer, Gregory G; Khoury, Viviane

    2016-01-01

    There are a variety of imaging modalities for evaluation of peripheral nerves. Of these, ultrasonography (US) is often underused. There are several advantages of this imaging modality, including its cost-effectiveness, time-efficient assessment of long segments of peripheral nerves, ability to perform dynamic maneuvers, lack of contraindications, portability, and noninvasiveness. It can provide diagnostic information that cannot be obtained by electrophysiologic or, in some cases, magnetic resonance imaging studies. Ideally, the neurosurgeon can use US as a diagnostic adjunct in the preoperative assessment of a patient with traumatic, neoplastic, infective, or compressive nerve injury. Perhaps its most unique use is in intraoperative surgical planning. In this article, a brief description of normal US nerve anatomy is presented followed by a description of the US appearance of peripheral nerve disease caused by trauma, tumor, infection, and entrapment.

  14. The treatment of peripheral nerve injuries using irradiated allografts and temporary host immunosuppression (in a rat model)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterling, K.J.; Trumble, T.E. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Irradiation of allografts prior to transplantation and host immunosuppression with cyclosporin-A were studied separately and in combination as means of lessening the rejection of transplanted peripheral nerve tissue. Lewis and Brown Norway rats were used in the animal model, as they differ at both major and minor histocompatibility loci. Sciatic nerve grafts (2.5 cm) were used and the animals were followed for 16 weeks after nerve grafting. The outcome was studied by functional measurements (sensory testing, gait analysis, joint flexion contracture, and muscle weight), as well as by measurements of biochemical and histologic parameters (hydroxyproline concentration and axon counts, respectively). Sensory testing was not reliable because of crossover innervation by the saphenous nerve. Evaluation by standard gait-testing techniques was found to be unsatisfactory. However, the allografted animals receiving cyclosporin-A had significantly smaller flexion contractures, compared to the allografted animals without immunosuppression (17 degrees +/- 12 degrees vs. 44 degrees +/- 13 degrees and 51 degrees +/- 13 degrees, p less than 0.005). Allografted animals receiving short-term cyclosporin-A had contractures that were not significantly different from those seen in isografted control animals (17 degrees +/- 12 degrees vs. 22 degrees +/- 15 degrees, NS). Muscle hydroxyproline concentration analysis revealed a lower hydroxyproline concentration among the allografted groups that received irradiated allografts, compared to groups receiving nonirradiated allogeneic grafts. The studies of muscle hydroxyproline concentration and muscle weight both showed substantial reinnervation, even in allografted animals without pretreatment of the grafts or immunosuppression of the recipient animal.

  15. Local anesthetic effects of cocaethylene and isopropylcocaine on rat peripheral nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuno, Hajime A; Bradberry, Charles W; Everill, Brian; Agulian, Samuel K; Wilkes, Steven; Baldwin, Ronald M; Tamagnan, Gilles D; Kocsis, Jeffery D

    2004-01-23

    Cocaethylene is a naturally occurring cocaine derivative that has been used as a tool in both clinical studies of cocaine reward and as a potential model compound for agonist substitution therapy in cocaine dependence. It is equipotent to cocaine at inhibiting dopamine uptake in-vitro and in-vivo. Because it has been reported that local anesthetic properties may influence the reinforcing effects of dopamine uptake inhibitors, we investigated the local anesthetic properties of cocaethylene as well as isopropylcocaine, another potential pharmacological tool in studies of cocaine reward and agonist substitution therapy. We compared the efficacy of nerve impulse blockade by lidocaine, cocaine, cocaethylene and isopropylcocaine using rat sciatic nerves and dorsal roots (DRs). Nerves were placed in a modified sucrose gap chamber and repetitively stimulated at high frequency. The amplitude of compound action potentials (CAPs) at the beginning and end of each stimulus train was measured before and after exposure to each compound. All compounds produced concentration-dependent and use-dependent decrements in CAP amplitude, but cocaethylene and isopropylcocaine at medium to high concentration (0.375-1.875 mM) showed a more prolonged block after washout relative to cocaine or lidocaine. Patch clamp studies on dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons indicated a use-dependent blockade of sodium channels. These studies provide a more complete understanding of the pharmaocology of potential agonist treatment candidates, and suggest a mechanism whereby cocaethylene produces a decreased euphoria in humans compared to cocaine.

  16. Changes in nerve microcirculation following peripheral nerve compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yueming Gao; Changshui Weng; Xinglin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Following peripheral nerve compression, peripheral nerve microcirculation plays important roles in regulating the nerve microenvironment and neurotrophic substances, supplying blood and oxygen and maintaining neural conduction and axonal transport. This paper has retrospectively analyzed the articles published in the past 10 years that addressed the relationship between peripheral nerve compression and changes in intraneural microcirculation. In addition, we describe changes in different peripheral nerves, with the aim of providing help for further studies in peripheral nerve microcirculation and understanding its protective mechanism, and exploring new clinical methods for treating peripheral nerve compression from the perspective of neural microcirculation.

  17. Peripheral nerve regeneration through P(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Dunnen, WFA; Meek, MF; Robinson, PH; Schakernraad, JM

    1998-01-01

    P(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guides can be used perfectly for short nerve gaps in rats, and are even better than short autologous nerve grafts. The tube dimensions, such as the internal diameter and wall thickness, are very important for the final outcome of peripheral nerve regeneration, as well as the

  18. Essential oil of Croton zehntneri and its main constituent anethole block excitability of rat peripheral nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva-Alves, Kerly Shamyra; Ferreira-da-Silva, Francisco Walber; Coelho-de-Souza, Andrelina Noronha; Albuquerque, Aline Alice Cavalcante; do Vale, Otoni Cardoso; Leal-Cardoso, José Henrique

    2015-03-01

    Croton zehntneri is an aromatic plant native to Northeast Brazil and employed by local people to treat various diseases. The leaves of this plant have a rich content of essential oil. The essential oil of C. zehntneri samples, with anethole as the major constituent and anethole itself, have been reported to have several pharmacological activities such as antispasmodic, cardiovascular, and gastroprotective effects and inducing the blockade of neuromuscular transmission and antinociception. Since several works have demonstrated that essential oils and their constituents block cell excitability and in view of the multiple effects of C. zehntneri essential oil and anethole on biological tissues, we undertook this investigation aiming to characterize and compare the effects of this essential oil and its major constituent on nerve excitability. Sciatic nerves of Wistar rats were used. They were mounted in a moist chamber, and evoked compound action potentials were recorded. Nerves were exposed in vitro to the essential oil of C. zehntneri and anethole (0.1-1 mg/mL) up to 180 min, and alterations in excitability (rheobase and chronaxie) and conductibility (peak-to-peak amplitude and conduction velocity) parameters of the compound action potentials were evaluated. The essential oil of C. zehntneri and anethole blocked, in a concentration-dependent manner with similar pharmacological potencies (IC50: 0.32 ± 0.07 and 0.22 ± 0.11 mg/mL, respectively), rat sciatic nerve compound action potentials. Strength-duration curves for both agents were shifted upward and to the right compared to the control curve, and the rheobase and chronaxie were increased following essential oil and anethole exposure. The time courses of the essential oil of C. zehntneri and anethole effects on peak-to-peak amplitude of compound action potentials followed an exponential decay and reached a steady state. The essential oil of C. zehntneri and anethole caused a similar reduction in

  19. Identification of regeneration-associated genes after central and peripheral nerve injury in the adult rat

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    Brook Gary A

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that neurons of the peripheral nervous system have the capacity to regenerate a severed axon leading to functional recovery, whereas neurons of the central nervous system do not regenerate successfully after injury. The underlying molecular programs initiated by axotomized peripheral and central nervous system neurons are not yet fully understood. Results To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of regeneration in the nervous system, differential display polymerase chain reaction has been used to identify differentially expressed genes following axotomy of peripheral and central nerve fibers. For this purpose, axotomy induced changes of regenerating facial nucleus neurons, and non-regenerating red nucleus and Clarke's nucleus neurons have been analyzed in an intra-animal side-to-side comparison. One hundred and thirty five gene fragments have been isolated, of which 69 correspond to known genes encoding for a number of different functional classes of proteins such as transcription factors, signaling molecules, homeobox-genes, receptors and proteins involved in metabolism. Sixty gene fragments correspond to genomic mouse sequences without known function. In situ-hybridization has been used to confirm differential expression and to analyze the cellular localization of these gene fragments. Twenty one genes (~15% have been demonstrated to be differentially expressed. Conclusions The detailed analysis of differentially expressed genes in different lesion paradigms provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of regeneration and may lead to the identification of genes which play key roles in functional repair of central nervous tissues.

  20. Peripheral Nerve Discharge Elicited by Manual Acupuncture at Zusanli (ST 36) Regulates Blood Pressure in Anesthetized Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李为民; 陈颖渡; 王智君

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate target organ response by recording mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) fluctuation corresponding to nerve-tract discharges from the nerve innervating acupoint of Zusanli (ST 36) in the hind limb evoked by MA in anesthetized rats. Methods: Male SD rats anesthetized with chloral hydrate were randomly divided into 3 groups which were treated with manual acupuncture (MA), injection of lidocaine followed by MA and injection of normal saline (NS) followed by MA, respectively. The right carotid artery was canulated for persistent measurement of the blood pressure and meanwhile nerve discharges from the nerve-tract were recorded for analysis with amplitude spike counts for every 5 s. Results: The results showed that there were significant nerve discharges recorded from the nerve-tract when applying MA at Zusanli (ST 36) and simultaneous decrease in the MAP, while there was no response when inserting a needle into the Zusanli (ST 36) without manipulation (P<0.05). Furthermore, the reduction of MAP during MA could be completely abolished after blockade of peripheral nerve discharges with an injection of lidocaine into the tissue around Zusanli (ST 36) but not with that of normal saline (NS). Conclusion: These results indicate that MA at Zusanli (ST 36) can elicit the peripheral nerve discharges from the nerve innervating the acupoint; such kind of nerve discharges may contain acupuncture signal regulating blood pressure via somato-cardiovascular reflex.%目的:麻醉状态下观察手针大鼠后肢足三里穴位引起的支配该穴区的特异性神经束放电以及由此诱发的相应靶器官血压波动效应.方法:将水合氯醛麻醉处理的雄性大鼠随机分为针刺组、利多卡因注射后针刺组(穴位邻近区域肌肉注射2%利多卡因后进行足三里手针刺激)并设生理盐水注射后针刺组(穴位邻近区域肌肉注射生理盐水后进行足三里手针刺激)作为对照.持续记录足三里针刺过程中

  1. Differentiation between the motor and sensory fascicles of the peripheral nerves from adult rats using annexin V-CdTe-conjugated polymer

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    Xianyu Meng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Until now, no method has been available to rapidly differentiate between the motor and sensory nerve fascicles introperatively. Aim : To establish a method to rapidly differentiate between the sensory and motor fascicles in the peripheral nerves. Material and Methods : Annexin V-CdTe-conjugated polymer was used to stain the sciatic and sural nerve fascicles of adult male Wistar rats for 10, 15, 20, and 30 min. Results : Under a light microscope, the sural nerves and the sensory fascicles of the sciatic were visualized as bright red fluorescence with Annexin V-CdTe-conjugated polymer staining. In contrast, no fluorescence on the motor fascicles of the sciatic nerve could be visualized. Fluorescence intensity was not strong enough to show the nerve fascicles with 10 min of staining; however, the intensity was clearly visible after 15 min of staining. No significant difference in the intensity of staining was observed among samples stained for 15, 20, and 30 min. Conclusions : Our study shows that Annexin V-CdTe-conjugated polymer can differentiate the motor and sensory nerve fascicles of the peripheral nerve rapidly and precisely in vitro. This technique represents a new method for the identification of peripheral nerve fascicles.

  2. Nerve conduction and excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Moldovan, Mihai

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review is aimed at providing information about the role of nerve excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders. It has been known for many years that the insight into peripheral nerve pathophysiology provided by conventional nerve conduction studies is limited. Nerve...

  3. Salvianolic Acid A Protects the Peripheral Nerve Function in Diabetic Rats through Regulation of the AMPK-PGC1α-Sirt3 Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanhua Du

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Salvianolic acid A (SalA is one of the main efficacious, water-soluble constituents of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. This study investigated the protective effects of SalA on peripheral nerve in diabetic rats. Administration of SalA (0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg, ig was started from the 5th week after strepotozotocin (STZ60 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection and continued for 8 weeks. Paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT and motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV were used to assess peripheral nerve function. The western blot methods were employed to test the expression levels of serine-threonine liver kinase B1 (LKB1, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α, silent information regulator protein3 (sirtuin 3/Sirt3 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS in sciatic nerve. Results showed that SalA administration could increase PWMT and MNCV in diabetic rats; reduce the deterioration of sciatic nerve pathology; increase AMPK phosphorylation level, up-regulate PGC-1α, Sirt3 and nNOS expression, but had no influence on LKB1. These results suggest that SalA has protective effects against diabetic neuropathy. The beneficial effects of SalA on peripheral nerve function in diabetic rats might be attributed to improvements in glucose metabolism through regulation of the AMPK-PGC1α-Sirt3 axis.

  4. Specific Paucity of Unmyelinated C-Fibers in Cutaneous Peripheral Nerves of the African Naked-Mole Rat: Comparative Analysis Using Six Species of Bathyergidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ewan S; Purfürst, Bettina; Grigoryan, Tamara; Park, Thomas J; Bennett, Nigel C; Lewin, Gary R

    2012-01-01

    In mammalian peripheral nerves, unmyelinated C-fibers usually outnumber myelinated A-fibers. By using transmission electron microscopy, we recently showed that the saphenous nerve of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) has a C-fiber deficit manifested as a substantially lower C:A-fiber ratio compared with other mammals. Here we determined the uniqueness of this C-fiber deficit by performing a quantitative anatomical analysis of several peripheral nerves in five further members of the Bathyergidae mole-rat family: silvery (Heliophobius argenteocinereus), giant (Fukomys mechowii), Damaraland (Fukomys damarensis), Mashona (Fukomys darlingi), and Natal (Cryptomys hottentotus natalensis) mole-rats. In the largely cutaneous saphenous and sural nerves, the naked mole-rat had the lowest C:A-fiber ratio (∼1.5:1 compared with ∼3:1), whereas, in nerves innervating both skin and muscle (common peroneal and tibial) or just muscle (lateral/medial gastrocnemius), this pattern was mostly absent. We asked whether lack of hair follicles alone accounts for the C-fiber paucity by using as a model a mouse that loses virtually all its hair as a consequence of conditional deletion of the β-catenin gene in the skin. These β-catenin loss-of function mice (β-cat LOF mice) displayed only a mild decrease in C:A-fiber ratio compared with wild-type mice (4.42 compared with 3.81). We suggest that the selective cutaneous C-fiber deficit in the cutaneous nerves of naked mole-rats is unlikely to be due primarily to lack of skin hair follicles. Possible mechanisms contributing to this unique peripheral nerve anatomy are discussed. J. Comp. Neurol. 520:2785–2803, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22528859

  5. Use of Natural Neural Scaffolds Consisting of Engineered Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Immobilized on Ordered Collagen Fibers Filled in a Collagen Tube for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukai Ma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The search for effective strategies for peripheral nerve regeneration has attracted much attention in recent years. In this study, ordered collagen fibers were used as intraluminal fibers after nerve injury in rats. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF plays an important role in nerve regeneration, but its very fast initial burst of activity within a short time has largely limited its clinical use. For the stable binding of VEGF to ordered collagen fibers, we fused a collagen-binding domain (CBD to VEGF through recombinant DNA technology. Then, we filled the ordered collagen fibers-CBD-VEGF targeting delivery system in a collagen tube to construct natural neural scaffolds, which were then used to bridge transected nerve stumps in a rat sciatic nerve transection model. After transplantation, the natural neural scaffolds showed minimal foreign body reactions and good integration into the host tissue. Oriented collagen fibers in the collagen tube could guide regenerating axons in an oriented manner to the distal, degenerating nerve segment, maximizing the chance of target reinnervation. Functional and histological analyses indicated that the recovery of nerve function in the natural neural scaffolds-treated group was superior to the other grafted groups. The guiding of oriented axonal regeneration and effective delivery systems surmounting the otherwise rapid and short-lived diffusion of growth factors in body fluids are two important strategies in promoting peripheral nerve regeneration. The natural neural scaffolds described take advantage of these two aspects and may produce synergistic effects. These properties qualified the artificial nerve conduits as a putative candidate system for the fabrication of peripheral nerve reconstruction devices.

  6. Use of natural neural scaffolds consisting of engineered vascular endothelial growth factor immobilized on ordered collagen fibers filled in a collagen tube for peripheral nerve regeneration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fukai; Xiao, Zhifeng; Meng, Danqing; Hou, Xianglin; Zhu, Jianhong; Dai, Jianwu; Xu, Ruxiang

    2014-10-15

    The search for effective strategies for peripheral nerve regeneration has attracted much attention in recent years. In this study, ordered collagen fibers were used as intraluminal fibers after nerve injury in rats. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in nerve regeneration, but its very fast initial burst of activity within a short time has largely limited its clinical use. For the stable binding of VEGF to ordered collagen fibers, we fused a collagen-binding domain (CBD) to VEGF through recombinant DNA technology. Then, we filled the ordered collagen fibers-CBD-VEGF targeting delivery system in a collagen tube to construct natural neural scaffolds, which were then used to bridge transected nerve stumps in a rat sciatic nerve transection model. After transplantation, the natural neural scaffolds showed minimal foreign body reactions and good integration into the host tissue. Oriented collagen fibers in the collagen tube could guide regenerating axons in an oriented manner to the distal, degenerating nerve segment, maximizing the chance of target reinnervation. Functional and histological analyses indicated that the recovery of nerve function in the natural neural scaffolds-treated group was superior to the other grafted groups. The guiding of oriented axonal regeneration and effective delivery systems surmounting the otherwise rapid and short-lived diffusion of growth factors in body fluids are two important strategies in promoting peripheral nerve regeneration. The natural neural scaffolds described take advantage of these two aspects and may produce synergistic effects. These properties qualified the artificial nerve conduits as a putative candidate system for the fabrication of peripheral nerve reconstruction devices.

  7. Peripheral nerve extract effects on mesenchymal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, F R; Mukhopadhyay, B; Becker, G; Daniels, K; Solursh, M

    1996-01-01

    Several common congenital limb disorders are characterized by normal tissue differentiation but abnormal somatic growth. These include: idiopathic clubfoot, idiopathic leg length discrepancy, hemi-atrophy and hemi-hypertrophy. Both clinical and research studies have suggested that peripheral nerves may be important in regulating somatic growth of limb tissues. To investigate the hypothesis that peripheral nerves convey trophic substances to mesenchymal tissues that are involved in the regulation of growth, we developed an in vitro assay to assess the effect of fractions of peripheral nerve on myoblast and chondroblast growth and differentiation in a mammalian (rat) system. Whole rat sciatic nerve extract was fractionated by ammonium sulfate precipitation and by affinity chromatography. Concavalin A chromatography resolved whole nerve extract into a glycoprotein and a non-glycoprotein fraction. Serial ammonium sulfate precipitation yielded three pellet fractions designated as 35%, 70%, and 100% pellets; corresponding to ammonium sulfate concentrations of 0 to 35%, 35 to 70%, and 70 to 100% saturation, respectively. Dialyzed solutions of these pellets as well as the fractions from Concavalin A chromatography were assayed for biological activity in micromass cultures of rat limb bud mesenchyme, which allowed assessment of both myoblast and chondroblast stimulation. Stimulation of protein synthesis and myoblast proliferation (as measured by MF20 staining) occurred with both 70% and 100% ammonium sulfate fractions. Stimulation of chondroblasts (as measured by the number of alcian blue staining nodules) occurred with the 35% and 100% fractions. The glycoprotein fraction from the affinity chromatography stimulated protein synthesis and myoblast proliferation and inhibited chondroblast development. Stimulation of chondroblasts was seen with the non-glycoprotein fraction. No effect on protein synthesis, myoblast proliferation or chondroblast proliferation was found in

  8. Generation of New Neurons in Dorsal Root Ganglia in Adult Rats after Peripheral Nerve Crush Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Muratori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The evidence of neurons generated ex novo in sensory ganglia of adult animals is still debated. In the present study, we investigated, using high resolution light microscopy and stereological analysis, the changes in the number of neurons in dorsal root ganglia after 30 days from a crush lesion of the rat brachial plexus terminal branches. Results showed, as expected, a relevant hypertrophy of dorsal root ganglion neurons. In addition, we reported, for the first time in the literature, that neuronal hypertrophy was accompanied by massive neuronal hyperplasia leading to a 42% increase of the number of primary sensory neurons. Moreover, ultrastructural analyses on sensory neurons showed that there was not a relevant neuronal loss as a consequence of the nerve injury. The evidence of BrdU-immunopositive neurons and neural progenitors labeled with Ki67, nanog, nestin, and sox-2 confirmed the stereological evidence of posttraumatic neurogenesis in dorsal root ganglia. Analysis of morphological changes following axonal damage in addition to immunofluorescence characterization of cell phenotype suggested that the neuronal precursors which give rise to the newly generated neurons could be represented by satellite glial cells that actively proliferate after the lesion and are able to differentiate toward the neuronal lineage.

  9. Peripheral injected cholecystokinin-8S modulates the concentration of serotonin in nerve fibers of the rat brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engster, Kim-Marie; Frommelt, Lisa; Hofmann, Tobias; Nolte, Sandra; Fischer, Felix; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas; Kobelt, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Serotonin and cholecystokinin (CCK) play a role in the short-term inhibition of food intake. It is known that peripheral injection of CCK increases c-Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-IR) in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in rats, and injection of the serotonin antagonist ondansetron decreases the number of c-Fos-IR cells in the NTS. This supports the idea of serotonin contributing to the effects of CCK. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether peripherally injected CCK-8S modulates the concentration of serotonin in brain feeding-regulatory nuclei. Ad libitum fed male Sprague-Dawley rats received 5.2 and 8.7 nmol/kg CCK-8S (n=3/group) or 0.15M NaCl (n=3-5/group) injected intraperitoneally (ip). The number of c-Fos-IR neurons, and the fluorescence intensity of serotonin in nerve fibers were assessed in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), arcuate nucleus (ARC), NTS and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV). CCK-8S increased the number of c-Fos-ir neurons in the NTS (mean±SEM: 72±4, and 112±5 neurons/section, respectively) compared to vehicle-treated rats (7±2 neurons/section, Pserotonin-immunoreactivity 90 min after injection of CCK-8S (46±2 and 49±8 pixel/section, respectively) compared to vehicle (81±8 pixel/section, Pserotonin-immunoreactivity were observed in the PVN and ARC. Our results suggest that serotonin is involved in the mediation of CCK-8's effects in the brainstem.

  10. Peripheral nerve conduits: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslantunali D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available D Arslantunali,1–3,* T Dursun,1,2,* D Yucel,1,4,5 N Hasirci,1,2,6 V Hasirci,1,2,7 1BIOMATEN, Center of Excellence in Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Middle East Technical University (METU, Ankara, Turkey; 2Department of Biotechnology, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 3Department of Bioengineering, Gumushane University, Gumushane, Turkey; 4Faculty of Engineering, Department of Medical Engineering, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 5School of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 6Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 7Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey *These authors have contributed equally to this work Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem which could lead to loss of neuronal communication along sensory and motor nerves between the central nervous system (CNS and the peripheral organs and impairs the quality of life of a patient. The primary requirement for the treatment of complete lesions is a tension-free, end-to-end repair. When end-to-end repair is not possible, peripheral nerve grafts or nerve conduits are used. The limited availability of autografts, and drawbacks of the allografts and xenografts like immunological reactions, forced the researchers to investigate and develop alternative approaches, mainly nerve conduits. In this review, recent information on the various types of conduit materials (made of biological and synthetic polymers and designs (tubular, fibrous, and matrix type are being presented. Keywords: peripheral nerve injury, natural biomaterials, synthetic biomaterials

  11. The effects of anticonvulsants on 4-aminopyridine-induced bursting: in vitro studies on rat peripheral nerve and dorsal roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, G.

    1996-01-01

    1. Aminopyridines have been used as beneficial symptomatic treatments in a variety of neurological conditions including multiple sclerosis but have been associated with considerable toxicity in the form of abdominal pain, paraesthesias and (rarely) convulsions. 2. Extracellular and intracellular recording was used to characterize action potentials in rat sciatic nerves and dorsal roots and the effects of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). 3. In sciatic nerve trunks, 1 mM 4-AP produced pronounced after potentials at room temperature secondary to regenerative firing in affected axons (5-10 spikes per stimulus). At physiological temperatures, after potentials (2-3 spikes) were greatly attenuated in peripheral axons. 4. 4-AP evoked more pronounced and prolonged after discharges in isolated dorsal roots at 37 degrees C (3-5.5 mV and 80-100 ms succeeded by a smaller inhibitory/depolarizing voltage shift) which were used to assess the effects of anticonvulsants. 5. Phenytoin, carbamazepine and lamotrigine dose-dependently reduced the area of 4-AP-induced after potentials at 100 and 320 microM but the amplitude of compound action potentials (evoked at 0.5 Hz) was depressed in parallel. 6. The tonic block of sensory action potentials by all three drugs (at 320 microM) was enhanced by high frequency stimulation (5-500 Hz). 7. The lack of selectivity of these frequency-dependent Na+ channel blockers for burst firing compared to low-frequency spikes, is discussed in contrast to their effects on 4-AP-induced seizures and paroxysmal activity in CNS tissue (which is associated with large and sustained depolarizing plateau potentials). 8. In conclusion, these in vitro results confirm the marked sensitivity of sensory axons to 4-AP (the presumptive basis for paraesthesias). Burst firing was not preferentially impaired at relatively high concentrations suggesting that anticonvulsants will not overcome the toxic peripheral actions of 4-AP in neurological patients. PMID:8821551

  12. An effect of wrapping peripheral nerve anastomosis with pedicled muscle flap on nerve regeneration in experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naumenko L.Yu.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite intrinsic capacity of peripheral nerves to regenerate, functional outcomes of peripheral nerves injury remain poor. Nerve ischemia, intra-/perineurial fibrosis and neuroma formation contribute a lot to that. Several authors demonstrated beneficial effects of increased vascularization at the site of injury on peripheral nerves regeneration. The use of highly vascularized autologous tissues (greater omentum as a source of peripheral nerves neovascularization shows promising re-sults. We proposed a surgical technique in which injured peripheral nerves anastomosis was wrapped in a pedicled muscular flap and performed morphological assessment of the efficacy of such technique with the aid of immunohistochemistry. 14 rats (which underwent sciatic nerve transection were operated according to proposed technique. Another 14 rats, in which only end-to-end nerve anastomosis (without muscular wrapping was performed served as controls. Morphological changes were evaluated at 3 weeks and 3 months periods. Higher blood vessel and axon counts were observed in experimental groups at both checkpoints. There was also an increase in Schwann cells and macrophages counts, and less collagen content in pe-ripheral nerves of experimental groups. Axons in neuromas of experimental groups showed a higher degree of arrangement. We conclude that proposed surgical technique provides better vascularisation of injured peripheral nerves, which is beneficial for nerve regeneration.

  13. Nanofibrous nerve conduit-enhanced peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xu; Mi, Ruifa; Hoke, Ahmet; Chew, Sing Yian

    2014-05-01

    Fibre structures represent a potential class of materials for the formation of synthetic nerve conduits due to their biomimicking architecture. Although the advantages of fibres in enhancing nerve regeneration have been demonstrated, in vivo evaluation of fibre size effect on nerve regeneration remains limited. In this study, we analyzed the effects of fibre diameter of electrospun conduits on peripheral nerve regeneration across a 15-mm critical defect gap in a rat sciatic nerve injury model. By using an electrospinning technique, fibrous conduits comprised of aligned electrospun poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) microfibers (981 ± 83 nm, Microfiber) or nanofibers (251 ± 32 nm, Nanofiber) were obtained. At three months post implantation, axons regenerated across the defect gap in all animals that received fibrous conduits. In contrast, complete nerve regeneration was not observed in the control group that received empty, non-porous PCL film conduits (Film). Nanofiber conduits resulted in significantly higher total number of myelinated axons and thicker myelin sheaths compared to Microfiber and Film conduits. Retrograde labeling revealed a significant increase in number of regenerated dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons in the presence of Nanofiber conduits (1.93 ± 0.71 × 10(3) vs. 0.98 ± 0.30 × 10(3) in Microfiber, p regeneration. These results could provide useful insights for future nerve guide designs.

  14. Differential role of P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein in drug distribution into brain, CSF and peripheral nerve tissues in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liyue; Li, Xingwen; Roberts, Jonathan; Janosky, Brett; Lin, Min-Hwa Jasmine

    2015-01-01

    1. This study was designed to evaluate how the absence of P-glycoprotein (Pgp, Mdr1a), breast cancer-resistance protein (Bcrp, Abcg2) or both affects drug distribution into sciatic nerves, brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in rats. 2. Pgp substrate (loperamide), BCRP substrates (dantrolene and proprietary compound X) and dual substrates (imatinib and proprietary compound Y) were well distributed into sciatic nerves with comparable nerve to plasma concentration ratios between wild-type and knockout (KO) rats. 3. Brain exposure increased substantially in Mdr1a(-/-) rats for loperamide and in Mdr1a(-/-)/Abcg2(-/-) rats for imatinib and compound Y, but minimally to modestly in Abcg2(-/-) rats for dantrolene and compound X. The deletion of Mdr1a or Abcg2 alone had little effect on brain distribution of compound Y. 4. While CSF to unbound brain concentration ratio remained ≥3 in the KO animals for dantrolene, compounds X and Y, it was reduced to 1 in the Mdr1a(-/-)/Abcg2(-/-) rats for imatinib. 5. The data indicate that Pgp and Bcrp do not play significant roles in drug distribution into peripheral nerve tissues in rats, while working in concert to regulate brain penetration. Our results further support that CSF concentration may not be a good surrogate for unbound brain concentration of efflux substrates.

  15. Tissue engineering and peripheral nerve regeneration (III) -- Sciatic nerve regeneration with PDLLA nerve guide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The biodegradation rate and biocompatibility of poly(d, l -lactide) (PDLLA) in vivo were evaluated. The aim of this study was to establish a nerve guide constructed by the PDLLA with 3-D microenvironment and to repair a 10 mm of sciatic nerve gap in rats. The process of the nerve regeneration was investigated by histological assessment, electrophysiological examination, and determination of wet weight recovery rate of the gastrocnemius muscle. After 3 weeks, the nerve guide had changed from a transparent to an opaque status. The conduit was degraded and absorbed partly and had lost their strength with breakage at the 9th week of postoperation. At the conclusion of 12 weeks, proximal and distal end of nerves were anastomosed by nerve regeneration and the conduit vanished completely. The results suggest that PDLLA conduits may serve for peripheral nerve regeneration and PDLLA is a sort of hopeful candidate for tissue engineering.

  16. An anatomical study of porcine peripheral nerve and its potential use in nerve tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilic, Leyla; Garner, Philippa E; Yu, Tong; Roman, Sabiniano; Haycock, John W; Wilshaw, Stacy-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Current nerve tissue engineering applications are adopting xenogeneic nerve tissue as potential nerve grafts to help aid nerve regeneration. However, there is little literature that describes the exact location, anatomy and physiology of these nerves to highlight their potential as a donor graft. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise the structural and extracellular matrix (ECM) components of porcine peripheral nerves in the hind leg. Methods included the dissection of porcine nerves, localisation, characterisation and quantification of the ECM components and identification of nerve cells. Results showed a noticeable variance between porcine and rat nerve (a commonly studied species) in terms of fascicle number. The study also revealed that when porcine peripheral nerves branch, a decrease in fascicle number and size was evident. Porcine ECM and nerve fascicles were found to be predominately comprised of collagen together with glycosaminoglycans, laminin and fibronectin. Immunolabelling for nerve growth factor receptor p75 also revealed the localisation of Schwann cells around and inside the fascicles. In conclusion, it is shown that porcine peripheral nerves possess a microstructure similar to that found in rat, and is not dissimilar to human. This finding could extend to the suggestion that due to the similarities in anatomy to human nerve, porcine nerves may have utility as a nerve graft providing guidance and support to regenerating axons. PMID:26200940

  17. An anatomical study of porcine peripheral nerve and its potential use in nerve tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilic, Leyla; Garner, Philippa E; Yu, Tong; Roman, Sabiniano; Haycock, John W; Wilshaw, Stacy-Paul

    2015-09-01

    Current nerve tissue engineering applications are adopting xenogeneic nerve tissue as potential nerve grafts to help aid nerve regeneration. However, there is little literature that describes the exact location, anatomy and physiology of these nerves to highlight their potential as a donor graft. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise the structural and extracellular matrix (ECM) components of porcine peripheral nerves in the hind leg. Methods included the dissection of porcine nerves, localisation, characterisation and quantification of the ECM components and identification of nerve cells. Results showed a noticeable variance between porcine and rat nerve (a commonly studied species) in terms of fascicle number. The study also revealed that when porcine peripheral nerves branch, a decrease in fascicle number and size was evident. Porcine ECM and nerve fascicles were found to be predominately comprised of collagen together with glycosaminoglycans, laminin and fibronectin. Immunolabelling for nerve growth factor receptor p75 also revealed the localisation of Schwann cells around and inside the fascicles. In conclusion, it is shown that porcine peripheral nerves possess a microstructure similar to that found in rat, and is not dissimilar to human. This finding could extend to the suggestion that due to the similarities in anatomy to human nerve, porcine nerves may have utility as a nerve graft providing guidance and support to regenerating axons.

  18. Biological and artificial nerve conduit for repairing peripheral nerve defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuetao Xie; Changqing Zhang

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recently, with the development of biological and artificial materials, the experimental and clinical studies on application of this new material-type nerve conduit for treatment of peripheral nerve defect have become the hotspot topics for professorial physicians.DATA SOURCES: Using the terms "nerve conduits, peripheral nerve, nerve regeneration and nerve transplantation" in English, we searched Pubmed database, which was published during January 2000 to June 2006, for the literatures related to repairing peripheral nerve defect with various materials. At the same time, we also searched Chinese Technical Scientific Periodical Database at the same time period by inputting" peripheral nerve defect, nerve repair, nerve regeneration and nerve graft" in Chinese.STUDY SELECTION: The materials were firstly selected, and literatures about study on various materials for repairing peripheral nerve defect and their full texts were also searched. Inclusive criteria: nerve conduits related animal experiments and clinical studies. Exclusive criteria: review or repetitive studies.DATA EXTRACTION: Seventy-nine relevant literatures were collected and 30 of them met inclusive criteria and were cited.DATA SYNTHESTS: Peripheral nerve defect, a commonly seen problem in clinic, is difficult to be solved. Autogenous nerve grafting is still the gold standard for repairing peripheral nerve defect, but because of its application limitation and possible complications, people studied nerve conduits to repair nerve defect. Nerve conduits consist of biological and artificial materials.CONCLUSION: There have been numerous reports about animal experimental and clinical studies of various nerve conduits, but nerve conduit, which is more ideal than autogenous nerve grafting, needs further clinical observation and investigation.

  19. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    IL, Kochevar IE, Redmond RW. Large extremity peripheral nerve repair. Military Health System Research Symposium (MHSRS) Fort Lauderdale, FL. August...some notable discoveries that may impact military health care in the near future. There is a clear need in military medicine to improve outcomes in...membranes or “caul” intact was considered extremely lucky. Children were gifted with life-long happiness , the ability to see spirits, and protection

  20. Peripheral nerve lengthening as a regenerative strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenneth M.Vaz; Justin M.Brown; Sameer B.Shah

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury impairs motor, sensory, and autonomic function, incurring substantial ifnancial costs and diminished quality of life. For large nerve gaps, proximal lesions, or chronic nerve injury, the prognosis for recovery is particularly poor, even with autografts, the current gold standard for treating small to moderate nerve gaps. In vivo elongation of intact proximal stumps towards the injured distal stumps of severed peripheral nerves may offer a promising new strategy to treat nerve injury. This review describes several nerve lengthening strategies, in-cluding a novel internal ifxator device that enables rapid and distal reconnection of proximal and distal nerve stumps.

  1. Rewarding electrical brain stimulation in rats after peripheral nerve injury: decreased facilitation by commonly abused prescription opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewan, Eric E; Martin, Thomas J

    2011-12-01

    Prescription opioid abuse is a significant concern in treating chronic pain, yet few studies examine how neuropathic pain alters the abuse liability of commonly abused prescription opioids. Normal and spinal nerve ligated (SNL) rats were implanted with electrodes into the left ventral tegmental area (VTA). Rats were trained to lever press for intracranial electrical stimulation (VTA ICSS), and the effects of methadone, fentanyl, hydromorphone, and oxycodone on facilitation of VTA ICSS were assessed. A second group of neuropathic rats were implanted with intrathecal catheters, and the effects of intrathecal clonidine, adenosine, and gabapentin on facilitation of VTA ICSS were assessed. The effects of electrical stimulation of the VTA on mechanical allodynia were assessed in SNL rats. Responding for VTA ICSS was similar in control and SNL rats. Methadone, fentanyl, and hydromorphone were less potent in facilitating VTA ICSS in SNL rats. Oxycodone produced a significant facilitation of VTA ICSS in control (maximum shift 24.10 ± 6.19 Hz) but not SNL rats (maximum shift 16.32 ± 7.49 Hz), but also reduced maximal response rates in SNL rats. Intrathecal administration of clonidine, adenosine, and gabapentin failed to facilitate VTA ICSS in SNL rats, and electrical stimulation of the VTA did not alter mechanical allodynia following nerve injury. The present data suggests that the positive reinforcing effects of commonly abused prescription opioids are diminished following nerve injury. In addition, alleviation of mechanical allodynia with nonopioid analgesics does not appear to stimulate limbic dopamine pathways originating from the VTA in SNL rats.

  2. Analgesic effect of piracetam on peripheral neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ashish K; Bhati, Yogendra; Tripathi, Chakra D; Sharma, Krishna K

    2014-08-01

    Despite immense advances in the treatment strategies, management of neuropathic pain remains unsatisfactory. Piracetam is a prototype of nootropic drugs, used to improve cognitive impairment. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of piracetam on peripheral neuropathic pain in rats. Neuropathic pain was induced by the chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve. Following this, piracetam was intraperitoneally administered for 2 weeks in doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, and pain was assessed by employing the behavioural tests for thermal hyperalgesia (hot plate and tail flick tests) and cold allodynia (acetone test). After the induction of neuropathic pain, significant development of thermal hyperalgesia and cold allodynia was observed. The administration of piracetam (50 mg/kg) did not have any significant effect on all the behavioural tests. Further, piracetam (100 mg/kg) also had no effect on the hot plate and tail flick tests; however it significantly decreased the paw withdrawal duration in the acetone test. Piracetam in a dose of 200 mg/kg significantly modulated neuropathic pain as observed from the increased hot plate and tail flick latencies, and decreased paw withdrawal duration (in acetone test). Therefore, the present study suggests the potential use of piracetam in the treatment of neuropathic pain, which merits further clinical investigation.

  3. Expression of ceramide galactosy transferase in sciatic nerve of rats with diabetic peripheral neuropathy after electroacupuncture at Zusanli and Shenshu points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongsheng Dong; Yunyun Zhang; Yin Shi; Min Zheng; Qiujuan Zhang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ceramide galactosyltransferase (GGT) protein and mRNA expression defect can cause the abnormal morphology and slowing conduction velocity of peripheral nerve. Morphologic change and functional disorder of myelin sheath and axon appear when diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) occurs. Whether electroacupuncture at Zusanli(ST 36) and Shenshu(BL 32) points can enhance the expression of CGT protein and mRNA in the DPN tissue?OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture at Zusanli and Shenshu points on motor, sensory conduction velocity and CGT mRNA and its protein expression of sciatic nerve in rats with DPN.DESIGN: A randomized and controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Department of Neurology and Central Laboratory, Yueyang Hospital of Traditional Chinese & Western Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.MATERIALS : Totally 60 healthy male Wistar rats of clean grade, aged 4 month, with body mass of 200 to 220 g, were enrolled in this study. Streptozotocin (STZ, Sigma Company of USA, Batch No. S-0130).METHODS: This study was carried out in the Animal Experimental Center and Central Laboratory, YueyangHospital of Traditional Chinese & Western Medicine during February 2005 to March 2006. ① Fifteen rats were randomly chosen,serving as normal group.All the other rets were intraperitoneally injected once with STZ to develop experimental diabetic rat models. If fasting blood glucose was ≥ 15 mmol/L,sensory nerve and motor nerve conduction velocity of sciatic nerve was obviously slowed, tail-swaying temperature threshold was increased and myelinated nerve fiber of sciatic nerve changed, DPN models were successful. The successful model rats were randomly assigned into 3 groups: model group, control group(electroacupuncture at non-meridian-non-acupoint)and electroacupuncture group [electroacupuncture at Zusanli and Shenshu points], with 15 rats each. The rats in the normal group and model group were untouched. In the

  4. Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Following Crush Injury to Rat Peroneal Nerve by Aqueous Extract of Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kah-Hui Wong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve crush injury is a well-established axonotmetic model in experimental regeneration studies to investigate the impact of various pharmacological treatments. Hericium erinaceus is a temperate mushroom but is now being cultivated in tropical Malaysia. In this study, we investigated the activity of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus fresh fruiting bodies in promoting functional recovery following an axonotmetic peroneal nerve injury in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats by daily oral administration. The aim was to investigate the possible use of this mushroom in the treatment of injured nerve. Functional recovery was assessed in behavioral experiment by walking track analysis. Peroneal functional index (PFI was determined before surgery and after surgery as rats showed signs of recovery. Histological examinations were performed on peroneal nerve by immunofluorescence staining and neuromuscular junction by combined silver-cholinesterase stain. Analysis of PFI indicated that return of hind limb function occurred earlier in rats of aqueous extract or mecobalamin (positive control group compared to negative control group. Regeneration of axons and reinnervation of motor endplates in extensor digitorum longus muscle in rats of aqueous extract or mecobalamin group developed better than in negative control group. These data suggest that daily oral administration of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus fresh fruiting bodies could promote the regeneration of injured rat peroneal nerve in the early stage of recovery.

  5. Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Following Crush Injury to Rat Peroneal Nerve by Aqueous Extract of Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr) Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kah-Hui; Naidu, Murali; David, Pamela; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2011-01-01

    Nerve crush injury is a well-established axonotmetic model in experimental regeneration studies to investigate the impact of various pharmacological treatments. Hericium erinaceus is a temperate mushroom but is now being cultivated in tropical Malaysia. In this study, we investigated the activity of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus fresh fruiting bodies in promoting functional recovery following an axonotmetic peroneal nerve injury in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats by daily oral administration. The aim was to investigate the possible use of this mushroom in the treatment of injured nerve. Functional recovery was assessed in behavioral experiment by walking track analysis. Peroneal functional index (PFI) was determined before surgery and after surgery as rats showed signs of recovery. Histological examinations were performed on peroneal nerve by immunofluorescence staining and neuromuscular junction by combined silver-cholinesterase stain. Analysis of PFI indicated that return of hind limb function occurred earlier in rats of aqueous extract or mecobalamin (positive control) group compared to negative control group. Regeneration of axons and reinnervation of motor endplates in extensor digitorum longus muscle in rats of aqueous extract or mecobalamin group developed better than in negative control group. These data suggest that daily oral administration of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus fresh fruiting bodies could promote the regeneration of injured rat peroneal nerve in the early stage of recovery.

  6. The effects of anticonvulsants on 4-aminopyridine-induced bursting: in vitro studies on rat peripheral nerve and dorsal roots.

    OpenAIRE

    Lees, G

    1996-01-01

    1. Aminopyridines have been used as beneficial symptomatic treatments in a variety of neurological conditions including multiple sclerosis but have been associated with considerable toxicity in the form of abdominal pain, paraesthesias and (rarely) convulsions. 2. Extracellular and intracellular recording was used to characterize action potentials in rat sciatic nerves and dorsal roots and the effects of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). 3. In sciatic nerve trunks, 1 mM 4-AP produced pronounced after p...

  7. Contralateral Metabolic Activation Related to Plastic Changes in the Spinal Cord after Peripheral Nerve Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Won

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported the crossed-withdrawal reflex in which the rats with nerve injury developed behavioral pain responses of the injured paw to stimuli applied to the contralateral uninjured paw. This reflex indicates that contralateral plastic changes may occur in the spinal cord after unilateral nerve injury. The present study was performed to elucidate the mechanisms and morphological correlates underlying the crossed-withdrawal reflex by using quantitative 14C-2-deoxyglucose (2-DG autoradiography which can examine metabolic activities and spatial patterns simultaneously. Under pentobarbital anesthesia, rats were subjected to unilateral nerve injury. Mechanical allodynia was tested for two weeks after nerve injury. After nerve injury, neuropathic pain behaviors developed progressively. The crossed-withdrawal reflex was observed at two weeks postoperatively. Contralateral enhancement of 2-DG uptake in the ventral horn of the spinal cord to electrical stimulation of the uninjured paw was observed. These results suggest that the facilitation of information processing from the uninjured side to the injured side may contribute to the crossed-withdrawal reflex by plastic changes in the spinal cord of nerve-injured rats.

  8. Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Following Crush Injury to Rat Peroneal Nerve by Aqueous Extract of Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr) Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kah-Hui Wong; Murali Naidu; Pamela David; Mahmood Ameen Abdulla; Noorlidah Abdullah; Umah Rani Kuppusamy; Vikineswary Sabaratnam

    2011-01-01

    Nerve crush injury is a well-established axonotmetic model in experimental regeneration studies to investigate the impact of various pharmacological treatments. Hericium erinaceus is a temperate mushroom but is now being cultivated in tropical Malaysia. In this study, we investigated the activity of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus fresh fruiting bodies in promoting functional recovery following an axonotmetic peroneal nerve injury in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats by daily oral administrati...

  9. The surgery of peripheral nerves (including tumors)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugleholm, Kåre

    2013-01-01

    Surgical pathology of the peripheral nervous system includes traumatic injury, entrapment syndromes, and tumors. The recent significant advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology and cellular biology of peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration has yet to be translated into improved...... surgical techniques and better outcome after peripheral nerve injury. Decision making in peripheral nerve surgery continues to be a complex challenge, where the mechanism of injury, repeated clinical evaluation, neuroradiological and neurophysiological examination, and detailed knowledge of the peripheral...... nervous system response to injury are prerequisite to obtain the best possible outcome. Surgery continues to be the primary treatment modality for peripheral nerve tumors and advances in adjuvant oncological treatment has improved outcome after malignant peripheral nerve tumors. The present chapter...

  10. Peripheral facial nerve palsy after therapeutic endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Jeong; Lee, Jun; Lee, Ji Woon; Lee, Jun Hyung; Park, Chol Jin; Kim, Young Dae; Lee, Hyun Jin

    2015-03-01

    Peripheral facial nerve palsy (FNP) is a mononeuropathy that affects the peripheral part of the facial nerve. Primary causes of peripheral FNP remain largely unknown, but detectable causes include systemic infections (viral and others), trauma, ischemia, tumor, and extrinsic compression. Peripheral FNP in relation to extrinsic compression has rarely been described in case reports. Here, we report a case of a 71-year-old man who was diagnosed with peripheral FNP following endoscopic submucosal dissection. This case is the first report of the development of peripheral FNP in a patient undergoing therapeutic endoscopy. We emphasize the fact that physicians should be attentive to the development of peripheral FNP following therapeutic endoscopy.

  11. Secreted Ectodomain of Sialic Acid-Binding Ig-Like Lectin-9 and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Synergistically Regenerate Transected Rat Peripheral Nerves by Altering Macrophage Polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Fumiya; Matsubara, Kohki; Ueda, Minoru; Hibi, Hideharu; Yamamoto, Akihito

    2017-03-01

    Peripheral nerves (PNs) exhibit remarkable self-repairing reparative activity after a simple crush or cut injury. However, the neuronal transection involving a nerve gap overwhelms their repairing activity and causes persistent paralysis. Here, we show that an implantation of the serum-free conditioned medium from stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED-CM) immersed in a collagen sponge into the nerve gap formed by rat facial nerves transection restored the neurological function. In contrast, SHED-CM specifically depleted of a set of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage inducers, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and the secreted ectodomain of sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin-9 (sSiglec-9) lost the ability to restore neurological function in this model. Notably, the combination of MCP-1 and sSiglec-9 induced the polarization of M2 macrophages in vitro, resulting in the expression of multiple trophic factors that enhanced proliferation, migration, and differentiation of Schwann cells, blood vessel formation, and nerve fiber extension. Furthermore, the implantation of a collagen graft containing MCP-1/sSiglec-9 into the nerve gap induced anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage polarization, generated a Schwann-cell bridge instead of fibrotic scar, induced axonal regrowth, and restored nerve function. The specific elimination of M2 macrophages by Mannosylated-Clodrosome suppressed the MCP-1/sSiglec-9-mediated neurological recovery. Taken together, our data suggest that MCP-1/sSiglec-9 regenerates PNs by inducing tissue-repairing M2 macrophages and may provide therapeutic benefits for severe peripheral nerve injuries. Stem Cells 2017;35:641-653.

  12. Dynamic changes of mechanically activated channels and K~+ channels at injury site of peripheral nerve in rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌琰; 谢益宽

    1996-01-01

    Ectopic ion channels developed locally at the injury site after nerve damage by light ligation around common sciatic nerve of the rats. Different channel types have different processes of formation, accumulation and degeneration. During the first three days after injury, mechanically activated channels that are modulated by Ca++ channel activities first appeared. As the nerve fibers begin to be excited by TEA, a blocker of K+ channels, suggesting that the accumulation of K+ channels, the responsibility of mechanically activated channels was declining. Onset of K+ channels was from the 3rd postoperative day and lasted up to the fiftieth day. This time course of K+ channel development was closely related to allodynia and hyperalgesia of neuropathic animal behaviour. The results suggest that chronic contraction injury induces a dynamic change in the ectopic mechanically activated channels and K+ channels at the injury site of nerve and there is an interchange in the development time courses of the mechanic

  13. Delayed peripheral nerve repair: methods, including surgical ′cross-bridging′ to promote nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the capacity of Schwann cells to support peripheral nerve regeneration, functional recovery after nerve injuries is frequently poor, especially for proximal injuries that require regenerating axons to grow over long distances to reinnervate distal targets. Nerve transfers, where small fascicles from an adjacent intact nerve are coapted to the nerve stump of a nearby denervated muscle, allow for functional return but at the expense of reduced numbers of innervating nerves. A 1-hour period of 20 Hz electrical nerve stimulation via electrodes proximal to an injury site accelerates axon outgrowth to hasten target reinnervation in rats and humans, even after delayed surgery. A novel strategy of enticing donor axons from an otherwise intact nerve to grow through small nerve grafts (cross-bridges into a denervated nerve stump, promotes improved axon regeneration after delayed nerve repair. The efficacy of this technique has been demonstrated in a rat model and is now in clinical use in patients undergoing cross-face nerve grafting for facial paralysis. In conclusion, brief electrical stimulation, combined with the surgical technique of promoting the regeneration of some donor axons to ′protect′ chronically denervated Schwann cells, improves nerve regeneration and, in turn, functional outcomes in the management of peripheral nerve injuries.

  14. Handcrafted multilayer PDMS microchannel scaffolds for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Ridwan; Kim, Bongkyun; Pankratz, Rachel; Ajam, Ali; Park, Sungreol; Biswal, Sibani L; Choi, Yoonsu

    2015-12-01

    Injuries that result in the loss of limb functionality may be caused by the severing of the peripheral nerves within the affected limb. Several bioengineered peripheral nerve scaffolds have been developed in order to provide the physical support and topographical guidance necessary for the naturally disorganized axon outgrowth to reattach to distal nerve stumps as an alternative to other procedures, like nerve grafting. PDMS has been chosen for the base material of the scaffolds due to its biocompatibility, flexibility, transparency, and well-developed fabrication techniques. The process of observing the axon outgrowth across the nerve gaps with PDMS scaffolds has been challenging due to the limited number and fineness of longitudinal sections that can be extracted from harvested nerve tissue samples after implantation. To address this, multilayer microchannel scaffolds were developed with the object of providing more refined longitudinal observation of axon outgrowth by longitudinally 'sectioning' the device during fabrication, removing the need for much of the sample preparation process. This device was then implanted into the sciatic nerves of Lewis rats, and then harvested after two and four weeks to analyze the difference in nerve regeneration between two different time periods. The present layer by layer structure, which is separable after nerve regeneration and is treated as an individual layer during the histology process, provides the details of biological events during axonal regeneration. Confocal microscopic imaging showed the details of peripheral nerve regeneration including nerve branches and growth cones observable from within the microchannels of the multilayer PDMS microchannel scaffolds.

  15. Nerve growth factor and injured peripheral nerve regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Endong Shi; Bingchen Wang; Qingshan Sun

    2008-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) exhibits many biological activities, such as supply of nutrients, neuroprotection, and the generation and rehabilitation of injured nerves. The neuroprotective and neurotrophic qualities of NGF are generally recognized. NGF may enhance axonal regeneration and myelination of peripheral nerves, as well as cooperatively promote functional recovery of injured nerves and limbs. The clinical efficacy of NGF and its therapeutic potentials are reviewed here. This paper also reviews the latest NGF research developments for repairing injured peripheral nerve, thereby providing scientific evidence for the appropriate clinical application of NGF.

  16. Periosteum Metabolism and Nerve Fiber Positioning Depend on Interactions between Osteoblasts and Peripheral Innervation in Rat Mandible.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Mauprivez

    Full Text Available The sympathetic nervous system controls bone remodeling by regulating bone formation and resorption. How nerves and bone cells influence each other remains elusive. Here we modulated the content or activity of the neuropeptide Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide to investigate nerve-bone cell interplays in the mandible periosteum by assessing factors involved in nerve and bone behaviors. Young adult rats were chemically sympathectomized or treated with Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide or Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide10-28, a receptor antagonist. Sympathectomy depleted the osteogenic layer of the periosteum in neurotrophic proNerve Growth Factor and neurorepulsive semaphorin3a; sensory Calcitonin-Gene Related Peptide-positive fibers invaded this layer physiologically devoid of sensory fibers. In the periosteum non-osteogenic layer, sympathectomy activated mast cells to release mature Nerve Growth Factor while Calcitonin-Gene Related Peptide-positive fibers increased. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide treatment reversed sympathectomy effects. Treating intact animals with Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide increased proNerve Growth Factor expression and stabilized mast cells. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide10-28 treatment mimicked sympathectomy effects. Our data suggest that sympathetic Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide modulate the interactions between nervous fibers and bone cells by tuning expressions by osteogenic cells of factors responsible for mandible periosteum maintenance while osteogenic cells keep nervous fibers at a distance from the bone surface.

  17. Periosteum Metabolism and Nerve Fiber Positioning Depend on Interactions between Osteoblasts and Peripheral Innervation in Rat Mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauprivez, Cédric; Bataille, Caroline; Baroukh, Brigitte; Llorens, Annie; Lesieur, Julie; Marie, Pierre J; Saffar, Jean-Louis; Biosse Duplan, Martin; Cherruau, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system controls bone remodeling by regulating bone formation and resorption. How nerves and bone cells influence each other remains elusive. Here we modulated the content or activity of the neuropeptide Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide to investigate nerve-bone cell interplays in the mandible periosteum by assessing factors involved in nerve and bone behaviors. Young adult rats were chemically sympathectomized or treated with Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide or Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide10-28, a receptor antagonist. Sympathectomy depleted the osteogenic layer of the periosteum in neurotrophic proNerve Growth Factor and neurorepulsive semaphorin3a; sensory Calcitonin-Gene Related Peptide-positive fibers invaded this layer physiologically devoid of sensory fibers. In the periosteum non-osteogenic layer, sympathectomy activated mast cells to release mature Nerve Growth Factor while Calcitonin-Gene Related Peptide-positive fibers increased. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide treatment reversed sympathectomy effects. Treating intact animals with Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide increased proNerve Growth Factor expression and stabilized mast cells. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide10-28 treatment mimicked sympathectomy effects. Our data suggest that sympathetic Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide modulate the interactions between nervous fibers and bone cells by tuning expressions by osteogenic cells of factors responsible for mandible periosteum maintenance while osteogenic cells keep nervous fibers at a distance from the bone surface.

  18. Biomechanical properties of peripheral nerve after acellular treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xin-long; SUN Xiao-lei; YANG Zhao; LI Xiu-lan; MA Jian-xiong; ZHANG Yang; YUAN Zhen-zhen

    2011-01-01

    Background Peripheral nerve injury causes a high rate of disability and a huge economic burden,and is currently one of the serious health problems in the world.The use of nerve grafts plays a vital role in repairing nerve defects.Acellular nerve grafts have been widely used in many experimental models as a peripheral nerve substitute.The purpose of this study was to test the biomechanical properties of acellular nerve grafts.Methods Thirty-four fresh sciatic nerves were obtained from 17 adult male Wistar rats (age of 3 months) and randomly assigned to 3 groups:normal control group,nerve segments underwent no treatment and were put in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4) and stored at 4℃ until further use; physical method group,nerve segments were frozen at -196℃ and then thawed at 37℃; and chemical method group,nerve segments were chemically extracted with the detergents Triton X-200,sulfobetaine-10 (SB-10) and sulfobetaine-16 (SB-16).After the acellularization process was completed,the structural changes of in the sciatic nerves in each group were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and field emission scanning electron microscopy,then biomechanical properties were tested using a mechanical apparatus (Endura TEC ELF 3200,Bose,Boston,USA).Results Hematoxylin-eosin staining and field emission scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the effects of acellularization,demyelination,and integrity of nerve fiber tube of the chemical method were better than that of the physical method.Biomechanical testing showed that peripheral nerve grafts treated with the chemical method resulted in some decreased biomechanical properties (ultimate load,ultimate stress,ultimate strain,and mechanical work to fracture) compared with normal control nerves,but the differences were not statistically significant (P >0.05).Conclusion Nerve treated with the chemical method may be more appropriate for use in implantation than nerve treated with the physical method.

  19. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Photochemical bond- ing required clear access 5 mm proximal and dis- tal to coaptation sites. As a result, the maximum achievable nerve gap before...rodents for nerve gap reconstruction. Induction and maintenance anesthesia was achieved using isoflurane (Baxter Healthcare Corp., Deerfield, Ill...injury, nerve gap , nerve wrap, PTB, photosealing, Rose Bengal, amnion, nerve conduit, crosslinking, allograft, photochemistry. 3. Accomplishments

  20. Neurophysiological approach to disorders of peripheral nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Clarissa; Krarup, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Disorders of the peripheral nerve system (PNS) are heterogeneous and may involve motor fibers, sensory fibers, small myelinated and unmyelinated fibers and autonomic nerve fibers, with variable anatomical distribution (single nerves, several different nerves, symmetrical affection of all nerves...... methods including nerve conduction studies and electromyography used in the study of patients suspected of having a neuropathy and the significance of the findings are discussed in detail and more novel and experimental methods are mentioned. Diagnostic considerations are based on a flow chart classifying...

  1. A Romanian therapeutic approach to peripheral nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegrea, I; Chivu, Laura Ioana; Albu, Mădălina Georgiana; Zamfirescu, D; Chivu, R D; Ion, Daniela Adriana; Lascăr, I

    2012-01-01

    The study of nerve regeneration and functional recovery of the injured peripheral nerves represents a worldwide subject of clinical and scientific research. Our team aimed to obtain the first guide for nerve regeneration, bioartificial and biodegradable, using exclusively Romanian resources and having the advantages of price and quality, over the imported nerve conduits already used in clinical practice. First steps of this project consisted in obtaining the prototype of nerve guide conduit and its' testing in vitro and in vivo. Tests of physicochemical characterization, FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) spectrometry, thermal analysis (differential calorimetry, thermo-gravimetry), electron microscopy, water absorption and enzymatic degradation of the obtained prototype were followed by in vivo testing. The first results, obtained on a group of Brown Norway rats who suffered experimental lesions of 1 cm at the level of left sciatic nerve, which have then been repaired using the Romanian conduit prototype, are favorable in terms of biocompatibility, biodegradable capacity and support of nerve regeneration.

  2. Peripheral Neuropathy in Rats Exposed to Dichloroacetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, Nigel A.; Lopez, Veronica L.; Bautista, Arjel D.; Mizisin, Leah M.; Torres, Brenda R.; Shroads, Albert L.; Mizisin, Andrew P.; Stacpoole, Peter W.

    2009-01-01

    The use of dichloroacetate (DCA) for treating patients with mitochondrial diseases is limited by the induction of peripheral neuropathy. The mechanisms of DCA-induced neuropathy are not known. Oral DCA treatment (50–500 mg/kg/day for up to 16 weeks) induced tactile allodynia in both juvenile and adult rats; concurrent thermal hypoalgesia developed at higher doses. Both juvenile and adult rats treated with DCA developed nerve conduction slowing that was more pronounced in adult rats. No overt axonal or glial cell abnormalities were identified in peripheral nerves or spinal cord of any DCA-treated rats but morphometric analysis identified a reduction of mean axonal caliber of peripheral nerve myelinated fibers. DCA treatment also caused accumulation of oxidative stress markers in the nerves. These data indicate that behavioral, functional and structural indices of peripheral neuropathy may be induced in both juvenile and adult rats treated with DCA at doses similar to those in clinical use. DCA-induced peripheral neuropathy primarily afflicts axons and involves both metabolic and structural disorders. The DCA-treated rat may provide insight into the pathogenesis of peripheral neuropathy and facilitate development of adjuvant therapeutics to prevent this disorder that currently restricts the clinical use of DCA. PMID:19680144

  3. Chitosan Conduit for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Chitosan, the N-deacetylated form of chitin, has good biocompatibility and biodegradability.This paper investigates the feasibility of using chitosan conduits for peripheral nerve regeneration.Cell culture experiments were used to test the material's cytotoxicity and affinity to nerve cells.Conduit implantation experiments were used to study the degradation of the material and the regeneration of injured sciatic nerves.The primary results indicate that chitosan has good mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and biodegradability and it may be a promising biomaterial for peripheral nerve regeneration.

  4. The neurochemistry of peripheral nerve regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benga, Andreea; Zor, Fatih; Korkmaz, Ahmet; Marinescu, Bogdan; Gorantla, Vijay

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) can be most disabling, resulting in the loss of sensitivity, motor function and autonomic control in the involved anatomical segment. Although injured peripheral nerves are capable of regeneration, sub-optimal recovery of function is seen even with the best reconstruction. Distal axonal degeneration is an unavoidable consequence of PNI. There are currently few strategies aimed to maintain the distal pathway and/or target fidelity during regeneration across the zone of injury. The current state of the art approaches have been focussed on the site of nerve injury and not on their distal muscular targets or representative proximal cell bodies or central cortical regions. This is a comprehensive literature review of the neurochemistry of peripheral nerve regeneration and a state of the art analysis of experimental compounds (inorganic and organic agents) with demonstrated neurotherapeutic efficacy in improving cell body and neuron survival, reducing scar formation and maximising overall nerve regeneration. PMID:28615804

  5. Intrasellar malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayenbühl, N; Heppner, F; Yonekawa, Y; Bernays, R L

    2007-02-01

    Intracranial malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) and intrasellar schwannomas are rare tumors. We describe a case of an intrasellar schwannoma with progression to a MPNST, a finding that, although very rare, extends the differential diagnosis of intrasellar lesions.

  6. Peripheral nerve involvement in Bell's palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Bueri

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available A group of patients with Bell's palsy were studied in order to disclose the presence of subclinical peripheral nerve involvement. 20 patients, 8 male and 12 female, with recent Bell's palsy as their unique disease were examined, in all cases other causes of polyneuropathy were ruled out. Patients were investigated with CSF examination, facial nerve latencies in the affected and in the sound sides, and maximal motor nerve conduction velocities, as well as motor terminal latencies from the right median and peroneal nerves. CSF laboratory examination was normal in all cases. Facial nerve latencies were abnormal in all patients in the affected side, and they differed significantly from those of control group in the clinically sound side. Half of the patients showed abnormal values in the maximal motor nerve conduction velocities and motor terminal latencies of the right median and peroneal nerves. These results agree with previous reports which have pointed out that other cranial nerves may be affected in Bell's palsy. However, we have found a higher frequency of peripheral nerve involvement in this entity. These findings, support the hypothesis that in some patients Bell's palsy is the component of a more widespread disease, affecting other cranial and peripheral nerves.

  7. Peripheral nerve extract effects on mesenchymal cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, F. R.; Mukhopadhyay, B.; Becker, G.; Daniels, K.; Solursh, M

    1996-01-01

    Several common congenital limb disorders are characterized by normal tissue differentiation but abnormal somatic growth. These include: idiopathic clubfoot, idiopathic leg length discrepancy, hemi-atrophy and hemi-hypertrophy. Both clinical and research studies have suggested that peripheral nerves may be important in regulating somatic growth of limb tissues. To investigate the hypothesis that peripheral nerves convey trophic substances to mesenchymal tissues that are involved in the regulat...

  8. Gene therapy in peripheral nerve reconstruction approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haastert, Kirsten; Grothe, Claudia

    2007-06-01

    Gene transfer to a transected peripheral nerve or avulsed nerve root is discussed to be helpful where neurosurgical peripheral nerve reconstruction alone will not result in full recovery of function. Axonal regeneration is supposed to be facilitated by this new therapeutic approach via delivery of specific regeneration promoting molecules as well as survival proteins for the injured sensory and motor neurons. Therefore gene therapy aims in long-term and site-specific delivery of those neurotrophic factors. This paper reviews methods and perspectives for gene therapy to promote functional recovery of severely injured and thereafter reconstructed peripheral nerves. Experimental in vivo and ex vivo gene therapy approaches are reported by different groups. In vivo gene therapy generally uses direct injection of cDNA vectors to injured peripheral nerves. Ex vivo gene therapy is based on the isolation of autologous cells followed by genetic modification of these cells in vitro and re-transplantation of the modified cells to the patient as part of tissue engineered nerve transplants. Vectors of different origin are published to be suitable for peripheral nerve gene therapy and this review discusses the different strategies with regard to their efficiency in gene transfer, their risks and their potential relevance for clinical application.

  9. Magnetoneurographic evaluation of peripheral nerve regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.D.L. Kuypers (Paul)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractWhen a peripheral nerve is reconstructed after it has been damaged. it is important to assess, in an early stage, whether the nerve is regenerating across the lesion. However, at present for this purpose an adequate method is not available. In this study short term changes in the proxima

  10. A flexible microchannel electrode array for peripheral nerves to interface with neural prosthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrith, Ryan; Nothnagle, Caleb; Kim, Young-tae; Wijesundara, Muthu B. J.

    2016-05-01

    In order to control neural prosthetics by recording signals from peripheral nerves with the required specificity, high density electrode arrays that can be easily implanted on very small peripheral nerves (50μm-500μm) are needed. Interfacing with these small nerves is surgically challenging due to their size and fragile nature. To address this problem, a Flexible MicroChannel Electrode Array for interfacing with small diameter peripheral nerves and nerve fascicles was developed. The electrochemical characterization and electrophysiological recordings from the common peroneal nerve of a rat are presented along with demonstration of the surgical ease-of-use of the array.

  11. Spinal cord response to laser treatment of injured peripheral nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochkind, S.; Vogler, I.; Barr-Nea, L. (Ichilov Hospital, Tel-Aviv Medical Center (Israel))

    1990-01-01

    The authors describe the changes occurring in the spinal cord of rats subjected to crush injury of the sciatic nerve followed by low-power laser irradiation of the injured nerve. Such laser treatment of the crushed peripheral nerve has been found to mitigate the degenerative changes in the corresponding neurons of the spinal cord and induce proliferation of neuroglia both in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. This suggests a higher metabolism in neurons and a better ability for myelin production under the influence of laser treatment.

  12. Delayed functional expression of neuronal chemokine receptors following focal nerve demyelination in the rat: a mechanism for the development of chronic sensitization of peripheral nociceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monahan Patrick E

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal and clinical studies have revealed that focal peripheral nerve axon demyelination is accompanied by nociceptive pain behavior. C-C and C-X-C chemokines and their receptors have been strongly implicated in demyelinating polyneuropathies and persistent pain syndromes. Herein, we studied the degree to which chronic nociceptive pain behavior is correlated with the neuronal expression of chemokines and their receptors following unilateral lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC-induced focal demyelination of the sciatic nerve in rats. Results Focal nerve demyelination increased behavioral reflex responsiveness to mechanical stimuli between postoperative day (POD 3 and POD28 in both the hindpaw ipsilateral and contralateral to the nerve injury. This behavior was accompanied by a bilateral increase in the numbers of primary sensory neurons expressing the chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR5, and CXCR4 by POD14, with no change in the pattern of CXCR3 expression. Significant increases in the numbers of neurons expressing the chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2, Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted (RANTES/CCL5 and interferon γ-inducing protein-10 (IP-10/CXCL10 were also evident following nerve injury, although neuronal expression pattern of stromal cell derived factor-1α (SDF1/CXCL12 did not change. Functional studies demonstrated that acutely dissociated sensory neurons derived from LPC-injured animals responded with increased [Ca2+]i following exposure to MCP-1, IP-10, SDF1 and RANTES on POD 14 and 28, but these responses were largely absent by POD35. On days 14 and 28, rats received either saline or a CCR2 receptor antagonist isomer (CCR2 RA-[R] or its inactive enantiomer (CCR2 RA-[S] by intraperitoneal (i.p. injection. CCR2 RA-[R] treatment of nerve-injured rats produced stereospecific bilateral reversal of tactile hyperalgesia. Conclusion These results suggest that the presence of chemokine

  13. Dynamic regulation of Schwann cell enhancers after peripheral nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Holly A; Sun, Guannan; Keles, Sunduz; Svaren, John

    2015-03-13

    Myelination of the peripheral nervous system is required for axonal function and long term stability. After peripheral nerve injury, Schwann cells transition from axon myelination to a demyelinated state that supports neuronal survival and ultimately remyelination of axons. Reprogramming of gene expression patterns during development and injury responses is shaped by the actions of distal regulatory elements that integrate the actions of multiple transcription factors. We used ChIP-seq to measure changes in histone H3K27 acetylation, a mark of active enhancers, to identify enhancers in myelinating rat peripheral nerve and their dynamics after demyelinating nerve injury. Analysis of injury-induced enhancers identified enriched motifs for c-Jun, a transcription factor required for Schwann cells to support nerve regeneration. We identify a c-Jun-bound enhancer in the gene for Runx2, a transcription factor induced after nerve injury, and we show that Runx2 is required for activation of other induced genes. In contrast, enhancers that lose H3K27ac after nerve injury are enriched for binding sites of the Sox10 and early growth response 2 (Egr2/Krox20) transcription factors, which are critical determinants of Schwann cell differentiation. Egr2 expression is lost after nerve injury, and many Egr2-binding sites lose H3K27ac after nerve injury. However, the majority of Egr2-bound enhancers retain H3K27ac, indicating that other transcription factors maintain active enhancer status after nerve injury. The global epigenomic changes in H3K27ac deposition pinpoint dynamic changes in enhancers that mediate the effects of transcription factors that control Schwann cell myelination and peripheral nervous system responses to nerve injury.

  14. Etiological factors of traumatic peripheral nerve injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eser Filiz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic injury of peripheral nerves is a worldwide problem and can result in significant disability. Management of peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs requires accurate localization and the assessment of severity of the lesion. Aim: The purpose of this study is to analyze the data of patients with PNIs referred for electromyography to a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of clinical and electromyographic data of patients with PNIs seen over a period of eight-years (1999-2007 in a tertiary hospital. The data collected included: Demographic data, cause, type of lesion, anatomical location of the lesion, and the mechanism of lesion. Results: During the study period 938 patients were seen with nerve injuries and the distribution of nerve injuries was: PNIs: 1,165; brachial plexus lesions: 76; and lumbar plexus lesions: 7. The mean age was 31.8 years (range 2-81 years and the male to female ratio was 2.4:1. The most frequent nerve injuries were ulnar nerve in the upper extremity and sciatic nerve in the lower extremity. The most common cause of nerve injury was motor vehicle accidents. Two-thirds of the PNIs were partial. Conclusion: This study can serve as a guide to determine the epidemiology and classification of traumatic peripheral and plexus injuries.

  15. Peripheral nerve imaging: Not only cross-sectional area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliafico, Alberto Stefano

    2016-08-28

    Peripheral nerve imaging is recognized as a complement to clinical and neurophysiological assessment in the evaluation of peripheral nerves with the ability to impact patient management, even for small and difficult nerves. The European Society of Musculoskeletal Radiology, suggest to use ultrasound (US) for nerve evaluation due to the fact that, in sever anatomical area, magnetic resonance imaging is not able to give additional informations. US could be considered the first-choice approach for the assessment of peripheral nerves. The relative drawback of peripheral nerve US is the long learning curve and the deep anatomic competence to evaluate even small nerves. In the recent years, the role of US in peripheral nerve evaluation has been widened. In the past, nerve US was mainly used to assess nerve-cross sectional area, but now more advanced measurements and considerations are desirable and can boost the role of peripheral nerve US. Nerve echotexture evaluation was defined in 2010: The ratio between the hypoechoic and hyperechoic areas of peripheral nerves on US was called "nerve density". For evaluation of patients who have peripheral neuropathies, the role of peripheral nerve is US wider than simple cross-sectional area evaluation. Quantitative measurements describing the internal fascicular echotexture of peripheral nerves introduce the concept of considering US as a possible quantitative imaging biomarker technique. The potential of nerve US has started to be uncovered. It seems clear that only cross-sectional area measurement is no more sufficient for a comprehensive US evaluation of peripheral nerves.

  16. Electrical Stimulation to Promote Peripheral Nerve Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willand, Michael P; Nguyen, May-Anh; Borschel, Gregory H; Gordon, Tessa

    2016-06-01

    Peripheral nerve injury afflicts individuals from all walks of life. Despite the peripheral nervous system's intrinsic ability to regenerate, many patients experience incomplete functional recovery. Surgical repair aims to expedite this recovery process in the most thorough manner possible. However, full recovery is still rarely seen especially when nerve injury is compounded with polytrauma where surgical repair is delayed. Pharmaceutical strategies supplementary to nerve microsurgery have been investigated but surgery remains the only viable option. Brief low-frequency electrical stimulation of the proximal nerve stump after primary repair has been widely investigated. This article aims to review the currently known biological basis for the regenerative effects of acute brief low-frequency electrical stimulation on axonal regeneration and outline the recent clinical applications of the electrical stimulation protocol to demonstrate the significant translational potential of this modality for repairing peripheral nerve injuries. The review concludes with a discussion of emerging new advancements in this exciting area of research. The current literature indicates the imminent clinical applicability of acute brief low-frequency electrical stimulation after surgical repair to effectively promote axonal regeneration as the stimulation has yielded promising evidence to maximize functional recovery in diverse types of peripheral nerve injuries. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Nerve Ultrasound in Peripheral Neuropathies: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerasnoudis, Antonios; Tsivgoulis, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathies are one of the most common reasons for seeking neurological care in everyday practice. Electrophysiological studies remain fundamental for the diagnosis and etiological classification of peripheral nerve impairment. The recent technological development though of high resolution ultrasound has allowed the clinician to obtain detailed structural images of peripheral nerves. Nerve ultrasound mainly focuses on the evaluation of the cross sectional area, cross sectional area variability along the anatomical course, echogenity, vascularity and mobility of the peripheral nerves. An increase of the cross sectional area, hypervascularity, disturbed fascicular echostructure and reduced nerve mobility are some of the most common findings of entrapments neuropathies, such as the carpal or cubital tunnel syndrome. Both the cross-sectional area increase and the hypervascularity detected with the Doppler technique seem to correlate significantly with the clinical and electrophysiological severity of the later mononeuropathies. Significantly greater cross sectional area values of the clinically affected cervical nerve root are often detected in cases of cervical radiculopathy. In such cases, the ultrasound findings seem also to correlate significantly with disease duration. On the other hand, multifocal cross sectional area enlargement of cervical roots and/or peripheral nerves is often documented in cases of immune-mediated neuropathies. None of the later pathological ultrasound findings seem to correlate significantly with the electrophysiological parameters or the functional disability. The aim of this review is to provide a timely update on the role of neuromuscular ultrasound in the diagnostic of the most common entrapment and immune-mediated peripheral neuropathies in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  18. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    MB, Roberts AB, Wakersfield LM, de Crombrugghe B. Some recent advances in the chemistry and biology of trans- forming growth factor-beta. J Cell Biol...animal facility and had access to food and water as required. 59 Copyright © 2015 American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Unauthorized reproduction...s): F1 Art : PRS182917 Input-nlm 69 Manuscript 3: Large Gap Nerve Reconstruction Using Acellular Nerve Allografts And Photochemical Tissue

  19. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    factors and mis- guided axons into adjacent tissues further compromises outcome and likely contributes to neuroma formation. These effects are... effects on neurite outgrowth and can support axonal regeneration in the absence of SCs. Whilst this may be sufficient over short lengths of ANA... effective for nerve regeneration than autograft in clinical implementation using microsurgical attachment, we hypothesized that the photosealing benefit may

  20. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Nerve wrap biomaterials Human amniotic membrane was obtained from elective caesarean section patients who had been screened serologically for human...80°C until the day of surgery. Human amnion (HAM) harvest and processing Amniotic membrane was obtained from elective caesarean section patients

  1. IMMUNOGLOBULIN DEPOSITIONS IN PERIPHERAL NERVES IN POLYMYOSITIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李越星; 陈清棠; 吴丽娟; 贾钟; 张秋荣; 左越焕

    1995-01-01

    An immunocytochemical study was performed in 6 peripheral nerve specimens from 6 cases of polymyositis.The results revealed that depositions of IgG,IgM,IgA and C3 were found in the epineurium,perineurium and the walls of capillaries.These findings demonstrated that depositions of immonoglobulins and the complement-mediated immunoreaction may play an important role in pathogenesis of polymyositis with peripheral nerfve involvements.

  2. Ferulic Acid Enhances Peripheral Nerve Regeneration across Long Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Chi Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of ferulic acid (FA on peripheral nerve injury. In the in vitro test, the effect of FA on viability of Schwann cells was studied. In the in vivo test, right sciatic nerves of the rats were transected, and a 15 mm nerve defect was created. A nerve conduit made of silicone rubber tube filled with FA (5 and 25 μg/mL, or saline (control, was implanted into the nerve defect. Results show that the number of proliferating Schwann cells increased significantly in the FA-treated group at 25 μg/mL compared to that in the control group. After 8 weeks, the FA-treated group at 25 μg/mL had a higher rate of successful regeneration across the wide gap, a significantly calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP staining of the lamina I-II regions in the dorsal horn ipsilateral to the injury, a significantly diminished number of macrophages recruited, and a significantly shortening of the latency and an acceleration of the nerve conductive velocity (NCV of the evoked muscle action potentials (MAPs compared with the controls. In summary, the FA may be useful in the development of future strategies for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury.

  3. Recovery of Peripheral Nerve with Massive Loss Defect by Tissue Engineered Guiding Regenerative Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimon Rochkind

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Guiding Regeneration Gel (GRG was developed in response to the clinical need of improving treatment for peripheral nerve injuries and helping patients regenerate massive regional losses in peripheral nerves. The efficacy of GRG based on tissue engineering technology for the treatment of complete peripheral nerve injury with significant loss defect was investigated. Background. Many severe peripheral nerve injuries can only be treated through surgical reconstructive procedures. Such procedures are challenging, since functional recovery is slow and can be unsatisfactory. One of the most promising solutions already in clinical practice is synthetic nerve conduits connecting the ends of damaged nerve supporting nerve regeneration. However, this solution still does not enable recovery of massive nerve loss defect. The proposed technology is a biocompatible and biodegradable gel enhancing axonal growth and nerve regeneration. It is composed of a complex of substances comprising transparent, highly viscous gel resembling the extracellular matrix that is almost impermeable to liquids and gasses, flexible, elastic, malleable, and adaptable to various shapes and formats. Preclinical study on rat model of peripheral nerve injury showed that GRG enhanced nerve regeneration when placed in nerve conduits, enabling recovery of massive nerve loss, previously unbridgeable, and enabled nerve regeneration at least as good as with autologous nerve graft “gold standard” treatment.

  4. Histological assessment in peripheral nerve tissue engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vctor Carriel; Ingrid Garzn; Miguel Alaminos; Maria Cornelissen

    2014-01-01

    The histological analysis of peripheral nerve regeneration is one of the most used methods to demonstrate the success of the regeneration through nerve conduits. Nowadays, it is possible to evaluate different parameters of nerve regeneration by using histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural techniques. The histochemical methods are very sensible and are useful tools to evaluate the extracellular matrix remodeling and the myelin sheath, but they are poorly speciifc. In contrast, the immunohistochemical methods are highly speciifc and are frequently used for the identiifcation of the regenerated axons, Schwann cells and proteins associated to nerve regeneration or neural linage. The ultrastructural techniques offer the possibility to perform a high resolution morphological and quantitative analysis of the nerve regeneration. However, the use of a single histological method may not be enough to assess the degree of regeneration, and the combination of different histological techniques could be necessary.

  5. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    71. Burman S, Tejwani S, Vemuganti GK. Ophthalmic applications of preserved human amniotic membrane: a review of current indications. Cell Tissue Bank...segmental nerve deficit repair using isograft show the best performing wrap/ fixation method to be sutureless photochemical tissue bonding with the...crosslinked amnion wrap. Autograft is often unavailable in wounded warriors, due to extensive tissue damage and amputation and, importantly, we also

  6. Peripheral nerve involvement in spinocerebellar ataxias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Warrenburg, Bart P C; Notermans, Nicolette C; Schelhaas, Helenius J; van Alfen, Nens; Sinke, Richard J; Knoers, Nine V A M; Zwarts, Machiel J; Kremer, Berry P H

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias (ADCAs), it is unclear whether the associated peripheral nerve involvement is always a typical length-dependent axonopathy rather than primary neuronopathy due to neuronal degeneration in the spinal anterior horns and/or dorsal root ganglia. OBJEC

  7. Drug Delivery for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    and diffusion hole follow sterilization . The manufactured PLGA devices were sterilized using 70% ethanol (n=42), ethylene oxide (ETO) (n=46), and a...hydrogels. The shortcomings of current devices in terms of burst effect , nonuniform dosage, and uneven drug delivery, necessitates a new approach to...Specific Aim 2 -- To evaluate the effectiveness of the conduit-drug delivery device to enhance nerve regeneration across a 15mm nerve gap in a rat sciatic

  8. The Morphofunctional Effect of the Transplantation of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells and Predegenerated Peripheral Nerve in Chronic Paraplegic Rat Model via Spinal Cord Transection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzoianu-Anguiano, Vinnitsa; Orozco-Suárez, Sandra; García-Vences, Elisa; Caballero-Chacón, Sara; Guizar-Sahagún, Gabriel; Chavez-Sanchez, Luis; Grijalva, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Functional recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI) is limited by poor axonal and cellular regeneration as well as the failure to replace damaged myelin. Employed separately, both the transplantation of the predegenerated peripheral nerve (PPN) and the transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been shown to promote the regrowth and remyelination of the damaged central axons in SCI models of hemisection, transection, and contusion injury. With the aim to test the effects of the combined transplantation of PPN and BMSC on regrowth, remyelination, and locomotor function in an adult rat model of spinal cord (SC) transection, 39 Fischer 344 rats underwent SC transection at T9 level. Four weeks later they were randomly assigned to traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) without treatment, TSCI + Fibrin Glue (FG), TSCI + FG + PPN, and TSCI + FG + PPN + BMSCs. Eight weeks after, transplantation was carried out on immunofluorescence and electron microscope studies. The results showed greater axonal regrowth and remyelination in experimental groups TSCI + FG + PPN and TSCI + FG + PPN + BMSCs analyzed with GAP-43, neuritin, and myelin basic protein. It is concluded that the combined treatment of PPN and BMSCs is a favorable strategy for axonal regrowth and remyelination in a chronic SC transection model. PMID:26634157

  9. Laminin-based Nanomaterials for Peripheral Nerve Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Rebekah Anne

    Peripheral nerve transection occurs commonly in traumatic injury, causing motor and sensory deficits distal to the site of injury. One option for surgical repair is the nerve conduit. Conduits currently on the market are hollow tubes into which the nerve ends are sutured. Although these conduits fill the gap, they often fail due to the slow rate of regeneration over long gaps. To facilitate increased speed of regeneration and greater potential for functional recovery, the ideal conduit should provide biochemically relevant signals and physical guidance cues, thus playing an active role in peripheral nerve regeneration. In this dissertation, I fabricated laminin-1 and laminin-polycaprolactone (PCL) blend nanofibers that mimic the geometry and functionality of the peripheral nerve basement membrane. These fibers resist hydration in aqueous media and require no harsh chemical crosslinkers. Adhesion and differentiation of both neuron-like and neuroprogenitor cells is improved on laminin nanofibrous meshes over two-dimensional laminin substrates. Blend meshes with varying laminin content were characterized for composition, tensile properties, degradation rates, and bioactivity in terms of cell attachment and axonal elongation. I have established that 10% (wt) laminin content is sufficient to retain the significant neurite-promoting effects of laminin critical in peripheral nerve repair. In addition, I utilized modified collector plate design to manipulate electric field gradients during electrospinning for the fabrication of aligned nanofibers. These aligned substrates provide enhanced directional guidance cues to the regenerating axons. Finally, I replicated the clinical problem of peripheral nerve transection using a rat tibial nerve defect model for conduit implantation. When the lumens of conduits were filled with nanofiber meshes of varying laminin content and alignment, I observed significant recovery of sensory and motor function over six weeks. This recovery was

  10. 21 CFR 868.2775 - Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator. 868.2775... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2775 Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator. (a) Identification. An electrical peripheral nerve stimulator (neuromuscular blockade monitor)...

  11. Engineering a multimodal nerve conduit for repair of injured peripheral nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, A. F.; Bulluss, K. J.; Kyratzis, I. L. B.; Gilmore, K.; Mysore, T.; Schirmer, K. S. U.; Kennedy, E. L.; O'Shea, M.; Truong, Y. B.; Edwards, S. L.; Peeters, G.; Herwig, P.; Razal, J. M.; Campbell, T. E.; Lowes, K. N.; Higgins, M. J.; Moulton, S. E.; Murphy, M. A.; Cook, M. J.; Clark, G. M.; Wallace, G. G.; Kapsa, R. M. I.

    2013-02-01

    Injury to nerve tissue in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) results in long-term impairment of limb function, dysaesthesia and pain, often with associated psychological effects. Whilst minor injuries can be left to regenerate without intervention and short gaps up to 2 cm can be sutured, larger or more severe injuries commonly require autogenous nerve grafts harvested from elsewhere in the body (usually sensory nerves). Functional recovery is often suboptimal and associated with loss of sensation from the tissue innervated by the harvested nerve. The challenges that persist with nerve repair have resulted in development of nerve guides or conduits from non-neural biological tissues and various polymers to improve the prognosis for the repair of damaged nerves in the PNS. This study describes the design and fabrication of a multimodal controlled pore size nerve regeneration conduit using polylactic acid (PLA) and (PLA):poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) fibers within a neurotrophin-enriched alginate hydrogel. The nerve repair conduit design consists of two types of PLGA fibers selected specifically for promotion of axonal outgrowth and Schwann cell growth (75:25 for axons; 85:15 for Schwann cells). These aligned fibers are contained within the lumen of a knitted PLA sheath coated with electrospun PLA nanofibers to control pore size. The PLGA guidance fibers within the nerve repair conduit lumen are supported within an alginate hydrogel impregnated with neurotrophic factors (NT-3 or BDNF with LIF, SMDF and MGF-1) to provide neuroprotection, stimulation of axonal growth and Schwann cell migration. The conduit was used to promote repair of transected sciatic nerve in rats over a period of 4 weeks. Over this period, it was observed that over-grooming and self-mutilation (autotomy) of the limb implanted with the conduit was significantly reduced in rats implanted with the full-configuration conduit compared to rats implanted with conduits containing only an alginate

  12. Vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 levels after peripheral nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Idiris Altun; Ergl Belge Kuruta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether tissue levels of vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 were altered after crush-induced peripheral nerve injury in an experimental rat model. A total of 80 male Wistar rats were randomized into one control (n = 8) and six study groups (1, 6, 12, 24 hours, 3, and 7 days after experimental nerve injury;n = 12 for each group). Crush-induced peripheral nerve injury was per-formed on the sciatic nerves of rats in six study groups. Tissue samples from the sites of peripheral nerve injury were obtained at 1, 6, 12, 24 hours, 3 and 7 days after experimental nerve injury. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results showed that tissue levels of vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 in the injured sciatic nerve were signiifcantly greater at 1 and 12 hours after experimental nerve injury, while they were signiifcantly lower at 7 days than in control group. Tissue level of vitamin B12 in the injured sciatic nerve was signiifcantly lower at 1, 6, 12 and 24 hours than in the control group. These results suggest that tissue levels of vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 vary with progression of crush-induced peripheral nerve injury, and supplementation of these vitamins in the acute period may be beneficial for acceleration of nerve regeneration.

  13. Effect of arecoline on regeneration of injured peripheral nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sheng-Chi; Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Hsu, Yuan-Man; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Wu, Ming-Chang

    2013-01-01

    The present study provides in vitro and in vivo evaluation of arecoline on peripheral nerve regeneration. In the in vitro study, we found that arecoline at 50 μg/ml could significantly promote the survival and outgrowth of cultured Schwann cells as compared to the controls treated with culture medium only. In the in vivo study, we evaluated peripheral nerve regeneration across a 10-mm gap in the sciatic nerve of the rat, using a silicone rubber nerve chamber filled with the arecoline solution. In the control group, the chambers were filled with normal saline only. At the end of the fourth week, morphometric data revealed that the arecoline-treated group at 5 μg/ml significantly increased the number and the density of myelinated axons as compared to the controls. Immunohistochemical staining in the arecoline-treated animals at 5 μg/ml also showed their neural cells in the L4 and L5 dorsal root ganglia ipsilateral to the injury were strongly retrograde-labeled with fluorogold and lamina I-II regions in the dorsal horn ipsilateral to the injury were significantly calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunolabeled compared with the controls. In addition, we found that the number of macrophages recruited in the distal sciatic nerve was increased as the concentration of arecoline was increased. Electrophysiological measurements showed the arecoline-treated groups at 5 and 50 μg/ml had a relatively larger nerve conductive velocity of the evoked muscle action potentials compared to the controls. These results indicate that arecoline could stimulate local inflammatory conditions, improving the recovery of a severe peripheral nerve injury.

  14. Low-intensity ultrasound for regeneration of injured peripheral nerve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhou; Wenzhi Chen; Kun Zhou; Zhibiao Wang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ultrasound is a kind of mechanical wave and characterized by mechanical effect,heat affect and physical and chemical effect.Ultrasound can promote regeneration of peripheral nerves after a slight injury based on its mechanical effect.However,whether it can promote regeneration of peripheral nerves after a severe injury or not is still unclear.OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of low-intensity ultrasound(LIU)on regeneration of injured peripheral nerve,throgh examining sciatic nerve function index,the sensory nerve conduction velocity and the thickness of myelin sheath.DESIGN: Single factor design of contrast observation.SETTING: Institute of Ultrasound Engineering,Chongqing Medical University.MATERIALS:A total of 64 female Wistar rats,of clean grade,age 3 moths,weighing 200-250g ,were provided by Experimental Animal Center of Chongqing Medical University. All rats were randomly divided into treatment group and control group with 32 in each group. In addition rats were observed at 4 time points, including 2,4,6 and 8 weeks,with 8 at each time point.The main equipments were detailed as follows:forceps (Medical Treatment Apparatus Company,Chongqing),low-intensity ultrasound treatment instrument(Institute of Ulrasound Engineering in Medicine),the analysis instrument of diagram resembles and arithmetic figure(the United States Bio-RAD Company),ultrasound coupling agent(Xunde Image material factory,Hangzhou),Osmium Tetraoxide(Next Chimicam,South Africa).METHODS:The experiment was carried out in Institute of Ultrasound Engineering of Chongqing Medical University from December 2003 to May 2004.The right sciatic nerves of 64 rats were crushed with forceps for 30 s to form the experimental animal models.Then they were treated at 3 days after operation.Rats in the treatment group received the LIU exposure.LIU was applied every other day to the crush site of rats,which had a spatial peak,time-averaged intensity of 0.25 W/cm2 operated at 1 MHz for 1 minute per

  15. Bacterial melanin promotes recovery after sciatic nerve injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olga V Gevorkyan; Irina B Meliksetyan; Tigran R Petrosyan; Anichka S Hovsepyan

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial melanin, obtained from the mutant strain ofBacillus Thuringiensis, has been shown to promote recovery after central nervous system injury. It is hypothesized, in this study, that bacterial melanin can promote structural and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. Rats subjected to sciatic nerve transection were intramuscularly administered bacterial melanin. The sciatic nerve transected rats that did not receive intramuscular administration of bacterial melanin served as controls. Behavior tests showed that compared to control rats, the time taken for instrumental conditioned relfex recovery was signiifcantly shorter and the ability to keep the balance on the rotating bar was signiifcantly better in bacterial melanin-treated rats. Histomor-phological tests showed that bacterial melanin promoted axon regeneration after sciatic nerve injury. These ifndings suggest that bacterial melanin exhibits neuroprotective effects on injured sciatic nerve, contributes to limb motor function recovery, and therefore can be used for rehabil-itation treatment of peripheral nerve injury.

  16. Extracellular matrix components in peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Perez, Francisco; Udina, Esther; Navarro, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Injured axons of the peripheral nerve are able to regenerate and, eventually, reinnervate target organs. However, functional recovery is usually poor after severe nerve injuries. The switch of Schwann cells to a proliferative state, secretion of trophic factors, and the presence of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules (such as collagen, laminin, or fibronectin) in the distal stump are key elements to create a permissive environment for axons to grow. In this review, we focus attention on the ECM components and their tropic role in axonal regeneration. These components can also be used as molecular cues to guide the axons through artificial nerve guides in attempts to better mimic the natural environment found in a degenerating nerve. Most used scaffolds tested are based on natural molecules that form the ECM, but use of synthetic polymers and functionalization of hydrogels are bringing new options. Progress in tissue engineering will eventually lead to the design of composite artificial nerve grafts that may replace the use of autologous nerve grafts to sustain regeneration over long gaps.

  17. Raman spectroscopic detection of peripheral nerves towards nerve-sparing surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamikawa, Takeo; Harada, Yoshinori; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2017-02-01

    The peripheral nervous system plays an important role in motility, sensory, and autonomic functions of the human body. Preservation of peripheral nerves in surgery, namely nerve-sparing surgery, is now promising technique to avoid functional deficits of the limbs and organs following surgery as an aspect of the improvement of quality of life of patients. Detection of peripheral nerves including myelinated and unmyelinated nerves is required for the nerve-sparing surgery; however, conventional nerve identification scheme is sometimes difficult to identify peripheral nerves due to similarity of shape and color to non-nerve tissues or its limited application to only motor peripheral nerves. To overcome these issues, we proposed a label-free detection technique of peripheral nerves by means of Raman spectroscopy. We found several fingerprints of peripheral myelinated and unmyelinated nerves by employing a modified principal component analysis of typical spectra including myelinated nerve, unmyelinated nerve, and adjacent tissues. We finally realized the sensitivity of 94.2% and the selectivity of 92.0% for peripheral nerves including myelinated and unmyelinated nerves against adjacent tissues. Although further development of an intraoperative Raman spectroscopy system is required for clinical use, our proposed approach will serve as a unique and powerful tool for peripheral nerve detection for nerve-sparing surgery in the future.

  18. Fos protein-like immunoreactive neurons induced by electrical stimulation in the trigeminal sensory nuclear complex of rats with chronically injured peripheral nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Naoko; Terayama, Ryuji; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Omura, Shinji; Yamashiro, Takashi; Sugimoto, Tomosada

    2012-06-01

    The rat trigeminal sensory nuclear complex (TSNC) was examined for Fos protein-like immunoreactive (Fos-LI) neurons induced by electrical stimulation (ES) of the lingual nerve (LN) at 2 weeks after injury to the LN or the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN). Intensity-dependent increase in the number of Fos-LI neurons was observed in the subnucleus oralis (Vo) and caudalis (Vc) of the spinal trigeminal tract nucleus irrespective of nerve injury. The number of Fos-LI neurons induced by ES of the chronically injured LN at A-fiber intensity (0.1 mA) was significantly increased in the Vo but not the Vc. On the other hand, in rats with chronically injured IAN, the number of Fos-LI neurons induced by ES of the LN at C-fiber intensity (10 mA) was significantly increased in the Vc but not the Vo. These results indicated that injury of a nerve innervating intraoral structures increased the c-Fos response of Vo neurons to A-fiber intensity ES of the injured nerve. A similar nerve injury enhanced the c-Fos response of Vc neurons to C-fiber intensity ES of a spared uninjured nerve innervating an intraoral territory neighboring that of the injured nerve. The present result show that nerve injury causes differential effects on c-Fos expression in the Vo and Vc, which may explain complexity of neuropathic pain symptoms in clinical cases.

  19. Effects of subcutaneous implant of peripheral nerve allograft on the regeneration of defected sciatic nerve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingtang Gao; Dianming Jiang; Hong An

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some experimental studies demonstrate that subcutaneous implant of allograft can significantly decrease lymphocyte infiltration and reduce immunological reaction. However, compared with autologous nerve grafting, what is the effect of nerve regeneration after repair?OBJECTIVE: To observe the local nervous status of the detected part of sciatic nerve repaired through subcutaneously implanting peripheral nerve allograft, and compare the effect with fresh autologous nerve grafting.DESIGN: Contrast observation.SETTING: Departments of Orthopaedics of Zhengzhou Fifth People's Hospital and First Hospital Affiliated to Chongqing Medical University.MATERIALS: Totally 30 healthy adult Wistar male rats, with body mass of (200±20)g, were enrolled. Optical microscope (Olympus biological microscope BHS, Japan), Electron microscope (H-600, Japan),CM-2000 biomedical image analysis system (CM-2000,Beihang) and myoelectricity scanner (KEYPOINT,Denmark) were used in this experiment.METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the Orthopaedic Laboratory of Chongqing Medical University between October 2000 and April 2002. ① Six rats were chosen as the donors for allogenic nerve grafting,and 15 mm sciatic nerve segment was chosen as graft. The other rats were randomly divided into two groups: allogenic nerve grafting group and autologous nerve grafting group, with 12 rats in each group. In the allogenic nerve grafting group, a skin incision was made on the posterior side of right thigh, and subcutaneous blunt dissection was performed prorsally a little, then allograft was implanted. Two weeks later, sciatic nerve was exposed at the posterior side of left thigh and cut respectively at 5 mm and another 10 mm away from pelvis. The donor nerve (with connective tissue veil) implanted subcutaneously on the right thigh was taken out. Sectioned connective tissue at the proximal end was trimmed and that at the distal end as done but reserved 10 mm in length, and inosculated

  20. [Neurosurgical position causes peripheral nerve injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Enríquez, Pedro; Pérez-Neri, Iván; Manrique-Carmona, Luisa

    2016-12-16

    Positioning during neurosurgical procedures is a challenge for surgical teams even if precautions are taken, the mechanisms underlying peripheral nerve injury (elongation, compression or ischaemia) are latent and it is important to know the frequency of occurrence in our environment. To analyze the frequency of peripheral nerve injury secondary to surgical positioning. Prospective study including 163 patients scheduled for neurosurgical procedures. Four groups: supine, lateral, ventral and park bench were analyzed by neurological exploration in order to detect injury and relate with risk factors already described. In this study 112 patients were included, two patients who were under park bench position experienced paresthesias in ulnar region of less than 24 hours' duration; statistically significant correlation with body weight greater than 85kg. The incidence of peripheral nerve injury is low, understanding the mechanisms that may originate it helps towards prevention and early detection of complications. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  1. Verapamil inhibits scar formation after peripheral nerve repairin vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A-chao Han; Jing-xiu Deng; Qi-shun Huang; Huai-yuan Zheng; Pan Zhou; Zhi-wei Liu; Zhen-bing Chen

    2016-01-01

    The calcium channel blocker, verapamil, has been shown to reduce scar formation by inhibiting ifbroblast adhesion and proliferationin vitro. It was not clear whether topical application of verapamil after surgical repair of the nerve in vivo could inhibit the formation of ex-cessive scar tissue. In this study, the right sciatic nerve of adult Sprague-Dawley rats was transected and sutured with No. 10-0 suture. The stoma was wrapped with gelfoam soaked with verapamil solution for 4 weeks. Compared with the control group (stoma wrapped with gelfoam soaked with physiological saline), the verapamil application inhibited the secretion of extracellular matrix from ifbroblasts in vivo, suppressed type I and III collagen secretion and increased the total number of axons and the number of myelinated axons. These ifndings suggest that verapamil could reduce the formation of scar tissue and promote axon growth after peripheral nerve repair.

  2. 丙酸睾酮对萃取神经修复大鼠坐骨神经缺损的促进作用%Promotion of testosterone propionate on repair of rat peripheral nerve defects with chemically extracted nerves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫爱林; 叶小丰; 陶海鹰

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe the promotion of testosterone propionate on repair of SD rat peripheral nerve defects with chemically extracted nerves. Methods A total of 60 adult formale SD rats were randomly divided into three groups,20 rats in each group. Group A:l. 0 cm sciatic nerve defect of SD rats were bridged by extracted nerves, and at the same time testosterone propionate was injected into the triceps muscle of calf (50 g/L,0.1 ml,BiW). Group B:The nerve defects of SD rats were repaired by extracted nerves,and sodium chloride was injected (0.1 ml,BiW). Group C;the nerve defects were bridged by auto sciatic nerve. The recovery rate of motor nerve conduction velocities (RRMNCV) and the complex muscular action potential (RRCMAP) in each group were measured at the 16th week after operation. The recovery rate of myelinated fiber populations (RRMFP) was tested. The injured side triceps surae wet weight (ITSWW) and uninjured side triceps surae wet weight (UTSWW) in groups A,B and C were compaired. Results At the 16th week, RRMNCV in groups A, B and C were (59. 06 ± 10. 33)% , (45. 80 ± 9.05)% ,and (23.45 ±4. 60)% correspondingly. There were statistical differences among groups A,B and C (P<0.05).RRCMAP in groups A,B and C was (76. 64 ±5. 01)%, (64. 55 ±4. 20)% ,and (20.44 ±3. 82)% correspondingly. There were statistical differences among groups A,B and C (P<0.05). RRMFP in groups A,B and C were (79. 11 ± 2. 55 )% , (63.67 ±4. 97)%,and (29.76 ± 5.68)% correspondingly. There were statistical differences among groups A, B and C (P<0. 05). ITSWW/UTSWW in groups A,B and C was (70.37 ± 9. 54)% , (56. 77 ±6.08)%,and (33.75 ± 7. 89) % correspondingly. There were statistical differences among groups A, B and C (P<0.05 ). The results showed that group A had the best repairing effects,then group B,and group C the worst. Conclusion Chemically extracted nerves by glycerine can be used to repair SD rat sciatic nerve defects,and have a certain effects. Testosterone

  3. Effect of Surface Pore Structure of Nerve Guide Conduit on Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Se Heang; Kim, Jin Rae; Kwon, Gu Birm; Namgung, Uk; Song, Kyu Sang

    2013-01-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL)/Pluronic F127 nerve guide conduits (NGCs) with different surface pore structures (nano-porous inner surface vs. micro-porous inner surface) but similar physical and chemical properties were fabricated by rolling the opposite side of asymmetrically porous PCL/F127 membranes. The effect of the pore structure on peripheral nerve regeneration through the NGCs was investigated using a sciatic nerve defect model of rats. The nerve fibers and tissues were shown to have regenerated along the longitudinal direction through the NGC with a nano-porous inner surface (Nanopore NGC), while they grew toward the porous wall of the NGC with a micro-porous inner surface (Micropore NGC) and, thus, their growth was restricted when compared with the Nanopore NGC, as investigated by immunohistochemical evaluations (by fluorescence microscopy with anti-neurofilament staining and Hoechst staining for growth pattern of nerve fibers), histological evaluations (by light microscopy with Meyer's modified trichrome staining and Toluidine blue staining and transmission electron microscopy for the regeneration of axon and myelin sheath), and FluoroGold retrograde tracing (for reconnection between proximal and distal stumps). The effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) immobilized on the pore surfaces of the NGCs on nerve regeneration was not so significant when compared with NGCs not containing immobilized NGF. The NGC system with different surface pore structures but the same chemical/physical properties seems to be a good tool that is used for elucidating the surface pore effect of NGCs on nerve regeneration. PMID:22871377

  4. Effect of surface pore structure of nerve guide conduit on peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Se Heang; Kim, Jin Rae; Kwon, Gu Birm; Namgung, Uk; Song, Kyu Sang; Lee, Jin Ho

    2013-03-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL)/Pluronic F127 nerve guide conduits (NGCs) with different surface pore structures (nano-porous inner surface vs. micro-porous inner surface) but similar physical and chemical properties were fabricated by rolling the opposite side of asymmetrically porous PCL/F127 membranes. The effect of the pore structure on peripheral nerve regeneration through the NGCs was investigated using a sciatic nerve defect model of rats. The nerve fibers and tissues were shown to have regenerated along the longitudinal direction through the NGC with a nano-porous inner surface (Nanopore NGC), while they grew toward the porous wall of the NGC with a micro-porous inner surface (Micropore NGC) and, thus, their growth was restricted when compared with the Nanopore NGC, as investigated by immunohistochemical evaluations (by fluorescence microscopy with anti-neurofilament staining and Hoechst staining for growth pattern of nerve fibers), histological evaluations (by light microscopy with Meyer's modified trichrome staining and Toluidine blue staining and transmission electron microscopy for the regeneration of axon and myelin sheath), and FluoroGold retrograde tracing (for reconnection between proximal and distal stumps). The effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) immobilized on the pore surfaces of the NGCs on nerve regeneration was not so significant when compared with NGCs not containing immobilized NGF. The NGC system with different surface pore structures but the same chemical/physical properties seems to be a good tool that is used for elucidating the surface pore effect of NGCs on nerve regeneration.

  5. Response of peripheral nerve to He-Ne laser: experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochkind, S; Nissan, M; Barr-Nea, L; Razon, N; Schwartz, M; Bartal, A

    1987-01-01

    Low-energy He-Ne laser irradiation (LELI) was found to affect the electric activity and morphology in both intact and severely injured peripheral nerves in rats. Action potential (AP) in the healthy nerve increased by 33% following a single transcutaneous irradiation. Similar irradiation in crushed nerves caused AP to increase significantly over the AP of nonirradiated crushed nerve. Morphological observations revealed that a laser-irradiated injured nerve had diminished scar tissue as compared to an injured but not an irradiated nerve.

  6. Clinical use of nerve conduits in peripheral-nerve repair : Review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Coert, JH

    2002-01-01

    The use of nerve conduits has evolved from a previous experimental idea to a clinical reality over the last ten years. An overview of the literature on the clinical use of nerve conduits in peripheral-nerve repair is presented.

  7. Clinical use of nerve conduits in peripheral-nerve repair : Review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Coert, JH

    2002-01-01

    The use of nerve conduits has evolved from a previous experimental idea to a clinical reality over the last ten years. An overview of the literature on the clinical use of nerve conduits in peripheral-nerve repair is presented.

  8. Expression changes of nerve cell adhesion molecules L1 and semaphorin 3A after peripheral nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-ru He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression of nerve cell adhesion molecule L1 in the neuronal growth cone of the central nervous system is strongly associated with the direction of growth of the axon, but its role in the regeneration of the peripheral nerve is still unknown. This study explored the problem in a femoral nerve section model in rats. L1 and semaphorin 3A mRNA and protein expressions were measured over the 4-week recovery period. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that nerve cell adhesion molecule L1 expression was higher in the sensory nerves than in motor nerves at 2 weeks after injury, but vice versa for the expression of semaphorin 3A. Western blot assay results demonstrated that nerve cell adhesion molecule L1 expression was higher in motor nerves than in the sensory nerves at the proximal end after injury, but its expression was greater in the sensory nerves at 2 weeks. Semaphorin 3A expression was higher in the motor nerves than in the sensory nerves at 3 days and 1 week after injury. Nerve cell adhesion molecule L1 and semaphorin 3A expressions at the distal end were higher in the motor nerves than in the sensory nerves at 3 days, 1 and 2 weeks. Immunohistochemical staining results showed that nerve cell adhesion molecule L1 expression at the proximal end was greater in the sensory nerves than in the motor nerves; semaphorin 3A expression was higher in the motor nerves than in the sensory nerves at 2 weeks after injury. Taken together, these results indicated that nerve cell adhesion molecules L1 and semaphorin 3A exhibited different expression patterns at the proximal and distal ends of sensory and motor nerves, and play a coordinating role in neural chemotaxis regeneration.

  9. Management of peripheral facial nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, Josef

    2008-07-01

    Peripheral facial nerve palsy (FNP) may (secondary FNP) or may not have a detectable cause (Bell's palsy). Three quarters of peripheral FNP are primary and one quarter secondary. The most prevalent causes of secondary FNP are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immunological disorders, or drugs. The diagnosis of FNP relies upon the presence of typical symptoms and signs, blood chemical investigations, cerebro-spinal-fluid-investigations, X-ray of the scull and mastoid, cerebral MRI, or nerve conduction studies. Bell's palsy may be diagnosed after exclusion of all secondary causes, but causes of secondary FNP and Bell's palsy may coexist. Treatment of secondary FNP is based on the therapy of the underlying disorder. Treatment of Bell's palsy is controversial due to the lack of large, randomized, controlled, prospective studies. There are indications that steroids or antiviral agents are beneficial but also studies, which show no beneficial effect. Additional measures include eye protection, physiotherapy, acupuncture, botulinum toxin, or possibly surgery. Prognosis of Bell's palsy is fair with complete recovery in about 80% of the cases, 15% experience some kind of permanent nerve damage and 5% remain with severe sequelae.

  10. Effect of Delayed Peripheral Nerve Repair on Nerve Regeneration, Schwann Cell Function and Target Muscle Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Samuel; Wiberg, Rebecca; McGrath, Aleksandra M.; Novikov, Lev N.; Wiberg, Mikael; Novikova, Liudmila N.; Kingham, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in surgical techniques for peripheral nerve repair, functional restitution remains incomplete. The timing of surgery is one factor influencing the extent of recovery but it is not yet clearly defined how long a delay may be tolerated before repair becomes futile. In this study, rats underwent sciatic nerve transection before immediate (0) or 1, 3, or 6 months delayed repair with a nerve graft. Regeneration of spinal motoneurons, 13 weeks after nerve repair, was assessed using retrograde labeling. Nerve tissue was also collected from the proximal and distal stumps and from the nerve graft, together with the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles. A dramatic decline in the number of regenerating motoneurons and myelinated axons in the distal nerve stump was observed in the 3- and 6-months delayed groups. After 3 months delay, the axonal number in the proximal stump increased 2–3 folds, accompanied by a smaller axonal area. RT-PCR of distal nerve segments revealed a decline in Schwann cells (SC) markers, most notably in the 3 and 6 month delayed repair samples. There was also a progressive increase in fibrosis and proteoglycan scar markers in the distal nerve with increased delayed repair time. The yield of SC isolated from the distal nerve segments progressively fell with increased delay in repair time but cultured SC from all groups proliferated at similar rates. MG muscle at 3- and 6-months delay repair showed a significant decline in weight (61% and 27% compared with contra-lateral side). Muscle fiber atrophy and changes to neuromuscular junctions were observed with increased delayed repair time suggestive of progressively impaired reinnervation. This study demonstrates that one of the main limiting factors for nerve regeneration after delayed repair is the distal stump. The critical time point after which the outcome of regeneration becomes too poor appears to be 3-months. PMID:23409189

  11. Omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids predict accelerated decline of peripheral nerve function in older persons

    OpenAIRE

    Lauretani, F.; BANDINELLI, S.; Benedetta, B.; Cherubini, A; Iorio, A. D.; Blè, A.; Giacomini, V.; Corsi, A.M.; Guralnik, J.M.; Ferrucci, L.

    2007-01-01

    Pre-clinical studies suggest that both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids have beneficial effects on peripheral nerve function. Rats feed a diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) showed modification of phospholipid fatty acid composition in nerve membranes and improvement of sciatic nerve conduction velocity (NCV). We tested the hypothesis that baseline plasma omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids levels predict accelerated decline of peripheral nerve function. Changes between baseline and t...

  12. Side-to-side nerve bridges reduce muscle atrophy after peripheral nerve injury in a rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Jill E; Garlick, Jared W; Salama, Mohamed E; Mendenhall, Shaun D; Moran, Linh A; Agarwal, Jayant P

    2014-03-01

    Peripheral nerve injury can result in muscle atrophy and long-term disability. We hypothesize that creating a side-to-side bridge to link an injured nerve with a healthy nerve will reduce muscle atrophy and improve muscle function. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups (n = 7 per group). Group 1: transection only--a 10-mm gap was created in the proximal tibial nerve; group 2: transected plus repaired--the transected tibial nerve was repaired; group 3: transected plus repaired plus nerve bridge--transected nerve repaired with a distal nerve bridge between the tibial and peroneal nerves via epineurial windows; and group 4: transected plus nerve bridge--transected tibial nerve left unrepaired and distal bridge added. Gait was assessed every 2 wk. At 90 d the following measures were determined: gastrocnemius mass, muscle and nerve nuclear density, and axonal infiltration into the nerve bridge. Groups 3 and 4 had greater improvements in walking track recovery than groups 1 and 2. Group 3's gastrocnemius muscles exhibited the least amount of atrophy. Groups 1, 2, and 4 exhibited greater histologic appearance of muscle breakdown compared with group 3 and control muscle. Finally, most bridges in groups 3 and 4 had neuronal sprouting via the epineurial windows. Our study demonstrated reduced muscle atrophy with a side-to-side nerve bridge in the setting of peripheral nerve injury. These results support the application of novel side-to-side bridges in combination with traditional end-to-end neurorrhaphy to preserve muscle viability after peripheral nerve injuries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Peripheral nerve blocks in pediatric anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Dejan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Most children undergoing surgery can benefit from regional anesthetic techniques, either as the sole anesthetic regimen or, as usual in pediatric practice, in combination with general anesthesia. The use of peripheral nerve blocks (PNBs in pediatric anesthesia is an effective way to decrease the side-effects and complications associated with central blocks. In spite of their many advantages, including easy performance end efficacy, peripheral nerve blocks are still underused. Objective This article discusses a general approach to PNBs in children and provides data concerning the practice of this regional technique in different age groups. Methods Data from 1,650 procedures were prospectively collected during the period from March 1, 2007 to February 29, 2008. The type of PNB, if any, as well as the patient age were noted. Our patients were divided into four groups: 0-3 years, 4-7 years, 8-12 years and 13-18 years. Results During the investigated period, PNBs as a sole technique or in anesthetized children were performed in 7.45% of cases. Ilioingunal/iliohypogastric nerve block and penile block were the most common (70% of all PNBs distributed mainly among the children between 4-7 years of age (p<0.05. In older children, extremity PNBs predominate in regard to other types of blocks. PNBs are most frequently performed under general anesthesia (85%, so the perineural approach requires a safe technique to avoid nerve damage. Conclusion The observed differences in PNB usage seem to be related to patient age and correlate with common pathology and also with technical availability of PNB performance.

  14. [Peripheral nerve injuries complicating extracranial vascular surgery (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobe, T; Raithel, D

    1978-10-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries may complicate extracranial vascular surgery. Pareses of the recurrent and hypoglossal nerves are clinically important. The nervus laryngeus superior, the ramus marginalis mandibulae of the facial nerve and the brachial plexus may be involved. Horner's syndrom indicating damage of sympathetic fibers may also appear. Lesions of the glossopharyngeal, vagus and phrenic nerves are rather seldom.

  15. Transection of peripheral nerves, bridging strategies and effect evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJkema-Paassen, J; Jansen, K; Gramsbergen, A; Meek, MF

    2004-01-01

    Disruption of peripheral nerves due to trauma is a frequently Occurring clinical problem. Gaps in the nerve are bridged by guiding the regenerating nerves along autologous grafts or artificial guides. This review gives an overview oil the different methods of nerve repair techniques. Conventional su

  16. A rare case of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Harry, Nirankumar Samuel, Vigil TD

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumours are tumours of ectomesenchymal origin often originating from major nerves or their nerve sheaths, they are commonly found in patients with neurofibromatosis-1 though sporadic cases have been reported. We report a rare sporadic case of MPNST in a 20 year old patient arising from the spinal accessory nerve.

  17. Peripheral nerve blocks for hip fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Joanne; Parker, Martyn J; Griffiths, Richard; Kopp, Sandra

    2017-05-11

    Various nerve blocks with local anaesthetic agents have been used to reduce pain after hip fracture and subsequent surgery. This review was published originally in 1999 and was updated in 2001, 2002, 2009 and 2017. This review focuses on the use of peripheral nerves blocks as preoperative analgesia, as postoperative analgesia or as a supplement to general anaesthesia for hip fracture surgery. We undertook the update to look for new studies and to update the methods to reflect Cochrane standards. For the updated review, we searched the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 8), MEDLINE (Ovid SP, 1966 to August week 1 2016), Embase (Ovid SP, 1988 to 2016 August week 1) and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (EBSCO, 1982 to August week 1 2016), as well as trial registers and reference lists of relevant articles. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving use of nerve blocks as part of the care provided for adults aged 16 years and older with hip fracture. Two review authors independently assessed new trials for inclusion, determined trial quality using the Cochrane tool and extracted data. When appropriate, we pooled results of outcome measures. We rated the quality of evidence according to the GRADE Working Group approach. We included 31 trials (1760 participants; 897 randomized to peripheral nerve blocks and 863 to no regional blockade). Results of eight trials with 373 participants show that peripheral nerve blocks reduced pain on movement within 30 minutes of block placement (standardized mean difference (SMD) -1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) -2.14 to -0.67; equivalent to -3.4 on a scale from 0 to 10; I(2) = 90%; high quality of evidence). Effect size was proportionate to the concentration of local anaesthetic used (P mobilization after surgery (mean difference -11.25 hours, 95% CI -14.34 to -8.15 hours; I(2) = 52%; moderate quality of evidence). One trial

  18. Expression changes of nerve cell adhesion molecules L1 and semaphorin 3A after peripheral nerve injury

    OpenAIRE

    Qian-ru He; Meng Cong; Qing-zhong Chen; Ya-feng Sheng; Jian Li; Qi Zhang; Fei Ding; Yan-pei Gong

    2016-01-01

    The expression of nerve cell adhesion molecule L1 in the neuronal growth cone of the central nervous system is strongly associated with the direction of growth of the axon, but its role in the regeneration of the peripheral nerve is still unknown. This study explored the problem in a femoral nerve section model in rats. L1 and semaphorin 3A mRNA and protein expressions were measured over the 4-week recovery period. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that nerve cell adhesion molecul...

  19. A laminin-2-derived peptide promotes early-stage peripheral nerve regeneration in a dual-component artificial nerve graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, S Y; Min, S-K; Bae, H K; Roh, D; Kang, H K; Roh, S; Lee, S; Chun, G-S; Chung, D-J; Min, B-M

    2013-10-01

    The DLTIDDSYWYRI motif (Ln2-P3) of human laminin-2 has been reported to promote PC12 cell attachment through syndecan-1; however, the in vivo effects of Ln2-P3 have not been studied. In Schwann cells differentiated from skin-derived precursors, the peptide was effective in promoting cell attachment and spreading in vitro. To examine the effects of Ln2-P3 in peripheral nerve regeneration in vivo, we developed a dual-component poly(p-dioxanone) (PPD)/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) artificial nerve graft. The novel graft was coated with scrambled peptide or Ln2-P3 and used to bridge a 10 mm defect in rat sciatic nerves. The dual-component nerve grafts provided tensile strength comparable to that of a real rat nerve trunk. The Ln2-P3-treated grafts promoted early-stage peripheral nerve regeneration by enhancing the nerve regeneration rate and significantly increased the myelinated fibre density compared with scrambled peptide-treated controls. These findings indicate that Ln2-P3, combined with tissue-engineering scaffolds, has potential biomedical applications in peripheral nerve injury repair. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Changes in microtubule-associated protein tau during peripheral nerve injury and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Guang-Bin; Shen, Mi; Gu, Xiao-Song; Yi, Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Tau, a primary component of microtubule-associated protein, promotes microtubule assembly and/or disassembly and maintains the stability of the microtubule structure. Although the importance of tau in neurodegenerative diseases has been well demonstrated, whether tau is involved in peripheral nerve regeneration remains unknown. In the current study, we obtained sciatic nerve tissue from adult rats 0, 1, 4, 7, and 14 days after sciatic nerve crush and examined tau mRNA and protein expression levels and the location of tau in the sciatic nerve following peripheral nerve injury. The results from our quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that compared with the uninjured control sciatic nerve, mRNA expression levels for both tau and tau tubulin kinase 1, a serine/threonine kinase that regulates tau phosphorylation, were decreased following peripheral nerve injury. Our western blot assay results suggested that the protein expression levels of tau and phosphorylated tau initially decreased 1 day post nerve injury but then gradually increased. The results of our immunohistochemical labeling showed that the location of tau protein was not altered by nerve injury. Thus, these results showed that the expression of tau was changed following sciatic nerve crush, suggesting that tau may be involved in peripheral nerve repair and regeneration.

  1. In vivo characterization of regenerative peripheral nerve interface function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursu, Daniel C.; Urbanchek, Melanie G.; Nedic, Andrej; Cederna, Paul S.; Gillespie, R. Brent

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Regenerative peripheral nerve interfaces (RPNIs) are neurotized free autologous muscle grafts equipped with electrodes to record myoelectric signals for prosthesis control. Viability of rat RPNI constructs have been demonstrated using evoked responses. In vivo RPNI characterization is the next critical step for assessment as a control modality for prosthetic devices. Approach. Two RPNIs were created in each of two rats by grafting portions of free muscle to the ends of divided peripheral nerves (peroneal in the left and tibial in the right hind limb) and placing bipolar electrodes on the graft surface. After four months, we examined in vivo electromyographic signal activity and compared these signals to muscular electromyographic signals recorded from autologous muscles in two rats serving as controls. An additional group of two rats in which the autologous muscles were denervated served to quantify cross-talk in the electrode recordings. Recordings were made while rats walked on a treadmill and a motion capture system tracked the hind limbs. Amplitude and periodicity of signals relative to gait were quantified, correlation between electromyographic and motion recording were assessed, and a decoder was trained to predict joint motion. Main Results. Raw RPNI signals were active during walking, with amplitudes of 1 mVPP, and quiet during standing, with amplitudes less than 0.1 mVPP. RPNI signals were periodic and entrained with gait. A decoder predicted bilateral ankle motion with greater than 80% reliability. Control group signal activity agreed with literature. Denervated group signals remained quiescent throughout all evaluations. Significance. In vivo myoelectric RPNI activity encodes neural activation patterns associated with gait. Signal contamination from muscles adjacent to the RPNI is minimal, as demonstrated by the low amplitude signals obtained from the Denervated group. The periodicity and entrainment to gait of RPNI recordings suggests the

  2. In vivo integration of poly(ε-caprolactone)/gelatin nanofibrous nerve guide seeded with teeth derived stem cells for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigi, Mohammad-Hossein; Ghasemi-Mobarakeh, Laleh; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Karbalaie, Khadijeh; Azadeh, Hamid; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Baharvand, Hossein; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad-Hossein

    2014-12-01

    Artificial nanofiber nerve guides have gained huge interest in bridging nerve gaps and associated peripheral nerve regeneration due to its high surface area, flexibility and porous structure. In this study, electrospun poly (ε-caprolactone)/gelatin (PCL/Gel) nanofibrous mats were fabricated, rolled around a copper wire and fixed by medical grade adhesive to obtain a tubular shaped bio-graft, to bridge 10 mm sciatic nerve gap in in vivo rat models. Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous tooth (SHED) were transplanted to the site of nerve injury through the nanofibrous nerve guides. In vivo experiments were performed in animal models after creating a sciatic nerve gap, such that the nerve gap was grafted using (i) nanofiber nerve guide (ii) nanofiber nerve guide seeded with SHED (iii) suturing, while an untreated nerve gap remained as the negative control. In vitro cell culture study was carried out for primary investigation of SHED-nanofiber interaction and its viability within the nerve guides after 2 and 16 weeks of implantation time. Walking track analysis, plantar test, electrophysiology and immunohistochemistry were performed to evaluate functional recovery during nerve regeneration. Vascularization was also investigated by hematoxilin/eosine (H&E) staining. Overall results showed that the SHED seeded on nanofibrous nerve guide could survive and promote axonal regeneration in rat sciatic nerves, whereby the biocompatible PCL/Gel nerve guide with cells can support axonal regeneration and could be a promising tissue engineered graft for peripheral nerve regeneration.

  3. Peripheral nerve grafts support regeneration after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Marie-Pascale; Amin, Arthi A; Tom, Veronica J; Houle, John D

    2011-04-01

    Traumatic insults to the spinal cord induce both immediate mechanical damage and subsequent tissue degeneration leading to a substantial physiological, biochemical, and functional reorganization of the spinal cord. Various spinal cord injury (SCI) models have shown the adaptive potential of the spinal cord and its limitations in the case of total or partial absence of supraspinal influence. Meaningful recovery of function after SCI will most likely result from a combination of therapeutic strategies, including neural tissue transplants, exogenous neurotrophic factors, elimination of inhibitory molecules, functional sensorimotor training, and/or electrical stimulation of paralyzed muscles or spinal circuits. Peripheral nerve grafts provide a growth-permissive substratum and local neurotrophic factors to enhance the regenerative effort of axotomized neurons when grafted into the site of injury. Regenerating axons can be directed via the peripheral nerve graft toward an appropriate target, but they fail to extend beyond the distal graft-host interface because of the deposition of growth inhibitors at the site of SCI. One method to facilitate the emergence of axons from a graft into the spinal cord is to digest the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans that are associated with a glial scar. Importantly, regenerating axons that do exit the graft are capable of forming functional synaptic contacts. These results have been demonstrated in acute injury models in rats and cats and after a chronic injury in rats and have important implications for our continuing efforts to promote structural and functional repair after SCI.

  4. Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part III: Peripheral nerves of the lower limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Kowalska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ultrasonographic examination is currently increasingly used in imaging peripheral nerves, serving to supplement the physical examination, electromyography and magnetic resonance imaging. As in the case of other USG imaging studies, the examination of peripheral nerves is non-invasive and well-tolerated by patients. The typical ultrasonographic picture of peripheral nerves as well as the examination technique have been discussed in part I of this article series, following the example of the median nerve. Part II of the series presented the normal anatomy and the technique for examining the peripheral nerves of the upper limb. This part of the article series focuses on the anatomy and technique for examining twelve normal peripheral nerves of the lower extremity: the iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves, the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh, the pudendal, sciatic, tibial, sural, medial plantar, lateral plantar, common peroneal, deep peroneal and superficial peroneal nerves. It includes diagrams showing the proper positioning of the sonographic probe, plus USG images of the successively discussed nerves and their surrounding structures. The ultrasonographic appearance of the peripheral nerves in the lower limb is identical to the nerves in the upper limb. However, when imaging the lower extremity, convex probes are more often utilized, to capture deeply-seated nerves. The examination technique, similarly to that used in visualizing the nerves of upper extremity, consists of locating the nerve at a characteristic anatomic reference point and tracking it using the “elevator technique”. All 3 parts of the article series should serve as an introduction to a discussion of peripheral nerve pathologies, which will be presented in subsequent issues of the “Journal of Ultrasonography”.

  5. Retrospective analysis of oral peripheral nerve sheath tumors in Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Tito Salla

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic neuroma, neurofibroma, neurilemmoma, palisaded encapsulated neuroma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST are peripheral nerve sheath tumors and present neural origin. The goal of this study was to describe the epidemiological data of oral peripheral nerve sheath tumors in a sample of the Brazilian population. Biopsies requested from the Oral Pathology Service, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Minas Gerais (MG, Brazil, between 1966 and 2006 were evaluated. Lesions diagnosed as peripheral nerve sheath tumors were submitted to morphologic and to immunohistochemical analyses. All cases were immunopositive to the S-100 protein. Thirty-five oral peripheral nerve sheath tumors were found, representing 0.16% of all lesions archived in the Oral Pathology Service. Traumatic neuroma (15 cases most frequently affected the mental foramen. Solitary neurofibroma (10 cases was more frequently observed in the palate. Neurofibroma associated with neurofibromatosis type I (2 cases was observed in the gingival and alveolar mucosa. Neurilemmoma (4 cases was more commonly observed in the buccal mucosa. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (3 cases occurred in the mandible, palate, and tongue. Palisaded encapsulated neuroma (1 case occurred in the buccal mucosa. The data confirmed that oral peripheral nerve sheath tumors are uncommon in the oral region, with some lesions presenting a predilection for a specific gender or site. This study may be useful in clinical dentistry and oral pathology practice and may be used as baseline data regarding oral peripheral nerve sheath tumors in other populations.

  6. Mitochondrial dynamics and inherited peripheral nerve diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareyson, Davide; Saveri, Paola; Sagnelli, Anna; Piscosquito, Giuseppe

    2015-06-02

    Peripheral nerves have peculiar energetic requirements because of considerable length of axons and therefore correct mitochondria functioning and distribution along nerves is fundamental. Mitochondrial dynamics refers to the continuous change in size, shape, and position of mitochondria within cells. Abnormalities of mitochondrial dynamics produced by mutations in proteins involved in mitochondrial fusion (mitofusin-2, MFN2), fission (ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein-1, GDAP1), and mitochondrial axonal transport usually present with a Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) phenotype. MFN2 mutations cause CMT type 2A by altering mitochondrial fusion and trafficking along the axonal microtubule system. CMT2A is an axonal autosomal dominant CMT type which in most cases is characterized by early onset and rather severe course. GDAP1 mutations also alter fission, fusion and transport of mitochondria and are associated either with recessive demyelinating (CMT4A) and axonal CMT (AR-CMT2K) and, less commonly, with dominant, milder, axonal CMT (CMT2K). OPA1 (Optic Atrophy-1) is involved in fusion of mitochondrial inner membrane, and its heterozygous mutations lead to early-onset and progressive dominant optic atrophy which may be complicated by other neurological symptoms including peripheral neuropathy. Mutations in several proteins fundamental for the axonal transport or forming the axonal cytoskeleton result in peripheral neuropathy, i.e., CMT, distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN) or hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN), as well as in hereditary spastic paraplegia. Indeed, mitochondrial transport involves directly or indirectly components of the kinesin superfamily (KIF5A, KIF1A, KIF1B), responsible of anterograde transport, and of the dynein complex and related proteins (DYNC1H1, dynactin, dynamin-2), implicated in retrograde flow. Microtubules, neurofilaments, and chaperones such as heat shock proteins (HSPs) also have a fundamental

  7. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, J; Madan, R; Singh, L; Sharma, D N; Julka, P K; Rath, G K; Roy, S

    2015-04-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST) is a rare variety of soft tissue sarcoma that originates from Schwann cells or pluripotent cells of neural crest origin. They have historically been difficult tumours to diagnose and treat. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment with a goal to achieve negative margins. Despite aggressive surgery and adjuvant therapy, the prognosis of patients with MPNST remains poor. MPNST arising from penis is a very rare entity; thus, it presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We present a case of penile MPNST in a 38-year-old man in the absence of neurofibromatosis treated with surgery followed by post-operative radiotherapy to a dose of 60 Gray in 30 fractions and adjuvant chemotherapy with ifosfamide and adriamycin.

  8. [Transformation of trigeminal nerve tumor into malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenashev, E A; Cherekaev, V A; Kadasheva, A B; Kozlov, A V; Rotin, D L; Stepanian, M A

    2012-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is a rare entity with only 18 cases of trigeminal nerve MPNST described by now and only one report of malignant transformation of trigeminal nerve tumor into MPNST published up to date. One more case of malignant transformation of trigeminal nerve (1st division) tumor into MPNST is demonstrated.

  9. Detergent-free Decellularized Nerve Grafts for Long-gap Peripheral Nerve Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth Vasudevan, PhD

    2014-08-01

    Conclusions: This study describes a detergent-free nerve decellularization technique for reconstruction of long-gap nerve injuries. We compared DFD grafts with an established detergent processing technique and found that DFD nerve grafts are successful in promoting regeneration across long-gap peripheral nerve defects as an alternative to existing strategies.

  10. Development of Nanofiber Sponges-Containing Nerve Guidance Conduit for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Binbin; Zhou, Zifei; Wu, Tong; Chen, Weiming; Li, Dawei; Zheng, Hao; El-Hamshary, Hany; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Mo, Xiumei; Yu, Yinxian

    2017-08-16

    In the study of hollow nerve guidance conduit (NGC), the dispersion of regenerated axons always confused researchers. To address this problem, filler-containing NGC was prepared, which showed better effect in the application of nerve tissue engineering. In this study, nanofiber sponges with abundant macropores, high porosity, and superior compressive strength were fabricated by electrospinning and freeze-drying. Poly(l-lactic acid-co-ε-caprolactone)/silk fibroin (PLCL/SF) nanofiber sponges were used as filler to prepare three-dimensional nanofiber sponges-containing (NS-containing) NGC. In order to study the effect of fillers for nerve regeneration, hollow NGC was set as control. In vitro cell viability studies indicated that the NS-containing NGC could enhance the proliferation of Schwann cells (SCs) due to the macroporous structure. The results of hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and immunofluorescence staining confirmed that SCs infiltrated into the nanofiber sponges. Subsequently, the NS-containing NGC was implanted in a rat sciatic nerve defect model to evaluate the effect in vivo. NS-containing NGC group performed better in nerve function recovery than hollow NGC group. In consideration of the walking track and triceps weight analysis, NS-containing NGC was close to the autograft group. In addition, histological and morphological analyses with HE and toluidine blue (TB) staining, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were conducted. Better nerve regeneration was observed on NS-containing NGC group both quantitatively and qualitatively. Furthermore, the results of three indexes' immuno-histochemistry and two indexes' immunofluorescence all indicated good nerve regeneration of NS-containing NGC as well, compared with hollow NGC. The results demonstrated NS-containing NGC had great potential in the application of peripheral nerve repair.

  11. Label-free photoacoustic microscopy of peripheral nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Thomas Paul; Zhang, Chi; Yao, Da-Kang; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common neurological problem that affects millions of people worldwide. Diagnosis and treatment of this condition are often hindered by the difficulties in making objective, noninvasive measurements of nerve fibers. Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) has the ability to obtain high resolution, specific images of peripheral nerves without exogenous contrast. We demonstrated the first proof-of-concept imaging of peripheral nerves using PAM. As validated by both standard histology and photoacoustic spectroscopy, the origin of photoacoustic signals is myelin, the primary source of lipids in the nerves. An extracted sciatic nerve sandwiched between two layers of chicken tissue was imaged by PAM to mimic the in vivo case. Ordered fibrous structures inside the nerve, caused by the bundles of myelin-coated axons, could be observed clearly. With further technical improvements, PAM can potentially be applied to monitor and diagnose peripheral neuropathies.

  12. The potential roles for adipose tissue in peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walocko, Frances M; Khouri, Roger K; Urbanchek, Melanie G; Levi, Benjamin; Cederna, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes current understanding about the role of adipose-derived tissues in peripheral nerve regeneration and discusses potential advances that would translate this approach into the clinic. We searched PubMed for in vivo, experimental studies on the regenerative effects of adipose-derived tissues on peripheral nerve injuries. We summarized the methods and results for the 42 experiments. Adipose-derived tissues enhanced peripheral nerve regeneration in 86% of the experiments. Ninety-five percent evaluated purified, cultured, or differentiated adipose tissue. These approaches have regulatory and scaling burdens, restricting clinical usage. Only one experiment tested the ability of adipose tissue to enhance nerve regeneration in conjunction with nerve autografts, the clinical gold standard. Scientific studies illustrate that adipose-derived tissues enhance regeneration of peripheral nerves. Before this approach achieves clinical acceptance, fat processing must become automated and regulatory approval achieved. Animal studies using whole fat grafts are greatly needed for clinical translation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The challenges and beauty of peripheral nerve regrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zochodne, Douglas W

    2012-03-01

    This review provides an overview of selected aspects of peripheral nerve regeneration and potential avenues to explore therapeutically. The overall coordinated and orchestrated pattern of recovery from peripheral nerve injury has a beauty of execution and progress that rivals all other forms of neurobiology. It involves changes at the level of the perikaryon, coordination with important peripheral glial partners, the Schwann cells, a controlled inflammatory response, and growth that overcomes surprising intrinsic roadblocks. Both regenerative axon growth and collateral sprouting encompass fascinating aspects of this story. Better understanding of peripheral nerve regeneration may also lead to enhanced central nervous system recovery.

  14. Recent Strategies in Tissue Engineering for Guided Peripheral Nerve Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Kayla; Dinis, Tony M; Taourirt, Sami; Vidal, Guillaume; Kaplan, David L; Egles, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    The repair of large crushed or sectioned segments of peripheral nerves remains a challenge in regenerative medicine due to the complexity of the biological environment and the lack of proper biomaterials and architecture to foster reconstruction. Traditionally such reconstruction is only achieved by using fresh human tissue as a surrogate for the absence of the nerve. However, recent focus in the field has been on new polymer structures and specific biofunctionalization to achieve the goal of peripheral nerve regeneration by developing artificial nerve prostheses. This review presents various tested approaches as well their effectiveness for nerve regrowth and functional recovery.

  15. The successful use of peripheral nerve blocks for femoral amputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, B.; Melchiors, J.; Borglum, J.

    2009-01-01

    We present a case report of four patients with severe cardiac insufficiency where peripheral nerve blocks guided by either nerve stimulation or ultrasonography were the sole anaesthetic for above-knee amputation. The patients were breathing spontaneously and remained haemodynamically stable during...... surgery. Thus, use of peripheral nerve blocks for femoral amputation in high-risk patients seems to be the technique of choice that can lower perioperative risk....

  16. Laminin-modified and aligned PHBV/PEO nanofibrous nerve conduits promote peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Hai-Xia; Ortiz, Lazarus Santiago; Xiao, Zhong-Dang; Huang, Ning-Ping

    2016-11-12

    Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) has received much attention for its biodegradability and biocompatibility, characteristics which are required in tissue engineering. In this study, polyethylene oxide (PEO)-incorporated PHBV nanofibers with random or aligned orientation were obtained by electrospinning. For further use in vivo, the nanofiber films were made into nerve conduits after treated with NH3 plasma, which could improve the hydrophilicity of inner surfaces of nerve conduits and then facilitate laminin adsorption via electrostatic interaction for promoting cell adhesion and proliferation. Morphology of the surfaces of modified PHBV/PEO nanofibrous scaffolds were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Schwann cell viability assay was conducted and the results confirmed that the functionalized nanofibers were favorable for cell growth. Morphology of Schwann cells cultured on scaffolds showed that aligned nanofibrous scaffolds provided topographical guidance for cell orientation and elongation. Furthermore, 3D PHBV/PEO nerve conduits made from aligned and random-oriented nanofibers were implanted into 12-mm transected sciatic nerve rat model and subsequent analysis were conducted at 1 and 2 months post-surgery. The above functionalized PHBV/PEO scaffolds provide a novel and promising platform for peripheral nerve regeneration.

  17. Ultrasound of the peripheral nerves in systemic vasculitic neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Alexander; Décard, Bernhard F; Bischof, Antje; Axer, Hubertus

    2014-12-15

    Ultrasound of the peripheral nerves (PNUS) can be used to visualize nerve pathologies in polyneuropathies (PNP). The aim of this study was to investigate, whether PNUS provides additional information in patients with proven systemic vasculitic neuropathies (VN). Systematic ultrasound measurements of several peripheral nerves, the vagal nerve and the 6th cervical nerve root were performed in 14 patients and 22 healthy controls. Nerve conduction studies of the corresponding nerves were undertaken. Finally, the measured results were compared to a study population of demyelinating immune-mediated and axonal neuropathies. Patients with VN displayed significant smaller amplitudes of compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) (pneuropathies than in other axonal neuropathies, but significantly rarer than in demyelinating neuropathies. Focal CSA enlargement in one or more nerves in electrophysiologically axonal neuropathies can be a hint for VN and thus facilitate diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. VLSI circuits for bidirectional interface to peripheral and visceral nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Elliot; Wang, Qihong; Thakor, Nitish V

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents an architecture for sensing nerve signals and delivering functional electrical stimulation to peripheral and visceral nerves. The design is based on the very large scale integration (VLSI) technology and amenable to interface to microelectrodes and building a fully implantable system. The proposed stimulator was tested on the vagus nerve and is under further evaluation and testing of various visceral nerves and their functional effects on the innervated organs.

  19. Repairing Peripheral Nerves: Is there a Role for Carbon Nanotubes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprych, Karen M; Whitby, Raymond L D; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V; Tomlins, Paul; Adu, Jimi

    2016-06-01

    Peripheral nerve injury continues to be a major global health problem that can result in debilitating neurological deficits and neuropathic pain. Current state-of-the-art treatment involves reforming the damaged nerve pathway using a nerve autograft. Engineered nerve repair conduits can provide an alternative to the nerve autograft avoiding the inevitable tissue damage caused at the graft donor site. Commercially available nerve repair conduits are currently only considered suitable for repairing small nerve lesions; the design and performance of engineered conduits requires significant improvements to enable their use for repairing larger nerve defects. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are an emerging novel material for biomedical applications currently being developed for a range of therapeutic technologies including scaffolds for engineering and interfacing with neurological tissues. CNTs possess a unique set of physicochemical properties that could be useful within nerve repair conduits. This progress report aims to evaluate and consolidate the current literature pertinent to CNTs as a biomaterial for supporting peripheral nerve regeneration. The report is presented in the context of the state-of-the-art in nerve repair conduit design; outlining how CNTs may enhance the performance of next generation peripheral nerve repair conduits.

  20. A biomaterials approach to peripheral nerve regeneration: bridging the peripheral nerve gap and enhancing functional recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, W.; Yao, L.; Zeugolis, D.; Windebank, A.; Pandit, A.

    2012-01-01

    Microsurgical techniques for the treatment of large peripheral nerve injuries (such as the gold standard autograft) and its main clinically approved alternative—hollow nerve guidance conduits (NGCs)—have a number of limitations that need to be addressed. NGCs, in particular, are limited to treating a relatively short nerve gap (4 cm in length) and are often associated with poor functional recovery. Recent advances in biomaterials and tissue engineering approaches are seeking to overcome the limitations associated with these treatment methods. This review critically discusses the advances in biomaterial-based NGCs, their limitations and where future improvements may be required. Recent developments include the incorporation of topographical guidance features and/or intraluminal structures, which attempt to guide Schwann cell (SC) migration and axonal regrowth towards their distal targets. The use of such strategies requires consideration of the size and distribution of these topographical features, as well as a suitable surface for cell–material interactions. Likewise, cellular and molecular-based therapies are being considered for the creation of a more conductive nerve microenvironment. For example, hurdles associated with the short half-lives and low stability of molecular therapies are being surmounted through the use of controlled delivery systems. Similarly, cells (SCs, stem cells and genetically modified cells) are being delivered with biomaterial matrices in attempts to control their dispersion and to facilitate their incorporation within the host regeneration process. Despite recent advances in peripheral nerve repair, there are a number of key factors that need to be considered in order for these new technologies to reach the clinic. PMID:22090283

  1. A multi-walled silk fibroin/silk sericin nerve conduit coated with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) sheath for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Jianwei; Cheng, Yan; Liu, Yanxiao; Ye, Zhou; Zhan, Beilei; Quan, Daping; Xu, Yangbin

    2017-04-01

    The linearly oriented multi-walled silk fibroin/silk sericin (SF/SS) nerve conduits (NCs) can provide physical cues similar to native peripheral nerve fasciculi, but the mechanical properties of which are not excellent enough. In this study, NCs with a novel and bionic design with dual structures were developed. The important features of our NCs is that the internal skeleton (the multi-walled SF/SS conduits) has a bionic structure similar to the architecture of native peripheral nerve fasciculi, which is beneficial for nerve regeneration, and the outer sheath (the hollow poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) [PLGA] conduits) could provide strong mechanical protection for the internal skeleton. The linearly oriented multi-walled SF/SS conduit was fabricated and inserted in the hollow PLGA sheath lumen and then used for the bridge across the sciatic nerve defect in rats. The outcome of the peripheral nerve repair post implantation was evaluated. The functional and morphological parameters were examined and showed that the novel PLGA-coated SF/SS NCs could promote peripheral nerve regeneration, approaching those elicited by nerve autografts that are the first candidate for repair of peripheral nerve defects. Thus, these updated NCs have potential usefulness to enhance functional recovery after repair of peripheral nerve defect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel internal fixator device for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ting-Hsien; Wilson, Robin E; Love, James M; Fisher, John P; Shah, Sameer B

    2013-06-01

    Recovery from peripheral nerve damage, especially for a transected nerve, is rarely complete, resulting in impaired motor function, sensory loss, and chronic pain with inappropriate autonomic responses that seriously impair quality of life. In consequence, strategies for enhancing peripheral nerve repair are of high clinical importance. Tension is a key determinant of neuronal growth and function. In vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that moderate levels of imposed tension (strain) can encourage axonal outgrowth; however, few strategies of peripheral nerve repair emphasize the mechanical environment of the injured nerve. Toward the development of more effective nerve regeneration strategies, we demonstrate the design, fabrication, and implementation of a novel, modular nerve-lengthening device, which allows the imposition of moderate tensile loads in parallel with existing scaffold-based tissue engineering strategies for nerve repair. This concept would enable nerve regeneration in two superposed regimes of nerve extension--traditional extension through axonal outgrowth into a scaffold and extension in intact regions of the proximal nerve, such as that occurring during growth or limb-lengthening. Self-sizing silicone nerve cuffs were fabricated to grip nerve stumps without slippage, and nerves were deformed by actuating a telescoping internal fixator. Poly(lactic co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) constructs mounted on the telescoping rods were apposed to the nerve stumps to guide axonal outgrowth. Neuronal cells were exposed to PLGA using direct contact and extract methods, and they exhibited no signs of cytotoxic effects in terms of cell morphology and viability. We confirmed the feasibility of implanting and actuating our device within a sciatic nerve gap and observed axonal outgrowth following device implantation. The successful fabrication and implementation of our device provides a novel method for examining mechanical influences on nerve regeneration.

  3. Factors that influence peripheral nerve regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Archibald, Simon J; Madison, Roger D

    2002-01-01

    median nerve lesions (n = 46) in nonhuman primates over 3 to 4 years, a time span comparable with such lesions in humans. Nerve gap distances of 5, 20, or 50mm were repaired with nerve grafts or collagen-based nerve guide tubes, and three electrophysiological outcome measures were followed: (1) compound...

  4. Sciatic nerve regeneration in rats subjected to ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liśkiewicz, Arkadiusz; Właszczuk, Adam; Gendosz, Daria; Larysz-Brysz, Magdalena; Kapustka, Bartosz; Łączyński, Mariusz; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna; Jędrzejowska-Szypułka, Halina

    2016-01-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat-content diet with insufficiency of carbohydrates that induces ketogenesis. Besides its anticonvulsant properties, many studies have shown its neuroprotective effect in central nervous system, but its influence on peripheral nervous system has not been studied yet. We examined the influence of KD on regeneration of peripheral nerves in adult rats. Fifty one rats were divided into three experimental (n = 15) and one control (n = 6) groups. Right sciatic nerve was crushed and animals were kept on standard (ST group) or ketogenic diet, the latter was introduced 3 weeks before (KDB group) or on the day of surgery (KDA group). Functional (CatWalk) tests were performed once a week, and morphometric (fiber density, axon diameter, and myelin thickness) analysis of the nerves was made after 6 weeks. Body weight and blood ketone bodies level were estimated at the beginning and the end of experiment. Functional analysis showed no differences between groups. Morphometric evaluation showed most similarities to the healthy (uncrushed) nerves in KDB group. Nerves in ST group differed mostly from all other groups. Ketone bodies were elevated in both KD groups, while post-surgery animals' body weight was lower as compared to ST group. Regeneration of sciatic nerves was improved in KD - preconditioned rats. These results suggest a neuroprotective effect of KD on peripheral nerves.

  5. A Bionic Neural Link for peripheral nerve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong Ping; Yen, Shih-Cheng; Ng, Kian Ann; Liu, Xu; Tan, Ter Chyan

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries with large gaps and long nerve regrowth paths are difficult to repair using existing surgical techniques, due to nerve degeneration and muscle atrophy. This paper proposes a Bionic Neural Link (BNL) as an alternative way for peripheral nerve repair. The concept of the BNL is described, along with the hypothetical benefits. A prototype monolithic single channel BNL has been developed, which consists of 16 neural recording channels and one stimulation channel, and is implemented in a 0.35-µm CMOS technology. The BNL has been tested in in-vivo animal experiments. Full function of the BNL chip has been demonstrated.

  6. Increased bilateral expression of α1-adrenoceptors on peripheral nerves, blood vessels and keratinocytes does not account for pain or neuroinflammatory changes after distal tibia fracture in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, E S; Dawson, L F; Finch, P M; Li, W; Guo, T-Z; Kingery, W S; Drummond, P D

    2014-12-05

    In certain forms of nerve injury and inflammation, noradrenaline augments pain via actions on up-regulated α1-adrenoceptors (α1-ARs). The aim of this study was to use immunohistochemistry to examine α1-AR expression on peripheral neurons, cutaneous blood vessels and keratinocytes after distal tibia fracture and cast immobilization, a model of complex regional pain syndrome type 1. We hypothesized that there would be increased α1-AR expression on neurons and keratinocytes in the injured limb in comparison to the contralateral unaffected limb after distal tibia fracture, in association with inflammatory changes and pain. α1-AR expression was increased on plantar keratinocytes, dermal blood vessels and peripheral nerve fibers at 16weeks after injury both in the fractured and contralateral uninjured limb. Similar changes were seen in controls whose limb had been immobilized in a cast for 4weeks but not fractured. Neurofilament 200 (NF200), a marker of myelinated neurons, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a neuropeptide involved in neuro-inflammatory signaling, decreased 4weeks after fracture and casting but then increased at the 16-week time point. As some of these changes were also detected in the contralateral hind limb, they probably were triggered by a systemic response to fracture and casting. Soon after the cast was removed, intraplantar injections of the α1-AR antagonist prazosin released local vasoconstrictor tone but had no effect on pain behaviors. However, systemic injection of prazosin inhibited behavioral signs of pain, suggesting that fracture and/or casting triggered an up-regulation of α1-ARs in central nociceptive pathways that augmented pain. Together, these findings indicate that α1-AR expression increases in the hind limbs after distal tibia fracture and cast immobilization. However, these peripheral increases do not contribute directly to residual pain.

  7. How electrodiagnosis predicts clinical outcome of focal peripheral nerve lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lawrence R

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the electrodiagnostic (EDX) prognostic factors for focal traumatic and nontraumatic peripheral nerve injuries. Referring physicians and patients often benefit from general and nerve-specific prognostic information from the EDX consultant. Knowing the probable outcome from a nerve injury allows the referring physician to choose the best treatment options for his/her patients. Nerve injuries are variable in their mechanism, location, and pathophysiology. The general effects of the injuries on nerve and muscle are well known, but more research is needed for nerve-specific information. Several factors currently known to influence prognosis include: nature of the nerve trauma, amount of axon loss, recruitment in muscles supplied by the nerve, the extent of demyelination, and the distance to reinnervate functional muscles. This article reviews these general concepts and also nerve-specific EDX measures that predict outcome after focal neuropathies.

  8. Peripheral nerve injury sensitizes neonatal dorsal horn neurons to tumor necrosis factor-α

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Little is known about whether peripheral nerve injury during the early postnatal period modulates synaptic efficacy in the immature superficial dorsal horn (SDH) of the spinal cord, or whether the neonatal SDH network is sensitive to the proinflammatory cytokine TNFα under neuropathic conditions. Thus we examined the effects of TNFα on synaptic transmission and intrinsic membrane excitability in developing rat SDH neurons in the absence or presence of sciatic nerve damage....

  9. Inhibition of calpains fails to improve regeneration through a peripheral nerve conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausner, Thomas; Marvaldi, Letizia; Márton, Gábor; Pajer, Krisztián; Hopf, Rudolf; Schmidhammer, Robert; Hausott, Barbara; Redl, Heinz; Nógrádi, Antal; Klimaschewski, Lars

    2014-04-30

    Intramuscular injection of the calpain inhibitor leupeptin promotes peripheral nerve regeneration in primates (Badalamente et al., 1989 [13]), and direct positive effects of leupeptin on axon outgrowth were observed in vitro (Hausott et al., 2012 [12]). In this study, we applied leupeptin (2mg/ml) directly to collagen-filled nerve conduits in the rat sciatic nerve transection model. Analysis of myelinated axons and retrogradely labeled motoneurons as well as functional 'CatWalk' video analysis did not reveal significant differences between vehicle controls and leupeptin treated animals. Therefore, leupeptin does not improve nerve regeneration via protease inhibition in regrowing axons or in surrounding Schwann cells following a single application to a peripheral nerve conduit suggesting indirect effects on motor endplate integrity if applied systemically.

  10. The Role of Continuous Peripheral Nerve Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aguirre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A continuous peripheral nerve block (cPNB is provided in the hospital and ambulatory setting. The most common use of CPNBs is in the peri- and postoperative period but different indications have been described like the treatment of chronic pain such as cancer-induced pain, complex regional pain syndrome or phantom limb pain. The documented benefits strongly depend on the analgesia quality and include decreasing baseline/dynamic pain, reducing additional analgesic requirements, decrease of postoperative joint inflammation and inflammatory markers, sleep disturbances and opioid-related side effects, increase of patient satisfaction and ambulation/functioning improvement, an accelerated resumption of passive joint range-of-motion, reducing time until discharge readiness, decrease in blood loss/blood transfusions, potential reduction of the incidence of postsurgical chronic pain and reduction of costs. Evidence deriving from randomized controlled trials suggests that in some situations there are also prolonged benefits of regional anesthesia after catheter removal in addition to the immediate postoperative effects. Unfortunately, there are only few data demonstrating benefits after catheter removal and the evidence of medium- or long-term improvements in health-related quality of life measures is still lacking. This review will give an overview of the advantages and adverse effects of cPNBs.

  11. Neuromodulatory nerve regeneration: adipose tissue-derived stem cells and neurotrophic mediation in peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widgerow, Alan D; Salibian, Ara A; Lalezari, Shadi; Evans, Gregory R D

    2013-12-01

    Peripheral nerve injury requiring nerve gap reconstruction remains a major problem. In the quest to find an alternative to autogenous nerve graft procedures, attempts have been made to differentiate mesenchymal stem cells into neuronal lineages in vitro and utilize these cellular constructs for nerve regeneration. Unfortunately, this has produced mixed results, with no definitive procedure matching or surpassing traditional nerve grafting procedures. This review presents a different approach to nerve regeneration. The literature was reviewed to evaluate current methods of using adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for peripheral nerve regeneration in in vivo models of animal peripheral nerve injury. The authors present cited evidence for directing nerve regeneration through paracrine effects of ADSCs rather than through in vitro nerve regeneration. The paracrine effects rely mainly, but not solely, on the elaboration of nerve growth factors and neurotrophic mediators that influence surrounding host cells to orchestrate in vivo nerve regeneration. Although this paradigm has been indirectly referred to in a host of publications, few major efforts for this type of neuromodulatory nerve regeneration have been forthcoming. The ADSCs are initially "primed" in vitro using specialized controlled medium (not for neuronal differentiation but for sustainability) and then incorporated into a hydrogel base matrix designed for this purpose. This core matrix is then introduced into a natural collagen-based nerve conduit. The prototype design concepts, evidence for paracrine influences, and regulatory hurdles that are avoided using this approach are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Comparison of Nerve Excitability Testing, Nerve Conduction Velocity, and Behavioral Observations for Acrylamide Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerve excitability (NE) testing is a sensitive method to test for peripheral neurotoxicity in humans,and may be more sensitive than compound nerve action potential (CNAP) or nerve conduction velocity (NCV).We used acrylamide to compare the NE and CNAP/NCV methods. Behavioral test...

  13. A simple model of radial nerve injury in the rhesus monkey to evaluate peripheral nerve repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Wang; Qingtang Zhu; Xijun Huang; Guo Fu; Liqiang Gu; Xiaolin Liu; Honggang Wang; Jun Hu; Jianhua Yi; Xiaofeng Niu

    2014-01-01

    Current research on bone marrow stem cell transplantation and autologous or xenogenic nerve transplantation for peripheral nerve regeneration has mainly focused on the repair of peripher-al nerve defects in rodents. In this study, we established a standardized experimental model of radial nerve defects in primates and evaluated the effect of repair on peripheral nerve injury. We repaired 2.5-cm lesions in the radial nerve of rhesus monkeys by transplantation of autografts, acellular allografts, or acellular allografts seeded with autologous bone marrow stem cells. Five months after surgery, regenerated nerve tissue was assessed for function, electrophysiology, and histomorphometry. Postoperative functional recovery was evaluated by the wrist-extension test. Compared with the simple autografts, the acellular allografts and allografts seeded with bone marrow stem cells facilitated remarkable recovery of the wrist-extension functions in the rhesus monkeys. This functional improvement was coupled with radial nerve distal axon growth, a higher percentage of neuron survival, increased nerve fiber density and diameter, increased myelin sheath thickness, and increased nerve conduction velocities and peak amplitudes of compound motor action potentials. Furthermore, the quality of nerve regeneration in the bone marrow stem cells-laden allografts group was comparable to that achieved with autografts. The wrist-extension test is a simple behavioral method for objective quantification of peripheral nerve regeneration.

  14. Comparison of Nerve Excitability Testing, Nerve Conduction Velocity, and Behavioral Observations for Acrylamide Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerve excitability (NE) testing is a sensitive method to test for peripheral neurotoxicity in humans,and may be more sensitive than compound nerve action potential (CNAP) or nerve conduction velocity (NCV).We used acrylamide to compare the NE and CNAP/NCV methods. Behavioral test...

  15. Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part II: Peripheral nerves of the upper limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Kowalska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ultrasonographic examination is frequently used for imaging peripheral nerves. It serves to supplement the physical examination, electromyography, and magnetic resonance imaging. As in the case of other USG imaging studies, the examination of peripheral nerves is non-invasive, well-tolerated by patients, and relatively inexpensive. Part I of this article series described in detail the characteristic USG picture of peripheral nerves and the proper examination technique, following the example of the median nerve. This nerve is among the most often examined peripheral nerves of the upper limb. This part presents describes the normal anatomy and ultrasound picture of the remaining large nerve branches in the upper extremity and neck – the spinal accessory nerve, the brachial plexus, the suprascapular, axillary, musculocutaneous, radial and ulnar nerves. Their normal anatomy and ultrasonographic appearance have been described, including the division into individual branches. For each of them, specific reference points have been presented, to facilitate the location of the set trunk and its further monitoring. Sites for the application of the ultrasonographic probe at each reference point have been indicated. In the case of the ulnar nerve, the dynamic component of the examination was emphasized. The text is illustrated with images of probe positioning, diagrams of the normal course of the nerves as well as a series of ultrasonographic pictures of normal nerves of the upper limb. This article aims to serve as a guide in the ultrasound examination of the peripheral nerves of the upper extremity. It should be remembered that a thorough knowledge of the area’s topographic anatomy is required for this type of examination.

  16. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumour of the Maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puja Sahai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old man was diagnosed with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of the maxilla. He was treated with total maxillectomy. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed a close resection margin. The tumour was of high grade with an MIB-1 labelling index of almost 60%. At six weeks following the surgery, he developed local tumour relapse. The patient succumbed to the disease at five months from the time of diagnosis. The present report underlines the locally aggressive nature of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of the maxilla which necessitates an early therapeutic intervention. A complete resection with clear margins is the most important prognostic factor for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour in the head and neck region. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be considered to improve the local control. Future research may demarcate the role of targeted therapy for patients with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour.

  17. Advances and Future Applications of Augmented Peripheral Nerve Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Salazar; Eisenberg, Howard M; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2016-09-07

    Peripheral nerve injuries remain a significant source of long lasting morbidity, disability, and economic costs. Much research continues to be performed in areas related to improving the surgical outcomes of peripheral nerve repair. In this review, the physiology of peripheral nerve regeneration and the multitude of efforts to improve surgical outcomes are discussed. Improvements in tissue engineering that have allowed for the use of synthetic conduits seeded with neurotrophic factors are highlighted. Selected pre-clinical and available clinical data using cell based methods such as Schwann cell, undifferentiated, and differentiated stem cell transplantation to guide and enhance peripheral nerve regeneration are presented. The limitations that still exist in the utility of neurotrophic factors and cell-based therapies are outlined. Strategies that are most promising for translation into the clinical arena are suggested.

  18. Advances and Future Applications of Augmented Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar Jones

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve injuries remain a significant source of long lasting morbidity, disability, and economic costs. Much research continues to be performed in areas related to improving the surgical outcomes of peripheral nerve repair. In this review, the physiology of peripheral nerve regeneration and the multitude of efforts to improve surgical outcomes are discussed. Improvements in tissue engineering that have allowed for the use of synthetic conduits seeded with neurotrophic factors are highlighted. Selected pre-clinical and available clinical data using cell based methods such as Schwann cell, undifferentiated, and differentiated stem cell transplantation to guide and enhance peripheral nerve regeneration are presented. The limitations that still exist in the utility of neurotrophic factors and cell-based therapies are outlined. Strategies that are most promising for translation into the clinical arena are suggested.

  19. Effect of experimental devascularization on peripheral nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eros Abrantes Erhart

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the functional importance of the vasa-nervorum and the nerve natural connective bed, fine nerve devascularizations were performed in ten adult dogs, using a dissecting microscope. 4 to 5 cm of the nerve vascularization and corresponding connective bed were injured. By this procedure it could be demonstrated, 30 days later, motor deficiencies and in the histological serial preparations a distad nerve degeneration, total in some fascicles and partial in others.

  20. Peripheral nerve regeneration: experimental strategies and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroni, Alessandro; Mobasseri, S Atefeh; Kingham, Paul J; Reid, Adam J

    2015-03-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries represent a substantial clinical problem with insufficient or unsatisfactory treatment options. This review summarises all the events occurring after nerve damage at the level of the cell body, the site of injury and the target organ. Various experimental strategies to improve neuronal survival, axonal regeneration and target reinnervation are described including pharmacological approaches and cell-based therapies. Given the complexity of nerve regeneration, further studies are needed to address the biology of nerve injury, to improve the interaction with implantable scaffolds, and to implement cell-based therapies in nerve tissue engineering. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Use of nerve elongator to repair short-distance peripheral nerve defects: a prospective randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Bai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Repair techniques for short-distance peripheral nerve defects, including adjacent joint flexion to reduce the distance between the nerve stump defects, "nerve splint" suturing, and nerve sleeve connection, have some disadvantages. Therefore, we designed a repair technique involving intraoperative tension-free application of a nerve elongator and obtained good outcomes in the repair of short-distance peripheral nerve defects in a previous animal study. The present study compared the clinical outcomes between the use of this nerve elongator and performance of the conventional method in the repair of short-distance transection injuries in human elbows. The 3-, 6-, and 12-month postoperative follow-up results demonstrated that early neurological function recovery was better in the nerve elongation group than in the conventional group, but no significant difference in long-term neurological function recovery was detected between the two groups. In the nerve elongation group, the nerves were sutured without tension, and the duration of postoperative immobilization of the elbow was decreased. Elbow function rehabilitation was significantly better in the nerve elongation group than in the control group. Moreover, there were no security risks. The results of this study confirm that the use of this nerve elongator for repair of short-distance peripheral nerve defects is safe and effective.

  2. Visualizing peripheral nerve regeneration by whole mount staining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-peng Dun

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve trauma triggers a well characterised sequence of events both proximal and distal to the site of injury. Axons distal to the injury degenerate, Schwann cells convert to a repair supportive phenotype and macrophages enter the nerve to clear myelin and axonal debris. Following these events, axons must regrow through the distal part of the nerve, re-innervate and finally are re-myelinated by Schwann cells. For nerve crush injuries (axonotmesis, in which the integrity of the nerve is maintained, repair may be relatively effective whereas for nerve transection (neurotmesis repair will likely be very poor as few axons may be able to cross between the two parts of the severed nerve, across the newly generated nerve bridge, to enter the distal stump and regenerate. Analysing axon growth and the cell-cell interactions that occur following both nerve crush and cut injuries has largely been carried out by staining sections of nerve tissue, but this has the obvious disadvantage that it is not possible to follow the paths of regenerating axons in three dimensions within the nerve trunk or nerve bridge. To try and solve this problem, we describe the development and use of a novel whole mount staining protocol that allows the analysis of axonal regeneration, Schwann cell-axon interaction and re-vascularisation of the repairing nerve following nerve cut and crush injuries.

  3. Visualizing Peripheral Nerve Regeneration by Whole Mount Staining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Xin-peng; Parkinson, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve trauma triggers a well characterised sequence of events both proximal and distal to the site of injury. Axons distal to the injury degenerate, Schwann cells convert to a repair supportive phenotype and macrophages enter the nerve to clear myelin and axonal debris. Following these events, axons must regrow through the distal part of the nerve, re-innervate and finally are re-myelinated by Schwann cells. For nerve crush injuries (axonotmesis), in which the integrity of the nerve is maintained, repair may be relatively effective whereas for nerve transection (neurotmesis) repair will likely be very poor as few axons may be able to cross between the two parts of the severed nerve, across the newly generated nerve bridge, to enter the distal stump and regenerate. Analysing axon growth and the cell-cell interactions that occur following both nerve crush and cut injuries has largely been carried out by staining sections of nerve tissue, but this has the obvious disadvantage that it is not possible to follow the paths of regenerating axons in three dimensions within the nerve trunk or nerve bridge. To try and solve this problem, we describe the development and use of a novel whole mount staining protocol that allows the analysis of axonal regeneration, Schwann cell-axon interaction and re-vascularisation of the repairing nerve following nerve cut and crush injuries. PMID:25738874

  4. The role of exosomes in peripheral nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna C Ching

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve injuries remain problematic to treat, with poor functional recovery commonly observed. Injuries resulting in a nerve gap create specific difficulties for axonal regeneration. Approaches to address these difficulties include autologous nerve grafts (which are currently the gold standard treatment and synthetic conduits, with the latter option being able to be impregnated with Schwann cells or stem cells which provide an appropriate micro-environment for neuronal regeneration to occur. Transplanting stem cells, however, infers additional risk of malignant transformation as well as manufacturing difficulties and ethical concerns, and the use of autologous nerve grafts and Schwann cells requires the sacrifice of a functioning nerve. A new approach utilizing exosomes, secreted extracellular vesicles, could avoid these complications. In this review, we summarize the current literature on exosomes, and suggest how they could help to improve axonal regeneration following peripheral nerve injury.

  5. The role of exosomes in peripheral nerve regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rosanna C Ching; Paul J Kingham

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries remain problematic to treat, with poor functional recovery commonly observed. Injuries resulting in a nerve gap create specific difficulties for axonal regeneration. Approaches to address these difficulties include autologous nerve grafts (which are currently the gold standard treatment) and synthetic conduits, with the latter option being able to be im-pregnated with Schwann cells or stem cells which provide an appropriate micro-environment for neuronal regeneration to occur. Transplanting stem cells, however, infers additional risk of malignant transformation as well as manufacturing dififculties and ethical concerns, and the use of autologous nerve grafts and Schwann cells requires the sacriifce of a functioning nerve. A new approach utilizing exosomes, secreted extracellular vesicles, could avoid these complications. In this review, we summarize the current literature on exosomes, and suggest how they could help to improve axonal regeneration following peripheral nerve injury.

  6. Use of electrospinning to construct biomaterials for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Qi; Chang, Biao; Meng, Hao Ye; Liu, Ruo Xi; Wang, Yu; Lu, Shi Bi; Peng, Jiang; Zhao, Qing

    2016-10-01

    A number of limitations associated with the use of hollow nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) require further discussion. Most importantly, the functional recovery outcomes after the placement of hollow NGCs are poor even after the successful bridging of peripheral nerve injuries. However, nerve regeneration scaffolds built using electric spinning have several advantages that may improve functional recovery. Thus, the present study summarizes recent developments in this area, including the key cells that are combined with the scaffold and associated with nerve regeneration, the structure and configuration of the electrospinning design (which determines the performance of the electrospinning scaffold), the materials the electrospinning fibers are composed of, and the methods used to control the morphology of a single fiber. Additionally, this study also discusses the processes underlying peripheral nerve regeneration. The primary goals of the present review were to evaluate and consolidate the findings of studies that used scaffolding biomaterials built by electrospinning used for peripheral nerve regeneration support. It is amazing that the field of peripheral nerve regeneration continues to consistently produce such a wide variety of innovative techniques and novel types of equipment, because the introduction of every new process creates an opportunity for advances in materials for nerve repair.

  7. Role of metallothioneins in peripheral nerve function and regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceballos, D; Lago, N; Verdú, E;

    2003-01-01

    The physiological role of the metallothionein (MT) family of proteins during peripheral nerve injury and regeneration was examined in Mt1+ 2 and Mt3 knockout (KO) mice. To this end, the right sciatic nerve was crushed, and the regeneration distance was evaluated by the pinch test 2-7 days...

  8. ELECTRODIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT OF PERIPHERAL NERVE INJURIES IN KICK-BOXERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R EMAD

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducti0n. Peripheral nerve injuries are one of the common traumas in various sport fields. Nowadays, thera are a growing tendency to Martial arts among young people. Insufficient knowlodage about the biomechanics and true skills in these sports can expose the athletes to many neuromusculoskeletal injuries including peripheral nerve injuries. The aim of this study was assessment of peripheral nerve injuries among Kick-boxers. Methods. The research was done on 30 male kick-boxers Aged between 17-28 years. Ulnar, tibial and median nerves were studied for the presence of unlar nerve entrapment on elbow, trasal tunnel syndrom and carpal tunnel syndrom. Results. Ulnar neuropathy was observed in 12 cases. Tibial entrapment was detected in 13 cases. No median nerve intrapment of CTS was detected. There was a significant correlation between the age of the participants and nerve entrapment. Discussion. Peripheral nerve injuries should be considered in athletes and should be trained to apply preventive and thrapeutic procedures.

  9. Transient peripheral facial nerve paralysis after local anesthetic procedure

    OpenAIRE

    A. Rosmaninho; Lobo, I.; Caetano, M.; Taipa, R; Magalhães, M.; Costa, V; Selores, M.

    2012-01-01

    Complications may arise after laser therapy of the face. The most common ones are bleeding and infections; facial nerve paresis or paralysis is rarely reported. We describe a case of a transient peripheral facial nerve paralysis after laser therapy of an epidermal verrucous nevus localized at the left preauricular area.

  10. Multicenter Clinical Trial of Keratin Biomaterial for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    hydrogel scaffolds. Tissue Eng Part A 2011:17(11-12):1499-505 Lin YC, Ram adan M, Van Dyke, M, Kokai LE, Philips BJ, Rubin JP, Marra KG. Keratin gel f...Ram adan M, Van Dyke, M, Kokai LE, Philips BJ, Rubin JP, Marra KG. Keratin gel f iller for peripheral nerve repair in a rodent sciatic nerve injury

  11. Multicenter Clinical Trial of Keratin Biomaterials for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    purity (size exclusion chromatography for molecular weight, amino acids analysis, ELISA for protein identification, and gel rheology ) and 2) a cell...distribution study. Labeled keratin gel will be placed inside nerve conduits. The ends of the conduits will be closed, and the conduits will be implanted in...Marra KG. Keratin gel filler for peripheral nerve repair in a rodent sciatic nerve injury model. Plast Reconstr Surg 2012;129:67-78. Pace LA

  12. Tissue engineering with peripheral blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells promotes the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Mengjie; Wang, Xianghai; Chen, Yijing; Cao, Shangtao; Wen, Jinkun; Wu, Guofeng; Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Lixia; Qian, Changhui; Qin, Zhenqi; Li, Zhenlin; Tan, Dandan; Fan, Zhihao; Wu, Wutian; Guo, Jiasong

    2017-06-01

    Peripheral nerve injury repair can be enhanced by Schwann cell (SC) transplantation, but clinical applications are limited by the lack of a cell source. Thus, alternative systems for generating SCs are desired. Herein, we found the peripheral blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PBMSCs) could be induced into SC like cells with expressing SC-specific markers (S100, P75NTR and CNPase) and functional factors (NGF, NT-3, c-Fos, and Krox20). When the induced PBMSCs (iPBMSCs) were transplanted into crushed rat sciatic nerves, they functioned as SCs by wrapping the injured axons and expressing myelin specific marker of MBP. Furthermore, iPBMSCs seeded in an artificial nerve conduit to bridge a 10-mm defect in a sciatic nerve achieved significant nerve regeneration outcomes, including axonal regeneration and remyelination, nerve conduction recovery, and restoration of motor function, and attenuated myoatrophy and neuromuscular junction degeneration in the target muscle. Overall, the data from this study indicated that PBMSCs can transdifferentiate towards SC-like cells and have potential as grafting cells for nerve tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Impaired Prosaposin Secretion During Nerve Regeneration in Diabetic Rats and Protection of Nerve Regeneration by a Prosaposin-Derived Peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivalt, Corinne G.; Vu, Yvonne; Mizisin, Leah M.; Mizisin, Andrew P.; Calcutt, Nigel A.

    2009-01-01

    Prosaposin is both a precursor of sphingolipid activator proteins and a secreted neurotrophic and myelinotrophic factor. Because peripheral nerve regeneration is impaired in diabetes mellitus, we measured prosaposin protein levels from control and streptozotocin-diabetic rats by collecting endoneurial fluid secreted into a bridging tube connecting the ends of transected sciatic nerve. Prosaposin protein levels were significantly reduced in endoneurial fluid from diabetic rats and increased in the proximal nerve stump compared to controls. To investigate whether a prosaposin-derived peptide could improve nerve regeneration, rats were treated with prosaptide TX14(A) following sciatic nerve crush. In control rats, TX14(A) was without effect in the uninjured nerve but shortened toe spread recovery time after nerve crush. In diabetic rats, efficacy of prosaptide TX14(A) was confirmed by correction of thermal hypoalgesia, formalin-evoked hyperalgesia and conduction slowing in the uninjured nerve. The peptide also prevented diabetes-induced abnormalities in nerve regeneration distance and mean axonal diameter of regenerated axons, whereas delayed recovery of toe spread was not improved. Muscle denervation atrophy was attenuated by TX14(A) in both control and diabetic rats. These results suggest that reduced prosaposin secretion after nerve injury may contribute to impaired regeneration rates in diabetic rats and that prosaptide TX14(A) can improve aspects of nerve regeneration. PMID:18596543

  14. Impaired prosaposin secretion during nerve regeneration in diabetic rats and protection of nerve regeneration by a prosaposin-derived peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivalt, Corinne G; Vu, Yvonne; Mizisin, Leah M; Mizisin, Andrew P; Calcutt, Nigel A

    2008-07-01

    Prosaposin is both a precursor of sphingolipid activator proteins and a secreted neurotrophic and myelinotrophic factor. Because peripheral nerve regeneration is impaired in diabetes mellitus, we measured prosaposin protein levels from control and streptozotocin-diabetic rats by collecting endoneurial fluid secreted into a bridging tube connecting the ends of transected sciatic nerve. Prosaposin protein levels were significantly reduced in endoneurial fluid from diabetic rats and increased in the proximal nerve stump compared to controls. To investigate whether a prosaposin-derived peptide could improve nerve regeneration, rats were treated with prosaptide TX14(A) after sciatic nerve crush. In control rats, TX14(A) was without effect in the uninjured nerve but shortened toe spread recovery time after nerve crush. In diabetic rats, efficacy of prosaptide TX14(A) was confirmed by correction of thermal hypoalgesia, formalin-evoked hyperalgesia, and conduction slowing in the uninjured nerve. The peptide also prevented diabetes-induced abnormalities in nerve regeneration distance and mean axonal diameter of regenerated axons, whereas delayed recovery of toe spread was not improved. Muscle denervation atrophy was attenuated by TX14(A) in both control and diabetic rats. These results suggest that reduced prosaposin secretion after nerve injury may contribute to impaired regeneration rates in diabetic rats, and that prosaptide TX14(A) can improve aspects of nerve regeneration.

  15. 补气通络方对大鼠周围神经传导速度恢复的影响%Effect of buqi tongluo prescription on recovery of peripheral nerve conduction velocity of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚珍松; 梁德; 何振辉

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Buqi tongluo prescription, which is characterized by invigorating qi and promoting blood circulation, dredging collaterals and dispersing stagnation, promoting tissue regeneration, and promoting blood circulation to remove obstruction in the collateral, can promote blood circulation at local injured part and ameliorate nutrien of nerve so as to accelerate axonal regeneration of peripheral nerve and functional recovery of nerve conduction.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of buqi tongluo prescription of various agents on recovery of nerve function after peripheral nerve injury and compare the results with the combination of vitamin B1 and B6.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study.SETTING: Department of Orthopaedics of the First Hospital Affiliated to Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.MATERIALS: A total of 48 Wistar rats of confined clean grade were selected in this study. After modeling on right sciatic nerve, rats were randomly divided into buqi tongluo capsule group, buqi tongluo parenteral solution group, vitamin group and blank group with 12 in each group.METHODS: All rats were cut their right sciatic nerve laterally, and then anastomosis in situ was used immediately to establish models of peripheral nerve injury. Administration began on the third day after operation once a day. ① Rats in buqi tongluo capsule group were perfused with powder of buqi tongluo capsule (including huangqi, renshen, danggui, chuanxiong and danshen which was diluted with saline) of 0.9 g/(kg·d) raw drugs (ig). ② Rats in buqi tongluo parenteral solution group were injected with 0.9 g/(kg·d) buqi tongluo parenteral solution (ip). ③ Rats in vitamin group were perfused with 15 mg/(kg·d) suspension (1.5 g/L) of vitamin B1 and B6.④ Rats in blank group were perfused with 0.01 mL/g saline.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Four rats from each group were selected for 4, 8 and 12 week time points after administration to record bilateral nerve conduction velocity

  16. Prevention of Paclitaxel-induced allodynia by Minocycline: Effect on loss of peripheral nerve fibers and infiltration of macrophages in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wen-Jun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although paclitaxel is a frontline antineoplastic agent for treatment of solid tumors, the paclitaxel-evoked pain syndrome is a serious problem for patients. There is currently no valid drug to prevent or treat the paclitaxel-induced allodynia, partly due to lack of understanding regarding the cellular mechanism. Studies have shown that minocycline, an inhibitor of microglia/macrophage, prevented neuropathic pain and promoted neuronal survival in animal models of neurodegenerative disease. Recently, Cata et al also reported that minocycline inhibited allodynia induced by low-dose paclitaxel (2 mg/kg in rats, but the mechanism is still unclear. Results Here, we investigate by immunohistochemistry the change of intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF in the hind paw glabrous skin, expression of macrophage and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3 in DRG at different time points after moderate-dose paclitaxel treatment (cumulative dose 24 mg/kg; 3 × 8 mg/kg in rats. Moreover, we observe the effect of minocycline on the IENF, macrophages and ATF3. The results showed that moderate-dose paclitaxel induced a persisted, gradual mechanical allodynia, which was accompanied by the loss of IENF in the hind paw glabrous skin and up-regulation of macrophages and ATF3 in DRG in rats. The expressions of ATF3 mainly focus on the NF200-positive cells. More importantly, we observed that pretreatment of minocycline at dose of 30 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg, but not 5 mg/kg, prevented paclitaxel-evoked allodynia. The evidence from immunohistochemistry showed that 30 mg/kg minocycline rescued the degeneration of IENF, attenuated infiltration of macrophages and up-regulation of ATF3 induced by paclitaxel treatment in rats. Conclusions Minocycline prevents paclitaxel-evoked allodynia, likely due to its inhibition on loss of IENF, infiltration of macrophages and up-regulation of ATF3 in rats. The finding might provide potential target for preventing paclitaxel

  17. 赖诺普利对糖尿病大鼠周围神经微循环的影响%Effects of lisinopril on microcirculation of diabetic peripheral nerve in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩丽萍; 谢云; 李春君; 管乐; 马泽军; 陈莉明

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impacts of lisinopril on the microcirculation of peripheral nerve as well as nerve function and structure in diabetic rats.Methods Diabetic rat model was prepared by injecting streptozotocin into the tail veins of 25 six-week-old healthy male Wistar rats.The rats models were randomly divided into diabetic group and lisinopril treatment group (20 mg · kg-1 · d-1,8 weeks),10 healthy rats were set as normal controls.Sciatic nerve conduction velocity and ultrastructure were observed 8 weeks after intervene.The plasma nitric oxide (NO),nerve tissue superoxide dismutase (SOD),malondialdehyde (MDA) levels by were detected by chemocolorimetry.The 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1 α) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay,and plasminogen activator inhibitor(PAI-1),tissuc-typc plasminogen activator (t-PA) were assayed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA),capillary density of sciatic endoneurium was evaluated by immunohistochemistry of CD34.Single factor analysis of variance was used to compare the differences among groups.Results Compared with those in normal control group,the motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity of diabetic rats slowed down (t =8.952,9.642,both P < 0.05) and the ultrastructure of the sciatic nerve was abnormal; Plasma NO,6-keto-PGF1α,t-PA,SOD levels decreased and PAI-1,MDA increased in diabetic rats(t =3.535-8.054,all P <0.05).The motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity of sciatic nerve in lisinopril treatment group improved significantly than those in diabetic rats (t =6.774,7.058,both P < 0.05),and the extenuated atrophy and degeneration of axon and myelin,and ameliorated stenosis and occlusion of capillary of sciatic nerve were all improved.Moreover,the plasma levels of NO,6-keto-PGFlα,t-PA and SOD levels increased and PAL1 and MDA levels decreased significantly in lisinopril treatment group than those in diabetic rats (t =2.611-6.544,all P < 0.05),and the angiogenesis of endoneurium was

  18. Nerve transfers and neurotization in peripheral nerve injury, from surgery to rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korus, Lisa; Ross, Douglas C; Doherty, Christopher D; Miller, Thomas A

    2016-02-01

    Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) and recent advances in nerve reconstruction (such as neurotization with nerve transfers) have improved outcomes for patients suffering peripheral nerve trauma. The purpose of this paper is to bridge the gap between the electromyographer/clinical neurophysiologist and the peripheral nerve surgeon. Whereas the preceding literature focuses on either the basic science behind nerve injury and reconstruction, or the surgical options and algorithms, this paper demonstrates how electromyography is not just a 'decision tool' when deciding whether to operate but is also essential to all phases of PNI management including surgery and rehabilitation. The recent advances in the reconstruction and rehabilitation of PNI is demonstrated using case examples to assist the electromyographer to understand modern surgical techniques and the unique demands they ask from electrodiagnostic testing.

  19. Intraoperative peripheral nerve injury in colorectal surgery. An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colsa Gutiérrez, Pablo; Viadero Cervera, Raquel; Morales-García, Dieter; Ingelmo Setién, Alfredo

    2016-03-01

    Intraoperative peripheral nerve injury during colorectal surgery procedures is a potentially serious complication that is often underestimated. The Trendelenburg position, use of inappropriately padded armboards and excessive shoulder abduction may encourage the development of brachial plexopathy during laparoscopic procedures. In open colorectal surgery, nerve injuries are less common. It usually involves the femoral plexus associated with lithotomy position and self-retaining retractor systems. Although in most cases the recovery is mostly complete, treatment consists of physical therapy to prevent muscular atrophy, protection of hypoesthesic skin areas and analgesics for neuropathic pain. The aim of the present study is to review the incidence, prevention and management of intraoperative peripheral nerve injury.

  20. Early cyclosporin A treatment retards axonal degeneration in an experimental peripheral nerve injection injury model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrahim Erkutlu; Mehmet Alptekin; Sirma Geyik; Abidin Murat Geyik; Inan Gezgin; Abdulvahap Gk

    2015-01-01

    Injury to peripheral nerves during injections of therapeutic agents such as penicillin G potas-sium is common in developing countries. It has been shown that cyclosporin A, a powerful immunosuppressive agent, can retard Wallerian degeneration after peripheral nerve crush injury. However, few studies are reported on the effects of cyclosporin A on peripheral nerve drug in-jection injury. This study aimed to assess the time-dependent efifcacy of cyclosporine-A as an immunosuppressant therapy in an experimental rat nerve injection injury model established by penicillin G potassium injection. The rats were randomly divided into three groups based on the length of time after nerve injury induced by cyclosporine-A administration (30 minutes, 8 or 24 hours). The compound muscle action potentials were recorded pre-injury, early post-injury (within 1 hour) and 4 weeks after injury and compared statistically. Tissue samples were taken from each animal for histological analysis. Compared to the control group, a significant im-provement of the compound muscle action potential amplitude value was observed only when cyclosporine-A was administered within 30 minutes of the injection injury (P < 0.05); at 8 or 24 hours after cyclosporine-A administration, compound muscle action potential amplitude was not changed compared with the control group. Thus, early immunosuppressant drug therapy may be a good alternative neuroprotective therapy option in experimental nerve injection injury induced by penicillin G potassium injection.

  1. Early cyclosporin A treatment retards axonal degeneration in an experimental peripheral nerve injection injury model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Erkutlu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury to peripheral nerves during injections of therapeutic agents such as penicillin G potassium is common in developing countries. It has been shown that cyclosporin A, a powerful immunosuppressive agent, can retard Wallerian degeneration after peripheral nerve crush injury. However, few studies are reported on the effects of cyclosporin A on peripheral nerve drug injection injury. This study aimed to assess the time-dependent efficacy of cyclosporine-A as an immunosuppressant therapy in an experimental rat nerve injection injury model established by penicillin G potassium injection. The rats were randomly divided into three groups based on the length of time after nerve injury induced by penicillin G potassium administration (30 minutes, 8 or 24 hours. The compound muscle action potentials were recorded pre-injury, early post-injury (within 1 hour and 4 weeks after injury and compared statistically. Tissue samples were taken from each animal for histological analysis. Compared to the control group, a significant improvement of the compound muscle action potential amplitude value was observed only when cyclosporine-A was administered within 30 minutes of the injection injury (P < 0.05; at 8 or 24 hours after cyclosporine-A administration, compound muscle action potential amplitude was not changed compared with the control group. Thus, early immunosuppressant drug therapy may be a good alternative neuroprotective therapy option in experimental nerve injection injury induced by penicillin G potassium injection.

  2. Methods of peripheral nerve tissue preparation for second harmonic generation imaging of collagen fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, Surabhi; Huq, Rumana; Hausman, Michael R

    2014-03-15

    Second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging of the peripheral nerve using multi-photon microscopy is a novel technique with little documentation. It affords the significant possibility of non-destructive imaging of internal nerve anatomy. The nature of nerve tissue, especially its size and viscoelastic properties, present special challenges for microscopy. While nerves are under an innate in situ strain, they retract once dissected, thus distorting microscopic structure. The challenge is to preserve the nerve in its natural strain range to obtain images that most truly reveal its structure. This study examined backscattered SHG images of rat median nerve prepared by several different methods to compare image quality and content. Nerve segments were fixed under strained (constant load or length) and unstrained conditions and imaged as whole nerve as well as plastic (methyl methacrylate) and paraffin embedded sections. These were tested for optimal excitation wavelength, quantitative image contrast, and overall quality. Root mean squared (RMS) contrast proved to be a reliable measure of the level of image contrast perceived by eye. We concluded that images obtained from tissue sections (plastic and paraffin) provided the most accurate and revealing SHG images of peripheral nerve structure. Removing the embedding material prior to imaging significantly improved image quality. Optimal excitation wavelengths were consistent regardless of the preparation method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Interleukin 6 in intact and injured mouse peripheral nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, F; Levitzky, R; Rotshenker, S

    1996-03-01

    The multifunctional cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) has direct growth, survival and differentiation effects on peripheral and central neurons. Furthermore, it can modulate the production by non-neuronal cells of other cytokines and growth factors, and thereby affect nerve cells indirectly. We have studied IL-6 expression and production in intact and injured peripheral nerves of C57/BL/6NHSD mice, which display the normal rapid progression of Wallerian degeneration. The IL-6 mRNA was detected in nerves degenerating in vitro or in vivo, but not in intact nerves. In vitro- and in vivo-degenerating nerve segments and neuroma nerve segments synthesized and secreted IL-6. The onset of IL-6 production was rapid and prolonged. It was detected as early as 2 h after injury and persisted for the entire period of 21 days tested after the injury. Of the non-neuronal cells that reside in intact and injured nerves, macrophages and fibroblasts were the major contributors to IL-6 production. We also studied IL-6 production in intact and injured nerves of mutant C57BL/6-WLD/OLA/NHSD mice, which display very slow progression of Wallerian degeneration. Injured nerves of C57BL/6-WLD/OLA/NHSD mice produced significantly lower amounts of IL-6 than did rapidly degenerating nerves of C57/BL/6NHSD mice.

  4. Engineering Bi-Layer Nanofibrous Conduits for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yiqian; Wang, Aijun; Patel, Shyam; Kurpinski, Kyle; Diao, Edward; Bao, Xuan; Kwong, George; Young, William L.

    2011-01-01

    Trauma injuries often cause peripheral nerve damage and disability. A goal in neural tissue engineering is to develop synthetic nerve conduits for peripheral nerve regeneration having therapeutic efficacy comparable to that of autografts. Nanofibrous conduits with aligned nanofibers have been shown to promote nerve regeneration, but current fabrication methods rely on rolling a fibrous sheet into the shape of a conduit, which results in a graft with inconsistent size and a discontinuous joint or seam. In addition, the long-term effects of nanofibrous nerve conduits, in comparison with autografts, are still unknown. Here we developed a novel one-step electrospinning process and, for the first time, fabricated a seamless bi-layer nanofibrous nerve conduit: the luminal layer having longitudinally aligned nanofibers to promote nerve regeneration, and the outer layer having randomly organized nanofibers for mechanical support. Long-term in vivo studies demonstrated that bi-layer aligned nanofibrous nerve conduits were superior to random nanofibrous conduits and had comparable therapeutic effects to autografts for nerve regeneration. In summary, we showed that the engineered nanostructure had a significant impact on neural tissue regeneration in situ. The results from this study will also lead to the scalable fabrication of engineered nanofibrous nerve conduits with designed nanostructure. This technology platform can be combined with drug delivery and cell therapies for tissue engineering. PMID:21501089

  5. Spinal myoclonus following a peripheral nerve injury: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkol Gokhan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Spinal myoclonus is a rare disorder characterized by myoclonic movements in muscles that originate from several segments of the spinal cord and usually associated with laminectomy, spinal cord injury, post-operative, lumbosacral radiculopathy, spinal extradural block, myelopathy due to demyelination, cervical spondylosis and many other diseases. On rare occasions, it can originate from the peripheral nerve lesions and be mistaken for peripheral myoclonus. Careful history taking and electrophysiological evaluation is important in differential diagnosis. The aim of this report is to evaluate the clinical and electrophysiological characteristics and treatment results of a case with spinal myoclonus following a peripheral nerve injury without any structural lesion.

  6. Functional self-assembling peptide nanofiber hydrogel for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoli; He, Liumin; Li, Wen; Li, Heng; Wong, Wai-Man; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Wu, Wutian

    2017-02-01

    Peripheral nerves are fragile and easily damaged, usually resulting in nervous tissue loss, motor and sensory function loss. Advances in neuroscience and engineering have been significantly contributing to bridge the damage nerve and create permissive environment for axonal regrowth across lesions. We have successfully designed two self-assembling peptides by modifying RADA 16-I with two functional motifs IKVAV and RGD. Nanofiber hydrogel formed when combing the two neutral solutions together, defined as RADA 16-Mix that overcomes the main drawback of RADA16-I associated with low pH. In the present study, we transplanted the RADA 16-Mix hydrogel into the transected rat sciatic nerve gap and effect on axonal regeneration was examined and compared with the traditional RADA16-I hydrogel. The regenerated nerves were found to grow along the walls of the large cavities formed in the graft of RADA16-I hydrogel, while the nerves grew into the RADA 16-Mix hydrogel toward distal position. RADA 16-Mix hydrogel induced more axons regeneration and Schwann cells immigration than RADA16-I hydrogel, resulting in better functional recovery as determined by the gait-stance duration percentage and the formation of new neuromuscular junction structures. Therefore, our results indicated that the functional SAP RADA16-Mix nanofibrous hydrogel provided a better environment for peripheral nerve regeneration than RADA16-I hydrogel and could be potentially used in peripheral nerve injury repair.

  7. Let-7 microRNAs regenerate peripheral nerve regeneration by targeting nerve growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiying; Wang, Xinghui; Gu, Yun; Chen, Chu; Wang, Yaxian; Liu, Jie; Hu, Wen; Yu, Bin; Wang, Yongjun; Ding, Fei; Liu, Yan; Gu, Xiaosong

    2015-03-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a common clinical problem. Nerve growth factor (NGF) promotes peripheral nerve regeneration, but its clinical applications are limited by several constraints. In this study, we found that the time-dependent expression profiles of eight let-7 family members in the injured nerve after sciatic nerve injury were roughly similar to each other. Let-7 microRNAs (miRNAs) significantly reduced cell proliferation and migration of primary Schwann cells (SCs) by directly targeting NGF and suppressing its protein translation. Following sciatic nerve injury, the temporal change in let-7 miRNA expression was negatively correlated with that in NGF expression. Inhibition of let-7 miRNAs increased NGF secretion by primary cultured SCs and enhanced axonal outgrowth from a coculture of primary SCs and dorsal root gangalion neurons. In vivo tests indicated that let-7 inhibition promoted SCs migration and axon outgrowth within a regenerative microenvironment. In addition, the inhibitory effect of let-7 miRNAs on SCs apoptosis might serve as an early stress response to nerve injury, but this effect seemed to be not mediated through a NGF-dependent pathway. Collectively, our results provide a new insight into let-7 miRNA regulation of peripheral nerve regeneration and suggest a potential therapy for repair of peripheral nerve injury.

  8. Motor Nerve Conduction Velocity In Postmenopausal Women with Peripheral Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Naiyer; Singh, Paras Nath; Hossain, Mohd Mobarak

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The post-menopausal phase is characterized by a decline in the serum oestrogen and progesterone levels. This phase is also associated with higher incidence of peripheral neuropathy. Aim To explore the relationship between the peripheral motor nerve status and serum oestrogen and progesterone levels through assessment of Motor Nerve Conduction Velocity (MNCV) in post-menopausal women with peripheral neuropathy. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted at Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College during 2011-2013. The study included 30 post-menopausal women with peripheral neuropathy (age: 51.4±7.9) and 30 post-menopausal women without peripheral neuropathy (control) (age: 52.5±4.9). They were compared for MNCV in median, ulnar and common peroneal nerves and serum levels of oestrogen and progesterone estimated through enzyme immunoassays. To study the relationship between hormone levels and MNCV, a stepwise linear regression analysis was done. Results The post-menopausal women with peripheral neuropathy had significantly lower MNCV and serum oestrogen and progesterone levels as compared to control subjects. Stepwise linear regression analysis showed oestrogen with main effect on MNCV. Conclusion The findings of the present study suggest that while the post-menopausal age group is at a greater risk of peripheral neuropathy, it is the decline in the serum estrogen levels which is critical in the development of peripheral neuropathy. PMID:28208850

  9. US and MR imaging of peripheral nerves in leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinoli, C. [Department of Radiology ' ' R' ' , DICMI, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Cattedra di Radiologia ' ' R' ' , Universita di Genova, Largo Rosanna Benzi, 8, I-16132 Genoa (Italy); Derchi, L.E.; Gandolfo, N. [Department of Radiology ' ' R' ' , DICMI, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Bertolotto, M. [Department of Radiology, University of Trieste, Strada di Fiume, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Bianchi, S. [Division de Radiodiagnostic. Hopital Cantonal Huniversitaire, Rue Micheli du Crest, Geneva (Switzerland); Fiallo, P.; Nunzi, E. [Department of Tropical Medicine, University of Genoa, Largo Rosanna Benzi 8, I-16132 Genoa (Italy)

    2000-03-30

    Objective. To analyze peripheral nerves with ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MR) in leprosy and assess the role of imaging in leprosy patients. Results. Leprosy nerves were classified into three groups based on imaging appearance: group I consisted of 17 normal-appearing nerves; group II, of 30 enlarged nerves with fascicular abnormalities; group III, of 11 nerves with absent fascicular structure. Group II nerves were from patients subjected to reversal reactions; 75% of patients with group III nerves had a history of erythema nodosum leprosum. Nerve compression in osteofibrous tunnels was identified in 33% of group II and 18% of group III nerves. Doppler US and MR imaging were 74% and 92% sensitive in identifying active reactions, based on detection of endoneural color flow signals, long T2 and Gd enhancement. In 64% of cases, follow-up studies showed decreased color flow and Gd uptake after steroids and decompressive surgery.Conclusions. US and MR imaging are able to detect nerves abnormalities in leprosy. Active reversal reactions are indicated by endoneural color flow signals as well as by an increased T2 signal and Gd enhancement. These signs would suggest rapid progression of nerve damage and a poor prognosis unless antireactional treatment is started. (orig.)

  10. Neural tissue engineering options for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaosong; Ding, Fei; Williams, David F

    2014-08-01

    Tissue engineered nerve grafts (TENGs) have emerged as a potential alternative to autologous nerve grafts, the gold standard for peripheral nerve repair. Typically, TENGs are composed of a biomaterial-based template that incorporates biochemical cues. A number of TENGs have been used experimentally to bridge long peripheral nerve gaps in various animal models, where the desired outcome is nerve tissue regeneration and functional recovery. So far, the translation of TENGs to the clinic for use in humans has met with a certain degree of success. In order to optimize the TENG design and further approach the matching of TENGs with autologous nerve grafts, many new cues, beyond the traditional ones, will have to be integrated into TENGs. Furthermore, there is a strong requirement for monitoring the real-time dynamic information related to the construction of TENGs. The aim of this opinion paper is to specifically and critically describe the latest advances in the field of neural tissue engineering for peripheral nerve regeneration. Here we delineate new attempts in the design of template (or scaffold) materials, especially in the context of biocompatibility, the choice and handling of support cells, and growth factor release systems. We further discuss the significance of RNAi for peripheral nerve regeneration, anticipate the potential application of RNAi reagents for TENGs, and speculate on the possible contributions of additional elements, including angiogenesis, electrical stimulation, molecular inflammatory mediators, bioactive peptides, antioxidant reagents, and cultured biological constructs, to TENGs. Finally, we consider that a diverse array of physicochemical and biological cues must be orchestrated within a TENG to create a self-consistent coordinated system with a close proximity to the regenerative microenvironment of the peripheral nervous system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Methylprednisolone microsphere sustained-release membrane inhibits scar formation at the site of peripheral nerve lesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Li; Teng Li; Xiang-chang Cao; De-qing Luo; Ke-jian Lian

    2016-01-01

    Corticosteroids are widely used for the treatment of acute central nervous system injury. However, their bioactivity is limited by their short half-life. Sustained release of glucocorticoids can prolong their efifcacy and inhibit scar formation at the site of nerve injury. In the present study, we wrapped the anastomotic ends of the rat sciatic nerve with a methylprednisolone sustained-release membrane. Compared with methylprednisone alone or methylprednisone microspheres, the methylprednisolone microsphere sustained-release membrane reduced tissue adhesion and inhibited scar tissue formation at the site of anastomosis. It also increased sciatic nerve function index and the thick-ness of the myelin sheath. Our ifndings show that the methylprednisolone microsphere sustained-release membrane effectively inhibits scar formation at the site of anastomosis of the peripheral nerve, thereby promoting nerve regeneration.

  12. Biological performance of a novel biodegradable polyamidoamine hydrogel as guide for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnaghi, Valerio; Conte, Vincenzo; Procacci, Patrizia; Pivato, Giorgio; Cortese, Paolo; Cavalli, Erika; Pajardi, Giorgio; Ranucci, Elisabetta; Fenili, Fabio; Manfredi, Amedea; Ferruti, Paolo

    2011-07-01

    Polyamidoamines (PAAs) are a well-known family of synthetic biocompatible and biodegradable polymers, which can be prepared as soft hydrogels characterized by low interfacial tension and tunable elasticity. For the first time we report here on the in vivo performance of a PAA hydrogel implant as scaffold for tissue engineering. In particular, an amphoteric agmatine-deriving PAA hydrogel shaped as small tubing was obtained by radical polymerization of a soluble functional oligomeric precursor and used as conduit for nerve regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve cut model. The animals were analyzed at 30, 90, and 180 days post-surgery. PAA tubing proved to facilitate nerve regeneration. Good surgical outcomes were achieved with no signs of inflammation or neuroma. Moreover, nerve regeneration was morphologically sound and the quality of functional recovery satisfactory. In conclusion, PAA hydrogel scaffolds may represent a novel and promising material for peripheral nerve regeneration.

  13. Toe out angle : a functional index for the evaluation of sciatic nerve recovery in the rat model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varejao, ASP; Cabrita, AM; Geuna, S; Melo-Pinto, P; Filipe, VM; Gramsbergen, A; Meek, MF

    2003-01-01

    In experimental peripheral nerve studies, the rat sciatic nerve model is widely used to examine functional outcome following nerve injury and repair. A variety of evaluation methods exist in the literature, but an adequate selection continues to be a critical point for the researcher. Rats with scia

  14. 3D multi-channel bi-functionalized silk electrospun conduits for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis, T M; Elia, R; Vidal, G; Dermigny, Q; Denoeud, C; Kaplan, D L; Egles, C; Marin, F

    2015-01-01

    Despite technological advances over the past 25 years, a complete recovery from peripheral nerve injuries remains unsatisfactory today. The autograft is still considered the "gold standard" in clinical practice; however, postoperative complications and limited availability of nerve tissue have motivated the development of alternative approaches. Among them, the development of biomimetic nerve graft substitutes is one of the most promising strategies. In this study, multichanneled silk electrospun conduits bi-functionalized with Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and Ciliary Neurotropic Factor (CNTF) were fabricated to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration. These bioactive guides consisting of longitudinally oriented channels and aligned nanofibers were designed in order to mimic the fascicular architecture and fibrous extracellular matrix found in native nerve. The simple use of the electrospinning technique followed by a manual manipulation to manufacture these conduits provides tailoring of channel number and diameter size to create perineurium-like structures. Functionalization of the silk fibroin nanofiber did not affect its secondary structure and chemical property. ELISA assays showed the absence of growth factors passive release from the functionalized fibers avoiding the topical accumulation of proteins. In addition, our biomimetic multichanneled functionalized nerve guides displayed a mechanical behavior comparable to that of rat sciatic nerve with an ultimate peak stress of 4.0 ± 0.6 MPa and a corresponding elongation at failure of 156.8 ± 46.7%. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time our ability to design and characterize a bi-functionalized nerve conduit consisting of electrospun nanofibers with multichannel oriented and nanofibers aligned for peripheral regeneration. Our bioactive silk tubes thus represent a new and promising technique towards the creation of a biocompatible nerve guidance conduit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  15. Impaired Prosaposin Secretion During Nerve Regeneration in Diabetic Rats and Protection of Nerve Regeneration by a Prosaposin-Derived Peptide

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Prosaposin is both a precursor of sphingolipid activator proteins and a secreted neurotrophic and myelinotrophic factor. Because peripheral nerve regeneration is impaired in diabetes mellitus, we measured prosaposin protein levels from control and streptozotocin-diabetic rats by collecting endoneurial fluid secreted into a bridging tube connecting the ends of transected sciatic nerve. Prosaposin protein levels were significantly reduced in endoneurial fluid from diabetic rats and increased in...

  16. High resolution computed tomography for peripheral facial nerve paralysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, O.; Straehler-Pohl, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    High resolution computer tomographic examinations of the petrous bones were performed on 19 patients with confirmed peripheral facial nerve paralysis. High resolution CT provides accurate information regarding the extent, and usually regarding the type, of pathological process; this can be accurately localised with a view to possible surgical treatments. The examination also differentiates this from idiopathic paresis, which showed no radiological changes. Destruction of the petrous bone, without facial nerve symptoms, makes early suitable treatment mandatory.

  17. Mechanical Loading for Peripheral Nerve Stabilization and Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    phenomenon is often equated to a phantom limb phenomenon in humans; therefore, it may not be a response to pain , in animals. Therefore, in addition, bitter...motor function, sensory loss, and chronic pain with inappropriate autonomic responses. Consequently, strategies for enhancing nervous function are of...peripheral nerve damage is often poor, particularly for severed nerves. The result can be impaired motor function, sensory loss, and chronic pain with

  18. Guided regeneration with resorbable conduits in experimental peripheral nerve injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoli Aldini, N.; Fini, M; Rocca, M; Giavaresi, G.; Giardino, R.

    2000-01-01

    Guided tissue regeneration is a new approach in the reconstructive surgery of peripheral nerves. Artificial conduits can be constructed from biodegradable polymers. Lactic/caproic acid copolymers and polyphospazenes are biocompatible materials with a slow resorption rate. Conduits made from either poly-[l-lactide-co-6-caprolatone] or poly-[bis-(ethylalanate)-phosphazene] were assessed for use as guides for nerve regeneration in experimental animals. Under general anesthesia and by using a mic...

  19. Use of superficial peroneal nerve graft for treating peripheral nerve injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Ribak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical results from treating chronic peripheral nerve injuries using the superficial peroneal nerve as a graft donor source. METHODS: This was a study on eleven patients with peripheral nerve injuries in the upper limbs that were treated with grafts from the sensitive branch of the superficial peroneal nerve. The mean time interval between the dates of the injury and surgery was 93 days. The ulnar nerve was injured in eight cases and the median nerve in six. There were three cases of injury to both nerves. In the surgery, a longitudinal incision was made on the anterolateral face of the ankle, thus viewing the superficial peroneal nerve, which was located anteriorly to the extensor digitorum longus muscle. Proximally, the deep fascia between the extensor digitorum longus and the peroneal longus muscles was dissected. Next, the motor branch of the short peroneal muscle (one of the branches of the superficial peroneal nerve was identified. The proximal limit of the sensitive branch was found at this point. RESULTS: The average space between the nerve stumps was 3.8 cm. The average length of the grafts was 16.44 cm. The number of segments used was two to four cables. In evaluating the recovery of sensitivity, 27.2% evolved to S2+, 54.5% to S3 and 18.1% to S3+. Regarding motor recovery, 72.7% presented grade 4 and 27.2% grade 3. There was no motor deficit in the donor area. A sensitive deficit in the lateral dorsal region of the ankle and the dorsal region of the foot was observed. None of the patients presented complaints in relation to walking. CONCLUSIONS: Use of the superficial peroneal nerve as a graft source for treating peripheral nerve injuries is safe and provides good clinical results similar to those from other nerve graft sources.

  20. Effect of Frankincense Extract on Nerve Recovery in the Rat Sciatic Nerve Damage Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of frankincense extract on peripheral nerve regeneration in a crush injury rat model. Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control and frankincense extract low-, medium-, and high-dose groups. At days 7, 14, 21, and 28 following the surgery, nerve regeneration and functional recovery were evaluated using the sciatic functional index (SFI, expression of GAP-43, and the proliferation of Schwann cells (SCs in vivo and in vitro. At day 7, the SFI in the frankincense extract high-dose group was significantly improved compared with the control group. After day 14, SFI was significantly improved in the medium- and high-dose groups. There was no significant difference in GAP-43 expression among the groups at day 7. However, after day 14, expression of GAP-43 in the high-dose group was higher than that in the control group. Histological evaluation showed that the injured nerve of frankincense extract high-dose group recovered better than the other groups 28 days after surgery. Further, S100 immunohistochemical staining, MTT colorimetry, and flow cytometry assays all showed that frankincense extract could promote the proliferation of SCs. In conclusion, frankincense extract is able to promote sciatic nerve regeneration and improve the function of a crushed sciatic nerve. This study provides a new direction for the repair of peripheral nerve injury.

  1. Synergistic effects of bone mesenchymal stem cells and chondroitinase ABC on nerve regeneration after acellular nerve allograft in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Jia, Hua; Li, Wen-Yuan; Tong, Xiao-Jie; Liu, Gui-Bo; Kang, Si-Wen

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether combination therapy of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) transplantation and chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) treatment further enhances axonal regeneration and functional recovery after acellular nerve allograft repair of the sciatic nerve gap in rats. Eight Sprague-Dawley rats were used as nerve donors, and 32 Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: Group I: acellular rat sciatic nerve (ARSN) group; Group II: ChABC treatment; Group III: BMSCs transplantation; and Group IV: ChABC treatment and BMSCs transplantation. The results showed that compared with ARSN control group, BMSC transplantation promoted axonal regeneration, the secretion of neural trophic factors NGF, BDNF and axon angiogenesis in nerve graft. ChABC treatment degraded chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in ARSN in vitro and in vivo and improved BMSCs survival in ARSN. The combination therapy caused much better beneficial effects evidenced by increasing sciatic function index, nerve conduction velocity, restoration rate of tibialis anterior wet muscle weight, and myelinated nerve number, but did not further boost the therapeutic effects on neurotrophic factor production, axon angiogenesis, and sensory functional recovery by BMSC transplantation. Taken together, for the first time, we demonstrate the synergistic effects of BMSC transplantation and BMSCs treatment on peripheral nerve regeneration, and our findings may help establish novel strategies for cell transplantation therapy for peripheral nerve injury.

  2. Drug Delivery for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    and connect the two tubes; (b) A scanning electron microscope image of the transverse cross-sectional view of the PLGA nerve conduit. The filter is...reprints of manuscripts and abstracts, a curriculum vitae, patent applications, study questionnaires, and surveys, etc. Bioresorbable Multi-Drug

  3. Nanotechnology and bio-functionalisation for peripheral nerve regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tina Sedaghati; Alexander M Seifalian

    2015-01-01

    There is a high clinical demand for new smart biomaterials, which stimulate neuronal cell pro-liferation, migration and increase cell-material interaction to facilitate nerve regeneration across these critical-sized defects. This article brielfy reviews several up-to-date published studies using Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic acid peptide sequence, nanocomposite based on polyhedral oligo-meric silsesquioxane nanoparticle and nanoifbrous scaffolds as promising strategies to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration by inlfuencing cellular behaviour such as attachment, spreading and proliferation. The aim is to establish the potent manipulations, which are simple and easy to employ in the clinical conditions for nerve regeneration and repair.

  4. Optical Biopsy of Peripheral Nerve Using Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy: A New Tool for Nerve Surgeons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S Crowe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve injuries remain a challenge for reconstructive surgeons with many patients obtaining suboptimal results. Understanding the level of injury is imperative for successful repair. Current methods for distinguishing healthy from damaged nerve are time consuming and possess limited efficacy. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE is an emerging optical biopsy technology that enables dynamic, high resolution, sub-surface imaging of live tissue. Porcine sciatic nerve was either left undamaged or briefly clamped to simulate injury. Diluted fluorescein was applied topically to the nerve. CLE imaging was performed by direct contact of the probe with nerve tissue. Images representative of both damaged and undamaged nerve fibers were collected and compared to routine H&E histology. Optical biopsy of undamaged nerve revealed bands of longitudinal nerve fibers, distinct from surrounding adipose and connective tissue. When damaged, these bands appear truncated and terminate in blebs of opacity. H&E staining revealed similar features in damaged nerve fibers. These results prompt development of a protocol for imaging peripheral nerves intraoperatively. To this end, improving surgeons' ability to understand the level of injury through real-time imaging will allow for faster and more informed operative decisions than the current standard permits.

  5. Design of barrier coatings on kink-resistant peripheral nerve conduits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Acan Clements

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report on the design of braided peripheral nerve conduits with barrier coatings. Braiding of extruded polymer fibers generates nerve conduits with excellent mechanical properties, high flexibility, and significant kink-resistance. However, braiding also results in variable levels of porosity in the conduit wall, which can lead to the infiltration of fibrous tissue into the interior of the conduit. This problem can be controlled by the application of secondary barrier coatings. Using a critical size defect in a rat sciatic nerve model, the importance of controlling the porosity of the nerve conduit walls was explored. Braided conduits without barrier coatings allowed cellular infiltration that limited nerve recovery. Several types of secondary barrier coatings were tested in animal studies, including (1 electrospinning a layer of polymer fibers onto the surface of the conduit and (2 coating the conduit with a cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel. Sixteen weeks after implantation, hyaluronic acid-coated conduits had higher axonal density, displayed higher muscle weight, and better electrophysiological signal recovery than uncoated conduits or conduits having an electrospun layer of polymer fibers. This study indicates that braiding is a promising method of fabrication to improve the mechanical properties of peripheral nerve conduits and demonstrates the need to control the porosity of the conduit wall to optimize functional nerve recovery.

  6. Design of barrier coatings on kink-resistant peripheral nerve conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Basak Acan; Bushman, Jared; Murthy, N Sanjeeva; Ezra, Mindy; Pastore, Christopher M; Kohn, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report on the design of braided peripheral nerve conduits with barrier coatings. Braiding of extruded polymer fibers generates nerve conduits with excellent mechanical properties, high flexibility, and significant kink-resistance. However, braiding also results in variable levels of porosity in the conduit wall, which can lead to the infiltration of fibrous tissue into the interior of the conduit. This problem can be controlled by the application of secondary barrier coatings. Using a critical size defect in a rat sciatic nerve model, the importance of controlling the porosity of the nerve conduit walls was explored. Braided conduits without barrier coatings allowed cellular infiltration that limited nerve recovery. Several types of secondary barrier coatings were tested in animal studies, including (1) electrospinning a layer of polymer fibers onto the surface of the conduit and (2) coating the conduit with a cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel. Sixteen weeks after implantation, hyaluronic acid-coated conduits had higher axonal density, displayed higher muscle weight, and better electrophysiological signal recovery than uncoated conduits or conduits having an electrospun layer of polymer fibers. This study indicates that braiding is a promising method of fabrication to improve the mechanical properties of peripheral nerve conduits and demonstrates the need to control the porosity of the conduit wall to optimize functional nerve recovery.

  7. Construction of nerve guide conduits from cellulose/soy protein composite membranes combined with Schwann cells and pyrroloquinoline quinone for the repair of peripheral nerve defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Lihua [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Center of Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, Hubei University of Arts and Sciences, Xiangyang 441053 (China); Gan, Li; Liu, Yongming; Tian, Weiqun; Tong, Zan [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Xiong; Huselstein, Celine [Ingénierie Moléculaire et Physiopathologie Articulaire (IMoPA), UMR 7365 CNRS – Université de Lorraine, Biopôle, 54500 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Yun, E-mail: yunchen@whu.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2015-02-20

    Regeneration and functional reconstruction of peripheral nerve defects remained a significant clinical challenge. Nerve guide conduits, with seed cells or neurotrophic factors (NTFs), had been widely used to improve the repair and regeneration of injured peripheral nerve. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) was an antioxidant that can stimulate nerve growth factors (NGFs) synthesis and accelerate the Schwann cells (SCs) proliferation and growth. In present study, three kinds of nerve guide conduits were constructed: one from cellulose/SPI hollow tube (CSC), another from CSC combined with SCs (CSSC), and the third one from CSSC combined with PQQ (CSSPC), respectively. And then they were applied to bridge and repair the sciatic nerve defect in rats, using autograft as control. Effects of different nerve guide conduits on the nerve regeneration were comparatively evaluated by general analysis, sciatic function index (SFI) and histological analysis (HE and TEM). Newly-formed regenerative nerve fibers were observed and running through the transparent nerve guide conduits 12 weeks after surgery. SFI results indicated that the reconstruction of motor function in CSSPC group was better than that in CSSC and CSC groups. HE images from the cross-sections and longitudinal-sections of the harvested regenerative nerve indicated that regenerative nerve fibers had been formed and accompanied with new blood vessels and matrix materials in the conduits. TEM images also showed that lots of fresh myelinated and non-myelinated nerve fibers had been formed. Parts of vacuolar, swollen and abnormal axons occurred in CSC and CSSC groups, while the vacuolization and swell of axons was the least serious in CSSPC group. These results indicated that CSSPC group had the most ability to repair and reconstruct the nerve structure and functions due to the comprehensive contributions from hollow CSC tube, SCs and PQQ. As a result, the CSSPC may have the potential for the applications as nerve guide

  8. Biosynthesis of membrane cholesterol during peripheral nerve development, degeneration and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, J K

    1988-09-01

    Biosynthesis of peripheral nerve cholesterol was investigated by the in vivo and in vitro incorporation of [1-14C]-acetate into sciatic endoneurium of normal rats during development, degeneration and regeneration. Labeled sterols were rapidly formed (less than 10 min) within the endoneurial portion of sciatic nerve after [1-14C]acetate administration by intraneural injection. The majority of labeled sterols were initially found in lanosterol and desmosterol. After six hr, the 14C-labeling in both precursors was decreased to minimum, whereas cholesterol became the major labeled product of sterol. As myelination proceeded, the incorporation of [1-14C]acetate into endoneurial cholesterol decreased rapidly and reached a minimum after six mo. In mature adult nerve, an increased proportion of biosynthesis of lanosterol and desmosterol also was demonstrated. The in vitro incorporation of [1-14C]acetate into cholesterol was inhibited during Wallerian degeneration. Instead, cholesteryl esters were labeled as the major sterol product. Such inhibition, however, was not observed in the adult Trembler nerve (Brain Res. 325, 21-27, 1985), which is presumed to be due to a primary metabolic disorder of Schwann cells. The cholesterol biosynthesis was gradually resumed in degenerated nerve by either regeneration of crush-injured nerve or reattachment of the transected nerve. These results suggest that cholesterol biosynthesis in peripheral nerve relies on the axon to provide necessary substrates. De novo synthesis appears to be one of the major sources of endoneurial cholesterol that forms and maintains peripheral nerve myelin.

  9. Peripheral nerve regeneration with conduits: use of vein tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Guerra Sabongi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of peripheral nerve injuries remains a challenge to modern medicine due to the complexity of the neurobiological nerve regenerating process. There is a greater challenge when the transected nerve ends are not amenable to primary end-to-end tensionless neurorraphy. When facing a segmental nerve defect, great effort has been made to develop an alternative to the autologous nerve graft in order to circumvent morbidity at donor site, such as neuroma formation, scarring and permanent loss of function. Tubolization techniques have been developed to bridge nerve gaps and have been extensively studied in numerous experimental and clinical trials. The use of a conduit intends to act as a vehicle for moderation and modulation of the cellular and molecular ambience for nerve regeneration. Among several conduits, vein tubes were validated for clinical application with improving outcomes over the years. This article aims to address the investigation and treatment of segmental nerve injury and draw the current panorama on the use of vein tubes as an autogenous nerve conduit.

  10. Peripheral nerve regeneration with conduits:use of vein tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rodrigo Guerra Sabongi; Marcela Fernandes; Joo Baptista Gomes dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of peripheral nerve injuries remains a challenge to modern medicine due to the com-plexity of the neurobiological nerve regenerating process. There is a greater challenge when the transected nerve ends are not amenable to primary end-to-end tensionless neurorraphy. When facing a segmental nerve defect, great effort has been made to develop an alternative to the au-tologous nerve graft in order to circumvent morbidity at donor site, such as neuroma formation, scarring and permanent loss of function. Tubolization techniques have been developed to bridge nerve gaps and have been extensively studied in numerous experimental and clinical trials. The use of a conduit intends to act as a vehicle for moderation and modulation of the cellular and molecular ambience for nerve regeneration. Among several conduits, vein tubes were validated for clinical application with improving outcomes over the years. This article aims to address the investigation and treatment of segmental nerve injury and draw the current panorama on the use of vein tubes as an autogenous nerve conduit.

  11. Small gap anastomosis to repair peripheral nerve rupture using a nerve regeneration chamber constructed by scissoring and sleeve jointing autologous epineurium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peiji Wang; Zhongliang Zhou; Qirong Dong

    2011-01-01

    A number of studies have shown how to eliminate the misorientated docking of the peripheral nerve bundle in the traditional epineurium or perineudum anastomosis, thus avoiding neuroma formation and axonal outgrowth from the coaptation sites, and seriously hindering neural function recovery. Based on the "peripheral nerve selective regeneration theory", this experiment was designed to investigate the feasibility and benefits of a new small gap anastomosis repairing peripheral nerve rupture, by scissoring and sleeve jointing an autologous epineurium. In the proximal stump of the nerve, a 1 mm-long epineurium was annularly separated and removed, while a 3 mm-long epineurium was longitudinally incised in the distal stump after the epineurium was dissociated from proximal to distal. The epineuria of the two stumps and the longitudinal incision were sutured, leaving a 2 mm gap between the two nerve stumps. Results show that the experimental rats quickly recovered autonomic activities, and there were minimal adhesions at the outer surface of the epineurial tube to the surrounding tissue. The morphologic changes to the sciatic nerve showed that connective tissue hyperplasia of the small gaps was significantly reduced, and nerve fibers were arranged orderly. No such changes were observed in the neurorrhaphy in situ group. Thus, the experiment confirmed that the new small gap anastomosis to repair peripheral nerve rupture by scissoring and sleeve jointing autologous epineurium is feasible, and that it is superior to epineurium neurorrhaphy in situ.

  12. Peripheral nerve lipoma: Case report of an intraneural lipoma of the median nerve and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Alisson Roberto; Finger, Guilherme; Schuster, Marcelo N.; Gobbato, Pedro Luis

    2016-01-01

    Adipose lesions rarely affect the peripheral nerves. This can occur in two different ways: Direct compression by an extraneural lipoma, or by a lipoma originated from the adipose cells located inside the nerve. Since its first description, many terms have been used in the literature to mention intraneural lipomatous lesions. In this article, the authors report a case of a 62-year-old female who presented with an intraneural median nerve lipoma and review the literature concerning the classification of adipose lesions of the nerve, radiological diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27695575

  13. Nanofiber Nerve Guide for Peripheral Nerve Repair and Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    months 24-33) 3d. Retrograde labeling and tissue harvesting (months 32-33) 3e. Nerve morphometry (months 33-35) 3f. Histopathological evaluations...divided into specific tasks related to various components of optimization schemes. In vitro fiber size dependent Schwann cell migration for...5/7/13 17 4 S(design medium 1200 0 Uniform 6/27/13 Tier(5 18 4 S(Design medium 1200 0 Shallow(Gradient(60L180 6/28/13 19 8 S(Design medium 1200 0

  14. MRI of pathology-proven peripheral nerve amyloidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, Gavin A.; Broski, Stephen M.; Howe, Benjamin M.; Spinner, Robert J.; Amrami, Kimberly K.; Dispenzieri, Angela; Ringler, Michael D. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2017-01-15

    To highlight the MRI characteristics of pathologically proven amyloidosis involving the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and determine the utility of MRI in directing targeted biopsy for aiding diagnosis. A retrospective study was performed for patients with pathologically proven PNS amyloidosis who also underwent MRI of the biopsied or excised nerve. MRI signal characteristics, nerve morphology, associated muscular denervation changes, and the presence of multifocal involvement were detailed. Pathology reports were reviewed to determine subtypes of amyloid. Charts were reviewed to gather patient demographics, neurological symptoms and radiologist interpretation. Four men and three women with a mean age of 62 ± 11 years (range 46-76) were identified. All patients had abnormal findings on EMG with mixed sensorimotor neuropathy. All lesions demonstrated diffuse multifocal neural involvement with T1 hypointensity, T2 hyperintensity, and variable enhancement on MRI. One lesion exhibited superimposed T2 hypointensity. Six of seven patients demonstrated associated muscular denervation changes. Peripheral nerve amyloidosis is rare, and the diagnosis is difficult because of insidious symptom onset, mixed sensorimotor neurologic deficits, and the potential for a wide variety of nerves affected. On MRI, peripheral nerve involvement is most commonly characterized by T1 hypointensity, T2 hyperintensity, variable enhancement, maintenance of the fascicular architecture with fusiform enlargement, multifocal involvement and muscular denervation changes. While this appearance mimics other inflammatory neuropathies, MRI can readily detect neural changes and direct-targeted biopsy, thus facilitating early diagnosis and appropriate management. (orig.)

  15. Tumors of peripheral nerves; Tumoren der peripheren Nerven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Michael [Universitaetsklinikum Zuerich, Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Zuerich (Switzerland); Lutz, Amelie M. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Differentiation between malignant and benign tumors of peripheral nerves in the early stages is challenging; however, due to the unfavorable prognosis of malignant tumors early identification is required. To show the possibilities for detection, differential diagnosis and clinical management of peripheral nerve tumors by imaging appearance in magnetic resonance (MR) neurography. Review of current literature available in PubMed and MEDLINE, supplemented by the authors' own observations in clinical practice. Although not pathognomonic, several imaging features have been reported for a differentiation between distinct peripheral nerve tumors. The use of MR neurography enables detection and initial differential diagnosis in tumors of peripheral nerves. Furthermore, it plays an important role in clinical follow-up, targeted biopsy and surgical planning. (orig.) [German] Die Unterscheidung zwischen malignen und benignen Tumoren der peripheren Nerven ist im initialen Stadium schwierig. Die Frueherkennung der malignen Tumoren ist aufgrund ihrer unguenstigen Prognose jedoch wichtig. Moeglichkeiten der MR-Neurographie zur Detektion, Artdiagnostik und klinischem Management von Tumoren der peripheren Nerven anhand bildmorphologischer Charakteristika. Zusammenschau der Studienlage mittels PubMed- bzw. MEDLINE-Recherche. Zusaetzlich Darlegung teils unveroeffentlichter Erkenntnisse aus der eigenen klinischen Beobachtung. Wenn auch nicht pathognomonisch, existieren verschiedene Bildgebungszeichen zur moeglichen Unterscheidung verschiedener Tumoren der peripheren Nerven. Die MR-Neurographie ist ein geeignetes bildgebendes Verfahren zur Detektion und ersten Differenzialdiagnose von Tumoren der peripheren Nerven. Zudem kommt ihr besondere Bedeutung bei der Verlaufskontrolle, der gezielten Biopsie und der operativen Planung zu. (orig.)

  16. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor: MRI and CT Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. O. Kragha

    2015-01-01

    important in its diagnosis. A rare case of MPNST that produced urinary retention and bowel incontinence is presented that may aid clinicians in the diagnosis of this rare clinical entity. Motor weakness, central enhancement, and immunohistochemistry may assist in the diagnosis of MPNST and differentiation between benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor (BPNST and MPNST.

  17. Multi-microelectrode devices for intrafascicular use in peripheral nerve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, W.L.C.

    1996-01-01

    This minisymposium paper gives an overview of experimental, modeling, design and microfabrication steps which lead towards the University of Twente three-dimensional 128-fold silicon microelectrode device. The device is meant for implantation in peripheral nerve for neuromuscular control purposes an

  18. Construction of nerve guide conduits from cellulose/soy protein composite membranes combined with Schwann cells and pyrroloquinoline quinone for the repair of peripheral nerve defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lihua; Gan, Li; Liu, Yongming; Tian, Weiqun; Tong, Zan; Wang, Xiong; Huselstein, Celine; Chen, Yun

    2015-02-20

    Regeneration and functional reconstruction of peripheral nerve defects remained a significant clinical challenge. Nerve guide conduits, with seed cells or neurotrophic factors (NTFs), had been widely used to improve the repair and regeneration of injured peripheral nerve. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) was an antioxidant that can stimulate nerve growth factors (NGFs) synthesis and accelerate the Schwann cells (SCs) proliferation and growth. In present study, three kinds of nerve guide conduits were constructed: one from cellulose/SPI hollow tube (CSC), another from CSC combined with SCs (CSSC), and the third one from CSSC combined with PQQ (CSSPC), respectively. And then they were applied to bridge and repair the sciatic nerve defect in rats, using autograft as control. Effects of different nerve guide conduits on the nerve regeneration were comparatively evaluated by general analysis, sciatic function index (SFI) and histological analysis (HE and TEM). Newly-formed regenerative nerve fibers were observed and running through the transparent nerve guide conduits 12 weeks after surgery. SFI results indicated that the reconstruction of motor function in CSSPC group was better than that in CSSC and CSC groups. HE images from the cross-sections and longitudinal-sections of the harvested regenerative nerve indicated that regenerative nerve fibers had been formed and accompanied with new blood vessels and matrix materials in the conduits. TEM images also showed that lots of fresh myelinated and non-myelinated nerve fibers had been formed. Parts of vacuolar, swollen and abnormal axons occurred in CSC and CSSC groups, while the vacuolization and swell of axons was the least serious in CSSPC group. These results indicated that CSSPC group had the most ability to repair and reconstruct the nerve structure and functions due to the comprehensive contributions from hollow CSC tube, SCs and PQQ. As a result, the CSSPC may have the potential for the applications as nerve guide

  19. Sustained Growth Factor Delivery Promotes Axonal Regeneration in Long Gap Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokai, Lauren E.; Bourbeau, Dennis; Weber, Douglas; McAtee, Jedidiah

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effect of localized growth factor delivery on sciatic nerve regeneration in a critical-size (>1 cm) peripheral nerve defect. Previous work has demonstrated that bioactive proteins can be encapsulated within double-walled, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/poly(lactide) microspheres and embedded within walls of biodegradable polymer nerve guides composed of poly(caprolactone). Within this study, nerve guides containing glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) were used to bridge a 1.5-cm defect in the male Lewis rat for a 16-week period. Nerve repair was evaluated through functional assessment of joint angle range of motion using video gait kinematics, gastrocnemius twitch force, and gastrocnemius wet weight. Histological evaluation of nerve repair included assessment of Schwann cell and neurofilament location with immunohistochemistry, evaluation of tissue integration and organization throughout the lumen of the regenerated nerve with Masson's trichrome stain, and quantification of axon fiber density and g-ratio. Results from this study showed that the measured gastrocnemius twitch force in animals treated with GDNF was significantly higher than negative controls and was not significantly different from the isograft-positive control group. Histological assessment of explanted conduits after 16 weeks showed improved tissue integration within GDNF releasing nerve guides compared to negative controls. Nerve fibers were present across the entire length of GDNF releasing guides, whereas nerve fibers were not detectable beyond the middle region of negative control guides. Therefore, our results support the use of GDNF for improved functional recovery above negative controls following large axonal defects in the peripheral nervous system. PMID:21189072

  20. Leptomeningeal metastasis of an intradural malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Andreas M; Mehdorn, H Maximilian

    2013-08-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are defined as any malignant tumor arising from or differentiating towards the peripheral nerve sheath. Intradural MPNST metastases are very rare. We report, to our knowledge, the first case of leptomeningeal metastasis of a MPNST to the spine and intracranial space. A 56-year-old woman with primary intradural MPNST of the S1 nerve root developed leptomeningeal metastases as well as brain metastases 19 months after diagnosis. The patient had a history of non-Hodgkins lymphoma for which she had received irradiation to the spine 15 years prior to this presentation. She had no stigmata of neurofibromatosis type 1. Patients with MPNST may also develop leptomeningeal metastases as demonstrated in this patient with intradural post-radiation MPNST.

  1. Involvement of NO in Pain after Peripheral Nerve Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Recently, considerable progress in our understanding of the mechanisms of neuropathic pain has been made because of development of several suitable animal models. Neuronal sensitization is believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury.There is much evidence that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the development and maintenance of pain following peripheral nerve injury. The main focus of this article will be on the recent development in understanding the importance of NO acting as a mediator or messenger in the nociceptive signal processing of neuropathic pain. This information suggests a specific avenue for development of more effective clinical medication for neuropathic pain following nerve injury.

  2. 3D-engineering of Cellularized Conduits for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Wu, Yao; Gou, Zhiyuan; Tao, Jie; Zhang, Jiumeng; Liu, Qianqi; Kang, Tianyi; Jiang, Shu; Huang, Siqing; He, Jiankang; Chen, Shaochen; Du, Yanan; Gou, Maling

    2016-08-01

    Tissue engineered conduits have great promise for bridging peripheral nerve defects by providing physical guiding and biological cues. A flexible method for integrating support cells into a conduit with desired architectures is wanted. Here, a 3D-printing technology is adopted to prepare a bio-conduit with designer structures for peripheral nerve regeneration. This bio-conduit is consisted of a cryopolymerized gelatin methacryloyl (cryoGelMA) gel cellularized with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). By modeling using 3D-printed “lock and key” moulds, the cryoGelMA gel is structured into conduits with different geometries, such as the designed multichannel or bifurcating and the personalized structures. The cryoGelMA conduit is degradable and could be completely degraded in 2-4 months in vivo. The cryoGelMA scaffold supports the attachment, proliferation and survival of the seeded ASCs, and up-regulates the expression of their neurotrophic factors mRNA in vitro. After implanted in a rat model, the bio-conduit is capable of supporting the re-innervation across a 10 mm sciatic nerve gap, with results close to that of the autografts in terms of functional and histological assessments. The study describes an indirect 3D-printing technology for fabricating cellularized designer conduits for peripheral nerve regeneration, and could lead to the development of future nerve bio-conduits for clinical use.

  3. 3D-engineering of Cellularized Conduits for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Wu, Yao; Gou, Zhiyuan; Tao, Jie; Zhang, Jiumeng; Liu, Qianqi; Kang, Tianyi; Jiang, Shu; Huang, Siqing; He, Jiankang; Chen, Shaochen; Du, Yanan; Gou, Maling

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineered conduits have great promise for bridging peripheral nerve defects by providing physical guiding and biological cues. A flexible method for integrating support cells into a conduit with desired architectures is wanted. Here, a 3D-printing technology is adopted to prepare a bio-conduit with designer structures for peripheral nerve regeneration. This bio-conduit is consisted of a cryopolymerized gelatin methacryloyl (cryoGelMA) gel cellularized with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). By modeling using 3D-printed “lock and key” moulds, the cryoGelMA gel is structured into conduits with different geometries, such as the designed multichannel or bifurcating and the personalized structures. The cryoGelMA conduit is degradable and could be completely degraded in 2-4 months in vivo. The cryoGelMA scaffold supports the attachment, proliferation and survival of the seeded ASCs, and up-regulates the expression of their neurotrophic factors mRNA in vitro. After implanted in a rat model, the bio-conduit is capable of supporting the re-innervation across a 10 mm sciatic nerve gap, with results close to that of the autografts in terms of functional and histological assessments. The study describes an indirect 3D-printing technology for fabricating cellularized designer conduits for peripheral nerve regeneration, and could lead to the development of future nerve bio-conduits for clinical use. PMID:27572698

  4. Peripheral Nerve Function and Lower Extremity Muscle Power in Older Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ward, Rachel E; Caserotti, Paolo; Faulkner, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    To assess whether sensorimotor peripheral nerve function is associated with muscle power in community-dwelling older men.......To assess whether sensorimotor peripheral nerve function is associated with muscle power in community-dwelling older men....

  5. Cellulose/soy protein composite-based nerve guidance conduits with designed microstructure for peripheral nerve regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Li; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Yanteng; Li, Ke; Tong, Zan; Yi, Li; Wang, Xiong; Li, Yinping; Tian, Weiqun; He, Xiaohua; Zhao, Min; Li, Yan; Chen, Yun

    2016-10-01

    Objective. The objective of this work was to develop nerve guidance conduits from natural polymers, cellulose and soy protein isolate (SPI), by evaluating the effects of cellulose/SPI film-based conduit (CSFC) and cellulose/SPI sponge-based conduit (CSSC) on regeneration of nerve defects in rats. Approach. CSFC and CSSC with the same chemical components were fabricated from cellulose and SPI. Effects of CSSC and CSFC on regeneration of the defective nerve were comparatively investigated in rats with a 10 mm long gap in sciatic nerve. The outcomes of peripheral nerve repair were evaluated by a combination of electrophysiological assessment, Fluoro-Gold retrograde tracing, double NF200/S100 immunofluorescence analysis, toluidine blue staining, and electron microscopy. The probable molecular mechanism was investigated using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis. Main results. Compared with CSFC, CSSC had 2.69 times higher porosity and 5.07 times higher water absorption, thus ensuring much higher permeability. The nerve defects were successfully bridged and repaired by CSSC and CSFC. Three months after surgery, the CSSC group had a higher compound muscle action potential amplitude ratio, a higher percentage of positive NF200 and S100 staining, and a higher axon diameter and myelin sheath thickness than the CSFC group, showing the repair efficiency of CSSC was higher than that of CSFC. qPCR analysis indicated the mRNA levels of nerve growth factor, IL-10, IL-6, and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) were higher in the CSSC group. This also indicated that there was better nerve repair with CSSC due to the higher porosity and permeability of CSSC providing a more favourable microenvironment for nerve regeneration than CSFC. Significance. A promising nerve guidance conduit was developed from cellulose/SPI sponge that showed potential for application in the repair of nerve defect. This work also suggests that nerve guidance conduits with better repair efficiency

  6. [Peripheral paralysis of facial nerve in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steczkowska-Klucznik, Małgorzata; Kaciński, Marek

    2006-01-01

    Peripheral facial paresis is one of the most common diagnosed neuropathies in adults and also in children. Many factors can trigger facial paresis and most frequent are infectious, carcinoma and demyelinisation diseases. Very important and interesting problem is an idiopathic facial paresis (Bell's palsy). Actually the main target of scientific research is to assess the etiology (infectious, genetic, immunologic) and to find the most appropriate treatment.

  7. Motor neuron activation in peripheral nerves using infrared neural stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, E. J.; Tyler, D. J.

    2014-02-01

    Objective. Localized activation of peripheral axons may improve selectivity of peripheral nerve interfaces. Infrared neural stimulation (INS) employs localized delivery to activate neural tissue. This study investigated INS to determine whether localized delivery limited functionality in larger mammalian nerves. Approach. The rabbit sciatic nerve was stimulated extraneurally with 1875 nm wavelength infrared light, electrical stimulation, or a combination of both. Infrared-sensitive regions (ISR) of the nerve surface and electromyogram (EMG) recruitment of the Medial Gastrocnemius, Lateral Gastrocnemius, Soleus, and Tibialis Anterior were the primary output measures. Stimulation applied included infrared-only, electrical-only, and combined infrared and electrical. Main results. 81% of nerves tested were sensitive to INS, with 1.7 ± 0.5 ISR detected per nerve. INS was selective to a single muscle within 81% of identified ISR. Activation energy threshold did not change significantly with stimulus power, but motor activation decreased significantly when radiant power was decreased. Maximum INS levels typically recruited up to 2-9% of any muscle. Combined infrared and electrical stimulation differed significantly from electrical recruitment in 7% of cases. Significance. The observed selectivity of INS indicates that it may be useful in augmenting rehabilitation, but significant challenges remain in increasing sensitivity and response magnitude to improve the functionality of INS.

  8. Magnetoneurography: theory and application to peripheral nerve disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Bruno-Marcel

    2004-12-01

    Magnetoneurography (MNG) is a non-invasive method to trace and visualize three-dimensionally the propagation path of compound action currents (CAC) along peripheral nerves. The basic physical and physiological principle is the mapping of extremely weak magnetic fields generated by the intraaxonal longitudinal ion flows of evoked nerval CAC using SQUID sensors (Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices). During recent years, MNG protocols have been established which allow for a non-invasive spatiotemporal tracing of impulse propagation along peripheral nerves in humans and in particular along proximal nerve segments in a clinical setting. Thereby, the three-dimensional path, the local nerve conduction velocity, the length and strength of the CAC de- and repolarization phase have been reconstructed. First recordings in patients demonstrated that the method is sensitive enough to detect and to localize nerve conduction anomalities along nerve roots, as, e.g. caused by lumbosacral disc herniation. This review on MNG will focus on those studies which provide data from humans and thereby reveal perspectives for its future clinical applications.

  9. 20.7 Peripheral nerve disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930394 A1—10 year follow—up study of 82cases of methamidophos induced delayedpolyneuropathy.Z1HENG Rongyuan (郑荣远),etal.Neurol Dept,Wenzhou Med Coll.325000.Chin J Industr Hyg & Occupat Dis 1992;10(6):344—347.A1—10 year follow—up study of 82 cases ofmethamidophos induced delayed polyneuropathywas reported.82 cases were classified into threetypes:motor (36.6%),sensory—motor (61%)and Guillain-Barre syndrome (2.4%).As awhole,the sensory disturbances disappearedwithin 2—3 months;the autonomic nerve func-tional disorder vanished within 3—6 months;

  10. Hemiplegic peripheral neuropathy accompanied with multiple cranial nerve palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirohisa Okuma

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old man experienced double vision around January, 2010, followed by weakness of his left upper and lower extremities. Articulation disorders and loss of hearing in his left ear developed, and he was admitted to our hospital on February 14, 2010. Physical examination was normal, and neurological examination showed clear consciousness with no impairment of cognitive function, but with articulation disorders. Olfactory sensation was reduced. Left ptosis and left gaze palsy, complete left facial palsy, perceptive deafness of the left ear, and muscle weakness of the left trapezius muscle were observed. Paresis in the left upper and lower extremities was graded 4/5 through manual muscle testing. Sensory system evaluation revealed complete left-side palsy, including the face. Deep tendon reflexes were slightly diminished equally on both sides; no pathologic reflex was seen. No abnormality of the brain parenchyma, cerebral nerves or cervicothoracolumbar region was found on brain magnetic resonance imaging. On electroencephalogram, alpha waves in the main frequency band of 8 to 9 Hz were recorded, indicating normal findings. Brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT scan showed reduced blood flow in the right inner frontal lobe and both occipital lobes. Nerve biopsy (left sural nerve showed reduction of nerve density by 30%, with demyelination. The patient also showed manifestations of multiple cranial nerve disorder, i.e., of the trigeminal nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve, vagus nerve, and hypoglossal nerve. Whole-body examination was negative. Finally, based on ischemic brain SPECT images, spinal fluid findings and nerve biopsy results, peripheral neuropathy accompanied with multiple cranial nerve palsy was diagnosed.

  11. Comparative proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins between peripheral sensory and motor nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qianru; Man, Lili; Ji, Yuhua; Zhang, Shuqiang; Jiang, Maorong; Ding, Fei; Gu, Xiaosong

    2012-06-01

    Peripheral sensory and motor nerves have different functions and different approaches to regeneration, especially their distinct ability to accurately reinervate terminal nerve pathways. To understand the molecular aspects underlying these differences, the proteomics technique by coupling isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) with online two-dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (2D LC-MS/MS) was used to investigate the protein profile of sensory and motor nerve samples from rats. A total of 1472 proteins were identified in either sensory or motor nerve. Of them, 100 proteins showed differential expressions between both nerves, and some of them were validated by quantitative real time RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. In the light of functional categorization, the differentially expressed proteins in sensory and motor nerves, belonging to a broad range of classes, were related to a diverse array of biological functions, which included cell adhesion, cytoskeleton, neuronal plasticity, neurotrophic activity, calcium-binding, signal transduction, transport, enzyme catalysis, lipid metabolism, DNA-binding, synaptosome function, actin-binding, ATP-binding, extracellular matrix, and commitment to other lineages. The relatively higher expressed proteins in either sensory or motor nerve were tentatively discussed in combination with their specific molecular characteristics. It is anticipated that the database generated in this study will provide a solid foundation for further comprehensive investigation of functional differences between sensory and motor nerves, including the specificity of their regeneration.

  12. Silicon-substrate microelectrode arrays for parallel recording of neural activity in peripheral and cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, G T; Storment, C W; Halks-Miller, M; Belczynski, C R; Della Santina, C C; Lewis, E R; Maluf, N I

    1994-06-01

    A new process for the fabrication of regeneration microelectrode arrays for peripheral and cranial nerve applications is presented. This type of array is implanted between the severed ends of nerves, the axons of which regenerate through via holes in the silicon and are thereafter held fixed with respect to the microelectrodes. The process described is designed for compatibility with industry-standard CMOS or BiCMOS processes (it does not involve high-temperature process steps nor heavily-doped etch-stop layers), and provides a thin membrane for the via holes, surrounded by a thick silicon supporting rim. Many basic questions remain regarding the optimum via hole and microelectrode geometries in terms of both biological and electrical performance of the implants, and therefore passive versions were fabricated as tools for addressing these issues in on-going work. Versions of the devices were implanted in the rat peroneal nerve and in the frog auditory nerve. In both cases, regeneration was verified histologically and it was observed that the regenerated nerves had reorganized into microfascicles containing both myelinated and unmyelinated axons and corresponding to the grid pattern of the via holes. These microelectrode arrays were shown to allow the recording of action potential signals in both the peripheral and cranial nerve setting, from several microelectrodes in parallel.

  13. Real time imaging of peripheral nerve vasculature using optical coherence angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Srikanth; Kumsa, Doe; Takmakov, Pavel; Welle, Cristin G.; Hammer, Daniel X.

    2016-03-01

    The peripheral nervous system (PNS) carries bidirectional information between the central nervous system and distal organs. PNS stimulation has been widely used in medical devices for therapeutic indications, such as bladder control and seizure cessation. Investigational uses of PNS stimulation include providing sensory feedback for improved control of prosthetic limbs. While nerve safety has been well documented for stimulation parameters used in marketed devices, novel PNS stimulation devices may require alternative stimulation paradigms to achieve maximum therapeutic benefit. Improved testing paradigms to assess the safety of stimulation will expedite the development process for novel PNS stimulation devices. The objective of this research is to assess peripheral nerve vascular changes in real-time with optical coherence angiography (OCA). A 1300-nm OCA system was used to image vasculature changes in the rat sciatic nerve in the region around a surface contacting single electrode. Nerves and vasculature were imaged without stimulation for 180 minutes to quantify resting blood vessel diameter. Walking track analysis was used to assess motor function before and 6 days following experiments. There was no significant change in vessel diameter between baseline and other time points in all animals. Motor function tests indicated the experiments did not impair functionality. We also evaluated the capabilities to image the nerve during electrical stimulation in a pilot study. Combining OCA with established nerve assessment methods can be used to study the effects of electrical stimulation safety on neural and vascular tissue in the periphery.

  14. A polylactic acid non-woven nerve conduit for facial nerve regeneration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumine, Hajime; Sasaki, Ryo; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo; Sakurai, Hiroyuki

    2014-06-01

    This study developed a biodegradable nerve conduit with PLA non-woven fabric and evaluated its nerve regeneration-promoting effect. The buccal branch of the facial nerve of 8 week-old Lewis rats was exposed, and a 7 mm nerve defect was created. A nerve conduit made of either PLA non-woven fabric (mean fibre diameter 460 nm), or silicone tube filled with type I collagen gel, or an autologous nerve, was implanted into the nerve defect, and their nerve regenerative abilities were evaluated 13 weeks after the surgery. The number of myelinated neural fibres in the middle portion of the regenerated nerve was the highest for PLA tubes (mean ± SD, 5051 ± 2335), followed by autologous nerves (4233 ± 590) and silicone tubes (1604 ± 148). Axon diameter was significantly greater in the PLA tube group (5.17 ± 1.69 µm) than in the silicone tube group (4.25 ± 1.60 µm) and no significant difference was found between the PLA tube and autograft (5.53 ± 1.93 µm) groups. Myelin thickness was greatest for the autograft group (0.65 ± 0.24 µm), followed by the PLA tube (0.54 ± 0.18 µm) and silicone tube (0.38 ± 0.12 µm) groups, showing significant differences among the three groups. The PLA non-woven fabric tube, composed of randomly-connected PLA fibres, is porous and has a number of advantages, such as sufficient strength to maintain luminal structure. The tube has demonstrated a comparable ability to induce peripheral nerve regeneration following autologous nerve transplantation.

  15. Peripheral nerves injury of electrophysiology and pathology in MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li runjin; Qian zhimin; Chen ping

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We report the EMG and pathological features of sural nerve biopsy of 12 patients with MS. The pathological of thesel 1 patients demonstrated demyelination injury of peripheral nerves.METHODS Twelve cases abnomaly are screened with EMG from60 cases MS. Sural nerve biopsy were analyzed by HE AND loyez, and electron microscopy. RESULTS EMG showed slow of MCV in 9 patients and SCV in 7 patients. Myelinated fibers was the presence in 8 sural nerve biopsy patients and most striking demyelinating fibers, regeneration of myelinated fibers. CONCLUSION Ms is characterized by demyelinating disorder limited to the CNS.There are,howeve ,the results of this study sugee that combine with PNS demyelinating injury in MS may be more frequent than is generally assumed.

  16. Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Strategies: Electrically Stimulating Polymer Based Nerve Growth Conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Matthew; Shelke, Namdev B.; Manoukian, Ohan S.; Yu, Xiaojun; McCullough, Louise D.; Kumbar, Sangamesh G.

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of large peripheral nerve damages ranges from the use of an autologous nerve graft to a synthetic nerve growth conduit. Biological grafts, in spite of many merits, show several limitations in terms of availability and donor site morbidity, and outcomes are suboptimal due to fascicle mismatch, scarring, and fibrosis. Tissue engineered nerve graft substitutes utilize polymeric conduits in conjunction with cues both chemical and physical, cells alone and or in combination. The chemical and physical cues delivered through polymeric conduits play an important role and drive tissue regeneration. Electrical stimulation (ES) has been applied toward the repair and regeneration of various tissues such as muscle, tendon, nerve, and articular tissue both in laboratory and clinical settings. The underlying mechanisms that regulate cellular activities such as cell adhesion, proliferation, cell migration, protein production, and tissue regeneration following ES is not fully understood. Polymeric constructs that can carry the electrical stimulation along the length of the scaffold have been developed and characterized for possible nerve regeneration applications. We discuss the use of electrically conductive polymers and associated cell interaction, biocompatibility, tissue regeneration, and recent basic research for nerve regeneration. In conclusion, a multifunctional combinatorial device comprised of biomaterial, structural, functional, cellular, and molecular aspects may be the best way forward for effective peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:27278739

  17. New sonographic measures of peripheral nerves: a tool for the diagnosis of peripheral nerve involvement in leprosy

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    Marco Andrey Cipriani Frade

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate ultrasonographic (US cross-sectional areas (CSAs of peripheral nerves, indexes of the differences between CSAs at the same point (∆CSAs and between tunnel (T and pre-tunnel (PT ulnar CSAs (∆TPTs in leprosy patients (LPs and healthy volunteers (HVs. Seventy-seven LPs and 49 HVs underwent bilateral US at PT and T ulnar points, as well as along the median (M and common fibular (CF nerves, to calculate the CSAs, ∆CSAs and ∆TPTs. The CSA values in HVs were lower than those in LPs (p 80% and ∆TPT had the highest specificity (> 90%. New sonographic peripheral nerve measurements (∆CSAs and ∆TPT provide an important methodological improvement in the detection of leprosy neuropathy.

  18. Direct Gene Transfer into Rabbit Peripheral Nerve in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世强; 张经歧; 张英泽; 刘玲

    2001-01-01

    Exogenous gene suture was used to achieve peripheral nerve anastomoses to probe into the feasibility that the sites of anastomoses of nerves directly transfer gene and thus enable gene to be expressed at the sites of anastomoses under the condition that perfect nerve anastomoses are ensured. PCMVβ plasmid containing cytomegalovirus promoter (CMV promoter) and Escherichia coli (E.coli) β-Galactosidase (β-Gal) structural gene (lacZ gene) was conducted. A soaked medical 8-0nylon suture was used to perform epineurial repair of rabbit sciatic nerve. In the control group a suture soaked in sucrose PBS was used, while in the experimental group a suture soaked in PCMVβ plasmid solution was applied. The sites of anastomoses of nerves by stages were taken out, and β-Gal histochemical staining was performed and β-Gal enzyme activity was assayed with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-galactoside. Results showed that the sites of anastomoses of nerves were taken out 2 days, 7 days, 14 days and 30 days respectively after the operation. The β-Gal histochemical stains at the sites of anastomoses showed no indigo positive cells at different stages in the control group, whereas displayed indigo positive cells in the experimental group. In the control group, no β-Gal enzyme activity was detected at different stages after operation, but in the experimental group, β-Gal enzyme activity could be detected from the 3rd day to the 30th day after operation. It was concluded that by using exogenous gene suture, exogenous gene could be transferred to the sites of peripheral nerve and expressed the exogenous gene expression products with bioactivity, which provided the feasibility of using gene therapy to accelerate the recovery of nerve function.

  19. Diffusion tensor imaging of peripheral nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambawalikar, Sachin; Baum, Jeremy; Button, Terry; Li, Haifang; Geronimo, Veronica; Gould, Elaine S

    2010-11-01

    Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allows the directional dependence of water diffusion to be studied. Analysis of the resulting image data allows for the determination of fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), as well as allowing three-dimensional visualization of the fiber tract (tractography). We visualized the ulnar nerve of ten healthy volunteers with DTI. We found FA to be 0.752 ± 0.067 and the ADC to be 0.96 ± 0.13 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s. A nuts-and-bolts description of the physical aspects of DTI is provided as an educational process for readers.

  20. Histochemical discrimination of fibers in regenerating rat infraorbital nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, R. A.; Riley, D. A.; Sanger, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    In rat dorsal root ganglia, histochemical staining of carbonic anhydrase (CA) and cholinesterase (CE) yields a reciprocal pattern of activity: Sensory processes are CA positive and CE negative, whereas motor processes are CA negative and CE positive. In rat infraorbital nerve (a sensory peripheral nerve), we saw extensive CA staining of nearly 100% of the myelinated axons. Although CE reactivity in myelinated axons was extremely rare, we did observe CE staining of unmyelinated autonomic fibers. Four weeks after transection of infraorbital nerves, CA-stained longitudinal sections of the proximal stump demonstrated 3 distinct morphological zones. A fraction of the viable axons retained CA activity to within 2 mm of the distal extent of the stump, and the stain is capable of resolving growth sprouts being regenerated from these fibers. Staining of unmyelinated autonomic fibers in serial sections shows that CE activity was not retained as far distally as is the CA sensory staining.

  1. Lentiviral-mediated transfer of CDNF promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury in adult rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Lei; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Ying-Jun; Nie, Lin, E-mail: chengleiyx@126.com

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •CDNF was successfully transfected by a lentiviral vector into the distal sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved S-100, NF200 expression and nerve regeneration after sciatic injury. •CDNF improved the remyelination and thickness of the regenerated sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved gastrocnemius muscle weight and sciatic functional recovery. -- Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is often followed by incomplete and unsatisfactory functional recovery and may be associated with sensory and motor impairment of the affected limb. Therefore, a novel method is needed to improve the speed of recovery and the final functional outcome after peripheral nerve injuries. This report investigates the effect of lentiviral-mediated transfer of conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) on regeneration of the rat peripheral nerve in a transection model in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after recombinant CDNF lentiviral vector application. We evaluated sciatic nerve regeneration after surgery using light and electron microscopy and the functional recovery using the sciatic functional index and target muscle weight. HE staining revealed better ordered structured in the CDNF-treated group at 8 weeks post-surgery. Quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry of NF200 and S-100 in the CDNF group revealed significant improvement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration compared with the control groups at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after injury. The thickness of the myelination around the axons in the CDNF group was significantly higher than in the control groups at 8 weeks post-surgery. The CDNF group displayed higher muscle weights and significantly increased sciatic nerve index values. Our findings suggest that CDNF gene therapy could provide durable and stable CDNF protein concentration and has the potential to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration, morphological and functional recovery following nerve injury, which suggests a

  2. Pulsed electrical stimulation protects neurons in the dorsal root and anterior horn of the spinal cord after peripheral nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Bao-An; Zi, Jin-Hua; Wu, Li-Sheng; Zhang, Cun-Hua; Chen, Yun-Zhen

    2015-10-01

    Most studies on peripheral nerve injury have focused on repair at the site of injury, but very few have examined the effects of repair strategies on the more proximal neuronal cell bodies. In this study, an approximately 10-mm-long nerve segment from the ischial tuberosity in the rat was transected and its proximal and distal ends were inverted and sutured. The spinal cord was subjected to pulsed electrical stimulation at T10 and L3, at a current of 6.5 mA and a stimulation frequency of 15 Hz, 15 minutes per session, twice a day for 56 days. After pulsed electrical stimulation, the number of neurons in the dorsal root ganglion and anterior horn was increased in rats with sciatic nerve injury. The number of myelinated nerve fibers was increased in the sciatic nerve. The ultrastructure of neurons in the dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord was noticeably improved. Conduction velocity of the sciatic nerve was also increased. These results show that pulsed electrical stimulation protects sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia as well as motor neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord after peripheral nerve injury, and that it promotes the regeneration of peripheral nerve fibers.

  3. Dilong: Role in Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

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    Yung-Ming Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilong, also known as earthworm, has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for thousands of years. Schwann cell migration and proliferation are critical for the regeneration of injured nerves and Schwann cells provide an essentially supportive role for neuron regeneration. However, the molecular mechanisms of migration and proliferation induced by dilongs in Schwann cells remain unclear. Here, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that includes (i migration signaling, MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases, mediated PAs and MMP2/9 pathway; (ii survival and proliferative signaling, IGF-I (insulin-like growth factor-I-mediated PI3K/Akt pathways and (iii cell cycle regulation. Dilong stimulate RSC96 cell proliferation and migration. It can induce phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38, but not JNK, and activate the downstream signaling expression of PAs (plasminogen activators and MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases in a time-dependent manner. In addition, Dilong stimulated ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation was attenuated by pretreatment with chemical inhibitors (U0126 and SB203580, and small interfering ERK1/2 and p38 RNA, resulting in migration and uPA-related signal pathway inhibition. Dilong also induces the phosphorylation of IGF-I-mediated PI3K/Akt pathway, activates protein expression of PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cell cycle regulatory proteins (cyclin D1, cyclin E and cyclin A in a time-dependent manner. In addition, it accelerates G1-phase progression with earlier S-phase entry and significant numbers of cells entered the S-phase. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of PI3K that significantly reduces PI3K protein expression levels, resulting in Bcl2 survival factor reduction, revealing a marked blockage of G1 to S transition in proliferating cells. These results reveal the unknown RSC96 cell migration and proliferation mechanism induced by dilong, which find use as a new medicine for nerve regeneration.

  4. Effects of continuous peripheral nerve block by tetrodotoxin on growth associated protein-43 expression during neuropathic pain development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wang; Xiaoyu Huang

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve injury may lead to neuropathic pain and cause a markedly increase expression of growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion, local anesthetics blocking electrical impulse propagation of nerve fibers may also affect the expression of GAP-43 in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion.OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of continuous peripheral nerve block by tetrodotoxin before and after nerve injury on GAP-43 expression in the dorsal root ganglion during the development of neuropathic pain.DESIGN: A randomized controlled animal experiment.SETTINGS: Department of Anesthesiology, the Second Hospital of Xiamen City; Department of Anesthesiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College. MATERIALS: Thirty-five Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, weighing 200 - 250 g, were randomly divided into four groups: control group (n =5), simple sciatic nerve transection group (n =10), peripheral nerve block before and after sciatic nerve transection groups (n =10). All the sciatic nerve transection groups were divided into two subgroups according to the different postoperative survival periods: 3 and 7 days (n =5) respectively. Mouse anti-GAP-43 monoclonal antibody (Sigma Co., Ltd.), supervision TM anti-mouse reagent (HRP, Changdao antibody diagnosis reagent Co., Ltd., Shanghai), and HMIAS-100 image analysis system (Qianping Image Engineering Company, Tongji Medical University) were employed in this study. METHODS: This experiment was carried out hi the Department of Surgery and Pathological Laboratory, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College from April 2005 to April 2006.①The animals were anesthetized and the right sciatic nerve was exposed and transected at 1 cm distal to sciatic notch.②Tetrodotoxin 10 μg/kg was injected percutaneously between the greater trochanter and the posterior superior iliac spine of right hind limb to block the sciatic nerve proximally

  5. Potential risk of mitomycin Cat high concentrations on peripheral nerve structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Sui; Jinhong Zhang; Shihao Du; Changhui Su; Jun Que; Xiaojian Cao

    2014-01-01

    Although the local application of mitomycin C may prevent epidural adhesion after laminectomy, mitomycin C can induce neurotoxicity in optic and acoustic nerves at high concentrations. To determine the safe concentration range for mitomycin C, cotton pads soaked with mitomycin C at different concentrations (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 mg/mL) were immediately applied for 5 minutes to the operation area of rats that had undergone laminectomy at L1. Rat sciatic nerves, instead of dorsal nerves, were used in this study. The results showed that mitomycin C at 0.1-0.5 mg/mL did not damage the structure and function of the sciatic nerve, while at 0.7 mg/mL, mitomycin C signiifcantly reduced the thickness of the sciatic nerve myelin sheath compared with lower concen-trations, though no functional change was found. These experimental ifndings indicate that the local application of mitomycin C at low concentrations is safe to prevent scar adhesion following laminectomy, but that mitomycin C at high concentrations (>0.7 mg/mL) has potential safety risks to peripheral nerve structures.

  6. Systemic and non-systemic vasculitis affecting the peripheral nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, J

    2009-06-01

    Vasculitis affecting the peripheral nerves predominantly manifests as subacute, progressive, asymmetric sensorimotor polyneuropathy or mononeuritis multiplex, and more rarely as painful mononeuropathy, pure sensory neuropathy, neuropathy of the cranial nerves, plexopathy, or as autonomic neuropathy. Vasculitic neuropathy may occur isolated or non-isolated (systemic) together with involvement of other organs. Systemic vasculitis with involvement of the peripheral nerves is further subdivided into primary (Takayasu syndrome, giant cell arteritis, classical panarteritis nodosa, thrombangitis obliterans, Kawasaki disease, Churg-Strauss syndrome, Wegener granulomatosis, cryoglobulinemic vasculitis, Behcet disease, microscopic polyangitis, Schoenlein Henoch purpura) or secondary systemic vasculitis (autoimmune connective tissue diseases, vasculitis from infection, sarcoidosis, malignancy, drugs, radiation, or diabetes). In addition to routine laboratory investigations and nerve conduction studies, nerve biopsy is essential for diagnosing the condition and to delineate it from differentials, although its sensitivity is only approximately 60%. Therapy of non-viral vasculitic neuropathy is based on corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide alone or in combination. Additional options include azathioprine, methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil, or rituximab. In single cases immunoglobulins, immunoadsorbtion, or plasma exchange have been successfully applied. In case of virus-associated vasculitis interferon-alpha plus lamivudine or ribaverin may be beneficial.

  7. Using Eggshell Membrane as Nerve Guide Channels in Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

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    Gholam Hossein Farjah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:  The aim of this study was to evaluate the final outcome of nerve regeneration across the eggsell membrane (ESM tube conduit in comparison with autograft. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult male rats (250-300 g were randomized into (1 ESM conduit, (2 autograft, and (3 sham surgery groups. The eggs submerged in 5% acetic acid. The decalcifying membranes were cut into four pieces, rotated over the teflon mandrel and dried at   37°C. The left sciatic nerve was surgically cut. A 10-mm nerve segment was cut and removed. In the ESM group, the proximal and distal cut ends of the sciatic nerve were telescoped into the nerve guides. In the autograft group, the 10 mm nerve segment was reversed and used as an autologous nerve graft. All animals were evaluated by sciatic functional index (SFI and electrophysiology testing.  Results:The improvement in SFI from the first to the last evalution in ESM and autograft groups were evaluated. On days 49 and 60 post-operation, the mean SFI of ESM group was significantly greater than the autograft group (P 0.05. Conclusion:These findings demonstrate that ESM effectively enhances nerve regeneration and promotes functional recovery in injured sciatic nerve of rat.

  8. Muscle differentiation after sciatic nerve transection and reinnervation in adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ijkema-Paassen, J; Meek, MF; Gramsbergen, A

    Reinnervation after peripheral nerve transections generally leads to poor functional recovery. In order to study whether changes in muscles might be a contributing factor in this phenomenon we studied muscle morphology and fibre type distributions after sciatic nerve transection in the rat hind

  9. Peripheral communications of intercostobrachial nerve Peripheral communications of the intercostobrachial nerve in relation to the alar thoracic artery

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    Shaifaly Madan Rustagi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN is often encountered during axillary dissection for axillary lymph node dissection (ALND for diagnostic and therapeutic surgery for mastectomy. The present report is a case observed in the Department of Anatomy at Vardhman Mahavir Medical College, Delhi during routine dissection of the upper extremity of a male cadaver for first year undergraduate medical students. On the right side , the medial cord of brachial plexus gave two medial cutaneous nerves of arm. Both the nerves were seen communicating with the branches of the ICBN. The ICBN and one of its branches were surrounding the termination of an alar thoracic artery. These peripheral neural connections of the ICBN with the branches of the medial cord can be a cause of sensory impairment during axillary procedures done for mastectomy or exploration of long thoracic nerves. The alar thoracic artery found in relation to the ICBN could further be a cause of vascular complications during such procedures.

  10. Peripheral communications of intercostobrachial nerve Peripheral communications of the intercostobrachial nerve in relation to the alar thoracic artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Shaifaly Madan; Sharma, Mona; Singh, Nidhi; Mehta, Vandana; Suri, Rajesh K; Rath, Gayatri

    2015-01-01

    The intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN) is often encountered during axillary dissection for axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for diagnostic and therapeutic surgery for mastectomy. The present report is a case observed in the Department of Anatomy at Vardhman Mahavir Medical College, Delhi during routine dissection of the upper extremity of a male cadaver for first year undergraduate medical students. On the right side, the medial cord of brachial plexus gave two medial cutaneous nerves of arm. Both the nerves were seen communicating with the branches of the ICBN. The ICBN and one of its branches were surrounding the termination of an alar thoracic artery. These peripheral neural connections of the ICBN with the branches of the medial cord can be a cause of sensory impairment during axillary procedures done for mastectomy or exploration of long thoracic nerves. The alar thoracic artery found in relation to the ICBN could further be a cause of vascular complications during such procedures.

  11. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor - A Case Report

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    Anju N Duttargi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor [MPNST] is an extremely rare tumor affecting the oral cavity. It refers to sarcomas that arise from nerve or display features of neural differentiation. Here we present a case of 30-year old male patient with MPNST of right side of the mandible. There was a family history of neurotibromatosis in this case. Histologically, pleomorphic spindle cells with wavy nuclei, light stained cytoplasm, and mitotic activity were observed. The clinical presentation, radiological findings, and light microscopic findings are described in detail. The criteria for diagnosing these tumors and recent advances for diagnosis have also been highlighted.

  12. Late changes in human sural nerves in Minamata disease and in nerves of rats with experimental organic mercury poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, T; Murayama, E; Sumiyoshi, S; Deshimaru, M; Fujimoto, T

    1976-06-15

    The sural nerves of 2 human cases with Minamata disease and poisoned rats were examined histopathologically. Both showed similar findings: the myelinated nerve fibres were decreased in number, but small myelinated nerve fibres were increased: The latter were irregular in shape and their Schwann cells showed regressive changes, with high electron density of the cytoplasms and many glycogen granules. Onion bulb formation was not found. According to fibre diameter histograms, the ratio of small myelinated nerve fibres of 2-5 mum showed a high percentage. A large number of the small myelinated nerve fibres were presumed to be regenerated nerve fibres. These findings are different from other peripheral neuropathies and may be characteristics of the late changes of the sural nerve induced by organic mercury compound.

  13. Transplantation of Embryonic Spinal Cord Derived Cells Helps to Prevent Muscle Atrophy after Peripheral Nerve Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruven, Carolin; Li, Wen; Li, Heng; Wong, Wai-Man; Wu, Wutian

    2017-02-27

    Injuries to peripheral nerves are frequent in serious traumas and spinal cord injuries. In addition to surgical approaches, other interventions, such as cell transplantation, should be considered to keep the muscles in good condition until the axons regenerate. In this study, E14.5 rat embryonic spinal cord fetal cells and cultured neural progenitor cells from different spinal cord segments were injected into transected musculocutaneous nerve of 200-300 g female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, and atrophy in biceps brachii was assessed. Both kinds of cells were able to survive, extend their axons towards the muscle and form neuromuscular junctions that were functional in electromyographic studies. As a result, muscle endplates were preserved and atrophy was reduced. Furthermore, we observed that the fetal cells had a better effect in reducing the muscle atrophy compared to the pure neural progenitor cells, whereas lumbar cells were more beneficial compared to thoracic and cervical cells. In addition, fetal lumbar cells were used to supplement six weeks delayed surgical repair after the nerve transection. Cell transplantation helped to preserve the muscle endplates, which in turn lead to earlier functional recovery seen in behavioral test and electromyography. In conclusion, we were able to show that embryonic spinal cord derived cells, especially the lumbar fetal cells, are beneficial in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries due to their ability to prevent the muscle atrophy.

  14. Transplantation of Embryonic Spinal Cord Derived Cells Helps to Prevent Muscle Atrophy after Peripheral Nerve Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Ruven

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Injuries to peripheral nerves are frequent in serious traumas and spinal cord injuries. In addition to surgical approaches, other interventions, such as cell transplantation, should be considered to keep the muscles in good condition until the axons regenerate. In this study, E14.5 rat embryonic spinal cord fetal cells and cultured neural progenitor cells from different spinal cord segments were injected into transected musculocutaneous nerve of 200–300 g female Sprague Dawley (SD rats, and atrophy in biceps brachii was assessed. Both kinds of cells were able to survive, extend their axons towards the muscle and form neuromuscular junctions that were functional in electromyographic studies. As a result, muscle endplates were preserved and atrophy was reduced. Furthermore, we observed that the fetal cells had a better effect in reducing the muscle atrophy compared to the pure neural progenitor cells, whereas lumbar cells were more beneficial compared to thoracic and cervical cells. In addition, fetal lumbar cells were used to supplement six weeks delayed surgical repair after the nerve transection. Cell transplantation helped to preserve the muscle endplates, which in turn lead to earlier functional recovery seen in behavioral test and electromyography. In conclusion, we were able to show that embryonic spinal cord derived cells, especially the lumbar fetal cells, are beneficial in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries due to their ability to prevent the muscle atrophy.

  15. Schwann cells express erythropoietin receptor and represent a major target for Epo in peripheral nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqing; Gonias, Steven L; Campana, W Marie

    2005-09-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) expresses potent neuroprotective activity in the peripheral nervous system; however, the underlying mechanism remains incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrate that Epo is upregulated in sciatic nerve after chronic constriction injury (CCI) and crush injury in rats, largely due to local Schwann cell production. In uninjured and injured nerves, Schwann cells also express Epo receptor (EpoR), and its expression is increased during Wallerian degeneration. CCI increased the number of Schwann cells at the injury site and the number was further increased by exogenously administered recombinant human Epo (rhEpo). To explore the activity of Epo in Schwann cells, primary cultures were established. These cells expressed cell-surface Epo receptors, with masses of 71 and 62 kDa, as determined by surface protein biotinylation and affinity precipitation. The 71-kDa species was rapidly but transiently tyrosine-phosphorylated in response to rhEpo. ERK/MAP kinase was also activated in rhEpo-treated Schwann cells; this response was blocked by pharmacologic antagonism of JAK-2. RhEpo promoted Schwann cell proliferation, as determined by BrdU incorporation. Cell proliferation was ERK/MAP kinase-dependent. These results support a model in which Schwann cells are a major target for Epo in injured peripheral nerves, perhaps within the context of an autocrine signaling pathway. EpoR-induced cell signaling and Schwann cell proliferation may protect injured peripheral nerves and promote regeneration.

  16. Comparison of different effects of electric stimulation of vagus nerve,peripheral nerve,and motor cortex on pentylenetetrazol induced convulsion in rats%迷走神经、躯体神经与运动皮质电刺激对戊四氮点燃大鼠惊厥行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏彧; 刘玉玺

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether there are different effects of electric stimulation of vagus nerve,peripheral nerve(sciatic nerve and trigeminal nerve),and motor cortex on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)induced convulsion in rats.Methods The vagus nerve and sciatic nerve were exposed in rats.The stimulation electrodes were placed on the vagus nerve,sciatic nerve,trigeminal nerve,and motor cortex,respectively.After electric stimulation,PTZ(50 mg/kg)was intraperitoneally injected into the rats.The pattern and latency of the convulsion seizure were observed and recorded.Results Racine's grade Ⅰ-Ⅴ grade convulsion seizure Was present in 9 rats(9/10)in the control group after the injection of PTZ.However,this intensity Was reduced to Ⅰ-Ⅲ grade differentially in all the rats by electric stimulation of the vagus nerve(5/10)or peripheral nerve(6/10 and 5/10).Furthermore,in the group of rats stimulated at motor cortex,there Was completely no convulsion.On the other hand,when pathological changes appeared in cortex or hippocampus(i.e.epileptic model was set up by 7 weeks stimulation),the same stimulation of motor cortex was not able to inhibit the convulsion seizure induced by injection of PTZ and all these rats showed Ⅳ-Ⅴ grade seizure(10/10).Conclusions In physiological condition,all of the four types of stimulation differentially reduced intensity of convulsion seizure triggered by PIZ injection and motor cortex stimulation has the best effect.However.when rats were in pathological status and epileptic nidus appeared in their brains.stimulatiion of motor cortex has no effect on PTZ induced convulsion seizure.%目的 探讨迷走神经、躯体神经(坐骨神经、三叉神经)与运动皮质电刺激对戊四氮点燃大鼠惊厥行为的影响是否存在差异.方法 分别剥离大鼠迷走神经、坐骨神经(三叉神经不予以剥离)和建立运动皮质电刺激模型,给予上述4种电刺激后腹腔注射戊四氮50 mg/kg,观察

  17. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour: An elusive diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Karthikeya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST also termed as spindle cell malignancy of the peripheral nerve Schwann cells or neurogenic sarcoma, represents approximately 10% of all soft tissue sarcomas. This tumour is usually found in the lower extremities and only 10-12% of all lesions occur in the head and neck region, which makes it a rare entity. The diagnosis of MPNST has been described as one of the most difficult and elusive diagnosis in the soft tissue diseases because of its non-specific presentation both clinically and histopathologically. This was overcome by the use of immunohistochemistry. A case of MPNST of the left maxillary antrum in a 45 -year -old male patient is reported.

  18. Study of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in cerebellopontine angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, WenMing; Cheng, HongWei; Wang, XiaoJie; Hu, XiaoPeng; Feng, ChunGuo

    2014-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are very rare soft tissue sarcomas, usually arising from somatic soft tissues or peripheral nerves. Primary MPNST of the cerebellopontine angle is extremely rare, with only a single case reported so far. Here, we report an unusual case of MPNST in cerebellopontine angle in a 25-year-old man presented with dizziness, left facial numbness, and tinnitus. After hospitalization, the tumor was treated with complete surgical excision followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Histologically, the tumor showed malignant spindle cells, which were with focal S-100 positivity on immunohistochemistry, and a diagnosis of the MPNST was made. This case is being reported for its rarity and presence in cerebellopontine and illustrated the difficulties in the diagnosis and treatment of MPNST, which to the best of our knowledge, has not been described before in the soft tissue sarcomas.

  19. Peripheral nerve surgery for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducic, Ivica; Felder, John Matthew

    2013-10-01

    Postherpetic neuralgia is a chronic pain condition that develops in some patients after the resolution of herpes zoster, and has no medical cure. Medications used to treat chronic pain do not hasten resolution of the disorder and may impair function. In this brief case report, we describe our experience with excision and implantation to muscle of peripheral sensory nerves in the affected dermatomes as a novel surgical treatment to reduce pain and improve quality of life for patients with this condition. Of the 3 treated patients, all had resolution of chronic pain after surgery. It is concluded that peripheral nerve surgery offers a promising option to improve pain and quality of life in postherpetic neuralgia patients, without affecting systemic functioning.

  20. Ethical considerations in elective amputation after traumatic peripheral nerve injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Keith P.; Holloway, Robert G.; Landau, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Traumatic peripheral nerve injuries often complicate extremity trauma, and may cause substantial functional deficits. We have encountered patients who request amputation of such injured extremities, with the goal of prosthetic replacement as a means to restore function. Data on long-term outcomes of limb salvage vs amputation are limited and somewhat contradictory, leaving how to respond to such requests in the hands of the treating physician. We present example cases, drawn from our experience with wounded soldiers in a peripheral nerve injury clinic, in order to facilitate discussion of the ways in which these patients stress the system of medical decision-making while identifying ethical questions central to responding to these requests. PMID:25279253

  1. Peripheral nerve regeneration in response to target muscular injection of methyl cobalamin in rats%靶肌肉注射甲钴胺对大鼠周围神经损伤再生的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢耀军; 洪光祥

    2006-01-01

    cobalamin ofdifferent dosages in the regeneration of peripheral nerve injury in rats.DESIGN: A randomized and controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Changzhou Second People's Hospital affiliated to Nanjing Medical University.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in March 2003. Thirty healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups with 10 rats in each group: high-dosage group, low-dosage group and blank control group.METHODS: All the rats were made into models of sciatic nerve injury by epineural suture immediately after transection of left sciatic nerve. Rats in high- and low- dosage groups were injected with methyl cobalamin of 300and 100 μg/kg per day respectively, and those in blank control group were injected with 1 mL normal saline of the same volume, and target muscular injection was given once a day postoperatively. At postoperative 4 and 8weeks, 5 rats were killed at one time; the wet mass of left triceps surae muscle was measured. Morphological observation of sciatic nerve under light and electron microscopes and imaging analysis were made as the detected indexes to analyze the effect of methyl cobalamin of different dosages on sciatic nerve injury in rats.sciatic nerve myelin sheath at postoperative week 8.parison of the wet mass of triceps surae muscle at postoperative 4 weeks: It was higher in high-dosage group than in low-dosage group and blank control group [(1.367±0.012) g, (1.164±0.011) g, (0.950±0.009) g, P < 0.05].week 8: It washigher in high-dosage group than in low-dosage group and blank control group [(2.205±0.015), (1.611±0.013), (1.230±0.014) g, P < 0.05].weeks postoperatively: It was obviously higher in high-dosage group than in low-dosage group and blank control group [(13.30±1.167), (9.453±1.233),atic nerve myelin sheath at 8 weeks postoperatively: It was thicker in highdosage group than in low-dosage group and blank control group [(1.145±0.108),(0.806±0.065), (0.560±0.045) mm, P < 0.05].CONCLUSION: Target muscular

  2. Sodium channel expression in the ventral posterolateral nucleus of the thalamus after peripheral nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waxman Stephen G

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Peripheral nerve injury is known to up-regulate the expression of rapidly-repriming Nav1.3 sodium channel within first-order dorsal root ganglion neurons and second-order dorsal horn nociceptive neurons, but it is not known if pain-processing neurons higher along the neuraxis also undergo changes in sodium channel expression. In this study, we hypothesized that after peripheral nerve injury, third-order neurons in the ventral posterolateral (VPL nucleus of the thalamus undergo changes in expression of sodium channels. To test this hypothesis, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent chronic constriction injury (CCI of the sciatic nerve. Ten days after CCI, when allodynia and hyperalgesia were evident, in situ hybridization and immunocytochemical analysis revealed up-regulation of Nav1.3 mRNA, but no changes in expression of Nav1.1, Nav1.2, or Nav1.6 in VPL neurons, and unit recordings demonstrated increased background firing, which persisted after spinal cord transection, and evoked hyperresponsiveness to peripheral stimuli. These results demonstrate that injury to the peripheral nervous system induces alterations in sodium channel expression within higher-order VPL neurons, and suggest that misexpression of the Nav1.3 sodium channel increases the excitability of VPL neurons injury, contributing to neuropathic pain.

  3. Role of inflammatory cytokines in peripheral nerve injury

    OpenAIRE

    Fregnan, Federica; Muratori, Luisa; Simões, Anabel Rodriguez; Giacobini-Robecchi, Maria Giuseppina; Raimondo, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory events occurring in the distal part of an injured peripheral nerve have, nowadays, a great resonance. Investigating the timing of action of the several cytokines in the important stages of Wallerian degeneration helps to understand the regenerative process and design pharmacologic intervention that promotes and expedites recovery. The complex and synergistic action of inflammatory cytokines finally promotes axonal regeneration. Cytokines can be divided into pro- and anti-inflamma...

  4. Ewing sarcoma mimicking a peripheral nerve sheath tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, B D; Fox, B D; Viswanathan, A; Mitchell, A H; Powell, S Z; Cech, D A

    2010-10-01

    We describe the first patient with an extradural, extramedullary Ewing's sarcoma tumor mimicking a nerve sheath tumor with no overt evidence of metastasis. A 28-year-old woman with no past medical history presented with a progressive 3-year history of low back pain and right-sided lower extremity radiculopathy after having failed conservative therapies. MRI of the lumbar spine revealed a right-sided enhancing, dumbbell-shaped lesion at the right neural foramen appearing to originate from the L4 nerve root, suspicious for a peripheral nerve sheath tumor or schwannoma. The patient and findings are discussed in the context of the literature, including an update on the relatively recent diagnostic redesignation of the Ewing's sarcoma family tumors.

  5. Ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blocks: what are the benefits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Zbigniew Jerzy Koscielniak

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Use of ultrasound by anaesthesiologists performing regional blocks is rapidly gaining popularity. The aims of this review were to summarize and update accumulating evidence on ultrasound-guided nerve blocks, with an emphasis on the clinical relevance of the results and to critically...... appraise changing standards in regional anaesthesia. METHODS: A search of MEDLINE and EMBASE (1966 to 31 December 2007) was conducted using the following free terms: 'ultrasound and regional anesthesia', 'ultrasound and peripheral block' and 'ultrasound and nerve and block'. These were combined......, the concomitant use of nerve stimulation offers no further advantage. However, several studies reported problems with obtaining satisfactory images in some patients. Ultrasound guidance significantly shortened the block performance time and/or reduced the number of needle passes to reach the target in all...

  6. An animal model of peripheral nerve regeneration after the application of a collagen-polyvinyl alcohol scaffold and mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinescu, Silviu Adrian; Zărnescu, Otilia; Mihai, Ioana Ruxandra; Giuglea, Carmen; Sinescu, Ruxandra Diana

    2014-01-01

    Extensive nerve injuries often leading to nerve gaps can benefit, besides the gold standard represented by autologous nerve grafts, by the inciting field of tissue engineering. To enhance the role of biomaterials in nerve regeneration, the nerve conduits are associated with Schwann or Schwann-like cells. In this study, we evaluated rat sciatic nerve regeneration, by using a biodegradable nerve guide composed of Collagen (COL) and Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA), associated with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). After the exposure of the rat sciatic nerve, a nerve gap was created by excising 1 cm of the nerve. Three experimental groups were used for nerve gap bridging: autografts, nerve conduits filled with medium culture and nerve conduits filled with MSC. The methods of sensory and motor assessment consisted of the functional evaluation of sciatic nerve recovery - toe-spread, pinprick tests and gastrocnemius muscle index (GMI). The histological and immunocytochemical analysis of the probes that were harvested from the repair site was performed at 12 weeks. Successful nerve regeneration was noted in all three groups at the end of the 12th week. The functional and immunocytochemical results suggested that COL-PVA tubes supported with mesenchymal stem cells could be considered similar to autologous nerve grafts in peripheral nerve regeneration, without the drawbacks of the last ones. The functional results were better for the autografts and the ultrastructural data were better for the nerve conduits, but there were not noticed any statistical differences.

  7. Imaging of peripheral nerve lesions in the lower limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Donald Neil; Lisle, David A; Linklater, James M

    2010-02-01

    Lower limb peripheral neuropathy may have a variety of causes. This article focuses on focal neural lesions because of neural entrapment associated with static mechanical compression or dynamic compression/stretching. Mechanical compression may relate to direct blunt trauma, surgical injury, mass effect associated with adjacent mass lesions, and frictional effects associated with fibrous bands. Stretching neural injury may be associated with abnormalities in alignment such as plano-valgus hindfoot and hindfoot pronation. Recurrent inversion ankle injuries may also cause neural injury. Neural injury may be associated with denervation of the muscles supplied by the nerve. Electromyography (EMG) remains the gold standard for diagnosis of denervation. Diagnostic imaging plays a complementary role to EMG in difficult cases, the anticoagulated patient, and in clarifying the etiology of an EMG-demonstrated neuropathy. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound can be used in peripheral nerve imaging to demonstrate extrinsic compressive lesions, focal neural lesions such as neural edema and swelling, focal neural scarring (posttraumatic neuroma in continuity) and intraneural ganglia. Imaging can also demonstrate the effects of muscle denervation. Focal areas of tenderness can be highlighted using skin markers for magnetic resonance imaging and by transducer palpation on ultrasound. Ultrasound can be particularly useful in assessing for intrinsic lesions in small peripheral nerves because of the superior spatial resolution of ultrasound in assessing superficial structures. Plain x-rays (and sometimes computed tomography scanning) may show significant bone changes and should be the initial imaging modality.

  8. Differential expression of angiogenic factors in peripheral nerve sheath tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasa, Junji; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Yoshitaka; Tsukushi, Satoshi; Shido, Yoji; Hosono, Kozo; Shimoyama, Yoshie; Nakamura, Shigeo; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2008-01-01

    It is difficult to differentiate some malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) from benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors (BPNST) histologically, and to predict the clinical outcome of patients with MPNST. In this study, the expression of VEGF and MVD were evaluated immunohistochemically in 22 cases of MPNST, 14 of neurofibroma and 19 of schwannoma and correlation of the staining grade of VEGF or MVD and the various clinical factors were analyzed, and statistically evaluated. Levels of VEGF mRNA expression were also determined with real-time RT-PCR. Statistically higher positive staining for VEGF was observed in MPNST compared to neurofibroma (P=0.004) and schwannoma (PMPNST showed higher VEGF positive staining than neurofibroma. Moreover, high VEGF expression statistically correlated with the poor prognosis of the patients with MPNST (P=0.015). Although MVD in MPNST was significantly higher than that in neurofibroma (P=0.038) and schwannoma (PMPNST. Although VEGF mRNA expression tended to be higher in MPNST compared to neurofibroma, the difference was not significant. Levels of VEGF protein expression serve as a novel diagnostic and prognostic tools for peripheral nerve sheath tumors.

  9. Enhancement of Peripheral Nerve Regrowth by the Purine Nucleoside Analog and Cell Cycle Inhibitor, Roscovitine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Vincent; Dong, Sophie; Rosales, Jesusa L; Jeong, Myung-Yung; Zochodne, Douglas; Lee, Ki-Young

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral nerve regeneration is a slow process that can be associated with limited outcomes and thus a search for novel and effective therapy for peripheral nerve injury and disease is crucial. Here, we found that roscovitine, a synthetic purine nucleoside analog, enhances neurite outgrowth in neuronal-like PC12 cells. Furthermore, ex vivo analysis of pre-injured adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons showed that roscovitine enhances neurite regrowth in these cells. Likewise, in vivo transected sciatic nerves in rats locally perfused with roscovitine had augmented repopulation of new myelinated axons beyond the transection zone. By mass spectrometry, we found that roscovitine interacts with tubulin and actin. It interacts directly with tubulin and causes a dose-dependent induction of tubulin polymerization as well as enhances Guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP)-dependent tubulin polymerization. Conversely, roscovitine interacts indirectly with actin and counteracts the inhibitory effect of cyclin-dependent kinases 5 (Cdk5) on Actin-Related Proteins 2/3 (Arp2/3)-dependent actin polymerization, and thus, causes actin polymerization. Moreover, in the presence of neurotrophic factors such as nerve growth factor (NGF), roscovitine-enhanced neurite outgrowth is mediated by increased activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Since microtubule and F-actin dynamics are critical for axonal regrowth, the ability of roscovitine to activate the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways and support polymerization of tubulin and actin indicate a major role for this purine nucleoside analog in the promotion of axonal regeneration. Together, our findings demonstrate a therapeutic potential for the purine nucleoside analog, roscovitine, in peripheral nerve injury.

  10. Enhancement of Peripheral Nerve Regrowth by the Purine Nucleoside Analog and Cell Cycle Inhibitor, Roscovitine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Vincent; Dong, Sophie; Rosales, Jesusa L.; Jeong, Myung-Yung; Zochodne, Douglas; Lee, Ki-Young

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral nerve regeneration is a slow process that can be associated with limited outcomes and thus a search for novel and effective therapy for peripheral nerve injury and disease is crucial. Here, we found that roscovitine, a synthetic purine nucleoside analog, enhances neurite outgrowth in neuronal-like PC12 cells. Furthermore, ex vivo analysis of pre-injured adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons showed that roscovitine enhances neurite regrowth in these cells. Likewise, in vivo transected sciatic nerves in rats locally perfused with roscovitine had augmented repopulation of new myelinated axons beyond the transection zone. By mass spectrometry, we found that roscovitine interacts with tubulin and actin. It interacts directly with tubulin and causes a dose-dependent induction of tubulin polymerization as well as enhances Guanosine-5′-triphosphate (GTP)-dependent tubulin polymerization. Conversely, roscovitine interacts indirectly with actin and counteracts the inhibitory effect of cyclin-dependent kinases 5 (Cdk5) on Actin-Related Proteins 2/3 (Arp2/3)-dependent actin polymerization, and thus, causes actin polymerization. Moreover, in the presence of neurotrophic factors such as nerve growth factor (NGF), roscovitine-enhanced neurite outgrowth is mediated by increased activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Since microtubule and F-actin dynamics are critical for axonal regrowth, the ability of roscovitine to activate the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways and support polymerization of tubulin and actin indicate a major role for this purine nucleoside analog in the promotion of axonal regeneration. Together, our findings demonstrate a therapeutic potential for the purine nucleoside analog, roscovitine, in peripheral nerve injury.

  11. Effect of PACAP in Central and Peripheral Nerve Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Buki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP is a bioactive peptide with diverse effects in the nervous system. In addition to its more classic role as a neuromodulator, PACAP functions as a neurotrophic factor. Several neurotrophic factors have been shown to play an important role in the endogenous response following both cerebral ischemia and traumatic brain injury and to be effective when given exogenously. A number of studies have shown the neuroprotective effect of PACAP in different models of ischemia, neurodegenerative diseases and retinal degeneration. The aim of this review is to summarize the findings on the neuroprotective potential of PACAP in models of different traumatic nerve injuries. Expression of endogenous PACAP and its specific PAC1 receptor is elevated in different parts of the central and peripheral nervous system after traumatic injuries. Some experiments demonstrate the protective effect of exogenous PACAP treatment in different traumatic brain injury models, in facial nerve and optic nerve trauma. The upregulation of endogenous PACAP and its receptors and the protective effect of exogenous PACAP after different central and peripheral nerve injuries show the important function of PACAP in neuronal regeneration indicating that PACAP may also be a promising therapeutic agent in injuries of the nervous system.

  12. Effect of PACAP in Central and Peripheral Nerve Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, Andrea; Reglodi, Dora; Farkas, Orsolya; Kovesdi, Erzsebet; Pal, Jozsef; Povlishock, John T.; Schwarcz, Attila; Czeiter, Endre; Szanto, Zalan; Doczi, Tamas; Buki, Andras; Bukovics, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a bioactive peptide with diverse effects in the nervous system. In addition to its more classic role as a neuromodulator, PACAP functions as a neurotrophic factor. Several neurotrophic factors have been shown to play an important role in the endogenous response following both cerebral ischemia and traumatic brain injury and to be effective when given exogenously. A number of studies have shown the neuroprotective effect of PACAP in different models of ischemia, neurodegenerative diseases and retinal degeneration. The aim of this review is to summarize the findings on the neuroprotective potential of PACAP in models of different traumatic nerve injuries. Expression of endogenous PACAP and its specific PAC1 receptor is elevated in different parts of the central and peripheral nervous system after traumatic injuries. Some experiments demonstrate the protective effect of exogenous PACAP treatment in different traumatic brain injury models, in facial nerve and optic nerve trauma. The upregulation of endogenous PACAP and its receptors and the protective effect of exogenous PACAP after different central and peripheral nerve injuries show the important function of PACAP in neuronal regeneration indicating that PACAP may also be a promising therapeutic agent in injuries of the nervous system. PMID:22942712

  13. Localized and Sustained Delivery of Erythropoietin from PLGA Microspheres Promotes Functional Recovery and Nerve Regeneration in Peripheral Nerve Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin (EPO has been demonstrated to exert neuroprotective effects on peripheral nerve injury recovery. Though daily intraperitoneal injection of EPO during a long period of time was effective, it was a tedious procedure. In addition, only limited amount of EPO could reach the injury sites by general administration, and free EPO is easily degraded in vivo. In this study, we encapsulated EPO in poly(lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA microspheres. Both in vitro and in vivo release assays showed that the EPO-PLGA microspheres allowed sustained release of EPO within a period of two weeks. After administration of such EPO-PLGA microspheres, the peripheral nerve injured rats had significantly better recovery compared with those which received daily intraperitoneal injection of EPO, empty PLGA microspheres, or saline treatments. This was supported by the functional, electrophysiological, and histological evaluations of the recovery done at week 8 postoperatively. We conclude that sustained delivery of EPO could be achieved by using EPO-PLGA microspheres, and such delivery method could further enhance the recovery function of EPO in nerve injury recovery.

  14. Localized and sustained delivery of erythropoietin from PLGA microspheres promotes functional recovery and nerve regeneration in peripheral nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Gao, Yuan; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Jianheng; Zhang, Licheng; Long, Anhua; Zhang, Lihai; Tang, Peifu

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) has been demonstrated to exert neuroprotective effects on peripheral nerve injury recovery. Though daily intraperitoneal injection of EPO during a long period of time was effective, it was a tedious procedure. In addition, only limited amount of EPO could reach the injury sites by general administration, and free EPO is easily degraded in vivo. In this study, we encapsulated EPO in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres. Both in vitro and in vivo release assays showed that the EPO-PLGA microspheres allowed sustained release of EPO within a period of two weeks. After administration of such EPO-PLGA microspheres, the peripheral nerve injured rats had significantly better recovery compared with those which received daily intraperitoneal injection of EPO, empty PLGA microspheres, or saline treatments. This was supported by the functional, electrophysiological, and histological evaluations of the recovery done at week 8 postoperatively. We conclude that sustained delivery of EPO could be achieved by using EPO-PLGA microspheres, and such delivery method could further enhance the recovery function of EPO in nerve injury recovery.

  15. Evaluation of the chitosan/glycerol-{beta}-phosphate disodium salt hydrogel application in peripheral nerve regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Lu; Zhang Xiufang; Gong Yandao [State Key Lab Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Ao Qiang; Han Hongyan, E-mail: gongyd@tsinghua.edu.c, E-mail: aoqiang@tsinghua.edu.c [Institute of Neurological Disorders, Yuquan Hospital, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2010-06-01

    Research efforts have been devoted to evaluating the application of the chitosan (CS)/glycerol-{beta}-phosphate (GP) disodium salt hydrogel in peripheral nerve regeneration. The gelation time was determined to be 770 s using ultraviolet spectrophotometry. A standard 10 mm long rat sciatic nerve defect model was employed, followed by bridging the proximal and distal stumps with chitosan conduits injected with the Schwann cell-containing hydrogel. Injections of the blank hydrogel, Schwann cell suspension and culture medium were used as controls. Two months later, electrophysiological assessment and fluorogold retrograde tracing showed that compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) and fluorogold-labeled neurons were only detected in the Schwann cell suspension group and culture medium group. The rats were then killed, and implanted conduits were removed for examination. There were no regenerated nerves found in groups injected with the blank hydrogel or Schwann cell-containing hydrogel, while the other two groups clearly displayed regenerated nerves across the gaps. In the subsequent histological assessment, immunohistochemistry, toluidine blue staining and transmission electron microscopy were performed to evaluate the regenerated nerves. The relative wet weight ratio, Masson trichrome staining and acetylcholinesterase staining were employed for the examination of gastrocnemius muscles in all four groups. The Schwann cell suspension group showed the best results for all these indexes; the culture medium group ranked second and the two hydrogel-injected groups showed the least optimal results. In conclusion, our data revealed that the implanted CS/GP hydrogel actually impeded nerve regeneration, which is inconsistent with former in vitro reports and general supposition. We believe that the application of the CS/GP hydrogel in nerve regeneration requires a further study before a satisfactory result is obtained. In addition, the present study also confirmed that

  16. A small molecule screen identifies in vivo modulators of peripheral nerve regeneration in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Julianne; Granato, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Adult vertebrates have retained the ability to regenerate peripheral nerves after injury, although regeneration is frequently incomplete, often leading to functional impairments. Small molecule screens using whole organisms have high potential to identify biologically relevant targets, yet currently available assays for in vivo peripheral nerve regeneration are either very laborious and/or require complex technology. Here we take advantage of the optical transparency of larval zebrafish to develop a simple and fast pectoral fin removal assay that measures peripheral nerve regeneration in vivo. Twenty-four hours after fin amputation we observe robust and stereotyped nerve regrowth at the fin base. Similar to laser mediated nerve transection, nerve regrowth after fin amputation requires Schwann cells and FGF signaling, confirming that the fin amputation assay identifies pathways relevant for peripheral nerve regeneration. From a library of small molecules with known targets, we identified 21 compounds that impair peripheral nerve regeneration. Several of these compounds target known regulators of nerve regeneration, further validating the fin removal assay. Twelve of the identified compounds affect targets not previously known to control peripheral nerve regeneration. Using a laser-mediated nerve transection assay we tested ten of those compounds and confirmed six of these compounds to impair peripheral nerve regeneration: an EGFR inhibitor, a glucocorticoid, prostaglandin D2, a retinoic acid agonist, an inhibitor of calcium channels and a topoisomerase I inhibitor. Thus, we established a technically simple assay to rapidly identify valuable entry points into pathways critical for vertebrate peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:28575069

  17. Nerve autografts and tissue-engineered materials for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries: a 5-year bibliometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With advances in biomedical methods, tissue-engineered materials have developed rapidly as an alternative to nerve autografts for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries. However, the materials selected for use in the repair of peripheral nerve injuries, in particular multiple injuries and large-gap defects, must be chosen carefully. Various methods and materials for protecting the healthy tissue and repairing peripheral nerve injuries have been described, and each method or material has advantages and disadvantages. Recently, a large amount of research has been focused on tissue-engineered materials for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries. Using the keywords "pe-ripheral nerve injury", "autotransplant", "nerve graft", and "biomaterial", we retrieved publications using tissue-engineered materials for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries appearing in the Web of Science from 2010 to 2014. The country with the most total publications was the USA. The institutions that were the most productive in this field include Hannover Medical School (Germany, Washington University (USA, and Nantong University (China. The total number of publications using tissue-engineered materials for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries grad-ually increased over time, as did the number of Chinese publications, suggesting that China has made many scientific contributions to this field of research.

  18. Trends in the design of nerve guidance channels in peripheral nerve tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiono, Valeria; Tonda-Turo, Chiara

    2015-08-01

    The current trend of peripheral nerve tissue engineering is the design of advanced nerve guidance channels (NGCs) acting as physical guidance for regeneration of nerves across lesions. NGCs should present multifunctional properties aiming to direct the sprouting of axons from the proximal nerve end, to concentrate growth factors secreted by the injured nerve ends, and to reduce the ingrowth of scar tissue into the injury site. A critical aspect in the design of NGCs is conferring them the ability to provide topographic, chemotactic and haptotactic cues that lead to functional nerve regeneration thus increasing the axon growth rate and avoiding or minimizing end-organ (e.g. muscle) atrophy. The present work reviews the recent state of the art in NGCs engineering and defines the external guide and internal fillers structural and compositional requirements that should be satisfied to improve nerve regeneration, especially in the case of large gaps (>2 cm). Techniques for NGCs fabrication were described highlighting the innovative approaches direct to enhance the regeneration of axon stumps compared to current clinical treatments. Furthermore, the possibility to apply stem cells as internal cues to the NGCs was discussed focusing on scaffold properties necessary to ensure cell survival. Finally, the optimized features for NGCs design were summarized showing as multifunctional cues are needed to produce NGCs having improved results in clinics.

  19. Bridging long gap peripheral nerve injury using skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tetsuro Tamaki

    2014-01-01

    Long gap peripheral nerve injuries usually reulting in life-changing problems for patients. Skeletal muscle derived-multipotent stem cells (Sk-MSCs) can differentiate into Schwann and perineurial/endoneurial cells, vascular relating pericytes, and endothelial and smooth muscle cells in the damaged peripheral nerve niche. Application of the Sk-MSCs in the bridging conduit for repairing long nerve gap injury resulted favorable axonal regeneration, which showing supe-rior effects than gold standard therapy--healthy nerve autograft. This means that it does not need to sacriifce of healthy nerves or loss of related functions for repairing peripheral nerve injury.

  20. Magnetic resonance neurography. Imaging of peripheral nerves; MR-Neurografie. Bildgebung des peripheren Nervensystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eppenberger, Patrick [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Rechtsmedizin; Universitaetsspital Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Chhabra, Avneesh [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Diagnostische Radiologie, MSK Radiologie und Orthopedic Surgery; Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Russell H. Morgan Dept. of Radiology and Radiological Science; Andreisek, Gustav [Universitaetsspital Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2012-12-15

    Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) is a non-invasive technique using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to diagnose peripheral nerve pathologies and their underlying etiologies. MRN is already in clinical use and is now mostly used to delineate the anatomy of nerves and to establish the continuity or discontinuity of nerves in patients with traumatic nerve injuries, as well as to monitor processes of peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration. This article reviews established and evolving novel MRN technologies with regard to their potential to meet the requirements for non-invasive imaging of peripheral nerves in clinical settings. (orig.)

  1. A biosynthetic nerve guide conduit based on silk/SWNT/fibronectin nanocomposite for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaghitalab, Fatemeh; Farokhi, Mehdi; Zaminy, Arash; Kokabi, Mehrdad; Soleimani, Masoud; Mirahmadi, Fereshteh; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Sadeghizadeh, Majid

    2013-01-01

    As a contribution to the functionality of nerve guide conduits (NGCs) in nerve tissue engineering, here we report a conduit processing technique through introduction and evaluation of topographical, physical and chemical cues. Porous structure of NGCs based on freeze-dried silk/single walled carbon nanotubes (SF/SWNTs) has shown a uniform chemical and physical structure with suitable electrical conductivity. Moreover, fibronectin (FN) containing nanofibers within the structure of SF/SWNT conduits produced through electrospinning process have shown aligned fashion with appropriate porosity and diameter. Moreover, fibronectin remained its bioactivity and influenced the adhesion and growth of U373 cell lines. The conduits were then implanted to 10 mm left sciatic nerve defects in rats. The histological assessment has shown that nerve regeneration has taken places in proximal region of implanted nerve after 5 weeks following surgery. Furthermore, nerve conduction velocities (NCV) and more myelinated axons were observed in SF/SWNT and SF/SWNT/FN groups after 5 weeks post implantation, indicating a functional recovery for the injured nerves. With immunohistochemistry, the higher S-100 expression of Schwann cells in SF/SWNT/FN conduits in comparison to other groups was confirmed. In conclusion, an oriented conduit of biocompatible SF/SWNT/FN has been fabricated with acceptable structure that is particularly applicable in nerve grafts.

  2. A biosynthetic nerve guide conduit based on silk/SWNT/fibronectin nanocomposite for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mottaghitalab

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the functionality of nerve guide conduits (NGCs in nerve tissue engineering, here we report a conduit processing technique through introduction and evaluation of topographical, physical and chemical cues. Porous structure of NGCs based on freeze-dried silk/single walled carbon nanotubes (SF/SWNTs has shown a uniform chemical and physical structure with suitable electrical conductivity. Moreover, fibronectin (FN containing nanofibers within the structure of SF/SWNT conduits produced through electrospinning process have shown aligned fashion with appropriate porosity and diameter. Moreover, fibronectin remained its bioactivity and influenced the adhesion and growth of U373 cell lines. The conduits were then implanted to 10 mm left sciatic nerve defects in rats. The histological assessment has shown that nerve regeneration has taken places in proximal region of implanted nerve after 5 weeks following surgery. Furthermore, nerve conduction velocities (NCV and more myelinated axons were observed in SF/SWNT and SF/SWNT/FN groups after 5 weeks post implantation, indicating a functional recovery for the injured nerves. With immunohistochemistry, the higher S-100 expression of Schwann cells in SF/SWNT/FN conduits in comparison to other groups was confirmed. In conclusion, an oriented conduit of biocompatible SF/SWNT/FN has been fabricated with acceptable structure that is particularly applicable in nerve grafts.

  3. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of the bladder associated with neurofibromatosis I.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Julie

    2008-12-01

    Neurofibromatosis is a hamartomatous disorder of autonomic peripheral nerve sheaths associated with peripheral nerve sheath tumours. Most tumours are neurofibromas; however, the genitourinary system is rarely involved. We present a rare case of a nerve sheath tumour of the bladder in a young patient, which was discovered to be malignant.

  4. Evaluation of peripheral nerve lesions with high-resolution ultrasonography and color Doppler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Afsal

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: High-resolution sonography is useful in characterizing peripheral nerve lesions and can complement other diagnostic investigations such as the nerve conduction study. It is easily available and has the potential to become the first modality for the evaluation of focal peripheral nerve disorders.

  5. Sciatic nerve regeneration in rats by a promising electrospun collagen/poly(ε-caprolactone nerve conduit with tailored degradation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xinquan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To cope with the limitations faced by autograft acquisitions particularly for multiple nerve injuries, artificial nerve conduit has been introduced by researchers as a substitute for autologous nerve graft for the easy specification and availability for mass production. In order to best mimic the structures and components of autologous nerve, great efforts have been made to improve the designation of nerve conduits either from materials or fabrication techniques. Electrospinning is an easy and versatile technique that has recently been used to fabricate fibrous tissue-engineered scaffolds which have great similarity to the extracellular matrix on fiber structure. Results In this study we fabricated a collagen/poly(ε-caprolactone (collagen/PCL fibrous scaffold by electrospinning and explored its application as nerve guide substrate or conduit in vitro and in vivo. Material characterizations showed this electrospun composite material which was made of submicron fibers possessed good hydrophilicity and flexibility. In vitro study indicated electrospun collagen/PCL fibrous meshes promoted Schwann cell adhesion, elongation and proliferation. In vivo test showed electrospun collagen/PCL porous nerve conduits successfully supported nerve regeneration through an 8 mm sciatic nerve gap in adult rats, achieving similar electrophysiological and muscle reinnervation results as autografts. Although regenerated nerve fibers were still in a pre-mature stage 4 months postoperatively, the implanted collagen/PCL nerve conduits facilitated more axons regenerating through the conduit lumen and gradually degraded which well matched the nerve regeneration rate. Conclusions All the results demonstrated this collagen/PCL nerve conduit with tailored degradation rate fabricated by electrospinning could be an efficient alternative to autograft for peripheral nerve regeneration research. Due to its advantage of high surface area for cell attachment, it

  6. Restoration of sensory dysfunction following peripheral nerve injury by the polysaccharide from culinary and medicinal mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr. Pers. through its neuroregenerative action

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    Kah-Hui WONG

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Peripheral nerves have the unique capability to regenerate after injury. Insights into regeneration of peripheral nerves after injury may have implications for neurodegenerative diseases of the nervous system. We investigated the ability of polysaccharide from Hericium erinaceus mushroom in the treatment of nerve injury following peroneal nerve crush in Sprague-Dawley rats by daily oral administration. In sensory functional recovery test, the time taken for the rats to withdraw its hind limb from contact with the hot plate was measured. The test revealed acceleration of sensory recovery in the polysaccharide group compared to negative controls. Further, peripheral nerve injury leads to changes at the remotely located DRG containing cell bodies of sensory neurons. Immunofluorescence studies showed that Akt and p38 MAPK were expressed in DRG and strongly upregulated in polysaccharide group after peripheral nerve injury. The intensity of endothelial cells antigen-1 that recognized endothelial cells in the blood vessels of distal segments in crushed nerves was significantly higher in the treated groups than in the negative control group. Our findings suggest that H. erinaceus is capable of accelerating sensory functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury and the effect involves the activation of protein kinase signaling pathways and restoration of blood-nerve barrier.

  7. Treatment of transected peripheral nerves with artemin improved motor neuron regeneration, but did not reduce nerve injury-induced pain behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widenfalk, Johan; Wu, Weiping; Hao, Jingxia; Person, Jonas K E; Wiesenfeldt-Hallin, Zsuzsanna; Risling, Mårten

    2009-01-01

    Incomplete recovery of function and neuropathic pain are common problems after peripheral nerve injury. To develop new treatment strategies for peripheral nerve injuries we investigated whether the neurotrophic factor artemin could improve outcome after sciatic nerve injuries in rats. Artemin is a member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family and exerts neuroprotective effects on sensory neurons as well as influencing behavioural thermal sensitivity. We additionally evaluated if fibrin sealant, which is sometimes used as a nerve glue, had any effects on neuropathic pain-related behaviour. After the sciatic nerve had been transected, 30 animals were randomised to one of three groups: treatment with a fibrin sealant that contained artemin in conjunction with sutures; fibrin sealant with no artemin (sham) in conjunction with sutures; or sutures alone (n=10 in each group). Motor function, sensory function, and autotomy were evaluated from 1 to 12 weeks after injury. Retrograde flourogold tracing 12 weeks after injury showed that the addition of artemin increased the number of regenerating motor neurons. However, it did not improve their performance, as measured by the Sciatic Function Index, compared with sham or suture alone. Animals treated with artemin had a non-significant increase in motor nerve conduction velocity compared with sham. However, artemin did not reverse nerve injury-induced pain behaviour such as cold or heat hypersensitivity. Fibrin sealant in itself did not ameliorate motor performance, or regeneration of motor neurons, or give rise to nerve injury-induced pain behaviour. The results indicate that artemin is of value as a treatment for peripheral nerve injuries, although the effects were limited. As the artemin high-affinity receptor GFRalpha-3 is present in Schwann cells and not in motor neurons, the effect on motor neuron axon regeneration may result from an indirect effect through Schwann cells in the injured nerve.

  8. Nerve growth factor loaded heparin/chitosan scaffolds for accelerating peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guicai; Xiao, Qinzhi; Zhang, Luzhong; Zhao, Yahong; Yang, Yumin

    2017-09-01

    Artificial chitosan scaffolds have been widely investigated for peripheral nerve regeneration. However, the effect was not as good as that of autologous grafts and therefore could not meet the clinical requirement. In the present study, the nerve growth factor (NGF) loaded heparin/chitosan scaffolds were fabricated via electrostatic interaction for further improving nerve regeneration. The physicochemical properties including morphology, wettability and composition were measured. The heparin immobilization, NGF loading and release were quantitatively and qualitatively characterized, respectively. The effect of NGF loaded heparin/chitosan scaffolds on nerve regeneration was evaluated by Schwann cells culture for different periods. The results showed that the heparin immobilization and NGF loading did not cause the change of bulk properties of chitosan scaffolds except for morphology and wettability. The pre-immobilization of heparin in chitosan scaffolds could enhance the stability of subsequently loaded NGF. The NGF loaded heparin/chitosan scaffolds could obviously improve the attachment and proliferation of Schwann cells in vitro. More importantly, the NGF loaded heparin/chitosan scaffolds could effectively promote the morphology development of Schwann cells. The study may provide a useful experimental basis to design and develop artificial implants for peripheral nerve regeneration and other tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhancement of peripheral nerve regrowth by the purine nucleoside analog and cell cycle inhibitor, roscovitine

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    Vincent Law

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve regeneration is a slow process that can be associated with limited outcomes and thus, a search for novel and effective therapy for peripheral nerve injury and disease is crucial. Here, we found that roscovitine, a synthetic purine nucleoside analog, enhances neurite outgrowth in neuronal-like PC12 cells. Furthermore, ex vivo analysis of pre-injured adult rat dorsal root ganglion neurons showed that roscovitine enhances neurite regrowth in these cells. Likewise, in vivo transected sciatic nerves in rats locally perfused with roscovitine had augmented repopulation of new myelinated axons beyond the transection zone. By mass spectrometry, we found that roscovitine interacts with tubulin and actin. It interacts directly with tubulin and causes a dose-dependent induction of tubulin polymerization as well as enhances GTP-dependent tubulin polymerization. Conversely, roscovitine interacts indirectly with actin and counteracts the inhibitory effect of Cdk5 on Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization, and thus, causes actin polymerization. Moreover, in the presence of neurotrophic factors such as NGF, roscovitine-enhanced neurite outgrowth is mediated by increased activation of the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways. Since microtubule and F-actin dynamics are critical for axonal regrowth, the ability of roscovitine to activate the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways, and support polymerization of tubulin and actin indicate a major role for this purine nucleoside analog in the promotion of axonal regeneration. Together, our findings demonstrate a therapeutic potential for the purine nucleoside analog, roscovitine, in peripheral nerve injury.

  10. Multicenter Clinical Trial of Keratin Biomaterial for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    tests to determine purity (size exclusion chromatography for molecular weight, amino acids analysis, ELISA for protein identification, and gel rheology ...labeled hydrogel will be used in a fate and distribution study in a rat model. The hydrogel gel has been successfully labeled and adequate labeled...distribution study. Labeled keratin gel will be placed inside nerve conduits. The ends of the conduits will be closed, and the conduits will be

  11. 21 CFR 882.5870 - Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain....5870 Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted peripheral... the stimulating pulses across the patient's skin to the implanted receiver. (b) Classification....

  12. Effect of swimming training on neural microcirculation in rats with sciatic nerve compression A study based on laser Doppler flowmetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yueming Gao; Xinglin Wang; Senyang Lang; Lining Zhang; Wei Suo; Tianyu Jiang; Jingping Fan

    2010-01-01

    Microcirculation of the peripheral nerve is necessary for neural growth and regeneration.However,technical limitations have limited studies in this area.The few studies conducted have concerned active exercise effects on microcirculation of the peripheral nerve.Using an animal experiment,this study evaluated the effect of swimming training on microcirculation of injured peripheral nerve by laser Doppler flowmetry.The results showed that the blood vessel at the distal end of the peripheral nerve was the main blood supply for the nerve,and the internal blood supply for the nerve had strong compensatory ability.Swimming training promoted the functional recovery of rats with sciatic nerve injury and the regeneration of myelin sheath and blood vessels,but had no impact on neural blood flow.

  13. Peripheral nerve magnetic stimulation: influence of tissue non-homogeneity

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    Papazov Sava P

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peripheral nerves are situated in a highly non-homogeneous environment, including muscles, bones, blood vessels, etc. Time-varying magnetic field stimulation of the median and ulnar nerves in the carpal region is studied, with special consideration of the influence of non-homogeneities. Methods A detailed three-dimensional finite element model (FEM of the anatomy of the wrist region was built to assess the induced currents distribution by external magnetic stimulation. The electromagnetic field distribution in the non-homogeneous domain was defined as an internal Dirichlet problem using the finite element method. The boundary conditions were obtained by analysis of the vector potential field excited by external current-driven coils. Results The results include evaluation and graphical representation of the induced current field distribution at various stimulation coil positions. Comparative study for the real non-homogeneous structure with anisotropic conductivities of the tissues and a mock homogeneous media is also presented. The possibility of achieving selective stimulation of either of the two nerves is assessed. Conclusion The model developed could be useful in theoretical prediction of the current distribution in the nerves during diagnostic stimulation and therapeutic procedures involving electromagnetic excitation. The errors in applying homogeneous domain modeling rather than real non-homogeneous biological structures are demonstrated. The practical implications of the applied approach are valid for any arbitrary weakly conductive medium.

  14. Biomimetic approaches to bionic touch through a peripheral nerve interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saal, Hannes P; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2015-12-01

    State-of-the-art prosthetic hands nearly match the dexterity of the human hand, and sophisticated approaches have been developed to control them intuitively. However, grasping and dexterously manipulating objects relies heavily on the sense of touch, without which we would struggle to perform even the most basic activities of daily living. Despite the importance of touch, not only in motor control but also in affective communication and embodiment, the restoration of touch through bionic hands is still in its infancy, a shortcoming that severely limits their effectiveness. Here, we focus on approaches to restore the sense of touch through an electrical interface with the peripheral nerve. First, we describe devices that can be chronically implanted in the nerve to electrically activate nerve fibers. Second, we discuss how these interfaces have been used to convey basic somatosensory feedback. Third, we review what is known about how the somatosensory nerve encodes information about grasped objects in intact limbs and discuss how these natural neural codes can be exploited to convey artificial tactile feedback. Finally, we offer a blueprint for how these codes could be implemented in a neuroprosthetic device to deliver rich, natural, and versatile tactile sensations.

  15. Use of nerve elongator to repair short-distance peripheral nerve defects:a prospective randomized study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Bai; Min-tao Tian; Hong Chen; Dian-ying Zhang; Zhong-guo Fu; Pei-xun Zhang; Bao-guo Jiang; Tian-bing Wang; Xin Wang; Wei-wen Zhang; Ji-hai Xu; Xiao-ming Cai; Dan-ya Zhou; Li-bing Cai; Jia-dong Pan

    2015-01-01

    Repair techniques for short-distance peripheral nerve defects, including adjacent joint lfexion to reduce the distance between the nerve stump defects, “nerve splint” suturing, and nerve sle eve connection, have some disadvantages. Therefore, we designed a repair technique involving intraoperative tension-free application of a nerve elongator and obtained good outcomes in the repair of short-distance peripheral nerve defects in a previous animal study. The present study compared the clinical outcomes between the use of this nerve elongator and performance of the conventional method in the repair of short-distance transection injuries in human elbows. The 3-, 6-, and 12-month postoperative follow-up results demonstrated that early neurological function recovery was better in the nerve elongation group than in the conventional group, but no signif-icant difference in long-term neurological function recovery was detected between the two gro ups. In the nerve elongation group, the nerves were sutured without tension, and the duration of postoperative immobilization of the elbow was decreased. Elbow function rehabilitation was signiifcantly better in the nerve elongation group than in the control group. Moreover, there were no security risks. The results of this study conifrm that the use of this nerve elongator for repair of short-distance peripheral nerve defects is safe and effective.

  16. Primary malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor at unusual location

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    Souvagya Panigrahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST is a rare soft tissue sarcoma. Most arise in association with major nerve trunks. Their most common anatomical sites are the proximal portions of the upper and lower extremities and the trunk. MPNSTs have rarely been reported in literature to occur in other unusual body parts. We review all such cases reported till now in terms of site of origin, surgical treatment, adjuvant therapy and outcome and shortly describe our experience with two of these cases. Both of our case presented with lump at unusual sites resembling neurofibroma, one at orbitotemporal area and other in the paraspinal region with characteristic feature of neurofibroma with the exception that both had very short history of progression. They underwent gross total removal of the tumor with adjuvant radiotherapy postoperatively. At 6-month follow-up both are doing well with no evidence of recurrence.

  17. Circadian Rhythm Influences the Promoting Role of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Sciatic Nerve Regeneration in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shu; Ge, Jun; Liu, Zhongyang; Liu, Liang; Jing, Da; Ran, Mingzi; Wang, Meng; Huang, Liangliang; Yang, Yafeng; Huang, Jinghui; Luo, Zhuojing

    2017-01-01

    Circadian rhythm (CR) plays a critical role in the treatment of several diseases. However, the role of CR in the treatment of peripheral nerve defects has not been studied. It is also known that the pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) can provide a beneficial microenvironment to quicken the process of nerve regeneration and to enhance the quality of reconstruction. In this study, we evaluate the impact of CR on the promoting effect of PEMF on peripheral nerve regeneration in rats. We used the self-made “collagen-chitosan” nerve conduits to bridge the 15-mm nerve gaps in Sprague-Dawley rats. Our results show that PEMF stimulation at daytime (DPEMF) has most effective outcome on nerve regeneration and rats with DPEMF treatment achieve quickly functional recovery after 12 weeks. These findings indicate that CR is an important factor that determines the promoting effect of PEMF on peripheral nerve regeneration. PEMF exposure in the daytime enhances the functional recovery of rats. Our study provides a helpful guideline for the effective use of PEMF mediations experimentally and clinically. PMID:28360885

  18. Beneficial Effect of Metformin on Nerve Regeneration and Functional Recovery After Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junxiong; Liu, Jun; Yu, Hailong; Chen, Yu; Wang, Qi; Xiang, Liangbi

    2016-05-01

    Neuroprotective effects of metformin have been increasingly recognized in both diabetic and non-diabetic conditions. Thus far, no information has been available on the potential beneficial effects of metformin on peripheral nerve regeneration in diabetes mellitus. The present study was designed to investigate such a possibility. Diabetes was established by a single injection of streptozotocin at 50 mg/kg in rats. After sciatic nerve crush injury, the diabetic rats were intraperitoneally administrated daily for 4 weeks with metformin (30, 200 and 500 mg/kg), or normal saline, respectively. The axonal regeneration was investigated by morphometric analysis and retrograde labeling. The functional recovery was evaluated by electrophysiological studies and behavioral analysis. It was found that metformin significantly enhanced axonal regeneration and functional recovery compared to saline after sciatic nerve injury in diabetic rats. In addition, metformin at 200 and 500 mg/kg showed better performance than that at 30 mg/kg. Taken together, metformin is capable of promoting nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve injuries in diabetes mellitus, highlighting its therapeutic values for peripheral nerve injury repair in diabetes mellitus.

  19. Peripheral facial nerve paralysis after upper third molar extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakarer, Sirmahan; Can, Taylan; Cankaya, Burak; Erdem, Mehmet Ali; Yazici, Sinem; Ayintap, Emre; Özden, Ali Veysel; Keskin, Cengizhan

    2010-11-01

    Peripheral facial nerve paralysis (PFNP) after mandibular interventions has been reported in the literature. In most cases, paralysis begins immediately after the injection of the mandibular anesthesia, and duration of facial weakness is less than 12 hours. However, there are few documented cases of PFNP after maxillary dental or surgical procedures. A variety of mechanisms have been associated to PFNP, including viral reactivation, demyelination, edema, vasospasm, and trauma. The purpose of this presentation was to report a rare case of facial paralysis that occurred after an upper third molar extraction. The cause of the PFNP and the importance of the multidisciplinary approach in the management are emphasized.

  20. Peripheral nerve stimulation for the treatment of neuropathic craniofacial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, K V

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of neuropathic pain in the region of head and face presents a challenging problem for pain specialists. In particular, those patients who do not respond to conventional treatment modalities usually continue to suffer from pain due to lack of reliable medical and surgical approaches. Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) has been used for treatment of neuropathic pain for many decades, but only recently it has been systematically applied to the craniofacial region. Here we summarize published experience with PNS in treatment of craniofacial pain and discuss some technical details of the craniofacial PNS procedure.

  1. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with divergent differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST is an uncommon spindle cell sarcoma accounting for approximately 5% of all soft tissue sarcomas. A 55-year-old female with a right suprarenal tumor showed MPNST with additional foci of epithelioid, rhabdomyoblastic, osteogenic and lipogenic differentiation. Although the capacity of MPNST to undergo epithelioid, rhabdomyoblastic, osteogenic and very rarely lipogenic differentiation is reported in literature, the occurrence of all these differentiation in one case has not been described in literature before. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second MPNST case with lipomatous differentiation

  2. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumour: CT and MRI Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Sperandio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST is extremely rare malignancy in the general population, occurring more frequently in patients with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1. In the literature five cases of MPNST arising from the parapharyngeal space (PPS in patients without neurofibromatosis have been reported. We report imaging techniques in a patient with MPNST in the PPS, who had neither a family history nor sign of NF1. Computed tomography (CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were performed for a correct therapeutic planning. CT and MRI findings were correlated with hystopathological diagnosis.

  3. [Treatment of idiopathic peripheral facial nerve paralysis (Bell's palsy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Martin Willy; Hahn, Christoffer Holst

    2013-01-28

    Bell's palsy is defined as an idiopathic peripheral facial nerve paralysis of sudden onset. It affects 11-40 persons per 100,000 per annum. Many patients recover without intervention; however, up to 30% have poor recovery of facial muscle control and experience facial disfigurement. The aim of this study was to make an overview of which pharmacological treatments have been used to improve outcomes. The available evidence from randomized controlled trials shows significant benefit from treating Bell's palsy with corticosteroids but shows no benefit from antivirals.

  4. Peripheral nerve disorders and treatment strategies according to Avicenna in his medical treatise, Canon of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aciduman, Ahmet; Er, Uygur; Belen, Deniz

    2009-01-01

    The written transmission of knowledge has played a great part in the advancement of medicine, and historical documents hold the key to a full exploration of the history of medicine. Some fields, including disciplines that deal with peripheral nerve disorders, have received little benefit from such valuable material. In particular, peripheral nerve surgery lacks perspectives from historical data. For many years, physicians have obtained positive results in the surgical treatment of peripheral nerve diseases. Relevant documents reveal that the first author who described the surgical repair of damaged peripheral nerves was Avicenna, a leading figure of the medieval era who lived in the Middle East. In his primary medical work, the Canon, he provides a description, albeit sketchy, of a suture procedure for peripheral nerve transection. This treatise influenced physicians for several centuries. In this presentation, we analyze excerpts from the Canon that concern peripheral nerve disorders and strategies for their management.

  5. Repair of peripheral nerve defects with chemically extracted acellular nerve allografts loaded with neurotrophic factors-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-ru Zhang; Ka Ka; Ge-chen Zhang; Hui Zhang; Yan Shang; Guo-qiang Zhao; Wen-hua Huang

    2015-01-01

    Chemically extracted acellular nerve allografts loaded with brain-derived neurotrophic fac-tor-transfected or ciliary neurotrophic factor-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells have been shown to repair sciatic nerve injury better than chemically extracted acellular nerve allografts alone, or chemically extracted acellular nerve allografts loaded with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. We hypothesized that these allografts compounded with both brain-derived neurotrophic factor- and ciliary neurotrophic factor-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells may demonstrate even better effects in the repair of peripheral nerve injury. We cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells expressing brain-derived neuro-trophic factor and/or ciliary neurotrophic factor and used them to treat sciatic nerve injury in rats. We observed an increase in sciatic functional index, triceps wet weight recovery rate, myelin thickness, number of myelinated nerve ifbers, amplitude of motor-evoked potentials and nerve conduction velocity, and a shortened latency of motor-evoked potentials when al-lografts loaded with both neurotrophic factors were used, compared with allografts loaded with just one factor. Thus, the combination of both brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cili-ary neurotrophic factor-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can greatly improve nerve injury.

  6. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of facial nerve: Presenting as parotid mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bageshri P Gogate

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST is very uncommon tumor of parotid gland and it is an uncommon spindle cell sarcoma accounting for approximately 5% of all soft-tissue sarcoma. There is strong association between MPNSTs and neurofibromatosis (NF-1 and previous irradiation. Structural abnormality of chromosome 17 is associated with NF-1 and so MPNST. We present a case of a 78-year-old male presenting with slowly growing parotid mass who underwent tumor resection.

  7. Study on the use of quantitative ultrasound evaluation of diabetic neuropathy in the rat sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunxia; Hu, Bing; Zhu, Jiaan

    2016-12-01

    Ultrasound is an effective tool for peripheral disease with direct imaging of morphological and echogenic changes, but it has limitations when applied to evaluation of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The aim of this study was to assess the role of ultrasound to quantitatively evaluate diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rat sciatic nerve. In our experiments, ultrasound imaging and electrophysiological examination testing of sciatic nerves were monitored in diabetic and control rats at the period of 1st and 4th month of hyperglycemia. Cross sectional area, intraneural echo intensity, inner diameter, motor nerve conduction velocity, and histological changes were measured and compared between diabetic and control groups. Intraneural hyperechoic were observed in the diabetic rats, and the echo intensity of the sciatic nerve was increased in diabetic rats rather than control lean rats at 4th month of hyperglycemia (p diabetic peripheral neuropathy. We conclude that the echo intensity is potentially useful in detecting diabetic peripheral neuropathy, which can pave the way for more accurate and efficient diagnosis in clinical study.

  8. Long-term survival and integration of transplanted engineered nervous tissue constructs promotes peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jason H; Cullen, D Kacy; Browne, Kevin D; Groff, Robert; Zhang, Jun; Pfister, Bryan J; Zager, Eric L; Smith, Douglas H

    2009-07-01

    Although peripheral nerve injury is a common consequence of trauma or surgery, there are insufficient means for repair. In particular, there is a critical need for improved methods to facilitate regeneration of axons across major nerve lesions. Here, we engineered transplantable living nervous tissue constructs to provide a labeled pathway to guide host axonal regeneration. These constructs consisted of stretch-grown, longitudinally aligned living axonal tracts inserted into poly(glycolic acid) tubes. The constructs (allogenic) were transplanted to bridge an excised segment of sciatic nerve in the rat, and histological analyses were performed at 6 and 16 weeks posttransplantation to determine graft survival, integration, and host regeneration. At both time points, the transplanted constructs were found to have maintained their pretransplant geometry, with surviving clusters of graft neuronal somata at the extremities of the constructs spanned by tracts of axons. Throughout the transplanted region, there was an intertwining plexus of host and graft axons, suggesting that the transplanted axons mediated host axonal regeneration across the lesion. By 16 weeks posttransplant, extensive myelination of axons was observed throughout the transplant region. Further, graft neurons had extended axons beyond the margins of the transplanted region, penetrating into the host nerve. Notably, this survival and integration of the allogenic constructs occurred in the absence of immunosuppression therapy. These findings demonstrate the promise of living tissue-engineered axonal constructs to bridge major nerve lesions and promote host regeneration, potentially by providing axon-mediated axonal outgrowth and guidance.

  9. Updates on the diagnosis and treatment of intracranial nerve malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L'Heureux-Lebeau B

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Bénédicte L'Heureux-Lebeau,1 Issam Saliba2 1University of Montreal, 2Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Montreal University Hospital Center (CHUM, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Background: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs are rare entities and MPNSTs of intracranial nerves are even more sporadic. MPNSTs present diagnosis and treatment challenges since there are no defined diagnosis criteria and no established therapeutic strategies. Methods: We reviewed literature for MPNST-related articles. We found 45 relevant studies in which 60 cases were described. Results: We identified 60 cases of intracranial nerve MPNSTs. The age ranged from 3 to 75 years old. Male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The most involved cranial nerves (CNs were CN VIII (60%, CN V (27%, and CN VII (10%. Most of the MPNSTs reported (47% arose sporadically, 40% arose from a schwannoma, 8% arose from a neurofibroma, and 6% arose from an unspecified nerve tumor. Twenty patients had a history of radiation exposure, four patients had neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1, four patients had neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2, and NF2 was suspected in two other patients. Twenty-two patients were treated with radiotherapy and presented a higher survival rate. Seventy-two percent of patients died of their disease while 28% of patients survived. One-year survival rate was 33%. Forty-five percent of tumors recurred and 19% of patients had metastases. Conclusion: MPNSTs involving CNs are very rare. Diagnosis is made in regards to the histological and pathological findings. Imaging may help orient the diagnosis. A preexisting knowledge of the clinical situation is more likely to lead to a correct diagnosis. The mainstay of treatment is radical surgical resection with adjuvant radiotherapy. Since these tumors are associated with a poor prognosis, a close follow-up is mandatory. Keywords: malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, MPNST, neurofibroma

  10. Use of nerve conduits for peripheral nerve injury repair A Web of Science-based literature analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinniang Nan; Xuguang Hu; Hongxiu Li; Xiaonong Zhang; Renjing Piao

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify global research trends in the use of nerve conduits for peripheral nerve injury repair.SELECTION CRITERIA: Inclusion criteria: peer-reviewed published articles on nerve conduits for peripheral nerve injury repair, indexed in the Web of Science; original research articles, reviews, meeting abstracts, proceedings papers, book chapters, editorial material, and news items. Exclusion criteria: articles requiring manual searching or telephone access; documents not published in the public domain; and several corrected papers.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (a) Annual publication output; (b) publication type; (c) publication by research field; (d) publication by journal; (e) publication by funding agency; (f) publication by author; (g) publication by country and institution; (h) publications by institution in China; (i) most-cited papers.CONCLUSION: Nerve conduits have been studied extensively for peripheral nerve regeneration; however, many problems remain in this field, which are difficult for researchers to reach a consensus.

  11. Reduced Renshaw Recurrent Inhibition after Neonatal Sciatic Nerve Crush in Rats

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    Liang Shu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renshaw recurrent inhibition (RI plays an important gated role in spinal motion circuit. Peripheral nerve injury is a common disease in clinic. Our current research was designed to investigate the change of the recurrent inhibitory function in the spinal cord after the peripheral nerve crush injury in neonatal rat. Sciatic nerve crush was performed on 5-day-old rat puppies and the recurrent inhibition between lateral gastrocnemius-soleus (LG-S and medial gastrocnemius (MG motor pools was assessed by conditioning monosynaptic reflexes (MSR elicited from the sectioned dorsal roots and recorded either from the LG-S and MG nerves by antidromic stimulation of the synergist muscle nerve. Our results demonstrated that the MSR recorded from both LG-S or MG nerves had larger amplitude and longer latency after neonatal sciatic nerve crush. The RI in both LG-S and MG motoneuron pools was significantly reduced to virtual loss (15–20% of the normal RI size even after a long recovery period upto 30 weeks after nerve crush. Further, the degree of the RI reduction after tibial nerve crush was much less than that after sciatic nerve crush indicatig that the neuron-muscle disconnection time is vital to the recovery of the spinal neuronal circuit function during reinnervation. In addition, sciatic nerve crush injury did not cause any spinal motor neuron loss but severally damaged peripheral muscle structure and function. In conclusion, our results suggest that peripheral nerve injury during neonatal early development period would cause a more sever spinal cord inhibitory circuit damage, particularly to the Renshaw recurrent inhibition pathway, which might be the target of neuroregeneration therapy.

  12. [A case of Sotos syndrome associated with peripheral nerve involvements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funakawa, I; Katoh, H; Hara, K; Yasuda, T; Terao, A

    1992-03-01

    A case of the Sotos syndrome associated with peripheral nerve involvements was reported. A 52-year-old male was admitted to Kawasaki Medical School Hospital because of gait disturbance, muscle atrophy, and weakness in both hands. This case was diagnosed as the Sotos syndrome based on the following symptoms and findings, acromegaloid features, hypertrophic changes in the hands and feet, a history of epileptic episodes, a low IQ, a normal growth hormone value, and no tumor lesion in the pituitary gland. Radiological examination disclosed a cauliflower-like appearance of the finger tips and thickness of the heel pads. Brain CT and MRI revealed diffuse mild brain atrophy. An electroencephalogram showed diffuse theta waves with sharp waves in the right parietal region. A needle electromyogram revealed neurogenic change in both upper and lower limbs. A nerve conduction study disclosed the carpal tunnel syndrome and cubital tunnel syndrome. These findings suggest that, as in the case of acromegaly, entrapment neuropathy and peripheral neuropathy can also be induced in the Sotos syndrome.

  13. Gene therapy and peripheral nerve repair: a perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan A. Hoyng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinical phase I/II studies have demonstrated the safety of gene therapy for a variety of central nervous system disorders, including Canavan’s, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease, retinal diseases and pain. The majority of gene therapy studies in the CNS have used adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV and the first AAV-based therapeutic, a vector encoding lipoprotein lipase, is now marketed in Europe under the name Glybera. These remarkable advances may become relevant to translational research on gene therapy to promote peripheral nervous system (PNS repair. This short review first summarizes the results of gene therapy in animal models for peripheral nerve repair. Secondly, we identify key areas of future research in the domain of PNS-gene therapy. Finally, a perspective is provided on the path to clinical translation of PNS gene therapy for traumatic nerve injuries. In the latter section we discuss the route and mode of delivery of the vector to human patients, the efficacy and safety of the vector, and the choice of the patient population for a first possible proof-of-concept clinical study.

  14. A novel electrospun nerve conduit enhanced by carbon nanotubes for peripheral nerve regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenwen; Jiang, Xinquan; Cai, Ming; Zhao, Wen; Ye, Dongxia; Zhou, Yong; Zhu, Chao; Zhang, Xiuli; Lu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Zhiyuan

    2014-04-01

    For artificial nerve conduits, great improvements have been achieved in mimicking the structures and components of autologous nerves. However, there are still some problems in conduit construction, especially in terms of mechanical properties, biomimetic surface tomography, electrical conductivity and sustained release of neurotrophic factors or cells. In this study, we designed and fabricated a novel electrospun nerve conduit enhanced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on the basis of a collagen/poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (collagen/PCL) fibrous scaffold. Our aim was to provide further knowledge about the mechanical effects and efficacy of MWNTs on nerve conduits as well as the biocompatibility and toxicology of MWNTs when applied in vivo. The results showed that as one component, carboxyl MWNTs could greatly alter the composite scaffold’s hydrophilicity, mechanical properties and degradability. The electrospun fibers enhanced by MWNTs could support Schwann cell adhesion and elongation as a substrate in vitro. In vivo animal studies demonstrated that the MWNT-enhanced collagen/PCL conduit could effectively promote nerve regeneration of sciatic nerve defect in rats and prevent muscle atrophy without invoking body rejection or serious chronic inflammation. All of these results showed that this MWNT-enhanced scaffold possesses good biocompatibility and MWNTs might be excellent candidates as engineered nanocarriers for further neurotrophic factor delivery research.

  15. Nerve Cross-Bridging to Enhance Nerve Regeneration in a Rat Model of Delayed Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    There are currently no available options to promote nerve regeneration through chronically denervated distal nerve stumps. Here we used a rat model of delayed nerve repair asking of prior insertion of side-to-side cross-bridges between a donor tibial (TIB) nerve and a recipient denervated common peroneal (CP) nerve stump ameliorates poor nerve regeneration. First, numbers of retrogradely-labelled TIB neurons that grew axons into the nerve stump within three months, increased with the size of the perineurial windows opened in the TIB and CP nerves. Equal numbers of donor TIB axons regenerated into CP stumps either side of the cross-bridges, not being affected by target neurotrophic effects, or by removing the perineurium to insert 5-9 cross-bridges. Second, CP nerve stumps were coapted three months after inserting 0-9 cross-bridges and the number of 1) CP neurons that regenerated their axons within three months or 2) CP motor nerves that reinnervated the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle within five months was determined by counting and motor unit number estimation (MUNE), respectively. We found that three but not more cross-bridges promoted the regeneration of axons and reinnervation of EDL muscle by all the CP motoneurons as compared to only 33% regenerating their axons when no cross-bridges were inserted. The same 3-fold increase in sensory nerve regeneration was found. In conclusion, side-to-side cross-bridges ameliorate poor regeneration after delayed nerve repair possibly by sustaining the growth-permissive state of denervated nerve stumps. Such autografts may be used in human repair surgery to improve outcomes after unavoidable delays. PMID:26016986

  16. Nerve cross-bridging to enhance nerve regeneration in a rat model of delayed nerve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Tessa; Hendry, Michael; Lafontaine, Christine A; Cartar, Holliday; Zhang, Jennifer J; Borschel, Gregory H

    2015-01-01

    There are currently no available options to promote nerve regeneration through chronically denervated distal nerve stumps. Here we used a rat model of delayed nerve repair asking of prior insertion of side-to-side cross-bridges between a donor tibial (TIB) nerve and a recipient denervated common peroneal (CP) nerve stump ameliorates poor nerve regeneration. First, numbers of retrogradely-labelled TIB neurons that grew axons into the nerve stump within three months, increased with the size of the perineurial windows opened in the TIB and CP nerves. Equal numbers of donor TIB axons regenerated into CP stumps either side of the cross-bridges, not being affected by target neurotrophic effects, or by removing the perineurium to insert 5-9 cross-bridges. Second, CP nerve stumps were coapted three months after inserting 0-9 cross-bridges and the number of 1) CP neurons that regenerated their axons within three months or 2) CP motor nerves that reinnervated the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle within five months was determined by counting and motor unit number estimation (MUNE), respectively. We found that three but not more cross-bridges promoted the regeneration of axons and reinnervation of EDL muscle by all the CP motoneurons as compared to only 33% regenerating their axons when no cross-bridges were inserted. The same 3-fold increase in sensory nerve regeneration was found. In conclusion, side-to-side cross-bridges ameliorate poor regeneration after delayed nerve repair possibly by sustaining the growth-permissive state of denervated nerve stumps. Such autografts may be used in human repair surgery to improve outcomes after unavoidable delays.

  17. Nerve Tissue Prefabrication Inside the Rat Femoral Bone: Does It Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Zuhtu; Kocman, Atacan Emre; Ozatik, Orhan; Soztutar, Erdem; Ozkara, Emre; Kose, Aydan; Arslantas, Ali; Cetin, Cengiz

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether nerve regeneration can be induced in the tubular bone between distal and proximal cut nerve ends. Twenty adult Wistar rats were used for the study. Rats were divided into three groups; femoral bone conduit group, nerve transection group, sham group. The sciatic nerve was surgically cut and from both ends inserted into the adjacent femoral bone tunnel in the femoral bone conduit group. The sciatic nerve was cut transversely in the nerve transection group. In the Sham group, only sciatic nerve exploration was performed, without a nerve cut. The groups were evaluated functionally and morphologically. All results showed that axonal growth existed through the osseous canal. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate neural regeneration inside the bone. We can speculate that the bone marrow provides a convenient microenvironment for peripheral nerve regeneration. In addition to prefabricating peripheral nerves, this novel model may help to establish further strategies for engineering of other tissues in the bone marrow.

  18. Aspects of static and dynamic motor function in peripheral nerve regeneration: SSI and CatWalk gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, A; Scheffel, J; Brook, G A; Joosten, E A; Suschek, C V; O'Dey, D M; Pallua, N; Deumens, R

    2011-05-16

    Assessment of the therapeutic potential of interventions to bridge-repair peripheral nerve defects heavily relies on the demonstration of improved functional outcome. In the present study we used CatWalk gait analysis (locomotor-test) and Static Sciatic Index (SSI) (static-toe-spread-test) to assess the behavioural benefits of autologous nerve transplantation (ANT) repair of 2-cm rat sciatic nerve defects (neurotmesis-lesion). A reproducible and standardised rat sciatic nerve crush lesion model (axonotmesis-lesion) was used to assess the extent of recovery supported by maximal axon regeneration (measured by SSI and CatWalk). Animals were behaviourally followed for a period of 10 weeks. SSI analysis showed that ANT induced a significant improvement in motor deficit from about -95 to -65, however, CatWalk analysis did not show any major indication of locomotor recovery. This discrepancy might suggest that improvements in static motor functions (such as toe spreading) could reflect an early indicator for the recovery of function. We also noted differences in axon regeneration including increased axon density, smaller axon diameters and thinner myelin sheaths in the distal region of the ANT in comparison to the equivalent region of crushed and normal nerves. This difference in axon regeneration may be related to the clearly improved toe spreading function. We conclude that SSI and CatWalk present different advantages and disadvantages for the assessment of motor recovery after bridge-repair of peripheral nerve defects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a Regenerative Peripheral Nerve Interface for Control of a Neuroprosthetic Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie G. Urbanchek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this experiment was to develop a peripheral nerve interface using cultured myoblasts within a scaffold to provide a biologically stable interface while providing signal amplification for neuroprosthetic control and preventing neuroma formation. Methods. A Regenerative Peripheral Nerve Interface (RPNI composed of a scaffold and cultured myoblasts was implanted on the end of a divided peroneal nerve in rats (n=25. The scaffold material consisted of either silicone mesh, acellular muscle, or acellular muscle with chemically polymerized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene conductive polymer. Average implantation time was 93 days. Electrophysiological tests were performed at endpoint to determine RPNI viability and ability to transduce neural signals. Tissue samples were examined using both light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Results. All implanted RPNIs, regardless of scaffold type, remained viable and displayed robust vascularity. Electromyographic activity and stimulated compound muscle action potentials were successfully recorded from all RPNIs. Physiologic efferent motor action potentials were detected from RPNIs in response to sensory foot stimulation. Histology and transmission electron microscopy revealed mature muscle fibers, axonal regeneration without neuroma formation, neovascularization, and synaptogenesis. Desmin staining confirmed the preservation and maturation of myoblasts within the RPNIs. Conclusions. RPNI demonstrates significant myoblast maturation, innervation, and vascularization without neuroma formation.

  20. A novel therapeutic target for peripheral nerve injury-related diseases: aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Sun Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AminoARSs are essential enzymes that perform the first step of protein synthesis. Beyond their original roles, AminoARSs possess non-canonical functions, such as cell cycle regulation and signal transduction. Therefore, AminoARSs represent a powerful pharmaceutical target if their non-canonical functions can be controlled. Using AminoARSs-specific primers, we screened mRNA expression in the spinal cord dorsal horn of rats with peripheral nerve injury created by sciatic nerve axotomy. Of 20 AminoARSs, we found that phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase beta chain (FARSB, isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IARS and methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MARS mRNA expression was increased in spinal dorsal horn neurons on the injured side, but not in glial cells. These findings suggest the possibility that FARSB, IARS and MARS, as a neurotransmitter, may transfer abnormal sensory signals after peripheral nerve damage and become a new target for drug treatment.

  1. Nerve excitability in the rat forelimb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, Ria; Moldovan, Mihai; Rosberg, Mette Romer;

    2017-01-01

    Background Nerve excitability testing by threshold-tracking is the only available method to study axonal ion channel function and membrane potential in the clinical setting. The measures are, however, indirect and the interpretation of neuropathic changes remains challenging. The same multiple...... measures of axonal excitability were adapted to further explore the pathophysiological changes in rodent disease models under pharmacologic and genetic manipulations. These studies are typically limited to the investigation of the “long nerves” such as the tail or the tibial nerves. New method We introduce...... a novel setup to explore the ulnar nerve excitability in rodents. We provide normative ulnar data in 11 adult female Long Evans rats under anaesthesia by comparison with tibial and caudal nerves. Additionally, these measures were repeated weekly on 3 occasions to determine the repeatability of these tests...

  2. Alignment and composition of laminin-polycaprolactone nanofiber blends enhance peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Rebekah A; Tholpady, Sunil S; Foley, Patricia L; Swami, Nathan; Ogle, Roy C; Botchwey, Edward A

    2012-02-01

    Peripheral nerve transection occurs commonly in traumatic injury, causing deficits distal to the injury site. Conduits for repair currently on the market are hollow tubes; however, they often fail due to slow regeneration over long gaps. To facilitate increased regeneration speed and functional recovery, the ideal conduit should provide biochemically relevant signals and physical guidance cues, thus playing an active role in regeneration. To that end, laminin and laminin-polycaprolactone (PCL) blend nanofibers were fabricated to mimic peripheral nerve basement membrane. In vitro assays established 10% (wt) laminin content is sufficient to retain neurite-promoting effects of laminin. In addition, modified collector plate design to introduce an insulating gap enabled the fabrication of aligned nanofibers. The effects of laminin content and fiber orientation were evaluated in rat tibial nerve defect model. The lumens of conduits were filled with nanofiber meshes of varying laminin content and alignment to assess changes in motor and sensory recovery. Retrograde nerve conduction speed at 6 weeks was significantly faster in animals receiving aligned nanofiber conduits than in those receiving random nanofiber conduits. Animals receiving nanofiber-filled conduits showed some conduction in both anterograde and retrograde directions, whereas in animals receiving hollow conduits, no impulse conduction was detected. Aligned PCL nanofibers significantly improved motor function; aligned laminin blend nanofibers yielded the best sensory function recovery. In both cases, nanofiber-filled conduits resulted in better functional recovery than hollow conduits. These studies provide a firm foundation for the use of natural-synthetic blend electrospun nanofibers to enhance existing hollow nerve guidance conduits.

  3. Cross-chest median nerve transfer: a new model for the evaluation of nerve regeneration across a 40 mm gap in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinis, Nektarios; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Becker, Stephan Thomas; Lanaras, Tatjana; Schulte-Eversum, Caterina; Müller, Hans-Werner; Vonthein, Reinhard; Rösner, Harald; Haerle, Max

    2006-09-30

    A new animal model for the study of nerve regeneration in rats across a 40 mm gap between both median nerves is described. For autologous grafting, the ulnar nerves were dissected and sutured together. From the left median nerve, they were transplanted across the chest to the right median nerve. Animals having undergone this operation were observed for 12 months and periodically assessed using the grasping test and measurements of body-weight. For histological analysis rats were sacrificed after this period and axon counts were determined at the suture points of operated animals and in the median nerve of non-operated animals. Functional recovery could be seen, although partially, beginning as early as the fifth postoperative month, as demonstrated by the grasping test. Quantification of the number of axons demonstrated axonal regeneration across all three coaptation points. This model provides a new approach for analysis of long distance peripheral nerve regeneration without impairment of behaviour.

  4. Assessment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dongye; Zhang, Xiang; Lu, Liejing; Li, Haojiang; Zhang, Fang; Chen, Yueyao; Shen, Jun [Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2014-09-10

    To determine the role of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and quantitative T2 value measurements in the assessment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Sequential MR imaging, T2 measurement, and quantitative sensory testing of sciatic nerves were performed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (n = 6) and normal control rats (n = 6) over a 7-week follow-up period. Histological assessment was obtained from 48 diabetic rats and 48 control rats once weekly for 7 weeks (n = 6 for each group at each time point). Nerve signal abnormalities were observed, and the T2 values, mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT), and histological changes were measured and compared between diabetic and control animals. Sciatic nerves in the diabetic rats showed a gradual increase in T2 values beginning at 2 weeks after the induction (P = 0.014), while a decrease in MWT started at 3 weeks after the induction (P = 0.001). Nerve T2 values had a similar time course to sensory functional deficit in diabetic rats. Histologically, sciatic nerves of diabetic rats demonstrated obvious endoneural oedema from 2 to 3 weeks after the induction, followed by progressive axonal degeneration, Schwann cell proliferation, and coexistent disarranged nerve regeneration. Nerve T2 measurement is potentially useful in detecting and monitoring diabetic neuropathy. (orig.)

  5. A study on peripheral nerve regeneration via biomimetic conduits loaded with Schwann cells and nerve growth factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Fengyi; ZHOU Peilan; WANG Ruilin; YANG Mingfu; ZHAO Weisheng; WEI Dian; ZHANG Tieliang; YAO Kangde; CUI Yuanlu

    2001-01-01

    @@ Guided tissue regeneration is a new approach in the reconstructive surgery of peripheral nerves. Biomimetic conducts were construct from the expanded vein onwhose inner surface composited with amnion filaments (cf. Fig 1).

  6. Combination of acellular nerve graft and schwann cells-like cells for rat sciatic nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Songtao; Zheng, Yan; Cai, Qiqing; Deng, Zhansheng; Yao, Weitao; Wang, Jiaqiang; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of tissue engineering nerve on repair of rat sciatic nerve defect. Forty-five rats with defective sciatic nerve were randomly divided into three groups. Rats in group A were repaired by acellular nerve grafts only. Rats in group B were repaired by tissue engineering nerve. In group C, rats were repaired by autogenous nerve grafts. After six and twelve weeks, sciatic nerve functional index (SFI), neural electrophysiology (NEP), histological and transmission electron microscope observation, recovery ratio of wet weight of gastrocnemius muscle, regenerated myelinated nerve fibers number, nerve fiber diameter, and thickness of the myelin sheath were measured to assess the effect. After six and twelve weeks, the recovery ratio of SFI and wet weight of gastrocnemius muscle, NEP, and the result of regenerated myelinated nerve fibers in groups B and C were superior to that of group A (P 0.05). The tissue engineering nerve composed of acellular allogenic nerve scaffold and Schwann cells-like cells can effectively repair the nerve defect in rats and its effect was similar to that of the autogenous nerve grafts.

  7. A Physicochemically Optimized and Neuroconductive Biphasic Nerve Guidance Conduit for Peripheral Nerve Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alan J; Lackington, William A; Hibbitts, Alan J; Matheson, Austyn; Alekseeva, Tijna; Stejskalova, Anna; Roche, Phoebe; O'Brien, Fergal J

    2017-10-04

    Clinically available hollow nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) have had limited success in treating large peripheral nerve injuries. This study aims to develop a biphasic NGC combining a physicochemically optimized collagen outer conduit to bridge the transected nerve, and a neuroconductive hyaluronic acid-based luminal filler to support regeneration. The outer conduit is mechanically optimized by manipulating crosslinking and collagen density, allowing the engineering of a high wall permeability to mitigate the risk of neuroma formation, while also maintaining physiologically relevant stiffness and enzymatic degradation tuned to coincide with regeneration rates. Freeze-drying is used to seamlessly integrate the luminal filler into the conduit, creating a longitudinally aligned pore microarchitecture. The luminal stiffness is modulated to support Schwann cells, with laminin incorporation further enhancing bioactivity by improving cell attachment and metabolic activity. Additionally, this biphasic NGC is shown to support neurogenesis and gliogenesis of neural progenitor cells and axonal outgrowth from dorsal root ganglia. These findings highlight the paradigm that a successful NGC requires the concerted optimization of both a mechanical support phase capable of bridging a nerve defect and a neuroconductive phase with an architecture capable of supporting both Schwann cells and neurons in order to achieve functional regenerative outcome. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Accumulation of L-type Bovine Prions in Peripheral Nerve Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Morikazu; Matsuura, Yuichi; Masujin, Kentaro; Shimizu, Yoshihisa; Shu, Yujing; Kurachi, Megumi; Kasai, Kazuo; Murayama, Yuichi; Fukuda, Shigeo; Onoe, Sadao; Hagiwara, Ken’ichi; Yamakawa, Yoshio; Sata, Tetsutaro; Mohri, Shirou; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported the intraspecies transmission of L-type atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). To clarify the peripheral pathogenesis of L-type BSE, we studied prion distribution in nerve and lymphoid tissues obtained from experimentally challenged cattle. As with classical BSE prions, L-type BSE prions accumulated in central and peripheral nerve tissues. PMID:20587193

  9. Accumulation of L-type Bovine Prions in Peripheral Nerve Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported the intraspecies transmission of L-type atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). To clarify the peripheral pathogenesis of L-type BSE, we studied prion distribution in nerve and lymphoid tissues obtained from experimentally challenged cattle. As with classical BSE prions, L-type BSE prions accumulated in central and peripheral nerve tissues.

  10. Malignant peripheral nerve cell sheath tumour of the upper lip: a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ward

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST that developed on the upper lip of an 86 year old woman. MPNSTs are highly aggressive sarcomas that very rarely occur in the face. We know of no other reported cases of a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour arising from the upper lip.

  11. ATF3 upregulation in glia during Wallerian degeneration: differential expression in peripheral nerves and CNS white matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coffin Robert S

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many changes in gene expression occur in distal stumps of injured nerves but the transcriptional control of these events is poorly understood. We have examined the expression of the transcription factors ATF3 and c-Jun by non-neuronal cells during Wallerian degeneration following injury to sciatic nerves, dorsal roots and optic nerves of rats and mice, using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results Following sciatic nerve injury – transection or transection and reanastomosis – ATF3 was strongly upregulated by endoneurial, but not perineurial cells, of the distal stumps of the nerves by 1 day post operation (dpo and remained strongly expressed in the endoneurium at 30 dpo when axonal regeneration was prevented. Most ATF3+ cells were immunoreactive for the Schwann cell marker, S100. When the nerve was transected and reanastomosed, allowing regeneration of axons, most ATF3 expression had been downregulated by 30 dpo. ATF3 expression was weaker in the proximal stumps of the injured nerves than in the distal stumps and present in fewer cells at all times after injury. ATF3 was upregulated by endoneurial cells in the distal stumps of injured neonatal rat sciatic nerves, but more weakly than in adult animals. ATF3 expression in transected sciatic nerves of mice was similar to that in rats. Following dorsal root injury in adult rats, ATF3 was upregulated in the part of the root between the lesion and the spinal cord (containing Schwann cells, beginning at 1 dpo, but not in the dorsal root entry zone or in the degenerating dorsal column of the spinal cord. Following optic nerve crush in adult rats, ATF3 was found in some cells at the injury site and small numbers of cells within the optic nerve displayed weak immunoreactivity. The pattern of expression of c-Jun in all types of nerve injury was similar to that of ATF3. Conclusion These findings raise the possibility that ATF3/c-Jun heterodimers may play a role in

  12. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor arising from solitary neurofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-I Chung

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs are rare sarcomas that are strongly associated with neurofibromatosis type I (NF-1. We describe a 71-year-old woman with no stigmata of neurofibromatosis, who presented with recurrent subcutaneous tumor on her left upper back. She received two excisional biopsies on the back of her trunk at our hospital and both pathology reports revealed neurofibromas. Three years after the last skin biopsy, a rapidly growing subcutaneous tumor emerged at the same site. This tumor was totally resected and the histopathology showed an ill-defined tumor in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. The tumor was composed of spindle cells in a myxoid stroma with a transition from the area of typical neurofibroma to the hypercellular area. The hypercellular area consisted of atypical, hyperchromatic spindled cells with frequent mitotic figures. She was therefore diagnosed with MPNST.

  13. Peripheral nerve repair: a hot spot analysis on treatment methods from 2010 to 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-yao Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic strategies for neurological deficits and for promoting nerve regeneration after peripheral nerve injuries have received much focus in clinical research. Advances in basic research in recent years have increased our understanding of the anatomy of peripheral nerves and the importance of the microenvironment. Various new intervention methods have been developed, but with varying effectiveness. In the present study, we selected 911 papers on different repair methods for peripheral nerve injury from the Web of Science and indexed in the Science Citation Index from 2010 to 2014. We quantitatively examine new repair methods and strategies using bibliometrics, and we discuss the present state of knowledge and the problems and prospects of various repair methods, including nerve transfer, neural transplantation, tissue engineering and genetic engineering. Our findings should help in the study and development of repair methods for peripheral nerve injury.

  14. Peripheral nerve repair:a hot spot analysis on treatment methods from 2010 to 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-yao Liu; Yan Jin; Qiao Zhang; Rui Li

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic strategies for neurological deifcits and for promoting nerve regeneration after pe-ripheral nerve injuries have received much focus in clinical research. Advances in basic research in recent years have increased our understanding of the anatomy of peripheral nerves and the importance of the microenvironment. Various new intervention methods have been developed, but with varying effectiveness. In the present study, we selected 911 papers on different repair methods for peripheral nerve injury from the Web of Science and indexed in the Science Citation Index from 2010 to 2014. We quantitatively examine new repair methods and strategies using bibliometrics, and we discuss the present state of knowledge and the problems and prospects of various repair methods, including nerve transfer, neural transplantation, tissue engineering and genetic engineering. Our ifndings should help in the study and development of repair methods for peripheral nerve injury.

  15. Advances in the neurological and neurosurgical management of peripheral nerve trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Neil G; Spinner, Robert J; Kline, David G; Kliot, Michel

    2016-02-01

    Peripheral nerve trauma frequently affects younger people and may result in significant and long-lasting functional disability. Currently, diagnosis and monitoring of peripheral nerve injury relies on clinical and electrodiagnostic information, supplemented by intraoperative electrophysiological studies. However, in a significant proportion of nerve injuries, the likelihood of spontaneous regeneration resulting in good functional outcome remains uncertain and unnecessary delays to treatment may be faced while monitoring for recovery. Advances in non-invasive imaging techniques to diagnose and monitor nerve injury and regeneration are being developed, and have the potential to streamline the decision-making process. In addition, advances in operative and non-operative treatment strategies may provide more effective ways to maximise functional outcomes following severe peripheral nerve trauma. This review discusses these advances in light of the current state of the art of management of peripheral nerve trauma.

  16. Neuro-Otological and Peripheral Nerve Involvement in Fabry Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Sergio; Weinschelbaum, Romina; Pardal, Ana; Marchesoni, Cintia; Zuberbuhler, Paz; Acosta, Patricia; Cáceres, Guillermo; Kisinovsky, Isaac; Bayón, Luciana; Reisin, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disease, with multisystemic glycosphingolipids deposits. Neuro-otological involvement leading to hearing loss and vestibular dysfunctions has been described, but there is limited information about the frequency, site of lesion, or the relationship with peripheral neuropathy. The aim was to evaluate the presence of auditory and vestibular symptoms, and assess neurophysiological involvement of the VIII cranial nerve, correlating these findings with clinical and neurophysiological features of peripheral neuropathy. We studied 36 patients with FD with a complete neurological and neuro-otological evaluation including nerve conduction studies, quantitative sensory testing (to evaluate small fiber by warm and cold threshold detection and cold and heat pain), vestibular evoked myogenic potentials, videonistagmography, audiometry and brainstem auditory evoked potentials. Neuro-otologic symptoms included hearing loss (22.2%), vertigo (27.8%) or both (25%). An involvement of either cochlear or vestibular function was identified in most patients (75%). In 70% of our patients the involvement of both cochlear and vestibular function could not be explained by a neural or vascular mechanism. Small fiber neuropathy was identified in 77.7%. There were no significant associations between neuro-otological and QST abnormalities. Neuro-otologic involvement is frequent and most likely under-recognized in patients with FD. It lacks a specific neural or vascular pattern, suggesting multi-systemic, end organ damage. Small fiber neuropathy is an earlier manifestation of FD, but there is no correlation between the development of neuropathy and neuro-otological abnormalities. PMID:28794847

  17. Composite pheochromocytoma with a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor: Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namekawa, Takeshi; Utsumi, Takanobu; Imamoto, Takashi; Kawamura, Koji; Oide, Takashi; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Nihei, Naoki; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Nakatani, Yukio; Ichikawa, Tomohiko

    2016-07-01

    Adrenal tumors with more than one cellular component are uncommon. Furthermore, an adrenal tumor composed of a pheochromocytoma and a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor is extremely rare. A composite pheochromocytoma with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in a 42-year-old man is reported here. After adequate preoperative control, left adrenalectomy was performed simultaneously with resection of the ipsilateral kidney for spontaneous rupture of the left adrenal tumor. Pathological findings demonstrated pheochromocytoma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in a ruptured adrenal tumor. To date, there have been only four reported cases of composite pheochromocytoma with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, so the present case is only the fifth case in the world. Despite the very poor prognosis of patients with pheochromocytoma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors reported in the literature, the patient remains well without evidence of recurrence or new metastatic lesions at 36 months postoperatively. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  18. Effect of FK506 on Expression of Hepatocyte Growth Factor in Murine Spinal Cord Following Peripheral Nerve Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng PAN; Anmin CHEN; Fengjing GUO; Chenliang ZHU; Fenghua TAO

    2008-01-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of FK506 on expression of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in rats' spinal cord following peripheral nerve injury and to elucidate the mechanisms for neuroprotective property of FKS06. Fifty male rats were randomly divided into normal group, injury group and treatment group. Models of peripheral nerve injury were established by bilateral transection of sciatic nerve 0.5 cm distal to piriform muscle. Then the treatment group received subcutaneons injection of FK506 (1 mg/kg) at the back of neck, while the injury group was given 0.9% saline. The L4-6 spinal cords were harvested at various time points after the surgery. Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining were used to detect the level and position of HGF in spinal cord. Lm munofluorescent staining showed that HGF-positive neurons were located in anterior horn, interme- diate zone and posterior horn of gray matter in normal spinal cord. Western blotting revealed that there was no significant difference in the expressions of HGF between the injury group and the normal group, while the expression of HGF was significantly higher in the treatment group than in the injury group 7 and 14 days after surgery. It is suggested that peripheral nerve injury does not result in up-regulation of the expression of HGF in spinal cord, while FK506 may induce high expression of endogenous HGF after injury thereby protecting neurons and promoting axonal outgrowth.

  19. In vivo MRI monitoring nerve regeneration of acute peripheral nerve traction injury following mesenchymal stem cell transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Xiao-Hui, E-mail: duanxiaohui-128@163.com [Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 107 Yanjiang Road West, Guangzhou 510120, Guangdong (China); Cheng, Li-Na, E-mail: kobe10716@163.com [Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 107 Yanjiang Road West, Guangzhou 510120, Guangdong (China); Zhang, Fang, E-mail: xinxin110007@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 107 Yanjiang Road West, Guangzhou 510120, Guangdong (China); Liu, Jun, E-mail: docliujun@hotmail.com [Department of Neurology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 107 Yanjiang Road West, Guangzhou 510120, Guangdong (China); Guo, Ruo-Mi, E-mail: guoruomi-521@163.com [Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 107 Yanjiang Road West, Guangzhou 510120, Guangdong (China); Zhong, Xiao-Mei, E-mail: enough300@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 107 Yanjiang Road West, Guangzhou 510120, Guangdong (China); Wen, Xue-Hua, E-mail: xuehuasuqian@126.com [Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 107 Yanjiang Road West, Guangzhou 510120, Guangdong (China); Shen, Jun, E-mail: junshenjun@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 107 Yanjiang Road West, Guangzhou 510120, Guangdong (China)

    2012-09-15

    Objective: To assess the continuous process of nerve regeneration in acute peripheral nerve traction injury treated with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation using MRI. Materials and methods: 1 week after acute nerve traction injury was established in the sciatic nerve of 48 New Zealand white rabbits, 5 × 10{sup 5} MSCs and vehicle alone were grafted to the acutely distracted sciatic nerves each in 24 animals. Serial MRI and T1 and T2 measurements of the injured nerves were performed with a 1.5-T scanner and functional recovery was recorded over a 10-week follow-up period, with histological assessments performed at regular intervals. Results: Compared with vehicle control, nerves grafted with MSCs had better functional recovery and showed improved nerve regeneration, with a sustained increase of T1 and T2 values during the phase of regeneration. Conclusion: MRI could be used to monitor the enhanced nerve regeneration in acute peripheral nerve traction injury treated with MSC transplantation, reflected by a prolonged increase in T1 and T2 values of the injured nerves.

  20. Rat-derived processed nerve allografts support more axon regeneration in rat than human-derived processed nerve xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Matthew D; Kemp, Stephen W P; Liu, Edward H; Szynkaruk, Mark; Gordon, Tessa; Borschel, Gregory H

    2014-04-01

    Processed nerve allografts are increasingly used as "off the shelf" nerve replacements for surgically bridging nerve gaps. Benchmarking the regenerative capacity of a commercially available human-derived nerve or xenograft in a rat nerve injury model would provide a convenient platform for future studies seeking to modify the processed nerve graft. Human and rat processed nerve grafts were used to bridge a 14 mm defect in a Sprague-Dawley rat sciatic nerve. Reversed autografts served as a positive control group. Twelve weeks following surgery, the distal nerve stumps were retrograde labeled and harvested for histology and histomorphometry. The cross-sectional areas of the human- and rat-derived processed nerve grafts were similar. Neuron counts and myelinated axon counts following use of the human-derived processed xenografts were decreased compared with those obtained from both the rat-derived processed nerve allografts and the autografts; the rat-derived processed nerve allografts were statistically equivalent to autografts. Measures of nerve fiber diameter and myelination revealed inferior axon regeneration maturity in both processed nerve grafts compared with autografts. Processed xenografts showed significantly reduced regeneration compared with autografts or processed allografts indicating that cross-species immunological reactions are important considerations in this rat model. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Role of inflammatory cytokines in peripheral nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Federica Fregnan; Luisa Muratori; Anabel Rodriguez Sim(o)es; Maria Giuseppina Giacobini-Robecchi; Stefania Raimondo

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory events occurring in the distal part of an injured peripheral nerve have,nowadays,a great resonance.Investigating the timing of action of the several cytokines in the important stages of Wallerian degeneration helps to understand the regenerative process and design pharmacologic intervention that promotes and expedites recovery.The complex and synergistic action of inflammatory cytokines finally promotes axonal regeneration.Cytokines can be divided into pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines that upregutate and downregulate,respectively,the production of inflammatory mediators.While pro-inflammatory cytokines are expressed in the first phase of Wallerian degeneration and promote the recruitment of macrophages,anti-inflammatory cytokines are expressed after this recruitment and downregulate the production of all cytokines,thus determining the end of the process.In this review,we describe the major inflammatory cytokines involved in Wallerian degeneration and the early phases of nerve regeneration.In particular,we focus on interleukin-1,interleukin-2,interleukin-6,tumor necrosis factor-β,interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-β.

  2. Peripheral nerve injury sensitizes neonatal dorsal horn neurons to tumor necrosis factor-α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baccei Mark L

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about whether peripheral nerve injury during the early postnatal period modulates synaptic efficacy in the immature superficial dorsal horn (SDH of the spinal cord, or whether the neonatal SDH network is sensitive to the proinflammatory cytokine TNFα under neuropathic conditions. Thus we examined the effects of TNFα on synaptic transmission and intrinsic membrane excitability in developing rat SDH neurons in the absence or presence of sciatic nerve damage. Results The spared nerve injury (SNI model of peripheral neuropathy at postnatal day (P6 failed to significantly alter miniature excitatory (mEPSCs or inhibitory (mIPSCs postsynaptic currents in SDH neurons at P9-11. However, SNI did alter the sensitivity of excitatory synapses in the immature SDH to TNFα. While TNFα failed to influence mEPSCs or mIPSCs in slices from sham-operated controls, it significantly increased mEPSC frequency and amplitude following SNI without modulating synaptic inhibition onto the same neurons. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in the paired-pulse ratio of evoked EPSCs, suggesting TNFα increases the probability of glutamate release in the SDH under neuropathic conditions. Similarly, while SNI alone did not alter action potential (AP threshold or rheobase in SDH neurons at this age, TNFα significantly decreased AP threshold and rheobase in the SNI group but not in sham-operated littermates. However, unlike the adult, the expression of TNFα in the immature dorsal horn was not significantly elevated during the first week following the SNI. Conclusion Developing SDH neurons become susceptible to regulation by TNFα following peripheral nerve injury in the neonate. This may include both a greater efficacy of glutamatergic synapses as well as an increase in the intrinsic excitability of immature dorsal horn neurons. However, neonatal sciatic nerve damage alone did not significantly modulate synaptic transmission or

  3. Peripheral nerve lengthening by controlled isolated distraction: a new animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeber, M W; Diao, E; Hida, S; Liebenberg, E

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a simple and effective animal model to study the distraction neurogenesis utilizing the sciatic nerve-lengthening technique in rats. The model allows macroscopic, physiological, and histological evaluation of the distraction site. Fourteen adult Harlan Sprague Dawley rats (300-350 g) were used in this study. A 10 mm segment of the right sciatic nerve of each animal in the nerve-lengthening group was resected. Gradual nerve lengthening was performed by advancing the proximal nerve stump at a rate of 1 mm/day. The proximal stump neuroma was then resected and a direct nerve anastomosis was performed. On the left side a standard autogenous nerve-grafting procedure was performed with a 10 mm segment of sciatic nerve used as an in situ nerve graft. Three months after the second surgery, the sciatic nerves were exposed and investigated by gross observation and EMG followed by histological processing and tissue analysis. Neomicrovascularization was observed surrounding the sciatic nerve anastomosis in all five specimens of the nerve-lengthening group as compared to the more white-colored scar tissue that was observed in the nerve-grafting group. The EMG results were similar for both groups. Histological studies of the lengthened nerves showed axon morphology equivalent to the grafted nerves. This study demonstrated a clear evidence of the successful nerve regeneration within a segmental nerve gap by nerve lengthening.

  4. Novel Therapeutic Development of NF1-Associated Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor (MPNST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0124 TITLE: Novel Therapeutic Development of NF1-Associated Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor (MPNST...Nerve Sheath Tumor (MPNST) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0124 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Ping Chi, MD, PhD 5e. TASK...that affects approximately 1 in 3000 people. Although multiple defects can arise, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) represents the most

  5. A Method for Functional Quantification of the Reflex Effect of Human Peripheral Nerve Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Zehr, E. P.; Komiyama, Tomoyushi; Stein, R B

    2000-01-01

    E.P. Zehr, KOMIYAMA, T. and R.B. Stein. A Method for Functional Quantification of the Reflex Effect of Human Peripheral Nerve Stimulation. Adv. Exerc. Sports Physiol., Vol.6, No.1 pp25-32, 2000. We have developed simple method that accounts for the overrall function of reflex effects occurring in the surface electrimyogran (EMG) after human nerve stimulation. This method involves the subtraction of pre-stimulus EMG levels from EMG modulation curves obtained after human peripheral nerve stimul...

  6. Biological conduit small gap sleeve bridging method for peripheral nerve injury: regeneration law of nerve fibers in the conduit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-xun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical effects of 2-mm small gap sleeve bridging of the biological conduit to repair peripheral nerve injury are better than in the traditional epineurium suture, so it is possible to replace the epineurium suture in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. This study sought to identify the regeneration law of nerve fibers in the biological conduit. A nerve regeneration chamber was constructed in models of sciatic nerve injury using 2-mm small gap sleeve bridging of a biodegradable biological conduit. The results showed that the biological conduit had good histocompatibility. Tissue and cell apoptosis in the conduit apparently lessened, and regenerating nerve fibers were common. The degeneration regeneration law of Schwann cells and axons in the conduit was quite different from that in traditional epineurium suture. During the prime period for nerve fiber regeneration (2-8 weeks, the number of Schwann cells and nerve fibers was higher in both proximal and distal ends, and the effects of the small gap sleeve bridging method were better than those of the traditional epineurium suture. The above results provide an objective and reliable theoretical basis for the clinical application of the biological conduit small gap sleeve bridging method to repair peripheral nerve injury.

  7. Biological conduit small gap sleeve bridging method for peripheral nerve injury:regeneration law of nerve ifbers in the conduit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-xun Zhang; Li-ya A; Yu-hui Kou; Xiao-feng Yin; Feng Xue#; Na Han; Tian-bing Wang; Bao-guo Jiang

    2015-01-01

    The clinical effects of 2-mm small gap sleeve bridging of the biological conduit to repair periph-eral nerve injury are better than in the traditional epineurium suture, so it is possible to replace the epineurium suture in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. This study sought to identify the regeneration law of nerve fibers in the biological conduit. A nerve regeneration chamber was constructed in models of sciatic nerve injury using 2-mm small gap sleeve bridging of a biodegradable biological conduit. The results showed that the biological conduit had good his-tocompatibility. Tissue and cell apoptosis in the conduit apparently lessened, and regenerating nerve ifbers were common. The degeneration regeneration law of Schwann cells and axons in the conduit was quite different from that in traditional epineurium suture. During the prime period for nerve fiber regeneration (2–8 weeks), the number of Schwann cells and nerve fibers was higher in both proximal and distal ends, and the effects of the small gap sleeve bridging method were better than those of the traditional epineurium suture. The above results provide an objec-tive and reliable theoretical basis for the clinical application of the biological conduit small gap sleeve bridging method to repair peripheral nerve injury.

  8. A survey of emergency medicine and orthopaedic physicians’ knowledge, attitude, and practice towards the use of peripheral nerve blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayalew Zewdie

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: This study indicates peripheral nerve blocks are likely underutilised due to lack of training. There was a positive attitude towards peripheral nerve blocks but gaps on knowledge and practice.

  9. Axotomy induces MHC class I antigen expression on rat nerve cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maehlen, J; Schröder, H D; Klareskog, L;

    1988-01-01

    Immunomorphological staining demonstrates that class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-coded antigen expression can be selectively induced on otherwise class I-negative rat nerve cells by peripheral axotomy. Induction of class I as well as class II antigen expression was simultaneously see...

  10. Peripheral Nerve Blocks for Hip Fractures: A Cochrane Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Joanne; Parker, Martyn J; Griffiths, Richard; Kopp, Sandra L

    2017-10-04

    This review focuses on the use of peripheral nerve blocks as preoperative analgesia, as postoperative analgesia, or as a supplement to general anesthesia for hip fracture surgery and tries to determine if they offer any benefit in terms of pain on movement at 30 minutes after block placement, acute confusional state, myocardial infarction/ischemia, pneumonia, mortality, time to first mobilization, and cost of analgesic. Trials were identified by computerized searches of Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2016, Issue 8), MEDLINE (Ovid SP, 1966 to 2016 August week 1), Embase (Ovid SP, 1988 to 2016 August week 1), and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (EBSCO, 1982 to 2016 August week 1), trials registers, and reference lists of relevant articles. Randomized controlled trials involving the use of nerve blocks as part of the care for hip fractures in adults aged 16 years and older were included. The quality of the studies was rated according to the Cochrane tool. Two authors independently extracted the data. The quality of evidence was judged according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations Working Group scale. Based on 8 trials with 373 participants, peripheral nerve blocks reduced pain on movement within 30 minutes of block placement: standardized mean difference, -1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI], -2.14 to -0.67; equivalent to -3.4 on a scale from 0 to 10; I statistic = 90%; high quality of evidence). The effect size was proportional to the concentration of local anesthetic used (P < .00001). Based on 7 trials with 676 participants, no difference was found in the risk of acute confusional state: risk ratio, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.38-1.27; I statistic = 48%; very low quality of evidence). Based on 3 trials with 131 participants, the risk for pneumonia was decreased: risk ratio, 0.41 (95% CI, 0.19-0.89; I statistic = 3%; number needed-to-treat for additional beneficial outcome, 7 [95% CI, 5

  11. Comparison of nerve graft integration after segmentar resection versus epineural burying in crushed rat sciatic nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunha Marco Túlio Rodrigues da

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to compare and correlate the take of nerve segments in a severely crushed nerve. Forty adult Wistar rats had their right sciatic nerve by a "Péan-Murphy" forceps for 40 minutes. In Group 1 (n=20, a segmentar serection in the crushed sciatic nerve was made. A sural nerve segment from the opposite hindpaw was placed in the gap. In Group 2 (n=20, a lontudinal insision in the epineurium of the lesioned sciatic nerve was made. A sural nerve segment was buried underneath the epineurium. The crushed sciatic nerves undergone Wallerian degeneration and endoneurial fibrosis. Sciatic nerves from Group 2 had significant better histological aspects than those from Group 1. Sural nerve grafts presented better degrees of regeneration than crushed sciatic nerves. Sural nerve grafts from Group 2 (burying method integrated as well as those from Group 1 (segmentar resection.

  12. Effect of bleeding on nerve regeneration and epineural scar formation in rat sciatic nerves: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servet, Erkan; Bekler, Halil; Kılınçoğlu, Volkan; Özler, Turhan; Özkut, Afşar

    2016-01-01

    Epineural scar formation is one of the most significant negative factors affecting surgical repair after peripheral nerve injury. The scar tissue mechanically hinders axonal regeneration and causes adhesions between nerves and surrounding tissues. A hemostatic agent Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS; İmmun Gıda İlaç Kozmetik San. ve Tic. Ltd. Şti., Istanbul, Turkey) has not been previously used. Decreasing the postoperative bleeding and adhesions between nerve and surrounding tissues will prevent the formation of scar tissue, as well as corresponding compressive neuropathy and/or deceleration of axonal regeneration. The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of bleeding on nerve healing and scar tissue after repair of peripheral nerve injuries. The right sciatic nerve of 30 Sprague-Dawley male rats (weighing 260-330 g) was cut 1.5 cm proximal to the trifurcation and repaired primarily with 8/0 sutures using epineural technique. The rats were then divided into 3 groups. Saline was applied in Group 1 (n=10), ABS in Group 2 (n=10), and heparin in Group 3 (n=10) for 5 minutes to the repair site and surrounding tissues. In each group, electrophysiological measurements were performed with electromyography (EMG) at postoperative week 12. Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging was used at week 12. Macroscopical and histopathological evaluations were conducted after sacrificing the rats at week 24 with total excision of the repaired sciatic nerves and surrounding tissues. The ABS and saline groups showed better healing than the heparin group. The ABS and saline groups were better in the histopathologic evaluations, but there was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups. Statistically significant differences were not found between the 3 groups. Significant results may be obtained with larger studies.

  13. Salidroside promotes peripheral nerve regeneration based on tissue engineering strategy using Schwann cells and PLGA: in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Lv, Peizhen; Zhu, Yongjia; Wu, Huayu; Zhang, Kun; Xu, Fuben; Zheng, Li; Zhao, Jinmin

    2017-01-01

    Salidriside (SDS), a phenylpropanoid glycoside derived from Rhodiola rosea L, has been shown to be neuroprotective in many studies, which may be promising in nerve recovery. In this study, the neuroprotective effects of SDS on engineered nerve constructed by Schwann cells (SCs) and Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) were studied in vitro. We further investigated the effect of combinational therapy of SDS and PLGA/SCs based tissue engineering on peripheral nerve regeneration based on the rat model of nerve injury by sciatic transection. The results showed that SDS dramatically enhanced the proliferation and function of SCs. The underlying mechanism may be that SDS affects SCs growth through the modulation of neurotrophic factors (BDNF, GDNF and CNTF). 12 weeks after implantation with a 12 mm gap of sciatic nerve injury, SDS-PLGA/SCs achieved satisfying outcomes of nerve regeneration, as evidenced by morphological and functional improvements upon therapy by SDS, PLGA/SCs or direct suture group assessed by sciatic function index, nerve conduction assay, HE staining and immunohistochemical analysis. Our results demonstrated the significant role of introducing SDS into neural tissue engineering to promote nerve regeneration.

  14. Effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on peripheral nerve regeneration using fibrin glue derived from snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchaim, Rogerio Leone; Andreo, Jesus Carlos; Barraviera, Benedito; Ferreira Junior, Rui Seabra; Buchaim, Daniela Vieira; Rosa Junior, Geraldo Marco; de Oliveira, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues; de Castro Rodrigues, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether the adhesive permits the collateral repair of axons originating from a vagus nerve to the interior of a sural nerve graft, and whether low-level laser therapy (LLLT) assists in the regeneration process. Study sample consisted of 32 rats randomly separated into three groups: Control Group (CG; n=8), from which the intact sural nerve was collected; Experimental Group (EG; n=12), in which one of the ends of the sural nerve graft was coapted to the vagus nerve using the fibrin glue; and Experimental Group Laser (EGL; n=12), in which the animals underwent the same procedures as those in EG with the addition of LLLT. Ten weeks after surgery, the animals were euthanized. Morphological analysis by means of optical and electron microscopy, and morphometry of the regenerated fibers were employed to evaluate the results. Collateral regeneration of axons was observed from the vagus nerve to the interior of the autologous graft in EG and EGL, and in CG all dimensions measured were greater and presented a significant difference in relation to EG and EGL, except for the area and thickness of the myelin sheath, that showed significant difference only in relation to the EG. The present study demonstrated that the fibrin glue makes axonal regeneration feasible and is an efficient method to recover injured peripheral nerves, and the use of low-level laser therapy enhances nerve regeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Raman spectroscopy of non-penetrating peripheral nerve damage in swine: a tool for spectral pathology of nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilwa, Katherine E.; Slaughter, Tiffani; Elster, Eric A.; Forsberg, Jonathan A.; Crane, Nicole J.

    2015-03-01

    Over 30% of combat injuries involve peripheral nerve injury compared to only 3% in civilian trauma. In fact, nerve dysfunction is the second leading cause of long-term disability in injured service members and is present in 37% of upper limb injuries with disability. Identification and assessment of non-penetrating nerve injury in trauma patients could improve outcome and aid in therapeutic monitoring. We report the use of Raman spectroscopy as a noninvasive, non-destructive method for detection of nerve degeneration in intact nerves due to non-penetrating trauma. Nerve trauma was induced via compression and ischemia/reperfusion injury using a combat relevant swine tourniquet model (>3 hours ischemia). Control animals did not undergo compression/ischemia. Seven days post-operatively, sciatic and femoral nerves were harvested and fixed in formalin. Raman spectra of intact, peripheral nerves were collected using a fiber-optic probe with 3 mm diameter spot size and 785 nm excitation. Data was preprocessed, including fluorescence background subtraction, and Raman spectroscopic metrics were determined using custom peak fitting MATLAB scripts. The abilities of bivariate and multivariate analysis methods to predict tissue state based on Raman spectroscopic metrics are compared. Injured nerves exhibited changes in Raman metrics indicative of 45% decreased myelin content and structural damage (pdetect nerve degeneration associated with non-penetrating injury, relevant to neurapraxic and axonotmetic injuries; future experiments will further explore the clinical utility of Raman spectroscopy to recognize neural injury.

  16. The glucuronyltransferase GlcAT-P is required for stretch growth of peripheral nerves in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Pandey

    Full Text Available During development, the growth of the animal body is accompanied by a concomitant elongation of the peripheral nerves, which requires the elongation of integrated nerve fibers and the axons projecting therein. Although this process is of fundamental importance to almost all organisms of the animal kingdom, very little is known about the mechanisms regulating this process. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of novel mutant alleles of GlcAT-P, the Drosophila ortholog of the mammalian glucuronyltransferase b3gat1. GlcAT-P mutants reveal shorter larval peripheral nerves and an elongated ventral nerve cord (VNC. We show that GlcAT-P is expressed in a subset of neurons in the central brain hemispheres, in some motoneurons of the ventral nerve cord as well as in central and peripheral nerve glia. We demonstrate that in GlcAT-P mutants the VNC is under tension of shorter peripheral nerves suggesting that the VNC elongates as a consequence of tension imparted by retarded peripheral nerve growth during larval development. We also provide evidence that for growth of peripheral nerve fibers GlcAT-P is critically required in hemocytes; however, glial cells are also important in this process. The glial specific repo gene acts as a modifier of GlcAT-P and loss or reduction of repo function in a GlcAT-P mutant background enhances VNC elongation. We propose a model in which hemocytes are required for aspects of glial cell biology which in turn affects the elongation of peripheral nerves during larval development. Our data also identifies GlcAT-P as a first candidate gene involved in growth of integrated peripheral nerves and therefore establishes Drosophila as an amenable in-vivo model system to study this process at the cellular and molecular level in more detail.

  17. Nerve Regeneration Should Be Highly Valued in the Treatment of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Xiao-chun

    2008-01-01

    @@ Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the most common chronic complication of the long-term complications of diabetes, affecting up to 90% of patients during the progress of the disease. Many parts of the nerve system, including the sensory nerves, motor nerves and autonomic nerves, can be affected, leading to various clinical features. DPN leads not only to a great degree of mutilation and death but also to the occurrence and development of other long-term complications in diabetics.

  18. Functional recovery of sciatic nerve through inside-out vein graft in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rahim Mohammadi; Saeed Azizi; Nowruz Delirezh; Rahim Hobbenaghi; Keyvan Amini

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Present study aimed at further comprehensive functional, histomorphometrical and immunohistochemical assessment of peripheral nerve regeneration using rat sciatic nerve transection model.Methods: The 10-mm rat sciatic nerve gap was created in rats. In control group nerve stumps were sutured to adjacent muscle and in treatment group the gap was bridged using an inside-out vein graft. In sham-operated group the nerve was manipulated and left intact. All animals underwent walking track analysis test 4, 8, and 12 weeks after surgery.Subsequently, muscle mass measurement was performed to assess reenervation, histological examination to observe the sciatic nerve regeneration morphologically and immunohistochemistry to detect Schwann cells using anti S-100. Results were analyzed using a factorial ANOVA with two between-subjects factors. Bonferroni test for pairwise comparisons was used to examine the effect of treatments.Results: Functional analysis ofmyelinated nerve fibers showed that nerve function improved significantly in the time course in treatment group. However, quantitative morphometrical analysis of myelinated nerve fibers showed that there was no significant difference between 8 and 12 weeks in treatment group. Muscle weight ratio was bigger and weight loss of the gastrocnemius muscle was ameliorated by inside-out vein grafting. The position of positive immunohistochemical reactions further implied that regenerated axons and Schwann cell-like cells existed after vein grafting was performed, and was accompanied by the process of myelination and structural recovery of regenerated nerves.Conclusion: Functional analysis of peripheral nerve repair is far more reliable than quantitative morphometrical analysis

  19. Acceleration of Peripheral Nerve Regeneration through Asymmetrically Porous Nerve Guide Conduit Applied with Biological/Physical Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Rae; Oh, Se Heang; Kwon, Gu Birm; Namgung, Uk; Song, Kyu Sang; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Sufficient functional restoration of damaged peripheral nerves is a big clinical challenge. In this study, a nerve guide conduit (NGC) with selective permeability was prepared by rolling an asymmetrically porous polycaprolactone/Pluronic F127 membrane fabricated using a novel immersion precipitation method. Dual stimulation (nerve growth factor [NGF] as a biological stimulus and low-intensity pulse ultrasound [US] as a physical stimulus) was adapted to enhance nerve regeneration through an NGC. The animal study revealed that each stimulation (NGF or US) has a positive effect to promote the peripheral nerve regeneration through the NGC, however, the US-stimulated NGC group allowed more accelerated nerve regeneration compared with the NGF-stimulated group. The NGC group that received dual stimulation (NGF and US) showed more effective nerve regeneration behavior than the groups that received a single stimulation (NGF or US). The asymmetrically porous NGC with dual NGF and US stimulation may be a promising strategy for the clinical treatment of delayed and insufficient functional recovery of a peripheral nerve. PMID:23859225

  20. Acceleration of peripheral nerve regeneration through asymmetrically porous nerve guide conduit applied with biological/physical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Rae; Oh, Se Heang; Kwon, Gu Birm; Namgung, Uk; Song, Kyu Sang; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Lee, Jin Ho

    2013-12-01

    Sufficient functional restoration of damaged peripheral nerves is a big clinical challenge. In this study, a nerve guide conduit (NGC) with selective permeability was prepared by rolling an asymmetrically porous polycaprolactone/Pluronic F127 membrane fabricated using a novel immersion precipitation method. Dual stimulation (nerve growth factor [NGF] as a biological stimulus and low-intensity pulse ultrasound [US] as a physical stimulus) was adapted to enhance nerve regeneration through an NGC. The animal study revealed that each stimulation (NGF or US) has a positive effect to promote the peripheral nerve regeneration through the NGC, however, the US-stimulated NGC group allowed more accelerated nerve regeneration compared with the NGF-stimulated group. The NGC group that received dual stimulation (NGF and US) showed more effective nerve regeneration behavior than the groups that received a single stimulation (NGF or US). The asymmetrically porous NGC with dual NGF and US stimulation may be a promising strategy for the clinical treatment of delayed and insufficient functional recovery of a peripheral nerve.

  1. Electrical stimulation promotes regeneration of defective peripheral nerves after delayed repair intervals lasting under one month.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chungui; Kou, Yuhui; Zhang, Peixun; Han, Na; Yin, Xiaofeng; Deng, Jiuxu; Chen, Bo; Jiang, Baoguo

    2014-01-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) has been proven to be an effective means of enhancing the speed and accuracy of nerve regeneration. However, these results were recorded when the procedure was performed almost immediately after nerve injury. In clinical settings, most patients cannot be treated immediately. Some patients with serious trauma or contaminated wounds need to wait for nerve repair surgery. Delays in nerve repair have been shown to be associated with poorer results than immediate surgery. It is not clear whether electrical stimulation still has any effect on nerve regeneration after enough time has elapsed. A delayed nerve repair model in which the rats received delayed nerve repair after 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 2 months was designed. At each point in time, the nerve stumps of half the rats were bridged with an absorbable conduit and the rats were given 1 h of weak electrical stimulation. The other half was not treated. In order to analyze the morphological and molecular differences among these groups, 6 ES rats and 6 sham ES rats per point in time were killed 5 days after surgery. The other rats in each group were allowed to recover for 6 weeks before the final functional test and tissue observation. The amounts of myelinated fibers in the distal nerve stumps decreased as the delay in repair increased for both ES rats and sham ES rats. In the 1-day-delay and 1-week-delay groups, there were more fibers in ES rats than in sham ES rats. And the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) and motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) results were better for ES rats in these two groups. In order to analyze the mechanisms underlying these differences, Masson staining was performed on the distal nerves and quantitative PCR on the spinal cords. Results showed that, after delays in repair of 1 month and 2 months, there was more collagen tissue hyperplasia in the distal nerve in all rats. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and trkB expression levels in the

  2. Electrical stimulation promotes regeneration of defective peripheral nerves after delayed repair intervals lasting under one month.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chungui Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Electrical stimulation (ES has been proven to be an effective means of enhancing the speed and accuracy of nerve regeneration. However, these results were recorded when the procedure was performed almost immediately after nerve injury. In clinical settings, most patients cannot be treated immediately. Some patients with serious trauma or contaminated wounds need to wait for nerve repair surgery. Delays in nerve repair have been shown to be associated with poorer results than immediate surgery. It is not clear whether electrical stimulation still has any effect on nerve regeneration after enough time has elapsed. METHODS: A delayed nerve repair model in which the rats received delayed nerve repair after 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 2 months was designed. At each point in time, the nerve stumps of half the rats were bridged with an absorbable conduit and the rats were given 1 h of weak electrical stimulation. The other half was not treated. In order to analyze the morphological and molecular differences among these groups, 6 ES rats and 6 sham ES rats per point in time were killed 5 days after surgery. The other rats in each group were allowed to recover for 6 weeks before the final functional test and tissue observation. RESULTS: The amounts of myelinated fibers in the distal nerve stumps decreased as the delay in repair increased for both ES rats and sham ES rats. In the 1-day-delay and 1-week-delay groups, there were more fibers in ES rats than in sham ES rats. And the compound muscle action potential (CMAP and motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV results were better for ES rats in these two groups. In order to analyze the mechanisms underlying these differences, Masson staining was performed on the distal nerves and quantitative PCR on the spinal cords. Results showed that, after delays in repair of 1 month and 2 months, there was more collagen tissue hyperplasia in the distal nerve in all rats. The brain-derived neurotrophic

  3. Janus Green B as a rapid, vital stain for peripheral nerves and chordotonal organs in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yack, J E

    1993-08-01

    Effective staining of peripheral nerves in live insects is achieved with the vital stain Janus Green B. A working solution of 0.02% Janus Green B in saline is briefly applied to the exposed peripheral nervous system. The stain is then decanted and the dissection flooded with fresh saline, resulting in whole nerves being stained dark blue in contrast to surrounding tissues. This simple and reliable technique is useful in describing the distribution of nerves to their peripheral innervation sites, and in locating small nerve branches for extracellular physiological recordings. The stain is also shown to be useful as a means of enhancing the contrast between scolopale caps and surrounding tissues in chordotonal organs, staining chordotonal organ attachment strands, and the crista acustica (tympanal organ) of crickets and katydids. The advantages of Janus Green B over traditional peripheral nerve strains, in addition to its shortcomings, are discussed.

  4. Short-interval intracortical inhibition is modulated by high-frequency peripheral mixed nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Takenobu; Sakuma, Kenji; Nomura, Takashi; Nakashima, Kenji

    2007-06-01

    Cortical excitability can be modulated by manipulation of afferent input. We investigated the influence of peripheral mixed nerve stimulation on the excitability of the motor cortex. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs), short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) in the right abductor pollicis brevis (APB), extensor carpi radialis (ECR) and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscles were evaluated using paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) before and after high-frequency peripheral mixed nerve stimulation (150 Hz, 30 min) over the right median nerve at the wrist. The MEP amplitude and SICI of the APB muscle decreased transiently 0-10 min after the intervention, whereas the ICF did not change. High-frequency peripheral mixed nerve stimulation reduced the excitability of the motor cortex. The decrement in the SICI, which reflects the function of GABA(A)ergic inhibitory interneurons, might compensate for the reduced motor cortical excitability after high-frequency peripheral mixed nerve stimulation.

  5. Reciprocal regulation of nuclear factor kappa B and its inhibitor ZAS3 after peripheral nerve injury

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    Madiai Francesca

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NF-κB binds to the κB motif to regulate transcription of genes involved in growth, immunity and inflammation, and plays a pivotal role in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines after nerve injuries. The zinc finger protein ZAS3 also binds to the κB or similar motif. In addition to competition for common DNA sites, in vitro experiments have shown that ZAS3 can inhibit NF-κB via the association with TRAF2 to inhibit the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. However, the physiological significance of the ZAS3-mediated inhibition of NF-κB has not been demonstrated. The purpose of this study is to characterize ZAS3 proteins in nervous tissues and to use spinal nerve ligation, a neuropathic pain model, to demonstrate a functional relationship between ZAS3 and NF-κB. Results Immunohistochemical experiments show that ZAS3 is expressed in specific regions of the central and peripheral nervous system. Abundant ZAS3 expression is found in the trigeminal ganglion, hippocampal formation, dorsal root ganglia, and motoneurons. Low levels of ZAS3 expressions are also found in the cerebral cortex and in the grey matter of the spinal cord. In those nervous tissues, ZAS3 is expressed mainly in the cell bodies of neurons and astrocytes. Together with results of Western blot analyses, the data suggest that ZAS3 protein isoforms with differential cellular distribution are produced in a cell-specific manner. Further, neuropathic pain confirmed by persistent mechanical allodynia was manifested in rats seven days after L5 and L6 lumbar spinal nerve ligation. Changes in gene expression, including a decrease in ZAS3 and an increase in the p65 subunit of NF-κB were observed in dorsal root ganglion ipsilateral to the ligation when compared to the contralateral side. Conclusion ZAS3 is expressed in nervous tissues involved in cognitive function and pain modulation. The down-regulation of ZAS3 after peripheral nerve injury may lead to activation of

  6. Electrical stimulation combined with exercise increase axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio-Pinilla, Elena; Udina, Esther; Jaramillo, Jessica; Navarro, Xavier

    2009-09-01

    Although injured peripheral axons are able to regenerate, functional recovery is usually poor after nerve transection. In this study we aim to elucidate the role of neuronal activity, induced by nerve electrical stimulation and by exercise, in promoting axonal regeneration and modulating plasticity in the spinal cord after nerve injury. Four groups of adult rats were subjected to sciatic nerve transection and suture repair. Two groups received electrical stimulation (3 V, 0.1 ms at 20 Hz) for 1 h, immediately after injury (ESa) or during 4 weeks (1 h daily; ESc). A third group (ES+TR) received 1 h electrical stimulation and was submitted to treadmill running during 4 weeks (5 m/min, 2 h daily). A fourth group performed only exercise (TR), whereas an untreated group served as control (C). Nerve conduction, H reflex and algesimetry tests were performed at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 weeks after surgery, to assess muscle reinnervation and changes in excitability of spinal cord circuitry. Histological analysis was made at the end of the follow-up. Groups that received acute ES and/or were forced to exercise in the treadmill showed higher levels of muscle reinnervation and increased numbers of regenerated myelinated axons when compared to control animals or animals that received chronic ES. Combining ESa with treadmill training significantly improved muscle reinnervation during the initial phase. The facilitation of the monosynaptic H reflex in the injured limb was reduced in all treated groups, suggesting that the maintenance of activity helps to prevent the development of hyperreflexia.

  7. Novel High-Frequency Peripheral Nerve Stimulator Treatment of Refractory Postherpetic Neuralgia: A Brief Technical Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Imanuel R; Chen, Jeffrey L; Hiller, David; Souzdalnitski, Dmitri; Sheean, Geoffrey; Wallace, Mark; Barba, David

    2015-08-01

    The study aims to describe an ultrasound (US)-guided peripheral nerve stimulation implant technique and describe the effect of high-frequency peripheral nerve stimulation on refractory postherpetic neuralgia. Following a cadaver pilot trial using US and confirmatory fluoroscopic guidance, a 52-year-old man with refractory left supraorbital neuralgia underwent combined US and fluoroscopic-guided supraorbital peripheral nerve stimulator trial. The patient was subsequently implanted with a percutaneous lead over the left supraorbital and supratrochlear nerve utilizing a high-frequency stimulation paradigm. At 9 months follow-up, the pain intensity had declined from a weekly average of 8/10 to 1/10 on the pain visual analog scale (VAS). After implant, both nerve conduction and blink reflex studies were performed, which demonstrated herpetic nerve damage and frequency-specific peripheral nerve stimulation effects. The patient preferred analgesia in the supraorbital nerve distribution accomplished with high-frequency paresthesia-free stimulation (HFS) at an amplitude of 6.2 mA, a frequency of 100-1200 Hz, and a pulse width of 130 μsec, to paresthesia-mediated pain relief associated with low-frequency stimulation. We report the implant of a supraorbital peripheral nerve stimulating electrode that utilizes a high-frequency program resulting in sustained suppression of intractable postherpetic neuralgia. © 2015 International Neuromodulation Society.

  8. Functional nerve recovery after bridging a 15 mm gap in rat sciatic nerve with a biodegradable nerve guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Klok, F; Robinson, PH; Nicolai, JPA; Gramsbergen, A; van der Werf, J.F.A.

    2003-01-01

    Recovery of nerve function was evaluated after bridging a 15 mm sciatic nerve gap in 51 rats with a biodegradable poly(DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) nerve guide. Recovery of function was investigated by analysing the footprints, by analysing video recordings of gait, by electrically eliciting the

  9. Functional nerve recovery after bridging a 15 mm gap in rat sciatic nerve with a biodegradable nerve guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Klok, F; Robinson, PH; Nicolai, JPA; Gramsbergen, A; van der Werf, J.F.A.

    2003-01-01

    Recovery of nerve function was evaluated after bridging a 15 mm sciatic nerve gap in 51 rats with a biodegradable poly(DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) nerve guide. Recovery of function was investigated by analysing the footprints, by analysing video recordings of gait, by electrically eliciting the

  10. Impaired Pten expression in human malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Bradtmöller

    Full Text Available Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNST are aggressive sarcomas that develop in about 10% of patients with the genetic disease neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1. Molecular alterations contributing to MPNST formation have only partially been resolved. Here we examined the role of Pten, a key regulator of the Pi3k/Akt/mTOR pathway, in human MPNST and benign neurofibromas. Immunohistochemistry showed that Pten expression was significantly lower in MPNST (n=16 than in neurofibromas (n=16 and normal nervous tissue. To elucidate potential mechanisms for Pten down-regulation or Akt/mTOR activation in MPNST we performed further experiments. Mutation analysis revealed absence of somatic mutations in PTEN (n=31 and PIK3CA (n=38. However, we found frequent PTEN promotor methylation in primary MPNST (11/26 and MPNST cell lines (7/8 but not in benign nerve sheath tumours. PTEN methylation was significantly associated with early metastasis. Moreover, we detected an inverse correlation of Pten-regulating miR-21 and Pten protein levels in MPNST cell lines. The examination of NF1-/- and NF1+/+Schwann cells and fibroblasts showed that Pten expression is not regulated by NF1. To determine the significance of Pten status for treatment with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin we treated 5 MPNST cell lines with rapamycin. All cell lines were sensitive to rapamycin without a significant correlation to Pten levels. When rapamycin was combined with simvastatin a synergistic anti-proliferative effect was achieved. Taken together we show frequent loss/reduction of Pten expression in MPNST and provide evidence for the involvement of multiple Pten regulating mechanisms.

  11. Augmented reality guidance system for peripheral nerve blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedlake, Chris; Moore, John; Rachinsky, Maxim; Bainbridge, Daniel; Wiles, Andrew D.; Peters, Terry M.

    2010-02-01

    Peripheral nerve block treatments are ubiquitous in hospitals and pain clinics worldwide. State of the art techniques use ultrasound (US) guidance and/or electrical stimulation to verify needle tip location. However, problems such as needle-US beam alignment, poor echogenicity of block needles and US beam thickness can make it difficult for the anesthetist to know the exact needle tip location. Inaccurate therapy delivery raises obvious safety and efficacy issues. We have developed and evaluated a needle guidance system that makes use of a magnetic tracking system (MTS) to provide an augmented reality (AR) guidance platform to accurately localize the needle tip as well as its projected trajectory. Five anesthetists and five novices performed simulated nerve block deliveries in a polyvinyl alcohol phantom to compare needle guidance under US alone to US placed in our AR environment. Our phantom study demonstrated a decrease in targeting attempts, decrease in contacting of critical structures, and an increase in accuracy of 0.68 mm compared to 1.34mm RMS in US guidance alone. Currently, the MTS uses 18 and 21 gauge hypodermic needles with a 5 degree of freedom sensor located at the needle tip. These needles can only be sterilized using an ethylene oxide process. In the interest of providing clinicians with a simple and efficient guidance system, we also evaluated attaching the sensor at the needle hub as a simple clip-on device. To do this, we simultaneously performed a needle bending study to assess the reliability of a hub-based sensor.

  12. Sex differences in morphometric aspects of the peripheral nerves and related diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Shogo; Inoue, Yuriko; Itoh, Masahiro; Otsuka, Naruhito

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The elucidation of the relationship between the morphology of the peripheral nerves and the diseases would be valuable in developing new medical treatments on the assumption that characteristics of the peripheral nerves in females are different from those in males. METHODS: We used 13 kinds of the peripheral nerve. The materials were obtained from 10 Japanese female and male cadavers. We performed a morphometric analysis of nerve fibers. We estimated the total number of myelinated axons, and calculated the average transverse area and average circularity ratio of myelinated axons in the peripheral nerves. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in the total number, average transverse area, or average circularity ratio of myelinated axons between the female and male specimens except for the total number of myelinated axons in the vestibular nerve and the average circularity ratio of myelinated axons in the vagus nerve. CONCLUSIONS: The lower number of myelinated axons in the female vestibular nerve may be one of the reasons why vestibular disorders have a female preponderance. Moreover, the higher average circularity ratio of myelinated axons in the male vagus nerve may be one reason why vagus nerve activity to modulate pain has a male preponderance. PMID:27589511

  13. Reflections on the contributions of Harvey Cushing to the surgery of peripheral nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Patel, Neal; Nahed, Brian Vala; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A; Spinner, Robert J

    2011-05-01

    By the time Harvey Cushing entered medical school, nerve reconstruction techniques had been developed, but peripheral nerve surgery was still in its infancy. As an assistant surgical resident influenced by Dr. William Halsted, Cushing wrote a series of reports on the use of cocaine for nerve blocks. Following his residency training and a hiatus to further his clinical interests and intellectual curiosity, he traveled to Europe and met with a variety of surgeons, physiologists, and scientists, who likely laid the groundwork for Cushing's increased interest in peripheral nerve surgery. Returning to The Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1901, he began documenting these surgeries. Patient records preserved at Yale's Cushing Brain Tumor Registry describe Cushing's repair of ulnar and radial nerves, as well as his exploration of the brachial plexus for nerve repair or reconstruction. The authors reviewed Harvey Cushing's cases and provide 3 case illustrations not previously reported by Cushing involving neurolysis, nerve repair, and neurotization. Additionally, Cushing's experience with facial nerve neurotization is reviewed. The history, physical examination, and operative notes shed light on Cushing's diagnosis, strategy, technique, and hence, his surgery on peripheral nerve injury. These contributions complement others he made to surgery of the peripheral nervous system dealing with nerve pain, entrapment, and tumor.

  14. Multicenter Clinical Trial of Keratin Biomaterial for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    impaired function . Nerve guidance conduits have been developed for use in surgery to bridge the gap between transected nerve ends and to support nerve...injuries such as traumatic nerve transections. Extremity trauma with nerve injury can be associated with long term functional limitations and impairments...dosing, except for the whole brain, brain stem, cerebellum, cerebrum , medulla oblongata, seminal vesicle, whole spinal cord, testes, urinary bladder

  15. Nerve growth factor receptor molecules in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniuchi, M.; Schweitzer, J.B.; Johnson, E.M. Jr.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have developed a method to immunoprecipitate rat nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor proteins and have applied the method to detect NGF receptor molecules in the rat brain. Crosslinking /sup 125/I-labeled NGF to either PC12 cells or cultured rat sympathetic neurons yielded two radiolabeled molecules (90 kDa and 220 kDa) that were immunoprecipitated by monoclonal antibody 192-IgG. Further, 192-IgG precipitated two radiolabeled proteins, with the expected sizes (80 kDa and 210 kDa) of noncrosslinked NGF receptor components, from among numerous surface-iodinated PC12 cell proteins. These results demonstrate the specific immunoprecipitation of NGF receptor molecules by 192-IgG. They applied the /sup 125/I-NGF crosslinking and 192-IgG-mediated immunoprecipitation procedures to plasma membrane preparations of rat brain: NGF receptor molecules of the same molecular masses as the peripheral receptor components were consistently detected in all regions and in preparations from whole brains. Removal of the peripheral sympathetic innervation of the brain did not eliminate these NGF receptor proteins, indicating that the receptor is endogenous to central nervous system tissues. They also observed retrograde transport of /sup 125/I-labeled 192-IgG from the parietal cortex to the nucleus basalis and from the hippocampus to the nucleus of the diagonal band of Broca and the medial septal nucleus. These findings demonstrate the presence in brain of NGF receptor molecules indistinguishable from those of the peripheral nervous system.

  16. Survey of Current Experimental Studies of Effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine on Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qun-li; LIANG Xiao-chun

    2006-01-01

    The repairing and regeneration of peripheral nerves is a very complex biological and cytological process, its mechanism is unclear so far, and thus results in the lack of specific and effectual therapy and medicament. Chinese herbs and their effective components have their own inimitable predominance in promoting peripheral nerve regeneration, such as their multi-factorial, multi-target and multi-functional action, abundant source, inexpensive, etc. In this paper, the experimental studies reported in recent 5 years concerning the effects of Chinese herbs or their active components on peripheral nerve repairing and regeneration are reviewed in respects of the integral level, cellular level, molecular level and gene level.

  17. Neuroprotective Activity of Thioctic Acid in Central Nervous System Lesions Consequent to Peripheral Nerve Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Tomassoni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral neuropathies are heterogeneous disorders presenting often with hyperalgesia and allodynia. This study has assessed if chronic constriction injury (CCI of sciatic nerve is accompanied by increased oxidative stress and central nervous system (CNS changes and if these changes are sensitive to treatment with thioctic acid. Thioctic acid is a naturally occurring antioxidant existing in two optical isomers (+- and (−-thioctic acid and in the racemic form. It has been proposed for treating disorders associated with increased oxidative stress. Sciatic nerve CCI was made in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs and in normotensive reference cohorts. Rats were untreated or treated intraperitoneally for 14 days with (+/−-, (+-, or (−-thioctic acid. Oxidative stress, astrogliosis, myelin sheets status, and neuronal injury in motor and sensory cerebrocortical areas were assessed. Increase of oxidative stress markers, astrogliosis, and neuronal damage accompanied by a decreased expression of neurofilament were observed in SHR. This phenomenon was more pronounced after CCI. Thioctic acid countered astrogliosis and neuronal damage, (+-thioctic acid being more active than (+/−- or (−-enantiomers. These findings suggest a neuroprotective activity of thioctic acid on CNS lesions consequent to CCI and that the compound may represent a therapeutic option for entrapment neuropathies.

  18. Effect of low-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on the action potential of spinal cord posterior horn cells in rats after peripheral nerve injury%低频电疗对白鼠周围神经损伤后脊髓后角神经细胞活动电位的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔松彪; 赵和荣; 吴光; 朴虎男; 许梅花

    2006-01-01

    度刺激所引发的脊髓后角神经细胞的膜电位明显高于注射前[每10 s(174.5±0.41),(235.4±1.41)次,P<0.01].结论:低频电刺激能有效抑制被无害刺激所引发的脊髓后角神经细胞的活动电位,且静脉注射纳洛酮(8 mg/kg)可使之逆转到治疗前的水平,说明低频电疗可能是刺激中枢神经系统使其分泌内源鸦片物质,作用于脊髓后角细胞使其活性降低,从而达到缓解疼痛的目的.%BACKGROUND: Up to now, few studies related to the mechanism of low-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in relieving pain, and the effect of low-frequency TENS on the activity potential of dorsal horn cells in rats after peripheral nerve injury. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of low-frequency TENS on the activity potential of dorsal horn cells induced by mechanical allodynia and thermal allodynia by using animal models of peripheral nerve injury, and observe the efficacy after interfering of naloxone. DESIGN: A randomized control animal study. SETTING: Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Yanbian University. MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the central laboratory of Medical College, Yanbian University between February and October 2004. Eighty male Sprague-Dawley rats were used, and 60 random selected ones were operated to separate sciatic nerve, two branch tibial nerves and sural nerves of sciatic nerve were amputated after ligation, and peroneal nerve was left as the experimental group; the other 20 rats were placed at the origin after sciatic nerve was separated, and then the skin was sutured as the control group. METHODS: ① Pain detection (Behavioral test): At 1 week postoperatively, the rats were given mechanical allodynia and thermal allodynia once every 5 seconds for 10 times, and then the frequency of foot withdrawal was detected (0%-40% for mild pain, 40%-70% for moderate pain; 70% and above for severe pain). ② The spontaneous

  19. Excellent response of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of retroperitoneum to radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Ali; Binesh, Fariba; Ghannadi, Fazlollah; Navabii, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours are high-grade sarcomas originating from Schwann cells or nerve sheath cells. Most of these tumours are associated with major nerves of the body wall and extremities. The lower extremity and the retroperitoneum are the most common sites. Surgery is the cornerstone of treatment, however, radiation therapy is usually used as an adjuvant treatment. In this paper we present a 57-year-old Iranian woman with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of retroperitoneum who was operated subtotally and then underwent radiation therapy which led to disappearance of all gross residual disease. PMID:23257269

  20. Changes of medium-latency SEP-components following peripheral nerve lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straschill Max

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal studies have demonstrated complex cortical reorganization following peripheral nerve lesion. Central projection fields of intact nerves supplying skin areas which border denervated skin, extended into the deafferentiated cortical representation area. As a consequence of nerve lesions and subsequent reorganization an increase of the somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs was observed in cats when intact neighbouring nerves were stimulated. An increase of SEP-components of patients with nerve lesions may indicate a similar process of posttraumatic plastic cortical reorganization. Methods To test if a similar process of post-traumatic plastic cortical reorganization does occur in humans, the SEP of intact neighbouring hand nerves were recorded in 29 patients with hand nerve lesions. To hypothetically explain the observed changes of SEP-components, SEP recording following paired stimulation of the median nerve was performed in 12 healthy subjects. Results Surprisingly 16 of the 29 patients (55.2% showed a reduction or elimination of N35, P45 and N60. Patients with lesions of two nerves showed more SEP-changes than patients with a single nerve lesion (85.7%; 6/7 nerves; vs. 34.2%; 13/38 nerves; Fisher's exact test, p Conclusion The results of the present investigation do not provide evidence of collateral innervation of peripherally denervated cortical neurons by neurons of adjacent cortical representation areas. They rather suggest that secondary components of the excitatory response to nerve stimulation are lost in cortical areas, which surround the denervated region.

  1. Peripheral nerve regeneration within an asymmetrically porous PLGA/Pluronic F127 nerve guide conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Se Heang; Kim, Jun Ho; Song, Kyu Sang; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Yoon, Jin Hwan; Seo, Tae Beom; Namgung, Uk; Lee, Il Woo; Lee, Jin Ho

    2008-04-01

    Asymmetrically porous tubes with selective permeability and hydrophilicity as nerve guide conduits (NGCs) were fabricated using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and Pluronic F127 by a modified immersion precipitation method. The inner surface of the tube had nano-size pores ( approximately 50nm) which can effectively prevent from fibrous tissue infiltration but permeate nutrients and retain neurotrophic factors, while the outer surface had micro-size pores ( approximately 50microm) which can allow vascular ingrowth for effective supply of nutrients into the tube. From the animal study using a rat model, the hydrophilized PLGA/F127 (3wt%) tube showed better nerve regeneration behavior than the control silicone or hydrophobic PLGA tubes, as investigated by immunohistochemical observation (by fluorescent microscopy with anti-neurofilament staining), histological observations (by light microscopy with toluidine blue staining and transmission electron microscopy), and electrophysiological evaluation (by compound muscle action potential measurement). This is probably owing to the effective permeation of nutrients and prevention of fibrous scar tissue invasion as well as the good mechanical strength of the tube to maintain a stable support structure for the nerve regeneration.

  2. Scaffolds from block polyurethanes based on poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yuqing; Chen, Kevin C; He, Tao; Yu, Wenying; Huang, Shuiwen; Xu, Kaitian

    2014-05-01

    Nerve guide scaffolds from block polyurethanes without any additional growth factors or protein were prepared using a particle leaching method. The scaffolds of block polyurethanes (abbreviated as PUCL-ran-EG) based on poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL-diol) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) possess highly surface-area porous for cell attachment, and can provide biochemical and topographic cues to enhance tissue regeneration. The nerve guide scaffolds have pore size 1-5 μm and porosity 88%. Mechanical tests showed that the polyurethane nerve guide scaffolds have maximum loads of 4.98 ± 0.35 N and maximum stresses of 6.372 ± 0.5 MPa. The histocompatibility efficacy of these nerve guide scaffolds was tested in a rat model for peripheral nerve injury treatment. Four types of guides including PUCL-ran-EG scaffolds, autograft, PCL scaffolds and silicone tubes were compared in the rat model. After 14 weeks, bridging of a 10 mm defect gap by the regenerated nerve was observed in all rats. The nerve regeneration was systematically characterized by sciatic function index (SFI), histological assessment including HE staining, immunohistochemistry, ammonia silver staining, Masson's trichrome staining and TEM observation. Results revealed that polyurethane nerve guide scaffolds exhibit much better regeneration behavior than PCL, silicone tube groups and comparable to autograft. Electrophysiological recovery was also seen in 36%, 76%, and 87% of rats in the PCL, PUCL-ran-EG, and autograft groups respectively, whilst 29.8% was observed in the silicone tube groups. Biodegradation in vitro and in vivo show proper degradation of the PUCL-ran-EG nerve guide scaffolds. This study has demonstrated that without further modification, plain PUCL-ran-EG nerve guide scaffolds can help peripheral nerve regeneration excellently.

  3. Peripheral nerve injury induces adult brain neurogenesis and remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanescu, Gabriel; Mao, Jianren

    2017-02-01

    Unilateral peripheral nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) has been widely used as a research model of human neuropathic pain. Recently, CCI has been shown to induce spinal cord adult neurogenesis, which may contribute to the chronic increase in nociceptive sensitivity. Here, we show that CCI also induces rapid and profound asymmetrical anatomical rearrangements in the adult rodent cerebellum and pons. This remodelling occurs throughout the hindbrain, and in addition to regions involved in pain processing, also affects other sensory modalities. We demonstrate that these anatomical changes, partially reversible in the long term, result from adult neurogenesis. Neurogenic markers Mash1, Ngn2, doublecortin and Notch3 are widely expressed in the rodent cerebellum and pons, both under normal and injured conditions. CCI-induced hindbrain structural plasticity is absent in Notch3 knockout mice, a strain with impaired neuronal differentiation, demonstrating its dependence on adult neurogenesis. Grey matter and white matter structural changes in human brain, as a result of pain, injury or learned behaviours have been previously detected using non-invasive neuroimaging techniques. Because neurogenesis-mediated structural plasticity is thought to be restricted to the hippocampus and the subventricular zone, such anatomical rearrangements in other parts of the brain have been thought to result from neuronal plasticity or glial hypertrophy. Our findings suggest the presence of extensive neurogenesis-based structural plasticity in the adult mammalian brain, which may maintain a memory of basal sensory levels, and act as an adaptive mechanism to changes in sensory inputs.

  4. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours in inherited disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans D

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNST are rare tumours known to occur at high frequency in neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1, but may also occur in other cancer prone syndromes. Methods The North West Regional Genetic Register covers a population of 4.1 million and was interrogated for incidence of MPNST in 12 cancer prone syndromes. Age, incidence and survival curves were generated for NF1. Results Fifty two of 1254 NF1 patients developed MPNST, with MPNST also occurring in 2/181 cases of schwannomatosis and 2/895 NF2 patients. Three cases were also noted in TP53 mutation carriers. However, there were no cases amongst 5727BRCA1/2 carriers and first degree relatives, 2029 members from Lynch syndrome families, nor amongst 447 Familial Adenomatous Polyposis, 202 Gorlin syndrome, nor 87 vHL cases. Conclusion MPNST is associated with schwannomatosis and TP53 mutations and is confirmed at high frequency in NF1. It appears to be only increased in NF2 amongst those that have been irradiated. The lifetime risk of MPNST in NF1 is between 9–13%.

  5. Ultrasound assessment of peripheral nerve pathology in neurofibromatosis type 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Natalie; Rattay, Tim W; Axer, Hubertus; Schäffer, Eva; Décard, Bernhard F; Gugel, Isabel; Schuhmann, Martin; Grimm, Alexander

    2017-05-01

    The neurofibromatoses (NF) type 1 and 2 are hereditary tumor predisposition syndromes caused by germline mutations in the NF1 and NF2 tumor suppressor genes. In NF1 and 2, peripheral nerve tumors occur regularly. For further characterizing nerve ultrasound was performed in patients with NF1 and 2. Patients with established diagnosis of NF1 (n=27) and NF2 (n=10) were included. Ultrasound of peripheral nerves and cervical roots was performed during routine follow-up visits. Healthy volunteers were studied for comparison. In patients with NF1, median cross-sectional area (CSA) of most nerves was significantly increased compared to controls and to NF2 due to generalized plexiform tumors, which arose out of multiple fascicles in 23 of 27 patients (85%). These were often accompanied by cutaneous or subcutaneous neurofibromas. In NF2, the overall aspect of peripheral nerves consisted of localized schwannomas (80%) and, apart from that, normal nerve segments. Nerve ultrasound is able to visualize different nerve pathologies in NF1 and NF2. It is a precise and inexpensive screening method for peripheral nerve manifestation in neurofibromatosis and should be considered as the first choice screening imaging modality for all peripheral nerves within reach of non-invasive ultrasound techniques. Ultrasound patterns of peripheral nerve pathologies are described for the first time in a large cohort of patients with NF1 and NF2. It is a suitable screening tool and enables targeted MRI analysis. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Variation in rat sciatic nerve anatomy: implications for a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asato, F; Butler, M; Blomberg, H; Gordh, T

    2000-03-01

    We discovered a variation of rat sciatic nerve anatomy as an incidental finding during the anatomical exploration of the nerve lesion site in a rat neuropathic pain model. To confirm the composition and distribution of rat sciatic nerve, macroscopic anatomical investigation was performed in both left and right sides in 24 adult Sprague-Dawley rats. In all rats, the L4 and L5 spinal nerves were fused tightly to form the sciatic nerve. However, the L6 spinal nerve did not fuse with this nerve completely as a part of the sciatic nerve, but rather sent a thin branch to it in 13 rats (54%), whereas in the remaining 11 rats (46%), L6 ran separately along with the sciatic nerve. Also, the L3 spinal nerve sent a thin branch to the L4 spinal nerve or sciatic nerve in 6 rats (25%). We conclude that the components of sciatic nerve in Sprague-Dawley rats vary from L3 to L6; however, the major components are L4 and L5 macroscopically. This finding is in contrast to the standard textbooks of rat anatomy which describe the sciatic nerve as having major contributions from L4, L5, and L6.

  7. Imaging of peripheral nerve sheath tumors with pathologic correlation Pictorial review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilavaki, M.; Chourmouzi, D. E-mail: d.chourmouzi@ips.gr; Kiziridou, A.; Skordalaki, A.; Zarampoukas, T.; Drevelengas, A

    2004-12-01

    Peripheral neurogenic tumors include neurilemoma, neurinoma, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. All neurogenic tumors share common imaging features. Although differentiation between them is difficult, neurogenic origin can be suggested from their imaging appearances, including fusiform shape, relation to the nerve, 'split-fat' sign, associated muscle atrophy and intrinsic imaging characteristics including 'target sign' as well as from lesion location along a typical nerve distribution. Our purpose is to make an overview of imaging findings of each type of peripheral nerve sheath tumor with emphasis on characteristic signs and correlate with histologic features. Morton's neuroma and intraneural ganglion are also included as tumors of nerve origin.

  8. Palliative Epineurotomy for Focal Radial Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor in a Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Andrew David; Davies, Emma; Lara-Garcia, Ana; Lafuente, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes the diagnosis of a peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the deep branch of the radial nerve distal to the elbow in a dog. The lesion was identified using computed tomography and ultrasonography and confirmed as sarcoma on histopathological analysis of incisional biopsies. Clinical signs dramatically improved following surgical biopsy before recurring three months later. Repeat epineurotomy of the deep branch of the radial nerve resulted in clinical improvement for a further month before signs once again returned. Epineurotomy as a palliative treatment for peripheral nerve sheath tumors has not been previously described, but may have a place in palliation of clinical signs in specific cases of peripheral nerve sheath tumors in which limb amputation is not an option.

  9. Tyrosinase expression in malignant melanoma, desmoplastic melanoma, and peripheral nerve tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Jenny L; Haupt, Helen M; Stern, Jere B

    2002-01-01

    . CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the sensitivity of tyrosinase expression and demonstrate the relative specificity of tyrosinase as a marker for melanocytic lesions, including desmoplastic melanoma, although pigmented peripheral nerve tumors may demonstrate focal positive staining. Immunoreactivity...

  10. Overview of pediatric peripheral facial nerve paralysis: analysis of 40 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkale, Yasemin; Erol, İlknur; Saygı, Semra; Yılmaz, İsmail

    2015-02-01

    Peripheral facial nerve paralysis in children might be an alarming sign of serious disease such as malignancy, systemic disease, congenital anomalies, trauma, infection, middle ear surgery, and hypertension. The cases of 40 consecutive children and adolescents who were diagnosed with peripheral facial nerve paralysis at Baskent University Adana Hospital Pediatrics and Pediatric Neurology Unit between January 2010 and January 2013 were retrospectively evaluated. We determined that the most common cause was Bell palsy, followed by infection, tumor lesion, and suspected chemotherapy toxicity. We noted that younger patients had generally poorer outcome than older patients regardless of disease etiology. Peripheral facial nerve paralysis has been reported in many countries in America and Europe; however, knowledge about its clinical features, microbiology, neuroimaging, and treatment in Turkey is incomplete. The present study demonstrated that Bell palsy and infection were the most common etiologies of peripheral facial nerve paralysis.

  11. Tyrosinase expression in malignant melanoma, desmoplastic melanoma, and peripheral nerve tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Jenny L; Haupt, Helen M; Stern, Jere B

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT: Pathologists may encounter problems in the differential diagnosis of malignant melanoma, spindle and epithelioid neoplasms of peripheral nerves, and fibrohistiocytic tumors. Tyrosinase has been demonstrated to be a sensitive marker for melanoma. OBJECTIVE: To determine the specificity of...

  12. Deficiency in monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in mice delays regeneration of peripheral nerves following sciatic nerve crush

    KAUST Repository

    Morrison, Brett M.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve regeneration following injury occurs spontaneously, but many of the processes require metabolic energy. The mechanism of energy supply to axons has not previously been determined. In the central nervous system, monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), expressed in oligodendroglia, is critical for supplying lactate or other energy metabolites to axons. In the current study, MCT1 is shown to localize within the peripheral nervous system to perineurial cells, dorsal root ganglion neurons, and Schwann cells by MCT1 immunofluorescence in wild-type mice and tdTomato fluorescence in MCT1 BAC reporter mice. To investigate whether MCT1 is necessary for peripheral nerve regeneration, sciatic nerves of MCT1 heterozygous mice are crushed and peripheral nerve regeneration was quantified electrophysiologically and anatomically. Compound muscle action potential (CMAP) recovery is delayed from a median of 21. days in wild-type mice to greater than 38. days in MCT1 heterozygote mice. In fact, half of the MCT1 heterozygote mice have no recovery of CMAP at 42. days, while all of the wild-type mice recovered. In addition, muscle fibers remain 40% more atrophic and neuromuscular junctions 40% more denervated at 42. days post-crush in the MCT1 heterozygote mice than wild-type mice. The delay in nerve regeneration is not only in motor axons, as the number of regenerated axons in the sural sensory nerve of MCT1 heterozygote mice at 4. weeks and tibial mixed sensory and motor nerve at 3. weeks is also significantly reduced compared to wild-type mice. This delay in regeneration may be partly due to failed Schwann cell function, as there is reduced early phagocytosis of myelin debris and remyelination of axon segments. These data for the first time demonstrate that MCT1 is critical for regeneration of both sensory and motor axons in mice following sciatic nerve crush.

  13. Atypical inguinal malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour with arteriovenous fistula of the left femoral nerve in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melloni, Pietro; Veintemillas, Maite [Corporacio Sanitaria Parc Tauli, Unitat de Diagnostic per Imatge d' Alta Tecnologia, Barcelona (Spain); Olsina, Gustavo; Oliva, Eulalia; Garcia-Continente, Gemma [Capio Hospital General de Catalunya, Servei de Diagnostic per la Imatge, Barcelona (Spain); Garcia-Hernandez, Felip [Capio Hospital General de Catalunya, Servei de Anatomia Patalogica, Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    We report a 9-year-old girl who developed a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST) with an arteriovenous fistula arising from the left femoral nerve and adjacent to the iliofemoral vessels in the ipsilateral groin, but without infiltrating them. We describe the MRI and MRA findings. Although MPNST is relatively well known and widely studied, the location of this mass is unique in a child. The mass was surgically removed. (orig.)

  14. Diagnostic value of 18F-FDG PET/CT for cancer pain of peripheral nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei FANG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the characteristics of cancer pain of the peripheral nerves on 18F-FDG PET/CT images, and explore the diagnostic value of 18F-FDG PET/CT for cancer pain of the peripheral nerves. Methods Imaging data of 18F-FDG PET/CT of 10 patients with cancer pain of the peripheral nerves confirmed by histopathology or long-term follow-up were analyzed retrospectively. The similarities and differences in PET/CT manifestations between the diseased side peripheral nerves and contralateral normal peripheral nerves were observed, and the maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax were compared by paired t test with SPSS 17.0 software. Results Seventeen secondary malignant peripheral nerve lesions were found in 10 cases. On PET images, the lesions were found to spread along the plexus, nerve bundle or intervertebral foramen, and manifested as bundle-, root-hair- or nodule-like high 18F-FDG metabolic tissue, with the SUVmax as high as 6.67±3.24. The lesions on CT images manifested as bundle-, root-hair- or nodule-like soft tissue density shadows spreading along the nerve bundle or nerve root canal, and there was no clear border between the lesions and the surrounding soft and fat tissues. The contralateral normal peripheral nerves showed no abnormal images on 18F-FDG PET or CT, and the SUVmax was 1.19±0.48, which was significantly different from that of nerves on disease side (t=9.389, P<0.001. Conclusion 18F-FDG PET/CT can accurately show invasion and metastasis to the peripheral nerve of tumor, and it also can display the size, shape, distribution and tumor activity of the lesions, thus it is valuable for the diagnosis of cancer pain of the peripheral nerves. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.11.009

  15. Restraints and peripheral nerve injuries in adult victims of motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekelis, Kimon; Missios, Symeon; Spinner, Robert J

    2014-06-15

    The pattern of injuries in restrained victims of motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) remains an issue of debate. We investigated the association of peripheral nerve injuries with the use of protective devices (seat belt and air bag) during MVCs. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 384,539 adult MVC victims who were registered in the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) between 2009 and 2011. Regression techniques were used to investigate the association of restraint use with the risk of peripheral nerve injury in patients hospitalized after an MVC. Of the study patients, 271,099 were using restraints and 113,440 were not. Overall, there were a total of 3086 peripheral nerve injuries. Multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated an association of protective device use with decreased risk of peripheral nerve injury (odds ratio [OR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82-0.96; absolute risk reduction, 10.68%). This corresponds to 16 patients who needed to be restrained to prevent one nerve injury. The location of the patient in the vehicle did not seem to affect the risk of peripheral nerve injury, with drivers demonstrating no association with nerve injuries (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.87-1.02) in comparison with non-drivers. On the contrary, alcohol consumption was associated with increased incidence of peripheral nerve injuries (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01-1.20). In summary, restraint use was associated with decreased risk of peripheral nerve injury in MVC victims, after controlling for confounders.

  16. A new association – multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Preda, Veronica; Sywak, Mark; Learoyd, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We report a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) and an aggressive malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) arising from a ganglioneuroma of the adrenal gland. Patients with MEN-1 require careful consideration of other tumor associations, including MPNST, as it can portend a poor prognosis. MEN-1 and MPNST have not been reported. We report a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) and an aggressive malignant peripheral nerve she...

  17. Horseradish peroxidase dye tracing and embryonic statoacoustic ganglion cell transplantation in the rat auditory nerve trunk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmgren, Björn; Jin, Zhe; Jiao, Yu; Kostyszyn, Beata; Olivius, Petri

    2011-03-04

    At present severe damage to hair cells and sensory neurons in the inner ear results in non-treatable auditory disorders. Cell implantation is a potential treatment for various neurological disorders and has already been used in clinical practice. In the inner ear, delivery of therapeutic substances including neurotrophic factors and stem cells provide strategies that in the future may ameliorate or restore hearing impairment. In order to describe a surgical auditory nerve trunk approach, in the present paper we injected the neuronal tracer horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into the central part of the nerve by an intra cranial approach. We further evaluated the applicability of the present approach by implanting statoacoustic ganglion (SAG) cells into the same location of the auditory nerve in normal hearing rats or animals deafened by application of β-bungarotoxin to the round window niche. The HRP results illustrate labeling in the cochlear nucleus in the brain stem as well as peripherally in the spiral ganglion neurons in the cochlea. The transplanted SAGs were observed within the auditory nerve trunk but no more peripheral than the CNS-PNS transitional zone. Interestingly, the auditory nerve injection did not impair auditory function, as evidenced by the auditory brainstem response. The present findings illustrate that an auditory nerve trunk approach may well access the entire auditory nerve and does not compromise auditory function. We suggest that such an approach might compose a suitable route for cell transplantation into this sensory cranial nerve. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Combining Gene and Stem Cell Therapy for Peripheral Nerve Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busuttil, Francesca; Rahim, Ahad A; Phillips, James B

    2017-02-15

    Despite a substantially increased understanding of neuropathophysiology, insufficient functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury remains a significant clinical challenge. Nerve regeneration following injury is dependent on Schwann cells, the supporting cells in the peripheral nervous system. Following nerve injury, Schwann cells adopt a proregenerative phenotype, which supports and guides regenerating nerves. However, this phenotype may not persist long enough to ensure functional recovery. Tissue-engineered nerve repair devices containing therapeutic cells that maintain the appropriate phenotype may help enhance nerve regeneration. The combination of gene and cell therapy is an emerging experimental strategy that seeks to provide the optimal environment for axonal regeneration and reestablishment of functional circuits. This review aims to summarize current preclinical evidence with potential for future translation from bench to bedside.

  19. A new computerized morphometric analysis for peripheral nerve study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Chase A; Wang, Ziyi; Zhang, Lin-Ling; Agresti, Michael; Grewal, Prabhjot; Matloub, Hani S; Yan, Ji-Geng

    2014-02-01

    The commonly used methods to quantify axon numbers and mean area include manual and semiautomated procedures. The authors introduce a new fully automated method of morphometric analysis using ImageJ and Paint.net software to improve efficiency and accuracy. A total of six rat sciatic nerves were examined for their axon numbers and mean axon area by comparing the manual method or semiautomated MetaVue method with the new ImageJ method. It was observed that the number of axons for manual counting and ImageJ were 4,630 ± 403 and 4,779 ± 352, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.5, t-test). The mean axon area measured was 13.44 ± 2.62 µm2 for MetaVue and 8.87 ± 0.78 µm2 for ImageJ, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (p ImageJ were 0.32 and 0.087. The authors conclude that their new approach demonstrates improved convenience, time efficiency, accuracy, and less operator error or bias.

  20. Expression of VEGF and neural repair after alprostadil treatment in a rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Jinrong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vasoactive drug alprostadil improves microcirculation and can be effective in treating disorders of peripheral nerves. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF has been shown to have protective action in cerebral ischemia, disorders of spinal cord, and also peripheral nerves. However, the mechanism of action of VEGF in peripheral nerve injuries is uncertain. Objectives: To study the effect of application of alprostadil on the pathological and functional repair of crush nerve injuries and also the expression of VEGF. Materials and Methods: Rat sciatic nerves were crushed by pincers to establish the model of crush injury. All of the 400 sprague dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into: Control; saline; saline + VEGF-antibody; alprostadil; and alprostadil + VEGF antibody groups. The SPSS 11.5 software was used for statistical analysis. The expression of VEGF in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs, following crush injury to sciatic nerves, was studied by reverse transcribed-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, electromicroscope, and electrophysiology. The effects of alprostadil on expression of VEGF, repair of neural pathology, and recovery of neural function were also evaluated. Results: We found that VEGF messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA was significantly increased in alprostadil and alprostadil + VEGF-antibody groups, compared to the saline and saline + VEGF antibody groups. The number of VEGF-positive neurons was significantly increased in the alprostadil group, compared to the saline, saline + VEGF antibody, and alprostadil + VEGF antibody groups. Besides, addition of this drug also caused less pathological changes in DRGs, better improvement of nerve conduction velocities of sciatic nerves, and more increase of toe spaces of right hind limbs of rats. Conclusions: The vasoactive agent alprostadil may reduce the pathological lesion of peripheral nerves and improve the rehabilitation of the neural function, which may

  1. MRI of peripheral nerve lesions of the lower limbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacour-Petit, M.C.; Ducreux, D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Hopital Bicetre, Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Lozeron, P. [Dept. of Neurology, Hopital Bicetre, Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

    2003-03-01

    Our aim is to illustrate the contribution of MRI to diagnosis of lesions of the lower-limb nerve trunks. We report six patients who had clinical and electrophysiological examination for a peroneal or tibial nerve palsy. MRI of the knee showed in three cases a nonenhancing cystic lesion of the peroneal nerve suggesting an intraneural ganglion cyst, confirmed by histological study in one case. One patient with known neurofibromatosis had an enhancing nodular lesion of the peroneal nerve compatible with a neurofibroma. Two patients had diffuse hypertrophy with high signal on T2-weighted images, without contrast enhancement of the sciatic nerve or its branches. These lesions were compatible with localised hypertrophic neuropathy. In one case, biopsy of the superficial branch of the peroneal nerve showed insignificant axonal degeneration. MRI can provide information about the size and site of the abnormal segment of a nerve before treatment and can be used to distinguish different patterns of focal lesion. (orig.)

  2. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the cervical vagus nerve in a neurofibromatosis type 1 patient - An unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Gupta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST’S of the head and neck comprise 2% to 6% of head and neck sarcomas. These tumors may arise as sporadic variants or in patients with neurofibromatosis (NF. Development of these MPNST’s is one of the serious complications of neurofibromatosis type 1(NF1. To our knowledge there are only two reported cases of MPNST’s arising in the cervical vagal nerve, occurring in NF1 patients. We present here an NF1 patient who developed an MPNST of the cervical vagus nerve and presented only with a cervical swelling and hoarseness.

  3. Immunohistochemical Analysis of the Structure of Injured Peripheral Nerve Neuroma after Electrosurgical Welding Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsak, A V; Chaikovskii, Yu B

    2015-10-01

    Immunohistochemical analysis of changes in neuroma after surgical treatment of damaged peripheral nerve with the use of high frequency electrosurgical device for high frequency current welding of soft tissues was carried out. No adverse effects of this technology and the bipolar instrument on degeneration and regeneration of damaged nerve stem were detected.

  4. A novel suture method to place and adjust peripheral nerve catheters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothe, C.; Steen-Hansen, C.; Madsen, M. H.;

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a peripheral nerve catheter, attached to a needle, which works like an adjustable suture. We used in-plane ultrasound guidance to place 45 catheters close to the femoral, saphenous, sciatic and distal tibial nerves in cadaver legs. We displaced catheters after their initial...

  5. Peripheral nerve pathology in patients with severely affected complex regional pain syndrome type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Bodde, Marlies I.; van den Dungen, Johannes; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; den Dunnen, Wilfred F. A.

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is a chronic pain syndrome with no clinical evidence of nerve injury; however, recently, changes in muscle tissue have been found in case of CRPS-I. Our aim was to search for histological changes in peripheral nerves of amputated limbs from patients wit

  6. THREE YEARS STUDY OF SCHWANNOMAS OF PERIPHERAL NERVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subha Dhua

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In this paper authors present three cases of schwannomas including a case of multiple schwannomas without the features of neurofibromatosis (NF. There was no family history of neurofibromatosis. All the patients underwent surgical excision and improved from the symptomatic lesions. Histopathology confirmed these lesions as schwannomas. The authors recommend surgery for symptomatic lesions. Asymptomatic tumours can be monitored. Regular follow up is essential as they may develop fresh lesions at any time. The relevant literature is discussed. • Malignant transformation of the schwannomas is rare and has poor prognosis. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of schwannomas. • We should distinguish between “ancient schwannoma” and malignant transformation of schwannoma since treatment and prognosis vary. • Imaging is not entirely reliable in differentiating benign from malignant peripheral nerve tumours. MATERIALS AND METHODS All the patients underwent surgical excision and improved from the symptomatic lesions. Histopathology confirmed these lesions as schwannomas. The authors recommend surgery for symptomatic lesions. RESULTS The histopathological studies confirmed the lesion as Flexi Schwannoma and surgery was considered to be the best option. CONCLUSION Schwannomas and meningiomas are usually benign tumours curable by complete removal. They occur either as single sporadic tumors in otherwise healthy individuals in the fourth to sixth decades of life or as multiple tumours at an early age as part of the autosomal dominant genetic disorder neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2. The hallmark feature of NF2 is bilateral vestibular schwannomas. Multiplicity, a lobular growth pattern, and invasiveness are typical features of NF2 schwannomas. The diagnosis of NF2 is difficult in a group of heterogeneous and poorly defined patients who do not have BVSs but present with other features suggestive of NF2, namely (1 multiple

  7. Alterations at chromosome 17 loci in peripheral nerve sheath tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lothe, R.A.; Slettan, A.; Saeter, G. [Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway)] [and others

    1995-01-01

    Little is known about the molecular genetic changes in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST). Inactivation of the TP53 gene in l7p has been reported in a few tumors. The MPNST is one of the manifestations of neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), suggesting that the NF1 gene in 17q might be important. We present a study of 15 neurofibromas and MPNST from nine individuals. Seven patients had NF1 and six of these developed MPNST. Genetic alterations at nine polymorphic loci on chromosome 17 were examined. Allelic imbalance was detected only in the malignant tumors from NF1 patients (4/6). Complete loss of heterozygosity of 17q loci was found in three of these tumors, all including loci within the NF1 gene. Two of the malignant tumors also showed deletions on 17p. No mutations were detected within exon 5-8 of the TP53 in any of the MPNST, and none of them were TP53 protein-positive using immunostaining with mono- and polyclonal antibodies against TP53. The numbers of chromosome 17 present in each tumor were evaluated by use of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on interphase nuclei with a centromere-specific probe. A deviation from the disomic status of chromosome 17 was observed in two of the MPNST from NF1 patients. These results support the hypothesis of inactivation of both NF1 gene alleles during development of MPNST in patients with NF1. In contrast to other reports, we did not find evidence for a homozygous mutated condition of the TP53 gene in the same tumors. Finally, FISH analysis was in accordance with the DNA analysis in the deduction of the numbers of chromosome 17 in these tumors. 29 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Investigation of the dose-dependency of citicoline effects on nerve regeneration and functional recovery in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Tolga; Kafa, Ilker Mustafa; Cansev, Mehmet; Bekar, Ahmet; Karli, Necdet; Taskapilioglu, Mevlut Ozgur; Kanar, Fulya

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dose dependence of citicoline's previously-reported effects on recovery of peripheral nerve injury. Right sciatic nerves of sixty adult female Wistar Albino rats were incised and primary anastomosis was performed. Rats were then divided into four groups: Control group received 2 ml of saline intraperitoneally, while rats in C-300, C-600 and C-900 groups received 300 μmol/kg, 600 μmol/kg and 900 μmol/kg citicoline dissolved in 2 ml saline, respectively. Rats were tested for sciatic functional index (SFI) on the 4th, 8th and 12th weeks and electrophysiological recordings were obtained on the 12th week. Rats were then sacrificed to investigate nerve adhesions and perform histomorphological examinations. Our results showed that rats in C-600 and C-900 groups had significantly lesser neural adhesion and greater SFI and electrophysiological score than those in the Control and C-300 groups (p < 0.05). Mean density and total number of functionally myelinated axons were significantly increased in C-900 group, while perineural scar tissue formation was reduced in all citicoline-treated groups. We conclude that citicoline exhibits dose-dependent effects on axonal regeneration and recovery without scar formation in a rat model of peripheral nerve incision and primary anastomosis.

  9. Clinical application of axonal repair technique for treatment of peripheral nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亮; 顾玉东; 徐雷

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of axonal repair technique for treatment of peripheral nerve injury clinically.Methods: In 1998, the authors applied axonal repair technique to treat peripheral nerve injuries in 12 patients with 13 nerves. It consists of four steps, ie, stumps of the nerve being soaked in a modified Collins fluid, freezed,trimmed, and coapted with glue, making the injured nerve repaired at the axonal level.Results: The patients were followed up for an average of 13 months. Results showed that in 4 cases of first-stage contraiateral C7 transfer, regenerating axons reached to the sternoclavicular joint or axilla at 4 to 7 months, offering the timing for performing the second-stage contralateral C7 transfer. In 5 cases of accessory nerve transferred to the suprascapular nerve, the abduction of the shoulder was 40° on average. In the other 3 patients with four different nerves repaired, results were also satisfactory.Conclusions: This technique is promising in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury.

  10. Characteristics of Optic Nerve Damage Induced by Chronic Intraocular Hypertension in Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiantao Wang; Jian Ge; A.A. Sadun; T.T. Lam

    2004-01-01

    Purpose:To set up the Sharma's chronic intraocular hypertension model and investigate the intraocular pressure (lOP) as well as the optic nerve damage of this model in rat.Methods:The operations of the chronic intraocular hypertension model were performed as described by Sharma in 60 male Lewis albino rats. IOP was measured using the TonoPen XL immediately after surgery and then at 5 day, 2 week or 4 week intervals. Cresyl violet staining of whole-mounted retinas was used to label retinal ganglion cells (RGCs),then RGCs were counted. Paraphenylenediamine (PPD) staining was performed in the semi-thin cross sections of optic nerve of rat, in order to know whether the axons of optic nerve were degenerated or not. Results:There were 47 rats with higher IOP after the episcleral veins cauterized in 60rats. The ratio of elevated IOP was 78.3%. The IOPs were stable in 4 weeks. After cresyl violet staining, the RGCs loss was 11.0% and 11.3% was found in the central and peripheral retina respectively after 2 weeks of increased IOP. After 4 weeks of increased lOP, the loss of RGCs was 17% for the central retina and 24.6% for the peripheral retina. In the retinas without higher IOP, there was no loss of RGCs. PPD staining showed that optic nerve of rat with about 5.3% damage of axons located at the superior temporal region. Region of affected optic nerve 1 mm posterior to the globe by light microscope showed evidence of damaged axons with axonal swelling and myelin debris.Conclusion:Sharma's chronic intraocular hypertension model is a reproducible and effective glaucoma model, which mimics human glaucoma with chronically elevation IOP and induced RGCs loss and damage of optic nerve. Eye Science 2004;20:25-29.

  11. Differential gene expression in proximal and distal nerve segments of rats with sciatic nerve injury during Wallerian degeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Jiang; Huaiqin Li; Yi Sun; Dexin Yin; Qin Zhao; Shusen Cui; Dengbing Yao

    2014-01-01

    Wallerian degeneration is a subject of major interest in neuroscience. A large number of genes are differentially regulated during the distinct stages of Wallerian degeneration: transcription factor activation, immune response, myelin cell differentiation and dedifferentiation. Although gene expression responses in the distal segment of the sciatic nerve after peripheral nerve injury are known, differences in gene expression between the proximal and distal segments remain unclear. In the present study in rats, we used microarrays to analyze changes in gene expression, biological processes and signaling pathways in the proximal and distal segments of sciatic nerves under-going Wallerian degeneration. More than 6,000 genes were differentially expressed and 20 types of expression tendencies were identiifed, mainly between proximal and distal segments at 7-14 days after injury. The differentially expressed genes were those involved in cell differentiation, cytokinesis, neuron differentiation, nerve development and axon regeneration. Furthermore, 11 biological processes were represented, related to responses to stimuli, cell apoptosis, inlfammato-ry response, immune response, signal transduction, protein kinase activity, and cell proliferation. Using real-time quantitative PCR, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, microarray data were veriifed for four genes: aquaporin-4, interleukin 1 receptor-like 1, matrix metallopro-teinase-12 and periaxin. Our study identiifes differential gene expression in the proximal and distal segments of a nerve during Wallerian degeneration, analyzes dynamic biological changes of these genes, and provides a useful platform for the detailed study of nerve injury and repair during Wallerian degeneration.

  12. Biomedical engineering strategies for peripheral nerve repair: surgical applications, state of the art, and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Bryan J; Gordon, Tessa; Loverde, Joseph R; Kochar, Arshneel S; Mackinnon, Susan E; Cullen, D Kacy

    2011-01-01

    Damage to the peripheral nervous system is surprisingly common and occurs primarily from trauma or a complication of surgery. Although recovery of nerve function occurs in many mild injuries, outcomes are often unsatisfactory following severe trauma. Nerve repair and regeneration presents unique clinical challenges and opportunities, and substantial contributions can be made through the informed application of biomedical engineering strategies. This article reviews the clinical presentations and classification of nerve injuries, in addition to the state of the art for surgical decision-making and repair strategies. This discussion presents specific challenges that must be addressed to realistically improve the treatment of nerve injuries and promote widespread recovery. In particular, nerve defects a few centimeters in length use a sensory nerve autograft as the standard technique; however, this approach is limited by the availability of donor nerve and comorbidity associated with additional surgery. Moreover, we currently have an inadequate ability to noninvasively assess the degree of nerve injury and to track axonal regeneration. As a result, wait-and-see surgical decisions can lead to undesirable and less successful "delayed" repair procedures. In this fight for time, degeneration of the distal nerve support structure and target progresses, ultimately blunting complete functional recovery. Thus, the most pressing challenges in peripheral nerve repair include the development of tissue-engineered nerve grafts that match or exceed the performance of autografts, the ability to noninvasively assess nerve damage and track axonal regeneration, and approaches to maintain the efficacy of the distal pathway and targets during the regenerative process. Biomedical engineering strategies can address these issues to substantially contribute at both the basic and applied levels, improving surgical management and functional recovery following severe peripheral nerve injury.

  13. Celecoxib accelerates functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Garza Nancy E

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The inflammatory response appears to be essential in the modulation of the degeneration and regeneration process after peripheral nerve injury. In injured nerves, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 is strongly upregulated around the injury site, possibly playing a role in the regulation of the inflammatory response. In this study we investigated the effect of celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, on functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush in rats. Unilateral sciatic nerve crush injury was performed on 10 male Wistar rats. Animals on the experimental group (n = 5 received celecoxib (10 mg/kg ip immediately before the crush injury and daily for 7 days after the injury. Control group (n = 5 received normal saline at equal regimen. A sham group (n = 5, where sciatic nerve was exposed but not crushed, was also evaluated. Functional recovery was then assessed by calculating the sciatic functional index (SFI on days 0,1,7,14 and 21 in all groups, and registering the day of motor and walking onset. In comparison with control group, celecoxib treatment (experimental group had significant beneficial effects on SFI, with a significantly better score on day 7. Anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib should be considered in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, but further studies are needed to explain the mechanism of its neuroprotective effects.

  14. Ultrasound-stimulated peripheral nerve regeneration within asymmetrically porous PLGA/Pluronic F127 nerve guide conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Chul; Oh, Se Heang; Seo, Tae Beom; Namgung, Uk; Kim, Jin Man; Lee, Jin Ho

    2010-08-01

    Recently, we developed a novel method to fabricate a nerve guide conduit (NGC) with asymmetrical pore structure and hydrophilicity using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and Pluronic F127 by a modified immersion precipitation method. From the animal study using a rat model (sciatic nerve defect of rat), we recognized that the unique PLGA/Pluronic F127 tube provided good environments for nerve regeneration. In this study, we applied low-intensity pulsed ultrasound as a simple and noninvasive stimulus at the PLGA/F127 NGC-implanted site transcutaneously in rats to investigate the feasibility of ultrasound